fiMMBBl M mm
STTTLU N G
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2012 with funding from
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library
(WITH A CATALOGUE AND CONCISE AND FAMILIAR DESCRIPTIONS OF MANY SPECIES)
NEW AND VALUABLE PLANTS
West Indies and North and South America.
SEVERAL OTHERS, NATIVES OF AFRICA AND THE EAST INDIES
Arranged after the Linnaan System.
A CONCISE AND COMPREHENSIVE GLOSSARY OF TERMS, PREFIXED,
AND A GENERAL INDEX.
By W. J. TITFORD, M.D.
eORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF ARTS, &c.
PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR, BY C. STOWER, HACKNEY:
Published by Sherttood, Neely, and Jones, Paternoster Row; J. Hatcharb, Piccadilly ; J. Richardson,
Cornhill, and all Booksellers in the United Kingdom.
TO HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR,
THE HONOURABLE THE COUNCIL,
THE HONOURABLE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY,
OF HIS NATIVE ISLAND
IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED,
THEIR MOST OBEDIENT HUMBLE SERVANT,
EXPLANATION OF THE FRONTISPIECE.
For a more particular description, see each under its proper Class and Order in the work.
Fig. 1. Bread Fruit, (Artosarpus IncisaJ a valulable fruit, about the size of a
child's head. When gathered green, parboiled, and afterwards baked, the inside very
nearly resembles new bread. It is not cultivated to the extent it should be in Jamaica,
probably because it is more liable to be injured and destroyed by hurricanes and storms
than ground provisions. It was brought by Captain Bligh from Otaheite to Jamaica in
Fig. 2. Musk Ochro, (Hibiscus abelmoschus.j A five-cornered capsule, contain-
ing the seeds, (which smell strongly of musk) in the cells.
Fig. 3. Pink. Apple, ( Brome.lia ananas J. This exquisite and valuable fruit, in
every variety, is in the greatest plenty and perfection in Jamaica, and may be pur-
chased for the smallest piece of coin current there.
Fig. 4. Soursop, (Atmona Muricata.) A large fruit, of an irregular oblong heart-
shape. The pulp within is white, juicy, soft, and of a sweet and acid taste mixed. It
is considered grateful and cooling by some, and by others compared to cotton dipped in
Fig. 5. Shaddock. (Citrus Decnmana.) Is a fine fruit, roundish, about six inches
in diameter, having a yellow, spotted rind, of a pungent, aromatic flavour. The pulp
within is red or flesh colour, separated into divisions, and is granulated in the form of
pegsor wedges, containing a sweet, aromatic, subacid juice, highly grateful and cool-
ing. This fruit may be preserved at sea for some time by hanging it up in the air, and
sealing the top of the stalk where it was separated from the tree.
Fig. 6. Jack Friut, ( Artocarpus Imegrifolia.J This very large fruit frequently
■weighs thirty pounds, and grows immediately from the trunk or branches on strong
footstalks. See Plate II. Fig. 48. The outer surface is rough, and each protuberance
ends in a point. The fruit, and every part of the tree abounds with a glutinous, milky
juice, which may be drawn out in threads. The body of the fruit is principally com-
posed of a white, tasteless, fibrous pulp, interspersed in which are numerous seeds,
each of them surrounded by an orange-coloured pulp, about half an inch thick, of a
very rich, sweet taste, winch, after being washed in salt and water, is preferred by many
to all the fruits in the island. The seeds are oval, about the size of an almond in the
shell, and when roasted very nearly resemble chesnuts. This tree is of the same genus
as the bread fruit, and introduced from Otaheite; it is not very common. The smell of
the fruit is so powerful that some persons cannot bear it in a house.
Fig 7. Sweetsop, Annona SquammosaJ. This fruit is about the size of a large
orange, and has a very soft, white pulp of a luscious, sweet taste.
Fig. 8. Pigeon Pepper, (Capsicum. J
Fig. 9- Coral Pepper.
Fig. 10. Bird Pepper, of which Cayenne is made.
Fig. 11. Purple, or Sore Throat Pepper; all the capsicums make excellent and
Fig. 1 c 2. Spanish Fig, (FicusJ. A rich, luscious fruit, and very cooling and whole-
Fig. 13. Garden Egg. (Solanum Melongena.) Cut in slices, parboiled and
fried, resembles fried eggs.
Fig. 14 Long Cerasee, (Momordica Balsamina.J Medicinal and vulnerary.
Fig 15. Star Apple, (Chrysopkyllum (ainitoj. The soft pulp is of a rich,
clammy, sweet taste, and mixed with orange juice, resembles strawberries and cream.
Fig. 16- Naseberry, ( Achras Sapota.J The pulp is of a reddish brown, and
tastes like a sleepy pear, but of a very rich and luscious sweet.
Fig. 17. Mammee Apple, (Mammca Americana.) Has a thick, leathery, out-
side rind, and a very bitter, whitish one within ; the pulp is yellow and firm, of a pecu-
liar flavour and sweetness, preferred by some to all other fruits.
Fig. 18. Chocho, (Sicyos angulata.) A large green fruit, the pulp of which is
boiled, and is a very wholesome vegetable.
Fig. 19. Mango, (Mangifera Indica.) A fine fruit, introduced from the East In-
dies, with a yellow, juicy pulp, of a delicious sweet taste, and, if not stringy, reckoned
one of the best fruits. When first introduced they sold for a dollar each, but now four
dozen may be procured for that price. They are also degenerating for want of care in
planting the seeds of the best sorts. The fruit is very wholesome ripe, and when green,
makes an excellent pickle.
Fig. 20. Cashew Apple, ( Jnacardium Occident ale J A fruit, with an austere
acid, restringent juice. The kernel of the nut, when green, is delicate as a walnut,
and is also eaten roasted when ripe.
Fig. 21. The Young Cocoa Nut, (Cocos Nucifera.) Just as it appears when first
formed in considerable numbers on the spadix ; only a part of which come to maturity.
Fig. 22. Sand Box, ( Hura Crepitans.) This curious fruit, when the seeds are
picked out of the cavities at the bottom, and the hole sealed up, forms a natural sand-
box, for which it is used. If left on the tree till quite ripe, a sudden shower of rain
will burst the capsules with reports like pistols, which is the mode ordained for the dis-
persion of the seeds. The seed is sweetish, but poisonous.
Fig. 23. Pomegranate, (Punica Granata.) The pulp surrounding the seeds is
red and of a fine cooling nature, and taste of mixed acid and sweet.
Fig. 24. Akee, ( Blighea.) The white substance attached to the seeds of this beau-
tiful fruit, parboiled and fried, tastes exactly like marrow, and is a most delicious vege-
Fig. 25. Avocada Pear, (Laurus Persea) called Pattas, in Peru. Has a soft yel-
low pulp, which, when ripe, melts in the mouth, and, eaten with pepper and salt, is
called vegetable marrow. It is very nutritious and wholesome ripe, but when unripe it
Fig. c 26. Plantain, (Musa.) A valuable, wholesome and nourishing food, boiled
or roasted, the chief support of the negroes, and preferred by many of the whites (for
constant use) to bread.
Fig. 27- Large Purple Plum of Salt Ponds. A very fine fruit, but not common.
Fig. 28. Indian Fig, (Cactus Fie us Indie us.) The fruit of the plant on which co-
chineal is found in Jamaica; the pulp and juice is of a most beautiful purple. If the
fruit be eaten it tinges the urine of a deep red.
Fig, 29. Guava, (Psidium (pyriferum.) The pulp of this fruit is of a faintish,
aromatic, sweet taste, and very wholesome. It is, however, principally made into mar-
malade and jelly.
Fig. 30. Rose Apple, ( Eugenia Fragrans.) This fruit is hollow, containing the
seeds, having a considerable space round them. It smells exactly like a rose, and the
taste is much the same, with a faint sweetness.
Fig. 31. Tomato, or Love Apple, (Solatium Ly coper sic um.) This fruit is consi-
dered very wholesome to colour and flavour sOups and hashes.
Fig. 32. Yellow Hog Plum, (Spondias Myrobalanus.) An oval small plum, of
a sweetish taste and mealy, not much esteemed by the whites.
Fig. 33. Common Ochro, (Hibiscus Esculcntus.) A valuable, nourishing, mucila-
ginous vegetable, when boiled, and a principal ingredient in Ochro soup and pepper pot.
Fig. 34. French Sorrell, (Flibiscus Sabdarijfa.) The calyx has a fine acid taste,
which, when deprived of the seeds, makes good jam for tarts, and a very cooling drink
Fro. 3.5. Granadtlla, (Passijiora Quadrangularis.J This delicious fruit has a pulp
of a fine sweet and acid taste, which is very cooling and pleasant; when ripe, it may be
allowed to the sick in any quantities. It is eaten by some with wine.
Fig. 56. Cerasee, ( Momordica Balsamina.J This species is of a roundish shape,
and the inner pulp of a glorious red ; when pricked with a pin, it bursts open and scat-
ters its seed.
Fig. 37. Wild Gooseberry, (Cactus Pereskia.) The pulp of this fruit, when un-
ripe, is of a most austere, acid taste, and will take ink-spots out of mahogany. When
ripe, Dr. Barham says, it is black, cooling, and laxative.
Fig. 38. Pinguins, ( Bromelia Pinguin.J The pulp is of an acid taste, and when
mixed with sugar, is cooling in fevers, and given to children for worms.
Fig. 39- Banana, ( Musa sapientum.) This fine fruit, when ripe, has a rich, yellow,
sweet, mealy pulp, very agreeable and nourishing, raw, baked, or sun-dried. It makes
a drink exceeding cyder.
Fig. 40. Tamarind, (Tamarindus Indica.J The Tamarind bean, the shell of which
is hard and brittle, containing the fibrous pulp and seed. The preserve made of this fruit
is well known.
Fig, 41. Lime, (Citrus Medina. J A very common small fruit, containing a very acid
juice, used for making punch. It is a diminutive lemon, with a smooth rind.
THE FOLLOWING FRUITS ARE ALSO FOUND IN JAMAICA.
Olives, Many wild sorts ; and they might with care be produced very good.
Currants, (Ehretria BourreriaJ. The fruit of a tall stately tree, of which birds are
fond, but neither the European currant nor gooseberry will grow in Jamaica.
Grapes, (Vitis Vinifera.) When cultivated and taken care of are produced very
large and delicious in Jamaica. There are several wild sorts.
Clammy Cherry, or Barbadoes Cherry, (MalpighiaJ, make an excellent red jelly
for fevers; but none of the European sorts are to be found, either of the cherry, plum,
or apricot, (Primus).
Mammee Sapota, (Achras MammosaJ. A brown, oblong oval fruit, of a luscious,
sweet taste, called natural marmalade, containing a seed like a polished shell. See Plate
III. Fig. 10.
Cunep, or Honey Berry, (Melicocca). See Plate III. Fig. 62. The shell turns
brown as it ripens.
Whortleberry, (Vaccinium Meridionalis ) '. A fine acid berry.
Neither Apples nor Pears, (PyrusJ will grow in Jamaica.
Strawberry (Fragaria), Raspberry and Blackberry (RubasJ, are very un-
common and never to be seen in the markets; but sometimes found wild in the cool
Pindars. See Plate III. Fig. 41. A delicious species of earth nut.
Oranges, Sweet and Seville, (Citrus aurantium, J abound in great plenty and
variety, and are very fine ; they commonly grow wild in woods and road sides, like
many other of the fruits, and may frequently be purchased in the market, a dozen for
the smallest piece of coin current: a tumbler of the juice every morning fasting is very
Forbidden Fruit, (Citrus Decumana J. A fine fruit of a sweet aromatic flavour,
resembling the orange and shaddock, and of a size between both.
Lemon, (Citrus MedicaJ in great plenty, and very fine, particularly a large species
with protuberances, called the French lemon ; they are not so much used for lemonade
and punch as the limes above mentioned, one species of which, the sweet lime, is of a
sweet aromatic taste.
Mulberry (Morus), will grow in Jamaica, and where cultivated are very fine; as
they are easily raised in great abundance, it is a matter well worthy of consideration
whether the breeding of silk worms would not be very advantageous and profitable in
Walnut, fJuglans BaccaiaJ. One sort grows at Guauaboa, in St. John's, having a
quadrangular shell, with four nuts, which taste like a filbert, called by some, Virginia
bread nut. The American Hickory degenerates, and will not come to perfection in
Bread Nuts, (Brosimum alicastrum). The nuts fatten pigs, and the leaves are good
Pumpkin, (Cucurhita pepo), grows very large, and is much cultivated as an article of
food, boiled, or made into pie ; eaten too freely it causes surfeit and fevers.
Water Melon, (Cucurbita citrullus), grows very large, fine, and full of juice in the
driest soils ; they are very wholesome and refreshing. The seeds are good in emulsions.
Musk Melon, (Cucumis MeloJ, grow very freely in every variety, and are a fine
wholesome fruit of a sweet aromatic flavour.
Squash, (Cucurbita melopepoj. A wholesome vegetable.
Cucumbers, (Cucumis saiivus), grow in great abundance and every variety ; and with
vinegar, salt, and cayenne pepper, are wholesome.
Prickly Wild Cvcumhkk, (Cucumis angaria), grows very luxuriantly and makes
one of the best sort of pickles ; they arc small, egg shaped, and armed with soft prickles.
Abbays, (Elceis guineensis). The fruit of a species of palm, called oily palm, which
produces palm oil. See Plate II. Fig. 56. They have a fibrous, yellow, oily pulp over the
stone, and when boiled are pleasant and wholesome.
Anchovy Pear, (Grias caulijiora), See Plate II. Fig. 54. The fruit of a large tree
growing in the mountains, the leaf one foot long and half a foot broad; resembles the
Mango when pickled.
Custard Apple, (Awnona reticulata). The pulp, yellow, soft and sweet, like a
custard ; but frequently watery and without flavour.
Water Apple grows by the side of salinas and creeks, is food only for alligators, but
poisonous to men.
Garlic Pear, (Cratceva GynandriaJ. A cooling and restringent fruit the pulp of
which smells like garlic.
Water Lemons, ( assijlora maliformis). The fruit is a pleasant sweet with sour,
and very cooling in fevers.
Locust Fruit, (Hymeneea courbarilj. A fruit with a pleasant acid pulp contained
in a thin shell.
Cabbage Tree, (Areca oloracea). The succulent top of this lofty palm, called the
cabbage, is very sweet and delicious food, and also makes a good pickle.
Papaw, (Carica papaya). See Plate II. Fig. 50. The pulp is yellow when ripe, and
of a sweet aromatic taste, boiled, or made into pies it very much resembles apples.
Mangosteen. See Explanation of Plate X. Fig. 5.
Sea-side Grape, (Coccoloba uvifera). A pleasant acid grape with a purplish skin,
but so highly astringent as to render it dangerous to eat them.
Cocoa Nur, (Cocosnucifera). This well known and valuable fruit is common in
Jamaica, and well worth planting to the greatest extent. When quite young they are
full of adelicious cooling water or milk, which is very wholesome and strengthening ; as
they grow older this hardens to a kernel like an afmond, when not tco'okl, in this
state they are frequently brought to England, the fibrous part of the tree will make-
cloth, the shells cups, and by boring the trunk, arrack is procured.
r PHE term Botany is derived from Bo7<wj, (Botane) a herb, and signifies,
generally, a knowledge of the great vegetable kingdom of nature, the pro-
perties of plants, as food and medicine, and the various uses to which they
may be applied in agriculture, medicine, domestic oeconomy and the arts.
In a more con lined sense, it may be defined the knowledge of a scientific mode
of arrangement, for the numerous plants which are to be found scattered
over the surface of the globe, and diversified by the hand of Infinite Wisdom
and Goodness, according to the respective climates, and the wants of the
inhabitants of the various regions of the earth. In Tropical climates, the
vegetable productions of nature are in the highest degree beautiful and
magnificent. She is there clothed in perpetual verdure, and seems to be
endowed with superior powers of fertility, presenting to the wondering eye,
her ripest fruits; and on the same tree, the budding leaf, the verdant foliage,
the bursting blossom, and the future fruit in different stages of maturity.
Not only do these beautiful objects arrest our attention and command our
admiration, but the more humble shrub and lowly herb are fraught with
wondrous medical virtues, many of which are known only, perhaps, to the
natives (otherwise illiterate) by experience and observation. To gentlemen
studying medicine, a scientific knowledge of Botany is indispensably necessary
— to the man of leisure and taste what study can be more interesting, or cal-
culated to fill his mind with more pleasing ideas of the Creator, than the
great book of vegetable nature, which lies open before his eyes, and invites
him, by all the allurements of beauty, and wonderful and minute contrivance,
to a nearer acquaintance ; by which the hours devoted to exercise and health
may at the same time be both agreeably and profitably employed. But for
the fair sex, who to the advantage of leisure unite the still greater advantage
of a natural taste and discriminating judgment, for pleasures as pure and
innocent as they are noble and sublime, the study of Botany is peculiarly
adapted, and has become particularly pleasing, as we may judge from the
taste which has of late years prevailed in its favour in the United Kingdom,
is also prevalent in other parts of the globe, and it is to be hoped will
continue to increase. Its usefulness cannot be doubted, when we consider that
the principal articles of our food, and many which furnish materials for our
clothing, are plants, and that the most valuable and powerful, as well as the
most safe of the remedies to be found in the Materia Medica, are drawn from
the vegetable kingdom ; and it is a generally received opinion that most
countries possess within themselves simples adapted to the cure of their most
prevalent diseases ; and particularly so in Tropical climates. A skilful
botanist can, in many instances, from the examination of an unknown plant,
by considering its scientific and natural class, determine if it be wholesome
food for man or beast, or whether on the contrary its properties be poisonous
and deadly. By attending to the habit and characteristic appearance of the
several plants in the natural orders, a wonderful analogy and correspondence
may be found in their properties and use as food, and particularly as to their
medical properties. A comparative view of the plants growing in each coun-
try on the globe under the same climate, and between the same parrellels of
latitude, is a most interesting, and might be made a most useful and profit-
able study, by leading to the introduction and cultivation of new and valuable
plants: Botany then may be safely pronounced to be a study, noble and
useful, interesting and pleasing.
The motive which induced me to the undertaking of the present work,
was the scarcity of books treating of the plants of the West Indies ; and
Such as were in existence, being of old date, out of print, and unaccompanied
with figures. My leisure time has been employed in the collection of plants,
and their names, in making drawings of them, and in giviag some accounts
of their virtues. An opportunity likewise offered to procure from Negro
doctors in Jamaica, and, subsequently, from the Indians in North America,
information which may prove new, curious and valuable. It was also hinted
to me by the worthy Secretary of the Society for the Promotion of Arts, &c.
at the time that Society honoured me by electing me a Corresponding Member,
that my attention might be usefully turned to the subject of Jamaica Botany ;
and when afterwards I spent a considerable time in America, a great part of
which was devoted to the study of medicine, and a part to travelling in the
interior of the country, I increased my collection of drawings of American
plants, gained additional information, and met with encouragement from the
medical and other gentlemen there, to prosecute botanical researches, and
publish the result of them, as being a work very much wanted. Thus (though
I felt myself inadequate to the task,) I endeavoured to put together such
information as could be collected, and arrange the plants indigenous or freely
growing in North America, according to the Linnoean classes and orders, as
I had previously, the Jamaica plants. I was also favoured with several dried
plants by a friend from Yucatan in South America. From the mode in
which my information was collected, from Negroes and Indians, it must
necessarily have been very liable to error ; and, no doubt, many other uncer-
tainties and mistakes may be found, for which I trust to the liberality of the
public for indulgence. The following sheets were compiled abroad, partly
while travelling, and totally debarred from the use of books, which might have
greatly assisted to render the work more complete; but it was inconsistent
with my plan to make it voluminous and expensive, and since my return to
England, my time being fully taken up with other avocations, which leave
no leisure to consult all the very useful and valuable publications which have
of late appeared in this science, I am compelled to submit my collections to
the public as they were brought over.
The mode of arrangement adopted is — A Glossary of the Terms used in the
work, compiled for my own use from books in my possession when learning the
science, as short and simple as possible, referring to the plates for an idea of
the several parts of fructification and shapes of leaves, &c. instead of long
definitions. But I have carried this part of the work to a greater length than
originally intended, and in the compilation of it have endeavoured to make
it as comprehensive and useful, yet concise as possible, on the consideration
that in the West Indies there is a great want of an elementary work on the sub-
ject, in a small compass, for general use. It may also be found useful for per-
sons learning Botany, and the use of Schools. The work proceeds with a few
Observations on the Character and Habit of Trees, of the various classes,
illustrated by plates — A Description of various Seeds and Ikricarps, with a
plate —-West Indian Plants, arranged after the Linnaean System, under their
classes and orders — American Plants arranged in the same manner — A gene-
ral Index referring to the pages, and a list of Subscribers will close the
whole, W. J. T.
To Appendix Part II. of the Medical Assistant.
MANY of the plants recommended in the Catalogue of Simples in the Appendix to
the Medical Assistant, being imperfectly known, or perhaps wholly unknown, to some of
those who have the greatest occasion to use them, it has been suggested to the Author that
he should have given a short and clear description of them. This he would have done, were
he satisfied that it could have answered the purpose intended ; but such descriptions as those
given by Dr. J3aiuiam, or that are not scientific, are of little or no use in conducting the
search ; and there are few of those for whom this work was chiefly intended, either versant
in botany, or who have leisure for such a study. The only way, therefore, of supplying the
deficiency of the work in this respect, would be by Engravings or Figures. The Author has
such an undertaking in view : viz. — of publishing a set of engraved Figures of all the
Medicinal Plants, except such as arc perfectly familiar, of a size to bind up with the present
" edition of the work. He only waits to know how far such a publication — describing and
designating the plants by their various names, &c. mentioning their place of growth, season
of gathering, &c. with a reference to the Medical Assistant for their properties and uses
— may be deemed necessary ; and whether the encouragement it is likely to meet with would
justify the ex pence.
ft IN every soil unnumber'd weeds will spring,
" Nor fewest in the best.
" .And yet some weeds arise
" Of aspect mean, with wondrous virtues fraught :
" Such, planter, be not thou asham'd to save
" From foul pollution, and unseemly rot;
" Much will they benefit thy house and thee.
" But chief the yellow thistle* thou select,
" Whose seed the stomach frees from nauseous loads j
* c And if the music of the mountain dove
<% Delight thy pensive ear, sweet friend to thought, 1
(l This prompts their cooing, and inflames their love.
* Gamboge Thistle or Poppy, (Argemane,)
" Nor let rude hands the knotted grass* profane,
" Whose juice worms fly: — Ah, dire endemial ill,
11 How many fathers, fathers now no more,
" How many orphans now lament thy rage !
" The cow-itch also save, but let thick gloves
" Thine hands defend, or thou wilt sadly rue
" Thy rash imprudence, when ten thousand darts,
" Sharp as the bee-sting, fasten in thy flesh,
" And give thee up to torture. But unhurt,
" Planter, thou may'st the humble chickweedi cull.
" And that% which coyly flies the astonish'd grasp, —
" Not the confection nam'd, from Pontus' King,
" Nor the bless'd apple Median climes produce,
u Tho' lofty Maro (whose immortal muse
'* Distant I follow, and submiss adore)
" Hath sung its properties, to counteract
" Dire spells, slow mutter'd o'er the baneful bowl
" Where cruel stepdames poisonous drugs have brew'd
*' Can vie with these low tenants of the vale,
" Jn driving poisons from the infected frame.
(( For here, alas! — ye sons of luxury mark —
" The sea, tho' on its bosom Halcyons sleep
" Abounds with poison'd fish, whose crimson'd fins,
" Whose eyes, whose scales, bedropt with azure, gold,
" Purple and green, in all gay Summer's pride,
" Amuse the sight, whose taste the palate charms,—
" Yet death in ambush, on the banquet waits,
" Unless these antidotes be timely given.
11 But say what strains, what numbers can recite
il Thy praises, vervain, or wild liquor ice% thine ;
" For not the costly root, the gift of God,||
" Gather'd by those wlio drink the Volga's wave,
" (Prince of Europa's streams, itself a sea)
li Equals your potency. Did planters know
" But half your virtues, not the cane itself
" W r ould they with greater, fonder pains preserve."
* Worm Grass. (Anthelmia.) f Holosteum. % Sensitive Plant. (Mimosa.)
% Abrus Precatorius. f| Rhubarb.
ADVERTISEMENT TO PART III.
Being the Completion of the Work.
IT may, I trust, be permitted at this the close of the work to say a few words on the cir-
cumstances and motives that first induced to the undertaking, and also as to the mode adopted
in the performance of it.
The foregoing Advertisement, and the Lines, are extracted from the Appendix, Part II. of a
valuable and popular work on West-Indian Diseases, by the late Dr. Dancer. When I first
read them, I resided some miles distant from Spanish Town, in Jamaica, and thought my
leisure might be employed in the collection of plants, for the purpose of drawing them after
Nature, and in enquiries as to the names by which they w r ere known, and the uses or virtues
generally ascribed to them; in which I was assisted by a negro doctress, whose fame was
great in the Red Hills, and whose knowledge, in the opinion of the negroes, was far superior
to that of physicians. I also occasionally procured information from other persons ; and in
many instances depended upon the botanical name given to me, as I had not the advantage of
a single work on Jamaica Botany to refer to; neither Sloane, Browne, Long, Grainger,
W hi gut, nor Swartz, could I ever procure a sight of, which may apologize for many errors
and uncertainties. I once indeed met with Dr. Barham's Hortus Americanus, a thin octavo
book, published in 1794; but sixteen pounds would not induce the owner to part with it;
nor were the Linmean Names, classes or orders given to all the plants, noticed. Thus was I
obliged to make my collections, in a great measure, in the dark, without a proper guide as
to the genera and species ; and as for full botanical descriptions from the plant, I could not
spare the time necessary for so Herculean a task. I had not then the most distant idea of
publication, much lc^s in London.
Shortly before I left Jamaica, Proposals for a Hortus Jamaicensis were issued by a very
respectable gentleman in Spanish Town, who was in possession of all the above-mentioned
scarce works; and also of Martyn's Miller's Dictionary; — a work which to the scientific
botanist is invaluable, and for extent, comprehensiveness, and accuracy of information as to
every known genus and species, is above all praise. He proposed to publish a compilation
from them all, describing in Alphabetical order each species scientifically, that was native of
Jamaica ; and also what was said by each author as to their virtues and uses : to be com-
pleted in thirty numbers, (but probably from the immense number of species lately added by
Swahtz and others, it would on that plan have occupied considerably more). I know
not if this work proceeded beyond the first number, but sincerely hope it has, as it would
be highly valuable, and deserving of success ; the only objection to the plan I ever heard
mentioned was the length of the work, and the deficiency of plates. Neither was there
any Glossary, or explanation of terms ; and the persons for whom such a work would be
useful on plantations, generally have neither leisure nor inclination to read through, much
less to study, a thick volume of any of the very full and excellent Elements of Botany pub-
lished of late years, any more than they would have to look out for the botanical and familiar
description of Jamaica plants, in a general work among thousands of others, natives of all
parts of the world, to them, therefore, uninteresting. But this remark by no means applies
to medical and scientific gentlemen.
Seeing that my plan (which never was intended to go deeper into the scientific part than to
mention the classes and orders, natural orders, generic and specific names, and number of
species, and arrange the plants in that manner, with plates) would take up some of those
ideas which did not form a part of the plan, of the Hortus Jamaicensis, I formed a design
as I was at that time proceeding to New-York, of having my Drawings engraved and
published there, with a Catalogue of the Plants. As I had leisure there also, I procured
some information respecting, and made some drawings of, American Plants and Indian Reme-
dies, and had begun the publication, when circumstances calling me to England, I ventured
to publish the first two numbers for a trial ; though, I again repeat, it was not my original
intention to publish at all, much less in London. In the sale of the first two numbers I
have, however, met with considerable encouragement; but, from the West-Indies and
America, where I depended upon near two hundred subscribers, the returns have been, and
must necessarily be, slow, and uncertain from existing circumstances, and the expence already
incurred has been very considerable; but nevertheless, I held myself bound to finish the work,
which has been accomplished in six numbers, as proposed ; that, perhaps, however may be
rather exceeded as to the letter-press, on account of the additional Tables of Climates, and
Nosological Index given, which it is hoped will be acceptable, and render the work more
complete. Should it not succeed, I must submit, with the consolation of good intention
alone. The whole of the figures of the natural size being engraved from impressions actually
taken by a peculiar method from the living plants, or from the dried specimens, (with the
exception of four or five of which drawings were given me) and most of them being new, as I
believe, (unless contained in valuable and expensive books not in my possession, nor of persons
in general) I hope they will be found useful and interesting. In these four latter numbers it will
be observed, that there are fewer plates for each number than in the two first ; but they all
contain numerous figures, (whereas some in the first and second numbers contained only four)
those plates were engraved and coloured at half the price of the frontispiece and other plates of
these four numbers. It will be found that more figures are actually given ; and the expence of
engraving and colouring the ten double plates for the present four numbers is equal to what
sixteen plates such as from 1 to 6, would have been ; and they are indeed, as I trust they will
be considered, fully adequate to the price charged for the work ; for the expences of publication
are now enormous in every article, and peculiarly disadvantageous to an individual who under-
takes it at his own risk, and on his own account.
The shortness of the descriptions, and their being only familiar and noticing principally
the uses and virtues of the plant, may perhaps be dissatisfactory to some of the scientific
gentlemen of the present enlightened age, and probably little botanical information may this
work afford to them ; but my attempt was of a more humble nature, and only promised
coloured Plates and a Catalogue with concise and familiar descriptions of many species :
for it has been said a great book is a great evil. I have included in the text particular
accounts of the medical virtues of the greater part of the most valuable American plants and
Indian remedies, and a catalogue and arrangement of the remainder will be found in the
Appendix and Addenda ; many of which genera and others are common to England and North
America. Should a full botanical description of a particular species or genus be required,
reference may be had to Martyn's Dictionary, the Genera Plantarum, or an Encyclopaedia.
I have likewise added a Nosological Table of the more frequent diseases, for the purpose (with
the assistance of the Table of the Medical Virtues of Plants, in the second number,) of re-
ferring to the pages where the plants useful in each disease, are to be found, and also a
Table of Climates and Habitats, with Catalogues, Addenda, and a general Index, containing
the common names of the plants, with pages of reference. Some omissions, and other in-
teresting particulars, are thrown into an Appendix. The names of many subscribers not
having yet come to hand, has prevented the insertion of that list. Some copies are bound
up with Plates not coloured, upon the same paper, for the convenience of those who may
wish to colour them themselves, and some without any Plates, at a price proportionably low.
Thus far respecting the Mode adopted in bringing these Sketches to a conclusion. I beg
leave to add a few general observations.
The learned and amiable Sir William Jones has observed, " I grieve to see Botany
imperfect in its two most important articles, the Natural Orders and Virtues of Plants,
between which I suspect a strong affinity. I envy those who have leisure to pursue this
bewitching study. If Botany could be described by metaphors drawn from the science itself,
we may justly pronounce a minute acquaintance with plants, their classes, orders, kinds,
and species, to be as flowers which can only produce fruit by an application of that knowledge
to the purposes of life ; particularly to diet, by which diseases may be avoided, and to
medicine by which they may be remedied." In another passage he describes Botany as an
elegant and delightful study for a well born and well educated female, and one the most
likely to assist and embellish other female accomplishments."
The importance of the above observations must forcibly strike every reader, and I cannot
myself imagine a more useful or delightful employment, if leisure and fortune allowed, than
the cultivation of indigenous plants of our native country ; and the introduction and natural-
ization (as they habituate themselves in a wonderful degree) of plants from other countries,
with constant trials and experiments to ascertain all the uses and virtues of each, thereby to
increase the subsistence and comforts, and lessen the ills of our fellow- creatures. Our most
valuable staples and finest fruits in the West-Indies have been introduced, and flourished
freely; and it is impossible to say to what extent this might be carried. Happy the man
who has it in his power so to serve his country. The superintendants of our Botanic gardens
in the East and West-Indies might be encouraged to devote their whole time to this ; and
the constant interchange of seeds and plants between both parts of the world, should be
their bounden duty, as it would be their pleasure and advantage. Reports printed at different
stated periods, would be also of the greatest use ; and every facility should be given to the
distribution of plants and seeds, freely to all applicants; also of seeds of esculent plants to
the negroes. A plan of this kind steadily followed up, as to the Botanical Garden in Liguanea,
would be highly worthy of that loyal and patriotic body of liberal and enlightened men, — The
Honourable House of Assembly of Jamaica.
The celebrated Professor Barton, of Philadelphia, makes the following observation in one
his works :
The man who discovers one valuable new medicine, is a more important benefactor to
his species, than Alexander, Ca-.sar, or an hundred other conquerors. Even his glory,
in the estimation of a truly civilized age, will be greater and more lasting than that of these
: admired ravagers of the world. I will venture to go farther,— all the splendid discoveries
: of Newton, are not of so much real utility to the world, as the discovery of the Penman
te Bark, or of the powers of Opium and Mercury."
It may perhaps be said that if the remedies mentioned in this work were really cures for the
diseases noticed, that there should be no diseases at all. One of the causes that they exi*
in such lamentable abundance, and diversified forms, has been the prevalence of luxury, and
total^ inattention to diet and regimen, attention to which, with other measures of prudent pre-
vention, would preserve the health unimpaired, under the most unfavourable circumstances
and climates, as I have myself experienced. Another cause is that these virtues and uses of
plants are not sufficiently known, or if known, not attended to. Some wili again gay, our
Materia Medica is already too full; but probably it might b found advantageous if other
valuable articles were introduced, and some most, perhaps, pernicious ones now in it, rejected.
Substitutes for the medicines composed of minerals, might surely be found in the vegetable
kingdom, if that was sufficiently known and attended to : it is perhaps as yet not 1 misunder-
stood. There certainly appears to be something incongruous between mineral substances,
always very active when net in quantity to be- poisonous, and the exquisitely tm « of
the stomach and intestines. Vegetables once supposed poisonous have proved by experience to
be noble remedies: witness — Fox-glove, Stramonium and Opium. Many a life has been sacri-
ficed, sooner or later, at the shrine of Mercury — more insatiable than the altars of Moloch; or
what has perhaps been worse to thousands than immediate destruction, the c institution has
been ruined, the powers of the mind injured, and years of ill health and to. meat have drag-
ged their slow length along, from the use of mercury and other mineral medicines.
Let us for example compare Dover's Powder, an excellent diaphoretic, composed of opium
and ipecacuanha, (both vegetable productions), to James's Powder, composed of antimony, an
active remedy in skilful hands; but the imprudent use of which is supposed to have hastened,
if not caused the death of the great philanthropist — Howard.
The choice of remedies is also of consequence in particular circumstances and constitutions,
and simple remedies have been sometimes found of avail when officinal medicines have failed.
It should also be remembered that many of the medicines, allowedly the best in the Materia
Medica, have been more recently discovered; and it was not by a backwardness and hesi-
tation in disclosing its supposed virtues, that the power of Peruvian Park, and other of the
noblest remedies was established ; and indeed we find that even this was given up after its
introduction, and its use discontinued for many years. Other medicines equal in value to bark
and opium may yet be discovered. It has been observed that botany is the only science
known to savage nations, and they are frequently acquainted with the gen ral medical proper-
ties of vegetables, (which knowledge was made use of by Patroclus and others, at the Siege
of Troy ; or to go farther back, is as old as the Deluge) as well as their use for food ;
and they also know ceconomical substitutes for the comforts and even luxuries of more
civilized society, (sec the hided) by which they can enjoy many things for which we are in-
debted to manufactures and commerce.
In giving an account of the virtues ascribed to plants, I have only humbly followed the
example of Drs. Barham, Dancer, and other respectable authors mentioned in the Preface,
as to West-Indian, and Dr. Barton, in his valuable works, as to American Botany. A great
number mentioned have been made use of by myself, or within my actual knowledge; and the
others are generally given on such information and corroboration as I conceive sufficient autho-
rity : but in this case, even suggestions and repetitions, quotations and hearsay, are valuable,
as trials may generally be made without any danger. The genus of a plant, and its natural
order will also be a considerable guide, as there certainly exists an affinity of qualities between
species of a genus, and the genera of a natural order. Facts are valuable, even hints have
their use ; and when a path is once opened to the better knowledge of vegetable remedies, it
may be taken up by those who have far better opportunities and abilities, by which not only
their country, but the world at large would benefit.
It would be desirable that works on this subject, like a dictionary, should profit by, and
make use of all the suggestions of former writers, rejecting such as had since been found
inert upon trial, and adding the further results of collection and experience.
The volume of Nature it is true lies constantly open before our eyes, but like other objects
always visible, it has scarcely yet been considered, never perused, or thoroughly studied. —
I would be understood principally, as to medical virtues and exotic botany.
In the West Indies, particularly, a knowledge of the medical properties of plants growing
around them is particularly desirable and valuable to persons living on plantations, as the
attack of disease is remarkably sudden, its progress peculiarly rapid, and skilful medical
assistance, which is to be found in the towns, (and to which I would recommend those who
have it in their power, to apply without an hour's delay) being at a distance, seldom to be
procured, and of course expensive. In general works, officinal plants are so mixed with long
descriptions of those never used, or of no peculiar beauty or quality, that it requires more time
and labour than most persons can afford to bestow, to separate and distinguish them. Premiums
are constantly offered for improvements and discoveries in agriculture, arts and sciences ;
and surely discoveries to preserve the health of our fellow-creatures, are also of importance,
and Mould deserve reward; but in many cases it is difficult on this subject to trace the original
author or suggester of remedies, which, however may afterwards become valuable ; and till
they are strictly attended to, and fairly tried, the suggestions cannot be too often repeated.
The mode of preserving seeds to be sent to a distance beyond sea, as connected with the
above subject, is of considerable interest and importance. Seeds should if possible be sent
in their dried husks or capsules, and packed up in a bag or gourd, well secured from air and
damp ; or they may be preserved in wax ; perhaps jars exhausted under the receiver of an
air pump, and in that situation sealed up by a burning glass, would answer very well, and
be the least trouble. Roots and slips that arc not in a growing state, might be packed up in
moss, which will keep them alive a very long time. Some seeds have been known to vegetate
after thirty years, — there is a great difference in this respect between different sorts; and the
vegetation of old seeds may be assisted by the means mentioned in page 9.
From the views I entertain of the importance of this subject, I have perhaps, been too
diffuse, but every attempt, however feeble, prompted by good intention to promote it, will be
received, I trust, with candour and liberality by the public, and to it do I commit myself with
CLIMATES AND HABITATS
To ascertain, by a comparative View, to what Countries they are common, and to shew
those which might be introduced from congenial or neighbouring Climates into any
THERE are in all, between the Equator and the Pole, 30 Climates. In the 12 men-
tioned below, and the 12 next towards the North Pole, the longest day increases by
half hours; in the the remaining six, between the Polar Circle and the Poles, the days
increase by months. The specification of the particular countries lying under the first
twelve Climates, will be sufficient for the present purpose ; and it is interesting to
observe, how many Plants are common to countries under the same Climate; and
that this is not confined to the. same, but extends through two or three, perhaps 20 or 30,
degrees of latitude. The principle it is intended to illustrate may be applied to a very
great extent, and might be productive of the most beneficial and general advantages; as
there are many valuable Plants which are not yet common, though it is highly important
they should be so ; and with this object in view, it may be useful to observe, that the
original Native country of a Plant is not of so much consequence to be known and
kept in mind, as its Habitat, or the country where it has bexiome naturalized, and
freely and spontaneously grows. The greater part of the most valuable Plants we
know, are in this situation; for instance, the Potatoe, that invaluable root, is native of
South America, about as many degrees to the South of the Equator as London is to
the North; the Sugar Cane, Coffee, and most valuable Plants in the West Indies, are
also Naturalized Foreigners. This is a most important subject, and should be attended to
in its utmost extent, by superintendants of Botanic Gardens, both in the East and
West Indies, to the incalculable advantage of both, and then the motto of the Jamaica
arms might be applied to this subject : —
"INDUS UTERQUE SERVIT UNI."
The First Climate extends from the Equator to 8 deg. 25 min. North Latitude,
and in it are situated the following countries and places: — the Gold Coast, and part
of Ajan and Adel, in Africa; the Maldives, Sumatra, Malacca, and Borneo, in the
East Indies; Gallapagos Isles, New Granada, Surinam, Cayenne, and Guiana, in
The Second Climate extends from 8 deg. 25 min. to 16 deg. 25 min. and con-
tains Senegambia, Negroland, and part of Abyssinia, in Africa; Ceylon, Siam,
Madras, and Pondicherry, in the East Indies: also part of Cochinchina, the Phillip-
pine Isles; Carthagena, Honduras, Panama, and Darien, in North America; the
Windward Islands, as Barbadoes, Tobago, &c. in the West Indies.
The Third Climate extends from 16 deg. 25 min. to 23 cleg. 50 min. the
Tropic of Cancer, and comprehends the Cape Verd Islands, part of Senegambia, Zabra,
and Nubia, in Africa ; Arabia, in Asia ; Bombay, Calcutta, and part of Bengal, in
the East Indies; Pegu, Ava ; Tonkin, and Canton, in China; the Ladrone and
Sandwich Islands; part of Mexico; Cuba, Jamaica, Saint Domingo, Antigua, Mar-
tinique, Gaudaloupe, and Porto Rico, in the West Indies.
The Fourth Climate extends from 23 deg. 50 min. to 30 deg. 25 min. and
comprises the Canary Islands, Morocco, Tripoli, and Egypt, in Africa; the North
of Arabia, part of Persia, the Mogul Empire, and part of China, in Asia; the Sand-
wich Islands, California, New Orleans, New Biscay, and East Florida, in North
The Fifth Climate extends from 30 deg. 25 min. to 36 deg. 28 min. and con-
tains part of the Azores, Gibraltar, and Sicily, in Europe; Madeira and the Barbary
Coast, in Africa; Candia, Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, Persia, Tibet, and Nankin, in
Asia ; New Mexico, Louisiana, Georgia, West Florida, North and South Carolina,
in North America.
The Sixth Climate extends from 36 deg. 2S min. to 41 deg. 22 min. and com-
prehends part of the Western Islands, Portugal, Spain, Minorca, Sardinia, Naples, the
South of Italy, the Morea, and Greece, in Europe; Anatolia, Georgia, and Great
Tartary, in Asia; Petin, in China; Korea and Japan; New Albion, part of
Louisiana, Virginia, Maryland, and Pensylvania, in North America.
The Seventh Climate extends from 41 deg. 22 min. to 45 deg. 29 min. and
comprises the North of Spain and the South of France, Corsica, the North of Italy and
the North of Turkey, in Europe; Georgia and Tartary, in Asia; the Western Indians*
New York, New Jersey, and the Northern United States, part of New Brunswick, and
Nova Scotia in North America.
The Eighth Climate extends from 45 deg. 29 min. to 49 deg. 01 min. and con-
tains the North of France, Switzerland, and Hungary, in Europe; part of Turkey and
Tartary, in Asia; Canada, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland, in North America,
The Ninth Climate extends from 49 deg. 1 min. to 52 deg. min. and comprises
the Netherlands, Germany, the South of England, part of Poland, and Russia, in
Europe; Siberia, and part of Tartary, in Asia: the North part of Canada, and
Newfoundland, in North America.
The Tenth Climate extends from 52 deg. min. to 54 -deg. 27 min. and com-
prehends Ireland, the midland counties of England, Holland, Hamburgh, Hanover, part
of Poland, Prussia, and Russia, in Europe; Siberia, in Asia; Labrador, and the
Esquimaux Country, in North America.
The Eleventh Climate extends from 54 deg. 27 min. to 56 deg. 37 min. and
contains the North of England and Ireland, the South of Scotland, Denmark, Gothland,
Courland, and Moscow, in Europe; Siberia, and part of Kamschatka, in Asia;
Hudson's Bay and Labrador, in North America.
The Twelfth Climate extends from 56 deg. 37 min. to 58 deg. 29 min. and
comprises the Western Islands, the North of Scotland, the Orkneys, part of Norwav*
Sweden, and Petersburg^, in Europe; Tobolsk, Siberia, and Kamschatka, in Asia;
Hudson's Bay, and Cape Farewell, in Greenland.
In the First Climate, New Granada, Surinam, Cayenne, and Java, the following
Plants are found : — Arabian jasmine, arrack palm, areca palm, artemisia, moxa,
anatto, bitter wood, quassia, balsam of capivi, coffee, clove, cokarito palm, cowhage,
caruna poison tree, toxicaria, gout remedy, ipecacuanha, Indian rubber or caoutchouc,
mangosteen mangrove, manicoli palm, nutmeg, mace, pepper, pine apple, sugar cane,
trooley palm, Ticuna poison vine, (nearly the same as Macassar poison) and Upas
Sumatra.— Benzoin, banyan, camphor, coffee, (but does not thrive) cassia, cherimoya,
ebony, guaicum, matisia, myrtles, musa, mopa-mopa, (yields varnish) pepper, rattan-
bamboo, silk-cotton, and wax palm.
Second and Third Climate. — Spanish North America. — Adam's needle, arums, Ame-
rican aloe, arbour vines, balsam of capivi, bamboo reed, cocoa, cacti, cocos, cedar,
calabash tree, de las meuritas, geraniums, gum-copal tree, gigantic sun flower, logwood,
lilacs, lily root, liquid ambar, mahogany, mentzelia, melia, myrasols, mastic tree,
maguey, nopal, (on which the cochineal insect feeds) oak, olive, plumeria, pome-
granate, sage, splendid dahlia, sisyrinchium, silk-cotton, superb lily, sensitive plants,
solanums, swallow wort, sweet sop, Tolu balsam tree, thistle, tomatoes, turnsole,
tamarind, violets, vanilla, and wood sorrel..
Arabia. — Aloe, almond, amaranth, banyan tree, balsam of Mecca (amyris) bead
tree, cacti, cotton tree, coffee, cocoa nut, date, euphorbia, fig marigold, fan palm,
gourd, gum-arabic, liquorice, lily root, melons, orange, oil nut, pomegranate, plantain,
staphelia, sugar cane, sycamore fig, sensitive plants, senna, tamarind, and white lily.
Further India and Cochinchina. — Arbour vine, amaryllis, Arabian jasmine, black
ebony, banyan tree, betel pepper, black pepper, braziletto, bimbling plumb, babouls,
butea superba, corypha palm, cardamon, capsicums, carthamus, croton, camphor,
cocoa nut, carambolo, custard apple, caryota palm, carrissa, clearing nut, (for water)
cotton, cloves, dracena ferrea, calamus rotaug, (producing dragon's blood) dillenia
indica, dahlbergia, (a timber) datura metel, egg fruit, elate sylvestris, (elephant's food)
elephant's apple, eagle wood, ferreola, ginger, gamboge, gourds, grapes, (of a very
large size) hibiscus, hog plum, indigo, iron wood, Indian madder, Indian vine, justicia,
(dyes green) jasmine, jack fruit, long pepper, lawsonia, laurel, love apple, lemon,
lime, morinda, melons, mangosteen, Malabar nut, mangoe, morea, Mackaco nut,
myristica, mountain rice, nux vomica, nutmeg, orange, plantain, pine, papaw, pillaw,
rose bay, rose apple, sandal tree, sycamore fig, strawberry, spikenard, sweet potatoe,
sago palm, soap berry, silk-cotton, strychnos, superb lily, teak wood, turmeric, tama-
rind, thorn apple, and wild vines.
Third, Fourth, and Fifth Climate. — China. — Arbor vitae, azalea, arenaria, antirr-
hinum, asparagus, astragalus, artemisia, aster, amaranth, acalvpha, andropogon, ash,
asplenium, banyan fig, balsamine, bamboo, bind weeds, barleria, Barbadoes millet,
blitum, bradleia 21 — 8, buckthorn, briza, bidens, balm, brassica, burmannia, box-
thorn, chesnut, china root, china aster, cowhage, calavances, china gourd, crotolaria,
china rose, china pink, corispermum, cyperus, cynosurus, chenopodium, chrysan-
themum, catstail, cenchrus, colutea, carduus, carthamus, cotton, chavv-whavv and
camellia, (used to scent tea) capsicum, clematis, dolichos soya, (from which soy
is made) daphne indica, dodder, dog's bane, day lily, euphorbia, elaeagnus, elephant's
foot, ferns, four o'clock, globe amaranth, galangale, Guinea corn, gardenia, garlic,
ginseng, hibiscus, hemp, hedysarum, ipomea, ixia, Indian shot, ixora coccinea, inula,
ilex, Indian c©rn (grows from the equator to 5\ deg. but best between 30 and 40 deg.)
juncus, kidney bean, kowleary or lofty corn, laurus, lobelia, lolium, leonurus,
lee chee, (used to scent tea) leadwort, monarda sinensis, mallow, momordica, mimosas,
nymphaea nelumbo, nettle, nauclea, orange, oily grain or sesame, ophioglossum,
plantain, paper mulberry, panicum, poa, polygonum, potentilla, parsley, polypo-
dium, pindail, psychotria, prickly yellow wood, red bead tree, rose bay, rice, rose,
rumex, spurge, sarsaparilla, Solomon's seal, sweet potatoe, solanums, spindle tree,
swallow wort, salsola, sow thistle, sida, sempervivum tectorum, scirpus, stratiotes,
spider wort, sagittaria, sugar cane, tallow tree (croton sebiferum) tamarind, tea tree,
tobacco, tribulus, thrift, trefoil, trichomanes, vine, vervain, valisneria, white mulberry,
water lily, (with esculent root) water cress, willow, wild basil, water soldier, winter
cherry, and yam.
The Fourth and Fifth Climates. — Egypt, Syria, and Persia.— Almond, arum, colocasia,
atriplex, acacia, anemone, anthyllis, bead tree, box thorn, bay tree, cercis, cherry,
carob, cedar, cocculus indicus, cyperus papyrus, caper bush, croton, coloquintida,
cyperus esculentus, cocoa, date, egg fruit, exacanthus, fig, four o'clock, hibiscus, heath,
hyacinth, henbane, jasmine, Jews' mallow, or sosumber (corchorus) lemon, lilac,
lawsonia, Lebanon pink, mulberry, myrtle, mastic, mimosa, menispermum, melons,
manna ash, momordica elaterium, nymphaea lotus, olive, orange, oleander, oil nut,
pomegranate, peach, pistachia nut, prickly cupped oak, (produces Aleppo galls) plan-
tain, poppy, rice, rhus, rushes, storax, sycamore fig, senna, saltwort, sumach, sugar
cane, spurge, Syrian madder, smilax, scammony, sebesten, sesame, spikenard, trailing
plum, tamarisk, thrift, tulip, vine, willow, and wild olive.
The Sixth Climate. — Japan. — Arum, aletris japonica, black pepper, bay tree,
bamboo, branched asphodel, calla, cotton, camphor tree, camellia, cocoa nut, chamaerops,
cycas, four o'clock, ginger, indigo, lily, mulberry, mimosa, orange, poppy, plantain,
rose of Jericho, soybean, sugar cane, shaddock, star of Bethlem, trumpet flower, tallow
tree, varnish tree, (rhus vernix) volkameria, winter cherry and willow.
Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Climates. — Tartary. — Aspen, amianthus, artemisia,
asparagus, avena, ash, aster, buck wheat, barberry, buck thorn, bell flowers, briza,
carduus, caltroppes, cassia, crassula, capsicum, cestus, cyperus, elder, elm, garlic,
lien bane, ixia, Jerusalem oak, lily of the valley, loose strife, mulberry, madder,
morea, nymphaea nelumbo, (seeds and roots eaten) oxeye, oak, poplar, pink, poa, pan-
icum, pine, peony, rice (two crops) stone-crop, sophora, swertia, swallow wort,
spindle tree, solatium, sanguisorba, scabious, syringa, tallow tree, tobacco, vine, vipers
bugloss, Valeriana, veronica, willow, wax privet, and weeping thuya.
The following Countries south of the Equator produce the Plants mentioned.
Brazil. — Amaryllis formosissima, amyris elemi, banana, brasil, brasilian myrtle,
cocoa nut, chocolate nut, copaiva, coffee, capsicums, canella alba, contrayerva, ebony,
fustic, gourd, ginger, guaicum, ipomea quamoclit, jalap, logwood, melons, mechoacan,
mahogany, nicaragua wood, plantain, potatoe, pine apple, pepper, rose wood, satin
wood, scarlet fuchsia, tamarind, turmeric, wild cinnamon, and yam.
Cape of Good Hope. — Adansonia digitata, avicennia, African oak, bamboo, baobab,
banana, butter tree, cocoa nut, cotton, capsicum, copal tree, crassula, cotyledon,
dracaena draco, ebony, elais guineensis, euphorbia, Guinea grass, ginger, gourd,
geranium, hassagai wood, indigo, iron wood, lemons, mangrove, maize, melon,
mimosa Senegal, maccaw, mangles, mesembryanthemum, orange, oak, palm, papaw,
pisango, pterocapus santalinus, pelargonium, protea argentea, rice, robinia, sugar cane,
sweet cassava, sweet potatoe, sandal wood, schaa or croton, stone pine, stapelia, sago
palm, scarlet-flowered guaicum, strelitzia regina, turmeric, tulip-tree of Guinea,
tetrandra, taxus, weeping willow, yam, yelloAv wood, and zamia.
Chili. — Acacia, called jarilla, (yields an excellent vulnerary balsam) Chili straw-
berry, (white tipped with purple) cacantahuen, (sudorific and febrifuge, but particu-
larly useful in diseases of the throat) cullen, stomachic, [makes a vermifuge tea]
cassia, senna, cypress, (in the Andine vallies) cedar, red, white, and lofty,- cacti (with
thorns eight inches long) carob tree, ceratonia, has spines four inches long, used as
nails; gentian, incense shrub, four feet in height, distilling gum, leaves of a whitish
yellow, and a bitter aromatic taste ; maguta, a kind of rice; myrtle (seven kinds)
the fruit of one yielding an excellent wine; potatoes, (indigenous, thirty kinds)
payco, (for indigestions) puye, (the trunk supplies corks) palqui, (esteemed a febrifuge
equal to bark) pines, quelghin, salsola kali, tuca, a species of barley; vira-vira,(expels
the ague) wild tobacco, willow (with intire thin leaves of yellowish green, its bark is a
Friendly Isles. — Aloe wood, aralia, areca, bamboo, bauhinia, bean, calambac,
cajeput, canaria, producing gum elemi; cocoa nut, cucumber, canna, erythrina,eschy-
nomene, euphorbia, eugenia, great fan palm, ginger, gourd, hibiscus, ixora, melaleuca
cericadendron, mango, melon, orange, pomegranate, palmeto, plantain, pine apple,
rice, sitodium and cynometra (with bags of oily kernels produced from the trunk)
sandal wood, sago, sugar cane, sweet potatoe, tamarind, turmeric, and yam.
La Plata and Paraguay. — American pine, called cury, with red veins ; Algarobbaor
carob tree, (St. John's bread) a broadpod, with beans or seeds of a brownish colour,
the pulp whitish and sweet, makes bread, and an intoxicating drink by fermentation,
called lagga, which is wholesome and diuretic, and cures consumptions, the pulp also
fattens horses and cattle; the wood of the white carob is of a violet colour, and used
for the keels of vessels; the black is smaller, and the pulp must not be eaten raw; the
third sort resembles the acacia, yields a gum like gum arabic, and is used to dye black ;
Alaba, is the petahaya of California, a delicious and refreshing fruit, which might be
cultivated like the pine apple; Anguay, has violet pips of a triangular shape, used for
necklaces; anana, ant tree, of a spongy nature, serves as a haunt for those insects;
ambay, used to strike fire ; Angola pea, baroba, banana, borage, bean, barley, [about
Buenos Ayres] cinchona, called pezoes; caa, [yields dragon's blood] cacao, cedars,
lofty and abundant; chanar, cotton tree, cochineal, cacaquata (a species of aloe) canes,
cucumber, cresses, figs, izapi, [drops water from its leaves copiously] indigo, Indian
corn, from which is made a fermented drink called chicha; jalap, jujube, lemon, lettuce,
leek, mangay, yields an elastic juice, is about the size of a cherry tree, with odorous
white flowers and yellow fruit, like large plums ; mammou, the fruit grows on the
trunk, and resembles the melon; molle, yields a copious and fragrant gum; manioc,
mint, mane, the fruit of a beautiful plant, two feet high, resembles the almond in taste
and form, and yields an oil better than olive; melon, mustard, mix vomica, nakalie, five
feet high, a beautiful yellow dye ; orange, onion, palo santo, Paraguay tea is the produce
of the caa, which resembles the orange, the tea is made of the leaves dried by a slow fire;
peach, pomegranate, passion flower, yields a wholesome and exquisite fruit, like a small
apple, of a golden colour, with red spots; potatoes, white, red and yellow; quabyra (in
which a kind of ants form wax as white as snow which makes candles) quembe, a fruit
of a cylindrical form, as thick as the fist, weighing two pounds, with a delicious pulp, on
a creeping plant; rhubarb, with a leaf ending in a point; reeds, rosemary, rue, sarsaparilla,
[root of a thorny plant] sassafras, seibo, a tree bearing violet blossoms ; timbabi, sup-
plies a beautiful golden gum, which may be run into moulds ; tatay, produces a yellow r
fruit like the mulberry; tarumay, resembles the olive, but inferior; turnip, umber, of a
prodigious size, so as to shade fifty men; urucuy, a strong scarlet dye ; vanilla, vines
[cultivated] white rhubarb or mechoacan, (grows like bryony) willow, wild asparagus,
wheat [about Beunos Ayres] yacani, zamia, small at bottom and top, and bulging in
the middle; zevil, yields a bark useful in tanning ; zepallo.
Madagascar. — Banana, betel, bamboo, benzoin, cocoa nut, corn, cinnamon, cotton,
dolichos, ebony, flax, gourd, ginger, gummifera madagascariensis, whose juice concretes
into an elastic gum, like the caoutchouc ; gumlac, Indian fig, indigo, mauritanian
mulberry, with green fruit; nymphaea lotus, orange, pine apple, pomegranate, pepper,
rice, tamarind, turmeric, water melon, and yam.
New Holland. — Arum macrorizon and esculentum, by culture and boiling becomes a
mild farinaceous food ; Banksia, bellarderia scandens, bears a cylindrical fruit, and
tastes like a roasted apple; ceratopotalum gummiferum, convolvolus, eucalyptus robusta,
yields a brown gum ; elegant papilionaceous plants, are the platilybuim formosum and
pultnea stipularis, embothyrum formosisimum, has large crimson blossoms, like peony ;
New Holland mahogany, Botany Bay wood, or spotted red wood ; red gum tree, styphelia
tubitlora, with fringed scarlet flowers like buckbean; sweet potatoes, and yams thirty
Otahcite. — Ava or kavy, is an intoxicating drink, from the piper mellisticum; bread fruit
(aroo) five trees will support one man for 18 months, the inner bark makes cloth ; the
wood, huts and canoes; the juice, cement and birdlime; crataeva, draceena terminalis,
esteemed sacred, and employed in shading the Morais; evee [eatable] figs; mimosa,
pandarus odorotissimus, inocarpus, [fruit resembles chesnut] paper mulberry, shaddock,
terminalis clabra or tara ove.
Peru. — Acacias, aloe, amomum, algorob (incorruptible) achras sapota, broom, box,
cedar, cotton tree, cabbage palm, cocoa nut, cotton shrub, chocolate nut, canna, cin-
chona (two species) cardana alliodora (a large timber tree r the leaves and fresh wood
having a strong smell of garlic) capsicum (six species) calceolaria, cascarilla, datura
arborea, ebony, ferns, gigantic fennel, (ferula) affords a very light yet strong wood;
guaicum, jalap, large flowered jessamin, love apple, mangles, Maria (used for masts)
majestic sun-flower, nasturtium, nolana, olive, palm (with roots rising six or seven
feet above ground) pine apple, plantain, pepper (24 species) potato, (native) prosbata,
quina-quina, sugar cane, salvia longiflora, turmeric, tobacco, tropaeolum, tamarind,
wild coffee (coffea racemosa, berries used in the same manner as the other) wild
orange, and willow.
Rio Janeiro. — Cactus, coffee, cacao, cotton, fern, grape vine, ipecacuanha (an herba-
ceous plant, three feet high, single stem, and herbaceous leaves) indigo, mastic tree,
mango, manioc, orambela, papaw, plantain, rice (cleaned by sand and sifted) sugar
cane and wheat.
Society Ides. — Divoe, large as a potatoe, fiery and pungent, baked for one night, it as
well as the mapooro is esculent; ehuoye, a kind of fern, grows in the marshes, when
dressed is good food ; ehegan, a fruit of red hue, or watery apple, has filaments hanging
from it which come from the core; hearee, or cocoa nut, affords meat, drink, cloth, and
oil; mapooro like wild tarro, but smaller; paeea like potato, and of the nature of cassada, is
grated, and washed several times ; rataa, like a chesnut, but bean-shaped, two inches and
a half across, eaten roasted; shaddocks, from Friendly Isles; tarro, a root from 12 to 18
inches long, and as much round, the leaves used as spinach, it requires much dressing;
tee, a small root, growing in the mountains, good eating, and produces a juice like
melasses; yapple, larger than tarro, rather acrid, as arum, but good food, well prepared;
yellow apple, evee, like a peach, oblong, with a stone, growing three or four in a bunch.
Van Diemeti's Land. — Apium prostratum, ancistrum, aletris, banksia iutegrifolia
and gibbosa, camarina limodorum, caledolaria, carpodontos lucida, drosera bifurca,
eucalyptus globosus, of an enormous size; embothrium leptospermum, epacris, exo-
carpus expansa and cupressiformis, festuca, ficoide, glycine, lobelia, mazotoxeuron
rufum, and reflexum, mimosa, morcea, melaleuca aster, orchis, plantago, ptolea, rechia
glauca, scheflleria repens, terebinthinus, thcsium, utricularia.
The Stigma is usually placed on the top of the style, or if that part be wanting,
immediately on the germ. It is a part of great importance, as it receives the dust of the
anthers, and conveys it, or its effluvia, through the fine vessels of the style to the seed
contained in the germ. Indeed, the anther and stigma are by Linnaeus considered as
the essential parts of a flower, and, in the language of Botany, they constitute one.
These parts being present, are sufficient to the production of fruit — without them, there
can be none : the presence of the stigma implies that of the germ, as the anther does of
the dust. It is exceedingly various in its form, generally downy or velvety, sometimes
ramified finely, or filiform or thread-like ; single, bifid, trifid, quadrifid, quinquifid or
globular; perforated, hooked, simple, flat and orbicular, spreading or rolled back. The
stigma is also frequently bedewed with a clammy moisture, which is admirably adapted
to catch the dust from the anther. In monaecious plants the female flowers are placed
below the male, as is admirably exemplified in Sand Box-tree and Oil-nut.
V. The PERICARP, or Seed Vessel, Tfspi,peri, round, and xapn-o^, carpos, fruit, is a
case or covering for the seed, which is present in most plants, though in some the seed
is naked, and fixed on the end of the receptacle, and in others, contained in the bottom
of the calyx. According to the diversity of its structure it takes the different apellations
of Capsule, (capsulaj Silique, (siliqua), Legume, (legumenj, Follicle, (folliculus),
Drupe, fdrupaj, Pome, fpomumj, Berry, (baccaj, Cone, fslrobilasj. Nut, fnuxj.
A Capsule, or Casket, is composed of several dry elastic valves which, usually burst
open at the points, sometimes at the bottom or in the middle. If it consists of two
valves it is called Bivalve, if of three Trivalve, and so on. The cavity of the capsule is
called a Cell, (loculamenlumj, and, according to the number of cells, is denominated Unilo-
cular, Bilocular, Trilocular, &c. The divisions of the cells are called Dissepimenta, and
the substances connecting the partitions to the seeds Columellae. If it consists of three
cells, with each a single seed in it, it is called Tricoccous. Capsules differ much with
respect to the manner in which they open, as also in their form and suface ; thus we find
them, round, oval, long, angular, jointed, &c. some smooth, others prickly, as Indian
Shot, plate 3, fig. 1. and Arnotto, plate 3, fig. 21.
Silique, or Pod, has two valves, in which the seeds are fixed to both sutures alter-
nately, as in Mustard, Radish, and Nephritic Tree, plate 9, fig. 6. When the seed
vessel is small, short, or round, it is called a Silicle.
Legume, or Cod, has two valves, and the seeds affixed to one suture only, as in Beans,
Peas, and Gum Arabic, plate 3, fig. 22.
Follicle, or Bag, sometimes called Conceptaculum, is a seed vessel of one valve,
opening from top to bottom on one side, the seeds being attached to a receptacle within
it, not to any suture, as in Bastard Ipecacuanha, plate 7, fig. 1.
Drupe, or Stone Fruit, is secculent or pulpy, having no external opening or valve,
containing within its substance a stone, or nut, as the Plum, Sassafras, Sour Olive.
the two side ones, the Wings, (alee), and the lowermost, the Keel, (carina). The Corol
is also called Compound, (composita), when it consists of a number of florets, placed in
a common receptacle, and contained within a common calyx, as in Dandelion, Blue
Bottle, &c. Of Compound Flowers there are three kinds — Ligulated, (ligulata), when
all the florets are flat ; Tubulated, (tubulosa), when all the florets are tubular and nearly
equal ; and Radiated, (radiata), when those in the centre are tubular, and those in the
circumference flat and spreading. Double or Full flowers, fmulplicatus seu plenusjlosj last
longer than simple ones, but are incapable of producing perfect seed.
III. The STAMEN is the male organ of generation, and is composed of three parts,
the Filament, (jilamenlum ) ', the Anther, (anthera), from av$o$, anthos, a flower ; and the
Dust, (pollen), which parts are all visible in Barbadoes Pride, plate 7- fig- 7. The fila-
ment is the slender thread-like substance (sometimes called chives) which supports the
anther, and connects it to some part of the fructification, most commonly to the corol,
frequently to the calyx and receptacle, and sometimes to the pistil. It is in some taper-
ing, in others of the same thickness throughout, smooth or hairy. The filaments in some
flowers are very long, in others, entirely wanting. The anther is that part which contains
the pollen, or impregnating dust, and when ripe, bursts and scatters it abroad for the use
to which nature has destined it. In general it is composed of two oblong or roundish
cavities, which burst longitudinally, in some plants gradually, in others, all at once, with
considerable violence ; for this purpose the filament is curled up like the spring of a
watch, and is suddenly set at liberty. In some flowers, which generally hang down,
this dust is discharged through a hole in the top of the anther. It varies much in its
shape, and takes the several ones, of round, flat, oblong, kidney-shaped, twisted, horned,
or terminated by a membrane. When the filament is inserted near the end of the anther,
it is called erect; or, oblique, when it is connected with the middle ; when the anther lies
across, it is incumbent; if it turns as on a pivot, versatile, and where the filament is
wanting, adnate. The dust is a fine powder, contained in the anther, for the purpose of
impregnation, of a yellow colour; but from this it sometimes varies, as also in the form
of the corpuscles, of which it is composed.
IV. The PISTIL, also called Pointal, is the female organ of generation, and contains
the seed which is to be fertilized by the dust ; it is placed in the very centre of the
flower, and is composed of three parts, the Germ, (germen), the Style, (stylus), and the
Stigma, (stigma), which parts may be distinctly seen in the blossom of Calabash, plate 8,
The Germ, considered by Linnaeus as the ovarium or uterus of plants, is of various
shapes, but is always situated at the bottom of the pistil. It contains the embryo seeds,
and when mature, takes the name of Pericarp. It gives origin to the style, as in the
Guaiacum Tree, plate 7, fig. 9-
The Style is that small pillar which grows from the germ, on the top of which is
usually placed the stigma. In some plants the style is extremely short — in others
entirely wanting. It corresponds to the vagina in animals.
sides this general cup, its own particular perianth. Its leaves are generally disposed in
a radiated manner, as in Dogwood. The involucre belonging to each umbel, or bunch
of flowers, is called Partial; that which grows at the base of the whole collection of
umbels, is called General. In Fool's-parsley it is half-leaved, fdimidiatum.J
3. Glume, (Gluma) or Chaffy Husk, is a species of cup which chiefly belongs to
grasses, and consists of one two, three or more valves folding over each other, like scales,
and frequently terminated by a long stiff-pointed prickle, called the Awn, or Beard — for
example, Rice, Mays, or Indian Corn.
4. Ament, (Amentum) or Julus, is commonly called a Catkin, and consists of a great
number of chaffy scales, disposed along a slender thread, or receptacle, as in Hickory,
Chinquepin, &c. Those flowers, supported by an ament, are generally destitute of petals.
5. Spathe, (Spatha) consists of a simple membrane, growing from the stalk in a
sheath-like form, and wraps round the flower or flowers contained in it, till they are
strong enough no longer to require its protection. It is sometimes simple, as in Narcis-
sus, sometimes divided in two, as in Water Soldier, or imbricated, as in Plantain,
and is common to flowers having bulbous or tuberous roots.
6. Calyptre, (Calyptra) from y.a,\utro t calupto, I cover, is peculiar to mosses.
7- Volve, (Volva) is membranaceous, and peculiar to mushrooms and funguses in
general ; it is also called Ruffle or Curtain.
II. The COROL (literally, a Garland) is that delicate part of the flower which most
attracts our notice, being generally beautifully coloured ; it is enclosed by, and situated
next to, the calyx, and surrounds and protects the organs of generation. Linneeus says
it is formed from the inner rind of the plant, as the calyx is from the outer. Its coloured
leaves are called Petals. When the Corol is composed of one petal, it is called Mono-
petalous, sain Arrow Root, plate 4, fig. 1. Dipetalous, as Enchanter's Nightshade, Tripe-
talous, as in Water Plantain, Pentapetalous, as in Marsh-mallow, &c. or Polypetalous,
as Water Lily, according to the number of pieces of which it is composed, two, three,
five, &c. or many. The lower narrow part of a Monopetalous Corol is called the Tube,
( tubus ); the upper spreading part, the Limb, (limbus), as in Four o' Clock, plate 6, fig.
1. The lower narrow part of a Polypetalous Corol is called the Claw, (unguis), the upper
spreading part, Lamina, as in Barbadoes Pride, plate 7-, fig- 7- The Corol also assumes dif-
ferent names according to the diversity of its form. Bell-shaped, (campanulata) , as the
Red Lily, plate7, fig. 2. Funnel-shaped, (infundibiliformis), as in Tobacco; Salver-shaped,
(hypocrateriformis) , as in Four o'Clock, plate 6, fig. 1. Wheel-shaped, (rotata), as in Sa-
vanna Flower, plate 6, fig. 3. Rose-like, (rosacea), as in Mammee Apple, plate 8, fig. 3.
Gaping, (ringens), as in Sesame, plate 9> fig- 7- the opening of the latter is called the
Mouth, (faux) ; when that is closed with an intervening substance, it is called Grinning,
(personata), Twisted, (torta), as in South Sea Rose, plated, fig. 5. Undulated, (undulata)
as in Calabash, plate 8, fig. 4. Butterfly-shaped, (papilionacea), as in Sweet Pea. This
latter consists of four petals, the uppermost of which is called the Standard, (vexillum)^
EXPLANATION OF THE OUTLINES OF BOTANY, AND THE
TERMS USED IN THE DESCRIPTION OF PLANTS.
A S the flower may be considered the termination or end of the old plant, and a pre-
paration for the seed or rudiment of the new plant, it will be proper to begin with
The Parts of Fructification, which are eight. 1. The Calyx, (Calyx.) 2. The Corol,
(Corolla.) 3. The Stamen, (Stamen.) 4. The Pistil, (Pistillum.) 5. The Pericarp,
(Pericarpium.) 6. The Seed, (Semen.) 7- The Receptacle, (Receptaculum.) 8. The
I. CALYX, a general name, expressing the cup of a flower ; it is the termination of
the outward bark, and surrounds, encloses, or supports the other parts of the flower, is
usually of a green colour, but in some few flowers entirely wanting. It is various in its
structure, and is distinguished by the several names of,
1. Perianth, (Perianthium) from xepi, peri, around, and ocvQo;, anthos, the flower,
called Empalement, consists of several leaves, or of one leaf divided into several segments,
it is then called Monophyllous, Diphyllous, Triphyllous, &c. or Polvphyllous, as it
may consist of one, two, three, &c, or many segments. See plate 4, fig. 2. of the Perianths
in Arrow Root and Indian Shot. It is called Common, when it supports and connects
together a great number of florets — and Imbricated, when composed of a number of
leaves lying one over the other, like scales or tiles on the top of a house.
2. Involucre (Involucrum) is, when the Calyx, usually consisting of several leaves,
is situated at the foot of a number of flowers growing together, each of which has, be-
Pome, or Apple, a fleshy seed vessel, without any external opening, containing within
its substance a capsule, as the Apple, Cucumber, Melon and Mammee Apple, plate 3,
Berry, a pulpy seed vessel, containing within its substance a number of naked
seeds, as Raspberry, Currant, and Coffee, plate 3, fig. 5.
Cone, or Strobile, a species of seed vessel, composed of woody scales, within which
lie the seeds; it is defined to be formed of an anient, with hardened scales; examples
of this are found in the Fir, the Pine, &c.
Nut, expresses a pericarpium of extraordinary hardness, containing a kernel, and
has no external opening, as the Filbert, Butternut, Antidote Coccoon, plate 3,
Propago. The seed of the mosses, which has no covering.
VI. The SEED is analogous to the egg in animals, and is defined by Linnaeus to be
the rudiment of a new plant, similar to the parent stock. It consists of the part which
is to be the new plant and of nourishment for it, till it has attained sufficient strength to
provide for itself: the young plant consists of the Plumule and the Radicle ; the
plumule rises into the air and constitutes the trunk and branches, the radicle pene-
trates into the earth, and forms the roots. The plumule and radicle together are called
the Embryo (corculum). The part which is to provide nourishment for the young
plant forms the bulk of the seed, and consists generally of a farinaceous matter, fit for
food, as in Corn, Rice, &c. or mixed with essential oil, as in Oil-nuts, Almond, &c.
In most plants it is divided into two parts, called Cotyledons or Seed Lobes, which are
sometimes converted into leaves, (though some have only one cotyledon). From the
extremity of these arise a number of very minute vessels which unite as they proceed
towards the embryo into which they enter in two distinct bodies. Many seeds have also a
White (albumen)^ and some a Yolk (vitellus)^ but not commonly. The husk (cutis)
sometimes called shell, (testa) incloses and preserves the cotyledons and embryo, and is
composed of two coats of various consistence, having a duplicature which incloses
the end of the radicle. The eye (hilumj is a mark in the end or middle of the outer
husk, being the cicatrix, formed by the breaking off of those vessels which supplied the
seed with nourishment. Seeds also generally have a small hole (foramen) between the
eye and the radicle, and some are furnished with an additional covering termed an aril,
(arillus) which is a substance very like parchment, exemplified in the Coffee. Seeds
vary much in colour, see plate 3, also in number, from one, two, three, or four, to fifteen
thousand, likewise in their form, and surface; some are crowned with a pappus, aigrette,
or down. When placed immediately on the seed it is called Sessile, when on a footstalk
Stipitated, as in Dandelion ; when the pappus consists of simple rays it is called Simple,
when branched or feathered. Plumose; some are furnished with hooks. The surface of
some is rough as Four o'Clock, plate 3, fig. 6, or reticulated like a honey comb, as in
findars, plate 3, fig. 41.; some glossy, as Akee, plate 3, fig. 14.; others grooved, aj
Musk-ochro, plate 3, fig. 26.; some round, as Soapberries, plate 3, fig. 11.; flat, as Sand
Box, kidney shaped, as Capsicums, plate 3, fig. 7, and Cashew, plate 3, fig. 15.; or three
cornered, as Buck-wheat ; oval, as Sweet Sop, plate 3, fig. 2.5.; twisted, as in Skrew Tree,
plate 3, fig. 46.; acuminated, as Star Apple, plate 3, fig. 8.; pointed, as in Naseberry,
and Sour Sop, plate 3, figs. 9» and 27. Nature has provided for their dispersion in
several ways; some are furnished with a wing, as Mahogany, plate 3, fig. 60.; three
wings, as Horse Radish Tree, plate 3, fig. 16.; or an inflated seed vessel, as Bladder
Senna ; others are thrown out of the seed vessels by the elasticity of the valves, as Bal-
samine, or an elastic spring surrounding the capsule, and others have long threads, which
wrap round the arms of trees. Many are swallowed by birds, rats and squirrels, and after-
wards voided entire; the Indians indeed think all their timber planted by squirrels.
Seeds also migrate by Rivers, the Ocean, Winds, &c. They retain their vegetative
power a long time, which in old seeds may be increased by moistening the earth with
water, to which is added oxygenated Muriatic Acid.
VII. The RECEPTACLE is the end of the stalk, which supports all the other
parts of fructification, and by which they are connected. It is called Proper, when
it supports the parts of only one flower, and Common, when it supports several florets;
this last belongs to the compound flowers. Umbel, when it supports from a common
center, several small footstalks of proportionable lengths; Spadix is the receptacle of a
palm, always branched, and produced within a Spathe or Sheath ; in the Indian turnip,
and Skunk cabbage it is simple.
VIII. NECTARY is a part found in many flowers, and is extremely various in its forms
and uses, sometimes united to the Petals, and sometimes separate from them ; appearing
in some flowers as a gland secreting honey, in others, as a kind of vessel to receive it. It
assumes the different forms of, threads, a cup, or a number of little cups, a beard, a gland,
sometimes of a horn or horns, at others of a cockspur, which in some plants is extended to
along point, as in Balsamine, and Chain Cotton, plate 8, fig. 1. The honey contained in
it appears to be for the nourishment of the anthers and stigmas. In general when any part
occurs in a flower whatever may be its form, if it does not appear to answer the pur-
pose of any of the other parts of fructification, it may safely be considered a nectary.
Having described the parts of fructification, we now proceed to the other parts of the
plant, beginning at
The ROOT (Radix) is generally understood to be that part of the plant which is
under ground, and which draws forth nourishment from the earth necessary for the
existence of the plant. The body of the root, or that which lies below the surface of
the earth, is termed by Linnaeus the Descending Caudex, the fibrous part is termed
CRadicula), which imbibes nourishment from the earth for the support of the whole plant.
The root, like the stalk, consists of the Outer Bark, (cortex) the Inner Bark, (liber)
the Wood, (lignum) and the Pith, (medulla). In duration it is — Annual, (annua) living
but one year, — Biennial, (biennis) a root which continues to vegetate two years, and Pe-
rennial, perennis continuing several years. Climates and cultivation have a great effect
on the term of duration of roots of vegetables, as exemplified in the Oil Nut. Plants
attaching themselves to the branches of trees are called Parasitic, parasitica as Vanilla
Old Man's Beard and Dodder.
From their various shapes Roots assume the different appellations of
Fibrous, (fibrosa) having no solid body, but entirely made up of thread-like fibres, as
the Grasses in general: if the fibres are very slender it is called Hairy Root, (capillaceaj.
Praemorse, (prcemorsa) a root which does not run tapering to its extremity, but seems
bitten off, as the Scabious.
Granulated, (granulata) consisting of small knobs attached to the root by slender fibres,
as in White Saxifrage.
Tunicated, (tunicata) consisting of many coats, each forming concentric layers, as
Fusiform, (fusiformis) Spindle-shaped, or Tap-root, a root which tapers downwards to
a point, as in Carrot, and in Arrow-root, plate 1, fig. 2.
Subrotund, (subrotundus) a root which is nearly round, as in Turnip.
Solid, fsolidus) of one substance, and not disposed in coats or scales, as in Crocus.
Squammose, ( squamosa Ja. root composed of scales lying over each other, as in the Lilies.
Creeping, (repens) running underground, and sending forth shoots at the joints, as the
Dentated, (dentata) a root having many tooth-like knobs, not attached by fibres, as in
Reptant, (reptans) running on the surface of the ground and taking root at the joints,
Tuberous, (tuberosa) consisting of subrotund bodies, collected into a bundle, as in
Sweet Potatoe, plate 1, fig. 11. and Yams, plate 2, fig. 45. It is called Palmated, when
it spreads so as to resemble a hand. Fasciculated, when collected into a close bundle,
Pendulous, when the knobs hang down, as in Sun Flower, Duplicate, composed of two
joined together as the Ophrys, vulgarly called in America, Adam and Eve.
Truffle, ( ' ly coper don ) is all root, without stalk or leaves.
The STALK is that part of the plant which rises immediately from the root, and sup-
ports the leaves, flowers and fruit ; it is termed by Linnaeus the ascending Caudex, and is
very similar in its structure to the root, consisting of the outer and inner bark, and the sap
(alburnum), a soft white substance between the inner bark and the wood, which, in pro-
cess of time acquiring solidity, becomes the wood, in the centre of which is the pith, which
disappears as the trees grow old. The inner structure of plants is found to be chiefly
composed of tubes and cells for conveying air and circulating the sap and proper juices
of the plant. Some stalks, on being cut, emit a milky juice, and are thence called lac-
tescent, as the Physic Nut. Linnaeus enumerates four kinds of stalks, Stalk or
Stem, (caitlis) from KavXa S , (kaulos) that stalk which supports both the fructification
and leaves, and is common to plants in general. Straw, (admits) peculiar to the
grasses, proceeding immediately from the root, generally cylindrical and jointed, plate
1, fig. 8 — 9, but sometimes triangular, as in Adrue, plate I, fig. 10. Scape, (scapusj
which supports the fructification, but not the leaves, as in Lily of the Valley. Stipes-
a kind of stalk peculiar to the fungi and ferns. When the stalk dies down to the root
yearly, it is called herbaceous, (hcrbaceus.) If it continues and produces buds it is
called Shrubby, (fruticosus) or Woody, (arboreus). \\\ trees it is generally called the
Stem. Stalks vary also very much in their form and appearance, the following most
frequently occur: Aculeated, (aculeatus) beset with sharp prickles, as in Melon
Thistle and Dildoe, plate 1, fig. 23 and 24. Two edged, (anceps) forming two
angles opposite to each other, as in Sisyrinchium. Angulated, (angulatus)
having many angles. Three-Sided (Trigonus.) Compressed, (compressus) compressed
on opposite sides, so that the transverse section forms an Ellipsis, as Poa Compressa.
Tubular, (fistulosus) a hollow stem as in Elder. Foliose, (folinsus), covered with
leaves, as Tuberose. Hispid, (hispidus) covered with prickles, superficially rooted,
as in the Mad Apple. Pithy, (inanis) neither solid nor tubular, as in Papaw, plate
2. fig. 50. Naked, (niidus) without leaves or branches. Procumbent, (procumbensj
lying horizontally along the ground, as Convolvulus. Ramose, (ramosus) having
many branches. The branches of the stalk are called (rami.) Very ramose, (ramosis-
simus) abounding with branches irregularly disposed, as Naseberry, Star Apple, plate 1.
fig. 12. Creeping, (repens,) running horizontally along the ground, and sending forth
radiculae at the joints. Sarmentose, (sarmentosu?) a creeping or climbing stalk, al-
most naked, producing leaves at the joints, as the Vine. Climbing, (scandens), as the
Coccoon Antidote. Simple, (simplex) a single stem up to its top, not dividing, as the
Cocoa nut, plate 2. fig. 42. Solid, (solidus) a stem having substance, opposed to tu-
bular and pithy. Thorny, fspinosusj having strong woody prickles, as Cashaw, Fin-
grigo and Nephritic Tree, plate 9, fig- 6. Striated, fstriatus) grooved or superficially
channelled. Hanging down, ( dependens ) as in Weeping Willow and Mangrove, plate
1. fig. 22. Sulcated, (sulcatus) deeply grooved or channelled. Stinging, furensj
as Thistle. Volute, (volubilis) twining up a pole or stem of another plant in a spiral
form, as the Yam, plate 2, fig. 4.5.
LEAVES, (folia) are defined to be fibrous and cellular processes of plants, which are
of various figures, but generally extended, with a flat membranous or skinny substance;
they appear to be the organs of perspiration and inspiration, and are composed of the woody
substance, similar to the bones in the human body, distributed in ramifications through
the middle of the leaf, which gives it firmness and durability. The Fleshy or Pulpy
substance, (parenchyma) forming its principal substance, and giving the leaf its green
colour. These two parts are covered on each side by a membrane or skin, which is con-
siderably tougher than the fleshy part ; on the under side this appears to be furnished
with a number of absorbent vessels to imbibe the humidity of the air. Leaves are prima-
rily divided into Simple and Compound. A Simple Leaf is such whose footstalk is ter*
minated by a single expansion, and assumes many different names, of which the following
are some of the principal and most common. First as to their duration.
Caducous, (caducum) falling off at the first opening of the flower.
Deciduous, (deciduum) falling off with the flower.
Permanent, fpersistens) remaining till the fruit is ripe.
The above terms are also made use of to express the duration of the Perianth.
Ever-green, f semper vir ens J the longest degree of duration.
Second, as to their disposition, insertion and direction, they are termed,
Floral, (Jlorale) immediately attending the flower, as in Chain Cotton, plate 8, fig. 1.
Rameous, frameum) seated or inserted on the branch, as in Calabash, plate 2, fig. 30.
Cauline, (Caulinum) growing immediately on the stem, without the intervention of
branches, as in Plantain, plate 2, fig. 49, and the Palms.
Axillary, (axillare) proceeding from the angle which the branches form with the
Radical, (radicale) proceeding immediately from the root, as Thatch, plate 2, fig. 51.
Seminal, (seminale) or seed leaf, into which the cotyledons of the seed expand.
Adnate, (adnatum) growing close to the stem, sometimes called Sessile.
Connate, (connata) when two leaves opposite are joined at their base, so as to have
the appearance of one, as in Honey-suckle.
Drowned, (demersum) sunk under water, as Valisneria Americana.
Decussated, (decussata) growing opposite in pairs and each pair being alternately on
opposite sides of the stem.
Distichous, (disticha) growing in two rows on two sides of the branch only.
Fasciculated, ( fasciculata ) growing in bundles or bunches, as in Hemlock, Pine, Pitch-
Imbricated, (imbr'icata) lying over one another like the tiles of a house.
Peltated, (peltatum) the footstalk being inserted into the disk of the leaf, not the base,
as in May Apple.
Perfoliated, (perfoliatumj when the base of the leaf surrounds the stalk, it appearing
to pierce or go through it, as in Thorough Wort.
Pixidated, (pixidatum) one leaf let into another as in Horsetail.
Reclinate, (recl'matum) bending downward, the top lower than the base, as in Choco-
late Nut, plate 2, fig. 34.
Recurvated, (recurvatum) bending in a greater degree than reclinate.
Revolute, (revolutum) rolled backwards, as Wild Rosemary. Involute, (involutum)
Vaginant, (vaginans) the lower part of the leaf, forming a sheath to the stem.
Whirled, (verticillatum) surrounding the stem like the radii of a wheel.
Inflexed, (infiexum) bending upwards towards the stem.
From the variety of their forms and surface they take the following names.
Scymeter-shaped (acinaciformej one edge convex and sharp, the other straiter and
Acerose, (acerosum) surrounded at the base by chaffy squammae, as in Cedar.
Pointed, ( acuminatum J terminating in a long tapering point, as in Spanish Dagger,
plate 2. fig. 53.
Acute, (acutum) terminating in an acute angle, as in Indian Arrow Root, and Indian
Shot, plate 4, figs. 1 and 2,
Aggregate, (aggregate) so regularly composed that a leaf cannot be taken away with-
out destroying the uniformity of the whole, as Houseleek.
Blistered, (bultatum) when the parenchymatous substance rises higher than the veins,
as in Clary, plate 4. fig. 4.
Ciliated, (ciliatum) whose margin is finally edged with hairs, as in American Live
for ever. '
Notched, (crenatum) bluntly notched with angles inclining towards neither extremity,
sometimes with segments of small circles, as Wild Sage, plate 9, fig. 4.
Undulated, fcrispumj from the margin of the leaf being too long for the disk.
Toothed, (dentatum) diverging remote points on the margin, as Vervain, plate 4^
Eroded, ferosumj when the margin appears gnawed or bitten.
Gibbous, fgibbum) when the intermediate pulp renders both sides convex.
Lineare (lineare) straight, narrow and the sides nearly parallel, as in Wild Worm-
Nervous, (nervosum) having nerves or vessels, extending themselves from the base to
the apex without branching out, as in Cinnamon, plate 7, fig. 5.
Palmated, (palmatum) divided in several parts beyond the middle, as the Bread Fruit,
plate 2, fig. 38.
Serrated, (serratum) notched with teeth like a saw, inclining to the apex, or top of the
leaf, as in Jack in a Box, plate 9> fig. S.
Spatulated, (spatulatum) roundish at the top, but lengthened by a narrower base in a
form of a Spatula, as in Calabash, plate 8, fig. 4.
Spinose, (spinosum) having strong sharp prickles, as Mexican Poppy, plate 9, fig. 1.
Tomentose, (tomentosum) covered with numerous white hairs, closely matted.
Venous, (venosum) whose veins branch and spread over the whole surface of the leaf.
Stinging, furensj burning, as Nettle. Wrinkled or plaited, Plicated, fplicatumj as Sea
Woolly, (villosum) downy, covered with distinct soft hairs.
Lanceolated, (lanceolatum) oblong, gradually tapering towards each point, as Bastard
Ipecacuanha, plate 7, fig 1.
Rooting, (radicans) as the Aloe, Squill, &c. which will vegetate.
Compound leaves are such whose footstalks are terminated by more than one expan-
sion. The principal distinctions are,
Articulated, ( articulatum J when one leaf grows from the extremity of another, as in
Prickly Pear, plate 1, fig. 25.
Digitated, (digitatum) a number of small leaves connected to the extremity of a foot-
stalk, like Radii, as in Horse Chesnut.
Pedated, (pedatum) when the footstalk divides into two and connects the leaflets on
the interior sides only as in Passion flower.
Pinnated, (pinnatum) when many leaflets are connected or grow on each side of a com-
mon footstalk, as in Barbadoes Pride, plate 7» %• 7-
Binate, fbinatum) having two leaflets on one stalk, as in Jeflersonia Binata.
Abrupt, (abruptum) when the same terminates abrupt or without a leaflet, as in
Tamarind, plate 5, fig, 1.
Ternate, (ternatum) having three leaflets, as in Strawberry.
Interrupt, (interruptumj when the leaflets are alternately less.
Doubly Pinnated, (bipinnatum decompositumj.
Trebly Pinnated, ftripinnatum supra decompositumj .
Fronds (frondesj expresses leaves consisting of several other leaves and forming the
whole of the plant ; as is the casein the fern kind, in which the fructification being on the
back of the leaves, the single leaf makes the whole plant. In this case it is not called
Folium but Frons.
The other parts usually attendant on the stalk, are called by Linnaeus
SUPPORTS, (Fulcra, from Fulcrum, a prop) and are calculated either to assist the
plant in its growth, or to defend it from injuries. Of these he enumerates seven different
Bracts, fbractca) leaves growing with the flower, and usually differing greatly in shape
and colour, as in Chain Cotton, plate 8, fig. 1.
Hairiness, (pubes) all kinds of hairiness, whether fine or coarse, whether terminating in
a sharp point or viscid globule, as in Egg Fruit.
Petiole, (petiolus) the footstalk of a leaf, which it supports without any flower.
Peduncle, fpedunculusj the footstalk of a flower.
Stipules, ( stipules J from a-luty, stupe, two small leaves usually placed in pairs at the joints,
mostly of leguminous plants, also in the Tulip Tree, the Peach, &c.
Tendril, (cirrus) a clasper, by which the plant fastens, itself to any other body, as in
Winged Pea, Granadilla, Grape, Ivy, and many Cucubitaceous plants.
The following are termed ARMS, (arma)
Prickles, (aculea) which are superficially fixed only in the rind.
Forks, (furcae) when several grow together ■; they are called bifid, as in Horned Acacia,
trifid, as in Honey Locust, &c.
Thorns, (spina) rigid prickles growing from the woody part, as in Nephritic Tree 3
plate 9, fig. 6. Orange Tree, Aloe, Thistle, plate 9, fig. 1. and Thorn Apple.
Stings, (stimuli) are the pipes of a small bag furnished with a venomous fluid.
Glands, (glndulcp) in different forms, are found in many plants, as Cassada, Oil-nut,
Gum Arabic and Mountain Ebony.
INFLORESCENCE, is the mode in which plants flower; the principal of which are,
Whirl, (verticillus) the flowers disposed circularly at each joint of the stem, having
very short peduncles or footstalks, as in Mint or Horehound.
Spike, (spica) ranged alternately, or all round a simple stalk, as in Wheat or Mullein.
Bunch, (racemus) each flower furnished with a short proper footstalk proceeding as
lateral branches from the common one, as in Grapes or Pokeweed.
Panicle, (panicula) disposed on footstalks, variously subdivided, as in Guinea Grass.
Thyrse, (thyrsus) a panicle, contracted into an oval or egg-shaped form, as in Lilac
or Horse Chesnut.
Umbel, (umbella,) footstalks proceeding from a common centre and rising to an equal
length, so as to form an even or round surface at top, as in Wild Sage, plate 9, fig. 4,
in Parsley, Ginseng.
Cyme, (cyma) the footstalks proceeding from a common centre, and rising to the same
heighth, but the secondary footstalks irregularly disposed, as in Elder and Dogwood.
Corymbe, (corymbus) the partial flower stalks produced along the common stalk on
both sides, and though of unequal length, rising to the same heighth.
Head, (capitulum) a mode of inflorescence in which many flowers are collected at
the summit of the footstalk, as in Bachelor's Button.
Bunch, (fasiciilus) the peduncles erect, parallel, placed close, and equal in height,
as in Sweet William, Globe Amaranthus.
ON THE CLASSES AND ORDERS OF PLANTS.
A CLASS is the first and highest division of every system. The classic character is
constituted from a single circumstance, as the words in a dictionary are arranged by a
single initial letter ; this one circumstance must be possessed equally by every plant ad-
mitted into the class, how different soever they may be in other respects. Linnaeus has
made choice of the Stamens, and has founded his classes on their number and situation,
and his System, or mode of arrangement, (though not entirely exempt from imper-
fections) has now been so generally received and adopted, that, it has nearly su-
perseded all the rest, and his language become the universal language of Botany. lie
has divided the vegetable kingdom into twenty-four classes. The first ten, 1 — 10 ;
include plants in whose flowers both Stamens and Pistils are found, (thence called Her-
maphrodite) in which the stamens are neither united nor unequal in height when at
maturity. These are therefore simply distinguished from each other by the number oi>'
stamens in each flower, and are compounded of the Greek numerals f*owf> mones..
one, ft;, dis, two, fpets, treis, three, tsa-a-apss, tessares, four, tevte, pente, five, s£, <?a-, six, «rr«,
e/><«, seven, oura, okta, eight, s^a* ennea, nine, &xa, efe&«, ten, and the Greek word eanjp 9
aner, a Male, joined to them, to signify one Male, or Stamen, two Stamens, three Sta-
mens, &c. as far as ten Stamens. 1. Monandria, 2. Diandria, 3. Triandria, 4. Tetran-
dria, 5. Pentandria, 6. Hexandria, 7. Heptandria, 8. Octandria, 9. Enneandria, 10.
11. Dodecandria, from SwSem, dodeca, twelve, and ayyp, aner, a Male, Hermaphrodite
flowers having from twelve to nineteen Stamens, fixed to the receptacle.
12. Icosandria, from ejKotr;, eikosi, twenty, and a-vfjp, aner, a male, hermaphrodite flowers,
having twenty Stamens and upwards, inserted into the calyx.
13. Polyandria, from itoxvg, polus, many, and aveg, aner, a male, hermaphrodite flowers
having from twenty to a thousand Stamens, inserted into the receptacle.
14. Didynamia, from ft;, dis, double, and ftjvap;, dunamis, power, hermaphrodite
flowers having four Stamens, two long and two short.
15. Tetradynamia, from mo-crapes, tessares, four and Suva^s^ dunamis, power, herma-
phrodite flowers having six Stamens, four long and two short.
16. Monadelphia, from povos, monos, one, and a.hx<pog, adelphos, a brother, hermaphrodite
flowers having the Stamens united by their filaments into one body or brotherhood.
17- Diadelphia, from ft;, dis, two, and aft-xpo;, adelphos, a brother, hermaphrodite
flowers having the Stamens united by their filaments into two bodies.
18. Polyadelphia, from iro\v;, polus, many, and a$s\<pos, adelphos, a brother, hermaphrodite
flowers having the Stamens united by their filaments into three or more bodies.
19. Syngenesia, from <rw, sun, together, and ysvsa-is, genesis, generation, hermaphrodite
flowers having their Stamens united by their anthers (seldom by their filaments), into a
20. Gynandria, from yws, gune, a female, and avsp, aner, a male, hermaphrodite flowers
having the Stamens sitting on the pistillum, or on an elongated receptacle.
21. Monaecia, from povos, monos, one, and owa, oikia, a house. Male and female
flowers on the same plant.
22. Diaecia, from ft;, dis, two, and omot, oikia. a house. The male flowers produced
on a separate plant from the female, or the Stamens growing on one plant, and the Pistil
23. Polygamia, from voXvc, polus, many, and ya.uo$, gamos, marriage, hermaphrodite
and also male or female flowers on the same plant.
24. Cryptogamia, from Kpvittos, cryptos, hidden, and yxpos, gamos, marriage, the fructi-
fication hidden within the fruit, produced in some unusual manner, or no visible
The first 20 Classes, are hermaphrodite flowers, or having Stamens and Pistil in one
flower. The first 11, depend on number ; only the 12th and 13th Classes, depend on
number and insertion; the 14th and 15th on number and equality ; the 16th, ;7th, 18th,
and 10th on connection ; the 20th on insertion only ; the 21st, 22nd and 23rd on situa-
tion ; and the 24th on absence.
An ORDER is the second division in the system, and in the first thirteen Classes
from Monandria to Polyandria, is denominated from the number of Pistils; the greek
numerals povo;, monos, kg, din, fguf, treis, &c. are compounded with the word ywy, gune,
a female, forming the terms Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia and so on to Polyginia, one,
two, three, and so on to many Pistils. In numbering the Pistils, count from the bottom
of the styles ; but if the styles are wanting, the calculation is made from the numbers of
The 14th Class Didynamia, has the following orders,
Gymnospermia, from yvpvos, gumnos, naked, and <nre^fMs, spermos, a seed, having the
seeds naked, and contained in the bottom of the Calyx.
Angiospermia, from avyto^ angios, a covering, and (rireppos, spermos, a seed, having the
seeds covered or contained in a pericarp.
The 15th Class Tetradynamia, contains two orders,
Siliculosa, seeds in a small, short, or round pod,
Siliquosa, seeds in a long slender pod.
The 16th, 17th and 18th Classes, Monadelphia, Diadelphia and Polyadelphia, take
the names of their orders from the number of stamens, as, Pentandria, Decandria, Poly-
andria, &c. according to their number.
The 19th Class, Syngenesia, contains six orders, viz.
1. Polygamia equalis, consists of many florets or little flowers, all of which have both
Stamens and a Pistil. It is called aequalis or equal because the Polygamy is equal over
the whole flower.
2. Polygamia Superflua ; the hermaphrodite flowers in the centre producing perfect
seed, the female flowers likewise in the circumference producing perfect seed. It is
called Superflua, or Superfluous, as perfect seed is capable of being produced by the
hermaphrodite flowers in the centre without the concurrence of the female flowers in the
3. Polygamia Frustranea, when the hermaphrodite flowers in the centre produce perfect
seed, but the flowers which form the circumference produce no perfect seed. It is there-'
fore called frustranea, as the flowers in the circumference appear to answer no purpose in
the production of the seed.
4. Polygamia Necessaria, when the hermaphrodite flowers in the centre produce no
seed ; but the female flowers in the circumference produce perfect seed. It obtains the
name of necessaria, from the flowers in the circumference being Necessary to the produc-
tion of perfect seed.
5. Polygamia Segregata, when the florets are furnished with partial calices or cups,
inclosed within one common calyx. It is called Segregata, the florets being separated
from one another by the partial calices.
6. Polygamia Monogamia contains flowers which are simple and no way compounded ;
which is implied by the term Monogamia.
The 20th Class, Gynandria, takes the names of its orders from the number of the Sta-
mens, as Diandria, Triandria, Pentandria, &c.
The 21st Class, Monaecia, takes its first eight orders from the numbers of the Sta-
mens, and has also three other orders, Monadelphia, Filaments united, Syngenesia, An-
thers united, and Gynandria Stamens, growing out of the Pistil.
The 22nd Class, Diaecia, takes the names of ten orders from the number of Stamens,
has also four other orders, Monadelphia, Polyadelphia, Syngenesia, and Gynandria ; which
terms have already been explained.
The 23rd Class, Polygamia, contains three orders, Monaecia and Diaecia already ex-
plained, and Triascia, which signifies Hermaphrodite, male and female flowers growing
separately on three distinct plants of the same species, as in Fig-tree, (Ficus).
The 24th Class, Cryptogamia, contains four orders,* — the Ferns, (Filices), the Mos-
ses, (MusciJ, the Sea Weeds, (AlgceJ, and the Mushrooms or Funguses, (Fungi).
The further divisions of Plants are into genera and species, which gives them
their generic and specific names. And also a further division, called a variety, which,
however, is generally more regarded by Florists than Botanists, as it is frequently the
effect of accident or culture, but may be produced by the application of ripe Pollen of
different flowers to the stigma of others.
NATURAL METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION.
fSo called in Contradistinction to the Artificial or Sexual Method ) , arranges
Plants according to their Appearance, Virtues and Uses, conform-
ably to the affinities established by Nature, and is highly
valuable, useful and interesting.
Order 1. Palmce, Palms, are perennial, of the Shrub or tree kind with simple stems,
bearing fronds, or fan leaved ; and varying in height from two to two hundred feet. They
generally have a branched spathe or sheath called a Spadix, as in Abbay, plate 2, fig. 55,
and bear a fruit of the berry or nut kind, fit for food. The lofty are properly palms, as
Cocoa Nut, plate 2, fig. 42, and the low, Palmetos, as Thatch, plate 2, fig. 51.
2. Piperita, (from Piper, Pepper), are perennial and mostly herbaceous, the roots when
fresh, acrid, and the general character of the plants, astringent, as Dumb Cane, Arum,
and Indian Betel.
3. Calamarice, (Reed like), the bottom of the leaf where it embraces the stalk undi-
vided, example Adrue, (Cyperus), plate 1, fig. 10, and the mode of flowering generally a
spike, their virtues and uses nearly the same as the following,
4. Gramina, (Grasses), herbaceous plants, sometimes creeping, at others upright,
with fibrous roots mostly contained in Class Triandria Ord Digynia. All these plants are
wholesome and valuable food, as Guinea Grass, plate 1, fig. 8. Bahama Grass, fig. 6.
Scotch Grass, fig. 9, and Sugar Cane, fig. 5, also Indian Corn, plate 5, fig. 37, and
Guinea Corn, fig. 47.
5. Tripetaloidce, (Three Petalled), nearly allied to the Grasses, as Arrowhead and
6. Ensatce) (Sword Shaped), a beautiful family of herbs, allied to the Liliaceous
plants with fleshy roots and simple stalks, as Saffron and Flower de Luce.
7. Orchidece, (from Orchis), plants with fleshy knobbed roots, leaves spathaceous,
flowers produced in a spike or panicle ; plants of this order, are generally considered
Strong Aphrodisiacs, Example Vanilla, plate 3, fig. 45, and Bee Orchis, Ophrys.
8. ScitaminecBi (from Scitamentum agreeable food), beautiful plants, natives of Tropi-
cal Climates, and furnishing exquisite fruits, some have a hot pungent taste, and the
roots of many are resinous, example Indian Shot, plate 1, fig 1. Arrow root, plate 2
fig 1. Plantain Tree, plate 2, fig. 49.
9. Spathacece, (Sheath like). The flowers protruded from a sheath, as in Red Lily,
plate 1, fig. ]6, and Oyster Plant, fig. 17.
10. Coronarice, (Crowned). Herbaceous plants with fleshy roots, (without a stem in
some) the flowers seated on the top of the flower stalk ; the roots generally innocent
except such as have a heavy nauseous smell. Example of this order, American Aloe,
plate 1, fig. 15, Pine Apple, fig. 14.
11. Sarmentoste, (Shooting stemmed). Plants with climbing stems and branches, sup-
porting themselves on neighbouring bodies, as Velvet Leaf and Yams, plate 2, fig. 45.
12. Holeracece, (Pot Herbs). Plants used for the table, and in domestic ceconomy,
and the fruit esculent, as Cashew Nut, plate 1, fig. 21. Beet, Cinnamon, plate 1, fig.
18. Colilu, plate 2. fig. 39. Those used for seasoning, may be called Condiments,
13. Succulenta, (Succulent), flat, fleshy and juicy plants, of which the greater part, are
evergreen. In their qualities astringent and refreshing, as Melon Thistle, plate 1, fig.
23. Torch Thistle, fig. 24. Cochineal plant, fig. 25. Hydrangea.
14. Gruinales, (from Grus, a Crane). Geraniums Cranes Bill, and other plants
nearly similar, as Flax and Wood Sorrell.
15. Inwndatee, (growing in the water), aquatic and herbaceous plants, as Pondweed,
Lily of Lake Champlain.
16. Calicijlorce, plants having the stamens inserted into the Calyx, of the Shrub and
Tree kind, and generally astringent, as in Wild Olive, Eleagnus.
17- Calycanthemce, (from Calyx and av9oj, anthos, a flower), having the Corolla and
Stamina inserted in the Calyx ; these plants also are frequently of an astringent quality,
as American Wild Gooseberry, and Tree Primrose.
18. Bicornes, (Two Horned). Plants in which the anthers have the appearance of
two horns, of the shrub and tree kind, and possessing astringent qualities, example
American Honey-suckle, Bilberries, Mangostan, Forbidden Fruit, plate 2, fig. 35. and
Indian Date Plum.
19. HesperidecB, (Golden Fruited). Plants of the shrub and tree kind mostly ever-
green, and bearing esculent berries, as Guava, Rose Apple, and Pimento, plate 2, fig. 46.
20. Rotacece^ (Wheel- shaped), the petal in the shape of a wheel and no tube, as Pim»
pernell and Gentian.
21. Precia, (Early), plants that flower early, as Primrose and Sow Bread.
22. Carophyllatte, (from the Genus Carophyllus). The plants of this order are
innocent, have bitter seeds, attenuating and detersive, Examples Carnation, Pink, and
23. Trihilatce, (Three-eyed), plants with three seeds marked distinctly with a hilum
or eye, as Barbadoes cherry, Chaw Stick, and Maple.
24. Corydales, (Helmeted), from Kopvs, corus, a helmet. Plants with irregular Corols,
somewhat resembling a helmet, as Balsamine, Fumatory.
25. Putaminea, (Hard Shelled), plants having a fleshy seed vessel covered with a
woody shell, as Calabash Tree, plate 2, fig. 30. Garlick Pear.
26. Multisiliqute, (Many Podded), or rather having many seed vessels of the Capsular
kind, and numerous seeds. The qualities of some, are Acrid and Purgative, example
Pheasants Eye, and Virgins Bower.
27. Rhcedea, (from Rhaeas Red Poppy), plants emitting a milky juice, and of a nar-
cotic quality, but externally applied, corrosive, as Mexican Poppy, plate 9, fig. 1- also
May Apple and Puccoon.
28. Luridcs, (Lurid), plants whose appearance is ominous and indicating something
noxious in their quality, generally of the fifth Class, as Night shade, or of the masqued
tribe. The plants have an insipid taste, a nauseous smell, and are frequently poisonous,
example Thorn Apple, Mullein and Deadly Night shade.
29- Campanacea, (Bell-shaped), plants with bell-shaped flowers — many plants of this
order abound with a milky juice, and it furnishes valuable medicines and articles of
food, Ex. Quamoclit, American Lobelia, Jalap, Sweet Potatoe, plate 1, fig. 11.
30. Contortce, (Twisted), plants having petals bent to one side — generally abound in
milky juice, and are of a poisonous quality, as South Sea Rose, plate 5, fig. 5. Bastard
Ipecacuanha, plate 7, fig. I. Periwinkle and Red Jasmine.
31. Vepreculce (Briar-like), plants resembling a Bramble, as Leatherwood and Meze-
32. Papilionacece, (Butterfly-shaped), plants with papilionaceous flowers, of which
numerous family, are all leguminous plants. Many of these plants are fit for food ; some
emollient, vulnerary and astringent, examples Wild Liquorice, Dogwood Tree, Indigo,
Pea, Bean, &c.
33. Lomentacece, (Colouring), plants furnishing useful and beautiful tinctures used in
dying, as Brazil Wood, Logwood, Locust Tree, plate 7, fig. 8, Barbadoes Flower Fence,
fig. 7, Nickertree, &c.
34. Cucurbitacece, (Gourd-like), these plants generally have Tendrils and climb, as in
Granadilla, Antidote Coccoon, Tomatos, or run along the ground as Melons, plate 2,
35. Senticosa, (Bramble-like), resembling a bramble in their port and appearance, as
the Rose, Raspberry, and Strawberry, their fruits are cooling, leaves vulnerary, and
36. Pomacea, (from Pomum an Apple), plants having a pulpy eatable fruit, of the
Apple, Berry, or Cherry kind, frequently subacid, mostly shrubs and trees, as Medlar,
Apple, Currant, Hog Plum, plate 1, fig. 19» Pomegranate, Cherry, and Mango, plate 2,
37. Columniferce, (Column bearing), plants whose Stamens and Pistil, have the
appearance of a column or pillar in the middle of the flower, as plants of the Monadelphia
Class, and Mallow Tribe; the Silk Cotton, plate 2, fig. 32, and Musk-ochro furnish
beautiful specimens of this Order, the plants are mucilaginous and many excellent food,
as Common-ochro, other examples are Arnotto, Tea Tree, and Skrew Tree, Jews Mal-
low and Chocolate Nut, plate 2, fig. 34.
38. Tricoccce, (Three Berried), having a three cornered capsule with three berries and
three seeds, as Papaw, Carica, plate 2, fig. 50, Cassava, fig. 40, Oil Nut, fig. 44.
39- Siliquosce, (Podded), plants having a pod for their seed vessels, as Cabbage, Mus-
tard, Shepherds Purse.
40. Personates, (Masqued), having a gaping petal, as Sesame, or Oily Pulse, plate 9,
fig. 7, Trumpet Flower, Fiddle Wood, and Garden Balsam.
41. Asperifoli<z, (Rough Leaved), principally herbaceous plants, their virtues cordial,
vulnerary, and astringent, as Wild Clary, plate 4, fig. 4. Borrage, Cornfrey, &c.
42. Verticillatce, (Whorled), synonymous with Lip Flowers, herbaceous vegetables
with four seeds, and the flowers placed in Whorls along the branches. Their virtues
are fragrant, penetrating and cordial, as Jamaica Spikenard, Lavender, Orange Balm,
43. Dumosa, (Bushy), plants thickly and irregularly set with branches, as New Jer-
sey Tea, Naseberry and Star Apple, plate 1, fig. 12, and Mammee Apple, fig. 26. The
berries of some, are esculent, and the flowers of many, cathartic. This order contains
also Stafftree, Poison Sumach, Spindle Tree, Elder, &c.
44. Scpiarice, (Hedge plants), a beautiful tribe of woody plants proper for hedges, of
the shrub and tree kind, as Lilac, Horse Radish Tree, Logwood, Arabian Jasmine
Privet and Olive.
45. Umbellatee, (Umbelled), the plants of this order that grow in dry places are sudo-
rific and cordial, as Parsley, Coriander, Cummin and many plants of Class Pentandria,
Ord. Digynia, but growing in wet places they are poisonous, as Hemlock, Fools Pars-
46. Hcderacecc, (Ivy-like), creeping plants similar to ivy, parisitic or attaching them-
selvesto others, as Dodder, Wild Grape, Ginseng and Tooth Ache Tree.
47. Stellatce, (Starred), plants with two naked seeds, the leaves and flowers disposed
round the stem in form of a star, as in Coffee, plate 1, fig. 13, Wormgrass and Dog-
48. Aggregates, (Aggregate), a number of small flowers growing together in a bunch,
as Honeysuckle, Button Tree and Misletoc.
49- Composite, (Compound), as Dandelion, Scabious, &c.
50. Amentacece, (Amentaceous), catkin bearing plants, as Willow, "Walnut, Juniper,
Arbor Vitae, Sand Box Tree, &c.
51. Conifera, (Cone bearing), bearing the seeds in a cone or strobile, as Pitch-pine,
Cedar, and Yew: they generally produce a resinous or gummy substance, with an
agreeable smell, as Gum Sandarach ; and the Larches, Pines and Firs, also yield Tur-
52. Coadunatce, (Joined together), the seed vessels numerous and slightly attached
together. This order furnishes a beautiful collection of exotics with an aromatic smell
and bitter bark, as the Custard Apple, Tulip Tree and Magnolia.
53. Scabridce, (Rugged), plants whose leaves are much rougher than asperifoliae. These
plants are generally astringent, bitter and styptic, — example, Hemp, Contrayerva, plate 4,
fig. 3, Fig, Hop, Mulberry and Elm.
54. Miscellanea, (Miscellaneous), not connected by numerous relations, as Duck-meat*
Globe Amaranth, Pokeweed, Side Saddle Flower, and Mahogany.
55. Filices, (Ferns), plants bearing flower and fruits on the back of their leaves or
stalk ; their virtues are opening and attenuating.
56. Musci, (Mosses), are in general cathartic, and sometimes emetic.
57 > Algm, (Flags), plants whose root, leaf and stem are all one, as the Sea Weeds.
58. Fungi, (Mushrooms), either creeping or erect, and seldom branched ; externally used,
they are astringent and styptic ; as a food they should be used very cautiously, many being
59. Dabii Ordinis, (Doubtful), those plants which cannot be arranged under any of
the above orders.
Many plants of the order of Grasses produce sugar, and might thence be called Sac*
chariftrcc, as the Sugar Cane, Indian Corn, Guinea Corn ; the Acer Saccharum of
North America, also yields Sugar in considerable quantities.
Some plants also from the peculiarity of their fruit, which serves as a good substitute
for Bread, might with propriety be called Paniferce, as the Bread Fruit, plate 2, fig. 38,
the Plantain, fig. 49-
MEDICAL VIRTUES OF PLANTS.
I. GENERAL STIMULANTS.
Diffusible Stimulants. Narcotics, (narcotica), from vapHae, narkao, to render
torpid, diminish the action of the system, relieve pain, and procure sleep, as poppy,
thorn apple, tobacco, spotted hemlock, wild carrot, mountain laurel, broad-leaved
laurel, azalea, mountain tea, black henbane, wolf's bane, deadly nightshade, hemlock,
foxglove, Indian berries, camphor, prickly yellow wood, hops, ginseng, lettuce.
Antispasmodics, ( antispasmodic a J ', from avri, anti, against, and viragos, spasmos, a
spasm, allay pains and spasm, as Mexican tea, clary, asafaetida, skunk cabbage, Indian
turnip, camphor, cajeput, valerian, saffron, garlick.
Permanent Stimulants. Tonics, ftonica J y from rovow, to strengthen, primarily give
strength to the system, as Peruvian bark, Jamaica bark, English oak bark, white oak,
bitter wood, centaury, boneset, yellow root, columbo, gentian, parsley-leaved yellow
root, centry, frasera-caroliniensis, wild cherry tree, sassafras, persimmon, dogwood,
rose willow, horse chesnut, beaver tree, tulip tree, aspen, snake root, alder, halbert
weed, chamomile, wild horehound, buckthorn, poplar, macary bitter, bully tree, hops,
quassia, contrayerva, locust tree, shrub yellow root, yarrow.
Cordials, restore and invigorate, as tacamahaca, sweet gum, abanga, arnotto, caranna,
coffee, mint, adrue, saffron, avens, gout root.
Astringents, fastringentiaj, from astringo, to bind up, obviate or remove increased
evacuations, as tormentil, simarouba, purslane, banana, kino, rose, oaks, spotted gera-
nium, alum root, pomegranate, cashew, arrow root, pleurisy root, sea-side grape, guava,
logwood, black snake root, uva ursi, sweet fern, pippiseva, candleberry myrtle, black
alder, cancer root, agrimony, white ash, avens, water avens or canker root, choke cher-
ries, privet, rose, nickers, catechu, nutmeg, galls, rhubarb, red mangrove, narrow-leaved
sumach, Pensylvanian sumach, Virginian sumach, white willow, broad-leaved willow,
sept foil, blackberry root, red elm, cranes bill, Indian nut, mouse ear, copaiba, vanilla,
wild basil, shepherd's purse, horse tail, quince, strawberry, wild olive, plantain, popo-
nax, cashaw, self heal, woad, medlar, yarrow, myrtle, rice, loose strife, quinchamali,
sloes, spelt, five fingers, golden thread, wild gooseberry, briar rose, Jamaica dogwood,
flower gentle, wild and sea side grape, amaranth, marsh rosemary, snake weed, puff balls,
button wood, blood flower (asclepias currasavica), brasiletto, canker root.
Aromatics, ( aromal'ica ) ', stimulate the stomach, accelerate circulation and increase
heat; soalsodo carminatives, as cassia, lavender, turmeric, capsicum, caraguay, wild car-
rot, saffron, clove, cascarilla, orris, cowparsnep, cinnamon, white wood, dill, peppermint,
wormwood, lavender, anise, balm, ginger, cardamoms, kennebeck snake root, wild
allspice bush, camphor, sassafras, pimento, angelica, bayberry, chamomile, wild
cinnamon, citron, clove, collinsonia, coriander, penny royal, mace, nutmeg, balsam tree,
myrrh, pimento, black pepper, long pepper, rosemary, sage, cubebs, cummin, galangal,
clary, sweet marjoram, sweet flag, ginger, rosemary, alligator wood, cedar, peach.
Alexipharmics, falexipharmicaj, from aXe^eoo v.ai fa.ppa.Kov, alcxeo and pharmaco?i, are
antidotes to poison, as arrow root, caaco, blue scullcap, (hydrophobia), mangrove, plan-
tain and horehound, (for bite of rattle-snake), contrayerva, nhandiroba, nhambi, ginseng,
coccoon antidote, cedar, chickweed, sensitive plant, yellow prickle wood, velvet leaf,
olive, rattle-snake root, swallow-wort, borrage, marigold, rice, ghandiroba, halbert weed,
Spanish carnation, sassafras, sarsaparilla, China root, lignum vitae, burdock, indigo weed,
eryngo, navel wort, hares' ears, orange, vipers' grass, rattle-snake plantain, gub a gubs,
black snake root.
Alteratives, from altero, to alter, have a favourable effect on the constitution, without
sensible operation ; for examples see the above class and Tonics.
II. LOCAL STIMULANTS.
Emetics, femeticaj, from spew, emeo, to vomit, excite vomiting by their action on the
stomach, independent of the quantity taken, as ipecacuanha, mustard, Indian physic, wal-
nut, lobelia, emetic weed, blessed thistle, cassio berry tea, yellow Mexican thistle, lig-
num vitae, euphorbia, wild ginger, staff tree, thorough wort, puccoon, violet, bayberry,
Cathartics, (catharlicaj, from naSoupuj, kathairo t to purge, quicken or increase the eva-
cuation from the intestines, as jalap, aloes, oil nut, colocynth, common physic nut, French
physic nut, butter nut, black alder, sempervive, belly-ach weed, may apple, gamboge,
cassia marilandica, leather wood, seneca snake root, yaw weed, pleurisy root, nicker,
buckthorn, guaicum, scammony, black hellebore, dwarf elder, yellow water flag, attoo,
wild turnip, white hellebore, bind weed, wild cucumber, purging flax, white mechoacan.
Laxatives, (laxantia), from laxo, to relax, open and relax the bowels, without much
stimulation, as tamarind, Barbadoes flower fence, oil nut, cassia fistularis, cranberries,
daisy, bastard ipecacuanha, pleurisy root, wild rhubarb, wild senna, vervain, seneca rat-
tle snake root, guaicum, rhubarb, cassia marilandica, manna ash, plum tree, common
elder, violet, avens, Jamaica wild gooseberry, French sorrel.
Emenagogues, (etnenagogaj, from s/st/wwa, enunenia, the menses, and ayw, ago, to move
and promote the menstrua, as madder, erigeron Philadelphicum, wild carrot, cohush, Mex-
ican tea, nanny bark, green wheat, savine, ergot of rye, sow bread, mugwort, orach, mo-
ther-wort, camels hay, sweet marjoram, penny royal, ground pine, dandelion.
Diuretics, (diuretica), from Seipew, deireo, increase the urinary discharge, as
hemlock pine, flaxweed, milk wort, nephritic tree, penguins, blackberry, may weed'
ginten root, pepper grass, rest harrow, fumatory, madder, onion, elder, arnotto, cashew,
dwarf elder, samphire, turmeric, fennell, glass wort, toad flax, dragon root, wild lettuce,
larch, squill, winter cherries, wild sea asparagus, chervil, ox eye, dandelion, bear's whor-
tleberry, skunk cabbage, scurvy grass, copaiba, fox glove,. tobacco, lobelia syphylitica,
spiked saw wort, emetic weed, South Sea tea, Indian cucumber, skevish, locus tree, arti-
choke, fir, brake, buck bean, burdock, wild carrot, checker berry, nickers, pleurisy root,
blessed thistle, juniper cedar, parsley, berberries.
Diaphoretics, (diaphoretica), from liayopw, diaphoreo, to carry through, increase the
natural exhalation by the skin, as rattle-snake root, sarsaparilla, sassafras, angelica, catnep,
centaury, payco herba, lignum vitae, water eryngo, seneca snake root, boneset, pleurisy
root, contrayerva, wild sage, silk cotton, deviPs bit, tooth-ach tree, millet.
Sialagogues, (sialagoga), from naxo;, sialos, saliva, and ayw, ago, to force, increase the
quantity of the salivary discharge, as hemlock, camphor, seneca snake root, tooth-ach
tree, tobacco, prickly yellow wood, payco coatinga, pepper, squills.
Expectorants (expectorantia)* from expectant, to discharge from the breast, promote
rejection of mucus from the lungs, as pine ivory, maidenhair, skunk cabbage, garlic, hys-
sop, balsam of Peru, balsam of tolu, cross wort, horseradish, elecampane, tobacco, rattle-
snake root, puccoon, squill, benzoin, coltsfoot, slippery elm, arbor vitoe, wake robin,
daisy, cotton, hemp, ground ivy, orris, jujubes, opoponax, mullein, laurel-leaved tulip
tree, oily pulse, velvet leaf, horehound, currants.
Errhines, (errhina), from ev, in, and ^v, rin, the nose, promote a discharge of mucous
or serous fluid from the nostrils, as asarabacca, white hellebore, bear's foot, orris, andiome-
da, kalmia, spurge, asarum canadense, beet, betony, horse chesnut, sow bread, lily of the
valley, eyebright, canella, tobacco.
Epispastics, (epispastica), from «n, epi, and mw, spao, to draw, produce when applied
to the surface of the body, a serous or puriform discharge after inflaming the parts, as but-
ter nut, moose wood, daphne, crowfoot, poison vine, poison oak, vernice tree, cashew
nut, spurge laurel.
Rubefacients, (rubefacientia), from rubefacio, to make red, excite pain and inflamma-
tion, but discharge no fluid, as Indian turnip, pyrola umbellata, butter nut, fig, capsicum,
spruce fir, mustard, common nettle, currato, dumb cane, wild radish, mezereon.
Refrigerants, frefrigerantiaj, from refrigero, to cool, allay heat of the body.
Antacids, (antacidaj, from and and acida, obviate acidity in the stomach.
Antiseptics, (antiseptica), from avr*, anti, against, and o-ijirw, sepo, to corrupt, prevent
or stop putrefaction, as purslane, scurvy grass, sorrell, southernwood, aloes, chamomile,
nettle, canella, water cresses, indigo weed, pepper grass, columbo, myrrh, wood sorrell,
snake weed, marsh rosemary, berberries, coffee, angustura, wormwood, orange, lemon,
Spanish oak, red mountain oak, wild cherry tree, sassafras, persimmon, dogwood, rose
willow, horse chesnut, beaver tree, tulip tree, bitterwood, contrayerva.
Lithonthriptics, ( lithonthriptica ) , from \tkv, lithon, a stone, and dpuirtw, thrupto,
to break, dissolve urinary culculi, or antilithics, which prevent the formation of
them, as nephritic tree, onion, horsemint, Jamaica spikenard, spiked saw wort, bears
whortleberry, uva ursi, wild potatoe, arsmart, hazel nut, Philadelphia flea bane, convol-
vulus panduratus, — see also Diuretics.
Escharotics, (corrosivaj, from £<rxa.ca, eschara, a scar, dissolve and erode animal matter,
ascevadilla, vegetable caustic of Yucatan, garden spurge, manchineel, sundew, celandine,
Antivenereals, (antisyphilitica), from ante and syphilis, remove syphilitic affections,
as lime roots, majoe, nickers, sassafras, wild cherry, rose willow, lobelia syphilitica, sene-
ca snake root, may apple, crowfoot, poke weed, prickly ash, balsam rakaisiri, ceanothus,
china r ot, lignum vitae, spurge laurel, sarsaparilla, new Jersey tea.
Vulneraries (vulnerariaj, from vulnas a wound, cleanse, defend and heal up wounds,
as ribbed plantain, self heal, periwinkle, golden rod, spirit leaf, tway blade, caranna, cen-
taury, hemp agrimony, herb robert, hog gum, all-heal, hares' ears, slippery elm, Peruvian
balsam, wild tansey, velvet leaf, balm of gilead, thorough wax, goose grass, iron wort,
St. John's wort, Santa Maria, cerasee, Jamaica daisy.
Anthelmintics ( anthelmintica) , from avn, anti, and sk[uvs, elmins, a worm, as (anthel-
mia, worm-grass), destroy worms, and expel them, as aloes, wild ipecacuanha,
wild fig, devil's bit, poisonberry or bead tree, male fern, stinking weed, angelyn tree,
brakes, Carolina pink root, worm seed, or Jerusalem oak, (chenopodiumanthelminticum),
may apple, stinking hellebore, cardinal flower, ground pink, tobacco (as a cataplasm),
Virginian goats' rue, speckled alder, cabbage bark, penguins, cowhage, persimmon, ben-
zoin, mulberry, Virginian plum,
Demulcents ( demulcentia J ', from demalcens, softening, obviate the action of acrid and
stimulant matters, as Iceland moss, cocoa nuts, ochro, pindars, chocolate, oily grain or
benne, gum arabic, slippery elm, pistachio, salep, turnip, olive, maidenhair, almonds,
coltsfoot, tragacanth, oats, fig, liquorice, mallows, wheat, dates, white ash, fever bush,
white pond lily, sago, sugar cane, sun flower.
Diluents, (diluentia), from diluo, to dilute, increase the quantity of fluid in the
blood and system, as balm, barley, white horehound, gland flax or nuil, &c. &c.
Detergents, ( deter gentia), from deter go, to make clean, cleanse wounds and ulcers, as
cassada, canella, cerasee, cashew, marsh rosemary, red onion, wild parsnip, plantain, red
mountain oak, buckthorn, wild madder, water dock, rhus glabrum, tooth-ach tree, birch,
cats tail, clary, coral tree, ringworm bush, vervain, prickly yellow, French physic nut,
Indian turnip, wild carrot, savine, broad-leaved laurel, balsam pine, hemlock tree, Scotch
fir, black alder, wild cherry, currato, broomweed, soap berry, house leek, celandine, ar-
raganas, arrow head, basil.
Emollients, (emollientia), from emollio, to soften, render the solids more lax and flexi-
ble, as barley, beet, cabbage, oil nut, cotton tree, wild liquorice, banana, marsh mallow,
hyssop, galbanum, flax, mullein, melilot, chickweed, ochro, coltsfoot, sugar cane.
Discutient, (discutientiaj, from discutiens, medicines having power to repel, as pur-
slane, cancer root, turnip, palm, hemlock, bittersweet, white hellebore, angelica, bean,
borrage, burdock, chamomile, chickweed, love apple, sow bread, ben nut, ducks' meat,
spleenwort, water lily, arsmart, anchoaca, clove strife, cotton tree, garlic pear, sow bane,
oil nut, yellow pond lily of lake champlain, sumach, clown's heal-all.
Materials to put in Aromatic Baths,— red cedar, hemlock pine, broomweed, Spanish
elder, star wort, oak bark, piper amalago, bay, hog plum, wild sage, Jamaica spice wood,
vervain, clary, spikenard, &c. &c. &c.
CLASS I. MONANDRIA.
This class is the first in the Linnaean System, and comprises those plants
having only one stamen or anther. It contains a fine natural order of plants,
nearly allied to each other ; viz. the scitamineae, which comprehend a num-
ber of valuable aromatic, esculent and medicinal herbaceous vegetables, in
which both Indies are peculiarly rich.
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
To avoid prolixity and the taking up too much room by a particular descrip-
tion of each part of fructification in every plant, the notice of them will be
confined to the great leading distinctions of the classes and orders, familiar
descriptions and their virtues, uses and species. For those scientific Bota-
nists, however, who may have time and inclination for such full descriptions,
they are highly interesting and useful. The following may serve as an ex-
ample of a full botanical description of the parts of fructification.
Indian Arrow Root, Maranta Arundinacea. Calyx — a small erecto-
patent perianth, fixed upon the germ, divided into three segments of a lan-
ceolated figure. Corol — monopetalous and gaping, the tube oblong, crooked
and compressed ; the limb six parted, the alternate exterior segments ovated,
small and equal, one below, two above ; the two alternate lateral segments
large, roundish, and represent a lower lip, the upper one small. Stamen — a
single filament, similar to a segment of the corol. Anther — small and linear,
and fixed to the side of the filament. Germ — roundish beneath the recep-
tacle. Style — simple and as long as the corol, towards the top revolute.
Stigma — three-sided and hollowed. Pericarp — roundish, obscurely three-
sided, tivalvular, and contains a seed, single, ovated, hard and rough. Recep-
tacle — is proper. Named, from Bartolomeo, Maranta. For remainder of
description, see Explanation of Plate 4.
Indian Shot, Carina Indica. Greek kww, — hence our word cane. For
remainder of description see Explanation of Plate 4.
Narrow-leaved Ginger, Amomum Zinziber. N. O. Scitamineae ; Fr.
Gingembre ; Ital. Gingiovo ; Span. Gingibre, — also Zinziber; Gr. Apupri
from the Arabic ; nat. East Indies.
This valuable plant is herbaceous, having palmated tuberous roots, of a
yellowish brown outside, extremely white within, and acrid when fresh. It
creeps and spreads so as not easily to be eradicated, and renders the land
barren. The stalks are erect, reed-like, two feet high, with alternate lanceo-
late leaves, embracing the stalk at their base. The flowers are borne on
scapes, and arise from the sinuses of the squammae (which are reddish at the
points), small, of short duration and of a blue colour. Seed vessel, smooth,
with many oblong seeds.
The root is aromatic and carminative ; when preserved is an excellent sto-
machic, expels wind, and is very good in sea sickness. The expressed
juice with cocoa nut oil is good for an embrocation in rheumatism.
It is cultivated for sale in the West Indies. The roots being dug up, care-
fully scraped and dried, is the White Ginger; when scalded it is termed Black
Ginger The shifted syrup made in preserving ginger is made into a liquor
by fermentation, called cool drink, and commonly sold by the Negroes for five
pence per bottle. Dr. Barnaul says the Wild Ginger will cure cancers.
Ginger is preserved by soaking, boiling and scraping, and putting it in two
Broad-leaved ginger, a, zerumbet, is a native of the East Indies ; great
wild ginger, a, sylvestre, of Jamaica ; Japan ginger, a, mioza, of Japan ;
cardamom ginger, a, cardamomum, of the East Indies ; villose ginger, a,
villosum, of Cochin-China ; globose ginger, a, globosum, of China ; grains of
paradise, a, granum paradisi, of Guinea and the East Indies; galangale, a, ga-
langa, of China and Cochin-China ; given frequently for zedoary; tree ginger,
a, arboreum, Sumatra ; hirsute ginger, a, hirsutum, of the East Indies ;
sweet scented ginger, a, escapum, of Sierra Leone ; purple bracted ginger, a,
purpureum, of the East Indies. Of the above species the cardamom, grains
of paradise, and galangal, being valuable remedies, might bejntroduced into
the West Indies with advantage.
Spiked Costus. Costus Spicatus. N. O. Scitamineae ; Fr. Canne de Ri-
viere ; Ital. Costo ; Gr. Koavos; from the Arabic ; nat. West Indies.
This plant is herbaceous with an irregular knotty root, simple steins, al-
ternate lanceolate leaves, and flesh coloured flowers in a handsome spike ;
Seeds black. It is an aromatic pungent root, used in making cool drink,
and a decoction is used in the first stages of Syphilis by the Negroes. The
following are natives of the Indies.
Smooth-leaved, costus arabicus, both Indies ; hairy-leaved, c. speciosus.
East Indies ; glabrous, c. glabratus, West Indies ; Malacca, c. Malaccensis^
Ginger-leaved Hellenia, Hellenia Allughas.
Sweet-scented Garland Flower, Hedi/chium Coronarium. These are
natives of the East Indies, but have not yet been introduced into the West.
Spreading Hogweed, Boerhaavia Diffusa. N. O. Aggregate ; called
also Hogmeat ; nat. Jamaica; named after Dr. Boerhaave, of Leyden.
This useful plant is herbaceous and parasitic, many round and glossy
stalks rise from an oblong hard root, and branch out in every direction, rising
sometimes ten feet. The leaves are ovated, of a bright green, and reddish at
the edges, in pairs ; the flowers stand in the alae of the leaves, of a pale red
outside, and a deep purple within ; the stamen and style purple, anther yel-
low ; seed single, oblong, obtuse, and angular. It grows plentifully in Ja-
maica, especially about Spanish town, where it is made use of to feed hogs
who eat it greedily, whence it is called Hogweed. Dr. Barham calls it a
wild sort of Valerian, and says it is very cooling and emollient.
Upright hogweed, b. erecta, nat. both Indies ; clammy, b. viscosa, Peru ;
hirsute or scarlet, b. hirsuta, West Indies ; climbing, b. scandens, Jamaica ;
tetrandrous, b. tetrandra, Society Isles.
Jamaica Alpinia, Alpinia Occidentalis. N. O. Scitamineae ; nat. Ja-
maica. Named after Prosper Alpinus, a physician and botanist.
This plant is herbaceous, with fleshy branched roots, nearly similar to gin-
ger ; stem round and smooth with alternate lanceolate leaves, sheathing the
stalk at the base. Bracts of a blood red colour, as is the calyx ; the flower
white ; capsule roundish, obscurely trigonous ; seeds shining.
Alpinia Racemosa, is also a native of the West Indies.
Long-rooted Turmeric, Curcuma Longa. N. O. Scitamineae; Ital.
Turtumaglio ; Span. Curcuma ; nat. Cochin -China ; named from the Ara-
bic Curcum ; also called Mangel Kaa.
This plant is herbaceous, has a large oval bulbous root, with annu-
lar protuberances ; within solid, of a fine yellow colour, fragrant smell,
and rather acrid taste ; it creeps, and is increased by smaller bulbs. The leaves
arelarge, firm, oval, vaginant and pointed; the flower stalks rise separate, round
and succulent, naked below, and the flowers formed into a thick spike above,
protruded from the squamma? of the calyx; of a yellowish colour, which soon
fall off; seed vessel a roundish trivalvular capsule, each cell containing
It grows freely in the West Indies, the root is taken up as soon as th©
flowering stalks fade, cut in pieces and dried in the sun. Its medical virtues
are attenuant and deobstruent, of use in obstructions in the viscera and jaun-
dice. It dies a fine yellow colour, and is a principal and wholesome ingredi-
ent in the curry powder made in the West Indies. It is applied as a cata-
plasm with wild rosemary leaves for those swellings of the abdomen so
common among the Negroes, arising from Amenorrhagia. The following
species are natives of the East Indies.
Round-rooted, c. rotunda, East Indies and China ; aromatic, c. aromatica,
ditto ; pale, c. pallida, ditto.
Tall Renealmia, Renealmia Exaltata. N. O. Scitamineae ; named from
Paul Reneaume, a physician, native of Surinam.
This plant grows to twenty feet in height, with an erect trunk which bears
a bunch of flowers ; the leaves are six feet long and lanceolated ; the fruit
is a fleshy esculent berry, and the seeds numerous. The following are na-
tives of the East Indies.
Drooping flowered, r. nutans ; upright flowered, r. calcarata.
Kjempferia Galanga, Officinal Galangale. N. O. Scitamineae ; Ital.
Cipero ; Span. Galanga ; nat. East Indies ; named from E. Kaempfer.
This plant is herbaceous, with bulbous palmate roots, leaves egg-shaped,
flower white with a violet spot in the middle, seeds many. The medical vir-
tues are aromatic, diaphoretic and alexipharmic. Broad-leaved, k. latifolia;
narrow-leaved, k. angustifolia ; round galangal, k. rotunda, are also natives
of the East Indies, and would thrive well in the West Indies.
Round-headed Globba, Globba Marantina. N. O. Scitamineae ; ma-
layan name ; nat. East Indies.
This piaut is somewhat similar to maranta. The species uviformis, bears
a fruit similar to grapes, which is sometimes eaten. There are also g. nutans,
g. japonica, g. purpurea, all natives of the East Indies.
Opera Girls Mantisia, JWantisia Saltatoria.
Woolly Phylidrum, Phylidrum Lanuginosum.
Are natives of the East Indies and China, but not yet introduced into the
Herbaceous Marsh Samphire, Salicornia Herbacea. From Sal, Salt
and Cornu a horn.
This valuable plant grows in great plenty in Jamaica, on the Salinas and
Marshes near the sea coast ; particularly about Port Henderson, Salt Island,
and Old Harbour ; and yields an alkali in great abundance, fit for making
soap ; there are many species natives of other climates ; of which most are
natives of Europe.
CLASS II. DIANDRIA.
This is the second class, comprising plants with two fruitful anthers, of
equal lengths and contains many fragrant plants of the natural order Sepiariae ;
and many others of the order Verticillatae ; which are very valuable aroma-
tic medicines, as sage rosemary, &c.
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Red Jasmine, Jasminum Officinale. N. O. Sepiariae ; Fr. Jasmin ;
Ital. Gelsomino ; Span. Jasmin ; from wv k«i iw W ; violet odour; nat. East
This beautiful and well known plant is common in the West Indies and
principally used for hedges in gardens and arbours ; a delightful perfume is
extracted from the flowers by the Spanish ladies, made into a consistence
with other balsams and worn about their persons. The following species also
grow freely in the West Indies ; Arabian jasmine, nyctanthes sambac ; yel-
low Indian jasmine, j. odoratissimum ; and many varieties with double flowers.
Common Privet, Ligustrum Vulgare. N. O. Sepiariae ; Fr. Troene ;
Ital. Ligustro ; Span. Altrena ; nat. West Indies ; the Ligustrum of Pliny.
This handsome shrub grows freely in the West Indies, and is a very ele-
gant specimen of hedge plants ; 1. Japonicum, and 1. sinense, are natives of
Japan and China ; and the wax tree privet, 1. lucidum, of China.
European Olive, Olea Europea. N. O. Sepiariae ; Fr. Olivier; Ital
Ulivo ; Span. Olivo ; nat. South of Europe.
This valuable tree might be cultivated with advantage in the West Indies,
the fruit, and oil expressed from it is too well known to require a description.
There are many wild sorts in Jamaica, as the black olive or olive bark called in
Antigua, French oak, Bucida Buceras, a genus of the tenth class, first order,
called by the French Grignon, is a valuable timber tree and the bark is very
restringent and styptic.
There are seven species of the Olive and many varieties.
Fringe Tree, or Snow Flower, Chionanthus Compacta. N. O. Sepiariae;
nat. West Indies ; from x i(UV t chion, snow, and a.^, anthos, a flower.
This handsome tree grows about twelve feet in height, the leaves are en-
tire and shining, about six inches long. The flowers are of a snowy white-
ness, divided into several long and narrow segments. The fruit is a one
celled drupe. C. axillaris is a native of the East Indies.
Wave-leaved Trumpet Flower, Bignonia Longissima. N. O. Persona-
tee ; Fr. Chene noir ; nat. West Indies ; named after Abbe Bignon.
This is a beautiful tree thirty feet high and more, having entire waved
leaves. The Inflorescence is a panicled Raceme with numerous sweet whi-
tish flowers ; Siliques slender, roundish and two feet long. Thrives in the
Savannahs in Jamaica and is considered an excellent timber tree. B. unguis
is also a native of the West Indies and supports itself by tendrils, having
axillary personated flowers.
Hairy-leaved Trumpet Flower, B. Pentaphylla, has an upright stem, and
pale blue flowers, the Siliques crooked.
White Wood, B. Leneoxylon, grows to a large tree, the wood of which is
excellent hard timber called White Fiddle Wood, the flowers are white and
soon fall off, the pod is six inches long, the juice and tender buds are said to be
an antidote to Manchineel poison. There are in all twenty-seven species of
this tree most of which are natives of warm climates.
Balsam Herb, Justicia Comata vel Dianthera Comata. N. O. Persona-
tae ; nat. Jamaica ; named from James Justice, Esq.
This plant is very common in Jamaica, and rises about 1§ feet high, erect,
branched angularly, with lanceolate leaves and small pale blue flowers, ovate
capsule containing four round flatted seeds. It grows plentifully in the low
lands of Jamaica, and the juice, or distilled water, is good for sore eyes. The
decoction made into syrup is said by Jacquin to be demulcent and pectoral,
and cures coughs. There are twelve species of Dianthera mostly natives of
the East and West Indies.
Vervain and Wild Clary. See Explanation of Plate 4. Add. Vervain.
The dried leaves, powdered, are used to sprinkle on ulcers.
Thyme-leaved Hedge Hyssop, Gratiola JVLonnieria, from gratia. N. O.
Person ata? : nat. both Indies. A small, creeping, spreading plant, eight
inches in length, with minute blue flowers. The Indians eat this herb in their
soups to refresh them. Creeping Gratiola, G. Repens, is also a native of
Jamaica, and there are ten other species mostly natives of the East Indies.
ORDER III. TRIGYNIA.
Rough-leaved Pepper, Piper Amalago. N. O. Piperita? ; t&tepi, Peperi
of Theophrast & Diosc : nat. Jamaica. Is a shrub eight feet high, leaves al-
ternate, acuminate and nerved, flowers clustered, berries sessile, containing
a single seed, small, black, and pungent. It grows commonly on hilly si-
tuations ; taste and flavour same as the black pepper of the East Indies ; should
be picked (as Pimento) when full grown and before it ripens.
The leaves and young shoots boiled are a favourite remedy with the
negroes for discutient baths and fomentations, and pounded, are applied to
foul ulcers. A slight decoction of the root is sudorific, diaphoretic, and de-
obstruent, in obstructions from lentor or inertion. It is also called Pepper
Elder, and the Piper Aduncum, Spanish Elder ; Black Pepper, P. Nigrum,
and Betle. P. Betle, are natives of the East, and might probably be
cultivated in the West Indies. There are in all sixty species of Piper, of
which thirty are natives of Jamaica. Ulloa asserts that the Coca, orKoka, of
Peru, is the same with the Betel. Jaborand, P. Reticulatum, is an antidote
against the poison of mushrooms and cassada.
Santa Maria Leaf, Piper Umbellatum. Is very common in the woods of
Jamaica, and grows about three feet high, the leaves large and round, the
footstalks embracing the stem. Piso says, the root is a warm, active remedy
against poisons, and that a syrup is good for colds and catarrhs. Barham
says, the leaves of racemosum malvaceum are cordated and soft, and relieve
the head-ach and gout, and the juice of the leaves cures burns.
CLASS TIT. TRIANDRIA.
This is the third class, and contains plants furnished with three stamens, com-
prising the useful and valuable plants of the Natural Order Gramina, under
"which head are found those species of grain fit for the food of man, as the oat,
rye, wheat, barley, and sugar-cane, and grasses for the food of cattle ; some of
the Natural Order Ensatae and others of the Carophyllatae.
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Entire-leaved Maiden Plum, Comocladia Integrifolia. N. O. Tere-
bintaceae Jussieu : nat. Jamaica. This tree grows about fifteen feet high,
with a small trunk, erect, dividing at the top into a few branches with pin-
nated leaves. The tree abounds with a watery sap, slightly glutinous, which
grows black in the air, the stain of which is not to be washed out.
The wood is hard and reddish, and it is commonly cut down to make pali-
sadoes and rails for fences. There are two other species natives of the West
Indies, C. Dentata and C. Ilicifolia.
Marti nico Flower de Luce, Iris Martinieensis, N. O. Ensatae : nat. of
Martinico and St. Lucia. This plant has a solid root and a roundish stem,
two feet high, and yellow flowers without scent. There are fifty-three spe-
cies, mostly natives of the cold climates of Europe and Asia, and the Cape
of Good Hope.
Plaited Mor/ea, Morcea PUcata. N. O. Ensatae: nat. Jamaica.
This plant has radical leaves from two to three feet long, flowers white and
spathaceous. It flowers the whole year, one flower coming out at a time at
four o'clock in the afternoon. There are seventeen species, mostly natives of
the Cape of Good Hope.
Adrue, or Anti-emetic Grass, Cyperus Articulatus. N. O. Calama-
riae. This rush has a tuberous, red, knobbed root, smelling like Calamus
Aromaticus. Stalk about three feet high, with transverse partitions, and at
the top chaffy brown panicles. It grows on the rills of the Savanna, near
Two Mile Wood in Jamaica, and in Egypt on the banks of the Nile. The
roots are cordial and diuretic, resisters of poison, and good in the first stages
of dropsy. The roots are also aromatic and stimulant, and may be used in
the place of Virginian snake root : it was much used in practice by the late
Dr. Brodbelt, of Spanish Town. The infusion is good in vomitings, fluxes,
&c. but its most valuable and surprising quality is its virtue in restraining
vomiting in fever, and relieving sickness of the stomach, which I have often
witnessed. It gives out its virtues to water in decoction, or warm infusion, to
be taken cold. The whole plant, cut or sliced, makes the strongest decoction.
A variety of the Adrue is used by the Indians, near Truxillo, as a cure for the
belly-ache. C. Minimus, C. Elegans, C. Odoratus, and C. Viscosus, are also
natives of Jamaica, and there are fifty-one other species mostly natives of the
East Indies ; among them is the C. Papyrus, of which paper is made.
Rough-spiked Cenchrus, Cenchrus Echinatus. N. O. Gramina : nat.
Jamaica. This is a very common grass in the pastures, and a wholesome
food for cattle. There are ten other species, of which two are natives of the
West and several of the East Indies.
Creeping Callisia, Callisia Repens. N. O. Ensatae : nat. West Indies.
A small, tender, creeping plant, with ovate acuminate leaves, and small
sessile, greenish flowers, growing three together. Is found in moist shady
Tamarind. See Explanation of Plate 5.
ORDER II. DIGYNIA.
Common Sugar Cane, Saccharum officinarum. N. O. Gramina : flat, both
Indies. This plant and its cultivation has been so long known in the West
Indies, that it will be needless to say much of it. There are several different
species cultivated in the Island, which suit the various soils and climates.
There are also varieties of this cane both as to size of the joints and colour ;
some being a yellowish white, and long jointed, others red and shorter joint-
ed, and another sort Elephantine, with the culm thick, and knots approxi-
mate. There is also the Ribbon cane, the culm of which is curiously striped
and variegated ; but not much esteemed. The Otaheite and Bourbon canes
are now very much cultivated, and found to be very productive. In pre-
paring the ground for planting, the plough is not yet used so much as it
might be, and one would suppose with the most beneficial effect. There are
ten other species. The virtues of sugar are attenuant, pectoral, vulnerary,
and in a high degree nutritious. Muscovado sugar, with Cocoa nut oil, is fatal
to worms. A species of wild cane in Jamaica makes an excellent pickle.
GRASSES. — Guinea Grass and Scotch Grass, Panicum. See Explana-
tion of Plate 5 The roots of the grasses in general make a diuretic decoction.
The following grasses are natives of Jamaica:
Fox-tail Grass, Alopecurus Indicus.
Barley-like Fox-tail Grass, Alopecurus Hordeiformis, is also an In-
dian grass, grows about a foot high, leaves flat and channelled : there are
six other species.
Ciliated Meadow Grass, Poa Ciliaris, grows six inches high, a slender
stalk, fine leaves, and downy head. Clammy Meadow Grass, Poa Glutiiiosa,
and there are sixty-nine other species, natives of all parts of the world.
Flat-stalked Bent Grass, Agrostis Complanata: also Purple Bent
Grass, A. Purpurascens, growing one foot and a half high, stalks round and
solid, small leaves, and a branched panicle. There are thirty-three other
Dotted Millet Grass, JWilium Punctatinn, grows in moist meadows, from
one to two feet high, broadish entire leaves, and upright, simple panicle.
Compressed Millet Grass, M. Compressum. Fingered, M. Digitatum, and
Panic, M. Paniceum : and there are in all eight other species.
Pea-flowered Melic Grass, Melica Papillonacea, is said by Sloan to
be a native of Jamaica. It has rodlike panicles. There are in all thirteen
Rye, Secale : Barley, Hordeum : Oat, Avena : and Wheat, Triticum,
are neither of them to be found in the West Indies : the grain there cultivated is
Indian and Guinea Corn ; but in North America they are all cultivated with
success, and in quantity far greater than the wants of the population, so that a
considerable part of their commerce consists of the exportation of flour. As
to their medical properties, an infusion of toasted wheat bread is useful in
febrile diseases, and is particularly useful in cholera morbus, which it has
been said to cure. A decoction of young green wheat is also a popular remedy
in America to remove suppression of the menses. Wheat starch is demulcent,
and useful for enemas in dysentery and diarrhoea, as also arrow root starch.
Decoctions of pearl barley, strained and acidulated, are eminently useful
in diseases of the kidneys and breast, and all inflammatory cases.
Rye is subject to a disease, called by the French, ergot, by the Americans
horned or spurred, and smutted rye, which renders the bread made of it very
unwholesome, and the grain is fatal to cattle and poultry. This substance has
been found by respectable American physicians to excite a specific action upon
the uterus, and to relax the contracted muscular fibres during parturition. In
lingering cases it speedily induces forcible pains and expedites delivery, but
care should be taken not to administer this powerful parturient in preterna-
tural presentations : the dose in powder is from five to ten, or fifteen grains ;
but it is more active in decoction, half a drachm of the powder being gently
boiled in half a pint of water, one third to be given every twenty minutes till
the pains are commenced. A large dose will excite nausea and vomiting.
A drachm in decoction has also removed amenorhaea.
ORDER III. TRIGYNIA.
Bamboo Cane, At undo B umbos. N. O. Gramina: nat. Both Indies ; Gr.
KaAa^oo- ; Kalamos.
This valuable plant grows freely in the West Indies and southern parts of
America. It rises about twenty feet high by river sides, and is well known.
It was used by the Spaniards inside the roofs of their houses; and a house in
which I resided in Spanish Town had such a roof, entire, which was supposed
to be upwards of two hundred years old. It is also used to make houses,
bridges, masts, wattled fences, boxes, cups, baskets, mats, and paper (by
bruising and steeping in water, and forming it into a paste). It is likewise
useful for fishing rods, and pipes to convey water, and the tops of the young
branches are pickled. In the cavities is found at certain seasons a white sub-
stance, called by the Arabians Tabasheer, and highly esteemed by them. The
decoction of the leaves and bark is cooling and emollient. A. Orientalis
furnishes the Turks with writing pens, and the stems of another species are
converted into tobacco pipes. There tire in all fourteen species of Arundo.
This plant belongs to Ord II. — Digyna, instead of Trigynia, p. 38, inserted
ORDER III. TRIGYNIA.
American Chickweed, Holosteum Cordatum. N. O. Carophyllei : nat.
Jamaica ; called also Alsines. This plant is creeping, leaves opposite and
heart-shaped, rises about ten inches from the ground: the birds feed on the
seeds ; and the fresh plant applied warm is cooling and resolutive ; two-sta-
mened. — H. Diandrum, also a native of Jamaica, is very small, and not com-
mon. There are three other species.
Another species of Alsine, Mollugo Verticillata, is also a native of Jamai-
ca. It spreads out six inches each way, and has seven leaves at a joint, in
the form of a star. Its virtues are cooling, like the purslanes. There are
five other species.
CLASS IV. TETRANDRIA.
This class contains plants with four stamens of uniform length, and com-
prises the natural order of Aggregate, and several of the Stellatae ; and also
has several plants possessing valuable medical properties.
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Slender Button Weed, Spermacoce Tenuior, called also Iron Grass.
N. O. Stellata?. This grows two feet and a half high, with stiff stalks, two
leaves at each joint, and smaller leaves in whirls ; the flowers are small, white
and sessile near the tops of the stalks. Rough-haired, thorny, and shaggy
Button Weed, S. Hirta, S. Spinosa, and S. Hispida, are natives of Jamaica;
and there are sixteen other species.
Three-flowered Iron Tree, Siderodendrum Triflorum: nat. West In-
dies. A tall branching tree with ovate lanceolate leaves, flower small, a red
colour without, and white within : the wood is very hard, like iron, whence its
Ash-leaved iEGYPHiLA, JEgyphila Martinicensis, nat. West Indies. N.
O. V i rices (Juss.)
A shrub six feet high, branches opposite, leaves ovate acuminate, flowers
white. Goats are fond of this plant JR. Elata, JR. Faetida, and JR. Trifida,
are all natives of Jamaica.
Callicarpa Ferruginea, and C. Reticulata are natives of Jamaica.
English Plantain, Plantago .Major. This will grow if cultivated care-
fully, and is in much esteem in Jamaica, as an excellent eye water is made
from the juice of its leaves ; and the water mixed with linseed oil, cures burns.
Sweet-scented Broom, Scoparia Dulcis. N. O. Personatae : nat. Ja-
maica. Fr. Balai doux ; Sp. Escobilla Menuda. This plant, grows about
three feet high, with small white flowers. It is vulnerary, and makes a cleans-
ing bath for children : the negroes make brooms of it. An infusion, or ex-
pressed juice, (three spoonfuls) is said to be good for disorders of the breast.
There are two other species.
Three-leaved Cissus, Cissus Acida. N. O. Hederaceae : nat. Jamaica.
This has a climbing succulent stalk, alternate leaves, thick sub-ovate sessile
leaflets, and black berry. The whole plant is acid. C. Sycioides and C. Tri-
foliata, are natives of Jamaica ; and there are twelve other species natives,
mostly of the East Indies.
Contrayerva. See Explanation of Plate VI. Fig. 4 ; but the plant there
figured and described is not the Dorstenia, but Aristolochia Odorata, of the
Class Gynandria, Order Hexandria. N. O. Sarmentaceae.
Bastard Iron Wood, Fagara Pterota. N. O. Dumosae : nat. Jamaica.
Rises about eight feet high, with pinnated leaves, and small white flowers in
double spikes : the wood is very hard. F. Emarginata rises twenty feet high,
the wood is white, solid, and in burning very odoriferous. F. Spinosa, and
F. Acuminata are also natives of Jamaica, and there are six other species.
Ammonia Sanguinolenta, is a native of Jamaica, and A. Latifolia is said
to be Brown's Isnardia, which he says is pretty common about the Ferry.
White and Yellow Sandal Wood, Santalum Album. N. O. Onagrae
(Juss ) ; nat. East Indies. This valuable tree grows plentifully in Malabar ;
in appearance it resembles a myrtle, and has the habit of the privet. It has
black berries which are eaten by the birds, and the tree when old acquires
great hardness, a yellow colour, and fragrant smell. It might doubtless be
introduced with great advantage into the West Indies.
Climbing Kivina, or Hoop Withe, Rivina Octandra. N. O. Holeraceae :
nat. West Indies. Fr. Lianne a baril. This plant climbs trees, and has long
flexile branches oblong acuminate leaves, and dark purple berries. In
a scarcity of hoops, the steins and branches make a good substitute. There
are three other species.
Great-flowered Dogwood, Cornus Florida. N. O. Stellatae. This
beautiful tree is well known in America. The flowers come out large and
white, edged with rose colour, in clusters of several together. The bark is
astringent and has long been employed in intermittent fevers, and a decoc-
tion cures horses of the Canada distemper. The berries in brandy make an
agreeable bitter, and a tea of the flowers is good for flatulent cholic. Rose
Willow, C. Sericea, is another species, the bark of which the Indians smoke
with their tobacco, and it is also used with success in intermittents. There
are in all twelve species.
ORDER II. DIGYNIA.
Dodder, Cusemla .Americana. N. O. Convolvuli (Jussieu); nat. West In-
dies. This is a parasitical plant, creeping and climbing over whole trees, and
destroys them, from which it is vulgarly called DeviPs-guts and Hell-weed.
There are in all three other species.
ORDER IV. TETRAGYNIA.
South Sea Tea, Ilex Vomitoria. N. O. Dumosae. A native of the South-
ern states of America. A decoction of the toasted leaves is a most powerful
diuretic, and in great esteem among the Indians, who call it black drink,
and permit only men to drink it. It is called by them Cussaena and Yaupon,
aud is the famous Paraguay tea of South America. The Indians come down
in tribes to the sea side to drink it, till it causes vomiting ; and some of them
consider it a specific for all diseases. It would grow very well in the West
Myginda Rhacoma and M. Latifolia are natives of Jamaica, but of no
particular use or virtue.
CLASS V. PENTANDRIA.
This class is immensely numerous. It contains the natural orders of As-
perifoliae, Luridae, Contortae, Umbellatae and Dumosae, and comprises plants
highly important to mankind, as valuable and powerful medicines, and some
esculent fruits and roots.
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Indian Turnsole, or Wild Clary, Heliotropium Indicum. See Expla-
nation of Plate IV. fig. 4. Wild Clary, instead of being a Salvia, is of this
genus, Heliotropium Indicum. There are 24 species in all. A decoction of
this species is diuretic.
Tournefortia, Tournefortia, named from J. P. Tournefort, the famous
botanist. N. O. Asperifoliae. There are eleven species, of which seven are
natives of Jamaica ; but I know of no particular virtues ascribed to them :
in future, when this is the case, the names and number of species only will
Annual Worm Grass, Spigelia Anthelmia. N. O. Stellatae ; nat Jamaica.
This valuable plant is well known and highly esteemed as a remedy for
worms. Boil two handfuls of the plant in 2 quarts of water to one ; to the
strained liquor add sugar and lime juice. Dose, to a full grown person, half
a pint every six or twelve hours, for three or four times, and then a cathar-
tic. The worms are discharged in great quantities, and it relieves fever and
convulsions ; but too large doses are narcotic. An injection with a little lau-
danum is also a useful form. It should not be given to children under two
years. There is another species, native of the Southern States of America,
called Perennial Worm Grass, or Indian Pink, S. Marilandica, a valuable
anthelmintic among the Indians, and is much used in America, in form of
the powdered root, in which it is also supposed febrifuge.
Smooth-flower Lisianthus. N. O. Rotacaeae. An elegant little plant.
Five species are natives of Jamaica and there are four others.
Climbing Leadwort, Plumbago Scanilens. Native of Jamaica. There
are in all seven species.
Sweet or Spanish Potatoes, Convolvulus Batatas. N. O. Campanaceae ;
nat. both Indies — from convolvo, to turn round. This valuable plant grows
freely in the West Indies and produces a number of roundish, esculent roots,
yellow inside and very sweet. The roots are a reddish brown outside, and
they are fine food boiled or baked. They are imported by sea into New
York from Carolina and considered a delicacy. The vines are good to feed
hogs and rabbits. The young* shoots boiled are also as good as spinach.
The growth of these potatoes, covering the ground with vines and leaves, it
is said, improves the soil.
Blue Bind Weed, Convolvulus Nil. This beautiful plant has heart-
shaped leaves, on long petioles, and climbs on the fences and trees. The
flowers are large and purple. Another species, C. Roseus, has large rose-
coloured flowers. Syrian Scamnjony, C. Scammonia, and Jalap, C. Jalapa,
both strong cathartics, might doubtless be cultivated to advantage in the
West Indies, and are said to have been found in the United States. C. Bra-
siliens : a decoction of the root is good in dropsy. There are in all 110 spe-
cies, very many of which are natives of the East and West Indies, several of
them yield an extract not inferior to scammony. Dr. Rush's celebrated
purgative in yellow fever, is said to have been twenty grains of jalap and ten
of calomel, which I have often experienced to be the most efficacious and safe
cathartic for adult negroes. Wild potatoe-vine, C. Panduratus, is supposed
to be the mechameck or wild rhubarb of the Indians : in Delaware the root
is called cussander. The root is also used, in Virginia, in cases of gravel,
and assists greatly the passing of calculi renales.
Indian Pink, Ipomcea Quamoclit. N. O. Campanacese ; nat. both Indies ;
also called Sweet William. This beautiful plant is a climber and has slender
stalks and numerous leaves very finely pinnated. The flowers come out in
constant succession from the side of the stalks on long peduncles, of a most
beautiful scarlet, small and thickly set, succeeded by four black seeds. Dr.
Barham says, the root in decoction is a strong cathartic. Scarlet Ipomaea,
I. Coccinea, has larger flowers, not so deep a red as the former, and a va-
riety with orange flowers, is remarkable for the curved figure of the tube of
the corolla. Spanish Arbour Vine or Seven-year Vine, I. Tuberosa, has tube-
rous roots, large leaves and yellow flowers, sometimes purple, of a very fra-
grant smell : it will spread over an arbour 100 yards long. It is lactescent
and purges watery humours strongly. There are in all twenty-seven species,
of which many are natives of the West Indies.
Long-flowered Lobelia, Lobelia Longifolia. N. O. Campanacese ; nat.
West Indies. This is a handsome plant, upright, herbaceous, and about six-
teen inches high, leaves sessile, toothed and long ; flowers white, upright
and four inches long. The plant internally taken produces an invincible
purging and is considered poisonous ; it will kill horses, and handling it
produces inflammation. Chili Cardinal Flower, L. Tupa, is also con-
sidered poisonous, and the smell causes vomiting. Blue Lobelia, L. Sy-
philitica, is a native of America, very common and well known, and
considered a valuable remedy in syphilis and certainly in gonorrhoea ;
(the root used in decoction,) the knowledge of which was purchased from
the Indians. L. Inflata vel Emetica, Emetic Weed or Indian Tobacco,
another well known species, with oblong serrated leaves and pale blue
flowers ; is considered by medical men in America, and, among others, my
friend Dr. Rogers of Mamaraoneck, State of New York, as a valuable
remedy. The leaves chewed produce vomiting, and frequently when tartar
emetic and the other emetics have failed. It often produces profuse perspi-
ration and has been serviceable in cholic and chronic rheumatism. Also, in
the form of tincture, fully saturated, in asthmatic affections it has frequently
proved more beneficial than any other medicine ; perhaps smoking it would
be also eligible : but being a powerful remedy and probably narcotic, it should
be given with caution. Its stimulus is of the diffusive kind and it has an
evident effect upon the urinary passages, and is very useful in the cure of
leucorrhcpa. It has also been found successful in the cure of hydrophobia
and also of tetanus, on the same principle as exciting a strangury by
cantharides, has been found effectual in the same. Lobelia Cardinalis. A
decoction of the root is used by the Indians against worms. There are in all
South Sea Rose, or Rose Bay, Nereum Odornm. N. O. Contortae ; nat.
of the East and West Indies. This beautiful tree rises about ten feet high,
having stiff leaves and large bunches of flowers at the end of the branches,
very similar to Red Plumeria, Plate V. Fig. 5. of a purple or white colour,
with a very fragrant odour. The leaves are acrid and poisonous, and oil in
which they have been infused is said to cure psora. The milky juice of
plumeria will corrode iron. There are eight species.
Centry or Centaury, Chironea Centaureum vel Angulaus. N. O. Rota-
ceae. A beautiful annual plant, an excellent aromatic and bitter, and given
in infusion with great success in fevers by physicians, and is also a favourite
popular remedy. Ten species.
Coffee Tree, Coffea Arabica. Native of Arabia. Nat. Or. Stellatae.
This valuable plant has been known in the East time out of mind, was in-
troduced into Jamaica by Sir Nicholas Laws, in 17.31, and is now cultivated
to great extent ; but particularly of late years. There are mountain planta-
tions in the parishes of Liguanea and St. Andrews, producing from 250 to
400,000 weight of clean coffee per annum, on which are extensive works and
machinery for the peeling, pulping, washing and drying the coffee, some of
which is nearly equal to the Mocha in size, colour and flavour, the small semi-
transparent bean, with a bluish cast, being reckoned the best. This plant is
cultivated usually by suckers, but will grow well from seeds and bear in about
three years, after which, by care in pruning and keeping the coffee-piece free
from weeds, it will continue bearing for many years. The trees are kept low,
about the height of five or six feet, to give more strength to the bearing hori-
zontal branches and for the convenience of picking. When kept for use in the
island, it should always be dried and preserved in the outer covering or pulp
and parchment, and if it could be shipped in this way to Europe, it would
no doubt preserve its virtues and flavour much better than in the present
mode, and not be so liable to imbibe the flavour of rum or sugar, which is
frequently shipped with it. See a Communication on this subject to the
Society of Arts, by Dr. I. Titford, of Jamaica. Transactions, Vol. IX. p. 174.
It is a most valuable article of commerce, and a common and wholesome be-
verage, being cordial and cephalic. A decoction or infusion of the raw Cof-
fee cherries, bruised, is much used by the Arabians. It is also a native of
Abyssinia. Western Coffee, or Wild Jessamin, C. Occidentalis, is a native
of Jamaica. There are eight other species.
Ipecacuanha, Psychotna Emetica. N. O. Stellatee ; nat. South America.
This valuable plant is also said to grow in the Southern States of America,
and would doubtless thrive in the West Indies. There are nineteen species,
natives of Jamaica, and twenty other species.
Thorn Apple, Datura Stramonium. N. O. Luridte ; nat America ; called
also Floripondio. This is a common plant, with large, scented, white, bell-
shaped flowers, and bears a prickly capsule, with numerous seeds, which
are highly narcotic. An ointment of the flower is good for burns, contracted
nerves, spasms, and irritable sores, and the leaves applied are said to ease
the gout. It is common in the West Indies, and considered a troublesome
weed in America, called James-town weed, to the southward. An extract
has been used with success in mania and epilepsy. Its efficacy for relieving
asthma, by smoking the plant, is well established. There are eight species.
Hairy Rondeletia, Rondeletia Hirta. N. O. Rubiaceae, (Jussieu). This,
with ten other species, are natives of Jamaica, and three others of the Spanish
Peach-coloured Trumpet Flower, Solandar Grandijiora. Nat. Ja-
maica. A climbing, sub-parasitical shrub, with large sweet flowers, and
fruit of a subacid flavour.
Nightshade, Solarium. N. O. Luridae. There are ninety-three species
of this genus. One sort, which runs in a vine along the ground, is trouble-
some in pastures, poisoning the horses and sheep, when its young shoots
rise with the grass ; but if at its full growth and easily discernible, they will
avoid it ; so that in endeavouring to eradicate it, great care should be taken
completely to extract the whole of the root. The juice of one species is
good in extensione ani, attended with inflammation. Irish Potatoe, S. Tube-
rosum, that invaluable plant, is a species of this genus. It was imported into
England, 1597, from Virginia, probably originally introduced from Peru. It
loses its flavour and turns sweet when planted in Jamaica, so that the pota-
toes used for the table are generally imported in the packets. Canker-berry,
S. Vahamenu, makes an excellent gargle for sore throat, and is considered a
specific for a cankerous mouth.
Oval-leaved Macrocnemum, JYIacrocnemum Jamaicense. N. O. Con-
tortas ; nat. Jamaica. A tree growing about fourteen feet high, on the banks
of rivulets, with greenish flowers, in a panicle. There are two other species.
Great-flowered Portlandia, Portlandia Grandiflora. Nat. Jamaica.
This is a shrub, with very large, white, fragrant flowers, common among
the rocks. The bark is bitter and astringent and cures intermittents. There
are three other species.
Guinea Pepper, Capsicum Annuum. N. O. Luridaa ; nat. Jamaica. Of
this species there are fifteen varieties, and of the genus four other species. It
is very common in the East and West Indies, and also grows in America.
The pods are variously shaped and coloured, and much used by the Negroes,
as a seasoning, and also by the Whites, for a pickle or sauce. The Cayenne
is made from the pods of the small Bird Pepper, dried and ground between
two stones, and mixed with salt. As the seeds and the inner divisions of the
pod are the most acrid, they are frequently cut out of those large sorts, used
for pickling. The use of them in moderation acts as a stimulus on the sto-
mach, creates an appetite and restrains vomiting. It is now frequently pre-
scribed in pills, or a tincture. Infused in oil they take away the numb
palsy, and cataplasms are useful in coma and delirium. In opthalmia, from
relaxation, the diluted juice is a sovereign remedy. A few bird peppers,
swallowed whole, relieve the heart-burn and prevent dyspepsia. The fol-
lowing are the sorts most commonly to be found :
Pigeon Pepper, — bearing a green or yellow pod, of a roundish shape.
Bell Pepper, — bearing a yellow or red pod, bell-shaped, or smallest at the
extremity next the foot-stalk.
Cherry Pepper, — Red and of a roundish shape.
Coral Pepper, — bearing a long red pod, tapering to a small point.
Bird Pepper, — bearing a small oval fruit, green or red.
Great Pepper, — A large species, of the size of a peach, green or red, and
frequently used for pickling, and there are many other varieties.
Purple or Sore-throat Pepper, has the leaves, stalks, and fruit of a dark
purple, inclining to black, whereas the leaves of the other species are of a
light green. This sort is esteemed a specific for the cure of the sore-throat,
made into a gargle with barley-water and honey. All the varieties of Capsi-
cum are very useful and ornamental. The seeds are numerous and kidney-
Marvel of Peru, Mirabilis. See Explanation of Plate VI. Fig. 1.
Snowberry, or David's Root, Chiococca Racemosa. N. O. Aggregate ;
nat. Jamaica. Rises about seven feet high, with many branches, flowering
in a raceme, and covered with snow-white berries. A decoction of the root is
good in rheumatisms, bone-ache and spina ventosa ; has the same taste as
the Seneca Snake-root. The smaller the plants, the greater the efficacy of
Grape Vine, Vitis Vinifera. N. O. Hederaceae. There are many sorts
of wild Grapes in the West Indies, besides the garden vine, which is not
cultivated to any extent, but where it is, produces fine fruit, and of a rich,
luscious flavour. It certainly deserves more general cultivation, both there
and in America, where it doubtless would thrive very well, and be both ad-
vantageous and profitable. There are fifty-two varieties of Vitis Vinifera.
Indian Vine, or Water Withe, thrives in the Red Hills of Jamaica, and pro-
duces small black grapes, which, if properly managed, would make good
red wine. A piece cut off, of three feet long, yields a pint of clear, refresh-
ing water. There are ten other species.
Shrubby Erithalis, Erithalis Fruticosa. N. O. Rubiaceae ; (Juss.) Two
Spanish Elm, or Prince Wood. See Explanation of Plate VI, Fig. 5.
Jamaica Button Tree, Conocarpus Erecta. N. O. Aggregatae ; nat.
Jamaica. This tree is very common on the sea coast, grows about twenty-
five ieet high, with small, globular, yellow flowers. The wood is useful for
burning, called by the Spaniards Mangle Saragoza. Rarham says, the fruit
is drying, binding, and healing. Another species, C. Racemosa, is called
White Mangrove, and by the Spaniards, Mangle Bobo. The bark is used
for tanning leather. Butterflies swarm about this tree. There is one other
Rough-leaved Cestrum, Ccstrum Hirtum. N. O. Luridae. Is a native
of Jamaica, and there are eight other species, one called Poison-berries.
Obtuse-leaved Jacquinia, Jacqninia Armillaris. N. O. Dumosae ; nat.
Jamaica ; Span. Bubasco. This is an elegant little shrub, four feet high,
with small white flowers, like jasmine, and sweet scented ; the berries are
oval, of a brownish yellow, and strung for necklaces. It grows on the rocks.
There are three other species, nat. of the West Indies.
Bastard Cherry-tree, Ehretria Tenuifolia. N. O. Asperifolioe ; nat.
Jamaica. This tree rises about twenty-five feet high, with a laurel leaf and
yellow berries, about the size of large currants, from which Dr. Barhain
calls it Currant-tree. They are good for poultry. There are four other
Bastard Bully Tree, Bumelia Nigra. N. O. ; nat. Jamaica. This is a
hard wood tree, with a small, smooth fruit, (on which pigeons fatten,) it is the
size of an olive, and black. Mountain Bully Tree, B. Salicifolia or Achras
Salicifolia, a pale yellow, hard wood and lasting timber. Beef Wood is
another species: there are in all seven. The bark of B. Salicifolia is said to
answer as a substitute for Jesuits 1 bark, in twice or thrice the quantity.
Teak Wood, or Indian Oak, Tectona Grandis. Nat. East Indies. This tree
grows to an immense size in the vast forests of India, and is the best timber
for ship-building, being light, strong, and durable. It would certainly be an
object of high importance to introduce it into the West Indies, where it would
doubtless thrive: some seeds given me by Dr. Dancer, came up very well.
Barbadoes Bastard Cedar, Cedrela Odoruta. Nat. Jamaica and Bar-
badoes. This large tree, next in size to the Cotton Tree, grows common in
the West Indies, on the mountains, having a trunk sixty feet high, and a
soft, reddish wood, of a pleasant odour, which is sawn into boards and split
into shingles. Neither insects nor cockroaches attack any thing in boxes of
this wood, but it is not fit for casks.
Neither Currant Tree nor Gooseberry, Ribes, thrive in the West Indies,
but are plentiful in North America.
Perfoliate Feverwort, or Bastard Ipecacuanha, Triosteum Perfolia-
tum. N. O. Aggregate ; nat. North America. The bark of the root of this
plant, in large doses, is emetic ; but it is a good cathartic, in doses of twenty
and thirty grains. Called also Dr. Tinker's Weed. There are two other
Virginian Tobacco, Nicotiana Tabacum. N. O. Luridge ; nat. America.
This well-known plant has funnel-shaped flowers of a white colour, edged
with red, is cultivated to great extent in the southern States of North Ame-
rica, and its use is general all over the world. It is sometimes raised by
Negroes in their grounds, in Jamaica, for their own use and thrives \ery
well ; but the Havanna Tobacco, in the form of segars, is mostly used there.
Soaked in urine, or made into an ointment with green pepper, and rubbed
on, it cures psora or vermin, and is a powerful enema in dry belly-ache,
spasms, tetanus, and colic : the smoke or infusion, administered as an enema
in ruptures has been useful. Smoking tobacco in moderation is said to re-
lieve tooth-ache, preserve the teeth, and to prevent corpulency, if drinking
any liquid with it is refrained from. The seeds are very numerous and small,
and have been found useful as an anthelmintic. It is narcotic and errhine,
and a powerful diuretic ; an infusion, from 60 to 100 drops, has brought
away gravel. It is also useful in asthma, and a cataplasm of the pounded leaves
in vinegar has also had a wonderful effect in worm cases, epilepsy and obsti-
nate intermittents. There are in all seven species.
Winter Cherry, Physalis Angulata. N. O. Luridae ; nat. both Indies.
The juice of the plant, with Cayenne pepper, promotes urine and eases the
colic. Seventeen species.
Tall Achyranthes, or Bastard Hoop Withe, Achyranthes Altissima.
N. O. Miscellaneae ; nat. Jamaica. Eleven species in all. Grows in the Low
Bush between Spanish Town and Passage Fort, on the banks of the river
Bastard Plantain, Heliconia Blhai. N. O. Scitamineae ; nat. Jamaica.
An elegant, herbaceous plant, ten feet high. There are two other species.
Panicled Coxcomb, Celosia Paninilata. NO. Miscellanea? ; nat. Ja-
maica. A beautiful, well-known ornament to the garden. There are thir-
teen other species.
Willow-leaved Cerbera, Cerbera Thevetia. N. O. Contortae ; nat. Ja-
maica. This is an elegant, lactescent plant, about ten feet high, with large
yellow flowers and fruit, containing a poisonous nut. There are four other
Savanna Flower. See Explanation of Plate VI. Fig 2, for the descrip-
tion of a weed common in Jamaica so called, but the name seems to be in-
Red Plumeria, Plumeria Tlubra. See Explanation of Plate V. Fig. 5.
Citron-leaved Tabern.emontana, Taberncemontana Citrifolia. N. O.
Contortae ; nat. Jamaica ; Fr. Bois Laiteux. Rises fifteen feet high with a
woody stalk and thick leaves, both lactescent. The flowers are in bunches,
small, and of a yellow colour and agreeable smell. T. Laurifolia is also a
native of Jamaica, and there are seventeen other species.
Indian Buckbean, Menyanthes Indica. N. O. Precias ; nat. both Indies.
It is a water plant, having a roundish leaf, like Coltsfoot, on long petioles.
Dr. Barham says, a decoction of the leaves in ale is a wonderful remedy in
goutish distempers, drank every four hours ; also good in hydropic cases.
Four other species.
ORDER II. DIGYNIA.
Bastard Ipecacuanha, Blood Flower, or Red Head, Asclepias Curras-
savica. See Explanation of Plate VII. Fig. 1. The bark of the root of an
American species, Pleurisy Root or Butterfly Root, A. Decumbens, is cele-
brated as a remedy in dysentery, from twenty to thirty grains, and a specific
in pleurisy. In decoction it produces general and plentiful perspiration,
without heating the body, when other medicines have failed.
Hares Ear, Bupleurum. N. O. Umbellatae. Nineteen species. Are ac-
counted vulnerary, and a cataplasm of the leaves to cure the bite of the rat-
Wormseed Goosefoot, Chenopodium Anthelminticum. N. O. Holeraceae ;
nat. America. The seed of this plant was in great request in America, at
the time I left it, as a safe and efficacious remedy for worms. It is common
in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Also called Jerusalem Oak. The seeds
are reduced into a fine powder and made into an electuary, of which a table
spoonful is given morning and evening, for several days. Twenty-three
Globe Amaranth, Gomphrcena Globosa. N. O. Amaranthi, (Jussieu).
This beautiful and ornamental plant is cultivated in gardens, in America.
The flowers, gathered full grown and dried in the shade, retain their form
and beauty many months. It is commonly called Waxwork, and sometimes
American Sanicle, or Alum Root, Heuchera Americana. N. O. Succu-
lentae. The root of this plant is very astringent and is supposed to be effi-
cacious in the cure of obstinate ulcers, and sometimes even of cancer, for
which it is used by the Indians. Two species.
Eryngo, or Sea Holly, Eryngium Fcetidum. N. O. Umbellatge ; nat.
West Indies. This plant grows in Jamaica, and is a common remedy against
hysteric affections, whence the Negroes call it Fittweed. An infusion of the
leaves is the form used. Eleven species.
Common Parsley, Apium Petro&elinum. N. O. Umbellatce. This well-
known plant is cultivated in America, and the following remedy for the
dropsy, in its first stages, is said to be very successful: Parsley roots and
raspings of lignum vita?, equal quantities, boiled in hard cyder. A decoc-
tion of the leaves is also considered to be useful in gravel and stone. Care
should always be taken to distinguish this from Fools Parsley, Jithusa Cy-
napium ; the safest way is to cultivate only the curled parsley. There is
one other species, A. Graveolens, Small age.
Sea Samphire, Crithmum Maritimum. N. O. Umbellatse. This herb
grows very common in Jamaica, upon the sea shore, and on land overflowed
by the sea. It makes an agreeable and wholesome pickle, which is gently
diuretic, and removes obstructions of the viscera. Three species.
Navel Wort, Hydrocotyle Umbellata. N. O. Umbellatge ; nat. Jamaica.
This plant grows in ditches and standing waters ; the leaves round and
smooth ; the foot-stalk entering the middle. It is said to open obstructions
of the liver, and to be an antidote to poison. There are in all fifteen species,
four of which are natives of Jamaica.
ORDER III. TRIGYNIA.
Hog Gum, Rhus Metopium. N. O. Dumosae ; nat. Jamaica. This tree is
very common in Jamaica, growing about twenty feet high, with a roundish
head, pinnate leaves, and reddish berries, on which the bald-pate pigeons
feed. There exudes from the tree a yellowish gum, which becomes hard in
the air. It heals fresh wounds, and a plaster of it is strengthening and eases
the gout and rheumatism, as it is of a warm and discutient nature. A solu-
tion of the gum is purgative and diuretic, and good in belly-ache or colic.
Made into pills it acts like balsam of Capivi, in stopping gleets and fluor
albus. The water that comes from the buds, (when they are baked in banana
leaves,) is said to have cured persons nearly blind. The tree takes its name
from the wild hogs rubbing themselves against it, when wounded, to heal
their hurts. The following are American species :
Poison Vine, Rhus Radicans, is a climber, with small, yellow, odoriferous
flowers, produced along the whole course of the smaller branches.
Swamp Sumach, Rhus Vernix, is a larger species, and is called, in New
England, Dogwood. It grows in swamps and makes a fine appearance.
Poison Oak, Rhus Toxicodendron, is alow, shrubby species, leaves trifoliate.
All these three are highly poisonous, particularly in warm weather and
after a meal, and if touched or smelt, excite inflammatory eruption and vesi-
cation, with fever in most people, though others are not affected by it ; it
sometimes causes blindness for some days. A decoction of the bark of R.
Radicans has been found useful in consumption and asthma. The infusion
of this plant and the leaves of R. Toxicodendron have been used with great
success in paralysis, the latter in doses of half a grain or a grain three
times a day. The very best Japan varnish is prepared from the Rhus Vernix.
Smooth Pennsylvanian Sumach, Rhus Glabrum, rises eight or ten feet,
with feathered leaves, which, with the seeds, turn to a beautiful red, in autumn,
covered with a white powder, of an agreeable acid taste. The berries are
used to dye red. An infusion sweetened makes an excellent gargle. The
bark, boiled in milk, cures chronic ulcers. Narrow-leaved Sumach, Rhus
Copallinum, rises about six i'eet, with acid berries, sprinkled with a greyish
powder. These two species are considerably astringent. The leaves or ber-
ries are a valuable substitute for nut galls in dying a permanent black, or
making ink. The whole plant is also a good substitute for oak bark, in
tanning, especially glove-leather, and might be introduced with advantage
into England for that purpose. This species produces gum copal. Virgi-
nian Sumach, R. Typhinum, called Stagshorn, or Vinegar Plant, is similar
in properties to the two species next above mentioned. The seeds have
purple, woolly, succulent covers, and the upper leaves turn to a brownish
purple. This is also used for tanning leather.
Rhus-leaved Spathelia, Spathelia Simplex. N. O. Bicornes ; nat. Ja-
maica. This beautiful plant rises about eighteen feet high, with a simple
stalk and pinnated leaves at the top, like a palm, above which the flower-
spike rises several feet. It is common in Above Rocks, near the Ferry. No
Narrow-leaved Sea-side Laurel, Xylophilla Angustifolia. N. O. Tri-
coccae ; nat. Jamaica. This elegant tree rises about fifteen feet high ; the
leaves are long, smooth, and evergreen, and when in flower it is a great or-
ment to the rocky shores. In all seven species.
Elm-leaved Turnera, Turnera Ulmifolia. N. O. Columniferae ; nat. Ja-
maica. This shrub rises eight or ten feet, with lanceolate leaves, and flowers
of a pale yellow. It grows plentifully in the Red Hills and on the Guanaboa
Road. The flower opens wide at eleven in the forenoon. It is said to be
good for fluxes. There are in all nine species, of which four are natives of
ORDER IV. TETRAGYNIA.
Flax-leaved Evolvuhis, Evolvulus Linifolius. N. O. Campanaceae ;
nat. Jamaica. This beautiful little plant rises about a toot high, with a
slender, simple, upright stalk ; few and narrow leaves, with a small, deli-
cate, axillary peduncle. It is common at the foot of the Liguanea Moun-
tains. E. Nummularius has trailing stalks, taking root at small distances.
The flowers are axillary, of a light blue. E. Sericeus is also a native of the
West Indies. E. Alsinoides, of the East Indies, reputed a sovereign remedy
in dysentery. There are three others pecies.
ORDER V. PENTAGYNIA.
Cluster-flowered Ivy, Hedera Capitata vel Aralia Capitata. N. O.
Hederaceae ; nat. Jamaica. A woody, erect stem, leaves scattered, triner-
vous, and a bright green. Racemes erect, having round heads of flowers,
numerous and sessile. A. Sciodaphyllum is also a native of Jamaica.
ORDER VI. POLYGYNIA.
Parsley-leaved Yellow Root, Xanthorrhiza Apiifolia vel Tinctoria.
nat. Carolina and Georgia. This shrub rises about three feet high ; the
root is woody and of a bright yellow within. The bark of the root and
stem is more intensely bitter than Colombo, and it has some pungency.
The infusion, or the saliva, when chewed, is of a beautiful yellow, and if
its colour could be fixed, it would be a valuable article for dying, and
its use in medicine, as a bitter, is, in some cases, to be preferred to Colombo.
It sits easy on the stomach, in a dose of forty grains. It dyes cloth a drab
colour, and silk a handsome yellow ; but will not take on cotton or linen.
The watery extract of the grated extract of the grated roots, with alum, is
better than gamboge, to mix with Prussian blue, for greens, in water colour-
ing, as it is more lively and stands better.
OMITTED, CLASS V. ORD. I.
Egg Fruit or Mad Apple, Solatium Melongena. N. O. Lurida? , nat,
Africa ; Spa. Balankuna ; Ital. Melanzana. This plant has an irregular,
prickly stalk, about two feet high, with trailing branches, having large, si-
nuated, tomentose, prickly leaves, with a flower very like the common po-
tatoe, but much larger, and of a deep violet. The number of stamens irre-
gular, frequently seven. For a representation of the fruit, see Frontispiece,
Fig. 13. Cut in thin slices, parboiled and fried, the taste is delicious, and
it is wholesome and much resembles fried eggs ; the skin, which is bitter,
must be taken off. It is called in India, Branjaw, in Jamaica, Garden Egg
and Valanghanna, Brown Jolly or Bolangena.
Tomatoes, or Love Apple, Solarium Lycopersicum. N. O. Luridae ; nat.
Jamaica. An herbaceous, climbing plant, with small, sinuated leaves, end-
ing in a point, bearing bunches of yellow flowers, succeeded by a red and
yellow, pulpy fruit, (see Frontispiece, Fig. 31) which imparts an agreeable
acid flavour to soups and sauces, and is considered very wholesome. I have
also frequently seen it in the market of Philadelphia.
Star Apple, Chrysophillum Cainito. N . O. Dumosae ; nat. Jamaica.
Tins beautiful tree rises thirty feet high, with a thick trunk, and the
branches garnished with ovate, acute leaves, of a bright green above and
gold colour beneath, shining like satin. See Plate I. Fig. 12, for the habit
of the tree, and Frontispiece, Fig. 15, for the fruit. When cut across, it re-
sembles a star. The juice of the fruit is milky, and the pulp soft, sweet
and clammy, and much admired by some. One sort of fruit is green, another
purple. The branches, if planted in wet weather, will grow. There are six
CLASS VI. HEXANDRTA.
This class embraces those vegetables whose flowers are furnished with six
stamens of uniform length. It is one of the most beautiful in the sexual
system, and embraces the ninth and tenth natural orders of Spathaceae and
Coronariae and a part of the eleventh, Sarmentaceae, some plants of which
are wholesome, as the Asparagus, Yam, Mediola Virginica and Convallaria,
while others of the same order are poisonous, as Gloriosa and some others. It
contains also some important medicinal plants, as aloes, squill and meadow
saffron, and esculent plants, as rice, leek, garlic, onion, &c. The West
Indies are remarkably rich in plants of this class.
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Common Pine Apple, Bromelia Ananas. Nat. West Indies and Spanish
America ; N. O. Coronariae. This delicious fruit is well known and very
common in Jamaica, where there are several sorts, as the Queen Pine, the
Sugarloaf, the Montserrat, the King, the Green, the Ripley. The best are
frequently to be bought in the markets for five pence currency, the low-
est piece of money in the West Indies. They grow wild in the woods, in
such abundance, that I have sent out and procured several hundred plants in
one day. For the manner of its growth, see Plate I. Fig. 14 ; for the fruit,
see Frontispiece, Fig. 3. Wild Pine or Silk Grass, B. Karatas, grows at
the root of shady trees, and has leaves and fruit similar to the Pinguin ; the
outward green part being scraped off and washed, the fibres appear quite
straight, which are worked into ropes, fine twine, hammocks, nets, cloth, &c.
Pinguin, B. Pinguin, is similar in its growth to the Pine and is very com-
monly used in Jamaica for fences, as its radical leaves grow very thick and
about four feet high, armed with spines, and it spreads by suckers from the
root, forming an impassable fence (except to goats, who jump over them.)
The fruit grows at the head of the stalk, in clusters of sixteen or twenty,
and while it is ripening, the lower part of the leaves turn red ; the fruit is
about the size of a walnut, of an orange colour, containing an acid pulp, the
juice of which, with water, is cooling in fevers, and the pulp, with sugar, is
agreeable to children and kills worms, and with honey, cures ulcerated
mouths. It is also diuretic, mixed with Rhenish wine, and makes, by
proper management, fine vinegar. The fibres also may be twisted into
ropes, the same as the Silk Grass. For a representation of the fruit, see
Frontispiece, Fig. 38. Water-holding Pine, B. Aquilega. This species
grows on branches of trees in the woods ; the leaves are channelled, and
from their form and connection, form a reservoir at the bottom, which fre-
quently contains a considerable quantity of water, generally about a quart.
This plant is also arranged as a Tillandsia Utriculata. There are in all
nine species of Bromelia.
Tuberose, Polianthus Tuberosa. N. O. Coronariae. This beautiful and
sweet smelling flower grows very common in gardens, in Jamaica, and is too
well known to need description.
Scarlet Pitcarnia, Pitcairnia Bromeliafolia, and two other species, are
natives of Jamaica, as is Green-flowered Chlorophytum, Chlorophytum In-
Mossy Tillandsia, or Old Man's Beard, Tillandsia Usneoides. N. O.
Coronariae ; nat. West Indies and Southern States of America. The leaves
of this plant are small and thread-like, with a hoary, shining skin ; when
this is rotted off and washed, the fibres can scarcely be distinguished from
horse-hair. It is used to stuff pannells, cushions, pillows and mattrasses.
It hangs from ebony and manchineel trees, in such a form as to give it its
trivial name. The nests of the Banana birds are generally made of it. There
are sixteeu species, mostly natives of Jamaica.
Caribbean Lily Root, Pancratium Caribwum. Nat. West Indies ; N. O.
Spathaeeae. This plant grows wild in Jamaica, with large leaves and nume-
rous flowers, rising about eighteen inches high. The bulbs, in decoction,
make a diuretic drink for horses, and a cataplasm of the roots roasted is ma-
turating. There are in all fifteen species.
Jamaica Garlic, Allium Granile. N. O. Spathaceaa ; nat. Jamaica ; Fr-
Ail ; Spa. Aio ; Ital. Aglio. Has leaves like the narcissus, a foot in length,
with a slender scape, three feet high. Many species of Allium, as Common
Garlic, Leek, Onion, Scallion, Cives and Shalotts are very common, and
particularly wholesome in Jamaica. The Jews use the garlic considerably,
and particularly season with it a sort of smoked sausage, called chorisas,
which are very good. The onion tribe is generally stimulant and diuretic.
A free use of boiled onions is useful in the first stages of dropsy, and exter-
nal applications of garlic and onion, as sinapisms or poultices, are frequently
useful. There are in all forty-five species of Allium.
Trailing Hypoxis, Hypoxis Decumbens, is a native of Jamaica ; but the
flower of no great beauty.
Common Asparagus, Asparagus Officinalis. N. O. Sarmentaceae ; Fr.
Asperge ; Sp. Esparago ; Ital. Sparagio. This well-known plant grows very
well in the mountains, or in the low lands, if well watered. Dr. Barham
says, the roots of Wild Sea Asparagus are a powerful diuretic. There are
in all thirteen species.
Aloe-leaved Adam's Needle, Yucca Aloifolia. N. O. Coronariae ;
native South America. This beautiful plant grows in Jamaica, eight feet
high, with narrow, stiff* leaves, ending in a sharp spine. The flowers
are borne on a pyramidal head, rising in the centre, of a purple colour.
It is also called Dagger-plant and Spanish Dagger. There are four other
Hillia Longiflora and Tetrandria are natives of Jamaica. N. O. Con-
Solomon's Seal, Convallaria. N. O. Sarmentaceae. This plant is well
known to the Negroes in Jamaica, who eat it boiled, and the Indians in
North America also feed upon the root. There are eleven species of this
Barbadoes Aloes, Aloe Perfoliata vel Barbadensis. N. O. Coronarise ;
nat. West Indies. This plant is well known and very common in the West
Indies, where it is also called Sempervive. The juice of this plant, inspis-
sated by boiling or drying in the sun, is the medical substance, known by
the name of Barbadoes and Hepatic Aloes, and it is cultivated to a consider-
able extent in Barbadoes, for the purpose of exportation. The best and
purest, for medicinal purposes, is that produced from the A. Socotrina,
thence called Succotrine Aloes ; the coarser sort of this is called Horse Aloes,
A. Caballina. Aloes are a valuable cathartic, and the basis of many ap-
proved medicines of that class ; and its bitter taste is best covered by Spanish
liquorice. It is useful in cases of worms, the primae viae loaded with mucus,
and in chlorosis, with steel. The fresh juice is frequently given for worms
with milk, or it is used in a plaster, applied to the abdomen, or sometimes
mixed with pulverised conch-shells, made into pills. The juice is a power-
ful antiseptic and heals old sores, and is an useful ingredient in an enema.
It is an excellent preservative to ships' bottoms from the worms so common
in harbours in the West Indies, incorporated with pitch, Spanish brown and
oil, in the proportion of one ounce of aloes to two square feet of plank ; one
coat will preserve a ship's bottom eight months. This plan is well worthy
attention and encouragement. Rafters and timbers are also preserved by it
from the destructive ravages of the wood-ant, and books from the scarabaeus,
if a small proportion be used in binding them ; and a spirituous extract de-
stroys bugs. An aquatic solution of Aloes protects young plants from in-
sects, and will also preserve dead animals and vegetables from putrefaction.
A decoction dyes wool brown, and silk a violet colour, by simple immer-
sion. There are in all fifty-three species.
American Aloe, or Currato, Agave Vivipara. See Explanation of
Plate VII. Fig. 4. The expressed juice of the leaf is also diuretic. Boiled
to a thick consistence, with lime-juice and molasses, is a good dressing for
Common Naseberry, Acliras Sapota. N. O. Dumosse ; nat. West Indies;
called also Sappadilla. This is a tree of considerable size, and the timber of
it is hard ; the branches are thickly set, with smooth, bright leaves, and the
young shoots and unripe fruit full of a milky juice. The berry, when
ripe, is brown, (see Frontispiece, Fig. 16.) of the size of a small apple, of a
sweet, luscious taste, very numerous on a tree, and must be gathered while
hard, and in a few days they become soft and fit for eating, but soon decay.
For the seeds see Plate III. Fig. 9 ; from six to twelve make a pint of
good bitter emulsion. Mammee Sappota, A. Mammosa, grows about forty-
feet high, with a straight trunk and regular head. The branches are thickly
set, with large, smooth leaves, and the fruit is of an oval shape, with a thick
brown rind, and a very luscious, sweet, yellow pulp, called American mar-
malade. It is good in fluxes. For the seed see Plate III. Fig. 10. A va-
riety of this, called the Bully-tree, grows very tall, and is the hardest timber
in Jamaica : from its straight, thick trunk, it is best fitted for main rollers
of sugar mills, and a single trunk, for that purpose, fifteen inches diameter,
delivered at the mill is worth fifty pounds and upwards. There are also
Beef-wood, Bastard Bully-tree, and Mountain Bastard Bully-tree, all hard,
fine timber. White Bully-tree or Galimeta Wood, A. Salicifolia, is a tall,
straight, timber tree ; the fruit is black and fattens pigeons, grows about the
size of an olive. The bark of A. Sappota and A. Mamosa is very astringent,
but will not answer as a substitute for Jesuits' bark, though it has been given
for it, in twice or thrice the quantity. There are two other species.
ORDER II. DIGYNIA.
Common Rice, Oryza Sativa. N. O. Gramina ; Fr. Riz ; Sp. Arroz ;
Ital. Riso. This valuable plant is not cultivated in Jamaica, but will grow
very well in the low, moist lands, and such as are fit for Scotch grass. Great
quantities are raised in the Southern States of America. It is cooling and
restringent, and an emulsion is good for strangury. No other species. There
is a sort of Rice, in the East Indies, called Mountain Rice, which will grow
on dry, mountainous soils : the seed of this would be a valuable acquisition
ORDER IV. TETRAGYNIA.
Garlick-scented Guineahen Weed, Petiveria Alliacea. N. O. Hole-
racese ; nat. Jamaica. This plant is very common, and rises about two feet
high, with oblong leaves, and flowers in spikes. It grows in moist, shady
places, and is green in the driest weather ; when the cattle feed on it, it
gives their milk the taste of garlic, and I have had the flesh of wild cattle
caught in ropes, in dry weather, so rank with it, that the meat was totally
unsaleable. Guinea-hens feed on it, and are to found, in great numbers,
where this weed abounds. Dr. Barham says, the root put to aching teeth*
eases them. There is one other species, P. Octandra.
ORDER V. POLYGYNIA.
Yellow Water Plantain, Alisma Flava. N. O. Tripotaloideae ; nat
Jamaica. This is very common in ditches and standing water. There are
eight other species.
CLASS VII. HEPTANDRIA.
This class contains plants whose flowers are furnished with seven stamens,
and is the least numerous of the whole twenty-four. There are no plants,
natives of Jamaica, comprised in it, though that island contains numerous
genera of every other class.
CLASS VIII. OCTANDRTA.
This class embraces plants whose flowers are furnished with eight sta*
mens, and comprises plants of the natural orders of Calycanthemi£> Bicornes,
Sarmentacess and Iuundatae. It contains many curious, useful and medicinal
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Akee, BUghia. Nat. Africa, This plant was introduced from Africa,
and now thrives very well in Jamaica. Dr. Broughton describes it, in the
Hortus Eastensis, as follows : — Gen. Char. Calyx five-leaved and inferior,
with concave, acute, ovate, small leaves, persistent and hairy ; corolla five-
petalled, oblong, lanceolated, acute, hairy, bent at the base, and pressed to
the receptacle, alternate with the calyx and longer ; stamina eight short
filaments, hairy, inserted at the base of the glandulous receptacle of the
germen ; anthera oblong, disposed in an orb, and almost of the same length
round the germen ; germen subovate, three sided and hairy ; the style the
length of the germen, cylindrical and hairy ; the stigma obtuse ; pericarpium
a fleshy capsule, oblong, obtuse on both sides, triangular, trilocular, trivalv-
ed, and gaping from the apex ; semina three, orbicular and glossy, having a
rising appendice. This beautiful tree rises twenty feet high and upward.
The trunk has a rough, brown bark ; the branches irregular and declining ;
the leaves are pinnated, ovate, lanceolated, bright above, and veined under-
neath ; the flowers are disposed in spikes, small, white, and scentless ; the
fruit is as large as a goose's egg, of a red and orange colour. See Frontis-
piece, Fig. 24. The seeds are three. See Plate III. Fig. 14. To each
seed grows a white substance twice or thrice its size, of the consistence of
beef fat, which, when parboiled and fried in butter, tastes exactly like mar-
row, and is the richest and most delicate of vegetables. This, by the inha-
bitants of Guinea, is served at table alone, or mixed with broth or pottage.
It thrives well in the low lands of Jamaica, is easily propagated from the
seeds, and well deserves cultivation. When in bearing, it has a most beau-
tiful appearance from its variety of colours. There is no other species. It
is named after Captain Bligh, who brought the bread fruit and other valua-
ble plants from Otaheite.
Cunep, or Wing-leaved Honeyberry, Melicocca Bijuga. N. O. Sa-
pindi, (Juss.) ; nat. South America ; Dutch, Knippen ; Spa. Monos. This
tree has been introduced into Jamaica, and grows pretty common, about
twenty feet high, with bright green, ovate, acuminate leaves. The fruit is
an egg-shaped drupe, with a thin, brownish, brittle shell or bark, contain-
ing one seed, covered with a sweetish, acid, gelatinous, orange-coloured pulp,
which is pleasant and cooling ; but accidents sometimes happen, from child-
ren's letting the seed slip into their throats. For figure of the fruit, see
Plate III. fig. 62. There is no other species.
Musk, or Alligator Wood, Ghiarea Trlchilioides. N. O. Meliae, (Juss.);
nat. of Jamaica ; Fr. Bois Rouge. This is a tree of middling size, with pin-
nated leaves. The bark smells strongly of musk : a small piece in a tobacco-
pipe will perfume a room. The powder of the bark is sometimes used for
an emetic. There is no other species.
White Candle Wood, or Rose Wood, Amyris Balsamifera. N. O.
Teribintaceae, (Juss.); nat. Jamaica; called also Lignum Rhodium. This
is a valuable, heavy timber, of considerable size ; the wood whitish, and,
when young, of a curled grain, and bears a good polish. It has a laurel
leaf, and the wood smells very sweet and burns like a candle. An infusion
of the leaves is diaphoretic, aromatic in baths and fomentations, cordial and
particularly restorative to weak eyes. The berries have much the taste of
Balsam Copaiba. Small Shrubby Sweetwood, A. Maritima, is also a na-
tive of Jamaica, and if the Amyrises of this island were tapped at a proper
time, a balsam, similar to the balm of Gilead or balsam of Mecca, the pro-
duce of A. Opobalsainum, might probably be obtained. There are seven
other species. The gum elemi of the shops is said to be the produce of A.
Elemi fera, a native of Carolina. Half an ounce of gum elemi, dissolved in
four pints of good rum, a large spoonful three times a day, is the best remedy
for a cough.
Ximenia, Ximenia Inermis. N. O. Aurantia, (Juss.) ; nat. Jamaica. A
small, bushy tree, eight feet high, with leaves only an inch long. One spe-
cies, X. Americana, bears a fruit very like the cunep. There is one other
species. Rhexia Acisanthera, Hispida, and Rutilans, are natives of Jamai-
ca, in Luidas Vale.
Prickly Lawsonia, Lawsonia Falcata. N. O. Salicariae, (Juss) ; nat. East
Indies. This shrub rises about six feet high, very much branched, with
acuminate leaves and bunches of white flowers, of a very powerful animal
scent ; so much so, that too many near a house are unwholesome. The pul-
verised leaves of the L. Inermis form the henna or alhenha so much used by
the Eastern nations to dye their nails a yellow colour. There are three other
Jamaica Bilberry, or Whortle Berry, Vaccininm Meredionale. Nat.
of Jamaica, in the Blue Mountains ; Sp. Arandano. The berries are sapid,
red, acid, astringent and bitter, like bilberries ; the leaves are annual, ra-
cemes leafy, and flowers variegated. They make a good rob or jelly, which
is excellent in colds and sore throats. There are in all twenty-seven species.
Lace-bark Tree, or Laurel-leaved Lagetto, Daphne Lagetto. N. O.
Vepriculae ; nat. West Indies ; Fr. Bois Dentelle. This tree has laurel
leaves, the wood is white, and the inner bark white and thick, but may be
drawn out into fine lace, which will bear washing. King Charles II. wore
a cravat of it, presented by Sir Thomas Lynch, governor of Jamaica. It is
used to make twine and ropes, and would doubtless make paper, if properly
prepared. D. Occidentalis is also a native of Jamaica, and there are twenty-
six species in all.
Mangrove Round-leaved Sea-side Grape, Coccoloba Uvifera. N. O.
Holeraceae ; nat. West Indies ; Fr. Raisinier du bord de la Mer ; Sp. Uvero.
This is a pretty large, irregular tree, growing by the sea side ; the wood
hard and red, used for fuel, and when large for cabinet work ; leaves entire,
thick and large ; flowers small and whitish, berries purplish, about the size
of grapes, having, under a thin rind, a pleasant, soft, astringent pulp,
and a round stone, with a kernel. The berries are a very powerful astrin-
gent, and instances have occurred, in which the effects of incautiously eating
them could not be removed, by the most powerful remedies, in less than three
weeks. Properly administered, it is useful in dysentery, and the bark, in
rum, good for a fomentation in fluor albus. Great-leaved C. Pubescens,
called by the French, Bois a grandes feuilles ; C Excoriata, and C. Nivea,
are also natives of Jamaica, and some are hard, red timber of considerable
size. There are ten other species.
Asmart, Polygonum Persicaria. Though this plant be not a native of
Jamaica, it may be mentioned here, that the fresh plant in decoction, — dose
a wine glass full, — or the infusion of the dried plant, are powerfully diuretic
and very useful in gravelly complaints. The root of P. Hydropiper, bruised
and applied, cures the tooth-ache, and the essential oil is good for knotty
Supple Jack, Paullbiia Polyphylla. N. O. Trihilatae ; nat. Jamaica.
This is common in the woods, with a slender, flexile, tough, knobby stalk,
which is usually cut into lengths for riding and walking-sticks, and is boiled
in a sugar copper and rubbed with oil, to prevent its becoming too brittle.
There are in all seventeen species.
Soap Berry, Sapindus Saponaria. N. O. Trihilatae ; nat. West Indies ;
Spa. Saponaria. Rises about twenty feet high, with many branches towards
the top, furnished with winged leaves ; the flowers are produced in spikes,
small and white ; the berries are smooth, round and black. See Plate III.
Fig. 11. The seed-vessels, and pulp which surrounds the nuts, are deter-
sive, acrid, and rather corrosive, lather freely in water and will cleanse more
linen than sixty times their weight of soap. Pounded and steeped in ponds
and creeks, they intoxicate and kill the fish. The seeds, having a fine po-
lish, are frequently used for buttons and necklaces, and these also, being
bruised and steeped, make a fine lather. Another species, S. Spinosus, is
common in the parish of St. James's in Jamaica, called there the Licca Tree.
There are in all thirteen species. The berries, bruised and mixed in rum,
form a good embrocation in rheumatism, cramps, and pains in the joints,
especially if the rum be a strong tincture of canella alba. It is said, the
ashes of the Soap Berry Tree spoil potash.
Great-flowered Heart-seed, Cardiospermum Grandiflorum. N. O.
Trihilatae. Is a native of Jamaica, called in America, Wild Parsley ; Fr.
Pois de Merveille. Is a climbing plant, and has seeds contained in a kind
of bladders, marked with a black spot, in the shape of a heart. There are
two other species.
CLASS IX. ENNEANDRIA.
This valuable class, though small, contains many important vegetables,
both for medical and domestic purposes, especially the aromatic Spices and
the Rhubarbs, and comprehends the natural order of Holeraceae,
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
For Cinnamon and the other species of Laurus, see Explanation of Plate
VII. Laurus Sassafras, Benzoin, and Borbonia are natives of North America.
ORDER II. TRIGYNIA.
Rhubarb, Rheum ; Fr. Rhabarbe. This valuable plant might be culti-
vated to advantage in the United States, where, it is probable, there are
some native species.
CLASS X. DECANDRIA.
This is a very extensive class, containing many valuable and important
vegetables, and comprising the natural orders of Papilionaceae, Lomentaceae,
Carophyllei, Trihilatae, and Gruinales ; also some of the Bicornes and Succu-
lentae. Many are useful in medecine and others in the arts and manu-
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Red Bead Tree, Sophora JWonospermum. N. O. Papilionacese ; nat.
Jamaica. Rises about ten feet high, with blue flowers, and an ovate legume,
containing one large, spherical, scarlet seed, with a black spot. There are
in all twenty-five species of sophora.
Dwarf Mountain Ebony, Bauhinia Divaricata. N. O. Lomentacese ;
nat. Jamaica. This rises about eight feet high, and is common in the Red
Hills. The leaves are cordate, cloven half way, with the lobes standing
wide from each other. The flowers are white, in a raceme, and have a plea-
sant smell. It folds its leaves before rain. There are thirteen species.
For Locus Tree, Brasiletto, Barbadoes Pride or Flower Fence, Nicker
Tree, Guaiacum, see Explanation of Plate VII. To which add, the wood
of Guilandina Moringa, or Horse-radish Tree dyes a fine blue colour.
Nickers, G. Bonduc, pounded with gum elemi, are very efficacious in
diabetes ; also, burnt Nickers expel the yaws from the blood, and half
a drachm of the nut in powder is good in convulsive affections. A tea
of Barbadoes Pride or Spanish Carnation restores the bile to its natural
state, after illness, and a powder of the seeds in the dose of one drachm is a
cure for the belly-ache. A decoction of Brasiletto strengthens the stomach,
and takes away inflammations and defluctions of the eyes. Nicaragua
Wood, C. Vesicaria, is a much more valuable dye than Brasiletto and might
be introduced into Jamaica with advantage. It is called by the Dutch,
Cassia. See Explanation of Plate IX. Also, Wild Senna, ( Cassia Senna
Italica.J Rises about a foot high, with pinnated leaves and yellow flowers.
It is found on the Palissades, near Port Royal, and is supposed to resemble
the true Alexandrian Senna. A handful infused in half a pint of water and
quickened with a spoonful of juice of Sempervive, may be given. Labat
says, the French imported Senna from their West India islands, and there
the leaves of several species of Cassia are used, as also the leaves of Barba-
does Pride, instead of the true Senna. American Senna, Cassia Mari-
landica, is also in general use in the southern parts of America, as a substi-
tute for the Alexandrian. Round-leaved Cassia, Cassia Obtusifolia, is also
a native of Jamaica ; rises about two feet high, and bears a legume four
inches long, containing upwards of twenty seeds. Also Hairy Cassia, Cassia
Pilosa, — Creeping Cassia, C. Serpens, — Ringworm Bush, Cassia Alata vel
Herpetica (the juice of which cures the ringworm,) called by the French
Herbe a Dartres; — C. Frutescens, — C. Minima, — C. Sericea, — C. Lineata,
C. Virgata, are all natives of Jamaica. In all fifty-one species.
Logwood. See Explanation of Plate X. Fig. 3.
Balsam of Tolu, Toluifera Balsamum. N. O. Terebintaceae ; nat. Tolu
in Darien, South America. A large tree with spreading branches, alternate,
ovate leaves, and yellow flowers, in bunches. The balsam is mild, fragrant,
vulnerary, pectoral, and much employed in medicine. No other species.
Prickly Parkinsonia, or Jerusalem Thorn, Parkinsonia Aculeata.
N. O. Lomentaceae ; Fr. Genet Epineux ; nat. Jamaica. Rises about ten
feet high, very similar, in every respect to the Barbadoes pride, with yellow
flowers, of a sweet smell, and makes very elegant fences. There is no other
Yellow-flowered Adenanthera, Adenanthera Pavonina. N. O. Lo-
mentaceae ; nat. East Indies. This is one of the largest trees in the East
Indies, of a hard, solid timber, and its duration two hundred years. The
seeds are scarlet and lens-shaped, with a black streak in the middle. It
might be advantageously introduced into the West Indies.
Rough Trichilia, Trichilia Hirta. N. O. Trihilatae ; nat. Jamaica.
This tree rises about twenty feet high, with branched, pinnated leaves, at
the end of the twigs. It grows plentifully between Spanish Town and Pas-
sage Fort. There are in all twelve species.
Common Mahogany, Swietiana JVlahogani. N. O. Trihilatae ; nat. Ja-
maica. A lofty, branching tree, with shining leaves and white or yellowish
flowers. For seed-vessel and seed, see Plate III. Fig 60 and 61. It for-
merly grew in great plenty in Jamaica, so that the shingles, beams, ceilings,
and floors of many houses are constructed with it ; but it is now only to be
met with in the mountains in the interior, and on rocks by the sea side ; but
it surely would be worth attention and cultivation, as it is of quick growth.
Its value and uses are well known. Boil an ounce of shavings in two pints
of water till half is wasted, dose from two to four table spoonfuls frequently
in diarrhoea. A species is used in Bermuda for ship-building, which does
not splinter with cannon-ball, and resists the worm. I have heard of trees,
in the high mountains of Jamaica that would saw into planks five feet wide.
There are two other species, nat. East Indies.
Evergreen Bead Tree, or Indian Lilac, Melia Sempervirens. N. O.
Trihilatae ; nat. Jamaica. This tree has indented, shining leaflets, has a
beautiful foliage and shade, and bunches of blue flowers. The pulp sur-
rounding the nut is said to be poisonous. In America, where it is common,
in the Southern States, it is called Poison Berry, Pride of India, and China
Tree. Dr. Barton, Professor of Botany in Philadelphia, highly recommends
it as a valuable anthelmintic. The bark of the root, in substance or a satu-
rated decoction, is employed. It is said, the pulp which invests the stones
of the fruit is pounded with tallow, and used as an antisphoric, in cases of
tinea capitis, in Persia. The fruit is employed in Japan to furnish an ex-
pressed oil, which grows hard, like tallow, and is used for making candles.
The mocking bird, (turdus polyglottos,) feeds on the berries. The dried ber-
ries also have been given, in Carolina, for worms, and the decoction is good
for worm fever. There are two other species, natives of the East Indies.
M. Azederach is a native of Syria.
Bitter Quassia, Quassia Amara. N. O. Gruinales ; nat. West Indies ;
named from Quashi, a Negro, who discovered its virtues. This is a tree of
considerable size ; the wood light and white ; leaves pinnated ; and flowers
deep red, in spikes. All the parts of this tree are intensely bitter ; but the
wood of the root and the bark are the best. It is a remedy in malignant,
epidemic fevers, common at Surinam ; it is an excellent tonic, antiseptic and
febrifuge ; useful in debility, dyspepsia, flatulency, costiveness, and diabetes;
and, combined with an absorbent, in the hysteric atony of females. It may
be given in powder, or pills of the watery extract, infusion, or decoction, with
orange-peel and rum : the infusion is generally made, in Jamaica, by putting
a small quantity of the chips into a glass of cold water at night, and drinking
it the first thing in the morning. I have given it with it success in the room
of Peruvian bark, when that would by no means remain on the stomach. It
is often substituted for hops, in brewing. Mountain Damson, or Stavewood
tree, Simarouba Quassia ; nat. Jamaica. The bark of the root of this species,
given in decoction, is a most valuable remedy in diarrhoea, lientery and dy-
sentery, even in the late stages of which I have found it useful. Lofty
Quassia, Q. Excelsa, is also a native of Jamaica.
Jussieua. Several species are natives of Jamaica.
Oval-leaved Melastoma, Melastoma Acinodendron. N. O. Calycan-
themae ; nat. Jamaica. A large tree, with crooked branches and smooth,
entire leaves, and the fruit purple, in long spikes. There are sixty-seven
species, of which near forty are natives of Jamaica and the West Indies.
Balsam of Peru, Myroxylum Peruiferum. N. O. Lomentacae ; nat.
South America. A handsome tree, with alternate, ovate, lanceolate leaves,
and white flowers. The balsam is fragrant, excellent for wounds of the
nerves, and, given in such cases, prevents locked jaw ; and is a great pecto-
ral, useful in asthma and disorders proceeding from debility of the solids.
There is no other species.
Trailing Gaultheria Gaultheria Procumbens. N. O. Bicornes ; nat.
North America ; called also Mountain Tea, Berried Tea, Grouse Berry, and
Deer Berries, a favourite remedy with the Indians, who call it Pollom. Is a
small, trailing shrub, with obovate, smooth leaves, and red berry. It is
used as a tea in Canada, and a strong infusion is stimulant and anodyne. It
also is said to be an useful medicine in cases of asthma.
Pubescent Samyda, or Clovenberry Bush, Samyda Pubescens. Nat.
Jamaica. Grows common in the low lands and rises about seven feet high.
The berries are the size of small sloes cloven in two. The birds eat them.
In all nine species.
Balsam of Capivi or Copaiba, Copaifera Officinalis. N. O. Legumino-
sae; nat. South America, A tall, elegant tree, with pinnated leaves, white
flowers in racemes, and a roundish pod. The balsam flows from incisions in
the trunk. Its use in coughs and diseases of the urinary passages is well
known. It is also vulnerary and is good in an enema, for belly-ache. It
has been introduced into Jamaica and deserves cultivation. No other species.
Jamaica Olive Bark, or Black Olive, Bucida Buceras. N. O. Holera-
ceae ; nat Jamaica. This tree grows near thirty feet high, with slender,
crooked branches, and tufted leaves, and is a hard timber tree ; the bark is
very restringent, and esteemed by tanners ; and a decoction is a good styptic
for stopping bleedings. In Antigua, it is called French Oak ; by the
French, Grignon. There is no other species.
ORDER II. DIGYNIA.
Shrubby Hydrangea, Hydrangea Arborescens. N. O. Succulent* ; nat.
Virginia. This has a low, soft stein, with opposite leaves, three inches long
and two broad. The petioles are long, adorned with large bunches of whit-
ish flowers, in a cyme, of an agreeable odour. There are two other species.
H. Hortensis has rose-coloured flowers.
Purslane-leaved Trianthema, TriantJiema JSIonogyna. N. O. Succu-
lent* ; nat. Jamaica. This plant sends out many branches, which lie flat
on the ground, with oval, stiff, shining leaves, like purslane ; the flowers of
a purplish colour. It is very common and considered frequently a trouble-
some weed. Its virtues are said to be cooling. There are seven species of
ORDER III. TRIGYNIA.
Smooth-leaved Barbadoes Cherry, Malpighia Glabra. N. O. Trihi-
latae ; nat. West Indies. This tree rises about sixteen feet high, with spread-
ing branches and a round head ; the leaves acute and opposite. The fruit is
nearly the size and colour of a cherry, and is sometimes eaten. Birds and
poultry are fond of it. One species is called Cowhage Cherry, and another,
Locus Tree, the bark of the small branches of which may be used for Peru-
vian bark. There are in all eighteen species.
Laurel-leaved Sycamore, Banisteria Laurifolia. N. O. Trihilatae ; nat.
West Indies. This is a climbing shrub, seven feet high, with opposite leaves,
yellow flowers, and winged seed-vessels. Chaivstick is a species of Baniste-
ria. The steins are cut into short lengths, and used by the Negroes for
cleaning and whitening their teeth. The end of the piece held in the mouth
becomes quite fibrous, like a brush, and produces an agreeable bitter taste,
and excites a flow of saliva. There are in all twenty-four species of this
genus, mostly natives of hot climates.
ORDER IV. PENTAGYNIA.
Bimbling Plum, Averrhoa Bilimbi. N. O. Gruinales ; nat. East Indies.
This has been introduced into Jamaica, and will grow, if care be taken of
it. The leaves are pinnated, with red flowers, the fruit a five-celled pome,
of an acid taste, growing on the branches or trunk. There is one other spe-
cies, A. Carambola.
Upright Wood Sorrell, Oralis Stricta. N. O. Gruinales ; nat. West
Indies. This plant may be eaten as sallad, or made into a pleasant, cooling
decoction. There are ninety-six species of this genus.
Yellow Hogplum, Spondias Myrobalanus. N. O. Terebintaceae ; nat.
Jamaica ; This tree is common, rises about twenty-five feet high, with
crooked, irregular branches. The flowers and fruit come out before the
leaves, which are pinnated. For fruit see Frontispiece, Fig. 32 ; also Plate
I. Fig. 19. The stone is covered with fibres and the pulp thin and sweet.
Hogs feed greedily on them, and the tree is easily propagated from cuttings.
There are three other species. A bath of the bark and leaves will cure inflamma-
tion, pain and swelling in the legs, after a fever, and is also useful in anasarca.
ORDER V. DECAGYNIA.
Poke Weed, or Jucato Calleloe, Phytolacca Octandra. N. O. Miscel-
laneae ; nat. Jamaica ; called in New England, Cunicum, Shoke, or Coakum.
The stalk is herbaceous, two feet high, and divides into a few short branches
at the top ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, with sessile, white flowers. Brown
says, it is a palatable, wholesome green, and that the young shoots are a
good substitute for asparagus; but Thunberg says, it is poisonous, when
old. P. Decandra, or Virginian Poke, is a common, well-known weed, in
America, by road sides. The juice of the root is cathartic ; an ounce of the
dried root, infused in a pint of wine and given to the quantity of two spoon-
fuls, operates kindly as an emetic ; the leaves of the plant, bruised, as a
poultice, in cancer, is very detersive ; and the extract is used as a plaster, in
swellings and fistula lachrymalis. The roots are applied to the hands and
feet, in ardent fevers, and the berries stain a fine purple dye, but not perma-
nent. Poultry are fond of them. Steeped in rum, it is a popular remedy for
rheumatism. There are four other species. Scabies and herpes have been
removed by the juice, and it is said to be very useful in every stage of syphilis.
CLASS XI. DODECANDRIA.
This class contains several curious, valuable, and medicinal plants, and
comprises some of the natural orders, Sarmentaceae, Bicornes, Calycanthe-
mae, Succulentae, Columniferae and Tricoccae.
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Canadian Asarabacca, Asarum Canadense. N. O. Sarmentaceae ; nat.
America ; called Wild Ginger and Coltsfoot. This plant has large, kidney-
shaped leaves, rising on a single footstalk, direct from the root. The powder
of the dried root is emetic and cathartic, and is a valuable sternutatory, being
the basis of cephalic snuff. As an errhine, in the quantity of a grain or two,
it has removed head-ache, tooth-ache, ophthalmia, and some paralytic and
soporific affections. There are two species.
Yellow Sanders, or Mountain Olive, Hudsonia of A. R. The bark,
in decoction, cures venereal complaints. Negroes call it Negressa.
Tree Celandine, or Parrot Weed, Bocconia Frutescens. N. O. Rhae-
deae ; nat. Jamaica. Rises about ten feet high, with a straight, pithy trunk,
and oblong, sinuated leaves, and has a handsome appearance. The juice is
yellow and acrid, and used to take off tetters, warts, and specks from the
eyes. There is one other species.
Mangrove. See Explanation of Plate VIII. Fig. 2. The bark, boiled
with mammee bark, is good for hardening the soles of the feet, after the cuti-
cle is separated. A decoction of the bark is a styptic for stopping bleedings.
Three-nerved Blakea, Blakea Trinervia. Nat. Jamaica. This beauti-
ful plant rises from fifteen to twenty feet high, in most places support-
ing itself against another tree. The stein divides into a thousand declining
branches, with ovate, shining leaves, having three distinct nerves, and ele-
gant rose-coloured flowers. There is one other species.
For Canella Alba and Mangosteen, see Explanation of Plate X. Figs.
4 and 5.
Garlic Pear, Cratceva Tapia. N. O. Putamineae ; nat Jamaica. Grows
common in dry coppices, near the sea. Rises thirty feet high, with large
trunk and spreading branches, garnished with trifoliate leaves. The fruit is
about the size of an orange, with a brown, hard shell, a mealy pulp, smell-
ing of garlic, and kidney-shaped seeds. The fruit of C. Marmelos is consi-
dered very delicate in the East Indies. The fruit is cooling and restringent ;
the leaves, applied, take away inflammations and pains of the head and ears ;
and the bark of the root blisters like cantharides. There are in all five species.
Prickly-seeded Triiimfetta, Triumfetta Lapula. N. O. Columniferae;
nat. Jamaica. A shrub, rising about eight feet high, with small, yellow
flowers ami burry capsules. There are eleven species.
Hairy Purslane, Portulaca Pilosa. N. O. Succulentae ; nat Jamaica,
on the Palisades, and the Keys, off* Port Royal. A well-known, herbaceous,
branching plant, always green, and used by some as a stomachic bitter. P.
Oleracea is cooling and moistening and takes away the strangury ; bruised
and applied to the forehead, relieves excessive heat and pain. The juice,
with vinegar, cores inflammations, and with oil, cures burns and scalds ;
fried with oil or lard, is good in diarrhoea ; eaten as a salad, or boiled, or
the expressed juice, is diuretic. There are in all twelve species, of which
four are natives of the West Indies.
Ciliated Lythrum, Lt/thrum Ciliatum. N. O. Calycanthemae. This
plant is a native of Jamaica. There are in all eighteen species.
ORDER ITT. TRIGYNIA.
Myrtle-leaved Spurge, Euphorbia Tithamyloid. N. O. Tricoccae ; nat.
Jamaica. An erect plant, about five feet high, abounding with a milky
juice, numerous pliant stems, and beautiful slipper-shaped, scarlet flowers.
The juice is extremely acrid, and will draw blisters on the skin, and take off*
warts, but, mixed with the blood, it is said to be fatal. A decoction of the
stalks is used, in South America, for curing syphilis and amenorrhcea.
Creeping Hairy Spurge, Caiacica, Piso says, is the best antidote in the
world against poison, the juice or decoction taken inwardly or applied out-
wardly ; and that a drachm, taken and repeated every three or four hours,
will cure the dry belly-ache. There are no less than ninety eight species of
CLASS XII. ICOSANDRIA.
This valuable class comprehends a number of beautiful plants and esculent
fruits, of the natural orders of Succulentae, Hesperideae, Pomacea?, and Sen-
sae. It contains also many highly useful medical vegetables.
Melon Thistle, Cactus Melocactus. N. O. Succulent* ; nat. Jamaica.
This curious plant is very common ; it grows on rocky places, as in Plate I.
Fig. 23, or salt, sandy ground. They are also called Turks' Caps and Popes'
Heads. The inside is a greenish flesh, full of moisture, of which cattle are
fond, in dry weather. One species bears a red fruit, of a tart taste and
Upright Torch Thistle, Cactus Hepandus. This grows very common,
as in Plate I. Fig. 24. It is frequently planted for fences on a bank. When
old and dry, it burns like a torch. The flower is generally white and large,
next the south sun ; the fruit yellow or red, with a white, sweet pulp.
Oblong Indian Fig, or Prickly Pear, Cactus Ficus Indica. Is very
common, growing as in Plate I. Fig. 25, and for fruit, see Frontispiece,
Fig. 28. The species, C. Cochinillifer, or Tuna, without prickles, is the
food of the cochineal insect, which is frequently found on it, and perhaps,
would be worth attention in Jamaica. The ripe fruit is diuretic, and colours
the urine crimson.
Great-flowered Creeping Cere us, Cereus Gr audi flora, is a native of
Jamaica. The flower opens in the night and continues only six hours. It
is very large, beautiful and magnificent, and of a delighttul smell.
Barbadoes Gooseberry, Cactus Pereskia. Has many slender, trailing
branches, beset with whitish spines. The leaves are roundish and succulent;
the fruit oblong. See Frontispiece, Fig. 37.
Raquette, Cactus Peruviauus. Is a dildo, but without prickles ; sup-
posed to be the plant from which gum euphorbium is procured. The best is
that which is white, bright and clear, and the older the better.
Green Withe, Cactus Pendulus vcl Aphylla. Runs straight up the sides
of large trees ; has a green, succulent, round stalk, without any leaves. A
piece put into any liquor, to be fermented, sets it working immediately.
When dry and tough, it is used for tying up rails, in fences. There are in
all twenty-eight species of Cactus.
Guava. See Explanation of Plate X. Fig. 7.
Bastard Greenheart, Cahjptranthes Chytraculia. N. O. Hesperideae ;
nat. Jamaica. An excellent timber tree, but seldom exceeds fourteen inches
in diameter, chiefly growing in the parish of St. Johns. There are six spe-
cies, one of which is the Jamboland, Jambolifera.
Fragrant Rose Apple, Eugenia Fragrans. N. O. Hesperidea ; nat.
Jamaica. This beautiful tree rises about twenty-five feet high, and is well
known. It bears a yellow fragrant fruit. See Frontispiece, Fig. 30. The
roots are said to be poisonous.
Clove Tree, E. Carophyllata, is a species of this genus, and might be
introduced with advantage into the West Indies, There are in all twelve
Jamaica Pepper, Myrtus Pimenta, N. O. Hesperidea? ; nat. Jamaica.
This elegant tree is very common, and cultivated in groves or walks for the
berries, which are an article of commerce, under the name of Pimento or
Allspice. It rises about thirty feet high, having a smooth trunk, covered with
a light coloured bark ; the leaves come out in pairs, like bay leaves, have a
fine aromatic odour when rubbed, heal ulcers, and are a good ingredient in
aromatic baths. The inflorescence is a spike succeeded by bunchesof berries,
which are picked while green, and afterwards dried on barbiques or platforms.
It is a fine subastringent aromatic, and yields an oil exactly similar to oil of
cloves, and when ground has been sold by the Dutch for ground cloves; pro-
bably the fruit when very young might be a good succedaneum for that
spice. Myrtus acris is a very beautiful tree with light bark, shining leaves,
and a pyramidal head. The berries are of an highly aromatic flavour, like
cloves. It is called Wild Clove Tree, Wild Cinnamon, and Bay Tree, in
Antigua, and by the French Bois dTnde. The wood is red, very heavy
and hard, used for cogs in mills. There are thirty-six species of Myrtus,
many of which are evergreens, and natives of Jamaica. They are also
called Arraganas. The Myrtus cotini folio of Sloane, strengthens the sto-
mach and eases cholic. A fomentation cleanses ulcers.
Pomegranate Tree, See Explanation of Plate X. Fig. 1. The rind of
the fruit boiled in water, with cinnamon, Port wine, and Guava jelly, is
good in fluxes ; or a conserve maybe made of the flowers or pulp with sugar.
Peach, Amygdalus Persica. N. O. Pomaceae ; nat. Persia. This delici-
ous fruit, of which there are near forty varieties, and of the Nectarine ten,
will not grow in the West Indies, except a few half-formed ones without
flavour, in the mountains of Port Royal ; but in America they are in great
abundance, and generally planted, like apple trees, in orchards ; and in
plentiful years they are frequently left on the trees to drop, and the pigs
turned in to feed upon them. A decoction of the leaves is a specific for the
belly-ache. The Almond, A. Communis, and the double flowering variety,
which when in full bloom, is a most elegant object, grow and flower, but do
not bear fruit in America. The kernel makes a demulcent emulsion, good
in coughs, and yields a fine oil. The oil with laudanum, dropped into the
ear hot, is good for deafness. There are in all seven species.
Plums, cherries, and apricots are also plentiful, and in great variety in
America. They are all species of the primus. Laurel-leaved Cherry Tree,
P. Occidentals, and some others, are natives of Jamaica. There are thirty^
three species of prunus, and innumerable varieties.
ORDER III. TRIGYNIA.
Purslane-leaved Samphire, Sesuvium Portulacastrum. N. O. Succu-
lents; nat. Jamaica. This plant is very common about the Ferry, Port
Henderson, Old Harbour, and the Deanry, and indeed all salinas, covering
the ground in beds of considerable extent. The stems are herbaceous and
subdivided. Leaves wedge-shaped, fleshy, and bright green. It makes an
excellent pickle, as good as the pirkled samphirp imported from England in
small bottles, and sold at large prices ; and is very full of a neutral alcales-
cent salt, easily procured from it, and which would doubtless make good
soap, sufficient for the island consumption. Dr.- Barham says another sort
resembles English Kali or Kelp, and that they help stoppage of urine, and a
decoction makes a good gargle. No other species.
ORDER IV. PENTAGYNIA.
Medlar, J\fespilns. Fr. Neflier ; Ital. Nespolo ; Spa. Nispero, does not
grow in the West Indies; but the fruit is found very good in America.
Snowy Mespilus, M. Canadensis, is a native of Canada and Virginia. There
are nine species of this genus.
Common Pear, Pi/rus Communis ; Fr. Poir ; Ital. Pero; Spa. Pera.
Apple, Pyrus Mains ; Fr. Pomme ; Ital. Melo ; Spa. Manzana and Quince,
P. Cydonia; Fr. Comassier ; Ital. Copogno ; Spa. Munbrillero. N. O.
Pomaceae. None of these fruits are adapted to the climate of the West In-
dies : those introduced into Port Royal mountains have degenerated and
produce but few apples, and those not worth eating. They are frequently
imported into Jamaica from America, where they grow in the greatest abun-
dance, so as sometimes to be not worth carrying from the orchards. I have
known a hogshead of cyder, of sixty gallons, sold (exclusive of cask) for a
dollar, the same price as is charged at a tavern in Jamaica for a bottle, but
it cannot be imported from America into Jamaica ; yet, in that climate it is
.very wholesome, and will sometimes stop an incipient fever. There are
many hundred varieties of pears and apples. Siberian Crabs, P. Pmnifolius,
are also common in America. There are 13 species of the Genus Pyrus.
ORDER V. POLYGIN1A.
Rose, Rosa. N. O. Senticosae. Fr. Rose ; Ital. Rosajo ; Spa. Rosa.
Some species of this beautiful plant are cultivated in gardens in Jamaica, and
grows freely and with little trouble. In the East Indies they are cultivated
in fields for the purpose of procuring attar of roses. A tincture of roses is
good in malignant angina. There are forty species of this genus and nu-
merous varieties. Oil of roses on a bait will irresistibly attract the rats into a
Raspberry, Rubus Idceus ; Fr. Framboise ; Ital. Rogo ; Spa. Frambueso.
Blackberry, Rubus ; Fr. Ronce ; Spa. Zarza. N. O. Senticosae. The
raspberry is sometimes found wild in the high mountains of Jamaica, but
never seen in the markets; and the Jamaica Bramble, R. Jamaicensis is a
native. Several species are natives of America, and the fruits plentiful there,
and the roots of R. Occidentalis decocted, is an Indian cure for dysentery,
which has been found very successful. There are thirty-two species of Rubus.
Esculent Strawberry, Fragaria Vesca. N. O. Senticosae. Fr. Le
Frasier ; Ital. Fragola ; Spa. Fresera. This well known and delicious fruit
grows wild, and is sometimes cultivated in gardens in the mountains of Ja-
maica, and might be more so, with success ; but is not seen in the market.
In America they are very plentiful, and the Chili strawberry grows to an
immense size. They are very wholesome, promote perspiration, dissolve
the tartar of the teeth and calculi ; also are said, by Linnaeus himself, to re-
lieve the gout. The bark of the root is astringent. There are three species.
Indian Physic, Spiraea Trifoliata. N. O. Senticosae or Pomaceae ; nat.
North America. The bark of the root is a safe and efficacious emetic, in doses
of about thirty grains; also possesses a tonic power, and is very beneficial
in intermittent fever, called also Bowman's root. There are in all twenty-two
species. Nine Bark, Spiraea Opulifolia, is also an active remedy, and is said
to be useful in cases of amenorrhea.
CLASS XIII. POLYANDRIA.
This numerous class abounds in very active and some poisonous vegetables,
as the twelfth class Icosandria, does in esculent and innocent plants. The
distinction lies in the different mode of insertion of the stamens. It contains
the natural orders of Putamineae, Columniferae, Rotaceae, Rhaeadeae, Mul-
tisiliquae, and Coadunata?. Some of the plants of this class are esculent, and
it contains many of valuable medical properties, particularly the Poppy.
Gamboge and others.
ORDER I. MONOGYNIA.
Umbelled Marcgravia, Marcgravia Umbellata. N. O. Putaminese;
nat. Jamaica. A shrubby creeping plant, something like a Fern ; the seeds
and pulp of a scarlet colour ; frequent in the woods. No other species.
Long-podded Caper Tree, Capparis Cynophallophora. Fr. Caprier ;
Ital. Cappera ; Spa. Alcaparra. N. O. Putaminese ; nat. West Indies. A
shrub with alternate smooth stiff leaves, the flowers beautiful and fragrant,
the pod six inches long, the seeds surrounded by a scarlet pulp. There are
in all twenty-five species of this genus.
White Poppy, Papaver Somniferum. That invaluable medicine, opium,
is the inspissated juice of this plant, which might be doubtless cultivated to
advantage in the southern states of America or the West Indies. In cases of
poison from opium or laudanum the remedy is an emetic of twenty grains of
sulphate of zinc, or any other strong emetic, repeated every ten minutes as
long as necessary ; then a strong cathartic, and plenty of lemon juice or vi-
negar, to which may be added, a stimulus on the skin by whipping with
small rods, till the danger is over. Strong coffee, without milk or sugar, is
also an effectual antidote, and taken after a dose of laudanum or opium, so as
to prevent its narcotic effects, will cure the head-ache.
Mexican Poppy. See Explanation of Plate IX. Fig. 1.
Mamjuee Apple. See Explanation of Plate VIII. Fig. 3.
Black Snake Root, Acta Racemosa. N. O. Multisiliquae ; nat. North
America: called also Squaw Weed, Rich Weed, and Rattle Weed: has large
compound leaves, rising immediately from the root : flower stems rising five
feet. The root is astringent, and a strong decoction is an excellent gargle
in putrid sore throats. A decoction cures psora. It is highly esteemed by
the Indians; and in North Carolina is given to cattle as a drench to cure the
murrain. It is also considered as an antidote against poison, or the bite of
the rattle-snake, with plantain juice. As an ingredient in bitters it is dia-
phoretic and alexipharrnic. There are four species.
Canada Puccoon, Sangulnaria Canadensis. N. O. Rhoedeae ; nat. North
America. Has a tuberous root yielding a red juice with which the Indians
paint themselves. The root is said to be emetic, and the seeds narcotic.
There is no other species. A weak decoction is alexipharrnic, and externally
applied is useful in the management of old ulcers : a powder of the root, in
a dose of one drachm is exhibited in jaundice. No other species.
Gamboge, Cambogia Gutta. Spa. Goma Guta. IS. O. Tricoccae ; nat.
East Indies. A tall tree, with spreading branches, leaves lanceolate-ovate,
flowers verticillate of a yellow colour, fruit two inches in diameter, with a
sweet yellow esculent pulp ; the gum flows from incisions made in the bark.
In small doses it is a powerful hydragogue, good in dropsies and worm
cases ; its principal use is as a yellow in water colours. No other species.
Anchovy Pear, Grias Cauliflora. Nat. Jamaica. Rises forty feet high,
branches at the top short or none, leaves very large and long, flowers on the
trunk, large and sweet smelling, fruit of a brown colour, size of an aligator's
egg, when pickled resembles the mango ; this tree grows in moist bottoms
or shallow waters. No other species. The bark of the root blisters like
Peltated Duck's-foot, Podophyllum peltatum. N. O. Rhaedeae ; nat.
North America ; called May Apple. This root has numerous tubers fastened
together by fibres ; the foot-stalk is fastened to the underside of the leaf like
a target. It flowers in May. The fruit is by some thought delicious ; the
leaves are poisonous, but the root in doses of twenty grains, with calomel, is
an excellent cathartic. The Indians use the dried root powdered as an an-
Common Arnotta, Bixa Orellana. N. O. Columniferae ; nat. East and
West Indies; rises ten feet high with many branches ; the leaves heart-
shaped and pointed, the flowers of a flesh colour. For the seed vessel see
Plate III. Fig. 24. The French call it Roucau ; Spanish Anato ; in the
Mexican language it is Achioll. A fine aurora colour is prepared in cakes by
washing the seeds. It is cordial, and used in chocolate and soups, and to
colour butter and cheese. Its extract is aood in fluxes and disorders of the
kidnies. The bark makes good ropes. The Indians preserve their feet from
chigoes and insects, by anointing them with arnotto and oil. The wood
rubbed produces fire. No other species.
Santa Maria or Bastard Mammee, Calopkyllum Calaba. Nat. West
Indies. A tall straight tree with ovate leaves ; flowers in racemes white and
fragrant ; fruit green, with a smooth nut, the wood is red and used for head-
ing casks ; an oil is expressed from the nut ; and the balsam heals up a
green wound at one or two dressings. There is one other species ; nat. East
Indies. A large timber tree, ninety freet in height.
Green Tea, Thea Viridis. N. O. Columniferge ; nat. China. Fr. The.
This plant is well known, and too commonly used as a daily beverage. The
green especially, drank hot, injures the stomach, destroys the teeth, and
enervates the nervous system, besides the great evil of its expensiveness,
which is severely felt by the lower classes, who often deny themselves and
families real necessaries and nourishing food, so infatuated are they with the
love of tea drinking. A cheap and wholesome substitute is coffee, which
should be made strong. Tea if boiled, or suffered to stand till cold and
warmed again, may be useful as a medicine, to excite watchfulness and pro-
duce diaphoresis. It might grow in the Southern States of America or the
West Indies, where it has not yet been tried. Dr. Lettsom has published an
elegant and interesting work on this plant.
Laurel-leap Magnolia, Magnolia Grandiflora. N. O. Coadunatas ;
nat. N. America. This beautiful tree rises with a straight trunk, to the height
of seventy feet ; the branches are spreading ; leaves large and thick ; flowers
large and spread open, white and fragrant ; fruit is in the form of a cone,
with scarlet seeds, suspended by a long fibre. The bark of the Beaver Tree,
M. Glauca and other species, is aromatic and tonic, and useful in intermit-
tents : a spirituous tincture of the seed vessel is good in rheumatism. There
are seven species. Angustura Bark, a celebrated tonic, is supposed to be the
bark of a species of this gemts.
Sour Sop, Annona JMuricata. N. O. Coadunatae ; nat. West Indies.
This tree is about twelve feet high, leaves oblong and acuminate. See
Plate I. Fig. 29, and for the fruit, Frontispiece, Fig. 4. The jam made of
the fruit is diuretic, and the French make a wine from it, called corossal.
Sweet Sop, Annona Squammosa. A. smaller tree, with spreading branches
and entire smooth leaves. See Plate I. Fig. 28. and for the fruit, Frontis-
piece, Fig. 7. A leaf laid on a bed will attract all the bugs.
Common Tulip Tree, Liriodendron Tulipifera. Spa. Magnolia Tulipifera.
N. O. Coadunatae ; nat. North America. A tree of the largest size, sometimes
called Poplar. The leaves are divided into three lobes, ending in blunt
points, the flowers come out from the end of the branches, six petalled and
bell-shaped, from whence it is called Tulip Tree. Petals are spotted with
yellow and red, and the seed vessel is a cone. The timber is useful and the
bark is good in intermittents. There is one other species.
Custard Apple, Annona Palustris. A small tree which grows well in
marshy places, having a smooth heart-shaped fruit, called Alligator Apple,
which is said to be a strong narcotic. The wood is soft and white, and used
for corks, from whence it is called Cork Wood in Jamaica. There are in all
tei; species. The dried fruit of A. Triloba is cathartic.
Traveller's Joy, Climates Dioica. N. O. Multisiliquae ; nat. Jamaica.
Has stiit stalks, climbing without tendrils ; leaves trifoliate. It is also
called Virgins Bower and Pudding Withe. Dr. Barham says the juice of the
flowers beaten and boiled is cosmetic. Twenty-one species.
Smooth-fruited Bitterwood, Xylopia Glabra. N. O. Coadunatae ;
nat. Jamaica. This tree grows fifty feet high, every part of a bitter taste ;
the bald-pate pigeons feeding on the berries acquire a bitter flavour. The.
wood is good timber, and easily worked ; bedsteads and presses made of it
are proof against cockroaches moths and all insects. A decoction is useful
in cholics, kills worms, and creates appetite. X. Muricata, is found in
Sixteen Mile Walk. There is one other species.
Canadian Yellow Root, Hydrastis Canadensis; nat. Canada. The root is
composed of fleshy tubers or bulbs of a deep yellow within, stalks about nine
inches high, leaves cut into lobes ; the stalk is terminated by one white flower ;
the root is very astringent and bitter, and used by the Indians to cure cancer
and obstinate ulcers. A spirituous infusion is used as a tonic bitter, and an in-
fusion of the root in cold water is useful in inflammation of the eyes ; the root
yields a brilliant yellow colour. No other species.
CLASS XIV. DIDYNAMIA.
This class comprises the two natural orders of Verticillatae and Personatae ;
the Verticillate plants of this class are generally fragrant, warm, and pene-
trating, and few, if any, are poisonous; they are well deserving attention in
the practice of physic ; when growing on dry soils they mark a healthy situa-
tion. Some of the plants of the order Angiospermia, and of the natural
order Personatae are poisonous, and these are frequently Pentandrous, in
which class will be found many noxious plants.
ORDER I. GYMNOSPERMIA.
Penny Royal Tree, Satureja Viminea. N. O. Verticillatae ; nat. Ja-
maica. A shrub with an upright stem, very much branched, leaves small
oblong, and wedge-shaped, flowers sessile and white ; frequent in cool moun-
tains. Tlie whole plant when dry is fragrant. It is a good ingredient in
aromatic baths. There are eight species of this genus.
Ground Ivy, Glechoma Hederacea. Fr. Lierre Terrestre ; Spa. Yedra
Terrestre. This well-known herb is common in Jamaica. A decoction sweet-
ened is good for coughs and catarrhs, and will discuss tumours ; the dried
leaves powdered are a good errhine for relieving head-ache. There are in
all six species.
Wild Basil, Ocymum Rubrum Medium, Fr. Basilie ; Ital. Bassilico ;
Spa. Albahaca. N. O. Verticillatae. A fragrant herb, rising about
nine inches high, with small oval leaves, and minute flowers, contains a
balm good for sores, and against the sting of scorpions ; it is also said to be
good for the eyes. There are in all twenty-five species of this genus.
Wild Spikenard or Sweet-smelling Black Horehound, Ballota Sua
veolens ; Fr. Nard Indique ; Ital. Spiganarde ; Spa. Pinillo Oloroso. N. O.
Verticillatae ; nat. West Indies. The stem is upright, rising about three
feet, branches and leaves villose, flowers blue. This fragrant plant is well
known, and used commonly in warm baths, also by the negroes to heal
ulcers; the oily spirit is lithonthriptic and diuretic; it likewise expels poi-
son, and is cephalic ; and is also useful in dropsy. There are in all six species:
it is called in Jamaica, Spignel. This is rather Bystropogon Suaveolens.
Wild Hops or Iron Wort, Clinopodium Capitatum ; nat. Jamaica. Rises
three feet high with square stalks, and hairy ovate leaves. It heals wounds
and stops fluxes : a decoction with honey is excellent for sore throats.
Mint, Mentha; Fr. Mente ; Ital. M enta ; Spa. Menta. N. O. Verticil-
latae. This well-known herb grows freely in Jamaica ; is a valuable anti-
spasmodic, and relieves cholic ; an infusion will stop vomiting. Nineteen
species in all.
Blue Scull Cap, Scutellaria Galericulata. N. O. Verticillatae. This
plant grows in America on the banks of rivers and ponds, about two feet
high, steins square, leaves heart-shaped and pointed. It is bitter
and astringent, and with the addition of green vitriol may be used for
dying black. It has been lately employed with great success as a specific
remedy for canine madness, and a certain antidote against the poison which
produces it, by a person of the name of Lewis, near Mamaroneck in New
York. The whole plant was by him dried and reduced to a powder or given
in decoction for sometime : two ounces of the herb is sufficient for a cure if
administered in time, its success has been proved in numerous instances, and
attested by many respectable characters in New York, There are in all six-
teen species of this genus.
Self-heal, Ruelia Paniculata, N. O. Personatae ; nat. Jamaica ; called
Christmas Pride. The stem rises three feet high, much branched, leaves
lanceolate, flowers blue and rather large. The whole plant smells something
like camphor, and is very common about Spanish Town ; the juice is a specific
for diebruen, and for sore mouths and throats ; mixed with honey of roses and
vinegar, it takes away swelling of the testes, and bruised is excellent for
fresh wounds. In all forty-three species.
ORD. II. ANGIOSPERMIA.
Scarlet Flowered Cyrilla, Cyrilla Pulchella. N. O. Personatae. nat.
Jamaica ; near Hope River, in Liguanea. A handsome plant, with several
branched stems, leaves ternate, ovate, sharp at both ends, frequently
blood red beneath, flowers axillary, solitary, and red. It deserves to be cul-
tivated for its beauty. No other species.
American Brunsfelsia, or Trumpet Flower, Brunsfelsia Americana,
N. O. Personatae ; nat West Indies. Grows from eight to ten feet high,
trunk smooth, and the branches divaricate ; leaves entire, smooth, flowers
yellow and fragrant, the tube four inches in length. One other species.
Trumpet Flower, Bignonia. See Class II. Order I. Plate 34, where
it is inserted by mistake, as it belongs to this class and order.
Besleria Lutea, is a native of the West Indies.
Petrea Volubilis, is a native uf the West Indies.
Oval Leaved Fiddlewood, Citharexylum Caudatum. N. O. Personatae ;
nat West Indies. French, Guittarin, and Bois Cotelet ; called also Old Wo-
man's Bitter. This tree has a round, upright trunk, a foot in diameter, to
the height of 20 feet, with a handsome head ; leaves oblong, oval, pointed
at both ends, long and shining ; flowers small, white, many and fragrant ;
berries succulent and black when ripe. Black-heart Fiddlewood rises forty
feet high, and is considered one of the hardest and best timber trees ; berries
small and yellow, which are sometimes eaten by the negroes. There are five
species, all natives of Jamaica.
For Calabash Tree. See Explanation of Plate VIII. Fig 4. Add, the
French apply the calabash poultice to burns, and to the shaved head in coup
de soleil, or stroke of the sun.
For Wild Sage, see Explanation of Plate IX. Fig. 3.
Vangloe or Oily Pulse, Sesamum Indicum. See Explanation of Plate
IX. Fig 7.
Thick-spiked Ruellia, Ruellia Blechum, is a native of Jamaica, in the
Jamaica Tea Goatweed, or Sweet Weed, Capraria Biflora ; N. O.
Personatae. A small shrub, with erect branches, and oblong, acuminate
serrate leaves, flowers white, seeds very small ; it is common in Jamaica,
and all the West India islands, called by the French, The Du Pays. An in-
fusion is a very good beverage. There are seven species in all.
Chaste Tree, Vitex Umbrosa, N. O. Personatae, is a native of Jamaica.
There are in all fourteen species.
Yellow Toad Flax, Antirrhinum Linaria ; Ital. Linaria ; Spa. Linaria.
N. O. Personatae. A species, Minor erecta caerulea, grows two feet high,
and the flowers stand on long peduncles; the juice mixed with hog's lard
cures the piles or haemorrhoids.
Prickly Duranta, Duranta Ellisia. N. O. Personatae ; nat. Jamaica.
This shrub rises about six feet high, having long reclining branches, with
spines ; leaves ovate lanceolate ; frequent in fences between Kingston and
Spanish Town. Two other species.
Prickly Volkameria, Volkameria Aculeata, is very common in the
low lands of Jamaica. There are eight species in all.
Barbadoes Wild Olive, Bontia Daphnoides. N. O. Personatae; nat.
West Indies. The leaves are thick, stiff, and smooth; corolla yellowish.
Pigeons fatten on the berries, which are intensely bitter. There is no other
Hairy Columnea, Columnea Hirsuta. N. O. Personatae; nat. Jamaica;
also called larger hairy Aehimenes. This handsome plant is frequent in the
cool mountains: the stem is thick, and the leaves opposite; flowers large,
variegated, and hairy on the outside : it deserves cultivation for its beauty.
In all six species.
Fox Glove, Digitalis. N. O. Luridae. Fr. Digitale, or Gantelee; Spa,
Dedalera ; Ital. Oralda. This plant is indigenous in America, and is much
in use as a very powerful narcotic and diuretic ; but its properties are very
active, and in large doses it is poisonous. Dr. Barham says it heals all
wounds and ulcers, made into an ointment, with hog's lard and green to-
bacco. There are in all twelve species.
Cancer Root, Orobanche. N. O. Personatae ; nat. North America.
Every part of this plant is very astringent and bitter: it is considered as a
powerful remedy in dysentery ; but it is chiefly celebrated as a cure for
cancer, and formed the principal part of Martin's powder. Externally ap-
plied to obstinate ulcers it has been very successful.
CLASS XV. TETRADYNAMIA.
This class is the most natural in the system, containing all the plants of
the natural order Siliquosae. There is no tree in the whole order, and the
stem is generally herbaceous. The plants are frequently acrid, but none of
them poisonous. It supplies several articles of food which are extremely nu*
tritious, as the turnip, cabbage, &c. and likewise furnishes stimulating condi-
ments, as mustard, horse radish, &c. which are also useful in a medical
point of view for cataplasms.
ORDER II. SILIQUOS^E.
Indian Kale. See Explanation of Plate X. Fig. 8.
Mustard, Sinapis; Fr. Moutard; Ital. Senape; Spa. Mostasa. This
well known plant will grow in Jamaica. A vomit of the seeds relieves heart-
burn and dyspepsia, and the seed in white wine is good for numbness of the
extremities, and gives relief to the gout and rheumatism; a cataplasm or
sinapism is an excellent stimulant.
Radish, Raphanus; Fr. Rave; Spa. Rabano ; Ital. Radicchio ; and
Cabbage, Brassica ; Fr. Chou ; Ital. Cavolo ; Spa. Berza ; grow in Jamaica
in cool situations, and numerous species are to be found in North America.
Wild Mustard, Cleome Triphylla. The whole plant is balsamic and
vulnerary ; boiled in oil remedies cutaneous diseases and cures deafness.
Water Cress, Sisymbrium', Fr. Cressou; Spa. Berro ; grows in springs
and rivers in Jamaica, and is rather more biting than the European sort.
CLASS XVI. MONADELPHIA.
This class is a natural class, comprehending principally plants of the na-
tural order Columniferse, of which see a beautiful specimen, Plate XI. Fig.
2; also the order Gruinales. It contains plants from the size of the herb to the
most immense trees, and comprizes many valuable vegetables, among which is
the cotton. Some of the plants are fit for food, as the Okra, and it also fur-
nishes a few articles to the materia medica.
ORDER I. TRIANDRIA.
Tamarind Tree. This tree is now placed in this class formerly Class III.
Ord. 1 ; for a description see Explanation of Plate V. Fig. 1 ; and for the
habit of the tree, Plate I. Fig. 7.
Hares Foot Ochroma, Ochroma Lagopus. N. O. Columniferae ; nat.
West Indies. A large tree witli straggling branches, the wood white and
light, and used for corks; leaves a foot in diameter ; flowers on thick pedun-
cles, white, fleshy, and reflex. It abounds on the banks of the Rio Cobre
in Jamaica. Desportes says that the beauty of the English beavers is chiefly
to be ascribed to the down in the fruit of this tree. No other species.
ORDER V. DECANDRIA.
Spotted Geranium, or Crow Foot, Geranium Maculatum ; nat. North
America ; Fr. Racine a Becquet ; Spa. Rinonculo ; Ital. Flamula ; is a pow-
erful astringent. The root boiled in milk has been found an excellent reme-
dy in the cholera of children, and probably would relieve nephritic complaints,
where astringents are proper. A decoction is used by the inhabitants of New
York in cases of dysentery. The Indians say it is a most effectual remedy
for the cure of syphilis. An aqueous infusion as an injection, alone or com-
bined with white vitriol, is a cure for gonorrhoea. A decoction of the root
of a species of Napaea, called by the negroes Lass, is also said to be a sovereign
remedy in syphilis. Thirty-two species of this genus in all.
Scarlet-flowered Brownea, Brownea Coccinea. N. O. Lomentaceae ;
nat. West Indies. A small tree growing about twenty feet high ; leaves
oval and smooth ; the flowers grow in bunches, and are pendulous ; the corolla
is scarlet, and the stamens yellow. There are two other species.
Broad-leaved Screw Tree, Helicteres Jamaicensis. N. O. Columniferae ;
nat. Jamaica. A small tree about twelve feet high ; leaves petioled and to-
mentose ; flowers white ; the capsule is twisted in a spiral form. See Plate
III. Fig. 46. This curious shrub is frequent in the low hills. Nine species
ORDER VI. POLYANDRIA.
Sour Gourd, or Monkey Bread Tree, Adansonia digitata. N. O. Co-
lumniferae ; nat. of Senegal. An immense large tree, upwards of sixty feet
in circumference, but not high in proportion, similar to the cotton tree, the
leaves are large and pointed at both ends ; the fruit large and oblong ; but
the seeds are covered with meal instead of a silky down. This is esculent when
dried, and the fresh fruit is of a pleasant acid. A syrup of the pulp is dia-
phoretic, and used in fevers and dysenteries. There is no other species.
Silk Cotton Tree. See Explanation of Plate X. Fig. 6. ; add, the young
buds are very mucilaginous like Ochro.
Jamaica Sida, Sida Jamaicensis. N. O. Columniferae. Stem a foot high ;
leaves alternate, small, and softish ; flowers small and yellow ; the leaves and
buds are very mucilaginous, and make a soft lather with water. It is also
called Broom Weed, and the plants are cut to make besoms. There are in all
ninety-nine species, many of which are natives of Jamaica: they all abound
with mucilage, and are emollient.
Spiked Mallow, Malva Spicata; Fr. Mauve; Spa. Malva; Ital. Malva.
Stem three feet high, branched ; leaves nearly round ; flowers orange co-
loured, in spikes. The properties of Malva are similar to Sida. There are
in all thirty-four species, of which many are natives of Jamaica.
Cotton. See Explanation of Plate VIII. Fig. 1. The species cultivated
with much success in the southern states of America, is the Gosspium Her-
baceum ; nat. East Indies.
Ochro, Hibiscus. See Explanation of Plate XI. Fig. 1. A free use of the
Ochro is good in consumptions.
Scarlet Achania, Achania JVTalvaviscus. N. O. Columniferae ; nat. Ja-
maica. This plant is common in the woods; rising about nine feet high;
leaves heart-shaped, woolly, and lobated; flowers single, upright, and
scarlet ; the tube of the corolla twisted. There are two other species.
CLASS XVII. DIADELPHIA.
This is nearly a natural class, comprising plants of the natural order Pa-
pilionaceae, and is one of the most important classes in the system, containing
many plants valuable for food, as the pea, bean, &c. also several useful
medicines, as liquorice, seneca, snake root, and cowhage ; likewise many
plants used in dying, as indigo, dyers broom, &c. Linnaeus asserts, that in
the whole order of Papilionacese, there is not one poisonous plant, except
the lupin, which kills the hippopotamus; but perhaps this operates in the
same way as the Cashaw, which kills horses in the West Indies, but in itself
is not poisonous.
ORDER III. OCTANDRIA.
Climbing Securidaca, Securidaca Scandens. N. O. Papilionaceae ; nat.
Jamaica. A shrubby plant with long tendrils; oblong ovate leaves ; red and
scentless flowers ; a pod in the shape of an axe, from whence its name. There
are two other species, natives of the West Indies.
Seneca Rattle Snake Root, Poly gala Seneca. N. O. Lomentaceae;
Spa. Lechera. The root of this valuable plant is perennial, woody, and
branched, covered with ash-coloured bark ; the stems are erect, about a foot
in height, of a reddish colour; leaves alternate and acute; flowers small and
white, in spikes. The root, with juice of broad-leaved plantain, is a spe-
cific remedy for the bite of the rattle-snake, and also useful in pleurisy, rheu-
matisms, and dropsies ; the dose is from one scruple to two of the powder,
in Madeira wine, or two or three spoonfuls of decoction, prepared by boiling
an ounce of the root in a pint and a half of water till reduced to a pint, and
a tea-spoonful given every half hour, drinking nothing else. It is one of the
most invaluable articles in the materia medica: and is particularly useful in
cases of cynanche trachealis, croup or hives, bringing away a membrane by
the mouth. A case of locked jaw, occasioned by the bite of a rattle-snake,
has been cured by means of the Seneca. It is a powerful sudorific, and is
used in malignant sore throat and syphilis by the Indians, with great suc-
cess. It sometimes is salivatory to a great degree.
Panicled Milk Wort, P. Paniculata. This beautiful little plant is a
native of Jamaica and Hispaniola ; the stem is less than a foot high ; branches
thread-like and erect; leaves acute and entire ; flowers small and purplish ;
it has much the smell and taste of the Seneca Root, and an infusion or decoc-
tion taken in the morning is a mild attenuant and sudorific, promotes expec-
toration, and is good for catarrh and cough. A cold infusion all night is a
strong diuretic, and eases pleuritic pains.
Rest Harrow, Ononis, removes obstructions, and cures hernia carnosa.
P. Diversi folia, or Bastard Lignum Vit.e, grows plentifully in the
Red Hills; rising seven or eight feet; taste not unlike guaicuin, and it is
sometimes used for the same purposes. Dr. Barham says it is a strong diuretic,
and eases pleuritic pains. There are in all forty-five species.
Green or Wild Ebony, Amerimmtm Ebenus ; Fr. Ebene ; Spa. Ebano ;
Ital. Ebano. N O. Papilionaceae ; nat. West Indies ; rises about fourteen feet
high, full of branches and small twigs, very tough and flexile; leaves are
small and stiff', with sessile flowers, numerous and of a bright yellow ; pods
compressed and moon-shaped, inclosing one kidney-shaped seed ; the trunk
seldom exceeds four inches in diameter, but the wood is of a fine greenish
brown, very hard, and polishes well ; the oil of it put into a hollow tooth,
cures the tooth ache. One other species. It is frequently exported to Europe.
Smooth-leaved Coral Tree, Erythrina Corallodendron. This beautiful
tree has a thick stern, rising about twenty feet high ; leaves heart-shaped and
smooth ; flowers of a deep scarlet, in thick spikes, succeeded by crooked
pods. The Spaniards planted them among their cacao trees, to break the
force of the winds. There are seven species in all. The flowers make an
excellent eye water.
Pindall, or Earth Nut. See Explanation of Plate XI. Fig. 6,
For Wild Liquorice, see Explanation of Plate XI. Fig. 4.
Crotolaria Sagittalis is a native of Jamaica. There are thirty-two
species in all.
Jamaica Dog Wood, Piscidia Erythrina. N. O. Papilionacere ; nat. Ja-
maica. This tree rises upon a thick stem twenty feet high, branching at the
top; leaves pinnate, and flowers white, succeeded by oblong pods; grows
chiefly in the low lands, by road sides, or on dry hills. The bark of the
root, leaves, and twigs, pounded, and mixed with the water in some deep
and convenient part of a river or creek, intoxicates the fish, which rise and
float on the surface as if they were dead, and after some time recover.
It is considered as one of the best timber trees, very hard and resinous, makes
excellent piles for wharfs, and is commonly used for fellies for wheels. The
bark of the trunk is very restringent; a decoction stops the discharge of ulcers,
and cures the mange in dogs. It would probably answer for tanning, and
the bark is good in fomentations. There is one other species.
Cowhage, Dolichos Prurlens. N. O. Papilionaceae ; nat. West Indies.
This is a climbing and spreading plant, stems round ; leaves ovate and
pointed, always three on each stalk ; flowers purple, in spikes. Bean com-
pressed, inflex at the base, reflex at the tip, covered with short sharp spi-
cule, which cause an itching when handled. A decoction of the root is a
powerful diuretic ; and an infusion of the pods in wine, twelve to a quart, is
said to be a certain remedy for the dropsy, the dose half a pint, and made into
beer: the bean boiled in oil eases the gout and St. Anthony's fire. The broth
of a fowl stuffed with cowhage, will carry off* incipient dropsies. (Boiling de-
stroys the spiculae). The fresh pods dipped in molasses, and the spiculse
scraped off* is the best medicine for destroying worms, which it does mechani-
cally ; it may be safely taken in doses of a spoonful, each morning fasting ;
see Dr. Chamberlain's Essay on Stizolobium. There are in all thirty-eight
species ; many of which are natives of Jamaica. The ox-eye bean called by
the French Yeux bourrique, is the seed of the D. Urens, common in the
Indigo. See Plate XI. Fig. 5. Fr. Indigo; Ital. Indico; Spa. Anil.
Wild Indigo, or Bastard Indigo, Amorpha Fruticosa. N. O. Papi-
lionaceae; nat. Carolina ; rises with irregular steins, twelve feet high, having
very long, winged leaves, and spikes, of purple flowers ; formerly the in-
habitants made a coarse sort of indigo from the young shoots. There is no
Angola, or Pigeon Pea, Cytlsus Cajan. N. O. Papilionaceae ; nat. both
Indies and Africa; rises about eight feet high, with many branches; flowers
are a deep yellow ; legumes hairy, and intercepted by obliquely transverse
streaks. Pigeon Pea is frequently planted ; it will thrive on poor land, and
continue many years. The pea when green or dried is very wholesome and
delicate food; it is also used to feed pigeons, and is said to bear seven years :
the leaves make an excellent eye water. There are in all eighteen species.
Bastard Cabbage Tree, Geoffroya Inermis. N. O. Papilionaceae; nat.
Jamaica. This tree rises a considerable height, sending off branches towards
the top ; leaves pinnate ; flowers rose-colour, in clusters ; fruit a large subovate
drupe; the wood is hard, and the bark is a powerful anthelmintic, given in
decoction, syrup, powder, or extract: it should be given cautiously at first, the
dose is a scruple, not more, as the bark and fruit are both bitter and active. Two
ounces of dried bark, boiled from three pints of water to two, and sweetened,
dose two table-spoonfuls every morning in the week, then a dose of castor oil,
for worms; or fifteen grains of the powdered bark, with as much jalap, is
a good cathartic. There is another species.
Glycine Reticulata, is a native of Jamaica; also Milky Clitoria, C. Galactia.
Two-leaved Hedysarum, Hedysarum Diphyllum. N. O. Papilionacea?.
This and several other species of this genus, of which there are ninety in all,
are natives of Jamaica, also called Onobrychis ; the seeds are stomachic and
expellers of poison.
CLASS XVIII. POLYADELPHIA.
This class cannot be considered a very natural class ; it contains plants of
the orders Columniferae, Gruinales, Bicornes, and Rotaceae. It is one of
the smallest of the classes in the system ; but comprehends the Cacao, and
the different species of orange and lemon.
ORDER I. DECANDRTA.
Chocolate Nut. See Explanation of Plate XI. Fig. 7. The oil is good
to rub weak and paralytic limbs.
Bastard Cedar, Bubroma Guazuma. N. O. Columniferae; nat. West
Indies. This tree rises thirty or forty feet high, the branches spreading out
wide at the top; leaves oblong, heart-shaped, ending in a point, and serrated,
like hazel ; flowers small, odoriferous, and yellowish, succeeded by a hard,
rugged fruit ; see Plate III. Fig. 28. It forms a good shade for cattle,
which will feed on the leaves and young twigs; the wood is light and easily
wrought, and generally used to make pannels for kitterines. There is no other
species. The inner bark is glutinous, like the elm, and said to be good for
elephantiasis, swelled limbs, bruises, and fractures.
Orange, Citrus hurantium; Fr. Orange ; Ital. Arancia ; Spa. Naranjo.
N. O. Bicornes. All the species of this genus are small trees or shrubs,
branching into a roundish head; the leaves are ever-green, and ovate lan-
ceolate; sometimes solitary spines are found on the branches; the flowers are
white and sweet-scented. For an account of the different fruits of this genus,
see Explanation of Frontispiece; and for the habit of the forbidden fruit, C.
Decumana, see Plate III. Fig. 35. The oranges of the West Indies are very
large and juicy, the juice quenches thirst, allays heat, is antiseptic, and useful
in scurvy, and corrects the acridity of the bile ; the rind is aromatic and sto-
machic, and useful in agues and menorrhagia. The inside roasted is an ex-
cellent cataplasm for maturating inflammations ; according to Labat, citron
juice is useful with other cordials to obviate the effects of manchineel poison,
and the juice of either the sour or sweet orange with salt, is the common ca-
thartic among the lower people in the French islands. Ripe oranges may
be freely allowed with safety in fevers. Lemons or lime juice given with oil
kills worms, and with salt of wormwood, swallowed in the act of effer-
vescence, stops vomiting and abates fever ; and rubbed in with gunpowder,
after the parts are made to bleed, cures ring-worms. The lime tree makes
excellent fences, and a decoction of the root is good in syphilis ; the leaves
are also a good ingredient in aromatic baths. The acid juice of lemons or
limes is a well known antidote against narcotic vegetable poisons, particu-
larly opium; hence, the use of acids for persons who are habitually obliged
to take considerable doses of opiates, cannot be too strongly recommended.
The most convenient form for having the benefit of the citric acid at sea, is
in the form of crystals; but it is often adulterated in the shops with vitriolic
acid. The lemon is Citrus Medica, the shaddock is C. Decumana, the Man-
darine orange, C. Nobilis. Another species is called Grape Fruit, and there
are five species in all.
Yellow Leaf, or Horse Sugar, Hopea Tinctoria ; nat. America. The
leaves dye a fine yellow colour, and are said to be useful in cases of nephritis
CLASS XIX. SYNGENESIA.
This class is, with the exception of the last order, Monogamia, a very na-
tural assemblage of plants, comprehending the family of compound flowers,
of the natural orders Aggregate and Compositae. There are only two
or three poisonous plants in this order, and several of the semifloscular
flowers are esculent, and some are medicinal, as the lettuce, dandelion,
camomile, coltsfoot, &c. It is remarkable, that although the milky plants of
other classes are generally poisonous, the milky plants of this class with a
few exceptions are not so.
ORDER I. EQUALIS.
Garden Lettuce, Lactuca Sativa; Ital. Laettuga; Fr. Laitne; Spa.
Lecchuga. N. O. Composite Semifloscnlosae; nat. India. This well known
plant will grow in Jamaica in cool situations; it is wholesome, cooling, and
proper in hot, bilious dispositions. It promotes sleep, and the seeds make a
cooling emulsion useful in strangury. The milky juice of Wild Lettuce, L.
Virosa, has an opiate power of considerable strength, and may be made into
pills when dry, or dissolved in wine, when it is said to be an excellent
anodyne. The extract may be taken, in doses from eighteen grains to three
drachms, in twenty-four hours ; it has repeatedly cured the dropsy, and is cele-
brated also as a diuretic and resolvent medicine in cases of calculi. There
are in all eleven species.
Common Dandelion, Jjcontodon Taraxacum. N. O. Composite Semi-
flosculosae. Fr. Dent de lion; Spa. Diente de lion ; Ital. Dente de leone.
This plant is common in America, and is too well known to need description ;
it is much celebrated as a diuretic and resolvent medicine, the dose is three
ounces, to be taken three or four times a day; it has also great efficacy in drop-
sical complaints, and obstructions of the viscera, and promotes the catamenia.
When very young the leaves are good in saliads, and the French eat the roots
with bread and butter; the distilled water with vitriol is good against petechial
fevers. There are four species in all.
Halbert Weed, Calea Lobata, rises five feet high, with a strong stalk, and
large rough sinuated leaves; on twigs at the top of the stalk are many naked
yellow flowers. The fresh herb in infusion is a good bitter, and a spirituous
infusion of the tops is an active, warm stomachic; the infusion drank
constantly after a fever will bring back the bile to its natural state.
Halbert Weed flowers with Vervain are good to make a tea to drink every
morning, against habitual costiveness.
Hawk Weed, Hieracium; Spa. Iracio. N. O. Composite Semiflosculosae.
The virtues are astringent ; the juice, with honey and roch alum, makes an
excellent eye water. There are fifty-five species.
Halbert-leavsd Mikania, ,M. Hastatus, a native of Jamaica.
Sweet-scented Hemp Agrimony, Eupatorium Odoratum. N. O. Com-
posite Discoidece; nat Jamaica; Fr. Eupatoire. A weakly shrubby plant,
about six feet high ; leaves petioled and three- nerved ; flowers terminating and
white; smell like Meadow Sweet; is very common in the lower hills. Its virtues
are opening and cleansing. There are in all forty-nine species, many of which
are natives of the West Indies. An American species in Georgia has nearly
superseded the use of Peruvian bark in the cure of fevers ; given in infusion
it does not oppress the stomach as Peruvian bark is sometimes apt to do.
Bastard Saffron, or Safflower, Carthamus Tinctorius; Ital. Zafarano;
Spa. Azafran; Fr. Safran. N. O. Composite Capitatse. An annual plant,
rising three feet high, dividing into many branches, with ovate, pointed,
sessile leaves. It will grow in the West Indies, and would perhaps be
worth cultivation for dyers' use; it dyes a beautiful yellow colour, and the
kernel taken in broth is a very strong cathartic. There are ten species in all.
Spiked Saw Wort, Serratula Spicata. A decoction of this plant is said
by the Indians to cure gonorrhoea and syphilis, and is also useful in cases of
nephritis calculosa, or gravel.
A species of Daisy, Bellis; Fr. Marguerite; Spa. Marja; grows in Ja-
maica, the juice of which is said to be useful in consumptions.
Feverfew, Pgrethrum; Ital. Matricale ; Spa. iVIatricale. The virtues of
this plant are tonic, astringent, and bitter, and strengthen the stomach.
Quinchamali, a species of Santolina ; bears a yellow and red flower. A
decoction of this plant, drank plentifully, is an infallible remedy for bleeding
inwardly, or at the nose, in consequence of a fall.
Upright Eclipta, Eclipta Erecta. N. O. Compositae; nat. East and
West Indies. Stem erect, about a foot high; the leaves are in pairs, and
trinervous; the flowers come out two together, white, and discoid; the juice
is used tor dying hair, both of men and quadrupeds, from whence it is called
ink plant. There are in all Ave species.
Golden Rod, Conyza JLobata. Is vulnerary, and carries ofl* the tartare-
ous matter which forms calculi.
Wing-stalked Verbesina, Verbesina Alata. N. O. Composite Oppo-
sitirohae; nat. Jamaica. This plant has an herbaceous, upright stem, subdi-
vided, and rough-haired; leaves oblong, acuminate, and nerved; flowers
in a single head, of a deep orange. There are twelve species, most of which
are natives of the West Indies.
Coltsfoot, Tussilago Uni flora; Ttal. Farfaro; Spa. Tusilago. This
well-known plant is of singular use in obstructions of the viscera. The juice
of the leaves and roots, given in Madeira wine, purities the blood, and ex-
cites the catamenia; the distilled water, sharpened with vitriolic or sulphuric
acid, is useful in putrid fevers.
Sea-side Oxeye, Buphthalmum .Maritimum; Fr. Ceil debceuf. A fine
aromatic, and a good ingredient in a bath or fomentation.
Annual Sun Flower, Helianthus Animus; Fr. Soleil ; Spa. GirasoL
N. O. Composite Oppositifoliae. These well-known plants are natives of
America, and will grow in the West Indies. They have been of late culti-
vated in considerable quantities, for the sake of their seeds, which are excellent
to feed and fatten poultry ; and also produce a clear limpid oil. They are given
for coughs, and may also be used in bread. One species, H. Tuberosus, is the
Jerusalem artichoke, which is delicate eating. The root of H. Strumosus is
also eaten in Canada. There are twelve species, all perennial except two.
Rough-leaved Elephant's Foot, Elephantopus S caber. N. O. Compo-
site Capitate; nat. Jamaica. This plant rises from half a foot to three feet
high; stem rigid; leaves embracing, wrinkled, and hairy; and the side
branches are terminated by heads of purple flowers. It is common on the
north side, and is considered a good vulnerary, and much used in consump-
tive cases. The leaves are frequently used by the French instead of carduus
benedictus; the herb bruised will dissolve the carbuncle ; a decoction of the
root drank forty days, is useful in leprosy and breakings out, and expels
poison. There are two other species, natives of Jamaica.
CLASS XX. GYNANDRTA.
This class cannot be considered as a natural class ; it comprehends plants
of the natural orders of Orchideae, Ensatae, Columnifere, and Piperitae.
The properties of the plants of the order Orchideae, have for a long time been
reputed aphrodisiac, many of them are at least extremely nutritious ; the
salep of the shops is produced from the Orchis morio, and the bulbs of other
species would also yield it. The Piperita? when fresh are very acrid, which
quality is lessened by boiling or roasting. Some of the genera are also
valuable in a medical point of view.
ORDER I. DIANDRIA.
Orchis, Orchis Habenaria. N. O. Orchideae ; nat. Jamaica, in low mea-
dows at the loot of mountains. The bulb is single and oblong; stem erect and
leafy, eighteen inches high ; leaves sessile, ovate lanceolate, and three-nerved,
sheathing the stem ; flowers white, and in spikes ; corolla five petalled of a
singular shape. Salep is demulcent, and useful in dysentery, dysury, and
calculous complaints, and an admirable demulcent in symptomatic fever,
after amputation. It contains a great quantity of nourishment in a small
bulk: one ounce of this powder and one ounce of portable soup, with two
quarts of boiling water, might, in a case of necessity, be sufficient nourish-
ment for one man for a day, and should therefore be always carried on ship-
board, to prevent a famine at sea. There are in all fifty species of this
genus. Red-flowered Neottia, N. Speciosa, and Frosted-flowered, N. Or-
chioides, are natives of Jamaica.
Tall Limodorum, or Jamaica Salep, Limodorum Altum. N. O. Orchi-
deae; nat. Jamaica, in the cool mountains; and the root properly cured is
stomachic. There are thirteen species of this genus.
V anilla, Epidendrum Sanguineum; Fr. Vanilla; Spa. Vaynilla. N. O.
Orchideae ; nat. Jamaica. This plant climbs trees, taking hold of the bark
by its tendrils; from the stalk arises one thick, roundish, tuberous leaf, an inch
in diameter; from the top of this come two smooth, striated leaves, three
inches long, between which springs out a stalk about a foot high, and near
the top stand several long, beautiful, purple flowers. The aromatic Va-
nilla is a native of South America; the pods of which are filled with an iron
mense number of small, black, shining seeds ; the fruit is used to flavour
chocolate and perfume snuffs: it yields a great quantity of oil and volatile
salts. There are in all 124 species, of which fifty are natives of the West
India Islands, and principally of Jamaica. The expressed juice of Green
Withe, E. Claviculatum, in a dose of a table-spoonful, is diuretic, cathartic,
Granadilla, Passiflora Quadrangular is. N. O. Cucurbitaceae ; nat. Ja-
maica. This well-known plant is common in gardens, where it forms very
close arbours in a few months; a slip cut off* the vine will grow if planted in
rainy weather; the fruit is delicious ; see Explanation of Frontispiece, Fig.
35. P. Maliformis also makes fine arbours, and has a roundish fruit, of the
size of a large apple, which is very good ; as also is the Water Lemon, P.
Laurifolia. Bull Hoof, or Dutchman's Laudanum, P. Murucuja, bears a
fruit of the size of a large olive, flesh-coloured when ripe. The syrup and
decoction of the plant, or an infusion of the flowers in wine or spirits, is a
very effectual and easy narcotic. The root of Wild Passion-Flower, or Con-
trayerva, is recommended as a counter poison by Hernandez. The flower of
all the species is singularly beautiful, and supposed to contain representa-
tions of the instruments of our Saviour's passion — whence the name. There
are thirty-seven species, mostly natives of the West Indies,
ORDER V. IIEXANDRIA.
Sweet-scented Birthwort, or Contrayerva, Aristolochia. See Ex-
planation of Plate VI. Fig. 4, where it is inserted by mistake under the name
of Dorstenia. It is the Lianne, or Serpent Withe, of the French. The
infusion of the root in wine, with orange peel, is stomachic and diuretic.
Virginia Snake Root, A. Serpentaria; Spa. Serpentaria de Virginia;
Ital. Bistorta ; is a native of Virginia and Carolina. The root is a warm dia-
phoretic, diuretic, and alexipharmic, very useful in low malignant fevers
and epidemic diseases ; it is given in substance, a few grains to a scruple, or
half a drachm to a drachm and upwards, in infusion. A spirituous tincture is
a stimulating tonic bitter. It is a good addition to the Peruvian bark, and
is useful as a gargle in putrid sore throats. A new species, S. Kennebis,
has been found in America. There are twenty-seven species in all.
ORDER IX. POLYANDRIA.
Esculent Arum or Cocos, Arum Esculentum, vel Colocasia. N. O.
Piperita? ; nat. East and West Indies. This plant is very common, and gene-
rally cultivated for food; the root is large, tuberous, and subovate; plant
two feet high, see Plate II. Fig. 36*. The leaves boiled may be eaten, and
are a wholesome and agreeable food, as well as the roots. The bruised
leaves are applied to tumours and stings of scorpions; the raw root is acrid,
but roasted or boiled becomes mild and well tasted. Another species, called
Eddo, or Wild Cocoa, A. Peregrinum, is esculent. A large sort called
Tayo is still more acrid, and even when boiled, scratches the throat, as the
negroes term it; therefore is given to hogs. Fresh roots of cocos are a ma-
turating and cooling cataplasm.
Indian Kale, or Narrow-leaved Arum. See Explanation of Plate X.
Fig. 8, where it is erroneously inserted as a species of Brassica.
Dumb Cane, Arum Seguinum, if bitten swells the salivary glands, and be-
numbs the tongue, so as to prevent speaking for some time. To make an
ointment for the dropsy, beat the most juicy in a mortar, and add double the
quantity of lard, warm, agitate and strain, and boil it to a due consistence.
Rubbed on the swollen parts it will discharge the watery humours. Several
sorts of Withes, A. Funiculaeea, climb and hang from the trees: the green
Withe roasted makes a softening cataplasm. The roots lose their acrimony
by drying, and a powder of the dried root of one species is sold by the French
at a high price, under the name of Cypress Powder; it is an innocent cos-
metic. An electuary or emulsion of the fresh root has been recommended in
rheumatism, from ten grains to a scruple, three or four times a day. The
leaves of the Indian Turnip, A. Triphyllum, & Dracontium are employed by the
Indians to cure dropsy, the whole body of the patient being covered with the
leaves. The roots may be preserved fresh for a year, by burying them in a
cellar in sand. The fresh root boiled in milk is useful in consumption,
asthma, croup, and hooping-cough, and boiled in lard cures tinea capitis.
Fine Sago has been prepared from the roots.
Skunk Cabbage, or Pole Cat Weed, A. Americanum vel Dracontium
Ftetidum. The first appearance of this singular plant is the flower, and it
has no stem. The roots dried and powdered are an excellent medicine in
asthma, in doses of forty grains given in the fit; the Indians repeat the dose
after the paroxysm is gone off, several mornings, then miss as many, con-
tinuing the medicine till the patient is perfectly recovered. It is an anti-
spasmodic, and appears to be efficacious in dropsy; the seeds have more
efficacy in asthma than the root. The bear of North America is well ac-
quainted with the cathartic property of the Skunk Cabbage. There are in
all thirty-two species. Dracontium Pertusum is a native of the West
Violet-fruited Pothos. N. O. Piperita^ ; nat. Jamaica. A subparasi-
tical plant, creeping on the trunks and roots of trees, about three feet in
length, with scattered accuminate leaves, and a pellucid, violet-colour berry,
with four seeds. There are in all thirteen species.
CLASS XXI. MON.ECIA.
This class comprises plants of the natural orders Inundafoc, Cucurbitacea?,
Lomentacege, Coniferae, and Calamariae. It contains a number of plants
useful for food, and several valuable timber trees.
ORDER I. MONANDRIA.
For Bread Fruit, Artocarpus Incisa, see Explanation of Plate II. Fig.
38, and Explanation of Frontispiece, Fig. 1 ; and for Jack Fruit, A. Intc-
grlfolia, see Plate II. Fig. 48, and Explanation of Frontispiece, Fig. C.
There is no other species.
ORDER III. TRIANDRIA.
Indian Corn, Zea Mays. N. O. Gramina. This valuable plant grows
naturally in the West Indies, and is cultivated to a great extent for food;
rising from four to six feet high. See Plate II. Fig. 37. When the seasons
have been remarkably favourable the same land has been known to produce
three crops a year; the unripe ears, boiled or roasted, are a. very common dish
as vegetables, both in the West Indies and North America; it is then called
Mutton Corn. It is made into various messes by the Negroes, and is the
principal support of poultry, small stock, and horses; the latter are also fond
of the green stalk. Unless this grain is quite ripe, and salt used with it, it is
apt to breed worms in horses, and the Indians attribute the loss of numbers
of their children to the use of unripe Zea Mays. They dress all their dishes,
prepared of the Indian Corn, with a strong lixivium, in order to prevent the
generation of worms.
Androgynous Tripsacum, Tripsacum Hermaphroditum. N. O. Grarnina;
nat. Jamaica. Culm erect, two feet high; leaves alternate, smooth ; a single
spike at the top of the stem. This grass is fed upon by all sorts of cattle.
There is one other species.
Olyra Panieulata and Pauciflora are both natives of Jamaica,
ORDER III. TRIANDRIA.
Whistling Jack in a Box, or Hernandia, Hernandia Sonora. N. O.
Tricoccse. An upright, lofty tree, with an elegant head; flowers of a
fiale yellow, in panicled racemes. It is frequent in the parish of Portland,
Jamaica, and the seeds are oily. There is one other species.
ORDER IV. TETRANDRIA.
Nettle, Vrtica, Fr. Ortie ; Ital. Ortica ; Spa. Ortiga. There are several
species of this plant, natives of Jamaica. The juice of the leaves, mixed with
sugar, milk, and brimstone, drives out and cures psora. There are in all
fifty-nine species. A leaf put on the tongue, and pressed on the roof of the
mouth, will stop bleeding at the nose. U. Grandiflora, given in strong de-
coction, is said to be a certain cure for the dropsy.
Mulberry, Morus; Fr. Mure; Ital. Gelso ; Spa. Moura. N. O. Sca-
bridie. The leaves of this well-known tree are the principal food of the silk-
worm, and the fruit also is wholesome. It is a subject well worthy attention,
whether the silk-worm could not be raised to advantage, and silk become a
valuable article of commerce, in the West Indies, or some part of North
America ; as, from the state of the Continent, the supplies from Italy have
been so uncertain and scanty, as lately to raise the price of Piedmont to up-
wards ofeighty shillings per lb. and such as was fit for lace to five guineas; and
to throw many thousand workmen out of employ. The Paper Mulberry
makes paper and cloth.
Fustic, M. Tinctoria, Spa. Fustoc; is a tall branching tree, with a fine
head, abounding with a slightly glutinous milk ; leaves acuminate and
serrate; aments solitary; fruit yellowish green, sweet, and eaten by birds.
The fruit is astringent and cooling. Ten grains of the salt made from the
ashes, with treacle, three or four days successively, gives immediate ease to
the gout and rheumatism. It is a fine timber wood, and a beautiful yellow
dye, for which purpose it is exported to Europe, and commands a steady,
good price. It is a native of Jamaica and Campeachy. Seven species in all
of the genus Morus.
Goosefoot, Amaranthus Polygonoides. A strong, rank weed, cold and
moist, even to poison ; with hogs' fat it makes a good ointment against an
Colilu, Amaranthus. See Explanation of Plate XI. Fig. 8.
Wild Wormwood, or Mugwort, Parthenium Hysterophorum. Spa. Ar-
temisa ; Ital. Artemisia ; N. O. Nucamentaceae. Grows in great plenty in
the low lands of Jamaica, and has the virtue of feverfew ; it makes a resolu-
tive bath ; and is good as an enema. It is also emenagogue.
ORDER VI. HEXANDRIA.
Water Rice, Zizania Aquatica. Fr. Folle Avoine ; N. O. Gramina ;
nat. Canada. Culm two feet high, covered with sheaths of the leaf. This
useful grain will grow where the water is two feet deep. It is a nourishing
and pleasant food, and would probably thrive in the Lagoons in Jamaica.
There is another species, Z. Terrestris, sometimes called the Trumpet Tree.
Guettarda Speciosa and G. Elliptica ; N. O. Tricoccae ; are natives of
Jamaica, and there are two other species.
ORDER VIII. POLYANDRIA.
Jamaica Walnut, Juglans Baccata. Fr. Noyer ; Ital. Noce ; Spa. No-
gal ; IN. O. Amentaceae. Grows in St. Johns, with a quadrangular nut ; see
Explanation of Frontispiece. There are several species, natives of America ;
as the White Walnut or Hickery Nut, which is sweet and well-tasted, and
yields a pleasant oil, and the wood is the principal sort used for firing : the
Black Walnut, J. Nigra, also bears a nut, the kernel of which is small,
but sweet : the Shag-Bark Walnut, J, Compressa, also has a small, sweet ker-
nel : as have Black Oblong-fruited Walnut, J. Nigra Oblonga ; the Butter
Nut, J. Alba Oblonga ; the Sharp-fruited Hickery, J. Alba Acuminata ; the
Pignut Hickery, J. Alba Minima ; the Balsam Hickery, J. Alba Odorata ;
the Shell-barked Hickery, J. Alba Ocata; and the Illinois Hickery, J.
Pecan. The Walnuts generally are good timber, and fit for the use of the
the cabinet-maker. An extract of the bark of Butter Nut affords a mild and
safe cathartic. The bark and shells of the nuts dye a good brown colour,
scarcely ever fading.
Lance-leaved Arrowhead, Sagittaria Lancifolia. N. O. Tripetaloidse.
Is a native of Jamaica, growing in stagnant waters. The root bruised is
vulnerary and good for crabyaws ; the juice applied to the breasts is said to
clear them of milk.
Shining Begonia, Begonia Nitida. N. O. Holeracea? ; nat. Jamaica.
Stein almost upright, branched and cylindric ; leaves acuminate, four or five
inches long ; racemes compound, androgynous ; the flowers rose-coloured, or
of a darker red. B. Acuminata is a native of Jamaica, on the Blue Moun-
tains. There are in all twenty-three species.
Oak, Quercus. Fr. Chene ; Ital. Quercia ; Spa. Roble. There is no
species of Oak in the West Indies ; but in North America they are numerous ;
as the Common White Oak, Quercus Alba ; Barren White Oak, Q. Alba
Minor ; Swamp White Oak, Q. Alba Palustris ; Common Pensylvanian
Black Oak, Q. Nigra ; Finger-leaved Black Oak; Q. Nigra Digitata;
Maryland Black Oak, Q. Nigra Tri/ida ; Entire-leaved Black Oak, Q.
Nigra Integrifolia ; Dwarf Black Oak, Q. Nigra Pumila ; the largest Red
Oak, Q. Rubra Maxima ; Water Red Oak, Q. Rubra Ramosissima ; Up-
land Red Oak, Q. Rubra Montana ; Dwarf Barren Oak, Q. Rubra Nana ;
Narrow Willow-leaved Oak, Q. Phellos Angustifolia ; Broad Willow-leaved
Oak, Q. Phellos Latifolia ; Evergreen Willow-leaved Oak, Q. Phellos Sem-
pervirens, (Spa. Encina ;) Chesnut-leaved Oak, Q. Prinus ; Chinquepin Oak,
Q. Prinus Humilis ; also Live Oak, Q. Virens. The astringent quality of
White Oak bark is well known and it also possesses tonic and antiseptic vir-
tues, and, given in decoction, is, in some cases, a substitute for Peruvian
bark. The Black Oak bark, in powder, is efficacious in intermittents, and
the bark of Mountain Red Oak has been equally successful with Peruvian
bark, in gangrenes. A strong decoction of the Oak barks is a good strength-
ening bath, particularly serviceable after fevers, and the most beneficial effects,
in giving tone and strength to the system, have been experienced from a
regular use internally of a decoction of the bark of English Oak. The Indians
eat the acorns of the Live Oak, and draw a sweet oil from them. The wood
of the White Oak is the most durable timber, and great quantities are im-
ported into the West Indies in the shape of staves for rum puncheons, for which,
as well as provision, the planters must pay in rum or specie, as they are not
allowed to exchange their sugar or coffee for them ; but it is to be hoped that
these restrictions will not continue. During the late embargo, attempts
were made to find a substitute for White Oak, but without success, as some
woods turned the rum the colour of ink, and through others it leaked out ;
but substitutes were found for the Red Oak staves, to make coffee tierces
and sugar hogsheads. There are twenty-six European species in all.
Beach Tree, Fagus Sylvatica Atropunicea. Fr. Hetre ; Ital. Faggio ;
Spa. Haya. Is a hard and close-grained timber. The Chesnut Tree, Fagus
Castanea Dentata, splits freely for rails, and outlasts the oak ; the Dwarf
Chesnut or Chinquapin, Fagus Castanea Pumila, seldom rises above ten
Sweet Birch, Betula Nigra ; Red Birch, Betula Lenta ; Aspen-leaved
Birch, B. Populifolia ; Dwarf Birch, B. Humilis ; are natives of North
Silver-leaved Alder, Betula Alnus Glauca; Ital. Ontano ; Spa. Aliso.
Sea-side Alder, B. A. Maritima ; and Common Alder, B. A. Rubra, are
natives of America. The virtues of Alder are cooling, drying and binding.
Sweet Gum Tree, Liquidambar Stiracifolia. N. O. Coniferae ; nat.
North America. Rises forty feet high ; leaves five-pointed, on long petioles;
flowers in spikes, of a yellowish red. A sweet, glutinous substance exudes
from the leaves, in dry weather, and renders them clammy. The wood is a fine
timber, of a good grain, and beautifully variegated. A fragrant gum trickles,
from the wounded tree, in drops, smelling like balsam of Tolu, which the
Indians chew to preserve their teeth, and they use the bark to cover their
huts. It is called by the Indians Ococol, and is useful in quinsies, ulcers,
and fistula. They also mix the dried leaves with tobacco, for smoking.
Shrubby Sweet Fern, Liquidambar Asplenifolia. A small shrub, about
three feet high ; leavers resembling spleenwurt. An infusion of the leaves
has been used as an astringent in diarrhoea. No other species.
ORDER IX. MONADELPHIA.
Pine Tree, Pinus. N. O. Coniferae ; Fr. Pin ; Ital. Pino ; Spa. Pino.
The following species are natives of America ; Prickly Coned Bastard Pine
Pinus Eehinata ; Marsh Pine, P. Palustris ; Common Virginia Pine, P.
Rigida ; White Pine, P. Strobus ; Frankincense Pine, P. Tceda ; Jersey or
Spruce Pine, P. Virginiana. P. Palustris and P. Teda produce turpentine,
tar, andare cut into boards. P. Rigida and P. Strobus are also cut into boards,
and used for spars. I have passed through forests of the former to the extent
of many hundred acres, without any other tree intermixed. Balm of Gilead
Fir Tree (Pinus Abies Balsamea) ; Newfoundland Spruce (P. A. Canadensis) ;
Hemlock Spruce (P. A. Americana) : the former produces Spruce, from which
Spruce beer is brewed, and the bark of the latter is good for tanning leather,
and dyes a red colour ; and in rheumatism, a bath, so contrived as for the
limb to receive the steam, is useful.
The Red Larch Tree (Pinus Larix Rubra) ; White Larch (P. L. Alba) ;
and Black Larch (P. L. Nigra) ; are natives of North America.
Plane Tree, or Button Wood, Platamis Occidentalis. Rises sixty or
seventy feet high, by river sides in America. The flowers are produced in
brown, pendulous balls. It is sawed into boards and used for card-backs.
Climbing Dalechampia, Dalechampia Scandens. N. O. Tricoccae. Is
a native of Jamaica. No other species.
American Arbor Vitje, or White Cedar, Thuja Occidentalis. Fr,
Cedre Blanc ; N. O. Coniferae ; nat. Canada. Rises about forty feet high,
with irregular, horizontal branches ; the flowers are small and yellowish ; the
leaves are divided, oblong, and squainmose. The fresh leaves, pounded and
mixed with lard and spread on linen, gives certain relief to the rheumatism in
a short time ; a decoction of the leaves is used as a remedy in coughs and inter-
mittent fevers, at Saratoga in New York. The wood is hard timber and useful
to the cabinet-makers ; the branches have an agreeable scent, and are used
all over Canada for brooms. To cure violent wandering pains, they use the
cones with four-fifths of polypody, both powdered coarsely and made into a
poultice with warm water, and wrapt round the body with a cloth between,
to prevent scorching the skin. In all four species.
Wild Rosemary, Croton Lincare. Fr. Romarin; Spa. Romero; Ital.
Rosamarino. See Plate XI. Fig. 9.
CascARILLA, Croton Eleuthpria. This tree rises about twenty feet high,
and is found on the sea-shore, in Jamaica It has an agreeable smell, and
bitterish, pungent, aromatic taste. A piece put into a tobacco-pipe will per-
fume a room ; the smell is like musk. It is successful in intermittent fever,
petechial fevers, cholic, hcemorrhages and dysenteries. The best form is
from ten to thirty grains every four or six hours, in powder.
Physic Nuts and Cassada. See Explanation of Plate XI. Figs 10 and
11. Sweet Cassada bears a large berry. The powder of the gland in the
stem of Wild Cassada is errhine.
Oil Nut. See Explanation of Plate XII. Fig. 2. An infusion or tinc-
ture has been recommended, and the oil is useful externally in swellings.
Yaw Weed, Stilingia Silvatica, called also Cock-up-hat, is a cathartic
and said to be a specific in syphilis and yaws.
Cobnut, Omphalea Nucifcra vel Triandra. N. O. Tricoccae ; Fr. Noi-
settier. It is frequently cultivated. The kernels are esculent and sapid ;
the cotyledons only being emetic and cathartic ; the branches and petioles,
when broken, pour out a tenacious, watery liquor.
Acalypha Reptans and six other species of the same genus are natives of
Manchineel Tree. See Explanation of Plate XII. Fig. 5.
Sand Box Tree ; Fr. Sablier ; Spa. Hura. See Ditto, Figs. 3 and 4.
Phyllanthus Nutans is a native of Jamaica.
Cerasee, jyiomordica Balsamina. N. O. Cucurbitaceae. See Explana-
tion of Frontispiece, Figs. 14 and 36. A climbing plant, common in Ja-
maica, which makes fine arbours ; it is famous in Syria for curing wounds.
They cut open the unripe fruit and infuse it in sweet oil, exposing it to the
sun for some days till it becomes red, it is applied, dropt on cotton, and es-
teemed next to balsam of Mecca. A decoction of the whole plant is emena-
gogue, cathartic and good in jaundice, obstructions of the liver, and spleen—-
dose of the powdered root is a scruple to forty grains with cream of tartar.
The distilled water is a good wash in St. Anthony's fire ; inwardly given,
with loaf sugar, it cools the heat of fevers ; the oil from the fruit cures burns,
and takes away scars ; the juice of the unripe fruit is styptic. There are in
all eight species, one of which produces elaterium.
Bottle Gourd, Cucurbita Lagenaria ; Fr. Gourde. Pumpkin, C. Pepo;
Squash, C. Melo Pepo ; AYater Melon, C. Citrullus ; are all to be found in
Jamaica. For some of the fruits see Explanation of Frontispiece. The shells
of the gourd are used by the Negroes for bottles and cups, holding from one
ounce to nine gallons. A decoction of the leaves is useful in enemas with
castor oil, and the pulp is good in resolutive poultices for inflammation of
the eyes, and other parts ; it is bitter and cathartic, and may be used instead
of coloquintida. The Warted Gourd, C. Verrucosa, is common in America,
being sometimes round, flat, and whitish ; when half grown, it is boiled to
eat as a sauce with meat, as is also the Squash, which is a trailing plant.
This fruit is of great use in long voyages, as it will keep fresh and sweet for
several months. The seeds of Musk and Water Melons are used in emulsion
Musk. Melon, Cucumis Melo ; Spa. Melon Almazaleno ; Fr. Melon
Musque. Cucumber, C. Sativus ; Spa. Melon Alon ; Fr, Concombre ; are
common in Jamaica. See Explanation of Frontispiece. Prickly-fruited Cu-
cumber, C. Anguria, is frequently used in soups, and makes an excellent
Sicyos Laciniata is a native of the West Indies,
CLASS XXII. DLECIA.
This class comprises plants of the natural orders of Amentaceae, Coniferae,
Palmae, Sarmentaceae, and Tricoccae, and contains several medical plants
and valuable timber trees.
ORDER I MONANDRIA.
Bread Nut Tree, Brosimum Alicastrum. Nat. Jamaica, and frequent
in the parishes of St. Elizabeth and St. James. The leaves and younger
branches are a good fodder for cattle, and the fruit boiled or roasted is a
wholesome and not unpleasant food. Milk Wood, B. Spurium, is common
in St. Mary's ; the milk soon grows viscous and makes bird-lime. Both
sorts are used as timber trees, though not very hard.
ORDER II DIANDRIA.
Trumpet Tree, Cecropia Peltata. N. O. Scabridae ; nat. Jamaica.
Rises thirty feet high ; the trunk and branches are hollow ; the leaves few,
large, and lobated ; the fruit is something like raspberry ; the wood light
and dry, and will take fire by attrition ; the bark is strong, fibrous and used
for cordage ; the smaller branches make wind instruments ; and the ashes of
the tree yield a great quantity of fixed salt, used to granulate sugar. Pigeons
feed on the berries. The juicy pith and leaves cure ulcers, and the ashes of
the tree are useful in dropsy, with bitter wood infusion, and may be substi-
tuted for salt of wormwood. It produces an elastic gum. No other species.
ORDER IV. TETRANDRIA.
Ramoon, Trophis Americana. N. O. Calyciflora ; nat. Jamaica. A tree
twenty feet high ; branches nearly upright ; leaves oblong, acuminate, and
entire. A white milky juice flows from incision, and the leaves and twigs
are an agreeable, wholesome fodder for all sorts of cattle. The berries are
about the size of large grapes, of a pleasant flavour. No other species.
Candleberry Myrtle, Myrica Cerifera. Nat. North America. From
the berries a green tallow or wax is procured, from which candles and
soap are made in Carolina, and they likewise make sealing-wax from the
berries. The root is accounted a specific in the tooth-ache, and a decoc-
tion of the bark is a powerful astringent, useful in dropsical affections suc-
ceeding to intermittents and haemorrhage from the uterus. There are nine
species of this genus. It is common by the sea-side.
Whorled Misseltoe, Viscum Verticillatum. Spa. Muerdago ; N. O.
Aggregate ; nat. Jamaica. Grows upon dog-wood, and is said to be good
against the falling sickness, and the juice of the berries mixed with oil to
cure pleurisies and cramps, taken inwardly. V. Rubrum and V. Purpureum
are natives of Jamaica.
Tooth-ache Tree, Xanthoxylum Clava Herculis. Nat. Jamaica. Rises
fifteen feet high, having protuberances on the bark terminating in spines ;
leaves composed of four or five pairs of lanceolate leaflets, with an odd one.
It is considered a good timber tree. The bark and capsules are acrid and
used for curing the tooth-ache, and a tincture for the cure of rheumatism ;
the root, finely scraped and applied to the foulest ulcer, will heal it, and
answers as an antiseptic in the place of rhubarb or columbo ; two spoonfuls
of the expressed juice of the young roots give ease in dry belly-ache, and re-
lieve spasmodic symptoms and epilepsy ; an infusion of the root is a good
collyrium for the eyes, and a tea is good against fish-poison. It is sometimes
called Prickly Yellow Wood.
ORDER V. PENTANDRIA.
Majoe Bitter, or Tom Bontein's Bush, Picramnia Antldesma. Nat.
Jamaica. A small tree, with subdivided branches ; leaves pinnate, a foot
long or more ; racemes terminating, pendulous, many-flowered ; berries
oblong ; cells two-seeded, at first scarlet, afterwards black. It is considered
by the Negroes as antisiphylitic, and they also use an infusion of it in the
cholic ; a wine-glass full of the decoction is stomachic. One other species,
White Mastic, Pistacia Lentiscus, and Black Mastic ; Ital. Lentischio ;
Spa. Lentisco, grow in St. John's. The gum comes out in drops, of the
scent of mastic. Black Mastic bears a round, black nut, and Yellow Mastic
has a yellow wood, like box, and as durable.
Antidote Cocoon, Feuillea Scandens. N. O. Cucurbitaceae ; nat. West
Indies. The stem is surfrutescent at bottom, and divided at top, with her-
baceous branches, climbing to the tops of trees ; leaves peiioled, lobate, and
heart-shaped ; flowers racemed, of a dusky yellow ; the fruit is like a green
calabash, with a circular black line round it, and two or three little knobs ;
the inside of the shell is full of flattish beans, close and compressed, having
a thin, hard crust, inclosing a very white kernel (See Plate III. Fig. 21) full
of oil and excessively bitter ; they are commonly infused in rum or Madeira
wine with orange peel and canella alba, a small quantity of which tincture
is stomachic and will cure an incipient dropsy, and a larger dose operates
as an emetic and cathartic ; it is taken when there is suspicion of poison, and
considered an excellent antidote ; and the oil cures aches and pains the effects
of the night air, and also gives a clear, fine light in lamps ; the Negroes
burn the seeds for candles, by fastening a number upon a skewer and setting
fire to the uppermost, it descends very gradually to the bottom. It is called
Nhadhiroba and is common near the Walks. The Negroes call it Sabo and
the Spaniards A villa ; they say the seeds are worth their weight in gold as
expellers of poison. F. Trilobata is a native of the East Indies.
ORDER VI. HEXANDRIA
China Root, Smilax China. N. O. Sarmentaceae ; nat. West Indies.
Has strong, taper, climbing stems with spines ; leaves thick and large, end-
ing obtusely and having five longitudinal veins ; flowers in bunches ; berries
red ; the root large, twisted, knotty and reddish. The root is nourishing,
strengthening and demulcent, and of considerable use in recovery from sy-
philis and yaws. Prepared in the same manner as arrow root, it produces
an impalpable reddish powder, which mixed with boiling water becomes a
beautiful, nourishing jelly ; the Indians sometimes use it mixed with fine
corn flour and fried in sweet oil. A decoction of the root is a good alterative,
in the place of true sarsaparilla. S. Sarsaparilla is a species of this genus,
and given in powder is considered as a valuable medicine in syphilis, rheu-
matism, scrofula, and cutaneous complaints ; taken as a ptisan, it should be
used freely. There are in all twenty- three species of this genus, many of
which are natives of the West Indies.
Rajania Angustifolia is a native of the West Indies.
Yam, Dioscorea. See Explanation of Plate XII. Fig. 6. Unripe yams
produce lax among Negroes.
ORDER VII. OCTANDRIA.
White Poplar, Populus Deltoide. Fr. Peuplier; Ital.Pioppio; Spa. Alamo.
Virginian Poplar, P. Heterophylla ; Black Poplar, P. Nigra ; Aspen Tree,
P. Tremula ; Tacamahac Tree, P. Balsamifera ; and Lance-leaved Balsam
Tree, P. B. Lanceolata ; are all natives of America. The Lombardy Pop-
lar is planted on each side the Broad Way in New York, a handsome street
nearly two miles in length, reaching down to the Atlantic Ocean. They
yield a delightful shade in summer. Gum of Tacamahac is said to ease pains
ORDER IX. DECANDRIA.
Papaw Tree, Carica Papaya. N. O. Tricoccse ; See Plate II. Fig. 50 ;
and for the fruit Explanation of Frontispiece. It abounds with a milky,
acrid juice, which is corrosive and will destroy warts and ringworms, and
take specks off the eyes. When green the fruit may be pickled like mangoes ;
the blossoms are odoriferous, and it is supposed by the Negroes to render the
air healthy. Dwarf Papaw, C. Posoposa, only rises four or five feet in height ;
the flower is of a rose-colour. Papaws grow to a large size in Yucatan. I
have a drawing of one from thence twelve inches long and eight inches
thick. There is no other species.
ORDER XII. MONADELPHIA.
Barbadoes Juniper, or Cedar, Juniperus Barbadensis ; Fr. Cedre ;
Spa. Cedro ; Ital. Cedro ; N. O. Cotiifcrse. Is one of the largest trees in the
West Indies, and a fine timber for building Ihips. The branches spread very
wide ; the leaves are small and imbricate ; berries small and light brown.
Bermuda Cedar, J. Bermudiana, has acute, pointed leaves, placed by threes
and fours round the branches ; berries dark red ; the wood has a strong
odour and a light and close grain, fit for furniture ; boxes made of it keep
off the cockroaches and insects. There are in all twelve species.
Velvet Leap. See Explanation of Plate XII. Fig. 7.
Adelia, or Acidoton. N. O. Tricoccae. Grows in the Savannahs of New
Greenwich. A very delicate plant, about four feet high, like a young ebony.
There are two other species, also natives of Jamaica.
Red Cedar Tree, Juniperus Virginiana, and Red Carolinian Cedar, J.
Caroliniana, are natives of North America, and used for posts for fencing, &c\
ORDER XIV. SYNGENESIA, or MONADELPHIA TRIANDRIA.
Nutmeg Tree, Myristica Aromafica ; Fr. Muscad ; Ital. Nocemoscada ;
N. O. Lauri ; nat. East Indies. A large tree, with erect branches, and smooth,
ash-coloured bark ; leaves petioled, entire, shining and nerved ; the covering
of the fruit or mace is reticulated and fulvous, and if the trunk or branches
are wounded, they yield a glutinous, red liquor. It has been introduced into
the British East Indies, and also has grown in Jamaica, but not to any
extent; but is well worth attention. M. Fatua is a native of Tobago. One
CLASS XXIII. POLYGAMIA.
This class is not considered a natural one. It contains plants of the natural
orders Gramina, Scitamineae, Lomentaceae, Sepiariae, Bieornes, Scabridae,
and Hederaceae, and embraces a number of valuable esculent plants and se-
veral of medicinal properties.
Plantain Tree, Musa Paradisiaca. N. O. Scitam neae ; nat. Guinea.
See Plate II. Fig. 49, and also Explanation of Frontispiece. This most
valuable plant is too well known to need description. It is the principal
substitute for bread, and by many preferred. Three dozen plantains will
serve a man for one week, and support him better than bread. The spikes of
fruit are sometimes so large as to weigh thirty pounds, and it is supposed to
have been the grapes brought out of the Promised Land tu the Israelites. When
the fruit is ripe, the tree decays and many young suckers spring up from the
root ; but if the trunk be cut down and the juice expressed from it, the fibres
make excellent cordage, for the manufacture of which rewards have been
offered by the honourable house of Assembly of Jamaica. It can also be
made into cloth, and a fermented liquor may be procured from the fruit. It is
generally gathered when full grown , (but before it ripens,) peeled, and roasted
or boiled ; and when ripe, being soft and sweetish, it is made into tarts or
sliced and fried with butter. On incision, a quantity of clear water runs
from the tree, which is a rough astringent, and will stop fluxes and spitting
of blood. The leaves are good to dress blisters, and, when dried, are made into
mats or used to stuff mattrasses ; the green leaves are useful to clay sugar and
make it very white. The Banana Tree, JM. Sapientum, has stalks marked with
purple stripes ; the fruit is shorter and rounder, and the pulp more luscious ;
the juice of the ripe fruit fermented makes a pleasant drink, exceeding cyder,
and the marmalade made of it is an excellent pectoral ; when roasted they are
good in diarrhoea ; the leaves are also a good application to burns ; the roasted
fruit, packed in dry leaves and tight casks, will keep at sea. In the South
Sea Islands they put some wood ashes and burnt plants with a little shell-
lime into the hole where they plant the Musa, by which the growth is so
accelerated as to produce fruit in six or even four months, instead of eighteen
months. There are two other species, M. Cocciirea and M. Troglodytarum,
natives of the East Indies.
Pellitory of the Wall, Parietaria, grows on the sides of shady rocks,
and is good for strangury, dropsy, and pleurisy.
Guinea Corn, or Indian Millett, Holcus Sorghum ; Fr. Houque
Sorge ; N. O. Gramina ; nat. India. This well-known plant is cultivated
to great extent in Jamaica, rising five or six feet high ; leaves two feet
long, embracing the stalk ; flowers in large panicles at the top. It is a
hearty and nourishing food and makes very white flour, which may be made
into cakes ; it is also used for feeding poultry and pigeons, and for horses, for
which latter purpose it should be stript off* the stalk in the husk and wetted ;
the stalks are also good food for cattle ; but if the grain be eaten by the
Negroes when unripe, it is apt to produce fluxes It yields a spirit which,
with spirit of turpentine, resembles gin. Guinea Grass, according to
Brown, is a species of Holcus ; it bears dry weather remarkably well, and in
wet weather may be cut once a fortnight ; it soon fattens all kind of stock.
See Explanation of Plate V. Fig. 2.
Yellow-flowered Balsam Tree, Clusia Flava. N. O. Guttiferae (Juss.) ;
nat. West Indies. Grows fifteen feet high ; branches on every side ; leaves
thick, round and succulent ; flowers red or yellow, succeeded by oval fruit.
A thick resinous gum exudes from the trunk or branches, when wounded,
which is used as a vulnerary. There are in all six species.
Jamaica Nettle Tree, Celtis Micrantha. N. O. Scabridae ; nat. Jamaica;
as also are C. Aculeata and C. Lima. In all seven species. The fruit of C.
Occidentalis, called American Sugar Nut, is agreeable eating.
Maple Tree, Acer Saccharinum ; Fr. Erable ; Ital. Acero ; Spa. Arce ;
N. O. Trihilatae ; nat. North America. A large tree, fifty feet high, with
lobate leaves and winged seeds. From the sap of this, the Scarlet, and Sil-
ver-leaved Maple and some others, the back inhabitants of America make
sugar in considerable quantities, by boiling the sap. The tree is said to yield
more syrup the oftener it is tapped. The Indians have practised the making
of sugar from it time out of mind. The roots boiled with oil are said to relieve
hardness of the spleen. The Pensylvanian Maple, A. Pensylvanicum, ; the
Silver-leaved Maple, A. Glaucum ; the Ash-leaved, A.Negundo ; the Striped,
A. Canadense ; and the Scarlet-flowering, A. Rubrum, are also natives of
Climbing Mimosa, or Coccoon, JMimosa Scandens. N. O. Lomentaceae ;
nat. West Indies. This plant climbs to the top of the tallest trees ; the withs
slender, but tough ; leaves pinnated, nerved, and shining ; tendrils long and
bifid ; spikes axillary, many-flowered ; legume six feet long and five inches
wide ; the seeds are reddish, orbicular, and compressed, with a hard, polished
rind, of which snuff-boxes are made ; the kernel is strongly emetic and ca-
thartic, so as to be considered poisonous.
The Mountain or Wild Tamarind Tree, M. Arborea ; Spa. Tamariz :
grows to a considerable size in Jamaica, and is considered an excellent timber
wood. See Plate III. Fig. 4. Oppoponax, ,M % Juliflora, grows very com-
mon in the low lands. The flower-spikes are oblong and odoriferous ; the husks
of the pods dye black, and, soaked all night in water, with a little alum
mixed, make a black ink that never fades. The tree is good timber ; the
extract is a strong astringent, the same as succus acacia. M. Catechu pro-
duces the valuable astringent gum, called catechu or Japan earth, very use-
ful in fluxes, uterine profluvia, debility of the viscera, and catarrh ; the best
form is an infusion in warm water with cinnamon.
Acacia, or Cashaw, M. Tortuosa; Ttal. Acazia ; Spa. Acacia. A trou-
blesome, prickly shrub, in the low lands of Jamaica, and almost impossible
to eradicate. It continues green in the driest weather. The ripe pods of
Cashaw, which drop on the ground, are greedily eaten by horses, cattle,
and sheep ; the former, if suffered to drink water shortly after, are swelled
up and killed in a few hours. There are several species of Mimosa in Ja-
maica which are sensitive. One species, which grows wild, creeps on the
ground, with a small, delicate, purple flower. For Nephritic Tree, see Ex-
planation of Plate IX. Fig, 6, and for Gum Arabic, Explanation of Plate
XII. Fig. 8. The Sensitive Plants fold their leaves before rain. There are
eighty-five species of Mimosa in all.
Fingrigo, Pisonia Aculeata. N. O. Nyctagines (Juss.) ; nat. Jamaica.
A well-known, common plant, with strong, crooked thorns and burry seeds,
of which the doves are fond. The wood is sometimes used for hoops. There
are five species.
Goose Grass, Valantia Hypocarpia. N. O. Stellatae ; nat. Jamaica, in
the Mountains. Stem herbaceous, two feet high ; branches divaricate ;
leaves in fours and sessile ; flowers yellow. It stops fluxes and heals wounds,
and the juice, taken in wine, is good against the bite of a spider, called pha-
langium. There are nine species.
ORDER II. DICECIA.
American Date Plum, or Persimmon, Diospyros Virginiana. N. O.
Bicornes ; nat. America. The fruit, when ripe and mellowed by the frost,
is pleasant and wholesome. A beer is brewed from it and a spirit distilled
from it equal in taste and flavour to rum. The wood is useful for tools ;
the Indians make bread of the fruit by mixing with the ripe pulp a portion of
flour of mays ; the bark is useful in intennittents and ulcerous sore throats.
In all nine species.
Jamaica Birch Tree, Bursera Gummifera ; Fr. Gommier Blanc ; Ital.
Scopa ; Spa. Abedue ; nat. Jamaica. A lofty tree, with an upright, smooth
trunk ; the bark shining and peeling off ; branches horizontal ; leaves f>in-
nate ; flowers small and white, in racemes ; capsule red, with a triangular
stone, containing a kernel ; flowers come out before the leaves. A transpa-
rent resin exudes from the bark, which looks like mastic, and, by incision,
yields a considerable quantity of fluid having the smell and appearance of
turpentine ; it may be used for the same purposes. An infusion of the
buds and young leaves is recommended in disorders of the breast ; the gum is
odoriferous and good in syphilis, and also makes a transparent varnish ; a
decoction of the root is astringent, and a species of it has been supposed to
furnish simarouba bark.
Long-spined Gleditschia, Gleditschia Horrida, and two other species
are natives of North America.
White Ash Tree, Fraxinus Americana ; Black Ash, F. Pubescens, and
Elder-leaved Ash, F. Sambucifolia, are all natives of North America.
Ginseng, Panax Quinquefblia ; Spa. Ginseng ; N. O. Hederaceae ; nat. of
Canada and Chinese Ta.rt.ary. Has a fleshy, taper root, as large as the finger,
jointed, but frequently divided ; the stalk rises about a. foot and a half, of a
deep purple, and divides at the top into three footstalks bearing the leaf, each
composed of five spear-shaped leaflets ; the flowers are yellow, in a small
umbel ; the berries red and two-seeded. It was once collected by the Indians
in the woods of Canada, and sold by them to the French merchants, who
exported the roots to China. The Chinese have long considered it as a sove-
reign remedy in almost all diseases. The French use the root to cure cough,
asthma, consumption and spasms, and as a stomachic it is used in decoction,
a drachm of the root boiled a long time in a sufficient quantity of water is
a dose ; the Indians also prepare a tea of the leaves. There are nine spe-
cies in all. It should be cultivated in gardens in America, and would pro-
bably grow in England.
Fingrigo, Pisonia Aculeata, inserted in page 106, belongs to this order.
Water Tupelo Tree, JVyssa Aquatica. Rises eighty feet high, near
large rivers in Carolina, with large, oval, spear-shaped leaves, and berries
like small olives, which are pickled, The timber is light and compact.
There are two other American species, JV. Ogeche and N. Sylvatica, or Sour
Gum, of a close, curled grain, used for naves of wheels,
ORDER III. TRLECIA.
Carob Tree, or St. John's Bread, Ceratonia Siliqua. N. O. Lomen-
taceae. This tree grows to a considerable size ; leaves pinnate and leaflets
roundish ; the pod is about four inches long, four-cornered, when dry con-
taining one obovate, lens-shaped, smooth seed, invested with papery lamina
or pulp. There is no other species.
Fig Tree, Ficus Carica. N. O. Scabridse ; Fr. Le Figuier ; Ital. Figo ;
Spa. Higuera. This well-known tree, common in Jamaica, is called the
Spanish Fig. For the fruit see Frontispiece, Fig. 12. The fruit is very de-
licious and there are several species and varieties, of different shapes and
colours. One species is the Sycamore Fig, native of Egypt, and, in the East
Indies, there is a wild Fig, called the Banyan Tree, which is very large and
spreading ; the branches grow down like withes, striking root in the ground,
and spreading over a large extent.* The sap or milk of the young branches
of the Common Fig is an antidote against manchineel poison, and the leaves
externally applied inflame the part, and are used as rubefacients in rheuma-
tism, numbness, &c. The medical properties of Figs are demulcent and
pectoral in coughs ; a decoction is a good gargle in sore throat, and exter-
nally applied they maturate swellings and relieve the ear-ache. There are
in all fifty-six species of this genus, oi' which the following are natives of the
West Indies : Round-fruited Fig Tree, F. Virens vel Mart inicen sis, bearing
a fruit of a scarlet colour, not larger than a hazel nut, the taste sweetish and
pleasant; it is eaten by the wild pigeons: F. Americana, bearing a round,
yellowish fruit. There are also many varieties of the Spanish Fig, which are
extremely well-flavoured, and the cultivation of this tree is well worthy of
attention in the West Indies, as it is both a pleasant and wholesome fruit.
The rest of the species are mostly natives of the East Indies. A method is
practised in the Levant, called caprification, being the introduction of a small
fly to puncture the fig before ripe, which causes the trees to produce very
large and heavy figs and in much greater quantities. For this object they
have two sorts of Fig-trees to manage in most of the islands of the Archipe-
lago, the Wild Fig-tree and the Garden Fig-tree. The Wild Fig-tree bears
three sorts of fruit, fornites, crati tires and orni'; in the first, breed small
worms, which turn to a peculiar sort of gnats ; these of themselves make their
way into the second fruit, and deposit their eggs. The third sort of fruit is
again pricked by gnats from these, to lay their eggs also. Neither of these
sorts are fit to eat ; but the last, the orni, are carefullly taken to the Garden
Fig-trees, and the gnats from the orni piercing the Garden Fig and and con-
veying with them the farina from the Wild Fig, cause it to ripen very large,
juicy, and well-favoured in about forty days, a tree usually producing between
2 and 300 pounds of figs, which being dried in an oven, the eggs of the gnats
are killed, and the dried fruit is a principal article of food.
Areca, or Cabbage Palm; grows in the East and West Indies, near
two hundred feet high; the fronds are about fifteen feet long, and numerous ;
the top is white, sweet and succulent, and eaten boiled as cabbage, and the
flower is pickled ; the leaves may be written on with a steel pen ; the nuts are
thin shelled the size of Coffee Berries, and being planted, produce young Cab-
bage Trees; the pith makes a sort of Sago ; and the large white worms bred in
it when felled, are reckoned a great delicacy by the French.
Areca Catiiecu, the Faufel Nut Palm ; rises about thirty feet, with a
straight trunk, and fronds ; the shell containing the fruit is about the size of a
Cocoa Nut; the kernel is astringent, and with the leaves of Betel and Shell
Lime, made into packets called Pinang, is used universally in the East Indies;
chewing it fastens the teeth and gums, and cools the mouth. It should be
introduced into the West Indies. A. montana is a native of St Vincents.
Aavora, a lofty Palm in the West Indies and Africa, bearing a fruit the
size of an egg, several of which are inclosed in a large shell ; the kernel of
the nut is astringent.
Ady, a Palm 'Tree of St. Thomas, has a thick upright stem, and the head
shoots into many branches, which being cut off afford a great quantity of
sweet juice, which is fermented into wine; the fruit is called Abanga, of the
size and shape of a Lemon, with an esculent kernel; it is cordial and re-
storative, and yields an oil which is used for food, and to anoint contracted
Borassus Flabelliformis, also called Ampana, rises thirty feet high,
having fronds at the top, armed with spines ; the leaf part is used for a fan or
umbrella; the fruit is the size of a child's head; the sap makes wine and sugar.
Bactris, Major. Grows twenty-five feet high; the trunk is two inches or
more in diameter; the leaves six feet long; fruit the size of an egg, with a
succulent purple coat, of which wine may be made, the nut is large, with
an oblong kernel, and is sold in the markets under the name of Cocorotes.
It is called Prickly Palm. There is another species native of the West Indies,
Cocoa Nut, Cocos nucifera, Monacia Hexandria. This useful tree is culti-
vated in both Indies. It is well known, but more attention should be paid to
the planting of it. The kernel is nourishing, and the tree yields wine and
arrack, the oil is demulcent, and good externally for pains; for the purpose of
procuring toddy and arrack the tree must be kept from bearing fruit ; the
trunk is useful for gutters and roofs, and the leaves for thatch ; the water is
cooling and strengthening, and cosmetic.
Cokarito. The trunk is a hard splintery wood of which poisoned arrows
Carimpana. A Palm of the East Indies, the leaves of which are thirty
feet long and nine feet broad.
Caranna. A Palm of New Spain, producing the gum of that name, the
application of which has extraordinary virtue to relieve pains in the head and
joints; it is also vulnerary, and cures haemorrhoids.
Caryota Urens. Native of the East Indies, called there Schunda pana.
Moncecia Pohjandria. A lofty Palm with a thick trunk, the fronds are pro-
duced at the top all round it; the fruit is a succulent berry, with a soft acrid
pulp; the sap will yield sugar, and the buds resemble walnuts or almonds. C.
Mitis is a beautiful Palm, fifteen feet high, two inches thick, and very regular;
the berry is round, smooth and black, but not eatable.
Ceroxylon Andicoli, or Wax Palm. On the trunk between the rings it
is covered one fifth of an inch with two parts resin, and one part wax.
Chamtekops Humilis. Dwarf Fan Palm, Poli/gamia Dicecia. This has no
stem, but the foot stalks of the leaves rise immediately from the root, and
spread open like a fan ; it is commonly used in the West Indies for thatch-
ing, and for making besoms and baskets ; the pith next the root is sweetish
and esculent ; C. excelsa is lofty ; C. Cochinchinensis eight feet high.
Cvcas Revoluta, Sago Tree. The trunk is round and branched, about
six feet in height ; the fronds are furnished with spines; fruit an ovate flat
red drupe, one inch and a half long ; it is cultivated in China for its beauty;
and in Japan, Sago is made from the pith of the trunk ; it is very nutritious,
and with milk of almonds is slightly astringent. C. Circinalis is a native of
Corypiia Umbraculifera. Great Fan Palm, called Codda Patina and
Talipot. This Palm is very large and straight, as tall as a ship's mast; the
leaves are so large and broad as to cover fifteen or twenty men, but will fold
close to the size of a man's arm; the blossoms are yellow and beautiful, and
smell very fragrant ; the fruit is round and hard, the size of a cherry ; the
trunk within is pith only, this they beat in a mortar to flour, and make
cakes of it, which taste like white bread; the leaves serve for tents and
covering houses, and for writing on with an iron pen, they may afterwards
be made into books. There is another species C. Minor, native of Carolina.
Ciiam.erops Palmetto, and three other species, are natives of North
Date Palm, Phoenix dactylifera. Dicecia Heocandria. This valuable Palm
grows in great abundance in Egypt, and on the coast of Barbary, and has
grown in the West Indies ; it rises to a great height, the stems are knotted,
and the center filled with pith ; the fronds are eight feet long, the fruit a
berry of a delicious farinaceous taste, having a hard oblong stone, with a deep
furrow running longitudinally. The Date makes a great part of the diet of
many families in Arabia, Egypt and Persia. The stones are ground for camels,
and beads turned and formed of them. The date is pectoral, and given in red
wine, good in the piles. The leaves are used for baskets, &c. and the sap
makes arrack. There is one other species two feet high, P. Farinifera.
Elate Sylvestris, is a native of the East Indies,
El.eis Guineensis, or Abbmj Palm. Trunk erect, irregular, fronds sheath-
ing, pinnate fifteen feet long, and spinous ; spadix axillary and erect, divided
into about fifty branchlets compressed ; the fruit the size of a pigeon's egg,
yellow striped with brown, the pulp fibrous and full of butyraceous oil.
The Negroes boil them, and eat the pulp ; expressed they yield an oil, and
the trunk produces wine; the leaves are wrought into mats. The French call
Ground Rattan, RapJiis Flabelllformis, is a native of China.
Maccaw Palm, Cocos hutyracea. Moncecia Hexanclria. This Palm grows
in Africa and South America; the pulp of the nut is very mucilaginous, and
used to fatten hogs ; an oil or butter prepared from it is in constant use among
the Indians in their food : the fresh oil is demulcent and discutient, and good
externally for pains, cramps and chilblains. The great Maccaw Tree, C.
Aculeata, has a large trunk rising thirty feet high, thick set with prickles,
bearing a fruit the size of a crab, with a sweet eatable kernel ; the husks are
full of oil. Palm oil has been used for anointing the body all over the East,
from the most ancient times.
Manicolt, rises fifty feet high, with a stem scarce nine inches in diameter
Mobile Palm. Grows on the river Mobile, in North America; has no
stem, the leaves regularly spreading and flabelliform ; in the center there is
a receptacle the size of a sugar loaf, containing a vast number of drupes as
large as plumbs, covered thickly with a sweet fibrous farinaceous coating,
which is a delicious and nourishing food.
Prickly Pole, Cocos Guineensis. Moncecia Hexandria. Rises about twelve
feet high, with an erect trunk, about an inch in diameter, armed with prickles ;
the fruit the size of a cherry, of a dark purple, eatable, but not pleasant ;
the wild hogs feed upon them; their acid juice makes a sort of wine ; light
black, shining jointed canes are made of the trunk, called by the French
Cannes de Tobago ; the bark is elastic and hard like whalebone, fit for bows
Troolies. The leaves lie on the ground, thirty feet long by three feet
broad, and will last as thatch some years.
Thrinax Parviflora. Palmetto Royal. Hexandria Monogynia. This
Palm rises from ten to twenty feet high, swelling at the base, without prickles,
fronds terminating, two feet long; berry roundish, the size of a small pea; the
leaves are used for thatch. It is a native of Jamaica.
Zamia, dculeata, or Spanish Dagger, grows about eight feet high, with
stiff sharp-pointed leaves. There are four other species.
CLASS XXIV. CRYPTOGAMIA.
ORDER I. FERNS. FILICES.
Achrosticum:, Rnfiim. Rises eighteen inches high, stipe round, leafy
almost from the root, pinnas about an inch from each other, on a small
pedestal ; this, with about fifteen other species are natives of Jamaica : there
are in all forty-four species.
Brake, Pteris. Indian Brake grows very common in America, in moist
places; has a whitish stalk and large leaf. P. Caudata and Atropurpurea are
both natives of America.
Bleciinum, Occidentals Stalk rises simple about fifteen inches, leaves
long and narrow; pinnas many, with two small auricles at the base ; native
of the West Indies, and there are five other species mostly natives of America.
C^nopteris, Rhizophylla, is a native of Dominica; has obovate pinnules
on short petioles, and forked brown glossy threads.
Dicksonia, Arborescens. Tree Dicksonia, is a native of St Helena, and
D. Culcita, native of Madeira, called Feila Brom, and supposed to be the
same as the Baromets or Scythian lamb. The inhabitants make pillows and
cushions of the roots.
Female Fern, Pteris Grandifolia. Nat. Jamaica, rising with a simple
frond three feet high ; the fructification is an uninterrupted marginal line.
There are thirty-four species in all, of which fifteen are natives of the West
Harts Tongue, (see Spleen Wort) Asplenium. This genus has the fructi-
fication in right lines along the under disk of the frond. There are forty-seven
species in all, of which about fifteen are natives of Jamaica.
Horse Tail, Equisetum. Fr. Trek. This genus has the fructifications dis-
posed into a long ovate oblong spike. It is styptic, and heals ulcers and ex-
coriations. There are seven species.
Hemionitis, Mule Fern. In this genus the capsules are digested into
lines meeting together, either intersecting each other, or branched. There
are in all eight species, of which five are natives of Jamaica ; the roots of
one species are esculent.
Isoetes. The small flowers form an anther, and the female a double-
celled capsule within the base of the leaf. It is called Quill Wort.
Lichen. There are upwards of two hundred species of this genus, beside
several varieties ; many of them are of considerable use in dying various
colours. Iceland Moss, L. Islandicus, is very mucilaginous and pectoral, and
highly useful in consumptive complaints, and Dysentery; boiled in milk over
a slow fire, exactly one quarter of an hour, it is also highly nutritious.
Lonchitis. This genus has the capsules disposed in lunulated lines under
the sinuses of the frond There are five species natives of the West Indies.
Maiden Hair, Adiantum Microphyllum-, and twelve other species are
natives of Jamaica. It grows among the rocks, in America also. The species
with black shining stalks makes a good syrup for coughs ; it is likewise an
useful sudorific in Pleurisies, an infusion being made with boiling water, and
sweetened with liquorice root.
Marattia, Alata. This has oval capsules gaping longitudinally at the
top, with cells on each side; it has a bipinnate frond and solitary capsules;
and is a native of Jamaica. There are two other species.
Meniscium, Reticulatum. This genus has capsules heaped in crescents
between the veins of the frond. It is a native of the AVest Indies. There is
no other species.
Maksilea. There are three species of this genus in stagnant waters,
nearly related to Jungermaunia.
Osmunds. Osmnnda. This genus has the capsules distinct, disposed in a
raceme, or heaped on the back of the division of the frond, sessile, sub-
globular, opening transversely, without any ring, seeds numerous and ex-
tremely small. There are twenty -seven species.
Onoclea. This genus has capsules under the pinnules of the frond, re-
sembling Pericarps. O. Sensibilis, is so very tender that it withers on being
touched. One other species.
Ophioglossum, Adders Tongue. This genus has numerous capsules, con-
nected into a spike, subglobular, when ripe opening transversely without
an elastic ring. There are nine species, of which the O. reticulatum and
O. Scandens are natives ot Jamaica.
Polypody, Polypodium, or Male Fern. Two or three drachms of the root
of this genus gathered in Autumn, and reduced to a very fine powder, taken in
four or six ounces of water distilled from Fern, was the celebrated remedy
of Madam Noufer, against the Taenia, or Tape Worm. She obtained a great
price from the King of France for the secret. The ashes of this Fern are also
used instead of soap. An oil is distilled from the ashes with lime, which is
used with the oil of stone to varnish Porcelain. P. aureum and effusum are
natives of Jamaica.
Pilularia. This genus has a globose receptacle having four cells and
four valves, with numerous anthers and globose germs. It is found in
shallow ponds, and called Pill Wort or Pepper Grass.
Spleen Wort, Asplenium. Also called Ceterach, Is said to be diuretic
and emenagogue; useful in Jaundices and obstructions of the Spleen.
Shield Fern, A spidium patens, is a native of Jamaica
Titic iiom an es, JMembranaceum. This genus, has the fructifications in-
serted into the margin, separate involucres, urn shaped and divided, opening
outwards, columns extending beyond like stiles. These Ferns have a black
flat stalk, covered with hair, and small roundish membranaceous semitrans-
parent leaves. There are in all twenty-seven species, of which fifteen are
natives of Jamaica. It is called Hare's-foot Fern.
ORDER II. MOSSES. MUSCI.
Bryum. This genus is distinguished by a capsule covered with a lid, and
over that a smooth veil ; the thread supporting the fructification grows from
a tubercle at the end of the stem and branches. There are sixty-five species
besides many varieties.
Buxbaumia. There are two species of this genus: B. Aphylla, and
Fontinalis. A Moss, the capsules of which are sessile, with short pe-
dicles, covered with calyptrae, and included besides in a membranous husk.
There are five species.
Hypium. This genus has a peduncle from a lateral tubercle fenced with
scales, capsule outer fringed, with sixteen teeth. Seventy species in all.
Lycopodium. Has the fructifications in the axils of the scales, digested
into oblong imbricate spikes, or of the leaves themselves sessile, capsule
kidney-shaped, two valved, elastic, many seeded, no veil. Twenty-nine
species. L. Nudum is a native of the West Indies.
Mnium. Has a capsule with a lid calyptre smooth, bristle from a termi-
nating tubercle ; the male flowers discoid ; if the fruit stalk of the M. Hy-
grometricum be moistened at the bottom, the head makes three or four turns,
and if the head be moistened it turns the contrary way. Twenty-four species.
Neck era. Has an oblong capsule, double peristome, the outer with six-
teen teeth, the inner with sixteen cilias alternate with the teeth, males gem-
maceous on different plants.
Octoblepharis. The capsule ovate, peristome simple, eight teeth, trian-
gular, males subdiscoid, axillary and on the same plant.
Porella. Has an oblong capsule with many lateral pores, no calyptre.
It is a native of Pensylvania, and ascertained to be a species of the junger-
Polytrichum, Golden Maiden Hair, with simple stalks, and the capsules
covered with calyptrae. It was formerly praised for its virtues in making the
hair grow thick.
Phascum. Has an ovate capsule, subsessile, veiled, never opening, males
subdiscoid, terminating. Eleven species.
Rocella. Archil. A white moss, imported in large quantities for dyers'
use ; it dyes a beautiful violet, and is employed to give a bloom to other
Sphagnum. This genus has the male flower club shaped, anthers flat,
capsule on the same plant, sessile, lidded, without an entire veil, mouth
Splachnum. Has a cylindrical capsule, veil and receptacle, very large
fringe with eight teeth, male a circular terminating bud on a different plant
ORDER III. FLAGS. ALGM.
Anthoceros. A genus but little known.
Blasia. There is one species, B. Pusila, which grows on the side of
ditches and moist shady places.
Byssus. There are nineteen species of this genus ; they appear in the
form of threads on rotten wood and in damp cellars ; the sort common on
wine casks, like a mouse's skin, is an excellent styptic.
Badiaga. A spungy plant common in the shops in Moscow, the powder
of which takes away the livid marks of blows and bruises in a night's time ; it
is always found under water, and is considered as a species of spunge.
Conferva. A species of "Water Moss covering the surfaces of pools ;
one sort of a close texture is poisonous.
Fucus. This, with the spawn adhering to it in the lakes, cures Burns and
Jungermannia. Produces male and female flowers often on the same;
the male flower stands on a long pedicle; the female part of fructification
consists only of seeds. Forty-eight species.
Kelp. Thick-leaved Sea Wrack. The ashes of this flag are used in the
Glass and Allum Works.
Ligula. A Fucus growing on places always covered by the sea, composed
of solid long cords or strings.
Marchantia. Has a salver-shaped calix, numerous anthers, imbedded
in the male, calix peltate, flowering on the under side, capsules opening at
the top, seeds fixed to elastic fibres. Seven species: these have been raised
from seeds by Mr. J. Lindsey, Surgeon in Jamaica.
Rice i a. This genus has the male flowers sessile on the surface of the
frond, anther conical, truncate, opening at the top. Female flowers, germ
terminate, style filiform, stigma simple, capsule sessile, globular, at the apex
of the leaf, seeds numerous and hemispherical. R. reticulata is a native of Ja-
maica ; and there are five other species.
Sargassa, Fucus Natans. This grows upon rocks on the shores of Jamaica,
and is sometimes found at open sea ; also called Sea Lentils. It is of a dark
brown colour, and if eaten, it will cure Dysuria.
Sea Moss, is remarkably fine and soft.
Sea Mallow. Grows on the rocks at considerable depth under water, about
two inches in height, with leaves resembling mallows on pedicles.
Tremella, Nostoc. Has a uniform membranaceous gelatinous pellucid
substance; not uncommon after rain in grass fields, and on gravel walks; vul-
garly supposed to be the remains of a meteor or fallen star. It is generally of
an olive colour, and the seeds lie in the form of little strings of beads coiled
up within the folds of the plant. There are three other species.
Targ ionia, IJypopJnjlla, Calyx two valved, and compressed, containing a
globular capsule, many seeded ; it is not larger than the finger nail, green,
opakc, with white rising tops, afterwards dark purple, the fructification is at
the end on the under side, and the fruit full of a yellow pulp.
Ulva. The fructifications are small globules, dispersed through a pellucid
membranaceous or gelatinous substance ; they are generally maritime plants.
U. lactuca is well known by the name of Oyster Green ; it is thin and pel-
lucid ; its virtues are cooling, and it is said to be good against inflamed Gout.
Called Slanke in the "West Indies. One species, U. Palmata, is eaten boiled.
There are twenty-six species.
White Coral. It is found in great abundance on the rocky shores of
Jamaica; also on the shores of Ceylon, in the East Indies. When burnt
it makes excellent and very white lime for building.
ORDER IV. FUNGUSES, FUNGI.
Agaricus. Mushroom. In all fifty-five species. The common Cham-
pignon, Chantarelle, Orange, Brown, and Violet, are the sorts supposed inno-
cent. They should always be picked from a dry soil.
Boletus. A horizontal Fungus, porous or lamellated underneath. There
are about thirty species. From B. Igniarius is prepared the Amadou, used
for tinder ; and the Agaric, for stopping bleeding after amputations.
Clathru s. This fungus is always of a roundish figure, having a reticulated
and hollowed body. Eleven species. They are chiefly found on rotten wood.
Clavaria. This fungus grows perpendicularly, having a simple and uni-
form surface, generally oblong and club-shaped ; the seeds are emitted from
every part of its surface. This genus is the lowest in the scale of vegetation.
Helvella. This species of fungus is smooth, both on the under and
upper side, having no lamella?, pores, or fibres in any part.
Hydnum. A horizontal fungus, growing by the side of trees, having no
pedicle; it is beset with pointed fibres underneath. Eleven species, some of
which are found in Jamaica.
Lycoperdon. This fungus has a radiated bottom like a star, in the center
of which grows a round ball full of impalpable seeds.
Mucor, has the seeds naked, or in transparent capsules or vesicles at the
end of the stem, they appear in the form of mouldiness, and form one of the
last genera of the lowest order of vegetation. Seventeen species.
Octospora, Is hemispheric and bell-shaped, with the several membranes
distinct, having eight seeds in them.
Peziza. Is bell-shaped, sessile, concealing lens-shaped, seed-bearing bodies,
plant concave, seeds discharged by jerks from the upper surface. Forty species.
Phallus, Morell. Even on the under surface, reticulated on the upper,
with seeds in the cells ; P. esculentus, is eaten. P. impuricus, or Stink Horn,
has an intolerable foetid smell. There is one other species, P. Caninus.
Pepper Mushrooms, are of the same shape as the common Mushrooms,
solid and full of an acrid milky juice, as hot as Pepper.
SpHiERiA. Fructifications spherical, opening at the top, when young
filled with jelly ; when old, with a blackish powder, mostly without a stem.
They grow on the bark or wood of other plants; the capsules are often im-
mersed, so that only their orifices are visible. Twenty-seven species.
Sphjerocarpus. This genus has the calix ventricose and undivided, and
the seeds numerous, collected into a globe.
Truffle, Tuber Cibarium. A genus separated from the lycoperdons, being
more solid, and not becoming powdery. It is found under ground at the
depth of four or five inches, roundish, whitish and rugged, containing a
brown powder in the center. It has no root nor stem. Dogs are taught to
hunt it, and pigs find it by instinct. It is said that it may be propagated by
the eyes like potatoes. It is considered a great delicacy by some.
Mushrooms as an article of food should be totally avoided : some of the
sorts known to be hurtful, are extremely similar to the innocent ones, and
even these when old are deleterious.
The following List contains Plants which are but imperfectly known, and Additions
to the Virtues and Qualities of some mentioned before, and some not
mentioned in the Body of the Work,
Asm art. (See Page 61.) Add. — The bruised leaves are good for stings and inflammations.
Ac low a. A species of Colutea, used in Guinea to cure the itch.
Aconcroba. A plant of Guinea with stiff dusky leaves, an infusion of which is given in
the Small Pock.
Aloe. (See Page 56.) Add. — The distilled water from the fresh plant is used in Egypt as
a cure for jaundice.
Ava-ava. A plant in Otaheite, from the leaves of which an intoxicating juice is pre-
pared, which is drunk very freely by the chiefs.
Artichoke, Cynara, Class 19, Ord. I. Grows in cool situations in Jamaica, and in America.
Acicoca. A Herb that grows in Peru, and is sometimes used for Paraguay Tea, of
which it is said to have all the properties.
Afoba. A papilionaceous hairy plant of Guinea, which is used pounded and mixed with
oil to cure Psora and Tinea capitis.
Ai to. A kind of woolly hedge mustard of the coast of Guinea, which they grind to
powder and take as snuff to cure the head-ache.
Amea. The name given by the natives of Guinea to the plant called Pajomirioba, in
Jamaica; the leaves dried and powdered, and snuffed up, stop bleeding at the nose.
Aninga. This root grows in the Carribbee Islands, the decoction of it is used to
refine and clarify sugar.
Apobee. A species of Corn Marygold; a decoction of which is drunk in Small Pock
and eruptive Fevers.
Asarabacca. (See Page 68.) Add. — It is said to be a powerful emenagogue, and has
also been recommended in the Gout, and other chronic disorders.
Attrow. A species of Kali, in Guinea, a decoction of the leaves of which is used as
a fomentation for swellings and inflammations.
Attrummapiiock. A species of Colutea; a decoction of which is given by the natives
of Guinea in Syphilis ; the fresh juice is errhine.
e e 2
Avaramo-temo. A Siliquose Tree, the bark of which is astringent, and cures in-
veterate Ulcers, and even Cancers, and it is also a good material for an aromatic bath.
Avalanda.' A name given by the Spaniards to the roots of the sweet cyperus; they are
esculent and delicious like a filbert.
Bears Whoktle-berry, Arbutus Uva ursi, Class 10, Ord. 2. A herb common to
America and England ; it is highly astringent, and used in Russia for tanning. It is a good
medicine in old Gonorrhoea; but its great virtues areas a medicine in Nephritis, arising from
Gout, and Affections of the Bladder. The dose in powder is from a scruple to a drachm,
twice or thrice a day. It is called in New Jersey, Wild Cranberry.
Black Snake Root Actcea. (See Page 74.) Add. — A decoction of the plant made quite
hot, and the limb steamed over it, the heat being kept up by hot stones, is an Indian cure for
Broad-leaved Moorwort, Andromeda Mariana, Class 10, Ord I. Called Wicke.
Is a cure for the Ground or Toe Itch, common in the southern states of America.
Blue Flag, Iris; Class 3, Ord 1. Common in swamps in America. The roots of some
species, as I. versicolor, and verna, are active cathartics.
Burdock, Arctium, Class 19, Ord. 1. The Root makes an excellent ointment for the
Itch and Tinea Capitis ; and boiled with milk, cleanses the blood. The seeds in tincture
are given for a cough ; and are also said to be good in fevers.
Broad Plantain, Plantago, Class 4. Ord. 1. (See Page 40.) The leaves rise im-
mediately from the root, the same as narrow plantain, but broader, ovate, and ending in a blunt
point. It has considerable virtues against poison, and the bite of the Rattle Snake.
Butter Cup, Ranunculus bulbosus, Class 13, Ord. 7. Has a small yellow flower, and
grows common in meadows. It blisters with a more durable irritation than any other epispastic.
Biting Asmart, Polygonum Hydropiper. Salivates horses, and makes them foam at the
Beet, Beta, Class 5. Ord. 2. This is a common and wholesome vegetable for the table
in America. It yields sugar in some considerable quantity. The juice is errhine.
Buck Wheat, Polygonum Fagopyrum, Class 8, Ord. 3. Is good for horses and all kind
of stock. It is said to improve land. Cakes are made of its flour in New York, called Waffles.
Bunbunny. A plant common in Guinea; a decoction of the leaves of which is used as
Baccofoe, or Crucifix Plant A variety of the Banana, nat. of Guinea, yields a fruit of
an excellent flavour : when cut across there is a mark resembling a crucifix : for which reason
the Spaniards and Portugueze will never use a knife to those fruits.
Buckbean, Menyanthes, Class 5, Ord. I. Is said to be a cure for the rot in sheep.
Bugloss, Anchusa, Class 5, Ord. 1. The root boiled in oil is astringent. The ancients
used it as- a cosmetic.
Buckbean, Trifolium Palustre. A decoction is said to be good in Scorbutic cases and
Chronical Distempers ; it is also sometimes substituted for Hops in brewing.
Carapullo. Grows like a tuft of Grass with an ear. The decoction makes those de-
lirious who drink it. The Indians make use of it to discover what trade their sons shall
follow, by placing before them the implements of several trades, (during the delirium) and
observing their choice.
Canker Root. Two sorts in America, yellow and white : both cure the canker in the mouth.
Clowns Heal-all. A green salve prepared in America from the leaves of this plant,
has the effect of relaxing the muscles to set the limbs in dislocations and fractures; but
bleeding till faintness supervenes, or a strong emetic has been found to answer the same purpose.
Catnep, Nepcta. A decoction is a common and excellent remedy in colds and fevers; as
also Boneset, Eupatorium Perfoliatum, called by the Indians, Ague Weed ; the latter if drunk
warm is emetic; it is also considered good in Consumptions and Pleurisy. The leaves are thick
and downy, and the stalk goes through them. It is common in New York.
Checker Berry, or Partridge Berry. Grows on a plant six inches high, and is of the
size of a pea, of a crimson colour ; an infusion is diuretic, and a decoction is drunk as bitters.
Cohush. An Indian remedy in Menstrual Obstructions.
Corn Salad, or Fattecous. When young, is an excellent salad, common in America.
Canada Thistle. A noxious weed in loamy land, about the northern part of the State
of New York. It grows rapidly in large beds, and is difficult to be got rid of, even by twice
ploughing and mowing. When dry, cattle will eat it by choice, but not when green.
Cranes Bill, Geranium, Class 16, Ord. 2. A species is made use of to cure the Piles.
Cowslip, Primula, Class 5, Ord. 1. Grows in America in great variety and beauty.
Carrot, Daucus Carota, Class 5, Ord. 2. This well-known root yields a good spirit.
Caa'-apia. A plant of Brazil; astringent and emetic in the dose of a drachm; the juice
of the plant internally, and the bruised plant externally, is used for wounds made by poisoned
arrows, and the bites of serpents.
Caamini. A name given by the Spaniards to the finest sort of Paraguay Tea, which
grows in the mountains of Maracaya.
Cassada. (See Explanation ofPlate 11.) Add. — It is best propagated like the cane, by cuttings
of the stalk with a sharp axe between the joints (care being taken not to bruise the eye or
bud). It is useful to plant in Cacao walks, to defend the young plants from the wind and sun.
Cabuia. A South American species of Hemp, growing in Panama, of which thread, fishing
lines and rope are made ; the fibres are so tough as to saw iron.
Cayang. A species of Cytisus ; much used for food in the East Indies, called there Kjssery.
Cocculus Indicus. A poisonous narcotic berry, which will intoxicate fish,
Concou. A herb of Guinea, the bruised leaves of which, inixt with oil, and applied as a
cataplasm, destroys the Guinea worm.
Cuttofoe. A species of Rest Harrow, grows in great abundance on the banks of the Rio
Cobre, near Spanish Town ; a strong decoction is esteemed in Guinea as a cure for the cholic.
Celery-leaved Crowfoot, Ranunculus Sceleratus, Class 13, Ord. 7. When bruised
and applied it raises a blister.
Cornus Sericea. A Tincture of the bark is useful in the latter stage of Diarrhoea when
it is unaccompanied with fever.
Dwarf Pimperneli, Anagallis Pmnila, Class 5, Ord. 1, is a native of Jamaica; it
opens its flowers about eight in the morning, and closes them about three p. m.; but if it be
likely to be rainy, it does not open ; or if open, closes on the approach of rain. It is also
vulnerary, and good against bites and stings.
Dogs Mercury, Mercurialis percunis, Class 22, Ord. 8. The leaves are ovatcd and
pointed, and the stalk furnished with numerous tendrils ; it dyes blue, and the fibres a fine red-
Elecampane, Inula Helemion, Class 19, Ord. 2. A tea of the leaves is excellent in
coughs, with Horehound.
Erowa. A Nettle of Otaheite; the fibres of which make fishing lines stronger than silk
lines of twice the thickness ; also used for cordage and cloth.
Flax, Linum, Class 5, Ord. 5, is much cultivated in America; has a blue blossom, and
flat brown seed, without a furrow. A wild species is called False Flax ; with no fibre ; lias
yellow seed round and long, with a farrow.
Flowering Rush, Butomus, Class 9, Ord. 3. Grows in America in swamps and stand-
ing waters, has long linear leaves and small yellow flowers.
Fire Weed. Springs up and covers the ground after land has been burnt off in America.
Fenugreek, Trigonclla, Class 17, Ord. 3, is much cultivated in India. The seeds are
emollient, and contain oil blended with resin and mucilage.
Gland Flax, Nuil or Navilu, will cause women's milk to come in great plenty.
Golden Thread. This Root is found in New York, and good for a sore, and cankered
Gin ten Root. An Indian cure for Dysentery and Pleurisy. (Not Gentian.)
Grasses most common in America for Meadows, are Spear Grass, White Clover, Red
Clover, Timothy, Fox Tail, Red Top; for Salt Hay, Black Grass, Blue Grass,
Salt Grass, Rye or Burden Grass, and Ribbon Grass.
G rass Pink. A small low plant with linear grass-like leaves, and a five-petalled red flower.
Garlic, Allium. (See Page 55.) Add. — A Clove of Garlic is carried by the German phy-
sicians in their mouths, when they visit patients in malignant levers.
IIarillo. A herb having a small leaf and flower like Broom, which is vulnerary.
House Leek, or Live for Ever, Senipcrxivum, Class 11, Ord. 6, is cooling; the juice of
the leaves with Spirits of Wine, removes Blotches, Redness and Inflammations of the Skin.
Hungry Root, or Wild Spikenard Bush, makes a tonic and bitter infusion.
Heart's Ease, Viola tricolor, Class 5, Ord. 1. This beautiful little flower is common
in America, and said to possess nephritic virtues.
Hops, Humulus, Class 22, Ord. 4. This is cultivated in America. The fibres of the
stalk will make cordage and cloth.
Horse Radish, Coclilcaria, Class 15, Ord, 1. This well-known plant is wholesome,
stimulant and antiseptic.
Hemp, Cannabis, Class 22, Ord 5. The powder of the seeds is made into Boluses, by the
Egyptians called Assis, and by the Persians, Bangue, used as cordials ; an emulsion or de-
coction of them is useful in Jaundice; the seed is good for birds and poultry, but in small
Heath, Erica, Class 8, Ord. 1. The decoction is diuretic, and a fomentation of its
leaves and flowers, or a vapour bath, eases the gout ; a warm decoction taken thirty days
successively, is said to be effectual for breaking and expelling Calculi.
Henbane, Hyoscyamns, Class 5, Ord. 1. The seed burnt, and the vapour conveyed
to an aching tooth through a funnel, cures the Tooth-Ache.
Hyssop, Hysscpux, Class 14, Ord. 1. A cataplasm of the bruised plant cures contusions,
and removes pain and blackness.
Jamaica Honey-Suckle. The oil of the flowers is good against numbness and cramp.
Indigo. (See Explanation of Plate 11.) Add. — When cultivated it is very liable to a
blight, like the Cotton.
Issong. The negro name for the Black Pea with a white spot; called by the people of
Malabar, Ulinga; and in Jamaica, Parsley. A strong decoction, with which the head is to
be washed, is a cure for all kinds of Head-Ache.
Ixia, Class 3, Ord. 1. The roots are greatly esteemed at the Cape of Good Hope, as food.
Lacayota. An ever-green climbing herbaceous plant, which makes fine arbours.
Loose Strife, Lysimachia, Class 5, Ord. 1. The virtues of this plant are vulnerary
and styptic. The distilled water is cosmetic, and the smoke of the plant drives away Mus-
Lucimo. The South- American name for the Mammee Apple. (See Explanation of Plate 8.)
Lemon Grass, makes a very pleasant diaphoretic and cooling drink in fevers.
Live Oat. The three long awns being slightly wetted, by their alternate contraction and
dilatation, it will creep or move a considerable distance ; the awns will also form hygrometers.
Lead Wort. (See Page 42.) Add. — This plant is of a hot and caustic nature, and used
for the cure of the Tooth- Ache.
Lily of the Valley, Comallaria, Class 6, Ord. 1. The flowers are stimulatory and
Linkio. A water plant in China; the fruit of which is triangular and pyramidical; the
inside is white and tastes like a chesnut.
Money Wort, Lysimachia nummularia, Class 5, Ord. 1, is vulnerary and good in Fluxes.
Mullein, Verbascum, Class 5, Ord. 1, has ovate sessile woolly leaves, and yellow flowers ;
is vulnerary internally and externally used ; is good for poultices, and a tea diaphoretic in fevers.
Marsh Rosemary, Statice, Class 5, Ord. 5. The roots are powerfully astringent; a
decoction of them cures cankers and ulcerated sore throat, aptha? and scarlatina anginosa.
It is a most powerful antiseptic.
Motherwort, Leonurus, Class 14, Ord. 17. An infusion or decoction is used to remove
Obstructions of the Viscera, and in Spasmodic and Hysterical Affections. The leaves are
hairy and many pointed.
May Weed, Anthaim, Class 19, Ord. 2. A tea is diaphoretic in Colds and Fevers.
Milk Weed. Bears a pod containing a fine silky down, used for hats in America.
Mandrake Apple. Has a very large leaf deeply lobed into many segments. The
apple is about the size of a lime. It grows in the northern part of the state of New York.
Malabar Nut, Class 2, Ord. 1. This is the fruit of the Justicia adhadota.
Millett, Milium, Class 3, Ord. 2. This is reckoned the most fertile of all grain, and
as a useful article for food, deserves cultivation in the West Indies.
Maple, Acer. (See Page 105.) Add — The juice distilled is superior to arrack ; unboiled
it is, like Cane juice, pectoral and antiscorbutic. If the tree be bored with augers, it will
yield juice for fifty years.
Narrow Plantain, Plcmtago, Class 4, Ord. 1. The. leaf is long and narrow, with
ribs running longitudinally, and divided at the top into two points. Called also Ribwort.
Nettle, Urlica pumila, Class 21, Ord. 4. The juice mixed with cream is good for the
vesication produced by the poison of the Sumach, which sometimes happens from wearing
gloves that have been dyed with it by mistake. It has many medicinal qualities. See N. Index.
Oculus Christi. A name given to a species of Clary, from the use of its seeds in clear-
ing the eye from any extraneous substance, which it does by its viscous covering, bein<* put
into one corner of the eye, it moves itself over the surface and brings it out; when put into
any acid it keeps constantly in motion, It is sold in the shops of New York by the name of
Onion, Allium Cepa, (See Page 56) boiled or roasted are excellent cataplasms for the
Piles. A fresh cut onion rubbed on the part till it becomes rod and itches is said to be a cure
for baldness. A mixture of equal parts of Onion juice and Spirit of Wine, dropped into the
ear, is a cure for Deafness ; or cut in two, and macerated in spirit an hour, is a good application
for the Head-Ache. See also N. Index.
Pepper Grass, is diuretic and useful in Scurvy and Dropsy; and the juice mixed with
oil is cood in Psora and cutaneous diseases.
Pilewort. A decoction, or the dried leaves, is good in Piles or Prolapsus.
Pond Weed, Potamogcton y Class 4, Ord. 4. Grows in ponds, and is cooling and drying.
Prickly Withe. In the center of the green succulent stalk is a lasting strong wiry
withe ; called by the Negroes, Tye-Tyc.
Pine Ivory. A tea of this herb is good for a Cough. It has red flowers and berries.
P/Eony, PiFouia, Class 13, Ord. 2. Has a large crimson flower, and is a well-known
ornament to the gardens in America,
Pig Weed. A low herb with a thick succulent milky leaf, common in America.
Periwinkle, Vinca, Class 5, Ord. 1. A creeping herb, having shining oval leaves, with
i blue rotaceous flower; one species has the leaf variegated with white.
Patience. A herb eaten as Spinach in America.
Pig Nut, Bunium, Class 5, Ord. 2. The root, roasted or raw, is of a pleasant sweetish
taste, nourishing and good against Strangury.
Pippiseva, Pyrola umbellata, Class 10, Ord. 1. Is used as a remedy for the Gravel.
Ragwort, Othonna, Class 19, Orel. 4. This Herb is astringent, and good in Quinsies.
Rue, Ruta, Class 10, Ord. 1. Many wild sorts grow on rocks. Take powder of Rue four
ounces, Zedoary, Contrayerva, Snake Root and Arrow Root, one ounce each, in powder,
Saffron, half an ounce, in powder, of these, with sugar and honey, make an electuary : —
dose two drachms, with a glass of Madeira. This is excellent against Poisons, Petechial
Fever, Small Pox or Measles ; opens Obstructions, and cures Jaundice and Hysterics.
Red Chickweed. Is useful as an alterative after the bite of a dog.
Radishes, (See Page 81.) Add. — They are antiscorbutic and diuretic.
Rhubarb. (See Page 6 C 2.) Add. — It has been cultivated with success in England.
Rupture Wort, Herniaria, Class 5, Ord. 2. as been celebrated for its virtues in
curing of Ruptures, but is strongly recommended for removing the disorder of the eyes brought
on by reading or writing by candle-light. A scruple of the dried powder given once a day, or
forty drops of a strong tincture, morning and evening, is the dose.
Spikenard. The leaves ripen swellings, and made into syrup it is deobstruent.
St. John's Wort, Hypericum, Class 8, Ord. 2. A tea is good in Fevers.
Sweet, or Fever Balm, Melissa, Class 14, Ord. 1. A tea is diaphoretic in Colds and
Fevers. Mint may be added.
Shepherds' Pouch, Thlaspi, Class 15, Ord. 1. A common little plant, with delicate
heart-shaped leaves on long pedicles.
Salt Water Elder. Has small oval leaves, smallest at the end next the stalk.
Salt Water Beet. Has large leaves of the same shape. These roots are considered
most valuable remedies in Canker, Sore Throat and Apthae ; and are kept in the shops of
New York for that purpose.
Sage, Salvia, Class 2, Ord. 1. This herb is a good diaphoretic. When the Dutch first
traded to China it is said they carried dried Sage leaves, which the Chinese eagerly exchanged
for their Tea, — giving four pounds of Tea for one pound of Sage. It is said the annual sales
of Tea in China are now upwards of twenty millions of pounds.
Spelt Corn is much raised in Pensylvania for feeding horses ; and Broom Corn, of the
heads of which, when thrashed, carpet brooms are made. Washington Wheat also is a good
and productive species.
Scotch Grass. (See Explanation of Plate 5, fig. 4.) One acre is said to be capable of
feeding five horses, at fifty-six pounds per day each.
Stink Weed. An American herb said to be useful in the cure of cancers.
Skunk Cabbage. (See Page 93.) Used in some parts for the cure of Coughs.
Saffron, Crocus, Class 3, Ord. 1. Has cordial and diaphoretic virtues.
Samphire. (See Page 72.) Add. — It is antiscorbutic and cooling, eaten as a salad.
Sugar. (See Page 37.) Add. — Is highly antiseptic, and therefore excellent to dress
Sesame, Sesamum. (See Explanation of Plate 9, fig. 7.) Add.— The oil, with flowers and
other aromatic substances is generally used for perfumed oils. It is principally used with food;
and in Egypt is sold dearer than oil of olives.
Sweet Fern. (See Page 97.) Add. — The Indians chew the root to stop Haemorrhages in
recent wounds, and inward bleedings.
Sarsaparilla, Smilax Sarsaparilla, Class 22, Ord. 6. The leaves of this plant are in
threes on short pedicles, ovate, acuminate and serrate. Its uses in Scorbutic disorders,
Rheumatism and Syphilis are well known.
Tomatoes. (See Page 53.) Add. — The juice is cooling and good in Inflammations.
Thorn Apple. (See Page 45.) The leaves applied to the temples relieve Head-Ache;
a tincture of the seeds is said to be a superior remedy to Laudanum, in Mania and Convulsions.
An ointment relieves the Piles.
Tormentil, Tormcntilla erecta, Class 12, Ord. 5. The roots are highly astringent and
good in Dysentery, and make a fine Ink.
Tory Weed. A troublesome weed, so called about Lake Champlain.
Tobacco. (See Page 19-) Add. — A cataplasm of the leaves with vinegar, applied to the
stomach, is very useful to hasten the operation of emetics, to eject poison taken into the stomach,
by which it has been rendered torpid.
Violets, Class 5, Orel. 1. There are in Jamaica many sorts resembling the European in
colour, but not equal in fragrance.
Valerian, Valeriana, Class 3, Ord. 1. Is good in Nervous diseases and Epilepsies.
Virginia Goats' Rue, Galega Virginia, Class 17, Ord. 3. A decoction of the roots is
anthelmintic. A West-Indian species intoxicates fish.
White Jalap, Class 5, Ord. 1. A root held in the hand will take away the cramp.
Water Plantain. (See Page 58.) Add.- The bruised leaves applied to the breasts,
is said to clear them of milk; they are cooling to Inflammations, and by their restringency stop
W r ATER Lilies, Nymphcva Odorata, Class 13, Ord. 1. Grow in Lake Champlain; the
juice is good against Inflammations, Burns, Scalds, &c. Roots and seeds good in thirst,
vomiting and Diarrhoea.
White Lily of Lake Champlain. A very large odorous flower. (See Water Lilies.)
Wild Buckwheat. The seeds are said to be injurious to poultry.
W t ild Sorrel. Grows about six inches high, with a small sagittated leaf, and a spike
of red flowers.
Wild Pink. A beautiful plant with a crimson flower, found at Mamaraoneck, by the
side of the East River in New York.
Wild Columbine, Aqidlegia, Class 13, Ord. 7. Grows very common in New York in
Wild Carrot. The seeds are said to be diuretic. The Spaniards make tooth-picks of
■the foot stalk of the Daucus Visnacra, and chew the seeds.
Wormwood, Artemisia, Class 19, Ord. 2. A tincture is a tonic and stomachic bitter.
Worm Grass, Spigelia, Class 5, Ord. 1. Called by the Indians, Unstcetla, is useful in
low Worm Fevers, and the Remittent Fever, which ultimately produces Dropsy of the Brain.
Yellow Lily of Lake Champlain, Nymphcea Kalmiana, Class 13, Ord. 1. Is good
for Swellings, and a poultice of the root cures the Quinsy,
Yarrow, Achillea Millefolium, Class 19, Ord. 2. Is a good bitter in Fevers, and useful
Acaja. A Brazilian tree, producing yellow plumbs with a large stone; the buds and
tops are used for pickles.
Anda. A Brazilian tree, the fruit of which is purgative.
Andira. The Brazilian name for the Angelyn, or Cabbage Bark Tree.
Aleppo Pine and Red Juniper. Trees of considerable size, abounding on the Northern
Coast of Africa.
Avocado Pear Tree. (See Explanation of Plate 7, fig. 5.) Add. — The fruit eaten be-
fore ripe causes Dysentery.
Acacia. (See Page 106.) The flowers are used by the Chinese to dye a fine yellow colour.
Abele Tree. A species of poplar, thriving best in boggy soils, and of a very quick
growth ; the wood is very white, and useful for turning, flooring, or Avainscoating.
Alder, Betula. (See Page 97.) Add. — The wood is esteemed by turners, and the bark
is a strong styptic.
Aouta. The Paper Mulberry Tree at Otaheite is so called, from which the cloth, prin-
cipally worn, is manufactured ; the leaves of Eton, (the Cordia Sebesten of Jamaica) are used
with the juice of the Purple Fig to dye it red.
Aspen, 'Populus tremulus. (See Page 102.) Add. — The bark is a good tonic, and useful
as a stomachic in diseases of horses.
Balm of Gilead, or Physic Tree, Pinus Bahamea, Class 21, Ord. 9- The buds yield
a vulnerary balsam, which is stimulant.
Butternut. (See Page 95.) Add. — It dies brown, an extract of the bark is cathartic, and
the powdered bark blisters like cantharides.
Black Birch. (See Page 97.) Add. — The bark is used for tanning, and the timber for
framing ; the leaves are oval, pointed, and bluntly notched, with oblique veins; the juice yields
Beech. (See Page 97-) Add.— Is used partly for building, and for fire-wood.
Black Ash, is used for rails, and sometimes in building.
Black Oak. (See Page 96*.) Add. — It is a large timber tree; the lobes end in a blunt
round point, but not deeply divided.
Button Wood. A tree with broad leaves, laciniated into numerous points ; the timber is
not very hard.
Bilstead. A large tree, the wood of which is used by cabinet-makers; the leaves are
deeply divided into five pointed lobes.
Basswood, or Linden. Has large ovate pointed leaves, notched at the edges; it bears the
blossom in a curious manner from a leaf. The inside bark with milk makes a cooling poultice^
f f 2
Bilimbi. A tree cultivated in the East Indies, growing about twelve feet high, having a
fruit which when ripe is pleasant to the taste, when unripe it makes a good pickle ; the leaves
boiled with rice are used as cataplasms for Tumours.
Box, Bilvus, Class 21, Orel. 4. Is a handsome tree with very hard wood, a decoction, or
the oil, is said to make the hair grow on parts which are entirely bald.
Brazil. The chips or raspings, with allum, make red ink : and a carmine is extracted
from it. Braziletto also yields a red colour, but not so brilliant as Brazil.
Badouce. An East-Indian fruit, round and of the size of an apple, yellow on the out-
side, with a white transparent pulp.
Bladder Nut, Staphi/Lea, Class 5. Ord. 3. A tree of Virginia, bearing globular
seeds inclosed in a kind of bladder ; they are strung for beads, and the seeds yield an oil
which is resolvent.
Bastard Cedar. (See Page 86.) Add. — The wood is useful for staves for casks.
Cinchona Carib^ea. C. Brachycarpa and C. Triflora, are Jamaica indigenous species
of the Peruvian Bark, employed in stopping intermittcnts, but must be given in small doses,
being considerably emetic.
Cusso, Rhus Banksia. A tree of Abyssinia, possessing powerful anthelmintic virtues.
Cashew Tree. (See Explanation of Plate 10, fig. 2.) The gum and bark are astringent
and good in Dysentery : pills made of equal parts of the gum and wax, and given to the
quantity of a drachm per day, often cure. The gum and Elemi are useful ingredients for a
pill in Eluor Albus.
Chesnut. (See Page 97.) Makes the best rails for fences.
Capollin, or Mexican Cherry. Bears its fruit in clusters ; the bark is said to be a cure
Coral Tree. The wood is used in the East Indies for scabbards.
Carcaplli. The Indian Yellow Orange Tree, of Malabar; the fruit when ripe is
whitish, has an acid sweetness of taste, and is rather astringent.
Cham pa da. A name by which the natives of Malacca call the Jack Fruit; the kernels
boiled or roasted are similar to chesnuts. (See Explanation of Frontispiece; fig. 6. )
Citron Wood. A tree of the West Indies, called also Candle Wood ; the leaves are
like Bay leaves, with a black berry similar to Pimenta ; the wood has a fine grain and takes a
Cobban. A small tree like a Peach Tree, with a round esculent fruit enclosing a nut
which contains a bitter kernel ; the oil of which is used by the inhabitants of Sumatra for
swellings of the Spleen, and with the gum is considered by them a sovereign remedy for the
Cerbera, Class 5, Ord. 1. The wood of this tree is so excessively foetid that it cannot
be burnt. It is called Devil's Wood.
Durion. A fruit common in the East Indies; the leaves of which are said to be six
inches long, and sixteen inches broad, terminating in a long point. The fruit is very similar
to the Jack Fruit; it has the same disagreeable smell, but as to taste is considered the finest
of all fruits. This is preferred by the inhabitants of the East Indies to the Mangosteen.
Elder, Sambucus, Class 5, Ord. 3. A small tree bearing its flowers in a corymbe.
The green bark is very cooling in a poultice, and the leaves are a good ingredient in a bath.
Elm, is a large timber tree fit for framing houses ; the leaves are ovate, acuminate, sharply
serrated with paralell oblique nerves, from the mid rib to the extremeties.
Elm, Beech and Oak, denote land of the second quality in the United States.
Emphrue. A species of Mulberry in Guinea, the leaves of which boiled in wine are
given as a restorative.
Fir, Pitch Pine, and Hemlock, denote land of the third quality in the United States.
(For the remainder see Shrubs.)
Fustic See Page 95.) Add. — The wood of this tree is used for dying black as well
Greenwood. A large timber tree, the leaves of which are divided into three pointed
Hemlock Spruce. (See Page 98.) Add. — The bark is used for tanning, a tea of the
leaves is used in Colds and Fevers, and a decoction is a good pediluvium.
Hottentot Cherry, Cassine maurocenia, Class 5, Ord. 3. Is found at the Cape of
Good Hope, and one species in Jamaica ; the berry is oval and two-celled, containing each
a single oval seed.
Hornbeam Tree, Carp'mus, Class 21, Ord. 9. Two species are found in America,
the C. Belusus virginiana, and C. Ostyra.
Juniper Cedar, grows in plenty about Lake George; also the Fir.
Juniper. A tree of the West Indies; the fruit of which yields a juice as clear as water,
which dyes a fine violet colour.
Kingsbridge Laurel, Kalmia Latifolia, Class 10, Ord. 1. A beautiful tree growing
in the swamps of New Jersey, but poisonous.
Kingsbridge Laurel, or Calico Tree, Kalmia Latifolia. A powder of the leaves made
into an ointment is good for Tinea Capitis and Psora ; and said also to be useful in Syphilis.
The powdered leaves have also been used in intermittents.
Lilac Hoop Tree, Melias. The bark is used in the East Indies for Peruvian Bark.
Locus Tree. A tall timber tree with small oval pinnated leaves, and odorous spikes of
papilionaceous flowers, frequently planted near houses for its shade.
Lime Tree, Tilia, Class 13, Ord. 1. A tea of the flowers is said to cure Epilepsy.
Myrrh and Balm of Gilead. The trees yielding these balsams are found in Abyssinia.
Mammee Tree. (See Explanation of Plate 8.) Add. — From incisions in the trunk it
is said Toddy Wine distils.
Mango. (See Explanation of Frontispiece, fig. 19.) Add.— The stone roasted is a
remedy for Dysentery ; and the Bark and gum are also astringent.
Marotti. A tall tree of Malabar, with leaves like the Bay ; bearing a round oblong
fruit, including a large yellowish stone containing ten or eleven kernels ; the oil from which
eases pains, and cures Scabies and Itching.
Moul Elavou. The East Indian name for the Prickly Cotton Tree.
Magnolia Glauca. (See Page 76.) A decoction of the bark of the root has been
found useful in Rheumatic Affections.
Prickly Ash, or Tooth Ache Tree, Aral'ia Sp'niosa, Class 5, Ord. 5. A decoction is
good in Rheumatism; and a tincture in the Cholic, or to cure the Tooth-Ache.
Pitch Pine. (Sec Page 97.) Add. — Tar is extracted from the roots by fire; when fresh
it is good for sprains.
Pigeon Wood and Parrot Wood. Both hard timbers of a red colour, but not much
Papaw, Annona Triloba, Class 13, Ord. 7. The dried fruit is cathartic.
Quillav. The bark of this tree ferments, and lathers like soap, and is best for washing
Rack. A large tree of Abyssinia, used for boat-building.
Rose Willow. The bark, with Sassafras and Wild Cherry bark, is given to cure Syphilis.
Red Oak. (See Page 96.) The leaves are divided into lobes ending in a roundish blunt
point. The timber is cut in great quantities for staves for sugar hogsheads and coffee tierces.
Rock and Curly Maple. (Sec Page 105.) Add. — The leaves are divided into many
and irregular pointed lobes ; they are good timber, and the latter has a beautiful curled grain.
Sassafras, Lauras Sassafras, Class 9, Ord. 1. A decoction of the bark and chips is
antivenereal and antiscorbutic, cures swelled legs and the Numb Palsy, and dyes an orange
colour. The leaves are alternately ovate, pointed, three lobed, and veined, the flowers in
irregular spikes. The bark is useful in intermittents. The oil is useful for Wens, and destroys
insects, and also for Gout and Chronic Rheumatism.
Slippery Elm. A decoction of the inner bark is good in Coughs, Pleurisies, Consump-
tions and Quinsies ; and good as a poultice for Tumours and Gun-shot Wounds; also for Chil-
blains and Burns.
Spanish Oak, Quercus rubra monlana. (See Page 96.) Add. — The bark externally
used in Gangrene is equal to Peruvian Bark.
Tree Rosemary. The bark smells very strong, and it is a good timber.
Tree Celandine, Bocconia. (See Page 68.) Add — This beautiful tree is common in
Jamaica ; it was planted by the Indian kings in their gardens for its beauty.
Virginian Angelica Tree, Aral'ia Spinosa, Class 5, Ord. 5. Rises twelve feet high,
much branched, and with alternate divaricate leaves ; the flowers come out in umbels, suc-
ceeded by roundish purple berries.
White or Mountain Ash, Fraiimus, Class 23, Ord 2. Is used for shafts, and the bark-
White Oak. The leaves are deeply laciniated, and the segments end in points. It is a
most excellent timber, and used for puncheon staves.
White Pine and Hemlock being cut down and cleared from a spot of land, on exposure
to the sun, the Black Walnut, Hickory and Chesnut will spring up without any seeds being
planted, or any apparent cause.
Walnuts with Chesnuts are a sign of the best land in the United States.
White Cedar.( See Page 98.) Add. — Is also split up for rails, and is the best wood for
White Oak Bark. A good remedy for wounds in horse-flesh.
Witch Hazel, Hamamelis, Class 4, Ord. % The bark with copperas dies black, with-
out it brown.
Weeping Willow and Upright Ditto, grow frequently in swampy places in America,
similar to the English species.
Walnuts and Hickories. (See Page 95.) Add. — They are fine hard timber. The
bark dies yellow. The Black Walnut has pinnated lanceolate leaves.
Water Ash, grows in waters and swampy places.
Wild Grape. Several species in America, as the Blue Fox Grape, Black ditto, and
Water Grape, make wines ; and if the cultivation of Grapes were properly attended to, the
finest wines might be made.
Wild Cherry, Prunus Virginiana. The bark is useful in Intermittents.
White, Yellow, and Pitch Pine. (See Page 97.) Add. — They are sawn up into
boards. A decoction of W. P. Bark is said to be antiscorbutic. The Turpentine of the
W. P. and a tincture of the P. P. are good for pains in the breast.
Althaea Frutex. Common in America as an ornament to the gardens.
Ac roe. A shrub of the trifoliate kind, which is used by the natives of Guinea in wine, as
Ascindoe. A prickly shrub, the decoction of which is given by the natives of Guinea,
Assrumina. A shrub of Guinea; the leaves of which bruised and applied externally
destroy the G uinea worm.
Blue Point, or Huckleberry, has small oval pointed leaves and blue berries in America.
Black Alder. A shrub with lanceolate pointed leaves, serrated at the edges.
Black Huckleberry. Very similar to the Blue Point, the leaves rather larger, and
Blackberry. (See Page 73.) Add. — The jelly is good in Nephritic and calculous com-
Buddleia, Class 4, Ord. 1. A shrub rising ten or twelve feet high, with a thick woody
stem covered with a grey bark; native of Jamaica.
Bamboo. (See Page 39.) The substance found in this cane is a cure for the Strangury.
Bellonia, Class 5, Ord. 1, is a native of Jamaica.
Bittersaveet, Solatium Dulcamara, Class 5, Ord. 1. Makes a cooling poultice with
the green bark of Elder ; an ointment of the root is relaxing in the Piles.
Cameraria, Angustifolia, Class 5, Ord. 1. Has an irregular shrubby stalk about eight
feet high ; flowers are produced at the end of the branches in loose clusters ; it abounds with
an acrid milky juice.
Croton Tinctorium produces the turnsole, and makes a claret dye.
Callaf. A shrub of the East Indies with flexible branches and leaves like a Cherry Tree.
The flowers which are produced before the leaves arc like oblong downy little balls of a most
fragrant smell, from which an excellent water and oil are distilled.
Ensetf, Musa ensetc, nat. Abyssinia. This plant is largely cultivated as a substitute for
Grammelouc A common East Indian shrub; the leaves long, narrow and pointed,
with atricoccous berry ; very cathartic, similar to Ricinus.
Lavorse. A tea of this plant is good to relieve from inflation by wind. The roots and
seeds are also good for flatulency. The leaf is deeply divided into three segments, and has a
strong smell when rubbed.
Leather Wood, or Moose Wood, D'uca pedustris, Class 8, Ord. 2. The bark is ex-
tremely tough and flexible, and is sometimes used for leather. A slip tied round the leg, is
a remedy for Cramp. It blisters in the same manner as Daphne Gnidium.
Moose Wood and imperfect shrubs denote the poorest land.
Mogorin. A shrub of China, bearing a white flower, so odoriferous that a single flower
will perfume a whole house.
Meutang, A flower much esteemed by the Chinese, called the King of Flowers ; it is
larger than the Rose, and more expanded ; its colour is a mixture of white with purple, but
sometimes reddish or yellow.
Nanny Berry. The bark of a shrub in America so called is good in Chlorosis.
Soap Berry. (See Page 61.) A tincture or extract of the berries is said to be a specific
Sycamore, Acer, Class 23, Ord. 1. A plant six or seven feet high, with yellowish
flowers and winged seed vessels.
Sumach, (See Page 51,) Class 5, Ord. 1. The bark boiled thick with hogs-lard, relaxes
the muscles for setting limbs. The Saline powder of the Rhus glabrum, called Indian Salt,
is used by the Indians as a condiment, and to fix red colours in dying.
Spice Wood. The bark and leaves give a good flavour to beer. The berries are used
as a condiment in place of other spices.
Tetreuma. A species of shrub similar to the Laurustine; the powder of the dried leaves
of which is used by the natives of Guinea to cure Whitlows.
Whortle Berry, Vaccinium, Class 8. Ord. 1, and Barberry, are signs of land of the
Wooginoos, Brucea Antidysentirka. Native of Abyssinia. A shrub celebrated for its
medicinal virtues in the cure of Dysentery.
The following genera found in North America (not requiring particular description)
have not been noticed, as most of the others have, in the body of the work; they are
therefore here inserted and arranged into their respective Classes and Orders.
CLASS I. Ord. Mon. Mealy thalia, thalia dealbata — myrosma canneeformis — two species
of valerian, v. rubra and v. calcitrapa — salicornia.
Ord. Digyn. Water starwort, callitriche — strawberry blite, blitum — reed cinna, cinna.
CLASS II. Ord. Mon. Speedwell, veronica — bignonia catalpa, (having only two anthers)
— butterwort, pinguicula — hooded milfoil, utricularia — water horehound, lycopus —
oswego tea, monarda — sage, salvia — cunila — collinsonia — enchanter's nightshade, cir-
caea — vernal grass, anthoxanthum.
CLASS III. Ord. Mon. Melothria — commelina — valerian, Valeriana — cotton grass, eri-
ophornin — narcissus triandrus.
Ord. Dig. Leersia — fox tail grass, alopecurus — bent grass, agrostis — meadow grass
poa — sea side oat, uniola — cock's foot grass, dactylis — fescue grass, festuca — brome
grass, bromus — oat grass, avena arundinaria — lyme grass, elymas.
Ord. Trig. Mollugo — anychia — lechca.
CLASS IV. Ord. Mon. Button wood, cephalanthus — scabious, scabiosa — Houstonia — Mit-
chella — ladies bedstraw, galium — great burnet, sanguisorba — shrubby trefoil, ptelea —
Ludwigia — Am mania — Bartonia.
Ord. Dig. Witch hazel, hamamelis. Ord. Trig. Holly, ilex.
CLASS V. Ord. Mon. Gram well; lithospermum — hound's tongue, cynoglossum — lung-
wort, pulmonaria — comfrey, Symphytum— primrose, primula — American cowslip, do-
decatheon — water leaf, hydrophyllum — Ellisia — loose strife, lysimachia — azalea — pyx-
idanthera — lychnidea, phlox — cantua — Greek valerian, polemonium — bell flower, cam-
panula — honeysuckle, lonicera — Pinkneya — deadly nightshade, atropa belladonna —
iron wood, sideroxylon — buck thorn, rhamnus — ziziphus — New Jersey tea, ceanothus
— staff tree, celastrus — spindle tree, euonymus — itea — galax — Virginian creeper,
ampelopsis — Claytonia — tabermemontana — Meadia.
Ord. Dig. Gonolobus — cynanchum — dog bane, apocynum— elm tree, ulmus— gen-
tian and soapwort, gentiana — eryngo, eryngium — pennywort, hydrocotyle — saniclc,
sanicula— angelica — honewort, sison — fool's parsley, asthusa — deadly carrot, thapsia
— parsnep, pastinaca — alexanders, smyrnium — dill, anethum — caraway, carum — hem-
Ord. Tri<>\ Viburnum — sarothra.
Ord. Pent. Aralia — thrift, statice — flax, linum.
CLASS VI. Ord. Mon. Pontederia — amaryllis — garlic, allium — lily, lilium — erythronium
— star of Bethlem, ornithogalum — leontice — asparagus — draccena — streptopus — aletris
— orontium winter berry, prinos — barberry or pepperidge bush, berberis — snow-
drop, galanthus — Bartonia (of Marshall).
Ord. Trig. Dock, rumex — melanthium — medeola — trillium — helonias — meadow saf-
fron, colchicum — winter green, trientalis.
CLASS VII. Ord. Mon. Common and scarlet flowered horse chesnut, asscuhis hippocas-
tanum and eepavia.
Ord.Tetrag. Lizard's tail, saururus.
CLASS VIII. Ord. Mon. rhexia — tree primrose, Oenothera — gaura — willow herb, epilobfurm
— whortleberry and cranberry, vaccinium — Indian cress, tropasolum — Menziesia.
Old. Trig. Persicaria, polygonum — yellow wort, chlora.
CLASS IX. Orel. Mon. Laurel, benzoin tree, and borbonia, all lauri, and natives.
CLASS X. Ord. Mon. Podalyria — Judas tree, cercis — eriogonum — Venus's fly trap,
diona3a muscipula — Jussieua — ledum — rbodora — rose bay, rhododendron — andromeda
— epigsea — gaultheria — alder leaved clethra — winter green, pyrola — storax, styrax.
Ord. Dig. Saxifrage, sax ifraga — tiarella — mitella — pink and sweet william, dianthus.
Ord. Trig. Campion, cucubalus — Pennsylvanian catchfly, silene.
Ord. Pent. Stonecrop, sedum — penthorum.
CLASS XL Ord. Mon. Befaria — snowdrop tree, balesia — decumaria — heath-leaved bud-
sonia, hudsonia ericoides — purslane, portulaca — ly thrum — cuphea — dyer's weed or
weld, reseda — triumfetta.
Ord. Dig. Agrimony, agrimonia.
CLASS XII. Ord. Mon. Cactus — syringa or mock orange, philadelphus.
Ord. Dig. Hawthorn, Crataegus.
Ord. Trig. Service tree, sorbus.
Ord. Pent. Virginian guelder rose, spiraea.
' Ord. Pol. Dalibarda— cinquefoil, potentilla— tormentil or septfoil, tormentilla —
avens or herb bennett, geum — allspice, calycantbus — marsh cinquefoil, comarum.
CLASS XIII. Ord. Mon. Herb Christopher, aetata— side saddle flower, sarracenia— hy-
dropeltis— lime tree, tilia— loblolly bay, gordonia— rock rose, cistus.
Ord. Dig. Pothcrgilla.
Ord. Trig. Larkspur, delphinium — wolfs bane, aconitum.
Ord. Poly. Aniseed tree, illicium — custard apple, annona — anemone or wind flower,
anemone — atragene— virgin's bower, clematis — meadow rue, thalictrum — pheasant's
eye, adonis— crowfoot, ranunculus— globe flower, trollius — hellebore, helleborus.
CLASS XIV. Ord. Gym. Germander, teucrium — hyssop, hyssopus— hyptis— hedge net-
tle, stachys— horehound, marrubium — thyme, thymus— dragon's head, dracocephalum
— trichostema — self heal, prunella — phryma — westringia — obolaria.
Ord. Ang. Bartsia— pedicularis — chelone— penstemon — martynia— figwort, scro-
phularia — monkey flower, mimulus — Ruellia— Linnaea— Lindernia— Buchnera — Gerar-
CLASS XV. Ord. Silicul. Pepperwort, lepidium— woad, isatis— whitlow grass, draba—
bastard cress, thlaspi — scurvy grass, cochlearia.
Ord. Siliqu. Wall cress, arabis— tooth wort, dentaria— cardamine.
CLASS XVI. Ord. Poly. Stuartia.
CLASS XVII. Ord. Hex. Fumitory, fumaria.
Ord. Dec. Rafnia— rest harrow, ononis— lupin, lupinus— kidney bean, phaseoTus
— dolichos— glycine— pea, pisum— false acacia, robinia— liquorice, glycyrrhiza— hedy-
sarum— goat's * rue, galega— milk vetch, astragalus — trefoil, trifolium— chickling-
vetch, lathy rus — crotolaria — acschynomene — medick, medicago.
CLASS XVIII. Ord. Poly. Ascyrum— melaleuca, producing cajeput oil.
CLASS XIX. Ord. .Equal. Goat's beard, tragopogon— sow thistle, sonchus— prenanthes
— vernonia— liutris— thistle, carduus— cnicus— artichoke, cynara— bur marygold, bi-
dens — cacalia — hemp agrimony, eupatorium ageratum.
Ord. Superf.v Tansy, tanacetum— wormwood, artemisia— everlasting or cudweed,
gnapbalium— groundsel tree, baccharis— flea bane, conyza— erigeron— groundsel, senc-
cio— starwort, aster — golden rod, solidago — elecampane, inula — tetragonotheca — he-
lenium zinnia — ox eye daisy, chrysanthemum — milfoil, achillea — siegisbeckia.
Ord. Frustr. Rudbeckia— tick-seed sun flower, coreopsis — centaury, centaurea.
Old. Necess. Baltimora — silphium — polymnia — marygolci, calendula — bastard Je-
suit's bark, iva. -
CLASS XX. Ord. Dian. Satyrion, satyrium — bee orchis — ophrys — ladies slipper, cyri-
pedium — helleborine, serapias — arethusa — malaris — epipactis — cymbidium.
Ord. Trian. Sisyrinchium.
Ord. Hex. Pistia — birthwort, aristolochia sipho.
CLASS XXI. Ord. Mon. Chara.
Ord. Diand. Duck's meat, lemna.
Ord. Trian. Cat's tail, typha — Job's tears, coix— sedge, carex — Comptonia — bur
Ord. Tetrand. Paschysandra.
Ord. Pent. Schisandra — ambrosia — prince's feather and love lies a bleeding, ama-
ranthus — xanthium.
Ord. Hex. Wild oats or grass, pharus.
Ord. Mon. Tallow tree, stillingia — cypress, cupressus — phyllanthus.
CLASS XXII. Ord. Diand. Willow and osier, salix.
Ord. Triand. Valisneria — -crakeberry or crowberry, empetium.
Ord. Tetrand. Sea buckthorn, hippophae — candleberry myrtle, myrica.
Ord. Pent. Virginia oil nut, pyrularia — iresine — spinach, spinacia — acnida.
Ord. Enneand. Mercury, mercurialis — frog's bit, hydrocharis.
Ord. Dodecand. Moon seed, menispermum — Indian berry, or coculus indicus.
Ord. Monadelph. Red cedar, juniperus — yew tree, taxus — napia — adelia.
CLASS XXIII. Ord. Mon. Hellebore, veratrum — man's beard, andropogon.
The following plants, natives of Jamaica (except those marked otherwise), are not de-
scribed in the text particularly, but their Classes and Orders are inserted below.
h, signifies herb ; s, shrub ; and t, tree.
CLASS I. Ord. 2. Lacestema myricoides, s.
CLASS III. Ord. 1. Fuirena paniculata, a grass — melothria pendula, a creeping herb,
the berries are pickled green— schoenus, a rush, several species — scirpus spadiceus, a
club-rush — kyllingia triceps & fiiiformis, grasses of Jamaica.
Ord. 2. Leersia monandra & hexandra, grasses- — paspalum, a grass, fifteen species—
aristida americana, a grass.
CLASS IV. Ord. 1. Coccocipsylum repens, h — catesbrea parviflora, s — ammania sangui-
nolenta — diodia simplex, h — ernodea littoralis, h (shores of St. George) — hedyotis rupes-
tris, h — Hoffmannia pedunculata, h — Ludwigia repens, h — petesia stipularis, s — samara
coriacea, t — Wallenia lauriflora, t.
CLASS V. Ord. 1. Gardenia aculeata, s — indigo berry, hamellia grandiflora — princewood,
t — illecebrum vermiculatum, h (near Rock river) — ardisia trifolia, t — itosa cyrilla, s~—
lacyeria lucida & tomentosa, 5— bastard mangineel — cameraria latifolia — psychotria (se-
veral species near Hunt's Bay) — rauwolfia caneseens, 6 — rhamnus sphcerospermus —
gronovia scandens,/* — Sauvagesia erecta, h — Schwenckfeldia hirta, s.
Ord. 2. Dichondra repens, h — apocynum (several species, the down of which might
be exported with advantage) — nama jamaicensis, A— Xylophilla latifolia — brosea yerv?-
mora or golden rod, s — dichondra sericea, It.
Ord. 3. Staphyloma, t.
Ord. 5. Aralia sciodaphylluni.
CLASS VI. Ord. 1. Loranthus americanus — alstroemeria (a native of South America
with beautiful red and white spotted flowers) — pontederia azurea, a round leaved water
plantain, s (near Ferry) — schroedera cephalotis, s.
CLASS VIII. Ord. 1. Fuchsia involucra, s — athenia guianensis or cafFe diahle nat.
Cayenne— hedwigia balsamifera, or hogwood, t — alyphyllus cominia (with oran«-e-
coloured berries the size of a pin's head).
Ord. 2. Weinmannia, t.
CLASS X. Ord. 1. Clethra tenuifolia — bastard locust tree (fruit esculent) — petaloma
myrtilloides or silverwood (a tough timber), t.
Ord. 3. Erythroxylon areolatum or redwood timber, t — triopteris, s.
Ord. 4. Suriana maritima, s.
CLASS XI. Ord. 1. Ly thrum, h.
CLASS XIII. Ord. 1. Erotasum theeoides — knoxia (of Brown), &— lactea guidonia— red-
wood, t — lignotes elliptica, t — muntingia calabasa, $ — sloanea, 2 species.
CLASS XIV. Ord. 1. Lippia cymosa, s.
Ord. 2. Gesneria acaulis (with scarlet flowers), h — avicennia tomentosa (in swamps
by the sea side), t — bcsleria lutea, h — buchnera clongata, h — stemodia maritima, an aro-
matic bitter shrub — volkameria aculeata, .v.
CLASS XVI. Ord. 1. Myrodia turbinata.
Ord. 6*. M orison ia americana, t.
CLASS XVII- Ord. 4. Galcga toxicaria, s (intoxicates fish).
CLASS XVIII. Ascyrum hypericoides, s (n. o. rotaceas).
Ord. 4. Symplocos octopetala, t.
CLASS XIX. Ord. 1. Lavenia decumbens, h, & thamnia, s (near the Angels) — bidens
Ord. 2. Cineraria, // — amellus umbellatus — perdicium radicale, s — verbesina alata.
Ord. 4. Silphium trilobatum, s.
CLASS XX. Ord. 1. Scrapias, several species.
Ord. 2. Statyrium, //, several species.
Orel. 4. Ayenia laevigata, s\
CLASS XXI. .Ord. 1. Cynomorium jamaicense, h (succulent and astringent).
Ord. 3. Olyra paniculata & pauciflora, h — phyllanthus nutans, s — scleria, a grass,
several species — tragia volubilis, s.
Ord. 4. Angythramma caudicans, s (n. o. tricoccre).
Ord. 6. Pharus latifolius (a grass, sometimes called wild oats).
Ord. 7- Mabea pereri & jaquari, s — hedyosmum.
Ord. 9- Sechium edule — the chocho, h.
Ord. Jl. Andrachne.
CLASS XXII. Ord. 4. Isatis maritima, s, nat. Jam. (in the Salinas on the south side, may
be burnt for barilla) — schoefFera completa, s.
Ord. 5. Astrouiuin graveolens, t — iresine celosia, h — recheria grandis, t.
CLASS XXIII. Ord. 1. Cupania glabra or loblolly tree (wood soft) — andropogon, a grass
(one species of this genus is the nard) — manisuris granulans, a grass — teiminalia lati-
folia & arbuscula.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE I.
HABIT AND CHARACTERISTIC APPEARANCE OF PLANTS.
CLASS I. MONANDRIA.
Fig. 1. Indian Shot, ( canna indica), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Scitamineae. Herbaceous;
nat. both Indies. Called also Arundo Indica, Cannacorus, &c Span. Cana de Indias,
Ital. Canna d' India.
2. Indian Arrow Root, (maranta arundinacea), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Scitamineae.
Herbaceous; nat. South America and West Indies: called also by the Indians, Toulola
and Agutiguepa, sometimes Sagittaria Alexipharmica ; Span. Saeta-Raiz ; French, Racine
a fleche, from curing wounds made by poisoned arrows.
CLASS II. DIANDRIA.
3. Wild Clary, ( salvia sclareaj, ord. Monogynia, n. o. Asperifoliae. Herbaceous; nat.
Jamaica; Fr. Sauge sauvage ; Ital. Clarea; Span. Salvia sivestre.
4. Jamaica Vervain, (verbena Jamaicensis), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Asperifoliae. Her-
baceous ; nat. both Indies; Fr. Vervainede Jamaique; Ital. Verbena; Span. Verbena.
CLASS III. TRIANDRIA.
5. Sugar Cane, (saccharum officinarum), ord. Digynia, n. o. Gramina. Herbaceous;
nat. both Indies; Fr. Canne; Ital. Canna de zucchero; Span. Cana de azucar.
6. Bahama Grass, (panicum bahamensis), ord. Digynia, n. o. Gramina. Herbaceous;
nat. Bahama Islands, (a thick matted short grass, fit for lawns, and grass plots), Ital.
Yerba; Span. Erba ; Fr. Herbe.
7. Tamarind Tree, f tamarind us indicus J, ord. Monogynia, n. o. Multisiliquosae. Arbo-
reous; classed by some Monodelphia, Triandria; nat. both Indies; Fr. Tamarin ; Ital. Ta-
marindo ; Span. Tamarindo.
8. Guinea Grass, (panicum guineensisj, ord. Digynia, n. o. Gramina. Herbaceous;
nat. Guinea; grows freely and plentifully in the West Indies, and is the principal food for
horses and cattle.
9. Scotch Grass, (panicum latifolium), n. o. Gramina. Herbaceous ; nat. Barbadoes ;
grows in swampy places, and is a good substitute for Guinea Grass in dry weather.
10. Adrue, (cyperus articulatus), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Calamariae. Herbaceous ; nat.
Jamaica ; is aromatic and valuable for its property of repressing vomitings.
CLASS V. PENTANDRIA.
11. Sweet Pocatoes, (solanum batatas), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Luridse. Herbaceous;
nat. Peru; Fr. Pomme de terre ; Ital. Pomo di terra ; Span.Patata; a sweet esculent
root, forming a principal article of food among the negroes.
12. Star Apple, (chrysophyllum camitoj, ord. Monogynia, n.o. Dumosae. Arboreous;
nat. West Indies, Span. Estrella ; bears a purple fruit, containing a sweet luscious pulp.
13. Coffee Tree, (coffeaarabica), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Stellatae. Shrubby; nat. Ara-
bia and West Indies; Fr. Cafier; Ital. Caffe; Span. Cafe. The species containing one
seed, and two seeds in a berry, grow freely in the West Indies ; the former is the most
CLASS VI. HEXANDRIA.
14. Pine Apple, (bromelia ananas), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Coronarise. Herbaceous;
nat. both Indies; Fr. Ananas ; Ital. Pina; Span. Ananas.
15. American Aloe, (agave vivipara), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Coronariae. Herbaceous;
nat. South America; Fr. Aloes; ltal. Aloe; Span. Aloe.
16. Red Lily, (amarylliscoccinea), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Spathaceae, Herbaceous ; nat.
West Indies; Fr. Lis Rouge; ltal. Giglio Rosso; Span. Lirio Loxo.
17. Oyster Plant, (tradescantia), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Spathaceae. Herbaceous; nat.
West Indies and Mexico.
A CLASS IX. ENNEANDRIA.
18. Cinnamon Tree, (laurus cinnamomum), ord. Monogynia. Arboreous; nat. Ceylon ;
Fr. Cannelier; ltal. Cinnamon.o; Span. Arbol de la Canela.
19- Yellow Hogplum, (spondias myrobalanus ) , ord. Trigynia, n. o. Pomaceoe. Arbo-
reous ; nat. West Indies; Fr. Prune; ltal. Prugnola ; Span. Ciruelo.
CLASS X. DECANDRIA.
20. Occidental Cassia, (cassia occidenlalisj, ord. Monogynia. Herbaceous; nat. West
Indies; Fr. De la Casse ; ltal. Cassia.
21. Common Cashew Nut, (anacardium occidental J, ord. Monogynia, n. o. Holeraceae.
Arboreous; nat. both Indies; Fr. Cachou ; ltal. Casciu ; Span. Bellota de acajou.
CLASS XI. DODECANDRIA.
22. Mangrove, (rhizophora mangles), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Holeraceae. Arboreous;
nat. West Indies ; the plate represents the manner in which the Oysters attach them-
selves to the branches which hang down in the salt water. It is called by the Indians
CLASS XII. ICOSANDRIA.
23. Melon Thistle, (cactus melocactus ) ', ord. Monogynia, n.o. Succulentae. Herbaceous ;
nat. West Indies ; Fr. Melon-chardon ; ltal. Mellon-cardone ; Span. Cardon cabezado o
melon de monte.
24. Four-sided Torch Thistle, (cactus tetragonus), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Succulentae.
Herbaceous; nat. West Indies and South America; Span. Cirio.
25. Cochineal Indian Fig, (cactus cochinillifer ) , ord. Monogynia, n. o. Succulentae,
Herbaceous; nat. South America and West Indies; Span. Heguera de Indias ; fruit,
CLASS XIII. POLYANDRIA.
26. Mammee Apple, (mammea Americana), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Dumosae. Arbore-
ous; nat. Jamaica; Fr. Mamme ; ltal. Mela Mamea.
27- Cashaw, (acacia), ord. Monogynia, n. o. Lomentaceas. Arboreous ; nat. West
Indies; Fr. Acacia; ltal. Acazia arborello espenoso poblado de ramos ; Span. Acacia.
The Gum Arabic, (mimosa nilotica), is very similar in its manner of growth, and thrives
very well in Jamaica ; Span. Arbol y goma de Egypto.
28. Sweet Sop, (annona squammosa), ord. Poligynia, n. o. Coadunatoe. Arboreous; nat.
South America and West Indies; Fr. Cheremoye.
29- Sour Sop, (annona muricata), ord. Poligynia, n. o. Coadunatoe, Arboreous ; nat.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE II.
HABIT AND CHARACTERISTIC APPEARANCE OF PLANTS.
CLASS XIV. DIDYNAM1A.
Fig. 30. Narrow-leaved Calabash, f crescendo, cujete), ord. Angiospermia, n. o. Puta-
mineae. Arboreous; nat. Jamaica; Span. Calabaza, arbol de America con cuyas cascaras
nacen los Negros tazas para beber, y instrumentos de Musica.
31. Spear-leaved Oily Pulse, ( sesamum indicum ) ', ord. Angiospermia, n. o. Luridee.
Herbaceous ; nat. East Indies ; thrives well in Jamaica. Ital. Sesamo o giuggelono.
CLASS XVI. MONADELPHIA.
32. Five-leaved Silk Cotton Tree, (bombax ceiba), ord. Polyandria, n. o. Columni-
ierae. Arboreous ; nat. both Indies ; Fr. Coton a soie ; Ital. Coton di seta.
33. Red Sorrell, ( hibiscus sabdariffa), ord. Polyandria, n. o. Columniferse. Herbaceous;
nat. both Indies ; Fr. Oseille Rouge ; Ital. Acetosa, Span. Acedera.
CLASS XVIII. POLYADELPHIA.
3iChocolate Nut Tree, (theobroma cacao), ord. Decandria, n. o. Columniferae.
bnrubby; nat. South America; Fr. Cacao; Ital Caccao.
35. Forbidden Fruit, ( citrus decumana ) ', ord. Icosandria, ii. o. Bicornes. Arboreous;
nat. both Indies ; Ital. Spezie de metanancia ; Span. Espezie de naranjas.
CLASS XX. GYNANDRIA.
36. Esculent Coco, (arum esculentum), ord. Polyandria, n. o. Piperita. Herbaceous;
nat. both Indies. This root is a valuable article of food for the negroes.
CLASS XXL MON^ECIA.
37. Common Indian Corn, (zea maijs), ord. Triandria, n. o. Gramina. Herbaceous;
nat. America ; Fr Mais ; Ital. Miglio ; Span. Trigo de India.
38. Bread Fruit Tree, ( artocarpus incisa ), ord. Monandria, n. o. Paniferae. Arboreous-
nat. Otaheite, and thrives well in the West Indies. The fruit baked is very similar to
new bread. J
39. Red Colilu, ( amaranthus sanguineus ) , ord. Pentandria, n.o. Holoraceee. Herbace-
ous; nat. both Indies; Fr. Epinards ; Ital. Spinace; Span. Espinaca.
40. Bitter Cassada, (jatropha manihot), ord. Monadelphia, n.o. Tricoccse. Herbaceous •
nat. ^outn America. The fresh root of this species is poisonous, but when the juice is
expressed, makes most excellent bread. The roots of the Sweet Cassada may be eaten
boiled or roasted. J
42. Cocoa Nut Tree, (cocos nucifera), of the order Pal mse ; nat. both Indies; Fr
JNoix de Locoa; Span. Coco. The plate represents the manner in which a ne^ro will
ascend a tree a hundred feet high to gather the nuts.
43. Pumpkin Gourd, (cucurbita pepo), ord. Syn^enesia, n. o. Cucurbitacece. Herba-
ceous ; nat. both Indies; Fr. Citrouille; Ital. Zucca; Span. Calabaza.
44. Oil Nut Tree, (nanus communis), ord. Monadelphia, n. o. Tricoccee. Shrubby and
Arboreous ; nat. both Indies; Ital. Palma christi; Span. Palma christi.
CLASS XXII. Dl^CIA.
nJ 5 i ^i! C i Ul ! nt Ya ^.' f diosco r m satiwJ* ord. Hexandria, n. o. Sarmentace*. Herbaceous;
nat. both Indies. This root is one of the best of the bread kind or substitutes for bread,
46. Jamaica Pepper, ( my rt us pimento J, class Icosandria; ord. Monogynia, n.o. Hespe-
rideae. Arboreous; nat. Jamaica ; Fr. Pimente; Ital. Pepe di Jamaica; Span. Pimenta
de la Jamaica.
CLASS XXIII. POLYGAMIA.
47. Guinea Corn, fholcus sorghum), ord. Moncecia, n. o. Gramina. Herbaceous; nat.
both Indies. Called also Indian Millett ; Fr. Bled des lndes ; Span. Mijo d' India.
48. Indian Jack Fruit Tree, (artocarpus integrifolia), ord. Monandria. Arboreous ;
nat. East Indies; thrives well in Jamaica; the fruit which grows to an immense size is
born on the trunk and branches, and the seeds when roasted, taste like chesnuts.
49. Plantain Tree, fmusa paradisaica), ord. Monaecia, n.o. Scitamineae. Herbaceous;
nat. both Indies; Fr. Plantain; Span. Platano, arbol que se cria in las Indias occiden-
tales de mediana corpulenzia y cuya fruta se come. This is one of the best and most
generally used of the bread kind, the fruit being boiled, baked, or roasted.
50. Common Papaw Apple, ( car ica papaya), class Dioecia, ord. Decandria. Herba-
ceous, the stalk not being solid ; it grows to the height of thirty feet ; nat. both Indies ;
51. Palmetto Thatch, ( chamcerops palmetto ) , class Palmae; so called from from its
general use for thatching negro houses ; Fr. Palmette ; Ital. Palmetto.
52. Mango Tree, (mangifera), classed by some Pentandria Monogynia, n. o. Poma-
ceae. Arboreous; Fr. Mangoustan ; Ital. Mango spezzia de frutta chi viene dall Indie
53. Spanish Dagger, (zamia aculeata), Palmae, has stiff sharp pointed leaves.
54. Anchovy Pear, (grias cauliflora), class Polyandria; ord. Monogynia. Arboreous.
In this genus the flower and fruit are born on the stem.
55. Abbay Tree or Oily Palm, (elceis guineensis), class Palmae ; bears an oily drupe
which is eaten boiled.
56. Shews the manner in which the wood ants destroy a tree by making their nests
round the trunk, from which they have covered ways leading to other trees or fences,
which they destroy by eating the wood, and leaving the bark.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE IIT.
SEEDS AND PERICARPS, OF THEIR NATURAL SIZE AND COLOUR.
Fig. 1. The capsule of the Indian Shot (canna Indica), is prickly on its surface.
2. The seeds of ditto, are black and oval, and sometimes strung by the Negroes for
necklaces ; they will also kill small birds.
3. The seeds of a species of Tobacco, fnicoliana jamaicensis ) ',
4. The seed-vessel and seed of the Wild Tamarind.
5. The bean or cherry of the Coffee, containing two seeds, surrounded by an aril
6. The seeds of the Four o' Clock, (jalappa mirabilis). These are also strung for
necklaces, having a curious black furrowed surface.
7. The seeds of the Goat Pepper ( capsicum ) ', are kidney-shaped, and when ripe of a
8. The seeds of the Star Apple, ( chrysophyllum cainitoj, are black, with a white mark
and pointed at the top.
9. The seeds of the Naseberry, (sideroxylonj, are black and acuminated.
10. The seed of the Mammee Sapota, (achras sapotaj, has the appearance of a beauti-
ful shell of such hardness and polish, that it is frequently made into a snuff-box after
picking out the kernel.
11. The seeds of the Soap Berry, (sapindus saponariaj, are quite round and of a pol-
ished black — they are also frequently strung for necklaces.
12. The seed of the Yellow Nicker, fguilandina bonducj.
13. The seed of the Grey Nicker, fguilandina bonducellaj.
14. The seed of the Akee, (nov gen), of a polished black.
15. The nut of the Cashew Apple, (anacardium acajou J , which is fixed on the end of
the apple, and has a very acrid oil in the shell, but the kernel, when fresh is as sweet as
a walnut, and is also very good, roasted.
The seed of the Horseradish Tree, fmormgaj, which is born in a long pod and fur-
nished with three wings, sheep and goats are very fond of them as food.
17. The seed-vessel of the Lignum Vitae, (guaicum officinale), containing two seeds
enclosed in a pulp, which, made into a preserve, has the same virtues as the gum, and in
a superior degree.
18. The seed of the Rose Apple, ( eugenia fragrans) , has a strong smell like roses.
19. The seeds of the Barbadoes Pride, ( poinciana pulcherrima) '.
20. The seeds of the Mexican Poppy, fargemone mexicana), — a few of them smoked
in a pipe of tobacco have a powerful narcotic effect.
21. The seed of the Coccoon Antidote Nut, ffevillea scandens), — the kernel of this
infused in rum is a powerful antidote to poison, and is generally kept ready for use in
22 The seed-vessel, and, 23, Seeds of the Gum Arabic, from which the gum exudes,
as well as from the trunk and branches.
24. The seed-vessel and seeds of the Arnotto, (bixa orellanaj. The red substance
round the seeds forms a pigment or dye of a deep aurora or orange colour, called by the
Indians mucu, roucou.
25. The seeds of the Sweet Sop, (annona sqummosaj.
26. The seeds of the Musk Ochro, ( hibiscus abelmosckus), have a powerful muskv
27. The seeds of the Sour Sop, ( annona muricataj.
28. The seed-vessel of the Bastard Cedar, (theobroma guazuma), is a capsule, contain-
ing many small seeds in different cells; they are frequently given as food to horses, but
should be well salted, like Indian corn, or it is said to give them botts.
The seed of Nephritic Tree, ( mimosa unguiscati), is kidney-shaped, and has a white
substance round the lower part, resembling the fat round a kidney. The bark of this tree
is reputed by the Spaniards a sovereign remedy in all diseases of the kidneys, ureters and
30. The seeds of the Chain Cotton, (gossypium), are linked together in the form of a
31. The seeds, and, 32, Seed-vessel of the Oily Pulse, or Sesame, (sesamum IndicumJ.
They are mucilaginous, and sometimes used in Soup.
33. The seed of the vV r ild Liquorice, (abrus precatorius), frequently used for necklaces
by the Negroes.
34. The Pigeon Pea, (cytisus cajanj, a perennial and shrubby plant. The others are,
35, the Black, $9, the White, 37 and 40, the Speckled, and, 38, the Lady Pea.
ri e l of the Sand Box, fhura crepitans), is of a sweet taste, but poisonous.
.cus, (arachis hypogce), earth nuts, the kernels of which are eacen roasted.
L2. r he Chocolate Nut, (theobroma cacao). The pericarp is a follicle, and the seeds,
to i.i.c number of twenty or thirty, are fixed along a receptacle in the centre.
43. The seeds of the Orange, (citrus aurantium).
44. The seeds of the Shaddock, (citrus decumana).
4.5. The seed-vessel of a sort of short-podded Wild Vanilla, (epidendrum vanilla).
The seeds are small and shining, and to the number of many thousand in one seed-vessel.
46. The seed-vessel of the Screw Tree, (helicteres), twisted in a spiral form.
47- The seeds of the Forbidden Fruit, (citrus medica).
48. The seed-vessel of the Oil Nut, (ricinus palma christi), tricoccous, or containing 3
seeds, 49 5 from which is boiled or expressed an essential oil, which is a most valuable
cathartic, commonly called Castor Oil. Fig. 50, are larger seeds of the same, but it is
not ascertained that they yield more oil in proportion to their size.
51. The seeds of the Tomatos, (solanum lycopersicum), are grooved and rough round
52. The seeds of a species of Water Melon, (cucurbita citrullus).
53. The Lima Bean, (phaseolus limensis), the most delicious bean to be found in Ja-
maica, but will not thrive without much care.
55. The Sugar Bean, (phaseolus), a very good sort, which is common, as is the Scar-
let Bean, fig. 55.
57. The Pimento, (myrtus pimenta), after it is gathered and dried on barbecues.
58. A few grains of the Guinea Corn, or Indian Millett, (holcus sorghum), which
grow in a panicle similar to the Guinea Grass, plate 5, fig. 2, and many ears on a stalk.
59- Seeds of the Cerasee, (momordica balsamina), the seed-vessel of which being
pricked with a pin bursts open with violence, scattering the seeds, which are at first sur-
rounded with a slimy mucus, of a scarlet colour.
60. The seed of the Mahogany, furnished with a thin broad wing; the seed is contain-
ed in the lower end.
61. The seed vessel of the Mahogany, (swietiana mahogoni), reduced to about half its
natural size. The seeds are so imbricated, that when once displaced they cannot be put
62. The Cunep, a fruit of a subacid taste, the pulp of which surrounds the stone, and
is enclosed in a thin green shell.
63' The seed-vessel of the Contraryerba, of Yucatan, the seeds being imbedded or in-
laid like ivory spots or points, in a thick substance.
Ai&Auias cto^^c* fyJKlrS&S n ejZ M&n .jb u 7. MX.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV.
THE FIGURES IN THIS PLATE ARE OF THE NATURAL SIZE AND APPEARANCE OF THE
CLASS I. MONANDRIA,. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 1. Indian Arrow Root, fmaranta arundinacea J, n. o. Scitamineae ; Fr. Racine a.
fleche; Span. Saeta-Etaiz; nat. South America; called by the Indians, Toulola, Agueti-
guepa, and sometimes Sagittaria Alexipharmica. This valuable plant is herbaceous,
having tapering white roots covered with a thin brown skin, nearly the shape and size of
carrots, marked with annular protuberances. Thestalksare reed-like, aboutfour feet high
bearing at their summits small white flowers; the leaves are oval, acute angled, alternate
and when gathered roll up lengthways. Seed vessel roundish, obscurely three-sided.
The roots being scraped, washed and pounded, in wooden mortars, and macerated in
water, yield a flour of a snowy whiteness, which no worms will touch. Made into a
jelly with boiling water, it is a most cordial and nourishing food, that will remain on the
stomach when nothing else will ; and a pudding made of it, is most excellent for con-
valescents. It is also used for starch, which is far superior to that made of wheat flour
in quality, and one pound is equal to two pounds and a half, of that prepared from
wheat ; and by its use, immense quantities of wheat might be saved annually. The
root may be candied as Eryngo, possessing nearly the same virtues. The fresh expressed
juice of the root with water, is a powerful antidote to vegetable poisons (as the Savanna
flower), taken inwardly ; the bruised root outwardly applied, is a cure for the wounds of
poisoned arrows, scorpions, or black spiders, and arrests the progress of Gangrene. It is
propagated by cuttings of the roots, and made for sale in considerable quantities in the
West Indies, for about a dollar per pound. It has thriven in America, in the states of
South Carolina and Georgia, and produced 1840 pounds to the acre ; and perhaps would
be well w r orthy attention in the East Indies. That which is sold in the shops, is not
always unadulterated, but the genuine affords a larger proportion of mucilage than any ve-
getable yet discovered. The medical virtues are astringent, cordial, diaphoretic and said
by Dr. Barham to be in some degree emenagogue ; a decoction of the fresh roots, makes
an excellent ptisan in acute diseases. When prepared with milk for children if it ferment
on the stomach, the addition of a little animal jelly will prevent it. The following spe-
cies are natives of or will grow in the West Indies. Wood Arrow Root, fmaranta syl-
vaticaj, Dichotomous, fmaranta dichotomaj.
2. Indian Shot, fcanna imdicaj, n. o. Scitamineae; Ital. Canna d'India ; Span. Cana
de Indias ; called also Cannacorus and Arundo Indica Latifolia. This beautiful plant
is herbaceous, having large succulent creeping roots of an acrid taste when fresh, the
stalks are round and reed-like, about five feet high, but more succulent than arrow root,
having oval pointed leaves with marked ribs, running from the foot to the point, sessile
and alternate. The stalks are terminated by beautiful large scarlet flowers, succeeded
by a prickly pericarp with several black seeds, which will kill small birds. The juice of
the root is said by Dr. Barham to be a counter poison, he also attributes virtues to it,
mixed with the bruised leaves and water lily, applied as a cataplasm to hard tumours and
indurations of the spleen. The following species are natives of or will grow in the West
Indies. Scarlet-flowered Indian Shot, fcanna coccineaj, both Indies. Broad-leaved
Indian Shot, fcanna patens J, both Indies. Glaucous Indian Shot, fcanna glauca J, South
America. Yellow-flowered Indian Shot, fcanna lutea), East Indies.
CLASS II. DIANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Jamaica Vervain, ( verbena jamaicensisj, n. o. Asperifoliae ; Fr. Vervaine; ltal. Ver~
bena ; Span. Verbena. This valuable though common plant is herbaceous, and seldom
rises more than two feet high ; the root is oblong and bitter, the stalk angular, a little
hairy and branched, the leaves stand in pairs, oval, veined and notched at the edges. The
flower stalk is imbricated, from the squammae of which arise the flowers, small, blue and
scattered at irregular distances. When it is once established it spreads fast. Dr. Barham
says, the juice alone, or with Contrayerva infused in wine, is an excellent remedy against
dropsies. The expressed juice is given to children as an anthelmintic ; and the bruised
leaves, with wheat-flour applied as a cataplasm, are useful in swellings of the spleen, (a
common disease in the West Indies) and to discuss hard tumours at their commencement.
It is given as a cooling cathartic to children in doses of one or two table spoonfuls
of the expressed juice. A decoction of the plant with spikenard is given in dropsies,
and a table spoonful of the juice, four successive mornings, is considered by the Negroes,
(with whom Vervain is a favourite remedy,) as an effectual deobstruent and emenagogue,
The expressed juice with water is also very good for sore watery inflamed eyes. Ver-
vain tea is likewise frequently drunk as a febrifuge and corroborant.
The following species are natives of warm climates.
Indian Vervain, (verbena indica), nat.
Jamaica Wild Clary, f salvia sclarea J, n.o. Asperifoliae ; Fr. Sauge sauvage ; Span.
Salvia silvestre ; nat. West Indies. This plant is common in Jamaica, and grows nearly
in the same manner and about the same height as vervain, having ovated rough leaves,
and the extremity of the stalk revolute or turned back like the sting of a Scorpion. The
flowers are small, numerous and situated near the top of the stalk, of a light blue colour.
It is a remedy much in use among the Negroes, who consider it as cleansing, cooling
and consolidating to ulcers and sore le^s, to which they are very subject. It is also used
in inflammations of the eyes, and the leaves boiled with Cocoa Nut Oil, are said by Dr.
Barham to cure the stings of scorpions. This with the vervain are two of the ingredients
to make the aromatic warm bath, a remedy which deserves to be in more general use.
The garden sage, a species of this genus, made into a decoction, sweetened and acidulated
with lime juice, is used as a cooling drink in fevers. The virtues of the sage are stimu-
lant, carminative, tonic and aromatic.
Indian Sage, f salvia indica ), nat. India.
Dominican, fs. dominicaj, West Indies.
Various-leaved, fs. heterophylla ', Ditto.
psendo coccinca), South America.
amama), West Indies.
linearis J, Mexico.
lat>foU<e), Y ucatan.
Mexican Sage, fs.
Germander-h aved, fs.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE V.
THESE FIGURES ARE THE NATURAL SIZE AND APPEARANCE OF THE PLANTS.
CLASS III. TRIANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. I. Tamarind Tree, ( 'tamar Indus Indica), n. o. Lomentaceae ; . Fr. Tamarin ;
Ital. Tamarindo ; Span. Tamarindo; nat. East and West Indies; quasi Indian Date,
Tamar being the Arabic for Date ; called also Tamarindus Occidentalis, and Balam
This is a large well-known tree, bearing pods from two to five inches in length, those
of Yucatan in South America, and of the East Indies are larger both in the fruit and
leaves. This plant is now placed in class Monadelphia, ord. Triandria, the filaments
being united at the base. The timber is hard and used for many purposes in building,
frequently for floors, as is the Wild Tamarind. The fruit is preserved by being shelled
and pouring hot liquor out of the coppers upon it in a jar and then tying it close up.
It is very cooling and antiseptic, used as a drink with water and gently relaxes the
body. A decoction of the leaves is said to kill worms, and the fruit mixed with a decoc-
tion of Borage is said to allay heat of urine.
ORD. II. DIGYNIA.
2. Guinea Grass, or, Large Panic Grass, (panicum Maximum vel GuineensisJ, n. o.
The seed of this beautiful and valuable grass, is said to have been sent over from the
Coast of Guinea to feed some birds, and to have been accidentally thrown out in a fence
(the birds having died) where it grew; it is now the principal pasturage, for
Cattle, Horses, &c. and cut and brought into the towns in bundles for sale, there being
many thousands of acres of it in cultivation. It grows from five to six feet high and
will continue several years without replanting. The seed is food for Ortolans or Butter Birds
and Grass Birds. There are upwards of seventy species of panicum, of which about
twenty are natives of the West Indies.
3. Bahama Grass.
This is a valuable running grass, not growing more than six inches high, but very
closely matted at the roots, and difficult to eradicate when once established, creeping on
every side even under fences and stone walls. Sheep are very fond of it, as also Horses
and Cattle for a change. It makes a beautiful Lawn being kept short and free from
weeds, and is very common for pasture about Content and the Red Hills of St. John's in Ja-
maica, and other dry situations, where the Scotch Grass will not thrive, nor indeed the Gui-
nea Grass without much rain, and in such situations, when there is much rain, Cattle are
apt to tread Guinea Grass out of the ground if turned in to feed.
4. Scotch Grass, or Rough-haired Panic Grass, (panicum hirtellum).
This very useful grass, grows four feet high in low swampy places, is green all the
year, and is a juicy and nourishing food for stabled horses, when the dry weather pre-
vents the growth of the Guinea Grass. It is said to have been introduced from Scotland
Estate in Barbadoes, and is become very common and a most valuable property on the
Pens near the towns in dry weather, whence it is sent into town in carts daily for sale.
CLASS V. PENTANDRIA, OBD. I. MONOGYNIA.
5. Red Plumeria, or Red Jasmine, (plumeria rubraj, n. o. Contortee ; Fr. Frangi-
panier Rouge; Span. Donzelle; nat. West Indies and South America ; named from
This beautiful tree rises about twenty feet high, the stalks are succulent and milky.
The flowers come out at the end of the branches, of a fragrant odour and red colour.
This specimen was taken from a tree on Mount Moreland, St. Catharine, Jamaica, the
flowers of which are of a deep red, but they are generally paler somewhat inclining to a
White Plumeria, fplumeria albaj, Fr. Frangipanier Blanc ; grows similar to the for-
mer, but the flowers are white with a yellow spot. P. Obtusa and p. Pudica, are also
natives of the West Indies, and have fragrant flowers.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE VI.
THE FIGURES ARE THE NATURAL SIZE AND APPEARANCE OF THE PLANTS,
CLASS V. PENTANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 1. Marvel of Peru, or, Four o'Clock, f mirabilis dicho torn a J ^ n. o. Dubiae;
named Mirabilis from the wonderful diversity of its colours; nat. East and West Indies.
This beautiful plant has a tuberous root, and herbaceous stems, which are covered
with red, white, yellow and variegated flowers, three or more of these colours frequently
existing on the same plant. It is called Four o'Clock by the Negroes from the flowers
opening at that hour. The seeds are rough and strung for necklaces. Mirabilis jalappa
is a native of Mexico, and is common in the West India Islands. It was supposed to
be the Jalap of the shops, but Dr. Houston found that to be a convolvolus.
The root is cathartic in a dose of double the quantity of Jalap. The M. Longiflora is a
native of Mexico, and the M. Viscosa of Peru.
2. Savanna Flower, (echites subcrcctaj, n, o.Contortae; from e^, a viper, tor its
This is a small plant creeping among the grass in Savannahs, and only distinguishable
by its small pale blue flowers. It is a slow or quick poison according to the dose, and acci-
dents have happened from stopping breakers of Rum with grass in which this noxious
weed has been concealed: the antidote is the coccoon antidote nut, and expressed arrow
3. Sour Grass.
This species is scarcely to be distinguished from the Guinea Grass, Plate 5, fig. 2.
when they are both youngand without seed, but by they that are sufficiently distinguish-
able. It is a troublesome weed, and supposed to be injurious to the cattle that eat it.
CLASS IV. TETRANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
4. Jamaica Contrayerva, (Dorstema contraycrva). n. o. Scabridas ; named after
Dorstenius a German physician ; native of Jamaica and St. Domingo.
This valuable herb has heart-shaped rough leaves on footstalks, and grows common in
Jamaica. The roots and seeds are excellent Aromatics and Alexipharmics, or counter-
poisons, and cure the bites of serpents and stings of scorpions or black spiders. A de-
coction of the root in water is also good in dropsies and debilitations, or taken as a bit-
ter in wine with the addition of steel. P. Houstoni, is a native of Campeachy ; d. Con-
trayerva, of New Spain and Tobago; d. Drakena, of Tobago; d. Chinensis, of China.
CLASS V. PENTANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Rough-leaved Cordia, fcordia sebestenaj, n. o. Asperifolise ; named from Cordus
a German Botanist; nat. both Indies.
This beautiful tree grows about fifteen feet high, ornamented with bunches of scarlet
flowers on branching peduncles. A small piece of its wood put on lighted coals will per-
fume a house.
Spanish Elm, or, Prince Wood, fcordia gcrascanthusj, nat. Jamaica. The small
branches are used by the coopers to make hoops, and the heart is a fine brown veiny
wood easily worked. It is called by che French Bois de Chypre. Dr. Barham says the
oil is equal to Rhodium.
Broad-leaved Cherry Tree, c. Macrophylla, is a native of Jamaica ; Clammy Cherry,
or Turkey Berry, c. Collococca, has red succulent berries which are good for turkeys and
poultry to feed on, native of Jamaica ; as are c. JSlicranthrus, and c. Elliptica.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII.
THE FIGURES IN THIS PLATE ARE ALL OF THE NATURAL SIZE AND APPEARANCE
OF THE PLANTS.
CLASS V. PENTANDRIA, ORD. II. DIGYNIA.
Fig. l. Bastard Ipecacuanha, fasclepias curasavicaj, n. o. Contortae, a species
of Swallow-wort : Fr. Dompte venin ; Ital. Vintossico; Span. Vencetosico ; named from
This herb grows very common in Jamaica, about two feet high, acrid and milky, with
handsome flowers in umbels; the nectaries of an orange, and the corol revolute and of a
red colour; succeeded by a follicle with imbricated seeds surrounded by a very fine silky
down in considerable quantities.
The juice with syrup is given for worms, and the root dried is used by the Negroes
as an emetic. It is called blood flower, being an excellent styptic for fresh wounds and
the haemorrhoids, the whole plant being pounded. Dr. Barham says a decoction will
stop gleets and the fluor albus.
Auricula, or, French Jasmin, fa. gigantea), is common in the Savannas of Jamaica,
and grows seven feet high.
The species of this genus are very numerous, about thirty-four, of which twenty are
natives of warm climates.
CLASS VI. HEXANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
2. Red Lily, (amaryllis coccinea), n. o. Spathaceae ; Fr. Lis Rouge; Span. Lirio
This beautiful plant rises only about a foot in height, and the flower is protruded on a
footstalk from a spathe and hangs down, of a rich crimson colour, and is a great orna-
ment to a garden, as are all the species of this genus in number twenty-eight.
3. Oyster Plant, ftradescantiaj, n. o. Ensatae.
This curious plant is commonly so called, from the upper part opening and shutting
like the shell of an oyster, receiving in and protecting the small white flowers at night.
It is of a purple colour, and seldom exceeds three inches in height, and is a curious plant
in a garden. It is a species of spider-wort, of which there are nineteen, fifteen of which
are natives of the East and West Indies.
4. American Aloe, (agave viviparaj, n. o. Coronariae ; Fr. Aloe ; Span. Al«i ;
nat. West Indies and South America ; from Aya-j©;, agavos, admirable.
This beautiful plant is very common in Jamaica upon the honeycomb rocks; the leaves are
aboutfour feet long, and beset with spines at the edges. About the latter end of April the
flower stalk shoots up very rapidly, so that it is commonly said to grow in one night, and they
are made use of as May poles on the 1st of May. Their fine crowned stalks, thirty feet high,
covered with yellow flowers, (of which the figure is one) have a very handsome appearance,
relieving the dark green scenery at intervals. The inspissated juice of the leaves is used
by the Negroes for soap, and the fibres make strong thread. Other species are a. Vivipara,
a. Virginica, a. Lurida, a. Tuberosa, and a. Fcetida.
It is also called Currato, and a plaster of the Extract cures the gout and rheumatism,
and pains in the joints, giving uneasiness for some time, it then drops off aid leaves the
part free from the disorder.
CLASS IX. ENNEANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
5. Cinnamon, (laurus cinnamomumj, n. o. Holoraceae ; Fr. Cannelier ; Span. Ca-
nela ; Ital. Cinnamomo.
This valuable tree grows freely in Jamaica ; the leaves are trinervous and reticulated, and
the young leaves of a bright crimson ; the tree from which this figure is taken, was the
present of Dr. Dancer, our late respected Island botanist, and produced seed in my garden
at Content something similar in shape to an acorn, the bark had the flavour of the true
Ceylon cinnamon, but its cultivation is not now attended to as it deserves in the West
Indies, nor are the other valuable species of this genus, though they would doubtless
amply repay the trouble of cultivation. This valuable aromatic is a native of the Island
of Ceylon, but thrives in the West Indies, and the leaves and young buds are put into
their pots by the Negroes as a Condiment, to season their vegetable food.
Wild Cinnamon, f cassia J, is rather inferior, and a rnitive of Malabar, Java and Sumatra.
Camphor Tree, (L camphora), is nearly like the Cinnamon, but grows to a larger
size and the wood is useful for Carpenters' work. The Camphor is procured by subli-
mation or distilling the wood with water, and the Camphor as it rises adheres to hay or
straw placed in the hollow of a wooden head. It is a most valuable antiseptic, antispas-
modic and diaphoretic in small quantities, and from its penetrating subtle qualities very
useful in embrocations and liniments for strains, swellings and inflammations. Native of
China, Japan, Borneo and Sumatra.
Mountain Laurel, ft. montana), is a native of Jamaica, and a handsome tree.
Jamaica Laurel, Greenheart, or Cogwood Tree, ( l. chioroxylcv), is esteemed the best
timber wood in Jamaica, and used always for the cogs of rollers in sugar mills.
Sweet Bay, (I. nobilisj, grows in Jamaica, the leaves, berries and branches are used in
baths and fomentations, and the berries are accounted carminative, infused as tea, or the
essential oil is used. It is the Aa.pr t , Daphne, of the Greeks; Fr. Laurier; ltal. Aloro ;
Span. Laurel Regio ; Indian Bay, 1. Indica, is a native of Madeira, as also is 1. Fseteus.
Alligator Pear, or Avocado, (I. perseaj, grows to about thirty feet high, and bears a
valuable rich mild firm pulped fruit which is called vegetable marrow, and when eaten
with salt and pepper is highly nourishing. Its size is that of the largest pear, and gene-
rally contains two seeds with a rugged hard brown shell contained in a membranous cover.
The Negroes are very fond of it and consume great quantities and when in season it
is a delicious vegetable for the table. All animals and even birds are remarkably fond of it.
White Sweetwood, (I. lencoxylon), has large black berries, and the leaves and shoots
make excellent fodder for cattle; 1. Exaltata, 1. Triandra, 1. Coriacea, 1. Membranacea,
1. Patens, 1. Pendula, 1. Floribunda, are all natives of Jamaica.
CLASS X. DECANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
6. Horse Radish Tree, or Moringa, (guilandina moringaj, n. o. Lomentacese;
named from Guilandinus a Prussian traveller.
This useful tree grows about twenty feet high, with a smooth bark and pinnated
leaves. It is chiefly used for fences, and the young shoots and seed pods are cut as
food for goats and sheep. The seed vessel is a legume two feet long, trivalvular and one-
celled, seeds numerous and furnished with three wings. The roots when scraped are used
as horseradish to which they are very similar: nat. of East Indies; cultivated in Ja-
maica and Egypt.
Nicker Tree, ( guilandina bonduc), has pinnated leaves and is armed with spines ;
legume broad and opening with two valves, inclosing two hard bony seeds used by the
Negro children for marbles, of a yellow colour, variegated with spots, see Plate 3, fig. 12 ?
sometimes called Bezoar nuts.
Grey Nicker Tree, (guilandina bonducella), has smaller leaves and ash coloured
seeds, plate 3, fig. 13, these seeds powdered are said to be useful in intermittents, and
the Negroes take both these and the yellow nickers in venereal cases. In Egypt the nuts of
both sorts are worn as necklaces or amulets; g. Gemina, is a native of Cochin-China, and
g. Nugo, of Amboyna.
7- Barbadoes Pride, fpoinciana or casalpinia pulcherrima), n. o. Lomentaceae ;
Fr. Poinciade on Fleurs de Paradis ; nat. both Indies ; named after Caesalpinus a phy-
This beautiful plant rises about ten feet high, leaves doubly pinnate and armed with
spines; the flowers are variegated with deep red and orange, and have a very agreeable
odour, the legume and seeds flattish. Also called Spanish Carnation and Wild Senna.
Some varieties have flowers all yellow.
The plant is considered by the Negroes a powerful emenagogue, the flowers make a
purging syrup and the root dies a scarlet colour. Nat. Jamaica and the West Indies.
C. Elata has yellow flowers with purple filaments and is a native of India. C. Sappan,
or prickly Brasiletto has a red, heavy and hard wood, durable in sea water and dies a
beautiful red; nat. East Indies. C. Crista is also a native of Jamaica.
Brasiletto, (c. Brasiliensis), has slender branches armed with thorns, and white flow-
ers. This is very abundant in Jamaica, so much that I have known many hundred tons
cut on and near one plantation, (Salt Island) and shipped to England for Dyers' use; the
trees sometimes exceeding fourteen inches in diameter. It is alsosplit up and used in great
quantities in the Island for spokes of wheels. It is of a beautiful orange red and is a
wood which is hard, heavy and takes a good polish. C. Bijuga, (perhaps the par-
rot wood), nat. Jamaica C. Coriaria, nat. Curac,oa. The ripe pods are used for tanning
leather, and called Libidibi.
8, Locust Tree, (hymincea courbaril), n. o. Lomentaceae; nat. West Indian Islands;
named from Hymen.
This is a large spreading tree, having spikes of yellow flowers succeeded by thick
brown pods containing four roundish seeds, inclosed in a whitish sweet filamentous sub-
stance of which the Negroes are very fond ; the tree is very common in Jamaica. From
its roots exudes the Gum Anime, making the finest varnish known ; when burnt it emits
a fragrant smell, and a tincture or oil is useful in embrocations and liniments; inwardly
a solution of the gum is useful in venereal cases, a decoction of the leaves is carmina-
tive, and the inward bark anthelmintic. It is a heavy hard tough wood, used forcogsin wheels,
and takes a fine polish. Dr. Barham says the bark cures intermittent fevers in the same
"quantity and as well as Jesuits bark.
9- Lignum Vitoe, fguaicum officinale), n. o. Gruinalis ; Fr. Gaiac ; Ital. Legno santo ;
This valuable evergreen tree, grows to a pretty large size, the foliage of a dark green
and flowers of a bluish violet colour, succeeded by compressed berries with two seeds,
plate 3, fig. 17- The wood is heavy firm and of a dark olive colour and takes a fine polish.
It is principallyusedforships blocks, and Ihavecutorrathersawndown treesneartheseaside
from eighteen to twenty inches diameter. The gum is collected in considerable quantities
by the Negroes exuding from wounds made by their cutlasses. The fruit is purgative and pre-
pared with sugar excels the bark in venereal cases, and yaws; the flowers make a purging
syrup like that of violets; an infusion of the bark or sawdust is valuable in chronic
rheumatic and venereal cases and attenuates the blood; the foliage of the tree is of a deter-
sive nature. Bastard Lignum Vitae, (guayacwn sanctum), is also a native of West Indies,
EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII.
THE FIGURES IN THIS PLATE ARE OF THE NATURAL SIZE AND APPEARANCE OF
CLASS XVI. MONADELPHIA, ORD. POLYANDRIA.
Fig. 1. Chain Cotton, (gossypium), n. o. Columniferse ; Fr. Coton ; Span. Algo-
don ; Ital. Cotone ; Gr. %v\ov.
This is a species of that valuable shrub, which was once cultivated to a great extent in
Jamaica, (and is now in the Southern States of America) but was very liable to a blast
which destroyed whole fields at once. It grows about ten feet high, with large yellow
flowers having horned nectaries situated near the edge of the petals, and the seeds grow
together in double rows like the links of a chain surrounded by the cotton, whence the
trivial name. There are six species but the most common and the most productive in Ja-
maica is the Barbadoes Cotton, g. Barbadense the seeds of which are separated in a mill
having a number of gins, through which the Cotton passes leaving the seeds behind. An acre
will generally produce about 2501. weight. With pruning it will bear for seven years.
An emulsion of the seeds is said to be pectoral, and good againsc the bloody flux, and
an oil expressed from them is detersive and used to burn in lamps.
CLASS XI. DODECANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
2. Red Mangrove Tree, frhizopora mangles]^ n. o. HoleraceEe ; Fr. Paletuvier;
Span. Mangle; from Gr. ffc xa< <pepw, riza and phero, root bearing.
This tree grows on the borders of the creeks and salinas, and the branches hang down
in the water to which the round and flat oysters attach themselves. The seed vessel is long
and curiously shaped, and the seed has a vitellus and albumen. The timber is hard and
used for firewood and crooked knees for boats, and the bark is most powerfully astrin-
gent, and excellent for tanning leather which it will do more perfectly in six weeks than
oak bark in twelve. Piso says a piece of the root toasted and applied warm, relieves the
pains of the sting of the fish Negur and Stingaree. There is also the white and black
Mangrove, the latter grows about twenty feet high, and is serviceable timber and very
heavy. There are six species, natives of the East Indies.
CLASS XIII. POLYANDRIA, ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
3. Mammee Apple, (achras mamosaj, n. o. Guttiferae of Jussieu; Fr. Abricot sau°
vage; Span. Mamei ; now arranged in Class 23, Ord. 1, Polygamia, Monaecia.
This beautiful tree grows as in Plate 1, fig. 26, the leaves are firm and shining, and the
flowers stand on short peduncles on the larger branches, they are sweet scented and of
the size represented in this Plate fig. 3, having a fine appearance among the dark green fo-
liage and succeeded by a roundish fruit about five inches in diameter covered with a
rough brown rind, thick and leathery, the inner thin rind of a yellow colour is excessively
bitter. The pulp is yellow of an aromatic smell and uncommon luscious and pleasant
flavour, and by some reckoned the most delicious of the Tropical fruits; there are one,
two, or more large angular rugged brown nuts in each fruit. The French distil the flow-
ers with spirit to make Eau de Creole. The gum is like Tacamahacca, and will draw
Chigoes out whole, and might be used to advantage in the early stages of Cancer, to ex-
tract it whole, as is done in some parts of America.
CLASS XIV. DIDYANMIA, ORD. II. ANGIOSPERMIA.
4. Narrow-leaved Calabash, (crescentia cujetej^ n. o. Putamineae ; Fr. Calaba-
sier couis ; Span. Calabaza ; named from Crescentius a writer on agriculture.
This tree does not grow very high and the branches stretch out horizontal^, the leaves
are placed at distances on very short petioles on the branches, the flower is single, seated
on a peduncle arising from the larger branches and sometimes from the trunk, of a large
size variegated with red and yellow, and of a beautiful appearance, but nauseous smell, the
fruit is round, oval or bottle-shaped, containing a tart yellowish pulp with several flat
seeds, inclosed in a hard thin woody shell, covered with a thin green skin which the Ne-
groes cut out in various figures. The shells which contain from an ounce to a gal-
lon, are used for spoons, ladles, cups and water bottles, and will bear the fire so as to
boil water in. The pulp is very powerful to force the menstrua and bring away the lochia,
and is used sometimes by the Negroes to procure abortion. Dr. Barham says it should
be given as an emenagogue with caution. The thicker parts of the shell are used to form
button molds. The pulp is much used by way of a poultice, and a syrup made from it is
considered pectoral, and useful in inward bruises. The wood is tough and flexile and
used for saddle trees and by the chaise and kittareen makers. The leaves and pulp are some-
times eaten by cattle. It grows principally in or near the Lowlands of Jamaica and the
other West Indian Islands.
Broad-leaved Calabash Tree, (c. cucurbitina ) ', has more upright branches, the leaves
flat, oblong and shining, the border of the corol entire, and ovate acuminate fruit, the shells
too thin to be useful, but the wood is hard and white, nat, Jamaica.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE IX.
THE FIGURES IN THIS PLATE ARE ALL OF THE NATURAL SIZE AND
APPEARANCE OF THE PLANTS.
CLASS XIII. POLYANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. I. Gamboge Thistle, (Argemone Mexicana,) n. o. Rhaedese. Span. Figo
del inferno. In all 3 species. This plant is native of the West Indies and Mexico, is
annual, and rises about two feet high, the leaves embracing the stalk, jagged and armed
with sharp spines. The stalk and capsule are also prickly ; the latter about the size of
a walnut, half-valved and ribbed. The flower is solitary, has six yellow petals, and
the seeds are very numerous and small. The plant is common in Jamaica and is a trou-
blesome weed, difficult to eradicate. The whole contains a lacteous juice, which turns
in the air to a consistence of yellow colour, not distinguishable from gamboge ; it is a
strong cathartic, in small doses, in dropsies, &c. It is detersive and will take off specks
and films from the. eyes : the infusion is sudorific. The seeds, when smoked, are more
narcotic than opium, and will kill cattle if they eat too many. They are a safe emetic
and as useful as the ipecacuanha in curing dysentery, and also strengthen the intes-
tines. Bruise two drachms, infuse in half a gill of boiling water, strain and sweeten it :
this is a dose for an adult negro. In the dose of a thimble-full, the seeds are a good
purgative in the dry belly-ache. An infusion of the whole plant is diaphoretic.
CLASS X. DECANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Frc 2. Stinking Weed, (Cassia Occidentalis.J n. o. Lomentacese.
Nat. of Jamaica. In all 51 species. This plant rises about two feet high, and
grows in great abundance about Kingston and Spanish Town. The leaves are smooth,
acuminate and foetid. The flowers yellow and not very large. The tops and leaves of
this plant are used in baths, and the. expressed juice made into an epithem with flowers
of sulphur, or a strong decoction, is applied to ring-worms or crawcraws, and for crabyaws
the negroes' feet are soaked in it many days. It is called also Pajomirioba, or Wild In-
digo, by some: the whole plant is said, by Dr. Barham, to be cooling and cleansing,
and the root, in decoction, diuretic and a powerful antidote against poison. An
infusion of the root in water, with juice of tansy and a small quantity of garlic, is a good
Weakly Senna Shrub, or Twiggy Cassia, (Cassia VimineaJ nat. of Jamaica,
The stem is shrubby, branches divaricate, leaves bijugous, like the dogwood tree, leaf-
lets petioled, flowers large. It is also called Atao, or Attoo. A decoction of the root,
half a pint at a time, three or four times a day, is said to cure the dry belly-ache ; ground
to a paste and plastered over the body, it cures fever and head-ache.
Cane-piece Sensitive Plant, or Dwarf Cassia, (Cassia Chamcecristra,) nat. of
West Indies. An annual plant. Stem herbaceous, about 1 foot high ; leaves pinnate;
flowers small and yellow ; legume compressed. A decoction, 2 quarts in the day, is
said, by Dr. Wright, to be good against the poison of nightshade.
Senna Tree, (Cassia emarginata,J nat. of Jamaica. A small tree with pinnated
leaves and a flat, broad legume, grows in dry coppices. The leaves are frequently used
for the true senna.
Cassia Stick, or Pudding Pipe Tree, (Cassia Fistula J nat. both Indies. Rises 40
feet high, with a large trunk, divided into many branches. The flowers are of a deep
yellow colour, in long spikes. The pods cylindrical, 18 inches long, with a woody
shell, having a longitudinal seam and divided into many cells by transverse partitions,
containing oval compressed seeds, lodged in a black, sweetish pulp, which, when fresh,
is a gentle laxative — dose, the bulk of a small nutmeg — but if kept out of the pod, it
soon turns rancid, and is then unfit for use.
CLASS XIV. DIDYNAMIA. ORD. II. ANGIOSPERMIA.
Fig. 3. Various-flowered Wild Sage, (Lantana Camara,J n. o. Personatae ;
Brazilian name, Morobatindum. This well-known shrub grows about five feet high,
with many pliable branches. Leaves ovate, acuminate, serrated. Flowers orange colour
and crimson mixed.
A decoction of the leaves of this plant is an excellent diaphoretic and of great use in
fevers, and also generally strengthens the stomach. Outwardly, it will cleanse the
worst ulcers and heal up wounds, and is a good ingredient in the aromatic bath. The
tea, with 20 drops of laudanum to half a pint, is good in dysentery ; also useful in ma-
lignant sore throat, as a gargle.
Fig. 4. Are the florets magnified.
Fig. 5. Lantana Inermis, — another species, commonly called Jack in the Bush.
There are 19 species of Lantana, mostly natives of the West Indies.
CLASS XXIII. POLYGAMIA. ORD. I. MONyECIA.
Fig. 6. Nephritic Tree, or Cat's Claw, (Mimosa Unguiscati.J This valuable
plant, being a species of Mimosa, belongs to the class Polygamia. It grows more plen-
tifully about Spanish Town, within a few miles, than I have observed in any other part
of Jamaica. The seeds are said to have been originally sent by a bishop, from some part of
Spanish America, as a very valuable present The decoction of the bark, drunk plentifully,
is said to be a sovereign remedy for stone, gravel and difficulty of making urine. It is a
small tree; the branches armed with prickles; the leaves glossy, small and roundish;
the fruit a long scarlet pod, with black seeds, kidney-shaped and half surrounded with
a white poppy down substance, which the negroes resemble to the tat surrounding the
kidney. Some call this tree Guilandina Moringa, and suppose Nephritic wood the wood
of the tree that bears the ben nut. Brown calls it the Black Bead shrub, or large leafed
Mimosa. It is also called Doctor Long. The seeds are eaten by goats.
The other Mimosas will be noticed in their proper place.
CLASS XIV. DIDYNAMIA. ORD. II. ANGIOSPERMIA.
Fig 7- Vangloe, or Spear-leaved Oily Pulse, (Scsamum Indicum.J The Sesamum
of Pliny, o-£(ra.y.ov oi Theophrast. and Diosc. Egyptian Semsun. Nat. East Indus, n. o. Lu-
ridae. This is an annual herbaceous plant, plentiful in Jamaica, with square stalks and
reddish white flowers. The seeds are used in broths, and made into cakes by the Jews,
and are considered as wholesome food. They yield also a good sweet oil, in large quan-
tities, called cergilim. It is also used in Carolina, by the Negroes, who parch the
seeds and make them into a pudding, called benny. It is called benne in Carolina, and
one hundred weight of seeds will produce ninety pounds of oil, preferable to Florence
oil. The benne oil is a gentle laxative and burns well in lamps I he cultivation of
this plant deserves great attention. A decoction of the leaves and buds is good for
inflammations of the eyes and is used by the Egyptians as a cosmetic. An infusion
of the leaves in cold water immediately renders it mucilaginous, and so used it is de-
mulcent and good for coughs, pleurisies and dysentery. There are two other species,
Sesamum lndicum and S. Luteum.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE X.
THE FIGURES IN THIS PLATE ARE ALL OF THE NATURAL SIZE AND
APPEARANCE OP THE PLANTS.
CLASS XII. ICOSANDRIA. ORD I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. I. Dwarf Pomegranate, (Punica Nana,) n. o. Pomaceae ; Myrti, (Tuss.)
nat. West Indies ; Ital. Melagrano ; Fr. Grenadier ; Sp. Granado. This beautiful plant
rises five or six feet high, with small leaves and scarlet flowers. The fruit is not large
and has not much flavour. It is frequently planted for hedge rows and is a long time in
flower. The common Pomegranate, P. Granata, rises twenty feet high and bears a fine
flavoured fruit, in the West Indies, of a cooling, subacid taste. The rind of the fruit of
both species is a powerful astringent, and useful in dysentery and for gargles. An in-
jection is also good in fluor albus, and I have found the dried bark as good as galls, for
the purpose of making ink. There are no other species. For representation of the
Fruit see Frontispiece, Fig. 23.
CLASS X. DECANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 2. Cashew Apple. ( Anacardium Occidental,) n. o. Holeraceae ; nat. West
Indies; Fr. Du Cachou ; originally placed in this class, afterwards transferred by Lin-
naeus to the ninth, and now placed in Class XXIII. Polygamia, Ord. I. Moncecia. This
elegant and useful tree rises about twenty feet high, with a flat, spreading top. The
leaves are shining and thickly set ; the apples are yellow or sometimes red, and have a
very restringent, acid flavour. Dr. Barham says, the fruit makes an excellent wine,
and that a spirit may be distilled from it, far exceeding arrack, rum or brandy. The
use of the fruit promotes urine and is serviceable in dropsy and disorders arising from
dirt-eating among the Negroes. When roasted, it gives an agreeable flavour to punch.
The leaves cleanse ulcers, and the oil of the nut blisters, destroys and peels off the skin,
(in which way it is said to be used as a cosmetic by some to procure a new and fair skin)
kills herpes and worms and destroys corns. The kernel, when the nut is green, has a
finer flavour than a walnut, and when full grown and roasted, is considered a great deli-
cacy ; but the roasted shell of the nut is said to be injurious to poultry. The oil stains
linen a deep brown, and is said to preserve wood, besmeared with it, from decay. The
milky juice stains in like manner, and the tree yields annually considerable quantities of
a fine semitransparent gum, in some respects equal to gum arabic, and a good substitute
for gum Senegal in dying silk. A considerable quantity, upwards of half a ton, was sent
from Jamaica, in the year 1 780, by Dr. Isaac Tittord, of Spanish Town, for which a gold
medal was adjudge to him by the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. See
their Transactions, Vol. ix. page 171. The timber of the tree is small, but useful for
some purposes; it contains too much watery sap to burn well. There is but one
species. For a representation of the fruit see Frontispiece, Fig. 20.
CLASS X. DECANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA,
Fig. 3. Logwood, ( fhema/oxilum (ampechianum,) nat. South America; n. o. Lo-
mentacege ; Leguminosae (Juss ) also called Blood wood and Campeachy Wood. Ital.
Legno ludico ; Fr. Bois de Campeche ; Sp. Palo de Campeche. This valuable tree has
been introduced into Jamaica since 1715, and is now a staple and profitable article of
commerce, as it grows in great abundance, particularly about the Red Hills of St. John's,
where several thousand tons were cut, within my own knowledge, in the space of a few
years. It rises about fifteen feet high, where it has room to grow and ripen ; the trunk and
branches crooked and irregular. When the outer bark cracks and peels off, it is known
to be fit for cutting, or ripe ; the tree is then sawn down with cross-cut saws, or felled
with axes by the Negro men, and the soft outer bark chipped off with light hatchets by
the women, when the wood appears of a dark red colour. It is imported into Europe,
for dyers' use, and generally commands a steady good price, and a certain quantity is ne-
cessary to each ship for dunnage to stow the casks. In some places this tree grows so
thickly as to be a serious inconvenience, and unless thinned, they will never ripen, and
it is generally a sign of poor land. The young branches may be used for hoops ; but the
fences formed of this tree, when trained thick and kept cut short, are very handsome, and
impervious to man or beast. Several may be seen on the Old Harbour road. The bark
and gum of this tree are subastringent and sweetish, and a decoction of the former ex-
cellent in dysentery, with red port, and canella alba grated into it. Give a gill three
times a day to an adult; also cool enemas of it often and in small quantities. There is
no other species.
CLASS XL DODECANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 4. Laurel-leaved Canella, (Canella alba,) nat. Jamaica; also called
Winter's Bark, Wild Cinnamon, &c. Span. Canela Silvestre. This elegant tree rises
strait, about twenty-five feet high, the branches erect and laurel-leaved. It is known
in the woods by the light grey colour and smoothness of its bark. The berries are a pur-
plish black, aromatic, and taste like cubebs, furnishing food to the white belly and bald
pate pigeons, (Columba Jamaicensis and Leucocephala,) and I have always found these
birds in great plenty in the woods, when these berries were ripe. The bark is peeled
off from the tree and spread to dry, after which it is put up in barrels ; but now it can-
not be exported to the continent, it is a bad article to ship from the West Indies to Great
Britain. A shipment I made of one hundred barrels and upwards did not pay the duties
and charges. It is a warm aromatic bitter, and is useful in scorbutic diseases and cho-
lic. An infusion in rum is good to give Negroes who have been wet, to prevent their
taking cold, and relieves the complaints in the bowels they are so often subject to. The
powder is an excellent sternutatory, and sprinkled on ulcers, cleanses and heals them.
It is more stomachic and carminative than real cinnamon, and not so binding. The bark
from the branches is better than that from the trunk. The oil is similar to oil of cloves,
which is often adulterated with it. There is no other species.
CLASS XI. DODECANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 5. Mangosteen, (Garcinia Mangostana,) n. o. Bicornes ; nat East Indies;
Fr. Mangostan. This tree rises about twenty feet high, with an upright stem, sending
out many branches on every side. The flower is rosaceous, of a dark red colour; the
fruit round, the size of a small orange, capped at the top ; the inside of the fruit is of a
rose colour, divided into compartments, containing the seeds, surrounded by a soft, de-
licious pulp, similar to the strawberry ; the juice is purple, seeds of the figure and size
of almond kernels. It is esteemed one of the finest fruits in the world, and very grate-
ful and useful to the sick, in any quantity. The form of the tree is handsome and its
shade cooling. It will grow in Jamaica, but is not yet introduced into general cultiva-
tion, which it ckserves to be. The dried bark is restringent and used in dying black.
There are two other species, G. Celibeca and G. Cornea, which also bear fruits, but
not so fine ; the wood of the latter is very heavy and hard.
CLASS XVI. MONADELPHIA. ORD. POLYANDRIA.
Fig. 6. Silk Cotton Tree, ( Bumbax Ceiba,J n. o. Columniferse ; nat. West In-
dies ; Fr. Fromager. This very large tree is common in Jamaica, stretching out its im-
mense arms over a large space of ground and its roots spreading as far in a horizontal
direction. The trunk is without branches for about fifteen or 20 feet, and sometimes of
such a thickness as to make a canoe (when hollowed) capable of carrying fifteen hogs-
heads of sugar ; but being very light, the wood is not much valued for other purposes,
except for splitting into shingles, laths and heading for casks. The boards also, after
soaking in lime water, will bear exposure to the weather for years. Long says, the tree,
when decayed, becomes a nest for the Macaca beetle, the caterpillar of which, gutted
and fried, is esteemed by many persons one of the greatest delicacies. The leaves fall
every year, and before new ones come out, the flowers appear, succeeded by the fruit,
oval, and having a woody cover, opening into five parts, when ripe, and containing a
silky down, in which are the seeds. This is used to stuff chairs and pillows by the
Negroes. It would be a plentiful and valuable substitute for beaver, in the manufacture
of hats, but its importation into England is said to be prohibited. The green bark
made into a poultice is good for inflammations, and is supposed to be useful to promote
the uniting of fractured bones. A tea is diaphoretic in fever. There are three other
species, natives of the East Indies.
CLASS XII. ICOSANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 7- White Guava, fPsidium Pyriferum,) n. o. Hesperideas ; nat. West Indies;
Fr. Goyavier. This tree grows about ten feet high, having numerous branches, a round-
ish fruit, with a brittle rind, and a rose-coloured, sweet, aromatic pulp, surrounding
numerous hard seeds. It is a wholesome fruit, and much liked; when stewed, it eats
like English wardens ; also makes a marmalade, or jelly, very good in fluxes and dysen-
tery. The wood is hard and tough, fit for ox-yokes, and good fuel. The bark is highly
restrin^ent in dysentery, sore throat, and fluor albus. There are seven other species;
one, Mountain Guava, Psidium Montauum, grows sixty feet high in the woods, is a
good timber, of dark colour and curled grain, and makes beautiful walking-sticks. For
a representation of the fruit, see Frontispiece, Fig. 29.
CLASS XV. TETRADYNAMIA. ORD. SILIQUOSA.
Fig. 8. Indian Kale, (Brassica^ J n. o. Holeraceae. This species of kale grows
common in gardens, in the Red Hills, and is an excellent pot-herb, nor does it require
much care in the cultivation. The middle of the leaf is of a beautiful crimson. The
European species of Brassica do not grow well in the low lands, but may sometimes be
raised in the cool mountains of Port Royal, &c.
CLASS V. PENTANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 9- Jamaica Bark, (Cinchona Jamaicensis,J n. o. Contortae ; nat. Jamaica;
Fr. Quinquina; Sp. Quina. The specimen from which this drawing was taken was
brought to me by the negroes emptoyed in the woods collecting canella alba, and stated
to be Jamaica bark, and to possess the virtues of Cinchona Officinalis, but 1 did not my-
self see the tree. Caribbean Bark, C. Caribaea, is called in Jamaica, Sea-side Beech.
It would be needless here to attempt to enumerate the wonderful and valuable qualities
of Peruvian Bark. I believe it to have been the means of saving my life, as well as that
of tens of thousands of others. I would only just mention, that in nyctalopia, a singular
and distressing disease of the West Indies, it has effected cures: but to enumerate all its
virtues and uses would fill a volume. There are in all nine species.
Fig. 10. A Flower of the same magnified.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL
THE FIGURES IN THIS PLATE ARE ALL OF THE NATURAL SIZE AND
APPEARANCE OF THE PLANTS.
CLASS XVI. MONADELPHIA. ORD. VI. POLYANDRIA.
Fig. 1. Musk Ochro. (Hibiscus Abelmoschus,) n. o. Columniferse. Nat. East and
West Indies, and Society Isles. Called also Musk Mallow, or Musk. This beautiful
plant is common in Jamaica, rises about five feet high, with angulated leav< s, on long
footstalks, and hairy, the flowers are large and yellow, succetded by pyramidal five-
cornered capsules, filled with seeds, which smell strongly of musk. A few of them will
perfume a room, and the French exported them from their West India Islands, as an article
of commerce, to scent powders and pomatum. The Arabians and Egyptians grind the
seeds to mix with their coffee. They are considered cordial and nervine ; and Dr. Dancer
says they are also emetic. Common Ochro. H. Esculentus, grows lather smaller, and
is a most valuable vegetable food ; the capsules are picked green, boiled, and eaten
either by themselves or in pepper-pot ; they are extremely mucilaginous and nourishing ;
cut in slices and dried they are exported to England, and are a principal ingredient in the
soups which are sold at enormous prices. They are also demulcent and good in dysentery
A decoction of the leaves and pods serves in place of linseed tea. See fruit in Frontis-
piece, Fig. 38. Red Sorrel or French Sorrel. H. Sabdariffa, is well known. For fruit
see Frontispiece, Fig. 34. The red calyxes and capsules, before they are quite ripe,
freed from the seeds, with sugar, make an excellent preserve and very agreeable tarts ;
also a coobng and refreshing drink in fevers. Two drachms of the root gently purges the
stomach and bowels. Mahot, or Mahoe Tree. H. Elatus. A tall shady tree; flowers
like the red lilly; the tender parts abound with an excellent demulcent mucilage. There
are, in all, forty-five species, many of which are very beautiful.
Fig. 2. The parts of fructification of the Musk Ochro, rising like a column in the
midst of the flower, the stigma or top which catches the dust of the yellow anthers, is
like purple velvet.
Fig. 3. The seeds of the same.
CLASS XVII. DIADELPHIA. ORD. IV. DECANDRIA.
Fig. 4. Jamaica Wild Liquorice. (Abrus Precatorius.J n. o. Leguminosae, nat.
both Indies. This well-known plant has branching and twining stems. The de-
coction of the leaves with sugar and acidulated with lime juice, cures a cold and cough,
and is good in cholic. The expressed juice of the leaves has the true taste of liquorice,
and an infusion is diaphoretic. There is no other species.
CLASS XVII. DIADELPHIA. ORD. IV. DECANDRIA.
Fig. 5. Wild Indigo. fJndigofera Ami.) n. o. Papilionaceae. Nat. of East and
West Indies. T his plant grows wild in the Savannahs in Jamaica in great quai ti its,
and was formerly cultivated to a great extent in the southern parishes of A ere and ( Jaren-
don, and to the planters then appears to have been a source of great riches ; some
remains of their w< rks are yet to be seen ; but it is now scarcely cultivated at all. 1 his
species grows luxuriantly on the driest lands, and yields a fine blue colour by maceration.
There are, in all, thirty-five species.
SAME CLASS AND ORD.
Fig. 6. Ground Nut or Pindar. ( Arachis Hypoga>a.) n. o. Papilionaceae. Nat.
West Indies and Africa. Also called Gub-a-Gubs. This well-known plant is herba-
ceous, and grows about three feet high. It is common in Jamaica and the Southern
States of America; the nuts, roasted or boiled, are very good and nourishing; they are
sometimes made use of for chocolate, or substituted tor almonds, and yield a thin limpid
oil, similar to oil of olives, very fit to burn in lamps. An emulsion of them is pectoral,
and a poultice cures the stings of scorpions, &c. There is one other species, A. Fruticosa.
CLASS XVIII. POLYADELPHIA. ORD. I. DECANDRIA,
Fig. 7. Chocolate Nut Tree. (Theobrotna Cacao.) n. o. Columniferaa. Nat.
South America. This valuable tree was once much cultivated in Jamaica, but is now
become very scarce, and is said to have been altogether suddenly blasted or destroyed
by a hurricane. I never happened to meet but with one tree of it, which grew wild in
the woods in St. John's. It is a handsome tree and grows about ten feet high. The pods
hang from the stalk or branches, and contain the seeds, to the number of about twenty each,
in a whitish pulp of a sweet taste. The unripe seeds prepared with sugar are a very
agreeable preserve; when ripe they rattle in the capsule, and in it retain their vegeta-
tive power. A tree yields two or three pounds of seeds per annum ; they are cured by
daily exposure to the sun. When ground and prepared with vanilla, &c. the chocolate
is extremely agreeable and nourishing. If the cultivation of them was resumed it would
be very profitable on account of the little labour required. There is no other species.
CLASS XXI. MONtECIA. ORD. V. PENTANDRIA.
Fig. 8. Red Colilu. (Amaranthus Sanguineus.) n. o. Holeraceae. Nat. Jamaica.
This useful and beautiful plant is common in Jamaica, as is another species, called
Spanish Colilu A. Viridis, of a green colour, '1 hey are excellent pot-herbs, when
boiled, exactly resembling English spinach, and with salt are a very wholesome and
nourishing food. Wild Colilu. A. Spinosus, is also esculent, but not so good. The
Amaranthi are said by Dr. Barham to be restriugent and stop fluxes. There are in all
CLASS XXI. MON,ECIA ORD. IX. MONADELPHIA.
Fig. 9- Wild Rosemary. (Croton Lineare.) n. o. Tricoccae. Nat. Jamaica. A
common shrub, rising about six feet, the leaves of which have an aromatic odour. It is
commonly used for fomentations and in warm aromatic Baths, and has the virtues of rose-
mary ; the powder is an excellent sternutatory. There are, in all, fifty-three species of
Croton :— Lauiel-leaved Croton, C. Glabellum, C. Humile and C. Glandulosum, are also
very common about Kingston, Spanish Town, and the Savannahs of Liguanea; the seeds
are eaten by birds and poultry. Many others are also natives of Jamaica.
SAME CLASS AND ORDER.
Fig. 10. French Physic Nut. (Jatropha Multifida.) n. o. Tricoccae. Nat. West
Indies. This beautiful plant grows about six feet high, with spreading branches and
multifid leaves; the corymb coloured and branching like coral It yields a watery
liquor. 1 In seeds are sweet, but very purgative, which quality is supposed to re-
side in the outward skin and inward film ; when these are taken away and they are torri-
fied, bruised and steeped in Madeira they are milder. The oil cures the itch and deterges
ulcers, and the flower, powdered, purges hydropic water. This juice with juice of aloes
are good ingredients for an enema. The following is an excellent recipe to remove
costiveness, and operates mildly and without griping : — Grind up equal parts of jalap,
French physic nut, Castile soap and juice of aloes, and take two pills at night. The
leaves pounded cure ulcers, and with tobacco are a good enema in ruptures.
Fig. 11. Common or Angular-leaved Physic Nut. (Jatroplia Curcas.) Rises
about seven feet high, the leaves five-angled. It is a common weed in Jamaica. The
leaves are useful in resolutive fomentations, but the seeds so violently cathartic as to be
• • •
accounted poisonous. Boyle suggested that the fruit might be eaten with safety if the
embryo were taken out. 1 was witness to the death of an only child, of six years old, on
a pen near Kingston, from eating these kernels inadvertently. Had the mother been in
possession of this plate, and, by comparing the leaves and seed vessel, found out what
the plants were, they would have been eradicated and the child's life saved. The stalks
are used as a pessary to bring away the meconium.
Eatable-rooted Cassada, Jatropha Manihot. Bitter Cassada is cultivated
in Jamaica in considerable quantities, and to considerable profit in the Red Hills
of St. John's, as it is hardy, and the bread made of it sure to meet with a ready sale.
The roots are dug up, scraped and grated, and all the juice carefully expressed,
(otherwise the bread is poisonous). The Farina is dried in the sun, sifted and
baked on iron plates. The cakes of it are extremely nourishing, and preferred by
the negroes to wheaten bread. The juice swallowed by animals, or the raw root
eaten, are fatal, as I have more than once witnessed. The remedies are absorbents
after a vomit given, juice of nhambi, mint water and salt of wormwood. ] once
saw a negroe, nearly dead, cured by repeated draughts of water, in which red dirt was
thickly mixed. The hogs, who grub the root from the ground and eat earth with it,
never suffer. The juice when putrified breeds little worms called Topuea, which the
Indians dry and powder, and put under their nails, when they intend to poison any
one's drink. Cassada bread, miik and oil, make a fine poultice for swellings, and the
grated root cleanses and heals the worst ulcers. Warm water poured on toasted Cassada
stops vomiting. Sweet Cassada is a native of South America, and has long tuberous
roots, ten or twelve to a stalk, yellowish within and of a sweet taste; these are whole-
some and nourishing food and may be eaten, baked or roasted with safety. There are in
all fourteen species of Jatropha.
CLASS XXI. MONvECIA. ORD. X. SYNGENESIA.
Fig, 12. The parts of fructification of a species of Squash or Chocho, Cucurbita
Fig. 13. The parts of fructification of a species of Pumpkin, Cucurbita Pepo,
EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIT.
THE FIGURES IN THIS PLATE ARE ALL OF THE NATURAL SIZE AND
APPEARANCE OF THE PLANTS.
CLASS XXI. MONCECIA. ORD. VIII. MONADELPHIA.
Fig. I. Wild Cassava, or Belly-ach Weed, (Jatropha Gossipy folia,) n. o. Tri-
coccae ; nat Jamaica; This plant is very common in dry, gravelly soils. Poultry are
fond of the seeds. A decoction of the plant is said to be a specific in dry belly-ach ; or
six or more of the young leaves may be boiled and eaten as callilue, which is equally
powerful ; also administer fifteen or twenty leaves in decoction with castor oil as an ene-
ma. Bai ham calls it also Papaw Weed, and says it is good in dropsies. The leaves are
like the wild cucumber.
Fjg. 2 Common Palma Christi, or Oil Nut, (Ricinus Communis, J n. o. Tri-
coccae This valuable plant grows near twenty feet high in Jamaica and is very common..
The oil expressed from the seeds is called cold drawn, but the most usual way of prepar-
ing it is by pounding the seeds in a mortar, and afterwards boiling them, and the oil is
skimmed off' from the surface of the water. This oil is the mildest, safest, and most effi-
cacious cathartic known, and proper in worms, fever, dysentery, and almost all cases. It
is also used to burn in lamps, and wili keep any length of time. The leaves make the
best cooling dressing for blisters and inflammatory swellings. The oil is frequently taken
with spirit. In dry belly-ache the following mode is recommended : — Take a large table
spoonful of oil and one and a half of rum ; mix them together and set the rum on fire ;
after burning for half a minute blow out the fire. The remaining mixture to be taken
every two hours till the desired efiVct is produced. The yellow blossom is the male,
and the lower the female part of fructification, which ripens to a capsule containing the
seeds. See Plate III. Fig. 19. A docoction of the roots is diuretic, and useful in syphilis.
There are in all five species. The Spaniards call it Pilerilla, and say the leaves applied
to nurses' breasts, draw milk into them and to the loins, out of them.
Fig 3. The Female and Germ, and Fig. 4. the Male part of Fructification of the
Sand Box Tkke, ( Hura crepitans,) n. o. Tricoccse. Nat. Mexico. This tree grows
in Jamaica about thirty feet high, but is not very common. There is one behmd the
King's house in Spanish Town ; the leaves are heart-shaped, and the fruit is of a curious
texture. (See Frontispiece, Fig. 22) and when left to ripen on the trees, frequently bursts
open with a loud report; if gathered before it is ripe, and the seeds picked out of the
compartments it becomes a good sand-box, whence its name. The seeds are a violent
cathartic, and indeed poisonous, though at first tasting very sweet and pleasant, and I
knew a lady who nearly lost her life from eating them. The tree, like most others of a
poisonous quality, is lactescent or milky, which, if it gets into the eyes, produces blind-
ness. The wood is not of much value; there are no other species. A single seed, or
one and a half roasted, has been recommended in dry belly-ache.
Fig. 5. Manchineel Apple, ( Hippomanes MancincUa.) n. o. Tricoccae. This is
a large tree, rising about forty feet high, and throwing a considerable shade. It abounds
with a glutinous milky juic* , which, if it tall on the skin, causes blisters, and if into the
eye, blindness. The fruit is poisonous to human beings, which I know by experience,
having nearly lost some negro children by it; but the crabs, (which are said to he rendered
unwholesome by it) sheep and goats eat the apples that fall from the trees with impunity.
The wood is a fine clouded grair and durable; but it is necessary to use precautions in
felling it. The Indians poison their arrows with this juice, and the tree exudes also a
gum, something similar to the lignum vitas, which is said to carry oft" the dropsy. The
antidote to the poison is said to be the juice of the white cedar buds, but an emetic and
oily demulcent remedies are more to be depended on. There are two other species.
CLASS XXII. DICECIA. ORD. VI. HEXANDRIA.
Fig. 6. Esculent Yam, (Dioscorea Alata, Bulbifera vel Saliva,) n. o. Sarmen-
taceae, nat. both Indies, Fr. Igname. This valuable plant is cultivated for food to great
exent by the negroes in their grounds, and for sale in the markets. The roots are nume-
rous, thick and long, weighing from four to twelve pounds, and when roasted, baked or
boiled are a most excellent substitute for bread, and frequently preferred. The buckra
yam is extremely white and mealy, the negro and wild yam larger, and more apt to be waxy
or watery. A very delicious species is small, purple outside, very white within, and
called the Yampeaor Yampoy. The stalks are twining and run to some height. There
are in all fifteen species. One advantage of this bread kind is, that growing under ground,
it is not so liable to suffer from hurricanes as the bread fruit and plantain.
CLASS XXII. DICECIA. ORD. XII. MONADELPHIA.
Fig. 7- Velvet Leaf, (Cissampelos Pariera,) n. o. Sarmentaceae, nat. West Indies.
This plant has a climbing stem, with heart-shaped leaves, smooth as velvet, and is very
common in the mountains. Its leaves are considered excellent vulneraries and antidotes
against poison, and a syrup of the leaves and root will perform great cures in consump-
tive cases, (which however are not common in the West Indies.) A decoction of the
root is also an excellent diuretic, and good in gravel and all obstructions of the urinary
passages. There are in all five species.
CLASS XXIII. POLYGAMIA. ORD. I. MONCECIA.
Fig. 8. Gum Arabic, ( Mimosa Nilotica,) n. o. Lomentaceae, nat. Egypt. The
seeds from which the plant grew, from which this figure was taken, were given to me
by Dr. Dancer for the seeds of the true Gum Arabic, distinguished by a gland at the
bottom of the petioles. It grew rapidly and well, and in less than two years produced
seed in great plenty, and gum exuded from the trunk, branches and seed-vessels. Its
cultivation could doubtless be made profitable, and might supersede and eradicate the
other troublesome and noxious species, the opoponax and cashew, the latter of which is
poisonous to horses in dry weather, and has been the destruction of many hundreds of
fine horses in a few years, by swelling them, (if they drink water soon after,) till they
burst. When opened, the seeds appeared in a state of vegetation in their entrails. The
hippopotamus is killed in Egypt in the same manner. The other species of Mimosa
will be noticed in the body of the work.
Fig. 9. Is another species, I believe, of the same genus given me at the same time by
Dr. Dancer, and called by him East India Ebony. Its growth was extremely rapid, and in
three years (it rose upwards of twenty feet high and six inches in diameter, covered with
pinnated leaves and beautiful white flowers of a delightful scent, and succeeded by broad
legumes more than a foot long. The other seeds received from him also came up in my gar-
den, in the Red Hills of St. John's. — East India Mohoe, East India Motee, Sweet scented
Baboul, Bengal Bean, (esculent) Flowering Shrub, Messoor, Small Baboul, Teak, Cin-
chona, Baboul Gum Arabic, Spanish Vanilla.
Fig. 10. French Cotton. — A plant not common, rising about six feet high, having
light green, thick, succulent leaves, and flesh-coloured flowers, succeeded by a follicle;
containing a most beautiful, fine silky down of considerable length, enveloping the seeds.
The leaves bound round the head induce a profuse perspiration, and certainly relieve the
head-ache. I have often used them for this purpose, and never known them to fail.
Fig. 11. The Parts of Fructification magnified.
Fig. 12. This plant goes by the name of Turkey Weed, and covers the road side from
within about four miles from Kingston, where the negroes bring baskets to gather it
when in flower, to feed turkies and other poultry, who are extremely fond of it. I do
not recollect to have met with it in any other place.
EXPLANATON OF PLATE XIII.
THE FIGURES IN THIS PLATE ARE ALL OF THE NATURAL SIZE AND
APPEARANCE OF THE PLANTS,
And taken from dried Specimens, (presented to me by a friend) from Yucatan in South
America, with such short notices and information as he had procured
respecting their names and virtues.
CLASS XXIV. CRYPTOGAMIA. ORD. I. FILICES.
Fig. I. Maidenhair. (Culantrillo o cabellos de Venus (Capillus Veneris.) A fern,
of the species, Adianthum, which the French use for making Capillaire. Dr. Bar-
ham says, the Maidenhairs are specifics against all obstructions of the lungs, liver,
spleen, &c. and heal ulcers; a syrup is a good remedy in coughs. There are in all 39
CLASS V. PENTANDRTA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 2. Borage, (Bora^o) n. o. Asperifoliae. The flowers of the Borage are consi-
dered cordial. The young shoots and leaves are used as a sallad, or boiled, are a good
pot-herb. In all five species.
CLASS IV. TETRANDRIA. ORD. I. MONOGYNIA.
Fig. 3. Wild Sorrel or Soursop, (Cissus) n. o, Hederaceae. The leaves of this
plant have an acid taste, and are used to make a cooling drink in fevers. There are fif-
teen species of Cissus.
CLASS XIX. SYNGENESIA. ORD. II. POLYGAMIA SUPERFLUA.
Fig. 4. Chamomile, ( Anthemis,) n. o. Compositae. This plant is a valuable aro-
matic bitter, stomachic and antiseptic, like the European chamomile, the qualities of
which are well known. There are nineteen species.
CLASS XXIV. CRYPTOGAMIA. ORD. I. FILICES.
Fig. 5. Doradilla. A very beautiful species of fern, said to be medicinal for
Fig. 6. Oak of Yucatan. A large evergreen tree, the timber of which is hard. The
difference of the form of the leaves from those of English or any of the American oaks is
Fig. 7- Tabasco Tea, said to be very wholesome and medicinal.
Fig. 8. Balsam of Peru, ( Balsa mum Peruvianum) rather Myroxylum Peruiferum.
Fig. 9- Vegetable Caustic, fSoritlo) afresh leaf of which laid on the flesh will
corrode and destroy it almost as powerfully as Lunar Caustic.
Albahacca, (Aromatica y Sudorifica). Aromatic and sudorific.
Guayava, said to be the leaves of the tree which is raised from the seed of the apple
planted in that climate, varying very much from the apple both in the form of the leaf
and the fruit.
Nettle, (Oitigia.) Having a large hairy leaf, the size of the hand, serrated at the
Wormwood, (Sisin.) Aromatic and Medicinal, having a long linear, grey-coloured
Chat a, — appears to be a species of Kale, having a leaf deeply divided into three parts
and notched at the edges, eaten as greens.
Chinchivel. Having a small lanceolate leaf, serrated at the edges, said to be a
great vulnerary, and to cleanse and cure ulcers.
Mallows. An ovate serrated leaf. — Medicinal.
Kavalyasnic. An oval leaf, not very large : cures ulcers.
Makulam. A heart-shaped leaf, nine inches long and six inches wide, with strong
midrib and nerves; highly medicinal and aromatic.
Chiopley. A leaf nearly the same size, ovate, acuminate and serrated. Medicinal
Orosus. Resembles liquorice in taste, has a small, ovate, acuminate leaf, slightly
notched. A decoction good in coughs and asthmas.
Contrayerba. A heart-shaped leaf, four inches long and three inches wide, ser-
rated at the edges; for the seed-vessel, see Plate III, Fig 63.
Salvia. An ovate, acuminate leaf, six inches long and three inches wide. — Medi-
Tamarind, — Differs only from the Tamarind of Jamaica by the leaflets being consi-
Lance Wood, ( ' Erythroxylum) so called from its straitness and toughness. It is
excellent for making shafts for kitterines, so that no other is used. Pigeons fatten on the
Lie n or Luisi, a tree of Chili, sleeping under which causes the face and bodv to
swell; the berries are a strong poison ; the cure for a wound infected with it is a herb
called pilbogui, which is pounded with salt and rubbed on the part.
Lignum Aloes, has a black heart and fine scent, also called sweet iron-wood ; is va-
luable to cabinet-makers.
Nhambi. has a knotty, hard, thick, hairy stalk, a broad, juicy, green leaf, largely in-
dented; the flowers come out single and monopetalous on a foot-stalk ; the fruit as bi^
as a cherry, with a rough coat like ricinus. It is an excellent antidote against poison.
Ortigia. ( Loosa Hispida.J Grows in Chili, and is a sort of stinging palma christi ;
a violent emetic and cathartic.
Paica Julla, a cathartic plant, so violent as to be considered a poison.
Palghi, a sort of small sage, the leaf resembling wild rosemary.
Palqui, a sort of wall-wort, with a yellow flower, which cures tinea capitis.
Panke. Two sorts grow in Chili. A tea of its leaves is refreshing.
Paraguay Tea, (Cassine Paragua.J Two sorts come from Paraguay; it was once
considered as the best of teas.
Payco Herra, grows in Chili. Its decoction is sudorific and good in pleurisies ;
smells like a rotten lemon.
Pecmo, a large tree in Chili, fit for ship building, with a red fruit. A decoction of
the bark cures the dropsy.
Poquett, a sort of gold button, or female southernwood, with green checquered
leaves which die yellow, and the stem green.
QukSNOA, or Quina, has a little white seed, like that of mustard, but not so smooth ;
good against falls, bruises and spasms.
Coca, is much esteemed and chewed by the Peruvians, who attribute many wonder-
ful properties to it. it is said to be the same as the East India betel.
AUis/uJ ™ "» Jet <&™cts b> WJtJ&bnl Z..n</»n M>». ZS >M2.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV.
See Class Cryptogamia, Page 112 to 118.
MOSSES, FLAGS, and FUNGUSES, found near LAKE CHAMPLAIN.
Fig. 1. A Moss, with a very fine, soft, silky, green leaf.
2. A Moss, having the capsule at the top of a very slender stalk or thread.
3. A larger species of Moss, with a thicker, red stalk, and the capsules brown, co-
vered with a calyptic of a red colour.
4. A species of Moss, commonly called Feather Moss, alternate and simply pinnated.
5. A very delicate species of Moss, with capsules on very slender, recurvate stalks.
6. A Moss having the fructification on a thread, being a capsule covered with a
lid, and over that a smooth veil, ciliated at the edges.
7. Another species of Feather Moss, consisting entirely of simple pinnas.
8. A species of ditto, having the pinna at the top of a rough, brown stalk.
9. A delicate species of moss, with opposite, oval, green leaves on a very slender
10. Another species of Feather Moss, terminated by the pinnas in threes from the
11. A species having the pinnas at the top, disposed in the form of a star.
12. A species of Feather Moss, in which the pinnas are disposed in an interrupted
tapering form to the bottom.
13. A species having green stalks with long ovated leaves.
14. A species of Flat Fungus, of a red colour, growing from old trees and decaying
timber, not porous.
15. A species of Club Moss, with a brown stalk and irregular, knotted, scarlet top.
16. A species of Fungus, of a light brown colour, notched at the bottom.
17. A species of Fungus, umbrella shaped, notched at the bottom, and of a bright
red colour ; the stalk light brown.
18. A species of Moss, funnel-shaped and of a red and yellow colour.
19. A species of Fungus, growing horizontally or vertically from decayed timber,
having a scaly surface, and of a bright red colour.
20. A species of Fungus, of a brown colour and notched underneath, with an ap-
pendix, of a white colour, rising in the middle and ending in a point.
51. A Fungus, of a light brown colour, smooth at the bottom, having a black stalk.
22. Fungi, small, of a globular shape and sessile, on old rotten wood and of a
bright red colour.
23. A Fungus, nearly similar to No. 21, but smaller.
24. A Fungus, of a brown colour, shooting irregularly from old trees in damp situa-
25. A small Fungus, of a roundish, shield-like form, rising to a round point in the
26. A Fungus, shooting from old trees, somewhat in the shape of an oyster ; the
upper part is lamellated and the appendix porous.
37- A Fungus, of a brown colour, the edges of which turn up and the centre is
28 and 29. Two species of Algae, found in Lake Champlain.
30. Ensete. A plant of Abyssinia, growing in water, something similar to the
plantain, see page 126.
31. Wild Columbine of New York, see page 125.
32. Canada Thistle, seepage 121.
33. Hemlock Spruce (Pinus Abies Americana,) see page 98.
34. Golden Thread. An Indian remedy for canker, see page 12f .
EXPLANATION OF PLATE XV.
See Class Cryptogamia, page 112 to 118.
FERNS, &c. found between Saratoga and Lake George.
Fig. 1. A Fern, with large, veined, lobated leaves.
2. A ditto, with small, sessile, ovate, pointed, reclinate leaves.
3. A ditto, having alternate leaves, at the edges, with an auricle at the base, on
the upper side.
4. A ditto, with oval, pointed leaves, having nerves running parallel from the mid-
rib to the sides.
5. A ditto, with the leaflets on short pedicles, deeply notched and ending in a
6. A ditto, having the leaf continued on each side the stalk, with alternate lobes.
7. A very delicate and beautiful species of Maidenhair,
8. A species of Heath Erica, found, but perhaps not a native, see page 123.
9. Indian Turnip, (Arum Triphillum.J see page 93.
11. Wild Pink of New York, see page 123.
12. Dwarf Cedar of ditto.
13. Salt-water Beet, see page 125.
14. Indian Pink, (Ipomcea Quamoclit,) Class V. Ord. 1. See page 43.
15. The leaf of a species of variegated Periwinkle Vinca ; the leaves intersected
with white lines, see page 1 14.
16. Biting Turnip, (commonly so called) the root of Fig. 9.
17. A beautiful species of Red Lily, found wild in the woods, near Lake Cham-
18. Pine Ivory, see page 124.
19. A delicate species of Hickery, as it grows in fences in Jamaica ; the seed-vessel
is a nut, but never comes to perfection or forms a kernel.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVI.
Fig. 1. Chesnut, (FagusJ see page 97.
2. Red Oak, (Quercus Rubra J the leaf deeply and bluntly lobed, nerves reticu-
lated, see page 96.
3. White Oak (Quercus Alba J the leaf deeply lacineated, with pointed lobes, see
4. Basswood ; see page 1 27-
5. Button Weed; see page 102.
6. Rock Maple (Acer,) see page 103.
7. Dogwood; see page 41.
8. The Sassafras ( Laurus Sassafras,) see page 130. Some of the leaves are lobed,
as in Fig. 9.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE XVII.
Fig. 1. Catnep, (NepetaJ see page 123.
2. Broad Plantain, (Plantago,) see page 120.
3. Gra-s Pink ; see page 123.
4.. Boncet, ( Eupatorium Perfoliatum,) see page 123.
5. Shepherd's Purse, (ThlaspiJ see page 125.
6. Wax Work, (Gomphrcena GtobosaJ see page 50.
7. May Flower, (Class V. Ord. I) see page 124.
8. White Lily of Lake Champlain: see page 125.
9. Lily of the Valley, (ConvatlariaJ Class VI. Ord. 1., see page 126*.
10. Yellow Lily of Lake Champlain: see page 127.
11. Sumach, (Rhus Typhlnum,) see page 52.
12. Sarsapariila (Smiiax SarsapariUa,) see page 126.
For Reference to the Medical Virtues of Plants, to zvhich are added a few othe
CLASS I. Pyrexiae from Uv^ix, Purexia, Fever. ORDER. I. Fevers, Febres.
REFRIGERANTS, to abate heat, see Antiseptics p. 27. Add.
Fruits, see Expl. front. See also p. 38, 40, 55, 6*7, 68, 6.9, 72, 87,
9t,99, 126; pi. 5, pi. 10, pi. 11, pi. 12, pi 13. Also Apple
Water, Strawberry Leaves decocted, Affusion of cold Water,
sponging with distilled Vinegar or Spirits, Barley Water.
Emetics, see p. 25 See also p. 41, 44, 45, 48, 6*0, 68, 73, 74,
99, 102, 105, 120, 121; pi. .9, pi. II. Also Artichoke, a decoc-
tion of Leaves
Cathartics, see p. 25 and 26. See also p. 43, 56, 63, 68, 75, 76,
86, 87, 8.9, 91, 93, 96,99, 102, 120, 127, 130, 132; pi. 4, pi. 7,
pi. 9, pi. 11, pi. 12.
Blisters, &c. see p. 26 and 27. See also p. 51, 69, 75, 103, 120,
121, 127, 132.
Blisters to dress, see Expl. pi. 12 and p. 104. Also Cabbage
Diaphoretics, see p. 26, See also 42, 50, 60, 73, 74, 76, 82, 84,
121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 129 5 pL 4, pi. 9, pi. 10, pi 11, pi. 13.
Add. Cinquefoil and Ginger Tea.
Cordials, &c. see p. 24 and 25. See also p. 60, 65, 74, 75, 78,
80, 88, 91, 92, 103, 106, 108, 122, 123, 125, 126, 129, 131 ;
pi. 4, pi. 6, pi. 11.
Vomiting to restrain, see p. 24 and 25. See also p. 36, 46, 78,
125; pi. 4, pi. 11.
Tonics and Antiseptics, see p. 24 and 27. See also p. -11, 42, 44,
46, 48, 53, 57, 63, 65, 67, 69, 73, 76. 77, 87, 88, 89, 96, 98,
99, 100, 101, 106, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129,
130, 131 ; pi. 4, pi. 6, pi. 7, ph 10, pi, 13. Wormwood, Gen-
tian, New-wort, Crack, Willow, Blessed Thistle, Camomile,
Columbo, Mountain Arnica, Lesser Centaury.
Ague, to pre vent the Cold Fit, sec p. 49, pi- 7. Cataplasms to
stomach, Groundsel, Onion, Water Lily, Yarrow. Internally
— a Lemon, Saffron, Ginger, Camphor, Snake Root, 6 grs.
Ague in the Eye or Head, called in America, Pleurisy in the
Head. Red Peruvian Bark.
ORDER II. Phlegmasia from ^Xiy^ovn, P/ilegmonc, Inflammation.
Ol" the Eye, Ophthalmia, see. p. 25, 28. See also p. 35, 40, 63,
68, 77, 84, 85, 88, 99, 101, 124, 125, 126; pi. 4, pi. 9.
Hyssop, Wormwood, Ground Ivy, Marjgold.
Of the Brain, Phrenitis, from Coup de sol'eil, see p. 25. See also
Of the Throat, Cynanche Tonsillaris, see p. 24 and 25. See also
46, 47, 52, 55, 60, 72, 73, 34, 78, 84, 89, 92, 97, 106, 108,
1.J, 123, 125, 127, 128 ; pi. 9, pi. 10. Mulberries, Black Cur-
rants, Cinquefoil, Figs, Steaming.
Croup or Hives, Cynanche Trachealis, see p. 83, 93. Emetics,
Bleeding, Blisters, Gases
Pleurisy, Pleurilis, see p. 26. See also 44, 50, 83, 84, 101, 104,
113, 121, 122, 125, 130, 131; pi 9, pl.l3. Nettles.
Inflammation of the Lungs, Pneumonia, see p. 25 and 26. See
also 83. Digitalis, Bleeding, Warm Bathing.
Of the Stomach, Gastritis, see p. 27 and 28. See also p. 38, pi. 9.
Add. Barley, Gum Arabic, Linseed, Fomentation, Warm Bath.
Of the Intestines, Enteritis, see p. 25 and 26. See also pi. 9,
99. Add Barley, Manna, Fomentation, Warm Bath.
Of the Liver, Hepatitis, see p. 25 and 26. See also 99, 113 ;
pi. 13. Add. Elatei ium, Duck's Meat, Pellitory of the Wall,
Of the Kidney, Nephritis, see p. 26 and 28. See also 38, 56;
pi. .9. Manna, (Almonds, oil of) Barley, Marshmallow, Lin-
seed, Arrow Root, Fomentations, Cu
pping, Warm Bath.
Of the Bladder, Cystitis, see above ; also 120. Agrimony, Horse
Tail, Capivi, Turpentine, Columbo.
Of the Spleen, Splenitis, see p. 99, 105, 1 14, 128; pi. 4, pi. 7.
pi. 13. Add. Pellitory of the Wall, Water Hemp, Agrimony.
Rheumatism, Rheum at ism us, see p. 26. See also 30, 44, 47, 51,
62, 68, 71, 76, 81, 83, 93, 95, 98, 101, 102, 108, 110, 111,
120, 126,130; pk 7, pi. 10. Add. Mezereon, Lavender Cot-
ton, Elder, Burdock and Elecampane, Nettles; Electricity,
Galvanism, Oil Skin, Garlic with Gum Ammoniac.
Head-Ach, Cephalalgia, see p. 26. See also 35, 45, 68, 69, 74,
77, 98, 102, 110,^119, 120, 121, 123, K24, 125, 126; pi. 7,
pi. 9, pi. 10, pi. 11, pi. 12. Add. Carduus, Horse Radish,
Ranunculus, Pediluvium, Cold Affusion, Lemon Rind to Tem-
ples, Rosemary Steam, Electricity.
Gout, Arthritis, see p. 26. See also 35, 45, 49, 51, 61, 73, 81,
85, 95, 102, 117, 119, 120, 123, 128, 130; pi. 7, Add. Elder,
Tansey, Venice Treacle, Pediluvium; steaming, friction.
Tooth-Ache, Odontalgia, see p. 26. Add. 48,58^61,68,69,84,
100, 101, 102, 109, 123,130; pi. 9, pi. 11, pi. 13. Add. Gar-
lic, Nettle, Turnip ; Electricity.
Ear-Ache, Otalgia, see p. 69, 81, 108; pi. 4. Add. Garlic, Fig,
Onion, Wormwood, Balsam Pine, Olive and Almond, oil of,
Laudanum, Tobacco; Electricity, Steam, Blisters.
Bone Ache, Spina ventosa, see p. 25 and 26. See also 47.
ORDER III. Exanthemata, from E|asv0 E ,xa:, Exanthema, a Pustule.
St. Anthony's Fire, Erysipilas, see p. 28. See also 69, 85, 99;
pi. 10. Add. Elateriuin, Elder Leaves, Love Apple, Tar Water.
Small Pock, Variola, see p. 25 and 26. See also 119, 125, Expl.
Measles, Rubeola, see ditto. Add. 125, Barley, Lemons, Steam-
Yaws, Frambcesia, see 25 and 26. Add. 63, 98, 102; pi. 7, pi. 13.
Crab Yaws, see above, also p. 68, 96; pi. 8, pi. 9.
Prickly Heat, Urticaria. Ground Ivy juice and decoction, Pars-
ley bruised, externally.
Thrush, Apth<p, and Canker, see Remedie? for Inflammation of
Throat. Add. 121, 122, 123, 125. Castor Oil, Manna, Rhu-
barb, Almond Oil, Roses, Simarouba.
ORD. IV. H.emorriiagi.e, from Aipoppocyix, Auiiorragia, Eruption of Blood.
Bleeding at the Nose, Epistaxis, see p. 24. See also 89, 94, 1 19 ;
pi. 9. Add. Nettle, Raisins, Vinegar, Cold Affusion, Volatile
Spitting of Blood, Hamoptysis, See p. 25. See also 65, 66, 73,
89, 97, 98, 104, 106, 113, 126, 132; pi. 6. Add. Prunes,
Nettles, Sage, (Quinces, Yarrow.
Consumption, Ptkisis, see p. 28, See also 51, 83, 89, 90 90
93, 107, 113, 121, 130; pi. 9, pi. 11, pi. jo, Addi Virginian
Cherry, Ivy, Hyssop, Water Cresses, Steam of Rosemary, Gases,
wearing Flannel, Sea Voyage, Ballston and Saratoga Waters
in New York, inhaling the Vapour of fresh-turned Earth, Sta-
bling with Cows.
Piles, Ha-mnrrhois, see p. 25. See also 45, 46, 80, 101, 110, 111,
121,124, 126, 131; pi. 4, pi. 7. Add. Onion, Flower Gentle,
Flax Weed, Toad Flax, Tobacco fresh Leaf, Nettles, Fumiga-
tion, Balsam Capivi, cold Affusion.
ORDER VI. Profluvi^, from Projluvia, Fluxes.
Cough, Choriza, and Catarrh, Catarrhus, see p. 26 and 28. See
also 3.-., 37, 38, 40, 60, 64, 65, 66, 72, 77, 83, 84, 90, 93, 98,
106, 107, 108, 118, 120, 121, 122, 124, 125, 130; pi. 8, pi. 9,
pi. 11, pi. 13. Add. Su-echas Fig, Almond, Lemon (with Ca-
pi\i,) Turnip (with Sugar,) Banana, Raisins, Liquorice, Mul-
leins, Oily Pulse, Pellitory of the Wall, Peruvian Bark chewed.
ft. Bals. Tolu. Copaib and Peru, each two ounces, Japan
Earth one ounce, Cypress Turpentine two ounces,
Gum Guaicum two ounces, two quarts of Rum.
digest ami shake for ten days. Dose ten drops to
two hundred, with Balsam tea sweetened with ho-
ney. — Useful to keep for the use of Negroes.
Dysentery, Di/senteria, see p. 24, 25 and 28. See also 38, 50,
52, 57, 61, 64, 65, 69, 71, 73, 75, 78, 80, 82, 83, 90, 98,
104, 107, 109, 110, 113, 122, 125, 126,127, 128, 129, 132;
pi. 4, pi. 9, pi. 10, pi. 11, pi. 12. Add. Arnica.
CLASS II. Neuroses, from Ned/><», Neuron, a Nerve.
-ORDER I. Comata, from Coma, Sleep.
Apoplexv, Apoplexin, see p. 25, 46. Add. Valerian, Asarabacca,
Hellebore, Savory, Water Cresses, Asafoetida, Cupping, Bleed-
ing, Salt and Water, Emetics, Erect Position, Blisters, Sina-
pisms, a Seton, Electricity.
Palsy, Paralysis, see p. 24, 25 and 27- Add. 35, 45, 46, 51, 68,
81, 86, 101, 109, 111, 128; pi. 5, pi. 7. Add. Elder, Elec-
Cramps and Numbness, see above ; see also 62, 81, 101, 108,
111, 123, 126, 130, 132 ; pi. 12. Jamaica Honeysuckle, Oil of
Mint, Castor Oil, Ligature under the Knee, Tar Water, Hun-
gary Water, Electricity, Roll of Brimstone in the Hand, De-
coction of Mustard, Sage and Elder to wash in, Onions as Ca-
taplasms, Mustard Seed, Horse Radish.
ORDER II. Adynamic, from a. priv and l^wu^?, adunamis, want of Power.
Indigestion, Dyspepsia, see p. 24 and 25. See also 30, 41, 44,
46, 63, 65, 71, 77, 81, 86, 88, 89, 92, 101 ; pi. 4, pi. 10, pi.
Jl, pi. 13. Add. Gentian, Marygold, Oranges, Lemons, Car-
Retention of Menstrua, Chlorosis, see p. 24, 25 and 26. See also
Amennhorrhaea, Class 4, Ord. 5. See also 38, 56, 95, 99 t
114, 121, 125, 132; pi. 4, pi. 6, pi. 7.
Obstructions of the Viscera, see p. 24, 25 and 26. See also 32,
33, 35, 36, 51, 66, 71, 77, 78, 84, 88, 89, 92, 99, 101, 102,
106, 107, 113, 123, 125; pi. 6 and pi. 9. Add. Elaterium,
Groundsel, Pellitory, Avens, Horse Radish.
ORDER III. Spasmi, from o-wxu, spuo, to draw.
Locked Jaw, Trismus, see p. 24. See also 44, 48, 65, 83, 91.
Add. Meadow Narcissus, Opium, Musk, Cold Affusion, Bark
and Wine, exciting a Fever.
Hooping Cough, Pertussis, see p. 24 and 25. Add. Pennyroyal,
Roses, Friction with Spirits on the Spine, Change of Air.
Convulsions, Convulsio, see p. 24. See also 45, 63, 101, 107, 123,
126. Add. Valerian, Pellitory of the Wall, Paeony Roots as
Cataplasms, Aromatic Bath, Electricity.
Epilepsy, Epilepsia, see p. 24 ; also 45, 48, 63, 68, 80, 101,
126, 129. Add. Opium, Bark, Rhus Radicans, Cicutaria,
Emetics before the Fit, Ligature, Stretching the Jaws, Err-
hines, Cold Bath, Seton, Electricity, Change of Climate.
Difficult Breathing, Asthma, see p 25 and 26. See also 44, 45,
48, 51, 65, 93, 107; pi. II. Add. Carrots, Nettles, Radish,
Garlic, Saffron, Ipecacuanha, Digitalis, Pediluvium, Tar
Heart Burn, Pyrosis, see p. 24. See also 46, 81. Add Camomile,
Pepper, Fennel, Parsley, Oysters, Saline Draft, Absorbent*.
Hiccup, Spasmus Dia;>hrai:mi, see p. 24. Add. Preserved Gin-
ger, Musk, Cinnamon, (Oil of) Warm Vinegar.
Palpitation, Palpilatio, Motherwort, Cold Affusion, Electricity.
Colic and Dry Belly-Ache, Colica, see p. 24 and 25. Sec also
35, 36, 37, 41, 44, 46, 48, 49, 51, 63, 65, 66, 69, 71, 77,
78, 98, 99, 101,121,130; pi. 7, pi. 9, pi. 10, pi. 11, pi. 12,
pi. 13. Add. Rosemary, Almonds, Olives, (Oil of) Orange
Peel, Juniper Berries, Anniseed, Pediluvium, Flannel worn,
Fomentation, Burdock with Laudanum as Enema.
Diarrhoea, see Remedies for Dysenteiy, and p. 24. Add 64, 65,
77, 97, 104, 122, 125, 126 ; pi. 4.
Profuse Urine, Diabetes, see p. 63. Nickers with Gum Elemi,
Hysterics, Hysteria, see p. 24. Add also p. 50, 65, 102, 123,
125; pi. 4. Add. Rue, Lavender, Gum Asafcetida.
Canine Madness, Hydrophobia, see p. 24. See also 44, 78, 125,
pi. 4. Add. Trefoil Ashes, Plantain Juice, Vinegar, Salt, Cold
Bathing, Oil, Excision, or Cauteiy.
Sea Sickness, see p. 24. See also p. 30, 81. Add. Vinegar, ^Ether.
Cholera Morbus, Cholera, s^e p. 24. See also p. 35, 71, 82, 107;
pi. 9, pi. 10, Add. also Poppies, Onion to Stomach.
ORDER IV. Yesanix, from Vesania, Madness.
Madness, Mania, sec p. 25 and 26, See also 45, 69,126 ; pi. 8. Add. Pimpernell, Agrimony, Hellebore, Cold Affusion, Electricity,
Turning Box, in which the patient is moved round vertically.
CLASS III. Cachexia, from Kxxos x E%vo-, Kakos et Exits, Eoil habit.
ORDER 1. Marcores, from Marcor, Emaciation.
Worms, Ascarides, see p. 27. See also 42, 43, 48, 50, 55, 56, 65,
75, 77, 85, 86, 91, 94, 114,126, 128; pi. 5, pi. 7, pi. 9, pi. 10,
pi. 1 1. Add. Stinking Hellebore, Ground Pink (Silene), Cusso,
Sugar with Cocoa-Nut Oil.
ORDER II. Intumescentia, from Jntumesco, to Swell.
Corpulency, Polysarcia, see p. 26. See 48. Alkalies, Regimen,
Inflation or Wind, Tympanitis, see p. 25. See also 30, 71, 132;
pi. 10. Add. Leek and Elder.
Dropsy of the Chest, Hydrothorax, see p. 25 and 26. See also 80.
Squill, Oxygen Gr.s, Digitalis.
Dropsy of the Mead, Hydrocephalus, see p. 25 and 26. See also 42,
43 and 80. Affusion, Exciting the Vaccine Fever has cured it.
Dropsy, Anasarca, see p. 25 and 26. See also 35, 36, 43, 49,
50, 56, 67, 69, 75, 78, 80, 83, 85, 88, 92, 93, 94, 100, 101,
102, 104 124; pi. 6, pi. 9, pi. 10, pi. 11, pi. 12, pi. 13. Add.
Juniper Berries, Bean Tree, Elder, Butcher's Broom, Water
Hemp, Agrimony, Dwarf Elder, Flax Weed, Marsh Trefod,
Swelled Legs, see p. 51, 67, 95, 130. Add. Linden, Olive Oil,
Dock Leaves, Steam of Vinegar, Electricity.
NOSOLOGICAL INDEX. CXXXV
ORDER III. Impetigines, from Impeto, to infest.
Syphilis, see p. 27- See also 31, 44, 68,69, 82, 84, 87, 89 98, Elephantiasy, Elephantiasis, seep. 86. Scabious, Water Hemp,
101, 102, 107, 119, 126, 129, 130; pi. 7, pi. 13. Alkaline Agrimony, Celery, Elm Bark, Burdock, Electricity.
Solution injected will prevent. Scabies and Herpes, see 25 and 27. See also p. 63, 68, 90, 95,
Scurw, Scorbutus, see p. 26 and 27. See also 35, 37, 87, 91, 103, 120. 129; pi. 9, pi. 10. Scabious, Pond Weed, Liverwort,
102, 104, 120, 121, 124, 125, 126, 130,131; pi. 10, pi. 11. Water Hemp, Agrimony, House Leek, Garlic.
Add. also Hor-e Radish, Cyder, Oranges, and Fruits in general, Jaundice, see p. 32, 74, 75, 99, 114, 119, 125, 123. Elaterium,
Pepper Grass, Buck Bean, Coltsfoot, Pitch Pine, Scurvy Grass, Rue, Saffron, Oil Nut, Liverwort, Water Hemp Agrimony,
New-wort, Powdered Ginger and Essence of Celery (at Sea,) Celandine as Sinapism, Nettles, Burdock, Warm Bath.
Guaicum with Senna, Turnips, Tar Water, Bark of Water-
Dock Root, Cresses, Nettle Juice, Burdock.
CLASS IV. Locales, from Localis, Partial.
ORDER I. Pysetiiesia, from Av<Txi9z<rtx, Dusaithesia, Loss of Sensation.
Film on Eyes, Leucoma, see p. 68, 69; pi. 9. Add. Ground Ivy Deafness, Dyseccea, see p. 72, 81, 108, 124. Almond Oil with
Juice. Laudanum; pi. 9 ; Ground Ivy Juice, Syringing, Electricity.
Singing in Ears, Paracusis. Onions bruised, Hyssop, juice of Defect ol Sight from Relaxation or Obstruction, Dysopia, see
Defect of Sight in the Day, Nyctalopia, Peruvian Bark (see p. 24. See also 35, 51, 60, 78, 101, 104, 124, 125; pi. 7,
Expl. of Plate 10. pi. 10. Cyder, Boxthorn, Betony powdered, one drm. Juice
Cold in the Head, see p. 26. Add. Primrose Juice as Errhine, Apples rotten, Elder Flower Tincture, Electricity.
Orange Rind in Nostril.
ORDER II. Dysorexi.e, from Ava- * fy>s|«r, Dus ct threxis, Depraved Appetite.
Dirt Eating, Pica Tcrrena, see p. 24. See also pi. 10. Elder Roots, Tar Water, Cyder, Cashew Apples, Meat, Porter, Wine.
ORDER III. Dyscinesci.e, from Avs x Kiveu, Dus et Kineo, to move ill.
Hoarseness, see p. 25. Add. Radish Juice, Conserve of Roses, Nettle, Garlic, Electricity.
ORDER IV. Apocenoses, from Atea x. wow, Apo et Kenoo, to evacuate from.
Excessive Spitting, Ptyalismus, see p. 25. Chewing Bread con- Gonorrhoea, see p. 25 and 27. See also 44, 51, 82, 89, 120,
stantlv, and swallowing Saliva. 131; pi. 7.
Flux, Profusio, see p. 25. See also 36, 38, 52, 57, 61,62,68, Incontinence of Urine, Eneuresis, see p. 25. See also 66. Tur-
71, 73, 75, 102, 104, 105, 106, 111, 123, 126; pi. 7, pi. 8, pentine, Uva Ursi, Agrimony, Rose, Plantain, Electricity.
pi. 10, pi. 13. Flea Bane, Pimpernell, Duck's Meat, German- Fluor Albus, see p. 44, 51, 61, 128 ; pi. 7. pi. 10.
tier, Mullein, Stadias, Violets, Winter Green, Opium, Apples
baked and Honey.
ORDER V. Episciieses, from ILincryi^^i Epischesis, Retention.
Costiveness, Obstipatio, see p. 26. See also 65; pi. 4, pi. 9, Ease, Bear's Whortleberry, Pippiseva, Asmart, Oil, Gland Flax,
pi. 11, pi. 13. Prunes, Apples roasted. Musk and Water-Melon Seeds, Checker Berry, Kali.
Strangury, Dt/suria, and Stone and Gravel, Calculus, see p. 26 Obstructed Menstrua, Amenhorrluea, see p. 26. See also 32,
and 28. See also 37, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 51, 55, 56, 35, 38, 44, 65, 69, "3, 77, 88, 89, 95, 99, 121, 127 ; pi. 4, pi. 7,
57, 58, 61, 66, 69, 72, 73, 76, 78, 80, 82, 84, 85, 88, 89, 90, 91, pi. 11, pi. 13. Parsley externally, Parsnips, Tar Water, Tur-
92, 99, 104, 107,114, 117,119, 121,122, 123,124,125, 126, Radishes, Comfrey Roots, Lebanon Springs in New York,
130, 131; pi. 5, pi. 7, pi. 9, pi. 11, pi. 12, pi. 13. Add. Spi- Electricity,
nach, Peach, Parsley, Agrimony for three months, Hearts
ORDER VI. Tumours, Tumores, from Tumor, Swelling.
Imposthume, Abseessus, see p. 28, See also 31, 35, 39, 55, 6'7, Polypus, see p. 27. Add. Wake Robin or Arum, Alum snuffed
68,69, 77, 78, 86 92, 95, 98, 99, 108, 117, 119, 125, 126, 127, up the nostril.
128, 129, 130, 131 ; pi. 4, pi. 8, pi. 9, pi. 10, pi. 11, pi. 13. Add. Wart, Verruca, and Corn, Clavus, see p. 27. See also 68, 6.9,
Slippery Elm, Marygolds, Water Hemp Agrimony, Duck Meat. 103; pi. 10, pi. 13. Marygold, Ivy Leaves, Radish Juice,
Cancer, see p. 25, 27, 28. See also 30, 45, 50, 68, 77, 80, Adhesive Plaster, Pediluvium, Blister.
120,125; pi. 8, pi. 10. Flax Weed, Pimpernell, Red Poppy, Inflamed Uvula, see p. 25. Dandelion, Hempseed, (Gargle.)
Rose, Sheet Lead, Wild Parsnip, Carrots, Red Onions, Rue Carbuncle, Anthrax, see p. 90. Oak Bark.
and Arrow Root as Poultice, Laurocerasus, Hyoscyamus. Boil, Furunculus, see p. 28. Wheat Flour with Honey, Steaming.
Inflamed Legs, see above. Turnips, Elder Leaves, Pear Leaves, Schirrous Testis, Sarcocele, see p. 28. See also 78. Saffron
Rotten Apples. Poultice, Agrimony, Decoction externally, Pellitory of Wall
Breast, Hardness of, see pi. 13. Add. Camomile and Mallows as externally, Bean Flour as Poultice, Electricity.
Fomentation, Oil Nut, Turnips toasted, Oil of Roses, Steam. Whitlow, letreuma, see p. 28 and 132. Add. Ivy bruised, In-
Chilblain, Pernio, see 111, 130. Slippery Elm, Turnip, Mustard cision, Immersion in Warm Water, Asmart, Flour with Honey,
Flour or Tincture, Socks of Flannel or Chamois Leather, Bread chewed, Water Lily.
ORDER VII. Ectopia, from Ef * Tottoo-, E.r et Topos, Out of Place.
Rupture, Hernia, see p. 49, 125; pi. 11. Rupture Wort, Ducks Miscarriage, Abortio, to prevent. Lignum Guaicum, Decoction
Meat, Mullein, Agrimony, Strawberry Roots infused. used daily.
Protrusion, Protrusio, seep. 25. See also 46, 124. Bittersweet, Dislocation, Dislocatio, Clown's Heal-all, p. 121, 132.
Oak, (Bath of the Leaves in Red Wine,) Turpentine, Fumi- Falling of Paiate, Hypostaphyle, see p. 46. Mustard Seed Gargle,
gation. Cayenne Pepper and Salt, bruised Cabbage Leaf laid hot on
ORDER VIII. Dialyses, from AtaKvu, Dialuo, to dissolve Continuity.
Wound, Vulnus, see p. 27. See also 37, 50, 51, 64, 65, GG, 68,
75,78,90, 98,99,103, 106, 110,113, 115, 116,122, 123, 125,
126, 127; pl.4, pi. 6, pi. 8, pi. 9, pi. 12. Add. Ragwort,
Slippery Elm ,(for Gun-shot Wouiuls) Hari lo, Mullein, Bu-
gloss, Boletus, Ground Ivy, Yarrow, Wood Betony.
Ulcer, Ulcus, sec p. '.'5 and 28. See also 35, 45, 50, 52, 56, 57,
71, 75, 77, 78, 8D, 85, 97, 100, 101, 120; pi. 4, pi. 7, pi. 9,
pi. 10, pi. 11, pi. 13. Pond Weed, Honeysuckle, Myrtles,
Uetony, Nettles, Parsnip, Walnut Leaves, Pear Leaves, Laced
Stockings, Electricity, Yeast, the Limb not dependent and
at Rest, New Wort.
Tendons wounded, see Thornapple, 45. Balsam of Peru.
Guinea Worm, Herpes, seep. 87, 103, 121, 131; pi. 9. Oil
Nuts and Garlic externally.
Fistula, see p. 97. Flax Weed, Wood Betony.
Lachrymal ditto, 68. Hue as a 1'oultice, (juince Leaves, Betony
Leaves powdered, one Drachm.
Scald Head, Tinea Capitis, see p. 28. See also 65, 81, 93, 119,
120,139; pi. 13. Burdock, Fumitory, Pepper Grass.
Gangrene, Sphacelus, see 96, 130. Pepper Grass, Spanish Oak,
Peruvian Bark, Arrow Root, Vinegar in which Dross of Iron
has been boiled.
Itch, Psora, see p. 28. See also 44, 48, 74, 81, 94, 119, 120,
124 ; pi. 9, pi. 11, pi. 13. Water Hemp Agrimony, Hyssop,
Rum, Broad-It aved Moorwort (tor Ground Jtch,) Kingsbfldge
Burn- and Excoriations, Cwnhnsturtc, see p. 28. See also 35, 40,
45, 69, 79,99, 104, 113, 116, 126, 130; pi. 8. All-heal, Vine-
gar, Linseed Oil and Chalk, Soap, scraped Potatoes, Cocos,
Arrow Root, Fueus, Slippery Elm, Eider Rushes, cold Affusion
for Hours, Electricity.
Fractures, Fractura, see pi. 8. Slippery Elm, Clowns Heal-all,
Chopped Hands. Wheat Bran boiled, Mustard Flour, Soft Soap
with Sand, Camphorated Spirits.
Sprain and Bruise, Contusio, see p. 116, 130; pi. 7, pi. 10, pi. 13.
Hyssop, Pitch Pine, Averts, Scabious, Winter Green, Burdock
(grated Root, ) Electricity, Fomentation, cold Allusion.
Stings or Serpent Bites, see p. 25. See also 39, 39, 50, 74, 7*,
83, 92, 120, 121, 122, 125: pl.4, pi. 6, pi. 8, pi. 11, pi 12,
pi. 13, Coco Leaves and Roots, Carduus, Honeysuckle, Rue,
Garlic, Salt, cold Affusion, Oil, Alkaline Solution, Suction
with Mouth defended by Oil, Vinegar, Cautery with Gunpow-
Fever after Amputation.
Salep, see 91.
ORDER IX. Obstructions, from Obstruct io, Impediment.
Poisons, (Antidotes to) Venena, see p. 25. See also 29, 30, 34,
35,36, 44, 51, 69, 74, 75, 78, 87, 90, 91, 10], 106, 107, 108,
124,125,126; pl.4, pi. 6, pi. 9, pi. 12, pi. 13. Lemon Juice
or Vinegar (for Narcotic Poisons), one or two Grains of dis-
tilled Verdigrease (to vomit), Alkaline Solutions, Salt of Worm-
wood, or Tartar freely (for corrosive Poisons), Tobacco as a Ca-
taplasm, Stimulus on Skin by whipping, for Narcotic Poisons.
Cheeking, jdglutitio. A Spunge on the End of a Whalebone, with
Chigoes, see pi. 8. Cashew, Tobacco Ashes.
DISEASES OF CATTLE.
Canada Distemper, see 41 . Poisoned by, see 45, 106. Strangury,
see 55. Yellow Water, see Butternut, p. 96. Murrain, see 74.
llange, see 41, 85. Salivation, by, see 120. Rot in Sheep, 120.
Wounds in Horses, 131. Stomach weak 127. Galled Backs, Pao-
niirioba, pi. 9.
Arbours, to make and adorn, see p. 33, 34, 43, 53, 68, 71, 79,
80, 84, 91, 99, 123.
Arrack, to make, see p. 109, 111.
Arrows, to make, see p. 110.
Bath, to make, see p. 28. Add. 35, 40, 71, 77, 78, 85, 89, 95,
96, 120; pl.4, pi. 7, pi 9, pi 11. Hemlock Pine, Elder.
Brooms, to make, see p. 40, 82, 98, 110, 112, 125.
Birdlime, to make, see p. 100. Add. Holly.
Birth, to hasten, see p. 38. Ergot of Rye ; pi. 8.
Blisters, to dress, see pi. 12. Plantain, Cabbage.
Beer, to make, see p. 106, 120, 132. Green Pea Shells, Spice
Beverages, sundry, see p. 30, 31, 44, 47, 55, 75,76,79,91,107,
1 19, 121 ; pi. 11, pi. 13. Carapullo (produces delirium,] Caue
Juice, new Sugar with Water.
Brandy, to make, see p. 71, 121. Parsnip.
Bread", to make, see p. 90, 93, 104, 106, 108, 110, 111, 124, 132;
pi. 11, pi. 12. Egpytian Lotus, Corns.
Breath, to sweeten, see p. 35. 98 ; pi. 7- Musk, Mallows, Myrrh,
Baskets and Mats, to make, see p. 110, 111.
Bruises, to obliterate, see p. 116, 123.
Bedsteads, Boxes and Presses, to make. See p. 48, 77, 103.
Baldness, to cure, see Boxwood, Onion.
Cyder, to make, see p. 72, 104; pi. 10.
Candles, substitutes for, see p. 41, 60, 65, 70, 90, 100, 102, 110,
Canoes, to make, sec pi. 8; pi. 10.
Colours for dying. Yellow, p. 32, 53, 60, 75, 77, 87, 89, 95, 106,
125, 127, 130," 131; pi. 13. Blue, 63,85,122; pi. 7, pi. 10,
pi. 11, Blueberry. Purple, see p. 56, 68, 70, 115, 12.9. Croton,
Juniper, Butternut. Black, to fix, see p. 52, 78, 89, 95, 106,
129, 131; pi. 10, Panke, Wild Cherry, Cashew Not Oil.
Aurora, see p. 75, 89,96, 127. Drab, 53, 113. Green, sec-
pi. 13. Brown, 56. Red, 52, 63, 74, 97, 122, 127, 132; pi. 7,
pi. 10. Raize, Rue, Brazil, Opuntia.
Condiments, seep.. iO, 32, 35, 46. 52, 55, 71, 103, 132; pi. 7,
pi. 10, pi. 13. Curry, Thyme, Sage, Calyearithus.
Cheese and Butter, to colour, 75.
Cosmetics, see p. 62, 76, 92, 99, 120; pi. 8, pi. 9, pi. 10. 123,
Corks, to make, see p. 76, 81.
Canes, to make, see p. 112.
Fodder for Cattle, see p. 37, 58, 70, 86, 94, 100, 105, 111, 120,
121; pi. 5, pi. 7, pi. 8. CornStalks, Salt Hay, Spelt Corn,
Fermentation, to promote, seep. 70
Fish, to catch, see p. 85, 1 Bl, 126. Galcga.
Fire-wood, see p. 47, 61, 95, 98, 106, 127 ; pl-.8, pi. 10. Timbers
Famine at Sea, to prevent, see p. 91.
Fire to produce, see p. 75, and 100.
Fruits not mentioned in Explanation of Frontispiece, see p. 32,
33, 34, 45. 48, Go, 67, 0';), 70, 71, 72, 73, 75. 79, 95, 99, 100,
105 ,106, 109, 110, 111, 120, 127, 128, 131 ; pi. 7. Hazel Nut,
White and Black Walnut, Shag Bark, Shell Bark, Butter-
nut and Filbert, Barberry, Ensetc, Capollin or Mexican
Cherry, Marotti, Pepperidges, Cranberry, Wild Strawberry,
Grasses, see p. 37, 38, 94, 105, 122, 125 ; pi. 5, pi. 6.
Glass, to make, see p. 33, 72 and 116'. Isatis Maritima.
Gum Bearing, see p. 51, 52, 60, 70, 75, 97, 99, 100 101, 102,
105, 106, 107, 110 ; pi. 7, pi. 10, pi. 12.
Gutte ^, to make, see p. 38, 109.
Hedges and Fences, to make, see p. 33, 34, 36, 38, 54, 64, 70,
87, 96, 103, 130 j pi. 7, pi- 10.
Hogs to feed, see p. 31, 43, 67, 70 : 71,82, HI.
Hoops, to make, see p. 41, 106; pi. 10.
1 1 iding, to make, see pi. 8. p. 75-
Hops, substitute lor, see p. 77, 121.
Hats, to make, see p. 81, 123; pi. 6, pi. 8, pi. 10. Apocynum.
Hair, to dye black, see p. 89.
Hair, to make grow, see p. 11 5, 124, 128.
Ink, to make, 'see p. 52, 106, 126, 128; pi. 10.
Insects and Chigoes, to Keep oil' and cure, see p. 56, 75, 76, 77,
103; pi. 8.
Jellv and Marmalade, to make, see p. 29, 57, 102, 104; pi. 4,
Infection, to guard against, see p. 55 and 122.
Kiitareen Pannels, to make, see p. 64, 86, and pi. 8.
Leather, substitute for, see Leather-wood, 132.
Linseed, substitute for, see pi. 9 and pi 11, pi 82.
Laudanum, substitutes lor, see p. 45, 88, 91.
Lace, to make, see Lace Bark Tree, p. 61.
Lime, to make, see White Coral.
Leaves and Capsules, Esculent, see p. 33, 35, 42, 53, 67, 69, 81,
82, 88, 92, 99, 109, 113, 117, 118, 119, 121, 124; pi. 10,
pi. 11, pi. 13.
Mill-work, Timber for, see p. 48, 70; pi. 7. See Timber.
Muskitocs, to drive away, 123. Corn Husks.
Manure, see Banana, p. 104.
Milk, to draw, see pi. 12, pi. 13. To repel, see p. 96, 122;
pi. 13. Arrow Head, p 126, pi. 12.
Necklaces, to make, see p. 30, 43, 62, 63, 64, 111, 128; pi. 4.
pi. 6, pi. 7, pi. H.
Oil, to yield, see p. 34, 65, 71, 72, 75, 90, 91, 95, 96, 102, 109,
110, 111, 122, 1^5, 128, 129; pi. 8, pi. 9, pi. 10, pi. 11, pi.
12, pi. 13. Acorns of Live Oak.
Poultry and Pigeons, to feed, see p. 48. 66, 61, 68, 85, 90, 94,
95, 120, 123 ; pi. 6, pi. 11, pi. 12. The Grains in general,
(Wild Buckwheat injurious.)
Poisons, see p. 43, 44, 45, 47, 49, 51, 54, 64, 69, 71, 75, 105, 106,
116, 117, 129; pi. 6, pi. 11, pi. 12, pi. 13. Hemlock, Horse
Pillows, Cushions and Mattrasses, to make, see p. 55, 104, 113;
pi 8, pi. 10.
Piles, to make, see Dogwood, p. 85.
Paper, to make, see p. 37, 38, 6l, 94, 109, HI.
Presses and Boxes, to make, see p. 77, 103.
Preserves, to make, see p- 29, 30, 50 ; pi. 4. See also Fruits.
Pickles, to make, see p. 33, 46, 56, 72, 75, 81, 100, 103, 107, 109,
127- Wild Cane, Bilimbi, Mango, Girkins, Nasturtiums, Red
Cabbage, Beet, Acaja, Radish Pods.
Perfumes, see p. 33, 40, 41, 44, 47, 49, 55, 60, 63, 66, 70, 71, 73,
79,91, 98, 10.',, 123, 126, 132 ; pi. 5, pl. 6, pi. 7- pi. 11, pi. 12.
Rails, to make, see p. 97, 98, 103, 107.
Ropes, Twine and Cloth, to make, see p. 54, 6l, 70, 75, 92, 94,
100, 104, 116, 121.122, 123, 124, 127.
Roofs, to make, see p. 38. 48, 97, 103, 110, 111, 112, 121, 123,
130, pl. 7, pl. 8, pl. 10.
Rain, foretelling, see p. 63, 106, 122, 123.
Roots and Stems, Esculent, see p. 29, 37, 42, 46, 56, 67, 90, 92,
93,102,110, 116, 120, 123, 124; pl. 4, pl 7, pl.Il', pl - 12.
Sweet Cassada, Tapioca, Avalauda, Ixia, Quaw-quaw, Beet.
Red Ink, to make. Brazil.
Rats, to attract, see p. 73. Oil of Rhodium.
Scabbards, to make, see p. 84.
Silk Worms, to feed, see p. 88, 94.
Silky Down Bearing, see pl. 7, pl. 10, pl.12.
Sand Boxes, to make, see pl 12.
Sealing-wax, to make, see p. 100.
Soap, to make, see p. 33, 62, 72, 82, 100, 114, 130, pl. 7.
Shafts, to make, see p. 107 130, pl. 13.
Spirits, to distil from, see p. 37, 58, 71, 104, 105, 106, 121;
pl. 10. Green Pea Shells, Juniper, Cedar, Piice, Palm Juice.
Sticks, walking, seep 61,111; pl. 10.
Sugar, bearing, see p. 37, 104, 105, 109, 110, 112, 120.
Starch, to make, See p. 4.
S:^o, to make, see p. 109, 110; pl. 4.
Seeds and Grain, Alimentary, see p. 36, 55, 38, 58, 90, 94, 95,
99, 100, 104, 105, 107, 109, 110. Ill, 131, 123, 124, 125.
Sesame, Black-eyed Pea, Limabean, Water Rice, Acorns of
Live Oak, Broad Bean, Sugar Bean, Scarlet Bean, Peas,
small red, Great Angola, black, white, speckled, clay Colour,
Pigeon, Lady, Bonavist, Calavances, Spelt Wheat, l'ig-nut.
Ship's Bottoms, to preserve, see p. 56, pl. 10.
Shade for Cacao, to make, see p 84, 121 ; pl. 11.
Shady Walks, to make, See p. 34, 86, 102. Mangoes, Cashews.
Snuff Boxes, to make, see p. 105.
Staves, to make, see p. 96, 128, 130; pl. 6.
Salt of Wormwood, substitute for, see p. 95, 100.
Sugar, to granulate and clay, see p. 100, 104, 119.
Timber Trees, see p. 34, 36, 40, 41, 47, 48, 57. 60, 61, 64, 65,
66, 70, 71, 75, 76, 77, 79, 82, 84, 85. 86, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,
100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 103, 127, 128, 129, 130,
131 ; pl. 5, pl. 6, pl. 7, pl. 8, pl. 10, pl. 13
Time Flowers, Moraea, see p. 36, at four P. M. Turnera, p. 52,
at eleven A.M. Four o'clock pl. 6, every four Hours. Dwarf
Tanning, useful for, see Astringents, p. 25. Add. 34, 47, 52,
66, 98, 120, 127, 129; pl. 7. pl- 8, pl. 13. Wild Olive, Ja-
maica Olive Bark, Bears Whortleberry, Black Birch.
Torches, to make, see p. 70.
Tobacco, to mix with, see p. 41, 97, 98.
Teeth, to preserve, see p. 48, 67, 73, D7, 109, 126; pl 13.
Faufel Nut with Betel.
Turpentine, substitute for, see p. 107.
Tinder, to make, see p. 1 15.
Tooth Picks, to make. Wild Carrot.
Thirst, to abate. Water Lilies.
Thatch, to make, see p. 109, 110, 112. Grasses.
Vessels, to make, see pl. 8 ; p. 99-
Varnish, to make, seep 51, 105; pl. 7, pl. 10. Fern Oil.
Vinegar, to make, see p. 55.
Umbrellas, Fans or Tents, to make, see p. 109, 110.
Wheels, to mnke, Dog-wood for Fellies, Brasiletts for Spokes,
Whalebone, substitute for, see p. 112.
Wine, to make, see p. 47, 75, 109, 110, 111, 112, 129, 131;
Worms, to prevent, see p. 64.
Yokes, to make, pl. 94.
Cngltst) J 'vtotx*
JKficA Le/ter is divided into Three Lists, marked i. u. and lit. respective/^ : the
Plants in List I. fomg o/'Me 7fe£ Indies, South America, or the East Indies;
List ii. being P /ants of North America ; and List III. common to Both.
Abbay Palm 111
Achyranthc*. . . . 49
A< idoton 103
Adder's Tongue 114
Adenanthera ... 6-1
Albahacca . . .pi. 13
Aleppo Pine 127
Alligator Pear pL 7
Ditto Wood 60
Ditto Apple 76
Anchovy Pear.. 75
Angola Pea .... 85
Anthoceros . 115
Antidote Cocoon 101
Arbour Vine ... 45
Arrowhead .... 96
Aspen Tree 102
Attoo pi. 9
Auricula .... pi. 7
Ava Ava 119
Avocado Pear pi. 7
Abele Tree 127
AUum Root 50
American Sanicle 50
Ditto Senna 63
Arbor Vita; 98
Same 1 19
Ash Tree 107
Adam's Needle 56
American Aloe pi. 7
Arrow- Root. ... 5:9
Same pi. -1
Baboul pi. 12
Bahama Grass pi. 5
Balsam Herb ... 34
Balsam of Tolu 64
Ditto of Peru.. . 65
same pi. 13
Balsam of Capivi 66
Banyan Tree ... 108
Bastard Maiumee 75
Bay Tree 71
Bar badoes Pride pi. 7
Ditto Cedar 48
Ditto Aloes .... 56
Ditto Cherry ... 66
Ditto wild Olive 80
Ditto Gooseberry 70
Ditto Juniper . . 103
Ditto Cedar 86
ditto Saflr on 89
Beef Wood 48
Bent Grass 38
Bastard ironwood 40
ditto Cherry Tree 48
ditto Bully Tree 48
ditto Hoop withe 49
ditto Plantain . . 49
do. Ipecacuhanha 50
Belly ach-weed pi. 12
Bermuda Cedar 103
Enabling Plum 67
Bitter Wood .... 77
Black Pepper. . 35
Black Olive ... 66
Do. Bcadshrub pi. 9
ditto Horehound 78
Blasia ........ .115
Blood Flower pi. 7
Borage pi. 13
Brasiletto . . . pi. 7
Bread Fruit 93
Ditto Nut Tree 100
Broom Weed ... 82
Brunsfelsia . 79
Bully Tree 48
Button Weed... 39
Ditto Tree 47
Bengal Bean pi. 12
Buxbaumia ... .114
Balm of Gilead 97
Bastard Indigo 85
do. Ipecacuanha 48
ditto same. . . .pi. 7
doss Wood 127
Eatchelor's button 50
Beaver Tree . . , 76
Beech , ..K7
Biting Asmart . . 120
Black Alder 87
do. Huckleberry 131
Ditto Snake Root 74
Ditto Birch 127
Ditto Oak 127
Ditto Ash 107
Bladder Nut... 128
Blue Scull-cap.. 78
Blue Flag 120
Blue Point 131
Blue Lobelia ... 43
Bowman's Root 73
Broad Plantain 120
Buck Wheat 120
Butter Nut 95
Button. Wood. . 47
Butterfly Hoot.. 50
Balsam Tree . . . 105
Bead Tree 64
Bell Pepper 46
Bent Gra«s 38
Bilberrv .. 60
Bind Weed 43
Bird Pepper. ... 46
blackberry .... 73
i ugloss 120
Can-mini ...... 121
Cabbage Palm.. 109
Calabash .... pi. 8
Caliicarna ..... 40
Camphor pi. 7
Candlewood .... 60
Canella Alba pi. 10
Cancer Root... . 80
Caper Tree 74
Cardinal Flower 43
Carimpana Palm 110
Caranna ditto . . 110
Cashew Apple pi. 10
Cassada pi. 11
Cat's claw... .pi. 9
Cassia stick . .pi. 9
Cedar B 48
Fhaia pi. 13
Chain cotton pi. 8
Chaste Tree 79
Chaws tick 67
Cherry Tree pi 6
Chmchivel . . pi. 13
Chiopley pi. 13
China Hoot 102
Chlot oplivtum . . 55
Chocolate Nui pi. 11
Christmas Pride 78
Cinnamon . . .pi. : 7
Citron Wood 128
Clammy Cherry pi .6
C avari.i ]ig
Ci oven-berry bush66
Clove Tree 71
' Cobnut 99
Cocoa Nut 109
Coculus Indicus 121
Codda-panna ( ..„
Coffee Tree 44
Cogwood. ... pi. 7
Coka pi. 13
Cokarito Palm.. 110
Colilu pi. 11
Colt's Foot 89
Contrayerva pl 6
Same pi. 13
Cordia pi. 6
Cork Wood 76
Coral Tree 84
Cowhagc Cherry 67
Currato pi. 7
Currant Tree.... 48
Custard Apple. . 76
t'\ perns ........ 37
Cankerberry .... 46
Canada Thistle. .121
Canker Root 121
Cherry Tree..... 48
Checkerberry . ..121
China Tree .... 1
Clown's heal-all 121
Colts Pool 68
Corn Sill.ul 121
Coi'ims Sericea. . 122
( rane's hill 121
(r >w Fool 81
Currant Tree.... -18
Curly Maple 130
Camomile. . . .pi. 13
< 'apsicmns >6
Chain-i otton pi. 8
( 'err\ I* pper :fi
Chick weed 39
C'lh Nut !)S
Cunvolvolus .... 43
Coral Pepper .
. . 56
. . 47
Doradilla.... pi. 13
Dumb Cane . .
. . 92
Dwarf Cassia pi. 9
ditto Fan Palm
ditto Papaw . .
Dandelion . . .
Date Plum.. .
. . 66
Dog Wood . . .
. . 122
Duck's Foot. .
ditto Cedar.. pi. 15
E. India Ebony
Elephant's Foot 90
English Plantain 40
Elecampane . .
Faufcl Nut Pal
Female Fern .
same . ....
Flaripondio . .
Foxtail Grass. .
Four o'clock pi. 6
I'i -rich Jasmine
ditto Oak ....
do. Physic Nut pi. 1 1
ditto Cotton. . pi. 12
Fringe Tree. . .
S I'ne .
Flags pi. 14
Ferns pi. 15
Flowering Rush 122
Fool's Parsley. . 50
Funguses . pi. 14
Fever Wort 48
Foxtail Grass ... 37
Fig Tree 108
Galimeta Wood 57
Gamboge Thistle pi. 9
Garland Flower 31
Garden Egg .... 53
Garlic Fear «')
Gland Flax 122
Goat Weed 79
Goose Grass . . . .106
Grape Fruit 87
Grains of Paradise
Greenheart . . pi. 7
Grey nicker tree pi. 7
Green Ebony. ... 81
Great Fan Palm 110
Green Wood 129
Guaicum .... pi. 7
Guava pi. 10
Guayava pi. 13
Guinea Grass pi. 5
Guinea Hen Weed 58
Guinea Corn 105
Guinea Pepper 46
Gum Arabic, .pi. 12
Ginten Root 122
Globe Amaranth 50
Golden Thread.. 122
Gooseberry .... 48
(irass Pink 122
Golden Rod 89
(irape Vine .... 47
Great Pepper. . . 46
Ground Nut., pi. 11
Ground Ivy 77
Gub-a-gubs.. pi. 11
Guinea Pepper. . 46
llickery pi. 15
Halbert Weed . . 88
Hare's Foot Och-
Hart's Tongue...1 13
Hawk Weed 88
Heart Seed 62
Hemp Agrimony 88
llickery Nut 95
Hog Weed 31
Hog Gum 51
Hog Plum 67
Honey 'Jerry. . . 59
Hoop Withe 41
Horse Radish Tree
Horehound, black 7S
Horse Tail 113
Hornbeam Tree 129
II. ttentot Cherrj 129
II \ dnum 118
lis poxis 5'i
Heart's Ease .. . 122
Heath 12 i
Kemp 12 )
Horse Sugar. ... 81
Horse Radish... 122
Hone heck 122
Hungry Root. . . 122
Dare's Ear 50
Hedge Hyssop.. 35
Iceland Moss... .113
Indian Shot 30
same pl. 4
Indian Arrow Root
same pl. 4
Indian Turnsole 42
Indian Pink 43
Ditto Oak 48
Ditto Burkbean 49
Ditto Lilac 64
Ditto Kale., pl. 10
Ditto Millet 104
Ditto Fig 70
Indigo pl. 11
Iron Grass 39
Ditto Tree 40
Ditto Wood 40
Iron Wort 78
Ipecacuanha (b) pl. 7
Indian Pink. ... 42
Ditto Tobacco . . 44
Ditto Physic 73
Ditto Turnip . . . 93
Ink Plant 89
Indian Corn. ... 93
.lack Fruit 93
.Jack in a box ... 94
Jack in the hush pl. 9
Jamaica Laurel pl.7
Ditto Bramble. . 73
Ditto Walnut ... 95
Ditto Nettle Treel05
Ditto Vervain pi. 4
Do. wild clary pl. 4
Do contrayerva pl. 6
Ditto bark pl. 10
Ditto Tea 79
Ditto Dog Wood 84
Ditto Salep 91
Ditto Pepper. . . 71
Ditto Sida 88
Ditto bjrcli 10/
' 12 5
Jesuit's bark pl. If)
Jungcrinannia pl.] 16
James Town weed J">
Jerusalem Thorn 6t
Ditto Artichoke 90
ditto Oak 5 >
Juniper cedar. . 129
Jasmine 3 3
Jucato calleloe 67
Kavalvasnic pl. 13
Lace-bark Tree 61
Lacayota 12 3
Lance-wood pl. 13
Laurel pl. 7
Lemon (irass . . . 123
Lignum-Vita- pl. 7
Lignum-Aloes pl. 13
Linkio 12 3
Locust Tree pl. 7
Locus Tree 67
Logwood .... pl. 10
Loose Strife 123
Luisi pl. 13
Lycopodium . . ..115
Lycoperdon .... 1 18
Larch Tree 98
Leatherwood . . . 132
Lilly of the Valley
Lilac Hoop Treel29
Lime Tree 129
Live Oat 123
Locus Tree 129
Lily Root 55
Love Apple .... 53
Macrocnemum . . 46
Maccaw Palm. .111
Mad Apple 53
Mahot pi. 11
Maiden Plum. . . 36
ditto Hair., pi. 13
ditto same 1 13
Majoe bitter. . . .101
Maknlam pi. 13
Mallows pi. 13
Male Fern IN
Malabar Nut. . . . 124
M. i inner Apple pi. 8
Mamiaee Sapota 57
Mangosreen. . pi. lo
Mangrove. . . . pi, s
Mandarine orange 87
Maple Tree .105
Marvel of Peru 47
fame pi. 6
Marcgravia .... 74
Meadow Grass. . 37
Melic Grass 3S
Melon Thistle . . 70
Alessoor pi. 12
Mexican Poppy pi. 9
Mikania '. . 88
Millet Gra>s 38
Milk wood 100
Mobile Palm ...111
Mohoe pi. 12
Monkey Bread Tree
Moringa pi. 7
Mosses pi. 14
Motee pi. 12
Mountain laurel pi 7
Ditto bully 48
Ditto Ebony 63
Ditto Damson . . 65
Ditto Guava pi. 10
Ditto Olive 68
ditto Tea 66
Musk Wood 60
Musk-Ochro pi. 11
Mandrake Apple 124
Marsh Rosemary 123
May Apple 75
May Weed 124
Milk Weed. ,...124
Money wort. . . .123
Moose woo 1 . . . . 132
Mother u »r( . 123
Mountain Tea . . 66
Medlar \\\\ 73
Musk Melon.".'. 99
same 1 18
Nasebei ; 57
Neckera '. 115
Nephritic free pi. 9
Nhambi pi. 13
Nhandiroha . . . .101
Nicker Tree pi. 7
Nicaragua wood 03
Nanny berry .... 132
Narrow Plantain 124
Same 1 24
Nine hark 73
Navel wort 51
Nettle pi. 13
Ochro p|. 11
Olive bark 66
Opera Girl's Man-
Orosus pi. 13
Ortigia pi. 13
Ox-eye bean 85
Oyster plant pi. 7
Oyster Green. . . 117
Oculus Christi. .124
Oil Nut pi. 12
Oily pulse pi. 9
Old man's beard 55
Paica julla . .pi. 13
Pajomirioba pi. 9
Palghi pi. 13
Palqui pi. 13
Palmetto royal 112
Panke pi. 13
Paper Mulberry 94
Parrot wood pi. 7
Parkinsonia .... 64
Paraguay Tea pi. 13
Parrot weed ... 68
Payco-herba pi. 13
Penny-royal tree 77
Peruvian bark pi. 10
Peumo pi. 13
Physic Nut . . pi. 11
Pigeon pea 85
Pill wort 114
I'ine Apple . 54
Plantain (b) 49
Plantain Tree ..104
Poison Berries 47
Pomegranate pi. 10
Pope's Head 70
Poquett pi. 13
Prince wood ... 47
Prickly Pear ... 70
ditto Palm 109
Ditto pole Ill
Ditto withe 124
Do yellow woodlOl
Pudding withe 77
Parrot wood. . . 130
Pepper Grass . . 124
Periwinkle .... 124
Pig Nut 124
Pig weed 124
Pigeon wood . . 130
Pimpernell .... —
Pine Ivory 124
Pippiscva 1 25
Pitch pine 130
Plane Tree 98
Pleurisy root . . 50
Poison vine. ... 51
Ditto Oak 51
Pole-cat weed . . 93
Pond weed 124
Pride of India. . 64
Prickly Ash 130
Palma Christi pi. 12
Pigeon Pepper 46
Pindar pi. 1 1
Plantain Kng. . . -10
Poke weed 67
Pumpkin. ... pi. 11
Purple Pepper 47
Quesnoa .... pi. 13
Quinchamali. . . . 89
Quill wort 113
Red Jasmine pi. 5
Ditto Lily... pi. 7
Ditto Plumeria 49
Ditto Head 50
Red Bead Tree 63
Rest Harrow ... 84
Rice (Mountain) 58
Ringworm Bush 63
Rose Bay 44
Rose wood fi)
Rose Apple .... 71
Rag wort 125
Rattle weed .... 74
Red Chickweed 125
Ditto Oak 130
Ditto Lily .. .pi. 15
Ditto Cedar 103
Rice (common) 58
Rock Mapl 130
Rose willow . ... 41
Rupture wort . . 12i
Rose ........ 73
Sago Tree 110
St. John's Bread 108
Salvia pi. 13
Santa Maria. . . . .\ ! 5
Sandbox Tree pi. 12
Selumdapana . . .1 10
Screw Tree 82
Scotch Grass, .pi. 5
Si'\ thian Lamb. .113
Sea Holly 50
Ditto Samphire 51
Sea side Laurel 52
Ditto Grape .... 61
Ditto Ox-eye. . . 89
Sea Moss 117
Ditto Mallow.. 117
Securidaca .... 83
Self-heal ...... 78
Sempervive .... 56
Senna Tree . . pi. 9
Sensitive Plants 106
Serpent withe. . . 92
Serpents ria Kcnne-
Seven Year Vine 43
Shad d 00. 87
Silk-cotton tree pi. 10
Siiieid Fern 114
Silk Grass b\
Smooth Flower 42
Snow Berry . 17
Snip berry .... 61
Same . . . .' 132
Sorrel pi. 1 !
Sour Grass . . pi.
South-sea Rose 4 t
Sour Sop 73
Spanish 1.1m pi. 6
Pn. Carnation pi. 7
Ditto I.lder 35
ditto Dagger. . . . 56
Sp'ircria . . .118
x phxrocarpus ... 1 18
sphagnum .... 115
Spinach pi. 11
^plachnum ... .115
Squash pi. 11
Star Apple 54
Stave wood .... 65
Stinking weed pi. 9
Stizolobium .... 85
Sugar Cane .... 37
Supple Jack .... 61
Sweet hay .... pi. 7
Ditto William 43
Ditto wood .... 60
Sweet Sop 76
Ditto weed 79
Seeds pi. 3
Ditto beet 125
Saint John's wortl25
Saw wort 89
Seneca Rittle-f R
Snake Root ) OJ
Shepherd's pouch 125
Siberian crab 73
Skunk Cabbage 93
Slippery Elm - • 130
Smooth Sumach 51
Snake root (black)74
South-sea Tea - - 41
Sour Gourd 82
Ditto Gum 107
Spanish Oak - - 130
Spelt Corn - - - 125
Spikenard - - - 125
Spice wood 132
Spruce Pine 97
Squaw weed .... 74
Stag's Horn 52
Stink Horn 118
Stink weed ....125
Strawberry . 73
Sugar Nut 105
Swamp Sumach 51
Sweet balm 125
Sweet- Gam 97
Sweet Fern .... 97
ditto Fig 108
Solomon's Seal 56
Sun 'Flower 90
Sweet Potatoes 42
Tabasco Tea pi. 13
Tacamahac Tree 102
Tamarind - - -pi. 5
Same pi. 13
Same ... 81
Targionia - - - 117
Teak wood 48
Toad Flax 80
Tom Bontein's bush
Tooth-ache Tree 101
Torch Thistle - - 70
Tournet'ortia - - 42
Traveller's Joy 76
Tree celandine 6S
Same ------ 1 j0
Tremella - - - - 117
Tree Rosemary 130
Trianthema .... 66
Trichomanes - - 114
Tripsacum - - - 91
Troolies - - - - 112
Trumpet 1 lower 34
Trumpet Tree 100
Turmeric - - - 32
Turnera ----- 52
Turkey weed pi. 12
Turk's Cap .... 70
Twiggy Cassia pi. 9
Trees . . pi. 1 and 2
Tooth-Ach Tree 101
Tory weed 126
Tulip Tree 76
Tupelo Tree 10T
Thorn Apple. ... 45
Tinker's weed - 48
Trumpet Tree - - 95
Vangloe .... pi. 9
Velvet Leaf pi. 12
Same pi. 4
Virgin's Bower 77
Volkameria .... SO
Vinegar Plant — 52
Virginian Poke 68
Bool - . 93
ditto Sumach - - o2
Water withe. ... 47
Ditto Pine 55
Ditto Plantain 58
Ditto Same - - 126
Ditto Cress 81
Ditto Lemon -- - 91
Ditto Melon 99
Wax Palm 110
Western coffee 45
White wood 34
Ditto sweet wood
White Bully Tree 57
Ditto Mangrove 47
White Coral--- 117
Ditto Jalap —
Ditto Mastic 101
Wild cinnamon pi. 7
Ditto Senna pi. 7
Same ------ 63
Wild Ginger 30
ditto cane — - - 37
Wild Clary pi. 4
Same - - — - - 42
Wild Jasmine - - 45
Ditto Pine 54
Ditto Asparagus 56
Ditto Sage pi. 9
Ditto Fig - - - 108
Do. Liquorice pi. 1 1
Ditto Indigo pi. 1 1
Do. Rosemary pi. 11
Ditto Canada pi. 18
Ditto Sorrel pi. 13
Ditto Clove Tree 71
Ditto Basil - - - 77
Ditto Spikenard 78
Ditto Hops - - - 78
Ditto Mustard- - 81
Ditto Ebony - - 84
Ditto passion flower
Ditto Wormwood 95
Ditto Rosemary 93
Ditto Tamarind 100
Winter Cherry 49
Winter's Bark pi 10
Wood Sorrcll - - 67
Wooginoo? - - - 132
Wormwood pi. 13
Warted Gourd 99
\V;iter Ash - - - 131
Waier withe - - 17
Water Rice - - - 93
Wax-work - - - 50
Weeping Willow 131
White Oak - - ISO
Ditto Ash 130
Ditto Same - - 107
Ditto Pine- - - 130
White wood - - 34
ditto Cedar - - 131
Ditto Same - - - 98
ditto Mangrove 47
ditto Jalap - - 126
Whortleberry - 132
Wild Potato? Vine
Ditto Ginger. ... 68
Ditto Indigo 85
W 1 ft
Ditto Lettuce - - 8S«
Ditto Pink 126
Ditto Sorrell- - 126
Ditto Columbine 126
Ditto Carrot 126
Ditto Grape .. . .131
Ditto Cherry - 131
Ditto Spikenard 78
Witch Hazel - - 131
Willows - - - - 131
Worm Seed 50
Wormwood, .pi- 13
Wax-Tree Privet 34
Water Lilies 126
Ditto Rice 95
White Lily 126
Whortleberry - - 60
Same- '- - 132
Worm Grass. ... 42
Ximenia ----- 60
Yam pi. 12
Yam-pea ... .pi. 12
Yaw weed .... 98
Yellow Sanders t.s
Ditto Mastic 101
Ditto flowered Bal-
sam Tree . . . .105
Yellow Root 53
Vellow Leaf. . . . 87
Ditto Lily 127
Ditto Oak 96
Ditto Pine - - 131
Ditto Ma- tic ... . 101
N.B. From the Length of the Appendix, Tables, and Indexes, the last Number exceeds the allotted Quantity of Letter-Prest
hy Two Sheets and upwards
.Newman, Printer, Widegate-St. Bishopsgate.
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