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Full text of "Sketches and traditions of the Northwest Arm"

SKETCHES c& TRADITION? 



SKETCHES AND TRADITIONS OF THE 
NORTHWEST ARM 




FIRST GLIMPSE OF THE NORTHWEST ARM FROM COBURG ROAD. 



rlC 



SKETCHES AND TRADITIONS 



NORTHWEST ARM 

(IWJSTRATED) 



AND WITH 



PANORAMIC FOLDER OF THE ARM 



BY JOHN W. REGAN 




HALIFAX, N. S. 
MCALPINE PUBLISHING COMPANY, I/ri>. 



Copyright, Canada, 1908, by W. S. Davidson, Henry Roper, 
C. H. Climo, W. R. Scriven, F. W, Bowes, S. H. I^awrence, 
Frank Colwell, S. G. Ritchie, W. I,. Taylor, and John W. 
Regan. 



CONTENTS 



FAG1C 

Introduction 1 

Naming the Arm 10 

Pryor Property 13 

The Waegwoltic 22 

St. Mary's Aquatic Club 28 

Birchdale 30 

Thornvale 34 

N. W. A. R. C. and H. A. B. C 37 

Oaklands 43 

Belmont Estate 48 

Marlborough Woods 55 

Fernwood and Maplewood 57 

Pine Hill College 59 

Bilton Cottage 61 

Emscote, Howe's Birthplace 62 

The old Penitentiary 69 

Point Pleasant Park 72 

Ferries at the Arm 75 

Queen's Quarries, Herring Cove and Purcell's Cove 80 

Saraguay Club 85 

Thos. W. Lawson's Ancestors 89 

Story of the Royal Oak 90 

Boldrewood Bishop's Cottage 92 

Jollimore Village 93 

The Dingle '. 96 

Tower Point, site of new public park 99 

Melville Military Prison 109 

Hosterman's, formerly owned by an ancestor of 

Grover Cleveland 118 

A Manufacturing Centre 120 

(vii) 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

A Hero of the Indian Mutiny 121 

The Rocking Stone 123 

The Arm in year 1784 124 

The First American Zoo 12G 

Armview, formerly Lakewood 131 

At the Arm Bridge 137 

Quaint Dutch Village 138 

Stanyan 140 

The Baronet of Armdale 141 

Jubilee Estate 144 

Rosebank 146 

The Priory 148 

A New Boating Club 151 

Panmure and Dalhousie 152 

Studley Quoit Club 153 

First Illumination at the Arm 157 

The Collins Estate 160 

Modern Villas at the Arm 163 

An Old Indian Fteast 165 

Aquatics at the Arm 168 

A Strange Elopement 172 

Lights and Shades 178 

Advertising Section 183 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Northwest Arm from Coburg Road Frontispiece 

FACING PAGE 

Laying corner stone of historical tower 1 

Regatta Scene 4 

Illumination , 9 

Waegwoltic Boathouse 16 

Waegwoltic Executive 21 

Executive Committee N. W. A. R. C., 1908 24 

An Early Executive of N. W. A. R. C. 28 

Maritime Board of Trade Ladies Visiting the Arm 33 

Scenes on Waegwoltic Grounds 40 

Ideal Bungalow at Marlborough Woods 4~5 

Entrance to Waegwoltic Grounds 49 

Old Fenerty House 49 

Maplewood, Residence of Hon. D. McKeen 67 

Views of Melville Cove 57 

Emscote, site of Joe Howe's Birthplace 64 

Saraguay Grounds and Club House 72 

Lone Grave at Deadman's Island 76 

Purcell's Cove 81 

Boscobel 88 

Jollimore Village 93 

Melville Military Prison 97 

H. A. B. C. Executive, 1908 100 

Proposed Historical Tower 107 

(ix) 



X ILLUSTRATIONS. 

FACING PAGE 

Looking into Fairy Cove from Oaklands 117 

Armview Residence 120 

Golden Jubilee Studley Quoit Club 124 

Northwest Arm in year 1784 125 

Old Ferry House at Point Pleasant 129 

Caravel used at 1907 Illumination 129 

Arm Bridge and roads 136 

Earl Grey at Studley 141 

Oaklands, from an old photo 145 

Start of a Shell Race 168 

Northwest Arm in year 1800 176 

Panoramic View of the Northwest Arm . .192 



INTRODUCTION. 

/ONSIDERING the amount of space in 
this booklet which is devoted to bio- 
graphical references, a catchy and not 
altogether inappropriate title would be : "A 
Roll Call of the Northwest Arm." An 
objection, however, could be fairly taken to 
that name that the phrase lacks comprehen- 
siveness and does not convey a correct notion 
of the scope of the book. 

A friend recommended calling the booklet 
A History of the Northwest Arm; but that 
again is not exactly what it is intended to be, 
and the term " history " is apt to arouse 
recollections of chronological lessons which 
are inflicted on school children, and might 
deter timid souls from perusing the contents 
of this volume. The ordinary stereotyped 
history is such a prosy article that no effort 
has been made here to imitate its style. A 
booklet dealing with the enchantment of the 
Northwest Arm should bear some measure 
of resemblance to the gaiety of a spot where 
the sun seems to shine its brightest and birds 
appear to trill their happiest lays. What a 
cruel act it would be to attempt to compress 
and imprison that warmth and gladness in 
the diction of a staid history, and reading 
columns of dates always gives the writer a 



2 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

feeling of examining inscriptions in a necro- 
polis. 

Proceeding then on the assumption that 
few persons care for a formal history as a 
souvenir of the lovely Northwest Arm, the 
matter within these two covers has been 
arranged on the plan by which the modern 
newspapers capture the attention of millions 
of people, namely, embodying only what is 
interesting and endeavouring to present that 
in an entertaining way. 

The book in hand is designed to interest 
the public in the Northwest Arm, and in- 
directly in Halifax. To be of the greatest 
benefit therefore to the city, it requires to have 
H wide circulation, an end which has been con- 
stantly kept in view in inscribing these pages. 

But admitting that the exact form of the 
standard historical tome has not been closely 
adhered to in the present instance, does not 
imply that any liberties have been taken with 
the facts themselves. Quite the contrary. 
There was no relaxation of vigilance in col- 
lecting and verifying the information which 
has been employed, and in that respect and 
as far as it goes this book is a history of the 
Northwest Arm worthy of being preserve'd, 
at least until such time as something better 
is brought out. There is probably no book 
written in which errors do not exist, but it 
is hoped and believed that the data that 
follows will be found in the main to be 
moderately accurate and reliable. 

The Northwest Arm is a lovely inlet of 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

the sea with a reputation almost world-wide 
for the charm of its scenery and the quiet 
beauty of its surroundings. It was a mecca 
of the aborigines who made annual pilgrim- 
ages to this spot to fish and hunt. It was 
second nature with the Indians to pick out 
the most pleasant locations for their wig- 
wams, and they came in numbers for hun- 
dreds of miles to camp at the Northwest 
Arm. In fancy one can see the mirrored sur- 
face of the Arm broken by a thousand pad- 
dles, and the steep slopes of the containing 
hills clothed with the primeval forest right 
down to the water's edge. " The memory of 
the red man, it lingers like a spell," and adds 
a pathetic and picturesque touch to the story 
of the Arm. 

History repeats itself. " The Arm " is once 
again the scene of light-hearted assemblages. 
In and outside of boat clubs it is estimated 
there are fifteen hundred boats and canoes. 
There are no shoals or mudbanks, and only 
six feet change of tide, so that boating can 
be carried on at any hour of the day. The 
water in the Arm is renewed twice in twenty- 
four hours. Children of tender years are at 
home in boats alone, and regattas are an ani- 
mated picture, when hundreds of pleasure 
craft, containing thousands of gaily clad 
people, gather in a huge cluster. 

Illuminated boat parades make a feature 
which is unsurpassed at Henley-on-Thames, 
at Venice, or on the Hudson. A fairy-like 
effect is produced by scores of decorated 



4 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

craft moving about the dark waters. With the 
shores lined with blazing bonfires and chang- 
ing lights and aided by a brilliant pyrotech- 
nic display, King Carnival annually delights 
thousands of visitors at the Northwest Arm. 

The location of the military prison at Mel- 
ville Island, its connection with the wars of 
the first Napoleon and with previous con- 
flicts, and the boom that was stretched across 
the entrance of the Arm to prevent the in- 
cursion of hostile ships, throw about the 
Northwest Arm some of the glamour of mar- 
tial romance. 

As a part of Halifax harbor, the North- 
west Arm is also associated with a critical 
period in British history which led to the 
settlement of Halifax. The second quarter 
of the i8th century found British pride 
humbled on every hand. Pitt took the helm 
at Westminster and initiated, a vigorous 
policy by the establishment of a stronghold at 
Halifax, then called Chebucto Bay. Great 
doors turn upon small hinges. The fate of 
half a continent was determined by that step. 
Using Halifax as a base of operations, Louis- 
burg was soon captured, and in the follow- 
ing year Quebec, the citadel of French 
military power in America also fell. The ex- 
pedition which left Portsmouth, Eng., in 
1749, to found the future city at Halifax, con- 
sisted of the sloop-of-war " Sphinx " and 
thirteen transports. It contained artizans to 
build the city, statesmen to govern it, sol- 
diers to protect it, tradesmen and profes- 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

sional men, school masters, and even actors 
a moving city the like of which the world 
has seldom seen, certainly never since. The 
colonists arrived at Halifax June 2ist, mid- 
summer, when nature was at her fairest. 
They feasted their eyes upon the virgin 
beauty of the Northwest Arm, which was the 
first locality to arrest their particular atten- 
tion, and it was so calm and inviting, the 
settlers concluded it must be a river. 

The Northwest Arm is about three miles 
long, and a quarter to three-quarters of a mile 
wide. About midway between the entrance 
and the head of the Arm projecting head- 
lands form what is called The Narrows, and 
divide the Arm into two large basins or lake- 
like expanses of much beauty. The distance 
acioss this contracted part cannot be above 
six hundred feet. On the outer end of the 
promontory from the western shore, which is 
responsible for the greater part of this reduc- 
tion in the span of the Arm, there has 
been commenced the erection of a lofty 
symbolical tower, to contain a museum of 
natural history and art gallery, intended to 
commemorate the establishment of represen- 
tative government at Halifax, 1758. At this 
location the tower will be visible throughout 
the length of the Arm, and to the Atlantic, 
and like the figure at Bedloe's Island, pro- 
claim to the world the rule of constitutional 
liberty. The assembly at Halifax is the 
oldest elective gathering in the present 
outward British Empire. The seed of popu- 



6 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

lar government, which was planted on Nova 
Scotia soil Oct. 2nd, 1758, has gradually spread 
to the ends of the King's overseas domin- 
ions. Thus in peace as in war, Halifax has 
played a prominent part, and is already his- 
toric ground, and many of the men identified 
with the momentous events which have been 
referred to were residents of the Northwest 
Arm. Hon. Joseph Howe was born there, 
and nearly three-quarters of a century after 
the convening of the early Nova Scotia 
Assembly, became the leader of a burning 
and successful agitation to make the press free 
and to. enlarge the scope of the authority of 
the representatives of the people by giving 
the province the boon of full responsible 
government. 

The origin of the name, Northwest Arm, 
is described. A copy of an old military map 
never before published, shows the number of 
buildings at the Arm in 1784, and is repro- 
duced here. 

Passing rapidly from history to aquatic 
sports, from golden sunsets to radiant 
moonlight scenes, narrating a strange elope- 
ment of a full blooded Indian with the fair 
daughter of a merchant and the flight and 
pursuit across the Northwest Arm which fol- 
lowed, reviving the almost forgotten tale of 
the festival of .St. Aspinquid which was annu- 
ally celebrated on the shores of the Arm, and 
recounting the legends of the lonely grave on 
Deadman's Island, this booklet strives to 
be different from a plain, matter-of-fact 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

iccord of ancient affairs, and has been de- 
nominated " Sketche's and Traditions of the 
Northwest Arm." 

Some of its most interesting chapters are 
probably those referring to the prominent 
men who have " passed this way." A glimpse 
at the annals of the Northwest Arm is almost 
equal to a peep into a hall of fame scientists, 
soldiers, 'statesmen, poets, orators, prelates, 
admirals, generals, captains of industry and 
kings of finance. The personal element, the 
strange play of human character is always 
fascinating, and here we have it in opulent 
variety and abundance. 

Joseph Howe, already referred to, one of 
the greatest orators of his time, born and 
reared at the Northwest Arm and gifted with 
prophetic vision, predicted that a transconti- 
nental railway would be built across the con- 
tinent and that a union of the British North 
American provinces would be brought about. 
Another intellectual giant, Sir Charles Tup- 
per, succeeded Howe in prominence and lived 
at the Northwest Arm and drank deeply of 
the inspiration of its beauty and associations. 
Long before Chamberlain awoke to con- 
sciousness that a globe-girdling Empire 
existed, and before he had galvanized the 
Colonial Office into life, antedating by many 
years the commencement of Rhodes' colossal 
work in South Africa, or the founding of the 
Commonwealth of Australia, Tupper at the 
far-away Northwest Arm was contemplating 
a confederacy, larger in territory than the 



8 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

scope of Napoleon's activities and greater in 
area than the United States of America. On 
July ist, 1867, the Dominion of Canada was 
born. The legislative union which Howe had 
foretold and Tupper and his contemporaries 
executed, was bound together with bands of 
steel by Sir Sandford Fleming, when he and 
his associates constructed the Canadian 
Pacific Railway from ocean to ocean. 

Howe, Tupper and Fleming! In addition 
to this trinity of stars there is a long array 
of illustrious names in the constellation of 
the Northwest Arm. They are included in 
The Roll Call in this sketch book. Imagine 
the Northwest Arm an immense valhalla and 
this volume a guide book such as the travel- 
ler is furnished with at the portals of West- 
minster Abbey or at the entrance of the Pan- 
theon, near Ratisbon. 

The best way to see the Northwest Arm 
is from the water, in a boat or canoe if you 
have time, but otherwise a motor boat is to 
be preferred. Make a start at Coburg Road, 
coast south as far as Point Pleasant Park, 
take a run off seaward if at all possible, then 
over to Purcell's Cove, and turning about, 
slowly skirt the western shore of the Arm up 
to Deadman's Island, into Melville Cove past 
the military prison, then round the head of 
the Arm and back along the upper eastern 
shore to the place of beginning. The circuit 
will prove to be one of the most interesting 
excursions in Halifax. 

The author offers his grateful thanks to 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

the many persons who very kindly furnished 
information for this book. He will be glad 
to receive further suggestions, corrections, 
additions or photographs relative to the 
Northwest Arm to incorporate in a probable 
future revised and enlarged edition. Particu- 
lar acknowledgment is due Mr. Harry Piers 
for assistance in referring to old maps and 
records, and the writer is under a special 
obligation to Mr. George Mullane, a discrimi- 
nating reader of colonial history, for much of 
the material in this volume. J. W. R. 

Halifax, Sept. 5th, 1908. 




THE NAMING OF NORTHWEST ARM. 




HEN the first settlers, after weeks of 
sorrowing and fasting in the desert 
of the ocean, sailed into bright Che- 
bucto Bay on June 2ist, 1749, they noticed an 
opening on their left, which they concluded 
was the mouth of a river. On the morning 
of that perfect day in mid-June, the sky all 
sunshine, the earth all verdure, they named 
the high promontory that ended the long 
ridge of the Northwest Arm, Sandwich, after 
a statesman who ruled in the councils of 
George II. These first settlers who had 
passed the Gulf of the Atlantic feasted their 
eyes on this beautiful winding river-like 
water and named it Sandwich River. It was 
the season of our climate when nature appears 
at her best. The steep hills were one mass 
of tangled greenery interspersed with the 
blossoms of the Indian pear and other wild 
fruits which grew among the dark pines and 
softer hues of birch and maple. The travel- 
ler is in a mood to be pleased after a long 
sea voyage, and fair indeed these pioneers 
deemed tne new land, which their children 
were " fondly to call their own." The Mic- 
macs had named this beautiful inlet of the 
ocean, Waegwoltic, or " end of the water " ; 
the aborigines admired its beauty and camped 



THE NAMING OP NORTHWEST ARM. 11 

above its wooded points and found abundant 
fish in its clear waters. 

The early settlers on the peninsula of 
Halifax were content to dwell on their allot- 
ments within the palisades of the town, not 
daring to venture beyond the protection of 
the blockhouses and the enclosures. Those 
who were rash enough to do so often suf- 
fered the penalty of their indiscretion with 
their lives as is recorded in the history of the 
settlement. The Micmac lay in ambush and 
watched from a concealed point for the un- 
wary, who ventured without an armed guard 
beyond the clearings which surrounded the 
pickets that enclosed the town. 

In searching the first allotment book 
which records the parcels of land set apart 
for the settlers of Halifax, we find only the 
lands on the harbor side of the peninsula 
alloted to the first settlers; these lands were 
comprised within the limits of the town and 
within the north and south suburbs. In the 
first book containing allotments there is no 
mention of grants to any persons at the 
Northwest Arm. It appears that the lands 
bordering on the Arm were not taken up 
until long after the treaty with the Indians 
in 1760. 

A military map dated 1751 shows the 
Northwest Arm labeled Hawke River. The 
names, Sandwich River and Hawke River, 
were probably never used except upon plans, 
because as early as 1752 in a grant of land to 
William Russell at Purcell's Cove, the name 



1'2 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Northwest Arm is used in the description. 
So far as known this is the first official docu- 
ment in which the name Northwest Arm 
appears. The early settlers had evidently 
soon convinced themselves that the lovely 
sheet of water on the west of the city was 
not a river, but an arm of the harbor. The 
Northwest Arm named itself. 




THE "PRYOR PROPERTY." 



property was conveyed by Attorney- 
General Uniacke June i6th, 1816, to 
William Pryor, for 587. It was a 
part of the original grant to Major General 
John Campbell, described as lots I, 2, 3, 4 
and 7, being part and parcel of a tract com- 
puted to contain 65 acres, being also a part 
of a division of letter G. in the middle divis- 
ion of five acre lots, and the whole of letter 
H. of the same division, which was granted 
to Major General Campbell. The Jones and 
Stairs properties known as Bloomingdale and 
Fairfield, together with the Morrow property, 
Bircham, Thornvale, the estate of T. E. Kenny, 
Esq., and the residences of E. P. Allison and 
D. M. Owen were all included in this allot- 
ment. Major General Campbell was com- 
mander-in-chief of the troops of the province 
in 1786. Akin, in his history of Halifax, 
states that on the loth of October, 1786, 
arrived His Majesty's ship " Pegasus," com- 
manded by His Royal Highness, Prince 
William Henry, afterwards King William 
IV. He was received at the king's slip by 
the governor and Major General Campbell, 
then in command of the garrison, and con- 
veyed to Government House. Campbell had 
been in command of the British troops on the 



14 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ABM. 

Penobscot, Maine during the revolutionary 
war. These properties in 1790 passed by pur- 
chase into the possession of Richard John 
Uniacke, sr., attorney-general of the province, 
and member of the old Council of Twelve. 
Lots 8, 9 and 10 were purchased from Stephen 
Hall Binney in 1833, 

William Pryor, of William Pryor & Sons, 
was a prominent West India merchant. He 
was the son of John Pryor, also a merchant 
and a representative of the County of Hali- 
fax in the Provincial Assembly. The family 
were enterprising and successful traders 
for over a century. Their fleet of brigs were 
famous as fast sailers. In April, 1793, official 
notification was received in Halifax that the 
French Republic had declared war against 
Great Britain on February ist of that year. 
In accordance with instructions from Eng- 
land, Sir John Wentworth announced that 
letters of marque or commission for priva- 
teers would be granted in the usual manner. 
The French lost no time in sending ships to 
cruise along our coast in search of captures 
for hard on the declaration of war came re- 
ports of privateers and frigates cruising in 
the Bay of Fundy and on the coast. Several 
Halifax and Liverpool (N. S.) ships were 
taken by the enemy and the captains and 
crews suffered imprisonment in the horrible 
prisons of the French West Indies. Among 
the number of those confined in Gaudeloupe, 
were Captains William Pryor, Jacobs and 
Lloyd. In 1800 several privateers had been 



THE "PRYOR PROPERTY." 15 

fitted out by merchants of the town and the 
captures of French vessels were frequent. 
Among the captures from the enemy at that 
time the most remarkable was that of two 
prizes, one French and the other Danish, 
brought in by Capt. William Pryor in com- 
mand of the privateer Nymph. 

John Stayner also conveyed to William 
Pryor several lots of land bounded northerly 
by a road leading to the Northwest Arm, 
easterly by lots of William Pryor and Nicho- 
las Thomas Hill, southerly by a stone wall 
and westerly by the waters of the Northwest 
Arm, containing lots No. 5, 6, II, 12, for- 
merly owned by Robt. Lyon. Robt. Lyon's 
name appears 2Oth of July, 1811, among a 
number of merchants who petitioned the 
governor respecting the state of trade, etc., 
stating that they were agreed to take gold 
and silver coins at the following values, viz,: 
a Guinea, i 33. 4d. ; Doubloon, 3 173. 6d. ; 
and Eagle, 2 los. ; and old French Guinea, 
i 2s. William and Robert Lyon were dry 
goods merchants and their advertisements 
appear in the old Halifax newspapers. 

John Stayner was a merchant and an an- 
cestor of C. A. Stayner, City Club, Halifax. 
Stayner's wharf, north of the Ferry Slip on 
Upper Water Street, was owned by him. In 
1818 John Stayner is mentioned as having 
commenced to erect a building known as 
Brookside, on the western side of Spring 
Garden Road, near South Park Street, now 
known as the Dwyer property. 



16 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Coburg Road, according to Rev. Dr. Geo. 
Hill in his paper on the naming of streets, 
received this name from the property owned 
by the late William Pryor on the borders of 
the Arm. Pryor married Miss Barbara Foss, 
a German lady, whose father was landed on 
George's Island when it was covered with 
spruce, fir and pine, and he naturally paid 
her a compliment by calling the street Co- 
burg, after Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, 
who at that time was married to the charm- 
ing Princess Charlotte, daughter of George 
IV and the unfortunate Caroline, who died 
young and was sincerely mourned by the 
whole British nation. The cottage on the 
south side of Coburg Road now owned by 
Mr. Arundell, was once called Coburg House, 
being the Pryor residence. The fields adjoin- 
ing were known as Coburg House fields. 

Richard Clay, by deed of indenture, con- 
veyed lot No. 6, August 20th, 1818, to Wil- 
liam Pryor for 600. About the same time 
William Pryor received from the crown a 
grant of a water lot extending 150 feet into 
the Arm. This water lot included the foot 
of Coburg Road where Marr's Ferry is 
located, and a search in the registry of deeds 
has failed to disclose any record of a convey- 
ance of this water lot from the Pryor estate 
to the corporation of the City of Halifax. On 
January 25th, 1859, William Pryor devised, 
subject to debts of William Pryor & Sons 
and the legacies mentioned in the will, all his 
real and personal estate to sons, William, 



THE "PRYOR PROPERTY." 17 

George and James, who were also his execu- 
tors. They conveyed to Thomas L. Connolly, 
Archbishop of Halifax, Thornvale, now the 
property of T. E. Kenny, for $4,400, also a 
right of way from Coburg Road, which at 
first was considerably further down the hill 
than where the present right of way is 
located. This deed also conveyed the water 
lot opposite Thornvale. In 1867, for the sum 
of $6,000, the same parties conveyed to Thos. 
L. Connolly the land enclosing the field 
known as Coburg House Field. 

Robert Morrow then received a convey- 
ance of part of the land now comprised in 
Birchdale. By deed, April 27th, 1869, Arthur 
Ansell Boggs for $900 conveyed to Robert 
Morrow the balance of the property now 
known as Birchdale. Robert Morrow was a 
member of the well-known firm of William 
Stairs, Son & Morrow, and after his death 
his property passed into the hands of his 
son and then to the present owner, Fred. W. 
Bowes. 

Richard John Uniacke to whom Major- 
General Campbell's lands passed, was a 
striking and picturesque figure, and there 
was, says Senator Power, about his career 
a halo of romance. His first connection with 
the province of Nova Scotia came through 
Mr. Moses Delesdernier, a native of the Can- 
ton of Geneva, in Switzerland, but for many 
years a resident of this province his monu- 
ment may be seen in St. Paul's cemetery. In 
1774, Delesdernier went to Philadelphia to 



18 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

look for settlers to place upon land near Fort 
Cumberland, owned by himself and certain 
associates. One day, so tradition runs, while 
at the Delaware River side he noticed among 
those landing from a vessel which had just 
arrived from the West Indies, a tall athletic 
young man with a lively aspect and a:: elastic 
tread, whose dress and bearing were very 
unlike those of the ordinary immigrant. 
Struck with his appearance he accosted the 
young gentleman, asked him where he came 
from and was told that he was from the West 
Indies, and originally from Ireland. As to a 
further question as to his motive for coming 
to North America he said he left Ireland to 
seek his fortune. Finding there was nothing 
to be done in the island to which he had 
gone, he had come to see if there were better 
prospects on the mainland. Being asked what 
kind of work he would be prepared to do, 
young Uniacke, for he was the newly landed 
immigrant, replied that he was ready to do 
anything. Mr. Delesdernier, who had been 
interested in the youth at his first sight, there- 
upon employed him for the purpose of going 
to the Cumberland settlement and acting as 
a kind of clerk or superintendent for the pro- 
prietors. This he accordingly did. 

In the second volume of Burke's " Landed 
Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland," the 
lineage of Richard John Uniacke may be 
traced. He was the fourth son of Norman 
Uniacke of Castletown Roche in the county 
of Cork. Norman Fitzgerald Uniacke of 



THE "PRYOR PROPERTY." 19 

Castletown was a third son of James Fitz- 
gerald Uniacke, of Mt. Uniacke, Ireland, who 
commanded a troop of cavalry for William 
of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne and 
whose military service is said to have been of 
material benefit to the Mount Uniacke branch 
of the family. 

It would appear that young Uniacke re- 
mained at Cumberland with his employer 
from 1774 until the end of 1776. In May, 
1775, he was married to the daughter of his 
employer. The groom was then 21 and the 
bride had not attained 13 years. In the lat- 
ter part of 1776, Jonathan Eddy and other 
sympathizers with the revolted colonies laid 
seige to Fort Cumberland, but the fort hav- 
ing been reinforced by 200 marines under 
Major Batt, the undertaking was abandoned 
on November 28th and the rebels dispersed. 
Among those arrested on suspicion of being 
implicated in the rebellion and brought pris- 
oner to Halifax, was Richard John Uniacke. 
Senator Power states that the sergeant of the 
guard charged with the duty of bringing the 
prisoners to the capital was an Irishman 
named Lawlor; that young Uniacke appealed 
to his fellow countryman to take the hand- 
cuffs off him pledging his honor at the same 
time to make no attempt to escape and that 
the sergeant granted his request. Lawlor 
afterwards left the army and settled back of 
Dartmouth. He was a Roman Catholic and 
made it a rule to come to Halifax every 
spring to make his Easter communion. After 



20 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Uniacke's admission to the Bar, when he was 
one of the leading men of the place he did not 
forget the comparatively humble man who 
had befriended him in the days of his distress, 
but always insisted that during these Easter 
visits Lawlor should make a home of his 
house. There is some mystery, says his bio- 
grapher, as to young Uniacke's life from 1776 
until the spring of 1781. 

Of the prisoners brought to Halifax 
charged with being concerned in Eddy's re- 
bellion, Dr. Clarke and Thomas Falconer 
were tried April i8th and iQth, 1777, respect- 
ively, and found guilty, but pleaded the 
King's pardon before sentence and were re- 
spited. James Avery escaped jail. Uniacke, 
who had apparently promised to give evi- 
dence on behalf of the crown, failed to do so 
or to appear in court. It is supposed that 
some prominent Irishmen, of whom there 
were a number in Halifax at the time, and 
some of the officers of the garrison who knew 
Uniacke's family in Ireland, used their influ- 
ence to prevent his suffering from what might 
reasonably be looked at as a youthful escap- 
ade. The only evidence against Uniacke is 
contained in the deposition of William Mil- 
burn, and it is not altogether conclusive as to 
his guilt. Milburn swears that on or about 
the nth November, 1776, being sent a mes- 
sage by Colonel Goreham commanding " ye 
garrison at Fort Cumberland to a place 
called No. I to one Mr. Smith, which having 
delivered and the next morning being about 



THE 



21 



to return to the garrison, one Richard John 
Uniacke, who liveth at No. I, aforesaid, said 
that he must go along with said Smith to the 
rebel camp, which the deponent at first re- 
fused, but said Uniacke insisted he must go, 
otherwise the rebel sentries would carry him 
there by force, and that Colonel Eddy, as he 
called him, of the rebels, would never forgive 
him if he would not go to him." 

This ends the episode connected with the 
arrest for rebellion. We find that a few years 
after this event Uniacke had left Halifax for 
Ireland and entered on the study of law. He 
was admitted to the Bar at Dublin and re- 
turned to Halifax and became Attorney- 
General of Nova Scotia. His son, Richard 
John Uniacke, jr., who afterwards was a 
judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 
was one of the principals in the only instance 
of a fatal duel in Halifax. His opponent was 
William Bowie, a merchant. The place of 
combat was at the Grove, Richmond. The 
men met Wednesday, July 2ist, 1819, as a 
result of some remarks made by Uniacke in 
the course of a trial in which Bowie was in- 
terested. Bowie fell mortally wounded and 
died the same day, aged 37 years, and a monu- 
ment to him will be found in St. Paul's. The 
survivor of the duel and the two seconds were 
tried Wednesday, April 2ist, 1820, and were 
acquitted. It was said that the duel was not 
of young Uniacke's seeking, but the murder- 
ous code of honor of that day left no alterna- 
tive for him than to accept the challenge. 



THE WAEGWOLTIC. 

OVERED with glorious old trees, this 
large property fronting 470 feet on 
the eastern shore of the Arm, imme- 
diately on the north side of Coburg Road, 
has been a scene of many brilliant functions, 
having been the residence for nearly half a 
century of the late Hon. A. G. Jones, Gover- 
nor of Nova Scotia, a gentleman of the old 
school, a man of integrity and popularity, a 
scholar and a splendid entertainer. Origin- 
ally the property included " Fairfield," which 
Mr. Jones sold to John Stairs, together with 
a right of way to Coburg Road and the 
boundary of the estate also embraced the 
field east of the right of way, now owned by 
T. H. Francis, who is erecting a hand- 
some residence. Hon. Mr. Jones bought 
" Bloomingdale," a name he himself conferred 
on the property, from William Pryor, who 
acquired it from Richard Uniacke, being part 
of the grant to Major-General John Campbell. 
Hon. A. G. Jones was a native of Digby 
county, of loyalist stock, and amassed a for- 
tune in the West India business at Halifax. 
The firm of A. G. Jones & Co. were also 
agents for the Dominion and other steamship 
lines. The writer remembers with great 
pleasure, the uniform courtesy experienced in 



THE WAEGWOLTIC. 23 

calling at Mr. Jones' office in gathering ship- 
ping intelligence for the Halifax press. On 
one occasion this courteous and successful 
merchant told how he had labored in private 
to acquire a fluent knowledge of the Spanish 
tongue, an accomplishment which was of 
great use to him in his intercourse with the 
West Indies, and he always contended that a 
knowledge of Spanish should be as general 
as possible in Nova Scotia to better enable 
our business men to get a full share of the 
extensive trade of Spanish America. 

Mr. Jones was an able platform speaker 
and several times represented Halifax county 
in the Dominion Parliament. He was Min- 
ister of Militia in the first Liberal cabinet, and 
in his declining years it was a fitting act that 
this man of high ideals should be called to 
the post of Lieutenant-Governor of his native 
province, a position which he filled with dig- 
nity and capacity in keeping with the records 
of the long line of illustrious men who had 
been his predecessors in that high office. Like 
Mr. Howe, Mr. Jones died in Government 
House. He had not lived at his Arm resi- 
dence for several years, except occasionally 
in summer, one of these occasions being the 
entertainment of Lord Minto, Governor-Gen- 
eral of Canada. Hon. Mr. Jones took delight 
in trees, and the grove which he developed 
at his Arm property comprised cedar, syca- 
more, larch, oak, lime, Norwegian spruce, 
mountain ash, and other varieties and is 
accounted one of the finest in Nova Scotia. 



24 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

There are several ash trees on the property 
which were transferred from St. Paul's 
square, forty years ago. Mr. Jones' fancy 
ran to evergreens. He thus had foliage the 
year round, and at many functions at the 
Arm, evergreen branches from his own 
grounds were the central feature of the table 
decorations. Miss Alice Jones, daughter of 
Hon. A. G. Jones, is a well known Canadian 
novelist. A son, Colonel Carleton Jones, 
is Director General of the Canadian Military 
Medical Service. Another son, W. G. Jones, 
is Spanish consul at Halifax, and a third, 
A. E. Jones, is a director of the Union 
Bank. The latter was recently appointed by 
the Canadian Government a special commis- 
sioner to attend a conference of representa- 
tives of the British West Indies to consider 
tariff reciprocity with the Dominon. W. G. 
Jones first succeeded Manuel DeZea as Span- 
ish consul. Senor DeZea was a popular tenor 
singer in Halifax. He died in Guayaquil. 
After a couple of years, Senor Lluch De Diaz 
came out from Spain and took over the post 
which in those days covered business with 
Cuba and Porto Rico, former rich dependen- 
cies of the Spanish crown. De Diaz remained 
here two years and Mr. Jones became consul 
again. 

The property was purchased from the 
Jones' estate by F. W. Bowes, who trans- 
ferred it to the present owners. " The Waeg- 
woltic " is a unique combination of country 
and boating club organized this year, and has 



THE WAEGWOLTIC. 25 

been greeted with unusual favor by the pub- 
lic of Halifax, the membership now being 
nearly 350, representing the business and 
professional life of the city, and making the 
club one of the strongest in the Maritime 
Provinces. The Waegwoltic is a mixed insti- 
tution, having both lady and gentlemen mem- 
bers. Families of members are associates. 
Ladies and gentlemen are placed on an equal 
footing and the privileges of membership are 
open to both alike and freely taken advantage 
of by both sexes. A handsome boathouse was 
erected to accommodate 220 craft. The resi- 
dence required only a few changes for a most 
comfortable club house. Tennis, quoits and 
billiards have been introduced, and skating, 
bowling and tobogganing will be fostered in 
winter. The club also plans up-to-date bath- 
ing facilities, motor boathouse, and large ball 
room and restaurant, and is giving special 
attention to out-door entertainment, includ- 
ing open air theatricals. The present Lieut.- 
Governor, Hon. D. C. Fraser, is an honorary 
member of the club. At the opening exer- 
cises, May 24th, at which the Halifax and 
Dartmouth City Councils and nearly every 
club of the two towns were represented. 
Governor Fraser declared that the establish- 
ment of this club, and of other boating clubs 
on the Arm, pointed to the new interest 
which the people of Halifax were taking in 
open air recreation, and he said there was no 
question the Northwest Arm was one of the 
most beautiful spots in the world. The 
2 



U SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

directors of Bloomingdale Limited, the incor- 
porated name of The Waegwoltic organiza- 
tion, are: John W. Regan (President), W. 
S. Davidson (Vice-President), George H. 
Parsons (Secretary), F. W. Bowes, Frank 
Colwell, G. A. Burbidge and C. J. Silliker. 
C. N. S. Strickland is Treasurer; J. H. Trefry 
is assistant secretary and assistant treasurer. 
In most cases a club is a separate organization 
from the company holding the real estate, 
but so far that plan has not been followed 
here, as the stockholders are the members, 
the purchase of stock being the condition pre- 
cedent to joining the club, which is thus 
managed directly by the board of directors. 
A close and most effective organization 
has been established by dividing the work 
of the club between seven committees 
appointed by the executive from the general 
body of members, and linking these com- 
mittees to the board of directors by decree- 
ing that the chairman of each committee shall 
be a member of the directorate. The word 
Waegwoltic, is the name the Micmacs gave 
the Northwest Arm. This club has been 
visited by a great many tourists and affords 
strangers an excellent place from which to 
see and enjoy the beauties of the far famed 
Northwest Arm. Visitors to the property 
have to be provided with guest cards. These 
are freely accorded on application and recom- 
mendation of a member, but for a limited 
period and to a restricted number of guests. 
The club aims to help to attract to Halifax 



THE WAEQWOLTIC. 27 

a desirable class of tourists and other visitors 
and thereby advertise and build up the city. 
A non-resident membership is established for 
persons visiting Halifax occasionally. Full 
membership may soon be difficult to obtain, 
the list being fairly large now. In winter the 
club will be useful to citizens who are mem- 
bers as a pleasant place to have skating or 
card parties and dancing. Musical concerts 
and smokers promise to be very attractive. 




ST. MARY'S A. A. AND AQUATIC CLUB. 

SHIS racing organization has sent more 
representatives abroad than any other 
rowing club in the Maritime Provinces. 
1+ has been twelve years in existence and was 
formerly located on the harbour, with head- 
quarters for a time at Power's Wharf, and 
later at Butler's Spar Yard. Then the club 
moved to the Northwest Arm, and located 
on the Cunard property, where the H. A. B. C. 
boathouse now stands. Forced to leave here, 
St. Mary's found a friend in the late Geoffrey 
Morrow, who generously allowed the club, 
for a nominal rental, to build a boathouse for 
shells on his property at the foot of Coburg 
Road. The amount of the rental was always 
returned to the club by Mr. Morrow as his 
contribution. The purchaser of the Morrow 
property, F. W. Bowes, has continued this 
liberal arrangement. The club does not fur- 
nish accommodation for pleasure boats, being 
a purely amateur racing organization. Mem- 
bers, of whom there are one hundred at pres- 
ent, must be connected with St. Mary's C. T. 
A. & B. S. The club was never more vigor- 
ous than at the present time. St. Mary's was 
the first club to introduce the four-oared shell, 
local rowing prior to that event having been 
performed in lapstreak boats. This enterpris- 
ing association has held the Maritime Prov- 
(28) 



ST. MARY'S A. A. AND AQUATIC CLUB. 29 

ince rowing championship several times. Its 
representatives have competed in the Na- 
tional Regatta at Philadelphia, Worcester and 
Springfield for the Championship of America. 
John O'Neil, the club's single sculler, won 
the association singles at Springfield this 
year, and has rowed at other American 
gatherings. St. Mary's four also won the 
four-oared race at Springfield this year. St. 
Mary's club was represented at the Olympic 
trials this year at St. Catharine's, Ont, and 
its members have competed at St. John, 
Sydney and other maritime points. Through 
the efforts of St. Mary's club in sending 
crews abroad, valuable advertising has been 
obtained for this city. In some cases, Boston 
and other metropolitan daily papers have de- 
voted columns of letterpress and illustrations 
to the visits of St. Mary's representatives. 
J. L. Gowen is president of the club. 




BIRCHDALE. 



IRCHDALE, on the southern side of 
Coburg Road and fronting on the 
Arm, is a property of ten acres adjoin- 
ing the north of Thornvale, property of the 
late T. E, Kenny, and dividing with the 
latter property the block between Coburg 
Road and South Street. This property is 
now owned by F. W. Bowes, a director of 
the Carleton House, who bought it two years 
ago to make the experiment in conducting 
what had been long talked of in Halifax a 
summer hotel. The venture was successful 
from the start and this year a modern wing 
containing about thirty rooms was added to 
the south of the old residence. A correspond- 
ing wing is proposed to be added to the north 
side, and plans are being prepared for the 
erection of a large independent building con- 
taining over two hundred rooms, with salt 
water baths, etc. Mr. Bowes was news editor 
of the Halifax " Chronicle " for a number of 
years, and afterwards editor of the " Echo," 
and correspondent for leading English and 
American dailies. His father founded the 
Sackville " Borderer " over half a century 
ago, and this paper is now the Moncton 
" Daily Transcript." Mr. Bowes worked in 
his father's office for years before he came to 
Halifax to engage in journalism here. 
(30) 



BIRCHDALB. 31 

Birchdale was formerly the property of 
Robert Morrow of the century old firm of 
William Stairs, Son & Morrow. The father 
of the late Robert Morrow was an English- 
man and came to Halifax at the age of eigh- 
teen years, being engaged at Liverpool as a 
clerk for James Bain, a prominent Halifax 
merchant. John Duffus, an ancestor of the 
present Duffus family, was a fellow clerk and 
through him Morrow became acquainted with 
his friend's sister and married her. Sir 
Samuel Cunard married another sister. Mr. 
Morrow, sr., sometime afterwards became 
head clerk in his brother-in-law's (Cunard) 
office, where he remained until he was ap- 
pointed United States Consul at this port, the 
first to hold that appointment in Nova Scotia. 

In 1854, Robert Morrow, the owner of 
Birchdale, married Helen, daughter of Wil- 
liam Stairs, the founder of the firm of that 
name, and became a partner in the business, 
taking the place of John Stairs, who retired 
to engage in business for himself. The senior 
Morrow was greatly interested in the study 
of geology, shells and corals, and was in ad- 
vance of his age in Halifax in this respect, 
as such studies were considered eccentric 
and of doubtful utility to one engaged in 
mercantile affairs. He also disclosed con- 
siderable skill in poetical composition and 
when a youth won a prize while he was 
attached to a newspaper in Liverpool, Eng- 
land. His son, Robert Morrow, was fond of 
natural history. When the latter acquired the 



SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Birchdale property at the Arm he expended a 
large amount of money in improving it, and 
in the basement of the residence which he 
erected, he had a small aquarium installed 
for studying the habits of fish, samples of 
which he regularly received from fishermen 
around the coast. He had a laboratory and 
wrote several papers on scientific matters 
connected with his favorite study of marine 
biology. Built at a time when labor and 
material were cheap compared with present 
day prices, the residence which Mr. Morrow 
established on the Arm was one of the 
finest of all the beautiful homes which rich 
men and gentlemen of refined taste built on 
the slopes of the Arm. The property was 
called Bircham on account of the great num- 
ber of Scottish silver birch trees imported 
and planted on the property. There are other 
varieties of imported trees. An account of 
the expenditure on this property shows that 
it cost the Morrow estate between $50,000 
and $75,000. The late Geoffrey Morrow, also 
of the firm of Stairs, Son & Morrow, Ltd., 
received the property from his father and re- 
sided there for some time. This property is 
beautifully situated on the upper portion of 
the Arm, which here expands into a large 
basin, and from its terraced slopes there is 
afforded a wide view of water, hill and forest. 
The hotel is a resort of many summer tour- 
ists and city people patronize it the year 
round on account of the charms and accessi- 
bility of its situation. The builder of 



BIRCHDALE. 



33 



Bircham, Robert Morrow, read two papers 
before the old Literary and Historical So- 
ciety of Halifax in 1865, relating to Green- 
land and Vinland, which secured his election 
as a member of the Copenhagen Society of 
Northern Antiquarians. 




THORNVALE. 

C??HORNVALE, which was a part of the 
() estate of late William Pryor, is one 
of the finest and most highly improved 
properties on the shores of the Northwest 
Arm. It fronts on South Street and is also 
reached by a right-of-way from Coburg Road, 
the latter method of communication is used 
almost exclusively. Coburg Road being well 
graded, and being the continuation of beauti- 
ful Spring Garden Road, is the most conveni- 
ent and agreeable way to reach the Arm from 
the city, and it is intended to widen it 
throughout. Thornvale was formerly the 
rural retreat of that able prelate, Thomas L. 
Connolly, Archbishop of Halifax, a warm- 
hearted and hospitable Irishman who identi- 
fied himself with the best interests of city 
and Dominion. He wielded a trenchant pen 
and was a powerful advocate of the con- 
federation of the North American provinces 
and thereby helped to bring about the act of 
1867, the corner stone of the present Domin- 
ion of Canada. Archbishop Connolly suc- 
ceeded the Right Rev. William Walsh, who 
was the first Archbishop of the diocese, in 
1858. The former resided at Thornvale for 
several years. The Archbishop afterwards 
sold this property to the late T. E. Kenny, 
son of Sir Edward Kenny, whose estate 
now includes Thornvale, and he himself 
purchased another property further up the 

(54) 



THORNVALE. 35 

Arm on the road to the Dutch Village. 
This is still owned by the Roman Catholic 
corporation. T. E. Kenny was for a number 
of years a member of the mercantile house of 
T. & E. Kenny, having a branch in London, 
and extensively interested in foreign ship- 
ping. Mr. Kenny represented Halifax County 
in the House of Commons for several terms. 
He was identified with the Cotton Factory, 
Sugar Refinery, and various industrial enter- 
prises, but was best known in banking and 
commercial circles as President of the Royal 
Bank of Canada, formerly the Merchants' 
Bank of Halifax, an institution with very 
large resources and operating branches from 
coast to coast in Canada, and others in some 
of the principal cities of the United States, 
Cuba and the West Indies. It is no secret 
that while a member of the House of Com- 
mons, Mr. Kenny's advice on financial mat- 
ters was prized by the Prime Minister, Sir 
John A. Macdonald, and the Halifax repre- 
sentative was more than once pressed to enter 
the Dominion cabinet. The Kenny family is 
intimately connected with another well-known 
family the Henrys who have contributed 
two members to the judiciary, one to 
the bench of the Supreme Court of Nova 
Scotia and one to the bench of the Supreme 
Court of Canada. W. A. Henry, the first 
judge, was a half brother of Lady Kenny, 
wife of Sir Edward Kenny. The late Lady 
Daly, wife of Sir Malachy B. Daly, former 
governor of Nova Scotia, was a sister of T. E. 



36 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Kenny. Thornvale covers a point of land 
which juts out into the waters of the Arm 
and commands a variable view of the Arm 
north and south. The present house was 
erected about the same time as most of the 
neighboring residences; the old building 
which it replaced was removed in sections 
and re-erected back off Coburg Road, near 
the new residence of H M. Pride. The name 
of the property related to a thorn hedge which 
formerly bordered the water front. It was 
bestowed by Archbishop Connolly. Among 
others who have been entertained at Thorn- 
vale by T. E. Kenny was Sir John A. Mac- 
donald. E. G. Kenny, son of T. E. Kenny, 
is colonel of 66th P. L. Fusiliers, Halifax. A 
brother, George Kenny, is a captain of the 
Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers at Malta. Other 
brothers of E. G. Kenny are J. B. Kenny, a 
member of the leading Halifax law firm, 
Mclnnes, Hellish, Fulton & Kenny ; Louis 
Kenny, of Pembroke, Out., and Patrick 
Kenny, a student at the conservatory of music 
at Munich. The daughters of the late T. E. 
Kenny are Mrs. George Primrose, wife of 
Rear-Admiral George Ansen Primrose, East- 
bourne, Eng. ; Mrs. George Will, wife of 
Colonel George Will, R. A., Aberdeen, 
Scotland; Mrs. George Weston, wife of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Weston, R. A. 
M. C, Prospect, Bermuda, and Mrs. Joseph 
R. Bridson, wife of Captain J. R. Bridson, 
R. N., Portsmouth, Eng. 



N. W. A. R. C. AND H. A. B. C. 

(T the foot of South Street is Robinson's 
Ferry. Nearby are the fine premises 
of two large boat clubs Northwest 
Arm Rowing Club and Halifax Amateur 
Boating Club. Citizens point to these 
organizations, particularly the former, with 
gratitude for their share in " discovering " 
the Northwest Arm. It seems almost incred- 
ible that ten years ago, outside of boats be- 
longing to the handful of people who con- 
trolled the land on the waterfront of the Arm, 
there were less than fifty pleasure craft on 
this unrivalled sheet of water distant only a 
mile and a half from the City Hall. 
Strange as that seems now, it was neverthe- 
less true a decade ago. The proprietor of a 
property located in the vicinity of the boat 
clubs, which we are discussing, has told the 
writer he could recognize nearly every boat 
that came around his point as belonging 
to one of his neighbors. To do that at the 
present time, with fifteen hundred summer 
craft gliding about the Arm, one would re- 
quire to have a memory like a city directory. 
The people of Halifax, as a whole, for- 
merly knew little more about the Northwest 
Arm than that the city being built on a 
peninsula there must be salt w r ater on the 
(37) 



38 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

western side. Witness the change. Regattas 
on the Arm are regularly attended by thou- 
sands of spectators, and aquatic illumina- 
tions by tens of thousands. Visitors to Hali- 
fax bear away praises of the beauty of the 
Northwest Arm to distant lands, and citizens 
proudly declare the Arm is worth more to 
Halifax than millions of money. The exten- 
sion of the street railway, electric lighting, 
and telephone systems helped to perform the 
miracle, and various circumstances conspired 
to enable the public to get a foothold on the 
exclusive ground surrounding the Arm which 
had been parcelled out in large estates from 
earliest times and remained in the possession 
of a few families. 

Of the two clubs mentioned above, the 
nearer to South Street, the N. W. A. R. C, 
is the older and is the pioneer boating club 
on the Arm. The founders, perhaps a dozen 
strong, met in the Church of England Insti- 
tute May 23rd, 1899, to form a boat club at 
the Northwest Arm. It was decided at the 
meeting to go ahead with the proposal. R. T. 
Macllreith was elected chairman and W. B. 
MacCoy, secretary. The promoters had can- 
vassed the matter to some extent in advance 
of the meeting, and had concluded to make a 
start in a very limited way, but they had no 
vision of the extent of Arm boating in 1908. 
They were pathfinders. A small boatshed 
was erected. The movement met with instant 
favor. Before the end of the first summer 
season a large wing was added at one end 



N. W, A. R. C. AND H. A. B. C. 39 

of the original modest building. This latter 
is the centre of the club's present handsome 
boat house. Still other persons applied for 
membership and for boat and canoe accom- 
modation, and a second and corresponding 
wing was attached to the opposite end of the 
boathouse. Later on the second story was 
added with observation roof, committee room, 
dance hall, etc. Every year minor improve- 
ments are made in connection with the build- 
ing, the floats, electric illuminating conveni- 
ences, etc. The club owns a shed for hous- 
ing racing shells on the opposite shore of the 
Arm on R. T. Macllreith's property. The 
boathouse is outlined in colored incandescent 
lamps and in this respect the club is ahead of 
other Arm clubs. The Northwest Arm Row- 
ing Club initiated band concerts at the Arm, 
and has taken up amateur shell racing 
strongly and has been well represented in 
local regattas. The club was incorporated 
in 1900 and held its first annual meeting 
April 3rd of that year. The officers elected 
were: President, R. T. Macllreith; Vice- 
President, W. L. Payzant; 2nd Vice-Presi- 
dent, G. C. Hart; Treasurer, J. A. Clark; 
Secretary, W. B. MacCoy ; Executive, H. B. 
Clarke, George Fluck, J. L. Gowen, S. S. 
Wetmore, George Tracey. The officers for 
1908, are: President, A. D. Johnstone ; Vice- 
President, W. J. Butler; 2nd Vice-President, 
John Jenny; Treasurer, C. W. Blethen ; Sec- 
retary, Wm. Crowe ; Executive, W. B. Mac- 
Coy, R. T. Macllreith, James Turner, W. B. 



40 8KETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ABM. 

Hopgood, F. R. Hart. There are 198 berths 
in the boathouse. All are occupied. The 
membership of the club is about 275. The 
club has been a success financially as well as 
other ways. Besides erecting and equipping 
the boathouse and making miscellaneous 
expenditures, a piece of land on the water- 
front immediately south of the boathouse 
was purchased and is owned by the club in 
fee-simple. All this has been done out of 
revenue entirely, showing the good manage- 
ment with which the organization has been 
blessed. The land on which the boathouse 
stands was leased from T. E. Kenny for ten 
years, when the lease may be renewed for a 
similar period, or the club can buy the site 
outright at a figure to be assessed by inde- 
pendent arbitrators not to include improve- 
ments. At the falling in of the lease next 
year it is safe to expect that the club will 
exercise its option of purchase. 

The establishment of the Halifax Ama- 
teur Boating Club in 1904 was a development 
of the interest in Arm boating which had 
been engendered by the success of the older 
club, just as the boating movement at the 
Northwest Arm culminated in 1908 in the 
organization of The Waegwoltic on the broad 
lines of a social and recreation club combined 
with boating facilities. The formation of the 
second club strengthened the first club by 
increasing the public support of a new pro- 
ceeding, and it is eloquent testimony of the 
deep-rooted popularity of the Northwest 




SCENES AT THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

(1) Waegwoltic ground* and clubhouse. (2) Formal opening 
of The Waegwoltic, May 24, 1908. (3) Tennis at The Waegwoltic. 



N. W. A. R. C. AND H. A. B. C. 41 

Arm with the people of Halifax that the 
third club has obtained three hundred and 
fifty members in one season, the great 
majority of this number being recruits to the 
ranks of the Northwest Arm devotees. The 
story of the progress of the H. A. B. C. is a 
repetition of the success of the N. W. A. R. C. 
in the matter of volume of applications for 
membership and the necessity for enlarging 
the boathouse to provide additional accom- 
modation for boats and canoes. The H. A. 
B. C. boathouse, when first erected, con- 
tained berths for about one hundred and 
seventy-five craft. The building was later 
extended and now has a capacity fully one 
hundred more than its original large number 
and is therefore the largest boathouse on the 
Northwest Arm. It stands on part of Oak- 
lands property. The members of the H. A. 
B. C. have taken an active part in aquatics 
and illuminations at the Northwest Arm, and 
for several years joined with their neighbors, 
the N. W. A. Rowing Club in a series of 
band concerts during summer months. This 
year The Waegwoltic was admitted to the 
musical partnership and each of the three 
clubs gave the public two concerts. The first 
officers of the Halifax Amateur Boating Club 
were : President, A. M. Bauld ; Vice-Presi- 
President, A. A. Haliburton; Treasurer, J. F. 
Barry ; Recording Secretary, J. A. Irwin ; 
Executive, Dr. F. Woodbury, G. H. Parsons, 
W. B. Rankin, O. M. Hill, R. B. Huestis, 
T. S. Bowser, H. W. Dobey, Alex. McKenzie, 



42 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

t 

J. S. Jost, Samuel Fenn, J. L. Putnam and 
J. H. Winfield. The officers for 1908 are as 
follows : President, A. A. Haliburton ; Vice- 
President, J. E. Burns ; Treasurer, J. F. 
Barry ; Secretary, R. J. Anderson ; Executive 
Committee, Fred Gregoire ; Gordon Isnor, J. 
D. Walsh, G. M. Wood, T. S. Bowser, G. D. 
Wallace, H. F. Bethel, Oswald DeYoung, H. 
D. Brunt, Charles Collins, F. A. Palmer, 
A. M. Bauld. 




GARLANDS. 

AKLANDS, a splendid property com- 
prising about forty acres with magnifi- 
cent brick residence, conservatory, 
vinery, green house, stable and barns, boating 
and bathing houses, cottage, etc., occupies 
over two thousand feet on the water front of 
the Northwest Arm, and runs back from the 
eastern shore of the Arm about three 
thousand five hundred feet. The principal 
entrance to the estate is at the iron gates on 
Robie street, where its lodge is located. From 
here the main drive or approach to the resi- 
dence forms a curving avenue a half mile in 
length, arched with oak, birch, pine, beech, 
maple, hawthorn, poplar and many other 
varieties of trees and shrubs. The residence 
is situated nine hundred feet from the water 
front, and placed on a beautiful terrace. As at 
present comprised, Oaklands is made up of 
several parcels of land. The largest division 
of twenty-four acres, which includes four 
acres of water lot, was originally owned by 
William Taylor, under grant from the Crown, 
October 28, 1786. He conveyed it to his 
granddaughter, Mary E. Brenton, in 1802, 
who sold it to Richard Tremain, in 1815, the 
year of " Waterloo." The next year Mr. Tre- 
main acquired additional land from John 
Howe, jr. This latter portion was a section 
(43) 



44 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

of the old commissioner's farm, or Belmont, 
the property of Hon. Henry Duncan, member 
of the old " Council of 12," and Dockyard 
Commissioner at Halifax, during the active 
period in naval and military affairs of the 
American War of Independence. A favorite 
place for bathers on the shore of Oaklands is 
still known as Tremain's Rock. At Richard 
Tremain's death about 1854, Oaklands ex- 
tended easterly from the shore of the 
Northwest Arm, about sixteen hundred feet, 
being less than half of the distance now cov- 
ered by this property, and the entrance at that 
time was on Oakland Road, and not as now 
on Robie Street. In 1861 the heirs of Richard 
Tremain conveyed the land then held and 
known as Oaklands, to William Cunard, who 
in 1862 added to it some nine acres purchased 
from John W. Ritchie, and still further 
extended it by purchase of a tract from Robert 
Davis, in 1863. The Davis lot was also at one 
time part of the original Belmont. In 1871 
Mr. Cunard disposed of the property to Hon. 
P. C. Hill, Premier of Nova Scotia, by whom 
it was mortgaged to the conveyor. It has 
been occupied by Lord Alex. Russell, while 
commander-in-chief of the troops in Canada, 
and by Colonel Leach, R. E. Lord Russell 
died last year. From his family, Russell 
Square, London, takes its name, as a large 
part of the surrounding property belongs to 
the Duke of Bedford. The present duke is a 
nephew of the late Lord Russell. Mrs. P. C. 
Hill was a daughter of Enos Collins. William 



OAKLANDS. 45 

Cunard, who built the Oaklands residence, 
was the second son of Sir Samuel Cunard, a 
native of Halifax who established the first 
regular steam communication across the 
Atlantic. The service which he instituted be- 
tween Liverpool, Halifax, Philadelphia, and 
New York, has since developed into the great 
Cunard line, the ships of which now hold the 
blue ribbon of the Atlantic. After the retire- 
ment of Sir Edward Cunard, an elder brother 
of the owner of Oaklands, the business 
interests of the great steamship company de- 
volved upon William Cunard, which necessi- 
tated his removal to England, where he resided 
until his death. The baronetcy remained in 
the family of the eldest son of Sir Samuel. In 
building Oaklands residence during the 
American Civil War, Mr. Cunard took advan- 
tage of the high gold rate by purchasing most 
of the materials in the United States. The 
building material is of Philadelphia pressed 
brick, with freestone trimmings and dressed 
granite foundation. The balconies, veranda 
and supporting columns are of iron made in 
Scotland. The building throughout is finished 
in black walnut and birch, its doors, locks, 
etc., being made in Boston. The rooms are 
spacious and lofty, and the fittings and con- 
veniences are now up-to-date. In 1904 the 
northern part of this property was purchased 
by Roderick Macdonald, of Macdonald & Co., 
Ltd., of Halifax, who erected the large boat- 
house now occupied by the H. A. B. C. under 
lease from the owner for a term of years. In 



46 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

1906 Mr. Macdonald acquired the residence 
and the balance of the property, and has since 
resided at Oaklands. 

At the northern end of Oaklands, a name 
which the property bore at a very early date, 
the width of the Northwest Arm is contracted 
to about six hundred feet, with seven to nine 
fathoms of water, and from this point there is 
afforded one of the finest views of the lower or 
southern basin of the Arm. There is another 
splendid view at the southern end of Oaklands 
estate. Here the Northwest Arm is much 
wider, and from a point stretching out into 
the water known as Oaklands Point, a view 
can be had which compasses the entire length 
of the Northwest Arm. Northward can be 
seen the Bridge at the head of the Arm, and 
looking southward the view is an uninterrupt- 
ed one out the bay to the heaving Atlantic, 
across which the Mauretania, Lusitania and 
other leviathans of the Cunard fleet ply with 
ferry-like regularity at express speed between 
Europe and America. Opposite Oaklands, on 
the western shore of the Arm is the Dingle, 
part of which has been deeded to the Lieut- 
Governor of Nova Scotia in trust for a public 
park. On an elevation on this area there was 
recently laid the corner-stone of a memorial 
tower, intended to commemorate the begin- 
ning of representative government in Nova 
Scotia. About twenty years ago Sir Sandford 
Fleming, the owner of the Dingle, made an 
offer for the purchase of the northern part of 
Oaklands, having in view the possibility at 



OAKLANDS, 47 

some future time of bridging the Northwest 
Arm at this point. Oaklands is within a mile 
and a half of the general post office, and may 
be said to be a park and farm combined, being 
capable of cutting quite a large tonnage of hay 
and producing quantities of roots, etc. This 
is typical of the comfortable homes men of 
wealth fifty years ago established for them- 
selves on the Northwest Arm. Oaklands 
Cove is a favorite bathing place. James Tre- 
main, a brother of Richard Tremain mention- 
ed above, was a director of the Bank of Nova 
Scotia at one time ; another brother owned 
the adjoining property, Belmont. This family 
was descended from John and Jonathan Tre- 
main, who came from New York and settled 
here before the Revolution. They conducted 
a small rope walk in Eland's Fields, and 
another in Dartmouth, near the site of the 
present works of the Consumers Cordage Co. 
The house on South Street occupied by Mr. 
Justice Drysdale, was built by the original 
John Tremain. 




THE BELMONT ESTATE. 

property of Thomas W. Ritchie, Esq., 
^ and of George Ritchie and the Misses 
Ritchie, is one of the finest estates on the 
eastern bank of the Northwest Arm, though 
not now nearly as large as it was originally 
when it comprised Marlborough Woods and 
other parcels of land. Belmont has been 
known for over a century as the residence of 
gentlemen prominent in the affairs of the 
province of Nova Scotia. The successive 
owners of this suburban domain have been 
noted for their hospitality, and some of the 
most brilliant events in the gay society of the 
days of the city's naval and military eminence 
have taken place within its precincts. The 
owners and occupants have been judges, 
naval officers and merchants eminent in the 
history of this port. According to statement 
of title dated 1843, Belmont comprised 90^2 
acres. The first mention of the property in 
the abstract of title is that of lot No. 13 in 
letter B., and lot No. I in letter E., situated 
in the south division of five acre lots ; these 
parcels were conveyed by Samuel Sprague 
to John Schnedier on March iQth, 1774, for 
i IDS. On September 24th, 1790, lots No. 
5 and 6 in the south division of five acre lots, 
letter E., were conveyed by George Vanput 
to Henry Duncan, a connection of the famous 
(48) 




EXTRA NOK AND DKIVKWAY TO IHK WAKGWol/I'lO UKOl ND8, 
OOBl'RG ROAD. 




PIXE HTTJ. COI.T.KGE AT THE NORTHWEST ARM. 



THE BELMONT ESTATE. 49 

naval commander, Viscount Duncan, for 7 
in fee simple. On November nth, 1790, 
Schnedier conveyed the property bought from 
Samuel Sprague as above to Henry Duncan 
for 8 los. Hannah Crafts, Thomas Towell 
and Arch. Wilson sold Hon. Henry Duncan 
lot No. 3 on November nth, 1790, for 3 los. 
Hon. Henry Duncan, on November 3ist, 
1790, received from the crown a grant of 18 
acres. Thomas Cochran, in exchange for lot 
No. 13, which originally belonged to Samuel 
Sprague, conveyed part of lots Nos. 8, 9, 10, 
ii and 12 in letter B., south division, five 
acre lots, 8 acres and 13 rods in all, to Hon. 
Henry Duncan, R. N. Thus we see how the 
estate of Belmont, or as it was then known 
" Commissioner's Farm," was acquired. The 
name, Belmont, was conferred on the prop- 
erty probably to continue the name of Dun- 
can's ancestral home in Dundee. Commander 
Henry Duncan entered the navy at an early 
age and was in active service in the East and 
in the West Indies. He was commissioner 
of the Halifax Dock Yard during the latter 
part of the war with the revolted American 
colonies. He was associated with Alex. 
Brymer in large business transactions and 
was president of the North British Society 
in 1796. In some Dock Yard letter books of 
date 1783, we find the following copy of a 
letter to the master shipwright at the navy 
yard : 

" You are hereby required and directed to 

3 



50 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

inspect into His Majesty's ships named in 
margin, and cause them to be repaired as far 
as possible. Halifax, November 2Oth, 1783. 
Henry Duncan." 

The ships referred to were the " Mercury," 
"Bonnette," and the "Observer." The lat- 
ter was a brig-of-war and fought a severe 
engagement off Halifax harbor with the 
American privateer " Jack," of Salem, Mass., 
making her a prize and killing her captain 
and a number of her crew. The Jack was 
brought into Halifax and condemned in the 
admiralty court. 

Again, Governor Parr writes to Com- 
missioner Duncan about the necessity of 
having the provincial schooner " Greyhound " 
repaired. The commissioners of the admir- 
alty at London also write to the master ship- 
wright at the Dockyard immediately after the 
peace with the American colonies as follows : 
" We have your letter of the loth June last 
relative to the damage to the " Stanislaus," 
prison ship, has sustained from the pris- 
oners which were on board of her and the 
difference of the estimate delivered for re- 
pairing the same, and acquaint you we have 
referred it to Commissioner Duncan." 

In the old letter books now in possession 
of the Historical Society of Nova Scotia, 
there are a number of letters from the famous 
admiral, Sir Robt. Digby, superintending the 
evacuation of New York by the British, 
recommending that a number of loyalist 



THE BELMONT ESTATE. 51 

pilots be put on the list of pilots at Halifax 
at half pay. He specially mentions one, Kill- 
grew, who lost his health through the sever- 
ity of treatment endured in the prisons of the 
Americans during the late war. 

On the 3rd January, 1788, Lieutenant- 
Governor Parr appointed Henry Duncan, 
Commissioner of the Navy Yard, and At- 
torney-General Blowers to be members of 
His Majesty's Council in Nova Scotia. 

Edward B. Brenton purchased the Bel- 
mont estate from Hon. Henry Duncan. He 
was the son of Judge Brenton who was im- 
peached with Judge Deschamps by two loyal- 
ist lawyers, Jonathan Sterns and William 
Taylor. The Brentons were a leading Rhode 
Island family who sided with the crown in 
the revolutionary war. Hon John Hallibur- 
ton, who was the father of the Chief Justice 
of that name, married Susannah Brenton, 
while surgeon of a frigate commanded by 
Lord Colville who had visited Newport, R. I., 
in the year 1780. Dr. Halliburton became 
acquainted with the family of the Hon. 
Jahleel Brenton, whose son and grandson 
were well-known admirals in the British 
navy. He married Miss Brenton on the 4th 
of January, 1767. This alliance caused him 
to adopt the colony of Rhode Island as his 
home and follow his profession among his 
newly found friends and acquaintances. 
When open hostilities commenced between 
Great Britain and the Colonies, Dr. Hallibur- 



52 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

ton was banished for refusing to subscribe 
to the test ordered by the revolutionary 
assembly. Dr. John Halliburton was granted 
by the crown some of the roads at Belmont. 
They were the proposed streets through the 
five acre lots, and this grant is dated June 
ist, 1803. 

Brenton, the owner of Belmont, was a 
barrister. In 1801 it was proposed to estab- 
lish a bank in Halifax by means of a joint 
stock company, the capital of which was to 
be 50,000, in shares of 100 each. A com- 
mittee of management was named, consist- 
ing of Edward B. Brenton, William Forsythe, 
Foster Hutchinson, Lawrence Hartshorn, 
James Foreman, James Fraser and Capt. 
John Beckwith. They required a monopoly, 
which was refused by the House of Assembly, 
and the project fell through. There was no 
public bank in Halifax until many years after 
this date, when the Halifax Banking Co. was 
chartered, which is to-day amalgamated with 
the Canadian Bank of Commerce. Edward 
Brenton's name appears in many transactions 
of a public nature and he appears to have 
been a prominent citizen and an influential 
lawyer. In 1802 he was Judge Advocate, a 
legal position connected with the garrison of 
that day. 

On August I2th, 1815, the property of 
Belmont was conveyed to John Howe, jr., by 
Edward B. Brenton and his wife Catherine 
for 1,800 sterling, Howe executing an in- 



THE BELMONT ESTATE. 53 

denture of mortgage of 995. Brenton sold 
another parcel of land to John Howe, jr., at 
Belmont for 148 at the same time. John 
Howe, jr., must have resided some years in 
the house at Belmont before he is recorded 
as purchasing the property, because we find 
it stated by Akin in his History of Halifax 
"that two fires occurred this year (1811), one 
at Commissariat Building, Hollis Street, the 
site of the present Bank of Nova Scotia, and 
the other at Belmont, John Howe's residence 
at the Northwest Arm." 

On August nth, 1816, Edward Brenton 
gave John Howe, jr., a release of mort- 
gage amounting to 996 135. 4d., while next 
day John Howe executed a new mortgage to 
Henry H. Cogswell for 800. In 1842, John 
Howe raised a further sum of 400 upon the 
property from H. H. Cogswell. In 1843, a 
deed of trust was executed by John Howe, 
sr., in favor of John Howe, jr., Joseph Howe 
and Joseph A. Seivewnght. The above men- 
tioned executors executed a deed of sale 
dated May 22nd, 1844, for 550 to William 
Clark, and on May 23rd, 1844, Henry H. 
Cogswell assigned all the lots mentioned in 
the mortgage to him dated I2th of August, 
1816, to William Clark. 

In 1857, Belmont passed to Judge J. W. 
Ritchie, and is now held by Thomas W. 
Ritchie. John Howe, jr., who resided at 
Belmont was a son of a Boston loyalist by a 
first marriage. His father, John Howe, sr., 
came to Halifax when the British evacuated 



54 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Boston, March, 1776, and for 57 years was 
printer and publisher of the " Nova Scotia 
Gazette " and " Halifax Journal." His son 
John was associated with him in business. 
John Howe, sr., was the father of the Hon. 
Joseph Howe by his second wife, and he also 
resided at the Northwest Arm, but farther 
south than Belmont, on a part of the prop- 
erty now owned by B. F. Pearson. There 
his famous son Joseph was born, whose 
monument stands in the south end of the 
Province Building Square, Halifax. John 
Howe, jr., afterwards was appointed post- 
master at St. John, N. B., to which place he 
removed in 1837; he died in that city some 
time in the nineties of that century, and 
some of his descendants still reside there. In 
their time, the Howes seemed to have been 
active business men, because their names are 
connected with real estate transactions in 
many parts of Halifax, between 1820 and 
1840. David Howe, son of John Howe, pub- 
lished a paper at St. Andrew's, N. B. 




MARLBOROUGH WOODS. 

N the eastern side of the Northwest 
Arm, Maryborough Woods, the prop- 
erty of the Northwest Arm Land 
Company, is situated. It was formerly a por- 
tion of the Belmont estate, which included 
the Taylor fish lot as well as Commissioner's 
Farm, and was conveyed by Thomas and 
George Ritchie, executors of Judge J. W. 
Ritchie, to R. L. Borden, who sold a small 
portion of the land to the Halifax Golf Club, 
on which to build a clubhouse, and the 
remaining part, an extensive area, was deeded 
in 1895 to the Northwest Arm Land Com- 
pany, of which Hy. Roper is vice-president. 
The Land Co. has sold a number of lots to 
Halifax gentlemen, who have erected cot- 
tages on this delightful spot. The location 
is an ideal one and commands a charming 
outlook. On the other side of the water, here 
only about a quarter of a mile wide, rise 
knolls clothed with almost every variety of 
wood, bare rocky hills with beautiful little 
bays bathing their base, greater coves eating 
into the land here and there, while a vast 
country covered with forest and dotted with 
lakes, stretches far beyond. Among those 
who have cottages at Marlborough are H. M. 
Pride, manager Amherst Boot & Shoe Co.; 
H. Roper, Russell Twining, J. A. Clark, 
(55) 



56 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

manager Eastern Canada Savings & Loan 
Co. and Dr. G. H. Fluck. Henry Roper is 
manager of S. M. Brookfield, Limited, build- 
ing contractors, who have erected many of 
the modern buildings in Halifax. Some years 
ago plans were drawn for a large summer 
hotel called The Anglo-Saxon, to be erected 
at Marlborough, but the project fell through. 
Joseph Howe, who was born a little below 
Marlborough, and who loved the locality, 
was never tired of praising the " Arm's en- 
chanted ground," while for the Arm itself his 
feelings were those of a lover for his mistress. 
The Old Exhibition Building on Tower 
Road, now used as a work-shed to shelter 
the stonemasons employed building the new 
Church of England Cathedral, may later be 
taken down and re-erected at Marlborough 
Woods for use as an ice and roller skating 
rink, with prospective tramway extension. 
Mr. Roper calls his cottage at Marlborough 
the Ideal bungalow. J. A. Clark's pretty 
summer home is labelled Swastika Cottage 
and Mr. Twining's residence, Langley Cot- 
tage. 





MAPLEWOOD, THE BEAUTIFUL RESIDENCE OF' SENATOR MrKEKV, 

where Lord Aberdeen spent a pleasant summer while Governor- 
General of Canada. 




A CLUSTER OK COTTAGES. 




SCENE AT MELVILLE ISLAND COVE. 



FERNWOOD AND MAPLEWOOD. 

O s HESE properties are owned by Walter 
() Thomson and Senator McKeen respect- 
ively. They adjoin and were comprised 
in an original grant to William and George 
Castaffin, made in 1784. Pine Hill College 
property was a portion of this grant. In 
1806, William Peck, a son-in-law of one of 
the Castaffins, conveyed the property to John 
Halliburton, a naval surgeon at the Dock- 
yard Hospital, and father of Chief Justice 
Halliburton, who owned the Bower. Mr. 
Thomson's father purchased the Fernwood 
land which contains 4^2 acres from the Halli- 
burton family. 

Maplewood, on which a lovely new house 
has been built by Senator McKeen, was for- 
merly the property of William Hare, father- 
in-law of Professor Weldon, Dean of the 
Law Faculty of Dalhousie College. It after- 
ward became the property of the late M. B. 
Almon, jr., by whom it was transferred to 
the present owner. General Sir Patrick Mac- 
Dougall lived at Maplewood at one time. 
General Sir John Ross also resided there. 
Lord Aberdeen, Governor General of Canada, 
used this property as his residence the sum- 
mer he spent in Halifax. Members of the 
Royal Nova Scotia Yacht Squadron thought 
of buying Maplewood before it was pur- 
(57) 



58 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

chased by Senator McKeen, and preliminary 
overtures were opened, but were not com- 
pleted. Had this plan been carried out the 
yachting headquarters would have been on 
the Northwest Arm in addition to the Arm's 
boating and canoeing eminence. Hon. David 
McKeen is president of the Halifax Electric 
Tramway Co., Ltd., and identified with 
numerous other financial and industrial 
institutions. 




PINE HILL COLLEGE. 

ERHAPS no other spot on the North- 
west Arm is more interesting to the 
generation that is fast passing away 
than Pine Hill property. Pictures that have 
been preserved of the old substantial resi- 
dence will readily recall to the older residents 
of the city many pleasing recollections of the 
past. This house was built in the early for- 
ties by a wealthy gentleman named Samuel 
Story, who was also noted for his numerous 
peculiarities. It is related that on summer 
mornings he would gallop on horseback at 
full speed through the town regardless of life 
or limb. The property was sold after a few 
years to the late James W. Fenerty, and it 
was in this house that Arthur Fenerty of the 
Customs Department, was born. For a num- 
ber of years the house was tenanted by the 
late Dr. Tomkins, a Congregationalist clergy- 
man, pastor of the old Salem Church on 
Argyle Street, who later returned to England 
and entered the legal profession becoming 
one of the most brilliant and accomplished 
members of the Inner Temple. He after- 
wards became a member of the House of Com- 
mons and won for himself the reputation of 
being one of the most scholarly and ablest 
speakers in the English Parliament. Sur- 
geon General J. D. Mclllree, inspector of 
(59) 



60 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

hospitals, resided in the old house after Dr. 
Tomkins' departure for England and re- 
mained there until his recall in 1864. Then 
the property was purchased by Edward 
Albro, father of J. E. Albro, and in 1871 the 
dwelling was razed and the present building 
erected. In 1879 the property was sold to 
the Presbyterian body for a college, when 
another story was added to it. Two-thirds 
of the Presbyterian clergy at present in Nova 
Scotia are graduates of this school, which 
has had a number of able scholars on its 
teaching faculty. R. A. Falconer, President 
of the University of Toronto, and Dr. Gordon, 
Principal of Queen's University, Kingston, 
were both connected with Pine Hill at the 
time of receiving their respective appoint- 
ments. What is probably the largest tele- 
scope in Nova Scotia was presented to Pine 
Hill by George S. Campbell of Halifax. 

The present principal of the college is Dr. 
Robert Magill, a cultured Irishman. Mrs. 
Magill is a daughter of Edward Stairs, presi- 
dent of Wm. Stairs, Son & Morrow, Ltd. 




BILTON COTTAGE. 

NE of the prettiest villas on the North- 
west Arm is Bilton Cottage, between 
Emscote and Pine Hill. The land 
was originally part of the property conveyed 
by John Howe to Robert Lawson, by deed 
dated 1836. The latter sold it in 1846 to 
Patrick Connolly, who transferred the prop- 
erty to James Fenerty in 1851. In 1867, 
Fenerty sold the property to Sophia Uniacke 
and a year later Mrs. Uniacke passed the 
property to Colonel Conrod Sawyer, who 
altered and improved the house and gave the 
property the name of Bilton Cottage in re- 
membrance of his home in England. Colonel 
Sawyer's executors sold the property to the 
testator's son Harry Sawyer in 1895, and he 
in turn transferred it to M. R. Morrow, agent 
of the Dominion Coal Co., in 1898. In 1907 
Mr. Morrow sold the property to Captain 
Rose of the United States Navy, retired. 
Captain Rose lives at Bilton Cottage and is 
an active member of the Yacht Squadron. 
Mrs. Rose is a native of Charlottetown, 
P. E. I. The old cottage has been beauti- 
fully furnished and renovated since coming 
into the possession of Captain Rose, and is 
one of the prettiest estates on the Arm. 
(61) 



EMSCOTE, HOWE'S BIRTHPLACE. 

N a long, low cottage of one story and a 
pitch, which stood on the eastern slope 
of the Northwest Arm, Joseph Howe, 
Nova Scotia's famous parliamentarian and 
statesman, was born December, 1804. The 
building was about 300 yards southwest of 
the Presbyterian Theological College, within 
easy access of the waters of the Arm, and on 
the grounds of what is now Emscote, the 
residence of B. F. Pearson, M. P. P. Mr. 
Sydenham Howe, a son of Joseph Howe, 
writes : " The cottage in which my father 
was born stood on the site of the house at 
present occupied by Hon. B. F. Pearson. It 
was destroyed by fire many years ago. I am 
not sure of the date, but think it was previous 
to 1840. I visited the place many times in 
company with my father, who pointed out 
the remains of the old cellar, and I saw the 
present house in course of erection on the 
same spot. The spring frequently referred to 
in my father's poems was quite near the road 
running north and south, and on every occa- 
sion on which my father and I walked about 
the old place, he clambered over the old stone 
wall which used to border the property and 
drank from the old familiar spring, as I have 
also often done, even when he was not 
my companion. (The location is now indi- 
(62) 



EMSCOTE, HOWE'S BIRTHPLACE. 63 

cated by the red pump which can be seen 
from the road.) My father's half brother, 
John Howe, jr., owned Belmont and lived 
there in summer for years and moved into 
Halifax in the winter. He died in 1843, and 
he was for years King's Printer and Post- 
master General in succession to his father, 
and it was in his office that Joseph Howe 
learned the ' art preservative.' " It is a co- 
incidence that Joe Howe's paper, the " Nova 
Scotian," and the site of his birthplace should 
both come into the possession of the same 
man, and Mr. Pearson states that when he 
agreed to buy Emscote he did not know that 
this was where Howe was born. 

In his youth, Joe Howe loved to bathe in 
the salt water, and one evening, according to 
a book, " The Makers of Canada/' recently 
published, while taking a solitary swim in 
the Arm, he was seized with cramp and felt 
himself sinking. He cast an agonized look 
around and caught sight of the dearly loved 
cottage on the hillside, where his mother was 
just placing a lighted candle on the window 
sill. The thought of the grief which would 
overshadow that woman's heart on the mor- 
row inspired him to give a last despairing 
kick. The cramp was dispelled, and hastily 
swimming ashore the youth who was one day 
to become a foremost statesman of his time 
sank down exhausted, but thankful for his 
deliverance. It was long before he could 
summon courage to acquaint his parents of 
the circumstances. On the slopes of this 



64 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

beautiful spot the young Howe loved to read 
or to take a boat and row along the winding 
shores of the sparkling waters, which com- 
bined all the beauty of lake and river scen- 
ery in one, or to paddle his skiff to the 
opposite shore and land and climb the forest- 
clad hill. Often he would frequent the lake 
above Lawson's, where his name is still per- 
petuated amongst anglers by a stand on 
Williams' Lake known as Howe's rock. 

The Howes loved the shores of the North- 
west Arm and made their homes upon its 
wooded slopes. John Howe, jr., the half 
brother of Joseph, we have seen lived at Bel- 
mont for many years. John Howe, sr., owned 
part of the Emscote land and the Uniacke 
lot, and conveyed this property to John 
Howe, jr., on June 25th, 1823, for 325, the 
deed being witnessed by Joseph Doby and 
R. G. Morse, and it refers to various build- 
ings on the property. The deed was recorded 
the following year. This property was con- 
veyed by John Howe, jr., to Robt. Lawson, 
Feb. 24th, 1836, for 500. This comprised 
lots number 6 and 7, letter D., in the south 
division of farm lots on the peninsula, about 
4*4 acres. 

In 1825, John Howe, sr., received a grant 
from the crown of 7 acres, called lot number 
8, letter E., south division. 

On September, 1847, Lawson mortgaged 
to Hon. Enos Collins half the property he 
had received. Collins afterward obtained a 
conveyance of the land and deeded it to 



EMSCOTE, HOWK's BIRTHPLACE. 65 

Patrick Connolly, the father of the present 
Rev. John Connolly, S. J., an eloquent Jesuit 
pulpit orator. Then Lawson is recorded 
deeding a right-of-way now known as Franck- 
lyn Street to Patrick Connolly. On June 3rd, 
1861, Connolly conveyed to Henry C. D. 
Twining the property and right-of-way for 
161, and Twining conveyed the property to 
Maurice Macllreith, the father of Ex-Mayor 
Macllreith, for the sum of 400. Macllreith 
sold it to Anne Vass, July, 1863. She passed 
the property in 1864 to William Cunard for 
$10,000, and Cunard passed it on to his 
brother-in-law, Colonel G. W. Francklyn. 
The north half of the Howe property which 
adjoins Pine Hill College also fell into the 
hands of Patrick Connolly in 1846, through 
purchase from Robert Lawson. Connolly 
deeded this portion to J. W. Fenerty in Nov., 
1851, and Fenerty conveyed it in 1867 to 
Sophia Uniacke, who sold part of it to 
Colonel Francklyn, the father of G. E. Franck- 
lyn. The property was named Emscote after 
a village in Warwickshire, Eng., near Colonel 
Francklyn's old home. The John Howe grant 
passed into the hands of Patrick Moran in 
1847. From Moran it went to J. W. John- 
ston, jr., in 1854, for 200. From Johnston 
il was transferred to William Fitzgerald, and 
from him to one Lannon, the father of Joe 
Lannon the pugilist. From Lannon a part 
went to Connolly and a part to James 
Reardon, and eventually both portions came 
into the hands of the Francklyn family in 



G6 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

1882. The balance of Emscote was a grant 
from the Dominion Government to George 
Francklyn of part of the old Penitentiary 
property. 

In 1825, John Howe, sr., owned the whole 
of the present site of Tower Road village, 
with the exception of one parcel of land in the 
centre, which was owned by J. W. Johnston, 
jr., the late judge in equity, Joseph Howe's 
famous adversary in the fight for responsible 
government a curious coincidence. The 
property owned by John Howe, sr., south of 
Pine Hill Theological College, and where his 
famous son Joseph was born, was originally 
owned by Nathaniel Mason and Jonathan 
Sterns. Mason kept a fish house there in 
1784. Jonathan Sterns, who owned the prop- 
erty before it came into the possession of 
Howe, was a loyalist lawyer of Marblehead, 
Mass., who was prescribed for addressing 
Generals Gage and Howe, and forced to leave 
Boston on the withdrawal of the British 
troops, and accompanied them here where he 
settled. He married a sister of Judge Robie, 
who studied law in his office. Sterns was an 
uncompromising opponent of the patriotic 
party in the American Revolution. He was 
an able lawyer, and in his early career in 
Halifax was the prime mover in the effort to 
impeach the Judges Brenton and Deschamp, 
which fell through owing to the opposition 
of the old council. 

Judge Johnston became premier of Nova 
Scotia and helped to develop responsible 



EMSCOTE, HOWE'S BIRTHPLACE. 67 

government. He was one of the founders of 
Acadia College, Wolfville, N. S., and occu- 
pies a large place in provincial history, which 
is well described in a series of valuable 
articles from the pen of Rev. Dr. Saunders. 
A statue to Howe in the Provincial 
Building Square contains this inscription: 
" Journalist, Orator, Poet, Statesman, Pro- 
phet, Patriot, Briton. Born at Halifax Dec. 
I3th, 1804. Died at Government House, 
June ist, 1873." Grant's " Life of Howe " 
contains the following reference to the Arm : 
" He was born Dec., 1804, in an old-fashioned 
cottage on the steep hillside that runs up 
from the city side of the Northwest Arm, a 
beautiful inlet of the sea that steals up the 
entrance of the harbor for three or four miles 
into the land behind the city of Halifax. A 
lawn, with oak trees round the edges, and a 
little garden with apple and cherry trees sur- 
rounded the house." Hon. B. F. Pearson, the 
present owner of this historic property, is a 
member of the provincial assembly represent- 
ing his native county of Colchester, and a 
member of the local government without 
portfolio. As the promoter of numerous 
enterprises he has conferred great bene- 
fit upon the province, but in an unobtrusive 
way. He took a leading part in organizing 
the Halifax Street Railway and the Nova 
Scotia Telephone Co. He interested H. M. 
Whitney, of Boston, in Cape Breton coal and 
brought about the establishment of those 
giant industries, Dominion Coal and Domin- 



68 



SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 



Steel. Mr. Pearson is identified with the 
Dominion Chair Co., Midland Railway Co., 
Annapolis Iron Co., and a score of other use- 
ful enterprises. He is the principal owner of 
the Halifax " Chronicle," St. John " Sun," and 
Glace Bay " Gazette," and has many warm 
personal friends. 




OLD PENITENTIARY. 



DJOINING Emscote, on the shores of 
the Northwest Arm is the site of the 
J ' old provincial penitentiary, which was 
certainly a pleasant situation for the convicts. 
Happily this prison was long since removed. 
The prison was built by the Nova Scotia 
Government in the thirties. When the Do- 
minion Government erected the federal prison 
at Dorchester, N. B., which was to serve as 
a place of confinement for the convicted 
felons from the three Maritime Provinces, 
the penitentiary at the Arm fell into disuse 
as a prison, and was temporarily occupied by 
the inmates of the Poor Asylum after the 
destruction of the City Home by fire in Nov. 
2, 1882, when 32 people lost their lives. A 
portion of the land surrounding the prison 
passed into possession of George E. Franck- 
lyn by grant. The building and property was 
afterwards acquired by Henry M. Whitney, 
of Boston, and others, for the establishment 
of coke and gas works to light Halifax. 
These were operated for a while and aban- 
doned. Part of the property is now owned 
by B. F. Pearson. Part of the remainder, 
which includes the site of the old prison, is 
the property of Chas. Brister. The street 
railway company owns the balance adjoining 
the park and the public bathing-house. It 
(69) 



70 SKETCHES OF THE tfOfcTHWEST ARM. 

was from the old penitentiary that Jones, 
Hazelton, Anderson and Johnston, the ship 
Saladin pirates and murderers were conveyed 
on July 30th, 1844, to the place of execution, 
guarded by an escort of the 52nd Regiment. 
They were executed on the South Common, 
near the front of what is now the Victoria 
General Hospital. The old prison was also 
the scene of the life imprisonment and death 
of Mate Douglas of the brig " Zero," the 
accomplice of Doucey, a colored seaman who 
was hung at Halifax about 1866 for the mur- 
der of the captain of the " Zero," off the Nova 
Scotia coast. On the prison property there 
was for many years the grave of an unknown 
woman who died at the penitentiary. The 
grave was situated on the bank near the 
shore, surrounded by a railing, and was kept 
in order by the authorities of the prison. The 
grave was unmarked and the mound is prob- 
ably now obliterated, and the secret of the 
slumberer r so far as known, remains secure 
in the forgotten grave. Death was not the 
only means of release for long time convicts. 
Sometimes they escaped across the Arm, and 
" Prisoner's Cave " is still to be seen in the 
rugged, hilly country on the western shore 
of the Arm near Williams' Lake. The legend 
is that an escaped prisoner from the peniten- 
tiary swam across the Arm and remained in 
hiding in the cave for a long time until 
search for him had been abandoned, he being 
supplied with food meanwhile by residents 
of the locality, whose compassion had been 



THE 'OLD PENITENTIARY. 71 

excited by stories of suffering within the 
prison walls. The entrance to the cave is 
difficult to find in the maze of woods and 
boulders which surrounds it, unless one is 
familiar with the location. A hole in the rock 
in the roof served as a vent for smoke. 

The walls of the penitentiary building are 
still standing. While gutting the building to 
fill it with gas plant, the workmen of the 
Lighting Company, in demolishing the stone 
cells, obtained enough granite to make foun- 
dations for several other buildings which 
were erected. The venture of the People's 
Heat and Light Co., for which the peniten- 
tiary property and the adjoining property 
were acquired, proved disastrous for the in- 
vestors, but the result was fortunate for the 
preservation of the Arm as a pleasure resort 
and recreation ground. Noxious fumes and 
smoke from the gas plant would have pol- 
luted the atmosphere and played havoc with 
the beauty of the surroundings. 




POINT PLEASANT PARK. 

POINT PLEASANT PARK, which is 
situated at the extremity of the 
peninsula of Halifax, commands a 
broad view of the Atlantic. On the east side 
it is bounded by Halifax Harbor, and on the 
south and west by the beautiful sheet of 
water known as the Northwest Arm. The 
Park is Imperial property, but is leased to the 
city for an indefinite period at a nominal rent 
of a shilling a year. Once a year all roads 
leading into it are closed for twenty-four 
hours to maintain the ownership and prevent 
any possible claim to a public right-of-way. 
The roads through the Park were originally 
built by the military under the direction of 
Colonel Montague, of the Royal Engineers, 
and are kept in capital order and enable the 
visitor to drive through all portions of the 
Park. There are very beautiful views of the 
harbor, the ocean, and the Northwest Arm 
from different points. Point Pleasant Park is 
unrivalled in Canada, and is beautiful beyond 
comparison. Its woodlands, driving roads 
and riding paths, twisting and twining with 
serpentine grace in and out through the forest 
of spruce and pine, with glimpses now of the 
harbor, now of the Northwest Arm, anon 
of the broad ocean rolling an through the 
entrance of Chebucto Bay, and breaking on 
(72) 



POINT PLEASANT PARK. 73 

the beach at one's very feet, enchant the spec- 
tator. Picturesque Canada thus describes this 
charming resort : " Broad carriage drives of 
a most excellent smoothness wind through 
the natural forest, the shimmer of the sea ever 
and anon closing the vista. Footpaths abound 
where one might lose himself most enjoyably 
among the labyrinth of rocks, trees and tall 
brackens. Shut your eyes and ears to the 
plashing ocean all round, and fancy yourself 
in the Black Forest of Germany. There are 
the mossy reaches under tall pines, the wealth 
of wild flowers, the sweet resinous odour as 
the paths go up and up, you care not whither. 
Where are the ruins? There is a good sub- 
stitute in the old Martello Tower." 

Along the shores are fortifications com- 
manding the entrance to the harbor and 
Northwest Arm. Here also are found the 
remains of old batteries and entrenchments of 
the eighteenth century. On the Northwest 
Arm side of Point Pleasant Park may be seen 
the Chain Rock. This was at one time the 
landing place of a strong boom that obstruct- 
ed the entrance up the Arm, and the ring and 
bolt remained in the rock until surreptitiously 
removed by souvenir hunters a few years ago. 
The boom was protected by a battery. The 
foundations of the entrenchments are still 
visible. In these days of peace there is no 
chain, and the place is a favorite resort for 
bathers, a public bath house being 1 situated 
there. In the old, troubled days of war a 
chain of fortifications encircled the water 

4 



74 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

front of Point Pleasant Park. The remains of 
these works are apparent today at every com- 
manding position. 

In the Park at the southern end, a famous 
South Carolina loyalist cleared a lot of land 
and built a stone house where he resided. 
This officer was Colonel Fanning, not he of 
the same name the fiery officer who was 
refused the benefits of the Act of Oblivion by 
the State pf South Carolina, but a gentleman 
who was rewarded for his attachment to the 
crown of Great Britain by being appointed 
Governor of St. John Island, afterwards 
renamed Prince Edward Island. At another 
period he was Governor of Cape Breton. The 
land which he cleared in the Park is still 
known as the colonel's fields. 




FERRIES AT NORTHWEST ARM. 



FERRY across the entrance of the 
Northwest Arm, conducted by Robert 
J. and Charles Purcell at Point 
Pleasant, has been a familiar object to the 
people of Halifax for a long period of years. 
Early records indicate that communication 
between the outlying fortifications on the 
farther side of the Arm and the city was 
originally carried on by man-of-war pinnaces 
and flat bottomed scows stationed at the 
Royal Engineer Yard, King's Wharf, Ord- 
nance Yard (now known as the Gun Wharf), 
and H. M. Dockyard. A system of signalling 
by a heliographic code was also in use. A 
notable instance of the value of the signal 
code occurred in the transmission by the late 
Chief Justice Halliburton, (then a subaltern 
on duty at York Redoubt), to the look-out 
station at Fort George, Citadel Hill, of news 
of the stranding of H. M. S. La Tribune on 
Thrum Cap on 23rd November, 1797. Boats 
were at once despatched both from the Dock- 
yard and the R. E. Lumber Yard to the 
scene of disaster. The sad loss of life under 
the cliffs at the western entrance of Herring 
Cove (known since as Tribune Head) is one 
of the most pathetic episodes in the annals 
of the neighborhood. There were only six 
survivors out of the whole ship's company. 
(75) 



76 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM 

More convenient transit between Point 
Pleasant and the opposite side of the Arm 
leading to York Redoubt became a matter of 
necessity as the years rolled on, but it was 
not till 1853, that a regular ferry service 
between the two points was undertaken. The 
places selected were Purcell's Cove, or rather 
Island Cove, inside of Spectacle Island, on the 
western side, and Point Pleasant at the 
southernmost end of the peninsula, about 
three miles from the centre of Halifax. 
Joseph Purcell, uncle of Robert and Charles 
Purcell, the present proprietors, made a 
beginning single-handed from the Purcell's 
Cove side, a flag pole being used at Point 
Pleasant, to display a signal when a passage 
.across was needed. Mischievous urchins hav- 
ing given much trouble through false signals 
on several occasions, a hut was erected at 
Point Pleasant, and a sturdy Irishman, 
Kennedy by name, engaged to look after the 
ferry on Halifax side. On the death of the 
founder of the ferry, his nephew James had 
charge for three years. Kennedy having also 
died, Robert Carteel who had married the 
widow Purcell, took up the management. The 
colonel commanding the Royal Engineers 
gave Carteel permission to build a house on 
the site of the hut, allowing him the use of 
materials from some old military buildings in 
the vicinity. Carteel conducted the ferry in 
conjunction with James and Samuel Purcell 
for fifteen years till 1870, when Major W. A. 
Purcell , the well known taxidermist, con- 



FERRIES AT NORTHWEST ARM. 77 

ducted the service till 1890, his brother 
Charles taking the Island Cove portion. 
Since 1890, another brother, Robert J. has run 
the ferry from the Ferry Station at the Point 
on the Halifax side. 

A much needed change is about to be made 
in the location of the ferry house at Point 
Pleasant, the present landing place being 
inconvenient and much exposed. The build- 
ings are likewise badly dilapidated and out of 
repair. It should be borne in mind, that the 
need of discerning signals from the opposite 
shore, at the distance of over a mile was an 
essential factor in running the ferry, when 
first started, as it was largely used by the 
military authorities for the troops, as well as 
for workmen and supplies in construction of 
the forts. The building of a modern ferry 
house and more sheltered landing place will 
be a great boon to not a few local residents, 
in addition to affording visitors an opportun- 
ity of enjoying scenic views of rare beauty 
in the vicinity of Purcells Cove, Falkland 
Village, Ferguson's Cove, York Redoubt and 
Herring Cove. The twelve and sixteen oar 
man-of-war cutters of bygone days held 
in readiness at the R. E. yard have 'been 
replaced by convenient steam-tugs and 
launches which make the round of the forts 
at regular hours daily. 

Quite a little squadron of these up-to-date 
craft now convey the troops and supplies to 
the various military stations at George's and 
McNab's Island and round the whole expanse 



78 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

of the harbor, which in former times were 
almost entirely dependent (as far as the forts 
on the Northwest Arm side were concerned) 
on the unpretending ferry enterprise of suc- 
cessive generations of the Purcell family. 
The Point Pleasant ferry is now under the 
supervision of the Park Commission, and a 
small subsidy is granted to supplement the 
fares, together with residential privileges, the 
land occupied, however, being still under the 
control of the Imperial Government, who 
formerly paid a small subsidy for the con- 
veyance of troops across. 

Jollimore's ferry about the centre of 
the Arm proper is likewise aided by a 
small subsidy from the Local Govern- 
ment of the Province. Samuel Jollimore 
and his sons now conducting this convenient 
"bridge of boats," began operating a ferry in 
1880, straight across from the Cove to the 
Cunard property then occupied by the late 
P. C. Hill. Several commodious boats now 
run passengers across to a convenient landing 
place on the property of Roderick Macdonald, 
Esq., near the foot of South street, a couple 
of hundred yards from the Electric Tram line, 
in a few minutes, at any time day or night. 
The morning and evening trips for business 
residents are practically continuous, the dis- 
tance in sheltered water being but a quarter 
of a mile. 

Boutilier's ferry from South street land- 
ing to Boutilier's Point is also available 



FERRIES AT NORTHWEST ARM. 79 

to the public at almost instant notice, from 
either side. 

Longley's ferry from Jubilee Road to 
Melville Park runs at frequent intervals 
on much the same route as that utilized 
by the Imperial Government formerly in 
making connections with Melville Island. 

The river-like surface of the Arm renders 
the brief transit across a mere bagatelle for 
the possessors of boats or canoes, constituting 
domestic ferries from club house to bungalow 
at will. 

At Coburg Road, Adam Marr, a vet- 
eran harbour boatman, has conducted a 
successful boat slip for five years past since 
the rise of boating on the Arm rendered busi- 
ness on the harbour less attractive than form- 
erly. Boats can be obtained here to convey 
passengers to any part of the Arm. Telegraph 
and telephone cables, some of them the private 
military lines of communication with the out- 
lying fortresses and Melville prison, cross the 
Arm at several points. The Nova Scotia 
Telephone Co. has one hundred instruments 
on the western shore of the Arm. 





QUEEN'S QUARRIES, HERRING COVE, 
AND PURCELL'S COVE. 

first license of the quarry lots on 
the western shore of the North- 
west Arm was made, during the 
administration of the government of Nova 
Scotia by the Hon. Michael Wallace, 
President of the Council and Treasurer 
of the Province. This property is known 
as the Queen's Quarries and was licensed 
to the principal officers of the Ordnance 
department, Halifax. The deed recites as 
follows : " License is hereby granted to 
Gustavus Nicolls, Esq., a colonel in His 
Majesty's army and commanding the Royal 
Engineers, at Halifax, the Hon. Charles 
Morris, Surveyor General, and Sir Rupert 
De George, Bart., Secretary of the Province 
of Nova Scotia and to their successors in the 
said offices of commanding Royal Engineers, 
Surveyor General and Secretary of the Pro- 
vince, to occupy during pleasure in trust for 
the use of His Majesty." Colonel Nicolls 
built the Citadel. The quarries were formerly 
granted to Robt. Dickey and escheated. 

They adjoined land granted William 
Russell, Esq., in the year 1752. Russell's 
grant fixes the early naming of the inlet from 
Chebucto Bay as Northwest Arm. This 
grant comprised the parcel of land known as 
(80) 



QUEEN'S QUARRIES, ETC. 81 

PurceH's Cove and Island. These were form- 
erly known as Mackerel Cove and Russell's 
Island, and are so marked on the old map 
attached to the grant of the quarries. 
Russell's grant extended back as far as Flat 
Lake off the Herring Cove road. The 
quarries grant comprised 200 acres and ran 
north to John Trider's property, beginning 
at Indian Cove, so named because in early 
days the Micmacs resorted to it for the pur- 
pose of fishing and celebrating festivals. A 
spot between the military wharf and a small 
peninsula is named Indian Path, by which 
the aborigines gained the lakes situated 
beyond the boundaries of the quarries. From 
these quarries the Citadel bastions and 
escarpments were built, and from the adjoin- 
ing iron stone deposits the walls of the dock- 
yard were renewed. Some of the stone of 
which the beautiful facade of St. Mary's 
Cathedral is constructed, came from these 
government quarries (the balance came 
dressed from Quincy, Mass.), as also did the 
granite which was used in the various fortifi- 
cations that command and protect Halifax 
Harbor today. 

The land adjoining the quarries at the 
north was formerly granted to Henry Fer- 
guson and afterwards passed to John Trider, 
who was a government contractor and built 
the stone house at the foot of Inglis Street. 

The water lot in front of the land occupied 
by the quarries was granted by the Nova 
Scotia government .to Lord Panmure, Secre- 



82 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

tary of State for War. This grant is signed 
by Charles Tupper, Provincial Secretary, and 
Sir Gaspard LeMarchant, Lieut.-Governor. 
The Queen's Quarry property is now owned 
by Havelock McC. Hart, who purchased the 
same from the British Government for the 
sum of $1,000 on the occasion, two years ago, 
of the withdrawal of Imperial troops from 
this station after a continuous occupation for 
more than 150 years. Mr. Hart is a member 
of a family of very successful Halifax mer- 
chants, one of whom, Jairus Hart, an uncle, 
was President of the Bank of Nova Scotia, 
and a munificent citizen. 

Purcell's Cove is the original of the 
bridge scene on the drop screen at the 
Academy of Music. Among others who 
summer here is William Dennis, pro- 
prietor and editor of the Halifax Herald 
and Evening Mail, and a striking figure in 
Canadian journalism. He is interested finan- 
cially in various provincial industries, and a 
liberal supporter of athletics and aquatics, a 
patron of numerous charities and a friend of 
home enterprise. F. D. Morton and A. R. 
Cogswell have bungalows at Purcell's. 

Passing beyond the beautiful cove and 
island known as Purcell's, we come to a fish- 
ing village clinging to the side of the hill 
north of York Redoubt. The hamlet is named 
Falkland in honor of Lady Falkland, who was 
a liberal contributor to the local church build- 
ing fund, and was the wife of a lieutenan- 
governor of Nova Scotia. She was said to be 



QUEEN'S QUARRIES, ETC. 83 

a daughter of the morganatic alliance of the 
celebrated Mrs. Jordan and King William IV. 
The village is the home of a hardy race 
of fisher folk and pilots, and climbs the steep 
in a very picturesque manner, and viewed at 
a distance from Halifax with its combination 
of two churches and the fortress on the sum- 
mit of the hill above, presents the aspect of a 
scene in the mountains of Spain, with castle 
and village overlooking a wide expanse of sea. 

York Redoubt is a modern fortress of 
great strength, at the extreme end of the long 
line of hills that form the western boundaries 
of the Northwest Arm. 

Beyond the Redoubt are a number of 
small coves inhabited by those who depend 
upon the ocean as a means of livelihood. 
Between these and Herring Cove is Spion 
Kop, a work of recent construction, the guns 
of which command the approach of the 
harbor for miles seaward; it is called after 
one of the notable engagements of the last 
Boer war in South Africa. 

The next important cove, Herring Cove, 
is a deep inlet in the iron-bound coast, the 
birthplace of many famous fishermen crews 
renowned in aquatic contests, and the home 
of that great champion oarsman, George 
Brown. On a headland overlooking the ocean 
near the cove is a rugged cairn erected to this 
oarsman's memory. Brown was born at 
Herring Cove 1839, and died July 8, 1875, only 
36 years of age. Mr. J. W. Power, of the 



84 SKETCHES OP THE NORIHWEST ARM. 

Halifax Acadian Recorder, states that Brown 
beat William Schaeff at Springfield, Mass., 
July 8, 1874, and Evan Morris at St. John, 
September 24, 1874. Both races were for the 
championship of America. 

Ironstone is now being obtained at Queen's 
Quarries for the new Church of England 
cathedral at Halifax. There are two distinct 
quarries ironstone and granite. St. Paul's 
Parish Hall on Argyle Street contains a great 
deal of ironstone from here, and the stone 
enjoys the peculiar quality of not rusting. 




THE SARAGUAY CLUB. 

O^ HE LAND on which this club is located 
() was formerly a portion of the Lawson 
property. It is on the west side of the 
Northwest Arm, and immediately opposite 
Fernwood, property of Walter Thomson, who 
was a son of James Thomson and a nephew 
of Cathcart Thomson, whose wife was a Miss 
Howe. The Lawson property in its original 
state comprised 450 acres and extended from 
Henry Ferguson's grant adjoining the 
Queen's Quarries to the boundaries of Jolli- 
more Village. The executors of Hon. Charles 
Hill, a prominent merchant of Halifax, and 
a member of the legislative and executive 
councils, and the executor of George Mackin- 
tosh, conveyed to Robert Lawson, January I, 
1836, lot No. i. Henry Lawson deeded the 
same lot to William Lawson, Sr., May I, 
1843. William Lawson, Sr., by will dated 
29th October, 1844, devised all his real estate 
situate on the west side of the Northwest 
Arm to Henry Lawson. Henry Lawson con- 
veyed to Ann Lawson on June 14, 1878, for 
$10,000 a large part of the above-mentioned 
property. On August 19, 1881, Henry Law- 
son received a grant of water lot named lot 
No. 2. Then he conveyed a part of lots Nos. 
i and 2 to Frederick Tremaine Miles. This 
included the privilege to cut ice from 
(85) 



86 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Williams' Lake. Lawson also sold to the 
Atlantic Sugar House Co., December i, 1881, 
a portion of lot No. i, and a part of water lot 
No. 2. 

By will of Ann Lawson, dated November 
13, 1900, John T. Ross was appointed sole 
executor. All the residue of the estate, real 
and personal, was devised to Ross in trust to 
convert into money for the benefit of the Old 
Men's Home. The executor conveyed to the 
Club Building Co., Ltd., by indenture April 
5, 1906, for the consideration of $6,000, lots 
Nos. i and 2, except portions conveyed away 
by Henry Lawson as mentioned above. 

The Club Building Co., Ltd., leased to 
George W. C. Hensley, Edward A. Kirk- 
patrick and Daniel A. Murray, trustees of the 
Saraguay Club, the property purchased from 
John T. Ross for a period of 10 years, with 
option for renewals. Parties identified with 
the Saraguay Club have since acquired the 
property of the defunct Atlantic Sugar House 
Co. in order to extinguish certain water- 
power rights in a stream common to both 
properties. W. A. Black, of the progressive 
steamship firm of Pickford & Black, and a 
former M. P. P., of Halifax, is president of 
the club. 

Robert Lawson, who owned part of this 
property, and the John Howe property on the 
east side of the North West Arm, ran a corn 
mill for many years. He was a grandson of 
John Lawson, who, was born in Boston 
Mass., and came to Halifax in the i8th cen- 



THE SARAGUAY CLUB. 87 

tury. He was engaged in the mercantile 
business under the firm name of Prescott and 
Lawson; Collins and Allison afterwards suc- 
ceeded to their business, which was carried 
on at the present Pickford & Black's wharf. 
John Lawson's son, William, was also a 
prominent merchant, and one of the founders 
and first president of the Bank of Nova 
Scotia. His portrait by Field the artist, hangs 
in the directors' room of the bank. The Sara- 
guay is a country club owning large wooded 
grounds, with bathing and boating facilities, 
and intersected with roads and drives. The 
clubhouse is the former residence of Henry 
Lawson, with certain improvements. Robert 
Lawson's house has been unoccupied for 
some years. It is back from the Arm towards 
Williams' Lake. Max Aitken, a rising figure 
in financial circles in Montreal, occupies a 
summer cottage on the Paraguay property a 
part of each year. It is called the Three 
Penny Lot, which was the annual rental paid 
for the property years ago to Henry Lawson. 
Between the Saraguay property and the sugar 
refinery site is a small lot formerly owned by 
Miles and by Chittick, the Dartmouth ice- 
man. There is a connection with Williams' 
Lake at the rear, and natural ice was formerly 
cut at the lake for commercial uses, and 
brought to the shore by a huge trestle for 
shipment, some of it going to the United 
States. A large ice house was erected on the 
shore of the Arm for storing the ice, which 
was cut in blocks about two feet square. The 



88 



SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 



ice house no longer exists. Bungalows have 
been erected on the property and were 
occupied for several seasons by four young 
men who entertained with skill and hospital- 
ity, and the place came to be affectionately 
spoken of as the " Sign of the Four." 
Saraguay is an Indian word meaning " north 
branch." 




ANCESTORS OF THOS. W. LAWSON. 

progenitors of the Lawsons of Hali- 
fax were three brothers, John, William 
and David, who came from the United 
States; but little is known of their antece- 
dents. They have been described as loyalists, 
but several stones in St. Paul's bearing the 
name of Lawson are older than 1780, the 
earliest being John Shatford Lawson, Sept. 
2, 1772. Descendants of the Lawsons became 
extensively interested in land at the North- 
west Arm. Thomas W. Lawson, of Boston, 
is a greatgrandson of the original William 
Lawson. He was born in New England, but 
his parents were married in Halifax. E. Law- 
son Fenerty is a first cousin of the coiner of 
" Frenzied Finance." Mrs. M. J. Katzman 
Lawson wrote " A History of Dartmouth, 
Preston and Lawrencetown," and won the 
Akins prize. Henry and Robert Lawson, who 
owned large tracts of land on both sides of 
the Arm, had eleven brothers and sisters. 
Walter Lawson, chief accountant of the Union 
Bank of Halifax, is a nephew. Robert Law- 
son's old home, near the Atlantic Refinery, 
was occupied for a time by Rev. Dr. George 
Hill, chancellor of the Halifax University and 
rector of St. Paul's. Colonel Lawson, who 
resides in Halifax, was formerly connected 
with the Military College at Sandhurst. The 
wife of the late Principal George M. Grant 
was a Miss Lawson. 

(89) 



STORY OF THE ROYAL OAK. 

OSCOBEL, the residence of F. D. Cor- 
bett, comprises forty acres and extends 
back to Williams' Lake. The property 
has been greatly improved since the present 
owner acquired it in July, 1888. Up to the 
time that the property was knocked down to 
him at a public sale which he happened to 
attend, Mr. Corbett had no notion of living at 
the Arm, but he realized that it would be a 
very nice place for his family for the summer. 
The estate was originally purchased from J. 
G. Jollimore and J. P. Boutilier by Henry C. 
D. Twining, clerk of the House of Assembly. 
He devised it to his son Henry St. George 
Twining, familiarly known to the last genera- 
tion as " Drag," in reference to St .George and 
the Dragon. Miss Violet Twining, daughter 
of Henry St. George Twining, is now Mar- 
chioness of Donegal, and resides in London. 
The name Boscobel was conferred on the 
property by Henry C. D. Twining for no 
special reason as far as known. It is the name 
of a parish in Shropshire, England, where 
Charles II. fled after his defeat at Worcester, 
1651. On the way to Boscobel House the 
king had his long hair cut, his hands and face 
smeared with soot, and for his royal dress he 
substituted the homely suit of a countryman 
and leathern doublet. It was here at Boscobel 
(90) 



STORY OP THE ROYAL OAK. 91 

Wood the monarch hid in the branches of an 
oak tree, and watched Cromwell's soldiers 
passing beneath the tree in search of him 
the story of the Royal Oak familiar to every 
school boy. Mr. Corbett has lately con- 
tributed $10,000 to the Halifax Children's 
Hospital building fund. He has been an 
extensive traveller and possesses a valuable 
private library and a number of works of art. 
Mr. Corbett founded the firm of F. D. Corbett 
& Co., steamship agents, of which he was 
head, until his retirement several years ago, 
when his partner, George S. Campbell, became 
the head of the business now known as Geo. 
S. Campbell & Co. W. S. Davidson and R. A. 
Corbett, only son of F. D. Corbett, are the 
other partners. Mr. Campbell is a director of 
the Bank of Nova Scotia, chairman of the 
Board of Governors of Dalhousie University, 
and a patron of numerous useful enterprises. 




BOLDREWOOD. 




property lies on the western shore of 
the Arm, sloping gently back with a 
lake at the rear. It has been improved 
by cutting roads and walks through the trees, 
giving a park-like effect, and the owner has 
erected a number of pretty cottages for sum- 
mer occupation. The proprietor is A. E. Hali- 
burton-Gilpin, son of the late Archdeacon 
Gilpin, and a brother of the late Dr. Edwin 
Gilpin, Jr., a scientist of international repute, 
and for many years Deputy Commissioner of 
Public Works and Mines in Nova Scotia. Mr. 
Gilpin resides at " Elgin," St. Elizabeth, 
Jamaica. He acquired part of the property 
from Henry Lawson, and the balance from 
the late Hibbert Binney, Bishop of Nova 
Scotia, who had a summer cottage at this 
location. " Bishop's Cottage " is still in 
good repair. On his mother's side, Mr. 
Gilpin is a descendant of Thomas Chandler 
Haliburton, the author of " Sam Slick," and 
other works of history and humor. Judge 
Haliburton was connected with the Chandler 
family of New Brunswick. He was a member 
of the supreme court bench of Nova Scotia, 
and afterwards removed to England, and was 
elected to the House of Commons. A son, 
Lord Arthur Haliburton, was connected with 
the higher branches of the British Civil Ser- 
vice for some years, while another son is a 
noted archaeologist and spends much of his 
time in the ruins of ancient Egypt. The Gilpin 
family first settled in Nova Scotia at 
Annapolis. 



JOLLIMORE VILLAGE. 



^^ HE Northwest Arm is a place of wonder- 
y) ful beauty, and it is no surprise, 
therefore, that it is a grateful retreat 
for the busy citizens of Halifax, where the 
cares of business may be temporarily laid 
aside amid the charm of calm waters and the 
attractions of a glorious landscape, beauties 
which appeal to the visitor to the Arm in 
whichever direction the eye is turned. Every- 
thing here is pleasing. The hill-tops, health 
laden breezes, fleecy clouds, and views of the 
blue ocean with incoming and departing ships 
in the foreground of the picture are all invit- 
ing and restful. Jollimore Village on the 
western side of the Northwest Arm has 
become a centre for city residents for summer 
seasons, and the shore and hillsides are dotted 
with cottages in Tyrolean fashion, with St. 
Augustine's rural church, embowered in trees, 
nestling midway up the steep slope. A ferry 
connects with the cars at South Street, and a 
half hour is ample for the " villagers " to reach 
their places of business in the city. Jollimore 
Village is named after a fisherman, who with 
a number of others, came from Terrance Bay 
many years ago, not in search of the pictur- 
esque, which their summer visitors now 
admire, but in quest of an opportunity to pur- 
sue their honorable calling of fishers, the finny 
(93) 



94 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

inhabitants at that time abounding in the clear 
waters of the Arm. Several generations of 
the descendants of these honorable toilers by 
the sea had passed across the stage since the 
first residents of the village built their humble 
cottages on the acclivity that slopes up from 
the water, before the citizens of Halifax were 
to learn that such an ideal spot for summer 
bungalows was at their very door. But at 
last the discovery was made, and the locality 
has now become the popular home, for a part 
of the year, of many prominent people of 
Halifax. Crowning a succession of artificial 
terraces rising from a neat retaining wall at 
the waterside is the pretty villa of Ex-Mayor 
Macllreith. W. J. Butler, whose father was 
vice-president of the Royal Bank, owns an 
aerie cottage which commands a wide sweep 
of the Arm valley and part of the city 
opposite. From this lookoff one can see the 
Northwest Arm's many points of historic 
interest, and few places in the world possess 
greater attractions in this respect than the 
lovely sheet of water down at our feet. Some- 
times unruffled and reflective as a mirror, 
anon stirred by a gentle breeze and flashing 
like dancing diamonds, or asleep in the 
majesty of a moonlight night, the Northwest 
Arm is one of the beauty spots of the earth. 
A. E. McManus owns a cottage just on 
the southern limits of the village, which was 
built by Colonel Curren, and has named it 
" Unadilla," " the house of peace." The name 
is South American Indian, and a souvenir of 



JOLLIMORE VILLAGE. 



95 



a trip to Patagonia in search of a new 
El Dorado, one of Mr. McManus' two sons 
being a member of the ship's company. 
G. H. Jost, an architect who has designed 
many buildings in Maritime Canada, is one of 
the " villagers." 




THE DINGLE. 




Dingle is a large property on the 
western shore of the Northwest Arm 
owned by Sir Sandford Fleming, who 
was chief engineer in the construction of the 
Canadian Pacific Railway, the promoter of 
the British Pacific cable, to girdle the globe, 
and identified with other large undertakings. 
Sir Sandford has decided to donate part of this 
property to the city of Halifax as a public 
park, as nearly the entire shore surrounding 
the Arm is owned by clubs and private indi- 
viduals, and there is not much opportunity for 
boating parties to land and picnic if they are 
unconnected with the present proprietors. 
The Dingle property is bounded on the north 
by the Melville Island property, and on the 
south by Jollimore Village. The land was 
originally granted to William McGrannigan. 
Sir Sandford purchased it from several 
owners and their heirs. A large part of the 
Dingle belonged to the estate of Arthur 
Murphy, an Irishman, part to that of Mrs. 
Palmer, who was a Jollimore, and a part to 
the Boutilier family. The latter exchanged 
with Sir Sandford for a piece of land within 
the Jollimore Village boundaries. William 
Cunard owned the high point on which a 
memorial tower is to be erected. Fairy 
Cove is in the bounds of the Dingle, 
(96) 



THE DINGLE. 97 

and in old days was a resort for bathers, 
who would row across from the penin- 
sula. Most of the land is still primeval 
forest with a few clearings, where picnickers 
resort by permit. It is an ideal spot for out- 
ing parties and it was on this account that an 
effort was made to get it for the use of the 
public. Sir Sandford's offer to the city of part 
of the property, is on condition that a tower 
be erected there in connection with the isoth 
anniversary of the establishment of repre- 
sentative government in Nova 'Scotia, the 
tower to be in sections of different material, 
showing the development of elective institu- 
tions in Canada. Halifax, says Sir Sandford, 
was the constitutional birthplace of the out- 
ward British Empire as it exists today, all the 
other overseas territories included in the 
empire having secured their elective assembly 
after Nova Scotia, which is also the first 
province in the Dominion of Canada. Joe 
Howe, who led the fight for responsible gov- 
ernment in Canada, was born on the North- 
west Arm. It is not clear where the name of 
the Dingle was derived from, but Sir Sand- 
ford Fleming thinks it was copied from the 
well-known district of that name in Ireland, 
near Bantry. Sir Sandford Fleming was born 
in Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, Scotland, January 
27, 1827. He studied civil engineering and 
came to Canada 1845, an d was chief engineer, 
1863, on the construction of the Intercolonial 
Railway the road projected to extend from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific in 'Nova Scotia. 
5 



98 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

He lived in Halifax on Brunswick Street more 
than forty years ago, and conceived a great 
fancy for the Northwest Arm as a place of 
residence, and resolved that some day he 
would buy property there. In addition to 
owning the Dingle he owns a house, " The 
Lodge," on Oxford Street, between South 
Street and Coburg Road, which was built by 
William Duffus. Sir Sandford was knighted 
in 1897. He lias published "The Inter- 
colonial, a history, 1832-76"; " England and 
Canada " ; " Time and His Notation," and 
other works. He was the originator of 
" standard time." In 1880 he was elected for 
a term of three years Chancellor of Queen's 
University, Toronto. The London Morning 
Pest places him in the front rank of colonial 
statesmen, and Lord Strathcona says his 
name is that of a man who has done great 
and good work not alone for Canada, but for 
the whole British Empire. The suggested 
public park at The Dingle is proposed to be 
called the Sir Sandford Fleming Park. Sir 
Sandford formerly had a bungalow on the 
top of the high hill opposite The Waegwoltic. 
He formerly owned Coburg Cottage property, 
and exchanged it with the late T. E. Kenny 
for a property on South Street. 



TOWER POINT. 

N October 2, 1908, the sesquicentennial 
of the establishment of representative 
government in Nova Scotia and in 
what is now the Dominion of Canada was 
fittingly celebrated at Halifax under the aus- 
pices of the Canadian Club. The Northwest 
Arm was chosen as the scene for the cere- 
monies because it is the recognized pleasure- 
ground of the citizens, and has been the home 
of distinguished men. In the midst of a rain 
storm, in the presence of a handful of mackin- 
toshed spectators, surrounded by dripping 
foliage and under the canopy of a gray sky, 
an event of imperial significance transpired on 
the western shore of the famous Northwest 
Arm. Alongside the water of the same ocean 
across which the original settlers came to 
found homes in the untamed wilderness, there 
was laid the corner-stone of a memorial tower 
of imposing proportions designed to symbol- 
ize the inception and gradual development of 
representative institutions in Canada. Appro- 
priately enough a small clearing was made for 
the occasion, just like what probably took 
place one hundred and fifty years previous, 
when the hardy first settlers started their com- 
munity and organized their pioneer assembly 
beneath the shadow of the same varieties of 
(99) 



100 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

native trees maple, beech, spruce, etc. that 
furnished a natural setting for the recent spec- 
tacle at the Northwest Arm. When completed 
the proposed tower is to correspond with the 
splendid structure which the glowing future 
promises this great Canadian Dominion. 
Toward the top the tower will be ornamented 
with windows of rich design, belvedere, cor- 
nice, parapet and observation cupola. The 
earlier sections of the memorial must be 
simple, in harmony with the rugged period 
in Canadian history when the golden west was 
unknown, and only the roar of the waterfall 
broke the savage stillness of the heart of a 
new continent. Rough native stone will be 
the building material for the base of the 
monument. A block of granite for a corner- 
stone typified the enduring principles of the 
British constitution transplanted on Canadian 
soil in 1758. In a receptacle in the stone were 
placed copies of the Halifax dailies, pamphlets 
relating to the tower and the Canadian Club, 
volume of provincial statutes of 1908, last 
session's printed debates of both branches of 
the legislature, and newspaper accounts of the 
unveiling, August 19, 1908, at the Province 
Building of a tablet bearing the names of the 
first assemblymen. It is a coincidence that 
including Governor Lawrence and clerk David 
Lloyd in the count, the number of persons 
whose names are mentioned on the tablet as 
being present in an official capacity at the first 
opening of the Nova Scotia assembly in 1758, 
is the precise number of witnesses who, 



TOWER POINT. 101 

according to an official pamphlet issued by the 
Canadian Club, on the same day one hundred 
and fifty years later chanced to be in attend- 
ance and saw the corner-stone laid of a tower 
to commemorate that first meeting of pioneers. 
The names given in the Canadian Club 
pamphlet are : Lieutenant-Governor Fraser, 
Sir Sandford Fleming, K. C. M. G. ; J. B. 
Kenny, D. Macgillivray, A. McKay, W. T. 
O'B. Hewitt, C. E. ; John Willis, A. H. 
Mackay, LL.D. ; John W. Regan, S. M. Brook- 
field, W.-R. McCurdy, J. A. Chisholm, K. C. ; 
Dr. E. D. Farrell, James Roue, Rod. Mac- 
donald, G. S. Campbell ; Mr. and Mrs. T. 
Critchley, Sandford Critchley, Oswald Critch- 
ley, Toronto; Mrs. Hugh Fleming, Ottawa 
just twenty-one. The governor represented 
the Crown from which popular rights were 
wrested in the good old days, but which is 
now a valuable member of the constitution. 
Sir Sandford Fleming had himself crossed the 
prairies in a Red River cart, locating a line for 
the railway that afterwards penetrated the 
great west and did more than any one other 
thing to raise Canada to the proud status 
which the tower at the Northwest Arm is ulti- 
mately intended to symbolize. Representa- 
tives of the puissant fourth estate, the press, 
and of the public educational system are 
included in the above list. Free schools and a 
free press are outgrowths or complements of 
popular government. The other spectators 
represented the sovereign people themselves. 
The governor read a telegram from London 



102 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

from Lord Crewe, Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, congratulating Nova Scotia on a 
century and a half of parliamentary govern- 
ment. Another from Lord Grey, governor- 
general of Canada, was dated at Grand Forks, 
British Columbia, where His Excellency hap- 
pened to be, and expressed similar sentiments. 
As His Honor declared the corner-stone of the 
tower well and truly laid, cannon thundered 
forth a salute from the Citadel as an acknow- 
ledgment of the supremacy of the civil power. 
A photographer snapped the group, and the 
picture is reproduced herewith, a practical 
illustration of the facilities our forefathers did 
not enjoy ; they were able nevertheless to 
leave to their descendants the priceless 
heritage of representative government. 

To Sir Sandford Fleming is due the credit 
of calling public attention to the fact that the 
Nova Scotia assembly of 1758 was one of the 
earliest elective parliaments in the present 
overseas British Empire. He explained the 
matter very carefully and fully in several 
pamphlets, letters and public addresses. He 
said : " At a most notable gathering held at 
Oxford University scarcely a month ago, it 
was pointed out by the distinguished speakers 
that a century and a half ago was perhaps the 
most glorious period in British history. At 
that period were being laid far and wide the 
foundations of an ideal world-empire. Men, 
worthy of the great races from which they 
had sprung, became prominent agents in weld- 
ing into a united political organization many 



TOWER POINT. 103 

sea-separated lands ; while men great in 
military skill, such as Clive, Wolfe and Mont- 
calm, and others, had each their place in the 
evolution of history. One of the prime movers 
in the hands of a higher Power, was William 
Pitt, the great Commoner. That remarkable 
man had great wisdom, great foresight and 
great designs. For a time he guided the des- 
tinies of England and influenced the future of 
many people geographically remote from 
England. The records of history bring out 
clearly what followed the adoption of his 
policy, and in that policy Nova Scotia appears 
prominently as a pioneer. One of the first 
steps to render a great empire possible one 
of the essentials to its permanency was to 
extend to the people free civil government. In 
the march of human progress, the fall of 
Quebec was, in the mind of Pitt, absolutely 
necessary, and it is impossible to avoid asso- 
ciating the conflict on the Plains of Abraham 
in September, 1759, with the statesman who 
directed the steps of Wolfe to the great Cana- 
dian citadel. A considerable time, however, 
before Quebec became British, even before the 
fall of Louisburg, steps had been taken to 
establish parliamentary government in Nova 
Scotia. The British prime minister was 
imbued with the most lofty patriotism; and his 
penetration led him to see the supreme value 
of constitutional government and a free 
people. Whatever objections were therefore 
raised at home or abroad to the policy laid 
down, they were at once overruled by the 



104 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

master mind in London. As previously 
arranged, elections were held among the 
settlers of Nova Scotia in the summer of 1758, 
and nineteen out of the twenty elected repre- 
sentatives met in Halifax in General Assembly 
for the first time, on October 2nd of that year. 
In the development of history it occasionally 
turns out that a matter which at the time may 
be regarded as of no great moment, will in the 
course of years prove to be of imperishable 
importance. The meeting of an assembly of 
nineteen representative Nova Scotians in 
1758 has so proved. Similar general assem- 
blies have met in the same locality each year 
for a century and a half, and as will be seen 
from the statement that follows, the same 
policy has been adopted wherever applicable 
throughout the Empire in both hemispheres." 
Then followed a list of British colonial 
legislatures with date of first meeting: Nova 
Scotia, 1758; Prince Edward Island, 1773; 
New Brunswick, 1786; Upper Canada, 1792; 
Lower Canada, 1792; Newfoundland, 1833; 
Upper and Lower Canada, 1841 ; Cape Colony, 
1853; New Zealand, 1854; New South Wales, 
1855; Victoria, 1856; South Australia, 1856; 
Tasmania, 1856; Queensland, 1859; Upper and 
Lower Canada, 1866; Quebec, 1867; Dominion 
of Canada, 1867; Manitoba, 1871; British 
Columbia, 1872; West Australia, 1890; Natal, 
1893 ; Commonwealth of Australia, 1901 ; 
Orange River, 1907; Transvaal, 1907. Nova 
Scotia takes her place as the elder sister in 
the British constitutional family, writes Sir 



TOWER POINT. 



105 



Sandford, and the cradle of the Empire, and 
Halifax its constitutional birthplace. 

The proposed tower is also a suggestion of 
Sir Sandford Fleming's. The corner-stone is 
located on part of one hundred acres of land 
on the western shore of the Northwest Arm, 
which Sir Sandford has generously deeded to 
the lieutenant-governor in trust for the citi- 
zens of Halifax as a free public park forever. 
The Park is to be called after the donor in 
memory of his philanthropy. The new park 
possesses about two thousand five hundred 
feet of water front, or nearly half the entire 
shore line of The Dingle estate. It includes 
beautiful Fairy Cove and stretches from Jolli- 
more Village northward to a point near the 
" stone wharf." Breaking out from the park 
shore is a bold, inconvenient headland, which 
obstructs the clear sweep of the Arm at its 
full width, and reaches almost to the middle 
of " the stream," forming The Narrows. This 
granite promontory, with its capping of iron- 
stone and conglomerate, leaves the shore at 
right angles like a flying buttress for the hills 
of the western shore of the Arm, and at its 
extremity rises to a lovely knoll of ninety feet 
elevation, with water on three sides, a natural 
stage from which some mythical god might 
deliver his fulminations. This is Tower Point. 
It occupies a commanding position on the 
Arm, is conspicuously visible from all direc- 
tions, and dominates a panoramic view of the 
whole length of the Arm, the city and of the 
entrance to Halifax's peerless harbor. The 




PROPOSED HISTORICAL TOWKR AT SOUTHWEST ARM, 
HALIFAX. 



TOWER POINT. 107 

top of the knoll on Tower Point is worthy to 
be the site of the projected imperial tower, and 
the forum for the great message which the 
structure will convey to posterity. The tower 
will be 35 feet diameter, and 100 feet high, 
and will form a magnificent look-off, and 
a landmark for commerce passing in and 
out of this ocean gateway. The deed of trust 
from Sir Sandford Fleming to the lieutenant- 
governor authorizes the latter to convey the 
valuable park land to the city of Halifax just 
as soon as the completion of the historical 
tower in accordance with the donor's general 
design is reasonably assured. The structure is 
estimated to cost $15,000, and the Canadian 
Club of Halifax, which has undertaken to raise 
the funds for the memorial, is entrusted with 
the supervision of the erection. Letters 
expressing interest in the project have come 
from Lord Strathcona, Lieutenant-Governor 
Dunsmuir of British Columbia, from premiers, 
ex-premiers and ministers, from universities 
and educational departments and various 
organizations. Lord Milner, late British com- 
missioner in South Africa, while journeying 
across Canada on a holiday, wrote from Win- 
nipeg, September 28th, 1908, enclosing a 
subscription for the tower, and urging the 
importance of the event it is intended to cele- 
brate. Sir Sandford Fleming has himself given 
a large donation, and a general appeal, which 
ought to merit a prompt and satisfactory 
response, is being made to Canadians at home 
and abroad in order to have the interest in the 



108 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

historical memorial at the Northwest Arm as 
widespread and as popular as possible. A 
symbolical tower is not a common object. The 
famous monuments of Europe, like the Cam- 
panile, or leaning tower of Pisa, were merely 
expressions of the prosperity of the time. The 
monument of London marks the ending of the 
great fire, which is depicted in a series of 
immense paintings in the Royal Exchange. 
Bunker Hill obelisk is one of a large class of 
military memorials. Grant's Tomb, the Royal 
Albert Mausoleum, the Taj of Agra, the 
Sphinx and the Pyramids signalize particular 
things. The Arc du Triomphe and the 
memorials of Berlin are of the same variety. 
It is difficult to recall a symbolical tower 
representing an evolutionary process and 
covering a long period in its different sections. 
The historical tower at the Northwest Arm 
will be unique among the world's memorials. 




MELVILLE MILITARY PRISON. 



ALIFAX people know all about the 
beauties and attractions of the North- 
west Arm. They have gathered upon 
its banks to witness aquatic sports for years. 
They have traversed it in steam craft, sailing 
boats, skiffs and canoes, in calm and storm, 
by day and night. They have picnicked along 
its shores, camped on its banks and summered 
at its various points. To them it is as an old 
friend, yet ever new and ever pleasing, and 
they call it the most picturesque inlet of the 
sea in America. Passing over the many and 
varied beauties of the Northwest Arm, atten- 
tion is now directed to a deep cove near its 
head in which is situated an islet known as 
Melville Island, reached by a bridge from the 
mainland, and named after that Scottish 
statesman who was the second Pitt's secretary 
of the navy in the stirring times following the 
breaking out of the great French revolution. 
Melville Island bore several names before it 
was purchased by the British government for 
the imprisonment of seamen captured during 
the wars between Great Britain and France, 
and Great Britain and the United States. It 
(109) 



110 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

was once called Kavanagh's Island. A little 
later on we find the property surrounding the 
cove and the island named McGrannigan's. 
Akins calls it Cowie's Island, and tradition 
reports that Cowie was a commissariat officer 
and that he had a female servant hanged for 
theft in the days when ferocious laws dis- 
graced the statute books of Great Britain, and 
were copied in this country. A number of 
silver spoons which were missing constituted 
the charge against the unfortunate domestic, 
but in the spring these were found where they 
had been accidentally laid and had been 
covered with snow. The story goes that the 
people of the town showed great indignation 
against Cowie for the execution of the girl. 

There are several traditions of an equally 
sad nature lingering among the people, 
regarding this historic spot. On Deadman's 
Island within the Cove, near where the mili- 
tary prison is located there are a cross and 
slab which mark the last resting place of John 
Dixon. Little or nothing is known of the 
person whose lonely grave is placed in 'this 
secluded spot. But legend, ever ready to fur- 
nish forth and embellish a story, relates a 
romantic tale connected with the man whose 
mortal remains rest on the island. It relates 
that the inmate of the lonely tomb was a 
young soldier who died at the prison by his 
own hand. And legend further declares that 
he was the victim of the cruel father of his 
sweetheart, who was colonel of the regiment 



MELVILLE MILITARY PRISON. Ill 

to which the young man was attached. The 
story runs that Dixon was an orderly of good 
family, although in the ranks, and of hand- 
some physique, and that living at the colonel's 
quarters his duties threw him much in the 
company of the beautiful daughter of the 
commander, a girl of eighteen years. They 
loved in secret for some time, until this attach- 
ment becoming known to the father, the 
young man was sent back to the duties of 
private soldier, where he had been only a 
short time, when a charge of theft from a 
comrade was trumped up against him. He 
was tried by court-martial, found guilty and 
sentenced to penal servitude at Melville 
Island military prison. The victim of this 
false accusation pined away in the dreary soli- 
tude of the prison, and finally, it is said, com- 
mitted suicide, and on account of the manner 
of his death his body was committed to the 
grave at night. This is the tale told of him 
whose dust reposes on Deadman's Island, and 
the soldiers who guard the prison approaches 
have for over fifty years transferred the tale 
of unfortunate love from one regiment to 
another, and also the trust of keeping the 
grave and headstone in repair, down to the 
present day. A. E. Gunning, of Halifax, years 
ago retouched the inscription on the slab, 
which had become faint with time. Some 
people think the unknown slumberer was a 
French prisoner, and that there are other 
graves on Deadman's Island. Others declare 
the grave is that of some poor castaway 



112 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ABM. 

whose body was found floating in the cove. 
The inscription on the slab is as follows : 

Sacred to the Memory 

of 

John Dixon, 

of Sydney, K. B., 

who died on the 

6th of August, 1817. 

Erected by the 

VIII King's Foot. 

Renewed by ist Royal 

Berkshire Regiment, 1895. 

The Hon. Joseph Howe, when a lad 
of sixteen, wrote a poem descriptive of 
the Northwest Arm and Melville Island. The 
island then had been abandoned as a naval 
prison for ten years, as the peace following 
the exile of Napoleon made a prison of this 
kind unnecessary. Howe writes : 

Although a prison, yet the little isle 

Was not a common jail for culprits vile, 

No felons its genial soil impressed, 

No frightful dream here broke the murderer's rest. 

The only crime which 'round its confines moved 

Was nobly daring in the cause they loved. 

And again the young poet says : 

We cross the bridge where erst the cannon stood, 
To guard the narrow passage o'er the flood. 
The guardhouse there with fissures well supplied 
To point the ready gun on every side. 
Where walked the watchful sentry day and night 
Lest some might strive to make a desperate flight. 

At the period when Howe saw the old 
naval prison it had long been deserted and 
was then fallen into ruins. The large, red 



MELVILLE MILITARY PRISON. Il3 

building had formed a prison and had been 
formerly a fish house, where green fish were 
cured and stored, and this was in a very 
dilapidated condition. Some years after this 
the island again became the site of a prison 
and the imperial military authorities removed 
the old wooden structure and erected the pre- 
sent substantial brick and stone prison build- 
ing surrounded by high walls, capped with 
broken bottles set in cement, and with the 
approaches dominated by the guns of the 
guards. 

One of the stories which used to be 
told about Melville Island was that the prison 
officials kept a shark swimming about the 
waters of the island and regularly fed it, and 
circulated this story among the prisoners to 
prevent them trying to escape. 

The project seems to have originated with 
Sir John Sherbrooke when governor of Nova 
Scotia, to remove prisoners of war from Hali- 
fax to Pictou or Louisburg, but nothing came 
of it. The government was informed that 
owing to the intercourse which Mitchell, the 
American agent, held with American prisoners 
of war on Melville Island, no less than ten 
licensed vessels had been seized and con- 
demned in the United States. The Transport 
Board, of which Sir Rupert George was at the 
head, reported their opinion in favor of chang- 
ing the place for prisoners, and in particular 
recommended putting them out of the reach 
of such an agent as Mitchell, but the reply 
received was that unless Louisburg had been 



114 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ABM. 

much altered within the last few years great 
expense must be incurred in buildings, and 
that there would be difficulty in supplying 
provisions there. Lord Bathurst, by letter 
January 29, 1814, directed Sir John Sher- 
brooke to " lose no time in removing all 
American prisoners of war now on parole at 
Halifax ; that you will take every opportunity 
of sending the other prisoners not on parole to 
this country, and that you will immediately 
place Mr. Mitchell under the same restrictions 
in point of residence which the American 
government have imposed on Major Barclay." 
Colonel Barclay, the British agent of prisoners 
of war in the United States, had been com- 
pelled to reside in the interior, while Mr. Mit- 
chell, the American agent, resided at Halifax. 
About this time the following published 
notice was given : 

NOTICE. 

The inhabitants of Halifax and its vicinity 
having either American or French prisoners 
of Avar in their employment are hereby 
required and requested to send them to the 
prison at Melville Island on Monday next, 
2ist inst. for the purpose of attending muster. 

(Signed) WM. MILLER. 

Halifax, I3th Feb. 1814. 
Transport Office, agent for prisoners of war. 

Mr. Miller was a naval officer retired. He 
married an aunt of the late Hugh Blackadar 
of the Halifax Recorder. His residence was at 



MELVILLE MILITARY PRISON. 115 

the southwest corner of Water and North 
streets. 

" Within a half hour's walk west of our 
little metropolis of Halifax, there is," Mur- 
doch says in his history of Nova Scotia, " a 
charming, romantic inlet of the Chebucto Bay, 
called the Northwest Arm, and on the furthest 
or west shore a deep cove within which lies a 
small islet called Melville Island. The com- 
bination of forest scenery, villas and clear, 
deep water to be found here is hardly sur- 
passed in beauty and attractiveness by any 
other place in the province. About the begin- 
ning of the I9th century this little islet was 
purchased by the British government and 
appropriated to the purpose of a naval prison. 
The war with France brought a crowd of 
sailors of that nation here, who had been taken 
in ships of war, privateers and merchant ves- 
sels. While the officers were prisoners on 
parole, the common men of the crews were 
lodged and provided for in this establishment. 
They were, generally speaking, cheerful, in- 
dustrious and well behaved, so much so that 
very many were permitted to hire themselves 
out to farmers and others in the neighborhood 
of Halifax, or as domestics in some instances. 
In the large building occupied as a prison, 
those who remained were clean, orderly and 
even happy. Many of them spent their time 
in making boxes, dominoes and many other 
small articles. The people of the town were 
permitted to visit this prison and purchase 
these little objects. As the Northwest Arm is 



116 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

usually frozen in winter, parties from town 
frequently crossed on the ice from Pryor's 
wharf, below " Jubilee," to the island. The 
prisoners lived in a large wooden edifice very 
strongly built and comfortable. It was 
divided by partitions of plank and timber, 
which, however, only went part way up to 
the roof, into compartments on each side, the 
centre passage being wide open. The ham- 
mocks and other accommodation of the men 
were in these compartments. At the upper 
end of the place there was a kind of bazaar 
where every prisoner who had something to 
sell displayed his wares. One man had a kind 
of puppet show with vocal accompaniments. 
Another had a metal wheel revolving, forming 
& lottery all prizes ; you put down your eight 
of a dollar or so, and you got perhaps a tooth- 
pick or may be something of greater value. 
They had very pretty models of ships of war 
made of bone and the rigging of hair. When 
war with the United States was declared, the 
prison became overcrowded and the condi- 
tions not as cheerful as when the prison was 
solely occupied by the French sailors." Dead- 
man's Island and valuable land surround- 
ing Melville Cove are now owned by C. F. 
Longley and are used as a public pleasure 
resort known as Melville Park, with dance 
pavilion. A motor ferry connects with the 
wharf at Jubilee Road to take people to the 
Park, but telephone connection has been sus- 
pended owing to a conflict between several 
interests as to the right to erect poles and 



MELVILLE MiLI?AR PRISON. 117 

string wires on the public road to Melville. 
Mr. Longley is the pioneer in this particular 
feature of Northwest Arm attractions. The 
north shore of charming Melville Cove is 
occupied by an increasing number of tents 
and bungalows. This spot is extremely popu- 
lar with Northwest Arm campers. The 
residents of Melville colony have arranged 
several very pretty joint illuminations of their 
premises, particularly this year. The Halifax 
Amateur Boating Club selected Melville Cove 
at which to hold a successful " At Home " in 
1907. W. R. Geldert, of Truro, lived at 
Jubilee on the eastern shore of the Arm fifty 
years ago with his uncle, the late J. M. Gel- 
dert. He remembers visiting Deadman's 
Island and seeing a number of shallow graves 
which had been uncovered by a heavy storm, 
and human skeletons exposed. Rev. T. L. 
Draper, of Louisburg, is a son of a former 
governor of Melville Island. " Azimghiir " 
and " Have-a-Rest " are the names of two of 
the numerous villas at Melville Cove. 

Henry Dundas, first Lord Melville (1742- 
1811), was nicknamed "Starvation Dundas" 
from having introduced the word starvation 
into the English language in a speech in 
Parliament, in 1755, in a debate on American 
affairs. 




H O S T E R M A N ' S . 



PROPERTY on the western shore of 
the Northwest Arm which was 
familiar to many people for years as an 
objective for Sunday-school picnics and other 
excursions by water was known as Hoster- 
man's. This formerly belonged to Thomas 
Hosterman, who willed it to his sons John 
and Charles. They married daughters of John 
Howe, Jr. Part of John Hosterman's portion 
was formerly in possession of Rev. Aaron 
Cleveland, great-great-grandfather of the late 
Grover Cleveland, twice President of the 
United States. Rev. Mr. Cleveland was a 
New England Congregationalist clergyman 
who removed to Halifax in 1750 and settled 
here for a time, but later returned to the 
United States. There is no mention in the 
Crown Lands office of a Northwest Arm 
grant to Cleveland, but a grant of the Melville 
Island property, consisting of 160 acres, dated 
1752 to Robert Cowie, refers to Aaron Cleve- 
land's property as bounding this grant on the 
north. Associated with Cleveland's name in 
the ownership of the property at the Arm 
was a Chadwick and an Auborg. There is 
recorded a grant of a township lot in the 
centre of Halifax city to Rev. Aaron Cleve- 
land. He ministered in the old Mather's 
church which stood on the site of the present 
(118) 



HOSTERMAN'S. 119 

Exchange Building, corner of Hollis and 
Prince streets. It was burned New Year's 
Day, 1859, in the Hollis Street fire, but there 
is a wooden model of the edifice in the Legis- 
lative Library. Mather's was the second 
church opened in Halifax for public worship. 
It was built at the expense of the government 
as a dissenting meeting house, and Cleveland 
was the first officiating clergyman. Most of 
the dissenters of the town had also come from 
New England. The congregation is now 
known as St. Matthew's Presbyterian, on 
Pleasant street. Aaron Cleveland was also 
the ancestor of Thomas Wentworth Higgin- 
son (a friend of Longfellow's, still living), 
Clarence Stedman the poet, and other descend- 
ants noted in American literature. Cleveland 
was born at Cambridge, Mass., 1715, and was 
educated at Harvard. He remained in Hali- 
fax three years and returned to New England. 
Later he went to England and embraced the 
Anglican faith. He was sent back to America 
by the Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel, and came to Halifax in 1754 to settle up 
his afifairs. H. H. Banks lived at the Hoster- 
man property for several years. This fine 
estate is now owned by G. Edmonds. Many 
years ago a big whale wandered into the 
Northwest Arm and was driven ashore at the 
Hosterman property after an exciting exper- 
ience. One of the Hostermans was in the boat 
which secured the prize. The skeleton of the 
cetacean, measuring nearly one hundred feet, 
was mounted at Walton Hall. 



A MANUFACTURING CENTRE. 



head of the Northwest Arm at one 
time was a busy manufacturing centre. 
Chocolate Lake, near the Arm, derives 
its name from a chocolate mill that was oper- 
ated there at one time. This was a spice and 
snuff mill afterwards. Then Hosterman & 
Black made a great deal of money importing 
grain and grinding flour. This building was 
afterwards used for a rolling mill and a nail 
factory, and is now part of Brandram- 
Henderson's paint works. In the same 
vicinity there were several shingle and 
lumber mills, corn mills, etc., and near at 
hand was Leopard's shipyard, conducted by 
a merchant and ship-builder of that name. 
Numerous vessels were launched there, and a 
map dated 1828 mentions this shipyard. 



(120) 



A HERO OF THE INDIAN MUTINY. 

EFORE the destruction of the military 
magazine, which stood on the harbor 
front, north of the Dockyard, the mer- 
chants of Halifax who handled explosives, had 
the privilege of storing them in that building. 
The magazine mysteriously blew up one night 
in the fifties of the last century. After the 
accident the hardware merchants and others 
who dealt in powder had no place to safely 
store dynamite. To meet the need they 
obtained an old building from John E. Hos- 
terman, that stood on the site of the resi- 
dence now occupied by James Billman, at the 
head of the Northwest Arm, which they con- 
verted into a magazine. In 1873 the Mer- 
chants' Magazine Company of Halifax, com- 
posed of dealers in explosives, erected the 
present safe and substantial stone and steel 
building on property conveyed to them by 
John E. Hosterman. This property in 1905 
passed by purchase to Thomas J. Egan, who 
still owns it. The magazine is west of the 
Melville Island road, and is still used as a 
storehouse for explosives. The situation was 
selected on account of its isolated position and 
inaccessibility. Austen Bros., as agents of 
Curtis's & Harvey, Ltd., manufacturers of high 
class explosives, London, E., are the present 
lessees of the premises. The Austens are con- 
6 (121) 



122 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

nections of the Howe family. H. E. Austen 
has made a study of ornithology, and pos- 
sesses a splendid collection of native birds 
mounted by himself. 

Just south of the magazine site is the resi- 
dence of John Egan. The house was built by 
Sergeant Macnamara, an old Indian mutiny 
hero, who named it Azimghur, in recollection 
of the victory over the Sepoy rebels at that 
place. The sergeant was among the Euro- 
peans who fought with the gallant Gourkhas. 
the native allies of Great Britain, in this battle. 
Their force numbered only 1200 under Captain 
Boileau, who ordered Sumshai Sing to push 
his men forward at double quick. Splendidly 
the Gourkhas responded to their leader's com- 
mand, and rushing forward they drove the 
enemy from their positions in a desperate 
hand to hand conflict, and captured three 
guns. Tradition says in this battle Mac- 
namara killed three men with his own hand. 




THE ROCKING STONE. 



three miles from the Dingle is a 
granite rocking-stone, resting on a 
strata of bed rock which rises to the 
surface of the ground. It is twenty feet in 
length, fourteen in breadth, nine in height, 
and seventy-four in circumference. It is 
estimated to weigh one hundred and sixty-two 
tons, and sways on a pivot of twelve by six 
inches. It is easily set in motion with the aid 
of a small wooden lever, but is said to have 
been so nicely balanced some years ago that 
a push of the hand was sufficient to oscillate 
this big glacial foot-ball. 




(123) 



NORTHWEST ARM IN 1784. 

the year 1784, according to a large mili- 
tary plan of the peninsula of Halifax, 
surveyed by Capt. Blaskowitz of the 
Royal Engineers, under orders from Lieut. 
Colonel Morse, R. E., there were eight build- 
ings on the shores of the Northwest Arm. 
These wera situated on the eastern side of the 
Arm and are labelled on the plan " Fisheries." 
Mason's Fishery stood a little below the 
property now occupied and owned by Hon. B. 
F. Pearson. Williams' Fishery was near 
Maplewood, opposite the Lawson property, 
and Williams' Lake, which is shown in the 
old map, was in all probability named after 
the Williams who owned the fishery. At 
Horseshoe Island Nathaniels' Fishery was 
erected, and three buildings stood on the 
island. Purcell's Cove Island is named Rus- 
sell's Island, and Melville Island is called 
'Kavanagh's. In 1784 apparently not a 
single inhabitant occupied the western shore 
of the Northwest Arm, all that part being still 
an unbroken forest. Near the site of the pre- 
sent St. Agnes Chapel there is a property 
marked Brymer's Farm, where there were sev- 
eral buildings. Alexander Brymer was a rich 
merchant of Halifax in the latter part of the 
i8th century. He was twice president of the 
North British Society, and a member of the 
old Council of Twelve. His town residence 

(124) 



NORTHWEST ARM IN 1784. 



125 



stood on the 
present site of 
Jerusalem Ware- 
house, which for- 
merly belonged to 
Thomas Saul. It 
was called Bry- 
mer's Palace, and 
history states that 
the interior of the 
residence was 
elegantly design- 
ed, and the rooms 
embellished with 
rich carvings. 
Brymer married a 
daughter of Gov- 
ernor Parr (who 
was a widow of a 
Captain Dobson), 
in London, where 
he removed 1801 
after amassing a 
fortune of 250,- 
ooo. Mr. Brymer 
was a man of 
generous instincts, 
and figured as a 
patron of several 
young Nova Sco- 
tians whom he 
assisted to rise in 
life, one of them 

being Andrew Blecher, the father of the 
famous Arctic explorer of that name. 




THE FIRST AMERICAN ZOO. 



r j^ HE Northwest Arm was the site of the 
() first zoological garden in America. 
This was started by the late Andrew 
Downs in 1847, sixteen years before the 
Central Park collection at New York 
was opened to the public. The Phila- 
delphia Garden did not open until July, 
1874. The Cincinnati Zoo opened 1875, 
St. Louis 1877, and Lincoln Park Garden, 
Chicago, 1881. Mr. Downs commenced with 
a piece of land five acres, but by 1863 he had 
enlarged his premises to one hundred acres, 
then called Walton Cottage at Dutch Village 
at the head of the Arm, embracing wood and 
field, stream and pond, hill and valley. The 
property is now owned by Dr. Doull. This 
became a popular resort, and many anecdotes, 
says Harry Piers in an article contributed to 
the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, were 
connected with the naturalist's life in this 
lovely spot. King Edward when Prince of 
Wales, visited Downs' garden in 1860, as did 
nearly every notable person who came this 
way, including Prince Jerome Bonaparte, 
King Victor Emmanuel's daughter, Lord and 
Lady Falkland, Captain Sir Richard Grant, 
the African explorer, and others. 
(126) 



THE FIRST AMERICAN ZOO. 127 

111 1864 Mr. Downs visited Europe, being 
complimented by a free passage in a British 
war vessel, the " Mersey," Captain Caldwell. 
He carried with him several living specimens, 
two cases of mounted birds and a stuffed 
moose, which he presented to the London 
Zoo. In Europe he received courtesies from 
many scientific men. He remembered once 
seeing Audubon with whom he also corres- 
ponded, and he was a friend of Charles Wat- 
terton, the naturalist at whose house, Walton 
Hall in England, he had been a guest. Mr. 
Downs also corresponded with Frank Buck- 
land, and most of the foremost zoologists of 
his time. Another friend, Charles Hallock, 
founder and proprietor of Forest and Stream, 
graphically described an early visit to Downs' 
garden at the Northwest Arm, Halifax, in an 
article which he published January 4, 1893, 
entitled, " The First American Zoo." Hallock 
says the gothic cottage was overhung with 
woodbines and honeysuckles, and surmounted 
at all points with antlers of elk and moose. 
All 'round the cottage were bird houses 
perched on poles, and a cloud of pigeons 
circled and tumbled about. In the house were 
paintings and engravings, water colors, busts, 
and case after case of birds, insects, etc. Hal- 
lock says there was a magnificent view from 
the veranda and bay windows, " the North- 
west Arm stretching away toward the ocean 
with its bays, inlets, wooded hills and far- 
reaching points of land that are blue and only 
half distinct in the hazy atmosphere of a sum- 



128 SKETCHES OF THE NOR'lHWEST ARM. 

mer day." There were fowls of all kinds, 
beavers, seals, mink, otter, deer, caribou, 
foxes, wolves, snakes, lizards and generally 
the birds, fishes, beasts and reptiles of every 
country. There was also a horticultural gar- 
den, and the whole estate was diversified with 
fountains, cascades, paths, ponds and shade 
trees. 

In the latter part of 1867 Mr. Downs was 
proposed for superintendent of Central Park 
menagerie, New York, being recommended 
by Professor Spencer F. Baird, of the Smith- 
sonian Institution. He received an offer of 
the position and sold his animals and grounds, 
and went to New York, but was displeased 
at a cool reception given him by one of the 
commissioners, and returned to Halifax at the 
end of about three months and did not accept 
the appointment. Soon afterwards he pur- 
chased a new property at the Arm, since suc- 
cessively owned by S. A. White, Captain W. 
H. Smith, R. N. R., and Alex. Stephen, a for- 
mer Mayor of Halifax ; now controlled by T. J. 
Egan, and son-in-law D. Chisholm of Sheet 
Harbor, and called " Rockwood Cottage." 
Colonel Egan is himself a taxidermist, but 
unfortunately his fine collection of birds was 
destroyed by the Water Street fire a few years 
ago. He is the author of an interesting his- 
tory " Halifax Volunteer Battalion, 1859- 
1887." Rockwood adjoined Mr. Downs' old 
place, and here he built a house and started a 
new zoological garden, which he continued to 
improve for about three years. Then he lived 



Old Ferry House at Point Pleasant 



Cornwallis Caravel used 
N in 1907 Illumination. 




THE FIRST AMERICAN ZOO. 129 

for years on Agricola Street, surrounded by 
living animals and specimens, and about 1890 
built a museum annex to his house and placed 
therein his extremely fine collection of 
mounted native birds, comprising about four- 
teen cases. After Mr. Downs' death this col- 
lection was placed in the lecture room of the 
County Academy, Halifax, and is now in a 
deplorable state of preservation for want of 
care. T. J. McGrath occupied the Downs 
house on Agricola Street. Mr. Downs' taxi- 
dermic work was very fine, and he received 
many awards at exhibitions in England and 
elsewhere, including a bronze medal, London, 
1861 and 1862, bronze medal Dublin 1865, 
silver medal Paris 1867. Sir Wyville Thom- 
son in a critical article on the Natural History 
section of the Paris Exhibition in Illustrated 
London Neivs, August 24, 1867, made special 
reference to Mr. Downs' collection of birds. 
Mr. Downs claimed he had stuffed about 800 
moose heads. He supplied King Victor Em- 
manuel with many thousand dollars' worth of 
animals and specimens. At one time this 
sovereign had in his acclimatization garden at 
Pisa a number of living moose and caribou 
supplied by the Nova Scotian naturalist. 
Specimens of the latter's taxidermic work 
were supplied other European monarchs and 
large quantities went to the great museums 
and private collections on both sides of the 
Atlantic and a number are incorporated in the 
provincial museum at Halifax. Mr. Downs 
was a corresponding member of the Zoological 



130 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Society of London, and wrote a number of 
papers on birds and natural history. He was 
born in New Brunswick, N. J., September 
27, 1811, and came to Halifax at the age of 
fourteen with his father and mother. His 
father had landed here from Scotland when he 
first came to America. Young Downs started 
as a plumber in Halifax, and gradually drifted 
into natural history. He died August 26, 1892. 




ARMVIEW, FORMERLY LAKEWOOD. 



^.ESIDENTS at the head of the North- 



west Arm, which has always been a 
1. popular section of the Arm with many 
people, point out the fine view of the whole 
length of the Arm to be had from this district. 
In the early morning and at twilight the pic- 
ture might well adorn an artist's canvas, and 
is referred to in Hallock's account of his visit 
many years ago to Downs' zoological garden. 
The head of the Arm is spanned by a stone 
bridge, with rustic parapets, and pierced by 
an arched culvert for the passage of a mur- 
muring stream. Several roads spread out fan 
fashion from each end of the bridge, which in 
respect to the people that have passed this 
way for many years resembles the narrow 
part of an hour glass, the spreading roads 
being the bulbs. There are pretty white- 
washed churches near both ends of the bridge, 
and not far away the silent churchyards. 
High up on the east side is St. Agnes Chapel, 
and near it the palace of the late Archbishop 
Connolly. An increasing number of business 
men of the city have pitched their tents at the 
head of the Arm for the summer, and some of 
them for the entire year. The land rises rather 
abruptly on both sides of the bridge, and from 
the cottages and bungalows on the slopes 
there is a fine view of the Arm and surround- 
(131) 



132 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

ing country, and of the people coming and 
going along the different roads and crossing 
the bridge and disappearing from sight. 

Armview on the western slope, with sea- 
shore on one side and the shore of Chocolate 
Lake on the other side of it, was formerly a 
part of the property of Dr. Charles Cogswell, 
a member of one of the old Halifax families 
connected with the original government of the 
province. This family had property in differ- 
ent parts of the city, including the historic 
Carleton House. A Miss Cogswell married 
Captain William R. Boardman, of the Royal 
Navy, who has risen to the rank of admiral. 
James Cogswell, father of Mrs. Boardman, 
and brother of Dr. Cogswell, was killed at sea 
May 3, 1867, by a wave which boarded the 
Cunard steamship China, bound from Liver- 
pool to Halifax and Boston. His remains 
were brought to land and the funeral took 
place May 8th. On board the same ship was 
the late Hon. Joseph Howe, returning from 
an unsuccessful mission to England to en- 
deavor to prevent the passage of the British 
North America Act confederating the prov- 
inces of Canada into the present Dominion. 
The China was one of the last mail steamships 
of the Cunard line making Halifax a port of 
call en route to the States. The Cunard line 
had been founded by a Halifax man, and this 
city witnessed the beginning of the trans- 
Atlantic steamship business as the pioneer 
American terminus. The Intercolonial Rail- 
way was not built until the seventies, and the 



ARMVIEVV, FORMERLY LAKEWOOD. 133 

absence of connection with the railway 
system of the continent was partly respons- 
ible for the withdrawal of the Cunard line 
from Halifax. 

Dr. Cogswell's fine estate at the head of 
the Arm has been sold in portions by his 
executors. Dr. Trenaman, city medical 
officer, is the owner of one part. The balance 
of the estate is now the property of Frank 
Colwell. Dr. Cogswell died in England about 
1893. He took considerable interest in sea- 
birds, and admired the industry of the king- 
fisher, and he is credited with introducing the 
kingfisher into the crest of the city of Halifax. 
There is a weather vane surmounted by the 
kingfisher on St. James Church, in which Dr. 
Cogswell was interested, and a house in which 
he resided on Quinpool Road bore the same 
emblem. The city coat of arms is supposed to 
have been designed by the doctor during a 
visit he paid to the Herald's College in Lon- 
don. Dr. Cogswell was also a patron of 
aquatics, and for a number of years there was 
an annual competition on the harbor for the 
Cogswell belt, which was captured at different 
times by George Brown, Warren Smith and 
ether notable scullers. In 1883, the 100 
which he had invested for the purpose of pro- 
viding this annual trophy, and which was to 
be representative of the harbor championship, 
was increased to $1,000 and the competition 
was thrown open to professional scullers. In 
1903 this was changed by medals being sub- 
stituted for a belt and the entries restricted 



13 i SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

to amateurs. A silver medal is given annually 
to the winner of the amateur sculling cham- 
pionship, and a gold medal for three wins by 
the same oarsman. In addition to the 
thousand dollars now invested for the above 
purpose, Dr. Cogswell gave $4,000 to trustees 
to invest and pay the interest therefrom to the 
city school board to encourage military drill 
in the public schools. The estate of Dr. Cogs- 
well was finally settled the present year, 1908, 
and in that connection Mrs. Boardman, one 
of the heirs, revisited Halifax after an absence 
of thirty years, and with her family returned 
to England via Vancouver, Japan, India and 
Suez, the entire trip round the world including 
long stops in Nova Scotia and India, occupy- 
ing about fifteen months. James Cogswell 
owned the Bower property at the time of his 
death, having acquired it from the Halliburton 
estate. It was afterward divided between two 
of his children, and one portion, the title of 
which remains in the family, is called The 
Oaks. The other section, including the old 
Bower House, was sold a few years ago to 
W. B. A. Ritchie, K. C, former law partner 
of R. L. Borden, and one of the most distin- 
guished men at the Nova Scotia bar. Mr. 
Ritchie is a member of the well-known family 
of that name that came from Annapolis, and 
furnished many able judges and lawyers to 
Nova Scotia and Canadian jurisprudence. 

In addition to the Cogswell conveyance 
there are two other names of interest on Mr. 
Colwell's title to Lakewood, now Armview, 



ARMVIEW, FORMERLY LAKEWOOD. 135 

one of whom, Geizer, represents the family 
after whom Geizer's Hill, a couple of miles 
from the head of the Arm, was named. They 
are said to be connections of the Duke of 
Guise. Another name is Kidston, a collateral 
branch of a rich family of merchants in Glas- 
gow. One of the Halifax Kidstons; in the 
i/th century, conducted a hardware and lum- 
ber business out of which grew the firm of 
William Stairs, Son & Morrow. He sold out 
and removed to Glasgow, Scotland, and estab- 
lished the great house of William Kidston & 
Sons in 1810. This firm was extensively 
interested in Nova Scotia shipping and their 
packets, most of them built in this province, 
brought out many of the old generation of 
Presbyterian clergymen. In a history of the 
Stairs and Morrow families published in 1906 
by the late George Stairs, there is included 
among other MSS. of the late Hon. W. J. 
Stairs a letter regarding the Kidstons. The 
writer states that the " first seagoing vessel 
that went up this river (the Clyde) to the 
Broomielaw, was a small brig built at Maitland, 
N. S., for Mr. Kidston ; she sailed from the 
Market Wharf, Halifax, and returned again." 
This was the beginning of the enormous 
foreign trade and tonnage of the Clyde River, 
Scotland. The barque Roseneath, 60 years 
later, was the last Nova Scotia built ship 
owned and managed by the Kidstons of Glas- 
gow. 

C. W. Outhit, James Billman, the Misses 
Flinn, and other well-known Halifax people 



136 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

have permanent residences at the head of the 
Northwest Arm. 

Near the foot of Quinpool Road is 
the estate of Hon. James McDonald, 
former chief justice of the supreme court 
of Nova Scotia, secretary of the province 
at the passing of the Confederation Act 
in the house of assembly, and a distinguished 
member of the bench and bar. James A. Mc- 
Donald, barrister, Halifax, is a son; a daughter 
married Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper, former 
member of the Dominion cabinet. 




AT THE ARM BRIDGE. 

|QRING Governor Lawrence's time,, 
Indians made an attack upon a saw 
mill at the head of the Northwest Arm. 
A line of blockhouses ran from here to the 
Basin, as a defence against Indian incursions. 
In the attack on the mill three men were 
tomahawked and killed. Their bodies were 
buried by a rescuing party of soldiers from 
one of the blockhouses, and were three times 
dug up by the Indians in defiance of the guard 
for the purpose of securing the scalps. The 
blockhouses were built of square timbers with 
loopholes for musketry. They were of great 
thickness, and had parapets around the top 
and a platform at the base, with a well for the 
use of each post. The foundation of the centre 
blockhouse, which stood at the foot of the pre- 
sent Kline Street, was still to be seen in 1848. 
In early days an old road ran east of the 
present Dutch Village Road to the Basin, and 
ended in the rear of Lockhart's Hotel. Just 
north of the Arm Bridge, in a field through 
which runs the stream that passes under the 
bridge, a beaver dam once existed, and above 
this, tradition states, stood a strong Micmac 
encampment. It is probable that the Indians 
resented the encroachments of the pale-faces 
upon their ancient domain, and this led to the 
attack on the settlers at the saw mill. 
(137) 



THE QUAINT DUTCH VILLAGE. 



T Dutch Village, near the head of the 
Northwest Arm, Titus Smith, a 
naturalist and " philosopher," as he 
was called, resided. He followed agricultural 
pursuits in the village. He frequently con- 
tributed to the newspapers of Halifax on sub- 
jects connected with his favorite studies of 
natural history and geology. Mr. Smith was 
remarkable for the vast and varied informa- 
tion he acquired in botany, natural history, 
etc. With a familiar knowledge of most that 
nature and books could teach an inquiring 
mind, he united unfeigned simplicity and 
kindness that rendered him an agreeable visi- 
tor to all houses in the town. Titus Smith 
received a classical education from his father, 
who was a graduate of Harvard College, Cam- 
bridge, and a minister of the Sandemanian 
sect. The family were United Empire Loyal- 
ists. An uncle of Titus Smith's is the original 
of Hawke-Eye, one of the leading characters 
in Cooper's famous novel " The Last of the 
Mohicans." Smith's grave is in the woods 
above Dutch Village on the road leading to 
Geizer's Hill. His descendants are in the 
United States, and several have attained 
prominence. This quaint village built by the 
early German settlers and called after them, 
was also the residence of several other natur- 
(138) 



THE QUAINT DUTCH VILLAGE. 139 

alists of repute. I. Mathew Jones, and his 
father-in-law Colonel Myers of the Imperial 
army, resided there for a number of years. 
Captain Hardy, who afterward became a gen- 
eral and wrote " Forest Life in Acadie," lived 
near the head of the Arm sixty years ago. He 
was a keen sportsman, and was concerned in 
the first discovery of gold in Nova Scotia at 
Tangier. Dutch Village was also known as 
Westenwald. Ravenswood, the residence of 
Thomas Forhan, is one of the pretty homes 
of this locality, and is probably named after 
the hero of Scott's novel, " The Bride of Lam- 
mermoor." 




STANY AN. 

TANYAN," the house at the head of 
the Northwest Arm alongside the 
bridge, and commanding a view of 
the whole Arm, is the residence of County 
Councillor Henry Piers, a descendant of 
Lewis Piers, one of the original founders of 
Halifax in 1749. Mr. Piers formerly resided 
in a house of the same name at Willow Park, 
now part of the provincial exhibition grounds, 
that had been in the possession of the family 
since 1784. In 1897 ne built the present resi- 
dence upon the Arm on property purchased 
from the estate of Dr. Cogswell. This land 
had originally been granted on loth August, 
1811, to Major Alexander Ligertwood, of the 
6oth or Royal American Regiment of Foot, 
who from about 1808 till his death in January 
1815 was successively military secretary at 
Halifax to Lieutenant-General Sir George 
Provost, and deputy quartermaster-general at 
the same place. The name Stanyan, like many 
other property names at the Northwest Arm, 
had been an old family name in England, 
being derived from Temple Stanyan, a literary 
man and friend of Addison. 



(140) 



THE BARONET OF ARMDALE. 



RMDALE on the eastern shores of the 
Northwest Arm at the foot of Quin- 
pool Road, is a large property belong- 
ing to Sir Charles Tupper, former premier of 
Nova Scotia, one of the " Fathers of Confed- 
eration," a member of the Dominion cabinet 
during several parliaments, High Commis- 
sioner for Canada in London, and finally 
Premier of Canada. Sir Charles is one of the 
few surviving statesmen who were connected 
with the federation of the British North 
American provinces in 1867 into the present 
Dominion of Canada. He was an opponent of 
Howe in the provincial arena, and for more 
than fifty years has been a prominent figure 
in public life in this country. He is at present 
residing at Parkside, Vancouver, B. C., with 
his son Sir Hibbert Tupper. Writing under 
date July 4, 1908, to James A. McDonald, 
barrister, of Halifax, Sir Charles says : " I 
bought the woods (at Armdale) from Henry 
Pryor, and the land where Armdale house is 
and all that open field in front from Hoster- 
man, and the other portion belonged to the 
William Pryor estate." Sir Charles in his 
letter states that Grant's " Life of Howe " 
indicates that Armdale was Howe's birthplace, 
but this is clearly a mistake. Grant's refer- 
ence is quoted elsewhere, and if it relates to 
(141) 



142 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Armdale, the author labored under a mis- 
apprehension. The house at Armdale was 
erected by Sir Charles Tupper, and a reminis- 
cence of that event is that before going ahead 
with the house Sir Charles invited the late 
Hon. A. G. Jones to accompany him to the 
property one afternoon to help select the loca- 
tion. Shortly after the defeat of the conserva- 
tive government of Canada in 1896, Sir 
Sandford Fleming and the late Hon. A. G. 
Jones were at the Windsor Hotel in London 
on Pacific Cable business. Sir Charles Tupper 
came in, having just arrived from Canada, and 
encountered the two first named in the 
rotunda. There had been a coolness between 
Jones and Tupper on political matters. Sir 
Charles remarked that he had sustained a bad 
reverse in the Canadian elections. The pre- 
sence of a third party, a mutual friend, proved 
a convenient bridge for the two old friends to 
shake hands most cordially. With the 
exception of peers of the realm no Cana- 
dian, and only a very few Englishmen 
have received as many of the highest Imperial 
distinctions as the Right Hon. Sir Charles 
Tupper. In 1867 he was created a Companion 
of the Bath ; in 1879, a Knight Commander of 
St. Michael and St. George; in 1886 of the 
Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George ; in 
1888 a Baronet of the United Kingdom, and in 
1907 a member of the King's Imperial Privy 
Council for Great Britain, which gives him the 
title of Right Honorable. In addition to these 
Imperial honors this veteran empire-builder is 



THE BARONET OP ARMDALE. 143 

an honorary LL.D. of the Universities of 
Cambridge and Edinburgh. He was born in 
Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, July 2, 
1821. William Robertson, president of the 
Union Bank of Halifax, resided at Armdale 
for five years. This property is mentioned in 
Sir Charles Tupper's commission as a baronet, 
and at his death will pass to his eldest son. 
Only a few months ago, Sir Charles, although 
in his 87th year, travelled from Vancouver to 
London to receive the high appointment of a 
Privy Councillor, and His Majesty the King 
allowed Sir Charles to bring his stout walking 
stick with him at the Royal audience, and 
showed the aged statesman other marks of his 
favor for his inestimable services to the 
British race. 



JUBILEE ESTATE. 



"JUBILEE is a large property below Rose- 
sr^\ bank, and derived its name from the 
vl/ house built by John Pryor in the year of 
George Third's jubilee, which was celebrated 
with eclat in 1810. The house, estate, and 
road were christened Jubilee. The land and 
buildings were conveyed to the late Mr. 
Yeomans. The Pryor family in the early part 
of the igih century owned all the lands front- 
ing on the Northwest Arm from Quinpool 
Road to South Street. This family was the 
first to -erect villas on this part of the Arm, 
and many social events in early days graced 
with hospitality this lovely spot. Mrs. Grave- 
ley, S. R. Cossey, Sir Charles Tupper, R. L. 
Borden, leader of the Conservative party in 
the Canadian House of Commons, and others 
owned part of the original Jubilee property. 
The Borden residence, Pinehurst, was built by 
Robert Pickford, of Pickford & Black, steam- 
ship owners, who sold it to R. L. Borden. 
After the latter's removal to Ottawa, this fine 
estate was taken temporarily by M. C. Grant, 
Imperial German consul at Halifax, and son- 
in-law of the late Hon. D. McN. Parker, and 
later by Major Ogilvie. The property has 
(144) 



JUBILEE ESTATE. 145 

lately been repurchased by Mr. Bickford, who 
when he first owned it called the estate West- 
bourne. Quinpool Road was named after one 
Quinn whose place was near where Dence's 
is now. Visitors to the Arm in July using 
Jubilee Road will be sure to notice the profu- 
sion of forget-me-nots lining the road on both 
sides for hundreds of feet. 




ROSEBANK. 



"^OSEBANK, overlooking the beautiful 
Northwest Arm, comprising nearly 
thirty acres studded with enormous old 
willows, the residence of the late Senator 
Almon, had many rare curios. One of the 
first things that attracted attention on enter- 
ing the house was a brass cannon mortar cap- 
tured at the Redan, Crimea, the day after the 
Nova Scotia heroes, Parker and Welsford, 
were killed. In honor of their memory a lion 
monument stands in old St. Paul burying 
ground, Pleasant Street, Halifax. On the 
walls of the billiard room at Rosebank hung 
oil paintings of Dr. Johnstone, son of a loyal- 
ist of Georgia, and a member of the old 
Georgia colonial council, and of Rev. Dr. 
Byles, a grandson of Increase Mather, both 
ancestors of Senator Almon. Carefully posted 
in an album were original letters from Pope, 
the poet, 1627, Benedict Arnold, Isaac Watts, 
Benjamin Franklin,, the Duke of Wellington, 
Belle B. Harding, the famous southern spy, 
and the autographs of Queen Anne, George II, 
and Lord North. On the shelves of the 
library were many rare old books including 
five folio volumes of Pope's translation of 
the Odyssey of Homer with an autograph 
letter from Pope to Dr. Mather. There were 
original copper plates of Increase Mather, 
Richard Mather and Mather Byles. There was 
(146) 



ROSEBANK, 147 

a St. Helena medal given to the survivors of 
the wars of Napoleon. The medal was pre- 
sented by an old French soldier to Dr. Almon, 
who attended him during his last illness at the 
Poor Asylum where he died. There was a 
walking stick of the unfortunate Major Andre, 
whom Washington ordered hanged as a spy. 
The stick was given by Major Andre, when 
adjutant-general of New York, to a sergeant 
of his staff, and by the latter given to Mr. 
Williamson, an old-time Halifax merchant. 
There was also a Malacca stick, with a gold 
head, owned by Dr. Rush, of Philadelphia, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, 
besides many other souvenirs of New England 
colonial days and of the prominent men of the 
old colonies. These relics were brought to 
Halifax by ancestors of the Almon family, 
who were among the loyalists. Rosebank is 
on the north side of Jubilee Road, and extends 
north to Quinpool Road. Its late owner, 
Senator Almon, occupied a high position in 
the medical profession, and many of the older 
medicos of Halifax of ten years ago studied 
with him, and delighted to recount the pleas- 
ant and profitable hours spent under Dr. 
Almon's training. Dr. W. Bruce Almon is a 
grandson. Mrs. W. B. Graveley, wife of the 
manager of the Bank of Montreal at Halifax, 
is a daughter of Senator Almon. Rosebank 
is at present occupied by W. H. Waddell, pro- 
prietor of the Arnold School for Boys, and 
remains of the old pheasant house are still to 
be seen on the property. 



THE PRIORY. 



N Professor DeMille's novel " Cord and 
Creese," published by Harpers in the 
Dodge Club series, is the following refer- 
ence to the Northwest Arm and The Priory 
property. Paolo Langhetti, a musician, who 
is an occupant of The Priory, is made (in the 
course of a letter dated 1847, addressed to a 
friend in England) to say : " I live for the 
most part in a cottage outside of the town, 
where I can be secluded and free from obser- 
vation. Near my house is the Northwest 
Arm. I cross it in a boat and am at once in a 
savage wilderness. From the summit of a 
hill named Mount Misery I can look down 
upon the city which is bordered by such a 
wilderness. The winter has passed since my 
last entry and nothing has occurred. I have 
learned to skate. I went out on a moose hunt 
with Colonel Despard. The gigantic horns of 
a moose which I killed are now over the door 
of my studio. I have joined in some festivities 
and have done the honors of my house. It is 
an old-fashioned wooden structure which they 
call The Priory." 

The house was situated on the north side 
of Jubilee Road, and just east of Pryor Street. 
(148) 



THE PRIORY. 149 

It was destroyed by fire about 1870. The 
property now has a neat retaining wall to give 
finish and protection to the seashore. The 
Priory was the residence of Edward Pryor, 
whose son, O. Pryor, is in the customs service 
at Halifax. The property is now owned and 
occupied by C. W. Anderson, who also owns 
property on the water front between Jubilee 
Road and Coburg Road formerly in the pos- 
session of Henry Pryor, stipendiary magis- 
trate of the city. The Priory was also the 
residence of James Scott about forty years 
ago. He was head of the Army and Navy 
Depot, and one of the merchant princes of the 
city, who entertained lavishly at his beautiful 
place at the Arm. These social functions were 
participated in by naval and military officers, 
and the prominent people of the community. 
Edward Stairs, president of the century-old 
firm of William Stairs, Son & Morrow, Ltd., 
and head of the useful and successful Stairs 
family, married a daughter of James Scott. 
Mr. Stairs is a keen business man, and one of 
the most public-spirited citizens of this old 
capital city. His father, the late Hon. W. J. 
Stairs, was president of the Union Bank, and 
declined a proffer of the post of Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Province. 

The present Anderson house was built 
about 1880 by George Greer. William Duffus 
occupied this house for a time. Another mem- 
ber of this family, James Duffus, had a resi- 
dence at Dutch Village. The Duffus family 
has been prominent in Halifax business circles 



150 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

since the latter part of the i8th century, and 
is related by marriage with the Cunard, Mor- 
row, Salter, Murdoch (the historian) and 
other old families. General Ogilvie, for whom 
one of the forts in Point Pleasant Park is 
named, was also a connection of the Duffus 
family. The Anderson residence is called The 
Cottage. 




A NEW BOATING CLUB. 



N the city block fronting the Arm between 
Coburg Road and Jubilee Road, there is 
the land once owned by Henry Pryor, the 
first stipendiary magistrate of the city of Hali- 
fax. He purchased it in 1838. This property 
is bounded on the north by Jubilee Road, and 
extends south along the shore of the Arm 600 
feet and eastwardly along Jubilee Road 600 
feet. The northern part of it has been secured 
for the purpose of a new boating club which 
will be established early next year. The loca- 
tion is an ideal one for that object, and is 
situate opposite the old military prison at Mel- 
ville Island. After the death of Henry Pryor 
this property was owned by Dr. James 
Walker of St. John, an experienced Eastern 
traveller and student, who conveyed it to Nel- 
son H. Gardner, who sold it to C. W. 
Anderson, by whom part of it was conveyed 
to W. H. Gunnell of New York. From him 
it lately passed to Arthur A. Haliburton, and 
from him to John E. Burns, of the city water 
works department. There is considerable 
water front to the property, which will 
give excellent facilities for the erection of 
a boathouse. The old residence on this 
property was destroyed by fire while 
(151) 



152 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

occupied by Clarence J. Spike. Mrs. (Dr.) 
A. C. Hawkins of Halifax was a sister 
of C. J. Spike. Their father was city 
health inspector at one time, but for many 
years in early life was in the printing trade, 
and at one time was associated with his friend 
Joe Howe in local publications. 



PANMURE AND DALHOUSIE. 



LORD PANMURE, who was Secretary of 
State for War under Lord Palmerston dur- 
ing the latter part of the Crimean War, and 
who is referred toon page 81 as the recipient of 
a grant of a water lot at Queen's Quarries, 
Northwest Arm, was eleventh Earl of 
Dalhousie. The tenth Earl was) Governor- 
General of India. The ninth Earl was a 
general officer at Waterloo and came to Nova 
Scotia after the peace of 1815, and was 
Governor of this Province 1816-20. One of 
the prominent acts of his gubernatorial regime 
at Halifax was laying the corner stone of old 
Dalhousie college in 1820. This institution 
was named after him and uses the motto of 
the family ora et labora. Lord Dalhousie then 
became Governor-General of Canada. The 
eighth Earl of Dalhousie succeeded to the title 
and estate of his uncle, Lord Panmure, in 1782, 
and thenceforth the titles were merged. 



STUDLEY QUOIT CLUB. 



TUDLEY, the site of the " Studley 
Quoit" club, is situated a little back from 
the shores of the Northwest Arm. The 
club has been famous for its hospitality, and 
has entertained at its grounds members of 
royal families and many eminent personages 
who have visited our city. It is beautifully 
placed on the slope facing the Arm. It owes 
its name to Sir Alex. Croke, a judge of the 
vice-admiralty court of Halifax during the 
French war, which was renewed 1803 and 
did not end till the exile of Napoleon in 
1815. Judge Croke was lineally descended 
from the Sir George Croke who so ably de- 
fended the cause of national liberty in the case 
of Hampden's ship money. In the year after 
his arrival in Halifax, Judge Croke bought 
the property comprising forty acres, situate 
on the peninsula of Halifax, to which he gave 
the name of Studley in recollection of the 
estate of that name which belonged to his 
family in Oxfordshire, England. The site 
commands a view of the Northwest Arm and 
of the entrance to the harbor. On this he 
built a large and commodious house ; the 
grounds he laid out with much taste. The 
(153) 



154 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

estate was wooded; in a pretty grove he 
erected a bower, inscribing on its portals some 
lines, which we quote: 

Ye who all weary guide wandering feet, 

Midst life's rough crags which piercing thorns 

entwine. 
Awhile beneath this lowly roof retreat, 

Sacred to Peace a pure though rustic shrine. 
Fly hence swoll'n pomp to every vice allied, 

Inconstancy, to nuptial vows untrue, 
Comus with frantic Riot by your side 

And mad Ambition's ever restless crew. 
Hence, for in vain ye deem no mortal sees 

Your inly sickening hearts unfit for scenes like 

these. 
These myrtle knolls demand far other guests, 

And where the darkening woods unbounded spread 
O'er earth's primeval rocks their gorgeous vest 

By human hand untamed, save where its head 
Yon massy tower lifts o'er the western main, 

And looks to Britain, there let Innocence 
With sweet Simplicity, enchanters twain, 

Unfading charms, celestial grace bestow 

Such as their natures feel, and only they can know. 

In this retreat Judge Croke is said to have 
composed a certain poem alluding to laxity 
in Government House circles, which he after- 
wards put in private circulation in manuscript 
form ; this and his satires on Halifax society 
created great excitement among the good 
people of the town. Sir Alexander Croke was 
administrator of the Province of Nova Scotia 
while the lieutenant-governor, Sir George 
Provost, was away on service of the Crown 
in Martinique, W. I. He continued in Halifax 
till the year 1815, when he returned to Eng- 
land, spending the rest of his life at Studley 
Priory, his family seat. He died there on the 



STUDLKY QUOIT CLUB. 155 

27th December 1843, i* 1 tne 85th year of liis 
age. Besides his literary fame he had some 
reputation as an artist; he made sketches of 
Nova Scotia scenery while here, which at the 
time of his death were hanging on the walls 
of Studley Priory. Some of his paintings were 
well spoken of by Mr. West, President of the 
Royal Academy. The estate of Studley 
Priory was held by Sir Alexander's son John, 
who in 1871 was his fourth and only surviving 
son. John Croke was a Nova Scotian by birth 
and was probably born at Studley, Northwest 
Arm. For this abstract on Sir Alexander 
Croke we are indebted to the late Sir Adams 
G. Archibald. Studley Club this year cele- 
brated its golden jubilee. Coburg Road was 
formerly called Studley. During Judge 
Croke's stay in Halifax there was great activ- 
ity in naval circles exciting captures on the 
coast and many prizes and their cargoes of 
silks, liquors, etc., to adjudicate on in the vice- 
admiralty court. The original Studley house 
was destroyed by fire and rebuilt. In the 
Bluenose of Saturday, October 6, 1900, vol. I, 
No. I, Lewis E. Smith, the artist and designer, 
gives a sketch of an old bell hanging at Stud- 
ley with the date 1809 on it in bold relief. The 
Chesapeake's flag was recently sold in London 
to W. W. Astor; perhaps, though not likely, 
this is also the bell of the United States fri- 
gate vanquished off Boston harbor and con- 
voyed into Halifax by the Shannon. The 
Chesapeake was sent to England. Studley is 
now the residence of Dr. Robert Murray, a 



156 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ABM. 

veteran journalist, for fifty years editor of the 
Presbyterian Witness. 

Studley Quoit Club was organized August 
24, 1858, with a membership of fourteen, most 
of whom had been identified with the defunct 
Bedford Quoit Club, an association of gentle- 
men who met on certain Saturday afternoons 
to pitch quoits. The membership of the club 
has increased to one hundred. In 1873 the 
limit was thirty. In 1879 the number reached 
forty playing members, and twenty non- 
playing members. In 1893 the players num- 
bered fifty, and in 1896 the number was sixty 
with forty non-playing, at which number it 
now stands, not including an Imperial service 
list of seven or eight, the limit for this class 
being twenty-five. The club colors are green 
for the grass, blue for the sky, and dark brown 
for the background of pine trees. In 1863 a 
section of the membership seceded and formed 
the Chebucto Quoit Club in Dartmouth, but 
which later disbanded. The first president 
was Samuel W. DeBlois. Dr. Howard Mur- 
ray is the present incumbent of that office, and 
the lieutenant-governor is honorary president. 



FIRST ILLUMINATION ON THE ARM. 

FT AIRFIELD adjoining the Waegwoltic 
J"ts grounds, is the property of Mrs. James 
\ A. Fraser, and was acquired by the late 
Mr. Fraser from John Stairs, who bought the 
land from Hon. A. G. Jones and raised the pre- 
sent building and named the situation Fair- 
field. Between business hours Mr. Stairs 
gave special attention to the growing of 
flowering shrubs, while not neglecting the 
cultivation of ornamental trees, and it is said 
there was good-natured rivalry between Mr. 
Stairs and Mr. Jones, the latter being more 
successful in developing a splendid grove of 
evergreens. Trim hedges border clean grav- 
elled walks at Fairfield, which are well kept, 
and notable in the approach to the residence is 
a cluster of magnificent rhododendrons. 

Probably the first illumination on the Arm 
was that tendered Captain W. G. Stairs of 
African exploration fame, September 4, 1890, 
just prior to his departure for England after a 
visit of three months to his parents at Fair- 
field. The city council had presented him with 
an address of congratulation on his success in 
Africa, and for the honor thereby conferred on 
his native city. The reception accorded the 
explorer by his friends at the Arm was a bril- 
liant affair. The grounds and residence of T. 
E. Kenny, Mrs. Robert Morrow, Hon. A. G. 
(157) 



158 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Jones, Sandford Fleming, Clarence J. Spike 
(Hillside), C. W. Anderson, William Robert- 
son and F. D. Corbett were decked with 
Chinese lanterns and colored fire, and bonfires 
were placed at points of vantage. At the 
shore of Hillside a cluster of strong electric 
lamps spelled the word " Stairs." Yachts 
from the R. N. S. Y. Squadron were decorated 
with lamps and moored along both shores, and 
numerous steam craft and boats, lighted from 
stem to stern, participated in the general 
tribute. Captain (then Lieutenant) Stairs left 
shortly after for London to take the post of 
adjutant at Woolwich, but was permitted to 
accept an engagement with the Belgian gov- 
ernment to return to Africa, where he took 
command of an expedition to go to Chinde, at 
the source of the Congo, where fresh trouble 
existed. A melancholy interest attaches to the 
farewell illumination on the Arm in Halifax 
because the intrepid young officer died of 
fever June 1892, far from home at the mouth 
of the Zambesi, where he had returned to the 
coast from the interior. Captain Stairs had 
crossed Africa in 1888-1890 as second in com- 
mand under Stanley, of the Emin Pasha relief 
expedition, and was several times wounded. 
One of his exploits was the ascent of Mount 
Ruwenzori, in the Mountains of the Moon, 
10,667 feet altitude. Captain Stairs wore 
Turkish, Egyptian and Zanzibar decorations. 
He was born at Halifax 1863, and graduated 
in engineering at Kingston. He was connect- 
ed with the Royal Engineers for some years 



FIRST ILLUMINATION ON THE ARM. 159 

and was then attached to the 4ist Welsh. A 
tablet has been erected to his memory at his 
alma mater, and another at Rochester 
Cathedral, near Chatham, Eng., the head- 
quarters of the engineers' branch of the 
Imperial service. H. B. Stairs, barrister of 
Halifax, brother of the explorer, went to 
Africa in 1899, being in command of " H " 
company of the First Canadian contingent 
sent to the Boer war. He was at Paardeberg 
and other engagements. Hillside property was 
once the residence of Henry Pryor and is now 
owned by C. W. Anderson, with a right-of- 
way to Jubilee Road. 

Illuminations at the Arm at the present 
time are much more elaborate than anything 
undertaken twenty years ago, and strangers 
who have visited different countries declare 
that the Arm illuminations surpass anything 
of the kind they have ever seen abroad. The 
numerous decorated boats and the bonfires 
and illuminations round the shores of the Arm 
constitute a fairy picture. This year the Cana- 
dian cruiser Canada, Captain Knowlton, par- 
ticipated in the annual illumination on the 
Arm, and was outlined from stem to stern in 
electric lamps, the same as the ship was decor- 
ated at the Quebec tercentenary. This was 
the first war vessel which had come into the 
Northwest Arm and illuminated. 



THE COLLINS ESTATE. 



LARGE field on the north side of 
Coburg Road, situated east of the land 
recently acquired by W. T. Francis as 
the site for a residence, is owned by Brenton 
H. Collins, and there are several other parcels 
of property on the Peninsula belonging to the 
same estate. The most extensive is Gorse- 
brook, where Enos Collins, the founder of the 
Halifax branch of the family, resided during 
the great part of a long life marked by strik- 
ing success in financial and commercial ven- 
tures. He was the owner of privateers, and 
was personally an officer in these enterprises 
licensed in early days but not permitted in 
present day naval warfare. Enos Collins was 
a native of Liverpool, where his father con- 
ducted a substantial business. He engaged in 
business in Halifax and became a member 
of the early Legislative and Executive Coun- 
cils. His name is also familiarly known in 
connection with the establishment of the Hali- 
fax Banking Company, now absorbed by the 
Canadian Bank of Commerce. Gorsebrook 
was purchased from John Moody, a merchant 
and loyalist, a native of New York. Thomas 
Moody, the father of the latter, was the 
daring officer and s>cout in the ranks of the 
Massachusetts Loyalists, who penetrated 
Washington's lines while the American army 
(160) 



THE COLLINS ESTATE. 161 

lay in camp outside of New York City, and 
succeeded in bringing valuable intelligence to 
General Howe, the British commander, as to 
the strength and disposition of the enemy's 
forces. Gorsebrook extends from Tower 
Road west, almost to the shores of the North- 
west Arm. The new portion of Inglis Street, 
connecting with Marlborough Woods, cuts 
the Collins demesne nearly in halves. On the 
north division of the property the links of the 
Halifax Golf Club are located. Brenton H. 
Collins, son of Enos Collins, resides in Eng- 
land ; he was born in Halifax. John Wimburne 
Laurie, M. P., major general of the British 
Army, married Frances Robie, a sister of 
Brenton H. Collins. She is a granddaughter 
of the late Chief Justice Halliburton, and a 
great-granddaughter of Bishop Charles Inglis 
of Nova Scotia, who was rector of Trinity, 
New York, at the time of the Revolution, and 
who, it is narrated, continued to offer prayers 
for the success and safe-keeping of the king, 
although warned with guns levelled at him 
that he would be shot unless he desisted. 
Major-General Laurie was present at the siege 
of Sebastopol, and was twice wounded and 
was mentioned in despatches for gallant 
defence of advanced positions against a 
superior force of Russians. He also saw 
active service in the Indian mutiny, being 
attached to a field force with irregular cavalry 
and camel corps, which executed a number of 
forced marches during the suppression of the 
great rebellion. The general has an estate at 



162 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

Oakfield, on the line of the Intercolonial Rail- 
way, a few miles from Halifax, where some 
of his family annually come from England to 
spend part of the season. General Laurie 
came to Canada at the time of the Trent affair 
and was afterward connected with the Cana- 
dian militia for a number of years, and later 
represented Shelburne, N. S., in the Canadian 
parliament. Professor D. Northall-Laurie, a 
nephew of General Laurie, is a member of 
the Alpine and Primrose Clubs of London, 
and occupied the chair of chemistry at King's 
College, near the Old Curiosity Shop at Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields. Professor Laurie is presi- 
dent of a new company engaged in the manu- 
facture of various products from sulphate of 
lime gypsum in Cape Breton, and makes 
his headquarters at Port Hastings, where the 
works are located. 

Three families Collins, Cogswell and 
Cunard were neighbors on the southern por- 
tion of the Halifax peninsula in early days, 
and were intimate in business. The " Three 
C's " was the way they were referred to after 
founding the Halifax Banking Co. William 
Cunard in later years was a director of the 
Bank of Nova Scotia, and one of the first 
directors of the Merchants' Bank, now the 
Royal Bank of Canada. A sister of William 
Cunard married Colonel Francklyn, father of 
G. E. Francklyn. 



MODERN VILLAS AT THE N. W. ARM. 



CHANGE such as Rip Van Winkle ex- 
perienced, has occurred at the North- 
west Arm in recent years. Property 
was considerably depressed in value a few 
years ago, and changed hands for low record 
prices. It is recovering, and during the last 
two years there have been more transactions 
in real estate at the Arm than for ten years 
previous. The construction of a new trunk 
line sewer built on the shore and discharging 
at Point Pleasant must soon be taken up ser- 
iously. There should be a continuous drive- 
way from Point Pleasant Park along the east- 
ern shore of the Arm, but not at the water 
front as has been proposed, where it would 
irreparably damage private property, but laid 
out in serpentine fashion, alternately receding 
and approaching the Arm, according as cir- 
cumstances permit. Such a boulevard is 
within measurable distance ; a shore frontage 
driveway and promenade will not be built in 
fifty years, if ever. Spring Garden Road and 
Coburg Road should have one name and be 
made of uniform width throughout. 

Among the modern villas which have been 
built at the Arm since the recent revival of 
interest in this beautiful sheet of water as a 
place of residence, one of the most attractive 
is the residence of W. L. Payzant, barrister, 
on Oxford street, commanding an extensive 
view of the upper Arm. The property is pret- 
(163) 



164 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

tily enclosed in shrubbery, which has grown 
very rapidly, illustrating how well vege- 
tation thrives on the western slope of the 
peninsula, protected from the dust and coal 
smoke of the city. John Young Payzant, 
father of W. L. Payzant, is a leading citizen 
of Halifax and identified with some of the 
important interests of the city. The family 
came to Nova Scotia under Governor Corn- 
wallis and is of Huguenot origin. The great- 
grandfather of Mr. Payzant, sr., with some of 
his family, were massacred by Indians on an 
island in Lunenburg county, while his wife 
and the balance of the family were carried 
captives to Quebec, and were present at the 
conquest of that city by Wolfe and the heroic 
defence of Montcalm. John Y. Payzant 
studied law with the late Hon. J. W. Johnston, 
and was admitted to the bar of Nova Scotia 
in 1864, and at once began to practise in Hali- 
fax and became very successful. He is Presi- 
dent of the Bank of Nova Scotia, and a direc- 
tor in the street railway and numerous other 
large institutions. In private life Mr. Payzant 
is a popular resident, a keen sportsman and a 
scholarly writer. W. L. Payzant is secretary 
of the Nova Scotia Historical Society. 
A. W. Redden and C. J. Silliker have 
finished attractive homes near W. L. Pay- 
zant's residence. E. P. Allison and Hon. D. 
M. Owen occupy fine residences on Oxford 
Street. The extension of the rails of the Hali- 
fax Tramway Co. to the Arm has done much 
to bring the Northwest Arm to its present 
prominence. 



AN OLD INDIAN FEAST. 



the annual festivals, says Mur- 
doch the historian, which have been 
lost sight of in the passage of years, 
was the celebration of St. Aspinquid, known 
as the Indian Saint. St. Aspinquid's day ap- 
peared in the Nova Scotia almanacks from 
1774 to 1786. The festival was celebrated 
en the seventh day after the first new 
moon in the month of May. The tide being 
low at that time, many of the principal inhabi- 
tants of the town on these occasions 
assembled on the shore of the Northwest Arm 
and partook of a dish of clam soup, the clams 
being collected on the spot at low water. 
There is a tradition that during the American 
trouble, when agents of the revolted colonies 
were active to gain over adherents, the good 
people of Halifax in 1776 were celebrating St. 
Aspinquid ; the wine having circulated freely, 
the Union Jack was hauled down and replaced 
by the Stars and Stripes. This was soon 
reversed, but all those persons who held pub- 
lic offices immediately left the grounds and 
St. Aspinquid was never after celebrated in 
Halifax. The feast of St. Aspinquid was 
of New England origin, and was brought to 
Halifax by the settlers from those colonies 
who threw in their lot with those from Old 
England. Murdoch apparently knew nothing 
of the origin of the above feast, a sketch of 
(165) 



166 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

which we append. From " New England 
Legends," by Samuel Adams Drake, we glean 
the following account of St. Aspinquid. He 
was born in 1588 and was nearly 100 years old 
when he died. He was converted to Christian- 
ity, possibly by the French Jesuits, and was 
baptized when he was about 40 years old, 
receiving the name by which he was after- 
wards known, and he at once set about his 
long active ministration among the people of 
his own race to whom he became a tutelary 
saint and prophet. For no less than fifty 
years he is said to have wandered from east to 
west and from north to south, preaching the 
gospel to sixty-six different nations, healing 
the sick and performing those miracles which 
raised him in the estimation of his own people 
to the character of being endowed with super- 
natural powers. These wanderings had car- 
ried him from the shores of the Atlantic to the 
Californian sea. Growing venerable in his 
good w r ork, warned that he must soon be gath- 
ered to his fathers, the saint at last came home 
to die among his own people. Having called 
the sachems of the different tribes together 
they carried the body of their patriarch to the 
summit of Mount Agamenticus. Previous to 
performing the rite of sepulture and agreeable 
to the customs held sacred by these people, 
the hunters of each tribe spread themselves 
throughout the forests. A great number of 
wild beasts were slaughtered as a sacrifice to 
the manes of the departed saint. Tradition 
affirms that that day there were slain and 



AN OLD INDIAN FEAST. 167 

offered up between six and seven thousand 
wild animals. Mt. Agamenticus, where the 
Indian saint is supposed to have been born 
and where his mortal remains were finally 
returned to the earth, is on the borders of 
Maine. Lowell and other American poets 
make reference to Mt. Agamenticus, the local- 
ity of the legend of the Indian saint. The 
Maine Indians were a branch of the Micmacs. 
The Halifax Gazette of June, 1770, contained 
an account of the feast of St. Aspinquid as 
follows : " On Thursday last, being the 3ist 
day of May, the festival of St. Aspinquid was 
celebrated at Northwest Arm at Nathan Ben 
Saddi Nathan's and at Captain Jordan's, both 
fishermen, when elegant dinners at both 
places were provided, consisting of various 
kinds of fish, etc. After dinner at Mr. 
Nathan's were discharged a number of can- 
non, and at Mr. Jordan's, muskets, and many 
loyal toasts were drunk in honor of the day. 
At Mr. Jordan's the toasts, after the usual 
manner, were the twelve sachem chiefs of the 
twelve tribes, who were general friends and 
allies of the English." The Indian Saint was 
called the " grand sachem of all the northern 
Indian tribes." The town of York, New 
Hampshire, near the Maine boundary, was 
at one time called Agamenticus. It was 
settled in 1624, and in 1641 at the instance of 
Sir Ferdinand Georges was given a city 
charter and government and renamed George- 
ana. This was undoubtedly the first English 
city on the continent of America. 



AQUATICS AT THE N. W. ARM. 

T is estimated that, at the present time, 
between the three boat clubs, the Sara- 
guay Club and private parties, there are 
from 1,200 to 1,500 boats and canoes on the 
Northwest Arm. In addition there are twenty 
motor boats, and the number is growing. 
Then there are racing shells belonging to St. 
Mary's and others. A few years ago it was all 
but arranged that the Lome Club, located at 
Richmond on the harbor front, should be 
transferred to the Northwest Arm by taking 
from the Acadia Sugar Refinery in exchange 
for its present club premises adjoining the 
Richmond Refinery, the Morrow property 
now owned by F. W. Bowes. Negotiations to 
this end progressed far toward consummation 
but a hitch occurred and the project was called 
off. It is a coincidence that some members of 
the Northwest Arm Rowing Club at one time 
contemplated securing the same property and 
transferring their present boathouse in sec- 
tions from South Street to the foot of Coburg 
Road. The club not being unanimous the 
undertaking did not come to a head. The 
popularity of boating and canoeing on the 
Arm dates from the formation of the North- 
west Arm Rowing Club eight years ago. The 
waters of the Arm are almost invariably 
(168) 



AQUATICS ON THE N. W. ARM. 169 

smooth, and well adapted for boating, 
and for ladies and children to enjoy this favor- 
ite maritime pastime in safety. Owing to the 
great increase in the number of small boats, 
and the number of power craft attracted to 
the Arm sight seeing, this inlet of the harbor 
is not quite as satisfactory for training scullers 
as it was prior to 1900, at a time when prac- 
tically the only boats on the Arm were those 
owned by the few owners of land on the water 
front. The Arm used to be a favorite place 
for shell practice. The four who competed at 
the Philadelphia centennial, known as the Cen- 
tennial Crew, made their headquarters at 
Lawson's Mills on the western shore. They 
were John J. Nickerson, Caleb Nickerson, 
Obed Smith, Warren Smith, of Sambro, 
and William Flemming of Herring Cove. 
Police-Sergeant Nickerson and Caleb Nicker- 
son survive. These men were trained 
under the auspices of the Fishermen's 
Rowing Association, an organization of 
Halifax men interested in boating, and 
coached by the veteran oarsman, Jeremiah 
Holland, who was also the trainer of the 
Pryor or Fishermen Crew that astonished the 
rowing fraternity by their performance at the 
aquatic carnival held at Halifax in 1871, in 
which the scullers of the world competed. The 
Pryors were large owners of property at the 
Northwest Arm and were patrons and pro- 
moters of aquatics. The Centennial Crew prac- 
tised on the Arm three times a day in a shell, 
early in the morning, in the forenoon and in 
8 



170 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

the evening. The course was three miles in 
length, and commenced at the bluff just above 
Lawson's Mills and extended a mile and a half 
to a turning buoy moored off Horseshoe 
Island and return. For practice this crew 
used the boat " Tangier," which was formerly 
owned by the Barton crew. Their single shell 
was the scull " Thomas Wasson," built for the 
late George Brown. They were seated in a 
new shell at Philadelphia named the " Nova 
Scotian," built to order by Robert Jewett of 
Dunstie-on-Tyne. It is believed this crew 
could have won at Philadelphia but were 
jockeyed by the opposing crew whom they 
immediately afterward challenged, but the 
challenge was not accepted. The Halifax 
crew were awarded special honors. The Lynch 
brothers of Purcell's Cove also did consider- 
able training on the Northwest Arm, and 
one of the races which they pulled against 
Durnan and Rice, the Toronto cracks, was 
rowed upon the Arm. While the great increase 
of boating on the Northwest Arm has spoiled 
the Arm to some extent as a place for train- 
ing oarsmen, it is still far enough away from 
the city to get clear water in the morning. 
There have been regular regattas on the Arm 
each season in recent years, which have 
attracted thousands of spectators both ashore 
and afloat. These regattas have been con- 
ducted under the auspices of the Arm clubs or 
the United Banks, and included the Maritime 
championships on several occasions. A new 
course in the lower Arm basin from South St. 



AQUATICS ON THE N. W. ARM. 171 

to a point off Maplewood and return has been 
used in late years as affording a view of 
the races to the greatest number of people. 
The rapid building up of the shores of the 
inner basin of the Arm will probably mean the 
resumption of the old Arm course for some 
regattas. This is the wider part of the North- 
west Arm, and is probably a better situation 
for boating in many respects, though not in 
other points than the southern and newer 
course. 

The success of The Waegwoltic as an all- 
the-year-round club, with club privileges for 
ladies, being contrary to the predictions of 
the critics, has directed new attention to the 
Northwest Arm. Already members of one or 
two of the old conservative down-town clubs 
and athletic organizations are credited with a 
desire to obtain a footing for their institutions 
at one or the other of the Arm clubs, 
especially for summer; eventually the Arm 
will also be a centre of popular winter enter- 
tainment. The Northwest Arm Rowing Club 
plans a large balcony-addition next year to 
accommodate increasing patronage. A small 
new boat club is mooted at the head of the 
Arm, and another at the southern part of 
Melville Cove. 



A STRANGE ELOPEMENT. 

a paper read before the Historical 
Society some years ago, written by the 
late Peter Lynch, who made a study of 
local traditions, there is recounted the story of 
an elopement of an English girl with a young 
Indian which took place in the early days of 
the settlement. The matter is also referred to 
in an appendix to Murdoch's History of Nova 
Scotia, and the story seems to be founded 
upon fact. Mr. Lynch describes with vivid 
detail the pursuit across the peninsula of 
Halifax to the Northwest Arm at a point 
which must have been somewhere near 
Coburg Road or Jubilee Road, and the escape 
of the elopers in a canoe. The following is 
a summary of the paper read before the His- 
torical Society : 

Amongst the earliest settlers in Halifax 
from England was a merchant of good family, 
and rumor stated that an unsuccessful specu- 
lation at home had caused him to go abroad to 
live quietly. With him was a sister, an aged 
spinster, and an only child, a beautiful girl of 
seventeen. He engaged in business, and with 
his domestics and employees, all dwelt under 
the one roof, partly for protection against 
possible Indian attacks and also because 
accommodation at that time was limited. 
(172) 



A STRANGE ELOPEMENT. 173 

Notwithstanding the prevailing distrust of 
the Indians, the warriors and their women in 
picturesque costume were quite often seen on 
the streets of the town. A tall, graceful 
Indian lad who had been an invalid for a long 
time, and unable to follow the chase, was 
brought to the settlement to seek the aid of 
one of the resident doctors, the medicine man 
of his own tribe having failed to restore the 
boy's health. 

The fine, manly appearance of the youth 
excited the sympathy of the kind-hearted 
merchant, who took him to his home, where 
he had him regularly treated by a physician, 
and finally when the lad regained health and 
strength the merchant made him a proposi- 
tion to take employment with him, which the 
Indian youth accepted, and he was at once 
admitted a member of the family. The youth 
was instructed how to write, and was given 
the duties of a clerk and was clad in the gar- 
ments of the white man. The character of the 
savage steadily gave way in the midst of his 
changed surroundings, and he discharged his 
duties with diligence and interest. The ap- 
parent transformation was aided by his being 
an orphan and intercourse with his race hav- 
ing been broken off. 

After a time, however, with the concur- 
rence of the merchant, the Indian youth would 
stroll away into the woods with his gun for a 
few hours' shooting. These excursions became 
more and more protracted, finally occupying 
entire days, and it was manifest that the 



174 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

nomadic habits born in his blood and dormant 
for a time were fast asserting themselves. 
The light work which had been assigned the 
youth was regularly neglected and the lad's 
benefactor commenced to despair of ever 
moulding his protege into civilized ways. 

Suddenly, to the surprise of everyone 
except the merchant's daughter, the young 
Indian gave up his hunting habits and recom- 
menced the discharge of his duties with alac- 
rity and pleasure. It was gradually whispered 
among the neighbors of the settlement that 
the Indian had been seen conversing with 
members of his race in the forest, and also 
held meetings with the merchant's daughter. 
This proved to be correct, and when the father 
charged his daughter with the fact, she 
declared that she loved the Indian boy and 
intended to marry him. The Indian was ban- 
ished from the settlement and the matter was 
forgotten for a time, until some months later. 
In the autumn, one night the household was 
aroused by a report of the servants that the 
girl had eloped with the Indian. An armed 
party was quickly formed to follow them, and 
no difficulty was found in finding the course 
they had gone. It led up over Citadel Hill, 
and before the pursuers had gone half the dis- 
tance they caught sight of the fugitives on top 
of the hill, the Indian carrying the girl. A 
large brook then ran through the Common. 
This was spanned by a rude pole bridge, 
which the Indian managed to cast adrift after 
he had crossed it, in order to delay the pur- 



A STRANGE ELOPEMENT. 175 

suit. The Indian, being familial with the 
ground, made all possible haste over Camp 
Hill, but was repeatedly obliged to assist his 
companion. He descended the slope towards 
the Northwest Arm, and at last his quick eye 
caught sight of the stars glinting upon the 
black waters of the Arm. As he approached 
the shore he gave a short cry, a signal to con- 
federates of his tribe who were supposed to 
be in waiting. At first the cry was not heard, 
and the friends of the girl were audible rapidly 
approaching. A second signal was given and 
the Indian's comrades, who were in a canoe 
just off the shore, heard it and paddled to the 
bank. The pursuers had also heard and 
guessed what the signal meant, and lost no 
time in reaching the spot from which the 
sound proceeded. The Indian had just placed 
his burden in the canoe and stepped in himself 
when the foremost of the settlers sprang upon 
the shore and seized the bow of the canoe. 
There was not a moment to be lost, and the 
Indian raised a paddle and brought it down 
upon the arm of the man, compelling him to 
release his hold, and the canoe bounded out 
into the waters of the Arm. Guns were raised 
by those on shore to discharge at the occu- 
pants of the craft, but the father of the girl 
would not let them shoot. As the canoe 
neared the further side of the Arm, a torch 
flashed for a moment as a signal, and the craft 
glided into Melville Cove and vanished in the 
darkness. Next morning a large party of the 
townspeople accompanied the broken-hearted 



176 SKETCHES OP THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

father back to the shores of the Arm, but no 
trace of the fugitives could be discovered, and 
from that time forward inquiries as to the 
whereabouts of the girl were futile. About a 
year after this time in a camp on the banks of 
the Shubenacadie, a woman lay dying in the 
flickering light of a camp fire, and there was 
the low cry of a newly-born infant. The 
mother of the child, who was the daughter of 
the English merchant, had led a wretched 
existence of one year, and her soul was now 
released from its mortal tenement. Again a 
few weeks after, a tall, gaunt Indian under the 
shade of night made his way into the town, 
approached the house of the merchant and 
carefully deposited the infant wrapped in a 
blanket, in the porch, rapped loudly at the 
door and fled into the darkness. He was never 
heard of afterward. The child became the 
comfort of her grandfather, and when she 
grew to womanhood, traces of the Indian 
blood could be discerned in her complexion, 
eyes and bearing. She married an English 
naval officer, and removed to England to 
reside, and one of her sons afterward lived on 
this station, holding the same rank in the navy 
that his father had held at the time of his 
mother's marriage. 



LIGHTS AND SHADES. 

T~7OR the artist and lover of Nature, there 
rif) are two distinct sets of views at the 
\ Northwest Arm morning and evening 
with numberless variations of these two 
general divisions. The Arm is about three 
miles long, and one-quarter to three-quarters 
of a mile wide, but is so narrow at some 
places one could almost expect to see the 
shadows of the hills join in the centre. Reced- 
ing coves and advancing headlands relieve the 
monotony of a regular shore line. The Arm 
lies approximately north and south, and there- 
fore intersects the path of the planets from 
east to west. It is a place of ever-changing 
lights and shades. At sunrise the orb of day 
touches with light the recesses of the western 
shore, and throws a gigantic shadow of the 
proximate hills upon the dark green slopes of 
higher eminences in the rear. This is reversed 
at evening. Then the places which were 
bright in the morning are obscured in the 
gathering dusk, and the eastern shore of the 
Arm comes into view in the blazing search- 
light of a setting sun. The western rays pene- 
trate the natural avenues of the woods with 
lines of fire ; overhead the sky is painted in 
glorious hues, changing from saffron to crim- 
son, and to salmon pink, and occasionally to 
the deep red glare of Vesuvius or the golden 
(178) 



LIGHTS AND SHADES. 179 

sunset of San Francisco Bay. Sunsets on the 
Northwest Arm are talked about far and near. 

Moonlight scenes on the Northwest Arm 
are not less lovely, and compare with the 
matchless nights one sees in Venice. The 
slow-circling shadows of rock and tree move 
no faster than the lunar planet. The moon 
and the stars and the shadows fade in com- 
pany in the west. As at day there is a change 
of light from shore to shore, and at the highest 
point of the moon's transit the scene on the 
Arm is especially beautiful. From sky-line to 
shore-line, the unreflecting hills retain their 
inanimate aspect. But the mirrored length of 
the Arm, the moon being at the zenith, is 
transfigured from end to end with a flood of 
dazzling silver radiance. Boats glide about as 
noiseless as Indian canoes, little lights twinkle 
on the shores, a note of song or lilt of musical 
instrument floats across the dreaming waters, 
and the whole effect is so tranquil and ravish- 
ingly lovely one thinks of fairy scenes from 
Shakespeare depicted on a metropolitan stage. 

In a novel, " Cord and Creese," written by 
Professor DeMille many years ago a moon- 
light scene on the Arm is thus described: 
" Opposite my house, on the western shore of 
the Arm there rises a barren rock called Mt. 
Misery, which I visited. It was night; there 
was not a cloud in the sky. The moon shone 
with marvellous lustre. Down in front of us 
lay the long arm of the sea that ran between 
us and the city. On the opposite side were 
woods, and beyond them rose the Citadel, on 



180 SKETCHES OF THE NORTHWEST ARM. 

the other side of which the city lay nestling at 
its base like those Rhenish towns that lie at 
the foot of feudal castles. On the left hand 
all was wilderness ; on the right, close by, was 
a small lake which seemed like a sheet of 
silver in the moon's rays. Further on lay the 
ocean, stretching in boundless extent away to 
the horizon. There lay islands and sandbanks 
with lighthouses. Here under the moon lay 
a broad path of golden light, molten gold, un- 
ruffled, undisturbed in that dead calm." This 
pen picture was evidently taken from the 
same point which was selected for the 
panorama at the back of this volume. 

An enthusiastic contributor of the Evening 
Mail, on July 6, 1908, signed Rectus, said the 
beauty of the Northwest Arm exceeded that 
of the lochs of Scotland, the watering places 
of Wales, Devonshire or Cornwall, the charms 
of the Channel Islands, the Seine or the 
Rhone, the enchantment of the lakes of Swit- 
zerland, or of the noble Bay of Tuscany. 

Returning from Europe in the middle 
of the nineteenth century, the Nova Scotian 
patriot, Howe, who was born and educated on 
the Northwest Arm, exclaimed on coming into 
sight of his home land : 

The crowded mart, the busy throng, 

The gay and brilliant halls, 
The tramp of steed, the voice of song 

The many pictured walls 
Are all behind, but all before 

My native land I view 
A blessing on her sea-girt shore 

Where toil the good and true. 



LIGHTS AND SHADES. 181 

Among the most beautiful spots in the 
world the Northwest Arm is also one of 
the most noted historic places in Canada, in 
fact in the Empire, through its association 
with great men and great events, and time 
will increase the appreciation of the people of 
Halifax of the value of the Northwest Arm. 
The sloping hillsides of the Arm have been 
the abode of eminent characters, and Nature 
has been lavish in beautifying this historic 
spot. In the years to come Halifax will have 
a large population, and many travellers will 
come and go through the gates of the city. 
For the benefit of the citizens and the 
pleasure of visitors, the memory of the 
associations of the Arm should be kept alive, 
and the charms and the attractiveness of this 
hallowed spot, like the classic vale of Attica, 
carefully preserved for the enjoyment and 
contemplation of future generations. The 
city should obtain authority to control and 
regulate both shores of the Arm and likewise 
exercise police jurisdiction over its waters. 
This book is a modest attempt to show 
the beauty and value of the Northwest Arm 
and arouse interest in the preservation of one 
of the most delightful spots in the Dominion 
of Canada. 



C L I M O 



The frontispiece and the majority 
of the other views in this book were 
reproduced from original photo^ 
graphs taken specially for the 
publishers by C. H. Climo. 



An inspection of my Art Sepias 
and Art Photographs will convince 
critics that the product of my 
studio embodies only the latest and 
best results in high^ class photography 



CLIMO 

105 Barrington St., Halifax, N. S. 

(183) 



THE 

HALIFAX HOTEL 



Holds the foremost place in Eastern 
Canada for comfort and convenience 

Most careful attention paid to Cuisine 
and Service. .... 

Containing over 170 airy, well- 
lighted and tastefully furnished 
rooms. ..... 

Newly decorated and modern 
equipment. .... 

Located within the circle comprising 
the centre of the city. 

Cars pass the doors every few 
minutes. ..... 

The finest harbor outlook. 



E. L. McDONALD, - Manager 

(184) 



"All the News All the Time." 



ESTABLISHED ISrS 



THE HALIFAX HERALD 

$5.00 PER YEAP, PREPAID 

The Largest Circulation of any Morning Paper in 
Canada East of Toronto 



(with on exception In Montreal). 



ss 



UJ 
LL, 

LLJ 

X 




THE HALIFAX HERALD THE EVENING MAIL 

THE HOMESTEAD 

THE EVENING MAIL 

Sworn circulation is greater than that of any 
other two Evening Papers in Nova Scotia. 



Halifax, Canada. 



WILLIAM DENNIS, 

Managing Director. 



(185) 



MOST OF 



THE HALFTONES 
IN THIS BOOK 

were made by the F. C. Wesley 
Co., St. John, N. B., and were 
furnished by their representative in 
Halifax, Mr. Lewis E. Smith. 



F. C. WESLEY CO. 

are fine engravers of halftones, zinc 
blocks, embossing plates and two 
and three-color work. They make 
a specialty of high-grade drawings 
of furniture, buildings, cover designs 
and fashion plates. The firm do 
highly finished air-brush drawings 
for machinery, etc. 



LEWIS E. SMITH 

54 GRANVILLE STREET 

TELEPHONE 1579 

(186) 



S. M. BROOKFIELD, LIMITED 

S. M. BROOKFIELD, ... President 

J. W. BROOKFIKLD, - Sec.-Treas. 

HENRY ROPEK, .... Manager 

Builders & Contractors 

Builders of Canadian Bank of Commerce 
building, Chronicle building, Mt. St. Vincent 
Academy, Queen Hotel, Halifax Graving 
Dock, all Northwest Arm Boathouses, and 
many other leading buildings of Halifax. 



OFFICE 



58 GRANVILLE ST., /. HALIFAX, N. S. 



Marlborough Woods 

~T"HIS beautiful and valuable estate front- 
ing on the Northwest Arm has been laid 
off in lots., which are being sold at reason- 
able figures. As the Ann is rising rapidly 
in public favor these lots are bound to 
advance in price. For information address 

NORTHWEST ARM LAND CO., Ltd. 

J. W. BROOKFIELD - President 
HY. ROPER, Vice-Pres. and Mg. Dir. 

HALIFAX - NOVA SCOTIA 

(187) 




THE BIRCHDALE HOTEL 

NORTHWEST AKM 
HALIFAX, N. S. 



A Modern Higlvclass Hotel at Moderate Rates. 

A Desirable Home for Families and 

Individuals All the Year Round. 



SUMMER ATTRACTIONS 



Sea Bathing, Fishing, 
Yachting Canoeing, 
Boating. Motoring, Driving 
Golf, Quoits, 
Tennis, Croquet, 



WINTER ATTRACTIONS 



Sleigh-driving, 

Snow'shoeing, 

Hunting, Skating, Slides, 

Toboganning, Coasting. 

Hockey, Curling, 

Ice Boat Sailing. 



The Northwest Arm is the only body of salt water in 
America having all the varied shade and picturesque scenery 
of a fresh water lake. The privacy and surroundings required 
by people of culture, refinement and taste are found here. All 
the conveniences of city life with all the advantages of country 
life. Easy of access to the business portion of Halifax, being 
but fifteen minutes to the centre of the city. Tram connections. 
The high character of THE BIRCHDALE is always maintained. 

F. W. BOWES, 

Manager. 



(188) 



PLANT LINE 

DIRECT ROUTE 

BETWEEN 

NOVA SCOTIA 

AND AIvI, POINTS IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



Regular Sailings the Year Round Between 

HALIFAX AND BOSTON 

Through Tickets for Sale and Baggage 
Checked at all Railway Stations. . . 

H. L CHIPMAN, Manager, /. HALIFAX, N. S. 



SEEING HALIFAX 



The Beautiful Northwest Arm 
Take Robinsons' Tourist Service 

Busses leave Main Post Office, Hollis St., Daily 
(Sunday excepted) at 9.30 a.m. and 2.30 p.m. 
DON'T MISS THIS GRAND HISTORIC 
AND PANORAMIC TRIP. Price to all 50c. 

Ours are the Largest and Best Appointed 
Stables in the City. Everything O. K. 



ROBINSONS, LIMITED 

5 to 25 Doyle St., Halifax, N. S. 

P. O. Box 403 TOURIST BUREAU TEL. 50 

(189) 



The Ocean Shore 
of Nova Scotia 




is the Best Shore and has the Best Climate 
in all America for a Short Holiday or 
for a whole Summer's Stay 

The seven hundred miles of Atlantic shore between Yar- 
mouth and Halifax has had railway accommodation for three 
summers only, so that the whole country has all the delightful 
attributes of an unspoiled territory for those who want some- 
thing new and charmiug in recreation. 

The coast is littered with delightful towns, villages, and 
easily accessible secluded retreats. The lakes, streams and 
woods of the hinterland are full of fish and game. 

The Halifax and Southwestern Railway skirts the shore all 
the way, and has the best trains, with buffet parlor car service, 
jn Eastern Canada. 

For descriptive literature and full information write to 
P. MOONEY, General Passenger Agent, Halifax, N. S. 



EDITION DE LUXE 

" Sketches and Traditions of the 
Northwest Arm." 

"pHE publishers are considering issuing a limited 
de luxe edition of this Northwest Arm history 
in half-calf with gilt top, suitable for presentation 
purposes and similar special uses, and with a new 
preface and other changes. 

The publishers are the owners of the copyright 
and will be glad to hear from interested parties who 
may care to have the de luxe edition. Address by 
letter, 

JOHN W. REGAN 

P. O. Box 35. HALIFAX, N. S. 

(190) 



Men judge you 

by ihe printed and lithographed 
matter you send out by the 
impression it makes on them. Do 
you realize this ? What kind of 
an impression does yours make ? 
How important that it should 
represent you worthily advertise 
you properly. To make sure of 
its doing so choose your printer or 
lithographer well. We do work 
that appeals to the proper pride of 
our patrons, both brains and con- 
science going into our work. 
This book was printed by us. 



McAlpine Publishing Co* 

LIMITED 

HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA 
Publishers of Directories and Belcher's Almanac 



(191) 



A CANADIAN VALHALLA. Panoramic view of 
ing representatives of the " learned professions," the arn 
Westminster. The Arm has lately been chosen as the sit< 
make possible the continued existence of the fabric of Br 
stitutional liberty lie at the basis of government in Canac 




POINTS OF THE COMPASS. The left is north; 
back, which is in the main true, as the site of the city sloj 
about south on the extreme right. The instrument empha 
the head of the Arm, Tower Point contracts the waterway 
memorial tower will be 100 feet, and be in full view of the 
at foot of Quinpool Road. (5) Armdale, the estate of Sir C 
Lodge, residence of Sir Sandford Fleming. (11) Thornval 
the birthplace of Hon. Joseph Howe; in close proximity are 
Village. (X, white cross) Tower Point and land conveyed 



unusually long line of active and distinguished spirits, includ- 
; of world policy, and may eventually be accorded a niche at 

throughout the overseas British Empire, and which probably 
i toll inform settlers and travellers that equality and con- 




long peninsula of Halifax wears the appearance of a whale- 

, The sweep of the view is from northwest on the left hand, to 

bends in river-like fashion. Midway between the entrance and 

ordinary seaside resort. Tower Point is 90 feet high, and the 
Cove and prison. (3) Head of the Arm. (4) Horseshoe Island 
at Club, and Mahar's ferry. (9) The Birchdale hotel. (10) The 
-t to Oaklands is Belmont, the Ritchie estate. (15) The site of 
iiit Pleasant Park and entrance to the Arm. (17) Jollimore 



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