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The Pencil Points Library 



Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 


the Library of 



ANY readers of PENCIL POINTS have suggested to us the need 
for n group of books dealing in a thoroughly practical and 
helpful way with subjects of interest to architects, draftsmen and 
students a library embracing the varied interests that centre in the' 
drafting room. 

Some time ago we called upon the readers of PENCIL POINTS to 
suc/f/esi subjects jor treatment in such a group of books, and we have 
carefully siuaicd the targe number of replies received. Guided by 
ihese suggestion:: and by the indications of special interest on the pan 
of readers in certain articles which have appeared serially in PENCIL 
POINTS, we have prepared a plan for THE PENCIL POINTS LIHRAKY, 
which is to be developed as time goes on. 

The fundamental idea is to provide books to meet the definite 
needs of large numbers of men in- this field, and to do this at as 
moderate a price as is found consistent with the satisfactory presen- 
tation of the matter; not costly publications of limited appeal, but a 
practical working library. 

"Sketching and Rendering in Pencil," by Arthur L. Cuplill, is 
the first book in THE PENCIL POINTS LIBRARY. The second book will 
be "Details of Construction," by Philip G. Knobloch, which is now in 
preparation. Additional books to be published in the near future are: 
"The Study of Architectural Design," by John F. Harbeson ; "Inte- 
riors Old and New"; "The Aesthetics of Building Materials," and 
"Architectural Lettering." 

It is the purpose of the publishers to add books to this library as 
the need for them is determined and as arrangements with the authors 
best qualified to produce them can be made. 

Thi publishers desire to thank all who have, by their suggestions 
or otherwise, encouraged them to enter upon the production of this 
Library and to ask for further suggestions either from those desiring 
to offer manuscripts for publication or from those who see the need 
for a book on a given subject that would fit logically into THE PENCIL 

September, I<j22. 

Copyright, 1922, By 


All Right! Reserved 




With a Preface by 




New York 








AN ARTISTIC conception is susceptible of 
translation into graphic expression through a 
variety of media, but by a certain universality 
of custom, or perhaps more accurately of convenience, 
the familiar lead pencil has achieved a significance 
derived from its immediate association with all forms 
of pictorial delineation. One may speak of it as 
a kind of staff upon which the artist or the drafts- 
man leans most heavily. But this popular accept- 
ance or recognition has, curiously enough, failed 
to carry with it an equivalent degree of appre- 
ciative comment or of authoritative instruction 
in the technique of its individual employment. 
Therefore, an examination of the text and illustra- 
tions contained in this volume must be of special 
and compelling interest to any one of artistic pro- 
fession or aspirations, for in his accomplished and 
excellent interpretation of the potentiality existent 
within the pencil, Mr. Guptill is practically a pio- 

By far the greater acknowledgment must be given, 
however, to the very definite stimulus contained in 
this volume toward a really effective educational 
development among architectural draftsmen. The 
atelier system which offers an inexpensive means of 
acquiring certain architectural training, based on 
the general principles of instruction at the Ecole 
des Beaux Arts in Paris, nevertheless, stops short of 
completeness from the lack of stress placed on the 
important element of free-hand drawing. Great 
emphasis is properly laid on the solution of the 
plan and its presentation but the adherence to the 
mechanical method more or less predicated in the 
drawing of the two-dimensioned plan, has been car- 
ried with almost equal insistence into the study of 
the three-dimensioned elevation. Out of this prac- 
tice has grown a kind of formalized T-square and 
triangle "indication," much in vogue, and with 
scarcely more suggestive value than the working 
drawing produced with the other mechanical para- 
phernalia of ruling pens, compasses and dividers. 

Most draftsmen avoid the blunted pencil point as 
they would a plague. A large part of their time 
is spent in sharpening the pencil to the length and 
sharpness of a needle. With such an implement 
their horizon is narrowed down to the production 
of scale drawings and the conventionalized sectional 
hatchings indicative of various materials. Form 

expressed in the graceful, flowing suavity of line 
becomes a remote possibility under such conditions. 

If I am dwelling with some insistence upon the 
value of free-hand drawing, it is not in disparage- 
ment of instrumental drawing, nor with any view 
to its neglect. It is rather in the desire to build 
something more vital and engaging on this founda- 
tion of mechanical skill which will result in the 
draftsman becoming ever increasingly more of a 
draftsman that I most earnestly recommend this 
book. Mr. Guptill has with every evidence of suc- 
cess endeavored to assist the draftsman out of this 
automatic conventionalized indication into the realm 
of appreciation of the greater artistic possibilities 
lying within himself. To suggest to others a way 
of increasingly beautiful accomplishment is ob- 
viously no slight contribution. This volume is a 
plea for better instruction in free-hand drawing and 
for the thorough perception of its value. 

The illustrations accompanying the text, by their 
variety and excellence of selection and their orderly 
arrangement, furnish in themselves a basis of sug- 
gestion to students which should awaken the most 
enthusiastic response. 

The initial and almost certain discouragement 
which the making of a drawing from life connotes, 
inevitably becomes an emotion of compelling inter- 
est once a grasp of the elements of form and con- 
tour has been accomplished. I know of no way in 
which artistic capital, in the sense of facility and 
sureness of drawing, can be obtained better than by 
drawing from life and the transition from the 
plastic model to the rendering of the static architec- 
tural ornament enables the student to embody in his 
drawing the spirit of the design with a sureness and 
a refinement of detail not possible to one who has 
not passed through the former experience. 

There is some distance to be travelled along the 
road of artistic endeavor before the student can ex- 
press his personality in the composed statement of 
the artist. Mr. Guptill has, I think, in pointing out 
the road and contributing to its illumination, wisely 
kept away from the indication of style. His in- 
sistence has been in the line of encouragement of a 
greater fluency of speech in the language of 
pencil technique and of the assistance that intelli- 
gent conventionalization can render in the presenta- 
tion of form and of color and of materials. 

New York City. 



Part I. 






V- FREE-HAND PERSPECTIVE ............ 24 

VI- CAST DRAWING . ............ 34 

VII- LIKE DRAWING . . . . 39 

VIII. SKETCHING ANIMALS . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 

Part II. 



II. STARTING THE WORK ............. 67 




VI. GRADED TONES ......... 103 




. J. tJv/ 






Troy Kinney, Study for "Provoquante" Frontispiece 

Study of Fokina in Her Dance of Salome 55 

Charles Livingston Bull, Studies of Animals 56, 57, 58, 59 and 60 

Kenneth Conant, Sketches of Durham Cathedral 77 and 81 

Sketch of Cathedral, Santiago de Compostella 83 

Frank Vincent DuMond, Study for Mural Decoration 49 

Otto R. Eggers, View from a Window in Milan 79 

Bits of Paris 80 

View in Tanfield Court 82 

Choir Screen at Chartres 82 

Proposed Treatment for a Living Room 142 

Proposed Treatment for a Dining Room 143 

Detail of Cluny Museum 4 

Barry Faulkner, Figure Studies for Mural Paintings 45 and 53 

Landscape Study for a Mural Painting 168 

] lugh Ferriss, Sketch of Madison Square Garden 173 

Rendering of Bush House, London 174 

Rendering of Bush I louse, London 176 

Jules Guerin, Figure Studies for Mural Decorations 38, 40, 51, 52 and 54 

M. R. Hermann, Landscape Drawings 150, 154 and 155 

Albert Kahn, Sketches of Wrought Iron Work and Wood Carving in South 

Kensington Museum, London 131, 132 and 133 

Louis Kurtz, Sketch for House at Kingsport, Tennessee 116 

Otto F. Langmann, Sketches of Old New York 167, 181 and 185 

Schell Lewis, Detail of an Entrance for a Country Residence 130 

Robert A. Lock-wood, Pencil Sketch 180 

Birch Burdette Long, Rendering of the Lincoln Memorial, Washington. D. C 87 

C. D. Maginnis, Pencil Sketch In the Rue St. Etienne Des Tonneliers, Rouen 85 

Erwin J. Pauli, Rendering of a Design for a Club Room 144 

Chester B. Price, S. W- Straus & Company Building 177 

Building for Hartford Trust Company, Hartford, Conn 183 

The Heckscher Building, New York City 183 



Eugene F. Savage, Figure Study for Decorative Painting 43 

Taher Sears, Studies of Heads 44 and 50 

Studies of Hands 47 

Andre Smith. Pencil Sketch. Segovia 84 

H. I. Stickroth. Figure Studies for Mural Paintings. 46 and 48 

Francis S- Swales, Rapid Pencil Sketch 117 

Ernest Watson, Pencil Sketch of Pennsylvania Station, Pittsburgh, Pa 33 

Sketch of Old Buildings 66 

Pencil Sketch of Williamsburg Bridge, New York City 86 

Kthel M. Weir, Accented Object Drawing 23 


Fragments from the Roman Forum, D'Kspouv 134 

Pencil Drawing of Design for Decoration of Vaulted Ceiling 145 

Rendering in Pencil and Water Color. Table in the Louis XVI Manner 146 

Students' Work 20, 21, 23, 37 


Drawings by the author, illustrating points brought 

out in the text, are found throughout this work and 

are designated as Figures 1 through 53. 

It is a pleasure for the author to express here his grate- 
ful appreciation of the co-operation of all those who have 
contributed towards the making of this volume especially 
to Walter Scott Perry, under whom, as Director of the 
School of Fine and Applied Arts, Pratt Institute, Brook- 
lyn, New York City, the lectures upon which this work 
is based were prepared, and to the artists who have kindly 
given permission for the reproduction of the drawings 
shown in the supplementary illustrations. 


IN VIEW of the popularity that the pencil has 
long enjoyed as a medium of artistic expres- 
sion, it seems rather strange that so little has 
been written relating exclusively to it. For it is cer- 
tainly true, whatever the reasons may he for this 
apparent neglect on the part of our writers, reasons 
on which it is idle and irrelevant to speculate here, 
that though there is a wealth of material dealing 
with kindred subjects, contributions hearing di- 
rectly on the uses of this universal medium are few 
and meagre indeed. 

This dearth of material became clearly apparent 
to the author when he was called upon, some ten 
years ago, to teach pencil sketching and technique 
in the art and architectural classes at Pratt In- 
stitute, for at that time a book was sought which 
might be employed as a text and reference work for 
his students. As nothing seemed available complete 
enough to satisfactorily meet all the requirements, 
a series of lectures was prepared by the author, 
based on his own training in art and architecture, 
which, after having been revised and amplified from 
time to time to meet the needs of the various classes 
under his instruction, forms the basis of this pres- 
ent volume. 

Some of these lectures were arranged for pupils 
seeking a general art education ; others were espe- 
cially for architectural students, while a few, tak- 
ing up the representation of furniture, draperies 
and the like, were used for the classes in interior 
decoration. As records were kept in all of these 
classes from year to year of the difficulties most 
frequently encountered and of points which seemed 
to require the most thorough explanation; also of 
the mistakes most commonly made by the pupils, it 
was possible to so revise the lectures as to antici- 
pate and cover in advance many of the questions 
and problems which might otherwise have given 
trouble. An effort was made to guide the student 
step-by-step through the work, explaining each part 
with the greatest care. 

\Yhen arrangements were made in 1920 to pre- 
pare a serial article on the subject of "Sketching 
and Rendering in Pencil" for "Pencil Points" it 
obviously became necessary to approach the whole 
subject from the standpoint of the architect and the 
architectural draftsman and student, so arranging 
the facts presented as to make them of the greatest 
value and interest to persons connected with the 
architectural profession. It seemed advisable, there- 
fore, to exclude considerable ma f erial of a general 
nature, but in its place several additional sections 
were prepared, based on the professional experience 
of the author as architect and architectural illus- 
trator and dealing especially with the uses of pencil 
in the free-hand rendering of architectural subjects. 

This article, based on the lectures mentioned above, 
appeared in "Pencil Points" from August, 1920, to 
December, 1921, inclusive, in seventeen instalments, 
and met a much warmer reception than was ex- 
pected by either the author or the publishers. Be- 
cause of the rapid growth of the magazine, the back 
numbers of each issue were soon exhausted it be- 
came impossible to meet the demand for the early 
installments; therefore the publishers, taking into 
consideration the fact that the inquiries received were 
not only from those connected with the architec- 
tural profession, but from artists and teachers and 
art students as well, decided that it was advisable 
to republish the entire series in some permanent 
form so as to make it available to all. The present 
volume is the result of this decision, and as it now 
stands contains in revised form the material pub- 
lished in "Pencil Points." to which has been added 
much material which was omitted from the maga- 
zine mainly because it approaches the subject en- 
tirely from the art rather than the purely architec- 
tural standpoint. Then, besides many new illustra- 
tions by the author drawn especially for this pur- 
pose, we are able to include through the kind co- 
operation of many well known artists, numerous 
examples of pencil work, showing a wide range of 
subject and great variety of technique. All these 
various reproductions are presented not merely as 
excellent examples of pencil drawing, however, but 
each is selected to illustrate some principle of com- 
position or some suggestion for technique given in 
the text, thus adding, we believe, to the usefulness 
of the whole. 

In preparing this volume we have presupposed 
that our readers would lie. in the main, students of 
art or architecture or some allied subject, on the 
one hand, and architects or draftsmen, artists and 
art teachers on the other. We have endeavored to 
offer suggestions of value to all these classes of in- 
dividuals and to do so it is plainly necessary to include 
much that is too elementary for the experienced 
man and much that is a bit too advanced for the 
novice. Therefore let the former omit or hurry 
over the rudimentary portions and the latter seek 
advice from his teacher as to the parts best suited 
to his state of progress. For the beginner needs a 
teacher and no book or books can take the place of 
personal instruction, in fact, a book of this sort 
can do little but offer general instructions and 
suggestions, a bit of knowledge and a little inspira- 
tion ; if the reader gains a few thoughts that are 
new or has ideas which were partly forgotten brought 
back to him or is made to see familiar things from 
an enlarged viewpoint, this work will have served 
a useful purpose. 


Courtesy of Kennedy & Co. 





UNDOUBTEDLY the ready availability and 
low cost of the pencil and materials needed 
for use in conjunction with it are partly re- 
sponsible for its popularity among artists, while the 
ease with which it can be carried from place to place 
and prepared and kept in condition for work are in 
its favor, also. 

But aside from these intrinsic merits of the pen- 
cil itself, it has other advantages of a different sort, 
for instance its common employment for writing 
and similar purposes has given us all a certain famil- 
iarity with it, so that the beginner, having become 
accustomed from earliest childhood to these every- 
day uses to which it is put, finds it a natural and sim- 
ple matter to learn to hold and manipulate it prop- 
erly when drawing, which is, of course, highly im- 
portant as it leaves him free to give his attention to 
other difficulties less easily avoided. 

Yet the advantages we have mentioned, great as 
they are, seem insignificant when put into com- 
parison with the one leading fact which has given 
the pencil its place in the world of art, the fact 
that it is suitable for any kind of a drawing from 
the roughest outline sketch or diagram to a complete 
rendering of an elaborate subject. What other me- 
dium is there which responds so readily to any 
demand made upon it? Sharply pointed it will give 
us a line as fine and clean-cut as that of the pen ; 
bluntly pointed it can be used almost as a brush. 
It will make strokes sufficiently light and delicate 
or bold and vigorous to suit the most exacting, or 
tones so smooth that in them no trace of any line 
can be found. It is responsive to the slightest touch, 
allowing us to grade at will from light to dark or 
from dark to light. What other medium will do 
all this ? What other medium permits so great free- 
dom in correcting and erasing at any time during 
the progress of the work? What medium permits of 
such rapid manipulation when speed is desired and 
still proves suitable for the most careful and pains- 
taking study? It should not be supposed that it is 
only in the making of drawings in light and shade or 
outline that it is of value, either, for when color is 
desired there are excellent colored pencils to be had 
by the use of which wonderful effects are obtain- 
able, either on white paper or on tinted surfaces, 
furthermore light washes of water-color can be 
run over pencil work satisfactorily, charming com- 

binations of such mediums being frequently seen. 

Nor should it be forgotten that aside from all 
these various types of work in which the pencil plays 
a leading or a most conspicuous part, there are many 
drawings in which it serves a less prominent but by 
no means less important one, for it is employed 
with great frequency in the preparation of drawings 
to be completed in other mediums ; pen drawings, 
for example, are almost invariably blocked out in 
pencil before any ink is applied, while its use is 
not infrequent for the same preliminary preparation 
for paintings in wash, water color or oil as well as 
for making the numerous studies which are usually 
done before a large or important composition is fi- 
nally executed. Therefore, even though the student 
intends to become a painter, pencil facility should 
prove invaluable to him. In fact, practice with this 
instrument helps greatly to fit one for work in all 
other mediums drawings done in fine line train one 
for pen-and-ink, broad line shading being more like 
charcoal or crayon or brush work helps one in the 
use of these mediums, while pencil shading in mass 
or full tone prepares one directly for painting in 
wash or color. 

With these various facts before us, it is not dif- 
ficult to see that the pencil is an instrument which 
no artist or art student can afford to ignore; espe- 
cially is it of value to the beginner for as has been 
pointed out it is hard to find another medium that 
approaches the pencil in permitting the same speed 
and accuracy in drawing, coupled with ease in cor- 
rection. It is unfortunate if the student allows his 
impatience to attempt work in pen-and-ink or pastel 
or water-color or oils to cause him to proceed to the 
use of any of these mediums before he has mastered 
the pencil, for if he does so he will face unneces- 
sary difficulties. 

But if the pencil is valuable to the artist or art 
student it is absolutely indispensable to the architect 
and his assistants, for whereas the artist has numer- 
ous mediums from which to choose the one best 
suited to his particular needs or individual taste, 
the architect has nothing that can take the place of 
the graphite point for a major portion of his work. 
What other medium would answer for laying out 
his accurate plans and elevations and sections, and 
what else would do for all the various detail draw- 



ings which must be carefully made to scale? Yet 
the pencil serves the architect in other ways than 
these, for aside from this instrumental work which 
is hardly within the scope of this volume, many 
drawings of a free-hand nature are required, such as 
details of carved stone and wood, ornamental iron, 
lettered inscriptions and the like, and what is still 
more important the pencil is particularly valuable 
for making rendered presentation sketches of the 
kind submitted to a prospective client to show how 
a proposed structure will appear when completed, 
these sketches frequently serving to bring new work 
into the office. Then, too, the architect finds a knowl- 
edge of free-hand perspective sketching of great 
value in other ways, for he can by means of a few 
strokes of his pencil make some point clear to his 
client or express his ideas satisfactorily to his drafts- 
men, or help his contractors to visualize some 
matter not readily understood from the working 

The architect's indebtedness to this little instru- 
ment which helps him to get work and to execute it 
is plain then, but if he feels a debt to this constant 
friend, so indeed should the architectural draftsman 
or student, for the pencil perhaps offers him more 
assistance in learning architecture and in advancing 
in this profession than does any other one thing. 

For it is natural that the draftsman who gains 
proficiency in the use of an instrument so frequently 
employed by the architect stands in line for promo 
tion, especially if he is able to do all the free-hand 
work which the average draftsman is so often un- 
qualified to handle. 

And even though a man may never reach a point 
where he stands out among his fellows because of 
his pencil sketches, he can gain much benefit in many 
ways by practising sketching during his spare 
moments. Drawing from photographs or buildings 
always increases a student's knowledge of architec- 
ture, but it does far more than this. It improves 
his powers of observation and retention, for he is 
forced to observe in order to draw at all and in 
drawing he unconsciously assimilates not only knowl- 
edge of the buildings drawn, but also a sense of rel- 
ative proportions and shapes applicable to original 
problems in design. The more such drawings he 
makes, too, the greater will be his power to visual- 
ize the appearance of a proposed building long 
before a single study on paper has been made. The 
ability to thus form in the mind an image of the 
completed structure is most desirable, but the aver- 
age draftsman gives so much time to working in 
elevation or plan only that he is likely to lose sight 

of the fact that the building is to be finally judged 
by its appearance in three dimensions and not by 
the drawings from which it is built. The drafts- 
man who has the power to visualize does not forget 
this fact and so makes all his drawings with greater 

There are some men, on the other hand, who are 
able to see in their minds a building exactly as they 
wish to erect it, yet they are unable to freely express 
their ideas on paper. To such men a knowledge 
of free-hand drawing would be of the greatest bene- 
fit. In fact a man who can sketch well is able not 
only to express his own thoughts on paper but can 
draw from a description given him by someone 

Then there are others connected with the archi- 
tectural profession besides the architect and his 
draftsmen and designers who find a knowledge of 
sketching of value, for engineers and construction 
superintendents can often explain to others or make 
clear in their own minds certain obscure points in 
construction by means of quick sketches. 

And just as the architect and his assistants find 
skill in pencil handling advantageous, so do those 
connected with such professions as interior decora- 
tion and landscape architecture, and in much the 
same way this is not difficult to see. What is not 
so commonly understood, however, is that skill in 
pencil sketching often proves of practical value to 
the layman, though he may make infrequent use of 
his accomplishment. There are problems which 
sometimes come up in the daily life of any person 
difficult to express or explain by oral or written 
word but which can be easily made clear by even the 
crudest sketch. 

Does it not seem rather strange, then, when we re- 
flect on these various advantages of skill in sketching, 
that of all the millions of people in this country 
using pencils every day, and of the thousands of men 
in the architectural and similar professions alone 
who work from morning till night throughout the 
year with the pencil as their principal tool, that so 
few ever attempt to make anything but the crudest 
sort of free-hand sketch and that among those who 
do seriously try to make finished pencil drawings a 
still smaller number have the perseverance to reach 
any real degree of success? For taken all in all 
there is much of a practical nature to be gained 
through free-hand pencil work, and in addition to 
this a great deal of pleasure to be obtained, in 
fact, the satisfaction of being able to draw well is 
worth in itself the time spent in acquiring the neces- 
sary knowledge. 

Chapter II. 

THERE is nothing, perhaps, which so kindles 
the interest and enthusiasm of the student as 
to surround himself with the required draw- 
ing materials, while even the experienced man who 
is accustomed to the everyday use of these accessories 
can hardly gaze upon a new clean sheet of paper 
and pencils pointed ready for his hand without an 
itching to commence, a desire to seize a pencil and 
he at it, for there is something about such materials 
to lure one on to urge one to do his best. 

In fact the appeal of all such things is so strong 
that the beginner is almost sure, unless guided by 
his instructor, to buy too great a variety and quan- 
tity of materials and is inclined to attach too much 
importance to them, for important as they are (and 
no man can do good work with poor tools), the 
truth of the matter is that few and comparatively 
inexpensive things are needed for such work, and 
especially for the earlier problems. But these few 
should be the best of their respective kinds, for the 
difficulties that beset the beginner are so many and 
great that it would be a grave mistake for him to 
handicap himself by using anything of an inferior 
nature, as even the best materials are none too easily 

If the student has no teacher to aid him in his 
selection he is usually safe in securing the standard 
drawing pencils and papers and the like which are 
carried in stock by reliable dealers in artists' sup- 
plies. After a time he will develop a liking for 
certain kinds for certain purposes and will even- 
tually choose without hesitation the pencil and paper 
best suited to the subject to be drawn and the sort 
of drawing to be made. And whether one works 
with an instructor or without, his personal prefer- 
ences will become more and more marked from year 
to year, and the more difficult it will be for him to 
adapt himself to materials with which he is not per- 
fectly familiar. This unfortunately causes some 
artists of mature years to heartily condemn every- 
thing to which they are unaccustomed, which is 
hardly fair, for that which is worthless to one may 
be excellent for another. After the early problems 
are over, then, it is often well to experiment until 
a certain familiarity with all the standard materials 
is gained. Those which are here recommended will 
do for most of the problems of the beginner while 
others are discussed in later chapters. 

Pencils Drawing pencils are usually graded 
from 6B, the softest and blackest, to 9H, the 
hardest and firmest, with fifteen grades between, 
or seventeen in all, arranged as follows: 6B, SB, 
4B, 3B, 2B, B, HB, F, H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 
7H, 8H, 9H. Of these the soft pencils are best 
suited to freehand work, though some papers de- 
' mand much harder pencils than others. In fact, 

the choice of pencils depends almost entirely on 
the character of paper to be used, a smooth, glossy 
paper demanding a much softer pencil than is 
needed for work on rough paper which has con- 
siderable "too'.h." For quick sketches, one soft 
pencil, perhaps a 2B or B or HB, will sometimes 
do for the whole drawing, but a carefully finished 
sketch showing considerable detail may require as 
many as seven or eight pencils grading all the way 
from 3B or 2B to 4H or 5H. In such a drawing 
most of the work would be done with the softer 
pencils, the harder ones being used for the light, 
transparent tones and fine detail. A little experi- 
menting will usually show what pencils are best 
suited to the paper to be used and to the subject 
to be drawn. The fact that the weather makes a 
great difference in the pencils required is not us- 
ually recognized, but it is true that pencils that are 
just right on a dry day will prove too hard when 
the air is damp and the paper filled with moisture. 
Pencils of different manufacture vary in their grad- 
ing so it is generally best to use those of one make 
on a drawing. Cheap pencils seldom prove satis- 
factory as the lead is variable and often so gritty 
as to scratch the paper. 

Paper Almost any drawing paper will do, but 
the choice depends mainly on the size and charac- 
ter of the drawing to be made. For small sketches 
it is best, as a rule, to use smoother paper than for 
large work, in fact it is almost impossible to draw 
fine detail on extremely rough paper. A glazed 
paper, however, is seldom desirable as the shiny 
surface is dulled in an objectionable manner if the 
eraser is used. Sometimes, however, very crisp, 
snappy sketches are made on glazed paper, but a 
soft pencil is required for such work. Extremely 
rough paper is occasionally satisfactory for a large 
drawing, but a medium-rough surface is best for 
general work. Some tracing papers are very good 
and have the advantage that the sketch can be first 
blocked out on one sheet and then rendered on a 
second sheet placed over the first. The drawings 
by the author illustrating this text were made for 
the most part on "kid finish" Bristol Board, which 
has the advantage of being stiff and durable, with a 
firm surface. 

It is often well to have several standard sizes 
for sketch sheets, one small enough to slip into 
the pocket, and one or two larger sizes. Drawing 
paper of the Imperial size of 22 in. x 30 in. can be 
cut without waste to several convenient proportions, 
such as 15 in. x 22 in., 11 in. x 15 in. and 7 l / 2 in. x 
11 in. Some draftsmen prefer to have punched 
sheets to be used in a standard notebook cover, 
8 in. x 105/2 in., being satisfactory. The sketch 
hooks and pads for sale in all art stores are good 
for small work. 


Erasers As a rule it is best to avoid the use of 
erasers so far as possible, as erasing often injures 
the paper surface, but art gum or a soft white 
eraser is necessary for removing construction lines 
and for cleaning the sheet. A fairly hard red or 
green eraser may be required sometimes for correct- 
ing errors, and a soft "kneaded" rubber is very 
useful in lifting superfluous tone from a portion 
of a drawing. An erasing shield is an essential 
if changes are to be made. 

Brush A soft brush is needed for keeping the 
drawing free from dust as tiny specks often cause 
spots and streaks as the pencil passes over them. 
The paper should always be dusted with care after 
erasing is done. 

Boards It is usually well to fasten the drawing 
to a board of convenient size with thumb tacks. 
Be sure that the board is very smooth, for unless 
it is so or the paper very thick, the grain of the 
wood may show in the final drawing. When us- 
ing thin or medium-weight drawing paper it is best 
to put an extra sheet or two under the drawing to 
insure a good surface. 

Fixatif Sketches done with soft pencils rub and 
soil so easily after they are completed that it is 
customary to spray or "fix" them. An atomizer 
and bottle of fixatif can be obtained in any art 
store but the fixatif usually sold tends to turn the 
drawing slightly yellow and also causes a gloss or 
.shine if too much is applied. A French fixatif 
made for spraying pastels has the advantage of 
being more transparent and of causing less shine, 
but is quite expensive. 

Sandpaper Block A scratch pad of sandpaper is 
essential as an aid in pointing the pencils. These 
are sold in a convenient form with handles so 
attached as to make their use possible without soil- 
ing the hands. A sheet of fine sandpaper or a file 
may be substituted for the block if desired. 

Knife Obviously a sharp knife will be useful 
for trimming the paper, sharpening the pencils, lift- 
ing thumbtacks, etc. 

The above materials are needed for all problems. 
Drawing tables, easels, etc., will be described in later 
chapters which take up the kinds of work for which 
thev are essential. 

l Window- Cny Muir- um . 

Pencil Sketch by Otto R. Eggers. 

Chapter III. 

WHEN one studies drawing he usually does so 
because of his personal inclination, hence 
when the necessary materials have been se- 
lected and prepared he is anxious for his first instruc- 
tion, and if his early problems prove interesting he is 
quite sure to become so enthusiastic as to make 
rapid progress. But this is an age of rush and 
hurry; perseverance and thoroughness seem to 
have been almost superseded by impatience and 
superficiality. Therefore progress, however rapid 
in reality, often seems painfully slow to the begin- 
ner, who is all too frequently so blinded by his de- 
sire to hasten on to the sort of thing which is way 
beyond him that it is hard for him to realize the 
importance of thorough mastery of the elements. 
If he is given problems which he considers beneath 
him he becomes resentful but if he is allowed to 
attempt difficult subjects of his own choosing and 
then fails to get the results hoped for he is apt to 
give up the whole matter in disgust, blaming the 
instructor oftimes for his lack of success. Is it not, 
then, part of the duty of the teacher to point out 
the reasons why it is necessary for one to advance 
slowly enough to permit thorough mastery of each 
fundamental as he goes along? For if the student 
can be made to see the need for first learning to 
draw simple things well, if he can be brought to 
realize that his progress will be all the more rapid 
in the end for having done so, problems which might 
otherwise prove irksome will be approached, if not 
with enthusiasm, at least with patience born of 

Even cubes and cylinders and pyramids are in- 
teresting to draw if one takes the proper attitude 
towards them, and there is often no better starting 
point for the beginner than just this class of sub- 
jects. If we select a wooden cube, for instance, 
stripped bare of everything which might detract 
attention from its simple geometric form, and study 
it from various angles and make many sketches of 
it (as will be explained more at length later on) its 
appearance will be fixed forever in the memory so 
that one can recall it at any time and represent it 
on paper. "But," the student may ask, "what is the 
advantage of spending so long on a simple block of 
wood ? I want to draw ships and street scenes and 
buildings and not blocks such as children use for 
toys." The advantage is clear if we pause to con- 
sider that most large objects like buildings and trol- 
ley cars and chairs and tables are based, so far as 
their general form is concerned, on just such ele- 
mentary shapes as cubes, prisms, cones and pyra- 
mids. Once skill is acquired in drawing these, a big 
step has been taken towards learning to do larger 
and more complex subjects. If one starts with a 

cylinder and masters that and then tries pails, bar- 
rels, logs, tree trunks, smoke stacks, reservoirs and 
the like, as well as such architectural features as 
round buildings, circular towers, columns and arch- 
ways, he will be surprised at the ease with which 
all these last may be proportioned, for these things 
differ little in basic form from the simple cylinder. 
If one can draw in addition triangular and hexag- 
onal prisms and pyramids and cones, he can do all 
sorts of roofs and dormers and things of that kind, 
as well as innumerable small objects. 

It is often advisable, then, for the beginner to 
start with such simple objects, drawing each one over 
and over again, attempting as has been pointed out 
above to memorize its shape so that it may be 
sketched at any time without reference to the object 

One will be helped greatly if he studies along 
with his practice in object drawing the principles of 
perspective as applied to freehand work, so the 
reader is referred to Chapter V, which deals di- 
rectly with this phase of our subject, and which 
should, therefore, be read in conjunction with this. 
When one has become thoroughly acquainted with 
the appearance and with the methods of represen- 
tation of such objects (and has gained familiarity 
with the perspective principles involved) the next 
step is to apply this knowledge to the drawing of 
objects showing greater variety of form and sur- 
face and color, such everyday things as books, 
dishes, fruit, or old shoes. Here the architectural 
student may ask why it is essential for him to know 
how to draw books, for "what have books to do 
with the sketching of architecture?" But indirectly 
they and kindred objects have much to offer, for aside 
from the skill in form representation and the perspec- 
tive knowledge gained from their study (directly 
applicable to larger problems such as buildings), one 
learns also in the quickest way from these small 
things which are easily seen as complete units by 
the eye, how to express all sorts of textures of mate- 
rials. When one has learned to show the leather 
of shoes and the glass or porcelain of dishes and 
the cloth or metal or wood of other objects it is not 
difficult for him to represent brick and stone and 
shingles and slate. Columns and balusters and all 
like architectural forms have much the same play 
of light and shade and gradation of tone, too, as is 
found on dishes and similar objects and it is much 
easier to draw from these little things which are near 
at hand than from features like columns which are 
usually so large that a confusing amount of detail 
is visible to prove troublesome to the beginner. Let 
him feel confident, then, that when spending his 
time as we have suggested, it will not be wasted. 


Arranging the Working Space, Now if one is 
to gain the greatest advantage from his practice, 
whether the subject is a geometric solid or a bit of 
still life, he must seek a place where he can work 
undisturbed, and must have his equipment well 
chosen and arranged in a convenient way. 

A room where one can be alone is ideal, or where 
the other occupants are engaged in similar pursuits 
as in an artist's studio or a class room. North light 
is desirable, for if windows face the east or south 
or west there will be sunlight streaming in at times 
during the day, which will cause the shadows and 
reflected lights on the objects to shift in position 
and to change in value constantly. North light, on 
the other hand, is a sort of indirect light, coming 
not straight from the sun but being largely reflected 
from the sky. It is more diffused, therefore, and 
gives softer and less changeable shadows and re- 
mains more constant during the whole day, being 
not so much affected by shifting in the sun's position 
or by the passage of clouds. And north light is 
purer in hue, too, less yellow than the direct rays of 
the sun, though this is of especial advantage only 
when working in color. Light from too many sources 
is disturbing, as it causes complexity of shadow and 
reflection. It is best to have the illumination from 
one window only, the shades being so arranged that 
the light may be cut off at either the top or the 
bottom as desired. (See Figure 1, which is de- 
signed to show a practically arranged room for this 
type of work.) Generally it is the lower half or 
two-thirds of the window that should be shaded, as 
light from above gives more pleasing shadows. 
Many studios are for this reason provided with 
overhead light from skylights or dormers, though 

for our purposes the upper half or third of the ordi- 
nary window will do very well. 

The objects to be drawn should not be too far 
from this window for if they are they will not only 
lack sufficient light but the shadows will be too much 
elongated. If rays fall downward at an angle of 
about 45 degrees from the left they should prove 
satisfactory, the objects being from three or four 
to eight or ten feet from the window. 

Object stand. There should be some sort of 
stand on which these objects may be placed and 
usually a small table of average height (about 30") 
will do very well. One painted white or with a 
white cover is good. If a dark table is used it will 
be necessary to cover it with a white or very light 
cloth or paper on which the objects may rest and 
show good contrast. A background of the same 
material should be provided so that sharp relief can 
be obtained, and the surroundings cut off from view. 
The diagram Figure 2 shows a method of mak- 
ing a convenient folding object rest or shadow box 
of heavy cardboard which may be used on any table. 
Thin wood or wall-board may be substituted if de- 
sired. Cut two cardboards "A" and "B" of equal 
size, about 15"x22", next binding them together 
with tape in such a way that "A" can be raised to 
a vertical position while "B" remains horizontal to 
rest on the table. Flaps "C" and "D," each 15" 
square, are attached to "A" in the manner shown. 
Figure 2 gives at "B" and "C" two of several 
positions in which the box may be used, the first 
being the best for the early problems. 

Chair or scat. A simple chair with a rather 
straight back and no arms is the best one which 
though permitting freedom, will at the same time 






Figure 2. Illustrating a Method of Making an Object-Rest or Shadow Box. 


Figure i. A Room Arranged as a Studio for Object or Cast Drawing. 



not prove so comfortable as to invite laziness. For 
in object drawing it is essential that one should sit 
upright all the time. The chair should be so placed 
that the student will sit directly facing the objects. 
Easel or adjustable draining table. An easel or 
adjustable drawing table is essential on which the 
drawing board may rest. Usually this should be 
kept in an almost vertical position so the sketch is 
at right angles to the line of sight from the eye. 
If the board is tipped in some other manner the 
paper will be so foreshortened as to prevent accu- 
rate work, unless one changes his own position so 
as to still view it at right angles. The type of ad- 
justable table shown in the sketch, Figure 1, has 
some advantages over the customary easel, espe- 
cially for the architectural student, for it can be 
used not only in a great variety of positions as an 
easel but will also serve as a drafting board or as 
a table when placed horizontally or nearly so. 
Easels such as are available in any well stocked art- 
ists' supply house will do very well, however, those 
which permit of easy raising or lowering of the 
drawing to any desired height being the best. 
Whether table or easel is chosen it should be placed 
slightly to the right of the student as he faces the 
objects, just enough to one side to keep it from ob- 
structing the view. This position and the height 
from the floor should be such as to make it easy 
to glance from the objects to the drawing and back 

These three things, then, the stand on which the 
objects are to rest, the seat, and the easel or adjust- 
able table, are most important and taken together 
with such smaller necessities as paper and pencil 
constitute the essential equipment. Cases or draw- 
ers or folios in which new paper, finished drawings 
and the like may lie kept are convenient, and in 
addition there should be some provision made for 
taking care of the pencils, erasers and knives which 
must be near at hand. Attachments may be pur- 
chased for the type of table pictured in Figure 1, 
specially designed to accommodate such accessories, 
whereas the easel is usually equipped with a shelf 
to serve the same purpose. Some of the stands 
made for smokers are convenient if we substitute 
pencils and sandpaper pad for pipe and tobacco. As 
an added improvement to the studio a shelf should 
be provided where the drawing may be placed from 
time to time for comparison with the objects drawn. 
The top of the cases shown in Figure 1 would 
answer for this purpose (these cases, by the way, 
allow for storage of still-life, casts, etc., as well as 
books and drawings) though a rest or shelf right 
beside the objects would be still better. Students 
sometimes have a portable music rack such as musi- 
cians use placed near the object stand so they are 
able to set the drawing side by side with the sub- 
ject for study and comparison. 

If one plans to work by artificial light it will be 
advisable to arrange it to take the place so far as i? 
possible of the natural daylight. The lamp near the 
window in Figure 1 is an adjustable one of tele- 
scopic nature which is excellent for the purpose as 
it may be shifted instantly to any desired position. 
Some artists prefer kerosene to electricity, claim- 
ing it gives a softer light. The kind of lamp is per- 

haps of less importance than its placement, how- 
ever, as great care is necessary to avoid unpleasant 
glare or reflection. The light should be secured 
against so swaying or moving as to change the 
shade and shadow. 

And last but not least a wastebasket proves a 
desirable adjunct to the studio. 

Selecting the Subject. When this equipment has 
all been assembled and arranged we can select our 
first subject and start to draw. But there are va- 
rious kinds of drawings of objects which may be 
made and it seems advisable to consider these for a 
moment for they are all useful, and one's training 
in still-life is incomplete until he has done drawings 
illustrating each of these different types. 

First come the drawings in outline only, in which 
special attention is given to correct proportion and 
perspective ; next we have studies in full value, in 
which all the tones are worked out with the utmost 
care so that each drawing gives as truthful a rep- 
resentation of the objects as it is possible to get with 
pencil. Then we have drawings in which some tone 
is added to outline, a sort of combination of these 
other two methods, and others in which tone is built 
up by successions of fine lines or broad lines or 
both. All of these types are careful studies but 
there are still others in which speed is a leading con- 
sideration, a time limit being set before the draw- 
ing is commenced. These are frequently called 
time sketches. Aside from all these studies and 
sketches in which truth is sought, drawings are 
sometimes made in which the objects simply serve 
as a motive for a somewhat original composition for 
which a rather decorative treatment usually seems 

Of all these various classes of drawings we will 
discuss in the next chapters the first two quite 
fully, the drawings in outline and the studies in 
full values. Much that we say concerning these 
will relate also to the others, which will, therefore, 
be more briefly described. 

So let us select our subject and be at it. 

We have already mentioned that there is nothing 
better for the beginner who is just ready to start 
his first practice than some simple object with which 
he is already quite familiar, something small enough 
so that it can be seen easily at a glance and yet large 
enough so that little effort is required to see it. 
And it should have a certain amount of individuality 
or distinctive character rather than mere prettiness, 
for one of the first things that we should learn is 
how to so analyze the subject as to discover its lead- 
ing characteristics, and record them on paper with 
a few deft strokes. It should be of a simple color 
scheme, too, for the beginner has enough to occupy 
his attention if the colors are few and these few not 
too brilliant and distracting. To meet these require- 
ments common, everyday objects are often the best 
that we can have. Geometric forms have been 
previously mentioned as desirable but as the repre- 
sentation of these will be especially considered in 
Chapter V we will turn to objects having less 
regularity or symmetry of form, such as old shoes 
or dishes. Bear in mind, however, when Chapter 
V is read that much which is given here relates 
as well to the representation of the geometric forms. 


So let us take as our first subject an old shoe, 
quite the worse for wear, for this will give 
us variety of shape in abundance as well as indi- 
viduality (for no two old shoes look just the same). 

Beginning the work. Now that our equipment 
is arranged and our subject is selected, we are nearly 
ready to begin, but must first place the shoe on the 
object stand in a natural position with the light fall- 
ing upon it in an interesting way (though the light- 
ing is less important for outline work than for the 
later shaded studies). Thumbtack a sheet of paper 
about H"xl5" or larger to your drawing board 
(see Chapter II in regard to the selection of pa- 
per) remembering that if several additional sheets 
are placed beneath the drawing, the surface will be 
better. Whittle a medium soft pencil such as an 
HB to a fairly sharp point, and place your chair and 
easel in a position which will permit of comfort and 
a clear view of the object and good light on the 
paper. Then when seated there are certain things 
to l)e decided before touching pencil to the paper. 
We must determine what sort of a drawing we are 
about to make. Is it to be in outline or in black and 
white? Is it to be a rough sketch or a carefully 
finished study? Are we to attempt to accurately 
represent the subject as we see it, every spot and 
line, every infinitesimal detail that we are able to 
discover on close search, or are we to work more 
for the general impression that one gets on looking 
at such an object in the usual way? As a rule it 
seems best for the beginner to confine his early 
attempts to outline, getting the main proportions as 
accurate as he can, seeking to bring out in his sketch 
the individual characteristics of the object. If the 
drawing is to be of a shoe, let it represent that par- 
ticular shoe and not some other. Perhaps it may 
be well if the writer here digresses for a mo- 
ment to relate his own experiences when making his 
first drawing under instruction. It was in the 
studio of Mr. Albert E. Moore at Portland, Maine 
to whom this volume is dedicated, and whose in- 
fluence is felt in every page. The drawing mate- 
rials had been prepared and the author was eagerly 
waiting to see what the subject was to be. And 
then it was brought out, an old, ragged felt hat. 
And a block of wood a few inches long, and two or 
three inches high. And that was all. And the hat 
was raised at one side on the block and arranged 
to form an interesting composition. Then the work 
was started, the directions being to make an outline 
drawing of that hat, expressing its individuality, get- 
ting right at the essentials, considering the whole 
thing in a big way. A half hour later the drawing 
was finished, perfect, according to the personal 
opinion of its youthful author, an improve- 
ment on the original in every way. And then came 
Mr. Moore ! In the light of later understanding his 
patience seems truly remarkable. For he pointed 
out how the drawing was wrong here and wrong 
there, was, in fact, (though commendable for a first 
attempt) wrong in all its larger proportions, but 
especially how it failed to express the character of 
that particular hat. So the sheet was wiped clean 
and a new drawing made, and again, until the end 
of the morning found a somewhat discouraged youth 
whose pride in his newly acquired materials had 

received quite a setback. Finally after three or four 
half-days' time the drawing was finished (and what 
a feeling of satisfaction this accomplishment gave), 
the first of many similar studies, each of which 
brought added emphasis to the need of truthfully 
expressing the leading characteristics of the subject 

We should perhaps try to make clear to the stu- 
dent just what is meant by "truthfully expressing 
the leading characteristics of the subject." To do 
so takes us back to a consideration of what a draw- 
ing is or should be. A drawing is simply an ex- 
planation. The best drawings which we have are 
those which tell their story directly and simply and 
which do not confuse us with multitudinous and 
irrelevant details. It is seldom that the artist 
attempts to tell in one drawing all the facts about 
the subject represented, but the leading truths are 
sought for, the characteristics which appeal to him 
as being the most valuable and interesting. Just as 
individuals differ from one another in their choice 
of clothes, so artists differ in their selection and 
interpretation of the characteristics of any subject, 
so if several skilled men were to depict certain ob- 
jects as viewed from the same point under the same 
conditions the resulting pictures would be quite 
different, though it is perfectly possible that all 
might he of equal merit and all considered as equally 
truthful; far more truthful than a photograph of 
the same objects. This may sound a bit strange as 
the student is often under the impression that the 
drawing which comes the closest to a photographic 
representation is the best and the most true. Rut 
this is not so. The tiny details of nature are with- 
out number and if we study any object minutely we 
are almost overwhelmed with the small parts which 
close inspection reveals. A clear photograph shows 
many of these things. When we glance at an 
object in the usual way, however, we are not aware 
of each tiny detail for it is onlv when we focus our 
attention upon one portion after another that we 
see the smallest of the visible parts at all, the usual 
impression that we get is the one which we should 
attempt to transfer to our paper ; not a photographic 
likeness which seeks and records every fact. 

As the student gradually develops his perceptions 
he will be able to choose that which is essential 
according to the purpose for which the drawing is 
made from that which is superfluous, so that when 
we look at his drawings we will be conscious with 
little mental effort of the subject drawn and its prin- 
cipal attributes. It is undoubtedly largely this ease 
in understanding a good drawing which causes us 
to enjoy it in preference to a photograph of the 
same subject. 

So the beginner must strive to retain in any sub- 
ject such elements as have the greatest significance, 
in some cases even exaggerating them, sacrificing 
at the same time some of the lesser truths if by so 
doing the drawing as a whole will be easier to read 
or understand. It will be no less honest because 
of this. 

To learn what to look for and what to overlook 
is as important as the improvement of draftsman- 
ship, and there is perhaps no better way to begin 
to do this than to start with outline, as an outline 























drawing is the simplest that we can make, for as 
light and shade is largely disregarded in snch work, 
concentration can be given to representing propor- 
tions and contours. It is for this reason that we 
assume that we are to draw the shoe in outline, 
attempting to honestly delineate it in a simple way. 

It is here that the student, if left to his own de- 
vices, will often make the mistake of starting to 
draw at one point (such as "A," Sketch 1, Figure 
3) at the top of the shoe, work down one side, 
completing the entire outline as he proceeds, next 
going across the bottom and up the other side and 
finally back to the starting point. Should an ex- 
pert artist choose to do so he might employ this 
method successfully, but it is not to be recommended 
to the beginner as it is a very difficult way in which 
to work, for however careful one may be in draw- 
ing each small portion as he goes along, the larger 
forms are almost sure to be wrong, which in turn 
means that the smaller proportions are wrong too, 
in relation to one another. Sketch 1 shows the in- 
correct result that the employment of such a method 
is quite sure to bring. At first glance this drawing 
perhaps seems as correct and as interesting as doss 
Sketch 4, made by the method which we are about 
to describe, but its chief fault lies in its propor- 
tions, for Sketch 4 gives the correct shape of the 
shoe as viewed from the one position from which 
it was drawn. If we start at "A" and compare the 
contour of the shoe in Sketch 1 with that in Sketch 
4, bit by bit, we find them much the same. That 
is the danger of the system, it leads us astray 
almost without our knowing it. For when we get 
to drawing the sole and glance across at the heel 
we find the sole is too low, the sole and heel com- 
ing to a horizontal line, whereas at 4, the sole is 
higher. Compare the height of the toe in the two 
sketches with the table line at the back and note that 
this height in 1 is too low. Then as we go on up 
to the top we find the ankle much larger at 1 than 
at 4. Now in drawing a shoe such inaccuracies are 
not wholly disastrous but if the same method were 
applied to drawing the portrait of a person and as 
many mistakes crept in, a correct likeness would 
surely fail to materialize. 

So instead of working in this wav one should go 
at the whole matter very methodically. First of 
all, as soon as the object is in place and the easel and 
chair are in position, mark the location of the chair 
and the model stand on the floor in some way. A 
chalk mark around each leg of the easel and of the 
chair will do very well. Otherwise it is possible 
that some change will be made in their position and 
even the slightest shift is often enough to prove 
very confusing and cause inaccurate results. Then 
when you sit on the chair, sit right in the middle 
and keep erect. This is most important. For if 
you shift a bit to one side or the other or slump an 
inch or two, the object will present quite a differ- 
ent appearance (the change being particularly no- 
ticeable when one is drawing books and boxes and 
the like). So all the while that you are working 
hold the same position. As an aid to remain ; ng 
stationary some instructors go so far as to have 
the student sight across some mark or point along 
the top of the object stand to some coinciding mark 

which can be made on the wall. Then the stu- 
dent, sighting from the first point to the second 
point, will establish his position and if he finds 
at any time that the points are not in line, one be- 
hind the other, he will know <he is out of position. 
The same marks will prove useful to the instructor 
when he sits to give criticism, as they will enable 
him to view the objects from exactly the same point 
used by the student ; in fact if he is of different 
height it may otherwise be very difficult for him 
to assume the correct position and unless he does so 
he cannot give the proper criticism. 

As soon as the student has taken his position he 
should study the object for a few minutes before 
starting to draw. Notice the general shape of the 
mass, forgetting the detail but considering the sim- 
ple form. Compare the height with the width. Is 
the mass taller than it is wide or is the opposite true ? 
Is the general form square or round or oval or tri- 
angular? What are its most individual character- 
istics? Is it flat or rounded? Are its edges regu- 
lar or irregular? Are the surfaces rough or 
smooth? When the subject has been analyzed with 
the greatest care the next step is to determine how 
large the drawing is to be and to locate the extreme 
limits of the object on the paper. If the subject is 
higher than its length it is best to place the paper 
in a vertical position so that the picture space will 
be in proportion to the object (or objects). Usually 
the size of the drawing will be less than that of the 
subject itself. Place a light mark towards the top 
of the paper to locate the extreme limit of the 
drawing in that direction, next another for the same 
purpose at the bottom, followed by others at the 
sides. These marks are shown at 1, 2, 3 and 4. 
Sketch 2. Figure 3. Next block out very lightly 
with a few sweeps of the pencil the larger propor- 
tions, the point barely touching the paper surface. 
Now set the drawing back near the objects. Com- 
pare. Is the height right in relation to the width ? 
If it is hard for the student to determine this there 
is a. test which may be applied here which is com- 
monly used by artists, not only in object drawing, 
hut in life drawing, nature sketching, etc., namely, 
thumb measurement. 

Thumb Measurement. This test is known as 
thumb or pencil measurement. One eye is closed 
and the arm outstretched at full length towards the 
object, the hand grasping the sharpened end of a 
pencil held at right angles to the arm (more prop- 
erly at right angles to the line of sight from the 
eye to the object). The pencil can then be used as 
a measure for comparing width and height or the 
length of one line with another (just as a ruler 
might be applied directly to the objects themselves), 
the thumb nail being allowed to slide along on the 
pencil until it marks any desired point. It is best 
to take the smaller dimension first and use it as a 
unit of measure for the larger. As the various pro- 
portions are compared in this way the correspond- 
ing dimensions on the drawing can he tested either 
by the eye or by laying the pencil directly upon 
them. If they are not relatively the same the dif- 
ferences will be obvious and corrections can be 
made. The value of this test is lost unless the pencil 
is kept at exactly the same distance from the eye, 







5 TOY RAb!T (iLt TLXT 







Figure 4. Offering Some Suggestions on Composition, for Use in Object Drawing. 



so the elbow must not be bent or the body turned ; 
therefore, keep the shoulders firm against the chair 
back. At best this method of measurement is use- 
ful merely as a test as it is only approximately ac- 
curate, so the student should not employ it too fre- 
quently but should, instead, learn to depend on the 
eye, especially for the smaller proportions. If the 
drawing is frequently set back near the object he 
will soon learn to see and correct his own mistakes. 
In making corrections it is not always necessary to 
erase the incorrect lines, for if they are very light 
the new strokes can be made a bit heavier and will 
be easily distinguished. If the wrong lines prove 
confusing, however, erase them by all means. 

It is not enough to compare the height of the 
object with the width, or the relative lengths of dif- 
ferent lines as is done by the thumb measurement, 
but the slant of the lines should be studied also, to 
make sure that they are pitched correctly. Hold 
the pencil at arm's length in such a position that it 
hides, or coincides with, some important line in the 
object, then do the same with the same line on 
your drawing. Or hold the pencil vertically or 
horizontally and sight across it at some sloping line. 
Compare the angles formed by the various inter- 
secting edges, too, and make corrections wherever 

As soon as the main proportions have been prop- 
erly established and the larger subdivisions blocked 
in and corrected in turn, we have completed the 
first stage of our work as illustrated in Sketch 2, 
Figure 3. At this time the larger characteristics 
or peculiarities of the subject should be clearly ex- 

In the second stage, pictured in Sketch 3, the 
larger parts are still further subdivided and more 
of the small details are added. In this stage the 
drawing should be set back several times, too, for 
comparison with the subject. Here, as in the first 
stage, it is not necessary to erase all the construc- 
tion lines or incorrect strokes unless they prove dis- 
tracting. This second stage expresses the smaller 
or minor characteristics, retaining at the same time 
most of the larger. At this point the drawing is 
really a construction diagram over which it is in- 
tended to work. For shaded problems drawings 
are often brought only to this second stage before 
the values are added. 

Now, before going on to the third and last stage 
illustrated in Sketch 4, get away from the work en- 
tirely for a few moments. In fact it is advisable 
to rest the eye every fifteen minutes or half hour 
by doing something else. One can even save time 
in the end if he goes to the window and looks out, 
or walks about a bit, forgetting the drawing com- 
pletely. After such relaxation mistakes will usually 
be evident at the first glance and the brief respite 
will make it easier to resume and hold the correct 
position. This is important. Every time you take 
your seat you must be sure you are viewing the ob- 
ject from the right spot for, as we have said, the 
slightest difference in position will make a marked 
difference in the appearance. In this last stage 
remove all wrong or unnecessary lines. Then partly 
erase with a soft or kneaded rubber or art gum 

the correct lines until they are barely visible, show- 
ing just enough to afford a guide for the final relin- 
ing. A great deal of thought should be given to 
this last work for the final line should not be a 
perfect and mechanical one but should be expres- 
sive of the shapes and textures represented. For 
some parts the pencil will need a rather sharp point, 
for others it must be quite blunt. The pressure 
should be varied, too, as certain lines need to be so 
light and delicate as to be barely visible while others 
will be bold and strong. In places gradation will 
take place from light to dark or from dark to light. 
No rules can be given for obtaining satisfactory re- 
sults ; it is a matter of taste and feeling. But draw 
thoughtfully and observe before you draw. This 
third stage expresses many of the smaller peculiar- 
ities of the subject, being a subdivision of the lines 
of the second stage, carefully refined, preserving, 
however, the big characteristics of the first stage. 

Table Line. In order to make an object appear 
to rest on something solid instead of to merely hang 
in the air it is usually advisable to draw a hori- 
zontal line, often called a table line, which frequently 
represents the back of the object stand. Such a 
line gives some evidence of material support. If 
graded to light as it disappears behind the object 
or objects, it will add also to the feeling of detach- 
ment and space. This line should never be just half 
way between the margin lines. A second table line 
representing the front edge is sometimes advisable. 

Margin Line. A freehand line drawn an inch or 
so from the edge of the paper all around, thus act- 
ing as a frame, adds to many compositions. Some- 
times this line is carried only part way around as at 
"A," Sketch 7, Figure 4. 

As soon as the sketch is completed, sign it with your 
name, date it, and put on approximately the amount 
of time required from start to finish. Then spray 
the drawing with fixatif, if you wish, or clip a piece 
of paper over it for protection and place it in your 
folio or some safe place for preservation. Don't 
make the mistake of destroying these early sketches, 
thinking they are of no value, for though they may 
not be beautiful pictures, it is often both interest- 
ing and instructive to look them over later, the 
comparison of a number of them done at different 
times showing just what progress has been or is 
being made. 

When the sketch of the shoe is signed and laid 
to one side select another similar subject and draw 
it in just the same way, striving to truthfully ex- 
press the individuality as before. Proportion the 
object as you see it and not as you think it ought 
to be there will be time enough to use your orig- 
inality later on, for remember it is truth we are 
seeking now, as a knowledge of truth is a foun- 
dation for all the rest to follow. 

Marginal Notes or Sketches. When a subject 
has been selected for a drawing it is often advis- 
able to make very quickly a tiny sketch of it on 
the margin of the paper before going ahead with 
the final drawing. A few minutes will do for such a 
marginal sketch or note, just time enough to allow for 
a blocking in of the larger proportions, the main 
lines of construction. When making this tiny 
sketch one is observing the subject and acquainting 



himself with it as preparation for the larger work. 
Figure 5 shows a number of these trial sketches. 

Time Sketches. As a means of acquiring skill 
to grasp and delineate the leading characteristics 
of an object quickly, time sketches are valuable. 
These are nothing more or less than drawings done 
in a limited time, which is often set in advance. 
For a simple subject to be left in outline, five min- 
utes is allowed, or fifteen or whatever seems ad- 
visable (this depending partly on the subject and 
partly on the skill of the artist). As good a draw- 
ing is made as is possible within the limits set. In 
such work it is especially important to block out the 
main-proportions first, adding as many of the smaller 
details as time permits. Then there is another sort 
of time sketch (often referred to as a time study) 
in which a drawing is pushed to completion as 
quickly as is possible and the required time noted. 
The speed and dexterity gained through all such 
training will prove indispensable when it comes to 
working from the living model or sketching moving 
objects. Animals, people, vehicles, boats and clouds 
do not always remain still to suit the convenience of 
the artist. Although all this "speed work" is essen- 
tial and a pleasant change from the usual form of 
drawing where time is not a leading consideration, 
too much of it leads to carelessness and inaccuracy, 
being detrimental rather than beneficial. Alternate 
your problems, then, making some quick sketches 
and some painstaking studies, and progress should 
be steady and consistent. 

Memory Drawings. When one has acquired a 
fair amount of skill doing the types of work de- 
scribed above, let him try a few drawings of the 
same objects from memory, for the ability to draw 
from memory or the imagination is a great asset to 
the artist. When you have finished a drawing of 
an old shoe, for instance, done from the object it- 
self, leave the shoe in the same position on the 
object stand but hide it from view, temporarily, with 
a cardboard or sheet of paper and lay the study just 
finished to one side. Then on a fresh piece of paper 
try to draw the object from memory. When the 
main lines have been blocked out, look at the shoe 
again and compare your drawing. Hide the shoe 
once more, correct your drawing and push it nearer 
to completion and again compare it with the object 
itself. Go on in this way until the drawing is com- 
pleted. Then try some quick sketches of the shoe 
from memory, looking at it first until you get a fresh 
impression of it in your mind, next drawing swiftly 
and freely, working for only the larger proportions 
and individual characteristics. This sort of work 
is of the greatest value in training one to observe 
carefully and to retain that which is observed. It 
may not be out of place to say that the student who 
looks at an object for a long time, forming sort of 
a photograph of it in the brain, is usually better able 
to memorize the form than is the student who glances 
back and forth constantly from the object to the 
drawing as he works, forgetting the impression of 
each line once it is represented on paper. This is 
only a general rule, however, and has many excep- 
tions as some students have the power to really ob- 
serve and memorize more at a glance than do others 
in several minutes. 

Outline Drawing of Several Objects. The draw- 
ing of two or three objects instead of one is logically 
the next step. It involves few new principles, though 
the matter of arrangement or composition now needs 
our attention, for it is not always easy to choose and 
arrange several objects to form a satisfactory whole. 
The reader is referred to Chapter V, Part II, which 
offers suggestions of assistance at this time. Study 
what is said there about unity and balance. In order 
to obtain unity it is essential that the objects chosen 
should be well related by use, objects which we 
find associated for one reason or another. We have 
already mentioned that such things as are frequently 
found in the cellar or shed or attic often have more 
character than objects which are merely pretty. 
Objects that grow are often interesting, especially 
if the forms are irregular. 

It is not enough, however, to have things of a 
kind or things associated by use unless they also 
offer variety of form and surface and texture (and 
if drawings are to be shaded, variety in light and 
dark). Little pleasure would be taken in a sketch 
showing several objects of equal roundness grouped 
together, or several others based on cubes of like 
size. Instead we look for dissimilar forms. , We 
look for dissimilar edges, too, some that are soft, 
broken or indefinite and some that are sharp and 
clean-cut. An ink bottle with stationery and pen 
might be pleasingly arranged, or a hat and gloves 
and grip, or any of the many combinations to which 
we have referred at the end of Chapter IV. An 
enormously large object fails to harmonize in size 
with something much smaller unless they are 
arranged with the utmost care and even then such 
a composition is difficult, so too much difference in 
form or size is as bad as too little. Thought and 
rare must be used, then, in both the selection and 

When two or three objects have been chosen place 
them on the stand and shift them about until they 
compose satisfactorily. A view-finder such as de- 
scribed on page 95 in Part II will be of use in this 
work. It is often advisable at this point to make a 
little trial marginal sketch to see how the arrangement 
will look on paper. Then try some different group- 
ing of these same objects. If some object does not 
seem to fit, substitute another for it. Make a new 
marginal sketch. Go through this process two or 
three times and the best arrangement will be found. 
Figure 5 shows at "A," "B" and "C" several 
such sketches blocked out as a study of grouping. 
Considering the fact that still life objects are always 
shown in repose and bearing in mind that a triangle 
resting on its base always seems to express this feel- 
ing as much as any shape, many compositions of ob- 
jects conform to a triangular proportion. Sketches 
"A" 3, Figure 5 and "1," Figure 4, are tri- 
angular in general mass and are, therefore, rest- 
ful. When a triangle is placed on its apex, how- 
ever, or any of its vertices, the opposite is true. 
The two sketches of the little toy rabbit in Figure 
4 are shown to illustrate this point. At "A" 
the toy seems stationary ; at "B" it seems to be run- 
ning off the paper, showing action rather than re- 
pose, and the latter effect is obtained mainly by the 
position of the triangular mass. Sketch 2, Figure 












Figure 5. Illustrating Some of the Uses of Marginal Notes and Trial Sketches. 



4 shows a square composition ; Sketch 3 one 
which is circular. Rectangular compositions fre- 
quently seem restful; when using circular or oval 
masses care must be taken that the objects do not 
seem inclined to roll out of the picture. The more 
nearly horizontal the base is, the better, for if it is 
too round in form the objects give an impression 
of instability, seeming to have a desire to rock back 
and forth or fall over. Both the irregular mass at 
"A" and the circular mass at "B," Sketch 4, Figure 
4, have an unstable appearance, the first seeming 
to rest on too sharp a point at the base. As a 
further illustration of the principle that objects seem 
more satisfactory if resting firmly on some support 
we call attention to the feeling of incompleteness 
and restlessness that one notices in objects which 
show no portion of their bases. The vase in Sketch 
6 for instance, disapj>earing behind the book, gives 
us a sense of something lacking. Another point 
worth considering is that objects should not be 
placed so far below the eye that they seem to tip vip, 
as this always seems disturbing. 

The other sketches on Figures 4 and 5 explain 
themselves, and as experience will soon teach the stu- 
dent how to get a satisfactory arrangement of the 
objects, it seems needless to say more here. Once 
they are in position the outline drawing should be 
carried forward by gradual steps just as we have 
explained for single objects, using care that in each 
drawing there is good relative proportion between 
all the different objects. When it comes to the final 
stage greater variety of outline may lie needed to 
represent the larger number of surfaces and textures. 

When the student has learned to draw well in 
outline it is time for him to start his work in light 
and shade and this will lie discussed in the next 
chapter. Before turning to this, however, attention 
should be called to a means of learning freehand 
work which is growing in favor. 

Drawing on Glass. If one stands facing a china 
closet or dish cupboard which has glass doors, and 
closes one eye, and then takes a lithographic pencil 
or china marking pencil he can trace on the glass the 
form of some dish inside, and this tracing will be 
a correct drawing of the dfsh as it appears from that 
particular point. Of course, it is rather difficult to 
draw in this way well for it is no easy matter to 
maintain just the same position throughout the 
work, and neither is it easy unless one's hand is 

well trained, to follow the outline with sufficient 
accuracy to produce a perfect drawing. Nor would 
there be any particular advantage in being able to 
do so. But students who have difficulty in perceiv- 
ing or understanding certain facts in perspective 
can sometimes find help by using glass, making sure 
that it is at right angles to the line of sight from 
the eye to the object. One can sketch on a window, 
drawing, or more correctly, tracing, buildings or 
trees or any objects in repose which may be visible 
through the glass. 

Occasional use of this method may help the be- 
ginner, but there is another far more valuable use to 
which glass may be put as a drawing surface, and 
with this use every beginner should be familiar. 

A sheet of glass is placed on the easel or drawing 
table as a substitute for the usual paper, with a 
sheet of paper or white cloth beneath so the lines 
will be plainly visible when they are drawn. Then 
the objects are sketched on the glass with the china 
marking or lithographic pencil just as they would 
be blocked in with pencil on paper. When the main 
proportions are drawn as accurately as the student 
is able to get them the glass is raised to such a 
position that the drawing comes between the eye and 
the objects drawn, using one eye only. When the 
glass has been shifted to just the proper position the 
lines of the drawing should coincide with those of 
the object, this method therefore being an excellent 
test for accuracy. If errors are noted, return the 
glass to the table and erase the incorrect lines with 
a damp cloth. Make the necessary corrections and 
test again in the same way as before. Repeat the 
process as often as is necessary ; then when the pro- 
portions are right wash off the drawing and try a 
new one of a different subject. 

There is perhaps no way in which the beginner 
can learn to see his own mistakes and acquire a 
knowledge of perspective foreshortening more easily 
than this, and the use of glass is especially recom- 
mended to those who are unable to secure the serv- 
ices of a teacher. The glass invented by Anson K. 
Cross is a patented one having a spirit level in 
the frame, and it is used in somewhat the manner 
described above. Many well-known artists and edu- 
cators advise the use of this glass, which has been 
introduced into some of the leading schools of the 
country. A crayon is especially prepared for use 
with it. 

Chapter IV. 

WE NOW come to the making of shaded draw- 
ings of objects in which we wish to repre- 
sent the exact amount of light and shade 
found in the objects themselves. 

In this work no outline will appear for we are to 
make as truthful a representation of the tones seen 
in nature as is possible with a lead pencil, and nature 
shows us no outline. A little observation will prove 
that we are able to tell one object from another by 
its light or shade or color. Most areas of light or 
of shade have clearly defined shapes which explain 
to us the forms of the objects and all these shapes 
seem to have boundaries where one tone stops against 
another. In elementary work and for certain types 
of explanatory drawings lines may be used to repre- 
sent these contours or boundaries, the light and 
shade being omitted or merely suggested, and the 
eye is satisfied with the result. But the result is a 
wholly conventional one. Now we must stop think- 
ing of lines but must think of tones instead. We 
must learn to think of the exact degrees of light and 
shade found in the objects and to represent them 
correctly. We must learn to translate the values of 
color into values of light and dark. For the value 
of a given color must be represented by a tone of 
gray which has the same degree of light and dark 
that the color has. These tones will vary all the way 
from the white of the paper to the pure black of the 
softest pencil. We have white tones, and light tones, 
and middle tones and dark tones and black tones, 
and though there are in reality many more than these 
five groups (in fact the 1 tones in nature are innu- 
merable), it is best in drawing to simplify the values, 
not attempting to break up a tone to express every 
slight difference in value which may be discovered 
on close inspection. 

For the first problems it is suggested that some 
object or objects be chosen with little color, confin- 
ing the choice to such things as are white or gray 
of black or of dull tints or shades, for with these the 
relative values can be seen quite easily. The stu- 
dent will be helped in judging a value if he com- 
pares it with white. So take a small sheet of white 
paper a few inches in size and compare it with the 
various objects to be drawn. Is there any tone in 
the objects as light as the paper? Select the light- 
est tone that you can find. You may discover two 
tones of different color but the same value. Now 
hold your sheet of white paper in bright light and 
compare its tone with that of similar paper in some 
darker place. Now take a piece of black paper and 
compare that with the objects. Is there any tone 
as dark as the black paper? Select the darkest tone 
that you can find in the objects. Now place the 
dark paper in brilliant light and compare its tone 
with that of another piece of the same paper in 
some darker place. Such experiments will prove 

that even though a surface is white it will not 
always appear white, and though black, its value 
will change in effect as it is moved from place to 
place the less light a surface receives the darker 
its values will seem to be. 

It should be remembered also, that if we have 
two objects of exactly the same form under the 
same lighting conditions, but one light and the other 
dark, the darker one will have darker values all 
over as its local color is added to the shade. 

So the lightest value on the objects will usually 
be found in that one having the lightest local color 
and in that part of it receiving the brightest light 
(usually that portion nearest the window). There 
are some exceptions to this-; highly glazed dark 
objects will sometimes reflect a value so light as 
to be the lightest in the whole composition, being 
even more brilliant than the paper on which the 
objects are being drawn. 

When we intend to do shaded work in full values 
we prepare first of all an outline drawing just as was 
described in the preceding chapter, though the final 
accented outline is not needed, instead the outline 
should be softened with an eraser until it becomes 
simply an inconspicuous guide for the work in 
shading. Next we lightly add the contours or boun- 
daries of the most clearly defined areas of light or 
shade. Now we determine the lightest light and 
the darkest dark and make a comparison of the other 
values. Then sharpen a medium soft pencil to a 
fairly sharp point (a softer one may be necessary 
for extremely dark tones) and we are ready to be- 
gin. There are several methods of procedure open. 
Some teachers feel that it is best to first draw the 
darkest tone, then the next lighter, and so on up 
through the values, leaving the lights for the last. 
Others start with the lightest tones, next add the 
grays, working down to the darkest values. Really 
everything depends on the individuality of the art- 
ist and the type of drawing desired. Assuming that 
we are to make as correct a representation as we 
know how, it will probably be easiest to work over 
the whole drawing, not attempting to bring any one 
portion to the proper tone at first, but building up 
all the various tones gradually. In this way unity 
will be obtained. Set the drawing back frequently, 
and get away from it once in a while for a few 
minutes' rest. 

We have already mentioned that as a rule such 
surfaces as are receiving the brightest light (which 
means they are turned directly towards the source 
of light), will be the brightest. If we have an ob- 
ject which is rounded in form (such as a cylinder) 
we will usually find it the lightest in value towards 
the window. Those portions which are turned away 
from the light will of course be rather dark. There 
may be a gradual change of tone from the lightest 














Figure 6. Modelling or Shading of Objects. 

parts to the darkest, see Sketch 1, Figure 6, or 
if the object has a somewhat irregular surface 
sucli as the decagonal prism, shown at Sketch 2 in 
the same diagram, the values may change gradually 
plane by plane from the lightest plane to a slighter 
darker plane, to a still darker one, and so on around 
to a point on the back opposite the lightest plane. 
Jt is not always true, however, that the darkest plane 
or portion of curved surface will he the one farthest 
from the source of light, for there is sometimes a 
certain amount of illumination from some other 
direction, and even if there is not, there are fre- 
cjuently rays of light reflected onto the parts in shade 
or shadow, thereby neutralizing the otherwise dark 
values. Sketches 1 and 3, Figure 6, will serve to 
illustrate this point (the reader is referred also to 
Chapter VI, Part II, on graded tones). At "1" the 
brightest value is on that portion of the cylinder re- 
ceiving the strongest rays of light. Then as the sur- 
face curves more and more away from the source of 
illumination the darker it gets. At "3" a different 
condition exists. The brightest part of the surface 
is at "A" as in "1"; then the tone gradually darkens 
until it reaches "B," which is the darkest. Then at 
"C" a lighter value is found, caused by the reflection 
of light rays from some other object. 

Planes. Now few objects which we draw have sur- 
faces curving as gradually as those of the cylinder 
just illustrated or planes so mechanically arranged as 
those of the prism. More often the objects are so 
irregular that the light and shade varies from part 
to part ; there may be many portions turned towards 
the light and many turned more or less away. These 
various areas of light and shade which are seen in 
an object, caused by its irregular form and its posi- 
tion in relation to the source of light, are usually 
referred to as "planes," even though they do not 
fully meet the geometric definition of the word. 

Edges of Planes. In some irregular objects 
there is quite a definite line of demarkation be- 
tween the various planes. In gradually curving ob- 
jects there is no such line the tone simply grades 
as we have noted in the case of the cylinder, with 
no sudden, perceptible change in value. In most 
objects both of these two conditions exist; in parts 
the planes seem quite definite, in others they merge 
together. There is nothing more important than 
to draw these edges correctly, sharpening them or 
losing them as the case may be. In the same way 
there is great difference in the edges of the objects 
themselves as they come in contrast with the back- 
ground or with other objects. Some stand out in 
sharp relief, others are indistinct. Some dark ob- 
jects become so lost in shadow on their shade side 
that it is hard to distinguish the form, hence it 
should not be over-accented in the drawing. 

Sliadoivs. Shadows out-of-doors and shadows in- 
doors are entirely different in their appearance. 
In-doors they are softer and more indefinite ; 
whereas some edges of shadows seem sharp, many 
are almost lost. Hold the end of your pencil on a 
sheet of paper and the shadow will seem sharpest 
right at the point of intersection. Bear this in 
mind when shading. Correctly drawn shadows have 
much to do with the effect of modelling or projec- 
tion. Needless to say, unless the objects are 
arranged with care and the whole group well lighted 
the shadows may prove very distracting; consider- 
able experimenting will be necessary to compose a 
group to the best advantage. If light is coming 
from several sources the shadows will surely be un- 
fortunate, for the complex forms cast in different 
directions will tend to restlessness and confusion. 

Now when your drawing seems finished set it 
back for a final comparison. Have you the exact 
degrees of light and dark in the drawing as in the 




, - 


Figure 7. Illustrating the Representation of Objects in Light and Sliadc. 



objects themselves? Have you the correct degrees 
of sharpness and softness in the edges? Is there 
too much dark on one side or at the bottom or the 
top, or does the whole hold together nicely? Are 
the tones clear and transparent, or heavy and dead? 
Have you succeeded in expressing space, depth, 
weight, texture? Have you practiced economy of 
tone or is the drawing confusing because of too 
many different values? Have you lost the outline 
as you should in drawing in light and shade, remem- 
bering that the mere contrast of tones as in nature 
will bring out what you wish to express? 

Now partly close the eyes and study your draw- 
ing reduced to its simplest elements. Do the nearer 
parts seem to come forward properly and the farther 
parts to go back? If not, force the nearer parts a 
bit and sacrifice the distant portions. We must get 
a feeling of projection and distance. Is there a 
complexity of high light? If so, tone clown all lights 
a bit, leaving one to be the strongest of them all, 
for a picture is better witli one lightest light and 
one darkest dark. Too much emphasis cannot be 
attached to the importance of studying the objects 
drawn and the drawing itself through partly closed 
eyes, not only when it is completed but from time, 
to time as the work progresses. For in this way 
one shuts out all but the essentials, and hence is 
not led into complication and restlessness of ef- 

Now we have said little about the kind of stroke- 
to be used for this work, for it is better that there 
be no definite line showing. The tone should be 
built up by going over and over it with a compara- 
tively sharp point, merging the various lines to- 
gether until they arc lost. Naturally the textures 
represented make a difference in the manner of 
working, but to make such studies of the greatest 
value each tone should be as nearly perfect as pos- 
sible, the student striving for transparency and 
luminosity. The drawing of the apple at 1, Figure 
7, was done in this manner. Sometimes tones are 

rubbed smooth with the finger or with a stump, but 
this method has little to commend it for this class 
of work. 

There is another type of shaded still life draw- 
ing, however, which is more sketchily done, where 
a few strokes of the pencil are used to express a 
great deal. This type of work has been illustrated 
in Figure 7 which shows separate strokes in 
many places rather than continuous tone. The stu- 
dent should practice this kind of work, too, so 
drawing the strokes as to best express the surfaces 
represented, using some fine and some broad lines. 
In line work the strokes should as a rule follow the 
direction of the surface. 

In types of work sometimes seen the still life 
becomes a motif for a decorative scheme or com- 
binations of tone and outline are found, or washes 
of color are added to the pencilling, but there are 
many elementary text books which show examples 
of such work, therefore the interested student can 
find a great deal of material to help him, if he desires 
to do so. The student's drawings opposite illustrate 
some of these possibilities for decorative work and 
on page 23 is an excellent example of a type of draw- 
ing frequently made in which a few very dark, crisp 
accents are added to a clean-cut outline. Notice the 
direct and economical way in which the various ma- 
terials are suggested, and the commendable sim- 
plicity of the whole. 

Objects for Draii'iny Objects having distinct 
character are best as subjects for drawings. Quaint 
and old-fashioned things are particularly interesting, 
or things which are worn or broken. Rummage the 
attic or stable or cellar. Look in the garage or 
garden. Fven the kitchen and laundry will yield 
many simple and useful implements and utensils ex- 
cellent for our purpose. The following list may 
guide the student in his search. 

Objects for elementary or comparatively small 
compositions : Garden trowel and flower pots ; ham- 
mer, box of nails ; screwdriver and screws ; basket 

Courtesy of Pratt Institute Ethel M. Weir 

Accented Outline Drawing by Student at Pratt Institute. 



Courtesy of Pratt Institute 

A. Mershon 

Courtesy of Pratt Institute 

Marjorie House 




of clothespins, coil of clothesline; pail with cloth 
hanging over side, scrub brush and scouring powder ; 
old battered coalhod ; tack hammer, box of tacks, 
etc. ; flatirons with stand and holder ; whet stone 
with knife and piece of wood half whittled; sponge, 
soap and basin of water ; dust pan and brush, 
feather duster ; ice-cream freezer, bag of salt, etc. 

Among larger objects we have : Snow shovel, 
rubber boots and mittens ; shovel and tongs ; wash 
tubs on bench with basket of clothes ; wheelbarrow, 
rake and basket ; broken box with axe ; watering 
pot, trowel, broken flower pots; hat and coat on 
nail ; old trunk partly opened, etc. ; old hats and 
hatboxes; umbrellas in various positions, opened, 
closed and half closed; brooms and mops with dust- 
pans and pails ; chopping block, sticks of wood, axe ; 
basket of kindlings and hatchet; old churn with 
chair beside it ; baseball bat, mitt and ball. 

Books can always be arranged effectively, piled 
up, tumbled down, spread out, open or closed. 

Book, candle stick and matches ; old novel partly 
opened, apple between leaves; half open newspaper 
with books ; book with reading glass or with spec- 
tacles ; ink bottle with copy book and pen; books, 
paper weight, half-open letter and envelope. 

Then there are other objects which can be found 
around^ the house, such things as are in every-day 
use: Glove box and gloves; collar bag; photograph 
in frame, bowl of flowers; cribbage board and cards; 
pipe, tobacco jar, matches, etc. ; opera glasses, bag 
and program ; slippers, gloves and fan ; hats or caps'; 

hat, grip and gloves ; shaving mug, brush, razor, etc. ; 
basket or bag with sewing or knitting; brush, comb 
and mirror; children's toys and dolls. 

The following suggestions are for the uses of 
fruits, vegetables, etc. Such combinations are of 
course innumerable : Paper bag with fruit, vege- 
tables or candy falling out and at the side ; bananas 
half peeled on plate with knife; lemons, squeezer, 
glass, sugar and spoon; box of sardines, sliced 
lemons and plate of crackers; cocoanut, broken 
open ; bunches of beets or carrots or similar vege- 
tables with tops ; several apples, one cut in half, an- 
other partly pared ; tea pot, tea cups, plate of sand- 
wiches; fruit bowl or basket filled with fruit; pine- 
apple with knife and plate; squash or pumpkin cut 
open, partly sliced; pumpkin made into jack-o-lan- 
tern; bread on plate, some sliced, with knife; salad 
plate with lobster and lettuce, mayonnaise bow!, 
spoon and fork; roast of meat on platter with carv- 
ing knife; plate of beans, bottle catsup, napkin; 
sugar bowl, cubes of sugar, sugar tongs; box of 
candy open or partly open ; crackers in box or bag, 
bowl of milk, spoon; strawberries or grapes in 
basket; bunches of grapes with bit of vine, leaves, 
and tendrils; apples, pears or peaches hanging on 
branches with leaves ; heads of lettuce, cauliflower 
and bunches of celery; sliced meat on platter, garn- 
ished with parsley. And bowls and vases of flowers 
are always good, too, or branches of leaves or ber- 
ries. For more elaborate studies, views of room cor- 
ners or portions of a yard or street offer many pos- 




TIME. 2 HOUR 5. 



Chapter V. 

OBJECTS usually appear different in shape 
from what we know them to be. or, in other 
words, the appearance seems contrary to the 
facts which we know regarding these objects. We are 
aware, for instance, that a cube has six equal faces 
and that each of them is square. If we dra^jt six 
squares, however, or a smaller number, combin- 
ing them in any and every possible way, the final 
result will certainly not give us the same impression 
as the cube itself. We also know that the top of 
a right cylinder is a circle, yet it is seldom indeed 
that we see a cylinder in such a position that the top 
appears as a true circle. We think of it as a circle 
simply because we know it to be one ; not because 
it seems really circular, for unless we look straight 
at the end of the cylinder it appears elliptical or 
even as a straight line. 

So when we are in doubt as to how things should 
be drawn in order to have them look right, we not 
only study the things themselves but we also turn 
to the science of perspective which gives us prin- 
ciples that are helpful to us in drawing objects cor- 
rectly, not as they actually are, but as they appear 
from the point from which they are viewed. Free- 
hand perspective trains us especially in the applica- 
tion of these principles to the practical problems of 
free-hand sketching. 

For the purpose of this book it seems desirable 
to discuss very briefly only a few of the more im- 
portant of these principles. Nothing short of a 
complete volume could do justice to the subject, 
and as there are already many excellent works avail- 
able it seems needless to duplicate here that which 
has already been so successfully and completely 
handled elsewhere. The reader who really desires 
to thoroughly master the subject should read some 
such book as "Free-hand Perspective and Sketching" 
by Dora Miriam Xorton, not forgetting, however, 
that the reading itself will do little good unless 
sketches are made to illustrate each point as the 
student goes along. And one should learn to be 
observing of the perspective appearance of objects 
all about him; if he is studying circles and ellipses, 
let him take notice of every circular arch, or clock 
face, or barrel, or other similar form which he sees. 

Now fundamentally these principles which have 
to do with the appearance of things are few, and 
among them the following are perhaps the most 

First, the apparent size of an object decreases in 
proportion to its distance from an imaginary plane 
which passes through the eye at right angles to the 
direction in which one is looking. 

Second, a surface appears in its true shape only 
when parallel to this plane, or, in other words, when 
at right angles to the line of sight from eye to sur- 

This first principle can be easily tested if one stands 

close to a window and looks straight through it ; 
an entire building in the distance will appear only 
a few inches in size on a single pane of glass. If 
there are several objects of equal size at varying 
distances from the eye it will be noticed that the 
nearest one appears to be the largest and the others 
seem smaller and smaller in proportion to their dis- 
tance away. 

By way of illustration of the second principle it 
will be easy for the student to demonstrate for him- 
self that when a surface (take a circular end of a 
cylinder, for example) is not so placed as to be 
at right angles to the line of sight it appears smaller 
in one dimension because of being turned away, and 
the farther it is turned the smaller this dimension 
seems, until when turned so far as to cause the sur- 
face to coincide with the direction of sight it will 
appear simply as a line. This apparent change of 
shape is called foreshortening. 

Now in order to give a working knowledge of 
the application of these principles in the quickest 
and most direct way we will discuss the appearance 
and methods of representation of a few typical geo- 
metric forms. Flsewhere we have explained that 
once the simple forms are understood it will not 
be difficult to do objects which are more complex, 
applying exactly the same principles. 

The Horizon Line or Eye Level This is an 
imaginary horizontal line at the level of the eye. 
In object drawing or other small work, the latter 
term is the more commonly used ; for buildings and 
outdoor vork in general, the former is customary. 

The appearance of any object will vary according 
to whether it is at or above or below the eye level 
and to the right or in front or to the left of the 
spectator. To observe just what variation does take 
place in the appearance of objects as viewed from 
various points, it is advisable for the student 
before doing any drawing, to take simple things and 
to hold them in different positions, noticing just how 
they look when moved from place to place, nearer 
or farther from the eye and higher or lower in 
relation to the horizon line. 

The Sphere Take, for example, a sphere, or an 
apple or orange or some other object of spherical 
form. When held above the eye it appears as a 
circle. below the eye and at the eye level its con- 
tour is practically the same. If it is a true sphere 
there will not be the slightest variation. If we 
take an apple, however, with the stem at the top, and 
hold it level but below the eye, not only is the stem 
visible but so is a portion of the surface beyond it. 
If we raise it until the top of the apple is at the 
height of the eye, still holding it level, the stem is 
still seen but none of the surface beyond is visible. 
A bit of the "blossom" below may now show. As we 
raise it above the eye the stem will gradually dis- 
appear as will a portion of the top surface, and as 











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this is lost to view more of the lower part will be- 
come visible, so if it is held some distance above the 
eye we will see the entire "blossom" and the surface 
beyond. In other words, whereas a sphere remains 
the same in profile regardless of its position, we see 
different portions of its surface as it is moved up 
and down, and the same is true if it is shifted to 
the right or to the left, or spun round and round. 
Sketch 1, Figure 8, illustrates this point. Study 
this and then draw several objects of spherical form 
placed in a variety of positions. 

Attention should lie called to the fact that we 
seldom see half way around a sphere. Sketch 2 
perhaps explains this more clearly. If "X" repre- 
sents the top view of the sphere and "Y" the posi- 
tion of the spectator, the lines drawn from "Y" 
tangent to the sphere, mark at "A" and "B" the 
limits of the visible portion of the sphere at the 
plane of its greatest circumference. The larger the 
sphere or the closer the spectator the smaller this 
distance becomes. 

The Cylinder, Vertical Now take a right cylinder 
and hold it vertically, and with one eye closed raise 
it until the top is level with the other eye. In this 
position the top circle will appear as a straight line, 
the circular plane being so greatly foreshortened 
that only its edge can be seen. Now lower it a bit. 
The circular top is now visible but still so much 
foreshortened that it is elliptical instead of circular 
in appearance. Lower it still farther and the 
rounder the ellipse becomes. Now just as this top 
ellipse appears rounder as it is dropped below the 
eye. it is evident that if the bottom of the cylinder 
could be fully seen it would appear still rounder 
than the top. as it is even farther below the eye. 
Experience will prove that the degree of roundness 
of the ellipse will be in proportion to its distance 
below the eye. Next raise the cylinder vertically 
until the lower end is at the eye level; this now 
appears as a straight line just as did the top end 
before. Raise it still higher and the bottom comes 
in sight as an ellipse, the top of the cylinder being 
now hidden. And the higher the cylinder is raised, 
the rounder the ellipse of the bottom becomes, its 
fullness being in proportion to its distance above the 
eye level. If the cylinder is lowered until the bot- 
tom and top are both equi-distant from the eye 
level both will be invisible but the visible edges of 
each will have like curvature, and if the cylinder 
were transparent so both the top and bottom could 
be seen, the ellipses representing both would be 
identical in sixe and shape, as both circles are the 
same distance from the level of the eye. 

Transparent cylinders of glass are convenient for 
such experiments or the student can make one of 
celluloid or some similar material. 

What is true of the perspective appearance of the 
top or bottom of a cylinder is true of any circle, 
and if the student wishes to prove this, let him cut 
a circle from a sheet of heavy paper or cardboard 
and experiment with this. When held horizontally 
and level with the eye does it not look like a straight 
line? And when raised above or dropped below the 
eye level does it not appear as an ellipse? Note 
the apparent change in roundness of this ellipse and 
in the length of its short axis as the circle is raised 

or lowered. Only the long axis will appear of the 
same proportionate length regardless of the position 
of the circle. Is it not true, also, that when a circle 
appears as an ellipse the ellipse is always perfectly 
symmetrical about its long and short axis lines, and 
is it not divided by these axis lines into four quar- 
ters which appear exactly equal? 

Go back to the cylinder again and see if this, 
too, does not, when held vertically, appear sym- 
metrical about a vertical central axis line at all times, 
every element of the cylindrical surface being ver- 
tical also? As in the case of the sphere we seldom 
see half way around the circumference; hence less 
than one-half of the cylindrical surface is visible 
at any one time. 

Now try a number of sketches of the vertical 
cylinder and the horizontal circle as viewed from 
different positions (Sketch 3 shows a few). Prac- 
tice drawing ellipses, too, until you can do them 
well ; this is no easy matter. 

The tipped or horizontal cylinder will be discussed 

The Vertical Cone While we still have the hori- 
zontal circle in mind let us consider the right circu- 
lar cone placed vertically. Sketch 4 shows the cone 
in this position. It will be seen that the appear- 
ance of the circle is the same as in the case of the 
cylinder. Also that if the apex of the cone is at the 
top and the cone below the eye, we can see more 
than half way around the conical surface. If raised 
above the eye we see less than half way around. 
And if the cone is inverted the opposite is true. 
Note also that a right circular cone will always ap- 
pear symmetrical, the long axis of the ellipse of the 
base being at right angles to the axis of the cone. 
Make several drawings of the vertical cone; the 
horizontal or tipped cone will be discussed later. 

The Cube in Parallel Perspective We now turn 
to the cube. Hold it with the top at the eye level 
and the nearer face at right angles to the line of 
sight so it is seen in its true shape. Only one face 
of the cube is visible now, and that appears as a 
square. Lower the cube a few inches and the top 
appears, greatly foreshortened. The farther hori- 
zontal edge, being a greater distance away than the 
nearer one, seems the shorter of the two. The par- 
allel receding edges of the top seem to slant. If 
these slanting edges were continued indefinitely 
they would appear to meet at a point and that point 
would be on the eye level. Lower the cube a few 
inches farther. The top now appears wider and 
the two receding edges have still greater slant. If 
continued they would still meet at a point on the 
eye level, the same one as before. The front face 
still appears square. Now raise the cube above the 
eye, still holding it vertical. The top goes out of 
sight and the bottom becomes visible. The front 
face looks square as before. Now the higher the 
cube is raised the more the bottom shows. The re- 
ceding 1 lines now seem to slant downward towards 
the eye level; if continued they would meet the 
very same point on the eye level as when the cube 
was below the eye. 

Now in order to convince yourself that these same 
facts are true of other objects, take a box or any 
form similar to the cube, and study it in various 



horizontal positions above and below the eye, keep- 
ing the nearest vertical plane so turned that it is 
always seen in its true shape. When the object is 
below the eye do not the horizontal receding lines 
seem to slant upward with an appearance of con- 
vergence? And when the object is above the eye 
do not these horizontal receding lines seem to slope 
downward in the same way? And whether above 
or below the eye is it not true that all the horizontal 
surfaces appear to slope towards the eye level as 
they recede? It is interesting to note as mentioned 
above that such parallel edges as recede would, if 
continued far enough, appear to converge towards 
the same point on the eye level, exactly opposite the 
eye itself, this being termed the vanishing point for 
that set of edges. Such edges as do not recede 
have, of course, no appearance of convergence and 
hence no vanishing point. 

All the time that you are studying the object ask 
yourself such questions as the following, for it is by 
personal observation and analysis that one can best 
gain a knowledge of perspective appearances. Is it 
true that every set of parallel receding horizontal 
lines has a common vanishing point of its own? 
And that of two parallel lines of same length which 
do not recede the one nearest the spectator appears 
the longer? And that any parallel edges which are 
at right angles to the line of sight actually appear 
parallel ? 

When an object is placed like the cube or bos; 
which we have mentioned, so its principal face is 
at right angles to the line of sight from the eye, we 
say that it is viewed in parallel perspective. Sketch 
5 shows cubes in parallel perspective in various rela- 
tions to the eye level. 

The Cube in Angular Perspective We now pur- 
pose to turn the cube into a new position, placing 
it in a horizontal manner below the eye and turned 
at an angle with all four of the edges of the top 
receding. None of the edges now appears hori- 
zontal. Now sketch the to]) of the cube in this 
position. It will be noticed that if the cube is so 
turned as to make equal angles with the line of sight 
as at "A," Sketch 6, Figure 9, we will see equal 
portions of the lines marked "a" and "b" and they 
will have equal slant. The same will be true of 
"c" and "d." Now if we turn the cube so that it 
makes unequal angles with the line of sight, as at 
"B," Sketch 6, we find that line "a" will seem 
shorter and line "b" longer than before. 

Now to more firmly fix these thoughts in vour 
mind shift the cube from place to place and ques- 
tion yourself in this way. If two edges of the square 
top of the cube recede from you at unequal angles, 
which of the two appears the longer? Which the 
more nearly horizontal ? And considering the com- 
plete cube, turned at an angle so that two or more 
of its faces are visible, can any one of these appear 
in its true shape ? Will all parallel edges receding 
towards the left appear to converge or vanish to 
one point and those towards the right to another? 
And if so will these points be on the eye level? 

Continue your analysis in this thorough way and 
you will observe many interesting things. You will 
see that such edges of the cube as are truly vertical 
appear so and hence should be drawn so. You will 

notice that the nearest vertical edge will be the 
longest and that the others will decrease in length 
as they get farther away. 

When a cube or other object is so placed that 
no surface is seen in its true shape, or that its prin- 
cipal planes are at other than a right angle with the 
line of sight, it is said to be in angular perspective. 
As it is rather difficult for the beginner to draw 
in angular perspective well, he should work for some 
time from a cube itself, placing it in different posi- 
tions above and below the eye. In drawing such 
an object it is usually advisable to actually locate 
and draw a line representing the level of the eye 
on the paper, making sure that the various receding 
lines are converging to the proper vanishing points 
on this eye level. It is sometimes wise in these 
early problems to actually continue such receding 
lines indefinitely, allowing them to meet at the proper 
points, as at "C" and "D," Sketch 6. As an aid 
in testing for correct drawing of a cube in angular 
perspective it is occasionally helpful to draw diag- 
onal lines on the top foreshortened square as we have 
done with the dotted lines at "A" and "I?," Sketch 
6. At "A" with the cube turned at equal angles, 
the long diagonal is horizontal, the short perpen- 
dicular. Let the cube be swung around as at "B," 
however, and the diagonals immediately tip. Point 
"g" drops lower than "e," and "h" moves to the 
right of "f" instead of remaining above it. If the 
vertical faces are turned at unequal angles, then, 
we not only see more of one than of the other but 
the diagonals of the top plane will always be tipped; 
never vertical or horizontal. Rules of this sort are 
of comparatively little help, however; the thing that 
counts in all these objects is the observation and 
practice from the things themselves. 

The Cylinder, Not Vertical Now that the draw- 
ing of the cube has given one a little knowledge of 
receding lines, it is well to go back to a considera- 
tion of the cylinder, only this time we will not place 
it vertically. Hold it, instead, in a horizontal posi- 
tion at the level of the eye ("closing one eye) and 
turn it so that the circular end appears in its true 
shape. In this position nothing is seen but the end. 
If we then swing it or tip it so that the end a.nd 
some of the curved surface are both visible, the end 
will appear as an ellipse. The less of the curved 
surface shows, the rounder this ellipse will be. Then 
swing the cylinder until one end appears a straight 
line. In this position the other end is invisible but 
if the cylinder were transparent it would be found 
that this end would appear as an ellipse. Study 
the cylinder in all sorts of positions above and below 
the eye, making observations of this sort. Such 
study and comparison will prove that the right cylin- 
der, regardless of position, will always appear sym- 
metrical about its long axis line ; that the long di- 
ameters of the ellipses forming the ends will be at 
right angles to the axis of the cylinder. One will 
notice,' too, that it is never possible to see quite half 
way around the cylindrical surface. And when the 
farther end of the horizontal or tipped cylinder is 
a greater distance from the eye than the nearer end 
it will appear smaller, which means in turn that the 
elements of the cylindrical surface will appear to 
converge, and these elements being all parallel lines 



they will seem to vanish towards a point. If the 
cylinder is placed horizontally this point will be on 
the eye level ; i f tipped in some other position the 
point will he ahove or below the eye. To this same 
vanishing point the axis of the cylinder will also 
recede if produced. And it will be noticed, too. that 
regardless of the placing of the cylinder those ele- 
ments of the surface which form the straight boun- 
daries will appear tangent to the curves of the bases. 
At "A," Sketch 7, the cylinder has been drawn with- 
in a square prism. To do so gives one a knowledge 
of the relationship between objects based on the 
square and the circle. 

The Conr. Tipped And if we turn to the cone 
once more for further consideration and look directly 
at its apex we will find that it appears as a true 
circle. And when so held that its base becomes a 
straight line it has the contour of a triangle. The 
visible curved surface of a cone may range from 
all to none. The bounding elements of the cone 
are always represented by straight lines tangent to 
the ellipse which represents the base. And the right 
cone, like the cylinder, will always appear sym- 
metrical, being divided by its long axis into two 
equal parts. 

Study the little sketches of -cylinders and cones in 
Sketch 7, Figure l l Then make many of your o\vn. 

Now in just the same way consider other geometric 
forms, such as the triangular prism placed verti- 
cally and horizontally, and the pyramid and the 
hexagonal prism in various positions. Though our 
space does not permit full discussion of these here, 
it seems essential to call attention to a few facts 
in regard to the appearance of the triangle, the 
hexagon, etc. Rut first, let us say another word or 
two about the square. \Ye have drawn a square at 
Sketch 8 and have crossed its diagonals. Doing 
this locates the true center of the square "o" as it 
appears in perspective. It seems more than half 
wav back, for the farther half of the square, being 
a greater distance from the eye than the first half, 
seems smaller For the same reason, liiu- "bo" 
seems longer than "od," though in top view we know 
they would be equal. This will perhaps make more 
clenr the fact that equal distances on any receding 
line seem unequal, the farther seeming the shorter. 
Xow suppose that at the end of this square we draw 
a triangle, as at "R," Sketch 8. locating its apex b\ 
drawing a line horizontally from center "o" to line 
"be," erecting a vertical altitude at the point of 
intersection "tY" choosing point "e" arbitrarily on 
the altitude and then drawing "ec" and "eh." This 
triangle illustrates the truth that the apex of a ver- 
tical isosceles or equilateral triangle having a hori- 
zontal base appears in a vertical line erected in the 
perspective center of the base. As it is easier to 
judge the correct proportion of a square in perspec- 
tive than of a triangle, a square is sometimes drawn 
first as a guide as in Sketch 0. At Sketch 10 we 
have shown a hexagon. It will lie noticed at "A" 
that the two short diagonals "hf" and "ce" and the 
long diagonals "lie" and "cf" divide long diagonal 
"ad" into four equal parts. For in a correct draw- 
ing of a hexagon it is always true that any long 
diagonal when intersected by two short and one long 
diagonals will lie divided into four equal parts. 

\Yhen a hexagon is sketched in parallel perspective 
as at "B" they all appear equal. Now in drawing 
polygons, especially those which are regular such as 
the hexagon just mentioned, it is often easiest to 
first draw an ellipse representing a circumscribed 
circle. In drawing the decagonal prism in Figure 
6, for instance, an ellipse was first drawn just as 
for the cylinders, then the decagon was drawn within 
it. So try a number of polygons, and later prisms 
and pyramids built upon polygonal bases. 

Concentric Circles Even in so brief a treatise on 
perspective it seems necessary for us to make some 
reference to concentric circles, as they must be fre- 
quently drawn and as they often cause trouble. Stu- 
dents sometimes are under the mistaken impression 
that circles in perspective do not appear as true 
ellipses. They argue that as the nearer half of the 
ellipse is not so far from the spectator as the other 
half it appears larger and hence must lie drawn so. 
\Yhereas this may sound logical on the face of it, 
it is not true. For if you test actual objects yon 
will find the circles always appear in perspective as 
true ellipses. \Ye can make this more clear by 
referring to Sketch 11. \Ye have already mentioned 
that one cannot see half way around a cylinder. At 
"A," we have drawn the top view of a cylinder. 
The spectator is standing at "s." Lines of tangency 
from "s" to the cylinder give us at "1" and "2" 
points representing the extreme limits of the cylin- 
drical surface visible from "s." If we draw a 
straight line across from "1" to "2" it marks tin- 
greatest width of the cylinder as it appears from 
"s." This line really does not pass through the true 
center of the circle, represented at "o." but is be- 
tween this center and the spectator, and becomes 
the major axis of the ellipse representing the circle. 
The shaded portion back of this line on the sketch 
will appear from "s" exactly the same size at that 
portion left white ; hence the ellipse must appear 
truly symmetrical about this line. At "B" the spec- 
tator stands closer, and sees less of the cylindrical 
surface. Xow suppose we have two concentric 
circles representing the tops of two concentric 
cylinders as indicated at "C." the spectator still 
standing at "s." If we treat these independently 
as before, drawing tangents to the curves, these 
tangents will measure off visible surfaces from 1 to 
_' on the larger and from 3 to 4 on the smaller. 
This shows that the eye will see relatively more of 
the cylindrical surface of the smaller cylinder. Line 
3-4 is nearer the center "o" than line 1-2 but does 
not pass through it. Xow the easiest way for the 
student to draw such circles in perspective is to 
assume that they are inscribed in squares. At "D" 
two squares having a common center are shown in 
perspective. The crossing of the diagonals gives 
us the true center of the circle at "o,"^ correctly 
located in perspective. At 1. 2. 3 and 4 are points 
through which the larger ellipse must pass. Line 
"x," just half wav from points 1 and 3 will be the 
long axis of the large ellipse, which will be drawn 
symmetrically about this line, passing through points 
1, 2, 3 and 4. The smaller ellipse will be drawn 
in exactly the same way. passing through points 
5, 6. 7 and 8, and drawn symmetrically about axis 
"v." which is half wav from 5 to 7. 







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Figure 9. Illustrating Some Further Perspective Considerations. 



Study these circles at "D" and examine objects 
in which other concentric circles are found. Is it 
not true that foreshortened concentric circles appear 
as ellipses? And would not the short axis lines of 
these ellipses coincide? It will he noticed, too, at 
"D," that distances 3-7, 7-0, 0-5 and 5-1 on the short 
axis seem to decrease gradually though actually 
the same as the un foreshortened distances on the 
long axis, 2-6, 6-0, 0-8 and 8-4. So in drawing 
such ellipses remember to have the space between 
them widest at the ends as at 2-6 and 8-4, and a 
little wider between the near curves as at 3-7 than 
at the farther side as at 5-1. 

When one feels able to do all the more common 
of the geometric forms individually in every pos- 
sible position let him draw combinations of several. 
This work should be followed by a practical appli- 
cation of the same principles to the drawing of 
objects of all sorts and sizes based on the same 
forms, as discussed in the chapter on object drawing. 
And as one draws he should analyze and memorize. 

And one should attempt to make free-hand per- 
spective sketches from memory or the imagination 
or from actual working drawings prepared instru- 
mental!}' such as a front and side and top view. 

In the chapter on object drawing some of the 
advantages of studying certain things by drawing 
them on glass have been pointed out and we have 
also described the glass invented by Mr. Cross spe- 
cially for this purpose. Either the common or the 
patented glass might be of great help to the student 
in his perspective studies, particularly if this sub- 
ject proves difficult. Training in instrumental per- 
spective, is often of help, too. though instrumental 
perspective sometimes shows apparent distortions 
which mislead one. A certain amount of help is 
gained from it. however, and students who arc 
familiar with the instrumental work usually advance 
more rapidly in free-hand work because of the train- 
ing. Likewise the student who understands free- 
hand perspective will find a great deal in the sub- 
ject to help him to do instrumental problems more 
artistically than he otherwise could. 

We have several times mentioned that once skill 
is gained in drawing cubes and other simple forms 
such as we have just described, it is not difficult to 
apply the knowledge acquired to the representation 
of more complex subjects. 

The architectural student desires to sketch build- 
ings and so let us consider the application of the 
principles stated above to work of this nature. 

Let us assume that we are to draw a house, for 
example, which is twenty feet wide and forty feet 
long, and twenty feet from the ground to the eaves, 
the house being so turned that we look more di- 
rectly at the long face than at the end. The land 
is assumed to be level. At Sketch 1, Figure 10, 
such a house has been drawn. As the eye is usually 
from four to five feet above the ground, the horizon 
line has been drawn one-quarter of the way up on 
the building. The nearest cube was worked over 
first until its proportion and perspective convergence 
seemed satisfactory. Then lines "D" and "E" were 
produced indefinitely (See "A," Sketch 1) and a 
diagonal line AC was carried through point "R,"' 
exactly half way from the ground to the eaves, thus 

automatically marking off at "C," the end of a sec- 
ond cube. When the two cubes were completed the 
roof was added. By crossing the diagonals of the 
square ends of the house proper, centers "o" and 
"p" were located and through these, vertical lines 
"s" and "t" were erected, and on these points were 
taken to mark the height of the ridge "F," which 
was converged towards its correct vanishing point 
at the right. Sketch "B" is the same with the ex- 
ception of the roof which is here hipped instead of 
gabled. The ends of the ridge were located by 
erecting "A" and "B" perpendicularly through the 
points of intersection of the diagonals of the tops 
of the two cubes forming the main house. And 
Sketch "C" shows a different roof of the gambrel 
type, the gable having been drawn first just as at 
"A" as a guide. 

The student may feel that these are unusual con- 
ditions ; that few houses would be of just the pro- 
portion of two cubes, and this is of course true. 
It is not a difficult matter, however, when a cube 
has been drawn as a unit, to add one or several more 
in any direction, or portions of one. If the house 
just considered was to be thirty feet long, for in- 
stance, instead of forty, the second cube could be 
easily cut in half, the correct perspective distance 
being judged by the eye, or the diagonals of its 
nearest face could be crossed which would give the 
correct point of intersection for the cut. 

Once the main proportions have been established 
the doors and windows, roof overhangs, etc., can 
be added and the whole completed. Experience will 
show many uses of diagonal lines in locating centers 
and measuring distances, and other short cuts which 
will prove a saving of time and an aid to accuracy. 

Sometimes it is desired to show buildings en- 
tirely above the eye, as on a high hill or mountain, 
and again it is a part of the problem to represent 
them below the eye. Sketch "2" illustrates these 
conditions in a simple way. 

Now whether buildings are above or below the eye 
or at its level and whether simple or complex, the 
same general principles hold. But when a building 
is complicated in its masses, or irregular in plan, 
it is usually best to think of it as inclosed within a 
more simple mass, drawing this mass first, and then 
subdividing it into the smaller parts. Sketch "3" 
was designed to illustrate this thought, the dash lines 
showing the simple mass which was drawn first. 

When the larger proportions of a building arc 
established there are many details to lie added and 
Sketch "4" pictures a few typical ones in a very 
meager way. Many towers are based on pyramids 
and cones such as those shown at "A" and "B." One 
should practice these, then, and should try his hand 
at steps, chimneys, arches, dormers, etc., until he 
feels able to sketch any of the more commonly seen 
details easily and well, either from the objects them- 
selves (which is excellent practice) or from memory. 

Sketch "S" is to show that when furniture is to 
he represented it is often well to first block it in 
very simply so far as mass is concerned, just as 
we did the building in Sketch 3. For the chair at 
"A" two cubes were drawn as shown by the dotted 
lines, and the seat below was sketched within a 
square prism. When objects are thus inclosed 






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Figure 10. Illustrating the Application of Perspective Principles. 



within simple forms or "frozen into a block of ice" 
one is less likely to get them incorrect in perspec- 
tive. It is suggested that as a means of adding to 
one's ability to do this well lie cut out prints of 
buildings and pieces of furniture and sketch simple 
shapes around them with a few lines, preferably 
straight, for this will help one to realize that all 
objects are comparatively simple in basic form. 

Photographs or prints can help us in another way 
in the study of perspective, for we can lay a ruler 
on them or a T-square or triangle and produce with 
a pencil the various series of parallel lines to or 
towards their vanishing points, locating and draw- 
ing the eye level or horizon line first of all. This 
will help one to understand the perspective phenom- 
ena more quickly, perhaps, than any other one thing. 

We should not close without some reference to 
the perspective of interiors, though a brief word 
will suffice, for it is hardly necessary to say more 
than that interiors are done in just the same way as 
are exteriors, only we are looking at the inside of 
the cubes and prisms instead of at the outside, which 
means that we simply remove those faces which are 
the nearest to us. Rooms themselves are usually 
very simple as to form; it is in the furniture, turned 
at various angles and of irregular shape, that one 
encounters the greatest difficulty. A little practice, 
however, will give one considerable proficiency in 
all of this work. 

One should be cautioned, nevertheless, that the 
difficulties are not few, for whether one is drawing 
interiors or exteriors or small objects it must be 
borne in mind that in theory he is supposed to look 
in the same fixed direction constantly until the draw- 
ing is finished, and although in practice this is not 

especially hard to do when an object is so small as 
to come entirely within the range of vision without 
the gaze being shifted, when it comes to large ob- 
jects or entire rooms or buildings we are so accus- 
tomed to glancing about from place to place that it 
is not easy to keep from making a sort of composite 
sketch in which the various small parts may be cor- 
rect in themselves, but wrong when considered in 
relation to one another and to the whole. When 
drawing a room, for instance, it is easy to go astray 
by looking first at a window and drawing that, and 
next doing a door, and so on, one thing at a time. 

When this method is followed the whole is quite 
sure to look distorted. For this reason one should 
locate a horizon line on the drawing whenever pos- 
sible and if vanishing points would naturally come 
within the paper area find them also, and in sketch- 
ing the main lines try to give them the right pro- 
portion and perspective convergence, for if a sort 
of framework can be correctly built up for the whole 
it will not be hard to add the detail ; therefore spend 
plenty of time on this first work. If too much 
trouble is encountered when drawing from actual 
buildings sketch from photographs for a while as 
this will be much easier to do. Then go on to por- 
tions of interiors and exteriors before attempting 
them in an entirety. 

The excellent drawing by Mr. Watson on page 33 
shows a type of subject which would prove extremely 
difficult to block out because of the great number of 
converging lines, unless one was familiar with the 
perspective principles involved ; and if a subject of 
this nature is not correctly constructed the errors 
will usually be glaringly apparent, regardless of the 
quality of the technique. 





Chapter VI. 

WE NOW come to another important phase of 
our work cast drawing, for as soon as the 
student has gained facility in object draw- 
ing, the next logical step is to turn to plaster casts 
for his subjects ; in fact, many teachers make cast 
drawing a starting point for the beginner. 

If one is to work at home a few casts may be 
purchased, and the expense of obtaining the smaller 
ones is not great. One is more fortunate, however, 
if he has access to a museum or school collection 
which will give him the opportunity to make such 
a choice for each drawing as will best meet his needs, 
for there are casts of many kinds and sizes, ranging 
all the way from tiny ones of coins and medals and 
jewelry to huge plaster representations of sculptured 
groups, too enormous to be housed in any but the 
larger museums. 

The student will be wise in selecting first a cast 
of medium size, say a foot or so in its greatest di- 
mension, and of a simple subject. The architec- 
tural student will find it extremely beneficial to make 
a series of drawings of architectural ornament, and 
there are casts available of all of the better-known 
forms. A good starting point would be the lotus 
flower or palmette or something of the sort which 
has come down to us from the earliest times. This 
might be followed by others of like nature, one or 
two typical forms being selected from each well- 
known period. There would be the acanthus and 
anthemion of the classical work, perhaps, or some 
of the incised patterns of the Byzantine, or the 
roughly carved grotesques of the Romanesque, while 
the Gothic is particularly rich in ornamentation, 
showing not only many geometric forms but natu- 
ralistic and conventionalized carving of ivy, oak and 
grape leaves, the ball flower, etc. Then compara- 
tive sketches might be made of capitals of different 
styles of architecture and of mouldings; these last 
are especially important and every draftsman should 
be familiar with such moulded members as are in 
common use, enriched with the well-known egg and 
dart, leaf and dart, guilloche, dolphins and acanthus, 
bay leaf, etc., etc. Let him study these and not only 
his knowledge, but his appreciation of architecture 
will be strengthened. For advanced studies the or- 
ders of architecture might be drawn from the cast, 
correctly represented in perspective and with all the 
metopes, triglyphs, mutules, modillions, etc., care- 
fully represented: it is doubtful if there is a better 
way to master the orders than to work in this man- 
ner. Nor is there a better way of learning to design 
carved wood or stone or ornamental terra cotta than 
by working from casts of antique examples, as one 
not only stores up knowledge of the forms of the 
past but unconsciously assimilates a sense of pro- 
portion and design of the greatest value in doing 
original work. 

If casts of ornament are chosen for the first prob- 

lems let them be simple, as we have indicated above, 
and comparatively low in relief, as these are the 
easiest to do. Then the later problems should be so 
arranged that high relief decoration and incised 
ornament are also represented and that not only geo- 
metric patterns are shown but conventionalized and 
naturalistic representations of plant and animal life 
and the human form as well. Some casts that are 
delicate in detail should be done and some which 
are bold and vigorous in character ; in short, one 
should not rest content until he feels that he has 
quite successfully mastered every type of ornamental 

The art student, however, may find a few of these 
ornamental casts enough and then go on to the type 
of subject which will prepare him more directly for 
later work in drawing from the living model. Here 
as before it is best to select something which is not 
complex, a cast of a foot or hand or arm offering a 
good starting point. After a while heads may be 
attempted and the complete human figure. 

One is hardly wise to attempt to draw from the 
living model until he has spent considerable time 
in working from these inanimate objects, which will 
hold the pose until a drawing is finished, something 
which the living model can hardly be expected to 
do. And neither do these casts have hues of color 
to add to the difficulties of the student. 

Then there are anatomical casts, especially de- 
signed to show the various bones and muscles, and 
these should be studied at this time, for the art stu- 
dent cannot begin too early to learn anatomy and 
its application to problems in art. 

This practice from casts of the human form is to 
the art student absolutely indispensable. And it is 
hardly less essential for those of the architectural 
profession, for^ from the earliest times the human 
figure has been used in connection with architecture, 
sometimes merely as applied ornament or decoration 
and sometimes structurally, as, for example, the 
caryatids of the Erechtheion at Athens. So no 
architect can afford to neglect this part of his train- 
ing. He should study especially the use of the 
human figure as applied to such architectural fea- 
tures as friezes, the tympana of the pediments, the 
spandrels of arches, and the pendentives of vaults; 
also the free-standing figure as used in connection 
with or as a part of architecture. 

Now regardless of the type of cast selected for 
the first subject, the method of procedure is exactly 
the same as for the drawing of objects, and as this 
has been described fully elsewhere it seems needless 
to repeat it here. We might mention, however, that 
in order that the lighting shall be satisfactory, the 
cast should be shifted, if possible, to various posi- 
tions until one is found which brings a pleasing 
relation of light and shade. Then the form should 
be sketched and the shading started. 




Figure IT. An Example of Cast Drawing in Light and Shade. 



It should be understood that the appearance of a 
cast will vary greatly under different lighting con- 
ditions, and at various times of the day, for even 
though north light is used it will be more or less 
changeable from time to time. Therefore it is best to 
work for only an hour or two daily until the drawing 
is finished, these hours being in the morning, for 
example, or in the afternoon. For the light is 
usually about the same for a few hours in succes- 
sion at any given time of day, dark or rainy days 
being, of course, exceptions. 

We have explained before that the darkest tone 
on light objects is usually lighter than the darkest 
tone on dark objects, though, strange to say, it does 
not often appear so, therefore even though the cast 
is light, its deeper tones will seem quite dark in 
contrast with those areas receiving their illumination 
more directly. 

In the first problems it is usually best to work in 
full values with a fairly sharp pencil, completing 
each drawing with the greatest care, modelling until 
the nearer parts seem to come forward, and the 
farther portions retreat, subordinating the unimpor- 
tant, but emphasizing the essentials. Caution must 
lie used not to force those darks too strongly which 
are found in the lighter areas or the lights within 
the shade tones; instead simplicity should be sought 
just as in object drawing, all unimportant tones 
being suppressed. Figure 1 1 is an example of cast 
drawing in full values of light and shade. 

In later problems separate lines may be used in 
building up the tones ; in fact there is no harm in 
experimenting in various ways of working, trying 
out any ideas which suggest themselves. The archi- 
tectural student can perhaps improve his draftsman- 
ship if he does a few cast drawings on tracing paper, 
mainly in accented outline or entirely so if he wishes, 
using a rather clean-cut line which is suitable for 
blue-printing; in fact, prints may be made of each 
drawing when completed. Such work trains one to 
make better scale or full-size details of ornament 
and the like. It is helpful also for one to occa- 
sionally select some cast of an architectural subject 
and instead of drawing it in perspective just as it 
appears, to make instead an elevation of it (using 
instruments, perhaps, for some of the straight lines) 
and a section or two or a side elevation, all so 
drawn as to correctly express the form and model- 
ling of the object. These drawings may be shaded 
or left in outline. 

On page 20 is a drawing of ornament in accented 
outline only, while at the top of page 37 parallel 
strokes of shading are combined with accented out- 
line effectively. The drawing at the bottom of the 
same page has strokes of shading following the lines 
of growth. 

Casts based on the human figure seem more dif- 
ficult to the average beginner than do those of 
ornament, and like them should be most carefully 
drawn, painstaking effort being expended on every 
part. For the first portrait drawings such casts 
should be selected as show the greatest amount of 
individuality; those which have certain marked 
peculiarities which can be clearly grasped and repre- 
sented. Study the various planes of light and shade 
and shadow as to form and value, giving particular 

attention to the edges of the planes, sharpening them 
or softening them truthfully. As the values are 
being built up it is often well to over-accent or force 
such edges a bit, as this will help one to retain the 
virility and strength expressed in the cast. The 
reason for so doing is to safeguard the student 
against having everything too soft and round, a 
common failing of the beginner. In giving a draw- 
ing its final touches, edges which have been made 
too sharp must of course be lifted or softened until 
they become less definite. 

In portrait work we have a real test of skill. One 
may make errors when sketching an old hat or shoe 
and they may not be conspicuous, even in ornament 
drawings mistakes are not always evident when the 
work is completed. But when one does a portrait, 
whether from photograph or cast or life, unless 
proportions and modelling are true there will not 
be a perfect likeness and unless a student is able to 
get a likeness he knows that his drawing is faulty. 
If a good likeness is lacking the drawing should be 
compared frequently with the original and corrected 
and changed until the desired effect is gained and 
the modelling brought to as near perfection as is 
possible. This work from cast should never be hur- 
ried over or neglected, for one cannot hope to cope 
with the difficulties of drawing from the living model 
until skill has been acquired in representing well that 
which has no disturbing hues of color and which 
holds a steady position. 

When one has acquired considerable skill in work- 
ing on white surfaces, tinted paper may be tried, 
the tone of the paper representing the middle values, 
the lights being added with white pencil or chalk or 
paint, and the darks built up with pencil. Such 
sketches are often very effective and results may be 
obtained quite quickly in this way, but one should 
not neglect the painstaking studies on white paper 
in order to make time for this sort of thing. Aside 
from all the other advantages which careful work 
has, it prepares one for work in other mediums; it 
is an easy step from pencil to wash and from wash 
to color, while pen drawing is much like the line 
shading which is often done with the pencil. The 
architectural student is called upon to render much 
ornament in wash, such as the details used in the 
Class B Analytique problems in the course of the 
Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, and in renderings 
of a competitive nature done in the offices, and the 
making of carefully shaded drawings from the cast 
will prepare one directly for this class of work. 

Now by way of a final suggestion, it should be 
made clear that unless a student really has unusual 
ability he should not attempt this advanced work 
without a competent instructor, and any student, 
regardless of his ability, should get criticism from 
others from time to time, for even though one may 
develop by himself tricks of technique and a certain 
cleverness of handling, such things do not offset 
faulty drawing, although they may hide it from the 
student himself. Now we will pass on to a consid- 
eration of life drawing, not without admonishing the 
student, however, to attempt no work from life until 
his skill warrants it ; remembering that unless one 
can draw a good likeness from the cast he surely 
cannot do so from the living model. 



Courtesy of Pratt Institute 

Freda Uhl 




Courtesy of Pratt Institute 





Chapter VII. 

THERE seems to be a general desire on the part 
of art students to hurry on through all the 
preliminary work of practice strokes and ton? 
building, and object drawing and cast drawing to 
the subject which is now before us, life drawing. 
When one starts to draw from real living people 
he feels that he is about to get somewhere, that he 
is really on the road to becoming an artist. And 
the importance of drawing from the living model 
cannot be denied. So large a percentage of all of 
the drawings and paintings which we see about us 
every day make some use of the human figure, 
(many of then), and especially the work of an illus- 
trative nature such as we find in our books and 
magazines, giving figures the position of primary 
importance), it seems plainly evident that unless the 
art student learns to draw them well his place in 
the art world will be considerably restricted. 

So the students of sculpture, mural painting, por- 
trait painting, illustration and commercial art need 
no urging to study life drawing, as they realize fully 
to what extent their success will depend upon it. 
The architect, or more especially the beginner in 
architecture, is often slow, however, in perceiving 
the advantages to be gained from pursuing such a 
course, especially those of that profession who lean 
towards the practical rather than the aesthetic. And 
it is not our contention that life drawing is the one 
thing of primary importance to the architect. What 
we do wish to point out is that it offers enough of 
advantage to make its study well worth the while, 
and we can give no stronger proof that this opinion 
is quite general than by stating that in nearly all of 
our larger architectural schools the students are 
given life work as a regular part of their prescribed 
courses of study. It is not merely that the archi- 
tect is sometimes called upon to draw a few figures 
to add interest or give scale to a drawing of some 
proposed building, (for such work can be done well 
enough to serve the purposes without particular skill ) 
neither is it because he may find it necessary to 
draw sculptured figures as a part of his design, as 
in a pediment, for instance, or flanking a doorway, 
for though this second reason is more important 
than the first, sculptors or trained modellers are 
usually called in to actually execute such work on 
the building itself, and they are capable of correct- 
ing errors and going ahead with the whole thing 
sympathetically once the architect has given them 
his general idea. The study of life drawing is im- 
portant more because it gives such excellent tra'ning 
in light and shade and proportion, and an apprecia- 
tion and understanding of design than for these 
other reasons. For if one acquires the fine percep- 
tion which will enable him to note and analyze and 
understand the subtle variations between one tone 
and another which one finds, especially when work- 
ing from the nude, his architecture will be the better 

for it; and if one assimilates, as he should, a feel- 
ing for rhythm and balance and symmetry and other 
characteristics of good composition, it may be ap- 
plied advantageously to his daily work ; more than 
this, his improved skill in draftsmanship will be 
always worth the effort expended to obtain it, for 
if one acquires such dexterity as enables him to 
flraw figures in correct proportion he will have no 
great trouble sketching the most complicated archi- 

So the architect should be encouraged to take up 
life work and the art student's enthusiasm should 
not be curbed. Both should be cautioned, neverthe- 
less, that it should not be attempted until proper 
preparation has been made for it, and it is for this 
reason that we have given so much space to urging 
thoroughness in the preliminary work in object 
drawing, still life, perspective, cast drawing, etc. 
And both should be cautioned, too, against the folly 
of attempting to do life drawing without proper in- 
struction and criticism. Fortunately, there are 
evening courses in most of the larger cities which 
give the students who lack the time or means of tak- 
ing day courses the opportunity of learning at night. 
To supplement such training there are many excel- 
lent books on all branches of the subject which can 
be studied as time permits. 

Because there are so many books available and 
so many classes open to students, it seems scarcely 
necessary for us to go into the matter at any length 
here, in fact, we could hardly do so without going 
beyond the scope of our subject, for whereas the 
pencil is used frequently for figure work it is per- 
haps more often employed in preliminary sketches 
and studies than for the final execution. Then, too, 
there are so many kinds of life drawings that to 
describe them all would require a good-size volume. 

Whenever we start to erect any sort of a build- 
ing it is essential to have a firm foundation and 
framework on which to build the superstructure. 
In the same way in studying the human figure it 
is necessary to have our framework ; in this case the 
human skeleton. So the student should learn about 
the skeleton first ; he should study anatomy until he 
becomes familiar with the different bones, individ- 
ually and in their relation one to another. He should 
learn the names by which they are known. He 
should know the different positions which they 
assume when one walks or runs or sits or reclines, 
and the acquisition of such familiarity with them 
will require conscientious study, and practice with the 
pencil. In fact, there is no part of life drawin? 
which should be carelessly done; too much empha- 
sis cannot be given to this point. 

Once the bones are well understood, attention 
must be directed to the muscles and to the flesh 
which rounds out the body. One should learn in 
just what manner the muscles are attached to the 





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bones themselves, just how they appear when at 
rest and when in action. And it is necessary to not 
only study each important muscle by itself, but to 
also learn its relation to every other muscle and to 
the body as a whole. When the larger groups of 
muscles are mastered attention should be given to 
some of the more important of the smaller ones, 
such as those of the face. The sculptor or portrait 
painter or illustrator will, of course, give special 
thought to these, for unless they are well understood 
it will be difficult for him to properly express such 
emotions as sadness, joy, fear, surprise. For al- 
though the entire pose of the figure varies with these 
emotions, it is not enough to have the proper action 
in the body as a whole; much depends on these 
smaller parts. To learn them well one must study 
the action of the muscles when people talk or eat 
or smile or whistle, special studies being made of 
the eye, the ear, the nose and the mouth. Then, too, 
one must study the various characteristics of youth 
and of old age, and of the different races. It is 
not only the faces which should be carefully ana- 
lyzed, however. Hands, too, are very expressive; 
the clenched fist tells a far different story than does 
the hand extended for a clasp of friendship. Even 
feet are very important ; some artists who seem 
quite familiar with the rest of the figure have much 
difficulty with them or consider them too unimpor- 
tant to be studied with care. 

Now needless to say it is best before studying 
all of these smaller parts in detail to learn to draw 
well the figure as a whole, so as soon as one has 
had some practice from the skeleton placed in dif- 
ferent positions, he should start working from the 
nude model. In line with what we have said above, 
the models should be varied not only as to sex but 
as to age, size and race. Then, too, the lighting 
should not always be the same. As to posing the 
model it seems almost needless to remark that the 
student should work from a great variety of poses ; 
the figure should be shown at rest, sitting or stand- 
ing or reclining, and in action. Action poses are 
often hard for the model to take and to hold, but 
they should be attempted, especially after the stu- 
dent has gained enough practice from the figure in 
repose to enable him to work swiftly and directly, 
so that the main lines of action may be swept in 
while the model is still fresh. In these let the model 
be doing something in a natural way; give a boy a 
baseball bat for instance and let him put as much 
action into the pose as though he intended to make 
a home run; give an aged man a wheelbarrow (or 
as a substitute for it two sticks will do) and let 
him pretend to trudge across the garden. In these 
poses the model will, of course, remain as nearly 
as possible in the one set position, resting and resum- 
ing the pose as often as seems necessary. There is 
another type of action pose, however, in which the 
model repeats some motion a great number of times, 
rather slowly, so the student is able to study the 
muscles as they assume different positions. Quick 
sketches can be made showing these changes in a 
comparative manner. Boxing, fencing and the like 
offer excellent movements for this type of action 
sketch, especially if one motion is repeated over and 

over again. Too little of this w&rk is given in most 
of our schools. 

The architectural student has less need, perhaps, 
for these action sketches, than the artist, for the 
nude or partly draped figure as used in architectural 
sculpture and ornament is more often shown at rest ; 
too much motion would be disturbing to the design 
as a whole. So in posing the model, horizontals 
and verticals should be worked for to harmonize 
with the structural lines of the architecture, many of 
the lines being straight or nearly so, and the whole 
arranged to express strength and solidity. 

In drawing from the nude there is no principle 
which is at all different from those already described 
under object and cast drawing. The placing on the 
paper is arrived at in just the same way, points 
being located to mark the extreme limits of the fig- 
ure. The student must learn to work quickly for 
even the easiest poses cannot be held for over a 
half hour and a new pose is seldom quite the same, 
even if intended to be. The student who has the 
necessary foundation for this work will be able to 
do away with many of the construction lines which 
are needed by the beginner in object drawing, but 
he will, instead of making so many trial lines, locate 
only a few salient points, comparing these with the 
model carefully and correcting them until they are 
just right, for the model is likely to sway and slightly 
change the pose at any time. On the first drawings 
forget all such small details as the features, fingers, 
etc., but above all be sure that the action of the fig- 
ure and the general masses are correct. A half hour 
or an hour is usually enough for each subject ; it 
is better to do a number of them and get the essen- 
tials of each pose than to spend too much time on 
one. The shading may be almost neglected or 
merely suggested on the early problems, but care- 
fully finished studies should be made later with 
special attention to the values. 

The amount of time given to the study of the nude 
figure will, of course, depend largely on the aim of 
the student, whether he is to take up illustration or 
portraiture or sculpture or some other form of art 

Then when one has gained a certain facility in 
drawing the nude figure, the draped figure would 
be a natural subject, and here, too, the problem is 
difficult. For it is very easy when representing the 
folds of drapery to lose the proportions of the form 
underneath ; hence, it is often desirable to sketch the 
main lines of the figure first exactly as though it 
were undraped, adding the drapery later. In fact, 
in all work where people are drawn (or painted for 
that matter) it is necessary to have in mind con- 
stantly the correct proportion of each complete fig- 
ure, so expressing or suggesting it that the effect 
will be correct, for no amount of work on the cloth- 
ing itself will make up for faulty construction. 

When it comes to the figure in full costume new 
difficulties are encountered, for the expression of 
the forms and textures of the various fabrics is 
not easy. But work from the costumed figure is 
very interesting, especially if the model is posed to 
tell some story. Students of illustration should get 
a great deal of work in which the problems are made 



as real as possible, illustrating incidents in actual 
life or some character in literature, the model being 
so dressed and posed as to express the idea to the 
best advantage. Backgrounds may be added from 
the imagination. 

And aside from this work from the posed model 
there is no better practice in figure drawing than 
to sketch members of one's family and his friends, 
or people passing in the street. Catch them un- 
awares if you can and the sketches will be all the 
more lifelike for it. When you have no sketch book 
at hand or no opportunity to use one, study people 
all about you, and imagine that you are drawing 
them, for this will help more than would be supposed. 

Of all these types of drawings which we have 
touched upon, it is hard to say which is the most 
important, for everything depends on the purpose 
for which each study is made. The. architect needs 
one kind of work, the sculptor another, the com- 
mercial illustrator a third, and so on. Needless to 
say the portrait painter or illustrator will follow the 
work in pencil with more advanced study in pen or 
wash color, and there is no harm if the others do 
too ; these other mediums can usually be handled 
quite easily, however, once the pencil has been well 
mastered. And it is equally true that whether one 
does object or cast drawing or outdoor sketching or 
anything of this sort in pencil, lie is doing far more 
than mastering this medium ; he is building a strong 
foundation for all other work in art. 

The illustrations are shown as typical examples 
of life work from the nude, done in pencil. 

Those by Jules Guerin on pages 38, 40, 51, 52 
and 54 are reproduced from some of his original 
studies for the symbolic figures in his mural dec- 
orations recently put in place in the new Lincoln 
Memorial at Washington, D. C, of which Henry 
Bacon was the architect. These drawings are ail 
made from life and are excellent examples to study, 
being unusually interesting in technique. 

The study on page 43 by Eugene F. Savage is 
for one of the figures in his decorative painting 
"Idealism" in the Polytechnic Preparatory School, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. This drawing is the one from 
which this figure was sketched into the picture : pre- 
viously a number of studies had been made from the 
model. A formal character was given to this figure 
to fit it for incorporation in the picture, and though 
the model was used this has not the naturalistic char- 

acter of the customary life drawing. The horse was 
first sketched in from the full-size cartoon, then the 
figure was added. 

The drawings by Taber Sears reproduced on 
pages 44, 47 and 50 are also studies from life for 
mural paintings. Mr. Sears' paintings of religious 
subjects are especially fine in conception and embody 
much of the spirit of Mediaeval times. They have 
a character and a manner that fit them especially 
well for their places in juxtaposition to the archi- 
tectural detail of the churches for which they are 

On pages 45 and 53 are excellent studies by Barry 
Faulkner for figures in the mural decorations which 
he has done for the great Cunard Building, New 
York City, B. W. Morris, architect. These are both 
extremely fine examples of technique. 

The reproductions on pages 46 and 48 are of 
studies from life by H. I. Stickroth for his mural 
painting "The Valley of Contemplation" drawn 
while a Fellow of the American Academy in Rome. 
The originals are in pencil on buff paper. This 
technique, too, is well worthy of the most careful 
study on the part of students of drawing. 

On page 49 is a different type of subject, a study 
by Frank Vincent DuMond for one of his mural 
decorations for the Panama-Pacific Exposition. 
These decorations represent the influx of the widely 
different human elements that went to make Cali- 
fornia: the Spanish adventurers and the mission- 
aries, the scholars, the "forty-niners" and all the 
others. In this spirited sketch we see a group of 
homeseekers pressing on across the plains to the new 
land of promise. The study is in pencil on gray 
paper, size about 30 in. by 40 in. 

The sketch of Vera Fokina by Troy Kinney on 
page 55 is a figure study of unusual power. It is 
one of many rapid sketches Mr. Kinney makes in 
studying the movements of a dancer as a preliminary 
to the execution of one of his notable etchings of 
the dance. By means of these studies Mr. Kinney 
makes definite many impressions of movements of 
the dance preceding and following the movement 
which he chooses to represent in his etching. In 
this way he fixes his impressions of the character 
of a momentary action and this undoubtedly helps 
him to embody in his etchings the sense of life that 
is one of their most admirable qualities. The frontis- 
piece to this volume is another of Mr. Kinney's de- 
iightful sketches. 













































































n , 














Courtesy of Kennedy <S* Co. 




Chapter VIII. 

AMONG artists there are many specialists ; 
men who -give attention to the representation 
of some one type of subject only. We have 
our portrait painters, for instance, and our land- 
scape painters. There are those who do nothing but 
marine views or who select city streets or gardens 
and flowers or some other kind of thing which 
appeals to them individually. 

Included in these special groups of men are those 
whose interest lies wholly or mainly in the picturing 
of animals, who devote years to the acquisition of 
knowledge on this particular class of subject ; who 
go on expeditions far afield seeking first hand infor- 
mation; who travel the world over, perhaps, sketch- 
ing and drawing and painting all the time, wherever 
animals are found. 

Hut we 'do not purpose to consider our subject 
here from the standpoint of these specialists; instead 
we simply wish to point out to the reader some of 
the benefits which the average student of art may 

gain from animal sketching in pencil, and to offer a 
few suggestions regarding such work. 

Animal sketching combines some of the advantages 
of drawing from the human figure with those of out- 
door sketching, for as the subjects to be pictured are 
often in motion, one gains an ability to grasp the 
most significant of their characteristics instantly 
and a facility to rapidly represent them on paper, 
and as animals are found out of doors, as a rule, 
one must go into the open to draw them, which 
should add to his enjoyment and afford a beneficial 
change from the class room or studio. Aside from 
these considerations, however, which do not always 
exist, as the beginner frequently works indoors from 
photographs or stuffed specimens which can be 
drawn at leisure, there is another point worth men- 
tioning, for it should not be forgotten that the more 
things one learns to draw and the greater his mental 
collection of facts of form and of light and shade 
and of color becomes, the easier it will be for him 


Pencil Sketch by Charles Livingston Bull. 



to advance, especially if he wishes to become an 
illustrator or turns to the usual types of commercial 
art for a livelihood. And the more one knows about 
animals, the more he will wish to know, as a rule, 
for his life will be the richer because of his knowl- 

It is seldom that living animals can be used to 
advantage for indoor classes, so the beginner in ani- 
mal sketching is more often provided with photo- 
graphs or with stuffed specimens from which to 
draw. Through these things he gains a fundamental 
knowledge of his subject before he ventures to 
attempt the more difficult task of working from liv- 
ing things. In many of our cities it is possible to 
obtain sketching permits which allow one to work 
in the museums, and the student who has this oppor- 
tunity should avail himself of it. not only because 
it will fit him for his later work, but because he can 
find in such collections mounted specimens of a rare 
or unusual nature, such as animals from the tropics 
or the polar regions. 

It would hardly be wise for the student who has 
not advanced some distance in his art studies to 
spend much time drawing from living animals, yet 
there will be no harm if he occasionally does so, and 
once he has gained a certain amount of skill in work- 
ing from still life and casts and the like, he can 
profitably give considerable time to it. Then as soon 
as he is grounded in the fundamentals of animal 
sketching through the work from photographs or 
stuffed specimens as described above he should take 
every opportunity for such practice and make the 
most of it. We say "take every opportunity" be- 
cause one soon learns that he must get this practice 
when he can ; we do not always have animals about 
us and even if we do they sometimes fail to show 
a willingness to pose. In fact, it is often necessary 
to follow animals from place to place in order to 
sketch them at all. This is of course difficult, so 

Head of Russian Wolf Hound, Sketch by 
Charles Livingston Bull. 

Head of Puma, Sketch by 
Charles Livingston Bull. 

the beginner, drawing from living animals for the 
first time, should try to catch them asleep or busy 
eating or at rest ; even then they will offer difficulties 

Domestic animals usually afford us the most satis- 
factory subjects for our first sketches, partly because 
they are more often available, partly because we 
are already more or less familiar with them, and 
partly for the reason that they have little fear of 
man and so assume natural positions. Cats and dogs 
are good and they offer a wide variety of subjects, 
and horses and cows and other quadrupeds common 
to our farms are excellent, too. The beginner will 
also find that as a rule cows or oxen or sheep or 
other slow moving creatures are easier to sketch 
than such restless or quick moving types as horses 
or dogs or kittens, but this is not always so, for when 
they are at rest one is about as easy to do as another. 

When the student has his paper ready and the 
subject selected, the method of working will be 
about the same as for drawing from the human fig- 
ure. Of course the different kinds of animals dif- 
fer more in appearance than do people, and this 
means that even greater attention must be given to 
the interpretation of the individual characteristics 
of each subject, which in turn means that before 
starting to draw, one should analyze his subject 
thoroughly, searching especially for such charac- 
teristics as are not common to other animals. Then 
when the first strokes are made on the paper they 
must be direct, for there is little time for fumbling 
or erasing. Of course if the animal is at rest the 
work may be carried on more leisurely, but it is 
well to get the habit of drawing quickly and posi- 
tively. Animals move so constantly that the artist 
can seldom draw more than a few lines before some 
change in posiEon is noted. In this case it is often 
better to begin anew, and if another move is soon 





Head of Airedale, Sketch by 
Charles Livingston Bull. 

made of enough importance to prove disturbing 
start still another sketch, until there are possibly a 
half dozen or more small ones begun on the same 
sheet. Then these can be carried along simultane- 
ously, for the animal will probably either resume a 
previous pose sooner or later, or the artist can 
change his own position until his subject appears 
relatively the same as before. 

Usually the first sketches are done in outline only, 
though this outline should be made as expressive as 
possible, an entirely different line is needed for the 
shaggy coat of a Saint Bernard dog than would be 
used for some short haired type like the hound. If 
the animal remains fairly still it will not be difficult 
to add some shading to the outline, and if time per- 
mits, it may be possible to put in enough surround- 
ing detail so that the sketch tells some story, for the 
animal can be shown as if doing a special thing, 
a kitten can be sketched, for , instance, as if playing 
with a spool of thread, or a dog gnawing a bone 
may be shown, or a calf drinking from a pail. 

It should not be supposed that domestic animals 
are the only ones suitable for this free-hand work, 
for if one has the opportunity to sketch wild things 
in the woods- -though one seldom does or caged 
animals as in a zoo, he should make the most of it, 
and will sometimes find them even more interesting 
than the domestic species, not so much that they 
are different in themselves but more because they 
are less familiar to us. Needless to say, such ani- 
mals as these would be drawn by the same method 
which we have already described for those of a 
domestic nature. 

Now the student cannot make these sketches too 
frequently for the practice will always be beneficial, 
but if one wishes to become really proficient in ani- 
mal sketching, he should not stop with work of this 
kind. He should learn something of the anatomy 

of animals and this is by no means simple ; he should 
learn to interpret and express their emotions, for 
animals, especially the more sensitive types such as 
dogs, will show fear or surprise or pleasure just as 
plainly or even more plainly than a human being. 
He should study their habits. He should learn whal 
animals have ths most strength or alertness or agil- 
ity and in what manner they display these charac- 
teristics ; and he should bear in mind, too, that just 
as animals have individuality considered singly, so 
do groups of animals have certain characteristics 
common to a given species. If we study such groups 
we will notice these differences in many ways ; let 
a number of horses and cows and sheep out to 
pasture and they will collect in formations of dif- 
ferent sorts and these formations will change under 
varying conditions. Some groups of animals if- 
driven to fight will make a circle with their heads 
towards the outside ; others will separate and each 
go his own way. It seems hardly necessary to more 
than touch on such differences here and it would 
take much space to do so, but let the student make 
observations for himself. 

Now when it comes to sketching groups of animals 
it will be found that one can scarcely work without 
some recourse to his memory and imagination, for 
even though a few in a group may retain their posi- 
tion for some time it is more than likely that others 
will be moving. This means that it often proves 
necessary to sketch them one or two at a time, put- 
ting them into natural arrangements on the paper 

The most difficult thing of all, perhaps, is to suc- 
cessfully picture animals in rapid motion. One must 
learn by observation and study the impression given 
by such movements and then attempt to put this im- 
pression on paper. 

The excellent sketches of animals by Mr. Charles 
Livingston Bull, accompanying this text, are taken 
directly from his own sketch books and are worthy 
of the most careful studv. 

Head of Red St. Bernard, Sketch by 
Charles Livingston Bull. 


' : ----^ 

i . ' 




Chapter I. 


WHEN the student has obtained a sound fun- 
damental knowledge of the subjects treated 
in Part I, namely Object Drawing in Out- 
line, Object Drawing in Light and Shade, Free-hand 
Perspective, Cast Drawing, Life Drawing and 
Sketching Animals, it would seem that he might find 
little difficulty in sketching buildings, street scenes 
and the like. 

Yet every new subject presents its peculiar prob- 
lems ; there are many things that the beginner will 
hardly know how to approach. A street scene or a 
landscape or a building, for instance, needs a far 
different treatment than a posed model in the life 
class, but the artist should be trained to do all of 
these well, especially if he hopes to become an illus- 
tator or commercial artist. If typical book or mag- 
azine illustrations, or free-hand drawings of almost 
any sort in which figures appear, are studied, it will 
be seen that buildings or portions of buildings or 
bits of landscape are given almost as much attention 
as the figures themselves, one could hardly hope 
to become successful in such a line of work if he 
lacked skill in the representation of any of these 

Among the following chapters the art student will 
find many valuable hints to help him draw these sub- 
jects for some have been especially prepared to 
offer suggestions on the drawing of buildings, both 
in whole and in part, as well as all sorts of acces- 
sories such as water and clouds ; then there are other 
chapters presenting many facts regarding technique, 
composition, decorative drawing, the uses of tinted 
paper, etc., for one should master these, too, in order 
to gain versatility. 

If skill in the representation of buildings is im- 
portant to the artist or the art student it is indis- 
pensable to the architect and his assistants, and it 
is mainly to meet their requirements that the fol- 
lowing chapters have been prepared. If the time 
for drawing practice is limited, the work in ob- 
ject drawing and cast drawing and life drawing 
described in Part I may be omitted by the reader 
of architectural inclination and he may turn directly 
to the problems discussed in these coming pages, 
where the subject of Sketching and Rendering in 
Pencil is considered mainly from the standpoint of 
the architect. Rut unless the reader is well grounded 
in drawing it is desirable that he study Part I and 
before going further it is advisable to study at least 
the first two chapters of Part I, and Chapter V 
on free-hand perspective. A knowledge of per- 
spective is essential to anyone who paints or draws, 
and especially to those who find the representation 
of buildings or street scenes a part of their work. 

Selecting the Subject In Part I emphasis was 

placed on the importance of selecting a suitable sub- 
ject for each drawing, and it is equally essential for 
the work to be done at present that the choice be as 
carefully made ; it is as much of a problem to learn 
to select as it is to learn to draw. Now the archi- 
tectural draftsman or student wishes to learn archi- 
tecture as well as how to draw, so it is usually best 
for him to choose some architectural object of merit. 
The drawing may be made directly from some in- 
teresting portion of a building, if the student feels 
capable of attempting this, or from a photograph. 
In either case it is well not to attempt too much at 
one time. 

When the subject has been chosen it is neces- 
sary next to decide exactly how much of the ob- 
ject is to be drawn. If one works from the photo- 
graph this is comparatively easy, for by using 
strips of paper or cardboard as a frame, suitable 
compositions can be found. One has more diffi- 
culty, however, when drawing directly from a build- 
ing for it is then necessary to determine the point 
from which the best view can be obtained. If you 
were to photograph such an object as you have 
selected to draw, the view-finder of the camera 
would help you to determine the best point at which 
to stand and would frame for you any number of 
interesting views from which you might select the 
best. The same idea may be carried out by the 
student of sketching, either by using a camera view- 
finder or, what is more commonly done, by making 
a view-finder by cutting a rectangular opening 
about \ l / 2 in. x 2 in. through a sheet of stiff paper 
or cardboard, which, when held near the eye, will 
help you to decide the point from which the draw- 
ing can best be made. Once the subject has been 
chosen and the point from which it is to be drawn 
decided upon, we are ready to block in the propor- 
tions of the sketch. 

At this point it is as well to remind the student 
that it is more difficult to learn what to leave out of 
a drawing than what to put in. As we minutely 
examine any object in nature we see an overwhelm- 
ing mass of small detail. Even as we sit in our 
rooms and glance around we find, if we search, 
thousands of spots of light or shade or color. These 
tiny spots are the many lines of the delicate grain- 
ing of the wood, the hundreds of partly-visible 
threads from which the hangings and upholstery 
materials are woven, the myriad indentations and 
projections of the masonry and plaster. 

It is hardly necessary to point out that it would be 
impossible to correctly indicate each of these spots 
on a small sheet of paper, even if it were desirable 
to do so. Instead we must try to represent the 





Figure 12. Illustrating a Method of Focusing Attention on Different Parts of a Building. 



effect of the mass as a whole, the effect that we get 
not when we hunt for such details, but when we 
enter a room and look around in the usual way. 
If we do look directly at some object such as a 
chair in a room corner we see little detail with 
the exception of that in the chair itself and in 
those objects adjacent to it. Even in these ob- 
jects we are not conscious of each tiny spot, but in- 
stead notice only the broad general tone and effect. 
The chair, being directly in the range of vision, is 
the center of interest and the other objects become 
more and more indistinct and blurred the farther 
they are from this center. It really is a surprising 
thing what a small area we are able to see plainly 
when looking in one direction only. We are so 
accustomed to shifting our eyes constantly from 
one object to another that we fail to notice this 
limitation. Stand within ten feet of a door and 
gaze intently at the knob. Without shifting the 
eyes, are you able to see the top of the door dis- 
tinctly? If you raise the eyes and look at the top 
of the door, do you see the bottom plainly? Go to 
the window and look at some building across the 
street. Fix your attention on an upper window or 
chimney or some part of the roof. Are not the 
lower portions of the building blurred and indistinct 
unless you shift your gaze to them? When you 
look at the foundation you do not see the roof 

Now in making a drawing it is assumed that the 
artist is looking in some one fixed direction. He 
gazes at some interesting object or, if the entire 
object is too large to come within his range of 
vision, he selects some prominent feature which 
then becomes the center of interest or focal point. 
In making the drawing more detail is shown near 
this center of interest than in the other parts, which 
are allowed to become more and more indistinct 
towards the edges of the picture, just as they ap- 
pear in nature. Every drawing should have this 
center of interest or focal point and all else should 
be subordinated to it. 

Now turn to the illustration, Figure 12. Cover 
the lower two drawings and study the upper draw- 
ing "A." In this sketch the spectator was looking 
towards that part of the old farm buildings near- 
est to him, so this becomes the center of interest 
or focal point ; all else is subordinated. 

Look at sketch "B," first covering up sketches 
"A" and "C." Here the spectator's eye has turned 
towards the center of the building and interest 
centers in the large doorway and adjacent walls 
here the details show most plainly and here are 
the strongest accents of light and shade. The two 
ends of the building become rather blurred and in- 
distinct ; they are subordinated. 

Now uncover "C" and cover "B." In "C" the 
spectator is looking still farther to the left and 
even though that portion of the building is some 
distance from the eye, it is .the portion on which 

the eye is focused, hence the strongest contrasts 
and accents are there and the rest of the building 
is subordinate. 

Turn to Figure 13, the street scene. In the draw- 
ing at the left the spectator is looking at the upper 
part of the tower; that becomes the subject of the 
sketch, the foc#l point or center of interest. The 
street is blurred, the detail is softened. In the second 
drawing the spectator is looking down the street ; 
the archw'ay becomes the center of interest and the 
tower is almost lost against the sky. Now in draw- 
ing such a subject as this street scene from nature 
the student is likely to get into difficulty. He looks 
first, perhaps, at the tower and draws that. If he 
stops there all well and good ; the tower becomes 
the subject of the sketch. But if he lowers his 
gaze to the street and adds the archway to his draw- 
ing it is quite possible that this will form a second 
focal point which will compete with the tower. 
Then the drawing will be a failure for the eye will 
jump back and forth between the tower and the 
archway and the balance will be destroyed. In such 
a composition as this, where there are two possible 
centers of interest, be sure that one is subordinated 
to the other. 

Now turn to Figure 14, the little interior- Where 
is the center of interest represented in the drawing 
at the top of the sheet? Where does the eye see 
the most detail and the strongest contrasts of light 
and dark ? The window with its seat is outside the 
focus and it is only when the eye turns towards it 
as it does in the lower picture that it becomes the 
center of vision or focal point. In this latter case 
the mantel is out of focus and might be omitted 
from the drawing; in fact, this room could be made 
the subject of two interesting sketches, one of the 
fireplace and one of the window and seat. In such 
a room as this we can well imagine that in the 
evening the fireplace with the family drawn up en- 
joying a cheerful blaze would be in all ways the 
center of interest in the room, while in the daytime 
the window with its seat would doubtless gain 
greater attention. 

Now turn to the delightful sketch by Mr. Watson 
on page 66; notice that he has built up his center 
of interest very effectively yet without forcing it 
upon the attention unpleasantly, and observe, too, 
that the drawing is allowed to soften or fade away 
gradually from those parts which come most directly 
within the range of vision. 

Let it be plain, then, that in starting a drawing 
it is important to first of all select something of 
interest to draw ; next, it is necessary to find the 
best point from which the drawing can be made ; 
then we must analyze our subject to determine the 
center of interest or focal point, and having done 
this we must use every care to subordinate all those 
parts which have little or nothing to do with our 
subject, and which might detract from the center 
of interest. 



. v.^ > 

*-~ i ."- .- * JU. ** 

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Figure 14. Illustrating Method of Accenting or Subordinating Parts of a Room. 






Chapter II. 

THE student should determine before sharpen- 
ing his pencils just what they are to be re- 
quired to do, and should point them accord- 
ingly. Sharply-pointed pencils will answer very well 
if a drawing is to be small or if much fine detail is 
to be shown, but if it is to be large, broad pointed 
pencils will usually produce an effect equally satis- 
factory in a much shorter space of time. Many 
drawings combine both fine lines and wide lines with 
excellent results. 

No special directions for forming a sharp point 
seem necessary, but a broad point is not so com- 
monly used, so the following suggestions are of- 
fered. First of all, cut away the wood in the usual 
manner just as for a sharp point, but leave one- 
quarter or three-eighths of an inch of the full-sized 
lead exposed. (If this lead is left too long, how- 
ever, especially in the softer pencils, it will quickly 
break under pressure.) Next, wear the point 
down on fine sandpaper holding the pencil at an 
angle of about 45 degrees with the paper, until the 
lead has the appearance shown at "A," Figure 15. 
The end of the lead should next be smoothed by 
rubbing it on rough paper until each stroke gives 
a firm, even tone when the pencil is held as at "B." 
Occasional fine lines or accents in a drawing can 
be made with this broad point if it is held on its 
sharp edge as at "C," but if many fine lines are 
needed a sharply-pointed pencil will prove more sat- 
isfactory. The type of broad point just mentioned 
is used by many artists but others go still further, 
and by slightly squaring the whole of the exposed 
lead, after it has been sharpened as described above, 
obtain a very crisp, clean-cut line. The illustrations 
made by the author for this text were for the most 
part drawn with this latter type of point. 

Regardless of how the pencil is sharpened care 
should be taken that the point is wiped with a cloth 
in order to remove all dust, for otherwise it is 
difficult to get a clean, firm line and next to impos- 
sible to keep the paper from becoming soiled by 
the loose grit from the pencil. Another point for 
the beginner to remember is that in sharpening the 
pencil the letters or numbers indicating the degree 
of hardness or softness of the lead should never be 

Having pointed and dusted the pencils, they are 
ready for use, though it will be convenient to 
so mark each one that its grade can be told at a 
glance. There are several ways of doing this. 
One is by cutting or painting the letters indicating 
the grade of the lead on several sides of the pencil 
where they can be seen easily, and another is by 
notching the pencils, increasing the number of 
notches as the pencils become harder in grade. 
Such letters or notches are perhaps most convenient 
if placed about one and one-half inches from the 
unsharpened end of the pencil where they will re- 

main in view. If near the point they will soon be 
cut away and if at the other extremity they will 
be hidden if a pencil holder or lengthener is used. 
Some artists, instead of marking their pencils, always 
lay them on the drawing board according to grade. 
By this arrangement they can tell the degree of 
hardness of a pencil at a glance by its position on 
the board and when it has been used it can be re- 
turned to its proper place and another taken up. A 
still different way of marking pencils for identifi- 
cation is by dipping them into various colors, each 
color representing a definite grade of lead. 

The question may arise as to the number of pen- 
cils necessary for one sketch. This number will 
vary all the way from one, for a quick sketch, to 
seven or eight as used by some draftsmen for care- 
fully finished work. Some very well-known men 
never use more than one grade of pencil for an 
entire drawing but the student can as a rule get 
better results by the use of three or four. The two 
little sketches on Figure 20 were made with a 2B, 
HB, F, H and 3H. 

Practice Strokes When the pencils have been 
properly sharpened the student can do nothing of 
greater benefit than to draw many individual lines 
with each point before attempting complete draw- 
ings. Try to make every stroke a thing of beauty, 
for it is only by combining many beautiful strokes 
that a pleasing final result can be obtained. Draw 
lines of all kinds and in all directions ; some straight 
and others curved; some uniform in tone from end 
to end and others grading from light to dark or 
from dark to light. Allow some to fade out so grad- 
ually that the ends are lost in the tones of the paper 
and accent others at the ends by using extra pres- 
sure as the pencil touches or leaves the drawing 
surface. Keep some straight and sharp, drawing 
them very quickly with much freedom, and form 
others rather slowly, allowing them to quaver or 
tremble. Use considerable pressure on some, thus 
smoothing or "ironing out" the paper, and in others 
barely touch the pencil to the surface. Make lines 
with both broad and fine points, with various grades 
of pencils, and on all sorts of paper until you feel 
a certain confidence in your knowledge of your 

Tone Building When this feeling of assurance 
is acquired, attempt building up even tones by mass- 
ing the strokes together, either touching or with 
slight spaces between. Think clearly what you wish 
to do before you begin and then draw with direct- 
ness and vigor, remembering that sharp "snappy" 
work is the kind most popular for architectural 

There are no definite rules regarding tone build- 
ing but perhaps the simplest method is to draw 
parallel straight or slightly curved lines just touch- 
ing one another or with slight spaces between. 






.. . i. . , . 




>T-f; I .- 


"V *^w^' **C.J^' ""* 

^ 7* 






I ' I 



A.L.6UPT1LL vigiO 

75. Illustrating Methods of Sharpening and Holding Pencil, Practice Strokes, 
and Steps in Sketching. 




Figure 16. Illustrating Methods of Tone Building, and Two Ways of Making Sketches. 



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V . \ .<\, tit . t* Tg| l 

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Figure if. Illustrating Quick Sketching; a Means by Which Much Knowledge 
of Architecture Can be Obtained. 



Sometimes these lines are horizontal but more often 
vertical. Occasionally entire drawings are made by 
using tones composed of vertical strokes only. The 
drawing of the doorway "A" at the bottom of Fig- 
ure 16 is done by this method. There is danger, 
however, of such lines becoming too rigid or me- 
chanical, or in some cases too conspicuous, so the 
method shown at "B," in which the lines are allowed 
to go in any and all directions, is a much more 
popular one, and one adaptable to all types of sub- 
jects. This method is sometimes referred to as the 
"Free Line Method." 

In building tones there are several points con- 
cerning which the beginner should be cautioned. 
First, beware the use of too many small lines. If 
twenty lines will do, it is ordinarily folly to use 
forty. There is danger especially in the use of 
many short, broken lines, as they often produce a 
spotty effect, the more so if the white spaces be- 
tween the ends of the lines are too conspicuous. 
Long, unbroken lines, on the other hand, sometimes 
appear too mechanical. It is best as a rule to so 
vary the length of lines as to produce an interest- 
ing variety, avoiding too many lines of equal length 
and similar direction. Tones are occasionally built 
up by "cross hatching" but it is usually best to avoid 
this expedient. Figure 16 shows, however, several 
examples of cross hatching, and sometimes such 
tones are highly desirable, especially for shadows 
and background purposes. Frequently in drawing 
shadows, especially under cornices, the lines form- 
ing the shadow tones are so slanted as to suggest 
the direction of the light. A sparkling, sunny effect 
is obtained, too, if the shadow tone is sharpened or 
darkened along the lower edge, thus forming a 
strong contrast against the light surfaces below. 

Needless to say, it is most important to so vary 
the lines and tones as to express the textures of the 
materials represented by the sketch. Observation 
and practice will teach the student the best way to 
indicate wood, masonry, glass, metal, cloth, water, 
and the like. 

Do not erase unless absolutely necessary, as results 
are never entirely satisfactory over an erased sur- 
face. If mistakes are made, use a soft eraser with 
extreme care and be sure to dust the paper thor- 
oughly afterwards with a soft brush or cloth. Al- 
ways keep an extra piece of paper under the hand 
as you work to protect the surface of the sheet. 
Figure 15 and Figure 16 show a number of practice 
strokes and tones done partly with a broad and 
partly with a fine point. 

Small Drawings and Quick Sketches. When the 
student has practiced tone building for some time 
he is ready to try simple drawings. Often more 
benefit can be gained from making a number of 
small sketches than from attempting one large ren- 
dering. As has been before suggested, the archi- 
tectural student will be wise if, when selecting 
subjects for his sketches, he chooses objects of 
architectural value and interest. The sheet of 
sketches, Figure 17, is shown for two reasons. First, 
it illustrates a quick method of sketching, the 
drawings being very freely and rapidly made ; and 
second, it suggests to the student a means by which 

much knowledge of architecture can be obtained. 
One cannot fail, when making such sketches, to 
learn a great deal of value concerning the objects 
which he represents. Figure 18 is also published 
here for two reasons. First, it shows in a com- 
parative manner two types of line, the broad and 
the fine, used side by side for representing the same 
building; and second, it is a typical presentation 
drawing such as is submitted to a client as a means 
of securing a commission. This sort of drawing 
often brings new work into the office, and is, for 
that reason, of the greatest value to the architect. 
This particular drawing was laid out instrumentally. 
The original sheet measures about 10^"xl4^" to 
the margin lines. Figures 15 and 17 were originally 
drawn about 9"xl2j4", so the student should allow 
for this reduction when studying these sheets. 

It may be of service to mention that, once a sub- 
ject is selected for a sketch or rendering, whether 
large or small, it may be drawn in outline in either of 
two ways ; the outline may be roughly blocked in with 
sketchy lines, which are to be erased when the final 
rendering is started, or it may be more carefully 
drawn directly with final lines, keeping them as a 
rule very light by using a hard pencil, and leaving 
them to become a part of the finished work. When 
the outline has been completed there are several 
methods of procedure before the student ; he can 
put in the darkest tones of the whole drawing, later 
adding enough gray tones to complete the picture, 
or he can put in the gray tones first, as has been done 
in making the little sketch at the bottom of Figure 
15, later adding the dark tones and sharp accents to 
finish the drawing. 

Many artists complete their work as they proceed, 
beginning at the center of interest and working out, 
or beginning at the top and working gradually down 
towards the bottom. This latter method has one 
great advantage in that the drawing can be kept 
clean more easily than by the other methods, but 
unless the student is able to think very clearly be- 
fore drawing or unless he makes first a preliminary 
sketch for the purpose of studying the values of 
light and dark, it is a difficult one. As a rule it 
is far safer to start at the center of interest, making 
sure that the strongest contrasts of light and shade 
and the sharpest details are there, keeping the rest 
of the drawing properly subordinated. 

Contrasts. There are various ways of obtaining 
contrasts and two of the most common are illus- 
trated by Figure 19. A white spot against a black 
background always shows so plainly that the eye 
goes to it very quickly. Likewise a black spot against 
white attracts immediate attention. Now, many ob- 
jects in nature are similar to these spots. For 
instance, a white house in strong sunlight against a 
background of dark trees is similar to the white 
spot mentioned above and the eye sees it quickly be- 
cause of the contrast. A dark building silhouetted 
ngainst the sky illustrates the idea of the dark spot 
against the light background. Now, a white spot 
against a dark tone appears even whiter if the dark 
tone grades gradually to white so as to have no 
sharp edges to lead the eye from the spot itself, 
and in the same way a dark spot against a 



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18. The Same Subject Drawn with BroadLines and with Fine Lines. A Type of Sketch to be 
Submitted by the Architect to His Client to Show Proposed Alterations. 




-:.:-. , 

Figure /p. Illustrating Method of Focusing Attention by Means of 
Strong Contrasts of Light and Dark. 










white background will appear even blacker if the 
white background grades out gradually to gray or 
black, for this will cause the white background to 
appear even whiter by contrast. The spots "A" 
and "B" at the top of Figure 19 illustrate this point 
.as do also the small sketches of houses "C" and "D." 

It must be remembered, too, that the light con- 
ditions in nature Vary constantly, so it is possible for 
an object to appear light against dark during certain 
times of the day and dark against light at others. 
For example an office building in bright sunlight 
might appear light against a deep blue sky until eve- 
ning when it might change to a dark silhouette 
against a brilliant sunset sky. The drawings of 
the lighthouse, "E" and "F" at the bottom of Figure 
19 still further illustrate this point. This example 
is rather extreme but serves to make clear that two 
sketches of a building made at different hours 
might vary greatly from each other. Therefore, 
when working from nature it is necessary to draw 
very quickly as the light is constantly changing. 

In order to prevent a sketch being broken up 
into too many equal areas of light and shade, thus 
causing confusion, it is often well to look for 
some one leading light area and some one leading 
dark area in the objects to be drawn. If a sketch 
is to be made of a dark stone building, that perhaps 
becomes the leading dark area and the light area 
may be found in the foreground or sky or both. 
On the other hand, if a building is light in tone it 
becomes in itself the leading light area and the back- 
ground of trees or sky or the foreground masses 
become the dark area. Having decided on these 
leading light and dark areas, look for subordinate 
areas, such as doors, roofs or similar details and 
give each just its proper amount of accent to make 
a satisfactory composition of the whole. It is 
usually true that we find in the same subject many 
contrasts of light against dark and dark against 
light, but in making a sketch remember that the eye 
would see the strongest contrasts near the frcal 
point, or center of interest. Look for the sharpest 
accents here and in the drawing subordinate all 
others, for unless this is done the eye will jump 
from one point to another, which will cause the 
picture to lack unity and repose. It is easy to hoH 
the eye at the center of interest as has been shown 
above if strong contrasts of light against dark or 
dark against light are shown there. The two 

sketches on Figure 20 still further illustrate this 
principle of contrast. The center of interest in the 
first is around the arched entrance and here the 
contrasts have been kept sharp and strong. First 
there is the light spot of the opening to the street. 
Then in sharp contrast to this is the dark tone of 
the archway itself. This in turn is strong in its 
contrast with the lighter tones of adjacent walls, 
and these light tones on walls and street are empha- 
sized further by the fact that they are graded to 
dark at the edges of the sketch. In the second 
sketch, showing one of the earliest forms of tim- 
ber construction, there are similar contrasts to hold 
the eye to the center of interest. First the dark 
doorway becomes the focal point. This is strong 
in its contrast with the surrounding light walls of 
the building and with the street, while these light 
tones are in turn surrounded by the large dark area 
of roof tones, verge board shadows and the like, 
which are graded outward to the edges of the sketch. 

In starting a pencil drawing the student is urged 
to make a preliminary study of the values of light 
and dark as soon as the outline has been completed. 
This study can be made to good advantage on trac- 
ing paper directly over the outline drawing, and 
when completed will serve as a guide for the actual 
rendering. Once the values have been determined 
in this way, the student is free to give his atten- 
tion to the technique. At this point it might be 
well to offer a few suggestions. First of all we 
must work for variety of line, for it is impossible 
to express all materials, and surfaces with one type 
of line. Smooth, straight strokes suggest smooth 
surfaces, while irregular strokes are best for repre- 
senting rough, uneven surfaces. As a rule it is well 
for the strokes to follow the structural lines of the 
objects to be represented. This means that the 
strokes used on vertical w; 11s will usually be vertical 
or perspectively horizontal. The roof lines will 
follow the slope of the roof or vanish towards a 
point with the other parallel lines. Curved surfaces 
can as a rule be best represented by the use of 
curved lines. 

It is suggested that the student try a few prac- 
tice sketches to further fix in his mind some of the 
ideas suggested in this text. Do not be discouraged 
if the first results are not entirely satisfactory; it 
is only by making mistakes and profiting by them 
that one can learn to draw. 

Chapter III. 

STUDENTS of drawing often foolishly handi- 
cap themselves right at the start by attempting 
to produce sketches that show marked original- 
ity or individuality. Such students seem to be of the 
erroneous opinion that unless their work- is so 
unusual in presentation as to appear almost freak- 
ish, it is not good. They therefore sacrifice tru'.h 
in order to create drawings with a technique so 
peculiar and predominant as to detract from the 
subject of the sketch itself. In some types of deco- 
rative drawing a conspicuous method of technique 
is not wholly bad, but for architectural purposes 
anything that lessens the interest in the architecture 
itself is unsatisfactory. 

It is not to be understood by this that work 
should not show a certain individuality ; it should 
and will, for it is impossible for one to practice 
drawing for any length of time without developing 
certain original mannerisms. This is most desir- 
able, for it would be unfortunate indeed if all pencil 
artists were to draw in exactly the same way, pro- 
ducing work of monotonous similarity. But there 
is no danger of this. Just as most of us acquire 
a certain characteristic style of penmanship which 
our friends are able to distinguish as ours at a 
glance, we are also sure to attain a style of draw- 
ing having a character exclusively its own. 

To be sure many draftsmen do draw in very 
much the same way and this is perfectly natural 
and proper, for we are all influenced by the work 
which we see others do, and we all share, also, the 
definite limitations which our medium imposes upon 
us. It will be found, however, that drawings which 
seem very similar in technique at first glance, reveal 
individual differences on closer inspection, even 
though done by men with similar training and ex- 
perience. Have no fear then of losing your own 
individuality, even though you frequently study or 
copy the work of master draftsmen. 

In order to profit to the greatest extent by the 
experience of others, collect as many reproductions 
of excellent pencil drawings as possible. By care- 
fully analyzing and comparing these, studying the 
composition, the values of light and dark, the 
methods of technique, the representation of details 
and the like, you will obtain many ideas applicable 
to your own work. Do not, however, attempt to 
imitate the style of any one man, as this will deaden 
your initiative and be unfair to him as well. Select, 
instead, from the drawings of many individuals 
the suggestions that appeal to you personally, and 
apply these, with any changes that may suggest 
themselves, to your own work. 

It is surprising what a variety of ideas such an 
analysis and comparison of many drawings will 
reveal. If we consider the width of line used we 
shall find that some drawings are entirely made up 
of very fine lines, others of broad lines, and still 

others of solid mass shading. In some, two or more 
of these types of lines will be found combined. If 
we look at the kinds of lines we shall learn that 
some sketches consist wholly of sharp, crisp 
strokes ; others of soft "woolly" lines ; some show 
strokes almost mechanically perfect in contrast with 
others having lines made with the greatest freedom. 
If we consider the values of light and dark we 
shall see that certain drawings are left almost white, 
others rather gray, and some quite black. Most 
drawings, however, combine the white, gray and 
black, as all of these are usually necessary to prop- 
erly represent the values existing in the object to 
be drawn. 

Considering the great variety of work to be 
found, it is no small wonder that the student should 
be in doubt often as to the best way of treating a 
given subject. In such an emergency our good 
friend Common Sense is perhaps the best teacher. 
Decide first of all just what the purpose of the 
drawing is to be. Some drawings best meet the 
requirements if left in outline only. Others demand 
careful shading of every part. For a quick sketch 
the roughest sort of line is often just the thing, 
whereas a fully rendered drawing sometimes re- 
quires that every stroke be painstakingly made. 
For most architectural purposes firm, sharp strokes 
are better than rough, "woolly" ones, for firm 
strokes seem to best represent solid or smooth mate- 
rials. Soft, yielding materials might perhaps be 
better suggested by rough, soft lines or tones. 

Architectural pencil sketches are often shown to 
the client in conjunction with the instrumentally 
drawn plans and naturally harmonize better with 
these plans if sharp and clean-cut. The student 
should not take this to mean that such sketches 
should appear too mechanical, for the fact is that 
the average draftsman uses far too little freedon; 
in his freehand work. It is sometimes difficult for 
him to remember that he should not draw every 
brick and stone, every modillion and dentil, but 
that he should learn rather to suggest and in- 
dicate these things in a clear, "snappy" way. 

It is in learning how to thus suggest detail that 
perhaps the greatest benefit can be gained through 
the study of good pencil reproductions. It should 
be remembered, however, that such reproductions 
have as a rule been reduced in size considerably 
from the original drawings, and the student should 
take this into account. Many reproductions show 
drawings apparently made with very fine lines, while 
in reality the lines were several times as large as 
the reproductions suggest. Needless to say it is 
a foolish waste of time to attempt to cover large 
areas of paper with fine lines when broad ones 
answer as well, yet many draftsmen get the habit, 
possibly because they are accustomed to working 
with a sharp point, of making more tiny lines than 



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are necessary. Partly for this reason it is unwise 
for the student to devote too much time to copy 
work from plates. When working from nature or 
the photograph there is far less tendency to fall 
into finicky ways. On the other hand, some stu- 
dents make drawings so sketchily and carelessly 
that they fail to meet the usual architectural require- 

Warning should be given that there is a vast 
difference between the rough, scratchy sketches of 
beginners and the apparently carelessly made draw- 
ings by well known men. Some students feel, evi- 
dently, that the road to success lies through imi- 
tating this extremely sketchy sort of work. They 
fail to realize, perhaps, that these men have learned 
accurate drawing in the past, and that it is equally 
necessary for them to acquire the ability to do care- 
ful work before they can make rough sketches in- 
telligently. An art student, visiting a collection of 
lithographs by Mr. Joseph Pennell, was heard to 
remark that he could "take a chunk o' charcoal and 
do as well." Doubtless this student was ignorant 
of the fact that during a period of many years Mr. 
Pennell made hundreds of illustrations of architec- 
ture, almost photographically accurate in their 
drawing and wonderfully delicate in their render- 
ing. These years of training make it possible for 
Mr. Pennell to produce his lithographs in a very 
broad, bold way, with remarkable directness and 
freedom, but his earlier work offers more of assist- 
ance to the beginner. 

This brings us to another fact : that a man's 
style of rendering usually changes with the years, 
as the best of men are constantly striving to im- 
prove, with the result that they gradually alter their 
manner of work. This fact should help to make 
clear the folly of the beginner attempting to at once 
arbitrarily make a "style" of his own. If he is 
content, instead, to do his work as well as he knows 
how, searching for truth in drawing and an honest 
interpretation of nature's values, studying all the 
while other drawings in order to benefit by the 
experience gained by other men, and seeking always 
for the best way to meet the requirements of the 
problem at hand, he will unconsciously develop a 
method or style expressive of his own individual 

It is impossible to over-emphasize the need for 
constant practice if one is to acquire more than 
ordinary skill in drawing. Many students with 
considerable innate ability fail to make the best use 
of it because of their lack of interest or persever- 
ance, whereas others, who show at first far less 
natural talent, but who are endowed with an aspira- 
tion to achieve dexterity and with a willingness to 
work for it, often gain such skill as to far outshine 
those students with greater inborn aptitude. It is 

deplorable that so many persons fail to make the 
most of their natural abilities, but it is, on the other 
hand, most gratifying to find others who force 
themselves to the front through their persistency 
and commendable effort. 

The drawings illustrating this chapter should be 
carefully studied as they show a variety of excellent 
individual treatments. The originals of most of 
these were done entirely with pencil, though that by 
Mr. Eggers on page 79 (which is, by the way, re- 
produced at the exact size of the original) had light 
washes of water color added to the pencilling, while 
that by Mr. Long on page 87 is really a color ren- 
dering rather than a pencil drawing. In this latter 
example, however, the preparation for the coloring 
was done in pencil, so the reproduction is shown as 
an illustration of a style of work in which the pen- 
cil plays a by no means unimportant, although a 
rather inconspicuous part- 

It is of interest to mention that the charming 
drawing by Mr. Eggers, to which we referred a 
moment ago, was made from his window in Milan 
in 1912, when he was studying as the first holder 
of the LeBrun Travelling Scholarship. His sketches 
on pages 80 and 82 were also done at about the same 
time, and are reproduced here directly from his 
sketch book, and with the exception of that at the 
top of page 80. showing Notre Dame, they are at the 
exact size of the originals so as to convey the tech- 
nique as faithfully as possible. 

The drawings by Mr. Conant on pages 77, 81 
and 83, show a keen sense of appreciation and a 
sound knowledge of architecture, as well as remark- 
able skill and sensitiveness in drawing, and they are 
worthy of the most careful study. 

On page 84 is a sketch by Andre Smith, which is 
notable for the direct method of drawing and the 
production of a wide range of values by skillful use 
of a very delicate line. The freshness of the draw- 
ing is due to the artist's habit of working rapidly 
and making a drawing at a single sitting. 

The sketch by Mr. Maginnis on page 84 is handled 
in a masterly manner, conveying very delightfully 
the character and detail of an interesting architec- 
tural subject. 

In the drawing on page 86 Mr. Watson has been 
very successful in rendering the structural strength 
and comparative lightness of one of New York's 
great modern bridges, and the activity along the 
water front, and in suggesting the shipping by 
means of smoke clouds, wisps of steam, a stack and 
a spar or two. 

Compare these drawings with those of a similar 
nature in other parts of the volume or with examples 
which you may have at hand, noting the differences 
in individual style that such a comparison reveals. 



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Courtesy of Arthur H. Harlow & Co. 




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Chapter IV. 

AS WE are unable to fully and exactly repro- 
duce by means of pencil drawings, all of na- 
ture's intricate form, her complicated light 
and shade, and her varied coloring, we are forced to 
adopt certain conventional methods for their sugges- 
tion and indication. 

Of the numerous conventions thus employed 
outline is perhaps the one most commonly used. 
Natural forms, it should be understood, have no 
definite outlines. We are able to distinguish ob- 
jects one from the other only because of their con- 
trasts of light or shade or shadow or color. To 
demonstrate the truth of this, study the objects 
about you, and you will see that each is visible 
only because it is light against dark or dark against 
light or because one color is contrasted with a dif- 
ferent one, but never because it has an outline. Tt 
may by chance have a border of some strong color 
or tone which at first glance seems to be an out- 
line, but closer inspection will prove it to be merely 
a narrow tone of light or dark or of color, so 
small as to appear as a line. Cracks between floor- 
boards, for instance, often seem to be the outlines 
of the boards themselves, but in reality we see 
these cracks only because they form shadows or 
because they are filled with dirt or other materials 
of a color or tone different from that of the wood 
itself. Streaks of highlight along the edges of ob- 
jects frequently appear to be outlines, too, unless 
the source of light causing them is hidden or moved, 
when they either disappear or change their positions. 

Granting, then, that nature employs no real out- 
line, it is remarkable that her forms can be so 
quickly and accurately suggested by its use. Even 
a child, as a rule, is able to so indicate objects by 
a few simple profiles that we can recognize them 
easily, and primitive peoples, ages ago, made out- 
line drawings which we are able to read and under- 
stand with little effort. Because such drawings do 
indicate form simply and directly, it is important 
for the student to learn to make them well and he 
should frequently practice this form of work. By 
varying the lines used, the textures and materials 
represented can be more accurately and artistically 
suggested than at first seems possible. Shadow, 
too, can be indicated by darkening such edges as 
are turned away from the light. Outline drawing 
has, at the same time, so many limitations that for 
architectural purposes it is mainly valuable for the 
suggestion of form. Therefore whenever we wish 
to do more than simply indicate the light and shade 
or color we are forced to either supplement the 
outline by the addition of tones of gray or black, 
or to do away with it entirely, representing the 
object wholly by values of light and shade, approxi- 
mating as closely as is possible those tones found 
in nature itself. 

At "A," Figure 21, is a sketch of an old chim- 
ney done in outline only, but this outline is so 
accented as to suggest the textures of the various 
surfaces and a few tiny lines are added also as an 
indication of the shade and shadow. At "B" the 
same chimney is shown in full tone of light and 
shade but with the outline omitted. This drawing 
is much like a photograph of the same subject, in 
that the stone and brick and other materials have 
been given tones as similar as is possible to those 
appearing in nature. Though this type of draw- 
ing is used to some extent, it is not as popular as 
that shown at "C" in which much of the white of 
the paper is left. Drawing "C" not only has more 
character than "B" but the method used is a more 
economical one. In this particular instance the 
outline was drawn exactly as at "A" and then 
enough tone added to suggest the values of light 
and shade as found at "B." For architectural work 
this method is quite satisfactory, for much of the 
form can be represented by the accented outline ; 
the white of the paper answers for the lighter 
values and the darker tones can be drawn with the 
gray and black of the pencil. Color cannot, of 
course, be more than suggested in any pencil draw- 
ing. A dark red brick wall can be shown dark, 
and light green shutters can be shown light, but 
unless explanatory notes are added or some color 
employed there is no way of making it clear that 
the brickwork is red and the shutters are green. 
Because of these limitations, tints of water color are 
frequently washed over a pencil drawing and the 
results obtained in this way are often very effec- 
tive, especially if the tints are light and delicate. 
Colored pencils are sometimes used, too, with con- 
siderable success. 

Figure 22 is one sketch in which the effect 
is gained by the use of values representing the color 
and tone of the various building materials and ac- 
cessories, little attempt being made to show the 
shadows. It is sometimes possible to obtain a very 
pleasing result by this means and it would be well 
for the student to try a few such drawings, but 
the average subject demands some suggestion of 
the shadow tones as well. Many drawings, can, in 
fact, be entirely made by the use of the shade and 
shadow tones only, the color of the building mate- 
rials being largely disregarded, and the lower 
sketch, Figure 22, is shown to illustrate this point. 
This method proves especially useful when draw- 
ing objects made of light colored materials such as 
carved white marble, ornamental terra-cotta, white 
clapboarded or stucco walls, etc. 

Although the natural tone and color of mate- 
rials in buildings and their surroundings is of great 
importance, so much of the effect of a structure, 
both as a whole and in detail, depends on its 













Figure 22. The Upper Sketch Shows an Effect Mainly Gained by the Use of Values Representing the 

Tone of Various Building Materials and Accessories. In the Lower Sketch the Effect Depends 

More on the Indication of Shade and Shadow. 



shadows that the study of light and shade deserves 
special attention. When a sketch is in outline only, 
the light is either indicated in a simple manner or 
entirely disregarded, but when a drawing is to be 
done in full values it is especially important to 
determine both the source of the light and the 
direction in which it is coming before starting to 
render. Students have been known to cast the 
shadows on a building in one direction and to in- 
dicate the shade on the trees as though the light 
were coming at a different angle. Such inconsis- 
tencies are amusing, but warning should be given 
that they are almost sure to occur when students 
attempt to copy and combine parts of several draw- 
ings by other men or even make original drawings 
of their own unless the matter of lighting is care- 
fully thought out before the pencil rendering is 
begun. Such mistakes show that the student can- 
not give too much study to this subject if he is to 
avoid many similar errors. There are, however, 
so many separate influences affecting the lighting 
-of all objects, such as the condition of the atmos- 
phere, the reflective or absorbing powers of dif- 
ferent surfaces and materials, the constant shifting 
and moving of clouds and foliage, that it seems un- 
wise to attempt here to give the student more than 
a few hints to point the way for his further indi- 
vidual study. Even in interiors the light often 
comes from so many sources and is reflected from 
so many surfaces that nothing but constant obser- 
vation and sketching will teach the student what he 
should know of such conditions. The opening or 
closing of a door may be sufficient to entirely change 
the appearance of an interior and in the same way 
the shifting of a cloud may cause windows viewed 
from without to appear very light one minute and 
almost black the next. Sometimes the lighting 
varies to such an extent that an entire building 
may appear dark against light at one time and light 
against dark at another, as was illustrated in the 
example of the lighthouse in Figure 19. Such an 
extreme change as this, though by no means un- 
usual, generally takes place at morning or in the 
evening or under exceptional lighting conditions, 
but even the average building under normal condi- 
tions will vary greatly in appearance from hour to 
hour. Because of these constant changes most 
buildings appear to better advantage at certain 
time of day than at others, and so if drawings of 
them are to be made it is naturally best to make 
them during these favorable moments. Buildings 
and foliage usually get the most satisfactory light 
during the late afternoon when the sun's rays are 
so slanted as to cause an interesting variety of 
shade and shadow, but there are of course excep- 
tions to this, a great deal depending on the location 
of the building in relation to the points of the com- 
pass. Many architects fail when designing build- 
ings to give sufficient attention to the fact that a 
design which will appear well when turned at a 
certain angle with the sun or other source of illumi- 
nation, may be much less effective placed in some 
other position. It is not enough to make instru- 
mental studies of buildings, with shadows cast in 
the usual 45 degree manner, but in addition the 
designer should consider how the structure will 

appear under the vertical rays of the sun at mid- 
day or the slanting rays of early morning or late 
afternoon, and should, in many cases, make special 
studies with the shadows shown as they would exist 
in the completed building. The author has in mind 
one particular public building which was most 
attractive in the preliminary drawings, with its 
shadows cast in the conventional manner. Unfortu- 
nately the building is so situated that for months 
at a time the sun seldom shines on the main facade 
and in the evening this faqade is especially unin- 
teresting when the bright light from the street 
lamps entirely eliminates the cornice shadows. Ob- 
viously it is impossible to foresee and prevent all 
such unpleasant appearances, but the student who 
has learned to study and observe light effects and 
has drawn much from nature will find the knowl- 
edge gained from this work of great assistance to 
him if he is called upon to do original work in 
design, both in avoiding such unpleasant results 
as we have mentioned and in making the greatest 
use of the lighting conditions as they exist. Such 
knowledge is of great importance, too, when one 
is called upon to make renderings of proposed 
buildings or sketches from memory or the imagi- 

Do not for a moment think that it is our inten- 
tion to condemn the practice of casting shadows 
on elevations in the conventional 45-degree man- 
ner, for that is not the case, as even the student of 
freehand drawing can gain considerable knowledge 
useful in sketching through a course in shades and 
shadows. What we do wish to make clear is that 
the draftsman or designer who studies light and 
shade directly from nature does not allow himself 
to be handicapped by the man-made rules govern- 
ing shades and shadows, but supplements these 
with his knowledge of nature's own laws, and so 
applies them all with far greater intelligence. We are 
told, for example, when studying the architectural 
subject of shades and shadows, that those surfaces 
in a building which are turned most directly 
towards the source of light will usually appear, all 
other things being equal, the brightest. From this 
one might judge that a shingled roof receiving di- 
rect rays of light from the sun would appear very 
bright, and in fact it often does. Not infrequent- 
ly, however, such a roof seems very dark under 
these conditions, even though the wood of the 
shingles be light in color, this appearance being 
largely due to the fact that the horizontal lines of 
the butts of the shingles, which 'are so turned as 
to receive little light and are also, beer use of the 
nature of their grain, often dark, show so black and 
are so conspicuous as to deepen and darken the 
effect of the otherwise light tone. The rule is 
worth remembering, however, in spite of such ex- 
ceptions, as is also the rule that the darkest, sharp- 
est shadows are cast by the edges of the surfaces re- 
ceiving the most direct light. It naturally follows that 
surfaces so turned as to receive the light rays in a 
slantwise direction will be less bright than those re- 
ceiving the direct rays. It is true, too, that a shiny 
surface generally appears brighter than a dull surface 
of the same actual value and sometimes even a black 
shiny surface will reflect some light tone and so 











Figure 23. Illustrating Different Value Schemes for the Same Subject. 



appear practically white. There are exceptions to 
this for a shiny, light surface may reflect some very 
dark tone and thus appear nearly black, and like- 
wise a smooth gray surface may appear either lighter 
or darker than it really is. In other words glossy 
surfaces change in appearance with changes of light 
to a much greater extent than dull surfaces. Even 
light, dull surfaces, however, often throw much 
brilliancy onto other objects and white concrete 
walks or terraces or driveways sometimes reflect 
enough light upon adjacent buildings to materially 
affect their appearance, as such lights soften the 
shadow tone or even cast shadows themselves. 

While we might go on with such general hints as 
these it is hardly worth while, for it is only by 
observing nature at first hand that the student can 
gain much knowledge of real value. One excellent 
way of studying constantly changing effects of light 
on a building is by making a series of snapshots 
from some one fixed point at intervals during a 
clear day and comparing them wHi care. Such 
photographs reveal much of interest and value to 
the observing student, especially if the building 
chosen be rather small. It might be well to make 
sketches from these pho'ographs as this would help 
to fix the idens in the mind, or, if the student has 
sufficient ability or training to sketch rapidly di- 
rectly from the building, he can possibly learn more 
by making a series of sketches instead of the snap- 

We have spoken of the fact that it is sometimes 
possible to make an effective drawing by the use 
of shadows only and sometimes by suggesting the 

building materials alone, but it is more often neces- 
sary to represent both the material and the shadows 
in order to obtain a satisfactory drawing. It is not 
always easy, though, to decide just how much of 
each should be shown, especially when working 
from the imagination as the architect is often called 
upon to do. This can, perhaps, best be determined 
by making several rough studies on tracing paper 
directly over the outline drawing or by making two 
or three small sketches similar to those shown in 
Figure 23. These eight sketches illustrate the fact 
that it is often possible to get many fairly satisfac- 
tory compositions of the same subject, but there 
are usually one or two which are better than the 
others, 'and one of these should be selected as a 
guide for the final larger renderings. It is suggested 
that the student make several similar small sketches 
of some object from memory or the imagination as 
practice in composition, and it is well to remember 
too, that in making drawings from the photograph 
it is often helpful to try similar studies on tracing 
paper directly over the photograph, to determine 
how much to omit and how best to compose that 
which it seems essential to show. 

It may be well to repeat here that the only way 
to learn to draw is by constant practice. Reading 
a dozen books on drawing might give the student 
many ideas, but unless such suggestions are carried 
out they are useless. If you bck the inspiration to 
draw by yourself, it would be well to join some 
sketching class or engage a critic to help you with 
your work. 

Chapter V. 

MANY draftsmen and students easily acquire 
the ability to satisfactorily represent small de- 
tails of buildings like bricks and shingles and 
even such larger parts as doors and windows, but the 
skill to compose these lesser units into a complete 
and well-balanced whole is not so easily gained. And 
yet the student who is unable to pleasingly arrange 
all the smaller parts into a fine composition is seri- 
ously handicapped, regardless of his cleverness in 
sketching each single detail, so though it may prove 
a difficult task it will pay him well to earnestly 
attempt to master the art of composition. Even 
though it is only through serious study and faithful 
practice that the necessary principles can be acquired, 
once they are understood it will be found that they 
apply equally well whether a drawing be large or 
small and whether it is hastily sketched or executed 
with painstaking care. The principles are valuable 
also when using other mediums than pencil, such as 
pen and ink or wash or color. 

It seems hardly necessary to give here more than a 
brief outline of the most important of these principles, 
and a few hints as to what to do and what not 
to do, but these suggestions should be supple- 
mented by reading books on the subject such as 
"Pictorial Composition," by H. R. Poore, A. N. 
A., "Composition," by Arthur Wesley Dow, and 
the chapter on composition in John Ruskin's 
"The Elements of Drawing." A study of such 
books will show a difference in opinion on some 
points, for composition is an art rather than a 
science, and it is impossible to lay down exact 
rules as to what should or should not be done. 
Perhaps the greatest value of such works is that 
they point out many pitfalls which lie in the path 
of the artist, and by analysis of the pictures of 
acknowledged masters, give the student a cer- 
tain standard by which he is able to judge and 
criticise his own work. Though the study of 
books is very desirable, one should never forget 
that drawing cannot be taught by rule, and a 
hundred lengthy volumes could do no more than 
start one in the right direction and offer sugges- 
tions to assist him in his progress. 

As the word "composition" means the putting 
together of things and the arranging of them in 
order, so as to make one unit out of them all, it 
is evident that we must first have good things to 
put together if the final composition is to be 
good. This means that in starting work we should 
use extreme care in the selection of our subject, 
not only as a whole but in each of its parts. Stu- 
dents, more especially the beginners, seem to be 
of the opinion that any object found in nature 

is a satisfactory subject to draw, and they are 
led into this belief, perhaps, by hearing state- 
ments to the effect that all nature is beautiful. 
It is not for us to deny this but it should be 
made clear that good pictures are not to be ob- 
tained ready-made by simply copying bits of 
nature at random. Amateur photographers are 
well acquainted with the fact that a successful 
photograph is not often secured by simply point- 
ing the camera in any direction and making an 
exposure ; it is necessary to give some thought 
to the selection and composition of the subject. 
Experienced artists often do produce good draw- 
ings by re-composing poor material, but the stu- 
dent will avoid difficulties if he chooses either 
something which is well composed in itself or 
which can be made so with few changes. 

We have previously spoken of the advantage 
of using a view-finder when selecting composi- 
tions and wish to call attention again to its value. 
Of the several types in general use one which 
we have already described as consisting simply 
of a rectangular opening two inches or so in 
length cut in a piece of heavy paper or card- 
board, is especially helpful when working direct- 
ly from nature. By holding it in an upright posi- 
tion and looking through it at the objects be- 
yond, it is very easy to select interesting sub- 
jects and to determine, too, how large an area 
or how much of an object or objects it is best to 
show to give the finest composition. Again it 
has another use, for if the student is in doubt as 
to just what slope should be given to a roof line 
or slanting tree trunk, a comparison of these 
inclined lines in the objects with the vertical or 
horizontal lines of the opening of the finder will 
be of great assistance in determining the correct 
slope or angle. The finder will help the student, 
also, to judge correctly the values of light and 
dark as seen in nature, for each tone of the objects 
can be compared in turn with the value of the 
cardboard itself. 

The other commonly used finder or frame con- 
sists of two "L" shaped pieces of paper or card, 
which will give, when lapped as shown at 1, 
Figure 24, an endless variety of shapes and sizes, 
and it is, for this reason, much better than the 
other finder when working from photographs. 
As soon as a pleasing composition has been se- 
lected this frame can be clipped or pinned in posi- 
tion on the photograph and left in place until 
the drawing is finished. It thus serves to hide 
those parts which have no relation to the sketch 
and permits the eye to rest on the selected com- 
position without distraction. 



I 'I. I 1 I 1 



J.j.. e. 

Figure 24. Illustrating the Use of the View-finder, and the Proportioning 
of the Picture Space to the Subject Drawn. 



Figure 25. Illustrating Possibilities of Deriving Inspiration from Photographs. These Sketches Were 
All Based on the Photograph Shown on the Opposite Page. 



Some art students carry a view-finder of the 
kind first described with them constantly and 
gain a great deal of pleasure and useful knowl- 
edge of composition by studying different ob- 
jects through its opening. In making one, cut 
several spaces through your card instead of one, 
if you prefer, of various shapes and sizes. They 
need not be large as the card can be held near the 
eye ; in fact two or three small openings or a 
single large one can be made in a finder of postal 
card size. Sometimes threads are fastened across 
the openings from side to side and from top to 
bottom in such a way as to divide them into a 
number of smaller rectangles or squares. Those 
who have preference for this finder feel that it 
lessens the difficulty of laying out correct pro- 
portions when drawing from nature, just as in 
copying a photograph or enlarging a sketch the 
work is simplified when the print or sketch is 
marked off into squares or rectangles. 

Several excellent compositions can often be 
found for the same object or objects when viewed 
from one point, by snowing more or less of the 
surroundings, just as a number of satisfactory 
photographs can be secured. Naturally, too, an 
infinite variety of compositions of any archi- 
tectural object can be discovered by studying it 
from various positions and under different light- 
ing conditions. When working from the photo- 
graph several excellent sketches can sometimes 
be made from different portions of one print, es- 
pecially if the picture is a street scene or a gen- 
eral view similar to that of the Wye Bridge and 

Cathedral, published below on this page. It 
is easy to frame a number of attractive compo- 
sitions on this photograph and it would be to 
the student's advantage to do so. Figure 25 shows 
three sketches drawn from this very picture. 

It will be noticed that no attempt has been 
made to slavishly copy the values and details 
exactly as they appear on the print, for it is sel- 
dom wise to do this, but the general effect is 
indicated in a broad, simple way. There is per- 
haps no better manner of learning composition 
than by making such selections with the finder 
and also such sketches as we have shown here. For 
this reason the following exercises are offered 
to fix in the memory the ideas which we are con- 

First of all, obtain several photographs such 
as street scenes or general views, each showing 
a number of objects which might make pleasing 
sketches, and with the finder frame on one of 
your prints some selection which seems to com- 
pose well, remembering that each composition 
should have a center of interest. Remember, too, 
that there should always be a pleasing relation 
between the shape of the picture space or margin 
line and the subject itself. If, for example, a very 
tall building such as a skyscraper or church 
spire has been chosen, it is as a rule best to draw 
it on paper placed vertically or to frame it in a 
vertical picture space, whereas a long horizontal 
building or mass of buildings can usually be rep- 
resented to the best advantage when enclosed 
in a horizontal manner. This has been illus- 

Courtesy of Pratt Institute 

Photograph of the Wye Bridge and Cathedral. Three Sketches Drawn from this Photograph 

are Shown in Figure 25. 



trated in Figure 24. The English cottage shown 
at "1" at the top of the sheet, seemed, when 
viewed in connection with the nearby trees, 
to demand a horizontal treatment, while the 
church tower at "2" suggested at once a vertical 
handling. A group of buildings such as that 
shown at "3" usually calls for a horizontal space, 
for if the horizontal masses are more prominent 
than the vertical the fact must be recognized and 
expressed. Thus the church at "4" is given a 
long, low, frame, but if its tower alone was to 
be shown the contrary treatment would be more 
appropriate. As a general rule it is well not to 
use circular or oval or triangular frames or mar- 
gin lines on architectural drawings as such shapes 
often have little or no relation to the form of the 
architecture itself. A square shape might be well 
related in this respect and therefore might some- 
times do, but from an artistic standpoint a square 
is usually less interesting than any other rec- 
tangle. It is even true that certain rectangles 
are more pleasing than others. One with a length 
just twice its width is not as desirable, for in- 
stance, as another which is one and one-half times 
as long as it is wide, while even this proportion 
is less subtle and hence less satisfying to the 
eye than one about three parts wide and five long. 

While discussing margin lines it might be well 
to mention that the line itself should never be 
so black as to draw the eye away from the sub- 
ject. The width and tone of line should vary in 
different drawings so as to always be in harmony 
with the sketch. Again, attention should be 
called to the fact that sketches in some cases 
are carried way to the margin lines while in 
others they are allowed to fade gradually into 
the paper, or "vignetted" as it is called. In either 
of these cases if the exterior of a building is be- 
ing drawn it will be found that the margin lines 
need not be far from the building itself, with the 
exception, perhaps, of the line at the top, as all 
spaces will appear much greater after they are 
rendered than before, for such surroundings as 
are generally used add a sense of distance. If 
too much space is left in such drawings the land- 
scape and accessories may easily become too 
prominent in relation to the architecture. 

When a selection has been decided upon and 
framed to a good proportion, fasten the finder 
to the photograph and then on very thin tracing 
paper with a soft pencil make a simple tracing, 
not in outline alone but in values, trying to give 
the effect of the whole in a direct and simple 
manner, with sufficient accent at the center of 
interest. Do not spend more than five minutes 
on the sketch and then frame the same object in 
a slightly different way and make a second trac- 
ing. Compare the two. If one is better than 
the other, why ? Is it because you have shown 
more foreground or sky, or because the frame 
has been kept of a size or shape better suited 
to the leading objects? Ask yourself such ques- 
tions and then make perhaps a third and even 
a fourth sketch, comparing them all with care, 
and if one seems better than the others, make a 
larger and more carefully finished drawing using 

this last sketch as the basis of your composition. 
Next try to find some entirely different composi- 
tion in the same photograph, using a new sub- 
ject, and make another series of quick sketches 
or tracings, and again compare them and analyse 
each, trying always to learn by this comparison 
why one composition is good and another not. 
Select a different photograph and repeat the proc- 
ess, or, if you feel that you have the ability to 
work in a similar way from nature, do so, choos- 
ing a comparatively simple subject so that each 
sketch can be done in a few minutes. 

One will encounter more difficulty when work- 
ing from nature, for whereas on the photographs 
the forms and values remain constant, in nature 
the values are always changing and the forms 
more difficult to represent. We have previously 
had occasion to mention that subjects which are 
full of interest and good in composition during 
some hours are entirely different under changed 
lighting conditions, and buildings which appear 
to good advantage at certain times of day are 
much less pleasing at others. This is largely be- 
cause the areas of shade and shadow are never 
the same for long. Part of the time they nicely 
balance one another so that the lights and darks 
are all well related. At other times too much 
light or too much dark appears at one side or 
above or below, thus destroying the restful effect. 
At some hours, too, there may be patches of 
shade or shadow so odd in shape as to prove dis- 
tracting. It is therefore well to do your sketch- 
ing during favorable moments, if this is possible, 
returning, if necessary, to the same subject at 
the same hour during a number of days in suc- 
cession until the study is completed. 

If a subject which is otherwise good in compo- 
sition exhibits a few unpleasant features, either 
in nature or in the photograph, it is perfectly 
legitimate to take certain liberties with them, if 
by so doing the drawing can be improved with- 
out sacrificing the truth of the main idea. Should 
a tree, for example, seem a bit too small in re- 
lation to a building, or too light or dark in value, 
or should some shadow be too dense and black 
or form a displeasing mass, it is permissible to 
make such changes as seem necessary to improve 
the composition providing the final result repre- 
sents a condition which might be possible under 
slightly different circumstances, without the break- 
ing of any of nature's laws. 

In landscape painting and decorative drawing 
more such liberties are taken, however, than are 
permissible in most architectural sketching or 
rendering, for architecture must as a rule be truth- 
fully portrayed, the changes to better the compo- 
sition being made for the most part in foliage, 
shadows, and the like. To illustrate this matter of 
changes, we have shown in Figure 25, Sketch 2, 
the dark boat in exactly the same position as on the 
photograph. This spacing is not wholly satisfactory 
as the boat seems isolated in the center of the 
sheet, attracting by its placement more than its 
proper share of attention. In such a case as this 
it would be better to improve the composition by 
moving the boat to the right or the left or it might 



be tied into the scheme by the addition of extra 
lines or tones. Amendments like this are always 
advisable, and it is also wise to omit from a sketch 
such objects as have little or no relation to the sub- 
ject itself-, and which, for this reason, detract from 
the main idea which the drawing is intended to 
express. This means that we must observe the 
"Principle of Unity," which requires that a compo- 
sition must be a homogeneous whole, all its parts 
related and so thoroughly merged and blended to- 
gether that they become a single unit. In order to 
secure unity in a drawing only as much of the 
material before us is selected as relates directly to 
the subject of the sketch. Separate your subject 
from everything else that is visible, and think of 
it as a single harmonious whole. This rule applies 
whether your subject be an entire building, or some 
portion such as a dormer window or some still 
smaller detail, a door knocker, for example. Once 
you have determined which of the ideas are to be 
rejected as irrelevant, you must decide on the rela- 
tive importance of those which have been accepted 
as essential, for unity in a drawing depends not 
only on the selection or rejection of material but 
on its emphasis or subordination as well, for unless 
each detail is given just the amount of attention 
that is proportionate to its importance, the compo- 
sition will not count as a complete and satisfactory 
unit. Failure to give sufficient emphasis or accent 
to the leading parts of a drawing causes a loss of 
force to the entire composition and in the same 
way neglect to properly subordinate the unimpor- 
tant parts leads to confusion and complication. 

To further illustrate this principle of unity let 
us consider some simple objects found in everyday 
use. An ink-bottle, a turnip and a vase of roses 
might be arranged into a pleasing composition so 
far as variety of form and size and value are con- 
cerned, but unity would always be lacking in sucli 
a group for these objects are not sufficiently well 
related by use to ever become a satisfying single 
whole. It would be equally difficult to compose a 
coal scuttle, a hair brush and a cut glass pitcher, 
but a comparatively simple matter to form an ex- 
cellent composition of a loaf of bread partly sliced, 
with knife, plate, etc., or of a garden trowel, flower 
pot and package of seeds. Fortunately nearly all 
objects of an architectural nature are so closely 
related that little difficulty is experienced in find- 
ing things which go well together, so the delineator 
of architecture has much less trouble in this respect 
than does the painter of still life. Unity in archi- 
tectural work is often injured, however, because 
certain accessories a-e too important in relation to 
the architecture itself. It is not inappropriate to 
show an automobile at the curb before a Colonial 
doorway, but if it is indicated so large in size or 
made so conspicuous in any manner that it detracts 
from the doorway it then prevents a perfect unity 
in the sketch. It is mainly for this reason that in 
rendering architectural drawings such accessories are 
often left in what sometimes seems to the beginner an 
unfinished state. Trees are shown in a conventional 
and inconspicuous manner, clouds are often either 
omitted or only lightly indicated and shadows are 

simplified- This brings us to a discussion of the 
"Principle of Balance" which is so closely related 
to the principle of unity as to be really a part of it ; 
in fact without balance there can be no unity, for 
by balance we mean, as the name implies, the 
equilibrium or restfulness that results from having 
all the parts of a composition so arranged that each 
receives just its correct share of attention. Every 
part of a picture has a certain attractive force which 
acts upon the eye and in proportion to its own 
power to attract it detracts from every other part. 
If we find our interest in a drawing divided between 
several parts, if certain tones or lines seem too in- 
sistent or prominent, we know that the composi- 
tion is lacking in balance and likewise lacking in 
unity as well. It is impossible to give concise and 
definite rules for obtaining balance in drawings, 
mainly for the reason that the attractive force of 
each portion of a drawing depends on an infinite 
number of circumstances which are variable. A 
short, straight line drawn near the center of a clean 
sheet of paper has a power to catch and hold the 
eye. Let a figure "6" or some other curved line 
be drawn near the straight one and even though 
they are of equal size the curved line will prove the 
more powerful attraction of the two. In the same 
way a star-shaped form or a triangle has more 
strength to attract than a square or rectangle of 
like area. This power depends not entirely on 
shape, however, but on the value of light and dark 
as well. Draw two squares on paper, side by side, 
the one dark and the other light and if the paper is 
white the dark square will exert the strongest force 
but if the paper is black the white square will jump 
into prominence. Again, the attractive power of 
an object varies in proportion to its proximity to 
other objects. If, for example, a man is shown 
at small scale in a standing or sitting position near 
the center of the sheet he will receive considerable 
attention if by himself, but if surrounded by other 
objects he will seem much less noticeable. Then, 
top, a moving object or one which suggests motion, 
will be more prominent than a similar object in 
repose. Let a man be shown running and he is 
seen far more quickly than if he is at rest. Objects 
near the edges of the sheet or in the corners usually 
arrest the eye more quickly, too, than they would 
if near the middle of the paper. 

These examples are sufficient to show the diffi- 
culty of attempting to give definite directions for 
obtaining good balance. The best suggestion we can 
offer is that the student make first of all, as soon 
as a drawing has been blocked out in its main pro- 
portions, a preliminary sketch such as we have de- 
scribed. A painter is able to make many corrections 
in his work as he progresses, until excellent balance 
in every part is gained, but in pencil sketching, 
where the nature of the medium and the limitation 
of time demand that the work be done very directly 
and with few changes, it is difficult to make well 
balanced drawings unless the artist or student has 
had considerable practice or unless preliminary 
studies are made. Almost invariably such studies 
save time and give results in the end that more than 
justify the labor spent on their preparation. Then, 



Figure 26. Illustrating Some of the Principles of Composition in Examples of Various Character. 



by way of additional precaution, as the final sketch 
progresses set it away from you at intervals or 
turn i upside down or on end or even reflect it 
in a mirror so as to see it in a reversed or changed 
position. When so viewed the balance should still 
be good, and if not the necessary adjustments should 
be made. If some part seems too prominent either 
tone it down or accent other parts until balance is 

These principles of unity and balance which we 
have described all too briefly are most important 
as they apply to all forms of drawing and design, 
but we must leave them to offer a few suggestions 
which relate especially to architectural work. 

First of all, in making drawings of architecture 
strive for an effect of restfulness and repose. A 
painter of birds and animals or of marine views 
often desires an appearance of motion, but care 
must be taken not to suggest much movement when 
drawing architecture, for each building should look 
permanent and solid and should appear to rest firmly 
on the ground. Avoid, therefore, any effect of 
violent wind or of speeding automobiles or hurry- 
ing people. If persons are indicated it is well to 
have them walking quietly into the picture or ap- 
proaching the center of interest, for if they are 
shown walking away from the center towards the 
margin line the eye follows them and the balance 
is thus disturbed. There are, of course, exceptions 
to this. If many people are shown, as in a street 
scene, they may be represented as going in all di- 
rections, for the sense of motion in one direction 
will be offset by that in the other. Figures of any 
sort greatly injure a drawing, however, unless they 
are well drawn and naturally arranged into effec- 
tive groups, and so should either be omitted entirely 
or represented well. 

Figure 26 is designed to show certain displeasing 
effects often found in architectural drawings, which 
it is best to try to avoid. A reference to Diagram 
1 will disclose that the foremost corner of the house 
is equi-distant from the two end margin lines. It 
is seldom advisable to place a building in this posi- 
tion, a possible exception being a tower which is 
absolutely symmetrical. Diagram 3 illustrates the 
same point, while Diagram 5 applies the idea to 
an interior, and in both of these the effect is some- 
what unpleasant. Do not, then, divide the picture 
space into two equal parts by having some impor- 
tant line directly in the center. Look again at Dia- 
grams 1, 3 and 5 and you will find that the horizon 
line or eye level towards which all the receding 
horizontal lines seem to vanish is just one-half way 
from top to bottom of the picture space, and this 
division is unsatisfactory, too, and better results 
are obtained when the horizon or eye level is either 
above or below the center of the sheet. In the same 
way the sketch of the bridge at 3, Figure 25, would 
be better if the top line of the bridge was not so 
near the center, for here the picture space is also 

divided into two nearly equal parts by this line. 
Again, it is usually well to avoid many opposing 
lines of the same slant or angle, for variety is al- 
ways desirable. In Diagram 1 the lines at A, B, C 
and D are all of equal pitch. This leads to monot- 
ony. The same fault is found in 3 and 5. It is 
better to so place the building on the sheet as to 
avoid these difficulties and Diagrams 2. 4 and 6 
are better in placing than 1, 3 and 5. Diagram 3 
has other faults. First the perspective is so violent 
that the building has the unstable effect of resting 
on its lower corner, and the crossed lines of the 
streets form too conspicuous a pattern with a tend- 
ency to draw the eye away from the building 
towards points A and B. Diagram 4 has a more 
pleasing variety of masses and the interest plainly 
centers in the main building. Diagram 5 shows a 
fault in that the two visible wall surfaces are equal 
in size and shape, as are also the ceiling and floor, 
and here, too, there is no real center of focus, for 
the eye jumps back and forth between A and B. 
Diagram 6 is better, for the interest undoubtedly 
centers at A, and even though there is an impor- 
tant mass at B it is toned down so as to seem un- 
important. The floor, too, has been made larger in 
mass than the ceiling, but the advantage thus gained 
is largely lost, for the rug is unfortunately of the 
same size on the drawing as the visible portion of 
the ceiling, so that this sketch could be still further 
improved by adding either more rug or more ceil- 
ing. Diagram 7 shows that when a room is so 
turned that we are looking directly at one of its 
walls or is placed in "parallel perspective" as this 
is called, similar faults may develop. Here the 
main surfaces are all monotonous, the interest is 
divided and the drawing made still more unpleasant 
because the receding lines exactly meet the margin 
lines at the corners. At 8 an attempt has been made 
to avoid some of the difficulties of Diagram 7. 

The little sketch of the dormer is shown to illus- 
trate an important matter of composition. When 
drawing small details care must always be taken 
that they do not seem to be merely suspended in the 
air. They should appear instead to be attached to 
a solid background or support, and one of the best 
means of giving this impression is by allowing each 
sketch to fade out gradually into the sheet, show- 
ing enough of the adjacent surroundings to give the 
whole a sense of stability and strength. 

If at all essential, we might go on with many 
suggestions on composition similar to these which 
we have given, but if the student is interested and 
really serious he will take the time to obtain addi- 
tional ideas from such books as we have recom- 
mended. The student is urged to make drawings 
of his own to illustrate and make clear in his mind 
any of the principles he acquires, for unless he does 
so it is probable that many of them will be soon 

! ; ! 



. . 






Chapter VI. 

CAREFUL observation and study of objects in 
nature, as well as those contrived by man, 
will reveal one fact of the greatest value to 
the student of drawing, and this is that although 
not a little of the beauty of such objects depends 
on color, on profile and on the proportions of the 
various parts into which they are divided, more 
of it than we usually suppose is caused by the 
varying light and shade and especially by the 
gradation of tones from light to dark or from 
dark to light. 

There are, to be sure, some objects which 
seem to have no gradation of tone, each surface 
being apparently of one value throughout, but 
in spite of such exceptions there are far more 
"graded" tones in nature than "flat" tones of 
uniform appearance, and it is certainly true that 
a graded tone has more interest and variety than 
one of exactly the same value in every part. 

It naturally follows that in representing nature 
by drawings, graded tones usually prove of 
greater value to the artist than do those which 
are flat. Almost any object can be represented 
satisfactorily by graded tones, whereas many 
objects, especially those which are rounded or 
curved, cannot be made to appear correct if flat 
tones alone are used. We can, for example, make 
a pleasing drawing of a square box, and, if we 
wish, have every tone graded. It is impossible, 
on the other hand, to nicely represent a sphere 
or an object of spherical form by the use of flat 
tones only, unless we resort to a succession of 
small adjacent flat tones, each slightly different 
in value from its neighbor, and such a combina- 
tion really is, after all, a graded tone. If we try 
to portray a sphere by drawing its outline as at 
"1," Figure 27, we fail to give our picture any 
effect of convexity of form, and shading the en- 
tire circle with a flat tone as at "2" gives no bet- 
ter result. It is only when we copy as well as 
we can the gradations found on such surfaces 
in nature, as we have done at "3," that we ap- 
proach the desired effect. In fact we would not 
even recognize a sphere when placed before us 
were it not for this subtle grading of its surface 
tones, for without these gradations it would ap- 
pear simply as a flat circular disk. In the case 
of the cylinder and cone and similar rounded 
forms it is perhaps a bit less difficult to suggest 
their shapes on paper without recourse to graded 
tones providing they are drawn in perspective, 
for when so drawn their forms can be fairly well 
indicated even in outline. If a real feeling of 
solidity and roundness is desired, however, it can 
best be obtained by the use of graded tones. If 

such objects are shown in elevation, instead of 
perspective, it will be found that these tones are 
absolutely essential for their successful repre- 
sentation. Take for example the cylinder which 
is shown in elevation at "4," Figure 27, drawn in 
outline only. In this form it appears as a 
rectangle and seems flat. A smooth tone added 
as at "5" is of no help, and it is only when we use 
the grades as at "6" that we get the real appear- 
ance of roundness. 

Now just as the surfaces of cylinders and 
spheres and such geometric forms depend largely 
on gradation of tone for a pleasing effect, so, in 
architecture too, much of the beauty of the mould- 
ings and ornament depends on similar gradations. 
After all, the mouldings are mainly combinations 
of curved surfaces, and if these curves are pleas- 
ingly designed the light and dark will be graded 
in a satisfactory manner. In fact these gradations 
on mouldings so nicely express the profiles which 
cause them that we are often able to judge the 
curve of each moulding at a glance even though 
its profile is not visible. If the light is favorable 
we are usually able to name every member com- 
posing a cornice and tell its exact form without 
once seeing its true profile. One of the main 
reasons why a designer works so hard to produce 
a good profile for a cornice or similar group 
of mouldings is that he is seeking the most pleas- 
ing arrangement of light and shade and shadow 
possible, and knows that an excellent profile is 
important, not as a thing in itself, for it is seen 
in its true form only at the corners or breaks in 
a building, but as a means of obtaining the most 
satisfactory results in light and shade. A poor 
profile usually means a poor cornice. 

At "7," "8," "9" and "10," Figure 27, are four 
sketches of typical architectural mouldings, 
drawn in elevation, and with their tones graded. 
For convenience their profiles have been shown 
but even if these had been omitted it would not 
be difficult to visualize the correct curves. It 
should be borne in mind, however, that without 
the use of graded tones it would be impossible 
to produce such effects of curvature. 

Now just as it is necessary to use graded tones 
for a truthful expression of the curved surfaces 
of mouldings, they are obviously needed also in 
the representation of other rounded surfaces such 
as those which we so often find in ornamental 
work. Most ornament, in fact, consists so largely 
of curved surfaces of every possible shape that it 
would be very difficult to represent it on paper 
without the use of some graded tones. At "11," 
Figure 27, is a drawing of a rosette, nearly every 




surface of which is curved, and therefore repre- 
~sented by grades of light and dark. Certainly an 
object of such gradual curvature as this can be 
successfully portrayed only by equally subtle 
gradations of its values. 

Balusters, columns, archways, round towers and 
all sorts of similar architectural objects and de- 
tails require a certain amount of graded shading. 
At ."12" and "13," Figure 27, a baluster and a 
capital are shown. Even though drawn in eleva- 
tion the rounded effect is very evident. Had they 
been done in perspective less care would have 
been needed in the shading to express roundness, 
but for architectural purposes it is often neces- 
sary to work in elevation and therefore these 
sketches have been done in that manner to prove 
that it is not essential to show objects in perspec- 
tive when a feeling of projection and curvature is 

In order to illustrate the points under discus- 
sion in the clearest possible manner the draw- 
ings on Figure 27 have been done with very 
evenly graded tones, for by this means the values 
as found on the objects themselves could be 
more accurately represented than by the use of 
tones built up of separate lines. As a general 
rule, however, such smooth tones are not needed, 
for much the same effect can be arrived at by 
forming them of lines just touching, in the usual 
manner, and the result is less mechanical or 
photographical and hence more desirable. At 
"14" a few suggestions are offered for the forma- 
tion of graded tones by individual strokes. (It is 
suggested that the student make a few drawings 
similar to these on this plate, trying some with 
the smooth tone and others with a more sketchy 

It should be remembered that although the 
exact form which the gradation of a tone takes 
depends largely on the curve of the surface, it 
really owes its effect to the light which causes 
it to be visible. If we had no light the most 
perfect mouldings would be lost in darkness 
if we have too much light their beauty is often 
destroyed. The author has in mind a certain 
coffered ceiling of unusual beauty. After this 
ceiling had been in existence a number of years 
and had been much admired, it was decided to 
install a new indirect lighting system in the room, 
and this was done. The system was so arranged 
that the light was uniformly distributed over the 
ceiling in such a way that nearly all of the shade 
and shadow was destroyed. The lighting en- 
gineers pronounced the job a perfect one, but 
from an artistic standpoint the effect of the ceil- 
ing was ruined ; the mouldings and detail were 
barely visible while the few shadows that re- 
mained took weird and grotesque shapes of a 
most bewtldering nature. In this case too much 
light, or rather light distributed in too uniform 
a manner, destroyed the effect. This all goes to 
prove that even a beautiful curve may lose much 
of its value through unfavorable lighting, and it 
shows also that the gradation of tone on any given 
moulding or curve varies with changes in light. 
Spheres and cylinders, for example, do not ap- 

pear the same at all times and hence cannot al- 
ways be represented in the same way. It should 
be remembered, too, that the gradation of tone 
on any given form, take a cylinder for example, 
depends not a little on the nature of the material 
of which the object is made. A study of a num- 
ber of cylinders of equal size and of various ma- 
terials such as wood, plaster, polished white mar- 
ble, sandstone, red granite, brass, silver, etc., will 
reveal, even under the same conditions, a surpris- 
ing difference in the values and the method of 
gradation of the tones. Those cylinders with 
highly polished surfaces will show a greater com- 
plication of values and much sharper and more 
sudden contrasts, as a rule, mainly because their 
surfaces serve as curved mirrors to reflect dis- 
torted images of other objects. Such surfaces 
usually have brilliant highlights in spots while 
those of the wood or plaster or other dull appear- 
ing objects will not only lack these highlights 
but will show throughout a more simple and 
gradual change in tone. It is because of such 
conditions as these that there can be no definite 
rules given as to just how such objects should 
be represented. Observation and study will give 
the student the desired knowledge. 

We have, up to this point, spoken mainly of 
graded tones as found on curved surfaces, yet it 
should be realized that smooth flat surfaces often, 
appear to grade from one part to another. Prove 
this to yourself by observing objects around you. 
It is especially true that on surfaces indoors, where 
the light is frequently coming from a number 
of sources and is all more or less diffused, we 
find many tones which are graded. A ceiling, 
for instance, often appears light at one side and 
dark at the other, but it is in the shadow tones 
especially that we find a great amount of grad- 
ation. As a rule the shadows of objects indoors 
seem the darkest and have the sharpest edges 
near the object casting them. A chair leg, for 
example, usually casts a dark shadow where it 
touches the floor, but this shadow softens as it 
gets farther from the leg and soon disappears. 
The little sketch of the pencil touching the paper 
at "1," Figure 28, was made to illustrate this 
point, the shadow being the darkest at "A," 
softening as the light becomes more diffused to- 
wards "B." In brilliant light, such as bright 
sunshine, the opposite effect is often found. Let 
an object project from the wall like the little 
cornice shown at "4" and the lower edge of the 
shadow as at "B" frequently seems sharper and 
darker than the edge nearer the object as at "A." 
Such an effect is as a rule only an optical illusion 
for unless there is something to cause a strong 
reflection of light into the upper portion of the 
shadow the tone is usually of equal value 
throughout. The effect of darkness towards the 
lower edge is due to the fact that sunlight is so 
extremely brilliant that when it falls on a light 
wall or similar surface it produces a value so 
bright that it is impossible for us to correctly 
represent it on paper, and so when a shadow tone 
cast by some object similar to the cornice at 
"4" falls on this bright surface the tone appears, 




10 ^ 

A- c 

fffltt WIB! 

Figure 28. Some Applications of Graded Tones. 










in its relation to the bright surface, darker than 
it really is. A shadow may be a medium gray 
if compared with black but if its lower edge is 
thrown into sudden and sharp contrast with ex- 
tremely brilliant light it often seems actually 
black. In drawing shadows, therefore, there is 
a legitimate reason for such a gradation as we 
have shown in the sketch "4," as this method 
causes the white of the paper to appear brighter 
than it otherwise would, and therefore to more 
correctly represent the sunlit surface. The ligh'.er 
shadow tone above also gains, by this gradation, a 
quality of depth and transparency. 

There is another use for graded tones which 
is of the greatest importance and this is to so 
employ them as to give a sense of distance and 
of detachment or separation of one object from 
another. We can perhaps best explain this by 
reference to sketches "5," "6" and "7," Figure 28. 
Objects in nature, even when they are of the 
same value, can usually be easily distinguished 
one from another because of differences of color 
or by their motion or in a number of other ways. 
In photographs, such objects, if (he values of 
light and shade are the same or nearly the same, 
often seem lost or indistinct. Sketch "5," made 
from a photograph, shows at "A" just the condi- 
tion which we describe ; the roof tone and wall 
tone lack detachment it is hard to distinguish 
one from the other. In sketch "6" this same wall 
tone has been graded back to light from dark 
and at "A" the roof has been darkened. The re- 
sult gives us a much greater feeling of separation 
the roof seems to come nearer to us and the 
wall tends to recede as it should. The edge 
at "B" still appears just as sharp as it did before 
the wall was lightened towards "A," in just the 
same way that edge "C" in diagram "3" seems 
as sharp or even sharper than the same edge in 
diagram "2" (because in "2" the edge "D" detracts 
from "C" to a greater extent than it does in "3"). 
We therefore have about the same relative con- 
trast in sketches "5" and "6" between (he wall in 
light and the wall in shade, so that sketch "6" is 
not injured in any way because of the changed 
values at "A." Sketch "7" is another and very 
emphatic illustration of the use of graded tones 
in securing detachment, the chimney being light- 
ened towards the bottom and the roof darkened 
towards the top in order to gain a sharp con- 
trast. This method brings the roof forward and 
carries the chimney back, and so gives an effect 
of distance. The idea is, therefore, a useful one 
to remember as it can be applied in many dif- 
ferent places in nearly every drawing. In sketch 
"1," for instance, the horizontal line is softened 
as it goes behind the pencil, thereby bringing 
the pencil forward. 

Sketch "8" shows a similar application of a 
graded tone, for by darkening the cornice shadow 
towards the nearest corner of the house, that 
corner actually seems to come nearer. This 
method is of even more value when the wall is 
turned at a sharper angle, making the foreshort- 
ening more acute. 

Graded tones are of the greatest assistance in 

forcing the eye to any given portion of a drawing, 
and the little diagrams "A" and "B," sketch "9," 
show two methods of bringing attention to a 
desired spot, in this case the dark circle. The 
sketches really explain themselves. Method "B" 
is perhaps the stronger one for the dark tone at 
"C" in sketch "A" detracts from the spot itself. 
Of the two little window sketches below, the 
second carries out the same idea represented by 
method "B," the dark shadow taking the place of 
the dark spot in the diagram. The eye here is 
forced to the bright upper portion of the window. 
The first window sketch shows in place of such 
strong contrast a more gradual grading from 
dark at the top down to light. 

Occasionally it is necessary to apply the idea 
of separation or detachment to such accessories 
as fences and tree trunks. In sketch 10 the fence 
is so graded as to bring it light against the two 
dark masses of foliage and dark against the light 
background. When this same idea is applied to 
trees the trunks and branches often appear dark 
against the sky, then are. graded to a lighter tone 
against the background of hedge or other foliage, 
and sometimes reappear dark in contrast with 
the grass of the lawn. 

Just as graded tones prove of value in innum- 
erable ways when representing small details, they 
are of use, too, in composing entire drawings. 
Occasionally compositions grade from dark at the 
top to light at the bottom as do "1" and "3," 
Figure 29; sometimes they are light at the top and 
dark below like "4" and "6" on the same sheet. 
These are all rather extreme examples, however, 
though it is frequently the case that drawings 
combine grades in two or more directions. 
Sketch "2" in Figure 29, for example, shows dark 
masses of foliage behind the building which grade 
away to light. At the end margins there are 
opposing dark masses causing a sharp contrast 
which seems to set the building back into the 
middle-distance. Sketch "5" also shows two sets 
of grades, the one on the building itself, going 
from light at the center to dark at the ends ; 
the other on the hedge, which, by grading in just 
the contrary direction, gives contrasts which 
carry the eye towards the center of the composi- 
tion. Sketch "7" is a further illustration of forc- 
ing the attention to a given point, in this case 
the near end of the building, by so grading the 
walls that they are left light at the end to form 
a strong contrast with the trees. Drawings are 
sometimes graded off into distance in just the 
opposite way that is, they are carried from 
dark in the foreground to light in the back- 

In fact there are so many places in which 
graded tones are found and so many uses to 
which they may be put, it has been our main 
purpose simply to call attention to their beauty 
and enough of their uses to give the student a 
realization of their importance. It is not our 
intention to give the impression that flat tones 
should never be used, for there are instances in 
which drawings have been wholly done with flat 
tones with a remarkable degree of success. 

Wash Drawing from H. D'Espouy's "Fragments If Architecture Antique" to Illustrate Uses of Graded 
Tones in Suggesting Roundness of Objects Which Show no Perspective. 

Chapter VII. 

WE HAVE already pointed out a few of the 
many advantages to be gained through prac- 
tice in pencil sketching and rendering. It 
is our present purpose to further explain some of 
the reasons why a knowledge of such work is of 
value, especially to the draftsman anxious either to 
better his position or to build up a practice of his 
own, and to offer as well some practical suggestions 
as a help towards this end, these suggestions relating 
especially to the representation of the simpler sort 
of building such as the small house. 

It should be remembered that the average 
client who comes to an architect's office builds 
but once or twice in a lifetime, and for this 
reason is, as a rule, entirely unfamiliar with 
the drawings employed in carrying on such work. 
The instrumental plans mean little to him, though 
he can read them, perhaps, so far as the general 
layout of the rooms is concerned, and can under- 
stand the elevation drawings if the building is 
simple in form, but let it be broken up into 
an irregular mass with numerous projections and 
varying roof pitches and he finds it impossible 
to visualize its finished appearance. This is not 
to be wondered at for even experienced designers 
and architects are sometimes surprised when they 
see one of their own buildings taking definite 
form on the site ; with all their training they 
are not always able to judge beforehand just how 
the completed work will appear in relation to its 
surroundings. Doubtless one of the main reasons 
why clients are sometimes disappointed with 
their buildings when finished is that they prove 
entirely different from what they expected them 
to be, for they have not really understood the 
architectural drawing's and so have been unable 
to judge until too late whether or not the sub- 
mitted designs were satisfactory. Unwilling to 
admit this inability or overconfident because of 
the architect's words of assurance that every- 
thing would come out all right, they have ap- 
proved the designs and given word to go ahead 
with the work, when they actually had very little 
idea as to how the completed structure would ap- 
pear. When such a building is finished it is only 
natural, then, that the client may be displeased, 
but if so he is much more likely to condemn the 
architect than to admit any error or lack of un- 
derstanding on his own part. 

It is largely because of this difficulty of ex- 
pressing a building adequately by the plans and 
elevations alone, in such a way that the client 
will fully understand the scheme, that the prac- 
tice has grown of preparing rendered perspective 
drawings which show in a very clear manner 

exactly how the completed structure will appear. 
Such perspectives are of value to the architect 
in many ways, for they not only serve as a con- 
vincing expression of the problem to the client 
but are of equal use in his own drafting room as 
a means of studying the design. In addition to 
this, new jobs are often brought to the office because 
of such renderings, submitted to some possible 
client frequently in competition with work from 
other architects. Again, when an attempt is being 
made to raise money to finance the erection of a 
new building, such a perspective, submitted along 
with the plans and specifications, may prove of 
the greatest service in obtaining the necessary 

These are only a few of the uses of perspec- 
tive drawings, but enough to show that they 
are of immense value to the architect, and this 
being true it is only natural that there is a 
constant demand for draftsmen who are able, in 
addition to doing the usual instrumental work 
on plans and details, to make such renderings. 
Men with the skill to sketch and render well are 
almost certain to advance rapidly, as they soon 
come to the notice of their employer and are able 
to serve him in many important ways. First of 
all, when a new project is conceived many little 
sketches are needed as a means of study. These 
are usually done freehand, in pencil. Then as the 
design takes more definite form, accurate but 
simple instrumental perspectives are sometimes 
laid out and over these, on tracing paper, the 
designs are given further study, a few of the main 
lines being perhaps drawn instrumentally and the 
rest free-hand. With these designs quite definite- 
ly settled, a carefully finished drawing is often 
made to show the client, done instrumentally 
and rendered in any desired medium. After this 
perspective, with its accompanying plans, eleva- 
tions, sections and the like has been approved 
and the final contract drawings started, free-hand 
studies are frequently made of such details as 
chimneys and dormers. Then, after the contract 
is let, another accurate rendered perspective is 
sometimes worked up, showing all the corrections 
and changes. Even while the building is being 
erected sketches are occasionally needed per- 
haps to explain matters to the client often to 
make some detail clear to a contractor or work- 
man, or again simply as a means of giving fur- 
ther study to a doubtful point. It should not 
be supposed that so many renderings and sketches 
are needed for every job, for naturally everything 
depends on the cost and nature of the work. 
Often no finished perspectives are made and few 




sketches, on the other hand there are buildings of 
complex design which require, in addition to sev- 
eral perspectives both of the interior and exterior, 
many ornament drawings, including such details 
as carved stone or wood, wrought iron, leaded 
glass, etc., as well as carefully lettered inscrip- 
tions. All of these offer work for the man who 
can sketch and render. There are, to be sure, 
many professional delineators who are sometimes 
called upon to render the drawings of large or 
unusually important buildings, but there are many 
smaller jobs, such as suburban houses, in which 
the architect's fee is not sufficient to warrant the 
expenditure of any great sum for renderings. It 
is such jobs as these which usually fall to some- 
one in the office and the man who is capable of 
doing them is often advanced to a position of 
greater responsibility with its corresponding in- 
crease in salary. 

There is another important advantage which 
often comes from having skill in making sketches 
or renderings of small buildings, for it is true 
that such drawings are frequently the principal 
means by which a draftsman is able to obtain 
his first commissions as an architect. Many 
a draftsman has learned to his sorrow that it is 
much easier to open an office calling himself 
an architect and with his name on the door, than 

it is to induce clients to enter. When we consider 
that even the cheapest of buildings usually costs 
a number of thousands of dollars, we can hardly 
blame the public for failing to patronize young 
and comparatively inexperienced men when older 
and better known architects with many buildings 
to their credit are willing to accept the work 
for the same fee. But the young architect must 
get his start in some way and unless he is so 
fortunate as to have wealthy and influential 
friends to shower him with their favors he is 
often wise to remain associated, perhaps as drafts- 
man or designer, with some fairly well-known 
firm, and to gradually build up a clientele of 
his own. This may be done in a number of 
ways, one of which especially concerns us. Some 
of the larger firms do not care to bother with 
small houses and the like and so frequently turn 
any clients that desire this sort of work over 
to some draftsman or designer. If such a drafts- 
man is able to impress the client favorably he 
is quite likely to get the work, for even though 
his experience as an architect may be limited his 
connection with the well-known firm will give 
him a certain standing. There is perhaps no 
surer way of creating such a favorable impression 
than by submitting attractive rendered drawings 
showing just how the proposed building will 


,^3$^ r . ^jr "'*>. 

Rendering by Chester B. Price, Portion of a Proposed Housing Development Near Stamford, Conn. 

McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 



look when completed. Somehow people seem to 
feel that if sketches are nicely done the job itself 
will be executed as well, and many times the 
man submitting a pleasingly rendered drawing 
done in perspective will be given work, when blue- 
print plans and elevations from other architects, 
showing a scheme of equal merit, will be ignored. 

Perhaps you are one of those draftsmen with 
a desire to learn to make renderings of a quality 
suitable for the average job but with the feeling 
that it will never be possible for you to do so. 
If this is the case you should be offered encour- 
agement, especially in regard to pencil rendering. 
It is not easy, of course, to become an artist 
in the true sense of the word, and a half dozen 
lessons or a bit of study will not make one an 
expert, but on the other hand it is not difficult 
to master the few principles of composition and 
tricks of rendering which are needed to enable 
one to do a creditable sketch for the ordinary 
building. The writer has seen many students of 
only fair ability turn out excellent drawings of 
simple buildings after a comparatively brief per- 
iod of training, though they often lacked at first 
the confidence which is necessary for success in 
this work. 

Pencil rendering of architectural subjects really 
is, after all, comparatively simple. One does 
not encounter the same difficulties as when 
working in color for there are only the values 
of light and dark to consider; neither is it diffi- 
cult to make changes as in work with the pen. 
Originality is not looked for as it is in some 
forms of art work, nor is it necessary to strive 
for a decorative effect. As the small drawing 
does not often need figures or animals it is not 
absolutely necessary to be able to draw them ; 
even if figures are to be shown they are usually 
so small in scale as to need little detail. 

The most convincing sort of pencil technique 
for the usual architectural subjects is the conven- 
tional type such as is employed in most of the 
offices, published examples of which appear from 
time to time in all of our architectural magazines. 
The student should collect such reproductions as 
seem excellent and study them with care. Better 
yet, if opportunity offers to see originals of -this 
work in the offices or the architectural exhibitions, 
analyze them thoroughly. Notice the way in 
which the various details such as the doors and 
windows are indicated. Study the methods of 
suggesting different materials shingles, clap- 
boards, brickwork, stone, stucco, etc. Look at the 
way the foliage is shown. Copy either the whole 
or portions of some of these, trying at the same 
time to memorize the methods of expression. It 
is valuable also to compare the drawings with 
photographs of similar subjects or even with 
buildings themselves, and sketch directly from the 
buildings, too, trying small drawings of doors and 
windows or other similar portions first. Photo- 
graphs of small houses will offer many sugges- 
tions for surroundings which can be copied to 
advantage- As a help to the student we have intro- 
duced in the following chapters a number of 
drawings showing certain methods of represent- 

ing details of various sorts, but it should be re- 
membered that it is always well to study the 
work of a great many different people in order 
to adapt those ideas which appeal most strongly 
to you. 

After considerable practice has been given to 
the drawing of details, a real rendering of some 
small house may be undertaken. It is perhaps 
well to remind the student that a rendering is a 
more carefully finished production than a sketch ; 
that whereas a sketch is usually made rather 
hastily, a rendering is more in the nature of a 
study this in spite of the fact that many such 
drawings appear at first glance to be hastily 
done. In order to gain an accurate result the 
subject to be rendered is first laid out instru- 
mentally directly from the plans and elevations. 
This work of course demands some knowledge 
of the science of instrumental perspective. The 
few facts necessary for drawing the usual type 
of building can be acquired easily, however, even 
though one does not go deeply into the theory 
of the subject, and many men learn simply a 
few "rule of thumb" methods which really answer 
all general requirements. It is not within the 
scope of this volume to give instruction in in- 
strumental perspective but there are a few points 
which it seems essential to cover as they relate to 
both instrumental and free-hand work, and concern 
especially the composition of the entire sheet. 

First of all, it is wise when starting a perspective 
to decide where to stand in order to obtain the 
best view. Though this position varies with dif- 
ferent buildings it is usually well to show much 
of the main faqade and if the plot be flat to take 
the eye level or horizon line about five feet above 
the ground, as the eye is actually approximately 
this distance from the plane on which the build- 
ing rests. If, instead, it is to be on a hill so 
it would be natural to look up at it, that is the 
way it should be drawn, and in this case the 
horizon would be way below the house as it is 
always level with the spectator's eye. Contrarily 
if we are to look down on the building from above, 
as in a bird's eye view, the eye level or horizon 
will be towards the top of the picture. Now it 
is seldom that we do see houses from above, and 
even if we should, as from a mountain or airplane 
it would not generally be wise to show them 
that way, but there are cases where the building 
is very irregular in plan or where we have a com- 
plex group of buildings to picture and under these 
conditions there is sometimes no other means of 
expressing the entire subject adequately. An- 
other point worth remembering is that it is best 
not to stand too close to a building when making 
the perspective, as this causes the receding lines 
to become so acute as to seem unpleasant. A 
little experience will teach the correct distances 
for various types of buildings. Again, if you 
are to make a perspective and the plot has al- 
ready been purchased, obtain either photographs 
or sketches of the site to help you in drawing 
the surroundings. A plot plan or survey show- 
ing the contours of the land, location of rocks, 
trees, etc., is always of immense help, too, in 



Figure 30. Two Schemes for a Small House: Typical Renderings of the Type Often Submitted to the 

Client for the Purpose of Showing How a Proposed Building Will Look When Completed. 

These Were Drawn Directly from Blueprint Plans and Elevations. 

























Rcndcrhiy by Chester f>. f'rice, {'or/ion of a Proposed Honsini/ Development near Stamford, Conn. 

McKiin. Mead c'r U'hitc. Architects. 

getting a layout correct. If no plot has been 
selected, photographs showing houses of a sim- 
ilar nature to that which you are drawing may 
offer valuable suggestions, especially for the en- 
tourage. It should be remembered that a pleas- 
ing relation should exist between a building 
and its environment the house should seem to 
belong to the spot. If, for instance, you are draw- 
ing a little English cottage of informal nature, 
do not arrange your landscape in too formal 
a manner. Have some curved walks, irregular 
hedges, a quaint garden, etc. A Colonial 
house of dignified proportions demands, on the 
other hand, a more symmetrical treatment with 
formality extended throughout the scheme. A 
rustic camp in the forest should show a real forest 
character and not look like a suburban cottage, and 
if a house is to be in Florida do not use trees 
found only in the North, and likewise avoid hills 
and mountains if the location is in a level country. 
These are of course only matters of common sense 
and may seem too simple to mention, but they are, 
nevertheless, extremely important. There is some- 
thing else, too, which helps a composition im- 
mensely and this is to have some line or group of 
lines such as a path or drive or shadows on the 
lawn or perhaps a succession of bushes, which will 
serve to lead the eye into the picture. In Figure 

24, Chapter V, Part II. it will be noticed that 
all four of the sketches have paths which cause 
the attention to be directed gradually to the center 
of interest. It helps a drawing, too, if there are 
little vistas to draw the eye out of the picture again. 
A glimpse of some distant lake or down a pathway 
to the garage or of a neighboring building seen 
through the trees will add value to the picture, 
though naturally care must be taken not to make 
these incidentals too prominent, otherwise they will 
take interest from the house itself. In this con- 
nection we refer the reader to Figures 30 and 31 in 
this chapter. The end of the distant house in 31 
and the garage in 30 add to the effect. When a defi- 
nite plot has been chosen such buildings as may 
be visible should of course be correctly represented 
if shown at all. 

Leaving the subject of composition for the pres- 
ent, let us return to the consideration of practical 
points relating to the laying out of the drawing. 
Now after the station point at which the spectator 
is to stand has been decided upon and the eye level 
or horizon determined, the various vanishing points 
are correctly located and the work is under way. 
As most perspectives are drawn directly from the 
working drawings and as these arc often at the scale 
of one quarter inch to the foot this same scale is 
frequently used for the perspective. There is no 






I' ll II 

gts-ii-g J-l 





























rule about this, however, but it is sometimes diffi- 
cult to show enough detail if a smaller scale is 
chosen. The English house in Figure 31 was done 
at the scale of one eighth inch to the foot and is 
reproduced here at the exact size of the original, 
so this gives a fair idea of about what can be easily 
done at that scale. The two houses in Figure 30 
were also made at one eighth inch but are repro- 
duced at about one-half that size. Once the scale 
is decided, the work of the layout can be pushed 
right ahead and as soon as this is completed we are 
ready for the rendering. There are several cus- 
tomary methods of proceeding with this. Some- 
times the layout is on common paper and then the 
rendering done on tracing paper placed over the 
other. One advantage of this system lies in the 
fact that there is no special need to keep the paper 
clean when drawing the layout again there are 
no hard mechanical lines to show in the final result, 
and if the rendering is spoiled in the making for 
any reason it is easy to begin once more. When 
the drawing is completed the tracing paper can be 
smoothly mounted on heavy cardboard. Another 
method, and the more common one, is to make the 
layout right on the final paper, using a fairly hard 
pencil such as a 3H, and drawing not only the 
outline of the large portions, but also all the win- 
dow mouldings, clapboard lines and other such 
details as well. When this is completed go over 
the whole with a soft eraser until the lines are just 
visible as a guide for the freehand work. This 

final rendering may vary in style somewhat, accord- 
ing to the subject to be drawn. An English cottage 
of hewn timbers and rough brick or stucco, roofed 
with thatch or uneven slate, can be done with a 
rather sketchy line, as this will satisfactorily ex- 
press the irregular surfaces. If a formal house of 
cut stone is to be pictured, smoother tones and 
straighter lines are often better. This does not 
mean that it is impossible to nicely represent such 
a house by a very sketchy sort of line, but it is 
certainly wiser for the beginner to render a build- 
ing of this character in a painstaking way. With 
these facts in mind you are ready to start work, 
considering carefully the direction of the light, 
casting the shadows with care. A knowledge of 
the subject of shades and shadows is of course of 
great help here, while photographs of similar 
buildings offer many suggestions. Then a prelimi- 
nary sketch is often made on tracing paper and 
the values carefully worked out on that. If this 
is done it often seems best, when making the final 
drawing, to render from the top down, for it is 
possible by this means to keep the paper clean quite 
easily. In theory it is better to work from the 
center of interest out towards the edges, as we have 
stated in a previous chapter, or to put in the darkest 
tones first, all over the drawing, later adding the 
half tones. If no preliminary is made, one of these 
methods should be followed unless the student has 
had a great amount of experience. In any case 
there is no excuse for untidy work and if reason- 

Rapid Pencil Sketch to Show to Client. New Porch for Residence of Col. J. W. Woods. 
Designed and Drawn by Francis S. Swales, Architect. 



able care is used to keep the drawing brushed off 
and the pencil wiped clean, with a paper always 
under the hand to protect the surface, there should 
be no difficulty from that source. 

Finish the drawing to the best of your ability 
and if you are not satisfied with it, and you are not 
likely to be, try another of the same or a similar 
subject. It is only by such practice, and by learn- 
ing to look for your own mistakes and to profit by 
them, that success will be gained, but have in mind 
always that it is well worth the effort. 

The illustrations. Figures 30 and 31, are given 
simply as typical of the sort of renderings which 
can be quite easily and quickly done. These draw- 
ings show little individuality or originality, in 
fact they are very similar to dozens of drawings 
which we see from time to time. In both in- 

stances they were drawn to accompany sketch 
plans before any definite site had been chosen. Fig- 
ure 30 may have some additional interest to the 
student as it shows two different compositions for 
the same house, for Schemes "A" and "B" are both 
developments of the one plan. Figure 32 is a sketcli 
done directly from nature and by comparing this 
with Figure 30 the difference between a sketch 
and a rendering of a similar building should be 
very evident, for the old antique shop is drawn very 
hastily and in a free manner, no use being made of 
instruments, and with no attempt to more than ex- 
press the general character of the building. 

The supplementary illustrations accompanying this 
chapter, and Figure 50 on page 170, offer ad- 
ditional suggestions for the treatment of small build- 
ings. Study these and as many others as you can find. 

Chapter VIII. 

WE HAVE now reached a point in our discus- 
sion of sketching and rendering where it 
seems advisable for us to give additional 
attention to methods of indicating brickwork, stone- 
work, clapboarded and shingled walls, slate and tile 
roofs, etc., and such details as chimneys, dormers, 
cornices and doorways, for it is plain that unless the 
student learns to nicely suggest these various com- 
ponent parts he cannot hope to make an excellent 
drawing of a building as a whole, any more than a 
portrait painter can obtain a satisfactory likeness of 
a person without a knowledge of how to draw the 
ear and the eye and the mouth. These repre- 
sentations of chimneys and dormers and the like, 
are, in other words, the draftsman's alphabet, 
the A B C's that he should learn before attempt- 
ing difficult compositions. 

In previous chapters a few instructions of a gen- 
eral nature for the drawing of such portions of 
buildings have already been given, so the present 
text with its accompanying illustrations is mainly 
an amplification of these earlier suggestions. If 
repetition is found it is because certain points seem 
worth repeating, for the importance of the subject 
is such that it deserves elaboration. 

Unfortunately for the beginner there are few 
definite rules to help him in such sketching, for 
each artist develops methods of his own which 
he varies from time to time as he feels inclined, 
choosing always the one which seems appropri- 
ate to his particular problem. Naturally his 
manner of working differs, too, according to the 
size at which the details are to be drawn, for it 
is obvious that a window, for example, shown at 
one-quarter inch to the foot, requires treatment 
decidedly different from that demanded by the 
same object presented at a much larger scale. 

Because there are so many methods of indica- 
tion in common use it is not strange that 
students feel uncertainty as to just how to 
approach a problem of this nature. Of course 
in theory it is best to turn to actual buildings 
and to landscape for inspiration and practice, ob- 
serving and sketching the desired details directly 
from the buildings and their surroundings. The 
average student finds it rather difficult, however, 
to work in this way without considerable prelim- 
inary preparation, and therefore, valuable as 
such practice undeniably is, the beginner can 
perhaps learn more at first (as we have explained 
in a previous chapter) by studying good draw- 
ings, copying portions of them over and over 
aerain, later applying the ideas thus acquired to 
similar original problems. 

The plates which accompany this text show 
certain methods of indicating such details as we 

mention and it might be well to make copies of 
some of these, not, however, blindly imitating 
the manner of handling. Give, instead, serious 
thought as to why they were done in this way, 
for each line and tone should be made with a 
definite purpose. As these sketches offer only 
a few of many possible methods do not rest con- 
tent with copying parts of them, but study other 
similar drawings and copy some of them, too, 
in order to learn additional tricks of indication. 
In all of this work if you feel that you can obtain 
equally good results by a slightly different proc- 
ess, do so, for it is by no means necessary to 
reproduce the original from which you are draw- 
ing line for line, so long as the same general 
effect is gained. If you supplement this copy 
work with sketching from the photograph and 
from nature, using both broad and fine lines, on 
all sorts of paper and with pencils of various 
kinds and grades, your efforts will surely bring 
increased skill and a natural individual style will 
be gradually acquired. 

It is usually best to adopt some standard size 
sketching paper, the notebook proportion of 8" 
by W/i" being convenient for the smaller 
sketches. A cover for preserving sheets of this size 
can be secured easily. It seems advisable to re- 
tain all such sketches or at least the best of them, 
for this gives you the opportunity to note your 
progress from time to time, and the drawings 
themselves may prove of great help when mak- 
ing finished renderings. Group a number of 
sketches of similar subjects on one sheet, so 
arranged that they permit easy comparison, have, 
for instance, sketches of chimneys drawn with a 
fine line on one, others done with a broad line on 
another, dormer windows on a third, details of 
stonework on a fourth, and so on. 

Before proceeding with our discussion of the 
plates it may perhaps be well to once more warn 
the student, especially the architectural drafts- 
man, never to attempt to draw every tiny detail 
that he knows to exist. It is not strange that 
one so familiar as he is with all the variety of 
small units which go to make up a building finds 
it difficult to remain free from the desire to 
overemphasize the importance of some of them. 
The mere fact that one has been trained to ac- 
curately draw each detail, whether large or 
small, when making an instrumental elevation of 
a portion of a building, acts as a hindrance when 
it comes to pictorial representation, where we 
are striving to gain the effect of the whole in a 
broad, direct manner in a comparatively short 
space of time. As an illustration of the fact that 
an accurate instrumental elevation gives less of 





I I I I 

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Tinnnnnni ii 11 11 if iriinri 


31 r 


II . IL 

J A /. 


Figure 33. The Representation of Cornices and Cornice Shadows. 



the true appearance than does a sketch of the 
right sort with the nonessential lines omitted or 
subordinated we have made two drawings at A 
and B, Figure 33, of a typical cornice such as we 
might find at the eaves of a Colonial residence. 
The one at A is done instrumentally at the scale 
of 1/2"=1'-0" and is a copy of an actual work- 
ing drawing. Such a mechanical representation 
as this, offers, of course, an accurate statement of 
certain facts of form, but it stops there. It 
gives us a wrong sense of the values, for the 
numerous lines necessary to bound the various 
members form a dark mass on parts which in 
the executed work might appear rather light, and 
there is nothing to show the difference in tone 
between the brick and wood. In a sketch or 
rendering, on the other hand, we usually work 
for an effect of reality, and even though certain 
details are of necessity slighted, by means of a 
free handling we are able to suggest in addition 
to facts of form, the light and the shade and the 
tone and texture of the materials. In the sketch 
at B we have attempted such an indication of 
the cornice shown at A, striving to gain approxi- 
mately the same relative values as might be 
found in nature. The brickwork is shown darker 
in the shadow than in the light, as is the white 
woodwork, too, while the shingles are given a 
tone which quite accurately suggests the color 
that they might appear in the direct rays of the 
sun. As this particular sketch is at a fairly large 
scale it has been possible to retain most of the 
fine detail shown at A, but if a smaller rendered 
drawing of the same cornice were to be made it 
would probably prove necessary to further 
simplify the subject. 

This one illustration i doubtless sufficient to 
show that the draftsman must work for a wholly 
different result in a sketch from that required 
in an elevation, forgetting or merely suggesting 
many of the tiny members, in obtaining the 
broad effect. As a further example we might 
add that in drawing a window he must not allow 
his knowledge of the blind-stop, the pulley-style 
and the parting-strip to interfere with the sim- 
plicity of the result ; in fact whatever the detail 
may be, the same care should be taken not to 
overemphasize relatively unimportant portions of 
the subject. 

Let us return for a moment to our discussion 
of cornices, for they contribute so much to the 
effect of a building that extreme care must al- 
ways be used in their representation. First of 
all do not overdarken the projecting portions, 
for it is the contrast of the light corona against 
the shadow below which gives the desired sense 
of projection. We might also speak again of the 
advantage which may sometimes be gained by 
using a graded shadow below a cornice, allow- 
ing the tone to gradually darken towards the bottom, 
thus giving transparency at the top and a clean-cut 
contrast at the lower edge. (See Chapter VI and 
illustration 4 at the top of Figure 28.) Remember, 
too. that the cornice shadow is usually made darkest 
at the corner of the building nearest the spectator, 
lightening gradually as the walls recede, thus 
adding to the effect of distance. There is some- 

times a question as to how much detail should be 
shown in a cornice shadow, and the answer to 
this is not easy, for all depends on the size and 
purpose of the drawing. If it is large and made 
as a means of studying the proportions and de- 
tail it may prove necessary to draw every modil- 
lion and dentil, but if it is small or made simply 
to give the general effect, the less important 
parts can be omitted. Sometimes mutules or 
brackets or rafter ends or any details with con- 
siderable projection are left white or nearly so, 
for if the sketch is small and such parts are 
drawn in their true values they may be lost in 
the darkness of the shadow. This point is illus- 
trated by Sketch 1, Figure 33, in which the rafter 
ends are shown lighter than they would probably 
be in the executed work. In some drawings 
such details are made quite distinct in a few 
places, especially in those parts of the building 
nearest the eye, and then made less definite or 
omitted in others. If well done this treatment 
gives an excellent impression with a minimum 
expenditure of time and effort. 

Of the various ways of building up a shadow 
there are three which are in general use. The 
first is illustrated at "B," Figure 33. where the 
lines composing the shadow are so merged to- 
gether as to make it difficult to tell their direc- 
tion, in fact in a shadow where the lines them- 
selves are so indefinite this direction is unim- 
portant and the tone may be formed in the most 
convenient way. In the second method, illus- 
trated at "1" and "2," Figure 33, the shadow 
value is "built up" by a succession of adjacent 
strokes, either touching or nearly so, the strokes 
being often drawn in a vertical position, as our 
illustrations show, but sometimes taking the 
same general slope as the rays of light which 
cause the shadow. This method is frequently 
employed when the sketch is made at small 
scale. If a drawing is of such a size or character 
as to demand much detail, however, a still dif- 
ferent method is popular. In place of the mass 
shading of the first and the parallel strokes of 
the second, the lines run in the direction or 
directions which best suggest the bricks or the 
clapboards or whatever the materials in shadow 
may be. Sketches "3," "5" and "6" illustrate this 
third method and it is not difficult to tell, even by 
the shadow tone, which sketch represents brick, 
which one stone, and which shingle. In using this 
method the student must be careful not to get too 
"spotty" a character to the value for it is essential 
to preserve a restful breadth of effect throughout 
the tone. 

We should not leave the subject of cornices with- 
out some reference to reflected light and reversed 
shadows. It is frequently the case that bright light 
is reflected from some brilliant object into dark 
tones such as those beneath a cornice. This not 
only means that the shadow value itself is neutral- 
ized and so made lighter, but a reflection of this 
sort is often the cause, also, of what are termed 
"reversed shadows," which really are shadows with- 
in a shadow, caused by modillions or any such pro- 
jections which prevent the reflected light from 
penetrating some of the deeper corners. These 



reversed shadows are of especial value in render- 
ing elevations in wash such as that shown on page 
134. In this sort of drawing where the shadows 
are cast in the conventional 45-degree method, 
Ihe reversed tones are usually reflected in just the 
opposite way, as is the case in the rendering to 
which we have just referred. (Note particularly 
the reversed shadows cast by the dentils.) In na- 
ture, however, the location and the form of the 
reversed shadows will of course depend on the di- 
rection of the rays of reflected light, and this direc- 
tion may vary from hour to hour as the sun or 
other source of direct illumination changes in posi- 
tion. So far as cornices are concerned, however, 
it is true that reflected light often causes the soffit 
to appear quite brilliant, so in many drawings the 
soffit value is represented no darker than in Sketch 
"5." Figure 33, and in tiny drawings such horizon- 
tal planes as this are sometimes left actually white. 
Though we have so far spoken of reflected light 
mainly as it influences cornice tones, it should not 
he supposed that it has no effect on other values, 
for it has, though as a rule the horizontal planes 
seem to catch more such light than do the vertical. 
A window soffit, for instance, is often quite bril- 
liant as is the intrados of an arch, while even as 
large a surface as a porch ceiling is often visibly 

Before we drop our discussion of Figure 33, 
attention is called to the variety of methods of sug- 
gesting roof shingles which it shows. Too much 
care cannot be given to such representations, for in 
a drawing of the average residence so large an area 
is taken up by the roof planes that unless they are 
well handled the effect of the whole drawing may 
be ruined. First of all the values of the different 
parts of the roof must be decided upon, as some 
portions can perhaps be left white or nearly so 
while others will appear quite dark. Next, the 
me'hod of indicating the roof material must be 
chosen, and it is here that the sketches on Figure 
33 may prove useful, or. if the roof is of some other 
material, Figure 34 offers some suggestions. 
Sketch "A" on the latter plate represents shingles, 
flat tiles or slate Sketch "B" indicates a rough tex- 
tured slate in graduated courses Sketch "C" shows 
shingle thatch, "D" straw thatch, "F." suggests 
tile, while "F" again shows slate, though a similar 
indication would answer for shingle. It may be 
well to mention here that good pen renderings are 
sometimes of great assistance when drawing roof 
or wall surfaces as they offer much in the way of 
material indication which can be adapted to pencil 

There are several faults frequently found in rep- 
resentations of rrof surfaces, concerning which the 
student should be warned. First of all, if a draw- 
ing is small in scale one should seldom attempt to 
show every course of slate or shingles, for if this is 
done the value is almost sure to become either too 
complex or too dark. It is better to space the lines 
separating the courses somewhat further apart than 
they would be in the actual building. In larger 
drawings this criticism does not hold unless the 
roof pitch is very low or the roof planes greatly 
foreshortened, in which case a small number of lines 

may prove sufficient to suggest many courses. 
When graduated courses of slate are shown as at 
"B" Figure 34, decreasing in size from the bottom 
to the top, an unpleasant effect of curvature of the 
roof sometimes appears. Such an effect, if con- 
spicuous, can usually be overcome by throwing a 
shadow bounded by approximately straight lines 
onto the roof, as from a tree or some neighboring 
building. In fact, the addition of any straight lines 
following the pitch of the roof will help to correct 
such distortion. Whatever material is used as a 
roof covering, avoid breaking the tone into too many 
conspicuous spots, for one of the most common de- 
fects of the drawings of beginners is the spottiness 
of surfaces which in actual buildings would be either 
"flat" throughout or gradually graded. 

Just as roofs deserve careful attention, wall sur- 
faces also need to be represented with the greatest 
care. Here ag; in it is seldom advisable to try to 
show every brick course or each stone but the mate- 
rials should be so indicated as to leave no doubt as 
to their nature. Figures 33, 34, 35 and 36 all give 
suggestions for the treatment of such surfaces, the 
larger drawings on Figure 35 being of sufficient size 
to show the detail very clearly. 

J/Vw/flTi 1 Representation There is no great diffi- 
culty in acquiring the skill to render a wall of brick 
or stone, or a roof of slate or shingle, but when it 
comes to successfully representing windows or glazed 
doors or any objects containing large areas of glass, 
cur task proves less simple, for glazed surfaces are 
so complex and changeable in their appearance as 
to demand special care and skill in their indication. 
It is not hard, to be sure, to learn to draw a typical 
window or two, especially if shown at small scale, 
but if the scale is so large as to make any consider- 
able amount of detail necessary it is no easy task 
for the beginner to do even this much well, while 
it is still more difficult to so render a number of 
adjacent windows as to give them the best effect in 
relation to one another and to the remainder of the 
building. If they are made too dark or too light 
they may, even though good in themselves, attract 
more than their proper share of attention, and if 
all are drawn in the same way the result will prob- 
ably prove monotonous, while if, instead, too much 
variety is shown, the breadth of effect of the whole 
drawing is almost sure to be destroyed. Before 
attempting finished renderings of windows the stu- 
dent should, therefore, acquaint himself through 
observation and study with the appearance of glass 
under different circumstances and conditions, for 
it is only by so doing that he can represent it to 
the best advantage in any given problem. Walk- 
along a street and study the windows that you see, 
not only those near at hand but those in the dis- 
tance as well. Compare those on the sunny side 
with those in the shade, and those in the upper 
stories with those in the lower. As you make these 
comparisons ask yourself such questions as the 
following: What is the difference in the appear- 
ance of glass in sunlight and in shade? Do win- 
dows in the upper stories have the same general 
effect as those in the lower? How do windows in 
the distance compare with those near at hand? 
Can you see the curtains or shades distinctly in 



I r ' 

' ' 

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< ' <- ' - ~ . r 

Figure 34. Sonic Roof Treatments, Suggesting Shingles, Slate, Thatch and Tile. 




:. -*'*". 

( SiT r *.% - V . 

*s-- v v 


Figure 35. Various Indications of Brickwork and Stonework. 



all the windows? How much of the interiors of 
the rooms do you see as you pass? Is the glass 
always plainly visible? Is it hard to tell if panes 
have been broken from a sash? Is it easy to dis- 
tinguish plate glass when you see it? If so, why? 
Do all the lights of glass in one window look the 
same? Does the glass usually seem lighter or 
darker than the sash itself? Do you see images 
reflected in the glass? If so, are they sufficiently 
definite to permit you to tell trees from buildings? 
Does your own image appear in the windows? Are 
images more distinct in glass in shade than in glass 
in the sunlight? Are reflections as clear on a rainy 
day as they are when the sun is shining? 

A little observation will answer such questions 
as these and make it evident that ordinary window 
glass has two leading characteristics which relate 
especially to its appearance, and which are, there- 
fore, of the greatest importance to the student. 
First comes its transparency. Under certain con- 
ditions glass seems practically invisible. This is 
especially true of clean plate glass favorably lighted. 
We are sometimes able, then, in our representation 
of windows, to neglect the glazing and treat the 
sashes just as though the panes were non-existent, 
showing distinctly the shades and hangings within, 
or, if the drawing is made from an interior, look- 
ing out, the foliage and sky beyond. The other 
characteristic, and the one which causes much of 
the trouble of the beginner, is the power that glass 
has to act as a reflector or mirror, giving, very 
often, a shiny effect to the window, and usually 
images of objects as well, which in some cases are 
almost as clear as those obtained in the usual 
"looking glass." One of the difficulties confront- 
ing the student who tries sketching directly from 
buildings is the complication in the effect of glass 
resulting from these reflections, for often trees and 
buildings and skies and clouds and people are all 
pictured in the windows, showing so plainly as to 
prove confusing, for the images are not only some- 
what distorted, as a rule, because of imperfections 
in the glass, but are crisscrossed by the sash bars 
and mingled and blended with the curtains in a 
most bewildering manner. It is not easy, therefore, 
to know just what to put in and what to leave out. 
so considerable experience will be necessary to teach 
what really is essential and what should be subordi- 
nated or omitted. It is worth remembering that as 
a rule the two characteristics of glass which we 
have mentioned appear in combination ; the glass 
seems sufficiently transparent to enable us to see 
through it quite easily yet has enough reflection to 
give it a shiny appearance. Sometimes, however, 
this power to reflect neutralizes the effect of trans- 
parency to such an extent that we find it impossible 
to look through the panes at all. This is especially 
true in windows near the top of a building where 
the reflection of sunlight or bright sky is frequently 
so strong as to make the curtains within either in- 
visible or very indistinct. Such windows, and 
particularly those of the upper stories of very tall 
buildings, often take on much the same color and 
tone as the sky, and if the sun itself is reflected, 
the windows become dazzling in their brilliancy. 
A reflected light cloud may make the glass almost 

white, while a blue sky may cause a blue reflection 
of a value similar to that of the sky itself. If we 
observe the windows nearer the street level we find 
as a rule that most of them seem darker, for in 
place of the sky reflections we have those of nearby 
buildings and trees. It is useful to bear in mind, 
then, that when rendering tall buildings the gen- 
eral tone of the glass, taken as a whole, may often 
be correctly shown lighter in the upper than in the 
lower stories. Even in the ordinary suburban 
home or country house the windows of the lower 
floors frequently seem darker when viewed from 
without than do those above, especially if the nearby 
foliage is comparatively low, so as to reflect in the 
downstairs windows only. It is true, too, that glass 
within shadow, or on the shady side of a build- 
ing, usually seems much lighter than we would ex- 
pect, so it is by no means necessary to represent 
it by a dark tone simply because it is within shade 
or shadow. Its light appearance is generally due 
to the fact that it mirrors the brightness of the 
sky or some nearby building in sunlight. This 
power which glass has to reflect varies under dif- 
ferent circumstances. If glass has black or dark- 
ness as a background, or is in shadow as we have 
just mentioned, it usually proves a stronger reflec- 
tor than it does when in light or with light shining 
through from behind, or with a light background. 
Paint glass black on the back and it becomes a good 
mirror, reflecting objects very distinctly. When 
we look at a window from without, in the daytime, 
and it has no shades or curtains, its glazing may be 
likened to the painted glass just mentioned, the 
darkness of the interior being relatively of a deeper 
value than the outdoor tones and therefore taking 
the place of the black paint, and such a window 
shows reflections more distinctly than one with 
light curtains behind. If a window by chance 
shows portions of a black, or any very dark window 
shade and of a light one as well, the reflections 
will be more distinct on that portion of the glass 
which has the dark shade behind it, and contrarily 
if a similar window has a light shade lowered to the 
sill so as to fill the whole opening the reflections 
will be comparatively indistinct. As a further 
proof that glass is a good mirror when backed up 
with black, stand facing a window in a lighted room 
at night, with the shade raised, and if it is dark 
out-of-doors your own image can be easily seen. 
In the daytime, however, if you stand in the same 
place and look out into the sunlight you will find 
your reflection to be quite indistinct or even invis- 
ible. When making a drawing of an interior as 
it appears in the daytime it is, therefore, seldom 
necessary to show any reflections in the glass of the 
windows or doors of the outside walls, as the 
brighter light without renders them impotent. In 
fact in architectural drawing it is only occasionally 
that definite reflections of objects are shown, for 
unless extreme care is used to keep them incon- 
spicuous they may become so noticeable as to seri- 
ously detract from the result. It is not often ad- 
visable, for instance, to show the reflections of tree 
trunks or nearby buildings, and if such images are 
indicated they should be drawn correctly and kept 
subordinated. There are times, however, when a 



reflection of a window reveal or an arch intrados 
or some similar adjacent part of a building may 
prove interesting, and in the sketch at "5," Figure 
36, a dark reflection of the shaded intrados is 
shown. Even though comparatively little use is 
made of definite images of objects, when represent- 
ing glass, the effect of most windows is, neverthe- 
less, modified to such an extent in general tone by 
the indefinite reflections of the sky and distant 
objects as to demand some expression of this modi- 
fication, but as the spectator, when viewing a draw- 
ing, seldom has an exact knowledge of what these 
objects influencing the appearance may be, the artist 
is usually at liberty to assume such conditions as 
best suit his requirements and convenience. This 
means that if it pleases him to draw his windows 
light, on the assumption that they are reflecting a 
bright sky, or dark for some similar reason, he is 
at liberty to do so, and as windows often change 
in effect completely and suddenly, it is hard to dis- 
pute his authority. 

Now to get down to a few practical facts of 
value to the beginner. First of all, decide whether 
the glass is to be shown light or dark. This de- 
pends largely on the surrounding material. If the 
walls are of light plaster, and strong contrast seems 
desirable, keep the glass dark ; if, instead, the walls 
are of dark material, light windows will attract 
more attention. There are many cases, however, 
where it seems wise to keep certain windows incon- 
spicuous, as a matter of presentation, and under 
such conditions strong contrast is of course to be 
avoided. The best way to determine which win- 
dows should be dark and which light is by making 
a preliminary study on tracing paper before start- 
ing the final rendering. As a rule those windows 
nearest the spectator, or, in some instances, nearest 
the center of interest, should show, not only the 
sharpest contrasts but also the greatest amount of 
detail. This gives us an opportunity to get a cer- 
tain variety of treatment in the different windows, 
which is essential, but at the same time care must 
be taken not to provoke unrest by overemphasizing 
the differences of representation. Once a general 
scheme for the values has been determined upon, 
it is necessary to reach a decision as to how much 
detail is to be shown through the glass. This will 
depend largely on the location of the windows and 
on the nature of the building. If a dignified faqade 
is to be rendered, it is seldom wise to show much 
inside the glazing, as curtains and the like some- 
times detract from the architectural character of 
a formal building unless rendered in a very con- 
ventional manner. An informal building, such as 
a suburban residence, permits greater freedom of 
expression, however, so in a building of this sort 
it is usually best to show the shades and curtains 
quite distinctly. Stiffness of effect is avoided if an 
occasional window is shown open, or with the shut- 
ters partly closed, while awnings and screens and 
such things sometimes add to the feeling of reality. 
In a formal building if shades are shown in the 
windows they are usually all lowered to the same 
point, generally about one-third to one-half way 
down from the top, or are arranged in some uni- 
form manner, but greater variety of spacing is per- 

missible in less formal structures. Inside draperies 
harmonize better with the structural lines of the 
building if shown hanging vertically or nearly so, 
and for this reason it is often well not to drape 
them in curves, as curved lines frequently attract 
too much attention. Neither is it necessary or de- 
sirable to show much detail or design in the hang- 
ings, though there is no 1m rm in suggesting some 
simple pattern, as in "4," Figure 36, especially if a 
sash is unbroken by muntins or other objects. When 
it comes to the rendering of the sashes and the 
window frame, treat the woodwork very broadly, 
merely suggesting by one or two lines all the va- 
rious members of which the whole is composed. The 
sash bars will usually be sufficiently well indicated 
if a single line, representing their shady side, and 
their shadow on the glass is used. Sashes are, as 
a rule, left white on renderings, but there are in- 
stances where the glass is shown so light as to cause 
dark sashes to seem essential as a means of produc- 
ing proper contrast. In "5," Figure 36, it will IK 
noticed that the woodwork of the door is left light 
at the bottom where the glass is dark, but graded to 
dark at the top so as to count strongly against the 
light reflection. In "9," Figure 37, the sashes are 
in shadow and consequently dark, but the glass 
here is catching a strong reflection of light, as in 
the previous example. It perhaps seems a bit ex- 
treme to leave the glass as white as it is in this 
sketch and in the doorway at "13" on the same 
sheet, but an effect of transparency is obtained in 
this way, and the light tone of the glass pleasingly 
breaks up the monotony of the shadow. Often, 
however, the glass in such windows is shown very 
dark, this being a matter of choice, as both condi- 
tions are found in actual buildings. 

In most drawings of windows the shadows cast 
by the frame and by the sashes on the shades and 
curtains are made quite prominent, and this often 
adds greatly to the effect, and it is well as a rule to 
emphasize the shadows of the shutters also. There 
is another point worth considering and this is thit 
if there is a large dark shadow near the top of -i 
window it is best not to have a similar dark tone 
at the bottom, as such duplication may injure the 

Figures 36 and 37 show a variety of suggestions 
for the treatment of windows. Figure 36 was 
drawn at exactly the same scale as here reproduced, 
but Figure 37 was reduced from a larger drawing 
measuring 8 inches by 11 inches. These sheets 
seem to call for no special comment in addition to 
that already made unless attention is directed to 
"6" and "12" in the latter plate. In "6" it should 
be noted that the open sash is shown transparent, 
the shadow cast by the sash itself on the wall lie- 
hind being visible in its entirety. In "12." how- 
ever, the sash appears as a reflector, the dark vine 
behind being invisible just as though the glass were 
opaque. These two sketches illustrate the two 
characteristics of glass already described. 

In Figure 39 are shown several interior sketches 
in which windows are featured. These drawings 
explain themselves, though mention might be made 
of the fact that when facing a window or any 





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Figure 36. Some Door and Window Suggestions, iviih Considerable Attention 
to the Representation of the Smaller Architectural Details. 



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Figure 57. Additional Details Such as Are Common to Architectural Delineation. 



glazed opening from the inside the sashes and 
frames usually appear dark in their relation to the 
outdoor light beyond. Because of this strong con- 
trast even light woodwork often seems very dark 
if seen in silhouette. 

When drawing an interior it is not wrong to 
show objects out of doors providing they are not 
made so prominent as to take too much interest 
from the interior itself. Unless such objects are 
quite near the glass, however, they should be drawn 
very simply and lightly. 

Having studied the illustrations accompanying 
this text, as well as other reproductions that you may 
have at hand, and having demonstrated for your- 
self the truth of some of the facts mentioned here, 
try some studies of your own, attempting to get a 
glassy effect to each window, and crispness of draw- 
ing as well, remembering all the while that windows 
are too important to be slighted in representation. 

The drawing by Schell Lewis on the following 
page is an unusually fine example of pencil render- 
ing of a portion of a building drawn in elevation, 
and shows that even without the aid of perspective 
it is possible to obtain a very truthful and at the 

same time interesting effect. In this type of draw- 
ing a knowledge of shades and shadows is particu- 
larly desirable as the sense of relief and projection 
depends largely upon the form and value of the 
shade and shadow tones. Notice the manner in 
which the feeling of curvature in the goose necks 
above the leader boxes has been obtained, and give 
particular attention to the handling of the smaller 
detail within the shadow of the cornice of the door- 
way itself. 

The sketches by Albert Kahn on pages 131, 132 
and 133 are excellent representations of an entirely 
different sort of detail, for these are measured 
drawings made directly from examples of wrought 
iron and carved wood in the South Kensington Mu- 
seum. Apparently a few of the main lines were laid 
out to scale instrumentally on a smooth coated paper 
and the rest of the work done free-hand. Obviously 
architectural students or draftsmen can profit greatly 
by making such measured drawings as these, as they 
offer not only a means of becoming acquainted with 
and preserving a record of the objects drawn, but 
train one also for the making of. drawings from 
which original work is to be executed. 







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Chapter IX. 


THOUGH a large percentage of all perspectives 
and renderings made for architectural pur- 
poses show exteriors of buildings, the drafts- 
man is, nevertheless, sometimes called upon to make 
drawings of interiors, including such accessories as 
furniture and draperies, and, as interiors offer certain 
problems not usually encountered in exterior work, 
special practice and study are necessary to insure 
their satisfactory solution. Then, too, there are 
some draftsmen and designers, particularly those 
employed by decorators, or in furniture or uphol- 
stery houses, who devote the greater portion of their 
time to rendering interior subjects, and these men. 
even more than those doing the usual form of archi- 
tectural work, need a knowledge of how interiors 
actually appear and how this appearance can be 
best represented. 

A lengthy discussion of this interesting subject 
seems hardly necessary, for many of the suggestions 
already offered in previous chapters relate to inte- 
rior as well as to exterior work, and, therefore, as 
some special comments have also been made which 
refer to interiors only, it is our present purpose 
merely to add a few ideas, bearing especially on 
methods of representing some of the many objects 
and materials which do not appear in exteriors, 
such as the furniture and draperies mentioned above. 
Before doing so, however, it will perhaps be well to 
first call attention to a few of the essential differ- 
ences in the appearance of interiors and exteriors, 
for a comparison of these differences, and of their 
effect on the manner of indication should prove of 
value to the student. 

First of all, interiors are considered by many 
artists to be more difficult to draw than exteriors, 
and for a number of reasons. To begin with, the 
actual mechanical process of laying out an interior, 
preparatory to the work in rendering, is usually 
more laborious than for an exterior. Exteriors are. 
to be sure, often far from simple, but when doing 
an office building or a hotel or some structure of 
similar general form, the mass of the whole is 
seldom complicated, so it is usually easy, once the 
main construction lines are instrumentally laid out, 
to project the various measurements of the win- 
dows and the like along the wall surfaces to the 
desired position. Interiors, however, though often 
as simple in mass, are only begun when the archi- 
tectural shell of ceiling and floor and walls (with 
their accompanying doors and windows) is com- 
pleted, for there remain such details as furniture 
and lighting fixtures, and these require consider- 
able time, for it is, as a rule, rather a lengthy proc- 
ess to accurately obtain all of the different meas- 
urements in perspective, as many of these objects 

stand away from the walls, which adds to the diffi- 
culty of projection; and once the correct placing 
and general dimensions are obtained, it is frequently 
the case that the objects themselves are so irregular 
in form as to necessitate considerable labor, for 
often many curved or slanted lines are required ; 
in fact, such pieces as rocking chairs sometimes 
consist entirely of curved lines and lines sloping at 
various angles. Then, too, it is not uncommon to 
find furniture so turned that nearly every piece 
requires vanishing points of its own. It is, there- 
fore, mainly because of such accessories that the 
mechanical layout of the typical interior proves 
laborious to make, though there are certain types 
of buildings where the block form itself is difficult. 
One of the hardest kinds of interiors to draw 
accurately is the theatre, where the bowled floor, 
the disposition of the seats in curved rows with 
radiating aisles, the rounded and sloping balconies, 
the tiers of boxes, the proscenium arch and the 
vaulted or domed ceiling, all offer labor enough to 
tax the patience of the most persevering. 

In addition to this difficulty of instrumental 
construction, the draftsman of interiors is some- 
limes handicapped a bit by his inability to introduce 
accessories just where he wishes to have them for 
the purpose of obtaining the best composition. In 
drawing exteriors the artist can often make an 
otherwise ordinary composition interesting by ar- 
ranging his trees and vines and clouds and auto- 
mobiles, in fact, all such accessories, about where 
he wishes, and many of these can be made, also, of 
almost any desirable size and shape. Interiors 
sometimes permit the use of potted plants and vases 
of leaves or flowers to serve a like purpose, and of 
course in conservatories we find much of this sort 
of thing, but on the whole there is less opportunity 
for such freedom of arrangement, though the fur- 
niture and pictures and hangings do offer a similar 
means of relieving the bareness of the architectural 
background, so that this of course offsets to some 
extent the handicap just mentioned. 

Another difference in appearance between inte- 
riors and exteriors is found in the effect of the light 
and shade, for in exteriors the sun usually affords 
a single direct means of illumination, so that the 
shadows can be laid out by an accurate mechanical 
method, if one knows the science of doing so, and 
the division between the light and the dark is gen- 
erally clearly marked. Interiors, however, are 
usually far more complex in their lighting, the rays 
of light coming frequently from several sources, 
thereby causing complicated values, the shadows 
often falling in a number of directions at the same 
time, and the tones of these various shadows dif- 














faring greatly, some being light and others dark, 
with certain edges sharply defined and with others 
indistinct. A chair leg, for example, often casts sev- 
eral shadows on the floor at once and a lighting fix- 
ture as many more on the wall or ceiling. This com- 
plication is further augmented by the numerous 
reflections, concerning which we will say more in 
a moment, but notwithstanding all this, the mere 
fact that such a complex condition does exist, 
though often very confusing to the beginner, fre- 
quently works to the advantage of the more expe- 
rienced man, for, as we are accustomed to this com- 
plexity of tone, the skilled artist is able to arrange 
his values almost as he chooses and we are un- 
aware that any liberties have been taken so long as 
the natural effect has not been sacrificed. 

As a rule it is best for the beginner not to draw 
;very little change of tone that is seen, but he 
should, instead, simplify the whole, working for the 
general effect in a broad, direct manner, for when 
one enters a room he is not conscious of all this 
detail, therefore it should not be forced on the 
attention in the drawing. There is another point 
worth remembering and this is that because much 
of the illumination of interiors is indirect and the 
light rays therefore diffused, the general effect is 
usually softer than is the case where we have an 
exterior in direct light, the tones blending or 
merging into one another and the division between 
the light and shade being less clearly defined. This 
indefinite effect, though often desirable in certain 
types of drawing, can be easily carried to extremes, 
and the artist who strives for it sometimes obtains 
a result which, even though satisfying in one sense, 
may be displeasing in another, for such a render- 
ing is often so gray and lacking in contrast as to 
prove hardly suitable for architectural purposes, 
where a drawing with clean-cut edges and sharp 
definition of tone is preferred as a rule to a soft 
and vague interpretation. The artist who is work- 
ing for a crisp result will find a certain fact to his 
advantage, and this is that many objects found in 
interiors, being well polished and smooth, offer 
strong reflections and highlights which, if judi- 
ciously used, serve as a pleasing break in the gray- 
ness of the general effect. Out-of-doors we seldom 
find such shiny surfaces as we do inside, with the 
exception of a few like those of smooth water and 
glass. The building materials used outside are 
usually rather dull in finish, and even if polished 
when first put in place soon lose their gloss because 
of the action of the weather. Materials found in 
interiors, on the other hand, often exhibit the con- 
trary characteristics. Floors are of highly polished 
wood or marble ; the trim is frequently varnished 
or given some enamel finish, and glazed tiles or 
similar objects are sometimes introduced, particu- 
larly around mantels, but it is especially in the 
furniture and in such accessories as the lighting 
fixtures, vases, etc., that we find many surfaces of 
high reflective value. Table tops, for example, fre- 
quently act almost like mirrors, while the glass in 
the framed pictures on the walls has similar char- 
acteristics. Chair arms, door knobs, clocks, dishes, 
etc., all add little highlights, often of extreme bril- 
liancy in relation to the surroundings, and the stu- 

dent is wise who learns to employ these sharply 
contrasting accents to give life to his work, espe- 
cially in drawings of an architectural nature. Many 
otherwise "dead" drawings receive most of their 
character from just such accents as these. 

So much of a general nature by way of compar- 
ing exteriors and interiors. The main points to be 
remembered are that interiors are usually more dif- 
ficult to lay out, that it is not, as a rule, so easy 
to arrange the accessories to assist the composition, 
that the values are more complex, with the 
shadows made difficult because of light from various 
sources, and, last of all, that the general effect is 
sometimes rather vague and soft, but that highlightL 
and accents are frequently to be found on the pol- 
ished surfaces, which, if properly interpreted by 
the artist, will give a clean-cut character to his 

Now, as we proceed to our discussion of meth- 
ods of representing various objects and materials 
common to interiors, it is necessary to repeat the 
statement which we have already made a number 
of times, and this is that few definite rules exist to 
tell us how to do such work. Each student must 
learn to see and to interpret the things that he sees 
in his own way, and books and instructors can 
merely offer a few suggestions by way of assistance. 
Learning to draw is, in fact, so much a matter of 
learning to see, that it is impossible to overempha- 
size the importance of cultivating the ability to 
observe things intelligently. In order to draw 
draperies, for example, or upholstery materials, it 
is necessary to first of all carefully observe the 
various fabrics employed for such purposes, study- 
ing each one with care, looking at it close at hand 
and in the distance, in bright and in subdued light, 
laid out smoothly and draped in folds, searching 
always for its special characteristics under all such 
conditions, and endeavoring also to retain mental 
impressions of these peculiarities for future use. 
Then compare one fabric with another, or drape 
several in such a way that they can be easily seen 
at one time. It is surprising what differences can 
be discovered by an inspection and analysis of this 
sort. A piece of satin and a piece of cotton cloth 
of similar color and tone will vary greatly in 
appearance, and even a light piece of cotton and 
a dark piece of the same material will show marked 
dissimilarity of effect in addition to the contrast 
in color. It is impossible to describe such differ- 
ences in a single chapter, but there are one or 
two suggestions worth offering : first of all, light 
colored cloth usually shows more contrast in its 
values than does darker material of a similar kind, 
as the dark color seems to absorb many of the 
lighter values of shade and shadow. A smooth 
material with a sheen will not look at all like some 
dull fabric of similar tone, as it will have many 
highlights and reflections, and certain fabrics such 
as velours will sometimes appear dark where we 
expect them to be light, and light where other mate- 
rials would be dark, ?nd by nibbing the nap the 
effect can be changed from light to dark or from 
dark to light instantly. Many materials of a shiny 
nature grow dull and soft with age, but there are 
exceptions, for some others, leather, for example, 








A. I.. GVPTILL 192 

Figure 41. A Conventional Drapery Study Combining Free-Hand and Instrumental Lines. 

Note the Simplicity of Treatment. 



often become smooth and glossy with wear. The 
smoother the material, the more complicated and 
changeable are its values, as a rule, and the stronger 
its highlights. Now when it comes to draping fab- 
rics there is great variety in the way they hang, 
for some are stiff and inflexible and others soft 
and yielding. Heavy materials usually hang quite 
straight and show fewer small folds and creases 
than do those which are light in weight. Heavy 
materials, too, are generally opaque and for this 
reason are sometimes less difficult to represent 
than are thin nets and scrims and similar fabrics 
which are so translucent or even transparent as to 
show light, or occasionally objects, through them. 

As soon as the student has carefully studied the 
appearance of all these things he is ready to 
attempt some drawings, giving special attention to 
the representation of surfaces and textures. Where- 
as there is no harm in sketching one single object, 
like an upholstered chair, it is often of greater 
benefit to arrange compositions of several objects 
which are associated by use, and which offer, in 
addition, a variety of surfaces. Old objects such 
as 'are found in museums are especially good for 
practice of this sort as the textures of antiques are 
more varied and interesting than are those of most 
modern pieces. If it is not convenient to do mu- 
seum work, however, things at home will answer 
very well. Arrange an easy chair and a table and 
reading lamp, for instance, in natural position to 
form ^. pleasing group, adding, perhaps, a book or 
magazine and such other accessories as will make 
the composition complete. Have the light coming 
from one direction if this is practical, so as to avoid 
complicated shadows. Then in making the draw- 
ing use the greatest care in suggesting such things 
as the shine of the table top and the floor, the 
numerous touches of highlight, and the texture of 
the rug and the table runner and the lamp shade. 
Try, as in any composition, to properly emphasize 
the center of interest, and give especial attention, 
also, to the treatment of the edges separating the 
light from the shade, having them clean-cut where 
they appear so in the objects and indefinite where 
such an effect seems called for. If a trial proves 
that it is too difficult to draw directly from objects, 
or if it is hard to secure suitable ones, work from 
photographs, instead, selecting those which show 
the detail quite clearly and have little effect of per- 
spective distortion. It is sometimes advantageous 
to choose pictures of period furniture and furnish- 
ings for this work, for by so doing valuable knowl- 
edge of the periods rmy be obtained in addition to 
the drawing practice. 

Figures 38, 39 and 40, accompanying this text, 
require little explanation. Figure 38 is shown 
mainly for the suggestions that it offers for the 
treatment of such textures as we find in the brick- 
work, the rough plaster, the hewn beams and the 

polished floor. It might be well to mention that 
when drawing such a surface as a shiny floor or 
table top it is well to show some lines representing 
the reflections of objects, and others, often in the 
opposite direction, indicating the surfaces of the 
boards themselves. A study of the floor shown 
here will reveal both these sets of lines and for 
additional examples see the top of the dressing table 
and the chair arms and the floors in Figure 40. 
Figure 40, by the way, is a more conventional type 
of rendering than Figure 38, for here the back- 
ground is simply suggested, _all of the attention 
being focused on the furniture itself. Such draw- 
ings as these are often used by furniture houses 
and for advertising work. Observe that in these 
particular examples comparatively little tone is used, 
the white of the paper counting quite strongly. 
Figure 41 is also a conventional rendering, the 
drapery itself receiving all of the attention, the 
architecture being merely suggested by the fewest 
possible lines, and here again much of the paper re- 
mains untouched. One advantage of this type of 
rendering is that after the student has had a reason- 
able amount of practice it can be done very quickly. 
The supplementary illustrations on the following 
pages should prove of great interest and value as 
they are excellent examples of widely different types 
of work. Those by Otto R. Eggers on pages 142 
and 143 were made to show the client how the rooms 
of his house, as designed, could be made to look, 
how the comparatively low ceiling and the simple 
window treatment would produce a dignified and 
home-like effect if the rooms were furnished in a 
suitable manner. These interiors were sketched 
lightly in pencil without being laid out instrumentally. 
The washes of water-color were then applied roughly 
and when dry the sketches were completed with 
lithographic pencil, this procedure being necessary 
as water-color cannot be successfully flowed over 
lithographic pencil lines. The drawing by Mr. Pauli 
on page 144 shows an entirely different handling, the 
whole being carefully blocked out instrumentally and 
finished free-hand in pencil with infinite care, some 
of the instrumental lines being allowed to remain. 
Such drawings as this are often used for catalogue 
purposes where furniture or lighting fixtures or 
things of that sort are advertised. The ceiling draw- 
ing on page 145 also combines free-hand and instru- 
mental work, being a typical vaulting development 
such as is frequently employed by interior decorat- 
ors, this particular study being from the office of 
Theo. Hofstatter & Co. From the same office is the 
drawing of the side table on page 146, which was 
clone in pencil with washes of color added, this pres- 
entation effectively showing the piece in a way to 
give the decorator's client a clear idea of it. 
Now compare these drawings with others in order 
to learn different methods of obtaining similar 
effects, and. what is still more important, prac- 
tice constantly. 













































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Chapter X. 

IN THE last few chapters special attention has 
been given to the representation of minor por- 
tions of both exteriors and interiors of build- 
ings, and it has been pointed out that these small de- 
tails really are the draftsman's A B C's, which he 
should learn before attempting large or important 

His alphabet will not be complete, however, until 
he has added to his knowledge of how to draw 
these elements of a building itself a fund of in- 
formation concerning the indication of such acces- 
sories as clouds, water, automobiles and other 
vehicles, also animals, people and foliage. 

Foliage is especially important as there are com- 
paratively few drawings .of architecture which fail 
to show more or less of it, while in many render- 
ings it occupies a very large and prominent place. 
(We use a broad meaning of the word here, in- 
cluding under the one general term "foliage" not 
only masses of leaves but all such forms of plant 
life as trees, bushes, vines, grass and flowers.) It 
is, in truth, almost as essential to be able to draw 
the natural setting for a building, as it is to draw 
the building itself, and the student should con- 
stantly bear this in mind ; neither should he lose sight 
of the fact that when sketching foliage, especially 
trees, he is acquiring, in addition to a knowledge 
of drawing, certain principles of design directly 
applicable to architectural work, for there is a very 
definite analogy in several ways between trees and 
buildings. As an example of one such similarity, 
suppose we liken a tree to a tall tower. Just as the 
tree starts at the ground with a strong and sturdy 
trunk, and gradually, as it rises in height, becomes 
more complex and delicate in its parts, so, the 
tower, springing likewise from a solid base, becomes 
lighter, also, and its smaller parts more numerous, 
until, finally, as it meets the sky it terminates in 
some crowning feature, graceful in proportion and 
fine in detail. Nor should it be forgotten, when 
studying foliage, that the student is assimilating a 
knowledge of plant form which may be of value 
when designing or drawing ornament, for much 
architectural ornament is either copied more or less 
literally from nature or thoroughly conventionalized 
like the lotus of the Egyptians and the acanthus 
and anthemion of the Greeks. Again, aside from 
all esthetic considerations, the architectural student 
should not overlook the fact that he can acquire 
from the study of trees much valuable knowledge 
of various building and finishing woods. 

It is because of these numerous advantages to be 
gained from a study of trees and their foliage, and 
because there is, too, so much pleasure to be de- 

rived from such a pursuit and especially from the 
outdoor sketching which is so frequently a part of 
it, that we are devoting an entire chapter to its con- 

First of all, before discussing actual means of 
representing foliage, it may be well to point out that 
its frequent employment in drawing is natural, not 
only because we are accustomed to see buildings in 
an environment of green, but also because compo- 
sitions which are otherwise ordinary can be made 
interesting by its use, even "bad" architecture be- 
coming sometimes so improved in effect as to seem 
attractive, if the surrounding planting is well designed 
and rendered, while the beauty of "good" architec- 
ture is correspondingly enhanced by a proper setting. 
Then, too, foliage can probably be put to the great- 
est variety of uses of any of the accessories, and in 
the most ways. Trees, for instance, can be shown 
of any kind and age, thus permitting a wide diver- 
sity of shapes and sizes. Bushes and shrubs can be 
drawn in almost any place and of any reasonable 
proportion desired by the artist, while vines can be 
given an equally free treatment without any feel- 
ing of their being inappropriate or inharmonious. 
Of course in some instances it becomes impossible 
or undesirable to exercise such complete freedom, 
for if a site for a building has already been selected, 
having existing foliage worth retaining, it is usually 
advisable to show with considerable accuracy that 
part which falls within the range of vision, but even 
under these or similar conditions many liberties are 
possible. It is within the artist's province, for ex- 
ample, to decide whether the trees are to be shown 
with or without leaves. Then if he feels that an 
improvement in the composition can be obtained by 
slightly shifting the position of a tree or two, or 
by adding a few bushes or flowers, the privilege is 
his. He can vary his effect, also, by his choice of 
the values used in their representation, employing 
either light or dark tones as he wishes. 

With these facts in mind, consider for a moment 
the common methods of indicating people and ani- 
mals and automobiles and note the contrast that 
such a comparison shows, for though such acces- 
sories as these last are undeniably important, espe- 
cially in renderings of city buildings, it is easy to 
see that the artist finds greater restrictions when 
drawing them. To begin with, they must be shown 
with considerable accuracy of form and size. 
Whereas trees may vary a number of feet in any 
dimension, or somewhat in contour, without attract- 
ing attention to such variations, let a single figure 
be too large or small or poorly drawn, or an auto- 
mobile out of scale, and the fact is usually appar- 





Figure 42. Some Methods of Suggesting Foliage. 



ent. Foliage is, therefore, often rather less difficult 
to represent than are these other accessories, yet 
mainly because of its varied uses it is frequently 
of greater value to the student, especially as a 
means of obtaining satisfactory composition. Warn- 
ing should be given, however, that in architectural 
renderings one should never make the foliage so 
conspicuous that it detracts from the architecture. 

It is not our intention to give the impression that 
the representation of foliage offers no problem, as 
this is not the case, for to draw it well is, indeed, 
far from being a simple matter, in fact, many 
draughtsmen who have little trouble in rendering a 
building find foliage a stumbling block. To draw 
it well one should know it well. Too often begin- 
ners try to sketch from memory, forming masses 
of almost meaningless lines on their paper, trust- 
ing to chance that the result will be satisfactory. 
Perhaps it will, occasionally, but unless one has 
drawn a great deal from nature or at least from 
good photographs, his memory will probably play 
him false or lead him into the common error of 
drawing all foliage alike, for there are many men 
who have acquired the knack of indicating one or 
two typical forms fairly well and who use them 
over and over again regardless of conditions. Such 
repetition of course produces inexcusable monot- 

Whereas it is from such outdoor sketching and 
drawing from photographs as we have just men- 
tioned that one is able to acquire most easily a 
knowledge of foliage representation, it is suggested 
that as a valuable preliminary preparation the stu- 
dent should study his botany, and read, also, some 
of the many excellent books devoted mainly to the 
consideration of trees. (There are plenty such, so 
it seems unnecessary to call attention to any particu- 
lar ones here, though for a concise volume on the 
subject, F. Schuyler Mathews' "Field Book of 
American Trees and Shrubs" is excellent, especially 
from the draughtsman's standpoint, as it is fully 
illustrated with pen, crayon and color reproductions. 
Then there are some written entirely from the art- 
ist's standpoint, among which Rex Vicat Cole's 
"The Artistic Anatomy of Trees" is an excellent 
example, for although it is an English publication 
dealing mainly with trees native to England, it 
nevertheless offers many suggestions applicable to 
the representation of our own trees.) A perusal of 
such volumes will not only familiarize one with the 
names and leading characteristics of the more 
common varieties, and train him in the laws that 
govern their growth, but should, also, strengthen 
his love and appreciation of the beautiful in nature. 
It is by no means necessary to learn all the scientific 
terms employed by the botanist or to memorize more 
than a few of the essential facts, but it is advantag- 
eous to gain enough of a knowledge to enable one to 
answer such questions as the following, What are 
"evergreen" trees? What are "deciduous" trees? 
Name some characteristics of the Pine family; 
of the Maple family ; of the Birch ; of the Beech. 

Do Elms grow in Ohio? Are Hemlocks found in 
Kentucky? Name five trees that are tall and 
pointed. Name five that are short and wide-spread- 
ing- Questions like these may seem unrelated to 

pencil sketching, but they really are not, for the 
architectural delineator may be called upon to make 
sketches for a building in Florida or Maine or Cal- 
ifornia or in some part of the country which he has 
never visited, using trees of an appropriate kind and 
shape. Unless he acquires such a knowledge, there- 
fore, or knows where he can easily secure the infor- 
mation when it is needed, he may make absurd errors. 

It is, of course, especially important for the artist 
to be familiar with the foliage in his own vicinity, 
so as soon as he has gained a considerable amount 
of this "book" lore he is ready to visit a park or 
the country, sketchbook in hand, looking for actual 
examples to illustrate the things which he has read. 
Before starting to draw, it is well to take a walk 
among the trees, comparing one with another, ob- 
serving the shape of the general mass of each, 
analyzing, also, its skeleton of trunk, limbs, branches 
and twigs. Search, meanwhile, for a suitable sub- 
ject for the first sketch. This may be a whole tree, 
or simply some portion of one, or perhaps a pleas- 
ing group of several. In any case the view-finder 
will be of help in selecting an interesting compo- 

At this point it may be well to offer a few prac- 
tical hints, and one is that the best time of day for 
sketching is usually the late afternoon, for the rays 
of the sun are then so slanted as to produce an ex- 
cellent contrast of light and shade and shadow. 
Needless to say, however, there is no time between 
dawn and dark when one cannot sketch to advan- 
tage. The student is wise to sit in the shade, if 
this is possible, or at least to keep the sunlight from 
falling directly on his paper, for a bright glare will 
not only prove trying to the eyes but may prevent 
a correct judgment of the values, especially if one 
is accustomed to spending the greater portion of 
his time indoors. In order to offset to some meas- 
ure the brilliancy of the outdoor light, some art- 
ists use gray or straw-colored paper for sketching 
purposes, which, besides having less tendency to 
cause eye strain, also permits a pleasing use of 
white pencil or chalk for picking out some of the 
high lights. More will be said about such tinted 
paper in another chapter. As to the size of paper, 
anything will do, some of the pocket sketch-books 
being very convenient. The objection to the 
smaller ones is that they prohibit freedom of move- 
ment of the arm and wrist and thus force one into 
unnecessary difficulties. The notebook proportion 
of 8 in. by 10^2 in., which we have previously 
recommended, seems practical, and some artists 
prefer still larger sheets. As the main object of 
outdoor sketching is to record facts in a direct and 
forceful manner, one should not use many grades 
of pencils, for this is no time to worry over tech- 
nique. Have several pencils, however, of each 
selected grade for they wear down rather quickly, 
and be sure to carry a knife as they will need fre- 
quent pointing. 

Now as soon as the subject .for a sketch is 
selected and the materials prepared, make yourself 
as comfortable as circumstances permit, in order 
to have your attention free for the task at hand. In 
this connection another suggestion may prove worth 
mentioning and this is that a newspaper or magazine 



* * 

Figure 44. Additional Studies from Nature and Suggestions for the Uses of Trees 
in Conjunction with Architecture. 



makes a fairly comfortable seat on the ground or 
on some stone or log or wall, if no better one is 

When all is in readiness, proceed with your 
sketch, blocking in the main proportions lightly, in- 
dicating also the lines of the trunk and principal 
branches. Observation will prove that the contour 
of a tree is seldom as round as we sometimes imag- 
ine, in fact the general mass of most trees can be 
bounded by an outline made up largely or wholly 
of straight strokes. When starting a sketch remem- 
ber this truth. Then, once this outline and the main 
subdivisions have been quite definitely established, 
begin the shading, considering carefully the direc- 
tion of the light, studying the subject through partly 
closed eyes in order to eliminate the less essential 
values, remembering the impossibility of drawing 
every leaf and twig. Some foliage masses seem 
very sharp and clean-cut against the sky while 
others soften gradually into the surroundings, so 
it is necessary to choose the type of line best suited 
to the conditions at hand. This choice depends 
partly on the individuality of the artist and the time 
available but mainly on the characteristics of the 
foliage itself. The line which would nicely suggest 
the leafage of the willow might fail, for instance, 
to represent the individuality of the pine. The 
sketches at "1" at the top of Figure 42 show a num- 
ber of ways of building up foliage tone, while at 
"5" sketches "B," "C," "D" and "E" show differ- 
ent methods of representing similar masses. This 
variety of strokes should make it plain to the stu- 
dent that there is no set manner of working. Con- 
sequently sketch the objects before you in what 
seems the most natural way, and if the results are 
not satisfactory try again using some other kind 
of strokes. The type of line employed is of less 
importance than are the values themselves, for if 
these are carefully worked out the tree will seem 
properly modelled to give a sense of depth and pro- 
jection. Use care, too, in suggesting the roundness 
of the branches and trunk, noting the great differ- 
ence in the tone of the bark in sunshine and in 
shade. The shadows cast by the various branches 
on one another are worthy of special attention as 
are also those cast by each tree on the ground and 
on surrounding trees or buildings, in fact, so far 
as architectural purposes are concerned, it is most 
essential to be familiar with tree shadows as they 
appear when falling on the walls or roofs of build- 
ings and on the lawns and sidewalks. 

Because of the many difficulties encountered 
when drawing entire trees it is often well to sketch 
first of all certain portions only, making studies 

somewhat similar to "2," "3" and "5A," Figure 42. 
After a number of these have been done it is time 
to attempt complete single trees such as those on 
Figure 43, adding a bit of the surroundings if you 
choose. Later try groups of two or more trees, as 
indicated at "1," Figure 44. This sort of work is 
most important, but neither should hedges and 
bushes and grass be neglected, so make some studies 
similar to "2A," Figure 44, and even some of rocks 
and ledges such as those at "2" and "5F," Figure 
42, and "2B," Figure 44, for though these cannot 
be classified under jhe term "foliage" they can be 
studied to advantage at this time. It is not enough 
to sketch nearby trees, but those in the distance 
should be done as well, Sketch 3, Figure 44, show- 
ing the simplicity which is often found in far away 
foliage. It is sometimes advisable to draw the same 
tree from both near at hand and from the distance, 
and it is also beneficial to sketch it at different 
seasons of the year, for it is in the winter when 
the leaves are gone that the best opportunity is 
presented for studying the tree "skeleton." If the 
winter proves too cold for outdoor work several 
photographs might be taken to be sketched la*er, 
the first when the limbs are bare and others in the 
spring, showing the leafage at various stages in its 
development. During all of this study and sketch- 
ing try to memorize the leading characteristics, for 
by so doing you will build a firm foundation for 
future memory work. It might be well, in closing, 
to point out the desirability of preserving all such 
sketches, for no matter how incomplete or imper- 
fect they may seem, when foliage is required in 
later renderings they will offer many suggestions of 
great value, for the only real difference between the 
work from nature and that done in architectural 
renderings is that in the case of the latter the foliage 
is made rather inconspicuous and is also in many 
cases given a more conventional handling. 

At "4," Figure 44. are shown six "thumb nail" 
sketches of the same house done from the imagina- 
tion, each with a distinctive foliage treatment. 
These show only a few of numerous possible 
schemes which could be devised by the student to 
meet similar conditions, but in order to success- 
fully develop any of them at large scale the kind 
of knowledge gained from outdoor work would 
be of great help. 

It is suggested that the reader study at this time 
the various drawings of trees which are found from 
place to place in this volume, and especially the 
masterly outdoor sketches by Mr. Hermann on pages 
150, 154 and 155, which are excellent examples of 
studies made directly from nature. 











1C ^ 










Chapter XL 

IN LATER chapters we will consider the render- 
ing of large buildings, the decorative handling of 
architectural subjects, and the uses of tinted pa- 
per, colored pencils, etc., but before doing so it seems 
advisable in this chapter and the next to round out 
our discussion of architectural accessories by touch- 
ing upon the representation of water, skies, clouds, 
people and vehicles, repeating for the purpose of 
emphasis a few of the suggestions already given and 
adding such others as seem essential. 

Needless to say these accessories are of sufficient 
importance to deserve a more exhaustive treatment 
than this, but the student who is interested in ob- 
taining additional information can find many spe- 
cial treatises devoted entirely to these and similar 
subjects. There are various publications, for in- 
stance, describing the different kinds of clouds, and 
numerous books on figure drawing and anatomy ; 
the recent book on figure drawing by Mr. Bridge- 
man, "The Human Figure" by John H. Vander- 
poel, "Figure Drawing and Composition" by R. G. 
Hatton, as well as volumes on composition with 
chapters on the arrangement of groups of figures. 
The student is advised to consult books of this sort, 
and it seems hardly necessary to add that the knowl- 
edge thus acquired should be supplemen'ed by 
sketching nil these things directly from nature or 
from the object, taking a course in life drawing 
(if this is possible) as a means of acquiring not 
only an understanding of the human figure but ex- 
cellent training in drawing as well. 

Now let us turn to a brief consideration of the 
representation of water, and suppose we liken it in 
appearance, for a moment, to window glass. 

We have mentioned in a former chapter the com- 
plicated effect of glass, but if that offers difficulties 
to the student, so indeed does water, in fact, the 
latter is even harder to draw well, for whereas the 
former has the two important characteristics of 
transparency and power to reflect images of ob- 
jects, water not only has these but adds to them a 
new peculiarity in that its surface is constantly 
changing in form, being smooth one moment, 
rippled the next, 'and disturbed a little later, per- 
haps, into large waves. Smooth water often gives 
as perfect a reflection as does a mirror, yet under 
slightly altered conditions the images pre distorter! 
or destroyed or the surface becomes like a trans- 
parent pane of glass, the bed or bottom below being 
plainly visible. Again such water sometimes seems 
opacme and lifeless, the surface alone being- visible. 
Such appearances and changes are due in part to 
three conditions: First, the depth, color and purity 
of the water; second, the point from which it is 

viewed, and lastly, the angle at which the rays of 
light reach its surface. Deep, pure water, for in- 
stance, is usually, if still, an almost perfect mirror, 
especially if we look along it rather than straight 
from above, but in a shallow or muddy stream or 
pool the reflected images are often merged or 
blended with the tone of the water itself and with 
that of the bottom showing through, distorted by 
refraction. If we look directly down upon water 
it seems far more transparent, as a rule, than when 
viewed in a more-nearly horizontal direction and 
this is true whether it is smooth or rather rough. 
It is true, too, that when the light rays reach the 
surface at some angles, reflections which otherwise 
exist wholly or partially disappear, and the effect 
of transparency is lost also, the surface becoming 
apparently opaque. This refers to calm water. Let 
the slightest breeze ruffle the surface and the com- 
plications are still greater. And each civ nge in 
the force or direction of the wind causes a still dif- 
ferent effect. These things all show the impossi- 
bility of giving definite rules as to how water should 
be rendered and make it plain that only personal 
observation and practice will bring any real pro- 
ficiency in its treatment. 

There are, however, a few suggestions that may 
be of help to the studen\ one of which is that the 
greatest care must be exercised to have the lines 
bounding any body of water correctly drawn, for 
unless this is done distortion may appear, the water 
seeming to slope or bend in an unnatural m-'nner. 
It may be well to point out that in a large lake or 
sea where the farther shore is invisible because of 
distance the horizon line for the water will coincide 
with the eye level for any visible buildings. Occa- 
sionally, however, this line is "faked," up or down 
a bit, if a better composition can be obtained 
thereby. In smaller bodies the distant shore lines, 
unless viewed from a very high point, also appear 
practically horizontal. Once the outline is correct 
it is well to block in whatever definite reflections 
there may be, drawing them with the greatest care. 
If the water is smooth the reflection of an object 
will appear very much as the object itself would 
if suspended in an inverted position. If the water 
is roueh the reflection will be more or less elongated 
and distorted, for the Waves will act like a series 
of convex and concave mirrors, the amount of 
elongation depending on the size and shape of the 
waves. This is illustrated at "1," Figure 45, where 
at A the reflection practically duplicates the object, 
while at B the waves in the foreground show bits 
of reflection thus elongating the whole image. Such 
images are often slightly darker than the object 




ana cJoua f"e /* 


6vt Id in of' 

Figure 46. Clouds aj Seen in Nature and as Used in Conjunction with Architecture. 



reflected though the re\*erse is sometimes true, and 
they are usually quite definite near the object and 
more and more broken and interrupted by contrast- 
ing values as the distance from the object increases. 

Another very important point is that in represent- 
ing a large body of water account should be taken 
of the 'fact that nearby waves appear larger than 
those in the distance; consequently larger pencil 
strokes are often employed in their indication. Re- 
member, too, that the distant shore is usually rather 
indistinct, therefore it should be shown so, with 'all 
detail subordinated."^ 

The general tone of water often depends on its 
reflective power. If a sky is light, for instance, the 
water will be quite light also, as a rule, especially 
if smooth, and vice versa, though there are many 
exceptions to this. 

So great is the variety in the effect of water that 
every sort of line is needed for its indication. 
Vertical strokes are often satisfactory when it is 
smooth, whereas those of a generally horizontal 
direction are sometimes better when it shows ripples 
or waves. The sketches in Figure 45 offer a num- 
ber of suggestions for water, using different 
strokes. Perhaps the only one of these needing spe- 
cial comment is that at B sketch 4, showing the 
wet streets. This has been presented because de- 
lineators of architectural subjects sometimes show 
wet streets and sidew'alks in their renderings, 
mainly for the purpose of introducing a little inter- 
est- and preventing a hackneyed result, and such 
sketches as this offer suggestions for that kind of 
work. On wet sidewalks and streets as well as 
where water is of greater depth it is usually well to 
combine with the lines suggesting reflection, others, 
generally opposite in direction, indicating the sur- 
face itself. 

Before leaving this subject it may be well to 
mention' that shadows are often cast upon water by 
various objects, the dark tone having a tendency to 
cause the water to appear still darker ; this is sim- 
ply another of the many complications that make 
a thorough study of the whole matter essential. 

Now let us give a few moments' thought to the 
indication of skies and clouds, which are, perhaps, 
as easy to handle in pencil as any of the accessories. 
A few suggestions on essential points should prove 
sufficient for it is by no means necessary to attempt 
more than a simple sky treatment in the average 
architectural drawing. It is, in fact, often possible 
to allow the white of the paper to remain untouched 
or to cover it with a uniform tone of gray or to 
grade it in the simplest manner from dark above to 
light at the horizon. The value selected usually 
depends on the tone of the building illustrated ; 
when it' is dark in color or has a dark roof the sky 
is left light, but if light it is sometimes shown 
against a dark sky in order to secure a satisfy- 
ing contrast, as in sketch 5, Figure 46. These 
simple treatments are especially appropriate in ren- 
derings of formal buildings where many clouds 
might prove distracting. Picturesque buildings per- 
mit greater freedom, for^he accessories should have 
a character similar to that of the building, but 
even these informal structures may be left with 
white paper for the sky if there is foliage and the 

like to add interest to the whole. It is perhaps in 
the representation of very plain buildings with a 
rather monotonous setting that clouds serve the 
best purpose,- for even though restrictions prevent 
the use of trees or other accessories, there is seldom 
an exterior drawing in which clouds cannot be em- 
ployed if one wishes, and nature gives us so many 
kinds and arranges them in so many ways that there 
is always opportunity for an appropriate selection. 
A building of awkward proportion or displeasing 
contour can be so disguised by skilful sky treatment 
as to take on a far different 'aspect, and perspective 
distortion can likewise be hidden in many cases, or 
made less conspicuous, while the shadows cast by 
clouds can also be used to great advantage, thrown 
across a monotonous roof or wall surface or upon 
the ground. Clouds, like other accessories, should 
never be made too prominent, however. Some stu- 
dents draw the masses so round that the curves fail 
to harmonize with the straight lines of the architec- 
ture while others form such "wooly" strokes or such 
rough textures that no sense of distance is obtained, 
the clouds seeming nearer perhaps than the archi- 
tecture itself. Each line and tone should quietly 
take its place. So unless a drawing is large or 
done with a very bold, vigorous technique, lather 
light but firm strokes would seem best, using a 
medium or hard pencil and striving for a silvery- 
gray line, for smoothness suggests distance. Again, 
as skies seem softer in effect and the individual 
clouds smaller in size and less definite as they recede 
towards the horizon, it is best, as a rule, to have 
the boldest strokes and the largest and most definite 
masses near the zenith. Storm clouds, especially 
those showing strongly contrasting forms and 
values, are seldom desirable in architectural work, 
and sunrise or sunset effects detract, unless skil- 
fully handled, from the architecture itself. 

In the actual representation of clouds two meth- 
ods are common, one being the simple indication of 
the forms by outline alone ; the other a naturalistic 
rendering of the full tone. As the former obviously 
requires less time it is often the more desirable one, 
though the choice really depends on what seems de- 
manded by the remainder of the drawing. Avoid 
too mechanical an outline in any case, but work in- 
stead for a suggestion of the variety of mass and 
edge found in nature, giving special care to the 
suggestion of modelling, remembering that clouds 
are not the flat disks that students sometime repre- 
sent them to be. 

Figure 46 shows a number of sketches from na- 
ture such as the student should make for purposes 
of study, and several others showing sky treatments 
applied to architectural subjects. We should per- 
haps remind the reader, before going on, that clouds 
are possibly the one thing in nature least affected 
in appearance by man, for though he may destroy 
forests and alter shore lines, they continue to go 
their own way uninterrupted. 

Now we turn to a consideration of the represen- 
tation of what is perhaps the most difficult of all 
the architectural accessories, the human figure. 
It is not our purpose to discuss at any length the 
drawing of the individual figure, but rather to 
offer a few suggestions for the use of figures as 



.: ' 
- '- 


Civ IR. Ail 

fit ft f 



../v r 

Figure 47. Illustrating Certain Principles Regarding the Representation of Figures 

as Accessories to Architecture. 



they form a part of an architectural setting, and 
right at the start it is well to state that it is 
better to omit figures entirely than to draw them 
poorly. This should not be interpreted to mean that 
they must be indicated with photographic accuracy 
in fact, it is often possible to suggest them satis- 
factorily in what seems a rather careless manner, 
omitting or subordinating the features and other 
detail, especially if the scale is small. It does 
mean, however, that the first impression gained 
when one looks at the drawing should be of pro- 
fessional excellence rather than of an amateurish 
attempt at something beyond one's capabilities. The 
figures should be correct in size, as they give scale 
to the architecture itself, and should be arranged 
in a natural disposition, so grouped that they aid, 
rather than injure, the unity and balance of the 
composition ; considerable practice is necessary to 
enable one to do this well. There should be a pleas- 
ing variety, too, in their selection, using figures of 
men, women and children if many people are shown. 
Choose the number and type, also, that are appro- 
priate to the location of the building. In picturing 
a railroad station, for instance, show people with 
suitcases or hand bags, also railroad porters and the 
like. When drawing an office building have busi- 
ness men, stenographers, postmen, telegraph mes- 
sengers, etc., with most of the figures in action. At 
a summer hotel, on the other hand, we would find 
people dressed for bathing, boating, riding, tennis, 
golf, and other sports, or leisurely enjoying them- 
selves dressed in appropriate summer clothes. Need- 
less to say, fashions should be up-to-date in such 
a scene, but by all means avoid the unnatural people 
often found in the conventional "fashion drawings." 
Be especially careful not to have the figures too 
straight and stiff; this is a very common fault. Use 
care also not to make foreground figures so large 
or important that they dwarf the architecture or 
lead the eye from it. Occasionally people so near 
as to be exceptionally prominent are made slightly 
smaller than they would actually be, though such 
liberties should never be taken unless one has suf- 
ficient experience to enable him to do so to the best 
advantage, and a figure beside the building pictured 

should always be of correct size or a wrong im- 
pression of scale will be given. Too many figures 
spotted around carelessly will destroy balance, so, 
in composing, plan for the eye to be lead gradually 
from one group to another. It should not be in- 
ferred from this that all drawings demand a number 
of figures, for this is not true. Sketches of resi- 
dences seldom need more than two or three at the 
most and 'are frequently made with none at all and 
a single person standing beside any building is 
enough to give scale and can be done in a very sim- 
ple, conventional manner. Period costumes are 
sometimes used for such figures, a Colonial lady or 
gentleman being shown, for instance, at the door 
of a Colonial mansion. 

Figure 47 shows at 1 the steps sometimes gone 
through in drawing a figure. At A the salient points 
have been established, at B the outline is completed, 
while C gives us the finished result ; D simply adds 
a somewhat more sketchy indication of the same 
person standing before a window, and serves to 
remind us that the technique used for figures should 
harmonize with that of the rest of the drawing. 
At 2 is a quick suggestion of men walking, while 
3 and 5 show a number of action sketches, very 
hastily done. Sketch 4 is a bit of street scene 
such as might be used as a portion of a large render- 
ing. Perfect drawing and finish is by no means 
necessary in this sort of work. 

Vehicles, 'automobiles, and similar accessories 
require no special instructions, as catalogues and 
other advertising matter give many excellent illus- 
trations which can be adapted to the work at hand. 
Be sure to draw them in correct perspective in rela- 
tion to the buildings, and of proper size; neither 
should you m'ake the mistake of showing any vehicles 
drawn or parked on the wrong side of the street. 

Horses, dogs and other animals require as much 
skill to draw 'as do people and unless one is confi- 
dent of his ability he will do well to omit them en- 
tirely or to get assistance from someone with greater 

The reader is advised to review at this time Chap- 
ter VII, Part I, on Life Drawing, and Chapter VIII. 
Part I, which discusses more fully the sketching of 

Chapter XII. 

WE HAVE mentioned in previous chapters 
that all pencil drawings are somewhat con- 
ventional in treatment, the objects being 
rendered more according to rule or precedent than 
by attempting to duplicate nature or fact. Nature 
shows us color, for instance, which in black-and- 
white drawings can be suggested only in a some- 
what meager manner, and she makes no use of 
outline, so firmly established by convention in pen- 
cil representation. She gives us also such ex- 
treme brilliancy of sunlight that it is obviously 
impossible to adequately portray it on paper, so 
here too we resort to convention for its sugges- 
tion. There are certain conventions, then, that 
are forced upon us because of our inability to suc- 
cessfully picture some of nature's complexities, but 
there are many others which are entirely a matter 
of choice. It is within the power of the skilled art- 
ist to approximate, if he desires, the forms and the 
values (with the exception of the more brilliant 
ones) of objects in nature, but, mainly because it 
has been found that such drawings as most closely 
approach perfection in this direction are usually too 
photographic in effect to prove pleasing from an 
aesthetic standpoint, there has always been an at- 
tempt to obtain a somewhat individual interpreta- 
tion rather than mere excellence of depiction. In 
striving for such expression, artists have developed 
conventional methods of their own, or have copied 
from their predecessors and contemporaries such 
ideas as have strongly appealed to them, with the 
result that the student now finds unlimited sugges- 
tions from which he may select those that he de- 
sires, modifying them to suit his problems and his 
personal tastes. Most draftsmen have a leaning 
towards some definite type of work ; some like 
the naturalistic, for instance, while there are others 
who take greater pleasure in employing a style which 
is more highly conventionalized, adding a certain 
decorative quality, perhaps, to all that they do ; 
who so compose their masses and arrange their lines 
that regardless of the objects represented this qual- 
ity is conspicuous. Now the average architectural 
subject fails to lend itself readily to such treatment, 
as the tnor photographic type of work better ex- 
presses, from the client's standpoint, the character 
of buildings, but there are, nevertheless, some classes 
of drawings in which .''rchitecture is prominently 
shown, but where composition and technique of a 
decorative nature seem more essential than does a 
truthful delineation of the architecture itself and 
its surroundings, and it is this type with which we 
are especially concerned just now. 

Rendering of this sort is used for so great a va- 

riety of purposes and is handled in so many dif- 
ferent ways that we can hardly do more here than 
attempt to show its importance, pointing out to the 
draftsman that his knowledge of sketching and ren- 
dering will not be well rounded out until he has 
given this decorative style his careful consideration. 
(In this connection we urge him to collect and 
study many examples by different artists, copying 
such drawings or portions of drawings as make a 
strong appeal.) 

Among the uses of such drawings may be men- 
tioned the illustration of types of advertising mat- 
ter in which drawings of buildings, or parts of 
buildings, are required or the making of magazine 
covers, the designing of title pages, or the illustra- 
tion of certain classes of books and articles, such 
as those pertaining to the purchase or furnishing 
of the home (and others of similar nature) or, 
again, the drawing of decorative headings, marginal 
sketches and tailpieces. 

It should not be supposed from what is said 
above, that architectural perspectives of proposed 
buildings for submission to the client cannot be 
done satisfactorily in a decorative manner, for if 
the style is not forced the results may be very pleas- 
ing without detraction from the subject, and even 
the more naturalistic type of drawing cm be made 
somewhat decorative in effect, if it seems desirable 
to do so, by the addition of an ornamental border 
or lettered inscription or something of that sort. 
There are many drawings, however, wh^re the 
architecture is simply a part of the decoration, be- 
ing sometimes entirely imaginary or perhaps dis- 
torted into forms which would be impossible to 
build or undesirable if built, yet which add nfcely 
to the decorative appearance. In such work the 
drawing is not a means to an end (as is the average 
architectural rendering) but is an end" in itself, and 
as its main purpose is frequently to catch and hold 
the attention, as in advertising work, prominence 
is therefore often given to such architectural feat- 
ures as are considered quaint and picturesque. 
Thatched and tiled roofs are popular, for example; 
as are huge chimneys, windows with shutters of 
unusual design, flower boxes, lattices, garden gate- 
ways, etc., birdhouses, weathervanes and sundials, 
rainwater leaders and leader-heads, door knockers, 
ornamental hinges, and so on. 

It is not only in the selection of these details, 
however, but it is in their arrangement as well that 
the picturesque is sought, for the spacing of the 
windows and doors, in fact all those parts. often 
depends more on what looks interesting and- attrac- 
tive than on what would be practical. The search 


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for the picturesque is not confined to the architec- 
ture, for trees and shrubs of all sorts are utilized, 
distorted into any shape and arranged in any way 
that pleases the fancy of the artist. Flowers of un- 
heard-of species grow in curiously fashioned pots 
or are grouped in beds of fanciful design while 
clouds are piled in the sky in a manner wholly with- 
out precedent in nature. The technique is as 
varied, too, as the selection, all sorts and kinds of 
lines being used in every possible way. One should 
not gain the impression from all this, however, 
that these things are jumbled together in a haphaz- 
ard manner, for quite the opposite is true, the 
greatest pains being usually taken that the com- 
pleted whole shall be a beautiful and interesting de- 
sign, rendered in an attractive manner, and although 
in much of this work the imagination is given free 
play, it is by no means permitted to run riot. 

Many of these decorative renderings are done in 
pen-and-ink or wash or some medium other than 
pencil, but as in nearly every case careful pencil 
preparation is required, regardless of the medium 
used for completing the final drawing, the subject 
seems to fall within our scope. In fact the impor- 
tance of such preparation cannot be over empha- 
sized. When a decorative sketch is desired the cus- 
tomary method of proceedure is the same as we 
have explained for other pencil work, for once the 
artist has conceived his scheme a number of rough 
sketches are generally made first of all at small 
scale, from which the best is selected for further 
study, following which larger scale sketches are 
drawn, frequently on tracing paper and one over 
the other, changes and corrections being performed 
as the work progresses. When the design meets 
the requirements and satisfies the artist it is trans- 
ferred to the final paper and completed. The num- 
ber of studies made from start to finish depends on 
the skill of the artist and on the kind and size and 
importance of the problem. 

At "1," Figure 48, is a "fine line" pencil sketch 
of a decorative nature, and yet the naturalistic 
effect is not in this case wholly lost ; in fact one 
can gain a clear conception of the building and its 
environment in spite of the decorative character 
of the rendering. At "2" and "3" are several other 
suggestions, showing a somewhat similar treatment 
of smaller subjects, and in these, too, architecture 
of a practical nature has been indicated. 

Not infrequently artists make decorative sketches 
just as a pastime, either combining existing ele- 
ments, or fragments of some definite style, into a 
decorative arrangement or composing fanciful de- 
signs entirely from the imagination. In such pro- 
jects no limitations of any sort are present unless 
the designer wishes to impose them upon himself, 
so he is able to forget the many handicaps that 
ordinarily restrict him in every direction and find 
an opportunity to lose himself for the moment in 
these creations of his imagination. 

Uses of Color Mention pencil sketching or ren- 
dering to the average individual and he immediately 
conjures up in his mind a visualization of the mak- 
ing of the customary type of drawing such as we 
find in common use, done on white paper, as a 

rule, and with ordinary graphite pencils. This is 
only natural, for a large majority of sketches are 
done with these mediums and in this way, and it is 
because of the frequency with which they are found 
that so much has been written in previous chapters 
referring especially to this everyday sort of repre- 

There is, however, another class of work which 
comes within the scope of our subject yet which 
differs in many respects from the type just men- 
tioned, and which, in so differing-, offers -so many 
opportunities for variety, both in the selection of 
materials and in the technique employed, that it 
finds special favor among those who prefer to 
break away from the commonplace and exercise 
their abilities in a less restricted field, one which 
offers, in fact, unlimited opportunities for indi- 
vidual expression. For it is our present purpose 
to describe briefly some of the uses of papers of 
various tints and shades ; to touch upon the em- 
ployment of wax crayons, lithographic pencils 
and the like; to point out also a few of the ad- 
vantages of colored pencils, and most important 
of all, perhaps, to describe some of the many suc- 
cessful combinations of two or more media, such 
as pencil tinted with water color, water color 
touched up with pencil, and colored crayon ac- 
cented with brown ink. 

A glance at the appended list (on page 170 
concluding this text) which shows some of these 
combinations, will emphasize the futility of even 
attempting an adequate exposition of our sub- 
ject within a single chapter, but if the student 
desires to acquire a more complete knowledge of 
some of these inexhaustible possibilities for ob- 
taining effective results, let him study such ex- 
amples as he finds available, and then take his 
own tinted papers and his pencils and colors and 
work out for himself such ideas as make the 
strongest appeal to him. 

First of all it is well to learn what the market 
affords in the way of materials for such work, 
for too many artists are ignorant of the numerous 
kinds of pencils and crayons and papers and the 
like that have been prepared to serve him. So 
multitudinous are these offerings, in fact, and so 
varied, that to recommend any particular ones 
here might handicap rather than help, for it is 
best for each student to experiment with all these 
things himself. As an instance of the wealth of 
drawing materials at our disposal, inquiry of any 
large dealer in artist's supplies for black pencils 
and crayons alone will bring out many sorts, 
each having its individual characteristics and 
uses. Some give a shiny and some a dull tint or 
tone, some are easily erased while others 
smear and smudge when rubbed or are practically 
indelible. There are those which offer resistance 
to water, too, and others so soluble as to blur or 
wash off under its application. Then again, the 
extreme softness of some prevents a firm line 
while in others brittleness makes a sharp point 
impossible. Now just as these pencils vary, so 
also do the numerous colored ones, hence con- 
siderable testing is necessary if one desires to 
ascertain their possibilities and limitations, but 
once such a knowledge is obtained and along with 




Figure 49. Some Sketches Done with Black and White Pencils on Dark Green Paper, the Highlights, 
Being Sharpened with Chinese White Applied with a Brush. 



it a reasonable facility in handling, it will be 
realized that notwithstanding these differences 
each kind of pencil or crayon, whether black or 
white or colored, is capable of serving a useful 
purpose. It is not only in pencils and crayons 
that we find a wide diversity, however, for papers 
are multifarious also, and in addition to the num- 
erous kinds, both white and colored, especially 
prepared for artists, wrapping paper, cover 
papers, mat stock and the like are used, even wall 
paper of some sorts occasionally iinding favor. 
The beginner increases his difficulties, however, 
if he selects papers which do not permit of con- 
sideiable erasure. In this connection attention is 
directed to the fact that erasers have individual 
characteristics, also, and some which prove 
satisfactory on certain papers, or for erasing 
some grades of pencils or crayons, are useless 
with others, so here again personal experimenta- 
tion is desirable, seeking all the time for ideal 
combinations of pencil, paper and eraser. 

Now in order that the student who is accus- 
tomed to working in the usual manner on white 
paper may become acquainted gradually with 
these materials and methods which are new to 
him, it is suggested that as a rirst step the same 
pencils and technique be employed as for this 
familiar type of drawing, but with some tinted 
paper such as cream or buff or light gray sub- 
stituted for the customary white. This brings in 
little that is different yet the effect gained is 
often very interesting, and if one cares to go a 
bit further and the subject seems to suggest it, a 
few touches of high light may be added with a 
white pencil or crayon or with Chinese white or 
some similar water color. Do not forget, how- 
ever, that water color causes thin paper to wrinkle 
and buckle out of shape unless mounted, and in- 
jures or destroys the gloss of glazed paper, 
though there is a difference in the appearance of 
various white pigments when dry, some being 
flat or dull and others shiny. 

As the ordinary pencil line has more or less 
gloss, some artists prefer, especially when using 
pencils in connection with other mediums, to em- 
ploy such kinds as give a dull effect. It is ad- 
visable, then, for the student to become familiar 
with these, so as soon as fairly satisfactory re- 
sults have been obtained with the usual pencils 
on the tinted paper, it might be well, before at- 
tempting any of the more difficult combinations, 
to try out, first on white and later on tinted 
paper, the various black pencils and crayons, 
making, perhaps, on each sheet of paper used 
several comparative sketches, for by so doing one 
can most easily learn the adaptability of each ' 
particular pencil to the paper and to the subject 
represented. Then when numerous experiments 
have been made with the black pencils on various 
papers try colored pencils. As their use leads to 
new difficulties it is best for the beginner to con- 
fine his attempts to one or two colors, using a 
red or brown tone, for example, making an entire 
drawing with the one pencil. Surprisingly pleas- 
ing results are frequently obtained in this mari- 
ner, the effect being somewhat similar to that of 
the red chalk drawings often made by the old 
masters. Whereas white paper may be used for 

this work, lightly tinted sheets will do nicely too, 
offering again the opportunity for added high- 
lights if they are felt to be desirable. Though 
charming sketches are found in which pencils or 
crayons of many colors have been employed, the 
beginner should bear in mind that unless he has 
had training in color harmony or has an excellent 
innate color sense, the difficulties of combining 
the various hues will be far from negligible, es- 
pecially if the paper is not white. For this reason 
it might be better for him to first turn his atten- 
tion to some of the more simple combinations of 
mediums, such as pencil and a wash of monotone. 
Some of his old drawings might be utilized to 
advantage in this connection, treating them in 
different ways. Take one of these, for instance, 
and run a light wash of yellow ochre or Naples 
yellow or some other simple tint uniformly over 
the whole thing, bringing the wash to an even 
edge a quarter of an inch or so outside the mar- 
gin line all around. The effect will resemble to 
some extent that obtained by using paper of a 
similar tint, with the one exception that the pig- 
ment will have a tendency to soften the lines of the 
pencil, removing more or less of the gloss, and so 
"fixing" the lines that they will smudge less easily 
than before. Another scheme is to apply a wash 
of gray of a tone somewhat like that of the pencil 
lines themselves to such portions of the drawing 
as need to be toned down or pulled together. A 
sky may be grayed, for instance, in order to in- 
crease the contrast of a building against it, or a 
lawn may be simplified by passing a wash from one 
end to the other, and not only are such results often 
very pleasing but time can frequently be saved by 
thus combining the wash work with the pencil, as 
it is much quicker as a rule to cover a surface with 
the brush than with the smaller point. Pencils can 
be used very often in drawing fine detail and the 
brush then taken up for the larger work, or if this 
larger work has been done with the pencil but the 
values seem too light or complicated they may be 
toned to the desired depth or satisfactorily simpli- 
fied by wash. For such work ivory black, lamp 
black, neutral tint, sepia, india ink or any such pig- 
ments will do or a ..gray can be mixed by combin- 
ing two or more neutralizing colors. 

Now just as tints of monotone can be used in 
connection with pencil work so can tints of several 
hues, in fact the author has found that a great de- 
mand exists among the architects for such render- 
ings, as they afford an opportunity for a suggestion 
of the colors of the building materials and the sur- 
roundings, thus adding greater interest and value. 
As a rule a drawing to be so tinted is completed 
in the usual manner in pencil and then very trans- 
parent washes of the desired hues are flowed over 
the various parts. When using this method there 
are several points worth remembering, and one is 
that the color should be applied in very light tints 
rather than in' more nearly its full intensity, for the 
result should count pri'ilarily as pencil work, with 
the tints of secondary importance, and much of 
the charm is lost if the colors do become so conspic- 
uous as to compete with the pencilling for su- 
premacy. If such prominent color is desired it is 























better to make the usual sort of water color draw- 
ing and be done with it, so subordinating the pen- 
cilling that it becomes in itself almost negligible, serv- 
ing simply as a guide for the color work. Another 
point is that when tints are to be used, whether of 
monochrome or varied colors, it is well to first flow 
one or two washes of clear water over the entire 
paper, for this will remove the shine of the pencil 
to a large extent, thus insuring greater harmony 
between the pencil strokes and brush work, and 
will at the same time act as a cleansing agent re- 
moving superfluous pencil dust and preparing the 
paper surface for the subsequent tints. Again, as 
some tints are quite transparent and others rather 
opaque, a c;ireful choice should be made, the trans- 
parent ones being generally considered best for this 
sort of work. As the chief objection made to 
tinted pencil drawings is that the shiny lines and 
dull washes have dissimilar characteristics, it is 
better, when it is known in advance that washes 
are to be applied, to select one of the special pencils 
that gives a dull instead of a glossy line, thus avoid- 
ing any unpleasantness from this source. As some 
pencils such as the lithographic ones offer little re- 
sistance to water, however, they are hardly suitable 
for such work, so if a new kind of pencil is used, 
tests should be made beforehand to make sure the 
line will stand washing. 

This brings us to another method of combining 
pencil and color, one which is perhaps less com- 
monly used but which offers at the same time op- 
portunity for excellent results, especially in the 
making of quick sketches. In this method the ob- 
ject pictured is outlined in pencil in the usual way 
and washes of water color are added, much as 
would be done in making the regular sort of water- 
color sketch. When the general tones have been 
thus obtained, a pencil which will give a dull line 
is selected and used for adding accents and finish- 
ing touches : usually this is black but sometimes 
one or more colored pencils prove more effective. 
These need not, of course, be proof against wa*er 
as they are not employed until the surface is dry. 
The two delightful sketches of interiors by Mr. 
Otto R. Eggers, on pages 142 and 143. Chapter 
IX, Part II, were touched up with litho- 
graphic pencil after the washes were applied, thus 
illustrating the method just described. A similar 
method offers a means of improving such portions 
of water-color renderings .as become muddy, losing 
their crispness and directness, for under such con- 
ditions a few touches or accents of colored pencil 
or crayon or pastel often do much towards over- 
coming the difficulties and securing the desired 
effect. There are, in fact, numerous ways of com- 
bining water color and colored pencils pleasingly, 
washes being sometimes applied over the pencil 
work, in contrast to the method just mentioned. 
Occasionally ink lines are added to these others, in 
fact very effective results can be obtained on tinted 
paper by sketching in the forms with brown ink, 
next adding a few washes of color, finally touch- 
ing up the whole with crisp strokes of black or 
colored pencils. 

Colored pencils alone produce pleasing results 

also, especially if used on tinted paper or board, 
and a very satisfactory combination is gray or buff 
board, brown ink, one or two colored pencils and 
a white pencil or Chinese white. 

So numerous are the possibilities of thus employ- 
ing several mediums in one sketch that we cannot 
hope to describe them all here, in fact, words fail 
to convey an adequate impression of such subtle- 
ties of tone and color, so we must leave the stu- 
dent to perform his own experiments and arrive at 
his own results. Before closing, though, just an- 
other word regarding papers and some of the me- 
diums best suited to special surfaces. 

The kid-finish bristol board such as we have pre- 
viously recommended for pencil work takes light 
tints nicely and does not warp badly if the entire 
surface of the sheet is first wet with water. If it 
should buckle out of shape in spite of this precau- 
tion it may be thoroughly dampened after the ren- 
dering is entirely completed, and put to press for a 
few hours between two drawing boards held to- 
gether with weights. Thin drawing papers are best 
if mounted before the washes are applied. Then 
even if they do wrinkle somewhat as they are damp- 
ened, they will dry back into shape. Some grades 
of tracing paper are excellent for wash work if 
floated or stretched beforehand, or if used without 
stretching they permit of interesting results of an- 
other kind, for if quite thin, colored pencils may be 
effectively used on the back of the paper, just as is 
frequently done in preparing house plans, thus per- 
mitting the color to show through, or delicate tones 
of pastel may be rubbed on the front, accented with 
as many pencil lines as seem necessary. Another 
useful fact is that regardless of how white in ap- 
pearance tracing paper may seem to be, Chinese 
white will always stand out against it distinctly, 
hence it is useful for highlights. One of the most 
effective kinds of quick sketches is made by first 
outlining the masses with brown ink on tracing 
paper, next pencilling the darker tones in black or 
such a_ color as conditions seem to demand, finally 
adding Chinese white on the lighter portions. 
Brown ink is recommended for such purposes rather 
than black as the lines seem less hard and mech- 
anical and harmonize because of their color with the 
other mediums, and at the same time better rep- 
resent the hues of such materials as brick, tile, tim- 
ber work, etc., which are often of a color similar to 
that of the ink itself. 

The illustrations accompanying this chapter show 
some of the combinations here described but it 
should be understood that in the processes of re- 
production the effect of the originals is somewhat 
changed, this being especially true of the tints of 
the papers on which the drawings are made. The 
three sketches on Figure 49 were all done by the 
same method on a charcoal paper of a greenish 
gray hue. This paper was allowed to represent the 
middle values while the dark tones were made with 
a black pencil which was purchased as one of a set 
of colored pencils. The white was done for the 
most part with pencil, too, being added gradually 
as the work progressed, but as it proved difficult to 
keep the point sufficiently sharp for the finer de- 



tail some finishing touches of Chinese white were 
done with a brush, especially in the drawing of the 
church. The size of the original sheet is 924 '" 

Figure 50, below, was drawn on a light gray mat 
board, being first laid out instrumentally from the 
plan at a scale of T y to the foot, then rubbed down 
with an eraser and rendered with a black pencil 
giving a dull line. Two washes of water were next 
applied, brushed well into the pencilled portions 
each time, as the lines had a tendency to resist or 
shed the water. Then washes of ivory black were 
added to the roof, shutters, foliage, etc., and to the 
shadow tones, after which Chinese white was ap- 
plied sparingly fur the high lights. The white 
should always be the last thing used in such a case, 
as it is almost impossible to pass any washes over 
it without causing messy results. This whole 
sketch was very quickly done as it measures only 
7y 2 "xlOy 2 ". The charming sketch by Mr. Otto F. 
Langmann on page 167. presenting a bit of old 
New York, was drawn in lithographic pencil on a 
thin, ivory-tinted Japanese paper of fibrous texture. 
The drawing by Harry Faulkner on page 168 is re- 
produced from one of his pencil studies for a series 
of mural paintings forming a continuous landscape 
around the dining room of the city residence of 
Mr. Richard 1 fenry Dana, Jr. 

The list below is given to show at a glance some 
of the uses of pencil and some of the most effec- 
tive combinations of various mediums as used in 
conjunction with it, and though it is by no means 
complete it may suggest to the student some ideas 
for his own experiments. 

1. Black pencils or crayons of various sorts on 

white papers. 

2. Black pencils or crayons with washes of gray 


3. Black pencils or crayons with washes of color 


4. Black pencils or crayons on tinted papers. 

5. Black pencils or crayons on tinted pnpers with 

highlights added. 

6. Black pencils or crayons on tinted papers with 

washes of gray, with or without highlights. 

7. Same as "6" but with washes of color. 

8. Colored pencils or crayons on white or tinted 


9. Same as "8" combined with wash or color. 

10. Combinations of black, white and colored pen- 

cils or crayons on white or tinted paper. 

11. Same as "10" with wash or color added. 

12. Combinations of pencils with ink or wi*h ink 

and wash or color on white or tinted paper. 

Figure 50. A Sketch on Colored Paper, Done in Pencil and Wash, with Chinese White Sparingly Used. 

Chapter XIII. 

IN THE preceding chapters the greater part of 
our space has been devoted to describing methods 
of sketching or rendering the small type of build- 
ing such as the average student or draftsman usually 
desires to draw, so although much that has been 
contained in them relates also to such larger subjects 
as office buildings, hotels, theatres, churches and the 
like, it seems wise to offer some suggestions which 
apply especially to their handling, supplementing 
these with a few additional facts not yet discussed 
in this volume applicable to the treatment of both 
small and large structures. 

When a proposed building of such magnitude 
as a hotel or court house or railway station is to 
be represented in perspective there are many 
architects and clients who prefer to see it done 
in water color or wash, or, if the drawing is to 
be reproduced, pen-and-ink is popular because 
of the ease of getting a good reproduction at 
comparatively low cost. Pencil, then, is perhaps 
less in demand as a medium for large subjects 
than it is for smaller ones, but there is, neverthe- 
less, enough call for it to make its study essen- 
tial. It should be borne in mind also that the 
pencil plays a most important part in laying 
out subjects to be rendered in water color, pen 
and ink and other mediums, in fact it is diffi- 
cult indeed to make an excellent color rendering 
unless the instrumental pencilling has been very 
carefully prepared, and it is quite an art to do 
this well, for certain profiles, lines of division 
between light and shade, etc.. are often best if 
accented or strengthened, while subordination is 
necessary in some other parts. When such a 
layout is complete and before the color is ap- 
plied, free-hand pencil lines are often added to 
indicate the brick courses, etc., a texture being 
thus obtained which could not be gained with 
the brush alone. Even for a pen drawing where 
the pencil layout simply serves as a guide for the 
ink lines it must be prepared with care, though 
no great attention need be given to the neatness 
of the draftsmanship as the lines will be erased 
or obliterated as the pen work progresses. 

It is not this pencil preparation for rendering 
in other mediums which especially interests us 
at this time, however, but rather the free hand 
completion of a pencil rendering after the in- 
strumental layout has been made. lust a word 
first, though, regarding this layout. To begin with, 
it is of course necessary to select such a paper 
or board as is known to be satisfactory for the 
free-hand pencil work, then in drawing the in- 
strumental lines it is best to use a hard enough 
pencil to permit later cleaning of the paper with 

a soft eraser without entirely effacing them, a 
2H or 3H answering very well for such a pur- 
pose, the choice depending, of course, on the 
nature of the paper, too hard a pencil or too 
much pressure forming such deep grooves as to 
mar the perfection of the finished work or es- 
pecially those parts of it which are to remain 
the tone of the paper itself, whereas too soft a 
pencil will leave hardly enough of a guide to 
be easily followed after the paper is cleaned. 
This layout, although it must be accurate, need 
not be quite so carefully drawn or at least so 
fully completed as would be necessary for wash 
or color work, unless, as is sometimes the case, 
part of the lines are to be left in the finished 
rendering, then, of course, extreme care is es- 

Once the layout has been completed it is ad- 
visable for the student to make, just as for small- 
er work, a preliminary study or two, as a means 
of deciding the values and working out a pleas- 
ing composition of the surroundings, in fact be- 
cause of the amount of time and labor involved 
in making a large rendering such preliminaries 
are even more essential than for smaller prob- 
lems, and an hour or two spent making them 
will usually result not only in the saving of 
several hours in the end but at the same time 
in better work. (It seems hard, however, to 
impress this fact on students, who therefore 
waste much time trying to render without any 
definite plan in mind). Such studies are usually 
made on tracing paper directly over the layout 
and the best selected and saved as a guide for 
completing the drawing. On work of such mag- 
nitude a diminishing glass is often of help in 
making both the layout and the final as it is 
possible by its use to reduce the whole to a size 
easily seen without shifting the eye. Setting the 
drawing away at a distance of several feet will 
accomplish the same result. 

If the preliminary sketch is well done it will 
be possible for the student in starting the finish- 
ed rendering to begin at the top of the sheet and 
work down, completing the drawing as he goes, 
with the exception of a few final touches which 
will probably be necessary at the last moment. 
In order to do this successfully, however, the 
preliminary must be carefully worked out, special 
care being taken to see that there is a center of 
interest for the entire composition and that unity 
and balance are obtained, for it is generally true 
that the larger and more complicated the sub- 
ject the more likely the student is to be led into 
overaccenting relatively unimportant parts. As 





















soon as this sketch is completed and "fixed" for 
preservation the rendering of the final is started, 
pencils of several grades being prepared before- 
hand as described in a previous article. Begin- 
ning at the top, then, and working as a rule from 
left to right, a strip an inch or two in height can 
be completed at one time, for instance if a 
balustrade forms the crowning feature of a build- 
ing this and the cornice beneath might be finish- 
ed first, next the upper story, then the story 
below and so on down until the street is reached, 
adding the surroundings as the rest progresses 
or completing them after the building itself is 
finished. Finally it may be necessary to go back 
to touch up here and there, as has just been 
mentioned above, adding a bit of tone in one 
place, lifting a little in another, until the results 
are satisfactory. Some teachers and artists 
would doubtless criticise this method as not 
being conducive to the best results but it at 
least offers the great advantage of reducing the 
difficulty of keeping the drawing crisp and clean, 
which means much to the architect, who takes 
little pleasure in smeared or soiled drawings. 
Perhaps a more logical method, however, would 
be to render at the center of interest first as has 
been mentioned in a former discussion of smal- 
ler problems, gradually carrying the work to- 
wards the edges, thus building up the entire 
drawing as a unit, going back over the different 
parts as often as may prove necessary, to change 
them or correct them. Whatever method is fol- 
lowed, however, perseverance is the one thing 
most needed. There seem to be many drafts- 
men willing to attempt to render comparatively 
small subjects and who succeed with them nice- 
ly yet who shun such buildings as we are con- 
sidering here, though -mere size seldom brings 
difficulties greater than are found in work of less 
magnitude, and so should not cause one to refrain 
from attempting to represent them. in fact 
small residences with their irregular plans, slop- 
ing roofs, numerous chimneys and the like, to 
say nothing of their variety of building materi- 
als, are often far more difficult in proportion 
to their size than are the bigger structures. 
Again, the smaller the building as a general rule 
the larger the scale at which it is drawn, simple 
residences being sometimes done, for instance, 
at a scale of Y%" or J^" to the foot and seldom at 
less than J4", whereas larger buildings are more 
often %" or &", thus reducing such details as 
windows to a size too small to require much labor. 
Of course the greater mass of a big building does 
make necessary the expenditure of more time 
and patience than are usually demanded by one 
which is small, because of the mere effort need- 
ed to cover the extensive area of paper, and 
some such complicated subjects as Gothic ca- 
thedrals doubtless call for more skill as well. It 
is usually lack of persistency rather than lack 
of skill, however, that causes the failures among 
attempted renderings of large subjects, though 
it is nevertheless true, paradoxical though it may 
seem, that those renderings which are completed 
by students or draftsmen attempting large sub- 

Skctch by Hugh Fcrriss. Madison Square Garden, 

New York. McKiin, Mead & White, 


jects for the first time, often show as their great- 
est fault overstudy rather than lack of study 
and too much detail rather than too little. Too 
often every window is indicated with painful 
precision, while not a brick or stone course is 
slighted or omitted. Though such conscientious- 
ness about the detail is frequently found, too 
little attention is given as a rule to the study of 
the effect as a whole, it is for this reason that 
we are laying such stress on the importance of 
the preliminary study. 

The amount of time spent on a drawing 
should depend largely on its purpose, a few 
hours answering for some problems while sever- 
al days or even a week may be required for 
others. It should be remembered that most ren- 
derings are drawn for a practical reason, to 
show the architect or client how a building will 
look when completed. The drawing has, there- 
fore, a limited and a somewhat temporary value. 
Naturally, then, the person paying for it can 
seldom afford a larger amount than the drawing 
is expected to be worth to him, and this will de- 
pend on its purpose. As we have previously ex- 
plained, some renderings are simply studies to 






























* / */$& 


Figure 52. A Quick Sketch Done in Lithographic Pencil on Tracing Paper as a Preliminary Study. 



help the architect to visualize his design, more, 
perhaps, are to make its appearance clear to the 
client. Others are submitted to banks as an 
aid in obtaining loans for building purposes, 
while some, again, are drawn for publicity or 
advertising uses, perhaps reproduced in circulars 
or magazines, the original being exhibited, pos- 
sibly, in a show window or other conspicuous 
place. It is evident, then, that the delineator 
must, as in smaller work, prepare the kind of 
drawing demanded by his particular problem, 
if a rough, quick sketch will answer as well as 
any other that is the kind to make by all means. 
It is necessary, therefore, to ascertain all the re- 
quirements right at the start. The architect him- 
self is often at fault in not giving the delineator 
sufficiently plain directions, forgetting that a 
project which is clear in his own mind is not 
equally so in the minds of others. Or he will 
ask, perhaps, for a rough, sketchy drawing, "just 
a few hours work," and then on seeing it either 
completed or partially drawn will object emphat- 
ically and vociferously to the inaccuracies of incom- 
pleteness of this or that small detail. The architect 
should endeavor to make plain beforehand just 
what is needed, and the artist should try equally 
hard in turn to successfully fill the requirements, 

Rendering by Hugh Ferriss. Bush House, London, 
England. Helmle & Corbett, Architects. 

remembering that the architect is the one who is 
paying for the job. In order to do this it may 
be necessary for him to be familiar with several 
kinds of technique, for sometimes very bold 
drawings will be demanded, strong in contrasts 
and vigorous in treatment, while again prefer- 
ence will be shown for a more delicate type with 
the detail more accurately handled. Drawings 
of the bold type are often on rather rough paper 
while the others are more frequently done on a 
smoother surface. There are architects, however, 
who while they wish the general effect of a ren- 
dering to be rather bold, at the same time desire 
greater accuracy, even in the smaller parts, than 
can be obtained easily on a rough textured paper. 
This demand has caused the introduction of a 
rather interesting trick, the building itself being laid 
out first of all in the usual way instrumental!/ on 
a good quality tracing paper and rendered quite 
carefully and completely with the desired attention 
given to the smaller details, nothing being done to 
the surroundings, however, at this stage. Before 
they are rendered the tracing paper is loosened from 
the board and a rather rough sheet of cardboard or 
paper or even of cloth is put beneath the drawing and 
the rendering of the entourage then done, the pencil 
lines on the tracing paper taking an impression of 
the rough surface below. Then the building itself 
can be touched up a bit, enough to bring it into 
harmony with the surroundings, and the tracing 
mounted on a stiff board, which, if rather rough, 
will add to the effect desired. This same idea can 
of course be utilized in the making of drawings of 
less pretentious subjects, as can another trick which 
it may be worth while to mention, though it is more 
frequently used in connection with color work. 
This trick is borrowed from the printers and con- 
sists in running finished renderings, usually done 
on a fairly smooth paper, through heavy machines 
containing rollers which are designed to press pat- 
terns onto the paper, such surfaces as eggshell, linen, 
crash, canvas, moire, etc., being obtainable. These 
surfaces may seem a bit artificial but the idea is 
handed on for what it is worth. Perhaps it is well 
as a word of caution to mention that this process 
often makes the paper slightly smaller, destroying 
the accuracy of the dimensions. 

Then there is one more addition to our list of 
tricks, this idea having been stumbled upon quite 
by chance by the author, though the same thing has 
perhaps been done many times by others. As the 
muntins and meeting rails of windows, as well as . 
other similar architectural members, are usually 
left white on small scale pencil drawings, consider- 
able labor is sometimes involved in so darkening 
the glass or adjacent members as to leave them 
sharp and clean cut. It has been found that if a 
pencil drawing is being done on a fairly thick board, 
such as the illustration boards in common use, it 
is possible to rule these small members with a clean 
ruling pen or dull knife point or anything of that 
nature, pressing a groove into the surface for each 
white line desired, using care of course that the 
instrument employed is perfectly clean and that the 
lines start and stop at just the right points. Then 









""; -i: 

^ ^ 




with a little practice one can learn to pass two or 
three strokes of the pencil over each window, 
grooves and all, toning the various parts to the de- 
sired values, using a similar process wherever the 
grooves are employed. If the pressure is not too 
great and the point is rather blunt the pencil will 
pass over the grooves without darkening them, 
leaving them instead to appear as white lines. Af- 
ter a day or two or as soon as the paper has become 
damp (it may be lightly washed or sprayed with 
water if desired) the grooves themselves practically 
disappear, simply leaving the white lines. Possibly 
the greatest objection to this way of working is 
that the lines so formed sometimes seem a bit too 
perfect in relation to those drawn more freely with 
the pencil, yet on drawings at small scale enough 
time can frequently be saved by this method to make 
a knowledge of it worth having. 

So much in regard to the architectural handling 
of large buildings. For additional suggestions see 
the previous chapters of this book, nearly all of 
which offer something related to our present sub- 
ject, and study the numerous examples of rendering 
that have appeared from place to place in the text. 

We should not close our discussion of the 
rendering of large buildings without some refer- 
ence to the very sketchy and often rather impres- 
sionistic type of drawing in which the architec- 
ture is treated from the point of view of the art- 
ist rather than of the architect, and which, there- 
fore, gives special attention to the effect of the 
whole and not to the almost photographic repre- 
sentation of the architectural detail common to the 
work of the architect and the professional delin- 
eator. In drawings of this type, for instance, the 
whole is treated very broadly, some of the windows 
being merely suggested, perhaps, or omitted entirely, 
while practically all of the tiny members such as 
dentils are left out. Such drawings !are usually 
more interesting than the architectural type, partly 
because more is left to the imagination and partly 
because of the absence of mechanical perfection of 
line. (In fact many are made entirely freehand from 
start to finish). Again, the accessories may be 
treated with greater freedom as no reason exists 
for suppressing them, so all-in-all, when the art- 
ist draws architecture the results are better from a 
purely aesthetic standpoint than those obtained by 
the average architect or architectural delineator, 
who is of necessity usually forced to show so much 
detail (in order to make the design clear to the 
client) as to prevent the most artistic result. 

Then there is another form of work in which 
large buildings are shown but where they become 
subordinate to something else. As examples of 
this we have advertisements of automobiles and 
clothing and the like, where the buildings are sim- 
ply a setting or background. Here of course the 
greatest freedom in their treatment is permissible, 
the slightest suggestion of the architecture often 

So much variety is found in all this sort of work 
that we can hardly do more than mention it here, 
and bring emphasis to the fact that the outstanding 

difference between this and the architectural type 
is, as we have mentioned, the greater freedom used 
in the former in relation to the latter. This free- 
dom is not confined to the technique but is found 
in the composition also, and in the general treat- 
ment, moonlight or evening scenes, sunsets, rainy 
day effects and the like being popular. Even though 
these are not common in architectural work, it 
would be well for the student of architectural ren- 
dering to study all this sort of thing, as much can 
be learned from it which is adaptable with modifi- 
cations to his own problems. 

Whether the student desires to better his ability 
to do architectural renderings or whether it is this 
other work which interests him most, there is no 
better training in either case than to sketch directly 
from buildings. It is by making many such sketches 
as that by Otto F. Langmann on page 181 from the 
big buildings themselves that one can get a strong 
grasp on how to handle them. 

Now of these various types of drawings our 
illustrations have been selected from those of an 
architectural nature. Figure 52, page 175, is the 
reproduction of a very quick sketch of a pro- 
posed building done on tracing paper with a 
lithographic pencil. Unfortunately this reproduc- 
tion is reduced from so large a drawing that the 
values show stronger contrasts in many ways than 
on the original, making the whole lighting seem 
somewhat unnatural and artificial. It will serve to 
show, however, that such a drawing, even though 
hastily done without preliminary study, conveys 
the general impression of the proposed structure. 

Figure 53, page 178, was done at much smaller 
scale (ys-inch to the foot) with ordinary graphite 
pencils. Both of these illustrations show compara- 
tively simple buildings, simple indeed so far as 
general mass is concerned, and in presenting them 
we wish to point out a truth not commonly recog- 
nized by the beginner who attempts this sort of 
work, and this is that it is more difficult to get an 
interesting representation of simple masses of this 
type than of buildings having towers or domes or 
pediments or, in fact, any irregular shaped features. 
Even the outline drawing of a domed structure is 
full of interest before the rendering is started, 
whereas the block forms or skeletons of such build- 
ings as we are picturing here seem very common- 
place, which means that greater care must be given 
to the rendering. Choose, then, for your early prac- 
tice, structures with domes or towers which will 
form interesting silhouettes and you will find it less 
difficult to obtain good results, saving the more 
simple forms for later practice. This seems strange, 
perhaps, but it is true. 

Figure 51, page 172, was also made at the scale 
of y&" to the foot, on kid-finished bristol board, and 
in this case the main lines were drawn instrumentally 
and left to show in the final result, the free-hand 
work being added to them. This building, like the 
others, is very simple in general mass, but because of 
the trees it was possible to avoid the rather hard and 
uninteresting outline against the sky which we find 
in Figure 53. 















The admirable rendering by Hugh Ferriss of Bush 
House, London, England, on page 174, was done 
after the designs for the building had reached a defi- 
nite stage and as the surroundings were well known 
it was possible to produce a drawing which conveys 
a very convincing and realistic impression ; one 
which while showing considerable detail is not with- 
out atmospheric effect. A carbon pencil was used 
for this rendering which was made on a fairly 
smooth, heavy drawing board. Attention is directed 
also to the smaller reproductions of masterly render- 
ings by Mr. Ferriss on pages 173 and 176. 

On page 177 is an exceptional example of fine 
line treatment of a large building, by Chester B. 
Price, the subject being the new structure for S. W. 
Straus & Co., Fifth Avenue, New York City. Al- 
though a close inspection of this reproduction re- 
veals that every essential detail of the architecture 
has been shown, the drawing has, nevertheless, a 
remarkable breadth of effect and a most commend- 
able simplicity. Two other drawings of large build- 
ings done by Mr. Price have been reproduced on 
page 183, opposite, and these, too, are worthy of the 
most careful study on the part of the student. 

The sketch by Robert A. Lockwood on page 180 
is a very virile interpretation of a building in course 
of construction. Subjects of this sort are excellent 
for the student to attempt. 

\Ye have already mentioned the delightful sketch 

by Mr. Langmann on page 181. This is one of a 
series which Mr. Langmann has made of interesting 
groupings of New York buildings, old and new, 
approaching his subjects in much the same way that 
the travelling student of architecture sketches build- 
ings and groupings abroad. The original from which 
this particular reproduction was made is in litho- 
graphic pencil on white paper. 

Now study and analyze all these various examples 
carefully and try to obtain others of your own. 
Copy parts of them, if you wish, but in doing so 
remember that the amount of reduction in size is 
considerable, so allow for this while doing your copy- 
ing. Next go ahead with larger subjects, but in this 
work as in the sketching of smaller buildings it mighr 
be well to make first a number of sketches from 
photographs, and when larger subjects of an original 
sort are undertaken do not forget what we have said 
about the importance of the preliminary study. It 
is often a good plan, if an architectural rendering 
of a big building is being attempted for the first 
time, to select photographs and reproductions of ren- 
derings of similar buildings viewed from about the 
same point, and to keep these around you for study 
and comparison all the time that you are working 
on your preliminary study and on the final render- 
ing itself. And above all do not lose your confi- 
dence and patience simply because the subject is 










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Chapter XIV. 

IF ONE desires to learn to draw, let him draw and 
draw and draw. The author wishes that this 
message might remain fixed in the mind of every 
reader of these chapters, for even those who have 
had the patience to follow them through from the 
very first to this the concluding one, will profit little 
by them unless such ideas as have been acquired are 
put to practice before they are forgotten, as it is 
only by drawing over and over again until such 
assimilation has taken place as will enable one to 
make unconscious use of them, that they will prove 
of more than partial and transitory value. 

Yet it is not enough to draw, without plan or 
reason, for one gets even through faithful practice 
far less gain than should be rightfully his, unless 
he follows a logical system, adopting some scheme 
which seems best suited to his individual require- 
ments. For what might be logical for one might 
be illogical indeed for another. There are students, 
for instance, so imbued with earnestness and en- 
thusiasm, so passionately fond of drawing, that they 
seize with avidity every hint or suggestion which 
is offered as an aid to the development of their 
talent, and who at the same time possess enough 
common sense to realize their own shortcomings 
and weaknesses and to direct their own energies to 
the best advantage in their attempt to overcome 
them, so planning their study and practice that they 
move on step-by-step up a road of steady progress. 
Such men are also occasionally so fortunate as to 
have the somewhat rare ability of judging correctly 
the merits of their own work, being able to view it 
impartially from a wholly unbiased standpoint, act- 
ing as their own critics with considerable success. 

Needless to say men of this type are scarce, 
however, the average student falling into one or an- 
other of three classes, the first including such as 
either underrate their own ability or are easily dis- 
heartened, the second and largest class consisting of 
those having a fair amount of ability and confi- 
dence coupled with a willingness to work, and with 
an excellent attitude towards the acceptance of in- 
struction and criticism, the third being made up of 
a few such vain and self-conceited individuals as 
hold the egotistical opinion that their work is the 
acme of perfection, ignoring with thinly masked 
ridicule the suggestions of their instructors and 
fellow students, seemingly ignorant or careless of 
the fact that their attitude of antagonism is deter- 
rent to their own progress. 

Now the student of this first class needs a guid- 
ing hand and word of encouragement, for once he 
gains a reasonable amount of confidence in him- 
self and his own ability his advancement is fre- 
quently rapid. Such a student should by all means 
join a class or work under a critic or patron, as 

otherwise he may lack the necessary incentive to 
inspire him to the achievement which is possible, 
and neither should he be discouraged by adverse 
criticism. Especially if one is self-conscious and 
supersensitive he should strive to become so thor- 
oughly immersed in his work as to grow forgetful 
of self and unmindful of unfavorable comment or 
the gibes of the thoughtless. 

Students of the second class, which includes a 
large percentage of all the men interested in such 
drawing, should put themselves under instruction 
also, either attending school (many night schools 
offer courses for those to whom day attendance is 
impossible) or, if no organized classes are avail- 
able, gathering as a group to form a sketch club, meet- 
ing once a week or so to compare work and receive 
criticism from each other or, better yet, from some 
capable critic engaged for the purpose. Or if it 
seems impractical to join or form a club or class 
it is all the more important to work under an able 
teacher. As far as the architectural draftsman is 
concerned this should be easy, especially in the larger 
cities, as capable men may be found in nearly every 
office, glad to give their services either gratuitously 
or for reasonable compensation. The choice of a 
teacher or critic should not be made hastily, how- 
ever, for it is not enough that he be a skilled artist, 
for many who draw exquisitely well cannot tell 
how they do it or what is wrong with another's 
work. Again some teachers are so dogmatic and 
opinionated as to try to force their own ideas upon 
all their students rather than to aid in developing 
the individuality of each. So make your choice with 
care, but once you go to a teacher, put yourself 
under his direction unreservedly, and even though 
you sometimes fail to agree with him or with his 
corrections or criticisms, try to get his viewpoint, to 
see from his eyes, as his vision may be broader 
than your own. It is not always wise to remiin 
under the instruction of one man for too long a 
time, however, as there is sometimes a tendency to 
mimic his style, but it is better, instead, to change 
after a while, gaining new inspiration and help by 
the fresh contact. 

But we are digressing a bit from our considera- 
tion of the three various classes of students so let 
us return to discuss the third, the conceited lot. 
Perhaps the less said about them the better, for such 
men are well-nigh hopeless unless they can be made 
to see the light, and this is not easy if they are con- 
firmed egotists. But some men are egotists only 
so far as their drawing ability is concerned, and 
for these there is hope. This condition is some- 
times brought about because friends or members 
of a student's family or possibly teachers have in 
their ignorance or in their desire to flatter, heaped 



r 3 r j 

<$%r ? c<z~-p~ 




unwarranted praise upon him, causing him to arrive 
at false conclusions as to his ability and knowledge. 
If such a man joins a class or sketch club, how- 
ever, the truth will generally be forced upon him 
sooner or later that his work, when compared with 
that by others, lacks the perfection which he imag- 
ined it to possess. 

We should not go on without some mention of 
the man who earnestly desires to draw but whose 
efforts bring him little reward. Such a person 
should try over and over again. Then if after 
repeated attempts improvement seems as far away 
as ever, failure may be quite properly attributed to 
lack of natural ability, in which case it is doubtless 
better to give up the hope of ever becoming more 
than mediocre, seeking perhaps to win greater suc- 
cess in some other direction, for even the man of 
real ability has no easy task to gain recognition. 
But do not let discouragement deter you from re- 
peated trial, for many who show little promise in 
their early work persevere until their results show 
amazing improvement. 

The reader can readily understand that in con- 
sideration of these many types of men who are 
studying these chapters, men at various stages of 
progress and development, too, ranging all the way 
from beginners with their first problems to men 
professionally engaged in some form of art work, it 
is impractical to lay down definite courses of study 
here. Disappointment has perhaps been felt by 
some that more actual problems have not been given, 
but it has seemed best, under the conditions, to offer, 
instead, general suggestions, hoping to make the stu- 
dent see what things it is essential for him to know, 
and to point out the way for acquiring such knowl- 

And so in Part I we have discussed among other 
things the preliminary preparations, the drawing of 
objects in outline and light and shade, the principles 
of free-hand perspective, methods of doing cast 
drawing and life drawing, and the sketching of 
animals; and we have tried to make the reader see 
that whether he is interested in art or architecture 
all such training is of benefit to him. 

We have touched here in Part II on the prepara- 
tion of drawing materials, the choice of subjects to 
draw and how to begin. We have written on such 
matters as individual style and method and on 
different ways of obtaining results in outline and 
light-and-shade and flat and graded tones, and have 
devoted considerable space to the important subject 
of composition with attention to unity and balance. 
We have discussed working from the object, from 
the photograph and from nature, and have covered 
in special chapters the representation of buildings 
both small and large, including exteriors, interiors 
and street scenes, while the treatment of their details 
and accessories has been broad, too, offering sugges- 
tions for the handling of furniture and draperies, 
doors, windows, chimneys and all these smaller parts. 
Neither have clouds and trees and water and the 
like been neglected, nor have people and animals as 

used in connection with building representation. 
Then to round out the subject we have opened a 
large field for exploration in the recent chapters on 
decorative drawing and on uses of tinted papers, 
colored pencils, pencils used in connection with 
other media, etc., a field in which the student may 
wander far, constantly finding new pleasure and 

So with all this as a background we must leave 
the reader to map out for himself the course which 
it seems best for him to pursue, and this, as we 
have explained, depends wholly on his present stage 
of progress and his individual requirements. Let 
each man study himself and his needs. If he lacks 
the ability to sketch objects^in correct proportion, 
let him spend considerable time in drawing directly 
from objects themselves, as described in Part I, thus 
giving special attention to this common weakness. 
In fact, too much emphasis cannot be given to the 
importance of such work, especially for the archi- 
tectural student who so often lays out his propor- 
tions instrumentally and to scale, that to do so by 
the eye in a free-hand manner proves especially dif- 
ficult. Yet architectural students are sometimes in- 
clined to scoff at object drawing, being of the erro- 
neous opinion that cubes and cylinders and books and 
dishes have little to do with architecture. 

In fact, too often students fail to see that it is 
fully as important to learn to do other kinds of free- 
hand drawing as it is to do the kind directly applic- 
able to their own work. It is especially valuable for 
the architectural man who spends much of his time 
at instrumental drawing to vary his sketching prac- 
tice by frequently choosing such subjects as will get 
him entirely away from the mechanical, a dilapi- 
dated barn or vine-covered ruin, for instance, or 
anything of this sort which will serve as an aid to 
"loosening up" from the "tight" type of drawing 
which is of necessity a part of his day's work. He 
should try such subjects as the bridge by Mr. Watson 
on page 86, or the old houses by Mr. Langmann, 
page 167, or even less ambitious things where the 
subject is small and few straight lines are found. 
In such work try to seek and record that which is 
really vital in a free and easy way, with little atten- 
tion to the technique itself. 

But whether one draws from the geometric forms 
or still life or cast or figure or some architectural 
subject, truth is the thing to be sought, for a knowl- 
edge of truth is the foundation for all the rest. 

So in closing let us repeat, then, that each rrnn 
should study his needs and straightway commence 
to correct his faults and ^overcome his weaknesses, 
seeking instruction, inviting criticism, comparing 
results with drawings by others and so striving 
constantly for greater perfection, remembering that 
one never reaches the point where it is not possible 
for him to advance still further, and let it be 
remembered, too, that even though one fails to 
acquire exceptional skill, whatever of dexterity is 
gained will always prove a source of pleasure and