Skip to main content

Full text of "A sketch of the early settlement and subsequent progress of the town of Peterborough, and of each township in the county of Peterborough"

See other formats



 1.{ r 

r t I.. \T 
 · I 



_ \ 81\: E '1' fi l-I 


rr ] I }
 E 11 It I.I Y S 
 I ]
 N 'I' 

.-\XD :-:TTR:-:Ð
t 'E
T PHO( am:-:

lIt r lou' n 0 f 
 r t r \. b 0 ,t ,0 U 91\ , 

-\ND OF EM'/[ TO\\';XSIfIl' r;x '1'111: 


P E '1' E H ß (} R 0 U G If , 
... J...... 

c 0 11 
 'r Y 0 F 

 'L I 

L\;-; "'. POoLE. -'1. D. 

i- R'f 
?-.. ,.
C; - 

v T 7- 

 _,_ -:" ':';::.!oo 
 .'. .'-' 
 1)'- B t 
/' _0_ ;r
 "., ...- 
... ......l èr. ,,"". I.. 'f./.;....;,-. 
. "t
-:. ' 't,-) 

" t.f.. 


PErEH'RClHIII-I;": I', \\'. 
l)rinteJ at th(' (ItIi,.(' of' t hl' Pe'fr'l'hol'ough He\-ie". 

tJ "i'. 



TIlt' fn]1nwiup- r
gCf: arc l'e
pcctrully rlCIlicaterl to thp Waròen anà 
 (.It" the County Councilor Pctcrbul'ough. hy 


PdedJUl' n ugII. .J <lunur,y 
Ild, 1


't lU t i- 

__ or- 

___ J...." l 
... --- 


The wri tf'r of t 1lf' [ol1owinp' pagl''': ha:-: harl in \ if'w the collection and 
preservatiun uf remilli
c('l\{:e:-: of thf' early flays when the town and county of 
Petcrbol"Ough were tir
t I-cttled. Thi
 portiun of' the task I'cemell incom- 
plete. without a :;ulllUwry uf leadill
 e,,"Clltf: in town and county to the 
present timc, - He has ende3.vourcll to L'pproaeh the subject <18 impartiall
alld to rccurd the fi.lctS [if-: LH:curäte},V a:-. lJ(J
sibl(>. The events ot the earlier 
years werp gathl'red frOI1l such \)f the tir
t :'l>ttler
 a:- :-:till :survive, ami 
h. as lllif!ht be expecteù. :-:Iight ùi:-,crepancit.g were 
in the recollections of these diffcrent flb
erYer:>, the:-:e w('l'e only upon minor 
matters of' triflin
 import; sO that the 
ener.,l details may be relied on a:-: 
corre.ct. Fol' the event:; of later ycar
, and e
peciall)' since 18-1:>. 
},rinte,I anù official doculllcnts haY(' heen to SOllle extent availabk; but it 
i,.: to be re
l'etted that in uonr' of our pnhlic offices ha
 mnch nttrntion beell 

hcwll to prcgerye anù hand ùown to futurity. current anù eY3.Uf'scent 
recorùs of the time. whieh ,\ ill. by and by, be of rare v:tlnc anù historit, 

"'hdher the fact:- here l'ecorùètl (1I10:,t of tI1èlll fin' the hl'
t til1lc) were 
flf snfficicnt illterc
t aud illll,ortancc to ju:-:tify their collectioll in perlllaneut 
form; :mtl wlll'thel' the tLl
k h:u; bC:'ll acc01llpli:-:hed in a proper and worthy 
Walmer, must be left to the publiC' to deride; to whom it is now ()flcred. to 
hr jud,!.!.eù upon itf: Jllcrit:-:. 

h, .Jalluary 
ntt. 1

L ED r; E J[ F J.YT. 

\uthor of thi
 little work hercwith retul'll:-: hi
t thallk
grateful :lrknowlcdgements to the numerous llen,,)II
. JJoth in to\\n flnll 
('ount)', who have kindly ::md gratuitously a
:;i;o;ted him, by ('ontriJmtitlll
of facts nnd inC'Ìdent
, ora
 written, or printed, 011 which the following 
es ar<> chiefly b:1sed, flß(1 without whh_'ll he wnnld have been unable to 
arcomplish his tflsk. 

'1.'1](' \ cry enumcration of tlap 11<\lUe
 of the l'er
o1l8 to whom II(' i:-: thus 
under obligation, would be a formidable ta:-:k; and III' hcg-s of them. on<- 
and all, to accept this general acknowledgemcnt of hi:-: gratitutlc for the 

crvices they have so cheerfully and promptly }"('lHlpl'c'l. 

Pet('rbol'ough. .JmHwry 2nd. l


 ( ) 
 T }; N 'f 

 J.-..\ l'ionccr I 'haptcr, . 
I I.-Tho Immigration of lR2.)_ _ _ 
J r I.-The Town of PoteJ"horough, 
J \-.-_\ Hoycrnor's Yi"it_ 
\ .-Progress ancl Dcvc'lol'lllont. . 
\'f.-The Peterl,orough :Jlilitia of ]R
'j-8. , , . . .. . . . . 
YJf.-Trainings and Election:". . . .. 
y II I.-Erection of I '011l't House amI .r ail. , . . . 
IX.-(J), .\ 
atirical Proùuction, (:?). Anothf'r Immigration. 
(3). The Election of I 
4-] __ . _ .. . . .. . . 

. . P

e 1. 









X.- The New C 'olhome Di...trict 
 awl C 'ounty :-:npf'l'illtemlents. 
XIf.-:Jfiscellanf'ous, , 
XIII.-The Town Incorpor<tted-l
rogress. . . 
XTY.-The Prince of Wales in Peterhorou
XV.-:\fiscellaJwoll"_ . 
XVI.-The Railroad Era_ . 
X\YIT.-Thl' Lumber Trall('. .. ,_ _ 
XY r I 1.-(1 ). Population. (:!). 
I'chanùize . 








-(3). Trade awl 


XIX.-(l) The Rank" of P p t('!'hm'ollgh. (2) The Churches of 
Petcl'horough. (
). The SchooJ" of Peterbol'ougll, Jot.. 
XX.-( I) :-;ummary of Legislèltive Council Elections. (
) SUlll- 
Inal'Y of I_egi..;lative .\,.:semhly Election:". (3) 'Varden>' 
for the ('OlU\Í,y, (4) :\Iayor:", ReeveR, I 'lerk
Tl'ea"l1l'er:-' of Petel'horollgh, (.)).J n:ö:ticf':-' of the 
!"'aee for PeteJ"borough. (6) ('oroJl('rl', A:"sps:-,or..;. 
I 'ollCdol''':, 
b', (í) Hl'è\-C"; alld ,Ju:-:tief'''' of tJlI-' I J ex('e 
t'OI' .\....llltUl.uh<lllL , . , . . , .. . . . . .. . . . , . . .. '" _ _ _ _ ll



XXl.-The fown
llip of :-;mitll 
'\:"\:I1.-The Township of Ot011a n ee, 
XXII I.-The Township of DoHl'o. - . 
XXIY,-The Town
}üp of ,\:-phodf:'l. 
XXY .-The TOW11
hip of Dummpr 
XXYT .-The Town:-:hip:-: of Belmont and Mpthuen. 
XXYII.-The Town:ship of 
lullaghall_ - 
XXYTII.-Tlw Township of Ennismore. 
XXIX.-The Town!"hip of llane J . . 
XXX.- The 
ew Township
; including (
alw;ìY, :-;nowilen, :\1iu- 
tanhope. and the Land:; of the (';madiau LHud 
and Emigl'ation ('olllpany._ 
XXXI.- The Burleigh BmHl aud thr Town
hip:-: of Burleigh. 
('hand08. Anstruth.:r. kc. . 

. .l-'aae 1 :!::;, 



1 XO. 





XXXIJ.- The Indian Tribes of the ('ounty. :!1:;. 
XXXlIJ.-1 lur Rrave \Tolunteer
; List:-; of Ufficer:s and Privatp,.: of 
t 11<' :several Petel'bol'o' ('olllpanie
 who l'u!':hed to tU'm
to l'Ppel inv3"ion in .J une. 1 xô6. Other Y oluntl'er 
I 'ompaniNI 
in('e organized,-Petel'horough Infantry 
( 'ompallY Xo, 2; 
orwood Infantry f'olllpany. Ha<;ting-< 
' ('olllpany. anù :-O:priug\Oille Infantry I 'omi'an
'. 2I ß. 


^'r J í \ _1 - ') 






outn of 




Prior to the year 1818, that portion of Canada now known as the 
flourishing County of Peterborough, was covered by an unbroken forest., 
in which the settler's axe had never echoed, and where, save the homeless 
Indian or the adventurous hunter, the foot of man had scarcdy pene- 
In that year, a small body of emigrants sail('d from England, some of 
whom, braving the perils of the bush, found their way into the township 
of Smith, thcn but recently surveyed. This was in the Autumn of 1818 ; 
thc pioneers finding an inlet by way of Rice Lake and the Otonabee river, 
for as yet, and for long after, there was no semblance of a road through 
the wooded wilderness stretching away between the frontier settlements 
and their new home. 
The merit of the fir
t settlement in the count.y belongs to dIe township 


of :--;ruÌth, and in connèction with that. township, in a future page, will be 
found the names of those brave men, and such account as we have been 
able to gather, of the incidents, difficulties and privations :tttending their 
early settlement in the bush. 
In J!TIay 1819, a party of gentlemen from "the front" cam
 up the 
Ot-onabee in a skiff, for the purpose of selecting a mill site, and otherwise 
"C prospec
ing" in the new townships. These were Charles FothergilL 
Esq., at one time M. P. P. for Durham, Thomas Ward, Esq., of Port 
Hope, Clerk of the Peace for the District, John Farrelly, Surveyor, Adam 
Scott, Millwright, and Barnabas Bletcher. !\Ir. John Edmison, now of 
.'Smith, then an intending settler. who had already drawn a lot of land at 
hazard, accompanied them. 
They landed just above Spaulding's bay, at a spot which was afterw:trds 
a steamboat landing, and near the site in after years of the steam s:tw 
mill of Messrs. Shaw and F.ortune, the chimney of which alone is now 
standing. Scott here discharged his gun, and then by means of the flint 
of the lock a fire was kindled, the party assisting in gathering wood fi)r 
the purpose, After a lunch, which sufficed for supper, they lay down 
around the fire, beneath the spreading branches of the trees and slept. 
Next morning Edmison and 'Vard started for Mud Lake, following the 
blaze on the trees along the communication line, and sharing the meals of 
some of the settlers of the previous JTear. Ward was the owner of the 
land comprising the site of the present village of Bridgenorth; and having 
accomplished their object, they returned to 
the scene of their open :1Ïr 
t>ncampment. Here the other prospecting party were found in good 

pirits, and discussing the project for a future milL By damming up tIH" 
creek which still traverses the site of the Town, and conveying the water 
:l]ong a short excavation to the steep bank of tJw Otonabee river,:tn 
eligible mill-site would be obtained, and at a t.rifling ('o::;t compared with 
the expense of attempting to control the rapidly descending waters of th(' 
Otonabee, at any point in th
Well pleased with the results of this exploration visit, the party passeù 
down the river, and acrosa Rice Lake on the same evcning. The littlc 
piece of engineering thus project.ed wa
 successfully ('arried ou.t, and in 
about two years 1.\lr, Adam Scott had a small saw and grist mill in opera- 
tion under one roof. The same water privilege is still in use, though 
turned to much better account in the large frame mill in active operation 
on the corner: of King and Water streets. 


Further reference will be made to this first mill, \\ohich, though liece

arily a small structure, and the machinery imperfect, was nevertheless a 
great boon to the early settler/'!, 
A reference to the first settlers III their several localities will be made 
as our task progresses, ...\. cursory alluðÏon to the settlemcnt in Smith 
::;eemed necessary here, in order to preEcrve in the reader's mind the relative 
date of events which occurred prior to tIle surveyor settlement of the 
Town, or the advent of the Immigration of 182;). to whieh we now ad- 
drEllis ourselves. 


Not only was the 1'G)wn of Peterborough without a single inhabitant in 
the Spring of 1825. save 1\11'. Scott, the proprietor of thc mill and a 
workman or t\'.o who assi::!ted him, but t.he settlers in the adjoining tOWll- 
ships were few, and their pro
pectR far from encouraging, Two familie:,o 
only were 8ettJecl in Douro, those of Robert Reid, ESlI-, and the IIonblc 
Thos. Alcx. Rtewart, afterwarcls a life member of the Legislative Council 
of Upper Canada. Besides the little colony in Smith already referred 
to, a few adventurous settlers had found their way into Otonabec, Aspho- 
del, l\Ionaghall and Emily, bnt very little lanrl had been brought into 
cult.ivation. The country languished and many even of tbe best settI('r:-: 
felt despondent as to the pro
pects of th(" future, * 
Up till this reriod the entire numbcr of settlers occupying the town. 
ships north of Rice Lake did not exceed five hundred,t During thE' 
autumn of that year a large accession was made to their numbers by an 
Emigration on an extensive scale chiefly from thc south of Ireland, con- 
ducted by the Honble Peter Robim,on, under the auspices of the British 

overument, which greatly conduced to the speedy settlement and improw- 
ment of the country,! Four hundred and fifteen families availed them- 
8clves of the advantages thus afforded them, comprising in all 2,024 souls./I 

.Capt. Rubldge's Evidence before the Committee of the Brit. Par,-IS17, Question 2663. 
tCapt. Rubldge's evidence before the Imperial EmiSTation Committee in 1817, as quoted ill at. 
p.1mphlet.: Ireland and Canada," by Sir Robert Wilmut Horton, Bart, G. C. IT. Paf!6 n. 
tCapt, Rubidge's evidence 1841. Question 2,665. 
I' Horton's<' rrelal1i1 :'-'1<1 Cnnada." Pa,:rf':If. 


The ships laden with the emigrant:'! sailed. from Cork in May, 1825, 
and after a very speedy passage, in only one case exceeding 31 day::;, 
arrived at Quebec, from whence they were immediately forwarded to 
Kingston, Here they remained for nearly two weeks, lllostly in tcnt::;, 
and owing to the intense heat of the season many of them suffering from 
ver and ague. :Mr. Robinson in the meantime had sailed from Liver- 
pool to New York, and proceeded from thence to Toronto by way of 
:Kiagara. * 'Ve mention this as illustrating thc round about lllanner of 
reaching the capital of Canada from Great Britain in those days, compared 
with the direct routes and expedition of the present time. 
Having procured from the Surveyor General such information as he 
could, in l'efer
nce to the lands he 'Was about to settle, he proceeded to 
Cobourg and thence to Peterborough, or "Scott's plains" as it was then 
called, and spcnt six days in exploring the townships, aided by :Mr., after- 
wards Colonel, McDonell, whom he describes as " an intelligent and respect- 
able young man well acquainted v.ith the country," In the minutes of hi:o: 
evidence takcn before the Emigration Committee in London in 1827,t we 
find the following narrative of subsctlucnt events :-" On the 11th August," 

aid Mr. Robinson, "I embarked five hundred on board of a steam-boat, and 
landed them the next day at Cobourg on Lake Ontario, a distance of one 
hundred miles; the re!D.ainder of the settlers were brought up in the same 
manner, the boat making a trip each week. Our route from Cobourg to 
Smith, at the head of the Otonabee River, lay through a country as yet 
very thinly inhabited; the road leading from Lake Ontario to the Rice 
Lake (12 miles) hardly passable, and the Otonabee River in many places 
very rapid, and the watcr much lower than it had been known for many 
years. The first thing I did was to repair the road, so that loaded wag- 
gons might pass; and in this work I received every assistance from the 
magistrates of the District, who gave me fifty pounds from the District 
funds; and this sum, together with the labor of our people, enabled me 
to improve the road in ten days so much that our provisions and baggage 
could be sent across with ease, and three large boats were transported on 
wheels from Lake Ontario to the Rice Lake, The Otonabee River is 
navigable for twenty-five miles, although in many places it is very rapid, 
and at this season there was not water enough to float a boat of the 
ordinary construction over some of the shoals. To remedy this difficulty, 

· :Mr. Robinson'3 e\ideno6 before Select Committee of the Imperial Parliament, Third Report 
1827. Page 3-16. 
t Third Report of Select Committee. 182"l. l'age 346 


I had a hoat }milt of :mch dilllension
 as I thought might best answer to 
ascend the rapids, and had her completed in eight day,;, So much de- 
pended upon the success of this expcriment that I felt great anxiety until 
the trial was made; and I cannot express the happiness I felt at finding 
that nothing could more fully have answered our purposes, and this boat, 

ixty feet in length and eight feet wide, carrying an immense burthen, 
could be more easily worked up the stream, than one of half the size 
carrying comparatively nothing. Now that I had opened the way to the 
depot at the head of the river, there was no other difficulty to surmount 
than that which arOf'e from the prcvailing sickncss, the fever and ague, 
which at this time wa
 as comlllon among the old settlors as our
Thc first party I ascended the river with consisted of twenty men of the 
country. hired as axe-men, and thirty of the healthiest of the settlers; 
not one of thcse men escaped the ague and fever, and two died," 
The boat alluded to was fiat bottomed. and was propelled hy several oars 
at each side, It would carry bctween twenty and thirty persons with a 
large amount of luggage, and. with hard work, thc distance from Gore"s 
landiug' to "Scott's plains" could be made in a day. The landing place 
was that before mentioned, just above Spaul,ling's Bay. and at the spOt 
afterwards used as a bteamùoat landing. 
Immediately on arriving here with their slender store of worldly goods, 
the immigrants bct about constructing rude huts or wigwams, composed of 
slabs, bark, 01' the branches of trees, and sods, to f:helter thpm from the 
weather during the interval which must elapse before they could bc located 
upon theit lands in the neighboring Townships, As one boat load after 
another was diðcharged upon the landing, and the crowd of immigrants in- 
creased, the "plains" began to present a lively and animated appearance. 
The temporary huts were dotted hel'e and there in groups, or siugly, as the 
attraction of acquaintance or the facilities of shelter offered, while the bustle 
consequent upon lauding and the details of perfecting the arrangements, 
and above all, the novelty of the present, and the uncertainty of the future, 
must have deeply impressed the mind:" of the more thoughtful and oh,er\"- 
ing as t.hey gazed upon the scene, 
The buildings erected by )Ir. Robinson on hig. arrival, to serve aH a 
residence for himself, his clerks and servants, as well as those used as 5tore- 
houses and offices, will be referred to hereafter, and described, botb as to 
their appearance and location. in the chapter treating more especially of the 
early settlement of the Town of Peterbûrough. 


Among thobe who assisted l\1r, Robinson in dispensing the Government 
rations -Was 'Ve
ley Ritchie and Captain John Armstrong, who subsequent- 
ly settled in Douro, These rations consisted of one pound of pork and one 
pound of flour for each person over 14 years of age, half a pound of these 
to children between fivc and 11 years. A pound of meat and flour was 
also allowed to every four children under five years of age,-a description 
of food to which they were unaccustomed, which more than supplied their 
wants, and the surplus of which was not unfrequcntly exchanged for whis- 
key or other leI's injuriou<) commodities. These rations were continued for 
a period of 18 months, * the chief portion of the provisions having to be 
brought in from Cobourg and elsewhere along the frontier. 
The task of locating the emigrants, .:\Ir. Robinson 
peaks of as "by far 
the most troublesome and laborious part of the service," In this he wa.<: 
ably assisted by 
Ir. Alexanrter 'IcDonell, (subsequently Colonel of l\Iilitia) 

Ir, John Smith. and by Capt. Rubidge, R. N" who in lStD had settlct! 
in Otonabee, nine miles south of Peterboro'. The latter gave his scrvicefo; 
gratuitously, and rendered efficient aid in locating the immi
Tants in Ut-on- 
abee, and subsequently conducted two later immigration;:; on a 
maller scale, 
to which reference will be made hereafter. 
The plan adoptcd was to send out the immigranb in groups, accompanied 
by one or more guides, to examine th(' land and choose their locations. One 
hundred acres of land was allotted to each family of five persons, and a lot 
having been chosen was set down in the name of the hearl of the family, 
In some instances, even the sons, if they were grown up and of a certain 
age, received 100 acres of land also, t Contracts were then let by l\lr, 
Robinson, to former settlers and others to erect a shanty upon each lot, at 
an averagc eost of $10 each!; roads were hastily cut through the forest, 
and a few oxen and horse teams purchased by l\1r. Robinson to transport 
the immigrants and thcir luggage to their new homes, The greater number 
of oxen and horse teams engaged in this work, however, belonged to old 
f>ettlers south of Rice Lake, h,ired for this purpobC, and brought up througl. 
the bush in the best way they could. A great deal 'of expense and incon- 
venience might have been spared, as Capt. Ruhidge pointed out in his 
evidcnce beforc the select committee of the British Parliamcnt in 1847. 
had roads been previously cut, and houses of accommodation provided at 

-Capt. Rubidge's evidence before the Imperial Emigration Committee. 1847. Que
Jion '2675. 
t Ibid. Question 26'"12. 

Capt. Rubldge-Rep<>rt ohelect commiltt'p. 184'7. l'age 2t!.l. 


Sf>vera] point::,. But all the::,e reciuirements had to be provided I'imultane- 
ously, and at a time when provisions were unusually dear, 
,yith the exception of a few families who remained in Peterborough, (or 
rather on "Scott's plains," as it was still called) during the winter, the 
entire number of immigrants were located on their lands during tho Autumn 
of 1825. Each family was then supplied with a cow, an axe, an auger, a 
handsaw, a hammel', 100 nails, 2 gimlets, 3 hoes, 1 kettle, 1 frying pan, 
1 iron pot, 5 bushels of seed potatoes. and 8 quarts of Indian Corn, 
But though these poor immigrants were thus provided for in So manner 
which would now be considered more than sufficient for their necessities, 
they had still difficulties and discouragements enough to overcome, Fif- 
teen of their number had died during the passage to Quebec, and eighty- 
<;even more after their arrival in Canada. up to 
Iarch, 182G, That scourge 
of the early settler. fever and ague, assailed them almost from the moment 
they arrived in the country, and many strong hearts were unnerved, and 
\-igorouR form:; prostrated, by it during the first few seasons. 
carcely a 
t'amiIy escaped, and sometimes the entire household shook for months, till 
they were hardly able to hand each other a drink of water. Eleven funerals 
from tho immigrants took place in Kingston in a single day, where dysentery 
was combined with fever, and a number of families were detained at Co- 
bourg from the same cause, till nearly every family had to moum its dead. 
In the remoter settlements, where medical aid could not bo procured, the 
most loathsome draughts were used, in order, if possible, to mitigate the 
disease, but as clearances were made, and dampness eliminated from the soil, 
its effects diminished. till of lato years, except in localities peculiarly favor- 
:Ible for its production, it iq comparatively rare, 
The total number of these immigrantR and their families is shewn as 
follows* :- 
Embarked at Cork in May, 18
.J oined in Canada.....,..".,.""...................,.,...,....... 1 
Born do. up to i\farch 15, 1826................,....... 33 

A Hll"geon of the Royal Navy was on board of each shiþ, and aCCOlll- 
paried tho immigrant
 to their destination. Among these were the late Dr'. 
Connin, Dr. Reade, and othrrs whose names we have not learned, 

· Appendix to Report of Se\e('t Committee of Britißh Parliament, 1B2'1, P. '4!93. 


The following tabuIar statement compileò from official sources wiH be 
found interesting:- 

i :\Ien. \Vom'n Child'n Total 
- - 1_._1_- 
Located in N eweastle Distriet...............1 621 612 746 18i8 
do B
t........ .. ..,... .. ... .. . . I 15 15 25 55 
do wlthfnendsatQuebec...,.., 2 ....,.,...,.......1 2 
do do :\Iontreal.... . . I 8 G 12 I 26 
do do Kingston. . . . . 2.. .. , . . . ......... 2 
.\bsent without leave, supposed gone to U.S. I 1 1 2! 4 
Died on passage to Canada.. , . . . . . , . . , 2 2 11 I 15 
Died since arrival in Canada.. , . , . .......! 29 I 12 I 46 87 
1 6801 648 [s:ï1j 206

The immigrants were, not unnaturally, regarded at first with coldness and 
distrust by the previous settlerF1, and it has been said of them that, while 
their rations lasted, they contented themsclves in idleness and sloth, and 
only put forth the excrtion
 necessary to pcrl30ns commencin
 life in a new 
country, whel1 compelled to do so by the cutting off of their ImppIic
. But 
the falsity of this calumny is sufficiently 
11ewn by the official returns of 
thc products of their first year's labor j the facts of which were collected by 
}Ir. Robinson, and t.heir correctness vouched for by him to the Emi
Committee before referred to. These arc shewn to be as folloW's:- 


ti Cj..; 
 0 (.) Cf}. rr. rD rD 
 rD I "" "Maple' 
. r()" Y'
"' IIIP 
 0:8 . õ 
 Q ,9<"Z 8 
 ." I 
 0 -r. -+-> ..::: 
 ..::: c,)..::: 1 -= S 
 s:: I rD I j, 
.z C) Z 
:n ...;;!3 ;!l......... Su g ar, ell 
--iQ C) 0:1 ::::1 ...,-,..- ....
o l x'" 0 
 < r:.. 
 -: rn I 0 8 :: 
 60 245
 1 8251 4175 17ï7 S01 1139 11118 2:1 

mith_ . 34 1131 1 4800 15:>0 637 4()
 RS9 6. 7 21 
Otonabee _ .' _. 51 186 10500 4:!50 139;) 38 14] 9 4 13 11 
r:mily. .... .... 142 351122200 7700 3442 441 2880 6 10 47 
Ennismore,. .. 67 195 I 89UO 3000 1042
 1330 4 9 10 
AsphodeL.. _. 36 173 9150 2850 1733 I 86 1345 2 8 32 

.Third Report of thr Emigration Committee. British Parliflment, 18'2'7. Page 431, 


The ('arly ifi{lu
try of the immigrant. 
cttkrR will f'lUther appl"'ar frum 
the iì.,llowin
OF 1825, ON THE 
4TII NOYEJIllER, 1826. 
 acres of Land cleared and fenced at Æ:4 per acre ;t5,548 
67,799 bushels of Potatoes, at Is. 1:3,389 19 0 
25,623 bu
hels of Turnips, at 6d, 640 11 () 
10:438 bu
hels of Indian Corn, at 2s, 6d. 1,395 16 3 
363t acres of'Vhcat, sown in the autumn of 18
G, at 
.-t2 per acre, 
9,067 Ibs, of _Maple Sugar, at 4d. 
40 Oxen, purcha::led by their labour, at .E7 each 
80 Cows, ditto, ditto, at;(4 10s. each 
166 Hogs, ditto, ditto, at 15s. each 

828 0 

80 0 
3GO 0 
124 10 


Total, Halifax Cnrrency ;t1
,524 19 0 
An attack was made upon the loyalty and patriotism of the immigrants 
in the rolulliol Adrocate, of December 8th, 18
6, a newspaper then 
published at York (Toronto) by the late 'Villiam Lyon Mackenzie, 
wl1Ïch furnished the occa
ion not only for a triumphant vindication of 
their character in this re
pect, but also for the most ample a
surances of 
their p:encral good character and amiable deportment. The following was 
the paragraph wllich appeared in the Adl"Ol'rztc :- 
" MR. ROBINSON'S IRISH SETTLERS.- 'Ve have information which may 
be depended upon, stating that these people have an ardent desire to go to 
the United States, and that they frequently dcr-;ert, No less than thirty 
of them decamped lately in one night, 
To how much more useful a purpose might ;(30,000 have been expended 
than in recruiting in Ireland for the United States soldiers by Canadian 
Councillors !" 
Prompt and sati
tactory denials of the truth of this slander were at 
once published, and are still to be found in the printed documents relating 
to this cmigration. Two of these were immediately forwarded to the 
JJécH,lj ]lpgist,.J', a IJondon Journal, for insertion, the fir
t by Thomas T, 
Orton, E:5({., of the" IJand Register Office," Port Hope, and the second by 
James Fitzgibbon, Esq" of York. In the communication of the latter 
the following paragraph occurs:- 
. "When it is consiùered that some of these settlers are mechanics: and 


all of thcm utter str:mgcrs tn t.hc forestR of America, that the men and 
women could find employment and good wages every where between tIle 
settloment and New York City, it is only to be wondered at, that. many 
of them have not spread themselves over these Provinces and the neigh- 
boring States, This, however, they have not done, nor Imve I learned 
( during a recent visit to them) that they have done any other act since 
their arrival amongst us, for which I or any other countryman of their's 
need blush,"* 
1. L, C" Olo' DoURO. 
The following is a copy of a published lettert to the Rev. James Crowley, 
a Roman CaUlOlic Clergym:m, from the Hon. Thomas Alexander Stewart, 
who is described as "a very respectable gentleman, and a magistrate, 
residing in the midst of the Irish Immigrants":- 
To tlte Rcl', J[J', Crou:lt'.lJ: 

DOURO, January 20th, 182G. 
DEAR SIR :-1 beg to transmit the following statement. Some days 
ago I perused a paragraph in the Colonial Adwcute relating to 1\11'. 
Robinson's Immigrants, stating that thirty had left this in one night and 
gone to the United States, amI that the rest were inclined to go also, 
This I conceive to be entirely false and without foundation. I am here 
living in the very midst of them j from twenty to t11Ïrty pass my door 
almost every day. I visit the camp every week, and at all times I take 
an opportunity of conversing with them on their affairs. I have always 
found them satisfied and happy. Some of them have told me with tem's 
in their eyes that they never knew wIwt Imppiness was until now, In 
general they are making great exertions in clearing land, and the exertions 
have astonished lllany of the old settlers. I conceive that tllÍs is in gen- 
cral owing to the great care .i\Ir, Robinson has sIlOwn in regard to t.heil' 
complaints, and studying their wants, _NÓf OIIC ('omplaillf /ws t!tac lJeen 
against them, by <l1l.1J of tlte old settlers, and it is the general opinion that 
where so large a body of people are brougbt together IWlle ('ouid couduct 
themselves bettCl', 'Vhen we heard of their coming among us we did not 
like the idea, and immediately begau to think it necessary to put bolts and 
burs on our doors and windows; all these fears have vanished. These 
fearB I must acknowledge were in conse(luence of stories th.11 were circu- 
lated before their arrival in this part, which have all turned out to be 

· Appendix to Report of Sc:lect Committee, Bft!. Par., 1826. Page 286. 
t Ibid, Page 287, 


equally false with those of the Colonial Adl.'Ocatc, :Mr, Robinson has 
also been particularly fortunate ill his choice in the Medical Department, 
as the care, humanity and great attention shewn by Dr. Reade could not 
be exceeded, I could say much more but the fact will speak for itself." 
'Ve cannot conclude this cursory sketch of the chief incidents connected 
with the location of the immigrants of 18
j, without at the same time 
placing on record the zeal and ability with which the Hon, Peter Robinson 
conduetcd the immigration with which he was cntrusted, and the uniform 
kindness and attcntion to the wants and necessities of the tim1Ílies under 
llis charge. That he WilS rCf';pected 
md beloved by those towurds whom 
he had a difficult èmd trying duty to perfùrm, is prominently sho\fll not 
only by their public expressions at the time, but also by the grateful recol- 
lections they still cherish, and the reminiscences thcy still repeat, embody- 
illg similar sentimcnts. SII impresscd were the Emigration coDlmittee of 
the British Parliament with :\Ir, Robinson's success that they" expressed 
their sense of thc zeal, ability and -discretion" with which he effceted the 
location of the two bodies of Emigrants in 182:1 and 1825,* the furmer 
 been directed towards the Bathurst, and the latter to the Newcastle 
District. But we are not without other witne8ses W the truth of this 
statement. About the year 1830, 
Ir. John Richards was sent out by the 
British Governmcnt as a commissioner "tQ enf{uire into the circumstances 
of the Emigrants who went out in 1823 and 1825," and ill a letter to Sir 
Robert 'Vilmot Horwn, Bart" dated London, March 1st, 1831, alllong 
other things he states: "I was two or three days at Petcrborough, during 
which timc, pcrhaps, thirty or forty settlers, and some with their families, 
came in to !'ee 1\11'. Robinson, and thc manner in which they met him was 
quite affccting j it was möre to bless him as n benefactor than to reccive 
him as a visiwr,";- 
tatement thus made was confirmed by Captain Rubidgc, H. N" 
in evidence offered in 1838, in reply to questions propounded by Sir R, 
'V. Horton, Such testimony, from buch a source, must have been highly 
gratifying to 1\1r, Robinson, to his brother Sir John B, Robiuliou, latc 
Chief Ju
tice of Upper Canada, as well as to his numerous friends both 
in England and Canada, 

· Sir R. 'V, lIorton's '"Ireland and Cdl18t1I'." London, 1839, Puge 31i. 
t Sir R. 'Yo Horton'ij "Irelallli and Canada," 22, 


The difficulties of the illl!nigrants when once located on their lands were 
common to those of other settlers in the bush, and these will be referred 
to hereafter in the proper place. But there arc doubtless many other in- 
cidents and reminiscences specially relating to the immigration, which, at 
this remote period of writing, and in the absence of personal knowledge 
011 the part of the writer, or of documentary evidence set down by others 
at the time, cannot now be recalled. 
It was rcmarked by Capt, Rubidge ill 1847, ill his evidence already 
referred to, and the statement is fu]]y borne out by subsecluent observa- 
tion, that the immigrants improved most rapidly, and were more prosper- 
ous in townships in which they were intermingled with English and Scotch 
settlers, (as in Utonabee for instance) than in others almost exclusively 
occupied by themselves. * 

'Vhateyer opinions may now be entertained as to the relative advan- 
tages, ultimately, to a section of country settled by immigrauts to whom 
free grants of land are necessarily accorded, compared with other portions 
where a certain amount of capital is po
sessed, and the lands are purchased 
by the intending settler, there can be no doubt but that the immigration 
of 1825 to the Newcastle District, gave a great impetus to the settlement 
of this county, and laid the foundation of that material progress and 
prosperity of which we are now so justly proud, In confirmation of this 
statement, if such be necessary, we refer again to the evidence of Capt. 
Rubidge before the Committee of the British Parliament. In repIy to 
the question, " In what way did the Emigration of 1825, under the super- 
intendence of the Ron, Peter Robinson, affect your township, (Otonabee) 
as well as others on the North side of Rice Lake?" -Capt, Rubidge rc- 
" 'Ye all felt highly indebted to the British Government, who, by plant- 
ing these Emigrants amongst us, encouraged us t.o cast aside our despou- 
dency, aud ensured to us brighter prospects. L'pwanls of 2000 soub 
were added to our population; an excellent Mill was built at the expen
of the Government, since bought by private individual
; leading road
were cut out in all directions and a steamboat in operation, 'Vhere at 
that time one old house stood, the 
rown of Peterborough grew up as if 
by magic, and it now (1838) contains two churchcs, two meeting houses, 
probably 150 houses, and 900 inhabitants. Speculators flocked to the 

.,. l\liml\{'s of Evillelll'e beli>re the Select Committe
. &1'..1817, que=-. 2600. 


ueighboring townships in all directitms, mills were built-stores opcned- 
aud life, bustle and civilization went on with Fpirit. Had it not been for 
this fOl tuitous accession of population we must have dragged on a lethargic 
existence with doubtful prospects of improvement.">';. 


A. reserve was made in the survey of the township of North Monaghan 
in 1818, for the site of the future town of Peterborough; but it was not 
until 1825 that the Town plot was laid out by actual survey, by Richard 
Birdsall, ESf!., Surveyor, under thc direction of the Hon, Zaccheus Burn- 
ham, to whom this task, togethcr with the survey of some of the neigh- 
boring townships had been assigned. At that time, the future importance 
of the place was no doubt dimly foreshadowed in the minds of a few far- 
seeing mcn'7 but the prospect of a town ever being built, or indeed any- 
thing more than a mill, and perhal)s a store, in wlIat seemed so remote a 
situation, was regarùed as incrediblc, and WëlS 8carcely seriously enter- 
tained among the settlers in the adjoining wilderncss, 
In the Spring of 1825, the site of the Town was still in a state of 
nature, The ground west of the creek was densely wooded with a heavy 
growth of pinc, interspersed with beech and maple; while between that 
stream and the Otonabec river, the character of the soil was that known 
as "plains," and the trees were of stunted oak and scrubby pine, inter- 
spcrsed with l5111aller brush-wood and occasional grassy spots, some of 
whidl bore traces of the Indian's camp or the hunter's solitary fire, 
As seen now, the site of the town is generally level, with occasional un- 
dulations. Such could hardly be said of it at the time of which we write. 
There were then elevations and depressions more or less f;trongly marked, 
which the taste! or the necessities of an active :tnd progresHive settlement 
have filled up or laid low, The swampy margins of the creek before re- 
ferred tu, have been filled up, and that userul stream restrained in great 
part within its proper channel. The lot forming the south-cast corner of 

ir n. \v. 110rton'.., '.Irlilmu] ani! Callai!u." ).ollll(lI1, 1839. J>ag


George and Hunter streets was low lUld wet, and here, at certain seasons, 
water collected, forming a stagnant pool. Over most of the ground east 
of the creek huckleberries flourished, and grew with especial luxuriance 
amid the stunted trees and shrubbery which covered the beautiful hill 
now adorned by the county buildings, The wild flowers peculiar to a 
plainy soil were not wanting here, and lent their gorgeous hues t.o dccorate 
the Bcene; but fruit and flower were speedily crushed out by the iron heel 
of Civilization, which, while it marred the wild richness of nature, fur- 
nished a new mart for the products of industry ::md a new emporium for 
the wealth and enterprise of man. 
During the four or fivc years preceding 1825, the little mill erected by 
Mr, Adam Scott on the bank of the Otonabee, (corner of King and 'Vater 
streets,) had becn in operation. It WilS a frame structure of about 18 by 

4 feet, and shook under the vibration of tlw machinery. Within this 
small space was fitted up a run of very common mill stones, and a single 
upright saw, 'Vithout wishing to disparage the enterprise which estab- 
lished this poor apology for a mill, in the heart of the wilderness, it must 
still be confessed, that neither in gristing nor sawing, was it adequate to 
supply even the limited requirements of the fcw early settlers of that 
period. In :tddition to this defective mill, an equally impotent distillery 
was carried on in a small house in the vicinity. In the absence of a 
metallic "worm" the vapor was passed through :t long wooden tube, 
cooled by the application of water, and thus condensed, the aflueous spirit 
oozed from the further extremity. No means of rectification were avail- 
able, and the whiskey thus produced contained the empyreumatic oil and 
other impurities, which) as well as thc disagreeable flavor thcse occasion, 
the whiskey drinker of that day had to enduro as best he could, But 
though lacking in some of the higher qualities (?) which even the" tangle- 
leg" whiskey of the present day possesses, it w
s quite adequate for the 
chief purpose intended, and would intoxicate as surely, as the most 
elaborate product of improved machinery and modern skill. 
The little mill continued to do such gristing and sawing as it could, up 
till the year 1834, when it was improved, and a brewery and distillery 
added and carried on by Messrs. HamiIton & Fortye, until the year 1835, 
when the whole was burnt down, und the present structure erected. 
The distillery above referred to went out of existence in 1827, but 
l\Ir, Scott's dwelling house still remains,-now the oldest building in 
Pcterborougll, It is a low, square, cuttnge-roofed, frullle building., dulSe 


to t.he edge of \\Tnter f:trcct, ou th(' western Elide, and about midway be- 
tween the market. square and "Parnell's mill," The right of way for the 
extension of the railway track, now in process of construction, impinges 
upon one corner of the old house, and it will doubtless soon be demolished 
to make way for this great agent of modern civilization, 
Scott's mill was for many years a bnd-mark to the immigrant and the 
visitor to the new settlements; and until 1827, Peterborough had no 
other name than "Scott's plains." Its present designation was then chosen, 
as a merited compliment to the Hon. Peter Robinson, to whose successful 
labors in promoting immigration the country felt itself so much indebted. 
The fir
t houses, next to those of :Mr, Scott, were erected at the time 
of the immigration of 18
5 j and a cursory reference to these, we trust, 
will not prove uninteresting. 'Ve will commence with those erected by 
3Ir. Robinson for the purposes of the immigration, as being among the first 
in point of time as well as of importance. 
These werc all built of logs, with square gables and shingled roofs. 
Four of them stood in a row on thc south eastern portion of the market 
square, frontin
 upon 'Yater Street. The largest of the four, which was 
also the most northern, occupied very nearly the site of the -front portion 
of the present market house, Its size was about 18 by 20 feet, while the 
others were somewhat smaller. This one was used as a residence for Dr. 
Reade, sur
eon to the immigTunts, and as a tempornry church, in which 
mas!) was cclebruted by the Hev, 1\11'. Urowley. The two central were used 
as storehouseg for the provi
ions for the immigrants, and probably for other 
purposes, The one nearest the south was l\Ir, Hobinson's genera] office, 
where accounts werc kept and business transacted by himself and his chief 
clerk. :Mr. RicIwrù Thornhill. The fifth and largest of these buildings 
was long known as the "government house," and as being the residence of 
1\11'. Robinson, Col. McDonell, and :Mr. John Smith, surveyor, who a8
in locating the inl1nit!-r
mts, anù for a brief time the resting-place of Vice- 
ROJaity itself j and i
 worthy of a fuller description. Like the others, it 
was built of logs, was forty feet long by about twenty feet wide, It stood 
on the eastern side of the lut now occupietl by the Bunk of l\Ion t.real, (8. 
E. corner of Simcoe and 'V ateI' 
treets,) about thirty feet. from the former 
and forty from the latter, vcry nenr the southern end of the briek 
stable now belonging to those premises, It fronted towards the south, 
with a door near the centre of the building, partly concealed by a wooden 


porch ill front. Them were two windows m tIle frollt. 
1J1r1 thrrc in the 
rear, The interior was divided into three rooms, of nearly eClunl flizr, by 
two partitions of logs, erected with the walls. Into the middle of these the 
front door opened, and here WIlS the chief reception room, from wllich doors 
opened into the other apartment.s on eithcr hand. The western room was 
devoted to the purpo
es of the kitchen, while l\Ir, Uobinson slept in t.he 
eastern apartment, which also contained sundry books; papers anù maps, 
The logs, both of walls 
md partitions, werc hewed to a level snrf
1Ce in the 
interior, :md the interstices, both within and without, carefully secured 
with "chinks" and mortar. A considerable portion of ground, extending 
across and nort.h of Simcoe Street., was fenced in as a garden, while some sn13Il 
out-houses occupied a posit.ion nearer the bank of the river. Such were the 
modest structures erected by :Mr. Robin
on; which were very well adapted 
to the purposes intended. Should 
my of our fastidious readers 
profess to sneer at their homeliness, as presenteù in the pidure we have 
drawn, we can assure them that at the time of their erection, and for at 
least several years later, t.hey were regarded as first-class houses, and models 
of taste and perfection in the youthful town, 
The few immigrants, who, with their families, remained on "the plains" 
during the winters of 1825-G, constructed such humble dwellings as they 
could, and several of them plied such trades or other avocations as their 
previous habits enabled then1 to do. One .John Boates started a rude 
tavem on the south side of the market square, and adjoining it on the 
east side a log house was erected, in which livcd Capt. Armstrong, who 
was engaged by 
Ir, Uobinson, along with "Tesley Uitchie, in di
rations to the iUlluigTants. A John Sullivan, long dead, got a log house 
put up on the south-west corner of George and Charlotte Streets, (south 
corner from 'V ad del' s saddlery,) and kept tavern there. "
illiam Oaklcy, 
an immigrant, started a bakery, After the houses mentionE::d, the ncxt was 
a houl:ìC on the south side of King Street, where 
Ir. Timothy O'Connor 
lived, James Hurley built another cast of O'Connor's in the winter of 
A small store was opened by a Mr. Stewart in 1825, in a little log house, 
immediately opposite the south side of the market 8I.luare, and a little 
way from the corner of Charlott.e and 'Vater Streets. Mr, Stewart's ideas 
of a small crcdit business were not such as usually prevail in mercantile 
life. Many of his customers w{'re unknown to him by name, and instead 
of making the usual enquiry in such a case, he not unfrequently trusted to 


thc aCl"idcut
 of thc future tf) acquire that necesHary inforHlatioll. :-:lll'h 
IS "<1 bar of' soap, to the woman with thc red doak;" aUlI othcr:-; 
('<[uaBy indefinite. were COIlSCljllcntly not unu
u;ll in hi:'i day book. .A 
ines;;; cOlllluded 011 ,;uch principlcs could not long' }JC succeRsful; aUlI 
his little stock was crc long mcrged ill a lar
cr OIlC bl'ou
ht in by Gcor:.
rcy llethune. E
(l" of Cobourg, :md sold for him nnder thc managemcnt at 
first of )Ir. Green )11' Donnell, and aftcrwardR of )1r. Thonw
Tupper, who afterward<; conducted .. f:tore for himself on 
jUl5t enst or the crcek. The third store was opcncd by )11'. .T ohn Brown, 
of Port Hopc, Oil the corncr of Simcoe and Watcl' Streets, sub:"cqncntly 
occupied by )les:-;rs. 
icholh: & Hall, alld now by 
Ir. Hobert Pattr:r:-;on. 
a-, a boot and shoc Ftore, The 01<1 rr.nnc 1l:1
, howevcr, bccn raiscd, à 
new foundation aÙlIed. and its cûl:ditinn and appearance otherwise im- 
proved, )[r. Brown's :-;tore was opcncd in lS
" and containcù a stock of 
goods which. for the lo('ality, W3S very crcùitahle. ()ur illlorm<lnts llifier 
as tu the valnc of the :,;tuck, which, fin' a fcw years, probably did not 
excccd $
)OU to $lUOO, This Lu
inc:-:s was lllana
r:d for )11'. Brown by 
.John R. Ben:-;on, Esq., still a well-known eitizm. 
:)Icanwhile othr:r Imildin).!;s we're in procm;s of erection, Cottcr Lanc, a 
Fhoemakcr, and an immigrant, built Ll fraUlc house on Charlotte Htrect, 
.James Bailey, a Xorth-orIrclalld-man, nnd Hot nn immigrant. built a housc 
on the south-wf'st corner of (
eorge aud Hunter Streets, afterwards the site 
of Fisher's hotel and now of )Iitco-helrs saloon. Bailey kept tayeru here 
ill 18
\.t thi:- e3rly pcriod in the history of the town, property was of 
course cheap, anù rcal estate cOlllI,;H'ati, cly vnlueless, During the first 
year or two, Mr. IlolJin1'jon had the disposal of town lots for the Govern- 
ment, the upset price Lciu M $HU :fin' a lot of half an acre. In Home in- 
stances, these were gi,'cn away, in licu of services rcnùered, anù these, as 
well as SOIUC of those of which the fcc-simple was purchascd, exchanged hands 
for the most trifling sums. The now very Y<l.luable south-east corncr lot of 
e anù Hnnter streets, (at prcsent occupied by the store of 3-1essrH. 
l\IcKeIlar & Cameron) anù which has becn before spoken of as low anù 
wet, was offered to Robert Reid, J
slh of Douro, as a gift. but declined, 
from its bcing rcgarded ns worthless. In 18
(j it was purc11ased for a 
fanning mill, by )Ir. Thomas Harper, who subsequently lived on it, and 
manufaeturcd those useful implemcnts ill thc rcar of thc premises. 
Alexandpr Henry, a cooper, built a frame house on öimcoe Street. near 
Ueor)!e Street.. in 18
7, on the site where thc "FarUler's Inn" was aftcr- 


 crectcd and f;till fitauds, In thc saUle year, J mnCf; T. Henthorn, 
ES(luirr, .Justice of the Pencc, houp:ht from one l<'alvey, an immigrant, 
thc nortll-ca!'t corncr of George and Hunter Strcct.s, whcl'e hc built 
a sU1311 house, afterwm'ds convertcd into an hotel. HCl1thorn'
block is now too well known to need any fhrther referenec, Like many 
other improycd portions of thc town, it passcd through succ('ssivc St<lgC!'. 
:md thc earlicr woodeu buillling-s werc morc than oncc swept away by 
dcstructive fircs, cre the present buildiugs adol'lled thc spot. In 18
'j, too, 
)Ir. Georgc Ruck Luilt a framc house on the south side of Clwrlotte Strect, 
whcrc the ]
Jlþ!."lish poplars till rcccntly flouri
hcd, ::nul nenrly oppositc tlle 
"Globc" tavern on that street, 
Thc first school-housc, a log building, with shingled roof, was erected in 
182G-7, on the ground in the r
<lr of thc pre:.;ent Pllion School huildinp... 
The Rcv. Samnel Armour, firf;t Episcopal clcrgyman in Pctcrborough, 
conducted this school, in which thc highcr as well 3S thc lower branches of 
education wcrc fooiucces:o;fully t<lllght. This W:li
 thc fbumbtiun of our excd- 
lent grammar school, which ere lung rcccived 3n annual g-ral1t of 84011 
frum thc Govcrnment towards its support. 
At a period a little latcr, and ahout thc year 18:!8, )11'. John Crawfurd, 
of Port Hope, put up a little frame house, north of Louis l\IeGrel!or's 
"Amcrican Hotel," on Georl!;c Street, which, soon after its complction, was 
drawn down by the settler's oxen, and locatcd on the uorth-east corner of 
George and Simcoe Street<;, now occupied by )Ir. !tobcrt 'Valtun's stove 
and saddler's shop. This valuable corner lut was alrcady purchased 
from Richard Birdsall, Esq.. by John Gravcs. an American, and a wheel- 
wright, for $30, to he paid in wag-gon and cart-wheels. Uravcs failed to 
fulfil his share of the contract; Crawford insisted 011 holding possession. 
and hence arose the first law-suit of the infant settlcment. 
'Ve might mention, in connection with this part of our subject, that 
scveral of our now lcading and wealthy ci
izcns, commenced busiucf:s, of one 
kind or another, about this time, in very humble occupations, or as a:ssist- 
ants to others in business of very limited extent. That from ; small 
beginning, they have risen to wealth and position is creditablc, not only to 
themselves, but to the country, which furnishes cxamplcs of such sub::;tan- 
tial rewards for the industrious and the deserving. 



In the prcccding pa
es wc have narrated events slightly in advance of 
their chronological order, so as to prcsent in one view t
e gradual progress 
of the town in its first stage. The reader's mind must go back a year or 
two ere several of the last named buildin
s wcre erected, in order to 
rcalize the exact condition of the town at the period of the visit of His 
Excellency, Sir Pere
rine Maitland, which took place in the winter of 
182G, and just one )ear and a fcw months after the arrival of the immi- 
m ts, 
Very few houscs, (and tl
ose only of the most common description) 
besides those erected by 311'. Robinson, then existed hcre. The portion of 
the site of the town then cleared, was still disfigured by stumps, occasional 
brush-he3ps, &c.; and altogether the scene was far from attractive, pre- 
senting but little accomplished in the present, and leaving a very wiùc 
marf!in for hopc or dcspair in the undeyelopcd futt{re, 
His Exccllency was accompanied on this occasion by Co!. Talbot, 
fi)tlllder of the Talbot settlement in "r estern Cauada; by the Honble 
John Bcverly Robinson, then Attorncy Gencral, afterwards made a Baronet, 
and Chief J ustiee of {T pper Vanada at the timc of his dcccase. (Sir John 
was a brother of thc lIon. Pcter Robinson,) George G. Bcthune, Esq.. 
and the Hon. Zaecheu<; Burnham accompanicd the party. The journey 
from Cobourg was maùe in :o;leigh
 and acros
 Rice Lake, in thc early part 
of the wintcr sca:.,on. })as:-;ing np through Otonabee, thcy stayed at 
the house of Capt3in Rubiògc, R. 
., for dinner, anù on their 
arrivtll here thcy were met by 
Ir. Robinson, Colonel McDon- 
ell, anu the chief scttll'rs adjoininp: thc place, and entertainrd 
in thc best manncr circumstanccs would pcrmit, in thc log buildin
already referred to, wherc their entertainers rcsidcd. The Governor and 
his friends remaincd a few day
, during whiéh thcy were waitcd on by 
Captain ltuhirlge, Rubcrt Heid, E:-;(h thc lIon. '1', ..\. Stewart, l\I.L,C., and 
the few uther p:clItlclllcn in the llei
hhorhood. 'fhc central room of thc 
guvermnellt hou
e already rlcscribcd, was useù as a rcception room, in 
which a sort or rude lcyee wa
 held. His Excellency was seatcd at the 
furthcr end, and thc settlers, who attended in considcrable numbers, were 
cnted to him, aud then retired by anuther outlet. The occaliion or 


this visit was seized to present to thc rcprcsentative of Royalty sundry 
loyal and patriotic addrcsses. III one of these from the ,. :Mugistrates, 
md other inhabitants of the county of Northumberland," the hip:h 
sense of the honor conferred on the Kcwcilstle District and the intcrcst 
shewn by His ]
xcellency in the prospcrity of the l'roviuce, ill this visit, 
was acknowledged in suitable terl1lð, Testimony was also borne to the 
good conduct of the immigrants during their residence at Cobourg, which 
was said to .. warrant the expectation of tllCir becomin
 a valuable acquisi- 
tion to the Province. *" 
rhis was thc substancc of their Address. 

A deputation from "the colony" in SmitI1, as the settlemcnt there was 
called, WtlS also appointed to wait upon the Governor, and 311'. 'Valton 'Vilson, 
one of th(' early settlers, undertook to pl'Cl
ent a vcrbal tlddress. thc gencral 
terms of which had been previously agreed on. The spok('sman bad pro- 
ceeded but a little way, when his utterance became confused, and he broke 
down ingloriously. TUl1ling round to l\1r. Jacob Bromwell, another set- 
tler, who was one of the deputation, he said: 
" Speak it you sir." 
Mr. Bromwell continued the address to His Excellency, in which the 
difficulties and occasional distress of the settlers were plainly pourtrayed, 
and the absence of milling facilities especially deplored, 'Vilson bad told 
the Governor " We hac a mill, ami we hac nee mill," but Bromwell, as a 
practical illustration of the necessity for better accommodation ill this 
respect, added: "Save in your presence, Sir, I have to get up at night to 
chew corn for the children"; a statement, which, no doubt was literally 
true, His Excellency returned a gracious reply, in which he promised 
them assiHtance; a pledge which; ere long, he fully redeemed, to the great 
joy of the settlemcnt, 
A writtcn addrej;;s was presented on behalf of the Irish immigrants by 
l)atrick Barragan, a school tcacher, by whom it was read, As it is the 
only address from the nei;.rhborhood which has been })reserved, tlle former 
one being entirely vcrbal, aud is morcovcr highly characteri
tic of the 
})coplc from whom it cmanated, we cannot refrain from presentiug it 
en tire: 
" 'V c, the Irish Emigrants recently brought nut Ly Colonel Robinson 
to this eonntry, feel grateful to our gracions good King, and to His 1\1:.- 

· AI'I,pndix 10 R('porl of Seh'('1 Conuniu/'c of 18'26. Page 


 worthy, good :llllI humanc f!'overnment, fur all t!u'y havc, 
md wc 
hopc yet intend. tn do for us." 
c. 'Ve ah;o ure wcll plca:scd, and entcrtain thc best wishcs for our "
 Mr. Robinson, for all hc has donc for us; and we arc fully sensible 
that his fine and humanc feclings will not I>crmit him to lcavc anythill
undonc that lllay forward our welf
" Pleasc Your Excdlcllcy, we are tutally at a loss fur words adcqnate to 
ex!)ress thc thallks Hnd p;ratitndc we owc Doctor Rcade, for his activc, 
skillful aud unrcluitting carc, &c., of U
. 'Y c arc likewisc thaukfnl to, 
nUll wcll pleased with. the ufficers placed over us." 
c. Plca!'c Your Excellency, wc agrec vcry wcll, nnd arc pleased with tLe 
proceeding's of the old 8ettler
 mnongst us, us it is in the interest of us all 
to do thc samc. AmI should nn encmy havc the presumption cvcr to in- 
de this portion or IIis .Majesty's dominions, your Exccllency will find 
that we, whcll callcd upon to face and cxpel the COUlmon foe, will to a man 
fiÆow our bravc cOllllnandcrs; not:lll Irish soul shall stay behind; and if 
we havc no better wcapons in our halld
, mow them down with our Irish 
shillelahs, " 
"Please your Excellency, we labor under a heavy gricvance, which we 
confidently hope your _Excellency will rcdref's, and then we will be COlll- 
plctely happy, viz :-thc waut of clcl'!!ymcn, to adlllillister to us the com- 
forts of our Holy Religion, and 
ood school-mastcrs to instruct our 
c; 'Ve now beg lcavc to retire, wishing your Excellency lonp.: life, good 
health, and evcry success."* 

The Governor's reply docs not appear alllong the official rccords, and at 
this remote period, it would be uselcss to attcmpt to gather up its preciðe 
terms from the memorics of thc survivors to whom it was addresscd. It 
was, no doubt, as in thc other case
, gracious and encouraging. 
During the brief stay of Governor l\Iaitland 011 "the plains," he ami :I 
numbcr of' thc gcntlemen who accompanicd him, drovc out to sce the 
scttlement in Ennismorc. The lIon, Peter Robinson and Col. ")lcDoncll 
actcd as thcir guides on this occal'ion, )1 nd Lake was cr05scd on the ice; 
and the party put up at thc f'hantyof )Ir. Engcnc McCarthy, father of 

.. -\ppendix to Report of 1',-I....t COIIIIIIII(
e 0'- Brit. {'ar.--tH'!(i.. II".1ge '.!99. 


Jeremiah McCarthy, Esq., Reeve of Ennismore, where they partook of 
such refreshments as their entertainers could procure, 
During the same scason, other addresses, numcrously sigRed, from the 
various townships in which the immigrants were settled, and breathing a 
similar spirit of gratitude, loyalty and devotion, were forwarded to the 
Right Ron, Earl Bathurst, Colonial Secretary, to whum they were ad- 
The infant settlements around Peterborough were greatly cheered and 
encouraged by this visit of the Governor General, proving as it did, the 
paternal care of the government, and the interest felt in the success and 
well-being of these hardy settlers, Not only was the moral effect beneficial, 
in increased confidence and hope, but its practical and material results 
were of the most gratifying character, as the sequel will show. 
It was soon after, that at a meeting of a fcw gl
ntlemcn residing in the 
vicinity, the name of " Peterborough" was selccted for the future town, 
in compliment to the Hon, Pet-er Robinson, to whose exertions in promo- 
ting the settlement of the neighboring townships they felt so much indebted, 
The selection was at once ratified by general conscnt, and" Scott's plains" 
ere long ceased to be associated with thc prosperous t(lwn. Before till"' 
opening of the next season, (the spring of 1826) it was announced that 
the government had undertaken thc cost of the erection of a milJ within 
the limits of the town, and tcndcrs were asked for this work as well as for 
the construction of the necessary mill dam. .Mr. Thomas Harper was 
mnong those who tendered on this occasion, but the contract was awarded 
to Mr. Horace Perry, and thc work imlllediately commenccd, The site 
chosen waf; the site of the mill recently hurned, on the property of Samuel 
Dickson, Esq., and the building of late years known as Dicbon's mill the 
one then erected, with additions and improvements, The d:nn WIIS built 
in the Autumn of 18
6, and the f:aw and 
Tist mill in t.he Rpring follow- 
To ereç,t so large a framc as that of the grist mill, was at that time, a 
matter of much difficulty. The settlers within an arca of twenty milcs 
were called upon to lend their aid, and scveral of thcm gave a week's hard 
labor gratuitously, to assist in furthering SO de:-irable a work, 'rhe saw- 
mill, adjoining the larger structure, was tirst put in operation, in order to 

upply the nece
sary lumber, and was also a great boon to the new scttle- 
'rhe grist mill, which contained two run of :-;ton('
. W:l
 comp1ctl'tl in 


7, :md wa
 immediately offered for sale by the government and pur- 
chased by .Tohn Hall, ESt!" (now of Buckhorn) and Mr, 
loore Lee, who 
continued to run it in partncrship for scveral years, 
"'hile this great work was in progress, a bridgc was built across the 
Otonabce chiefly by governmcnt aid, whieh waf-; completed 3bout the same 
time as the mill, mIll by the 8:nne contractor, Mr, Horace Perry, 
A })lan of this bridf!c llWY stilI be seen in the Town Clcrk's officc, 
It was 
upported l)y three piers, triaugular in sl13pe, with the apcx 
 up thc stream, and occupied very ne:lrly tllC site of the present 
structure. After thc dcstruction of this 1rid
e, thc Utonabce was crossed at 
this point by mcansof a lar!!e scow. sustaincd in the current by a long rope 
or cable, to ont> cud of which it was attached. while thc other was securcd 
to a point 011 the bauk at 
ome distanee ahovc. By a proper application of 
the helm, the current. WHS made to tr:mf..:port the scow from one bank to the 
otllC'r; a reversal of it:-; position :tftcr cac'h crossing, being all that W:1S 
required. _\ second hridp.-e was SOOll after huilt chiefly Ly public subscrip- 
At this period, aud before the erectiun or a dam at the locks below the 
Little J...:tke. the river was shallow, aud casily fordable during the summer 
seal'on, by pe.rsons on foot, orpo
ite the old steamboat landing, contiguous 
to the old steam mill of l\!csfoirs. 
haw & Fortune heforc rcferred to, 
From the date of t.he erection of the mill, the prosperity of the town 
and the success of the adjoining settlement were fully assured. "The 
plains" wcre rapidly converted into a busy and prosperous village, while 
the enlarged clearings, and the rapidly increasing produce of the harvest, 
raised thc new settlers from the struggles of a" precarious existence to one 
of comparative affiuen


During the winter of 1827-8, a surplus of wheat was !-,'1'own j about five 
thousand bushels of which were sold to the store-kcepers in Peterborongh. * 
During the summcr of 18
7 as lllany as twcnty new fr31ne houses were 
erected, a tannery, a di
tillery, and other uf;cful branche8 of business were 
in opcration or projected, and indicntions of progrcf:s and prof'perity 
appeared on every hand.t 

· Capt. Rubidge's Letter to Capt. Hall, "Tra\els m N. America," 1829. Page 337, 
t Ibid. 



Dllcto!" l:c,-\(lc having fullilletl his cngag;I'IlH'nt in reference tll the illlllli- 
grants, withr1rcw after thcir location 01.1 their lands. Dr. 1>owslcJ f'OOIl 
UnCI' locatcd him:-!Clfhcre, and was followcd by nr. HOlldy. but he waR cre 
 supcrsedcd hy Dr. IIutchi,.:on. who harl been for Rome tilll<' practisin:
in Cavan, and was induced to I'ettle in Pcterborou
h about the y<,ar 18
lIe was a man of mueh ability, aud dcsel'Ycdly cstecmed. Dr. Tayh'r 
camc in at. a later period, aud was fi)!" HOlJ 1 ctimc a
sociatclI with ])1', 
l-Intchison in a co-partnership, lly this time the little log I'tOl"C hpt. by 
)Ir. ,James Gray Bcthune, south of the f;(plan'. hall bCl
n 8upcrs';r1erl 
by thc franlC buildill
, known as ,.the rcd store;' erected on the corncr or 
Charlottc and 'Vatcr strects, whcrc it still Rtanù
, and fiJl'ms the cml of :t 
Illng row uf wooden houf:,es, the property of Edmund ChamlJcl'lin, E
'1. : 
but it is nowuo longer "red". Petcrborou
h wr:.s then l'ìupplietl hy a weckly 
mail, and the pOfo;t office wm; kept in this buiMin
. in connection with )11'. 
Bethune's storc, the whole bl'ing nWlw.ged. as furmerly 
tatcd, by )11'. 
Thmuas Valentine Tupper. _ Mr. J:nllCR B. FcrgnSCtll, (Ill other of Frede- 
rick }'crguson. Esrt.,) was f;uh
e(plCntl.r appointcd postma:;;tcr, mltl the 
office was kept by him in a small slluare frame buiìding with a cot.taf!;c 
roof, just south of the reù I't01'C, to which it was attached, and ma.y be 
recognized as forl1ling [in addition to the rcur or the I:orner builllillg. Its 
size is about 1 () by 1 (j feet, :md the door nnd UlJû small window still luok 
towards tho rircr, a:-; ill furmcr days. It may not be ont of ph1ce to uda 
that this part uf \Vatcr 8tì'l'et thcn COli taillcd thc rcsidenccs of tlw }H'iuci},al 
pcr8011s in Pcterborough, aUlI was for many ycars after, thc leading thorough- 
fare. Dr. Hutchison liwll in thc cottage built, hy Adam Scott. before re- 
fcn'cd to, afo; now the oltlest hOUfo;C in ]'cterborough. Auother mcdicai gCll- 
tleman r.t a later date, livcd in t.hc larger fhnne h011'1e with wint:-H at either 
end, just nOl'th of the cotta
c, and t.he largc frame house on the rivcr bank 
opposite, was occupied more recently hy a respected membcr of the lcgal 
profcssioll,-SU that :ùthou
h this portion of thc town is now ùilapidat
and its glury quite dcpartcd, yet old aHsociatiom; and memories hallowed 
by time, clustcr round it, which we would fain rC&;CllC from oblivion, 
The pust office was subsc'luently transfc1'l'ell to the old governmcnt house 
before referred to, whcrc it was kept for seve1'tll years by _E})hr:lÍlll San- 
ford, ]
sq" who unhapl,ily cmled his days in 1843 by suicide, at the 
Amerimm hotel, wherc he was a lodger. Our })rcscnt }>ofo:hnastcr, S. .J. 
Carver, Esq., succr:sded to the officc. At some time later and down to the 
year IR5G, the post office was kept in a small framc building little larger 


Carver, Es'l', 8ucC'ccded to the Offil"l', At :--ome later time and down to the 
year 18;)6 the post office was kept in a small frame building little hn'gcr 
than a shanty on the east side of Queen street, which still exist
, unused 
and tenantles
, After two further removals, one of which was occaFlioned 
by the destructive fire of 1861, it wa<; removed to the building it now 
occupies on "Tater street. 
In 1831, under the administration of 
ir John l:olborne, Captain 
Rubidge, R, No, wa.<; appointed Immigration A).!,ent at Peterborough, and 
located a number of immigrants sent out fro111 various parts of the Cnited 
Kingdom. 1\Iost of these were located in Dummer, and will be referred 
to in our future narrative of the 
ettlemcnt of that town
hip. A good 
many were also employed in various capacitics by the oldf'r r<,:-:ident:-:, or 
located on vacant lots in thc former settlement
In 18R2 the cholera appeared on thi
 continent, and penetrated as fill' 
even as Pcterboroug:h, where the prospect of it'l approach creatcd a 
deal of alarm. There can be no doubt but that, as in all visitations of' 
this kind, many died from fear aud alarUJ at the approach of the disease, 
One prominent example of this kind i
till renl<'mbered in the person of 
l\Ir, Silas Pearson, a 
 robust farmer, residing on th<, f'hore of 
r ud 
J.Jnke, about ten mHcs from Peterborough, At the first mention of the 
disease hc took to bed in a statc of mortal fear, and when the cholcra did 
arrive was one of the first victims, The population of Peterborough at 
that time was undcr five hundred, and yet twenty-three deaths occurred 
from this disease. * The township of Douro happily escaped without a 
sinf!'le deatlI, while in that of Dummer, lying beyond it and further in the 
interior, eleven persons died from this fatal epidemic.-r A few deaths also 
occurred in Otonabec, and the other townships adjoining Peterborough, 
During the following ,year, (18:1:1) thc fir
t member of the legal pro- 
fession found his way to Peterborough, This wa'l Elias Burnham, }
sq., who 
has held a conspicuous place, from time to time, not only at the bar, but 
in thc manngement of the political, educational and municipal affairs of 
the town amI county. His extensivc block fronting on the market 
square, and other properties, entitle him to rank among our 1l10
t wealthy, 
as he lIas long done, nmong our leading citizell
The second legal gentleman resident in Peterborough was .J. 
Shuter Smith, E
y'" now M. P. P. for East Durham, and long a reside nt 
· Col. Stricklallll'!' "Twenty"-se\'en years in Cana d a "'est." Yol. II. page 201, 
t Ihi,1. Page 202. 




of Port Hope. His stay was scarcely protracted beyond a year. Stafford 
Kirkpatrick, Esq., became a resident of Peterborough in 1834, and since 
then we have llad a long list of members of the bar, some of w]lom have 
held, or still hold, distinguished positions among the legal fra.ternity. 
About this period, the religious element comes into l)rominence. Be- 
sides the Episcopal and Roman Catholic churches, the pastors of which 
had arrived at a previouR date, clergymen of several other denominations 
appeared in Peterborough, and fonned the nucleus of churchcs and socie- 
ties which have since largely increased, and now represcnt important 
interests in the community. It has been tJlOught best to devote a special 
chapter to the churches of Peterbol"OugIl, and for convenience sake, this 
has been deferred to a future page, 
,,y e gladly insert in this place, the following communication, containing 
reminiscences and personal c:xpcriences of the writer, well worthy of 
insertion in a work like this:- 
Petel'borough, October 29th, 1866. 
"Although to look back to the time of my settlemeut in Pctcrborough, 
it seems but as yesterday, yet thirty-three long years have elapsed since 
then. 'Vhat a long period to look back UpOll, and to count the various 
e\Tents and changes which have taken place within it I" 
" 'VeIl do I rcmember the evening that I first landed in Peterborough. 
It was late ill November, in the year 1833; but it was indeed a lovely 
day, and the llight was equally so: calm and still, and beautifully moon- 
light. I remember standing that evening on the very ground where now 
stands the Commercial Bank building, (north-east corner of Water and 
Hunter streets,) It was tIlCn in a state of nature, as was all that part of 
the town lying east of "Tater street, north of Hunter street., SOUtIl of 
Aylmer street, and south of King street, with the exception of ]lCrc and 
there, perhaps, some small house or r:;hanty, few and far between, And 
within the limits indicated, the builùinp;s were also few and insignificant. 
At that time, property was worth very little. A park lut was not worth 
much over ;(15, unless in a very few exceptional instances. On the west 
side of George street, and between Simcoe anù IInuter 
trccts, there were, 
if I recollect right, only two decent houses; one on the south, where :311', 
Sanford kept a :store, a.nd onè on the north, where l\Ir, Bailey kept a. 
tavern. All that ground on which 
. Dixon's block of three-story bricl 
buildings now stands, with the exce!Jtion of the sm
,lI part occnpied by dIe 
store and a small dwelling house adjoining, wa
 then used f01' a garùen. 


And the ::xtmc may be said of the remainder of the land up to Hunter 
I5treet, 011 the cast side of the street the building
 were about the same. 
And this wag, at that time, about the best part of the town, The hotel, 
pW' e:ccelleuCf', was then kept near the bridge, by a man of the name of 
)IcFaddcll. Very few people who were in Pet
rborough when I first. 
settled in it are here now. They have nearly all gone to 'that bourne 
from w]lence no traveller returnf':.' " 
" The country parts were quite in kceping with the town, Scarcely 
any roads, few l5ettlers, and mostly a wilderness, Provisions were imported 
instead of being exported j and a journey then from the front, with a loaded 
team, occupied the best part of two days. People at. this time can scarcely 
realize the difficultirs, the trials and hardships of those early settlers j and 
when I look back to them, and to the many long, wearisome journe)T8 
which I have been compelled to make to and from the front,-through 
paths only cut out through the woods,-through mud and mire,-over long 
swamp roads, badly provided with logs, whicJl were often floating in the 
deep water, and across which I and my horse passed with danger and 
difficulty, my journcy oft
ntimes extending far into the dark night,-it 
secms now a wonder, how I ever performed them, and how I ever lived 
through thcm, Truly, indced, the progress both of town and country 
:;ince that day is almost incrcdible," 
" I often think of tho
c early times, and yet., with all their hardships, 
I Home times think they were pleasanter than the times are now. But I 
suppose this was a good deal owing to circumstances. There were no 
politics he
e during those days, Every body was sociable and friendly. 
People were too glad to see one another to quarrel over matters of 
opinion, I often wi::;hed, as I was toiling along to and from the front, over 
the bad roaùs, that the time would come whcn I would have a good turn- 
pike road to travel upon, and I thought, if I only had that, I would be 
::;atisfied, I got tbat, then a good macadamized road; and last, but not 
least, a railroad, Now, instead of taking from early in the morning till 
late at night to go to the front, weary and hungry, and often wet and 
cold, I can go in a comfortable railway car in a couple of hours, Truly, I 
have witnesl5ed great changes in both wwn and country since I came to 
live in Petcrborough." B, 
About the year 1832-3, a couplc of small steall1er
, tbe Pemcw.lsh and tIle 
...\órtlwmberlalld were placed on Rice Lake, and thenceforward for many 
years the
e or othcr f;tcnmhoats ('ontinued to ply daily betwt.'t'll Rice IJake 



(lnd Petel'borough, About that year the gl'eat project was conceived of 
rendcring navigable the chain of waters ii'om the Bay of Quinte to Lake 
Simcoe j and in :November, 1833, N. 1-1. Baird, Esq., civil engincer, to 
whom had been entrusted the survey and estimates for such a work, 
reported in refcrence to that portion between the Bay of Quinte and Rice 
Lake, 'Ye need not quote these estimates, as they are to be found in the 
Appendices to the journals of the House of that period, and are easy of 
reference, Suffiee it to say, that the total estimated cost of this portion 
was, .f233,447 6s. lId. III December, 1835, 1\1r. Baird reported ill 
}'eference to rendering navigable the rivers and lakes through which the 
Otonabee flows, so as to afford continuous water communication between 
Riee Lake and Lake Simcoe, The total cost of which was estimated at 
;1;:262,067 16s. <ld" and for the entire distance, or 165 miles, between 
the Bay of Quinte and Lake Simcoe, including lockage, 1:4:15,515, 
A committee of tlIC Legislatnre recommendcd the com;truetion of dIe 
upper section to be proceeded with, and important works werc undertaken 
and completed at several points, Bclow Rice Lakc, .f90,OUO were ex- 
pended, The locks at 'Vhitlaw's rapids, jUl5t beluw Pcterborough, were 
completed, and considerable sums expendcd in improving the navigation of 
the river between Rice Lake and that place. The locks at llobcaygeon 
were undertaken as early as 1833--!, by l\Iessrs. Pearse, Dumble and 
Hoar, contractors, for .f1600 currency,* but owing to the unsettled state 
of the 
ountry, ending in the outbreak of 1837, and the union of the two 
Provinces which followed, the attention of the Government was withdrawn 
f}'om this work, and the intermcdiate links of the connection have never 
been even commenced, The following gentlemen at the time acted 
"Commissioners for superintending the improvement of the navigation of 
the Newcastle District," viz. :--J, G, Bethune, Hobert Brown, John Hall, 
Thomas Nced, and A. McDonell, Esquires. 
As an illustration of the homely fare and :;simple habits of some of our 
people, even during the second ten year:;s of settlement, and in contrast 
with the luxury and ample store of the present timc, it may be mentioned, 
that during Mr. Baird's survey of our inland waters in 1833, he and his 
party called at a farm house ncar Rice Lake for dinner. A large pot of 
potatoes was boiled and emptied on the table, and a handful of salt 
added in close proximity. At the conclusion of the meal, the chief of the 
party called for the biJI, and was informed by the host that the charge was 

· Al'pelidix to Journals of the 1l01.l'5e. 1833-4. 


evelipeUtC ha penny for the officcr
 alid 8axpence for the mcn." The 
bill was paid and the party retired, greatly alUused at thc discriminating 
value which was placcd upon their humble fàre. 
1n 183-1-. Sir Juhn Colborne, Govcrnor of Upper Canada, vi:åted Peter- 
borough, and after a brief btay, was accompanied through Otonabee, on 
his I'Cturn, by a mountcd escort, to Major Charles Anderson's, fr01l1 
which place he cros::;ed Rice Lake in one of the steamers then navigating. 
those waters. 


As the time approached when the refusal of the demands of the Upper 
Canadian Legislature for Administrative reform, were about to produce 
armed resistance to the Government, the country was flooded, first with 
petitions for signature demanding redress, and then with patl'iotic appeals 
inciting the people to assert their just right8, and force from an unwilling 
Governlllent the concessions So urgently needed, and since that day so 
completely granted. The occasion of township meetings and other gather- 
ings, were vcry generally turned to account for the distribution and dis- 
cussion of these documents, and cven our own inland and then comparatively 
remote settlements, wcre not forgotten by the emissaries or friends of the 
agitators. But in the County of Peterborougll, thcrc were few who, 
openly sided with the movement, and when the moment of danger arrived. 
the population, with rare unanimity, rushed to arms in the defence of the 
During the winter of 1836, several of our people took part in an adven- 
ture which is worth narrating. Mr, 'Yilliam Lyon :McKenzie had called 
a meeting of his fricnd8 and sympathisers, in the court house, at 
Cobourg, or Amherst, as it was then called, which, on learning its objoot, 
the loyalists in the surrounding country, detennined to frustrate, To avoid 
exciting suspicion of their design, a grand ball was convened at the gov- 
ernment house, Peterborough, whieh was largely attcnded, and as the 
night began to wane, the leaders announced their wishes and intentions, 
aud with Rleighs in readiness, they Htarted for the front. In Monaghan 


and Cavan they were joined by reinforcements, and at Bloomfield, George 
Elliott, Esq., a Major in the militia, and afterwards 1\1. P,l-). for the county 
of Durham joined them on horseback, and was recognized as their leader. 
On approaching the court house at Amherst, they found that their friends 
in the vicinity had secured pOl/session of the building, locked the doors, 
and WCI'e signalling them with handkerchiefs from the window
, A large 
crowd, among whom was McKenzie, was without, threatcnin
 violence if 
longer J'cfused admitta
ee, Major Elliott, on horseback, closely followed 
by a long line of f':leighs, in compact order, dashed up bctween the crowd 
and the court house steps, interposing a wall which, to attempt to force, 
was seen to be useless. An attempt was then made by the agitators to 
hold an open air meeting, but it was subjected to constant interruptions, 
Among more discordant sounds, a bugler wa.. mounted on a wood-pile, and 
ordered to play "the rogue's march," and other tunes supposed to be appro- 
priate to the occasion. 1\Ir. 1\Iackenzie at one time was threatened with 
violence, and found it nccessary not only to abandon the mceting, but to 
secrete himself until he could accomplish a safc retreat from thc village. 
During the first days of Dccember, 1837, the proclamation of His 
Excellency Sir Francis Bond Head, calling out thc militia of the Province 
to assist in suppressing t4c rebellion which had just brok
n out, was pl"O- 
Dlulgated in Peterborough, and within less than 2-1 hours, nearly two 
hundred voluntcers, armed and equipped 3ß best they could, started for 
the frontier, uudcr command of Colonel McDonell, accompanied by 
Captain Cowall. Along the route of thcir march to the ii'ont, they 
were joined by other companies uudcr their local officers, and when 
they arrived at Port Hope, they found several other bands of loy
ùists there, 
which swelled the numbcrs of the little army to about one thousand strong. 
rrhe loyalty and devotion thus shewn by all classcs, in every part of thr 
country, was a tribute unmerited by the Government of that day, but was 
not the less honorable and praiseworthy on the part of those who offered 
it, :l.\lany of these noblc yoluntecrs left their homes and families at a 
moment's notice, and under the most trying circumstanecs, _<\.t that season 
of the year preparations for the coming winter were far from completed. 
Few had yet providcd their winter's wood, and many left their families 
with but a scanty store of provisiollB; so that, ]lad their absence been 
protracted, as seemed in every way probable, many of their loved ones must 
have suffered severely from cold and hunger, The trials of the hour were 
iucreaf'ed by the url)itral'Y measures nnd \\Uncce:;Stuy 8t'vcrit.y l'xerciscd by 


some of thof'e who thu8 found the11l8elves ,.clothed with a little brief 
authority:' Men who happened to be at a little distance from their homes 
were refused permission to visit their families to effect a change of clothing, 
or make even the most temporary aI'fangement of their affairs, If they 
demurred, they were threatened with imprisonment or confiscation of their 
properties, Such were the circumstances under which many of our brave 
people turned out in 1837, abandoning their homes and their families, in 
the depth of winter, to fight., perhapH to die, for the country they had 
adopted a<; their home! 'Vhat must have been their feelings as they 
trudged along the weary way to meet the foe, as they thought of their 
own poor equipment, the dangers which awaiteù thcm, and the trying cil'- 
cumstances in which their families might be placed before they could 
return,-if ever tllCY did return! 
Men who could make such 
acrifìces are deserving of double honor; 
and though their campaign wag a bloodless one, they have, by their acts, 
acl1Íevcd a fhme of- which the people of any country might be proud, and 
wJ1Ïeh posterity will not forget, 
On the organization of the militia of the county, which took place some 
time beforc thc breaking out of the rebellion, about 250 stand of muskets, 
with flint locks, 
nd the usual bayonets, had becn scnt to Peterborough. 
These were sarved out to the volunteers, but tIle greater portion were 
armeù witI) thcir own guns or rifles. Prepared amlllunition was not to be 
J13d, and con
idcrable ingenuity was shewn by several of the militia in 
making cartridges j while most had to supply themselves with balls or large 
sized shot before leaving home, Une of the new muskets was carried on 
the march for a day or two before it was discovered to have no touch-hole 
and was consefluently u
eless for present purposes. 
Arrived at Port Hopc, the steamer TI'al-'cllCt' was anxiously looked for 
as affording the most speedy and convenient means of rcaehing Toronto, 
but she pas8ed by on her downward triI-' without entering the port, although 
guns werc fired and other signals made to attract attention, Just beforc 
hcttillg out from Port Hope, on foot, for the capital, a despatf'h was rc- 
ceived, intimatin
 that as the rcbcls were dispcl':;cd, the services of the 
militia were unnecded, and permittillf!; them to return to their homes, A 
detachment was, however, sent into the county of Victoria, to scour tJw 
townships in the neighborhood of I
intl8ay, under the impression that th(' 
rebel chief.') might possibly attempt to escape through the country in that 
rlircctiOll. Some ludicl'O\.l;:; ;:;CCllC::i took place itmoDg these impromptu 


Foldiers, and not a few persons "ere subjected to annoyanre hy proct'f'r1ings 
altogether arbitrary and unwarranted, An old man proceeding through 
Smith with a few bundles of hay as provender for his stock, was detained 
on the road at the suggestion of one of thc company, Immorously offcred, 
that his load might possibly conceal a rrbe1. The tcam :md vehicle were 
surrounded by a guard, bayonets thrust here and thel'e into tIle load, and 
only after a most careful reconnoisancc, he was allowed to pass on his way, 
wondering much no doubt at the adventurc which had befallen him. 
Within a fortnight after these events, and in conseqence of thc occupa- 
tion of Navy Island by insurgents and Amcrican sympathizen;;, orders 
were received for the dispatch of a battalion from thc Newcastle District, 
to pl'oceed westward on active :;:ervicc, * The militia of the various town- 
ships of this county, under command of Co1. Brown, at once mustcred in 
strong force, and marched without delay to Toronto, This battalion was 
chiefly composed of the militia of the townships of Otonabee, Douro, 
Dummer and Asphodel, and marchcd into Peterborough, under the officers 
of their sevcral companies, to the numbcr of 800 strong,t After billet- 
ing round for a night, as best they could, they wcre drawn up next morn- 
ing in front of Co1. :Brown's quartcrs in Ashbul'l11uun, and a selection 
made of 350t of thc most active, to thc gl'eater úumbcr of Wh0ll1111Uskets, 
haversacks and cartouch boxes werc scrvcd out. and then, yacant offices of 
companies having been filled up, by persons named by Co!. Brown, t11CY 
commenced their march for the fronticr. The rcmaindcr of the battalion 
was left behind as a reserve under command of Col. Crawford,lI 
The men under Co1. Brown procecded 17 miles the first day and halted 
for the night at Mr. Joseph Graham's tavern in Cav:m, The second day's 
march brought thcm to l\Ir, Blctchcr's tavern, three miles in the rear of 
Port Hope, and on the third day, notwithstanding somc delay for the pur- 
chase of necessary articles in Port Hope, they found themselves 16 miles be- 
yond that placc on the Toronto I'ond. Here thc magistrates gave in charge 
a prisoner-an American-charged with using scditious language; who 
next day jumped from the sleigh ill which he rode, ran into the wood
and attcmpted to conceal himself beneath a log, but was l'e-captured, and 
with several other prÏEoners subse({uclltly taken, was conveyed to Toronto, 

· Col. SlrickJam1's "Twenty seven years in Canada."-Page 264, 
t Letter from Col. Drown to the author, Jul)'.-1861;. 
t Ibid. 
II Ibid, 


At Hi
hI3nr1 Crpek tl1(,1"C "erp strong rumors of rcbel
 in the vicinity, 
in "l)lI
c(lurncl' of whith they were kept out in scouting !)artie1-1 r1uring 
the greater portion of the night. The roads were in a very unfilvorahh' 
condition; and not till late in the evening of the fifth day did they reach 
Toronto. Here they were at once billeted in comfortable quarters, anll 
after a day's rest, passed.l most favorable inspectioQ, and were warmly 
complimented for their gallantry and llatriotism by Sir FrLlnci
Roon after, a new battLllion, known as t.he " Queen's Own," was formed 
from the several battalions then in Toront-o, :md was officercd by men 
chosen from the officers of these battalions. Adjutant Bentley wns at its 
head. (' 0 1. KingsmiIl was next in authol'it.y, and Co1. Brown became 

lajor of the new Battalion, The supernumerary men were permitted to 
return to their home:.:, anù tho
e selected to join the Queen's Own, 
remained on front.ier duty until the 
r.1Y following, when they were dis- 
charged, and the hatt:tlion disbamled. Col. Brown, who took so prom i- 
Hl'llt a part in the ruilitia movements at this time, was a gentleman who 
after a period of f':('rvice in thc 21st Royal Scotch !i'usilcers came to reside 
in the vicinity of Peterborongh as an agricultnralist, in the year 183U, 
and was appointed by Sir J olm ColbOl'ne to the rank of J.Jieut. Colonel of 
the battalion known as the 4th Korthumherland FusiIeers, which he had 
m;sisted to organize, amI which W;lg Il13inly composed _of men .from the 
townf'hips alrea(ly mentioned, 
'Ve had hoped t-o be able to insert in this brief record of that period, 
the names of those hraye men in this county, who at the call of the 
authoritie:-\, abandoned their homes and theil' families, in the depth of 
winter, to a:,si
t in maintaining the authority of Government, and putting; 
down armed bands of insur
ents, Lut in the absence of official llluster- 
rolls, were we to trust to the mere memOl'ies of individuals, many worthy 
names might possibly he overlooked. and, through fear of injustice being: 
done by inserting a p
rtial and incomplete list. we have been reluctantly 
obliged to fore
o the pleasure of inserting any, except those residing in 
Dummcr. wllÍeh willl)c mentioned in connec.tiou with th:lt town
11ip, But 
if the name:.: of morc of these men do not apl)ear, not the le
s_ will be 
remembered the prowl recorù of the PETERBOROUGII MILITIA of lR37 
and 1 R3R, whi('h will he lwndl'd down in thC' records of the country. as LI 
hrilliant. chapter in the hi:4or,y "f' thl' pa
t :md a hri
ht ex:nnpll' worthy of 
imihltioll in the futnre. 



In conse{]uence of the expedition directed against Prescott. in the 
autumn of 1838, W'hich terminated with tJle bnttle of the "Tindmill, and 
threatened attacks upon other points of the frontier, permi
sioll was sought 
and obtained to orgnnize a force in this county, which was known as the 
7th Provif'ional Battalion of Peterborough. This force, composed of 
volunteers from the militia of the county, W3S brought together in Xovem- 
her, 1838, and continued in Pcterborough undergoing drill. and the other 
duties of active service during the six months tt'rminating in 1\13)', 1839, 
when they were discharged and returned to their homes. The 7 th Provi- 

ional Battalion of Peterborough consisted of six companies of fifty men 
each, and was under the command of Col. Alexander )IcDonell, but the 
actual duties of commnnd were in great part perfomlCd by Major CowalL 
The following is a list of the promotions and appointments to office in t11is 
Battalion, with the date of rank of the several úfficers. The official 
announcement is copied from the "BnrlncúodslIuO/, and Petetùo'1"Ougit 
Sentinel," of January 11th, 1839. It is as follows: 
TORONTO, 28th December, 1838, 
 Excellency the Lieutenant Governor is pleased to make the follow- 
ing appointments in the Embodied l\Iilitia Force, Seventh Provisional 
To be Cuptaills- Date of rank. 
Capt. S. F. Kirkpatrick, fl'ol11 the Second 
Northumberland Regiment.. .... .......... .... ..12th Nov., 1838. 
Capt. J. C. Boswell, from do....................... .16th do. 
Capt. John}-t, Benson, do........................1Cth do. 
Lieut. Thomas Murphy, from Second Frontenac 20th do. 
A, S. Fraser, Esq., half-pay Lieut. 42nd lteg't 1st Dec'ber, 1838. 
1'0 be Lieutenants- 
Lieut. S. .J. Carver, late Queen's Own............20th 5ov" 183S. 
Ensign Jnmes Ferguson, from Fourth 
berland..................".....,................... ,20th <10, 1838, 
Samuel Strickland, Gent.............. .,.. ......... 
5th do, 
George 'V. Caddy, Gent.............................lst Dec'ber, 1838. 
Thomas Need, Gent........................... .bt do. 
Tn IJf' E1IS;g,IS- 
'Vheeler Armstrong, Gèut... . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .2;Jth No,"" 1838. 


George B. Hall, Gent,.... ......... ............... ...15th 
Gcorge Lowe, Gcnt,............................... ..15th 
n Robert llrown, latc of Queen's Own... . 15th 
Charles P. Hubidgc, Gent......................... ,15th 
To be ..LdJutOllf, with tit" /'(1-ul" of C"ptain- 
IJieut, J. G. Armour, late of the Quecn'!iì Toronto 
Guards,............................................. .20th Nov., 1838, 
'1'0 b,. p((!f- JI(l
'V. H, 'V righton, Es(!" subject to his finding 
snfficient f:ecurity............................... ..10th Dcc 'bel'. 
To be SUl'groll-Surgcon .J. HutchinRon, from Second 
N orthunlbcrlaud,...... ..................... ......... . 20th 
Tn lie Qltnrtrr-Jf(lster-Lieut. H. B. Holland, from 
2d Northumberland,."........................ .0.... .1 Gth No\'., 1838. 
Although thc namc of the late Richard Birdsall, ES(h does not appear 
in the foregoing list of officers, it is proper to state that he served, with 
his company, in thc capacity of captain during that period j and had the, 
additional mcrit of having donc so without pay, 
:For the rcasons beforc statcll, in connection with thc militia of the 
prC\ ious ycar, we arc unablc to publish thc names of thc privates, who 
served on duty during thi
 brief and bloodless, but honorable campaign, 
Among other incidcnts of this pcriod, it may bc mentioncd that two 
residents of Ops were brought to Pctcrborough under arrest, charged with 
disloyalty. Thcy wcrc takcn to the log builJing known as "the Govern- 
ment house," for trial by court martial. 'Vhilc preparations were being 
made for this purposc, a Heat was offcrcd them, when Captain 1\1- of the 
militia force, at once interposed in an indignant manner. " No, no," said 
he, "rebels are not worthy to sit among loyal men." The worthy Captain 
forgot that, under British law, men are not to be held as guilty, until thcil' 
offence is proven, Among those holding subordinate authority, there were 

everal whosc zeal and officiousnes:'\ outran their discrction, . The conse- 
quence was that many well-meaning pcrsons wcre subjected to needlcss 
annoyance, But in some instanccs thc arrogancc and presumption of 
these persons werc not allowed to go entirely unchecked, 1111', Darcll
among others, had donned an uniform and spurs, and either for the pur- 
pose of usefully employing the latter, or not reli::;hing a march to the front, 
sent to dcmand a v3.1uable mare, the property of one of our leading citizeDl
The modest re(luest was promptly refused. when the mCl'Jscllgel' WtlS sent a 

Dec., 1838, 




:,eeollli tillll', with a threat. that if Hilt 1I;mdl.,a uver, tIll' 111'a
t wtJulll he 
JUl'ciLly pres:,cd into the 
er\'iee. The OWllcr r('pliea that. if the Colunel 
ill cOHllnam1 :-:ent a written or<1er fur the animal, :-:he ",ouM be giyell up, 
hut not otherwi:-:e. Xo 
;uch order wa::5 i:-:
ucd, nor is it prohahle the 

upcrior ufficcr was aware of the lllCan:-: elUployed lay hi:o; :mh o l't1illate to 
fnl'lli:-:h hilll:5elf with a stcCl1. 
Defore clol-ill
. this cJJaI)ter, it may llut bc inopportullc tu remark. fllr 
the infurmation or ::iullle \VllU lllay read these Inlge." that the ùcmalllis of 
)lackellzic awl his l)olitical friellds, antecedent to the rebclliun, wcre for 
1'('[01'111:; the 1ll0;:;t urgentl,y needed, 1ll0:-:1 uf which havc been 
ince cOllccdctl, 
and the benefits of which have now for many ,years bceu clljllyec1 under 
what is known m: Responsible Govcrnmcnt, 
It was a cardinal point in the political crced of the Go\'cl'llor, Sir Fr(mei
ßoml Head, that the peuple of this colouy exi
ted for the Government, 
rather than the Government for the people. ::: To the c(lrrJin
 out of this 
tiÜlacious theory, the greater portion uf the i1i!-itation of the country. n'sult- 
ing in open rebellion, Illay bc traced, The Le
h:;elllbly lmd 
}H'actically no control in the government of the Pro\'ince,-iu the disposal 
of its revenues, or in the appointments to office, Thcse latter, wcrc in 
1-!.Teat part confincd to the lllem her" of a few leading families, thcir friends 
and partizans, who were paid 
alaries rclatiY<
ly much higher th:m thol'c 
cnjo:yed at present.;- 
l\Ir, :;\IcKenzie, by his pen and voice, did much to expose thc detects of 
6e system of government then in vogue j and in doing so, more than once 
suffered severely both in person and property, He was five times expelled 
from the House of Assembly on paltry pretexts, and each time }H'umptIy 
re.clectcd with overwhelming majorities, and in spite of all opposition, by 
the intelligcnt electors of the County of York, who presented him with a 
massive golù medal in acknowledgment of tlle valuable 
ervices hc had 
rendered to the country.! 
The ehief demands maùe by the Reformers of that day were,-'J1lant tlw 
Executive Council should be held responsible to Parliament,-that the 
con t1'ol of' the revenues of the Province should be placed in the hands of 

.. .. The Lieutenant-Governor maintains that the responsibility to the people who are already repre- 
n"met! in the House of Ao:sembly, which thto Coullcil a

UIllC", is Ullcon:ltitutional, alld that 11 is the 
l\llly of the Council to serve m:\I and not TltE:\t." ;:,ir F. H. Uead':. reply to an address of (he E>.ecu- 
tivt' Council. !\larC'h 5th, 1836. App
ndix to Juul11al<_ 1839, Vnl. I. pse-e 66. 
t r,lIId89.\', Litì: ot ;\1&c}.C'nLie, J)age 231. 



thc Lc
lati\'e _\
:,eUlhly,-thc l'ecnlarizatÍon {If the ('lcl'ë'Y r('serve::: awl the 
abolition of l'xcb:-:ive privil('
c:-; conferred upon I)arti('ular religiou::; denOlll- 
iuations,-the cÀclu::;ion of judgc:, and lUinistcr
 of the guspel from the 
_Kxceutive Cuuncil and the LegÍ
laturc=-an elective Legislative Council; 
thc a}Jolitioll of the rigl1b of primogeniture, amI :-:OlUe other minur rcf(mlls 
made up the lÍ
t of grie\',lllcc:-:. whidl the Imperial G-oY{'rnllll'nt were not 
un" illing to con
idcr upun their mcrit:::. but theil' good intcntion::; were 
cldcatetl L) the Lliudnc:"s <Illd oL
tiuac:y uf Sir Frand:; Bond Head, who
conduct was at Ul1\;e felt, aut! declared to be arbitrary and viudictive. 
It IUU::;t he eonceded, howe\'cr, that ResponsiLle GUYCl1l111ent wa
 a::- yct 
only a 8hacluw in the future, ami that t1le ::,y::;telll of Colunial <-:-overmnent 
ir Francis Bund Heall fuunll in vogue in Canada, to some extent 
justified hi::; policy, although, uuder the <:ÏreulUstalleCI-!, and with the :;trell- 
uous opposition which that by
tcm had alrcady evoked. per
istent adherence 
to it was at once diflicult uu his part, and dangerous to the colony. 
Among other uujustifiable act
 ofthe Govel1lor. wa::; the di:;mi
sal of Judge 
ltidout from the Lenell, and ii'om the militia; in which he had ::iervcd with 
honor under Gcncral Brock. This \Va:; done without the :;lightest trial or 
investigation, and eyen WitllOut informing' the victim of hi:; caprice of the 
reasons for so grave an act. The HOllle
G-o\"crllIuellt revert3ed the sentenee, 
and ordered the Governor to rein:;tate Judge Ridout in both his offices ;- 
a humiliation to which he rcrnscd to suhlllit, and which contributed)argcly 
to his resignation and recall, 
It will be seen that the very demands then made have long since been 
conceded; and had the Reformers of 1837 abstained from actual rebellion, 
their conduct in other respects would have entitled them to the plaudits of 
all buLsequent times. Lord Durham, inllis admirable report on tile statc of 
the Province in 1839, which led to tIle union of Upper 
md Lower Canada 
in the following year, stated that "co
mon prudence and good man3ge- 
ment would have prevented the outbreak;" and more than hinted that the 
rehellion had been purpo:::!ely invited Ly the Government, * for the purpose 
of crushing the leaders of the reform movement. 
The people of Lower Canada were laboring under evils and abuses 
nearly similar j but while in Upper Canada, an }<
xeeutiYe Council, respon- 
le to the ..\
scll1bly, was regarded as the true remedy for the grievances 
fir the times, the politicians of the Lower Proviuee fancied au elective 

· Lord Durhs.m'
 repnn,il1."'PPl:ndlx to Journals of the HmJ>e Vol 1. pa_e3'J. 


lativc Council would leave t11Clllllothin
 to dc
ire. As Lord Durham, 
:-:tatcd, "both, in fact, de
ired the 
ame object., namely. an extcusion of 
vopular influencc in the govcrurncut;"
 but pur:-:ued a different theury ill 
thcir cfforts to attain it, 
Thc attcmpt at insurrcction wa
 "as fuulifo;hly contrivcd and ill-conducted 
as it was wickcrl mHl treasonable," but now that thc pili"
ions of thc hour 
havc had timc to sub
idc, ftomc allowance lllUl'it bc madc for men goaded to 
desperation by long ycars of mis-govcrnmcnt., in the correction of w}!Ïch 
evcry moral and constitutional mode of redrc
s appcared to have been 
TIlÍs cxplanation will show why wc have statcd that the Government of 
that day ill-desened thc tribute of loyalty and devotion shewn by the 
militia of the Province, Thc great majority of thc pcople of Canada shrunk 
from open rcbcllion, and nobly rallicd to support the Govenunent, in num- 
}Jers, and with an enthusiasm worthy of a morc dcserving Administration, 
papers ill tl10se days were not plentiful, and thc I)eople of the rural 
tricts, actively engaged in wiluing with the forest, and pre-occupied 
with the stern Ftrllggle for existence amid tIle hardships of the bush, had 
but few sources of gencral information. A few persons, here and there in 
this county, thus undcrstood and c
tilliatcd thc merits of thc questions 
at is
ue, and whcn thc insurrcction camc, either held aloof from the prepa- 
rations made to sustain the Governmcnt, or sullcnly aCy'uicsced in a movc- 
ment it would be useless or fatal to resist. In the Ncwcastle Di:strict, 
twelve pcrsons in all wcrc an'cstcd on a charge of sympathizing with t!H' 
rebels. and after a temporary detention were dismissed, Among thcsc 
wa" Dr, .John Gilchrist, afterwards member of Parliament fur the county, 


During many years the militia of this town and county met annually at 
Major Anderson's, on the north shore of Rice Lake, for the formalities of 
"training," as it was called, wllich consisted chiefly in answering to tlte 
muster call of their Heveral cOIupanics, forming in double colullln, and au 

· Ibid. Pag


attempt at the first 

tep3 in military drill, Drinking and dissipation not 
unusually followed, and formcd no small portion of thc apparent duties of 
the day. 
Previous to the division of the dif:trict, which took placc in 1841. a 
great deal of inconvenicnce and loss of time was occasioncd by jurymcn 
from all these townshi!)s having to attend the sittings of thc courts at 
Cobourg; but tIle duty" was unavoidable, and had to be borne as best it 
The first election of a representative in the Legislativc AFscmbly of 
epper Canada, in which much intcrcRt was takcn in this county, was that 
of 1834, The candidates, we arc informed, wcre Col. Alexandcr McDonell, 
Dr. John Gilchrist: James Grey Bethune and "r, S. Conger, Esquires, the 
latter of whom was then eng3ged in mercantile lifc at Cobourg, Colonel 

IcDoncll was electcd. 
The next election was held at Sully, on the south side of Rice Lale, 
in 1836, and was thc scene of much excitement, The candidates werc 
Henry nuttan, E:,(h Col. Alex:mder McDonell, George 1\1. Boswell, Esq., 
and Dr. John Gilchrist, 
So HtrOllg was the feeling here Hhcwn in favor of the candidates from 
Pcterborougl1, that a numbcr of leading conservatives elubbcd together, 
and raised a sunken stcamer lying in the lower portion of the Otonabce, 
and lw.d her fitted out so as to ply up and down the rircr for thc convey- 
ance of voters. Temporary booths were crected in the vicinity of the 
polling place, whcre refreshmcnts werc served, while here and thcre, at 
cOllvenient distan
cs, the "frce and independent electors" found whoM 
barrels of whiskey, standing on end, with thc heads knocked out, from 
which they dipped and drank at pleasure. 'fhrse werc cvidently "drouthy" 
timcs, but it mllf:t be remembercd that the cxigency of the occasion was 
great, and that tht> w;mtH of an cntirc Uh;trict had to be supplied. Of 
course some scenes of violence accompanied these copious libations, but 
happily no lives wcrc lost; and thesc very excesscs no doubt contributed 
to bring about thc wise lcgislation which during the present decade has 
rendered such scencs impossible, The election of 1836 resulted in a 
majority of votcs for Col. Alex:mder McDonell, who W;lS accordingly 
declarcd duly electcd, 
As yet, Pd('rhorou
'h had no printinf!; In'cRR, and of courHC no local ncw
pap('r, TIoth of these wantR w(,l'r supplied by .Tohn Dareus, H
\h who in 


Xovember, 1831, rommenef>ò the J,ilblication of thl' ,: EA("KWOOD8:\IAX 
anrl PETERBOROUGH SENTINEL," Judging from somc llumber
 of the 
f'ccond volume before us, it was of fair size, technic
lJy known as "medium." 
In typog1'aphy and editorial managemcnt, its appearance was creditable, 
anri would cn3ble it to compare favorably with the local pre!'s of the time, 
The office of publication wa,,:; a frame building of two I'torie:;;, on the wc:.:t 
side of Grorge Rtreet, a little Routh of King, whic11 was in :;;ubsequcllt 
:year!' used as a school house; and at length becoming dilapidated, fell a 
})l'ey to the inccndiary during the winter of 1865--G, 1\11', Darcus was a 
promincnt character in the local affairs of the time-has already becn 
mentioned-and will be referred to again in a future page. 
Up to the pcriod of the Rebellion in 1837-8, the population of Petcr- 
boroug11 hall materially increased, bnt the aspect of the town wa:;; far from 
- attractive to the visitor or the tourist. It was in fact but a large straggling 
village, with }mge gaps brtwecn the houses, and these werc built irregularly, 
with 1mt little regard to Rymilletry or tastr. 
On this part of our subject we have bcen favored with the follú:wiug 
communication from an intelligent gentleman who then passed through 
Pcterborough, mul who is now one of our respected citizens: 
PETERBOROUGII, November 2d, 186G, 
" The first time I set my eyes upon the County Town of the prescnt 
County of Peterborough, was about the middle of }'ebruary, 1838. I 
cntered it from the east side of the river, coming through the "Scotch 
Village," now the village of Ashburnham: and crossing the Otonabee on 
.the old bridgc, It. was late in the afternoon, and my companion, the late 
1\11'. Thomas Harper, pointed out as we drove along. the chief points of 
interests, and the names of the principal places," 
" In l)al':;;ing: through the town, the chief bu
iness place appeared to be 
at the corners of Simcoe and (ieorgc strcets. Rut what struck me most 
was the isolate(l appearance of the house
. I do not remember seeing two 
houses any where adjoining; and the figurc I made nse of at the time wa:;; 
that the llOHse!' ap})cal'ed to bp 'Fown hro:lt1 rn:;;t.' " 
" On tl1e market :-quare w('re sevcl'allog house:.:, on thr :;;ite of the })rcsent 
m:u"ket. }10use aml town }wll, Kear the site of the Rank of :ì\Tontreal wa
a somewhat spacious lo
 buH.ding, for several YCllrs after u:;;cd m:: tIt{' Po
ofti('e. 'l'hr stores w('rc few in numher, .Mesf:r
, Shaw & 1?ortune, Clw,rl('s 
Prny, Robert Nicholls. John Crawfi.wù, Holland and _Morrow, bciuf! thr 


only melChant::; in thc town. Their united busille
!'! would scarcely e'lual 
that of one of our prescnt business mell." 
" There wcre two grist mills, two saw mills, two distilleries, OllC brewery, 
one tannery, four churches and one school-the ,Grammar School-a log 
building in the rcar of whcre the prescnt U llion School now s
"The buildings, save the Prcsbyterian and Episcopal churches, we
entirely of wood, mostly framcd, lathcd and plastcrcd inside and out. 
The dwellings were anything but comfortable, thcre being but the thick- 
ness of two laths and two thicknesses of mortar composing the walls; the 
least crack in the mortar would allow the air to pass freely in. I imagined 
in all my travels I never found such cold houses as were then in Peter- 
" The town appeared to be begun at the south end, as, north of Simcoe 
street there were fewer houses than on the south side, An impression 
prevailed among the settlers that the town was destined to become a great 
place; that the Otonabee river would be largely utilized for all sorts of 
manufactures; an opinion requiring a considerable degree of faith on the 
part of a stranger to endorse, being but a backwoods town with the stumps 
all through the streets, and its site on the north side of Hunter street 
covered with pine bushes." 
" The only passable roads were those of George street, Hunter street 
east and Sherbrook strect west. On some of the streets the trees were 
growing, and the pine stumps upon others gave indications that the giants 
of the forest had been numerous upon the site of the town," E. 
It has been stated that the population of Peterborough in 1832 Wtlli\ 
five hundred. In 1838, it could not have exceeded eight or nine hundred 
inhabitants, all told, 
The population of the townships which since composed the Unit-cd 
Counties of Peterborough and Victoria had by this time so largely 
increa3ed that it was deemed dcsirable to set them apart as a separate 
dil:itrict, and this was accordingly done in 1841, under the name of the 
Colborne District. In the meantime a Jail and Court House had to be 
erected at Pcterborough, which was at the same time declared the District 
'rown. Fortunately the minutes of the proceedings have been preserved, 
and wit.h them tIle detail
 of the erection of these important 
which will be found in the next chapter. 



 u}' COUR1' IIOU
On tllC second day of J unc, 1838, a mccting of tIle magi
tratcs of tht: 
11roposed new Colborne District was held at " tIIC Government school house," 
as the minutes term it, for the purpose of naming a Builòing COUlmittee 
for the erection of the ncw Court House and .Jail, and ot1ler matters in 
connection with the same, as providcd in the Act passed at a previous 
session of the Upper Canada Lcgislature. Thc magistrates present were: 
Daniel Griffith, ES(l', J. P. Thomas Traill, Esq" J, p, 
Thomas Need, "" G, A, Hill, " " 
:Edward Duffy, "" Ephraim Sanford, " 
loe, "" George G. Bird, " " 
Edward S. Hickson, " Robcrt Reid, " " 
Robert P. Madge," I". Connin, " " 
J ames 'Vallis, " J. H utchin:"on," " 
W alter Crawford," Thomas Carr, " " 
Robert Dennistoull, " John Darcus, " " 
.John Langton," Thomas A, Stewart, " 
A. McDonell., Esq., J, P., 1\1. p, p, 
ThC:Hon, T. A, Stewart, 1\1. L, C" was called to the chair, and .John 
Darcus, Esq" appointed Secretary of the meeting. On subsequent. 
motions, the following gentlemen were appointcd officers and members of 
the Building Committee, of whom three wcre declared a quoruUl : 
Hon. Thomas A. Stewart, Clw.irmall. 
'Villiam H, Wrighton, Esq" Scrl'clory. 
Edward Duffy, "TrfnSIII'('r. 
Ephraim Sanford, " 
Robert p, Madge, " 
Edward S. Hickson, " 
On motion of C. Moe, Esq" seconded by B. Duffy, Esq" the Committee 
were restricted to an expenditure of Æ4,OOO on the new buildings, but 
subscquently, on finding that the tenders for the work, offered agreeahly to 
the plans adopted, exceeded that amount, a second meeting of the 
llwgistrates was held, at whicl1, on motion of James 'Vallis, EStl', seconded 
by }{. Dennistoun, Es(f., the Building Committee were empowered to pro- 
ceed to the extent of !:6,OOO. 


At the first meeting, the magistrates inf.tructed the Building Committee 
to direct tlw Clerk of the Peace of' the Newcastle District "to add. on<- 
penny in the pound to the AsseSSlllcnt Roll of the proposed ni
trict of 
Colborne, for that year, (1838,) pur
u:mt to the Act establishing the said 
proposed District." This rate was subsequently extended by resolution 
over. the three following yearFl, The committee was also authorized to 
advertize for plans for the proposed new Conrt House and Jail, and to pay 
t.he following premiums for the plans they may deem the best: 
For the 1st., twenty pounds; for the 2d" fifteen pounds; for the 3d., 
ten pounds. 
The Building COlllmittee, at their second meeting, arranged to meet cvery 
Friday, for the dispatch of busine
s, 'fhey also entered into negoeiations 
with scvcral of the provincial banks, as well 3S with private individuals, to 
procure loans of money to carryon the work, until the taxes of the District 
would be available for that purpose. The following arc the sevcral sums 
procured by loan 01' otherwise for this purpose:- 

COlllmercial Bank, Cobourg, note
 of Committee discounted, 
U. l)lorrow, Esq" loan at 6 per cent. interest, payable half- 
Hon. John Kirby, do d.o do 
)Irs, Elizabeth }'owler, do do do 
Rev. Francis Kirkpatrick. do do do 
Hon. Z. Burnham, 'rreasurer Newcastle District, taxes on 
proposed Colborne District for 1838-9-40, 

.f:1l73 0 U 

30U 0 0 
800 0 U 
741 0 0 
2350 0 0 

1694 3 7i 

These sums, lessened as they were by discount and interest, did not 
:mffice for the completion of the buildings, but several of the contractors 
accepted the Committee's ùeLentures for sums varying from Æ100 to 
1 000, 
:md these, as they mat.ured, were met by the taxes levied on the new 
District in subsequent years, In a short time plans and specifications for 
the new buildings were submitted to the Committee by Joseph Scobell and 
'Valter Sheridan, ESlluires. That of the former met with most favor, and 
was awarded the first prize, while l\Ir, Sheridan's entitled him to the second. 
'fhe Hon, T, A. Stewart was then deputed to proceed to Toronto, and 
submit them to the Chief .J uf;tice, who confirmed the, decision of the COlll- 
mittce, Some alterations w<'re afterwards discussed by the Committee, 
and the plans modifiC'tl, hut th(' one ori
in:l.lly approved was finally adopted; 
find carricd out in it:;; 
encr:ll ùet:1Ïls, 
ome minor 31temtiollR were how- 


ever made, consisting chiefly of modifications in the interior, by which 
additional space was gained both above and below. Thûyalso instructed 
the masons to put in cut stone quoins, arches, base course, jams nnd window 
sills, not in thc original specifications. III excavating for the foundation it 
was found necessary to go double and in some places treble the depth on 
which estimates had bcen formed. * All this occasioned an addition:!] 
outlay, which exceeded the sum which had been stipulated as the limit of 
their cxpenditure, but their proceedings werc endorsed by thc magistrates, 
and met with the entire sanction of tbat body, as well as of the public, 
The tender of Messl's, Thomas Harper and B. Bletcher for 800 cords 
of stone at 14s, 9d, each, was accepted, provided they furnish all quarried 
stone, and this was ngreed to by these gentlemen. 
On the 21st day of August, 1838, John Reid, Esq" P. L, S" reported 
to the Committee in reference to a survey of the Government appropriation 
of ground for a Court house, &c" which consisted in all of seven acrcs, 
lots Nos. 5, 6 and 7 of which would be required for thc intended buildings. 
The foundation haJ not been excavntcd, and the grounds were still covered 
with brush and fallen trees, when it became known that His Excellency, 
Sir George Arthur, Lieut,-Governor of Upper Canada, was about to visit 
I)eterborougb. As it was desirable that the foundation-stone should be 
laid by so distinguished a personage, :l\Ir, Scobell was requested, by reso- 
lution, "to open about liJix feet of ground," and" have placed on the spot 
one load of stone," to admit of this ceremony being performed, The 
chairman was instructed to solicit this favor through His Excellency's 
secretary on his arrival, and "should he consent," the Rev. 1\lr. '\Vade was 
"to be re(iUested to offer a short blessing on thc success of the undcr- 
His Excellency cheerfully consented, but his time being limited, the 
Committee met at their room at 6.30 o'clock on the morning of the 25tb 
August, 1838, waited upon the Govcrnor at 7, and at 7,30 o'clock A,1\1., 
His Excellency and suite, accompanied by the Building Committee, pro- 
ceeded to the ground, and in the presence of numerous spectators laid thc 
corner stone of the new buildings. The official ceremony over, the Rev. C. 
T. 'Vade, 1\1. A., offered up an impressite and appropriate prayer. 

· Fuurthand last report of the Building Committee. in Appendix to .Tollrnal of Ihe .Di"trirt Conncil 
-daled December 201h, 1841. 
t Minutes of CommitUI
, August 21st, 1838, Page 13, 


The following articles were placed by His Excellency beneath the stone. 
in the foundation of the south-west corncr.* 
A Parchment Scroll, 
(On which was tastefully engrossed the following:) 
ON THE 25TH DAY OF AUGUST, A. D., 1838. 
Lie1ltcnant-GoL'el'nOr of Upper Ca1lnda, 
Then follows tile names of the Building Committee, already mcntioncd 
in full, The following coins were also deposited: 
A British shilling of the reign of George IV" 1829. 
do sixpence do 'Villiam IV., 1834. 
do penny do do 1831. 
do half-penny do do 1831. 
The lettering of the scroll was executed in elegant style by our towns- 
man, Ivan O'Beirne, Esq, 
Tenders were afterwards rcceived from time to time for thc crection and 
completion of the several parts of the Court House building and Jail, the 
entire cost of which, including alterations and extra work, amounted to 
)27190 15 7,t 
During the progress of the work, meetings of the magistrates of thc 
proposed district were several times held, to advise with and assist tI1C 
Committee. Towards the close of the work, Ephraim Sanford, Esq" was 
appointed treasurer of the Committee in place of 1\lr. Duffy, who had 
removed from the Province; and D. Griffith, Esq., was appointed a ll1em
bcr of the Building Committee. 
The walls and roofs of the Court House and Jail were completed in 
1839, and the work on the interior of the Court House finished, 
and that building handed over to the Committee by E. Chamberlen, Esq., 
on the 16th day of November, 1840, but not finally accepted by them until 
the l\Iay followin
. The jail was not entirely finished until the summer of 
1842, owing to a defect in the writfen agreement, by which the contractor, 
Mr. Edw:ud J
ee, clnimed that tIle plastering was not included in his 

· l\1inute
 of Committee, Augu!\t 25th. Page 16. 
t Minutes of Duilding COßumttee, Pages 119, 152 aud 153. 


contract; and the season of 1841 was 80 far advanced when this became 
known, that the plastering of the Jail had to be deferred until the followin
At length, on the 27th day of December, 1841, after upwards of tl1l'ee 
years of arduous du ty, the Building Committee were finally relieved of 
their task, At a meeting of magistrates held that day, their accounts were 
examined and declared correct, and a vote ðf thanks was tendered "to the 
gentlemen composing the Building Committee, to their Treasurer and 
Secretary, for their indefatigable exertions in carrying the object of their 
appointment to completion." 


In the month of August, 1838, after the new Colbornc District had been 
pl'orisionall!f set apart, and during the time the Building Committee were 
engaged in the arrangements for the erection of the Court House and jail, 
a severe and cutting satire upon Peterborough, and a number of its chief 
citizens, appe3red in print in the columns of " The Plain speaker," a small 
sheet then published at Cobourg. It purported to be an advertisement of 
"a sale extraordinary of the Town of Peterborough, to pay the taxes," 
and to be held on the first vf .April following, Although the writer of 
the document in question announceù that he would 
"-Nothing extenuate, 
or set ùown aught in malice," 
some of his allusions, if reproduced, would be so pointedly offensive to 
many persons still living, who were probably neither better nor worsc than 
the average of humanity, that it is better to omit them here. The docu- 
ment is supposeù to have been written by 
Ir. Frederick Forest, then 
residing ill Peterborough, The follo
inf!: are samples of this remark- 
able production, which, a
 may be f;upposeù, 3ttracted much fittention at 
the time, :md is still referred to with interest by m:my of our olùer rcsidents, 
who were familiar wit.h the c113raetcrfo: pointed at. whose nanws or l)c('\1- 
liarities furnished a ready mark for tllC shafts of the !':atil'ii"ot, 


Prom" 'Pin Plaiwpc(lke'l'," -1838. 
" It has becll reported that this Town is likely to become the Seat vf 
GOt'l'nwwllt! The report can only be traced to the Editor of a con- 
temptible publication, who::;e total di::;regard for truth entitles him to no 

"Who darcs think one thing and <
nother tell, 
., :\Iy soul detests him as the gates of helL" 
"--1 Court IIouse (11/(l .],Ûl will be built immediately. 1.'01' the Debtor'::; 
J ail it is contemplated to ercct a high wall all around the town j-the 
convenience of the inhabitants has been thus consulted, as they will be 
able to couti1ntC in their present houses, an advantage they could not 
ot11erwise 10llg enjoy." 
" The Commissioners of PIIUic lVorh have appointed a Sec1'etary who 
thinks himself'VRIGHT-O
 all occasions, a point on which, judging from 
appearances, his Employers are not likely to be deceived," 
\.bout a year Ûl.lce a few Sentinels were established at the expense 
of the inhabitants, It is howevcr to be regretted that they have only 
brought contcmpt and disgrace on those who had the control of them. As 
they appear to be guided by the motto '.JIlltol'e 
pcmo,' their hitherto 
supporters have lost all hopes of their amendment, * * 
Let us do them justice: they were seldom seen oft' their post-few ever 
having ventured beyond the limits of the town. 
"Another Lawyer is CU
Il\I1N'G to settle here-he has had only one case, 
which cannot be better described than in the words of Pope, 
"Thou great first cause, least understood." 
" 'Opposition is the life of Trade,' 80 think the Magistrates who have 
established two separate Boards of Companies among themselves. Cm/8ft 
'oiet 1'eS est '/Iotissime. 
"One party is led (query misled) by an individual who has adopted the 
motto of his lowest follower-'Nlt1
quam, hic }l\IoE nisi in dispa,'i,' One 
of the same party advertizes Magisterial business gratis, no doubt having 
apportioned the value and the price, From this it will appear t.hat no 
J'rice is fixed for Justice. and at no price cun it be obtained, 
" It is a talf' 
"Told by nn Idiot, full of sound aud fury, 
"Signifying p-othing,'
" Intending purchasers, who cant' well pay without, may borrow money 
on easy terms. The lellder, CANT' WELL, wait for his Interest, having 
little or no p,.illdple left. 


In thc year 1839, Captain Charles Rubidgc, R,N., who had been absent 
in England during thc grcater portion of the two prcvious years, returned 
to Petcrborough, having in charge a body of immigrants, numbering in all 
183 souls, chiefly selectcd from the estates of Col. 'Vyndham, in Clare and 
Limerick, in the South of Ireland, The voyage was most prosperous, 
and as thc immigrants passed through the country, many of them found 
profitable employment, and the rcmainder, within a few days after their 
arrival in Peterborough, were absorbed among the people of the surrounding 
townships; and having found tcmporary occupation, many of them after- 
wards became owners of land, on which they or their families still reside. 

(3) THE ELECTION OF 1841. 
The clection of 1841 is mcmorable not only as being one of the first 
after the union of the Provinces, and the first held within the new District 
of Colborne, then only provisionally set apart from the Newc.1stle District; 
but also for a scene of violence rarely exceeded among these exciting con- 
tests in the past, and under our present judicious election law, it may be 
presumed, quite impossible in the future. 
The election for the new provisional District, which then embraced what 
is now the Counties of Peterborough and Victoria, was held in Peterbo- 
rough, and had its head quarters at 'Vhite's Hotel, situated just east of 
George Street, in the southern part of the town*, where the poll was 
opened by Captain Frazer, the returning officer. The canùidates were = 
Colonel Alexander l\IcDonell, 
Frederick Ferguson, Esq. 
Dr. John Gilchrist. 
The former of these gentlemen appeared in the conservative and the 
latter in the reform interest. As the election progressed, it became evident 
that Dr. Gilchrist would be elected, and a plot was at once formed to 
break up the election, so as to prevent his legal return, The conspirators, 
WJlO are now well known, anù rank among their number several of our 
respectable citizen
, met in a tavern (
ince burnt down) on the flat Rpace 
just above the western extremity of the Otonabee bridge, and there arranged 

· This hotel was situated contiguous to Day's Brewery, and was then a leading public house, IInd 8 
place of fß.!'hiollaLle reØ<lTt Both it and the brewery wen, burned to the ground, during the summer 
<If IBiG, but the brewery had long ceased to be used tor any purpose: and the hotel has been for tome 
:yearll occupiea a.i a private residence. 


their plans. A g('ntleman, well known in both town Lmd county, but 
whor-e namc, [,11' obyiou
lms, we forhear to specify, wa
 then acting a
("on stable and door keeper of the room in which the poll was being held, 
aud wa:; aware of their desigll
. The) were to approach in a body; the 
door keeper was to make a 
how of rcsisulllce, and be knocked down, with 
his own consent. In the 7Ju'lt,C which would follow, the poll-book was to be 

eized and destroyed, aull thus the opposing l1arty would be del)rived of 
the only legal eyidl'nce of the election of their candidate, 
Thc room was fnll of people, am0111!' whom were the candidates and their 

I!-!:ents, when the con
pirators stealthily approached. On reaching the 
room, a fierce show of fight was made, amid which the guardian of the 
peace rolled oycr as if sluitten by a tlnmderbolt.. The books of the check 
clerks and other papers were speedily seized, but the }Jresence of mind of 
the Returnin
 Officer defeated their design, On the first alarm, he ttuietly 
slipped the poll-1Jollk beneath his coat. wherc it remained secure, 'Yhether 
frolll acciùent or otherwise, Dr, .Gilchrist received a blow upon the head 
with a sti\:k, from which, however, he speedily recovered. 
13nt though tlms baulked in their design, SOllIe of the more daring and 
rcckle:;::; pur:;ueù the g-ame still fnrther. The Hetuming Officer then 
occupied a ruom at 'rhite's, :Illd 011 his goinJ..( out in the l'veniug to dine 
with a frielllL his apartment was entered, and a valisI' rut open, in hopes 
of findin
 the l'ovdcù poll-book within. But Captain Fr381'1', as if antici- 
pating their design,_ lwd taken the pre(Oious docnment with him, and 
retaineù it in his l'"
() that thi:; seeuml attempt failed 3S igno- 
IS tlw first. .\s not one of thc parties implicated in this outrag{
would now attempt to jnstifY or even palliate it, we may 
pare them the 
 :mch conduct so justly de
el'Ye(l. ne
ides, their leader passed 
.lway from the excitements of earth during the present year, (1866), and 
the :;urvivol's haye no doubt sufficiently rep.retteù acts conuuittcd durin[.; 
the heat of excitemcnt. anù when carried away by the passions of the 
The election of 1R.n resulted ill the selection, by a considerable majority, 
of Dr, John Gilchri::;t, as member of Parliamcnt for the new Uolborne 
District, which position he eontiuucd to fill during the next four year::;. 




On the 14th day of October, 1841, the proclamation formallyestablish- 
ing the Colborne Dist1'Ïct, was issued, by command of Sir Richard Downc,;; 
.Jackson, l(, C, B., who was for:\ time Administrator of the Government 
after the death of Lorù Sydenham. The following tnwn:;;hil)s wert' 
embraced in the new District, the first eleven of which are included in 
the County of Pet-erborough : 
Belmont, Methuen, Burleigh, Dummer, ARphodel, Otonabee, Douro, 
North Monaghan, Smith, Ennismore, Harvey, Verulam, Emily, Ops, 
Fenelon, Mariposa, Eldon, Bexley, Somerville. 
Early in the following year (1842) one or more Di
trict Councillors were 
elected from each township, and these met at the Court House in Petcr- 
borougl1, for their first session, on Tuesday, February 8th, 1842, 
George Arundel Hill, Es(!uire, of DUlllmer, was appointed by the Gov- 
ernment to rreside as 'Vunlen over the deliberations of the new Council; 
and continued to act in that capacity up till the close of the year lS-1û, 
The following are the names of the gentlemen compn:-;ing thi:- fir::;t 
council and the town
hips from which they were elected: 
George _\, Hill, Esq., lVai'lZcll. Councillors-Tholllas Harper, Esq., 
Jlloll(lglwll j Stephen NicllOls, Escj., Smith j Smithin D, Gibbs, ES(h 
DU1/J'() j 'rhos Carr and .James Doris, Esq'rs, Otollo!Jec j Richard Birdsall, 
E8q" Asphodel j Josias L, Hughes, 'Vm, Cottingham, E.':q'rs, Emily j 
Francis Kelly, BSth Ops j John J-4angton, ES\h PC1lelon; Thomas Need, 
Esq., l"él'ldmn (lll(lllarrey,. Daniel Costello, Esq., Euuisnwl'c; Samuel 
Davidson, Esch J.
faJ'ipos(l; Alex. Campbell, Esch Eldon; Alex, Kidd, 
EStj., D/lmmCl'. 
 OF THE COUNCIL.-Jolm Darcu:;;, Esq" Cll,.k j Dr. John 
Gilchrist, T,.rasurer; James Hall, and Robert Reid, E:-;(!'rs, .A1ulitors; 
G, ß, Hall, Esq., Solicitor, &c. 
URVEYORS,-J ohn Reid, Thomas J, Denne}lY, Richard Birdsall, 
George Hughes, Edwarù Caddy, James 'V, J)unsford, Alex. CiUJlpbell, 
Charles Britton, and James Bird, Esquires, 
At the end of one year, one-third of these counciHors retired by ballot, 
and another third at the end of the second year, their placeR being sup- 


plied by a new election, At the end of the third year the third first 
elected retired, and in each subseqnent )ear the third then longest in office 
withdrew; SO that one-third of the councillors only were elected each 
year, The machinery of the District Council thus organized continued 
in force until 1850, in the beginning of which year the basis of the present 
Municipal System was laid, which, with various trifling modifications, still 
continucs in force, It was then, (in 1850,) that township councils were 
instituted, and the management of local affairs placed entirely in the hands 
of the peoplc in each township, who have since had entire control, through 
their local councillors, of the levying of taxes, the improvement of roads, 
and all other necessary expenditure, The County Council is composed of 
the Reeves or presiding .officers of the several township councils, and 
is empowered to levy certain taxes for county purposes, Thus the entire 
direct taxation of the country is levied by thc county and township coun- 
cils, and expended under their auspices; statements in reference to the 
receipts and disbur.semcnts of which are published annually, bO that what- 
eyer taxation exists is levied directly by the people through their repre- 
, chosen yearly to manage their affairs. 
In connection with each township will bc found a li:-:t of the gentlemen 
who have been successiyely District Councillors for that township, and 
also the names of those who by virtue of their position as Reeve or head 
of each Township Council, have had seats in the County Council, and 
collecthyely formed that Council durinp: the same period, 
The population of the several townships composing the County of 
Peterborough in 1841 was as follows :-Otonabee 1931, North l\Ionaghan, 
 the town) 1G20, Smith 1349, Douro 856, Dummer 8G8, 
Asphodel :>51, Belmont 115, Enni
more 279, and Harvey 50, 
The estimate of the liabilities of the entire new District for the Jear 
1842, including interest on the jail debt, did not exceed $GOOO for all 
. These were times of comparative poverty, of impassible roads, 
small clearings, paltry prices, and low taxation. The gradual progreEs 
and developement of the county, has to a great extent ameliorated the 
greater number of these conditions, and of nece::;sity added brgcly to its 
lmrdcns. The liabilities of this county alone for 18136 scarcely fell Rho1't of 
$18,000. Hut with increased resources, improved road:.:, and an e
market, our people are better able to meet the larger scale of taxation 
to-ùay than they were the morc moùeratc one or furnicr year
; illllllJot it 


man in the community wonld be willinf! tD return to the rate
 of the 
reriod rderrcd to with all the cOlH:omitallt <:ÍrcuHl::-tallcc
 uf the timc 
_'\ g.'eat ùeal of difficulty wa
 fbund in the 
cttlcmcnt of account:'> 
between the new Colborne Di!'trict and the old Newcastle District; and it 
WëlS not until 18-15, and after le,!?'al proceedings were about to he resorted 
t.o, that balallce:-: due thi.
 Di:-:trict were paid and the whole matter fairly 
 the earlieðt By-Law:, pa::;scd by the District Council WëlS one for 
the payment of the ::;1l1arics of its ofllcer8, amonf! whom are to be rcckoned 
the clerks. assc
sors <lml ('nnedor
 of the several townships:. The 'Varden's 

ahny wa:-: at first $8f1 per yrar; in I S4-1 it was increased to $1ßO, and 
in 1847, during the first year .Tohn J.tangton. Esq.. prcsided over the 
Council as "'arden, the sahtry attached to that uffice was aboli:;hed 
entirely. ft is 1JUt propcr to remark. ho\\ eYer. that some relllunel"atioll, 
in addition to the_ unIi.pary fees. ha
 {'aeh year bcen voted to the 'Varden, 
in lieu of a salary. In 184
 this lWllol'ari'f1)1 was $200. and it has rarely 
-if eyer :-:incc exceeded that SUIll. In February of 1847. a :-:ilk gown wa:-: 
first provided for the 'Varden, ny.oreIer of the Council. and has becn since 
worn by the gentlemen who havc succes
i\'cly occupied that position, 
The District Clerk's salary in the beginning of 1842 w.tS $] GO. but in 
a few months waR raised to $:WO, and in 1849 to $400 per year. In 
January, 1852, the offices of Clerk and Treasurer were united, the salary 
then being fixed at $f}OU, which as the duties of the joint offi
e expanded 
was in 1860 increa::.ed to S1
OO yeárly. at which it stilll'cll1ain:-:. 
The Treasurer of the District, in it::. early days, was allowed four per 
cent npon all moneys pa
sing throup.h his hands, and also a fee of onc 
:-;hilling for eyery inspcction of his books or accounts, In 1849 an annual 
f'3lary of $-100 was attached to the office. in lieu of all percentages, and 
other fees or charges. . 
The Auditors in 184
 were paid 
20 each per annum, In 18:>0, their 
remuneration was increased to 830, 
ind in 1856 to 
40 e3ch, at which it 
still remains. 
The District Sun'eyor was at first paid $1.75 pcr day while actually 
elllI,loyed. In 184:4 a fixed salary of $100 wa
 attached to the office, 
which was 
lightly illcre<tsed in 
nbsetlUèBt yearH; and in 1819 rose to 
8150. hut wa
 aholisheJ ùuring the fullowing year. 


Thc clerk
 of thc several tuwnships were paid $1
 each, duriug the 
first ycar
 or our District Council, with the exception of that officer in 
Behllont, wIll) only received $4 per year. In subscquent years, mlll 
especially since the new municipal :;ystem was introduced in 1850, the
officers, and ah;o the Assessors ml{l Collectors, are paid for the greatly 
increased rlnticf;, of lah'r year:-:, hy the several nnw.icipalities for which 
they ad, 
Thc pay of the District Councillors, (or "wág
s" as they term it in the 
several by-laws relatinf!: to this subject.) was at first $1.25 per day; in 
18;-)5 it was incrcased to $1.50; and now, for some years, has been $1.75 
per day, with allowance of 15 cents per mile one way for travelling expenses. 
In the early years of the District Council, the onerous duties entailed 
by a 
eat ill tñat body do not appear to have bc('n sought aftcr so eagerly 
as in morc rec
nt times. AmouO'the earliest by-laws of that period, is one 
o ... 
c. to determine the penaltieH on persons refusing to serve as Councillors j" 
alid in 1845, we find one entitled "A by-law to enforce the attendance of 
Municipal Councillors;' which howevcr W:1S rcpealed in 1848, The former 
of these imposed a fine of' not less than one dollar, nor more than forty, 
for ncglecting or refufo:ing tu take and subscribe the oath prescribed: and 
the latter a penalty of one dollar for absence from any of. the sittings of 
Council, alld two dollars for absence durin
. an entire day, without per- 
mission or the Council. 
One of the first projects espoused by the District Council was the con- 
struction of a plank road from Cobourg, round the head of Rice Lake, to 
Petcrburough, :md Hwnce to Chemong Lake, But this, like many other 
projects since mooted, was ere long abandoned, The chief records of the 
Council arc made up of the then important, but now uninteresting, details 
of the opening up or establishment of new lines of road, repairing bridges, 
arranging and re-modelling the boundaries of school sections, and tllC 
numcrous other matters common to the business of all eouncil
During the year 1844, John Darcus, Esq., a Justice of the Peace, who 
till then had acted as District Clerk, was found guilty of frauds, which 
not only deprived him of that office, but obliged him to abandon the 
neighborhood, if not even to fly from the Province, His peculations were 
, and must have been entered upon in un unguarded moment. 
They occurred in this wise, It is enstomal'Y when any person kills a 
wolf to tak(' the l:icalp to the uearest uwgistrate, who sig'nH a certifi("ate to 
the effect that a wolf has hf't'u killed, anJ tilt-' recipient, 011 IH'l'senting: this 


document to the County Trea
urer, is cntitled t.o a LOJills of :;ix dollars, 
for the service thus rendered to the conntry. :Mr. Darcus forp:cd seven- 
teen of these ccrtificates, inserting the munes of settlcrs at a distance. and 
drcw the moncy in their names, which of course he retained, Soon after, 
one of thc persons w110se name h
d been unwarrantably nscd, wa
gratnlated on his success as a hunter, when he denied having killed any 
woh-es, and on further enquiry, the discovery was made, which resulted in 
the withdrawal from the country of the unfortunate gentleman who had 
allowed himself to be guilty of the base transaction. 'Ve mention these 
circumstances :!llore in sorrow than in scorn, and to "point a moral" rather 
than "adorn" this narrative. 
The County 1'reasurer was thereupon instructed to publish annually, a 
list of the names of persons mentioned in such certificates, with their placc 
of residence; a precaution at all times neccssary to guard against a repe- 
ti tion of such fraud. 
On the removal of Mr. Darcus, James l\IcCarroll, Esq., acted as County 
Clerk for a few weeks, when the permanent appointment was conferred 
upon 'Yalter Sheridan, EStt, Dr, John Gilchrist continued to act a::. 
Treasurer until October, IS4G, at which timc Frederick Ferguson, }
was appoiuted to that office, which he retained till the clo:;;e of 1851, when 
the two offices of clerk and treasurer were united; and the duties of both 
have since been very faithfully and efficiently discharged by Mr, Sheridan. 
who still retains them. 
On the retirement of .Mr. Ferfruson, the Council expressed their entire 
confidence in his integrity and ability, and their regret 
It dispensing witI, 
his services, which was rendered expedient by the anm]gamation of the 
two offices, Both Dr, Gilchrist and Mr. Ferguson ucted in turn as no\'- 
ernmellt Land Agent, an office subsequently held by the late Col. Crawford, 
and aùolished, in so far as the older townships of the County of Petcrùol'uugh 
was conccrned, within a few years of the present time, . 


A Dew Common Sc11001 act, paf:sed by the Refurm Government ûr the 
d1Y, came into force in 1844, and Elias Burnha}ll, Esq., was appointed 


Superintendent of Schools fflr the ('nlborne Di
triet, in Ol'der effectually to 
carry out its pruvisions,-an office which hc acceptcd rather from a òe
to furthcr thc important interests of education, than from any emoluments 
belonging to the office, the salary attached to which during the period he 
held it, was at first ;(25 and then 1:50 per year, including travelling 
e-xpenses, l\Ir. Burnham discharged the nrduous and laborious duties of 
this office, from this time up till Hie year 1850, with commendable zeal 
and ability, in doing so, travelling on horseback from six to eight hunch'cd 
miles annually. The following official report, whidl hc 
ubmittcd to the 
Council at the close of the year 18-!--1-, will be fonnel interesting as an 
illustration of the position of the Di!'trict at that date, in an educatiunal 
po in t of yiew. 
YEAR 1844, 
To the Tr{mh'n ond Co-uncillors of the Colbo'J'ne District, 
[EX : 

I beg to lay before you a report relating to the Common Schools of the 
Cðlborne District for the year 1844, I have visited all the schools during 
the past year, in operation at the time of my annual examination, except 
one in Yerulam and Harvey, and one in Fenelon and Bexley. Circum- 
stances delayed my cxamination of these beyond tIle time prescribed. 
The character of HlC 
chools, genernlly, is satisfhetory, It is to be regretted 
however that in lllany of the school districts, particularly those in the 
township"'! of Ops anù North )Iona
han, the school houses are so very bad, 
mnounting in some instances to a state of actual discomfort and unhealthi- 
ness; but I have invariably urged upon the people the neces
ity of their 
improvcment, and I have reason to believe that they fully agree with me 
therein, and that they will remedy the evil as soon as possible," 
" The attendance of chilùren is good, averaging to each school about 
twenty-five, but I am sorry to see this number confined solely, or nearly 
so, to childrcn of small age, Taking one school with another, thcrc is a 
fair proportion of children who read 
md write." 
" In 1/0 ;II,çfOilCr,ç ill 'my Trcollertion, -zcith oue 01. two c.-cc('ptiol/
, ltm'c 
I SI'I'U tlu' Engli.çh grarnmflr in 1l:;e,. very seldom geogrnphy, 
md no 
history, except occasionally in a reading book, The bible I found in 
general m;e." 
"There is a great deficiency of books in very many of the schools." 


., This, I Wa!
 told, originated in the carelessne:;s or poverty of the parents. 
I have, however, invariably urged upon thcm thc llcce::isity of ::iupplyillg 
their children with proper books, The teachers frequently complain of 
this dcficiency, aud of their conscll'lent inability to classify their scholars j 
which is prejudicial to thcir advancement," 
" I havc reason to believe t.hat the tcae}lCrs rely more upon rea
on and 
ense ill their ins:truction, than upon the roù j and I have inva- 
riably urged upon them to do so, I have also had to suggest thc bencfit 
of allowing the childl'en a short relaxation during school hours. I have nl:;o 
made it known that intempcrance in any teacher will be regarded by me 
as a good cause for his imlllcdiate removal, and that cruelty towards hi:-: 

cholm's will be promptly 1mt down." 
" Upon the whole, I may 
ay that, although there is much room for 
improvement in many of the schools, still thcre is no real cause for com- 
plaint, and I :un satisfied that they will continue gmduaUy to prosper, and 
that the teachers will be improving," 

 * * 
" I may further state that I made an application some time ago to the 
Govcrnor General for thc frec grant of a lot in thc Town of Peterborough, 
to Trustees, with the view of ultimately bcing able to build t.hereon a 
cOllllllodious schoo) house, and establishing by lwivatc munificeuce a fund, 
the interest from which w_ouId be snffic-ient to supply frce tuition to all 
who might choose to avail thCll1selves of it, and to have a good library in 
connection therewith; and I have intended, if my exertions had heen suc- 
cessful, to }Hwe devoted tho entire of my salary, as Superintendent, for 
that pUl'pose, But His Excellency did not condcscend to noticc my 
pctition, and so the mattcr for the present has cnr!<,d, 
I lwvl' thc honor to he, &c" 
(rUllI/f." i::JlljJCI'inlct/(l",'t of i::Jclwol.
 fa,. the- (:,J!bOi'/i(, District," 
Peterborough, February 11, 1845, 
Thomas Benson, }
slh succeeded _K Burnh:ull: EStl', in t.he office of 
County Superintendcnt.,-the sa)nry hcing HOW raised to ,;(130 })cr yem', 
1\11'. Bcnson W:l8 highly respected both for his intelligcnce and the urlJallity 
of hi
, His was one of the many valuahle li\'e
 lost in the 
terrible railroad disaster at the De
jal'dines Cana] in 1
57. lIe rct[iÏned 
the office of Cüunty ðupel'intcndeut only for one year, Hi
 letter of 
rCf:ignation is interesting, as pourtraying the ardllous duties (.If that office, 


and thc ticant rcmuncration thus affonlerl for 
o important. It is 
<lS follo\\ s : 
c. 1'0 the Warden and .1Jlulticip r ll ('ounci/lofs ul the ('o/'Illy of Peter- 
lJol'olfgh, in C011/lcil ...1ssemblcd, 
"GENTLKuEN :-The 11eriod having arrived when it becomcs necessary 
that you should provide for thc superintendence of the Common Schools 
of the county for the ensuing year, it is proper that I should inform you 
that I do not intcnd to offcr myself as a caudiùate for the situation you 
did me the honor to confer upon me at the commenccment of the pa
" If I hcre take occasiou to refer to a fcw uf the reasons which have 
induced me to come to this detennination, it wiII be with the sole vicw of 
increasiug the usefulness and efficicncy of an office, the faithful discharge 
of the duties of which may do more to lwomote the social and moral 
advancement of thc rural population of this county, than any other secular 

geney within your control. The first and most IJOwerfulmotive which 
impels me to decline a reappointment to the office of superintendent of 
schools, is the conviction that the alllount of labor w}1Ích the faithful 
discharge of its duties would entail upon the incumbent, is more than any 
one person could possibly endure." 
" I trust it \ViII be apparent that in alluùing to the extent of this labor, 
T do not seck to magl1ify my own exertions. I crave your attcntion to this 
110int merely to shew that a change of the former systcm i::; necessary," 
" The distance which must be travelled over to complete oue visit to 
each sehooll';ection in tllis county, would appear totally incredible to any 
one who had not taken some pains to reckon up the numerous journeys it 
occasions; one visit could not be nearly accomplished in a quarter of the 
year at an average rate of travelliug of twenty mile::; a day. This rate, 
considering the state of most of the road::;, and Ule time whieh must be 
spent in properly examining a school, is greater than could possibly be 
maintained for a whole y
ar, The extent of my eorre::;pondence during 
the past year has been much gTeater than anyone anticipated. Upward::; 
of six hundred communications have been received, and nearly five hun- 
dred despatched. It is true that this will be in future greatly diminished, 
unless changes are made in the ::;chool law: but it will always be very con- 

Úderable. The operation of a law but newly introduced, entailed upon 
me the preparation of opinions and decisions, which not unfrequently 
required days of careful research, and wuch labor in furnishing numerous 


copies. I do not at aU cxaggeratc whcn I btate thàt the office work alone 
of my situation, has commmed more time, and required mure anxious 
exertion, than is devoted to some of the bcst paid offices in the country," 
" In the next l)lace, I find that my health is not equal to the task this 
office imposes. Frequent night journcys, and change of quarters, brought 
on a fit of illness which kept me from tllC performance of my duties for 
several weeks, every effort to resume my journeys bringing on a relapse," 
"But I should be rccreant to thc caU8e I profess to advocate, if I 
allowed any cowardly apprehension of being misunderstood or misrepre- 
sented, to prevent me from stating that the remuneration attaehed to the 
office under consideration, is out of all proportion to the nature and im- 
portance of its duties, and to the value of such qualification as a superin- 
tendent should possess." 
"1\Iy personal expcnses for the year, including travelling expenses, 
l'Cpairs, stationery, postage and loss in the value of a horse worn down, 
have amounted to about seventy pounds, leaving only about sixty POUllÙS 
as compensation for services which occupied the whole of my time, to the 
exclusion of all other sources of income." 
" The conclusion I desire to draw from these statements, is one to which 
I trust I may be permitted to call your attention, without exposing myself 
to the imputation of officious interference with privileges and duties which 
are peculiarly committed to you by the law ;-it is this-that the interests 
of education will be promoted by a division of the county into at least 
two districts for school superintendence, and by fixing a rate of remune- 
ration more justly proportioned to the value of the services and attainments 
called into exercise by its arduous duties and high requirements," 
" 'Yith regard to the condition and prospects of common school edu- 
cation in the county, an improvement has taken place, and an impetus 
has been given to the desire for further advancement which mu::;t havc 
become so apparent to each of you, gentlemen, in your several localities, 38 
to leave no need to enlarge upon it here. 'Vhether this improvement shall 
go on with a much needed and steadily increasing progress, will greatly 
depend upon the appointments which the Council may now make, to fill a 

ituation the duties of which I feel that I havé very imperfectly discharged." 
"I have the honor to be, Gentlemen, 
"Your 1110::;t obedient humble scrvant, 
(Signed) Tnü:\IA8 BENSON, 
"/::Jup't Sdwo{
 Co. Peteì bfJio'. 

"Peterborough, 28th January, 1852." 


After the retirement of 'fr. Bem;on, in .J3nuary, 1852, tne county 'Was 
divided into four sections, for purposes of superintendence, of which thp 
Townships of Smith, Douro and Otonnbee formed one, Asphodel, Dummer 

md Belmont formed :motller, the other two consisting of the townships of 
:Korth )lonnghnn :md Bnnismore respectively. The Rev, Edward Roberts 
 appointed Locnl Superintendent of the first division, the Rev, Thomm
Searight of tIle second, Thos, Fortye, Esq., for North Monaghan, and 
Patrick Snllivan, Esq., for Ennismore. 
Iarch, 18;)?', requests were made for the appointment of separate 
township Local Superintendents, and notwithstnnding the formal disapproval 
of this 
ystelll expressed by "Tm, Cottingham, Esq" 'Varden, in his 
address to the Council, this s)"stem wns adopted, and has been since con- 
tinueù until 1866, when an effort towards the centralization of the duties 
of the office was again made, and with partial success, The list of town- 
ship superintendents will be found in connection with the several Dmnici- 
palities for which they held office. 


In February, 1847, an important meeting was held in the Court Hou
for the purpose of forwarding the construction of a railroad from Port 
Hope to Peterborough,-a charter for which hnd been obtained during the 
then last session of Parliament; but the subject was new, and public 
moneys, which were afterwards so lavishly expenùed by means of the 
Municipal Loan Fund, were not yet available, The project therefore de- 
pended entirely upon individual and local effort, but though frequently 
and freely ùiseussed, did not come into effect until several years Inter. 
During 1\1arch of the 
ame year, (1847) public meetings were held and 
subscriptions raised to aid in mitigating the serious distress from famine 
then prevailing in Ireland and Scotland. Several of our leading citizens, 
both in town and count)", lent themselves freely to this good work; which 
re:;lulted in a collection in all of f:36.1, t.he proportion of which for Scot- 
InnJ was July forwm'ùeù through the Treasnr<>r, James ,y alli
, R:;;q" for 


the purposes intenòerl; but the HOllie Committee for the l'elief of Ireland, 
from some cause, ne"er applied for their proportion, although duly notified, 
It was therefore resolved, at a public meeting, held in September of that 
year, to apply this portion for the relief of immigrants aniving here, or 
then in the district, a large proportion of whom werc from Ireland. 
The number of these wa:;! very considerable, and they brought with them 
a form -of fever of a malignant type. A public meeting was then called 
and tllC following gentlemen appointed to act as a Health Committee for 
the town :-Thomas Chamberf', Clwrles Forest, Joseph Shaw, Robert 
Stenson and James Harvey, E
quires, In order to provide s}lClter and 
attendance for those who arrived here in an almost destitute condition, a 
temporary hospital was improvised in t.he southern part of the town. 
Among the victims of this disease was Dr. Hutcheson, in reference to 
whose decease the Peterhorough Dispatch contained t11C following brief 
obituary notice :- 
cc DIED,-On Hunday, [July 1st, 1847,] of tYl)hus fevcr, caught whilG 
in attendance at the immigrant. sheds, JOH::-l HUTCHESON, E:;q., M.D., aged 
50 years, formerly of Kirkaldy, in Fife, North Britain, :md a rcsident of 
America since 1815, This melancholy event cast a gloom ovcr the entire 
community, to whose interests, he, both as a friend and a physician, had 
long been faithfully dcvoted. The writer trusts that some one of his 
most intimate associates will pay a just and fitting tribute to the memory 
and merits of our departed friend, as it would be both unbecoming :md 
ungrateful that talent and worth such as Dr. Hutcheson wa;-; largely gifted 
with, should }mss froUl the busy stage of life without something heyond a 
passing notice." 
During 184t)-7 the hridge acrOR:;! the Otonabee at Peterborough was 
rebuilt, umler the supervision of thc Board of W orks,-and a large sum 
of money expended on the boundary line between Otonabee and Douro, 
Asphodel and Dummer, part of which waR for the construction of a bridge 
across the Indian river on that l'oad. TowardB these illl})Ortant improve- 
mcnts a g;rant of Æ3ûIJu had been made ill J>ar1imnent during the previous 
year, anù the outlay then dreeted along the boundary line mentioned, and 
over Heyen hundreù days' work, voluntarily offered by the residents along 
tIle road, rendered it barely pa
sable for a team and ,yehicle. 
The death of B. ï. l\IcKYEs, .Bsq" first Judge for the Colborne District. 
occurred on the 2nd day of December, 1847. 


In consequence of t.he resignation of the Viger-Draper Administration 
about that timc, a new election was ordered, which took place on the 20th 
ann. 21st of the same month, George Barker Hall, Esq., barrister, at 
once offered himself as a candidate for the representation of the county, 
but was offered the position of District .J udge, which he accepted, The 
other candidates in the field were James Hall, (the present Sheriff) .John 
Langt-ûn and Richard nird
an, Esquires. The
e three gentlemen went to 
the polls, 1'11'. Hall wa:;! the nominee of the R.efonll Conyention, and wa
elected by 81 of a majority oyer his most successful opponent. 
The first side-walk in Peterborough was built during this year, (1847.) 
It is mentioned in the local press of the time, mnong the publie improve- 
ments, but was of short extent, und merely extended from the "Albert 
house" of that day, to 1'lr, Cluxt-ûn's store, on George street. 
During 1847, the large stone building IJctween St. Peter's and St, 
Andrew's Churches, now the residence of Robert Xicholls, B;o,\-h was 
built Ly P. 1\1. Grover, I
sq., and afterwards purchased by the Odd Fellows 
of Petcrborough for a hall, and formally dedicated by them to this purpose 
in February, 1848. .From some eaU8
 the society in Peterborough, feU 
into decline, aud has now for several years cea:;ed to exist. 
In the Pcterborough J)i
put('h of May 4th, 1848, appeal':; the following 
brief tribute to the memory of a prominent and wealthy citizen then just 
" DIED,-At his residence, in l'eterborough, on 
atul'llay, the 2t1th ult., 
after a short but painful illnebs, which he bore with uncomplaining resig- 
nation, OUGIITRY )loRRow, Esquire, one of our oldest and most respected 
merchants, who grew with the growth of our thriving town, and whose 
interests were largely identified with it. One who by a steady career of 
probity, intcl-!:rity and untiring industry, had realized a handsome inde- 
pendence j :md had besides acquired general esteem and confidence among 
all classes of the community. The deceased was a magistrate, and also 
filled the office of trustee of the Grammar School of the Colborne District." 
"His funeral was most numerously and respectahly attended, St, John'B 
Church was thronged in every part, :md lIlany could not gain admittance. 
Business was entirely su:;!pentl('d ; indeed, unavoidably so,-for nearly every 
male inhabitant. was prc:;!ent on the mel:mcholy oeca
ion of ronsigning to 
the towL our respected friend and citizen, in hope of a glorious immortality." 
"An honest mau,-the noblest work of God," 


The walla of the large flour and gri8t mill, on the east side of tbe Oton- 
ahee bridge, thc property of R, D. Rogers, E
q., W31' built in 1848,-the 
adjoining saw mill ha'f'ing during that year been finishcd and in operation, 
On the completion of 1\1r, Roger's large mill, Pcterborough had" three 
fir:;lt-class flouring eRt:1blishmentl', capalJle of m:muf:1cturing from 50,000 to 
60,000 barrels of flour per aml'llnl. *" The other mills referred to were 
th:1t of G. B. Hall, Esq" in the occupation of Mr. }Iartin, and that owned 
by J, R. Benson, Esq. A fine woollen f'3ctory was then approaching com- 
})letion, :md an cxtenl'ive rake factory, conducted by Mr. Sperry, is said to 
have turned out 20,000 of those uReful implements during the pre\'iom
season.t Three iron foundries were alRo at thi:;l time in Ruccessful opera- 
tion!, namely, that of MeRsrs, Harvey & Dixon, l\IeR
rs. )I:11colm & Co's, 
and the furnace and shops of 1\11', l\Iowry at the east end of tllC bridge. 
Sundry good buildings hud also been erected; and among others. the brick 
hotel owned by Thomas Chambcrs, EStl., on the corner of Ihmter and 
Water Streets, subsecluently destroyed by fire, In regard to hotels it lllay 
here be mentioned that the "Globe" hotel. on Charlotte street, was thc 
first brick house erected in Peterborough, and the "Commercial hotel" of 
1\11'. Chambers, just mentioned, was the second building of brick within 
thc limits of the town, It stood on tlw site of his present grocery, and 
was for a time the leading public house in Peterborough. It was built in 
1847, burned down in 1858, and on its site the present two story building 
was erected in 1864. .Mr, Chambers has long been known as one of our 
enterprising and wealthy citizens. 
It is more difficult than might at hrst a})pear, to do justice, in a work 
of this kind, to the growth of the several interests, commercial, mechanical 
and agricultural. The operations of the latter especially, important though 
they be, are unobtrusive, and require to be sought after rather than appear 
on the smface. 'Ve find, however, in the Peterborough Despatch of 
February 3rd, 1848, a report of the Committee of the Colbol11e District 
Agricultural Society for 1847, which is full of interest, After an expres- 
sion of rcgret that more zeal and efficient interest were not shown in regard 
to the town::;hi}) agricultural societies, and also that such a society as that 
for the District should only number about four hundred members, the 
Committee go on to remark: 
"But on the oilIer hand, we, find much cause for congratulation in the 

· Dt<r1a1cll Aug. 31'11, 1848. 
t Ibil1. 
t De<patc11 Sept. 7th. 1848. 


:,tcady and rapid advancemcnt ill buth the quantity and quality of the 
agrieultural products of this District since the formation of your society. 
This advanccmcnt is, perhaps, lllostobscrvable in the articles of wheat and 
flour, Up to the year 1842, it is known, that Hot more than two thousand 
bushels of wheat were sent out of the District for sale in anyone year. 
During the last year, (1847) ul)ward::; of twenty thousand harrels of 
flour, and thirty thousand bm;hcls of wheat, were sent ofl" by the merchants 
of this District alone j iudepemlcntly of the large quantity (probably not 
less than fifty thousand bushels) of wheat taken out by the farmcrs them- 
selves, and sold at the ports on Lake Ontario." 
" In the first year mentioned, not one mill existed in this Distl'ict capa- 
ble of manufacturing flour for the foreign markets j now !llore than eight 
manufacturing mills, with upwards of thirty fun of stones arc in operation. * 
In 1842, not more than one thrashing mill was owned in the District, now 
upwards of' fifty arc in use, thirty of them manufactured at the foundry 
in Peterborough, during the last year. Upwards of eight hundrcd plows 
were made during the past year, (1847) by only two establishments in 
this District j and now a reaping machine, almost innumerable horse rakes, 
drill plows, harrows, cultivators, and other improved implements of hus- 
bandry are in general ul:3e." 
"Within the sallle short period several woolen factories, two, at least, of 
which would do credit to the oldest settled parts of the Province, have 
been erected, and are gradually extending their operations and their 
benefits; while the market they offer for an important staple of the country, 
is already effecting an evident improvement in the breed of sheep. Nu- 
merous oatmeal mills now furnish in considerable (luantities an article of 
growing consequence among our exports, .A most marked and gratify- 
ing improvement in the breed of eattIe has taken place, through the 
immediate instrumentality of your society, besides that which is the result 
of the most praiseworthy efforts of private enterprise. The improvement 
is less manifest in the breed of horses than in any other description of 

tock, and your COlUmittee regret that the att-empt to better our condition 
iu this respect, made last year, has entirely failed." 
'fhe foregoing report is stated to have been prepared by the late \V, S. 
Conger, Esq., President, the late Thomas Benson and 'V. H. :\loore, 
ES<Juires, Vice-Presidents of the 

.. The ÞgurC$ in t}u" CÄtract rcfl:r to lhe Colbome j)1!!tri
t, am\ not to th.; Count} of l'eterborough. 


The publication of the Petcrboroup:h Gazette cca
ed in Octobcr, 18-18. 
This newspaper was contemporary with the Chronicle, mHl wa:-; conducted 
in chief part by the Rev, J. II, Dunsford. The office of the Gazette was 
in the huilding onee known as the red btore, formerly referred to, and still 
in good condition, on the corner of Charlotte and 'V ater 
The l>etcrborough BClCkwùodsman and Sentincl, founded in 1837, by 
John Darcus, Esq., cea
cd before thc rcmoval of that gel.! tleman from Peter- 
borough in the manner already alluded to, The Chronicle was commcnced 
in December, 18-12, Thomas l\Iessenger, ES(h being Proprietor, and James 
McCarroll, Esch Editor, The office of publication was in the frame house 
011 Brock street, now used as a tin-shop by 1\11'. 
\, :;'\IcD. Norton, and 
nfterwards in a frame house on the lot just west of the one on which stands 
the elegant mansion of James Stevenson, Esq. 'Vith the burning of the 
office in 1846, wllich inflicted a heavy los
 upon the owner of the Clu'onicle, 
its publication ceased, and the Peterborough Di"-jJaüh soon after took its 
place. The first number of the Dispatch appeared on the 1Dth of Nov- 
ycmber, 1846. It was published by George Hazlehur
t, Esq., until 
August, 1856, when the Pcterborough Examincr took its place, and has 
now been ten years in existence. Augustus Sawers, Esc!., was its first 
Editor and Proprietor. It then passed into the hands of Alexander 
Graham and J amcs Renfrew, E
quires. :Mr, Renfrew then conducted it for 
three years; and in May, 1862, was succeeded by 1\11', Graham, as sole pro- 
prietor, In October, 1863, James 1\1. Dunn, ES(h became associated with 

Ir, Graham in its publication, and so continucd until l\larch, 1864. 
Since December of that year, the Exmniner has been conducted by Alex. 
Graham and James Stratton, Esquires, at their office, in the Post office 
The publication of the PetcrborougIl Review was commenced as early 
as l\Iay, 1853, by Robcrt Romaine, Esquire, its present proprietûr. 
Subsequently, it was conducted by Thomas and Richard 'Yhite, Esquire
who now publish the Hamilton Spectator, During the thirteen years of itd 
existence it was twice enlarged, and for several years has been printed on one 
of Hoe's large cylinder presses, A bindery and ruling machine are 
attached to the Review establishment, 
A third printing office was opened in Peterborough in the fall of 1864, 
by James Stephens, Esq., but the two newspapers la
t mentioned are the 
only l,eriodicals })ublished in Peterborougll, The preHent little work is 
being printed at the Review office. 



Until the cluse of 184!), Peterborough had the rank of a mere village, 
and was an integral part of the Towll"lIip of North l\Ionaghan, 'Yith the 
passing of the act of incorporation, which calllC into force in January, 
1850, a new era may be said to have commenced in its history. Property 
greatly increased in yalue, nmI in a fcw ycars new and fine blocks of build- 
ings took the place of l1lauy of the first wooden houses which till then had 
occupied the best sites in the leading thoroughfares. 
The late Thomas Bcnson, Estl', was the first mayor; and the new council 
over which he prcsided appear to have lost no time in inaugurating step
for the improvement of the town, In the spring of that year, a premium 
of one huudrcd dollars was offercd for "the best approved plans, specifica- 
tions and estimates for a new town hall and market house j and also for 
plans, &c., or an uniform series of buildings to occupy three sides of the 
market square," Those oficrcd by 1\1r. Thomas, architect, of Toronto, 
wcre acccpted, thuuóh not without a prote::;t as to alleged unfairness on the 
part of the council, by ::\Ir, Kivas Tully. In accordance wit.h these, the 
corner stone of the prcf,ent town hall and markct house, was laid in 
September, 18;)1, wit.h imposing ceremony, music and much rejoicing. 
The following inscription, on parchmcnt, was deposited in the corner 
stone :-"On the 27t.h '(lay of Rcptembcr, A, D" 1851, Charles Hudson, 
(l', mayor, laid the foundation stone of t.his building, erected by order 
of the Town Council of the Town of Peterborough. Members of the 
Council,-Charles Hudson, ES(h mayor, James Harvey, Joseph Spenceley, 
John Reid, Thomas Chambers, Clarke Spalding, Jmnes T, Henthorn, 
dmund Chamberlen, Egerton Perry, .M.D., Thomas Hutcheson, Uobin- 
son Rutherford and John Haggart., l\Iembers of the Building Committee, 
-Edmund Chamberlen, James 1\ Henthorn, Thomas Chambers, John 
Reid aml James Harvey, Esquires. "Talter Sheridan, Esq., architect. 

Ir. David Taylor, contractor. (Signed) 'V. II, 'Vrighton, Town Clerk." 
The importance of the occasion was such, that it was arranged that an 
ûx should be roasted whole, wherewit.h to cnt
rtain "all and singular" who 
IHight choose to accept the hospit.ality of the town, This part of the 
programme was literally carried out, but, unfortunately, while revolving 
upon the spit., the body of the ox was carried away, either pieL"emeal or 


entirc, hy per:-:on
 WllUl::C built WHI' never verified; and thus thc great fca
of thc evcning fell to the purtiun uf othcrs thHn tho
e for whom it was 
intended. A SUlllptuou
 diuncr was howe,ocr served by Thoma::; Chambers, 
Esq., at his "Commcrcial Hotel," which was fol1ow
d by speeches and such 
conviviality as is milial on occasion::; of thc kind, 
In January, 1
51, 'V, S, Conger, Esq., subn1Íttcd to the County 
Council an elaborate scheme in refcrcncc to thc best mode of promoting 
the settlcmcnt of the wild land
 in the rear of the county. His plan was 
" That the G-ovel'llmcnt 
houlJ disp08e of all the waste or unsold lands of 
the Crown to thc several County Councils wherc such lands may lie, at a 
nominal price of 
ay Ijd. or Is, per acre-payment for the same to be made 
by the Councils ill Dcbcntures, bearing interest and redeemable in twenty 
years. The fund so created to be apI}lied towards the establishment of a 
permanent COllllllon school fund. Thc conditiolls of the sale to the counties 
to be that these lands should be re-sold by them at a low price, varying from 
2s. Gd. to 7 s, Gd. pcr acre, according to on time if the parties re- 
quired it-to actual settlers only. The entire proceeds of such sales, after 
providing for the payment of the interest upon the purchase and any 
incidelltal expenses, to bc anticipated by debcntures, and laid out in making 
roads U}creto."* 
The Committee of the Council declined to enter illto such an arrange- 
ment, on the ground that "they eonsidcred the plan of too great magnitude 
to be entertained by a county so young as this."t . The Council, however, 
memorialized the Governor in Council in respect to the wild lands in rcar 
of the county, and prayed that these lands be offered for sale at low rates 
to actual 
ettlers, and that the proceeds of sales of such lands might be 
spent in opening up roads through the back country. 
During the year 1851, a public sewer was constructed on George street, 
from a distance of one chain north of Hunter I:Itreet, southward to King 
street, along or rather beneath which it escapes to the Otonabee river. 
This work was of the greatest public utility, and contributed largely in 
succeeding years to t.he health of the town, 
The close of the year 1851 brought with it the end of another Parlia- 
mentary term, and with thi
 the inevitable result,-a new election, This 
time tIle contest lay bctween James Hall, Esq., the former member, aud 

.. Pc!!" bOlOugh Dt.'pulch, F..brulil}' 27th, 1861. 
t Report"of Commilteeou County Propert>, January 311t. 1851. 


John Langton, E"q., one of the defeatf'it candidate3 at the previous elec- 
tion, Thomas Rhort alld Hobcrt Reid, E

'{ltircf:, wcrc rr
pectiYl']Y )[1'. 
Ha1l's mover 
nd seconder; l\lr, Langton's nomination was movcd by 
Thomas Bell, Esq., of Smith, anJ secouJeJ by )Ir. 
amuel Dayidson, of 

Iaripof'a. 1\11', IIall wa
 avoweJly :1 Rcfì)l'mer, Mr. Langton's politics 
were those of a moderate Conservative, Roth gentlemen :1Jdressed the 
elector$ :1t the nomination with much spirit, anJ thc show of hanJs, when 
taken, was f'lightly in .!.\II', I..angton's favor, The result of the clcction 
placed 1\11'. JJ
mgton at the hend of the poll hya mfljority of 70, 
Towards thc close of the year of 18rtl, :1 ]Jy-bw of the County Coundl 
was p:Ü:sed, in
tructing the "r arden to execute :1nJ tr:m
fer a ùred, in 
trust, of the general Protef't:mt burying grounJ in Pderborough to the 
Town Vouncil, the 
ì3id gl'ounJ consisting of lots one two and threc on thc 
south siJe of l\lcDonell street ::md wcst of George strect, and lots onc, two 
and three north of Murray strcet ::md west of Ucorge strcet; 
md also to 
trnnsfer for school purposes to the Town Council lot number five on the 
south side of Lonùon strcet, and lot number tcn on the north siùc of 
King street, both being west of Gcorgc strcet, but such official transfcr 
appears never to have been actually mnùe, or if made, not registered, 
In the following ycar, (1852), two fiuc brick builJing;s wcre crected on 
the Market Square, on the comcr of Gcorge anù Silllcoe strects, which 
wcrc at once occupicJ, bnt werc unfortunately Jestroyeù by fire in .J unc, 
1857, Soon uftcr, the prcsent llwrkct bloek rose on the ruins, Its taste- 
ful front is crcditablc to the town, while its capacious shops, of great depth, 
afford ample accolllmodation for thc extensive business carried on within 
their precincts, Thcse buildings werc erectcd, Rot by the corporation, but 
hy privatr inùiviùuals, under a ground lcnse for 21 year:5; thc town being 
then bound cithrr to rcncw the lcaf'rs, or P:1Y for the improwments at an 
estimate of their nllue, 
In 1852, thc first three :-;hops of 
Ir, Bnrnham'
 block werc complcted, 
and the rcmainder, induding the builùing known ::is Caissc.s hotel, in 
1858, In thc year 185-1-, the county was Jivided into two grammar sehoul 
districts; cmbracing rcspectivcly the castcrn anù western sections of the 
county,-both of which havc silléc offcrcd exccllcnt facilities for acquirin
a classical education, the advantagcs of which havc bccn fully :1pl)rceiated. 
From and aftcr .J uly of that year, a daily mail arrived at Prt(,l'bol'OH
h, hy 
l11f'ans of tIt{' stt':lmrr OIIl//olJre, until tIt(' rlO<;L' ûf nayignt.ion, 


Soon after the incorporation of the town, in 1850, an agitation was 
commcneed for the closing of the old buridl ground j-a result which was 
not formally accomplished until 1854. During the intcrim, howe,'er, and 
chicfly through the influencc of 'V. S. Congcr, Escl-, a Joint f:tock COlll- 
pany wns formed, which purchased the beautiful wooded promontory, ju
bclow the Little Lake, formerly known as 1\1oe's point, and thi:;: was 3})- 
propriated to the purposes of a cemetery, for which, in many respccts, it is 
well adapted. The glOund has becn tastefully laid out, and to somc extcnt 
ornamented j but notwith
tanding its fine natural advantages, there is still 
room for improvement, which will no doubt be accomplished as rapidly as 
the funds of the company admit of the necessary expcnditure. 
About the samc time, the 'Yesleyan Methodists secured an eligible plot 
of ground, north of thc town
 in which to bury their dead j and a few years 
later, the Roman Catholics }mrchased several acres. in 3Ionaghan, jUflt 
outside of thc limits of the town, for tlle flamc purposc. 
In July, 1854, thc IIincks-l\Iorin Cabinet was defeateJ during the 
debate on the address, on a motion expressing regret that the Clergy- 
Reserve and 
cignorial Tcnure qucstions werc not to be takcn np by the 
Goyernment. In conscquence of this defeat, a general election ensued j and 
3Ir. J
angton, returning to his constituents, was re-electeJ by acclamation, 
The 1\lcNab-l\Iorin Administration was the result. of thc combination which 
then followeJ, by which, as the readcr will probably remember. these great 
questions were successfully grappled with, and finally seUIl'd, 
Towards the dose of the ycar 185;), 3Il', Langton aeeepteJ the office of 
Auditor-General of the Province, and thus another T'acancy oceurreJ in 
the representation of the county, which was filled by an election held on 
the 22nd and 23rd days of January, 185G, The randidates on this occa- 
bion were \V, S, Conger, Esq., first Sheriff of tlle Colbornc District, who 
resigncd that office for thc }mrpose of entering Parlimncnt,-Frederick 
Ferguson, BS(h formerly Treasurer anJ Land Agcnt of the county, and 
awers, Esq., who about that time came into prolllinenee as a 
leading politician, 

\fter a vcry vigorous canvass, on the part of' the gentlemen first named, 
in which the HOll. George Brown, 1\1. p, p" took 3.n active part in the 
intercst of 
Ir, Fer
uson, Mr. Conger was elccted hy a lllnjority of 29R 
oyer .Mr. Ferguson; the third enndiJate-1\1r, f::nYeJ'
having' polll'll only 
seventeen votes, 


On the 9th day of February, 1856, .James Hall, Esq., an ex-l\I. P. P., 
for the ellited Countief', was gazettcd Sheriff in place of 'V, S. Conger, 
E:-;rh who had rcsigned that office, as alrcady stated. 
Thc ycar 1856 was unusually prolific of ncw buildings in Pderborough, 

nd these, too, mostly of a superior claf's. The Pcterborough }levicI" fur 
Scptembcr of that year notices them as follows: 
"First we have a couple of stores erected by p, Ryan Esq., on his propcrty 
on south George strect, The building is of brick, thrce storie
high. The front is ornamented with raised brick work in the form of 
pillars, surmountcd by a neut brick cornice, and supported upon cast iron 
pillars. 'Vith one cxccption, the building is the neatest yet erected in 
town, The shops will bc vcry large 
m<1 lofty, and will each have a hall 
door leading to the upper stories from the front. The building immedi- 
ately fronts the market square, and when the projected waggoll bridge 
across the Otonabce, at the lock:->, is completcd. and an entrance to the 
town from thc towmihip of Otonabee ma<1e at the south cnd, the stand will 
be a ycry exccllent one." 
".Next we havc the buil<1ings erected by 'V, Cluxton Esq" on George street. 
These buildings arc ycry much supcrior to anything of the kind heretofore 
attemptcd in Pctcrborough, and while being an ornamcnt to the town, 
rcflect thc grcatest crcdit upun thc public sph'it uf the proprietor, The 
buildings are four storics high, thc front bcing of white brick, and sup- 
portcd on clwstc iron pillars nnd stretchers. The windows of tlIe sccond 
and third stories arc Rli
htly archc<1 at the top; while tJlOSC of the fourth are 
circular topped. The saRhes are paintc<1 a <1ark brown color, and the 
"lights" arc unusually large. 
urmounting thc front is a ncat cornice of 
wood, covercd with zine, 31ul s:mdc<1, supported by neatly carved dentals, 
which are :Ilso 1-><111dc<1, thus lllukinp; them fire-proof, The building is flat 
roofed, covcred with tin. 'rite sashes of thc I'Ihop windows are of cast 
iron, of vcry light structure, :wd the glass is to be of the finest British 
plnte. The shops will bc vcry spacious, und bcing on thc wcst si<1e of the 
strcet, will 1)e shadcd durin!! the grcntcr part of the day. Both these 
buildillf!.'s :1IId those of .Mr. Hpn wcn' built by 1\11'. Da\'i<1 Carlisle," [and 
their gcncral dCfo:cription will apply ('(1unIly to the adjoininp; block of two 

mb:-;e'Juentl'y crccted l,y Jus, Stevenson an<1 T. Bmdburn, E:-"lr:-:.] 
"l\Ir, .i\IcFarlnllP lIns alfo:o put up a couple of stores of brick, on Hunter 

h"('('t. 'rhe Jmil<1ing is two stol'i{>foj in height, the fmnt being of white 
JJl'ick, :-iunuountcù JJY a hrich. curnicing, 3lr, Uitchie was the builù


"J. T, Henthorn, Esq,. has commenced his buildingE on Hunter street. 
Tl1ree ofthem will be erected this fall. The buildillf!.s will be three f'torics. 
with brick cornicing and flat roof, covered with tin. The shops facing on 
Hllntrr street will be single, those on Gcorgc street double. So soon as 
this block is eompletcd, it will very much improve the appearance of the 
town. Mr, Henthorn deserves credit for his encrgy and cntcrprise, The 
loss of the buildings formerly on this corner, by fire, would have becn 
sufficient to paralyze ß lefls energetic mind, 1\11', Spencely is the buildcr," 
1\11', Hall's brick buildingfS on Hunter street are finished. * ',' 
III Peterboro' East., n. D, Rogers, Esq., has put up a two story brick building, 
with thc end facing the street, the end wall beillg capped with cut stone, 
.lUd the figures 1856 cut out of the brick, The shop is fitted up witb 
iron shutters, and but for the shingled roof, mip'ht, doubtless, class as a 
fire-proof building." 
" Thus it will be seen that without any great alllount of display, the 
business part of Peterborough is progressing rapidly; while the suburbs, 
if we may so name the outskirts, are being cyery where studded with 
dwelling houses." 
In addition to the foregoing excellent description of these buildings, we 
lIlay remark, that 1\11'. Cluxton's fine block was erected on the model of 
onc in Buffalo, 
. y" specially selected by that gentlenw.n for this purposc, 
and that this, together with the style of buildings since crectcd on the 
principal streets, has lcd visitors to Pcterborough to designate this as "an 
American town,", which, indeed, it mOFe nearly resembles than perhaps 
any other town in Canada. 
Mr. Henthorn added to those mcntioned above, two brick stores on 
Georgc street, in 1859, In 1858 he agaill suffered by fire in the destruc- 
tion of a large frame hotel, which is stilll'emembcred as the first two story 
frame house erected in Peterborough; and a third tillle in 1860, when a 
large bakery, with stables and sheds, all on thc same premises, were con- 
sumed. His fine block was completed by the addition of two large white 
brick stores, fronting on George street, in thc year ] 862. 
In l\Iareh 1857, died Dr. Counin, a veteran Surgeon of the Bl'itish 
X avy, who had been in many notable engagcmcnts, and for the services hc 
had rendered rcceived a mcùal and two cl
'l-1pS, IIe was aetinp; 
eon to 
onc of the tr
msport nsscls whieh hrol1
ht to thrs(' 
horc" the inllnigr:mt
of lR2;), under the late Hon. Pt>ter TIohini'on. 


In April of that ycar, the Petcrhurough Rifle cumpany wa
\., :-:l;Ott, B
(l', was then Captain, and tjo continueJ until Novcmbcr, 
2211d, 1StH, whcn, on his resignation, Licutcnallt Edwin Poolc was 
promotcd to thc Ca!ltaincy; a position hc }l1lS sincc rctaincd, with thc 
additional honor of havin;:; bccn tcmporarily appointcd Major dul'Ïng the 
rcccnt term of activc scrvicc on ii'untier duty, 
Thc Pctcrborough Infantry Cumpany No.1, Captain Kcnnedy, wat' 
organizcd in .January, U;U:J. The Lakcficld Inrantry Company, Captain 
Lcigh, in 186
; Ashbumhalll Infantry Company No.1, H. D. Itogers, 
Esq., Captain, ill 1863 ; while during the prescnt year, (1866,) Pctcrborough 
Infantry Cumpany No.
, Captain the Hon. Sidncy Smith, has bcen organized 
and cquipped, and permission grantcd fur the formation of an Indcpcndcnt 
Company, undcr the cOlllmand of Lieut-Coloncllì'. ,Yo Haultain, )1. P. P. 
both of which lattcr companies arc now rapidly progressing in drill. 
An election for the Trcnt Division was held on thc 31st of October, and 
the 2nJ of Novcmbcr, 1856,-a holiday intcn-cning bctwccn thc two days 
of polling, Thc candidates wcre 1),:1\1. Grover, Esq., of Norwood, who 
rctired on the day of nomination, Thomas Short, Esq., uf Keene, and the 
Bon. ]
dmnnd )Iu1'llcy, of Bellcvillc, The last named gentleman was 
elcctcd by a nwjority of 238, 
During thc next election for thc county, heM on the 23rd and 24th days 
of Deceml,er, 1857, Thomas Short, Esq" was the succes
ful candidatc, and 
dcfeated 'V, S, Conger, I
S(h by a majority of 315 vútes. Augustm
Sawers, Esq., was ab<? a candidate at that election, and again polled 
se\'cntcen votes, 
The succeeding election for the county was held on the 9th nnd 11 th 
 of July, 1861. Mr, Short did not again 
ffcr himself as a candidate, 
and the electors were callcd upon to 'choosc between 'V, Ö. Conger, Esq" 
and Licut.-Col. F. \V, Haultain, until then a comparative stranger in the 
county, The result was a m

ority of thirty votes for 001. Haultain, who 
was declared duly elected accordingly, 
In February, 1858, George Barker Hall, Ebll., then for several Jear:o- 
Judge of the United Counties of Peterborough and Victoria, breathed his 
last., at his residencc, ßc
vermcad, near Peterborough. He was deeply 
regretted by a large circle of friends, by whom he was beloved, and by the 
entire county, by whom he wa
 rCflpected anJ admired for the integrity 
and ability with which he discharged his official duty 35 County Judge. 


,v c omitted tu 
tate, ill the IIl'oper place, that this gentlcmen wa:; elected 
to l'cpresent thi
 euuuty in Parliament in 18JJ, and fillcd the dutic:; of 
that position with much ability until 18 17, when, on the death of Judge 
l\IcKyes,llC was appointed to the office of County Judge, whieh he retained 
until the period of his death. 
:4oon after thit5 event, Hobert )lant Boucher, E
q" was appuinted to the 
:->eat thus rcndered vacant, awl :;tilldischarges the dutie:-; of that oncrouf' 
position. Previout5 to his appoill tlllcn t as J udgc, this gentleman had been 
Wardell of the CoulltieH of Nortlnullberlallll .1Ull Durham, in the former 
of which he resiùed as a praetising Barri
In J\lareh, 1858, \V, S, Conger, ES'h brought pr01l1illently under the 
noticc of the Government and thc country. his great scheme for rendering 
the waters of the Trent and Otonabee riverH navigablc by the construction 
of a ship canal, to connect the waters uf the Bay of Quintc with those of 
the Georgian Bay, To this su
ject he devoted a considerable lJortion of 
time and a very great amount of labor, in collecting facts, and bringing 
them under the notice of successive Parliaments during his public career 
as member for the county, But the discussion of rival projects, and the 
magnitude of the undertaking itf'elf, prevented it from passin!!: beyond the 
arena of parliamentary discussion, and the formality of official enquiry, 
The same gentl(,1llan also tou
 a prominent part in an agitation for the 
construction of a Jeading gravel road through the county, Considerable 
discussion \Va!; dicitcd on this subject, and a vote of the peoplc taken in 
Mareh, 1858. but with a result unfavorable to this project, which was 
consequently abandoned. 
In 1858, the three stOI'y block of Messrs. Nicholls & Hall was erected, 
As most persons in the toWll :md county are aware, it consists of two 
large stores, fronting on Simcoe street, where a very extensive business is 
carried on by these gentlemen, both in dry goods and groceries, 
During the same year, the new townships in the rear of tlle Conntyof 
Peterborough were attached to this county for judiciul Hnd municipal 
In September, 1858, Peterborough East, long known uuder the 

oubriquet of the "Scotch village," was incorporated as a separate munici- 
pality, under the name of the Village of Ashburnham, There is but 
little to add, in uddition to wh:tt has been <lll'eady written of its progress, 
in connection with the town. The fine residence of the Rev. ')Iark ßurn- 


ha1ll, o\'l'rluoi-iug the OtuuaLee amI a I'art of the tuwu, wa:o. erected duriu;! 
thc ,year:; 18;)3-4, Thc fine dwellillg 11Ou
e, of rcd briel, in the Gothic 
stylc of architecture, un thc ri:-ing groHlHI, overlooking thc village, 
erected by thc ltc\". J. ,Yo It lleck, Hector of Pctcrboroug:h, waH built in 
18;)U and 18üU, The cOll1ll1odiom; brick scboulllUm;c, elegantly furni::-lwl1, 
was cOllll)leted ill 18û3, Thc tcnuinu:; uf thc Cubourg alid Pctcrborough 
railway i:; situatcd in the centre of the village, but :-inee the closing of 
that road in 1860, the buildings havc bccn uscle
s, and thc ::;t;Ltion 
cOlllparativrly deserted. 


.\n evcnt ncver to be forgotten by the citizens of Peterborough :md tl1(' 
lleighbnring townships, was thc visit of His Royal Highncss the Princc of 
'Yale,; to this town, in Scptember, 1860. As soon as it becamc certainly 
kuowu that Petcrboruup:h was to be thus honored, meetings were held of 
the Town and County Councils, amI the SUIn of $2-100 placcd at thc 
posal of a Committee who were appointed to make the nccessary prepa- 
rations to give His TIoyal Highness a fitting rcccption, To afford any 
adcquate idea of thc extcnt and complcteness of tbe arrangements made on 
this occasion, we cannot do bettcr than quote thc following paragraph:-- 
cntirc, from the Pcterborough Review extra, issued on the following day: 
"There arc threc arches erected by the COlllmittee, One in Ashburuhmn, 
ncarly opposite :\Ir, Roger's storc; one on Hunter street, opposite St. 
.J ohn'H Church; and onc on George street, abovc McGregor's Hotcl. 
They arc rcally vcry fiuc structures, and thcir appcarance is strikingly 
illlposiug. That in A:-;hburnham i
 a Itoman ùCBign. On the cast side of 
it, and surmounting thc main arch, is the l>rince of 'Vales Plume, unùcr 
this the word ,. ,\r ClCOlllC," in large lettcl'
. 'rhe rel5t of the arch iH hand- 
:-01l1ely covcrcd with cvergrcens, On the wc
t Hide are the Royal ....\rms, 
ovcr thc words "God save tllC Qucen," t.he body ûf the arch, like tJw 
e :-ide, 1Jcing co\'ered with e\'ergreen::;. 
'I'll!' ,iew. in a},})I'o:whin).!. this un.h. i
 very fiUè. 'rhe '1'IIWI1 Hall, 



)larket bluck anù Cai
æ':; hutel arc f)CCU in thc tli
tauce il1l1Jin
iuð UpOIl the 
bright shrubbcry uf Cluu:silIa Hill iu the rear, and giving the illlprC8f'Îuu 
of a large city across the ri\-er. 
" TIle arch IIIJpositc thc Church i:; a Tudor <'11'(:11. 
\long thc ccntre, Hnù 
imlllcùiately uuùer thc lJaUlemcnts, Ull thc e(\8t side, arc the wurd:; ,. \V cl- 
come to l'ctcrborough." On the :->outh tower is a panel sllrroumleù by a 
wrcath, combining thc rU:-5C, thistle, shamrock aud mi:lplc leaf
 aud within 
thc wreath is t.hc lettcr "P ," On tlIe north towcr a similar pancllwH the 
letter "'V." The west side was aHotted by the COlllmittcc to thc Temper- 
ancc organizations, who ùccoratcù it accordillg to thcir t,tstc. Un thc cen- 
tre, nnder thc battlcments, is thc wurd "Tcmpcrance," surmuunting a scroll 
with the words "Persevcrancc and Indu
try'" Oycr the Borth 
ide arch 
is the motto "Lnion is Strcngth"; ovcr the south "Knowledgc is Power." 
011 thc north tower, the emblem and motto of thc Good Tcmplars: a 
fouutain, and the words" Faith, II opc allù Charity;' arc fixed in a })llncI. 
On tllC south towcr those of thc Sons of Tculpemnce: a trianglc mid star, 
with the wOl'ds "Love, Purity <lDd l
rhc evcrgreen was bcauti- 
fulJy intcrsperscd with flowcr
rcatlJ rclicvin
 thc npl1carance aurl addin
matcrially to thc cffect." 
" The third arch, that ncar :ðlcGregor':; hotel, is decidcdly thc fincHt of' 
the thl'ee. It is in thc Gothic style. On thc north side of it, that fir:-:t 
approached by the Priuce, immediately above thc ecntre arch, arc the 
words, "\Yelcolllc, thricc wclcomc to Canada," surmounted by a shield sup- 
ported by beavers, and haying upon it thc TIoya] Arms. On the C:1!5t 
towcr, ncar the top, is a cornucopia, ovcr tIle word::;, "l>cace and Plenty," 
and undcr it a pancl with the words, "Canada, thc brightc:5t gcm in the 
British Crown," On the wcst towcr is a sheaf of whcat, ovcr the worù 
"Agriculture," and a pancl wit.h the words, "Albcrt our future King." 
On the south sidc of the arch, ovcr the main entrance, arc the word
"Yictoria," "Albcrt," ovcr thcsc thc ltoyal.Arllls in a shicld, sUPl10rted by 
beavcrs, On cach tower i
 the Crown, Bible and Sccptre, auù umler 
t.hcm, on onc, "God Savc ", un the uther "the Quecn", Luwcr down, thc 
 arc panelled, one panel cllelu!5ing the wm'ds, "Our God anù our 
Country" j the other, "The 
uecn and Constitution," This nrch, ap- 
proached by the procession from the north, had a most impoHing appearance, 
Through it, Geurgc street with itb huuùreds of flags of every 
ize anù color, 
HUÙ ih; festoouiug8 auù muttoes of' cvcl'gl'een
, anù the Imu}wrcr'::; an'h, 
manned Ly a 
core of lUlliLE:l'men, appeared lile a 
lilJlpse of fairy land, 



The C01 1 /) r 1 'f1:.,il was ma;!:nifìccnt. exC't"fr1iuf!:. according to thf [!Statement of 

clltlclllen in thp Hoyal party, anythin
 they hal] yet witnc
:-;t.d in their 
'.At the intcr
ection of Gror
'e and Simcoe 
treets anù Georgp and n nnter 
<:trcet:'l. br
<, pole
d been errcted. ta!'ltrflllly wreathed with eY('r

urmounted hy :l large flag. and having fi-\
 of flag
 rxt(,l1fled from . 
the pole to the buildings on thc 1ìmr corner
, From the string of flag
were wre:lths of evergreens to the poles, the whole IUlving a Y('ry fine 
nppearance from whatever direction approached," 
"On the Court IIou
e green a pa\'illion had been erecte(]. for the prc:;ell- 
tatiou of the addres
es, covered with cmW:lflS awnin
, and beautifully 
fCf:tooned, It was han(\:;:omely carpeted. and a chair, covererl with scarlet 
cloth, pbreù on it fill' IIi
 noyal IIig-lmc

. In front, of it. scats Iwd been 
fixed Ii)r lOon childrcn; and the ri:'ling 1!l'oullll of the (10urt IIon
e park 
afforùctl casy standing room for 
o.oou people:' 
" It is illlpo
sihir to speak in terms (,t' too hig-h praise of the zral m:mi- 
f by the citizew,; ).:cncrally in 
 to thcir building-s the bcst possible 
holiùay appearallcc, Foremost, howeycr, alllon
 the private .lccoratiom. 
was the lumberer's ar(.h. It was placcù upon (
eorge street, Ileal' Charlotte 
:-trcct, The lUlH1)el' \ fUl'IIislll'd hy Ml'
srs. Snyùer .lUd Dickson, the 
teams 1))' lumberer:; gener,llly, 
lr, Rh:nv hnd ('hnrp'e of the erect.ion, and 
unùer his gnid:mce, thc wholr was C'Olllpleted within fourt-een hours of the 
timc of its C'Olllllleneemcnt, It wa
 a triple arch, the lumher beilJg su 
piled as to give to the cur,'es a beautiful :tppearance. On the top of it, 
were a eouI)lc ur deer. Oll each side of these a bark canoe, nnd as the pro- 
ce:,sion al)prfl:lche(l. twenty-five lumbermen, dl'l
ssell in red shirts :md black 
paut:-:, WI'Y pictHrl\)O\ of nh1e hodied, well tlevclol'etlmcn, were ranged along 
the top- On the faee of the nrch, immediately above the centre, wa8 a 
Prince of 'V:-Iles plume, with the words, "'Veleome, Prince of 'Yale!;," nud 
011 one siùr thr words in a scroll, "the source of our wealth," on the other 
"ship:.;, éolunies CUlJl1lll'rCC," 'Ye detract nothing from the other 
tlecorations whm we lll'onounce this one to have been the finest, as it wa
the most eharacÌt'l'i:-:tic of the pla(.e, of them all, Therc was neither nail 
nor saw used in this erection," 

.. Sta1'till
 frolll the stntion in 
\shburllham, the :-:trcets were all lined 
with SIIl'Uf'I' t1'r('fI. :111,1 from J 11<' huilr1in

 hung fla
 anI] cvcr
rcrn fcs- 
11 ::


tooniU3i', The J.,ridge \Va:- prdtily decurated with row:- of fla
s along the 
aiffcrent "pans, and emcrging from it. thc Tudor arch, witl} its battle- 
mcnt:;: and flags, loom cd in vicw. Thc Po
t Office building was covcred 
with evcrgrrcn festoonings :md wrcaths, ta
tefully arr;mged. Oyer the 
11001' \Vas the Princc of ,,-. ales plumc, and on each side thc letter
 A. E. 
A1JOYC t1li
: extending the whole lcn?;th of the building, werc the word
in hoM lettcr
. ,,_<\. thous:mù welcomcs to the Princc," Continuing 011 
towards Gf'orgc street. every building wns decorated. :McKellar aud 
Camcron's 113d thr nppropriat(' motto "pro Rcgina et Patria." OrmOlHl 
&. Gilmour'
 was wrcathed witIl cvergrren and rea n13})]e bow
, Faeing 
Hunter strect wcre the Royal _\rms and thc triple plume, and thc mottoe:;: 
'.Our QnerJ} amI the laud we livc in." and "Thrice welcomc to England's 
fntnre IGnf!,'," Fncing Gcorge strret wcrc the wor<ls ',Victoria, Albert," 
and, in tllC corncr window, a very hau<lsome Prince of "T alcs plume maùe 
with flower:;:, 1'nruiug up George strl'ct, 
waync's cabinet shop WilS 
handsomcly wr('atlwù with evcrgrerl1s, Ovcr thf' entrance was a triple 
plumc of sprucc bran<:hrs, and above it a bcaver, with tlu' 1110ttO "labur 
omnia \"incet." Oppositc this, 1\IcGregor's hotrl was elaborately decoratcd 
with wrcaths anù festoonin
s of evergrcens, intcr:-:persed with 1'0St:ttcs of 
rcd, white amI bluc, and haying a beautiful crown, projecting from one of 
the gallerics. Following still the line marked out for the 111'ocession, 1\Ii
Bailey's housc on 'Vatcr street displayell the words "welcomc" in evcr- 
green, and .Messrs, .Johnston's thc words "I.Jong live the Prince." All 
along 'Vater street the same tasteful display was visible, Oyer Dr. Burn- 
ham's gate thc wurd "welcome" wa
 placed, ánd the fence wreathed; and 
along George strcet to the arch was plantcd with spruce trees. Passing 
thc corner of Huntcr strcct again, and continuing down George strcet, 
Kcmpt's :Medical Hall had a vcry pretty balcony of cvergreens raised above 
the shop door, drapcd with flowers, and Imving upon it a very handsome 
crown of flowcrs. Un the balcony wcre the words "\Velcome, Albert 
Prince of\Vales," From the buildiug was hung a handsome white banner 
with the Hoyal Arms paintcd upon it, Cluxton's, Stevcnson's and Brad- 
burn's four stor)' buildings werc vcry handsomcly dceorated. A large flag 
waved abovc the building. anù from the roof, ovcrhanging the strcet, a 
great numbcr of flags and streamers wcre suspcnde<l. A handsome festoon- 
ing of red, white and bluc fell from thc cornice, :md along the face of the 
buil<liugs; on white dOt1l, were the wor<l
. in brge l(1ttcr
, "\Y cl('omr, 
Albert. Eùwarll, Princc of 'Valc:;:," nrlow this were the wor(l


Canada Í8 honoureò thÍ
 day:' aud the Royal \ 1'm:- with a wreath of ever- 
grccu around it. Further down, the market block had around the roof. 
above the cornice. a chain of evcrgre('n
, with posts ey<
ry :-ix feet, sur- 
mounted by flags. Acro
FI the strcct from the buildin
 to the oppo
f;i(le wcre hung fbg
, one ycry tìne one with the Prince of ,y nlc
upon it. From every window a flag was f.uRpcnded, and on the top of the 
building a couplc of large flags were rnh:cd on t:1ll flag 
taftþ, In frout of 
the Rf't"icll: offif'e was a beavcr 
ul'ro1\lllJ.ed by maple leavcR nud a crown of 
flowers, and over the door of the Toronto bmlk wm: a 11and
ome white triple 
plume, 1. 1 he Kmllzi'IN office W3$ almo
t coycred with evergreens. It 
h3d the word "welcome" iu 
prnce, auJ a couple of Rheaves of wheat capped 
the whole, Cai!':!':e's hotel haJ a fla
 fl'om eycry window, and a couple on 
the roof, The awninf!- in front was yery h:md!':omcly wreatheJ with ever- 

rcens, and at interval!': along it ","01'(' placed coloured lamp!':, }"rom Ryan's 
and Poole's fla
s were hung;, (
oing rounJ the market square. the Town 
Hall was wreathcJ with everglicen!':. and along the verandah, at interval
were placed fltlg!':. The Dank of .Montrcal wa
 very handsoillely decorated. 
Hound the door was 3. wreath of evcrgrcens 8m'mounted by un evergreen 
triple plume, Un the face of the building, in letters beautifully formed of 
spruce, and plaeeJ on crimson cloth, were the words "'Velcome, A, E. 
Prince of 'Yales," l\lessl's, Nicholl
 & Hall's premises were festooned with 
red, white and blue clOtll. anJ flap:s and evergreens, and had a very imposing 
c. Bc
ides these, every building had 
omething to indicate the warmth of 
the reception. Hosts of "'Velcomes" and c, Bien venus" printed on paper 
could he seen, and away in the country as far as the eye could stretch, 
flags flying indicated the loynlty of the people. Throughout the whole 
town there was scarccly one house without its flag or green bow; alonf!-" 
the line of procession there was 0111y one dark undecorated spot. It was a 
stone bnilùing near J
allnin's hotel." 
" The day for which all this activity of preparation had been f:hown was 
as fine a one as could 1)e desired, During the preceding night the streets 
had been watered, a11l1 along the route of the proce
sion thero was compara- 
tively little dust. \hout nine o'clock the children wcre arran
ed in their 

(>at:-:. and ahout t(,11 the Rifle Company marched oYcr to the Railway 
station. An iuuJ1cnse crowd had gathercJ, anù about half-past ten tIll' 
TOllll'erance 1JOdios a1'l'ived on the 
round, lh'essed in their l'i.'galia, amI 
having' their fl3
S unfurlcll. The' tr:lill :11'l'iverl nhnut half-past eleven. 


Ac:; it approacherl. the crowd 
ent up a cbeer such a:; hJ5 seldom rEnt the 
air in thi
 neighbOl"hood, and :1 gencral ru
h wa... made for the fJlat1imu. 
"-'ith the 
reatcst difficulty the spacc for the carria
e') was kept clear. 

b soon as His Royal I-Iif!hne
!'j, who wa') clre"
ed in plain dothe
, cntcrcfl 
 carringe, the Rifle Compnny presente(l nrIns, Some little delay 
occurred in getting the proce
tnrted, owing to the ernsh of pcople; 
hut it was soon got over. :md left in the following order :- 
hnl, on hor
Two Deputy l\Inrshnl
, on hor
'Yard('n :mrl Counties Council, in carria
)Iayor aRd Town ('ollncil, in carriages, 
Sheriff and County .Judg'e, in cnrri:l
Carria[.!.'c with 
 E R 
\ IJ. 
..\nd the Rifle Comp:my as a Guard of 
honour marching on each sillc 
of the carriage. 
The Duke of Sewcastle, Em'l 
t. G-erIllain
General Bruce and others of the Prince':; 
suite in c:u-riage:-:. 
)Iembers of the Legislature, in carriages, 
xecutive Committee, in carriages, 
Two }Iarshals, on hOl:,eback, 
Temper:mce Organizations, 
The procession moveù forwarJ in thi:-: order throu
h Ashburuham, the 
road on each l'iide bein1! crowJed with people. who <:heered heartily, :Ind 
ero:-:seù the briJge. As it pa:-::-:eJ throll,!!h the areh on Hunter street. thc 
peoplc who were crow Jell on the high 
lllpill:" p'oUlHl on cithl'r side, sent 
forth cheer after cheer, the bùies in the wilJ(low
 wai\"etl their handker- 
chicH;;, :nItI threw buuqnets to the TJrinee. and the wildest <'l1thu:Ûasm prc- 
vailed until he reached the Uourt House gl'uUnÙ:-i. Here he :t]ig-htcd from 
his c
e, :I.I1J. with his Huite, a
eèlllleJ the llais; the ('ounty Council 
 up a pOHition at his ri)!ht, ill(' 'I'own Coullt'il and COlllIUitte(' at lIÌs 
left, :lIul th(' Rifle Compnny on ('adl 
!tl(> of tIll' pbtfi'l'm in a :-:P:H'(' l'e
ell f:)l' them, _\.<; 
001l :IS he appeareù on the pbt(ol'm. the thons:mtl 
f'hilJr(\n who o('('upieù 1he ;"'
 imll1('diat('ly in front, ane] who w('r(' mo


neatly Jl'l:;,
J, hdl1ë, limIer the dircctiul1 of )lr, Gluver al1ù )lr
, Hcath- 
field. as fiJlluw

.. (;od ::;a,-c uur gracioub (iueen. 
Long lUay YictorÏa reign, 
Uod save the tlueen. 
Sew I her ,-ictoriou1>, 
Happy amI glorious, 
I.oug to reign over us, 
an' the Queen !" 

.. Thy choice'.;t gift.. in 
On her he pleased to pour, 
Long may :she reign. 
he rlefend our law"', 
.\nd ever give us cau:-t:'.. 
To !-ing with heart amI voict>. 
God save the Queen!" 

,. (;r.lllt, Lord, onr fervent prayer, 
:'till for ohl England' i'; heir, 
Thy love evince. 
""atch o'el' hi", early day,.. 
(iuiJc him in wisdom'
:'I) shall he :-ing Thy Pl'ai:::I-, 
(rod save tl}-e !)I'iuce !" 
"The singin
 was vcr)" good imlccd, and the appearance of the children mu
commendable. The Prince and those with him 
èemed much delighted 
"ith the vicw from the dais. The fine sloping ground in front, gave to 
the 15,000 people assembled au ample opportunity to see the Royal party, 
and to be f'een to the best advantage by them; and we doubt whether, 
since his arrival in this country, he has stood before a happier, a more 
industrious, or a more loyal people." 
.\fter the hinging. addre:-;:;cs were rcad by 'Yilliam Lang, Esq" 'Varden. 
on behalf of the cuunty, and by 
-\ugustm; Sawers, E:::!q" 
Iayor, from the 
town, to which the Prince replied :_ 
.. (;E:STLE)lE:S :-1 thank ,you sil1cerely for the addres
 which yúu 
haw pr

ente.j to nJe. 
,. In the Queen's namc I a<:kl1owletlge the expres
3Ïons of your loyalty to 
her crOWl1 auJ per
on; 3.11l1 for 1JJy
elf I am grateful tu you for this welcume 
tu yuur nci
A deputation lrOlll Cavan abo ph:
ented an aJdre!s. sigued by John 


:'wain, E
(h Itcevc of that town
hip, for whidl ni
 Ituyal IIi2:11llc
ed hi
 cordial thank
"After the presentation of tIlC aùdresbcs, the Governor General, hayin
intimated that the limited time at thc disposal of IIis Uoyal Uighncf:s. would 
cOlUpel hÍIä to move rapidly thruugh tllC town, the Rifle Company marcllCd 
directly to the Port Hope station, to receive the !J1.ince when he came up. 
The proce:,sion pa
sed through the principal streets, the crowùs cheering 
lustily as befure, and as the Prince's carriage pas
ed under the lumberer's 
:Ireh, the men on it raised such a cheer as proved that the eapacity of their 
voices was (iuite c(lual to the magnificent proportion
 of thcir pcrsons. In 
a little less than an hOllr from the time the Prillce arrived, he entered hi
car from the platform on Hunter street, and left, leaving after him thou- 
:sands of hearts beating not only with a warm loyalty to his Royal :l\Iother, 
}Jtlt a whole sonled personal attachmcnt to himself," 
" In the evening, Caisse's hotel was brilliantly illuminatcd, and fire-worh 
were set off froUl the building, A large crowd of persons were in the 
streets to witness the display, which lasted until about ten o'clock, after 
which all went (luietly home; the evcnts of the day having )')assed ovcr 
without any disturbance of the public peace, and without a. single accidcnt 
or mishap to detract from its enjoyment. It was indeed a day of })leasurc 
without one particle of alloy. l.Jong will the visit of the Prince of 'Valefo: 
to Peterboroup:h be cherished as the brighte
t, happieRt day she has 


During the year 1861, Pcterborough was visited by three severe fires; 
the most extcnsive of which occurred in 
\ugust of that year, and swcpt 
nearly the entire ::;quarc, bounded by George, Simcoe, 'Yater and Hunter 
Streets. A few ShOPB on the north-western corner, the shops of Me::;srl'. 
Nicholls & Hall, and one 01' two othcrs on the south of the block iuùic3.ted, 
wcre :tll that escaped the fury of the flames. Twcnty-nine places of husi- 
ness wert' bnl'l1cd, :Iud a :-!('cnc or de
olation marked thc wry ('{'lltre of the 
town. Th
 to the {:nergy and l;l1terpl'i
e of our citizens, the ground 


thus delHlfktl ha::, been rcbuilt, amI a lJdtl'l" da:-s uf buillliugs haye takell 
the places uf the former uues; many of which were uf wuull, and fUl'lli
rcady fuel to thc tire. Thc prescllt PU8t Ofliec bluck, ur thrce sturic
crccted in lSü 1, is Olle or these, alllI so al8u are the ta:-:tefnl hrick 
on thc ea8tel'll sidc of George street, nuw ill the \"Cr.y heart uf thc bn
portion uf the tUWll. 
' thc 8criuns 10:'8 to the town by this amI other fil'e
, it 
was not nlltil .xo'.cmher, 186
, that a l'lre Cumpany was fully orp:auized, 
alld proper 8tCl':5 tahell tu :-ccure thc u::;cfulllc8s of the ellginc, hose, &c. 
Beforc concluding our refercnce to the buildinf!'S of' Peterburou
h, we 
add that thc finc bk'ck uwncd by ,J amcs 
tcvcn..:on and ThonHl
}:s41uire:;. cllll
' of two large 8hops. of' foul' 8torie::; each, was creeled 
during lSüll. Thc fine row uf numcrous wl1ite hrick stores, extending 
from the8c southwal'd tu 
imcoc strcet, thc propcrty of 3lr::;. J08cph Dixon, 
were all, exccptillp.' two tuwartls the centre
 crcdcd in the autnmn of 1RG;J, 
or :-umIncr of lSüü. :lncr the \\ooden buiIdin
:o: which occupierl their f'ite 
ha41 becn dC8trnyed by tirc. 
Two prumincnt cit
ZCllS l}as
cd away ii'om earth during the year 1861. 
(hlC of' these, .Auðnstm
awers, ]
S(h was during thc I'rcvions year )Iayor 
of thc town, had somc years prc\'imllily t'ouudcd the E.nullillcr llewsp"l>cr, 
and Wa:o: for a time its Bditor "!HI Proprietor, Fur a few ycars l)l'cyions 
to his death he took <Ill active part in polities: and had warm fricnds <HId 
strcnuons oppOllcnt
. '.He was posscsscd or <l good physical constitutioll, :I. 
vigoron:-: and cnltivatcd mind, a fluiek perception, and a happy facility ill 
exprcssing his ,"iew:-:, either by speaking or writing." His dccease occurrctl 
on the 6th of Angw:;t, 1861, in his -!2nd year. His remains were intcrrcd 
in thc Little Lake Ccmetery, 
The othcr gentleman to whom rcfercllec has hcen Illade was Colonel 
Alcxander :\IeDoncll, whose early services and long public carccr in thi:i 
county re(luire a morc extcnded notice. 
The late Col. Alcxander 3I<:Donell Càme to this cuuntry with his uncle, 
the late Bi8hop )IeDonell, of Killg
tun, WhCll a lUcre buy, a1l(1 before thc 
year 181
, Dnring that war, he held a eOlllllli8siou as a cadet attachetl to 
the Canadian Ccucibles, aud was prcscut at anù took p:lrt iu the battle of 
Raekett':-; harhol" In 1825, he was ellll}lllJed hy the Hon, Peter Hohin- 
:--'on to 3.:,,,ilòt ill IOl.'atinf!: 011 theil' laud... the innnigr:lnts of tlwl year, :mù 


e'iucut}y filletl tIll;' l'o
itiull uf' IllllUi;}'aul 
cut aUt I Cru\\u Lclull 
-L\g-cnt Ivr this cunutj. 
In thc years H-ìi;--l aUlI 1806 he was electcd to Parliamcll t for the l\ o1'th 
Hiding uf the Xcwcastlc Difitrict, allli Was a:;ain a candidate at thc electioll 
f(lr thc Colbll1'lle Di::.;h'iet in 1ö H, but W
H5 defeated by Dr. (Wdnist, who 
o l$uIJcrseded him in the officc ur Crown Laud Ageut. IJuring the 
rebellion or 18i.;7-
, as ha:'5 l)cCIl alrcady stated, hc was iu COlllllHIlHl of the 
second battalion or N01'thumlJerlalld militia, For seyeral ycar
to his dcath, he had taken 110 promincut part in }mblic affairs, but lived as 
a retired gClltJclllàn, chiefly at Caist!c'::; hotd, where hc died suùdcnly. on 
the 2
th of Xo\'cmber, UHH, 
.. Hc_ was by birth a Scotchman, a Homan Cathulic ill religiuus faith. 
and was 75 ycal'S uf age, The fnncral took placc Oil Sunday, and was 
uttcndcd by u numbcr of our oUest and most respected townsmcll. The 
Itiflc Company aud band also })uid thc last h'ibutc of honor to the remains, 
by following in the procession, the balld playiuf! thc dcad march, His 
remains werc interred in the l.Jittle Jûkc Cemetcry." 
A fcw more data and wc harc donc with this portion uf' our task. In 
1861 the present ncw ltegistry officc was built, bnt was not occupied until 
1863, It was intcnded to be completely fireproof' not only withont, but nlso 
from within. 
The improyement in thc Court House park, and also the fencing of 
tl1at enclosnrc werc cOJllmenccd in 1863, 
md complet.ed during thc fol- 
lowing year, 
On the 1st of January, 1863, thc scpara
ion of' the County of Yictoria 
from that of Peterborough, took effect, and thenceforward that county 
was launched upon a scparate and indepcndent municipal existencc. 
Ou the 6th of 
Iay, 1864, the Town Hall hell was erected in its pre:tlcnt 
position in the 
Iarket House towCr. Its weight is Ð02 pounds, :md its 
total cost to the town $400, ., On its bcing placed on its supports, )11'. 
Chief :Engineer Helm, asccnded thc belfry, and amidst the cheers of tllC 
hystanders, brokc upon it a hottle of' wine, and in thc nalllC of the IJ'in' 
Brip..ade callcd it 'Protection: " 
The corner stone of the prcsent new Jail was laid, in presence of the 
:-;hcriff and County officers, Oll thc !lth of J UUL', 18li4-, Hud that strndnre 
completed during; the {
"sning )'c
lr. The fi,llowing ;lrc the nmnl's of the 
gentlemen composing the Buildin

 COlllmittee who were entrusted by the 


County Council with the trcction nf this impartaTJt struC'ture :-P. )1. 
r;rnycr, E::;fh chairman. n. n. Rogcr
, .John "'alton. Peter l't'arce, l"l'anci
Crow alld U, E, Birdsall, E
Thc following extract from their tinalrcport, dated .J anuary, 186lì, i::: of' 
intcrest in thi
" The total cost of thc new jail, as now completed, amounts to thc sum 
of 816.103.3:>, of which sum the Govcrnment paid 6,OUO. Itcm
 of cost 
arc us follows:- 
3[1', Grant, for origill3.1 contract.............,.........,...,.........$12J):).1 00 
xtra ''"ork,......,....,..,...,......,.""....",...... , ,............ ,. 1,46:' 73 

\ltcrations as pcr ordcr of Ill
pcctor,......,...........,........... 8G1 lIS 

\r<:hiteet's supervision and plaus. rnrniture, stoves, water-pipes, 
hcating apparatus, and further flIterations sUf!.'ge8ted by 
the Inspector, inclu(lillg fill expeuses of snpenision....... 1. 718 -Hì 

816,103 3;) 
On the 27th duy 
f .July, 186-1-, ,Yo H. UonJ.!:cr, E:-.q" 1\1. P. P. for this 
county, departcd this life, at hi:-; resi<lcncc in :Pctcrborough, deeply regret- 
ted by a larg-e circle o
 friends, both per
ollal and politiral. The following 
lJri('f details of his career arc here prescnted, . 

\bout the yeur ] 82D, he' ('ollnucllced Lm:ines
 ill CoLourp: as a IHClchant. 
lIe :-:eCUlfi to hayc lwd an early p('I/I'luw[ for public life, for in the election 
fi)}' thc Xewca
tle ni
trict in 18:H he wafi a candidatc for Parliament., but 
was unsuccct-:sfnl. Durin!! t.he l"('he1lion of 18:37-8, he took a l)rominent 
part in SUppOl't of the t:o\'crnment, and it. is said org;mized ,IUd Clluippctl 
a ('omp:my llf militia mainly at hi:;; own expcnsr, Oil the orp;m1Ìzatioll of 
the ColLorne Dii"triet in 18 t
, he wa:;; appointed Sheriff. mId continued 
for fÌ)urtcl'n years to dii"ehar,!.!.'e thc duties of that officc to the satisfhction 
of all. In 18j(J. h(' l'csip;ned the 
hricvalty, and cntered upon thc chequer- 
cd and ullcertain i
sues of part.y political life, with what result ha
been stat-efl in thcse p:I
"Ci". In lSG:-
. both thc political parties ill this 
county COIlf'HlTCd in his rlection, wh\ph was by acdamatiou; all<l it wa
while zcalously pl'OsC'f.uting his l)arliamcntary duties, and especially fur- 
thering his great idca of a ship l'aJ131 thruugh the waters of the Trellt and 
Otonabee, that he conh'acted the fatal illncs:-:, which, aftcr Iou:.:; prostl'atioll, 
terminated ill hifi drath. 
3Jr. ('()n,
'l'r WfI" (,011l't'}on
 :md aff:,],ll' in tlw lli
('h:1r1?(' of hi
 cluties m: 



Sheriff, Both:l3 a citizen Hnd a rerl'(,J"pntatiw of the people, he was fore- 
most in m;sisting in carrying out projects of iutcrcst :md utility to the 
town and county. Thc Little J
ake Cemetery Company was fUl'lned chiefly 
unJor his auspices, the County Agricultural f40ciety received a largc 
share of his attention, whilc the opening up and scttlcUlcnt of the baek 
country was an object he esperially "ought to promotp, and wMch he lived 
to see to a great extent accomplished. 
 renUlills were intcrred in the Littlc Lake Cemetery, and dnl'i\l
In'eReut autumo (1866) :l neat and substantial monument was there erctted 
to his memory, by his p('rsonal :md political frienòf:, aid('d hy it grant froUl 
the funds of the Count.y Council. 
In September, 1861, a severe election con test fì II' the repl'('s('ntfJtion of 
the Trent DiviÚon, was held betwecn the Hon. Sidney Smith, (formcrly 
of Cobour
, but who soun after this event took up his residence in Pctor- 
IJorough) and Billa Flint, Esq., of Belleville. The lIon. S. Smith \ViiS 
elected l,y a majority of 180. In rooR('(luence of hi
 reRigllation in 1864, 
Mr. l"lint. again !)rcsent('d his ('):1Ïms to the ('lectors, :md was thi:-; time 
rcturnpd without opposition. 1'his {')cct.iCìn hy :wcJauwtion was held in 
Rcptemb('r of t1wt yem'. 
The HOIl. ßiBa P1int, )1. I... (1., has shcwn hilll
clf not :m nnworthy 
repreHcHtatiYc \If this large el('ctornl Divi
ifln. ()nc uf hi
 rcccut public 
ac1:-; is worthy of mrntion h('rc, :mù of transmiH
ion to l)O'it.y :-Duriug 
the yearR UW;) :lnd 18fiG, he has Jonated frmn his priv:ltc means. the sum 
(If tell Jollar1' t.o e
ch town
hip,. or union of towl1Rhil'H 1n t.hc (
Itirc Trent 
Diyision; an arca which C1nlmlf'CS the County of Vetl'l'horou;rh. the North 
 of the (Immty of lbstingf:, :nul t h(' ('ounty of J..cnnox. 
 munificent gift, wllidl he :mnOUlICl'S it to be hi
 intention to con- 
tinut:, is intcndcd hy the llonor to be applied in the })lU'{.Jwse of prize hook:.;, 
tor the eorouragcmcnt. of meritorinm; pupils at our pnbli0 Rchool
, The 
only condition at.t:lched to it is, that an l\qual Rum 
hnl1 hc 
rållted by the 
municipalit.y rc{'eivin
 it. towards the smue ohjcct., This praiseworthy 
desigll has hem rarried out in nearly every township ill the Divi/"\ion, and 
thereby fl)m:h good no donbt l'flt'c-t..d, :IS wen as :m cxmnplf' pr('
worthy of imitntion, 
In lKm
, ,Yo R. (longer, J.:sq., was (,l.:cteù. withont oppo!oition, to l'cpr('- 
spnt this f'onstÏíncuC'y,-(',)1. Il:mlt:lin lwyillg ,'olnntnril) r('tin'!1 from tIll' 
HeM. On the llenth of )lr, ('on
.:tl' in .July, lSG1, (',,1. Haultain :I


became a candidate, and defeatcrl hi
 opponent-Charles Perry, E"q.,-by 
a majurity of lOG, 
Col. Haultain is still member uf Parliamcnt for this town and \,jounty. 
'Ve enter not here into the merits of the political is:mcs re<:ulting in his 
dl'ction, or of his subseq'uent career. Suffice it to say that he has beeu 
, and no doubt conscientious, in t}w (li
charge of his publiC' 
duties, and continues to possess the esteem and confidence 01':1 large por- 
tion of the constituency which he reprcsents, 
In a future pa
e, aud at the close of the portion of this work trcatillg; 
of the town and county as a wholc, will bc fuund a tabular statemcnt, 
cmbodying in small space, for convenience of rcference, the facts of the 
seycral elections referred to in thc
e pages. 
Since the foregoing ch3.pters wcrc written. and whilc pa

ing thron
h t.he 
pl'e88, anothcr old resident of the county, and a prominent citizcn, has 
passed away from carth. Captain .A
DREW SIMON _FRASER, J. p" died un 
Tuesday, the 13th day of .Kovcmbcr, 18GG, in his 71st year. His had 
bccn 3.n eventful career. A nati, e of Hoxboronghshire, Scotland, he 
entered the Briti
h army at the age of fifteen, passe(] through the Penin- 

ular war, and took part in the battles of Quatre-br3.s and W. aterloo, after 
which he retired from the army, with the rank of Lieutenant, and on half 
pay, In 1833, he settled in Verulam, in t1w adjoining county, and in 
18-:17 bceame a resident of thc Town.of Peterborough, His name appears 
in a' previous page, as Captain in the 7th Prm'iF:ional Battalion of Peterbo- 
rough ::\Iilitia, established during the eventful times of 1838. For UlallY 
years he was a leading JURtiee of the Pe3.ce in the town and county, and 
was universally respected and esteemed by all who had the pleasure of hi" 
acquaintance. His relmüns were interred in the Little Lake Cemetcry, 


The project for the constmction of the Gralld .Junction Railroad, to 
C'Onnl'l't th!' rivcr 
t. J
:1\vrenep with tIlP Ucor!!Üm B:1'y, hC
:1l1 to be tli

in ] Sf) 1; flll11 the County ('oU1ll'il yotcll .f-t-C>O, find soon flfter -(.WO more. 


towarcts the expenses of a ],reliminury 
nryey and report in reference to it.. 
ThiH action was followed in 1853 by the !);lHHing of a by-law plc(lp:ìllg thc 
eounty to takc stock in that enterprize to the extcnt of 1:100,000. This 
hy-hw was i'ubmittcù to the f'eyernlmunicipalities in the (Tnit('d Counticf', 
for 3pproval, :md ndopted by all except the townf'bip of OtonabeC', in which 
the Yote was almost un:mimouf'l :1gainst it. During the samc year, this 
lwojeetcd 1'0.111 was am:llgamnted with thc Urand Trunk Railroad, in 
conscf{uence of which the lIlunicipalitici' were rclicved from liahility fllr 
thc st.ock 
High hopcs were for a t.ime entcrtaincd of the construction and 
of thii' road, nnd some l'cckless f'pcculat.ion in l:md rcsulted; but owing to 
thc breaking ont of the Crimean war, :md the Ht.rinp;ellcy of the moncy 
market which attcudcd it, together with the embar,lf'fo:lllcnt of thc Grand 
rrrunk company consclluellt upon thcsc eyents, and other eo.uf'Cf', this 
great work was not undert,akcn, and the ho!)c:-; which it hilll raised, alld 
the fortunate invcstments it had promiscd, were doomed to dis:1ppointmcnt, 
Railway at that timl' fihnwcred their attcutions Iil'erally on 
l'eterborougb, During; the session of 1832-:
, a ehartE)r wus granted for a 
railroad from Kingston to Pcterborough; the CoLourg and PetcrLorough 
railway charter was obtaincd at. the f'nInc time, anù an amendmcnt of the 
former ehm'ter of the Port Hope imd Pderbol'ongh railway was also 
granted, which authorized that cOllliHmy to build an extenHion from UHY 
point on the original1ine into the County of Victoria as far as the we
boundary of the town:;hip of l\hripos:1. 

\lthuugh Peterborough was the proposed tcrnlinus of both the Cobourg 
und Port Hope railroads, and was com!cquently largely illterestcd in the 
construction of one or both, Rh(' !)Cl':Ústcntly refused to coutriLute the 
smallest aiù to either, and the resnlt was, that while through the cnterprisf' 
of the people of CoLonrg, that road was pnshed forward, in spite of all 
obstacles, and opened for traffic in the autumn of 1854-, the Port Hope 
company turned their attention towards Lindsay, aud after grcat difficul- 
ties, eauseù ill chief part by the nature of thc ground, they completed 
their road to tlw.t town in the year followill.
Peterboruugh had t.hns, by mcans of the Cobourl!; road, ::;ücured the 
aùvantage:;; of an outlet by r:IÏI, without incUI'ring the slightest risk or 
('xpcllditUl'C, and it.s hmcfits werf' [It. onee f"lt. in thl' p:l'f'at impulse giYf'n 
to IIc:ll'ly every branch fir tmdl', hut cspcri:ll1y wa
 trlw in r{'ganl to 


saWll lUlllJJer, the ðl,Ul t uf whieh, li'Ulll llm
c U1' funr luilliull fcd annuallj, 
at uncc illcrea:;etl to tWl'ut.y lIIi1linll
, and ill U
jS had inereased to alJuut 
t.wcnty-sevcn ll1illiuu
 of' fect.:': and to a 
tilllarf!.cr figurc in later ycar
But. m&ll"Ìuuatcly for l'cterLurungh, thi
 line failcd to IH'oye permancnt. 
The Lrill!-;c acro
s Hicc ].Jake, built upun I,iles and pie1'
, and abuut three 
miles in lcngth, was terribly Sllèlkcll during thc wiutcrs of 18j:J-G-7, by the 
action uf the ice; HO that. lor wceks toget.her, Peterborough was without 
railway cOllllllunieatioll with the frout. 'J he positiun was <Ill tl e worse, 
from the fact., t.hat the tntlle of the finc town
hips WCf:t of Peterborough, 
which might easily have bcell centred hcre, was beiug diverted to the sta- 
tions, ;lIld pas:-:ing off along the liuc, of the Port Hope and JJind
ay road, 
then and in activc opcratiull. 
oon after that.linc was opened to 
]Jindsay, .J ohn Fowler, E
tl', hecame its l.Jesscc and Managing J)ireetor; 
and, fully imprl'sscd with the importance of f:ccuring thc trade of Peter- 
borough, as a (ccdcr for that line, and also of't.he case with which a branch 
linc could be built through thc almo:;t. continuous fiat and swampy land 
lying in thc direct. linc hctween Jlillbrook ami Peterboroug-h, he commenced 
a vigorous agitation in reference to its ellu:;truction, Thc Port 
Hope, Li1ll1
ay and ßeavcrton railw;,y compallY WCle unable to build it; 
:111.1 3Ir. Fowler's plan was to t!,ct the corpor<ltion
 of Port HOI)e alld 
Pdl.rborough maiuly to eunstruct it, and then lea:-,e it. from thc company 
fi)r :1 term of' years fur a nominal SUlll, but guaranteeing to thc cOl'porations 
named 6 pCI' CClli.. on thc stock subscribed, to bc 'paid annually. Port 
Hope saw at oncc thc importancc of securing even a portion of this trade, 
and promptly subscribed ;(10,úOO stoek. l\Iessrs. Tat.e nml Fowler sup- 
plied another .f:10,UUO, anti t.he town of Peter1)orough, nfter much di::\Cus- 
Hion, adopted a by-law guaranteeing Æ::-JO,OOO for the same purpose. Prom 
these !';uurces, but mainly through the energy and I'er
everanee of l\Ir, 
.J ohn !-'owler, the road \Va:; commenccd ill the f
lll of' 1 t;57, nnd on the 

Oth of May, 1858, a train pa8sed over it. with the (
overnme11t Inspecting 
. "()n the 21st., it party composed of the Uailway Buard :md 
1'OW11 Council of Port Hope came tu Pctcrburough, and un thc 24th, owing 
tu the kinùlless of the contractor, a free excursion of ;
()OO people from 
Port HOI)C \'i
ited Pcterburough; while Ull the 31st, n ret.urll excursion 
frolll l'eterborough to Port Hope was IlHule,"i- PeterLurough w:\S tlm:-:, 
hy mcans of tIle brandt to thl' JlI:1l11 line at. 
Iillùrook, provided with a 

· Duectorr. 1
56. (r. &. R. \Vhue.) 
t IblÙ, 


ccund uutlct by raillu the frunt, which, bc
ide::; l'ru\'Íllg pCflUal1Cllt. IHl
lJccn uf iudi:-pcn
ible utility lu the tu" n, anrl has also in nu 
lllall deöl'ce 
tCllded tu inerease the pru
perity uf Port Hupe, 
u well plea:-:ctl, indeed, 
was that tOWIl with thc rc:-:ult of thc illve
tm!.'llt ur .:CIO.flOII: in thi:-: branch 
road, that :-:hc has Hcver a:-:keJ Bur rceeivcd a IlcnllY of dircct rctul'll, 
illthough cntitlcll to l'iix per ('cnt. UPUll the 
alllC anllually. It may be 
UleutiOllcd, howc\'er, that Port Hope prufited very largely abuut that timc 
fi'om the M nllieipal l
oan llulld, allll, ilS \\ en :J:j PcterlJorougll, wa:-; well 
repaid fur thi
 iuw:-:tllH.'ut hy its iwlirect athalltaces. 
In onlcr to provide the UlOBCY lur this illye:slmellt uf f:3U,UUO, the theu 
r for J)eterhuruugh, 'V. S, <Juuger, B
(h sceured lur the town, 
)Iunicipal Loan l'\md llcbeuture
 to thc cxlcnt of ,f:!i>,UOO al)out to be 
'iurrendercd to the Goverument IJY the towBHhip of W 011'01'.-1. The actual 
proceeds of thèsc, howcvcr, was only .;t
U,677 Us. 3d, aud some months later, 
the TO\\'l1 uf Pctcrburough i:-:sued dc1Jcutnre:-o tu the alllount of _:;(12.500, 
to cumplete the snlll 
The security held by the tuwn fur the paymellt uf 
ix per CCllt. interest 
on the J;:JO,OUO stock originally takcB lJY thc tUWll, com;Ìsted in a lllort
UPOll the .lease held by the Lc
see::; of the braneh from the Port Hope, :md IJcayerton railway company, and as it was extrcmc)y doubtfnl 
that thc tU\\'1I eould rccover its claim under snell a mortgage, and thc 
iutercst beillg in arrears, a eOl1lprollli
e was acceptcd iu 1861, whereby the 
Lessces agreed to pay to the Go\'ermnent tor the town, the five cents ill 
the dollar levied hy Act of ParliaulCut on aeeount of Jlunicipal Loall 
_Fund indebtedncss; thus rclicviug the town of any debt or embarrassment 
on .f
5,UUO of the 
toek takcll, Undcr the eirculllstances, this was con- 
sidered so fa,'ourable a settlement or a dnim which, possibly, could not be 
enforced, that it Wa
 ngrecd to waiyc allY direct returns on the .*:12,500 
additiollal debt. incurred on neeoullt of this stock, T T nder this arrange- 
ment the toWll would ha\'e been permanently relieved, for all time to cumc, 
of the liability claimed by the Government (namely, five cents in the dollar) 
on the Municipal Loan Fund dcbentnreb. Bnt a final settlement, Iesl') 
advantageous to the town, was effected in 1863, and embodied in an Act 
of Parliament passed on the 15th of October of that year. The Act recites 
the terms of the previouB arrangements, including the mortgage and lease, 
anù then confirms "an agreement maùe by and between the Le
see8 and 
thc Town of Peterhorough, whereby the amount secm'ell by the mortgage 
on the leafe held by the Let:5ees, and payable to the town. is reduced or 


changed to the principal Stull of ninetem thouf:and seven hundl'ed pOUTIllo, 
[three hundrcII pounds 11a\"in
 bcen thcn already paid], aud interest 
thcrcon at six pcr ccnt., payablc as follows: that i:o: to say: thc SUlll of thrcc 
hundrcd pounds, part of thc said principal sum of ninetecn thousand sevcn 
hundrcd pounds, 011 the first day of January in each year, until the whole 
of said principal 
nm be fully paid, and the said illter($t at the ratc of six 
p('r ccnt. pcr annnm upon the principal unp;lid. in six ('qu
11 paymcnt
, UII 
thc first days of 
Iay, Junc, Jnly, August, Septcmber and Octobcr in each 
year, until thc whole sum is paid." 
Snch W.1S the last and final arr:mgclllcnt cntered into bctwcen the rail- 
way authorities and the town, from which it will be obvious that the P:IY- 
ments to be made by the railway to the town are cvcry year dimini:o:hing. 
and in about sixty-six years from January, 18G-1, will entirely ceasc. 
Althouf!h in a few )'ears the direct income from our railroad inye:o:tmcnt 
will be but 
lllall, it must be remembered that the indirect adv:mtages of a 
permanent outlct by rail have already been vcry great, and that of all thc 
towns in thc Province, none has probably received greater advantages from 
railroads. and nOllC has contributed less to thcir construction, than Petcr- 

\" a })l'actical illustration of the immensc adv3
1t.'lge to both town àml 
eOUllty of such a road, we quote the following as a spccimen of the statc 
of things beforc the railro.ld cra, The Pcterborough Ðf>.<:potch of .July 

!)th, 1847, Rap:- 
,. From 25s. to 30s, per tOll freight i
 paid for goods. For nearly two 
weeks we have 
car('ely heen ablc tl) get. a trunk cOllyeyed to Port Hope 01' 
Cohourg. The journcy of thirty miles tn Lakc now occupies ten 
, and ::;onlC :1.rtielps, sneh as salt and plaster, are in a grcat measure 
shut out from ns by the expensi' of frcight, The saw mills of onr tOWll 
and nei
hborhood can cnt npw:1.rds of (;0.000 fcet })('r day, hut. arc often 
in a grcaJ measure idle {;u' want of a market fi)f Inmher, owin
 to t.he cx- 
pens(' of transit." 

\s a furthcr illustration of the same truth. we rcmark that in the winter 
of 1Ri1(;, with no railroad in any }Jart of the country, whcat in Peterbo- 
rough wa
 worth only :n
 cents pCI' bushel, and fift.y cents in l>ol't Hopc, 
In :\Iarch 2nd. 1R lH, tIll' f)/'-"Jwl r ], say:, :-" The town prescnh>.} a 
 apl'c:l1':mee to-lby. 'rill> fiU'llli'l'
 arc bkin
(, of thp 
.ht f:Jll flf snow Wi' h:I\'c hall, and ar(' hnrryin
 their prod\l('(' into thl' 


market, The prices to-day :IN' aFo follows :-Fall wheat 38. 9d" Spring 
du. 3s. 3d" Oats per bushel 9d. to 10d" H:JY
 per ton, 27s, 6d, to 308," 
This isolation of trade, st:Jgnation of business, and low prices ofpl'oduec, 
:-;old too at the latter end of tl1C season, contrast strongly with the regular 
communication, prompt transit, excellent prices for produce, and the 
speedy convertibility of all kindR of marketable produce into ('ash, which 
we of late years enjoy, :md which have long since rcpaid to the comUlunity 
mauy times the amount of stock invested in securing it. 
During- the summer of 1857, the bridge across Rice I.Jake on the Co- 
bourg aud Pcterborough railway, was inspected by 'Valter Shan Icy, EStJ., 
Civil Engineer, with a view to filling it up 3S a permanent embankmcnt, 
The cost of doing so hc estimated at .f:50,OOO, and expressed :m opinioll 
in favor of thc fcasibility of its being made in this way a })crmancnt struc- 
ture. A considerable portion of' the bridge, tow3rds thc south shore, was 
actually fillcd in; but the cmb:u'rassments of the ro:u.1, and the great 
expensc of the um1ert.tking, put a 8tO}) to further outlay, and the road, 
after being ill operation at intcrvals for :,ix yearH, W.1S finally doscd in the 
autumn of 18GO; and the ab:mdoncd bridge, from which thc iron was in 
great part rcmoved, has ccm;cd to form a connection between the oppositc 
shores, but still remains in part, a monument of the fony of misdirected 
rhis resnlt is greatly to be deplored, as the public spil'it 
shewn by thc citizens of Cobourg in pushing forward this line of road was 
deserving of:1 better fate. 
Hopes are still entertained that the bridge will be rcsu::;citated and the 
line re-opened, and trains are still run to Harwood on the south sllOrc of 
Rice J.Jake, where a connection is formed with stcamers, which, during tIle 
summer months, ply between Pcterborough and the Village of Hastingð 
and that point; and in this way a large quantity of Rawn lumber from this 
county still finds an outlet by way of Cobourg. 
The original chartcr of the Cobourg road cmpowercd that company to 
exteuQ their line to Chemong or Mud Lake, but this right expired in 185-1- 
from non-usage, A charter was then obtained for a separate company, 
having power to form a connection betwcen Petcrborough and Chemong 
Lake, either by a rail or tram road, and passing up either side of thc 
()tonahee river, During 1857-8 this rOfld was eommenccd m.; an extension 
of the Cohonrg road, and completed 3H far :IS Perry's (now A. TI. ('amp- 
bell & Co's,) mills, about three miles up the river, The stock was orig:- 


nally taken by pcrsons in the Cobourp; interc:,t j but more than lwlt' \Valli 
 purchased by ::-tuckhoMcr:-; or thc rival line, su that or late year:;, 
thc Port Hope company had virtual control of the Pctcrborough and 
Chemong line, which since 18GO has bcen uscless to either roaò. 
During U:ìG:1, an attempt was made by the Port Hope company to form 
:t cunnection betwecn thc branch running into Pctcrboruugh and this 
Chcmong road, by continuiug thcir rails along thc bank of the river, and 
cros:o:illg the samc at Dickson's dam, and so effccting thc dcsired junction; 
but this <wtion was opposed by thc Cobourg interest, chicfly on the ground:-:, 
that such an extcnsion was ]lot contcmplatcd in thc original charter of thc 
Port Hopc and Pctcrborough road, and also that thc amalgamation of these 
two roads might prove prejudicial to the rc.suscitation of the Cobourg road, 
to which it had formerly bcen a fecder. 
The charter of thc Pcterborough and Chemong road had again expired 
without its completion, and during- the last session of Parliament (186G) 
an Act was passcd, re(iuiring the public sale of this road to the highest 
Lidder, aml while authorizillg the Port Hopc railroad company to effect 
the conncction they desired, provided also, that both companies should have 
full powcrs to run over this road, if they so desircd, by paying a reasona- 
ble remuncration for its use to the company by which it might be acquired. 
r nder all the circumstances this arrangement was fair to both parties, and 
gavc gencral satisfaction to thcm and to the public, 
'.[1he neccssary work
 are now in progress to connect the Peterborough 
hranch of the J-)ort Hope road with the Chemong road, in the manncr 
alrmdy described, and it is hoped that ere long, trains will pass up the 
river by this ncw route, to the extensive mills which line its banks ' ; that 
J.Jakefield and Chemong Lake will also be reached, and that thus an impetus 
will be given to the still greater cxport of lumber from the baek country, 
and also that our fine water power will be cxtcnsively utilized in various 
branehcs of llwnuHlCtUl'e for which it i:i 
 wen adapted, 




TIlE 1.U)IllEH. TR.\DE, 
Rqum'(' TímlJer,-The lumber trade is one which, from its importance. 
requires at least a passing notice in a work of this kind, To it. this town 
and county owe a large share of their past success and present prof4perity. 
All our oldcr townships have now for some years been denuded of the 
valuablc timber, which, at thc pCl'iud of theil" first settlement, grew to a 
great size and in large numbcrs upon nearly every lot; and as the manu- 
facture of square tiluber allll sawn lumber 
radually attained its present 
immense developmcnt, it had to bc suught evcry year further in the inte- 
rior; till now, the new and comparatively rcmote townships in "thc back 
country," as it is caIlcd, arc mainly to bc dcpended upon fur a :mpply, 
'Vith thc prcscnt annual drain from these, it is to be expected that, [IS 
time progresses, the main operations of this gigantic busincss will be carried 
on at a distance rcmote from us, and that lcss of its profits and advantages 
will bc felt in our own immediatc vicinity, The great staple of this trade, 
both for s(luare timbcr and t:3awn lumber, is white pine, Formerly, before 
we had learned its value as an articlc uf cxport, it was burned up in log- 
beaps or slÆt intu fencc rails, and a cOllsiderable purtion of thc elm and 
oak of the older township::; 8}mrcd the same fate, Ued pine exists but. 
sparingly, and though some excellent spars of this -timb('J' are still sent to 
Quebec from this 
ounty, the care r<"'quired in their I,reparation, and the 
expem;e attending thcir removal, bave, in general, left but a limited margin 
of profit for the manufacturer, 
The square timber business is of comparatively recent date, As early 
as 1838, Mr. Hickson removed a quantity of spars from the vicinity of 
Buckhorn lake; but his chief operatio_lls, and those of thc l\1cs!-5rs. Gilmour, 
were confined to the townships fronting on the Otonabee and Trent rivers, 
:Mr. l-liekHon then resided in the comer building, formerly :Might's, amI 
HOW "\Vaddell's saddlery, in the Town of Peterborough, Not until 18-1--1 
was much of this businc
g extended above Lakefield, and :Mr, JolIn Cook, 
and his 
on Ira, were among the first to eommence its mannfacture on 0111' 
hack waters to any large extent. Their and the 
lessrs. OilnlOnr's oper- 
ations fi)r a few years were confined to the watCl'B above :md adjacent to 
Burleigh falls. 


som Boyd, E
q., Wi.1S onc of the c.ll'licst numufacturcl's of SftUare 
timher ahove Buckhul'll falls. lIe eU1llll1elIecd at first to produec 
sawn lumlJer tor local :mpply, but ere l
l1g IJcgan the IlHUlufheture ot' 
s'luare timber in lar
e (luantit.y, for the Qnebcc market. It wa'5 not for 
se,'eral years later, that thc va
t timbcr region on Pigeon Lake and its 
, was tlms lllarle to contribute it
 (luoht to thi:; important 
About the ycar UBi, ('Imrle:- Perry, HS'h clItcred iutn the samc bu
ncss, alld tor five ul' six )cars carried it Ull with the gl'cate:;t :mece:;s, Loth 
as regards :;tI1larc timher and sawn IUllIllcr, Thcn cHlnc a hO::it of enter- 
})l'isiug men in the square tillll,cl. busines:-:, alllollg whom werc, .Messrs. 
Kcmpt, J-'le..\uley, Dicksoll, Tt'wn:,cllll, Platt, Cockburn, Fowld
, nilehri:.;t, 
DCIlnistoun. Leeper, 
tricklalld, :';hort, 
cott, Buck, 
lllith, Caldwell, 
Thumpfo:oll and othcrs, who, durin,
 thc lal't tweuty years, havc thinned our 
forcsts, and swcllctl the cxport uf this grcat sta})le tu :m cnormous extent.. 
Au immense alllûuut uf capital is every )ear iuvested ill thc:;e operations, 
and in carrying them un a hume market is created which proves of the 
utmost admntaöc to u
r <lgl"Ïeulturists awl uther:-:, 
r.I.'he Ilualltity of slluarc timber mauufaetured ill this couuty varies with 
the cxigencies or thc trade, ...\s the snpply bccumcs exhausted, the natural 
tendcncy of this as wcll as the sawn IUllIIJcr trade, will bc to dimish rather 
thau illcrensc in the extent of its operatiun:-:, But this cffect can hardly 
as yct be said to havc been tèlt, The lUore cxtensivc operations, however, 
have to be evcry ycar push cd furthcr int-o the interior, Iu 1852, the 
(Iuantity of squarc timber from the entire eouut.y was estimated at 1,GOO,- 
000 feet.. In thc season of 18ü-1-5, 3,500,uuO feet were cxport.ed from this 
county, and about 1,500,000 from the ncighboring county of Yict-orin, 
During the lumbering seaSOlI of 18G5-6, the quant.ity passing down the 
Otonabee was about 2,OUI),OUO feet, to which 500,00U lllore mny be added 
for thc enstern portion of the eounty, finding nn outlet by way of Crow 
river. The present senson (18GG-7) promi::;es a (luantity in ad,'aÌ1ec of 
last ye;1r, the extent of whieh it would be premutnre at present to nttcmpt 
to estimate. 
St{(VIl Lllmbu,-The Hawu lmnbcr busine:,... is of perhaps still greater 
importance to the community than the manufacturc of stluare timber. 

iuce thc early settlemcnt of the county, saw mills have exiHted in nUlller- 
ous localities, but. theil' chief Rcope fOl' lUanJ' years (
onsistrd in l:mppl'yin
the home demand in their several localities. Sinee 1850, attention h&


been turucd to a large cxtcnt to thc manufacturing uf, sawn lumber 101' thc 
Amcrican m:lrket, :md thc magnificcnt watcr powcr f'urni:-;hcd by thc rapidly 
del:5cending waters of thc Otonabec, ill the vicinity of' Petrrborou,!!h, has 
been largely utilized for this purpof'e, 
Samuel Dickson, Bsq" was among the earliest manufacturcrs of this 
great stal)le, in thc ncighhorhoud of Pctcrborough, and has built ánd own- 
cd sevcralmills for carrying on thiH business. lIe still manufactures a 
large quantity at his mill in dose proximity to Dickson's dam. Mr. \Vil- 
liam Snydel' built his mill in 1852, and )11', .T amc:-: Bird, thc Blythe saw 
mill, about the sallle timc, This was burncd down in 1b63, and rebuilt 
by .Mr. Georgc Hilliard during the following year, Thc :Nassau 31ill, the 
largest in the county, and onc of the fincst in the Province, situated at a 
distance of three miles from Pcterborough, was built in 185-1, by Charles 
Perry, Esq. " It has two 'Yankee Gaugs', a 'Slabber', 'Stock Gang', and 
an 'English Gatc', containing ill all 130 saws, besides circulars for butting, 
cutting laths, &c, It has abo a ycry ingcnious machinc for grinding slabs. 
This mill has cnt ÐO,OuO fcct in twelvc hours."* It is now carried on by 
Messrs. Uampbell & Co. Othcr saw mills in the vicinity of Peterborough, 
are, that built by E.l>erry & Co" of Cobourg, on the Douro siùe of' the river, 
opposite Snyder's mill, which has now been idle nearly two years. l\Ic
JÆdgatc & :McDougall havc in active operation a largc steam saw mill on 
the eastern shore of the J.Jittle J.Jake, built hy Samuel Dickson, Esq, The 
saw mill of R. D, Rogers, Esq., in Ashburnham, of which 1\1es8r:o:, Craigie 
& Stephenson are lessees, continues at work throughout the year, and cuts 
about one million of feet annually, about 400,000 feet of which arc for 
the American markct, and the remainder for home consumption. 
:Messr:;. Shaw & 'Yaite have at Lakefield a saw mill, which at present 
manufactures about two millions annually, but is capable of a mueh larger 
business were proper facilities available for transportation to a markc!i, 
'fhese gentlemen lease the large saw mill of John Hall, Esq., at Buckhorn, 
where from six to sevcn millions arc manufhct.ured annually. There :trc 
besiùes .Mr
 Scott's fine mill, on the l\1issasauga river, in Harvey, built 
some years ago by :Mr, 'Villiam Henry, the product of which this year is 
about four million feet; the mill. of M, Boyd, E:sq., on Squaw river, in 
Harvey, manufacturing one and a half million feet annually; while of the 
/'Iix or seven millions manufactured by l\Ir. Boyd in Bobcaygcou, (near the 

· D.rec\or}-, IBõ8, (T, &; R. \Yhue.) Pa2"e 65 


boundary line between the two counties) probably oIle-half may be said to 
be drawn from thc County of Pctcrborough. Thcn there are the mills of 
K S. Kelly and ,,-.- altcr Scott, Esquires, at Chemong lake, the proceeds of 
"hich, whcn in operation, may bc estimatcd at half a million, and a mil- 
lion and a lUilf i8 to be set down as the proòuct of Mcssrs, Halc's mill, on tht" 
bank of thc Otonabee rivcr, in the township of that namc, The l\Ic:o::o:r
Fowlds, at Hastings, al!-5o manufacturc -x'om two to three millions annu- 
ally, the greater portion of which is from this county, 
To sum up the manufacture of the mill
 in operation this season, ,....c 
havc for eXI)ort:- 
From l\Icssrs, Campbell & Co's, 
sau Mills......, .......... Ft,10,000,OuO 
" l\Ir, George Hilliard's, Blythc l\IilIs...................... 7,000,000 
" "Samuel Dickson's, Petcrborou
h....., .............. 6,000,000 
" Mcssrs, Ludgatc & McDougall's steam mill...... . ...... 7,000,000 
" " Shaw & 'Yaite, Buckhorn and I..akeficld...... . 9,000,000 
c: Mr. Scott's mill, Ball lakc.................................. 4,000,000 
" "1\1. Boyd's mill, Squaw river.....,... . ..,.........,.. 1,500,00U 
" "half Bobeaygeon mill,............,........ 3,UOO,000 
" Mr. S. S, Kelly's mill, Bridgcnorth....................... 250,000 
" )Iessrs. Halc's mill, Oto11abcc river............. .......... 1,500,000 
" " Craigie & Stephcnson's, Ashburnham.....,.. ,.. , 400,000 
" " Fowld:s', Hast.ings, say from this county........ 1,000,000 

Total for this county for 18GG.................................Feet,50,650,000 
Showing a rcsult. for thc prcscnt scason, of ovcr hfty millions of feet; 
which at Port Hope was worth $12 pcr 1UOU fcet, The rcturns on the 
}Jroduct of this busincss curried 011 in this county, thc prescnt ycar, were 
the wholc shipped to n13rket, may thcrefore be cstimutcd at $600,00u, 
'Yhen it is rcmembcred how large a portion of this will have been dis- 
bursed to thc hundreds of men and thc numcrous tcnms employed in carry- 
ing on this immcnsc busincss, as well as the other heavy items of cxpense 
aUcndill1! its manufacture, it will be apparcnt, how important is this busi- 
ncss to cvery mall in the conununity, who is reached and b
nefitcd either 
directly or indirectly by some portion of this large outlay, 
About thirt.y-two mi11iòns fect of this lumbcr finds trnnsit by way of 
f'C'tcl'horouf!Ì1, nud the grcntcr portion of the rcmaindrr, i
 first. transfcrred 
in boats or scows to Lindsay, and from there is passed over the railroad to 


Port Hope, So g-r at has been the manufacture t11Ïs geason, (notwith- 

tanding two of our largc milll5 have becn idlc) that a portion will have to 
rClllain ovcr in the mill yards till ncxt season. It may be added that 
u' al5 prcsent appearanccs indicatc, the season of 18G6-7 will witnCHS (\1\ 
incrcase in the opcrations of thÍf.; trade of about thirty per cent., 
At prcsent the fìawn Inmber manufhcturcl for ex})ort in the vicinity of 
Pctcrborongh, is all rlmwn by tcams to the railW11Y st
ltion, or to thc h(,:1d 
of navigation at "thc locks" on the Otonabcc rivcr. During thc YC
lSGj, nineteen millions of this was c:1rricd OWl' the railway to Port Hope, 
and about twelve millions passed down the rh-er in scows, in tow of the 
I5teamcr Oto1/aùcc to Harwood, whcre it was placed on the railway, amI so 
convcycd to Cobourg, During 18GG, a still larger (luant.ity will havc 
l)a:-;:-;ed over thc railroad to Port Hope, ancI about onc-half the quantity of 
last ycar by the rivcr and Harwood route, 
The opcration of tcaming :;;nch an immense tluantity oflumbcr from the 
mills to thc points mentioned, is onc involving grcat labor and cxpense to 
the manufacturers; although giving employmcnt to a large number of 
teamsters and their horses, The constant passing of such heavily ladcn 
teams over our principal streets, rapidly wears out cven the most subshm- 
tialmaterial employed in thcir repair, plows them into dcep anù unseemly 
ruts, and at certain seasons, rcnders them well ni
h impassable to ordinary 
ychicles. . 
These disadvantages, and thc outlay they occasion, will be specdily 
obviated by the extension of the Port Hope railroad, along the river bank, 
IS to form :t connection with the old Chemong lint", which, passing 
up the riwr, will receivc the product of several of the mills mentioned, 
in the mill yard, This important link of railway conncction is now in 
active progress, and when complctcd, hopes are cntertained that the 
improved facilities it will afford, lllay prove a stimulns to the establish- 
mcnt of other and numerous branches of manufacture, for which thc 
imlllcnsc water-power of the Otonabee furnishes such aml)lc scope. 



(1.) !'UJ'ULATlOX. 
The> population of Peterborou
h ill 18
s than ;;UU. In 1
the tlJwn COlltained not more than l
O hou:-:e
, and a populatioll prohaLly 
bctweell ei)!'ht and nille hundred. The sÍi.tistics of P<,terborough arc inex- 
trieahly minp;led with those of Xorth )[onap:hilll up t.ill the period of it
illcorpomtion, :-:.J thnt it
 actual population during the )'ear
 antecedent to 
that date. c
nnot be stnted with neenrfle)'. As ha
 been Rhewn in the 
lìrC"l"lillg pi.ges, it continued stcfI,lily to improve, nnd at th(' time of it:-; 
incorporation C'ontninrd 1ROO illlJ:lbitflnt
.\t the g-clIel':l1 ccnsus taken ill 18
. two yeal'
 later, it had 333 homw
;]:>0 fi(}l1ilic
, mul it popllh1tiou of 
191. III 1 S;;:), this IHuI incrcased tu 
:-;.ton, in 1R;)r, to ;1GOO. amI in 18Gl to 
R 11, 
Durint; the hlst two ycar::. Pdel'b01'l111p;h. a
 wcIl as nearly evel'Y town 
alld l'it.v ill the Prnvincc, 
ufl'ercII it diminution of population. The cau
of thi
 may in ehief part. he referred to thr llepre
8ioll occa
iolled by a 
series of :-:cant harvests ill thi:-: Pl'Ovincc, while at the san
e time cOllfo1iùera- 
blr 1I1l111Lcr:-: of the lllrchaniC'al :md laborinp; d:1

es were attl'nded to the 
 HelmLlit: by the H,lvance of wagc:-: conSe(!Ucllt upon an cxp:m- 

itln of 1l('arly l',.cry branch of hu:-:ine
s, 1'l

 from an inflated 
currency with whi(.h the ill111H'n
(' outlay of {(mr )'rars' war inuuùateù that 
The as:-:e:':'IlH'nt rull j(I)' thc town, in H';hli 
hewed the llUlllLer (If rate- 
pa) rr
 fiJl' that )'1';:1' to he 111:-;(i, which would give a population of about. 
-:1-;)(111. The total ,'aluation of real :HHI personal pl'Operty in Peterborough, 
ill 18:)1, was $
)HI.'jlìð; whill' for lRlili this item :-:tand:o; at Sl,480,450. 
The ,'aluatil/ll of property. howl','er, i
 Hot alwflJ:-: made upon au uniform 

tunùard, allll in (Wlt'rent year!>; i
 increa:-:cd 01' (lilllini:-:hl'(l, as the judg- 
11lCllt flf the _\"'

 01' tIll' flnetnat ion
 of the times 111:1)' :-:eClH to 
In tlm
 th,' 11l'l'
l'lIt pO)Jldatillll (If PC(('l"borough :It 4-
)OO, it 
shoul(l he 11Orll\' ill lllillrl that. the 11U1Il<,rou
:-: ill what may he 
('alled the suburb!', situated ju
t out:,iJp the limits of the town. ure llot 
taken intI) :UO(.quut, :md that w'ithrr i.. thl' )ICI)mlatioll of _\!'hhurnhal1l. 
inmif'rliat\'ly :lfl.i(tÏllil1
 r,lI tIll' ,
 I.f tl\l' ()tlillal,,"/., riwl", il1('ltlll{'11 
ill thi
tilllaÌl', In 1 
Iil, A:-:hhurllh:llll l1i1l1 a }lIll,ul:ltion of !)!}:1. J.:l"t 


December it wa!ò a
ccrtained to be 1129, which, with the residents of the 
"subnrbR" alluded to, would l1l;Jkc the elltin
 population uf tllC town and 
itR imlllcdiate appeml:l
The l:lfoit eeu
: taken in 18tH. showed the then popnlation of l'ctel'ho- 
rough and ARhbumluHll taken together, to be composed of the followill
nationalites :-Ircland 1068, England 451, 
cotland 334, 1!llitcd 

 173, Upper Canada 2466, Lowcr Canada 28!), other countries 53, 
The same census shows that in Petcrborough and Ashbnrnha1ll then' 
wrre in 1861, 247] male and 2363 female inhabitants. There were 1:>23 
married and 3311 single pel'
ons. In 1860 there wcre in these two ('m'po- 
rations 50 deaths :md 179 birthR, while 793 c11ildrcn were attrudil1g 

:-:olllething has already been :-mid in the prcceding pages as to tbe gr
ual development of the scyeral manufactures of Peterborough. :lnd it 
remains now but to afford the reader some idea of the extent of busines
earried on in these branche:,: of indnstry at the pr(':,:ent time. To begin 
Plot,,'i,,!! Jlil/.
.-Thc ll1ill.. oWl1cd by J. n. Ben::;on. E:;(f., of which 
)lessr8. Nicholls & Hi.lll arc now the les
ees, manufactures abuut 
banels of flour annually. That of R, D, Rogers, ES(h in ...\shburnham, 
from 7 to 80no barrels. bnt is capable of turninp: out many morc. During 
the year, t1le mi1l formerly mentioned as the late G. B. Hall's, Esq., but 
latterly known us j)ick
on's mi1l, wa
 bmnpd to the gronnd. The Blythe 
mills, Ritnated a littl(' distmwe above the town, the property of John 
Carnegie, }
sq., .Jr., met with this fate in the sprÍng of 18ü-!, but was 
re-bui1t during that and the following Sca:50n. anù ha::. manut
l(;tured 9000 
barrels durin
 the past )'ear, for exportation. Its capabilities arc now in- 
creased, so as to admit of the mannHlCtnre of 200 barrels of flour daily. 
Besides this re
ult, eaeh of the lUill
 mentioned docs a large amount of 
gristing for home consumption,-a department which the mill of Gilmour 
&. Co., .Mr, U,i<:hanl Parnell, miller, is wholly occupied in 
lVool(,1l P(l('lm.i('.'i.-The Aubul'll mi1ls 301'(' fo'ituated about a mile above 
the northel'lllimits of the town. on th(' eastern side 0(' thc Otouabee river. 
'rhe building used is a :-:llh
t:mtial one of :-;tone, 0(' thrc(' storie
 :nul an 
attic, :uHI was built in 18G2-:;' and since carrieù Oil by .Me

rs. _\.. Rohert- 
son & (;0., of 
Iontl'ea1. The main building: is 79 x iH feet in siz(' j 


auutLcr uue aJjuiuill ð , which i::, at presclIt ill n
c a:, a "turc-l'UuUI, i::; 811 x 37 
feet, and was oriðiuall:y intcudcd for an axe factor.)", The motivc power i:- 
watcr, but :stcam is u:,cd for dycing. :,cuurill3 aml heating; fiJr thc lattcr 
purposc bciur) com'cycd b) lllCiUlS uf iron tnbes to eycry })art of the build- 
ing, produciu
' a rcgular and geuial warmth. Thcrc arc -10 opcratiycs 
employcrt in thi
 cf'tall1islImcllt, "27 lllale
 <lnll 13 female:" :-:cveral of whom, 
particularly at the luoms, work hy the picce, awl cal'll excellent wages, 
Thcrc arc 9 loum
. and Ii in 
 kcpt iu operatiun rlurin
 tllC entire 
Jcar, A cuuplc or sdt:ol'crating spiuuin!-; maehinl's. (a new ßriti
h invcn- 
tion) with 4 to f'pindlc
, .Ire now being addcd to thosc fhrmcrly in ut;e. 
Thc::;c are amnng thc fir
t of thc kind intruduccd into Canad;l, arc bcauti- 
ful specimcn
 of mac11incry. a1\l1 will grcatly enhallce the pl'o,lucts llf this 
dcpartmcnt with but I"li
ht aùditiOlwl };.I)or, 
To äupply material f'Or this establi:<lullcnt, allout 
tI:(lOO pouuds of wool 
.H'C purcha::;cd annually, from 1:1 to :!fI,OOU Ib::;. of' whicl} are procured 
from this cuunt)", aud thc rcmainder cl::;cwherc ill Canada. or by import.a- 
tion from abroad. During thc wuul scason of 18(jj, as high as 41) (;ent
and during the prc:sent ,ycar 3li ccnt:-: pcr pouud wcre paid for thiH staple, 
Thc Ill'incipal articles of 1l1anUf
iCturc arc twced:s of' a grcat yaricty of 
pattern. ahout 80,000 yard
 uf which wcre prcpared for markct last year, 
mIll durin
 the coming SCil
Ull. owiug to improvcd looms aud iucre;t:sell 
machinery, this is expcctcd to be incrcascd to onc-third mol', 
ome idea 
of the advantages of such a factory to the town and \'icinity, will appear 
frum thc fact that ncarly S100U arc expendcd monthly, in \Va1-;CS and ex- 
pcnses connected with this estab1i::;hlllcnt. withuut reference to the lar
adùitiollal :snm invcsted iu thc }mrehafie of wool. 
The Aublll'll millt; borc off thc gold mcdal of the Dnblin Exbibitiou ill 
1864, for the best Canadian twceds, and was also awarded a silver mcdal 
at the )Iontreal Exhibition the same year, for similar cloths. Mr. Robert 
Brodie is the attcntin
 and obliging ::,upcrintcndcnt, 
The creek which traverses the town supplies the motivc power tor 'fr. 
ßrook's woolen factory, in whieh 20 operatives are employed, with an an- 
nual con:mlllptiou of about :30,000 Ibs, of wool, and a product of 800 yard
of funed cloth, fl
unel and tweed. Six looms are iu operation, and steam 
is also useù in some of the proce8
s. 'l'hi" c:,tablishment \Vali built about 
25 Yf>ars ago, ;lUd has HOW been five years in the p08:-:eMiou of its preseHt 
pl'opI'Íetor. )[r. Brooks ha'i jUl'Ìt l-'urcha8cd a small woolen mill heretofore 



carried Oll Ly )h.. P. H. CILll'kc, in Af
hhlll'llham. Pn , 1)a1Jly :?O,OOO Ibs. of 
'\001 havc becn eonverted into fianucl.s and cluth:;; here. Three I00ms arc 
in operation. 
Thesc comprise thc wholc of the woolen factorics in Petcrborough and 
its vicinity, At othcr poiuts in the county, :md especially at the yilla
of Hastinös, morc of the
e u
eful cRtablifo:hments exist, but (except at that 
,'illage) of limited capacity, and chiefly or entirely devoted to the local 
 and fulling of the ncighborhooù, 
'I'i('.',.-A large Hlnount of capital is invcsted in fuunderies, three of 
which :Ire in operation in Pcterborou!!h, and one in Ashburnhmu, Pre- 
cisely this number was retul'lled herr m: exi:stillg at the taking of the cen- 

us in 1
52 :md in 1861. nut the capital invested. aud the produce of 
the busincs:" have very largely inercased since the former of thesr dates. 
In 1851 the cápital of all eolleetively was :stated at $7.lO0, and in 1 H61 at 

.H):900, while the value of their joint produee for the former yenr wal' 
set down at 813,4UO, and for the lattCl' $:>li,O'i5. Doubtless, the lutter 
figures will still :'pl'ly vcry nearly to the 11l'e:sell t timc, 

les:srs, -Whyte &, Hamilton's fonndery and mad1Ínc shop was conuncnced 
as a plow f:.wtory 2;) ycar
)y .Tallles Harvcy, :EH'l' 
\bout ten years 
"go it Wll.S enlarg'Cd to it
 prrscnt pl'Oportious, and greatly improved. '1'1H' 
working capital of the finu i:-: stated to be $lU,OOO, exclnsive of building:::; 
or site, From twenty to thirty men are employed, tHe chicf bllSine1's COll- 
tiug in the manufacture and rcpair of steam engint:s, grist and saw mill 
machinery, thrashing machincs, plows, (about 300 of which are t urn etl 
out :mnually) and other agricultural implemcnts. 
The foundery on Simcoe strcct, owncd by James Stevenson, E:-ifh and 
leased by 1\11', \Villiam Helm, was dcstroyed by firc in 1857, hut soon 
after rebuilt in its prcscnt Htylc, by the cnergetic owner. In buildings and 
HUtchinery it reprcsents a total capital of $13,OUO. Stearn is the moti \'e 
power, in producing which 
50 cords of wood are consumed annually, :IS 
are 40 tons of coal in the pl'Ocess of smelting and the requirements of thc 
blacksmith's shop, Fifreen mcn are now cmployed; thc principal bu
being repairing llutùhines and implements of various kinds, thongh :->tcalll 
eugines and nearly all other kinds of madlinery, iron rillars and other 
heavy castinsf'S, are made to order, In this way 2;),000 feet of hardwood 
lumber, from 60 to 80 tons of mctal, 
nd 8 to 1 0 tOll
 of wrout-!,ht iron :lrt' 
d in a single) t&1r. During la
t yea.": foIix. thrt'
hing uHlchiue-s. and over 


:!UtI IlluwlS were lllallufa<;turctl at tbi:s c
tahli:.:hull:-11t. hc
iùcs ::;awiug lUa- 
dlille:<, uther machincry and illlplelllCllt
)lr. James Hamilton lws fur lHauy years (;omluded a fonndery and im- 
plement manufactory on :south neorge 
treet. }
ight men on an average 
have been employed. tl1rnillg ont from 150 to 
OO plows, a large number 
lIf harrows, amI other f;u"m implements each ycar, The motivc power is a 
ix horsc-powcr cnginc. During tIle pa!òlt summcr, )Ir. Hamilton suftered 
a heavy loss boY the tle::;truction of his establisll1ucut by fire. But it has 
now been rcbuilt in a 
rcatly enlargcd and 
upcrior /Style, and the mauu- 
fadure of imI)lclUcnts is beinu rc!-:umcd to it still O'reater cxtent t.han fi1l'- 
\ 1ranch of this bu:.:incs:.:. 
l1pplicd from the toumlery here, is carricd 
on at Lindsay, 
Iowry's foundery and maehinc shop in \shburuham also employs 
a number of hand:,:. :md Im
 the rC'luisitc facilitic
 for performing- a htrf!e 
ill'Cll" r;f'-s,-Two brewerie
 at prcsent exi;;t in Pcterborough. )Ir. 
Henry Calcutt's was cummcnecd in l
j;). near thc shore of the Little 
lAake, but was burncd down in 1863. His present establi
hment, near 
the Otouabec river, un the Ashburnham ::;ille, was built during the saUlt' 
ycar, Six mcn are constantly employcd. :md durin
 last )"ear,. 5000 
bushels uf barley werc consumeù in thifol manufacture, 
Ir. Calcutt is th(' 
inventor of a combined liquor coolcr and. heater, which, by passing till' 
heated li'ilÚrl O\rer an exp:mdcd surf11ee, eool.':) ] 6 barrels ill :m hour, or 
eight gallons in .1 minute. By var,ying: the :-ize; grcatcr or less rc
could of course be obtained, 
:\lr. 'Yalter 'V. Boswell's brewerJ wa
 built more than tweuty JC
ago, on the 
hore of "Spaulding'8 bay", in the 
outbel'll elld of the town, 
Of late it has pot been constantly in opcratiou, but is now again in use. 
and manufacturing at the rate of about QIlC hundreù barrels of beer lof 
30 gallons each) per month. 

rwo other lJl'cwerics formcrly existed ill thc tOWII; but though the 
huildings remain, they have been for some years dosed, and their machinc..v 
unemployed, . 
Tmulerit:.s,- Therc are two taullcries in Petcrborough, aut1 une ill ..\::.h- 
Lurnl18.m. That belonging to James Hall, El:ilh of whi<:h 1\11'. \Valtl'r 
PaUC}1!on i
 le&Jt't', elHl'loJs con
t-;u)tly f,'olll (j to 10 IIwn, WJIO lIJauuf:.ctHl't' 
into l
ath('.. fl'OIIl 15(10 to 
IIIJ/J hide_, J.lld <tbollt 1 :!úII calf-
kinr' annually. 


'" ater awl dealn powcr arc ubcd fur pumpinr; <lnll griuùiu;.:" ..Hr. P.iltcr- 

UII has recently illll)ortcd Ion lliJc:; from 
uuth .America, which, frul11 
the fiucne:<s uf thc hair, and consequcnt dcu:;enc
:-; uf ti

uc, WhCll ùrcs:;ccl, 
3rc wdl adapteù for u
c in thi:; climate, Thi:; estahlbhment i:; thc most 
cxtcnsi \'C of the three. 
)11', P. Ryan iu l>etcrborough, anù Mr. Johu Clarkc in Ashbul'1lham, 
al:;o cmplo)" a lIulllbcr of hauds. and ùo a large bu!'illCSS in the manufacture 
of thc various kind:-: of lcather, 

Corrlagc mul Sleigh Fo('torie
Ir. William 
[<,theraI nas now been 
11 years engaged in thiH husiness in Prtcrborough, TIc employs on an 
average G mcn. During the prc:o;ent season (18ti6) he completed and sold 

-! buggies and carriages, and foul' waggOlls, though he usually manufac- 
tures from 10 to 12 of the latter in a season j and also 30 to 40 sleigh:-: 
:md cutters. The outlay in conducting this establi:<hment will amount to 
hetween thrce aud four thous<lnd. dollar:o; a yc.u', 
3h, T. _Fitzgerald has now beeD four year
 engagctl in this bu
He cmploys 11 men, and during the season of 1866 manufactured 20 
, 25 buggies anrl carrÏ<tges, and 50 cutters and sleighs. In addition 
to thiR work, a large amount of repairing: and g-cneral black-smithing" i:-: :Ih
carried on in }1Ïs cstabli

)Ir. .John Doharty (formerly Doharty &, Hanlon) conducts an extensive 
incss of this kind, iu which he has now been for several years su('cess- 
fully t>ngaged. I,'rom 10 to 12 men are employed, resulting in a 
yearly expcnùiture of from GOOO to 7000 dollars. During 1865, 55 sleighs 
and cutters were manufactured, amI an average of 30 waggolls and 20 
huggics and carri:1ges for the last few years, A ,"cry large amount of joh- 
lling and general black-smith work is also performed. 

Ir. Jamcs 
[c'Villiamsalso manufactures largely iu t.his useful br;méh 
of industry. 9 men arc usually employed, and duriug tIle present season, 
ao waggons and 20 buggies and carriages have been turned out from thi
establishment j with un averagc of 45 sleighs for some yeal's past. A large 
aUlount of 1'<,pairing and genet'al work is also attended to, with an mH1Ual 
outlay iu all of bctween G and 7000 dollars, 

1I'. John Douglass, (formerly J, & T, Douglass) after a eounectioJ1 
with tllÏs hu
 of ilhout 12 year
, has ,'ecently opt-lied a )If'W earriagt' 
and W.lggon ehop on Bèthune street north, where 4 hand
 are t::Illl)loyed. 


FTnr lfillfl.-()nr "nterpn:-mf; tnwnqman. )fr. Henry Calcutt. ErEctEd 
a flu mill in 
hhlll'llham. in 1865. which Î:- 1I0t only u
rful a
a home market for an important item of agricultural produce. but at eel'- 
tain times (durin
 the retting proce
R) giyes employment to about :)(1 
womcn and boys, who haye often difficulty in finding remunerative emp!oy- 
mcnt in othcr branches of industry, During 1865. 73 ton:;: of raw fiax 
was purchaRecl here, :md for the pre
nt !òlea
n the Rale:;: were iucrea:;:er1 to 

OO tonR. The cost, :is sold by the farmcfs. has been about 
lJ prr ton. 
and about an equal sum per ton is expended in its prep:tration. Thc finx, 
when ready for market, is irl chief part 
;;old at the linen mill of MesRrs. 
Gooderham & ,y ortR. Toronto. It Ìs to be regrctted that sufficient enter- 
prise has not yet been found to establish a linen mill here, for which there arc 
great facilities, and which would add :mother import;mt branch of industry 
to the locality, and retain this product in our mid
t, which has now to go 
cb:ewhere for the manufacture to which it is ultimately destined, 
2\11'. Borland, of 
outh Douro, is al
o eng<lged in this business, and aR a 
further illustration of the increasing interest taken in this useful product, 
it JUay be stated thåt 50 tons were offercd for salc in that locality duriug 
the prcsent season. (18G6) where only five or six could be purchased III 

Otlt('J' J[(ulIifu('f lll'('.
,- Petcrborough has two PUUl}J lllanufactorie
, one 
of thesc, conducted by 1\11'. Henry Dennis, has been in operation for t]](, 
last G yea;s. !j'ive men arc employed on an average, and about 50ft pum})!': 
manufactured eyery year. The motive powel' is steam. 1\11'. 'V. 1\1. 
Kingdon is also engaged in this manufacture, and l)l'oduces from 1;)0 to 

OO pumps every year from his establishment, 
There arc four enterprising citizens engaged in the manufacture :mù 
importation of chairs, cabinet work and general upholstery; besidc
number of establishmcuts who supply these and thc public with wood- 
turning, sa5hes, blinds, and other articles of luxury and nece
Ashburnlmm Loasti of two axe-factories, that of l\Ir. P. J. Ayres aud 
Mr. G. 
tory, which contribute largely to supply the demand for thclie 
indispcnsiLle implements. 
There arc also seyeral Coopcr's shops, both in town and county, which 
rC'prc!':('nt a most iml)ortant branch of industry, and in which a I:-Ir
e amount 
of capital i


As the purpose and H'O!,-= of thf'8ß r

ct! :-Ife hi
tf)ri('ol rathftr thl!.n intp.nd- 
ed to scne the pnrpf)
 of a òirectury, it i
 impu:-':-liblc, even ,,'ere it 
not out of plnce. to enter morc minutely into the particulars of thefiC and 
other intcrestin
 and important sour.ces of trade or branche8 of indu
Enoug-h )138 been said, it is hopc,l, to ('onvey to thc reader an idra of the 
prcsent developmcnt. of our m:mufncturin
nd although it 
must he conf('
:.:('d that of l:lt{' Y{'flrs, progl'(,
s in thi<.\ direction lWR uot 
been as rapid :U
 might IJe desired, or :l
 the òlmple f.'-wilities :lffilrdcrt by 
the town :md vicinity would seem to invitl'. f:t il] the poc:ition at })1'eBcnt 
att:Jined, is sufficient, strongly to contrast with the early stages and infant 

teps of thcRe br:mches of llumnthetnre, when I.('terborol1gh W.IR firl-t 
settled, 40 yeèlr.
 :lgo. PJ'Ogre
sion, eitht'r n3.tnral, 
ocial or induí'ltrial, is 
Bot uniformly rapid; :mù h:wing accomplished much in tllC past, it will, 
with the meaDe: and rC!oIourccs nt cOIluu:mJ, be attributable to onr own 
fi,lly or neglect. if mud. grcatcl' r{'sults be not ru.hicn'd in the fl1Ílm.', 

c:-t) TR,\ DR Axn 
n:Rf'H.\ XJIT:-;}'
The tra.ùe 01' U l'OlIl111tmity like thi::;, em'l'ied on 1))" U Hluubcr of inùi rid- 
ual8, through a ,"ariet..v of ch;llmd
, cau with Jitliculty be ('stillwted, 
that, except in thc ca;,:(' of ùntinbie goOth:
 whirh pm:
 t,hrongh the custom 
housc, no general 01' official rc('ord is ke))t :If' to their eXÍ{'ut or Talue, 
Anù in the ca
e of Peterhoroug;h, hut a 
Hl:rll proportion of the good:" 
receiwd :II1Ù 
old h('r(' arC' dun'
' with rustnm duty. 
The general chal'llder of tlll: mer(;hant
 and tradels of ]'eterborough f(n' 
probity and honor, whieh is 1..uown bc)"oml the limit::; of thc }Jrovincc, 
aud the extent of their operations, as she" n }JY the large and well filled 
:-;hops of our Ju'incip:ll stl'C'ets, :I1'l' eil'eumst:mcc,..; of whieh :Iny rt'
-iù('nt of 
thc town and count.y lUay well fl'd prowl. ThC' fir
t :Itt('1I}pts at merc:Ul- 
tile business in Peterborough, in the tiny .-tore8 amI with the slender 
Rtocks of good
, to whirh refer('ncc has hc('n lIlõllle in thr prc('cding p:lgCS, 
arc in striking contrast to the piles of hriek aUlI mortar, sc,-eral storics in 
hcight, filled with the rich fabl'ics 
llld f'Of:tly }n"oducts of nearly every 
clime, which arc witue:-:sed to-day. Inste \d of the little stocks of goods of 
from $100 w $1000 of 40 years ago, we hit, e now singlc finns importing 
from 5;10,000 to $81).000 worth of good
 anntH,IIx. The clltirc import
for 18i)O wC'l'e carcfully estimatel} at. $q;UO,IJOtl, :l1ul :-:iIH'r then thrs(' figHrt'
hayC' not materia II)' ch:mg;rd. 


From a 6tatement fnrnishèd by permis
ion of the Customs authorities 
in 18\50, it appeared that, ùurin
 that year, the total entries hcrc were of 
the value of $108.683, on which a duty of $17,782 was paid. The
 wcre $5,374 in (,X(';>
S of thl
 dutic!': paid at Port Hope, and 
more than thosc paid at Cobourg, for t113.t year. 
Since the railroad em, which commi'nced in 18;}.!, th(' entire trade of 
the town h
f; greatly increased, 'rhe exports have invariably exceeded the 
imports to 
l1ch an extent as to leaye 3. balance of trade amounting, on an 
ay<,ragc. to at least half a million of dollars in favor of the t.own, The 
following figures will com-ey S0mc idea of the exports of the town at two 
succ<,!':si\'e period
el', P,.nl!ucc, (f'r., .<ilu'pprd il.'1 ('nbnllI'9 alld Pdei'l)(l1'0119" R'lill'or{(l 
fmllt Ppf(l'bfJl'ftlf9h, "11""119 thr ,1Jf'((I'.
 1855, 185G ((lid 1857. 

Years. I 
183.) I 



Flour, 'Vhr:1t, I " 001. I Pot:1sh, 
. l,u,;llf'k ;hs. h:1l'l'eh, 
1 I 
32;)!)1 I iJR.; I a I 43 
19m},; 5tjR6
.Ji 3Go4í :)7 

rj H :.!1 í I í - fi2j'j2 :)(j 
------ --- 



S{r,telllrJ/ t sl/n If' i 119 t br e,"pol'f (
r PI'od/ll'r .Iimll Pet crl)t) ì'f)//9", 1).'1 Rftil- 
lra?1 dlll'L,/9 I

y eal'



3 "i'OOO 


hI J,1\)() 

W lu:3 t
 - I 

:f -1 
411470 I 

Ru']ev, I 
(j667 I 
];396 'j 

I ltì:i4 - I 

e, I 
l-lO I 
:!.;\ I 
3'.10 -f 







To this is to be added the export of sawn lumber. already considered in 
a special chapter ùcvoteù to that trade, but which lllay here be repeated. 
In 1865, sawn hnuLer was shipped as follows :- 
Over the Port Hope anù Petcl'borou:rh railway.............19,000,000 feet. 
Ry steamcr UtúwdJl'c and rail to Cohourg....,............. .12,000,000 " 

0 " 
ThiR. howcver. does not include the entire export of lumber from thf' 
f'onnty. sinCl' the _manuf:lCfurp of the mill" at Chf'mong lak{', Bnckhom, 


Harvey and to 
omc extent those at Bobcaygeon, as wen as that from the 
mills in Otonabee and Hastings have found :m outlet by other channels. 
Neither does it include a large export of wool, shingles, potat:h, í'ggs and 
other commodities, the exact figureR for which it woulrl be difficult to 
There is besides tlle large internal trade carried on in the town and 
B of the county in supplying the wants of a fine ag:rieultural district, 
the value of the l)roduce of which, was shewn by the 135t census to be 
$1,023,197. Peterborough is most advantageously situated for encoura- 
ging' and developing this tradc,.which alone would entitle her to rank among 
the most_ prosperou:o; commercial centrcs in Canada., But when to this is 
added the immense opcrations of the lumber tradc, and her great capabili- 
ties for manufacturing purposes, her natural advantages place her in the 
forcmost rank, as a field for enterprise, which it lllust be admitted has as 
yet been but partially utilized. 


Until 1852, the only bank in Peterborough waS a branch of the BanI... uJ 
_Jlvntreal, which was opened here in 1843; and of which Robert Nicholls, 
Esq., was the first agent. The business during the first few years was 
very meagre,-the principal ledger being a book of ùiminutive proportions. 
Since the retirement of Mr. Nicholls from this post, the successive managers 
have been, .Jackson Rae, John N, Travers, Robert J. Dallas, and Robert 
Richardson, Esquires,-thc last named gentlemen bein:-. at prcsent 
The business of the bank increased with the progress anù prosperity of 
the town and county; and during 1857-8, the present handsomc and COlll- 
modious building, on the south-east corner of ""Vnter 
nd Simcoe streets, 
was erected for its accommodation, a.t a cost of $12,000. 
In 1846, :Messrs. Nicholls & Hall opened "'l'he rulbOJ'lle District 
 Ban!.-," whicb appears to have becn more adv:mtageou:;; t.o thr 
public than to its projertors ::md l1lan3gerfl, :mrl it wa
. dORed in 


Iu 1852, a branch of tbe ('unzm.Pl'cial B' uk was opencd in Pctcrbo- 
ruugb, :For ci.:;ht y('ar
, '\Tilliam Cluxton. K'ilf.. was its agent, and in its 
management, displayed his usual execllcnt busine
 capacity; and on' his 
retirelllent, owing to the prc8ðure of a large and inercasing busincEs, had 
the satisfaction of handing over its affairs tu his Fucee
::;or without. a single 
dollar of a bad Jebt, The f'ub:-:c<lucnt managers were, J. II, Hoper, Jr" 
and \Y. F. Harper, Esquires; the latter gentleman ha\'Ïng occupied that 
position during the last two years. The })resent COllllllercial Bank build- 
ing, (on the north-cast corner of \\T ater and Hnntcr streets) was erected 
during 1863--1. 
The Bauk of 1'Ol'outo opened a branch herc in 1856. Jamcs Hall, 
:Esq., now Sheriff, was agent during the first year and a half, and was suc- 
ceeded by Alexander 
lunroe, Esq, During the past six years, its bUEi- 
ness has been sueccssfully conducted by Alexander SmitII. Esq" its present 
popular and obliging manager, 
Durinf!' thc present year, (18Ù6) a branch of the Royal Cmwdian Bank, 
"rilliam Ogilvie, _Esc{uire, Agent, and also a branch of the Ontario Bon!.., 
with a Savings Bank department, under the management of D, S, Eastwooù, 
Esquire, were opened in Peterborough, So that, so far as the number of 
banking institutions are concerned, our busincss men have no lack of ample 
facilities for the transaction of bm5Ïness, 
As to the capital, position. resourecs or dividenùs of theHe inHtitutionfol, 
it would be out of place here to enter on any exposition; as ample infor- 
mation on these points is contained in the general bank statements pub- 
lished at frequent intervals. 
From the first settlement of the town, clergymen of the Episcop
l :mù 
Roman Catholic churches were present, either as permanent residents or 
frequent yisitors, to I1ttend to the spiritual wants of their respective Hocks. 
l'e long, the missionaries and then the ministers of other denominations 
occnpied the field; the entire county forming in those days a single }>arish 
or circuit, which had to be laboriou!:;ly traversed, and services held in sneh 
of the larger buildinf!s, in barn!:!, or in the open air, as circumstances justi- 
fiod, For many year!:! the ministrations of the Petcrborough clergymen 
continued thus to extend o"er the adjoining townships, but the improve- 
Uleut of road::; anù the erection of churches, and the establil:!l11uent of other 
111ÏI:!ij!ions, in time rendered these duties less arduou!:!. 


for SUUle years the chmch accolllllludaLiuu in town was little Letter than 
in thc conutry di:strich;, aud the ærviec:5 of the ,'arious denoruination
were'held in houses and Vacdut buildillg
 as opportunity favoured, 
Notwithstanding numcrous enquiries, the facts wc have b
en able to 
gather in rcfcrcnce to the I'l'ogrcs!:! uf the scveral clml'chcs, arc but fèw, 
and for convcnienee will be mClltioncd separately. 'Ve b<"gill with 

TILl' fY/mrc/" of Eliglaud,-The He\', Samucl Armour was the first 
derp,yman of this church in Pctcrboroup.-h; :Iud thc log school house, more 
than oncc rcfcrrcd to, sufficed for many ycars in which to conduct its 
\s carly a:; 1831, tcnder:; wcrc :ulvcrti
cd in thc Cobomg St(/I' 
for the crection ur thc prcscnt edifice, knowu 11::; St. Juhu"s Church; but 
not until 183-1-5 was that buildinp: cOlll})leted and rcady fi)r occupation, 
The contract was awarded to tllC late Joscph Scobcll, ESlh who undertook 
its completion fi)l' ;C1300, but alterations, or extra work, increased this 
to Æ1500, and sundry expenscs, includillg interest on moncy borrowed for 
its eomplction, made t1lC total cost æ2 I GO. 
This was one of thc G7 rectories creatcd undcr thc administration of 
Rir John Colbornc. It compri:;cd fuur acrcs of ground, eonsi
ting of lot:; 
nos, 1 to 4 north of Hunter aud cast of 'Yater streets, and lots nos. 1 to 
4 /South of Brock and cast of 'Vatcr !:!trcds, and was formally grantcd for 
this purpose on the 5th day of Xoyclllher, 1835,* Thc castern portion 
of this ground, fronting on - strect, and thc wcstern side along 
'Vater strcet, have both heen u
cd for building purposes, under lease for a 
term of ycars, to bc cithcr rcnewed on expiry, or the holder compensated for 
improvements made during his tcrm of occupation. Under this arrange- 
ment the revenues of the Rectory have been materially Ín, cl'cased without 
marring the prospect, or overcrowding the edifice, as sccn from the adjoin- 
ing tllOroughtares, Other grant:; were about the !:!amc time made to thi:s 
church, the prhlCipal of which cun:5i::;ted of two glebe lots in the township 
of Smith, and Park loti no!:!. 16 and 17: of' 10 acres each, adjoining the 
town, besides an acre of land on the wcstcrn side of thc square, known a::ì 
the old burying ground, which has been lcased or sold in building lotg, 
At the time of the erection of this building, a large clock was placed 
in the tower, at a cost of about $-1UO, but this, for I:!omc years, has been 
neglected, chiefly owing to the trouble and expeul5e attending its regulation 
and supervision. 

· Appendix Joumalsor the Houle. Se
!il!nltl3'í-9. Pai" 4u0. 


\.buut 1J year:; aQo, bunùry illlprOVCll1cnt
 were cficdCtl ill the church 
cdifiee, at u cu
t uf abuut $:WUtI, 
\.. new ruof was put on, anù iUll)ortullt 
:tlterations made in the interior, ill accurdance with Vlalls furnished by 
Kivas Tully, Esq. 
\..n or
all wa:; al
o procured, at a cost of ahout $10 11 0, 
In 18G
 a ca}Jacious sunday school huuse was added in the rear, at a C08t 
of $472. 
This church occupies a fiue comuHlUllill
ite, overlooking the town, the 
river, aud the adja-ccut villa
e of 
\..t;hbUl'uham; and althuu.dl for many 
years embarrassed by debt, is llOW in <t mo:-t excellent condition fillaneiHHy, 
on which thc Hcctur aud congregation may well Le congratulated, 
The followinp.: arc the name::; of the eler
Ylllrn who have be ell sueccsðively 
Incumbents or Hectors of Peterborougl1 :-Rev. Samuel 
\..rmour, Hev, 
Richard D'Olier, Rcy, Uharles "r adc, 
\..., ltev, ltobert J. C, 
Rev. Mark Burnham, Hnd the He,'. .Tohn 'Yalton)tomain Deck, who is 
the prc:;ent Hector, 
Tlw llumpn C tlwlil' ClwI'ch.-The first scrvices of this chur<:h in 
l'eterborough were cclc1Jrated by thc Rey. .James ('rowley, ill onc of the 
 buildings, erected for the purposes of the iunui;!'1'ation. On the first 
settlement of the town, tbe })lock of 
oulld on which the Ail
erican Hotel 
now stands, boullded b,y Heorge, Chambers, lll'Ock and Hunter Htreets, was 
granted to this body fur church purposcs; anù in later years a small fi.ame 
church was erectcd on it. About the yeur 183G-6, this was burned down; 
and soon after, the ground in que:;tion was disposed of
 and the erection of 
the present chur<:h commenced, The public grants W this church consiHt- 
cd of the ground just mentioned. described as lots 1 and 2 south of Brock 
and west of George streets, lot 
o, 14, new survey, fronting on Hunter 
street, (the site of the prescnt church) and Park lot Ko, 6 in the township 
of North :l\Ionaghan, Thesc grant!:! were dated February 1
th, 1834,* 
The present stone edifice was erceted in 1837-8, anù when completed, 
was dedicated to St. Peter in-chains. This was done during the pastorat.t> 
of the Rev, John Butler, who aftm. llineteeu years re:;idence iu Peterbo- 
ruugh, died OQ tl)e 25th of June, 1853, ill hi!:! 718t year, A neat tablet 
to his memory is crected in this church, which he founded, and which if! 
atated to be, "a last monument to his picty and zeal." Another tablet, 
similarly placed, tells of the decease of the ltev. Daniel .Farrelly, on the 1st 
day of June, 1858, in the 44th year of his age, after a }):lstorate in Peter- 
bo rough uf1 year :!ml lO 1ll011t1u
, and iu Kempt\'iHe of 13 YE'ars, 

· .o\i>pendix to Journals ot the }-jou.e. :S
5iioIl18a-;-8, Pege 400. 


'fhis church, thuugh uut finely finished, aud but I}laiuly decorated, lws 
been for 
OlllC )'cars free from financial clllbarra::;
mcnt. Niue Jcar
a fine toned and I)owcrful organ was purcha
cd at a cost of $1(01), :md J]a
been since ill u
Thc followilli-) is a li;:;t of the Pricsts who ha,'c l'Iucccs:;ivcly ministered 
to the sr,il'it.ual wimts of this congregation :-Rcv. Jamcs Crowley, Rev. 
Fathcr O'Herne, Rev, .John Butler, Hev John }i"arrall, (now BisllOp of 
Hamilton, U.'Y.) Uev. Daniel Farrelly, Uev. 1\1. l\Iackie, and thc Rev, 
Oliver Kelly, thc pl'c:;ent pabtor, and Dean of the Diocese, 
The Cllltrl'h of Scotlmul.-On thc 30th of ..'lay, 1835, a grant was 
made to this church, of lot F, fronting on Brock street, and lots 12 and 
13 north of Brock street, The first of these is thc site of the present St. 
Andrew's church, crected ill the year 1836. The other lots are leased 
. for building purposes, in the usual manner with property so held. 
The Rev. J, 1\1. Uogcr, was the first minister of this body; and was 
located here as early as 1833, He l'enwined attached to this congregation 
until the sepnration which took place, owing to the Froe Church move- 
ment, to whicl1 he adhered, The church property remained with 
the older body, and soon after, the Rev. James S. Douglas became its 
minister, and so continued until 1864. During the two years wLich 
followed, the congregation was supplied by missionaries; and on the 20th 
(hy of 
ovember, 1866, the Rev, D, J. 
Iacdonnell, B. D., wns formally 
inducted to this charge, 
A neat Sabbath School building was erected adjacent to the church, 
in 1864; and, financially, the affairs of t1lÍs church are in :m excellent 
The Free Clwï'ch.-On the withdrawal of thc Free Church from the 
Church of Scotland, which took place in Canada in 1844, but in Peter- 
borough not until 1857, the congregation was for some year!:! without 
a suitable place of worship, The town hall, and subsequently the 
'Vesleyan 1\1 ethodist Sabbath School room, were used for this purpose. 
But at length, in 1857, the foundation of their fine brick church, adjacent 
to the Court House square, was laid, and completed in 1859, This edifice 
is 50 by 90 feet in size, and was erected at a cost of $20,000; of which 
:1, debt of $7,200 still remains. It is at once creditable to the congrega 
tion, and an ornament to the town, The Rev. J, )1. Rogers ili still its 


Thr Trt>sl;'/fm lfl'tbodist rhllJ"cl,.- The first 'VesleJan 
Church in Peterborough was :1, !'m:111 frame building, suhsequently COll- 
verted into a parsonnge, and now used in that. cnpacity, It was erected 
in 1834, on ground granted by the Executi,e Council for that purpose, 
and described as lots 1 nnd 2 north of 
rcDonell and west of George 
:"treet. The grnnt bears date, November 27th, ] 834,* 
The first large church of this body was erected in 1844, of a size 60 
feet by 40 feet, and this. in 18;)4 was cnlnrged by an addition of 30 feet 
t-o the length, which completed the present structure. In 186.1 a fine new 
organ wns added. It i... noticeable that the 
uccessive steps of marked 
progress by this body have been made 3t regular interv:11s of tcn yenrs, as 
shewn by the foregoing dntes. Possibly the close of the present decennial 
period will be marked by the erection- of au entirely new church edifice. 
'Ye hnd hoped to have adùed the n:nnes of thc scveral1llinistcrs stationed 
here, in connection with this church; but the frequent changes resulting 
from the itincrnnt system have rendered thesc very numcrous, and it is 
difficult or impossible from thè dat:1 at hand, to rc-produce them with 
Thp Bapti:-:t Clllu'ch,-The Baptist Church ill Pewl'borough was erect- 
ed on Aylmer street, in the year 1845, at a cost of about $1400, Owing 
to' a divergence of opinion which took place in the congregation a few years 
ago, a second but smaller church was crecwd in the North 'Yard, But 
unity was 11appily restored, and this second structure has become useful to 
the town for the purposes of a primary school. The Rev. John Gilmour 
has been continuously pastor of this congregation, and is also Agent for 
the New England Company, in providing for the spiritual wants of the 
Rice Lake and Chemong Lake Indians, to which reference will hereafter 
be made. 
Tlte BiMe Christiall r'lulJ'clt,-This body acquired the ground it now 
occupies by purchase, As early as 1832-3, a society was formed in Peter- 
borough, to which the Rev. 1\1r. Enon was one of the first missionarics, 
The first small church, in subsequent years, was converted into a minister's 
residence, anrl was superseded by the present church building-, erected in 
1853, The ministers of this boJy have been numerous; the Rev, David 
Cantlon at present occupying that position. 
Tlte B1'ÍtÎ,;:h .L1Ütlwdi.<;l.<; had at one time :I numcrous society here, 
erected a church, on the rising ground a little west of th/"' Utonabee briùgC'. 

· AppendiX to Journals. 1837-8. Page 400. 


On their union with the Wesleyan )Iethodi
t8, their church builòing was 
no longer a neces
ity, and was subse(IUently ubcd for school purposes, all
iR now the property of Robert )[orrow, E:s(!. 
The foregoing comprisc :111 the chureheR at present existing in Pcterbo- 
rough. It would perhaps be interc
ting to trace the grndual progrc:;:s in 
numbers of ench from their first organization here, But in the earlier 
years of their l1Ïstory in Peterborough, the entire county wa
in their ycarly returns, :md even now, n largE' portion of the members find 
:;:upport of each is drawn from tl1f' adjacent town
llips. "T e mu
t thero.. 
fore content oursclyes and the reader, with 
l1ch facts as nppC'flr from the 
ecnl'us of the last two periodR, and in doing FO will append the religious 
cen:o;us of Ashburnham for the last of thc.'!e, fiS thE' only one for which its 
statistics have been officially takrn ns a diRtinct ruunicip.'llity. 

., I 
I Year. I ]"õ
--- - 
Peterbol'ough. . . .'. . . \ ]

: I 
do I 1861 . 1.)1 I 
hhurnham. . . .._ . . . 18ß1 I 
Yea". I I ê

 I 414 
lSßl ;'-!Iì 
ôl I 

Peterborough. . . ., - . . 

 I S . -i 
c...:: .. -, 
 I ..... 

;r;_ _ 
.)()5 4IJO 
l :!:2G 8.:$0 





.::: T 
J ,... 



....... to;; 















IL 1 1 
 0] I 
I -l4 \ 
\17 I 132 I 



'l'hr Union Sclwo7.-The first school house, erected in Peterborough, 
in the years 182G-7, hm; nll'eady been more thnn once refèrrcd to. It was 
a log building, with sl1inf.!,leù roof, of very plain and unimposing :Ispect, 
and stood on the ground now occupied by the shed, in the play-ground in 
the> rcnr of the present FnilH1 School bnildin
. It has .'llso been stnted 
that tIle Rè,"" Smllnel Armour, fin
t Episcopal c1el'gyrnnn in Peterborough, 
condu('ted thi...: school, in ",h1<,h tlw hi
her 3R wen as the mdimentary 


branches of education were for a time taught, ...\s the town progressed, 
other schools, I'pecially devotcd to the branches usually taught ill COllllllon 
, were organizea, and then this bl\ilding was al)propriated solely to 
the purposes of a grammar school; and almo!'t from its commenccment, a 
grant of money from the public funds waR made annually to assist in its 
The writcr has been able to flsccrtain vcry little in reference to the 
chnracter of the COllllllon schools, or even the names of their teachers, 
down to the year 1852, at the commencement of which, these were all 
united under a common school board of trustc
s, and the vacant church, 
built and formerly occupied by the British 
\Iethodist society, was leased 
and used for general common school purpose
Towards the close of the year 1853, the old g-rammar I"chool building 
was found to have become so dilapidatcd, through time mHl usage, that it 
was untenable for winter use; and the hoard of grammar school trustees 
applied for amalgamation with the already united common 
chools; a pro- 
posal which was finally accepted. and cntered upon, in Fcbruary, 1854-, 
.John J-iangton, Esq., was then appointed Chairman, Dr. Hay, Secretary, 
and 'Villimn Uluxt-on )1
S(l' Trea:mrer of the Joint Bpard, 
From this period until 18CO, the united Grammar and Common School 
was carried on in thc vacant church already mentioned. Early in 1857, 
in consequcnce of that building being found insufficient to accomlUodate 
the greatly increased numbers then attending 
chool,-in the instruction of 
which, a Uead 3Iaster, two other male am] three female tenchcrs, were 
const_antly employed, arrangemenb; were commenced for the erection of 
the noble building which is now not only 3n ornament to the town, but is 
amply sufficient :md well aùapted to the purposes for wllÍch it was 
Some discussiun and deliberation nrosc as to the propcr site for such nIl 
edifice; and three locations were f:evcrally proposed, 1st, a portion of thc 
old burying 
rounù, fronting upon George street; 2nd, thc vacant ground 
fronting on Water 
trcct, :md known a
 the Court House Park, and 3rd, 
the present site, 
Preference was given Ly the majority of the Board to the second of 
these j and, f:tran!!e to say, the consent of the Town ami County ConnciI::-: 
was readily })l'ocured for a.ppropriating threc acres of the he:mtiful Court 
House grccn to tlwt purpose i-a design which if carried out. would have 


deprived the citizens of that fine enclosure, left our county buildings in 
the back ground, and destroyed much of the effect of their posit.ion on 
th:.t commanding eminence. Fortuml.tcly neither of these bodies had thc 
disposal of this ground; and it wns, ere long, ascertained that a special 
Act of Parliament would be necessary to divert the property in question 
from the purposes for wl1ich it wnR origin:.lly dcsigned. l>etitions were, 
however, drawn up for signature 1 :md a deputation sent to Toronto, then 
the Scat of Government, to secure the accomplishment of the object 
sought. An influential minority of the Bonrd, however, opposed what 
would now be reg3rded :IR an act of spoliation; :md the conrent of the Gov- 
crnmE'nt waR consequently withheld. . 
 and :ldv:mt3gE's of the present site appear to have then 
become fully appreciated; and memmres were at once taken to proceed with 
the erection of tIle building. l\Ir, Sheard, Architect, of Toronto, furnished 
the plans, &c.; Mes.'I
. l\litchell, Graham and McDonald were awarded the 
contracts, and the work was vigorously pushed forwnrd, durin
 the Autumn 
of 1857, and t.he two following years. 
The new Union 
chooJ building was completed, and possession assumed 
by the Bond, at the opening of the school in January, 1860. The fol- 
lowing arc the names of the gentlemen composing the Building Committee, 
who were then l'clievcd from their arduous and responsible duties :-J ames 
Hall, E
q" Chairman, 'V. S. Conger, William Cluxton, Thomas }"'ortye, 
James Stevenson, Frederick Ferguson, Esquires, and the Rev. :Mark 
In order to provide funds for buildin
 purposes, two town lots, originally 
sct apart for school purposes, were offered for sale. These werc, lot no. 
ten, north of King street, and lot no. five, south of London and west of 
George streets. The former was bought by 1\1r. John Delaney for .12201, 
and the latter, although nominally sold, never passed from under the C011- 
trol of t11(, Board. Tht' building fund was 31so largely assisted by the 
donation, on the pnrt of tIle Town Council, of the entire Clergy Reserve 
money appropriated to the town for 1856, amounting to 1:981 8s, 3d., 
which was placed in the Commercial Bank Agency to the credit of the 
The origin
l est.imate 3R to the COst of the new school building was 
$lG,OOO, and the actual outlay for itR complction nnd furnishint!, amount- 
ed to $16,258, So trifling 3n ('xceRS over the el'!timated sum, was a matter 


for congratulation alike by the Board and the public. To enable the town 
to mcet tIus large Imlll, debentures to the amount of $14,000, were i
bearing intcrcl'lt at six pcr cent. per annum. Theæ dcbcnturcs were pa.y- 
ablc in the following ordcr :- 
In 185U................,................,.,.................. $ 400 
1860. . , . , , . , " . . ,. . . . ,. . . .. , . .... . ,. . . ... , . . . . , . ., . . ,. . . . . 600 
1861. , ... .. ..... .. .. . .. ..., .. ........, ... .. .... ,...... .. .. 800 
1862. .. .. .. .... . .. .. ... , ... ..... .... .. ... .... .. .., ........ 1000 
63, , . , , . . , . . . . . , . , , . . .. .. . . . ... .. . . . , .. . . .. .. . .. . . .. . , . . 1200 
1864. . . . . . . . .. , . . . , . . ,. . . .. . , . ., , . . . .. , .. . . .. . . . ,. . . ,. . , , . 1600 
1865......,......,......,.."............,................ 1800 
1866...............................,...................... 2000 
1867..............., ....,..........,..................... 2200 
1868. . ,... . ..... ..., ......... ....... .. ... ,... .. ,.....,.. .. 2400 

The Roman Catholic Separate School had no\,. bcen for sevcral years in 
existencc; the supporters of which were exempt from taxation for Union 
School purposes, The other ratepaycrs of the town were taxed for the interest 
and sinking fund of the debentures during the ycars 185
 and 1860. Oft 
the passing of the Act for thc consolidation of the debt of the tOWD, 
assented to in 1\Iay, 1861, these debenturcs wcre made chargeable against 
the property of the whole town, including the supportcrs of the Separate 
School; but provision was made that the proportion of intcrest and sinking 
fund levieù upon the said supporters, should be refunded to them on or 
bcfore the 31st day of December in each year.* 
The first two dcbcnturcs were paid out of the rcvcnues of the town, fiR 
they maturcd, but those for the subsequcnt years, up to the prcsent time, 
haye becn paid out of funds realized from the sale of new debenturc:s. 
'fhesi sold on an avcrage at fifteen pcr cent, discount, or in other words, a 
8400 debcnture would realize only $340 in cash, 
The position of the debcnture aceount would consequently 
tand a
follows :- 
Total debentures issued.................. ........,............$14,000 
First two paid in cash in 1859 and 1860, (less).......... 1,000 

Total outstanding debellture
 in USGl......................$13,UUU 

· StILtute! of Canada, Chapter 61, Se('llon 6 


Utt II res s i nee Po iel, 
School Amt, of new ùebenturcs Aùdition 
Debenture, required to pay it, to debt. 
1861.........$ 80U,..............$ 
41 17..............,$141 17 
1862......... 1000............... 1176 -17.............., 176 47 
1863,..,..,.. 1200............... I-HI 77............... 211 77 
1864......... 1600............... 1822 35.......,....... 282 35 
1865........, 1800,.............. 2117 64............... 317 64 
1866......... 2000............... 2353 00.........,..... 353 00 

$8400 $
822 40 $1482 40 
From tlle foregoing, two facts arc to be deduced of intercl"t to the rate- 
payers of the town of Pcterborough,-lst, That the debt contracted on 
account of lTnion School dcbenturcs is constantly and rnpidly increasing; 
since to -pay the $8400 of dcbcntures falling due since 1861, a ncw debt of 
$9822.40 has becn contracted, entailing an adllition of $1482.40 to the 
original dcbt of $13,000 of school dcbcntures out:..:tanding in 1861; making 
the total amount of the debentures, at thc close of 1866, $14,482.40, 
The second fact of importance, is that, as an increasing dcbt entails thc 
payment of a proportionately largcr sum for intercst, the proportion of the 
lattcr actually paid annually by the supportcrs of thc l{, C, 
School is also increasing, and hencc the demand which has recently been 
pressed for a larger instnlment as an equivalent in return, It may be 
added, that it is the payment of these latter dcbentures, by the issue of 
new ones, instead of in cash, or by the proceeds of a sinking fund, as thc 
Act no doubt intended, which has given rise to the result now shewn, 
The apparcnt abstrnscness or this subject, and its })ractieal bearing upon 
the prcsent affairs of thc town, must suffice as an excuse for referring to it 
here at such length. 
In regard to the attendance of pupils at the Peterborough Union Gram- 
mar and Common School, the following statistics of two successive periods 
arc here presented :- 
thammar School,-In 1856, the total number of pupils in the Grammar 
School department was 87: of these thcre were studying Arithmetic 80, 
Algebra 8, Euclid 8, Trigonometry 2, Mensuration 2, Geography 87, 
History 80, Ancient Geography 40, l\Iodern,do, 87, History of Home 87 
Histury of Great Britain 87, Physical Science 87, Natural Philosophy 32, 


:Katural History 87, "rriting 87, Book-kceping 7, Drawing 31, and Vocal 

I u
ic 3U. 
For 1864-,-( the last rcport yet rcceivcd) we find, the number of pupils 
in English branches 41, Latin 41, Greek 6, French 15, Algebra 35, Euclid 
35, Geography 41, History 41, Physical Science 13, Natural Philosophy 
13, 'Yriting 41, Drawing 15,_Elements of Political Economy 19. 
Common School,-The total number of pupils returned, as attending 
thc Common School departmcnt in 1850, was 498, Of these 281 were 
boys and 217 girls; 31 are indigent pupils, The total number in Arith- 
metic was 32:
, Grammar 298, GeograpllY 352, History 177, "\Vriting 370, 
Book-keeping 4, :Mensuration 6, Algebra 2, Geometry 3, :Katural Philoso- 
phy 12, Y ocal :Music 103, other studies 130. 
For 1864, we find, thc total attendancc of COl1lmon School children to 
be 1052; of these 5;)1 arc boys and 501 girls, indigent pupils 104, 
Avcrage attcndance of pupils 459, The foUowing are the numbers en- 
gaged in the scveral1)rauchcs of study :-Arithmetic 893, Grammar 702, 
General Geography 7117, Canadian Geography 248, History 459, 'Vriting 
877, Book-kccl1Íng 28, )Icnsuration 2, Algebra 46, Geometry 43, Natural 
Philosophy 9:>, Lincar Drawing 21, Xccdlework 30. 
1'0 furnish the namcs of all thc teachcrs employcd in this school, even 
since thc union, would requirc an amount of labor, disproportionatc to the 
interest likely to be taken ill the result; but we append a list of the 
several Principals, since the first organization of the Petcrborough Grammar 
Principals prior to the Union, of 1854,-Rev. Samuel Armour, In- 
cumbent; Rev.1\Ioses 'Villiamson, Presbyterian minister; Rev, R, J, C. 
Taylor, Rector j Bolton 'V, O'Grady, E
ll., A, B., T. C. D. 
Principals since 1854.-John Gordon, J. 'V, Kerr, Stewart Foster, 
Esquires, Rev. John 
IcClure, James 1\1. Dunn, Esq., and John King, 
Esq., B. A., T, C. D. 
The following gentlemen have been severally Local bupcrintendents of 
School::; in Peterborough :-Rev. :E. Roberts, James Edward
, Esq., 
Rev. J. S, Donglas, D. 'V. Dnmblc, Ivan O'Beirne and James 
EStluires; the last named gentleman now occupying that po


Roma1/, Catholic SlparflÜ Schoúl.-This school was first organized in 
Peterborough in thc year 1851. For three years, rooms were rented in a 
building on the corner of ...\.ylmcr and Simcoe streets for its accommoda- 
tion. In 1
54, a framc school housc, in two departmcnts, wa
 erected on 
the lot directly in fh:mt of the Cathulic church, In the autumll of the 
year 1864, this building \Va::; destroyed by fire, together with a valuable 
library, the property of the St, Patrick's society of Petcrboro'. During 
1865, the present fine brick building of' two and a Imlf' stories was 
completed, and to a considerable extent, paid for, by tbe voluntary contri- 
butions of the congregation of St. Peter's church. Early in January 1866, 
the school was transferred to this building, from the old Union School 
premises, which had becn in the meantime leased and occupietl for Separate 
School purposcs. 
}'rom two to four teachers have been employed in this school. The 
number of pupils on the register for 1865 was 265, Religious instruction 
is combined with sceular,-the male and female pupils being classified in 
separate departmcnts, 
'fhe following is a li::;t of the teachers who havc been employed in this 
school :-.ftlules-l\lessrs. Bernard Boyd, Daniel Sullivan, John Curtin, 
John Keating, Francis O'Hara, David Roche, Michael Healy, \Villia.m 
Keating and Patrick :-;myth. Pemalcs-l\liss Mary C. Meany, )Iiss 
Bridget Hogan and Miss .Mary Ann 0' Callaghan. 




lCCtcd. _ 
Novem. 1833. Thomas Alex, Stewart., Appointed byCrown 
1856. { Thomas Short...... } ,gdmund l\Iurney... 
Edmund M urney . , I 
Septem. 1861. { Hon, J?illa 
'lint:.. } Hon. Sidney Smith, 
" SIdney SmIth I 
" 1864, "Billa T1'liut...,.., " Billa }?lint.... 






s'nnIARY OF 



I Candida

IeDonell ì I 

 Dr, John Gilchrist, 
 Co!. Alex,l\IcDonell 
1834. I JameR G, Bethune, I 
l'V. S, Conger, J 
( Henry Ruttan, ) 
1836. t COl.Alex.l\ICDOnell 
 'Col,Alex. McDonell 
1. Boswell, I 
T ohn Gilchrist,) 
{ Frederick Ferguson 1 
1841. Col.Alex. 
leDonell IDr, John Gilehirst. 
Dr , John Gilchrist, 
184 - f . { George B, Hall, } G B II II 
"t C I B lù . - eorge . a.. .. . 
o. a wm, 
{ James Hall, 1 
Decem. .1847. Uichard Birdsall, ,
Tamcs Hall.......... 
John Langt-on. 
" { James Hall, } L 
1851. J I L t John angton,...... 
o Ul ang on, 
July, ...1854. John Langton......... do 
J 1856 { 'V, S, Conger, } l;U S C 
anuary . F d . k -u . H'. . onger. ...... 
1 re enc J:' erguson 
Decem, ,1857. { 

o S ma C s Sh
rt, } Thomas 
H' . . onbcr, 
J I 1861 { 'V, S, Conger, } C I II It ' 
u y,... . Col. F.'V, Haultain o. au alD. ...... 
.Jnnc".. 1863. 'V, S. Conger..,....... 'V. S. Conger...,... 
Septem. 1864. { C C h oI. H I aU p ltain, } Col. Haultain."..,. 
ar es erry, 









to end of 
to end of 



} Hoorge Arundel Hill, 
,John Langton, 
Thomas Short. 
} William Cottingham. 

1859, 'V. S. Conger. 
1860, \Villiam Lang, 
1861, 1\1. R. Dean, 
1862, do 
1863, Peter Pearce, 
1864, do 
1865, Robert D. Rogers. 
1866, Evan8 Ingram, 


1_ neevcs. _ 

Year, l\Iayors. 

Deputy Reeves, 

1850 l 'Thomas Benson, 
18511 Charles Hudson, 
1852, James Hall, 
1853. Charles Perry, 
1854i'Ja.S. Stevenson, 
1855 J<lmes Hall, 
1856 'Y. S. Conger, 
1857 1 Jas. Stevenson, 
1858 ùo 
1859 do 
1860, A, Sawer
1861; Charles Perry, 
1862 1 do 
1863 do 
1864 do 
1865 'V. A. Scott, 
1866 \V, II, Scott, 

Thomas Benson, 
Robert Thompson, 
\VilIiam Cluxton, 
.Fred"k Fergusoll, 
'Y. S, Con
Fred'k Ferg-u
James Hall, 
'Y. S. Cong:er, 
'V, A. Scott, 
'V. S. Conger, 
f Town 
) separated from 
the ('ounty. 

\YiHiam Bastland, 
.J ames Stevenson, 
Daniel Hopkins, 
Thomas \Vhite, Jr. 

Town Clp1'Í',"s.-The following gentlemen have been successively Town 
Clerks :-W. II. Vizard, W. H. 'Vrighton, Thomaf:! \Vhitc, Jr., Ivan 
O'Beirllc, and James Edwards, Esquires,-the last naUlcd geRtlcman 
having occupied that position for the Inst ten )'earf'. 
Town T"f'(W/J'PI'R.-Robert Nicholls, 'Yilli:lln 11:111, \Yillimn ('luxton, 
:md James Edwarùs, Esyuires,-t.he last two gentlemen }lavillg discharged 
the important ùutie
 of that. position for five tlnd nine years respectively. 



B. Y. 
IcKyes.* John Kennedy, 
John Darcu8, J. T. Henthorn. 
J osias Bray, * Thomas \Yhite, Sr. 
Dr, F. Connin,* ,John Haggart, 
Dr. ,John Hutch('son,* :Michael Hog
Robert P. :Madge, * Fred'k Ferguson, 
.John Langton, Thomas Harper,* 
A. S, Fraser,* Gco. Q, BoswelI,* 
G. B. Hall, * Charles Rubidge, 
D, l\IcFarlane,* .James Harvey, 
Dauiel Griffith, James Hall, 
Q, F. Orde, Robert Ridley,* 
Robert Dennistoun, Thomas Chambers, 
*Those thus marked are deceased. 

Pat1'Ìek Ryan, 
Charles Perry, 
.J ames Edwards, 
"T. A. Scott, 
Francis II. .Annstrong, * 
Robert Nicholl
'Yilliam Cluxton, 
',ilIiam Eastland, 
Daniel Hopkins, 
.J as, Stevenson, 
'Villiam Coulter, 
I. BoucllCr, 

COToners,-Dr, Jolm l\1c
abb, A. l\lePha-il, Thomas Bird, .J ames 
Foley, 'Yilliam C. Nicholls, George Reid, Dr, 1\1. I.Javell, Dr, Amos 
McCrea, Dr, Thomas 'V. Poole, Dr. John McKeown, Dr. A. Harvey, 
and J. R, Benson Esq, 
A.o;.o;cSSOJ s.-The f()llowing gentlemen have been Assessors of the town, 
in some cases for sunùry years :-1\lessrs. .James Edwards, T. F. Albro, 
John Kennedy, D. Taylor, Robert Rowe, T. IIt:nthorn. 'VilliaUl Eastland, 
Thomas 'Vhite, Jr., \V. A. Scott, Thom:ls Hutchei'on, flod rr. Hazlitt. 
ColiertoJ's.-All of the gentlemen named as follows have been for 1l10rc 
than one ycar collectors of rates for the town :-:Messrs. Daniel Hopkinl3, 
'Villiam Cumming, J. A. Hartley and David Carlyle. 
AI/dito,'s.- The accounts of the town have been audited at one timc or 
another by e:lCh of the followin
 gentlemen :-:i\Iessrs. \Villiam Cluxton, 
William Curry, Vlilliam }
astland, Robel,t Reid, .J ames Ferguson, William 
Coulter, James Edwards, George Coupar, Charles Cameron, R., F. Kirk- 
patrick and It Pearse. 
ClJllnt,'1. .ludito,'s.-Robcrt Reid, James Hall, .James Foley, George 
Hughes, .Jmues Anderson, J. .J. Hall and Dr. Thomas 'V. Poole. 

, Asnm'RXIIA'I. 
Robert D. Ho:rer
, II. Brunett, TIobinRon Moore. 


, Rnbert p, Roger
, 186:3, Rubert D. Rogers, 
1860, Franci::; 
\.nnstrong. 1864, Robert D. Rogers, 
1861, Robert ]), Rogers, 1865, Robert D. Rogers, 
, Francis Armstrong, ]866, A. C, Dunlup. 
Local SUjwrilltmdl'ut s (
l S(-7wol.o.:, 
tÛ"JI(rJllI((1Il.-The Rey. J. S. 
Dougla;; for five years, from 1858 to the close of 1864, and the Uey. .J. 
'V. R. Beck, for 1865 and 1866. 

rr I-I E T () ,v 





The survcy of the township of Smith wus jnst completed in 1818. when 
a numbcr of coloni
ts who had sailed that year from Cnmberland, in En,g- 
land, found their way to that township for the purpose of forming a set- 
tlement. Thcre \Va'" as yct no scmbl:mce of a road through the almost un- 
broken forest from Port Hope, and they accordingly chose thc route by 
wa,y of IEce Lake and the Otonabee riycr, On arriving at Smith, the 
t thing done was to erect a tcmporary log honse on. thc first lot we
of the conul1unication road, which is a small triangular l,iece or ground, 
t out
ide of the prescnt limits of thc Town of Pctcrborough. Here 
thcy lived in common, until by mutuul ab
istancc, small houscs, or shantie:-:, 
were erectcd on their scvcrallots, to which they thcn rcmovcd, 
The names of those first scttlers who comprised this gruup, wcrc \Yillimll 
Dixon and his family of fiyc sons, Joscph Lee and his sons John and 
Georgc; Robcrt l\Iillburn, Robcrt 'Valtou, John 'Valtun, (not the late 
Recvc and no rclati,'c) 'Yaltoll \Yilson, Thomas 'V,l\Iillburn, John Smith 
and his son Joscph Smith, Thcse wcrc cOllllllonly spuken of collecth"ely, 
a::. "the colony" scttlers, to distinguish them from othcrs of Ull carly 
The following were also among the carly pioneers, having settled ill the 
township during the baUle season
 (1818) and but a little while later than 
those ah"eady named :-John Haryey, Ralph Bickerton, A1exander l\Ior- . 
ri5on, J aeol) Bromwell, Robert Xicholson, James 3Iann and his son James, 


Thos. Lockhart, and John Yatcs. Among thosc from one to thrce year:; 
later, wcre \Valtcr l\lcKibbon, Samuel .McKibbon. \Yilliam Tully, Thomas 
Hobinson, Isaac Nicholson, Silas Pearson, Joseph \Yalton and sons, thc 
eldest of which was the late ltecve of SmitÞ.; :l\Iatthew and Richard Bell, 
John Edmison, Ephraim Jackson and sons, and Thumas l\Iillburll, 
These names eunstitute the roll of honor :UllOng the carly scttlers of 
Smith,-lllen who by their courage in penetrating thc foreiôt, and their 
example in enduring and finally overcoming its difficulties and hardships, 
laid the foundation of a fine settlement, in cunnection with which it is but 
fitting that their names should be remembered, as those of practical 
patriots, whose dceds remain, and thc fruit of whose earncstness and 
industry it is to bc hoped their children will long enjoy. 
The first requisite to procure land in those days was to take the oath of 
allegiance, On which a eertificatc was issued as evidencc of t.he fact, A 
location ticket fur thc lot sought was then granted, for which a small fee 
was charged. Owing to thc wild and unsettled state of the township when 
the first of these were issued, "tllC colony," or first scttlers, were not re- 
quircd to makc any other payment then this lUcrc nominal onc; but in 
later years, a fCe of 825 was charged to othcrs on the issuing of their deed, 
Before a full title to the land was procured, an affidavit, madc by two per- 
sons, setting forth that the settlement dntics were performcd, and a house 
at least 18 by 20 feet ill size erected, had to bc prcsented at the land office, 
which for some )'cars I'endered a second journey to Toronto a mattel' of 
necessity, The performance of thc settlement duties was not so rigidly 
exacted in this township as in Otonabce, in connection with whieh they 
will be more clearly described, 
The first settlers in Smith encountered difficulties and privations of which 
we, in nfter times, can have but a faint conception, Unaccnstomed as 
lllany of them were to thc new scenes in which they found themselves 
placed; with scant provisions, and separated by long wastes of wood and 
water from their fellow-kind, their situation, with their wives and little 
ones, must 113ve becn at time
 appalling; and by less indomitable spirits, 
would have been relinquished in dcspair, J.looking back upon it now, ill 
the light of their present prosperity, what have they not achieyed! Such 
brave men are the true patriot
, whose namt'!
 deserve to be handed dOWI) 
in the annals of our history to future geüeratioJ18. 

] 2:-) 

During the first few years, grcat difficultic
 wcrc oftcn fèlt in procuring 
the neceðsary provisions with which to support life. 'These had to he 
ht all the way ii'om Port Hope 01' Cobourg, in the most laborious 
manner, and in the total abscncc of cven thc lllost ordinary roads; tlw 
only guide being thc "blaze" upon the trccs through thc interminable 
forest, in which they secmcd cntombcd. Under thesc circumstanccs, it is 
not to bc wondercd at that whole families wcre oftcn for weeks without 
tasting bread, and that the he1'b
 and succulcnt roots of thc rich woods 
were oficn callcd into l'CCiuisition to lcngthen out thcir scanty farc, 
Late in the autnllln, during one of' thesc critical juncturcs, a number of 
the youngcr men of the settlcmcnt stal.ted in company for Port Hope, to 
bring in a supply of provi
ions, of wllÍch thcir f
l111ilics began to bc sorely 
in need. Thc journey was madc by way of' thc Otonabee river and Ricc 
Lake, and on their way back to thcir cxpectant houscholds, thcy encamped on 
an island in Uicc Lake, Thc season was already advanced, and a keen 
frost setting in, what was their surprise and mortification to find thcmsclves 
next morning helllllled in by an icy barrier which strctchcd away in thc 
distancc, and blockcd up thc mouth of thc rivcr through which their 
coursc lay. Imaf!ine thcir impatiencc at bcing thus delayed, wcll knowing 
that during their abscncc their loved oncs wcre living on short allowance, 
and their childrcn vainly strctching out thcir hands for bread, On the 
next day the ice had become sufficicntly firm to support thcm, and they 
proceedcd on thcir way ovcr its glassy surface, dragging their canoe, with 
their provisions behind thcm. This is but a sample of the difficulties of 
which those carly years furnish many examples. 
Not even aftcr thcir first small clearings were made, and they began to 
sow and reap their tiny harvests, was their condition greatly improved. 
How they watched toe wheat as it grew, and tasted of the pulpy graill as 
it oardened and matured in thc kcrnel! But there was no mill, and their 
utmost ingenuity could not convert it into the bread for which they longcd 
with all the force of early l'cli
h. In this dilcmma, the stumps of trees, or 
some of the larger logs, wcre hollowed out illto pot-shaped cavities, in 
which a huge mallet was made to fall, to crush the grain; the process being 
aided by the spring of a sapling bent over for that purpose, or the unwieldy 
levcr still used for raising the bucket in farm wells. 'Vheat was boilcd, 
roasted, Rnd a
 a food for children, was eYen chewed b) their parente, 
besides being thus pounded, in order to conyert it into food. 


The more robu::;t aud vigorou
, indeed, nut unt'rcqueutly f(houldcred a 
bag of wheat, and ca
'ied it througl1 thc wuud::; of 1)lonag-han, Cavall aud 
Hupe to Smith's creck, as Port Hope was thcn calld, returning with it 
grounrl, to the grcat joy of thc housc1wld, On such journeys it was usual 
to take along a supply of potatocs to be eaten on tIle way, a sufficicncy 
bciug concealcd bcneath SOHlC fi'icndly root, ur convenient wind-fall at about 
midway of the distancc tu be u::;cd on the way homc. 
A little latcr, au apology for a mill was crected on Galloway's Urcck, iu 
Cavau, aud a now lcadiug and wealthy fanllcr in Smith, infonus us, that 
aftcr the f
lJuily were two wecks without flour, he, then a )oung man, tuok 
the oxen aud the slcigh, aud wcnded hi::; way thruugh the woods to Gallo- 
, 'Viutcr was sctting in, and hc foulld thc mill silent and the water 
wheel frozcn and immovable, Detel'mincd tu havc the flour, he sct to 
"ork with a will, but aftcr chopping away the ice, and spcnding nearly 
all night in clearing obstructions, a few rounds was thc utmost the 
machinc cuuld be urged to go, and he had to trudge back weary and dis- 
About thc ycar 1821, thc littlc mill crcûted by ::-'11'. ",\(1.1111 Scott, on thc 
bank of' the Otonabcc, at Pcterborougl1, and which ha::; bccn 
drcady dc- 
scribcd, was set in motion, and impcrfcct thou3h it was, it must ncvcrthc- 
less have becn a grcat bOOll to scttlers so situated. 
A small grist mill was crcetcd by J acub Bromwcll, ouc of thc early set- 
tlers in Smith, wllÍch camc into operation just bcforc thc mill erected by 
Ùle Governmcnt in 18
7, Bromwcll'fllUill was a frame structnre, erceted 
at the mouth of a small creek whieh cntcrs the Otonabcc river just below 
Mr. Snydcr's saw mill. In point of size and usefulncss, it was about on a 
par with Adam Scott's; and wa::; but a bricf timc in UiSC,-t1lC crection 
of the largcr mill rcfcrrcd to, haying supcrseded the nece
sity for both of 
these lesscr structures. 
A dcputation from thc early scttlcl'b in Smith waited upon His Excel- 
lency, Sir Peregrine .1\Iaitland, to express the dÜ;advantages under which 
they labored j but a::; reference has already been made to the incidents of 
that occasion, thcy need not be repcated here. \Vith the erection of thc 
grist mill at Peterborough by the Governlllcnt, a llew era dawned upon 
the settlers in this as well as the adjacent. townships, 
\lld theuceforward 
their prosperity aud success were fully uSbured. 


The present excellent road
mith were only brought to their present 
perfcction after long ye:us of :;:uccef:sive improvement and the outlay of 
large sums of money, In 1831, a writer in the Cobourg Sto/' describcd 
the communication ruad as scarcely passable for ox team
; and filled with 
boulders, stumps and other obstructions. In 1832, .-f:100 was granted 
by the U. C, Legislature to improve this roatI, and further sums in later 
The following is an extract from the official returns of Smith for 1,832: 
Number of persons asse
sed 116, acres cultivated 218J, horses 23, oxen 
lûO, cows 232, horned cattle ] 43. Total as
essed value .-f:8099. Total 
rates levied .-f:38 lIs. 1d. Total population 7fi3, 
There are two official school returns for 1832, one being that taught by 
'Villimn Lalley, and the other by P. 'Yood; the aycrage attendance of 
scholars being set down as 21 and 27 for these schools respectively. 
Among the school teaehcrs of latcr yearf':, are the names of Daniel Dove, 
.Tames Brennan, anti Orran Movey. The--e occur ahout the year 1835. 
Thc first school housc waf': that erectetI on l\I r. Isaac 
lillburn's lot, about 
the year 1831. 
Among the first clcrgymen who visitetl Smith, were the Hev, 1\11', 
on, Episcopal minister from Cavan, the Rev. 'Yilliam Case, Rev, 
neorge Tar, and Rev. Henry Ryan, of the )Iethodi;.;t Church; the Rev, 

amuel Armonr, who came in soon after the immigration of 182':;, and the 
Hev. J. )1. Hoger, who locatcd in Peterborough in 1833, also officiated in 
this township ;-religions :-:ervices having in tllOf;e early days to be held 
in the houses of the settlers, wherewr accommotlation could best be 
The township of Smith was not behintI in volunteering for the support 
of the Government in 1837, amI many left their homes under a sense of 
duty, at great personal inconvcnience anti risk to their familics. Reference 
has however heen made to the chief events of that time in another chap- 
ter, aUlI what has there been 
iven on this 
nb.iect must suffice, 
'l'he township of Smith is sUl'l'oUlltlell on three sitIes by water, From a 
comparatively early periotl, its western boundary, along Chcmong or :Mull 
IJake, was placed in comimmication by means of steamers with the 
hack townships bordering on the great chain of inland watcrs in the heart 
of the County of Yictoria. These steamers have been the Stu/'gmll, the 
Bft r ln,.()()(1!(1I!(f1l, the PctcrlJo 1'0 1fgll , the Oyull"h; the FIll, the ]{fJrdf!J, 


the 'Woodman and others. At the principal landing place in Smith, now 
the village of Bridgenorth, wharff( werc -built, amI hotels and storeA fol
lowed, S. S. Kelly and 'Valter Scott, Esquires, have there a 8team saw 
mill each, and 1\1. S. Dean. Esq., a grist mill, steam saw and shingle mill, 
and also a store and POf;t Office, 
In 1837, the site of the vilhlge of Bl'idgenorth waR still covered by 
forest.. The first hou
e there was built by one William Valley, who kept 
a taveI'D, which he transferred to Willi:1m Dorey. Daniel Donahue, 
Ralph Edmison, and finally ABa Dunbar succeeded to the busines!'. Mr. 
Dunbar and l\Ir, Herrington, a tailor, wcre the only residents of the place 
in 1843. Besides the store and mills mentioned, it now boasts of three 
hotels, numerous tradesmen, and a neat 'Vesleyan church erected within 
a few years. 
Smith has two other churches, one a Baptist church, on the communi- 
cation road, built about the year 1840, of which the Rev, John Gihnour, 
the Rev. Robert :McDougall, the Rev. John Edwards, and now the Rev. 
Edward R. Roberts, have been successively the pastors, The other is a 
Presbyterian dmrch, in the northern part of the township, just completcd 
and dedicated in September, 18GG. Besides these, the churches in Peter- 
borough and L3kefield have supplied tlw religious wants of a large portion 
of the rf'sidents of Smith. 
'rhis township has the merit of being not only the earliest. wttled, but 
also onc of the most thriving and prosperous in the county. In 1852, 
the number of its ratepayers was 
50, in 18G1, 428, and in 18GG they had 
increased to G
l, giving a population in all of about 3GOO souls, having 
multiplied ncarly three a half times in the courío1e of thirty ycars, 
During the fifty years which have now elapseù F-ince the township wã.s 
first settled, many of the older residents have p:u;
ed away to their reRt; 
but they lived to see the forest subdueJ, and broad acrcs of clcared and 
fertilc lanù stretching away on every siJe. Their first rude l13bitations 
had, in many instances, given way to large :md mansions of 
brick or stone, and they and their families enjoyeJ the fruits of thcir toils 
in comparative wealth anù affluence. The first few years of toil and 
privation in a new country brought in thcir .train, first, plenty, and then 
. luxury, The chilùrcn of the first settlers in Smith, who were young men 
amI women Juring some of the carly years referred to, han
 now at their 
vcry thresholds all the blesRings nnù aJvilntagef: of the highcr walks of' 


civilization, Xut only :'!hups and stures teellling with the Bub=,tantial 
ncce:::;saries, but even with the rich fabrics and choice productions uf the 
world; large and elegant churches, within easy access, through the :\Iosaic 
windows and stained glaðs of which the sunlight entcrs; the printing pre8S 
and the news deputs, rich with the modern literature of the old and new 
worlds; profcs:::;ional I5kill, both medical and legal, of the highest order, 
and the IllOSt re:::;pectable attainments; a fine Court IIou:::;e and a massive 
J ail, with all the paraphcmalia of justice and law in their robes of office, 
Mills and manufactories of large propurtiuns, anù capable of an iy.dcfinite 
extension; the iron rail, and the panting locomotive, with the bustling 
railway station, within ea
y Illuming walk of the inhabitants, and within 
rifle shot of the 
ite of that first rudc dwclling where the early settlers of 
1818 livcd in COllllllon until their first shanties could bc crccted in the 
mighty forcst; :::;tcamboat cOllllllunication stretching far into the interior of 
a fine country, yet undeveloped, and tecming with rich forc:,:>ts and vast 
mineral deposits, which lllay yet :;upply the wants and the necessitics of 
half the world, 
'''"hat a contrast does all this:-the reality of to-day,-prcscnt to thc as- 
tonisJled vision of the advcnturous pioneers who fifty years ago penetrated 
this spot, then in all the wild rudeness of nature, and passed their first 
nights bencath the spreading branches of tIlC hemlock and the pine ! 
Surely a country capablc of such astonishing development has still attrac- 
tions for the immigrant from other lands, who may, now as then, in its 
newer districts, carve out for himsclf a homc and an independence, with 
equally gratifying results, 'Ve have still in our rear, millions of acre:::; of 
arable I-mds, well watered, and rich in all the wild treasures of nature, 
which need but the strong arm and thc determined will, joined with pru- 
dence and foresight, to become the home of thousand:::;, who in adding 
to the country's wealth, will be mo:::;t surely enhancing their own, 
The picture here drawn is nu fancy portrait: the facts recorùed are 
stern re:tlities, and what is here written of the township of Smith might 
with equal truthfulness, be, in gTeat part, repeated in the case of nearly 
every township in the county. 
The establishment of a cheese factory by John 'Valton E:::;tt., in this 
township, in 1866, is an interesting fact, indicative of the varied reHources 
of the Canadian farmer, During thiM firl'ìt Reason, 1 GOO pounds of excellent 
cheese were manufactured by .Mr. W' alton, ch.iefly from hie own cows. Ae 


tbe importance of thi6 }Jl'ëHlch of trarll', and its adaptation to tbc Canadian 
soil and climatc become better undcfstood, operations likc this lllay be 
expectcd to becomc more frequent, and thcir product more cxtensivc, 1\1r. 
\V alton descrves crcdit for being thc first to introduce thc manufacturing 
of che
sc on so extensive a scale into this county. 
'1'he last census (1861) show:'! the population of thc township of Smith 
and Harvey to bc made up of thc following llationalties :-Ireland 455, 
ngland 35.1, Rcotland, 158, United States 100, Upper Canada 2315, 
JJower Canada 3Ð, other countrics 5. 
The religious ce
sus for Smith and Harvey for 1861, was us füllows;- 
Church of England G5G, it. Catholic 492, \V, ::\lethodists 707, Bible 
Christians)78, Free Church 815, Church of Scotland 88, Baptists 376, 
othcr l\IctllOdif:ts 94, othcr chul"Ches 
'1'he total population in 1861 of both townships was 3426, of which 
1811 wcrc males und 1615 femalcs. Thcre were in 1860, 17 death8, 114 
birthR, and 752 children att('uding school. 
'fllC 'Vardenship,- The township of Smith has had thc honor of twice 
furnishing a \'" ul'rlen for the county, in the person of 1\1. S. Dean, Esq,; 
who held that importaut position during the ycars 1861 and 1862. 
\Ve cUllnot procurc the names of the local municipal officers of this and 
the other townships, during lllany years, without an amount of labor quite 
disproportionate to the results intended in this little publication; and IIlust 
content our:scl\'es and the reader with a list of the Recves, Magistrates and 
other prominent officials for thc. township, which we herc subjoin :- 
District Co tUlcillo l'H. 
1842, Stephen Nicholls, 
1843, \Villiam Dixon, 
18.t.l, \Villiam Dixon, 
1845, \Yilliam Dixon 
md Thomfis Bell, 
1846, Thomas Bell and Jolm l\Iilburn, 
1847, Thomas Bell and John Milburn, 
1ö'l8, Thomas Bcll aud John l\lilburu, 
184H, 'fhollUU; Bcll and John .l.\Iilbum, 



COJt1lflj rOll1Lc i llol'S. 
Deput.y Reaves. 

18;)0. Thomas Bell, 
1851, .John l\Iilbul'l1, 
1852, ThonHtR Bdl, 
1853, Thomas BelJ, 
1854-, John \VaJton, 
1855, John "-'alton, 
J 856, John "r alton, 
1857, Jolm'Valton, 
1858, Isaac Garbutt, 
1859, )1. S, De:m, 
1860, M. R Dc:m, 
18G1, M, S. Dean, 
18G2, 1\1. S, Dean, 
18G3, John \ValtoH. 
1864, John \Yalton, 
18G5, John \Yaltoll, 
1866, 1\1, S. De:m, 

Tsa:1C Garbutt, 
aac Garbutt, 
Isaac Garbutt, 
Isaac Garbutt. 
Isaac Garbutt, 
Georgc :FitzgcraM, 
Isaac Garbutt, 
(:eorgc Fitzgerald. 

 THE TOWN:;IIll' 01<' S

Stl'pllCll NicholJs, 
\Yilliam Dixon, 
Thomas Be]], 
Thomas !1'itzg('rald, 
John IIarycy, 
.J ohn HalJ, 
\ViJJiam II, 1\IOOl'C, 
.J ohn BclJ, 
\Villiam "Elliott, 
mmanuel Mann, 

.John Milburn. 
Tholllns TulJy, 
.TonatJwn Stephenson, 
.J olm \Valton, 
Isa..'lc Garbutt, 
IJcwis Davi
1\1. S, ])(}:m, 
l\Iiehael Salldcr
:-;, H. KelJy, 
Anùrew TulJy, 

\Villiam Nic1lOlJs BS(h wns nppnintrll to this office in 18.H. From thtlt 
time uutil1852, the dutics were ùischar
ed by County SUI)crinteudents, to 
whom referencc is ma.ùe elsewhere in these pages. Thc ltc,', _K Uobcrts 
was appoiuted Local Supl'rinten\1cnt in 185
, mul rOlltinucù to hol\1 this 
otlìC't' nuinh'rrnptl'dly until lRGG, wheu J:tJH('
 Strntton E2lh W:1


appointed Local Superintendent of this and some of the adjoining 
Tuwnship Clerks, c.l
c.-l\Ir, Thomas Milburn was the first township 
clerk of Smith, l\Ir, Christopher Burton has now hcld that position for 
many years, and has also been for some years Treasurer,-officcs which 
he has fillcd with great crcdit to himsclf and advantage to the township. 


The township of Otonabee was surveyed in 1819. The first actual 
settler was Mr. George Kent, who, with a number of immigrant:;, accom- 
panied the lntc Captain Spilsbury to the township in that year, and wa
located on his land before the township was formally thrown open to set- 
tlement.. The others did not become settlers, and from some cause remain. 
cd but a short time, 
Capt. Chas. Rubidge, R. N., also visited Otonabee in 1819; and returnctl 
with his family for permanent settlement in May 1820. He was thc 
first in the township to perform the settlement dutics and secure a title 
to his land, 
A considerahle number of settlers came in during that year, (1820). 
These, as nearly as can bc ascertained, were, John 'Yalstead, Major Design, 
'fhomas Carr, John :Nelf;on nnd his sons Andrew and 'Yilliam, John 
Mackintosh, - J..Iindsay, Ambrose l\layctt, James Beckett, Thomas 
.Nelson, Gcorge Esson, with his sons Thomas, Alexander, Daniel and 
Uobcrt; John Fife and family, among whom were six sous; James Foley, 
(uncle of the late James Foley, of Norwood, who remained but a short time) 
.John Stewart, 'Villiam Sowden and Ralph Davidson, Besides these, therc 
were the following single men without tiunilies :-Robert Redpath, James 
Hunter. George Banks, Nicholns Bullen, Robcrt. Ferguson, Robcrt Hyatt. 
Lieut. J('Ilkins and - {1ollier. 
For many long years bcfhre the surveyor settlement of Otonnbee was 
ly contemplated, a trading post for thc purchnse of fur and the 
exchange of commodities with the Indians, was kept, at first., by an intel- 


ligent Indian, named Herkimer, and afterwards by Major Charles Ander- 
son, on the shore of Rice Lake; but 3.':! their object was not that of settle- 
ment, we have not mentioned them among the roll of honored names, to 
whom posterity will point as the patriots, who first hewed down the forest, 
and by their labor and their exmnple, nmid many dicouragements, have 
made this fine township what it now is-one of the foremost in intelligence, 
in wealth, and successful industry in western Canada. 
The location of the rude house which 
erved for the shelter and the 
home of the lonely trader, was on a point of land just below the sit
the present Indian village,-Hiawatlw, Since the erection of the dam at 
Hastings, (formerly Crook's rapids) the point has become an island, on 
which the remains of the stone chimney and traces of the old house arc 
still visible. \Yhat a lonely situation three-quarters of :t century ago, yet 
not without its pictureHque attractions! The sparkling lake in frûllt, 
redolent with life amid its grassy deeps as yet scarce conscious of the hook 
or spear,-the moaning waves dashing upon the silent shore, beyond which 
rose the giant forest, "nst, intCiminaLlc. And then the drifting snows, 
like a great winding sheet., which for half the year closed up the scene! 
'Vhat cared he-the, hardy trader-for the SUlllmer glories or the win- 
ter's blaf'ts. Secure in his cosy hut, with a blazing fire, he bade defiance 
to the storm, as he counted þis furs, and shrewdly h'11e
sed the hundreds of 
per-centage to be realized from his purchases. 
But how changed the prospect now! The towe1'Ïllg pine and the gigan- 
tic elm, with their less imposing brethren of the forest, have in great part 
passed away, and whcre they stood. the snug farm bouse, surrounded by 
broad fields of waving grain, attract the sight. Agriculture, followed by 
the numerous appliances of civilization, stepped in to monopolize thc soil; 
and adjoining the spot where once the solitary trader pursued his avo- 
cation, thousands now subsist, in comparative wealth and substantial 
A number of gentlemen occupying the position of half-pay officers, 
secured the greater portion of the lots along the front of the township; 
thus obliging the other settlers, not without some reluctance, to take t1p 
})ositions further to the rear. 
m'eral of these gentlemen were not actual 
residents, but cmploycd persons residing in the vicinity to perform the 
srt.tlement duties for them: :md runny of those who actually settled on 
their land, remained' but a few yearfl, and then son
ht a home more eODf!;c- 
Dial to their tastes elsewhere, 


The first thing required of t.he lIcttler in those days, was to go before 
the land Agent, (who resided at first in Toronto, but an agency was after- 
wards opened at Cobourg,) and take the oath of allegiance. For adminis- 
tering this oath, a fee of seven shillings :md sixpence was charged; and 
the applicant was then furnished with a location ticket for any unoccupied 
lot he might have selected. This ticket entitled him to a free grant of 
fifty acres on performing certain conditions known as f:ettlement duties: 
and on satisfactory proof that these terms had been complied with, a deed 
was issued for the fifty acres, with right to purchase the othcr fifty, or 
:my oHler unoccupied lands in the vicinity. The second fifty acres could 
be procured (tlms securing 'I 00 acres) on t.he payment of J.:4; but with a 
view of checking speculation by non-seWers, :m ndditionnl 200 acres could 
only be got by paying æ3G, But these prices wcre subto:equently rcduced, 
and land could afterwards be obtnined at prices more consonnnt with thc 
circumstances of the time. The rule was, that. the settlement duties must 
be performed within eighteen months, or the dnim was forfcitet1, and 
lllight be handed oyer to another. 
These settlement duties consisted in chopping ùown and clenring out 
the trees :md brm
llwood along the concession line in front of the lot, to 
the widtJl of two rods, anJ slnshing down the timber four roJs wide along 
side of this-thus making nl1 opcI1ing through t.1lC forest six rods wide, 
along the cntire length of the lot of IOU acres, which, with similnr work 
on the part of the owner of the oppositc lot., opened to view the whole 
breadth of the concession line, In addition to this, a dearing of two acres 
at least, must be made, und a house or shmlty 18 x 
o feet in Rize erected 
on the land, 'fhe absentees, who hired men to l1Cl'form this work, did 80 
at an average expense of $25 per 100 acres, varying, of course, according 
to circumst.ances and the terms of t.he bargain maae, But., as a rule, 
these requirements were only very pnrtinlly fulfilled; the sterner necessities 
of the settler occupying his time; while the difficult.y of access to the 
new settlements, and no doubt a. desire to deal leniently with the early 
pioneers, rendered official enquiries ensily r-:atisfied, or cvaded, without 
any vcry serious dereliction of truth. 
The only means of ingress to the township of Otonabee, in those early 
days, was by crossing Rice IJake in smull boats or skiff.<;, hired for the 
ion, at. a tariff of charges wllich would now bc com:iderpd very high. 
For instance, a boat anJ a l)Oy to cOn\'ey a pas
enger or two from Gore '8 
lanJing to Foley's point, could hardly he procured for less than four Jol- 


lars. III C01l5C{tUell
e of' tbe inexperienec of' most of the settler!:) as to the 
managcmcnt or a boat in rough weather, these small crafts were fre- 
quently upset by the swells, and thc luggage with which they were usually 
loaded, as ",ell as the liyes of the passengers endangered, or lo
Several accidents of this kind are remembered, and also some very re- 
markable escapes. In the fall of 1820, a l\Ir, Housten, an intending 
settler in Asphodel, and his three sons, with their effects, arrived at the south 
side of the lake, where the owner of a boat of considerable size, was de- 
manding what was regarded as an extravagant sum for ferrying them 
across, Lieut. Jenkins and a ship carpenter named Collier, who had just 
returned from Kingston with a trim sail boat, promptly undertook the 
task, and the passengers and their goods were placed on board the little 
vessel, which was heavily laden, As they approached the first island, a 
squall arose, the vessel swamped, and the five passengers found themselves 
immerscd in the water, amid floating trunks and a bundlc of bedding. 
.Jenkins could not swim and speedily sank; Collier was an excellent 
swimmer, but his pockets were loaded with shot. He struck out for the 
island, but becoming entangled in the rice, he too was drowned. Housten 
and his sons, with rare presence of mind, clung to their floating goods, 
which kept them afloat until the larger boat arrived from thc shore, and 
they were rescued. 
John l\IcIntosh and hh; daughter l\Iargaret, perished, as was believed, by 
breaking through the ice, in attempting to cross. His body was found 
during the following spring in Foley's bay, and hers further down at a 
point of land since called Margaret's island. 
Other fatal nceident" of a similar kind were not unfrequent, so that the 
passage of the lake came to be regarded as dangerous. This circumstance, 
combined with the total absence of milling facilities, and the great exer- 
tions and expense involved in getting supplies from without, cast a gloom 
of despondency over the young settlement. Many of the younger men 
left the township, to seek occupation elsewhere, and at the end of the 
third year, the new sctttlement had receded rather than advanced, 
During these early yearð, hand-sleighs were frequently used during the 
winter months to transport provisions and necessaries, from the south side 
of the lake, across the ice, and along a devious road through the almost 
cked snow, to the hungry mouths, several miles inland in the forest. 
Even after Scott's little mill was erected at "the Plains," it was difficult 


or impol:!I5ible to rcach it in the depths of winter; while during the SUlllmer 
months, those residing in the south-eastern portion of Otonabee, found it 
to their advantage to carry thcir scanty store of grain scvcra} milcs to 
Rice Lake, paddle it up to thc mouth of the Otonabl.'C river, and thencc 
along the windings of that crooked stream till at lcngth the longed-for 
destination was reached, (Scott's mill, at "the Plains," now Pcterborough,) 
and after an indcfinite delay, they returned by the samc route. 
Not only were passcngers and goods conveyed across thc lakc in small 
boats, but also young cattle; and in Olle instance, as wc arc credibly in- 
formed, a settler conveyed down the lakc, a distancc of 14 miles, 4 head 
of cattle two years old, in a Ekiff, he paddling all thc way scatcd in the 
For many years the skins of the hogs, annually killed, were made into 
moccasins, with the hairy side in, as a substitute for boots, and in the 
scarcity of tea, which was then a costly luxury, wild peppermint, sweet 
balm, and other herbs were made to take its place, One of these went by 
the name of 
'oley's tea, and some others were believed to be an antidote 
to fever and ague,-a disease from which the early settlers suffered 
These were the times to try men's patriotism and to test their patience; 
but well and bravely did the men and the women too of that day 
their privations; and though many of them have passed away to their rest, 
those who remain, and their children's children, enjoy the fruits of tbeir 
labors. The heart loneliness of many of theEe early settlers, and the long- 
ing for the familiar objects of their native land, expressed ill the fol1owing 
original lines, written in Otonabee and published at a latQr date, must 
then have found an echo in the bosom of many of these early settlerI'! at 
the time of which we write. \Ve quote the lines from the Cobourg St r ll, 
of December 3bt, 1831, without being able to indicate their author:- 

1 canna ca' this forest, haInE', 
I t is Hae hame to me ; 
Ilk tree is suthern to my heart, 
And unco to my e' e. 

If I cou' d see the bonny broom 
On ilka sandy know' ; 
Or the whim. in a' their gowden pride, 
That on the green hill grow; 


If I cou'd r;ee t.he primrose bloom 
Tn Xora's hazel glen; 
And hear the lintips chirp and "ing, 
Far frae the haunts 0' men: 

If I cou'd see the l'i!'illg sun 
Glint owre the dewy corn; 

\.nd the tUllefu' lav'rock
 in the 
Proclaim the coming morn: 

If I could see the daisy spreall 
Its wee flow('r
 0\\"1'(' t.he lee: 
Or the h('ather scent the moulltnin hreeze, 
And the ivy climb tlw tree: 

If I could Sf'(" the lane kirk yartl, 
Whar' frien's lye sitle by 
id(> : , 
Anù think that I eoulll lay my bane:- 
Besil!(\ them ",h('n I {liell : 

Th(\l1 might I think tl1i,.; forest, hame, 

\nd in it live and tl("(' ; 
:'\01' f(\el regl'f't at my IW31't's core, 
)Iy nati,'(' land for thee, 
Otonaùee, bt Decemùer, 18;H. 
A short time flfter Cflptflin RuLid
e Iwd loeflted, with his family, on 
his land in Otonabe(', antI enrly in-the summer of 18:!O, he was visited by 
.JoIul Covert, ERCI', (father of the Presid<,nt of the Port Hope, Lindsay 
and Beavertoll n ailway, and 'Villimu JI, Draper ERfl" now Chief Justice 
of 1 
 ppel' Canada, but then an unfledged hal'l'istcr; both of whom intended 
to locate thelJl
clYCs on land in Utonal)ee. 'l'he fimner r.:entIenum, indeed, 
had nlready l'urehnRC'd fifty acres of lanel from Cnpt, H.uhidge; but the 
prosl)cct of' the new settlement wns far from encourngin
, nnd the black 
flies at that season provcd RO annoying. that, after spending a ni
ht in 
('npt, n's unfinished domicile, using t1lC' loft, partly floorclI with board
for a sleC'ping apartment, they were only too willinp: to heat a retreat, 
without even visiting the Inl1lI on which t heil' pInns had previously been 
It is not to 1)e wondcrf'd at. that in the condition of the eountry whieh 
t1wn rrcy:tiled, ot1l<'l'S of thosc who had chosen locations, a1JandOlH'd t1wm, 
anlI, possessed of lI1f'ans to some extent, sought cI'Iewhel'e thcse advnntagcs 
allù facilitics which timc :md 
he iuc-rease of population, aiùed by the 


paternal care of tl1e (1nvf'rnnJent, at lcngth provided even here. find which 
have since placed this townshi
 on a level with tho
e most favored in the 
Of Uie entire first settlers, whose names were previously given, four, 
only, now survive; but these continue hale and vigorous, and give promise, 
we trust, of many future years, Their names are :-Captain Charles 
Rubidge, R. 
" :Mrs. (George) Esson, Mr. George Howson, l\Irs. (John) 
Blizard, (senior). 
Among the early settlers in Otonabee, deserving, from his talents and 
enterprise, of more than a mere passing notice, was Thomas Carr, Esq, 
This gentleman, after a residence of about ten years in the 'V cst Indies, 
became afflicted with a white swelling of the knee, which caused him to 
return to his native land. He underwent the operation of amputating the 
diseased limb at Edinburgh, and on his recovery, made his wny to Canndn 
in the year 1819, and with his brother Andrew, settle<J in Otonabee during 
the following yenr. The two brothers acquired the land on which the 
village of Keene stands, Thomas owning the 100 acres on the south, and 
Andrew that on the north side of the intersecting line, Andrew was 
killed soon after by the fall of a tree while performing settlement duties on 
the land of one .fenkinR; but Thomas continued an active life for lllany 
years, displaying much enterprise, and investing large means in both farm 
and store. Of a cultivated and obsêrving mind, he wrote frC{Juent articles 
of local interest chiefly to the Cobourg Sim', one of the enrliest, if not-tIle 
first, newspapers in the tIlen N.eweastle District. 
Cnpt, Itubidge kept the first Post Office in Otonabee, at his residence; 
but 1\11', Carr was the first Post-master in Keene, and at one time con- 
ducted an extensive business both at Keene nnd .Norwood. He Fmbsequent- 
ly entered into a mercantile partnership with 
rllOmas_ Shorb BSfJ , and the 
Post Office was then transferred to their joint store. After fulfilling 
various public trust.s, among others representing that townshil) in tJ1e Dis- 
trict Council, and by his eXaluple and his pen, doing much to mitignte the 
disadvantages of settlement in a new country, he at length became melan- 
choly nnd depressed in spirits, and although surrounded by kind aIltI at- 
tentive friends, he seemed unable to Hhake off the incubus which weighed 
upon his mind. The following lines written by him in 1831, and pub- 
lished in the ]ocnl papers of the district, are applicable to l1is owu sad end 
in November, 18GO, which occurred in the house of a near relative; for he 
had never married. 


OIL tlte late lamented death of - bsq., w/to fell by lti:s úiClt lWlLd. 
Why did::;t thou stop the vital stream .! 
Oh! ::;ay, what pang, thy bosom tore '! 
Ila(l life: s fair prospects ceaseù to beam? 
01' cheri::;hed friends didst thou deplore? 
Did love his golden shaft:; employ, 
And in thy bosom leave a dart, 
To pierce thy hopes of earthly joy, 
And rankle in thy bleeding heart '! 
Or did ambition fire thy breast, 
To tread the thorny paths to fame 1- 
Alas! ambition mars Our rest, 
And envy blights the fairest name. 
Thou not toiI'd through life so long, 
To find that all its scenes are vain;- 
That love belies the poet's song, 
.And earthly Illeasure:; end in pain. 
Could not fair fame-connections high, 
Thy heart-corroding cares beguile? 
Ah! what can stay the heaving sigh, 
''''hen mental plcasures cease to !:imile ? 
\Vhere art thou, now? what :;cenes contain 
Thy viewles.-; form, from dust refined '! 
Does memory still her sense retain '! 
What cares employ thy active mind'! 
Yon beauteous orb which beams on high, 
Know'st thou its nature and its frame '! 
Its kindred spheres, that cleek the sky, 
\Vhat sources feed their ceaseless flame? 
The world, coneeaI'd from mortal sight, 
Thou knowe
t now-we soon shall know; 
\Vhat scenes aùorn yon realms of light, 
Far from this earth, and earthly woe, 
..\ few short years shall11a::;::; away, 
And life's vain tumult::; all shall cea::>e ; 
I too shall hail my la.test day, 
And slt't'p, like t.hee, at la:;t in l'eace. 
Otonabee, November 15, 1831. T. C. 


Before taking lcàvc of lItc cai.'ly scttlcr:-l, and proceeding with a brief 
:;ulllmary of :.-,ubhcflucnt C\'Cl1t8, it lllay be well to mcntion, that thc familic
of thrce of the fir:;t settlers who calllC frum Kincardine, parish of TulIy- 
Hllen, Scotland, Ulullbered on their 
cttling in Otonabee twenty-six :;ouk 
Two of thcm, )11'. .John }i'ifc und l1Ir. G-corgc "Ebson, wcrc among the fir:o-t 
scttlers, and 1.\11'. David IIellder
on, the third of the trio, joined them within 
two or thrce years, of th('
iC twent,y-:;ix person!', sevcnteen arc now living, 

.fter all interml of it) years. Ouly ninc have died,-threc frum old a
having excerdcll four scorc ycars, two at at!.-es between seventy and sevcnty- 
five, and four between thirty alld fifty-five years of age, One of the 
parents still survivcs in thc l)erson of" l\Ir
. George J
:-:son, This fact is an 
illustration or the healthfulncss of' this climate, notwit11stallding the 
d:mgers find pri\-ations incidcnt to early 
cttlement in a new country. 

In thc fall of'the year 1825, fifty-onc fiuuilie:.-5 were added to thc residents 
in Otonabee from among the imIlligrants under the Hon, Peter Rubinson. 
In the :;ettlelllcllt and location of these, upon their lands, it has already 
heen stat,ed, that Captain Rubidge, rendcred efficicnt aid, which was not 
the less prompt and obliging in that it was gratuitously given. 

Those of the immigrants who located in Otonabec, havc probably, on 
the whole, provcd more successful than those in other townships. They 
had the advantages of an intermixture with settle1's earlier than themselves, 
from whose expericnces they spcedily learned the bcst mcthod of subduing 
the forest, and whose cxample of thrift and enterprise they imitated to a 
greater extent than in localties almost wholly peopled by thcmselves; where 
practical lessons likc these were more sparingly supplicd, 
During the same ycar, (18
5) Dr, .Tohn Gilchrist Cl'ect
d a grist mill 
at Kecnc, with one run of stoncl:!, and a saw-mill with a single upright 
saw. In order to do this, an excavation for a water courl)e of haIr a mile 
in length was necesHary, which he successfully accomplibhed at his own 
expense, though aided in part by the voluntary labor of the settlers. In 
order to increasc the supply of watcr in thc Indian river, on which this 
mill and that of the lIon. Zacchcus Burnham, subsequently erected at 
'Varsaw, depended, these gentlemen, in after years, excavated a short cut 
frOll! Stoney Lake to the head waters of the Indian river, which materially 
increHsed the supply, and thus aftul'ded a 
cconJ outlet to the waters of 
that lake, 


In the winter of' lS2D-30, Dr. Gilchri
t opcned the fil'ðt r,tore in Keene, 
and about the samc timo a branch uf the htorc uf 1\11', Dougall Campbell, 
of Cobourg, was aJ:..:o opencd. in thc \"icinity, under thc managcmcnt of 
:\Ir, .Tamc:) Cnulluings. )Ics
rs. Fuley and Grovel' were the third firm ill 
mercantile busincss at Keenc. Prior to this period a tavern was in cxist- 
ence thcrc, kept by ::\11'. 
\rchiLald Sclsou, and anuther followed, kept by 
Mrs. Hartley, now of Norwood. Thomas Short, ES'h for 
ome time 
)1. P. p, for the county, came to Otonabec whcn but a boy in 1830, 
His subsc([uent succc:-;sl'nl nUll exten:-;ivc busincss, which, during many 
year:), rendcred Keene and Allaudale excellent markets for the produce of 
the county, are well knuwn tu cvcry unc here, and nced not be further 
referrcd to. 
Among the earliest improvemcnts or a public kind in this tuwnship was 
a road from Rannistcr"s point, on Rice Lake, to the Town of Peterborough, 
laid out by Captain Huhidge, und gruded in a great mcasure by his own 
personal exertions, aid cd by a grant of llloncy fi'om the magistrates of the 
Newcastle Di:-;trict, Sir Percgrine 
[aitlanù pabsed up this road on his 
way to Peterborough, in the winter uf 182G, _For many years it was 
known as Rubidge's road, in consc(luence of the great interest taken by 
that gentlemen in cutting out and rendering it passable, 

The first school house in Otol1aboe was or logs, and stood on the cast 
half of lot no. 20 in thc 4th concession. It was built in 1829 to accom- 
modate a few families then in the vicinity, but WàS never occupied as in- 
tended; a second house-for this purpose was erected a year or two Inter at 
a little distance, on the east half of lot no, :W in the third concession, 
Aid towards procuring gla&<;, &c" was rendcred from Cobourg; and that 
locality also contributed a teacher in the pcrson of l\Ir, David Housten, a 
Scotchman, who was detained by a severe attack of fever and ague at the 
house of Mr, John 'Villiams, above Sully, for nearly two months. Beinp: 
in a })recarious state, Dr. Gilchrist was sent for to visit him, which he did 
more than onee, On his recovery, hi::; gratitude to the doctor expre:ssed 
itself in a letter of thanks, in which he lamented that he had no money, 
but promised to pay him as soon as he could, In reply he received the 
following letter replete with the spirit of true christian charity, which we 
present to the reader all the 1110re readily from the fact, that we have but. 
few writteu memorials of the kind physician or the enterprising citizen 
from whom it emnnated :- 


Rcply tv the JIoncy{css Paticnt, 
SIR,- 'Vhcn you sce a fellow-creatnrc in distreös relieve him a
 far as 
your abilities will allow; and in so doing you will discharge the debt you 
owe to 
Otonabee, - 1830. JOHN GILCIIRIST. 
In 1832, a school was opened in Keene by l\lr, Thomas Dennehy, and 
continued by him for several years. In 1833, the official returns placr 
the attcndance at this school at 20 children; and in that taught by 1\11', 
'Villiam Coulter, in the section now known as nu, 5, at 21. In 1835, 
neither the schools nor the attendance appcars to have greatly increased; 
as by the returns made, 1\11'. Dennehy's school at Keene had an attendance 
of 24, and l\Ir, 'Villiam Donaghy's 23. 
Grants were made by the Legislature from timc to time for the improve- 
ment of the roads; and from 1830 to 1840 such items as the following 
occur frequently in the Appendix to the J ournals of the House :-On the 
road from Rice Lake to Peterborough, Æ80; on the road from Keene 
towards Asphodel, Æ25; on ditto towards Crook's rapids, Æ50; on bound- 
ary between Otonabee and Douro, Æ50, The sums thus granted were 
laid out under the superintendence of cOlllmissioners named in the Act, 
the most prominent alllong whom were Captain Rubidge, 'Villiam 'YI1Ït- 
law, Thomas Carr, J amcs I1opc, Esquires, and others. But besides these 
occasional grants, a very large amount of work was voluntarily performed 
9 mtis , by the residents, in order to improve their roads. 
The first who ministercd to the spiritunl wants of the people in this 
township was the Rev. Samuel Armour, Episcopal clergyman of Peter- 
borough. It was his custom to hold service once a month at the house of 
1\11', John Nelson, Sr, The 'Vesleyan Methodists came ncxt, and among 
the earliest of these, was the Rev. 1\11'. Evans, missionary to the Rice Lake 
Indians, and the Hev. Daniel Mc3Iullen, of the Cobourg circuit, These 
gentlemen or their co-laborer::;, preachcd once a month at the houses of 1\11'. 
John Fife, Jr" and subsequently at tllOöe of 1\11', John Stewart and 1\11'. 
George Howson. The first Presbyterian minister who visited Otonabee 
was the Rev. Archibald Colquhoun, about the year 1834, He resided 
about five years among his parishioners there, and then, a diffcrence arising 
between him and his hearers, he removed to Dummer. The Rev, 1\1r. 
'Vall ace succeeded him; but his health was infirm, and on hi:) retirement, 
the Presbyterian body was supplied for SOllie year:) by llii

iullaries, uutil 


the indud.ion of the TIev, 
r 1'. Andrews, who RtiU r(,f';ides at Keene. The 
prescnt )Icthodist and Presbyterian churches, at Keene, were the first 
erected in the township, m'any years ago, but the l}recise date we have 
been unahle to nscertain, 

Since the erection of mills at Keene and Peterborough, in 1825-G, and 
the influx of population which then took place, the substantial progress of 
this township has been marked, and almost uninterrupted, It is not 
within the scope of the present work to enter largely into the details of 
the census, or of the genera} statistics of the town!'hips, as these have been 
made public from time to time, and are ea
y of nccess, The following 

ummary, compiled from official returns, will, however, be interesting, as 
shewing the gratifying progre!'s nnd development made by thi
during le:,s than a single generation :- 

Year I .so, of Total Total I Total I 
House- Popula- Assessed I Taxation. \ 
I Holders. tion, Value, 
1832 213 8G2 $ 4G724 $ 224 ì 
1842 3G9 1643 105G23 I I Ashbnrnlmm 
 Gll 3872 G55770 9ß4 r . included. 
1857 853 Ga31 76G120 2187 ) I do. omitred. 
18GG 80:
 4818 558475 

It must be borne in mind that the estimated valuation in the above 
table, is that adopted by assessment for the purpose of levying rates, and 
is much below the full actual value of the lands in question. 
The county rate alone, for the year 18GG, is $3207,-a figure In 
marked contrast to even the entire taxation of former year!', 
In 1853-4, the Cobourg and Petcrborough railway was completed, and 
passed through the heart of this fine township, which was fumished with 
station accommodation. By private enterprise, chiefly, a line of telegraph 
wire was, at the same time, erected from the station to the village of 
Keene,-a distance of about "four miles; and an impetus was given to the 
growth of that village, which, unhappily, has not been sustained; althougll 
it is still the centre for the transaction of a large amount of local 


Since 1860, the railroad. with its huge embankments. its I'usting irons, 
uncI empty ;md deserted station grounds, remaiÐ, lìilent monuments of the' 
mutability of human hopes; and from the repo
e of their l'iolitude, UH- 
broken now by the roar of whef'ls, or the rn
h of the iron steed, they scn'e 
to remind us, that great natural obstruction
, do, 
ometimes, for a time at 
lealìt, bid defiance to the genius and the power of lll11U. 
That this fo;olitude may yet be broken, and this fine road resume i h; 
former uRefulness, is still :ndently desired, and by lllany believed to he 
among the probabilities of the future, 
Xotwithstanding the present disadvantage from the closing of this I'oad, 
-the proximity of the Town of Peterborough on one hand, :md the 
Ihcilities for steam communication on Rice IJake, during the summer 

eason, on the other, place Otonabee in a })Qsition leaving little to be dr. 

ired in the way of speedy transit, and give advant.ages to it, of which any 
township might well feel proud, and before whilòh those of few would be 
The last census (in 1861), 8howed the population of Otonabee to be 
made up of the following nationalties :-Ireland 759, England 289, Scot- 
land -112, United States 37, Upper Canada 2G84, Lowcr Canada 30, other 
countries 10, 
By the same official returns, the adherents of the fo;c\'eral churches werc 
:IS follows :-Church of England GG9, Roman Catholic 1232, 'V csleyan 
Methodist 922, :Episcopnll\Iethodist 6, Bible Christian 80, Free Chnr
1105, Church of Scotland 122, Baptists 7, other 
Icthodists i10, other 
churches 48. 
The total populntion was then set down at 4221, of whieh 2230 werc 
males and 1991 females. During 1860, thcre were 40 deaths, 116 births, 
and 862 childrcn attending school. 
'Vardens,-Otonabee has had the honor of contributing two 1Vardens 
to the County Council, who have very worthily presided o\'cr thc delibera- 
tions of that body. These gentlemen are 1ViIliam Lang and Evans 
Ingram, Escf11Íres,-the former of whom held that important poétion 111 
1860, and the lattcr in 186ß, with credit to themselvcs and advantage to 
the county. 

!HòTJtICT AXD r or:'\'TY ror
CIl T Ol\.


/ri,., C(ll(lIcil(o/".

, Tlwma", Call" :md ,I;Il)lC
18-13, Roger Batc;, aIHI Thollla
1844-. Rogcr Bates and D. )IeFarlane, 
] 81:), Hogcr Batc
 HIli1 j), -'[cFarlane, 
18<lü, Thoma:4 Short mal }), )[(' Fa rl:11I l'. 
1 R'fi, Roger RatcR iHHl ThoJn<ls 
18 J-8, Row'r Bn te
 anr1 ThoIl13S 
] S:J-!ì, Thoma
hol't anrl TIof!cr Batc

'- 'tl I( 11 ('I Cu I( II('illor.
Dcput) It('('\"C-
Hcnry llawhcll, 
,J allle
.James _\ndcr::;oll. 
\Villiam Lml
ltichal'll Ucid. 
Uiehard Reid. 
Thomas Ityall. 
.\ndrcw .Jachon. 
E y<tIl

\lex, Campbell. 
J o::5cph Bowie, 
_\l1llrcw XcJ;O:UH, 
.J ùhn Blizarù, 
Jallle::; Millcr, 
.John -'I ill cr. 


lr';.(J, Thomas 8hort. 
1 ð;) 1, T hO!Iuls 
, \ViIliam Lang', 
18;:)3, \ViIliam Lang, 
18;)4, .Jallles _\ndcrsoll, 
18;);), "
iJlialH Lang. 
18;)G, \ViIliam Lal1
18;:)7, '''-illiam Lal1
18jS, \\ïJJiam Lall
18;)9, 'rillialll Laug. 
1860, "-illiam Lant', 
18li1, Evans Ingram. 
, Evans Ingram, 
, E\'ans In
1861, Lyall:) Ing:ralU. 
18fJ;), }
'al1s Ingram, 
18liG, Evan::! Ingram. 


Thomas Carr, 
Dr. John Gilchrist, 
"Tilliam Stewart, 
Thomas Chamhcrt:. 
'rhom:lC;: RuC'k. 
n,'ò()rge R ('i.J. 


Charles Rubitlgc; 
Dun{'an Cameron, 
Roger }
Henry TIawbdI. 
\\ïllimn IJC'tlI'JIlon t. 
\\ïlli:111l Lallg'. 


J;'('ç;s of tit Pevce-("O

Richard Heid. 
.J:lllle!' Cameron. 
ChriRtopIH'r HOw

Enmfol Ingrum. 
n-eorgc Carlnw, 
.J:ìme!< Millel', 

1.111.'.\1. :-;lÏ
 f'OP. OTO
TIll' fir:-t IAo('al 
npN'intNtd(,lIt uf 
 for OtoualJl'e W.IJ' .Jamt':"o 
_\ndrrsou. Er-:ll" who W:H
 :lppoint(.rJ to tl",t offic(' in 1
 t4. IIp W3
l"t'cded by .\.Jmu 
tnl'1.., E
(I., ill tht" foUowinp; 
'e;ll'. _\ftrl' th(' officp or 
t 'ount.y 
nperillh'lII1(:,Bt h:lll Lcr)l ,li
pensed with, the ltey. E. nnbcrt
:'l'pointcd IJûl'al R\1pl'l'inicnd,'nt of 
chool:-- IiII' thi!' townr-:hip in IS:):!, 
:m-l contillUl>rl 1'0 tu :1I:t until IH:);). in ",hiell year the Rev, l;'rallci:-: 

\l}(lrcws, of KCCIH', rel-dY('II thc :lp}Jointuwllt, :mù retained tIle offiee until 
lSf;G, wllClI th
 11<'y. Da\'id t \mtlon, of' P('t-crborou
h. \\":1:-- "})pointl'fl 
Loc31 Su})crilltcndcnt for thi:o: towll:-:hi}). 
The \'ill3gc of Kecnc, fur :-öome years, ha:-: had an t'xedlcllt 
chouL alltI 
tbroughout thl> town:-;hip ;!t:'llcrnlly the work of education is :meecs

})l't'ö rC :-: Slll g, 

('I L\ P'['EH, XX [II, 

I'Ilt: 'l'OW
:-;III1' (H' uoFRO, 
The lir:-:t /")cttler
 in ))0\11'11 arri\'clj in the :mt.\lIlln of' ] S

,-a date 
prior to the :-:urycy of the' towllship: whit.h was )Halle' in thr followin;.:: YC'ilr. 
The ent-cl'}Jri:;iug men who, with their f:m1Ílic
, thus dared thl' llt'rib: of' 
the bu:-öh. wen' Ow Hon. TIHJnw:-: Alcx:111l1l'1' 
tew<ll't, )1. L. ('.. awl 
Uobert [tcid. E
I-h Lot.h uf whom not oulJ tl'iuItlpl1l'd over the llifficultic
of thf' :-öituation, but in :lftl'l' Yl'al'
 ii.Hl1It1 their toil
 r('\\:U'I1f'll 1JY wealtII 
und am Helice, not 11. WI't"(. 1"'è.1 ted .J n
ticrs of the PI':Il'l>, mill filled lIlaIl Y 
other i1111'u1't:lllt (,llil'Cfo1 of trnst :lm1 (,ß101nmeut. in HIP spttlt'llll'nt :11111 aUlid 
th(' COIJ1IHtlßity they If('rc tht' tiJ'
t tl) fOllmL Tutlrf'tl 
o ]Ji
'h W:I
p:'\timation in which .\lr, 
t-cwal't \\:IS hcld, huth ii)}' hi
 }JrrslJl1al 'Iunlitil'" 
:1111.1 tllí' Rcni(:c!' he h;llll'èlult'l'cll by cxalllple amI influencc, in furthering th
 of tlw t'nnntl'Y. hy till' }11'()lllotioll of :H:tunl 
('ttl(,ltu'nt, ill tile 


'yl'al' J l'\a5. llc \\a
 elevateù t(l II 
.'at in till: Lq
i:::latin:' CIH\1wil Ilf Uanall a , 
J.yappoilltmcnt or th
 ('rown ;-.l pn
ition hI' "ontinul'd worthily tn till 
1I1ltii tllC pl
1"il)d ur hi
e in :-:Q/ÌI'III1Jcr. 18 fj, 
These gl'lltllJlllCII. un learing: I reIa"l1, werc fnrnishc.-l with Ictter
 to Hw 
f :on'rnor of Pro,'illcc. by wlwm land Wil" :1
:-:i:":IIC\<1 tlll'lll in nÜ\lro, 
tl1<'11 it wi\tlcl'lJ(,!'<
. and; a
 IrC'''I] y l't/ltl'rL lint e \"I'll :o-U 1"\'(';)'('11. 
( r. Stewil rt 
1',\('c.iwIl a p:1"ant of t:!IJH. anti )(1". Rl'irl of 
UlIII .Ier('
. 1111 (:oll,lition fit' 
:wtual IIJdtlcmellt and tllc prrti'rmanc<, of "l'ttJr-lIl1'lIt rlnti"
. at tit., 
tillll'. :-nflieicntly arùnou.. <lull trJin
 c\'cn tur till' :<tontl"
t hearts and tht. 
hl'<l\"('4 :spirit:::. They .Ibn receÌ\-cll pcrmi:-.:.:i'Ju to hold tlu' elltirc tow 11- 
I'hip f,'I' it period or lire }carl", with a ,-icw tu pWllwting- it:- 
ettkllll'l1t h." 
tll(\ir frielld:-:, aettuaintalwcl' nr othe1"l'i. who might he ill(ll1l"{'11 to cllliörat.- 
cttl<, in so remute .t 
itnation-a right wltich thc)' dH','rfu1Jy :mll 
Piltriotically rdill'lui:-:h.f'rl at the n"luc
t (It'thc HIIII. Pet(')' nohin
J 8
:). 011 hi
 :lrrh":Il:tt Pcterl)nr0l1g-h with tlw illl1l1i
T;l1lt... 111\111'1' lli.. 
'" HI l'ge . 

",y c caunot hctter 1'ortr<l) the tlitlicu1ti,.
 and privatio1l:s, a:' we)) :t
1ll incident to the :ieUlcmcut of the tuwnship of DOurl l , at the I,criocl 
rclcrred to. than Ly 'i"oting cutiJ'e th" following tnuehillö nanativc of thc' 
per:-;olwl t'xperil'necs of' the wife (If olle (If the fiJ':,t ::-cttlcr:o:, who kindly fUl"- 
hcd it in re
ponse to our appcal fill' iuti.lJ'matiou in rcg:ml to thu
e carly 
fla)":;; anll to whom. :md to othprs. who hu\'c lhecrfnlly =Is:-oistl'd U:'. Wt' 
arc untler:;u ma"y ohli_!.!-atious. '1'111' fiJ1lowinp: i.. thi!'l 1Il01't intl'\'l':stiu.
narrntÏ\"c :- 
., Ou the first clay of .J UIH'. lð

. wc sailed frum (JudJcc, aceUlupnuil'll 
hy my hl'otller-in-law alld his t
lJniJ;)", which ('on
istcd of hi:, wífc, six 
dauhhters aud three flOHS. W l' came up the 
t, Lawrencc frum La Chilli'. 
ill bOfll'(lIl:t, whil'h wa"i it wry tcdiou:o: mode of travelling. \rc rcachell 
Toronto, (then callcel York) in Augwst
 awl were detained there Hcvt'I':I1 
"ceks by illnc
:o:. )leantimc my hushand nnd hl'othl't'-in-};m pr,wurt',l =1 
. g'l"aut of land in J>OHI'U, and :it<utl'd to :;l'C it." 

'.About the tir;,t of Odoher, we ealUc tu l'obonrg] then a verJ" 
village. 1-' rom thcnec) my hruther-in-Ia\\' with sotuc hircd lUcn IH'ocec,-
diJ"ect to Donro] to lUa
e all opcnin
 in the wood/:!; my Imsbanù being PJ"t'- 
\l'lItecl by iJlne
s from accompanyiug thl'tu. Two c1carings \\ere cOJUIIIl'lIcell 
ahout II. mil,' f..ot)) till' h0111111al',} of the to\ru:-hiJ\ 01" Ololl:tlw,'. E
,rJ} ill 

mhQr, 1lI.' ii;.>tl'r-in-Iaw :lIIcl 11<,1' dlilcll'
'" jlli 'h'lt hpt' h u
,,:t1H1 jilt he? 


Lack\\uu(b. TIH'.Y tuok it !;}J'öc :"!C'OW, ur tlal-LulLoJlJ(.J bUilt. tiVlU Hit.'" 
JJakc, which on the 
cund evening reached thc IJittlc l.J<tkc, They lam]- 
ell ou the point of land ncar whcre the \'iIla
c of Ashbu1'l1ham is now 
f:ituated, and from thpllce proceeded to their 
}lanty, about thn'c mil{'s 
from the landing," 
" 1\1)' hUf'baud, myself and three little children, with a Jlwid-scrnmt. :nul 
<l hoy, werc to eomc up on the rcturn uf the boat; but we were detained 
at Cobourg by the illne;

 of one of our children, and thcrefore wpre 
obliged to wait fi1l' :"leif?:hin
, to perform t1w journey by land, through tlH' 
 of Hope, Cavan and )Ionaghan:' 
"At. that time t1H'rc werC' but fl'w sC'ttlers in thC'
e townshil)s; and oh 
tlw second day we tra\'ellC'll ninC' or tC'1l miles without 
('cing a house or 
\t last., wc re:lclH'd "Scott's milI/' (on the 12th of VC'brnary, 
182:1, :It 1 o' clock p. m,) then the only house in PC'tcrl)orougl1. 
J.Jittlc Lake not IJcinp: safe for team
 to Cl'o:"s on thp icp, WP Wf'rc ohliged 
to walk on-r,-OUl' children and lu!!ga,!!e being carried by our servants, 
and i'ome men who kindly a
:-;isted. The f'1l0W was then :thou!. two feet 
del'l" Our ox-to\
!lm and slf'igh were in wRiting on tbe other side; but JJY 
tlw timc we had ull rl':lC'hl'd the })lace daylight hC'gan to fail, which mad", 
om' progrcÏ's through tIt(' wonds mneh more diffienlt; and th{' slcigh bein
loaded, I wns obliged to walk. Om l:mtPl'n, nnfi1l'tUlHüpl,y, got filled with 
snow, and our p:mdle :-:0 wet that. it would not. light, 
o we proceeded 
slowly, and [it ]Rst peredved a light before us, [md soon readwd onr log 
]lOWW. The light proceeded from a largc woor! firt', whiph rf'joiC'(,tt our 
]1l'nrt:-:. ., 
,. W (' fllHlId onr h01.1:.;e in a very \lUfini
heù f'tate; the door had not 
het'u h\mg, nor werc any partitions mndt'. A large olwning was left in 
the roof, whcl'c the chimllpy wns to ha'"c gonc up, hut the intense fro
11:1<1 stoPI>t'd the m[t
on-work, w]wl1 :lhont. half complet((l. }'inding this, 
l',lihef l'ooled u
, and W(. fpIt Imzzled where to lay onr f'lcepiug children, 
as the floor was COYCl'{'Ù with:t thick {' of icc and mol'tar. However,. 
,,'c soon diHcowrcù somc I')havings }(.ft. hy the !-hingle ll1:tke1's, which Wt' 
FJ' on the ice, alld then laid on our Ulàttr:l
, and on the:<e madt' :t 
tt;lIIpol',lry "shake-dowu," Oil which we cheerfully laid down, after a f'Up- 
})(,l' of tea, bread, hutler anù ))ork. Bping "cry wear)', we f\1t
l)t sonnd- 
ly: hut in the morning, on 10okin
 up, I saw the stars through the aperture 
}f;n f..r Llìl: 
hinmey . 



.. \t thi:- tilDe, my brother-iu-Iaw <lnù hi:" j
l1nily liwd in .111 oi,eu :-lwut.y, 
<lLout half a mile 1I0rth of U:-', ,IUd from havin ö their fire out
idl', tht':" 
wcrc much annoycù by the 
ILl(lke and :-parks hlowint:: in, whieh at night 
ofteu :-ct firc t-o their bedding." 
.. By slow dCf!:rècs these difficulties were :-iunnounted; hut we found new 
t1ifficultiè:; ari:;in
 frum thc want of roads, u1' ::;OlllC meaus of cOllveyin,Q' our 
 from Cobourg, which wa
 tho nearc!'t tOWII. )[1'. .llcthuue W:I:' 
then the only I'tul'C-kcel'l'r there, an<l WHS abo Po:st-mnstcr. We :sellt to 
him when a fresh :,u})ply of provisions or other nece
:-:aries was re4tuireù, 
:md the
e were fonnu'ded to us by way of !lice Luke, which proved a very 
tedious anù expensive mode of conycyance, and tlw delay of our sllpplit'
:-;ometimc dmyc us to mu
t þainful 
traits. In the autumn a sufficient 
Ftorc had to be procured in this way to lal;t for fivc months, as our winters 
at that time set in ahout the end of October and :-:eldolll terminated until 
the middle 01' end of 
\priJ. .At one time, before we had any shoemahrs 
)1('ur us. we sent an ord('r to C01Jonrg fOt. hoots and shoes, for both familil's, 
numbering about twenty persons of nIl ilgcs: and after waiting a long tinw 
H' thcm, wc learned tbat thcy had bl'cn lost in cru
:sing niee J
, and 
<'11uld not be recoH'rcl1, l'hi", was a 
eriou:; los.;, :I
 they could nor 
ht' 1'qilured for bOmt' month:,. aUlI in the JUc.mtimc many wel"C ohliged to 

o barefootcd." 
.. Pea soup and pork W3:i Ol1r ]ìrineip:ll f()od, Om bread was good, when 
we could get good flour, or w}len the yeast was not frozen, \r ery oft('JI 
 had only r)'c meal, which Wa
 not ùi:-:agreeahlc: but one 8e3son, not 
bdng :Ible to procure flour or meal of any kind, we wcrc ohlig('d to USI' 
hûilc<l w}lcat and corn. and were once reduced to h1'an cake
: which 
disagre{'<1 with us.' 
"As onr 61':4 
pring in thc hackwoods :ulvaur.ctl, I was delighted with 
tIlt' heauty :md novelty of the !'ctnc around n
, Our c1t'aring W:IR opel1!'ll 
tu the river. which in thoM: days rUl'hed along with great rapidity LInd 
HoiSt" carrying down large lll:l:-se
 of ice 1'1'011:1. the lakcH anll watcrs abow n
Hil1cC tben the nume1'OUð dams bave marred the natural beauty of the Tin-I" ; 
wllile the fine IH.'mlocks 3))<1 Cl'<larH whit'h grew (,:0 JJt':mtifnlly along- tIll' 
-hauk. we1'è 
incc cut down, and have disafipe
" 10 the Autumn of our iirst ye:U' in DOHI'O, our )'ou))ge
t chilJ, :l 

little girl of not tfuitp. two years old, wa'i seized with dysent.'rj. 1 wa<t 
quit.: ignorant of the treatment of th:it dL:ê:A
e: and theH' "!lS no J,ìo.::tï.r 


within rca(;h,-th
 ncal'c"t LciH
 Dr, lIutchc:::un, wlm therl rc
i,lcrl in 
Ca,'an, a good mauy milt's llistant. 'V" had il
 Jd ]11/ eanm'l'Ion tlll'ri\'cr. 
:Iud were oftcn rlcpending upun a chance yi:.:it. ur thc 111I1ian:-: fin- it l)a:-::-age 
to the other ::side. One rÆ our hircrl mcn, a faithful IIi
how ycry ill our darling was, yolunteercd to :,wil.ll aeru

 the ral'id stream. 
:Lud walk through the wood
 tn the (lodor. prcmi:.;illp.' that, if I wrote the 
partieularj.;, he woulrl hrin:; tlll
"<iry lUcdicim', He started early ill 
in the morning; of it coM OctlJbl'r Ilay, :lIld ,'etul'Ill'rl allont midlligllt, witl. 
:--ome Iluwt1eJ''i anrI a mc
:,age that tlw doetur would comc 1\}1 on the fi)l- 
In" iog day. Hut no improYl'lUent tilllowcd, and tl;c day was passed in 
gTeat anxiety, for the doctor did Hüt 2I.rriyc, On the third day he ,'alliC, 
ha\"ÏlJg left home :It the promi,,'Cd time, but lo;,t hi:; way in the \\'ood:o:, and 
hencc the llclay. Thc next day :-.:he :ll'pcàreù more liwly, hut reru!':cd to 
takc the arrowrüot aUlI :o:ago wllieh T offi'l'l'd her. 
he :t!<kcd f{)r Im'ftc!, 
:111(1 '-If this we had nunc fit to giyc hcr: having for 
OlJle timc been unal)lc 
to Iwocure 
.ood flour, It Wa
 a bittcr trial lJot to haw what she 
to craYe. The lll'xt day :-hc fcll into a :o:tupOI', and tuwarù;; midnight her 
angel :-:pirit. p<1s6c l 1 aWilY to the immortal land, 
\ fi
w weeks after thi
;.;ad c\"Cut: 
h(' was relJ}accd by <1uothcl' tlc,I/' little thmg-htcr,-thc tÌr1-t 
white child l)Ofll in J)ourù, who I'till liv('!', and ig it comfort :l1Ir1 a l J lei'!'1illg 
to hel' ag-l'r1 mot1ll'l' :111 1 1 a fim' family of hcr own." 
".\).:.ue did 1I0t make it
 appearance tin' 
úmc ycars, Behy('cll 18
i.; and 
1 H
j. when the lIon. Pcter Uobin
oll a1'l'i,'ed with il large inlluj
we had many hardships and þrivatiom; to endure, partly from it want, of 
knowledg-c of the prop<'l' ".-ay of n:.anagillg, and partly from the heary 
t":XpCII!'C!' incurred on QUI' fir:--t starting, by the exorbitant charges: and 
J,ig-h price of every kind of pro,-i:-:ions and clothing, bc::;ides the grcat diffi- 
culty of procuring e,-en thc most ncccs::;al'Y artide:-:. But after the cstalJ. 
hment of l)etcrbol'ough, all thc8c difficultics 1!l'arlually disappeared, alllI 
h;wl' HOW llearly faded from my mcmory." F, S. 

Thcrc lliU:-;t havc been many incidenb in the Canadian lite úf the h\ (J 
1ir;;t settlers lllcntioned, which would be worth rccording, could thc)" be 
l"úlUculbc1'cd ü1' re}1roduced, Robert Reid Esq" was a lllan of vigorO\lH 
frame, and fitted by nature to cndurc the difficulties anJ surmount tlw 
ls of curly Cëmadian ]ire. Of these dißicultics and arduou:i toil
, w,' 
ma,' he ",nr,' then' ,wre t'uough in 
tore fm' tht' settler in Dtmro, at th.- 
blrly periild mf'ntinnild a! the date of it. fir
t Sèttlement. The :th!renc


mille. Itore
 and even tbe most ordinary m.echanics, already mentioned in 
the ea
e of 
cttlcrs in othcr tOWJ1f;hi!)8, were ha\'òRh.ip
 cqunlly e.xpetienCt'd 
here. as :t practical illu
tration of which it i
 mentioned that :\Ir. U<,id, 
ha\"illp: broken hi
ing dwin. wm: obliged to carry 01' dr:lg it all thl' 
way to Port Hope to get the brokeu link repaired. Rut all thef'e (,l1rly 
difficulties were overcome by manly ,igour and per!'cwrance. )[r, Heirl 
IIOt only rL1i
ù, but educated. a brgl' f
1U1ily, Bomp of thc m
mbel':-: (I( 
which re
idf' near tIle old fnmily 10f'3tion. and are among- our mol't. rc!'p('cterl 

)Ir. Reid Wi1:-: a .J llstÏ<:e of the PeLKl
, ,l1ill t()l' 11lall)" )'em-
 wortllily di
charged thr cl11tie
 of .\uditor fi)l' th(' County. hCf:itles filling Ynriou
 of trui't in hi:-: municipality. His dc:nh occurred in )I:1r('h. lS;)l). 
:It thc alh"ance,l a
e of 84 ,,"cfirf-:. 
The' lIon. 'r. _\, Stewart. )1. L_ C., wa
 a mall nf le

but a}Jpcars to hrryc borne up llInnfll])Y 3g:lin!'t th(' toils and di
1IlCUt:; incident to curly lite iD the haek,,"oods of l':mada. In the prcet.'d- 
illg pages hi:-: name i
 mt))"l' than om'l' lIll'ntiollcd as a
:-\ocirtted with the 
leading puhlic affairs of the time, 31111 cspc('Î:,lly so a!' l'hairman of till' 
Buihliu;! (.mmnittee of the l'l'c:-:eut Court Ilou
(' aud the old .Jail; ill 
connection with which 
reat l'c"ponsihilit-y amI 1I1ltl'h :mxious carl' 
Ile,.ol\"Crl upon the few )t'öIlling 1I1eu who hacl ill dlõll';:!:c that rreftiou. 
Hlll'ing- hi:-- '-al'ccr as it Le
islati\ c 1'0Ul\(.il10l' he l1id much toward
illlprO\clIlt'ut of this :scctiou uf thc Pruvince; aud chiefly owing t(J hi;- 
influence, the :5lU'\-CY of Ulll' inland wölkrs was ulllicrtakcn, alltl importallt 
wm'k:o; con\1l1cnt'cd. altholl3h tlw great. work of a ship can;ll then }ìl"ojcctcd. 
 I\('\,('r l'U
IWll fin'wanl to t'(}1I1plctioll. 
Oil his llel'eöl
C, the lion, E1)('u('1,el' Pl'l'ry, or l'oJJO\u'g:, wa
 the :-:CI!r 
reprc:-:èntati,'c of this 
ertion of' th(' ('ollntry ill the Legislative Council. 
until that botly Wt'lS made t'lccti,'c, auù the Hon. 'II'. )Iul'11ey be('amr the 
eJlt;itiY<' of the Trrut Division in U;:)7, 
el'telllh('r. 1 
tril'k)alH1. ENh Colonel in thl
militia, who from tlu' year 182;) until that datl'. had re
idcd on land hl' 
hall pun'h
'st',l :-11111 cl('arctl ill the township IIf OtonaLce, o(\e mile frolU 
h. rt'IUCtved to tht> lot 011 whi('ll hI' ha,:> 
illCt' rc:::illcù, :1f'COlll- 
l',micll h.v :t young; l'
ngli..:l\luall uamed l::lWliu::-IJlI. :lUÙ :111 illuuigl':lIlf h)nd
t'lUith n:l1ued Coppin
. who :11"0 :-:Cl'1l\'t..t:1 ltlt of lliud :1 little further uorlù. 

l rl) 

e land
 were procund on tcrll1f" similar to thosl' undf'r w'bich immi- 

 were then beillp- locatcrl in DU11\JIlcl' by Capt
in Unbifl:;.c.-namel,v. 
payiu h to tht' (
OYernlllent five :-hilling
 :m :Icrc within a tr'rlll of fivc Jc;m... 
;11\11 Ij('rformiug th/? settlement dutÌcr--. HC'I'e CoI. Striekl:md commcTJI'('ll 
Ihe 11utic8 and hardships incident to the tin:t 
cttlcment of a new C0tlIltry , 
-with what. suece

, his fine m:msion, with it
rounds oycrlook- 
 t.he KatcheWi1DOonb li1k:e and the flourishing- villagC' of Lal;:cfielc1, 
1180 the broad aprt'S of hi
 rich and well cu1tiy;)trd f;UIll, bc:u amI,h' 
In the AutumB of 18
1, th(,l't" wa
ettlrr within Fevrl':ll mil.'<': ur 
that location, and not even thf' sembl:mc{' of:l 1'0:Hl tu Petcrborougl].-:I 
fli::.t:mcc of nine JJlil,'
-until onC' wa
 ('ut out lll:1illly hy his cxcrtion
trickland }W!': written :1 work. cl,titled .C Twrnty-sevcn )"C:ll':-' jll 
Vau:!d:]," w}lich \fill;: }JUblishctl in London in 18:'3, }JUt froIH some eam
ly circulatcd in t11 is countrJ. ". e would gl:idly puhlish 8cycl'al 
 at length from thi
 u3.lTati\"c, ill reft'rence to the pcr
onfll expè- 
rience of this gentlemen, wel'r it not t.hât the contemplated hounds of t.hi
little \Vork pl'Omi
es to hr :ilready largely l
xce("lc.l, and we Ul\.Uit. content 
lIurseh'c:; with the following':- 
.. I lIlu::)t tcll my rc
tders, that scttliup: ill the Ln
h 11UW, anù twcnty 
}t'õtrs ago, i::) quitc a. ùifiel'èut aff.lir: at the pl'e
eut timc guod road:- aud 
:--<l\V and grist-mills cxi::)t iu almost every township, whil"h was not the case 
when I located my::)elf in Douro, Therc ,,"ere then neither 1Uill
 nor i
torics in my town
hip: nor in tL(' adjoining uncs of 
lIlith to thc we
t. or 
in DUlllluer to thc cast, the nearest mill being in Peterhorougb, tcn milc
l1istant, But if it had bcen twice as ncar, therc was no road or any po

Lility of drawing up boards 01' lumber of any sort; 
u I had nothinö" 
better for it than to do as better mcn had donc before mc, yiz.: to hew 
lJoards out of the solid timber, a work of much difficulty and labor." 
He Rtates that two da}8 wcrc Occul)ieù in getting a load of })l'ovir-iolls 
and othcr lleccs!'aries from })etcrbol'ough to Lakcfield, a di:;tancè of only 
tcn mile:;:, along hi:;; newly-cut road, and al]ds thc following interesting dc- 
taik and :m unmmal incident:- 

tmas was passed, and I was f:till an inhabitant of :m OIJell 
h\.1 t. :\ In]'
f' }Jbck o:lk, which I h'ld frH('d, 
cr\'ed to fi)l'lH the b3Ck of my 
('amp. .\ pok b
hrd firmly ap\'o!'l:a two tl'l'e:o<, tWflre ft.-'et. :lp
rt, :1n!1 :1": 



high a::l I could reach, formed the frunt. ....\ row of :split 
labs, ouc cnd 
resting on the oak aud the other suppol'Íed by the front pole, formcd the 
roof, The cuds of Ill)" camp were stuffed with hemlock brush to kcep out 
Ule wind aad rain, :My bed WàS composell of the samc material, pickell 
fine, and covered with a buffalo robe; and so, with a roaring firc in front, 
I feared ncithcr frost, nor snow, nor raín, 
" It was during JUY sojourn in this opcn hut that the following: sin
ad'\(mture befclme." 
" Reader, did you ever ,:,ee a ghost? ...\ tall spectral-looking figure, with 
large saucer eyes, glides before you j and ere you summon courage to 
address it, vanishes your astonished sight? 'V ell, Canada is no place 
tor ghost!'. The country is too new for such gentry, 'Ve have no fine, 
old, ruined castles, crumbling monastic walls, or ivy-
lad churches-no 
shcltcl' here bnt the wild, wild wood. However, it was no ghost, I saw 
as you shall hear," 
"I had occasion to scnd Rowlandson to Peterborough for a supply of 
provisions and othcr necessaries; but owing to the distance I did not ex- 
pect him back till thc next day." 
"As I had frequently slept in the woods alone, I thought nothing of it. 
I had been busy shingle making all day, and continued my occupation 
until late in the evening. Thc night was cold and frosty; so I had built 
up a large fire in front of my camp, laid my shingle-tacklQ within reach, 
and I was soon fast asleep," 
" How long I had slept I know not, when I was suddenly awakened by 
a sensation of something hcavy scraping my breast j and on looking up, 
what should I behold, but a hideous-lookiug creature standing over me, 
with his fore-paws rcsting on my breast, a loug-flowing beard, eyes which 
shone like coals of fire, and a pail' of horns which would not have disgraced 
Old Niek himself j and to tell the truth, my first impression was that the 
old gentleman had really paid me a visit." , 
" I had, however, no time for reflf'etion-a stallltJ on the breast soon 
roused me to action. Seizing hold of the 8hingle-beetle, I dealt his m<
sueh a blow on the head, that it sent him straight into thc middle of the 
fire, His rough, shaggy coat was instantly in a blaze, aud uttering the 
- most unearthly yells, he rushed into the woods, and literally vanisheò f.'OIu 
my sight in a flame of fire." 


It All that I have related happcncd ill less than a minute, I had nu 
time to be frightened; but I was ccrtainly much puzzled to knuw what 
the beast was, which had paid me such an untimely vi
it, At first sigltt 
I thought it was the devil himself, but on con
iòcration was I'ati
fied my 
visitor could not be that tcrrible personage," 
" I havc heard :md. read much of his satanic majesty being pninted in 
all col
urs, but I never heard of his wearing' a white bcard; und, besides, 
he did not stand fire well enough for a person brougllt up in that clement, 
though he certainly had the horns and the cloven foot, and his general 
appearance was not unlike the })ictures I have scen of the gentlemen," 
"\Yell, the next day cleared up the IllJStery. On my road to I)eterbo- 
rough I had to })ass thc residcnce of the C-ÙI:!, two young gentlemen 
who had l'ecently settled in the township; w]1On to my surprise I saw, 
standing by the road-side, a large billy-goat, whose coat, burn t in large 
})awhes all over, eXplained at once the natme of my nocturnal visitant.. It 
appears that the C-ds had only brought up the goat from the front a 
few days before. .Master Billy had strayed up the road to my place, and 
although his reception was so warm, it proved to be Ilis first and last 

" This àdvellture was certainly a cumical one; but I dare f)ay, if nIl 
ghosts were as warmly received, they would often be found quite as terres- 
trial in their nature as my ugly but harmless nocturnal visitor." 
In 1832, the entire population of Douro was 571. The number of 
persons assessed 126, number of acres under cultivation 990, Three 
hOl'ses were owned in the township, 82 oxen, 105 cows, and 44 other 
horned cattle, * The total a
sessed value of property was $21312, and the 
taxes for all purposes $102, 
Among those who arc still remembered by the early settlers, was Abel 
Perry, who kept a house of entertainment on the leading Douro road, and 
who performed many aets of kindness and hospitality to the early settlers 
of Douro and Dummer, in their laborious journeys to and from Pet.erbo- 
rough, while, in many instance::;, carrying their scanty store of grain or 
flour on thcir shoulders to mill or market. 
During the rebellion of 1837-8, the people of Douro left their hOlUeð 
and their occupations in tbe most prompt and enthm!Ìastic manner, and 

.. OfticllI.l rctUnIs. AppendIX to Journll.l
 or the House of A8


harf'd in the daDgcrs and privations then impending, in defence 
of the Goycrmncnt. In tbe abiòenee of official report
 and reliable memo- 
randa, we are unable to give the names of the brave men in the several 
townships who then distinguished t1H'lllselves by their patriotism and 10)"- 
MltJ, :wd must content ourselves :md the render, with the brief reference 
to the events of that time, in f:O f:1r as this county wns roncernrd, whi(oh 
wiU be found in the preceding pages. 
The site of the present village of Lakefield was early nn object of interel't 

nd speculation to men of capital and enterprise, not only from the fine 
water power it offered, but from the general beauty of the locality, situated 
at the head of a rapids of nine miles, :md just below the Katchewanoonk:t 
lake, and having beyond and further up the f:tream, the denr waters ancl 
})ieture:-que if'lands of Stoney bke. 
A bridge wa!ò1 thrown across the stream at this point at. an early period, 
but being ouly a temporary structure, erected entirely by local and prh'atc 
subscription, it was spc'Cdily carried away by jams of timber pasf'ing down 
the stream, The present exceHent bl'idge is a more recent structure, and 
was erected by the County Council in 185,t 
 the first enterprising settlers at l..ab.fielù was 311', James Thomp- 
sou. The p13ce at first was known as 
, and then as Herriott's 
:fi,lls. In 1851, it passed by the name of Selby. The fir
t grist :md saw 
mills. on the ])ouro side, were burned down. and the village, which l1ad 
begun to show some signs of vitality anell'rogres." declined, and for several 
)'ea1's was pl'eatly neglected. The fine water power pnssed through a 
,'ariety of hand:::.; the IT on. Zaccheus llurnh:un being the chief proprietor, 
Messrs. Strickland anel Reid built and conducted the former saw mill, 
subse({ucutly worked by Strickhmd and } [all. The present large saw mill 
was erectcd by )Ie
H1'8, Shaw & 'V nite, in 18jH, 
oon after the large 
frame mill on the Smith 
icle of th(' river was completed by 3fr. l)'.:\rcy. 
herin, Esq" was the tirst store keepcl' :l.t Lakefield. The small 
school in 18f):{ was t:l.ught by a fcm:lle, So late as 1854 the place could 
not boast even :l tavern. Consillering thc
e facts, Lakefield has made most 
astonishing progl'cr:c;:, and as a pretty anù progressive village, is surpassed 
lJY few c()mpetitor

\ "
eslcyan church. a frame buildilJ
', was openi'd r here in 181:;2, and 
in the following year, the Episcop:tl ehurrb, which has pow been f:upel'- 
.-et1C'ù hy :I ro<.:t1v :JJ1lh'lC'g:mt stoDr C'difir{', whieh j
 not only:! crrùit to n 


village, but would compare:> favourably in elegance of finish with many city 
churches, This ncw c1mreh, dedicated to St. .John the Baptist, was 
opened for service in 18G6, by the Coadjutor Bishop elect of the Diocc::e, 
till rcccntly known :lS the Yen-Archdeacon Bethune. A neat Frec Prcs_ 
bytcrian church also graces a gentle eminence on the rivcr bank; and therc 
is besides a Baptist church, a brick edifice; so th3t in church accommoda- 
tion J..akefield is abundantly supplied, 
A branch of the Division Court was opened at Lakefield in 1863 ; of 
which R. F, Kirkpatrick Esq., was the first clerk. 
This villflge has evidently an important- future before it. As a spot 
to which it is anticipated railroad facilities will ere long bc extended from 
Peterborough, and also t.he point of connection between such a road and 
steamboat navigation on the fine lakes in it.s rear, which is only waiting the 
construction of a single lock at Y oung'liI falls to see accomplished. this vil- 
lage will become a most important btation, and will no doubt. grcn.tly 
extend its operations in trade and manufacture, which for want of:111 adc. 
{Iuate outlet are now to a great extent restrained. 
The immigrants of 1825, to the number of sixty, were located in Douro; 
but as a chnptcr lJ-as already been devoted to their arriva} and scttlement 
upon their lands, 
my furt.her extended reference to those events are un- 
necessary here. l\1any of them have proved eminently successful, and all 
of them havc greatly benefited t.heir position :md circumstancE's by their 
transfcrence to this the land of their adoption, 
'nlere is not much more to add in reference to the township of Douro. 
Its first settlers gradually overcame the privations and difficulties incident 
to early bush ]ife. The forest has long since been thinned away into nar- 
row strips here and there, leaving in its place broad fantis and thc numerous 
dwellings and barns of thc first and later settlers and their children, Be- 
sides the churches of l..akefield and Pet.erborough, which are largely attend- 
ed by residents of this township, a neat and commodious lloman Catholic 
church waR many years ago erected in the southern part of the t.ownship, 
in which officiates a resident pastor. A Post uffice waR f\ome ycars ago 
cstablisllCd in tl1e vicinity, whilc here and there throughout the township 
school houses arc established and in actiy!:, operation, I..arge sums of 
money have been expended on opening up anù improyin
 the different 
roads through t11e township, and altogether, the il1huhitants, who less than 
Imlf a celltnry ago found themselyes in a denf:e and nntracked fort'st, cut 


off by long expanses of wood anò water from the older settlements. and the 
advaTltages of a rleveloped social system, have now, for many yeal's, enjoyerl 
all the adv::mtages and even luxuries of which the residents of older commu- 
nities might well feel proud. 
The population of Douro, as shewn by the last census, for 1861, was 
2497, Of these 1284 were males, and 1213 females. During the year 
1860, there were 6 deaths nnd 82 births. 513 children were attending 
The several nationalties were represented as follows, (in 1861) :-Ireland 
597, being a decrease of 25 as compared with the census of 1851. Eng- 
land 128, being an increase of 54 as compared with the same period, 
Scotland 68, also a slight increase, United Stat-es 18, Upper Canada 1644, 
Lower Canada 27, and other countries 15, 
The census by religion for 1861, showed, Church of England 363, R. 
Catholic 1230, ,Yo Methodist 67, Bible Christian 54, Free Church 22(ì, 
Church of Scotland 50, Baptists 15; members of other churches not 
specified 15, . 
District Co ll1lcillo j'S. 

1848, George Clarke, 
1849, George Clarke, 

1842, Smithin D, Gibbs, 1845, George Clarke, 
1843, Smithin D. Gibbs, 1846, George Clarke, 
1844, George Clarke, 1847, George Clarke, 
rmmt,lj (!ollìlcillor.<i. 
1850, George Clnrke, 1856, James Hogan, 
1851, Sam'l Strickland, 1837, James Hogan, 
1852, David Porter, 1858, George Clarke, 
1853, David Porter, 1859, Geor
e Clarke, 
1854, James Hogan, 18GO, George Clarke, 
1855, James Hognn, 1861, George Clarke, 

Thomas A, Btewart, 
Robert Reid, 
'Yilliam Blackwell, 
Samuel Strickland, 
Patrick Leahy, 
John Sullivan, 

Charles Stewart, 
Robert Casement, 
David Porter, 
George Clarke, 
Michael 'YaI8h, 
Henry J. 'Yickham. 

1862, George Clarkc, 
1863, n-eorge Clarke, 
1864, John Carnegie, Jr, 
1865, Jolm Carnegie, Jr, 
1866, John Carnegie, Jr, 

William S, Reid, 
Edward I..eigh, 
.J olm Sherin, 
'Villiam C, Nichollf:. 
Robert A. Strickhmd. 


18-!4, ::\laurice Clancy, 1855, Daniel Sullivan, 1861, Michael 'Valsh, 
.Next 7 years County 1856, Robert Casement, 1862, Michael 'Valsh, 
. 1857, Robert Casement, 1863, Michael 'Yalsh, 
1R32, Rev, E, Roberts, 1858, Michael 'Valsh, 1864, Michael 'ValsIl: 
1833, Rev. E, Roberts, 1859, Michael 'Valsh, 1865, Dr. T. ,V. Poole, 
1854, Rcv, E, Roberts, 1860, Michael 'Yalsh, 1866, Robert Casement. 


According to official retul'n
, the town
hip of ARphoJel was surveyed 
in the year 1820, Soon after, a few 
tt.lers founù their way into thi
township by way of Rice Lake, among the earliest of whom was 
Ir, John 
Beckett and his family. Other early settlers Im
hed through the wilds of' 
j-)ercy, and crossing the Trent river, nssisteJ in its early settlement.. 
...\mong the munes of the pioneers into A
})hoJel, m'e Mr. .John C:1ll1eron, 
senior, who with his sons James, John. Duncan, Donald and Ewin, located 
in its south-western portion. hnt suhR('quently removed to Otonabce. 
Messrs. 'Valter Scott, Robl'rt II nmphrif'R, H u12h :md Alcxander '1 eOoU, 
'Y'. Kirkp:ltrick, Job Humphries, Richard TIirdsall, 'Villi:un Uousten and 
(jharles .Parker. 
Thirty-seven families were hroug-ht into \'''phndcl hy the iUlllligratioll 
of 1825, and others were gradually added to their nnmber. But the situ- 
ation was then so remote, :md the ùistance to a market, in tht, absence of 
roads, so great, that progreRs was slow; and the stl'ug'g'le for existence waR 
maintnined under vcry di
eonraging ('ircmHst:mres, 

Soon after the first 
ettlers began to finJ their way into .Asphodel, a 
little mill was erecteJ at Norwood by the late JOf'c}Jh A. ](c('ll'r, BF({., of 
Colborne. It eontnined a. single run of rock stones, dri,'en by a tub water 
wheel nnJ a bolt, coverf'd with muslin. Although a mrre "npolo
y for a 
mill." it wa
 of the grea.test utility to the early settlers. who cnrrieJ their 

tor(' of wbeat (mmally on their hacks) from 1 he adjoinin


lur a di
talJ(;c of ten to twelve lllilcs, to "Kceler's mill," m:i it was tlu.'lJ 
ealled, to be ground. .J ust prior to the erection of this mill, a saw mill 
had beell erected by :i.\Ir. Kcder, thc smlle dam and flullle supplying t]1e 
motive power for both, 
About the year 1826, the first Lridr;e across the river Trent, connecting 
the townships of Asphodel and Percy, was built. Its site was in a portion 
of the river then shallow, one mile above the yillage of Hastings, It was 
built in the most ordinary maIlUer, and was carried away during the fol- 
lowing spring. 
\ f'cconù and more permanent structme was speedily 
erected, chiefly by (iovcrmucnt aid, to rcplace it, and this with constant 
vicissitudes of fortune, and by thc aiù of l:iundry repairs, last
d for a long 
term of years, and proYCd a great public cOllveniencc, until superseded by 
:l more costly, though not more durable bridge, crossing the stream below 
the dam, on the site of the prescnt structure, TIlls new bridge was el'ccte.l 
about the year 1845, nUll after a little more than twelve years beeam<.' 
decayed as to rendcr a ncw o
e necesl'ary. The pl'<.'
ellt one was accord- 
ingly built in 1858, this county contributing toward
 it the sum of Æ500. 
The old bridgc wm; t're(luently severely tried by masses of ice and rafts 
of timber passing dowil the river, In a humorous lctter, written by 
'fholllas Carr, ES(h of Otonabee, and published in the Cobourg Star of 
May 10th, 1831, it is made to complain of the treatment thus received; 
and to invoke sympathy amI assil'tance, and not "ithout success; for in 
the Parliamentary Session of 1832-3, a grant of .í30u was made by thc 
Upper Canadian Legislature towards its r<.'pair, and in 1834 a further 
grant of 1:100 for the same purpose. 
According to the official returns of the Ncweastle District lor 1832, the 
entire population of Asphodel for that year was 265; thc number of per- 
sons assessed 55; acres cultivated 767; total assessed value of propert)' 
.í3410, and total rates for all purposes .:t16 Is, 3d,,-a population, valua- 
tion and taxation strikingly in contrast with the cxpanded figures of the 
present time, 
IQ November, 1833, N, H, Baird, ESíh Civil Enginecr, reported to the 
Government on the practicability of rendering the river Trent navigable 
from the Bay of Quint
 to Rice Lake ;-the cost of the works at Crook's 
rapids being estimated at .;(7062, 
As late al:l 1835, the only hou8u on the Hite of the ]}l'esent village of 
Hustingiì wati a snulll frame building on the bank, erected geveral years 


Lcfore that date, by the lIon. 1\11', Crook::;, a
 a mill, cUlltaining Olie run 
uf very common 
tolles, It is doubtful whether it ever ground much, 
and is believed to have been intcnded rather as a meallS to securè thc valn- 
able mill privilege, at that place, than for practical utility. 
ep to 1835, the town
hip had made but little real progress, Only six 
re::;idellts owned horses at that timc, and the entire township only contain- 
ed four frame d\Velling
, The population in that ycar was returned at 
In the following year (1836) a sccond run of' stones, (thosc known as 
the bur stonc) was added to the onc alrcady in use in Keeler's mill, A 
smut machine, and also an improved bolt, wcre provided at the same 
time. Peter Pearce Es<!" \Vas then in charge ot: the mill, and was also 
agent for )Ir, Keelcr's property at Norwood, a portion of which was 
roughly measured off into village lots,-a regular and sy
tematic survey of 
which was madc and registered in 1853. 
Of this property, consisting in all of 2000 acres, lots 18 and 19 in the 
9th concession, (4nO acres) only were granted to :Mr. Keeler, on account of 
services rendered during the war of 1812, in which he held the position of 
Major in the Canadian militia, The remainder was acquired by purchase 
in the early years ofthc settlement of the town
hip. Since theu, the property 
has been greatly improved. Besides the saw mill at 
orwood, a secolld 
one, on lot :W in the 9th concession, on thc same stream, was built, in 
1848, and within a fcw years, a fine stonc grist mill, of four stories, and 
several run of stones, has been built by Thomas Buck, Esq. 
The first store in Norwood consisted of a slender stock of goods, 
on sale in 1837, by the late James Foley ESl b in a small house in the mill 
yard. During the following year, hc erected a framc store and dwelling 
house on the hill betwecn the mill and the main part of the village, Here 
for many years he carried on a large and prosperous business; which, 
within a re(
ent period, was transferred to his larger premises in the centre 
of the village. The second store was built by Messrs, Carr & Ros
, on 
Belmont street, 
The first tavern in Norwood was kept by the_ late 1\11'. Robert Hartley, 
and was opened in 1842, Previous to that time, the house of Peter 
Pearce Esq. was open to all comers, with the most generous hospitality. 
Travellers and others in a constant stream were kindly fed and housed by 
this gentleman and his amiable ,vife, free of expense, in a manner of which 


fcw in latcr timet; ha,'e any cunception, fir would care to imitate, TIeing 
then the only eommodiouB dwelling in the l'lac
, public and religious 
mcctin ô 8 wcre held in the honse, th.. inconvenience cheerfully hornc, and 
alllllaùc warmly welcumc, 
)1 r. Thomas )1 ullcm; was the first residcnt shucmnker in XorwGo(l; 
1\11'. 'rhomas Kirk thc first carpl'llter and joiner, The fir::;t church built. 
orwood was that of the ,V 
Iethorli:sts, erected in 183G. It 
lllall fÌ'amc building, and is still in use in a rt;paircd and rcnovatc(l 
condition, as a cla
s and lecture room. in conncction with the lar
cr 'V cs- 
Icyan l\Iethodi
t church, completed in the year 18:>6. The f'ccolld church 
erceterl was that for the Independcnt or Congregational denomination, of 
which the Hev, Thomas Searight was for many ycars the pm-tor. 'rhis 
.socicty ha\ ing for some timc ceased to exist in that locality, the build- 
ing has becn used by other religious bodics, and particularly, of late ycars, 
by the E})iscopal )Iethodists, The first rcsident mini
tcr of any dcnomi- 
nation. in Xorwood. was the Rev. 'Villialll Young, of the \V csleyan l\Ieth- 
ndi:-.t church, whof':e buggy was the fir
t owned in thc town
The first Post Office in A
phodcl was kept by the latc .Mr. Thoma
". alkcr, on his farm near the prc
cnt village of 'Vestwood. The second 
was that opcncd in Norwood by thc latc Jamcs Foley, ES(I', at his storc in 
.Norwood; the wcckly mail bag to and from which place, tor many years, 
wm; very light, and easily borne, 'Vhat a contrast is presented by the 
daily mail of to-day, tecming \'lith letters and huge parecls of printed 
In 1835, K, II, Baird, Esq., reported to the Governlllcnt on the prac- 
ticability of t.he second part of his survcy-for a canal bctween the Bay 
of Quinte and lake Simcoe, This time his report embraccd the waters 
lying between Rice lake and lake Simcoe. In 1837 the conbtruction of 
the works connected with this grcat work was cOllllllcnced, and prosecuted 
during 1838-9. One fine lock was built at Crook's rapids, together with 
an excellent dam, slides, &c" the expcnditure on which gave occupation to 
a great number of persons; laid the foundation for the village of Hastings, 
:md tcndcd largely to encourage settlement in the portion of thc county 
During the early year::; of the township of Asphodel, two lIistillerie::; were 
in opel'ation,-one mannged by the late :Mr. John Beckett, a little distance 
south of \\'eliJtwood, and the other by !\Ir, Patrick C. }'oley, a mile or two 


\\t:::Ji uf the village of 
on\Oud. But after a fcw year::; thc
c fcll iutu dit>- 
e; not that tbc dcmand fur tltc product of thc still had ceased to cxiDt, 
but morc I>rubaùly Oll account ot' the greater facilities exi
ting fur ib 
manufacture dsewhere: by lllcau
 uf which the nwrkct was ::,ufliciently 
One of thc fir::;t 
chool hon::,(':; iu thi:; towu::,hip wab erected at Xorwooò, 
It was a small log building, aUll btuod ou the bite now uccupied by JIr. 
'Villialll Sergeant's dwelliug huusc. Alllon
 the earlicst schuol rctUlus for 
Asphodel is that fur the year 1832, when 1\11', J, "rilkius was reported to 
have 22 pnpils. 'YI13t a cuntrast this fÌ1"I:5t schuol hou:'lc wonld make, com- 
pared with the flue hrick bnilding of two stories; and larg(' size, erected 
tòr a. joint Grammar and ComUJon 
choul in 18;)3, aud very much increa:-- 
ed in size in 18Gß, 
From the buildiug of the loth at Urook':;; rapidH in 1837-8, that place 
gradually grew into a thriving \"illage of much i1ll1)urtance, '1\ Coughlan, 
S(h was the first hotel keeper and store kecI)er in that place. It:-; most 
marked progress took place after the chief portion of the }woperty was 
acquired by Henry Fowlds, ES(h ànd his sons, and their removal therC' 
in 1857. A new grist and flouring mill was added to the olò one, a saw 
mill of greut power and numerous saws, capablc of manufacturing large 
quantities of lumber yearly for the foreign market, were speedily erected. 
These wcre followed in later years, by other extensive factories filled with 
valuable machinery, _\.d.joining the saw mill mentioned, was a large 
woolen factory, which Imd just got into êlctiye f\peration when it was swept 
êlway by a most de:-:tructivc fire in 1863, which also consumed the saw mill 
and its contents, and also a large planing mill and sa
h and door factory 
just erected by 1\11'. Henry Lye in close proximity, This grcat loss for a 
time checked the progrel:;s of the village, ana paralyzed the en terprize of 
ral active and industrious citizens. Another large factory erectcd for 
a cotton mill, a wool carding and knitting factory, and a still larger baw 
mill than the former one, had in the mcantimc ùeen erected on the t,louth 

ide of the river, jUl:;t bclow the bridge, aud these important struetures 
with their valuablc machinery, continue in active operation, and not oul) 
reflect much credit upon the enterprise-of the place, but contribute much 
towards its prosperity. 
Another serious fire oecnrred in Hastingl:! in the i!l'ring of 1864; hy 
which a fine brick store and a lare-e i:tock o.f goodß were almost entirely 


destroyed. Ha8tings wait buoJant. rapidly pr(l

iYe, and looking for- 
ward to thc time wbell ere loug it might heC'ollle an incorporatc(l village. 
when these severe disasters, foIlowed by the general depres!'ion occasioned 
by scant barvC'sts, :md the embarrassment of the agricultural community, 
placed a barrif'l' again!'t fnrthcr l)ro
, and caused a withdrawal of a 
portion of the inhabitants to scck morc remnnC'rati,'e employmcnt elsewhere, 
Rut this dark day, it is believed. ha
 to a great extent passed away; and 
increased hope :nul renewed enterprisf' promise cre long to re'>tore thi
vilbll'e to morc than its formC'l' prosperity, 
For many years Ib
tings was but poorly furnishcd with church 3.CCOlll- 
modation, This want has, howcyer, been ab
mdantly supplicd, :md several 
fine church edifices crown the rising ground which comnwnds n beautifu 
view of thc river :md the bustling yill:Jgc, Thc first of' the
e wa
 the Frcc 
Presbyterian church. a large frame structure. erected in 18!)S, in which 
the Hcv. J aIlle
 Bowie ministel'C'd rOl' fo:cyeral years. An Episcopal churcll: 
also frame, plca:-;antly situater1 on the south side of thc river, followed in 
18G3, of which thp Rcy, 
I. A. Fnrrar is Incumhent, In 1
G4, the Wes- 
1eyan .Methodist:::, with eounncndable zeal and enterprise, co!upletcd :ì. 
tasteful :md cOlllmodious briek churc1l, whilc in 18G5. a much larger and 
well fini
hed ctlific(' of FtonC'. was erceted and dedicated by the Roman 
Catholics, chiefly through the zeal and im]('f;.tigablc exertions of their 
Imstor, the Rev, .J. (Jnirk, 
_\ ncat and ta
teful brick s\:hool hou
c ha!' now been many years in Uðe, 
-two ur more teaehcrs cmployed, aml th(' most liberal provision made for 
thc education of the ri:-:ing 
In the yeal' lhG.I, :L printing prcss and typl> werc introdnced to the vil
lage, by -'fr. A. E. Hayter, :mù the Hastings Jlc
sc/l!lN was for a time 
puLlir-;hed thel'C', but tlw attcmpt was }}l'ematurc, and during thc pcriod of 
deprePosion refcrred to, the effort was ananr1nneJ. 
Hast-ings, be
idl\s its unlimited watcI' power. is plea
alltly and advanta- 
geously situ at cd on the rivcr rrrent. whieh furni
hes cOUlmunication by 
steamboats with the Cohonr
 railway at Harwood at Ricc lakc, and other 
points abo\'c :llld ".-.low the village. A ncw stcamboat, the Fm'('sf Cit.y, 
 built and lanuchcll here in lS:>8, by the 
J Cbsrs. Fowlds, and has since 
continued to ply up ana down tllC' rivC'l' :Illd lake in the' tran
port of 1!-oodl'. 
 and lum1It>r. 



The 00unty of Northumberland some years ago con!'tructed gravel road
whicll conyergc to this point from BrigMon and Colborue, with which 
places communication is h:Jd daily by means of comfortable stages which 
convey the mails. 
The!'e advantnges may be supposed to 
ive Hastings priority in impor- 
tance a!' compared with Norwood j but the latter village has the advant3p:e 
of Reniority, 
llld is the scat of municipal legi
lation, and for lllany yearH 
 a more importa.nt centre of business, The sittings of the Division 
Court have been held at 
orwood from the first organization of those 
Courts, J ames Foley, ESlh W:H; its first clerk for many years, and until 
the time of his death in 18{j.1, when 1\11'. J, A, Butterfield wa.s appointed 
to that office, which he still holds, The Norwood Division comprises th(' 
townships of Af-Iphodcl, Belmont :md part of Dummer. 
A half-yearly fair was authorized to be held there in 185G j amI for 12 
years it has possessed an excellent Grammar and Common School, in which 
a large number of tllC teacher
 in the county have been educated, and 
where a very considerable number of the young men of Asphodel and the 
adjoining townships have been fitted for the halls of college, and have laid 
the foundation for a future rntr:mce on l)rofessional life, An institution 
of this kind, in the heart of a rural cOllllUunity, when well conducted, 
cannot fail to exercise the most beneficial and elevating influences j and 
such indeed, with rare intervals of exception, have been the results of the 
Norwood GranlUwr School, which was never so successful as at tbe present 

Something remains to Le said of the chul'eh accommodation at Norwood, 
which from its early settlement has been tolerably ample. In addition to 
those <11ready mentioned, a neat and commodious Free Presbyterian church 
was erected about the year 184{j, The Rev. D. l\IcAleese was the first 
resident minister of this church, and was succeeded by the Rey, James 
:Bowie, who continued to reside there until 18GG, when 110 returned to 
The nev. Mark Burnham of Peterbol'ough, for lI1any years, visited 
Norwood at intervals of three weeb, and conducted the }ipiRcopal 
g-reatly to the satisfaction and profit of the members of that chureh in the 
neighborhood, This lahor he performed gratuitolls1y, nnd ne('e
sarily, at 
times, at great personal inconvenience. In 1854, the Hey. John Hilton 
berame a l'esident clergym:m of that church, hut aftrr a year or two wa


removed to anothf'r sphere; when th(' periodical vi8it:;; of the Rev, 'I r. 
Burnh3.ln werc rCf;umed and continued until 1863, and the Rcy. 31. A. 
Farrar, who came to reside at 'Vestwood, in _\8phodcl, was appointcd 
Incumbent of the three churches in that mission. the duties of which h(' 
f;till ably fulfi1
In the meantime, a handsome Episcopal rhurrh,:.of brick, which had 
been long in progres
, was partially completed, and opened for ser\iee 
about the year 1860. Through the exertions of an estimable lady of that 
village, a bell was added to the tower of this church. which at morning, 
noon and eve gives forth its sonorous vibrations, whirh are heard for milcs 
around in the adjacent country. A small Roman Catholic church was 
erected about the ycar 1840, one mile west of Norwood, which for many 
years has very inadequately supplif'd accommodation to the numerous wor- 
shippers who frequent it. Preparations arc, howevcr, being made, and 
material collected, to erect a new and more commodious Catholic church. 
on ground procured for that purpose in the villagc of Norwood, and which, 
it is anticipated, will cre long be under contract. 
Of the townsl1Ïp generally, there remains but little 1110re to be said. 
During the call for militia in 1837, the people of Asphodel turned out vol- 
untarily, in numbers large in proportion to their scanty thcn population. 
Richard BÍ1'ùsall, Bsq., took the lead of the Asphoùel company, and sened 
during scveral months in the battalion at Peterborough without payor 
reward. During the decade which followed, the farmers of the township 
made substantial progresf;, and passed from their early struggles to a state 
of competence and plenty, }lany fine farms and elegant farm houses now 
grace the landscape, and harvests are grown and rcaped as succcssfully and 
as surely in A
phodcl, as perhaps ill any part of Canada. 
Of late, large sums of moncy havc been expended upon the roads, which 
t110ugh greatly improved from their condition in former ycars, still leave 
much to be desir
d, I,articularly at certain scm
ons, But the same remark 
will apply to locålities much oldcr, and perhap
 in many respcctR morr 
highly favored. 
The official valuat.ion of the lands of the townships as estimated by the 
assessors, or as "equalized" by the County Council. have fluctuated very 
much of late years, owing to the absence of an uniform standard of valu- 
ation, not only ill the same town
hifl, but nlf;o m
 between the differf'nt 
towns}lipR. A statement of thrse fi
 f(1l' the past few years, in th{' 


way of compari8on of progres
, would avail nothing, From the causes 
mentioned the aggregate yaluation of rateablc property in _\I'phodel. in 
1863, was a trifle lower than t.hat of 1862. 
....\.s a comparison with the figures givcn l)l.cviously for Bome of the oorlier 
years, it may not l)e uninteresting to rem
rk that, in ISGG, .A
pllOdd hacl 
;):)0 ratepayers, which would give n population of about three thousand. 
The total assess('d value of its r<.'al amI personal property Wa
76,28G ; 
the amount of its connty rate alone, cxclusin' of township 
1l1d school 
rates, was 81446.8-1. The numbcr of militi:t, (for ISGG) as returned. 
\Va!', 1st class 1:-38, 2nd class 22-1. and 3rd claRB, or reseryc. 7R. 
Consulting the last census for 1861, we find the census by origin at th:tt 
date, as follows :-Irclallù 593, England 1-13, Scotbllll 1<1:7, Pnitefl 
:-;tatcs ;'1 , Upper Canaùa 1912) Lowcr Canada !J9, ot1H'r countri<.'s :-). 
The census by religion for the same pcriod :-hows :--Ohul'
h of Englallll 

O, n. Oatholic 1U25. 'V. Methodist 802, J
. .'Icthodist 28, Bible Chris- 
tian 10. Pree (Hmrch lfJG, Ohurch" of Srot1and !12, napti
ts 2, other 
tlmrehes 67, 

D COrNTY COr;,('ILl.0H:-:. 

Dis!J'ict ('()lLJ,,"illor.o.:. 

, Richard ßinlsall, 1845, J amcs Foley, 
1843, lUcharll Birùsall. 184G, .James Folcy, 
1844. .famcF: l?oley. Ih4-7, .JmHeF: Foley. 

184H, .James l"olcJ, 
18MI, .J alOes Foley, 

50, Richard Birdsall. 
1851, Richard Birdsall, 
1852, Peter Pcarcf', 
183:3. Peter Pearce, 
1854, Peter Pearce, 
1853, Peter Vcaree. 
185G, Peter Pearce. 
1857, Hcmy Fowlù::-, 

1tiehanl Birth-all. 
.Jamcs lì'oley, 
P. )1. Uroy('r. 
Henry Fowld

('lIlli/!.'! ('uu,u'illoJ".>:. 
1858, Petcr Pearce, IHli;-
, ltich. l'
. Bird!'all, 
1859, rrim'y Coughlin, 18G4, p, l\I. Urover. 
18GO, P. )1. (]rovcr, ltich. B. Birdsall, 
IH()l, j), :\1. Uro,'cr. ] HG:>, P. 
1. Urovcr, 
Francis J
inls:lll. Llick K Birùsall, 
, P. M. Uroycr, 
 UHìlì, P. 1\1. Groycr, 
Ril'h. K Birdsa]l. ]
rlward Pattersoll. 
63, p, 
I. Orover. 

'HE 1
A('E 1:-1 Asl'HODEL. 

'Yaltel' Scott, 
.J awes Fife, 
Timothy ('ouglilin. 
Patrick ('annon. 

Thomas llu(;k, 
Hobcrt V. ]
H ie11
rù It Bir(lsall. 


LflC.\.L 8LPEIlI

1ö44, Henry Fuwld:-: 
Sext 7 year
1833, Hey. T.
] 8;):3, Thos, Hol)crt
1:-\31. Thus. Hubcrbon, 

;)5, HC\. Juhn lliltcn,1861, Dr, T. \\r. Poulc. 
18;)6, Dr. 1', \\'. Poole, 1ð6
, Hr. T, \r, Poolc, 
j7, Dr, T, \\'. Poole, 1863, Dr. T, 'V. Poolc', 
18:>8, Dr. T, ,Yo Poole, 186,1-, Hev 31. A. Parrar, 
] B5
, Dr. T. \y, Poole, 18û;), Rcy )L A, Farrar, 
186ft Dr, T. 'Y. Puole, 18(j6, Rev -'L 
\... lì'arrar. 

/'0:;' (YJiccs.-There are thrce l)o:-t Offices in .LhpllOtlcl; namely. at 

orwuod, lIa:-;tings and ,rc:-:twood,-the two former having a daily mail, 
:-npplicd by stage from ColLorne, :-:Ínce the ycar 1863; and the latter a tri- 
weekly mail from Peterhorou
h by way of Keenc, and COllllt-'ctinp: with 
A refcrenee has all'eady been marle to the early Post-m, aster:-: The 
following arc the l)resent officers:- 
X orwood,-J. A, Butterfield; Ila;:;ting
,-J amef' :-;, Fowlrls; 
We:-:twood,-Hey, j)f, 
\. fap'ar. 


The town:-:hip of Dummer was surveyed in the year 1823, but no at- 
tempt "as made towards its settlement nntil 1831. In the summer of 
that year, a number of emigrants arrived at Quebec, "150 of whom were 
ons sent out by the 
Iarquis of Uath, J 00 were commuted pensioners, 
and their familie
, and 17UO were immigrants who had corne to the Pro- 
vince at their own charge."';: They cOllsisted of no distinct nationality, 
but were made up of persons from nearly every Imrt of the rnited King- 
llOIll. On landing, they wcrc taken in charge by Immigration Agent...; 
appointed by Sir John Colborne, and forwarded t'roll one halting place to 
another till they reached Peterborough, where Capt, Rubidge, R. .N., who 
then acted as Immigration Agent, took prompt and energetic steps to locatE:' 

.. Statelllt'I't..f Captain Rubidge, R. N.. to Sir R. 'Y. Hollon. Barf.. and published LJ} him in t.1:S 
pam,.hlet. entitled' Ireland and Canada-"-pag


thcm on laud:, nut yet oc(;u!)ic,l. ...\ guodly nnulhcr were loratcù in Dum- 
111e1'; forming the first settlements in that towm:hir, while the l'cmainder 
wore distributed uyer the unuccupied lauds in the ulricr townships, cast and 
west of Pcterburollgh. 
The 1ll0Je of location wa:-; as fullows, Gnidc/'i were scnt uut with them 
in gronps to examinc the lands, and un the :selection being made, a location 
ticket was is:sued by the Agout, entitling the po
sessor to 100 acres uf laml 
on the fulfillmcut uf ecrtaiu conditions in after years. A :-:mall sum of 
muuey, varying ii'om onc dullar amI a lwlf to three or four dollars, \Va:' 
then given to the immigrant, and by means of this, sometimes aiùed by 
the older 
ettIers in adjoining townships, a slmnty was crected on the land 
chosen, t
 which he was removed as speedily as pus:5ible with 11Îs family 
and effects, Grants or 100 aeres wcre thus made tu head
 of families and 
grown-up sons, on condition that after thc expiration of four years. an 
annual paymcnt of one 8hillillg })cr acrc, wonld be madc during cach of the 
second fonr years,-thus at thc cud of cight ycars actual scttlement, and 
the payment in all of $80, they would receive it full title to their land. 
The n-overnment, however, were very lenient, and tllC rull lJayment, at 
least within thc :-:pccified time, was not u:..;ually exacted. 
During their passage through the country and the periud of their loca- 
tion, rations, consi
ting of half a ponnd of pork and a pound and a half of 
flour, to each man, and a pound of flour, but no pork, to the women and 
ehildrcn over five years of age, werc supplicd by thc Agent, which, together 
with the other expen
es incurred, were paid by the Provincial Government. 
Thc supplie::; thus grantcd werc eon::;idcrably less than to the immigrants 
of 1825, but even this moderate and ncccssary aid to Huuilies locating in 
the interior of a new country, where pl'ovi:-;ions could not be found, was 
somewhat suddenly and prematurely withdrawn, causing in some instances 
temporary distress; which, however, the energy and indu:stry of the settlers 
enabled them erc long to surmount, Between the 17th day of 
Iay and 
the 29th day of September, 1831, 87,390 pounds of flour, 24,608 pounds 
of pork, and 366 axes, were tlms distributed, partly to the men employed 
as guides, builders of shanties, &c" but in chief part to such of the immi- 
grant families as choose to accept this kind of aid. None of the other 

upplies, consisting of a cow, domestic utensils, &c., granted to the previous 
immigrants were allotted to the::;e, and yet their prugret;s was equally rnpid, 
and their ultimate success perhaps greater than that of their predeCeBBOrJ, 


There, werc. how('wr. man) of thcfoe fin.t f-cttkrfl whose ill-fortune it wa
to locate on bnd of inferior quality, and these, after struggling against the 
difficulties of their situation for a few years, in many instances, threw up 
their clailll!òl or 
old out to speculator
 for trifling sum
, aIllI remoyeù to 
other tû\mships or IllO;(l f
. Some I"truggled 011, amid a 
stoney !<oil, :lnd by per
vering indnQtry hnve maw' them!"elvc
homes, :md they or their children now r('
p to 
ome extent the fld,antnge
of their toih:ome labors, 
The office of Immigrant _\.gent, at that time, wa
 no idle sinecure. No 
prcvious preparation for the reception of immigrants had been mnùe, either 
in 182r. or in 1831. Temporary sh('lter had to be provided in Petcrbo- 
rough; the sick cared iìH', roads cut, sh:mties erected. provisions supplied, 
&c.: on the 
pnr of the moment The consequence was, that greater ex- 
pense waR incurred than would otherwise have been necessary, and th{' 
immigrants themselve8, enfeebled fl'om their long voyage, snffered from 
sickness and fatigne that lllip;ht to 8Í1lIle extent have bcen avoided. 
Uaptain Itubidge 
peakFl in the highest tcrms of these Fettlers, HC' 
says, "The conduct of the immigrant
 located by mc in 1831, was in 

eneral most exemplary j :Illd I never observed a btronger desire to take 
adnmtage }JY their imll1:;try of the kind en(;oUl'a
ement afforùed them Ly 
the Government. Tlwy invariably vied with each other in their exertion
and thi
 will nlways be th
e whcrc provision:;: arc not lavi
hly or improp- 
erly supplied. :mù the population well mixcd. :t
 it was IIf that year; for 
lugg;ard who would not be shamed hy greatcr energy on the p:trt 
uf a eoulltryman is rouse.1 frum his indolcncf' by a national fcelin!!. of pride 
to keep p;u'c ,\Îth lli
 EU1!li:-lh. Iri'ih or Scotch ùeighbol':':;< 
The scttlel':O: ot' 18
H, in Dummer. were not long without. :u:ce

ions to 
their number::, From one of the (,àrli('st of thosc to join them:-a man 
highly re!oipected tor his hone
tJ :lnd intelligence,-Vic have obtained th\' 
followin?- particular,;: of thl.' eXI>eri('uce
 of him
f'lf and two other
 in theil' 
fir<::t attempt at 
lctu:11 Rcttleluent. Their n:lIne8 werc 'l'holllaq R-, 
\Yillimll A-. and .John P-. By lli
:lU'" of n privatc Emig.ration 
Society ill I HHsgOW, thc)' obtaintXI a gr:ì.nt uf úU acres of wilù laRd, with 
prh'ilege to purdl:tse thl' remaining r)u acreR of the 10Ü at :1 tixed SUlIl. 

.. For IIII' fact
 of llit" prell'ding paf:1gl
ph.. t;ee C.1pl. Hl,lbid(f"11 t-\'Idence bfotorf' 
 ;el('('t ('uIlUr,il tf"f' 
...1 th.. Inll'''IL'
 l'adiallltlll,'ltC",,)nni1ßIÌ01l 110m 11(.11\11<<.1 l'H":, PaR'e '2'7110 'H":. 


\rriYed iu Petcrbul'ongh, they dt,tl'1'lllinerl to proceed at once to th{' land 
allotted them in Dummer, Haying made a partial exploration of the 
hil). in connection with others, and learned how to read the intelli- 

ence conveyed by surveyors' lines :lnù po
ts, they hoped, from this data, 
on a 
ccond attempt. laden with proviRions, to reach their Ill'W estates, us 
) et en1-1]lromled in all the wildne!'
 of nature, and at :1 di
hmce, as the crow 
, of nearly twenty miles from Petcr}Jorougb, 
Early ill tIle 
pring of 1832. they set out with thi
 object; each llUUl 
heing I/retty heavily loaded. One carried 4U pounds of pork, t1w FCcond 
GO pounds of flour. and the third, a blanket for each, :1nd :1 tin can filled 
with whiskey. as a medicinal corùial in the bush. }
:I('h had besides ]lis 
I tinder box, and a few minor personal effects, Their route lay tor 
the mo
t Imrt through the wild woods. frequently entangled with fallen 
timher. over hills anù throu!2.'h swamps, still adhering to the surveyor's 
line, but faintly marked, :md {'very year becoming more ubi iterated from 
the rapirl growth of wgdation, Sometimes they crept ovcr the falleH 
trunks or branches of trees, at others they crawled nnùer these obstruc- 
tions. Their clothing not llnth
lluCJltlJ caught upon tht' projecting knot:--. 
and in this W:1Y [he fustian trowsers of one of diem became torn into 
:-:hrcds. The most notable acciùl'Ut of this kind ol>eUl'red w}lÏ]c !'caling a 
horny trunk, 
ome distall
e from the ground, wh('u, their owner, as if cou- 
 himself on esca})ing t-hr greater of two e\'il
. exclaimed, 
'.\re'cl, its a p:ude thing that brt'f'b will tcar. or 1 wn.d he strung up bQ 
timrs. .. 
(Tnuscd tv tr:lVt'l'l5ing thc uur,cn 
ur1ace of the bU8h, their tùefl comin
ill contact with tlll' matted roots. camjed them not unfi'equently to stumble 
01' to tillI. and ('11 onc of these occasion!' the contents of the tin can, the 
object, of course. of e!-lpcC'inl t'are. becalUe I'pilled, anù to their grief aud 
vexation W;lS poured out a copiouR lihation on the ground. Thirteen milö 
further on the lid of the can W:15 lost, and I'evcn yeal:'! l:\tcr. at :1 logging. 
bee, was picked up "a
 good as nrw," and instantly recognised hy our of 
the trio who l'elatell the circumstances attending it9 losR. to the no 
surprise of those prc!'cnt. 
'rowards the e,'ening of the til'bt day onc uf their mUllhcr tell j:o:ick. 
They kindled a fire ut the ba
e of a 1a1'
e cedar tree, and witJ1Ìn the influ- 
ellcc of it.
 gl"lJial \HLfmth. j)l'cp:n'l'd a rude 
llelter for thems(>lves with 
bough.. and SJJIlall tre('l;. groupt'Ù tog"tJWf 0\'('1' hrad. rnarmt
d. and witL- 

1 ï 1 

out a \\-capon uf any kiud, they CUllllllittetl themsclvt;fj W Lhe carc of Proy 
idcncc, and, rolled Ul) each in bis blanket, wit1} fèct towiirds the fire. tbey 
lay down and f;}r'pt. During the night the fire penrtl'aterl to the 110110"'" 
cl'nÌl'C of thc cedar: and when their :slumber wa::; mOf;t profound. it fi:.n 
with a crash ap:ainf;t. thc ncighboring trees, bearing 150me or thci:lC with it 
to the ground, The ::,uddcn noise, ill the 
olitudc of thc fores_t. anc1 in the' 
dead uf night, wa::; :Jl'paling; and they flerl terrified from the 
pot.. tin the 
(',Hlse of thc dangcr ii'om which they had fortunate)J e!icaped bccame ap- 
parent. It wa:-; afterwards relllcmbered that the 
ick 1113n had prm'ed <1" 
fl.('ct of foot as his comp<Ulions; and next morning lIe Wtl" ahle to )'('''11111<- 
the jOUl'u(,)", and 1113{{(, no further cOlUl)laint1-; of iIlnc
The next ùaJ the 
ky wa
 o\"Crcaf;t. and unaided by the direction of tht' 
sun, they missed their way, and wandered on at random, more than once 
.returning upon their prcvious steps. At nig-ht they camped out in doubt 
and uncertaiuty; but thc fatigue of both body anù mind cau
ed them to 
sleep :-ioundly. 
ed morning they partook of bre
lkfa::-t from their 
stores, fully realizing thE' danger of their position, .John f:aid prayers. in- 
voking the Divine protection and guidance, .A consultation was held. and 
it waR decided that 
rhomas R- and 'Villiam would beat about. en- 
deavoring to fiud their true bearing, while John would remain at the 
('amping place, and endeavor to repair hig torn garment, which now threat- 
ened I5peedily to become a total wreck. \ecordin
ly, they sallied forth, 
breaking twigs and marking trees, so as t.o ensnre the pos!'ibility of their 
return. Erc long: they struck upon the surveyor's post, and found the)" 
were ncarer their location than they had expected; and returning, all 
thrce pushed forward, and ere long t.hcy f'tood upon the ::;oil which the) 
('ould call tlleir own. A thrill of joy 8hot through earh. 'fheir fatiguc
werc forp-ottcn; their spirits beeamc buoyant; and feeling rich in th(' 

ion of:-;o much land, they were happy in the present :md inrlulged 
in joyous anticipatioll
 for the future. 
The first thing done wa:-: to select a n
ce and I'uitablc 
itc on whieh tu 
erect a ðhanty for thcir joint usc, until scparatc dwelling
 could be erected 
for each, The undcrbrush was chopped dOVill, and the nearest trees of 
moderate growth were selected for thc walls of a Elianty 12 by 16 feet in 
size, They determined to do their work artistically, The corners of th(' 
..;hanty, formed by the ends of the logs, must be made to fit accurately, and 
-with mathcmatical pl"eci
ion. 'l'his \HI\oI :l work lit' art for 'Which the 


mechauieal}Juwcrs of ThoDld
 1" - al\Jl1c were adCtjU4tc, aud t-o hi1}} it W.lf; 
consequently left. The result \Va
 that the bhanty which might have becu 
built in a :mbstantial manner in three or four daJ'
. occupied a fortnight, 
and ere it wa
hed, the :--lender 
to('k of I'royisil)n
 hccmuC' cxhau:::ted, 
:md more }13d to be l)rocur('d, 
Kcclcr's mill. at Korwood. a small 
tructure, with a single run of com- 
mon stones, had then been scveral years in operation. There was nothin7 
to guide thcm towards it, but an idea of the general direction in which it 
lay, in following which the sun was their only compass, 1.'hey started in 
the morning, and although in a straight liue, Keeler's mill was only six 
miles distant, they travelled alJ day endeavoriu
 to trace the route by 
means of surveyors' pOf'tf', but without Htceess, 11'ortunately, tlley had 
"blazed" their way, and were able to return at night to their unfinished 
shanty, Kext morning) the last of the provisions was con:::.mued, and they. 

'gain set forth. if possible, to find the mill, Thc had breakfastcd on a 
bone of pork, a little tea and liO bread. During the day, thcy frequently 

aw the rcd berries of the lugh-bush cranberry, (ì"ilJ/l1'111l1rt oplllllS) which 
remains on the trees during the winter, but they feared to touch them lest 
they mig-ht be poisonous. They wandered on faint and weary during the 
greater part of the day, and at length, towards evening, the welcomc souml 
of an axe was heard, and presently they came ou the tiny clearing of one of 
the settlers of the previous year. ,y, }), was chopping bru
h, which his 
wife was piling in heaps in order to facilitate its burning, They too were 
scarce 'Of provisions; and the wanderers, while she1tered for the night, of 
necessity dispensed with their evening, as they had already done with the 
mid-day meal. :Kext morning, a littlc flour was baked and divided among 
them, After all their wanderings, they were not morc than three miles 
from their OW11 location, and had two mileR l:itill to travcrse befòre reaching 
the mill. Having received some directions, they again set out, but aftcr 
surmounting a hill, Thomas U- became faint and sick, and asked to 
be left there to die, At length they reached the house of anothcr settler, 
where some furthcl" food was procured, by means of which they reached the 
mill, Only two othcr persons bc!5idcs the miller and hi
 family, who:;c name 
was Lang, then re!5idcd where the village of Norwood now stands, Thc mill 
was idle, and neither wheat nor flour conld be procured. Learning that a 
fa.nner named Hurley, a couple of miles distant, had wbeat to sell, they 
proceeded thither, Wheat there was in the 8heaf but it mUí!t be thr


by tht:ln if they wa!ltc{1 it Here was a Dew and unexpcct.ed ta
k, but 
they set to \tork with a wil1 j and ncxt day borc away what wheat tlwy 
could carry. \.ftcr waiting thrcc days they got it 'grouud, 
pitality is a virtue ncvcr wanting in the early settlers. \Vhile wait- 
ing the motion of thc tardy mill, they were kindly rcceived by ,V. \V- 
and amply entertained_ .\t length, on Sunday ll10rnin
, the mill was 
found at \'iork, and crc night they had rctumed to their wild home with 
their store of flour. 
The female re,1dcr would like to know how they bakcd their bread j aud 
in anticipation of the enquiry, our informant has supplied the process, A 
portion of the trunk of a basswood tree, about three feet long and two 
feet in diameter, was split in two halves through the centre, One of 
these was hollowed out as smoothly as possible, to be used as a kneading 
trough. About three pounds of flour, with water enough to wet it tho- 
roughly, was put into this, and wdl kneaded, It was then flattened out 
nnd placed in a round long-handled pan, the front of which was held before 
the fire by means of a string attached to the end of the handle j while 
live coals were placed beneath and behind it. :Before the completion of 
the shanty, wet weather came on, which materially affected this process, 
vas then found preferable to roll up the wet flour in lumps, about the 
size of a potato. These were Jmt ill holes scraped in the hot ashes, and 
cO'Ç'ered also with hot ashes and then coals, !"o as to cause them to bake 
without being burned, This was found more palatable than that baked 
in the pan, and in the absence of better waR highly esteemed, 
At length, the shanty was completed, The roof consisted of a double 
row of basswood troughs, familiar enough to most of our reader!", but puz- 
zling perhaps to a foreigner, To make them, the trunk of a basswood 
tree, cut to the proper len
th, (PCl'hal)::j fourteen or !"ixtccn feet) is split 
in two hal'Ç'cs, a::l nearly equal as possible, These arc then hollowed out 
the entire length; and when a sufficient numbcr arc ready, they are placed 
in po::!ition. The first row is ì)laeed side by Hide with the conca,-ity upper- 
most. The t;ccond is then turnecl down over the proximate edges of two 
of the first, thus forming a roof impervious to water. The front wall is 
usually a few feet higher than that in the rear for obvious rcasonl5. Sueh 
is still the form of houtic first ereetoo by most ncw nettlers, which in many 
instances, by tidy hands, is rendered cosy and f:nug, and h35 {)ft('n shel- 
tered more real happinesi> and domestic comfort than the more impo"3ing 


 of :mccceding years. To many of our Hwders ::IU minute a de- 

('riptioD of what to them has long becn familiar, may RceIll unneccss8,ry ; 
but this much was intended for th(' uninitiated. and in a work of this kind 
(.ould not well be oyerlooked. 
The roof being completed, flat 
ere introduccl1 for a hearth, and 
were also placed on edge again
t the wall to protect. the green timber from 
the action or the fire. 
uch was the firc-place. Durin
 the 8umnwr 
months, no chimney was erectcd,-the :;:moh.e being allowed to find :m 
outlet through the crevices in the unplastered wan
. as llest it could. .\ 
bed wa::; conf'tructcd hy driring small polcs of a proper length into the 
wall, at. a proper heit;ht, the outer end:-( being supported by perpendicular 
posts, Small saplings wcrc then stretched from one {If thesc horizontal 
 to the other, on which wcre placed boughs of hcmlock and cedar, 
as a substitute fòr feathers 01' straw. 
\.t night tbe stars were visihle 
through the crevicc::; of the shanty; in the morning thc birds Rang sweetly 
in the adjact\ut trees, and though their couch was hard and their fare sim- 
ple, fatigued by labor and invigora.ted by the air and the novelty of thcir 
situation, they slept soundly, and rose betimes to renew their labor. 
'fhere, in the depths of the forest, they were proyidl'd with no gnn 01' 
other weapon of defcnce, Bears werc not unf'requently tracked, and the 
howling of the wolves by night was so frelluent as to become familiar. 
Doubtless the smell of mcat attracted these hungry and ferocious 
brutes, but th(' hmmm invartcl's of their f:olitary rlomain remaincd 
Soon after their second stock of flour was l)l'ocured, they were visited 
by tw
 strangerl:i,-intending settlers,-one of wllOm was a blacksmith. 
It that remotc place human faces were as welcome as they werc rare, and 
the h'a,-ellers were cordially entertained, and warmly welcomed to a f'hare 
of their slender store, The new arrival:; exprcssed considcrable dread at 
remaining long with thcm in thc absencc of firc-arm!;; and the blacksmith, 
on retiring for the night, l,laced the fire-shovel within easy reach, as the 
only available weapon in case of an attack from thc wilrl denizens of the 
During the first few year!:! they had neither oxen nor horses, and on 
chopping down tbe tree!:!, had to roll the trunks together by what was l'Mllefl 
ha.nd-Iogging, in the best 111anUQr th<'J could. 


Had their land prowd good, their labor and indUl-,try would have been 
fnlly rewarded; but though fincly timbered, the surface soil concealed a 
bcd of stones, whicl1 almost tlleir first attempts at culture made apparent, 
and on account of whidl, erc many years, they felt it prudent to part, for 
rifliDg Hum, with the new estates, on which so much valuable time and 
labor had been wasted. and in reference to w}1Ïch such brigbt anticipations 
had b
en at one time indulged. 
Notwitlistallding this reverse, they did not despair, but on the contrary, 
on othcr lands or in pursuit of other occupations, tbey have ensured suc- 
cess; and are to-day among the most contented and prosperous of our 
people. 'Vivcs and children. lands aUll house:::. flocks and herds, have 
blessed their store, and while they often look back with a smile at those 
carly days in the bush, and l'eview their first blunder!' in the light of their 
after cxperience, no f:hadow of regret is felt at haying: chosen Canada 
as their home, or the rude wild
 of Dummer as their first resting 
S otwithstanùing the long diHtance of l)
u'ts of this township from Peter- 
borough, from whieh most of the early settlers had to carry their provisions 
and othcr necessaries on their backs, and other local disndvantnges, the 

cttlers of Dummer made cncouraging progreH:';, and ere many years, the 
incrcase of their worldly st01'(', and their f:um improvements and domestic 
eomforts, would comlxlrc f:l\'orahly with those of some of tll(' older 
About the year 1834-;), a :'::J.W and grist mill were erècted on the Indian 
river, at what is now the villap.e of 'Val':õ!aw, These were the property of 
the lIon, Zaccheus Burnham. nlld werc unde'r the local buperintendcnce of 
)Ir. Hartwcll, who re
ided at the mill
, :mtl who cOllllucted the fir:-it storc 
there, and who a;;: latc as tIle )'ear 184.1 was appointed firf't 1.oca1 Supcrin- 
tendcnt or 
 for tilt' town
hip. The
e mills, of course, provcd :1 
great adv:mtage to the surrounding settlement. and formed th(' nucleu
uf the small village which 113.:> since grown up around them. 
.Just hefore the untùrcak of 1837. thp militia uf this towll:;hip W.lS 
organized unùer instructions from tIll' o-OWl'lllllent, through Col. lll'OWlI, 
"hose son was named Capt:lÍn uf the Dnmmer company, but ncver acted 
in that cflpRcity, On the mu
ter of th
 Ihullmer militiu in Peterhorough. 
S. J, Carver Esq.. our þrespnl Post-wáster, was appoint
d C
of the Ðmumel' company, and accomp!.lnÎed them to Toronto in thnt 


The Dtmllller milîtiu turned out on two f<6parntc occ:l:-:iom; rJuring the, 
excitement consequent upon the re1>eIlion. First at the breaking out of 
the Y ongc Street jiasco, on whi<>h occasion six officers and 3;; privates 
íi'OIll Dummer went fiS far fiS Port Hope, :md th(,11 finding thcir sen-ices 
nO longer needed, they returned to their homes. 'l'he officers fro-m 
Dummer on this occasion were, Ensign Robert 'Yigmore, Sf'rgeflnt-)Injor
Sampson Lukey and John Lumsdcn; Sergc
mt James Wuson, and Corpo- 
1,118 'Yillinm 'Yigmol'c and 'Villimn H:mdbig<-', The list of tIle pI'ivflt('
on this turn out has been mishtid or lost. * 
On the second call to anm
, wllÎch took place on the 
th of .January, 
1838, the Dummer militia again lfiustereù J and a considerablc number 
proceeded to Toronto, The following are tlle narue<; of t1)C officers :ml1 
llwn who thus distinguished themselves :- 
.Ensign Rohcrt 'Vigmore, Scrgc:mt )lnjor John LUlll
dell, 2nd SCl'ge<tut 

'lajor 'Yilliam 'Vigmore, and :O;crgeants, .Jllmes ,y n
on, Robcrt Slo:lI1. 
ll 3[00l'e, Charles Murphy. .Jo
eph Peg
Privates,-Kelllleth Kempt, John Rohb, ThOlllas Robinson, William 
_\uùerson, Patrick Cassidy, Thomas l'a:-:Ioidy, .fohn 3rl'
IilI('Il, l"redcrick 
()xford, Henry 11'erguson, John Kclly, C 
mnl):-:on, Bernarù 3[cCanll, 
;John Clydesdale, .Jolm Kidd, 'VilJialH Christie, D:miel 3Iurphy, 'Villimll 
Davis, }
dwarl[ .J ohn8, .J ohn Hcndroll, l'homns lIl'lIIlr'on, J 1'" Hugh )J ('- 
h, Philip 3IeGuire, .James Bullock, :Frederick :Et1W;ìl'tlS, Davitl Payne. 
\Yillimn 1'homas. 'Villi:nn }, Edward Pa)'lll', - 1Iuleahey. 
amuel LUlllRMn. Ridlarù )I:ml
'_ ('h:I1'le
 UiRSt'tt" and 
\rilliam Archer. 

Un thcir 3.lTi\'fil fit Torouto, ;o;ergeant .Jo:,e}Jh l\'g
 W.lf:; apl'oilttcd :-1cr- 
gellut-)lajor, anù Hcrgeant lIu
h 3100re 2nd Bel'ge:lllt-JIajor in the 
"Queen's Own'" Private 'Villiam Davis was appointed dnuu-majol". 
On the return of these lHen to their homes. m:my of tlH'Dl \\Cl'P di

pointed at finding that from sonll' cause th('il' })ay was not forthcoming; 
and a length)' corre:-:ponùence wa
 hêl\l by the late ro1. Hof)èrt. \ViglllOl'(' 
with the militia authorities on the suhject, but wit-hout mlY very sati<.:f:w- 
tory resnlts. Ill:l c:lmpter specially l1cvoted to thc "l")eter1.Joro' )Iiliti:t" 
enough 1&1) heen R:iid. it is hoped, ana n c;ufficient tl'iJJUtc paid to the bran' 

· Th
 name!; wentiol1f'd 
nd IhOl'e which r.
lIûw \\ elo (llIJlid,..J u;; b}' Ihf' lale ('01, nulen \Yi!t- 
m..,r.. n few days before:: bl" d(,N'a


men of tbat perind, who at great personal incom-enience and no man risk 
to thcir families, and greater risk, prospectively, to themseh'es, rallied in 
defence of the Govcrnmcnt, and in maintcmlDcc of that British connec- 
tion whie-II is :-:till dear to thORC of them. who c;urvive, and no less so to 
their children, who have proved themselves not a whit behind their sires 
in loyalty and devotion to the old flag, and in courage and prowess in 
rallying to its defcnce whcn more recently a
One circumstancc is worthy of mention as :m illustration of the hearti- 
ness and alacrity "ith which the call to arms was responded to in the by- 
gone but not forgotten crisis of 1837. An old pcnsioncr, long past agc 
for military service, came to Francis Crow .Esq., during the muster, and 
thus exprcsscd himself:-"Gonz-a-da;y, Francy, I'm going too," Mr. 
Crow remonstrated with him on :lCcount of his age and infirmities, and 
urged him to remain at home, but in vain. "Begonucs," said the old sol- 
dier, "the Nankees (Yankees) wounded mc at Xcw Orleans, and I'll nevcr 
die until I have a 
hot at them," and the vetcran proceeded with the rcst 
to Peterborough. 
The first resident dergyman in Dummer was the Rev, Archibald Col- 
(fuhoun, who removcd thithcr fi'Olll Otonabee about the year 1838 or 1839. 
Service for some years was he1ù in l\Ir, James :McDonnell's housc. An 
Episcopal church was the fil'st crected in \Var:-law. about the year 1855. 
A 11'ree PrC'sbytcrian church was erected about two years later, .\ housc 
was ercctcd for a church in Rc1lOûl section numher four, in 1834, and 
made use of as a school house in 184:!. l\fetJlOdist churchcs wcre erected 
on lot number 
1 in the third concc>ssion in 1H5U, and on lot numbcr 2{) 
in thc fourth conccfo:sion in 1852. Thc first ,Methodist minister was the 
Hev. Juhn Black:stock, and thc first Bible Chri:stian clergyman in Dummer 
was the Hev, .John Hicks Eynon, who is also remembered as a pioneer of 
that society in Pctcrborough, A Bible Chri
tiall church was among the 
uther public buildings crcctcd lllany ycars ago, 
One of the first school houses was that erected llcar 
Ir, John Kidd's, 
about the ;renr 183G, of which )Ir. Charles )1 urphy wa
Jane Batton is also remcmbercd as another early teaC'her. 
The Dummer Town Hall was erected on its present site about thc ycar 
1855, and n Frce Presbyterian church in its vicinity about thc ycar 1861. 
A l\lethot1ist church was erected at Suuth Dummer, (as the Post Offiee in 
the neighborhood i
lllel1) at an early ppriod, and a ueat Baptist ('hurch on 


thf' samt' cunce

iuJl line, but a littlt> further north, both of whieh have 
proved a great accommodation to the worshippers in the adjoining 
of country. In the vicinity of the lattcr a ncat and commodious 
Orange }1311 was crcctcd within a few yca.rfl, in which the nurnerou<.: 
members of the Order in the vicinity hold their customnry meeting;;;, 
Dummer ha
 several f:aw mi1l
 those a.t 'Yarsaw, that of )11'. 
Payne on the Inùhm river, aboye 'Yarsaw, anù th(' one known as l\h. 
 on the west branch of the Ou
. having been built about th(' 
.vear 1853, and that of Mr. Enoch Reynolds, now owned by 1\11'. Thomas 
_Buck, somc yc
rs cnrlier. 
It :-;}lOuld he stated that although diligèllt enquiry has been lUnde, the 
dates in l'eg3rd to importnnt buildings in Dummer lwve been ascerta.ined 
witIl much difficulty, nnd in :o;eycral in
tances it is feared they nre only 
 to thc years in which thc scveral crections occurred, 
Ðumul('r had the honor of furnishing a \Va.rùcn to the 
istrict CounéÏl 
ill tIle pCl'son of Georgc .Arundel Hill E
q.. who was appointcJ to t.hnt pm;i- 
tiOll by the Government, for scycral yeal's prc
idcd over the dclibcrations 
of that body. Mr. Hill also nctcd a.s township Clcrk 3UÙ Trcasurcr, and 
upel'intellllent of 
chools for Dummer for several years; the dutics of 
which ofiices 1iC' performed with rare :tbility .lOù with scrll}mlou
 care and 
IH'ceision, In scveral respects he wa
 a r(,lllarl..a1Jle man, and it i
regret that. we find ourselves una1JIl
 to do but 
cant justice to the mcmory 
{If n private gentlcm
m :mù :1 public' oilicer who, during the many years he 
waR a
sociatctl with the }mbJic nfIair
 of his town:o;lâp and county, wa
highly estee
Jlod hy the community in which he lived. 
:-;oon after hi:;; location in Dummer, thp late l'aptain Hill wrotc ,;_\ 
 to "F.migrant
 from thf' British :-:hores to tl)(' W oo<1s of Canada." 
wI1Ích wa
 publislled in lll

t pam},hlet form of r)1J lXt

s, in JJnblill, ill 
34. This littlc work (,ontained much u
eful information to Emigrant
ill regard to prepnrations for their passage, and the moùe of locatinç: in 
the newly f:ettled districts of Canada. It was evi,leutly written with 
much eare, 3ud bearl4 mnple tra.ce
 of a C'ultiva.t('d and intelligent mind. 
In the year 1835, Dummer contained a population or li9:t [n 1842, it 
11:-al increascù to 927, In 18f)2, the aSRes
ed ynlne of the entire property 
waR $118,83ü: and the toul taxMion $31
, B)' way of comparison. 
it m:l)' he stat.ed that in 18fiG, thf' t.ohtl numh('r of rntepn)'er Q W:lq B'iO' tllll 


cd ,alue uf propcrty $1
ð63l), aud the tuxe
 lcviCt] ull thi:-; town
for connty rate alune'. 81406,16, It has bcfore been remarked that a
:--cd \'alne:-:. convey.wJ a,}c(luatc irlca of the rcal wealth of town
hip 1'1'01'- 
crty; as the fluctuations under the manipulations of 6ueces
ivc A:::
:-:huw differcnces in \'alnc. the rc:-ult of the ideas ill rcgard to a
\yhieh happcn to bc at thc time paramonnt. 

\.t the taking' of the la
t cenbU
, in 18b!, the cntirc pupulation or DUlll- 
mer wa
 17:)7. Of thc:,e 
14 wcrc males and t;-13 fcnwle
. Thcr(' 
wcrc in 186(1. 13 dcath
 aud 65 birth
, -i7:? children wcrc :'tkndin
Looking at the ceu:"us by origin fi.!r 18tH, wc find, fi'om Ireland 2!):t 
:England 146, 
cotland !)O. P nitcd 
tate8 .iG, r ppe]' Callilfla !)74, IJower 
(\mada 21, othcr countrie:s 5. 
As rcgard
 religion, thcrc were in Iblil, Chul'eh uf England 3U2, H. 
Catholic 181, \V. Methodist ;{95, E. Methodist 41, Biblc Christian 191, 
Frcc Ohm'ch 274-, Chnreh of Scotland ] 16, Baptists R7. other churehe,> 

m:,THlf"f A
W C()I'
TY r()r
Di'itl'ict COllnril[or,o.:. 

1842, _\Jexauder Kidd, 1
4;), Thomas Choate, 184
, \rIll, \\ïp.morc, 
1843, Alexander Kidd. 1846, Thoma:; Choate, 1849, Wm. Wigl11ore. 
18-14. Thoma!' Choate, 18--1-7, \rlll. \Vigmorl'. 

;)O; Francis Crow, 
] 851, Francis Crow. 
1852, l"rancis Crow. 
1!:)53, Franci::; Crow. 
1854, :Francis Crow. 
1855, J<'rancis Crow. 

( 'fl /Ill ('I COIIIl' ill f) I'
18jü, :Fruncis Crow, 
1t;57, Francis Crow. 
1858, Francis Crow, 
185!), \Vm, \Vigmorc, 
1860, francis Crow. 
ül, \Ym, \Vigmorc, 

, l
ralleil) Crow. 
1863, Francis Crow. 
18ü4-, Robert Morrison, 
1865, George Choate. 
1866 1 .John Kidd. 


Thomas Choate. 

Oll Lukcy. 
Franci:; Crow. 

.J ohn Kidd, 
W lll, \VigmoI'c, 
\V Ill. Manley. 

.J ohn Hose. 



1844, E. Hartwell. 1855, George 
\. Hill, 
Next 7 years County 1856, George 
\. Hill. 
Superintendents. 1857, Georgc A, Hill. 
1852, Rcv. T. Searight. 1858, George A. Hill. 
1853, 'Villiam Manly, 1859, Gcorgc A. Hill. 
1854-, 'Villimn l\Ianly. 1860, George A, Hill. 

1861, George _\. Hill, 
, Dr. T, "r, Poule. 
] 863, Dr. T. 'V. Poole, 
1864-, Hcv 1\1. A. Farrar. 
1865, Rev 1\1. ...\., }1'arrar, 
1866, !tev)1. A, I,'m'rar. 



The survey of t.he townsllip of Belmont was made in 1853, but it was 
not for several years aftcrwards that settlers found their way into it. The 
first actual resident was a l\Ir, Fiddick, who removed there with his 
family, but was so alarmed by the howling of wolves that he soon withdrew 
to reside in the vicinity of the settlement forming around Keeler's 
mill. The first settler to whom a patent for land was issued was 1\'11'. 
Robert Stewart, familiarly known among his neighbours as "the king of 
For many years the roads leading into Belmont wcre of the most prim- 
itive description; and great hardship and inconvenience were experienced 
by the first settlers in the transit, first of their slendcr store of worldly goods 
and afterwards in making their way to the mill and returning with the sup- 
plies necessary for themselves and families. 
Since the inaugurat
on of our municipal systcm, and especially since 
Belmont became a separate corporation, large sums of moncy have been 
expendcd for the improvement of roadf-:. The abundance of gravel has 
offered great facilities for this purpose, and thc large income from taxes on 
non-resident lands has providcd funds, which have enabled some ex- 
cellent lines of road to be madc withont greatly burdening the residents of 
the township. 
In several re
peéls, Belmont hit!:! made rapid l)rugresl:I- In 1842, the 
number of its householùers was 33, In 1852 these had increased to 41, 


while in 1866 they numbered 183. 
till more striking mark of progress 
is shewn in the rapid increase of school hOU
C8J mObtJy of a superior kind. 
Twelve Yl3ars ago, there were but one or two in the entire townl:!hil) j now 
there arc ninc, :md :,ix of thcse arc frame buildings well finished, thorough- 
ly furnished, and numerously attcndcd, 
The first 8<iW mill in Belmont was built by 1'1r. JehicI Brekenridge, on 
the site of the one now owned by p, Pearce, Estl. This was burned 
down, dud the pre::;cnt one built by 1\1r, Pcarcc, who has added to it a 
small grist mill, the first established in tIle municipality, 1\11'. Breken- 
ridge also built a saw mill and slllall grist mill, at a splendid water-powcr, 
just where the strcam which cmerges from Round lake empties into Bel- 
mont lake. There are two other saw mills besides these mentioned, one 
known as that erected by the Rev, Thomas Searight, and the other tbat 
of 1\Ir. Holbrooks in the south portion of the township, 
Within a few years the "Hayelock" Post Office was opened in Belmont, 
of which P. Pearce, Esq., was appointed _ Post-master. The office is kept 
:It his residence on the i\'Iarmora road. A second Post Office Ims since 
been established, still furthe-r in the interior of the township. 
The farmers of Belmont have no reason to complain of want of success 
in agriculture. Many of them have succeeded admirably. But the chief 
wealth of the township-especially of the northern portion-consists in its 
minerals. In the eastern portion, iron ore is found in large abundance, 
anù of excellent l{uality, Recently, ext-ensive deposits of a pure white 
marble have been brought to light in its northern section, both of which 
need but capital and enterprise, joined with some means of transit to the 
frontier, to render thcm richly productive, and the "working" of thcm in 
the highest degree conducivc to tbe l)l"osperity of the township, 
'Ve pause not to dwell upon the further incidents cOllnected with the 
settlement of this township, few of which have been detailed to us, amI the 
early experiences of tIle first pioneers arc more or le
s similar to those 
already narrated in rcference to other townships. 
Belmont has had thc honor of twice furnislting a 'Varden for the county, 
in the person of p, Pearce, R,q., for the years 1863 3Jld 1864, l\'Ir, 
Pearce is now one of the oldest councillors in the county j and for Dlany 
years has taken a l)}'olllinent part in municipal husinel:!:-:. 


)IETHt"E:\ . 
)Icthuen was surveyed in 1823, but t.ill within the la
t ninc years re- 
mained without a 
cttler. One of the first to pu
h his way into thc town- 
ship was 1'Ir, .John Vansicklcr, about the year 1857. The little settle- 
ment thcn fOl'lncd ha:-> increased, till, ill the )'car 18GG. the number of 
ratcpayers in Mcthucn \Va::; 
2, aud the total aSt'cl5l:)cd valuc of' propertv, 

32f)1. Methuen is still united to Belmont for municipal pUl'l'Ol'cs. 
The I)Opnlation of Delmunt and l\Iethuen iu 1861 wa
 üöf). Of these 
108 pcrsons were from Ireland, 15 from England, 34 from :-;cot1and, 12 
from the rTnitcd States, :;16 from Pppcr Canada, and 3 from J
In a religious point of view there werc in 1861, Church of England 132, 
11" Catholic 21, 'V, l\'lethodil:!t 26--1, E. 
Iethodist 4. Free Church 199, 
Church of Scotland --18, Baptist 6, other

IJislrict Coul/cillors. 

1843, N, C, Beattie. 
1844, :N, C. Beattie, 
1845, N. C. Beattie. 

1846, John Robertson. 1849, Thos. ';)IcBurncy. 
18-17 , John Robertson. 
1848, ,101m Robertson, 

(}ounly Councillors, 

)lE)1.-FrOlll 1ö4D until the close of the year 1854, these 
wcre unitcd to Asphodel for municipal purposes. 
1855, 'Villiam Rae, 1859, John Matheson, 
1856, 'Villiam Rae. 1860, John l\Iatheson, 
1857, Robert Prcston, 1861, John Matheson, 
1838. 'rhomas Searight, 1862, John Matheson. 


18ü3, Peter Pearce. 
1864, Peter Pearce. 
1865, Peter Pearce. 
1866, Peter Pearce, 


Peter Pearce, 
Robert Preston, 

John H, Preston, 
.Tohn Holcomb. 

]844, N, C. Beattie, 1856, Dr. T, 'V. Poole. 1862, Rev. JaB, Bowie, 
County Superint-endents,1857, Dr, T. 'V, Poole, 1863, Rev, Jas. Bowie. 
1852, Rev, T. Searight, 1858, Dr, T, 'V. Poole. 1864, W. N, Armstrong, 
1853, Thos, Robertson, 1859, Rev, H.l\IcDowcll1865, Rev l\f. A. Farrar. 
1854, 'rho
, Robert-son. 18GO, Rey. Ja:-;. Bowie, 1866, Hev .M. A. .Farrar. 
1855, Rev. T, Se
right. 1861. Rev. Jas. Bowie, 




That portion of the township of 
Ionnghan comprised within the COUIl- 
ty of J>eterborough, is the rear seven conccssious, and is usually known a

orth Monaghan, As Reen on the map, it may be said to be triangular in 

hape, with the apcx downwards, or towards the south. It is bounded on 
the north by the township of Smith, on the west by Cavan, and on thc 
east by the Otonabee river. The l\Iillbrook amI Peterborough branch of 
the Port Hope and Lindsay rnilroad traverses thc triangle from its south- 
ern :mgle, running pnraJIcl with the river to the north-eastern corncr, in 
which the Town of Peterborough is situated, This town, prior to its 
incorporation in 1850, formed a part of t.he municipality of 
orth )Iona- 
ghan, Until that date, the population and general statistics of the town 
are blended with those of the township, su that neither can be stated ill- 
dependently of the Oth
The township of 3Ionaghan was survcyed ill 1818, Thc earliest Bct- 
tIers found their way into its northern portion in 1818 and 1819, Among 
them were l\Iessrs. \Yilliam Fowler, Hobert l\I01Tison, Robcrt Thompson, 
John Tully, 'Yilliam Birdwhistle, Thomas and Robert Leadbeater, Rich- 
ard Alexander, Robert Cross, John Foster. James 'Vilson, 3latthew 
.Wilson, \Yilliam \YiIson, "Tilford Dry
dalc, .John Birney and ThomaR 

The difficulties which many of them had to encountcr were sirnihtr to 
to those already mentioned in rcgar(l to those in the township of Smith. 
Provisions and utcn
il:-; had to be carried from Port Hope, in the absence 
of a road, mo
tly on the 
ettll'r's shoulders, or as best they could, for 
sevcra1 years. 
The first of these settlers founù their way in f.:ingly, 01' in groups of two 
úr three, roamed through the continuous f01'est, till having selected a lot 
of land which appcared to plca
e them, and learning the number and COll- 
cession from the rccently markcd pOHts of the surveyors, thcy r('turned to 
make thc nccdful appli"ation to the Land Agent, in ordcr to secure it, 
During this first cxploration yi
it, on(> (,r more nights }lad to bc I'pent in 
the forest. Whel'è. having kindled a fire. they by down to sleep heneath t1ll' 
branches of a group of trees, wearied and fatigued, and wor.,e, pt:rh
p. . 
wet and torn with the mi
h:tps of the journe). 


Gradually the blue smoke from tl1(' Fcttl('r's !'<nanty, and the tiny open- 
iug in the great forest, began to appeal' here and therc, at intervals, oftcn 
of'miles between. But the number of the shanty fires gradually increased; 
tnc gaps in the woods grew larger, as giant trunk anù tender sapling 
groaned and fell beneath the sturdy stroke of the scttler's axe, Then the 
huge heaps appeared, rolled together by united effort. The flames crack- 
led and roared, Far away into the gloom of the dark fore
t shot thc 
gleam of the eyening fires, which told that a conqueror had comc, and that 
civilization and the luxuries of comfort and refinement were on the way to 
cheer and enliven those rude fastnesses of nature, anù Lid them smile with 
a new growth and a morc prolific haryest. Gradually the cleared lands 
widened and increased into snug fm'ms. The road-way wns hewn out, and 
made suitable for travel. The first mde shanty gave way to a substantial 
and comfortable m:msion, Flocks and herds increased; and as time pro- 
gressed and the population grew, the rude wildern
ss bccame a compara- 
tive garden, 
"r ell may the ,'eteran pioneer pause now in the- ev
ning of his days and 
look around on the wonders wrought by time :md industry. Prçmdly may 
hc point to the spot where he first rcclined beneath the spreading trees, 
wet with the morning dew, during that first visit to his future farm, 311(1 
contrast with that scenc the pre:->ent, with its broad acres and cultivated 
ficlds, its neat farm houses and thriftly barns, which he expects soon to 
leave a rich heritage to his children. 'Veil will it be for the second genc- 
ration if they emulate the thrift and industry of their sires, and continue 
in the paths of honorable toil and healthful and lmppy labor, which ha,-e 
already led to such noble results, and whicb may lcad to still greater tri- 
umphs in the future, 
"- Peace hath her yictOl'ic
Sot 1e8:'; renowned than war." 

And there is ample room for the cmployment of yast energies, consunuuntc 
skill, and remunerative outlay, in still further subduing the soil, elimina- 
ting its forces, reclaiming its wastc but luxuriant placcs, amI making 
it snbservicl1t in the highest degree to the wants and the luxuries of 

Let not this useful work be deemed degrading, It presents a field 
worthy of the forcmost flpirits,-a carecr among the most cnnohling J and 
certainly the 1IJOqt indf'pendent. -What our fathers have so well begun, 


snoulrl be pushed filrward to gtill higher re5ults by U
 their children; or 
elr,e the mantle of honor and the meed of praise which they haw carned 
for good and noble work, well accomplished, wiU be buried with thcm, or 
will pass by their degenerate sons to the strdngcr and the alien, to whom 
will pa.qS the fruits of their toil and the herit3ge they have nchieved, 
This township is trnversed by an excellent gravcl road, built in 1850; 
which, if it has never yielded much return to the stockholdCl's, has been of 
great advantage to the section of countty it traverses, Thc road terminates 
in Pcterborough on the north, and 8tretches :lway in the dircction of :Mill- 
brook on the south, 
From its proximity to the town, this township has at all seaSOllS ::m ex- 
cellent market, This same proximity will account for the paucity of 
churches, shops or placcs of local business or resoi't. 'rhe village of Sprillg- 
villc, which of late 'years has grown into existence, is situated Oll the town 
line between this township and Cavan, and besides a Post Office, has a 
neat Presbyterian church, erected nearly thirty years il
O, A commodióm: 
town hall, built about the year 1858, serves the purposes of township and 
council meetings, and besides is used for the services of several religious 
The first large instalment of clergy reserve money, after being at first 
invested in loans, was in pnrt dividcd among the several wards for the 
improvement of roads, and the remaindcr applied to the erection of 
school honscs,-in both cases f,J'}'catly to the advantage of the people of the 
In 18:)2, the number of householders in Xorth Monaghan war:; rcturned 
at 1CO, The total assessed value of property W:lS $143,228, and the tot:11 
mtes 8300,23. 
In 18GG, the number of' ratepayers had incrc:lf':ed to 2G9; the total 
assessed value of property was $152,929, and the county rate alone, exclu- 
sive of township and school r:lte8, was $809.1 G. 
.At the taking of the last census in 18GI, the population of North 
aghan was sct down at 1281. Of these, G51 wel'C males and G30 females. 
There were in 18GO, 8 death!:!, 30 births, and 247 children attending 
Thc census by origin, in l
Gl, stood as tollows :-lreland 313, England 
12j, Seotl:llltl 7-1, rnited States I;;, epp('l' l'an
 718, Lower C:..naùa 
24, otht'r countrit'9 12. 



The census by religion flhows,-Church of England 382, R. Catholic 
224, 'V. :Methodist 162, E. :Methodist 4, Bible Christian 16, Free church 
422, Church of Scotland 61, Baptist 49, others 15, 

Di!ltrict Co-uncillol'R. 

1842, Thomas Harper, 
1843, Thoma.s Harper. 
1844, Thomas Harper. 
1845, Charles Perry. 

1850, Thomas Fortye. 
1851, Thomas Fortye. 
1852, Thomas Fortye. 
1853, 'fhomas Fortye. 
1854, Thomas Fortye. 
1855, Thomas Fortye, 

1846, Charles Perry. 1848, Robt, Thompson. 
Thomas Chnmber
. Thos. Chambcr
1847, Charles Perry, 1849, Robt. Thompson, 
Thomas Chambers. Th08. Chambers. 

CO'lmt.1J COlmcill07's. 
1856, Thomas Fortye. 
1857, Thomas -Fortye. 
1858, Thomas Eyres. 
1859, Thomas Eyres, 
1860, Thomas Eyres, 
1861, Ed, Chamberlin. 

1862, Ed. Chamberlin. 
1863, John Lockie, 
1864, John Gilmour. 
1865, John Gilmour. 
1866, John Gilmour, 

Thomas FOI tyc. 


.J ames 'Vallis. . 


1844, Hartley Dunsford, 
County Superintendents. 
1852, Thomas Fortye. 

1853, Rev. E, Robcrt
Until 1866 ditto. 
1866, James Stratton. 


The township of Ennismore was surveyed in 1825, Its first settlcrs 
were a portion of the immigrants of tllat year, to the number of 
:md thf'ir filmilie
, eOJl
ting' in all of 297 souls. During thE' first year, 


including the journey up from Prescott, there were amung theoo Ennisll10re 
settlers nine births and twenty-three deatbs. The official returns show 
their first year's produce (that is, from tIle date of settlement in 1825 to 
November, 1826,) to be 8,900 bushels of potatoes, 3000 bushels of turnips 

Uld 10-12 bushels of'Indian corn. Of tbe 19;) acrcs cleared up to that 
date, 4-1t acres were that tàll (1826) sown with fall wheat. They had 
besidcs made 1,330 pounds of maplc sugar, and owned among them four 
oxen, nine cows and ten hogs, purchased by themselves, 
80 large a result for t1lCir first year's labor was creditable to these 
new settlers, most of whom had not the most remote idea of thc proper 
means to pursuc in clcaring and tilling their land, More than one of them 
attempted to burn the timber in the winter as he chopped it, and in the 

l}ring somc of thcm swept the ground with a besom lest it might not be 
sufficiently clean for the seed about to be sown. For the first year or two 
oxen were very scarce, and instead of harrowing in t.he grain, it was hoed 
in, as best it could among the stumps, 
The Chemong or l\Iud lake in front, was a serious obstacle in the way of 
procuring supplies; for as yet the settlers were too inexperienced to con- 
struct canoes of any service, and consequently the wheat to the mill, and 
the flour on their return, had to be carried on their shoulders round the 
head of the lake. Roads as yet were scarcely thought of; and thus heav- 
ily laden, they followed the "blaze" on the trees, through brush, swamps 
and over fallen timber as best they could, These laborious journeys and 
heavy burdens were not confined to thc men, but even the women too, at 
times found it necessary to proceed, laden with grain, to mill or market, and 
in assisting their husbands and providing for their families, performe<I feats 
of labor and endurance of which in later times we 1m\"(' but a fhint con- 
Sir Peregrine l\Iaitland visited tIle new settlement in Ennislllore during 
his visit to Peterborough in 1826, accompanied by Col. Talbot, I\lr. (after- 
wards Colonel) Alexander "McDonell and others. They put up for a short 
time at the Bhanty of Mr, Eugene :McCart11Y, father of Jeremiah 
l\IcCarthy, Esq" and partook of such refreshment as the scttlcment 
During the lust ten ycars, the population of Enni
lllol'e rather dimini
eel than increased, Thi:; was 110 doubt owiug to the fact that many of the 
younger men were ohliged to seek in older seulement8 for employment ..1.t 
remunerating wages. 



Enniðl1l0rc is Lut a small township,-it Uli
ht be said a mere corncr of 
Smith, cut off from thc remainder by Chcmong lake. Three school houðc
snpply the educational wants of thc inhabit:tnts. It has near its centre a 
Roman Catholic <:hnrch, erected many years ago, There is also a Post 
Office, of which 1\11'. Patrick Galliv&n was first Pm;tmaster, Its second 
and present }>ost.master is 
Ir. Thomas Lehane, 
Thc soil of' Ennismorc is naturally rich and fertile, and nothwithstand- 
ing many drawbacks from incxpericllce and the isolation of' the township by 
water, the patient perseverance of t11C settlers, in a few years overcame the 
first difficulties, and they and their familics gradually grcw into compara- 
tive wealth and indel)endence, 
Ennis1l10re is situated on thc direct route between Peterborough and the 
Bobcaygeon road, Owing to the influx of settlers, and thc extensive 
lumbering operations carried on in the new townships bordering on that 
road, during the past few years, it is the thoroughfare for traffic between 
these points,-the bridging of the on either side by thc winter's ice, 
affording the necessary facilities for such a tranl5it. Several attempts have 
been made to supply this necessary link of communication by bridging the 
water, and although such a result would be highly beneficial not only to 
Ennismore, but to the trade of Peterborough, all efforts of the kio.d to 
undertake such a work have hitherto cnded only in failure, 
In February, 1844, a by-law was passed by the District Council author- 
izing the appropriation of twenty-six pounds, currency, from the wild land 
assessment fund of EnnislUore, "for the purpose of building a scow and 
ferry boats on l\Ind lake, to ply from Galt's landing in Eunismore to 
Edmison's lauding in Smith," The councillor for the township and two 
other pcrsons chosen :It the town meeting, were appointed commissioners 
to ha,'e the same in charge, and to contract with a ferryman for pClform- 
ing this duty, The tolls to be charged, which were yery low, were as 
follows :-A :-:l)un of horses and waggon onc 
hilling. A :;ingle horse, with 
or without a wagg;on, 
ixpenec. A Joke of oxen and vehicle ninepence. 
Horned cattle per head three pence. Pigs and calves per head twopence, 
Each passenger threepcnce, 
The ferry thus cstabli:;hed wali kept in operation for a few years, hut 
was fouud trouble
ome and expewi\'e, aud although a conveniE'uce to the 
public, W313 neyel'thelesl) discontinued. 


Since then, thc ncccs:;it,y lor a bridge at th-it place har; been frcflncntly 
hrought prol'l1inently beforc the public, and at times it 
ec1llccl in a fair 
way to be secured, but has not Jet been accomplished. 
In 1854 a Joint f:tock Company wa::; for111ed to construct a gravel road 
from Pcterhorough to BubcaJöcon, intcnding to cross 1'1 ud lake by a bridge 
at thc point mcntioned, and thence passing across the township of Enuifl- 
morc. or this company, ...\ugUf:tus Sawers, ES(h was President, and 
\Villiam LnndJ, Elias Burnham, James Stevcnson, and \y, R Conger, 
Esquires, were Directors, with Thomas "Thite, ESf{" .Jr., as Secretary, 
The town adopted a by-law pledging itsclf to .f:500n. The township of 
Euuismore at a public mccting took stock to the cxtent of .f:30 0 0, and 
::;tock was otherwise takcn, cl1Ìcfly by private individuals, to thc amount of 
æ1100, but thc project, though begun under thesc favourablc auspices: W3.:5 
never evcn commenced; and like Ulany other less practicable schemes, soon 
passed into oblivion. As the construction of a bridge across Mud lake, 
opposite the villagc of Bridgenorth, is still thc subject of occasional discus- 
sion, and recently engaged the attcntion of the County Council, it lllay 
not be uninteresting to quote the estimatc for such a structurc, made at 
the timc (1854) by )11', Dumble, the gentleman charged with the prelim- 
inary survey and estimates of the cost of the above mentioned road, That 
for the bridgc is as follows :- 
"Across l\Iud lake, 70 chains, bridging to consist of piles, stringers. 
corbals, plank and railing, 50 feet span, with swing to admit of navigation, 
The absence of any currcnt in the lake, even at high water, and the 
consequent small risk of injury to such a structure from the action of the 
ice, are most favorable circumstances; which, together with the great im- 
portance of such a work to the municipalitics in the rear, as well as to the 
Town of Peterborough in front, gh-e good hope that means will ere long 
be found to construct so desirable a work, 
In 1832, the number of persons asse:Sbed in Ennismore was 32; the 
number of acres cultivated 118. The value of its property a::; assessed 
thcn was $7088, and total rates for all purposcs levied on the township in 
tbat year, $34. 
In 1866, itti ratepayer
 llUluhered 185, rrhe assessed valne of itl! pro- 
perty waR $69364, and itti COUlIty rate alone, exolujive of township and 
school rates, $494,13. 


The total population of Ennismore in 18tH wa
, Of these 46
were males and 400 females. There were in 1860, 3 deaths, 32 births and 
172 children attending school. 
The census by origin shows, 248 from Ireland, 11 fi'om England, 8 from 
Scotland, 22 from the U nit
d Statcs, and 572 as natives of Uppcr 
The cem;us by religion :-Church of .England 66, R, Catholic 744, 
W. Methodists 27, Free Church 24, Church of Scotland 6, and one or 
two other8, 

Dist1'ict COUl
Daniel Costello, ESll'; was District Councillor for this township,. eon- 
tinuously from the first organization of that body in 1842, until it was 
merged in tlle Coumy Council in 1850, 
Co-wnty Cuuncillol's. 
1850, United to Smith 1855, Daniel Costello. 
for municipal 1856, Daniel Costello_ 
1851, pnrposes, 1857, Daniel Costello, 
1852, Daniel Costello, 1858, Patrick Gallivan, 
1853, Daniel Costello. 1859, John Houron. 
185-1, Daniel Costello. 1860, P. Cunningham. 

18'G1, S. McCarthy, 
1862, S. McCarthy. 
18G3, Cor. Sullivan. 
18G4, :Martin Corker)'. 
1865, Cor, Sullivan, 
18G6, Jer, :i\1cCarthy. 


Daniel Costello. 
Patrick Sullivan, 

John Sullivan, 
Martin Corkery, 

Patrick Brick, 

1844, Patrick Sullivan. 1856, Daniel Donahue, 1862, Daniel Donahue, 
County Superintendents,1857, Daniel Donahue. 1863, Daniel Donahue. 
1852, Patrick Sullivan, 1858, James Brennan, 1864, Daniel Donahue. 
1853, Dr. John Irons, 1859, James Brennan, 1865, Dr, T, 'V. Poole. 
1854, Daniel Donahue. 1860, James Brennan, 18G6, James Stratton. 
1855, Daniel Donahuc. 1861, James Brennan. 


About the year 1832, a number of gentlemen, soon after their emigra- 
tion to Canada, located in the township of Harvey, and commenced a Rüt- 
tlement chiefly in the south-western corner,:nenr the shore of Pigeon 
lake, :md in the vicinity of Sandy lake. Co1. Strickland in his interesting 
work on Canada, says, "The spot chosen by them was one of great natural 
beauty; but it possessed no other ndvantages except':" an abundance of 
game, which waf; no small inducement to them, They spent several thou- 
sand pounds in building fancy log houses, and mnking large cleariDg
which they had neither the nbility nor industry to cultivate, But, even if 
they had possessed sufficient pel'f'.everance, their great distance from a mar- 
ket, bad roads, want of knowledge in cropping after t11ey had cleared the 
land, lack of bridges, an
 poor soil, would have been a great drawback 
to the cllance of effecting a prosperous settlement. In a fcw years not a 
settler remained of this little colony, Some stayed till their means were 
exhausted; others more wise purchased ready-cleared farms in the settle- 
ments, or followed some profession morc congenial to their tastes or more 
suited to their abilitic
Among those whose first experience of life iu Canada commenced in 
Harvey, were Robert Dennistoun, Esq" nnd Captain 'Vallis, who for 
many )'ears have been regarded as among our most worthy citizens. 
Since this attempt at settlement in Harvcy, no large influx of popula- 
tion has taken place, anù the great bulk of the township still remains either 
in the hands of tlle Crown, or is owned by non-residents, who are chiefly 
lumber merchants, for whose operations the township offered peculiar fa- 
cilities in former da)'s, but is now nearly denuded of its valuable timber, 
though still in great part covered by the forest.. 
Among the first settlers in Hnrvey, was .Mr. :Matthew 'Varem, now of 
Smitb, but who resided for 11 years in Harvey, and notwithstanding 
many disadv:mtages succeeded well in the pursuit of 3griculture. 
A valuable mill site on the Missasauga river, in this township, was 
turn cd to account some years ago by ì\lr, 'Vm, Henry, who erected a fine 
8aw mill on the spot, now for some years conducted by W. A. Scott, Esq. 

· .. fwentY-uvon )"eara in Canada Wnt.u Vol. I, par.1S6. 


The mill is adjacent to t.h(' Ba]d Jakes, which are navigable for 
bteamcrs, and by this means, the large quantity of sawn lumber manufac- 
tured there every year is shipped to market, 
The front of the township borders on Buckhorn lake, at the narrows of 
which, known as Buckhorn falls, a fin.e saw mill, and other machinery wert' 
erected some yearR ago by John Hall, Esq., who is also Postma
ter of th
A bridge was thrown acrOSB the stream at this point, which is the ea
ern terminus of the navigation of the back lakes; and to which steamboats 
l)ly constantly during the stl!Ilmer' season for the transport of lumber. 
',Hall's bridge n or Buckhorn, as the place is called, is within the granit(' 
or Laurentian formation, and the approach to the spot is over boulders 
of immense size, whose huge oval backs have become partly bare, but in 
the interstices of which, trees and shrubbelY still fiouri
From Hall's bridge, a road was projected through the wild lands of this 
and the adjacent townships, intended to tap thc Canada L
ll1d :md Emi- 
gration Company's lands in the rear. The Town and County agreed to 
construct the portion through Harvey, and the Government undertook the 
expense and supervision of the remainder, Towards this end, the fawn 
and County of Peterborough appropriated $1500 each; but, at their 
solicitation, tl1e Government accepted thcir aid to this extent, :md unl1ertook 
the work of the entire road. Operations werc commcnced in 18G5, under 
the superintendence of 1\11'. T, F, Nicoll, and three miles wcrc constructed 
at a cost to the Government of about $3000, inclnding the expcnses of 
the location of the road, During the present season, (18û6) J. R, Benson, 
Esq., with a number of men, has been proscuting the same work, of 
which about six miles are now completed, and in fail' condition fur 
Until the present year, (18ôG), Harvey was :lssociated with the tùwn- 
ship of Smith for municipal purposes. H:n'ing attained the necesl:!:ll'Y 
number of ratepayers, it has now become a separntr corporation, (If which 
'V. A, Scott, Esq., WfiS the first and present Reeve. The number of its 
r:ltepayers for 1865 was set down at 69, and its n'1sessed value for th
year nt $42,520. 
During 1864-5, the township of Hnrvey was resurveyed by Theodore 
Clement.i, Esq., P. L, S., the expenses connected with which Wel'C to be 
paid partly by the Government, and pardy by t.he ownerq or Jessees of 


1and pat{'nted in that town!lbir, Thf' County Council :mtnorizf'd tb{' work:. 
believing it, to he urgently rcquire<l, and for the benefit of the municipality, 
hut 11ithcrto it haR failed to recover the money advanced in good faith fOl' 
the pro
ooution of the work, RIñounti
g in all to $2759. 



'fhe new town
 of the County of Peterborough are somewlwt iso]a 
ted from the re
t of the County, not only as regards the remoteness of their 
Hituation, but nlso on nccount of their more recent survey :md settlement. 
Besides, though now numbering severnl distinct municipalities, they were, 
but a few years ago, comprised in one, and have therefore a unity of 
interest, and a s01ñëwhat similar }1Ïstory, For these reasons, we shaH 
present such facts in reference to them, eollecHvel.v and in detail, as we 
have been able to gather. 
It is no ra1't of our duty, in thesc pnges, to enter into the consideration 
or discussion of the mcrits or otherwise of the new townships of the back 
coup-try, as a. field for the pursuit of a:gricultnre or othC'r enterprise. Suf- 
fice it to say, that cnreful Dnd practical observers have given it ns their 
opinion that mudl good land exists in these townships; and with the 
opening up of excellent colonization roads, stretching far into the interior, 
intending settlers there are provit1cd with facilities of aeceFS and transpor- 
tation which ensures them ndvantages froll} the outset, unknown in the 
early settlement of the olùer town
llÍps of this county, 
Tho courageous RpÏ1'its who have Rccurell houses amI farmR in these new 
townships within a few year
, have had few of the difficulties to encountcl' 
such as are pourtrayed in the 'CaRe of the fir:-;t settlers of Hmith; and 
evcry year, Euch di8advantng

 as did at 1il'
t exiRt, arc disappearing, ag 
stores, mills, school houses and clmrches are being erectell; thus bringin
the blessiugs of civi1i!
ltion within reach of :!]mo
t the furthest pioneerR 

nto this new r{>gion. 



The progre8
 of thesc new townships, which nine years ago were not 
only entirely unsettled, but even unsurveyed, has been very remarkable. 
At first, in the year 1859,".thcy were united with the township of Smith 
for municipal purposes. A year later, n whole block of townships, com
prising a large area, waR united in a single municipality; :md the increase 
of population has been such, that these one after another, were enabled to 
be set off as a separate corporation j till, on the ] st of January, 1867, no 
less than five distinct municipal bodies exist., eaoh regulating it.s own 
local affairs, and sending a Reeve to sit in our County Council. 
Such a rate of progress, if persisted in, would ere many years, require 
the formation of a new county. As in older communities, progress is not 
uniformly rapid j but while townships first settled assume a more 
ary position, in the newer and more remote localities, fresh advances are 
being constantly made into the interior, nnd a wider area cvery year rc. 
claimed for the dominion of man, and made subservient to the pursuits of 
We begin with the first of these new townships:- 


The township of Galway lieR next to Harvey, in the l'eal', and ha
Bobcaygeon road along its western bound.ary. It was surveyed in part by 
1\1. Dean, Esq" P. L. S" in 1857, and contains (j9,
20 acreFl, He states 
of that portion surveyed by him :-"It is well wntered, and nlthough un- 
dulating and stony in places, is genernlly well suited for settlcment,- 
However, in tbe 17th and 18th concessions, there is a succession of rocky 
ridges whicb may, for the present, retard the settlement of that sec
but the many intervening valleys in which the soil is deep and fel,tile, will 
afford such inducements as will ultimately lead to its settlement." 
The remainder: being the south eastern corner, was surveyed by "1. 
Drennan, Esq" p, L. S" in 1860, Of this the report is les
The suneyor says:- 
"I regret that I cannot give a very Ihvorable report of the quality of 
the land in the greater portion of that part of the townsl1Ìp surveyed by 
mc, much of it being little bet
r th:m bnre rock:' 
" There are, however, patches of several hundred acres e
lCh of very 
fair laud in many pLlces j and land appesrs to improve very much in tb.,. 
north (,Rst corner:' 


" The linc of junction of the limt'8tullc with 
rallite or 
across the south WCtst course of the t-ownship of Galwa.y, as 
hewn on the 
plan; the former lying to the south \Vest and the latwr to the north C
several other rocks crop out between t.he two, especially a description of sand- 
stOllC which 8CCll1S well adapted for building purposes, being very compact 
all{l at the salliC time easily \vorked, and of a beautiful color. 
:< * 
" There is somc very fine pine timber, both white and red, much of it 
being from three to four feet in diameter, It is the only timber of much 
commcrcial importance, except perhaps tamarack, therc being very little 
elm anù no oak. The IllOst fre(!uent descriptions of hardwood timber are 
maple, basswood, iron-wood and beech," 
During 1858-9, settlers flocked into this township in considerable num- 
bers. Among the first of these were, l\Iessrs. Thomas R, White, James 
J...Iyle, John Coulter, John Lambcrt, John Henderson, John Allan, John 
Doherty, Robert Purdy, Thoma
 Probert, Thomas 
IcGahey, Anthony 
J...Iawrence, John Healey, 1'Ilauricc Hartnett, John T, Henderson, 'Villiam 
Casey, 'Vm, Craig, Thomas l'\Iorgan, Thomas Bick, Duncan l\Ioulineaux, 
Andrew Hamilton, i'Iiehael Flaherty, Jamcs Flaherty, William Leeson, 

IichacJ, George and .John O'Brien, Maurice Sullivan: :l\1ichael Kane, 
.J ames Purdy and perhaps others, 
During the first year of settlement, an averagc of about threc acres 
was cleared on each lot; now, in 1866, thc total number of settlers 
is 122, -Rnd the clearings on the lots !-jet tIed will average probably 20 acres 
each, 120,000 acres of land arc assessed in Gahv:lY, for 1866, and there is 
said to be some good land i\till unoceupicd, 
At the time the first settlcment was made, the llobcaygcon road wa:; 
only partially completed; and thc ncarest point for milling and market 
wa:; Bobcaygeon villagc, a distance to thc 
ttl('rs of ii"ouI nine to eighteen 
miles, The fin;t store in Galway was opcncd by Thomas I) robert, Esq" 
in 1860, at his residence on lot 7, concossion A, on the Bobcaygeon road. 
)Ir, Probert was abo the first Postma.8tor, his offic
 having been opened in 
1860. He i
 also a Justice of the Pca\;e, and has tor three years repre- 

ented the municipality in the Coupty Council. 
The fir
t clcrgymen who visiwd Galway, were the Rcv. John A, Dowler 
and the Rev. Gcorgc H, Kcnney, of the Mcthodi!-jt, the Rev., Clark of 
tho Pre::;byteriaD, 
nd thc Rev, John Vicart!, of the Episcopal cllUl'c11, 
Lind8ay. At 
ilT8r lale, l'cligíoUl; 
 are l}(
"ery Sunday. 


The ta,'crn-kQCpclt. uf G.llwclY arc 
lr. Thomd6 It. '''hite, on lot 1 con- 
CCSðiOll ..\., 
mc1 )Ir. John Edgar, of Silver lake, 
ng the firbt :year>:! of 
ttIeDlcnt, bears were frcl}ucntly met with. 
:Uld the howling of wolves was not unusa1. 
The improvemcllt of the BobcaYb"COll road, and also the opening up of 
maù:; in t.hc interior of the tuwnship, J1ave materially irupro"cd the pros- 
pects of the settlers, while the facts already mentioned bear witness to the 
material pro6'Tess which has been madc in a few brief years. 
A rcference to the census for 1861 shows that Galway had thcn a popu- 
lation of 35
. Of these 171 were males and 181 females. During 1860 
there was one death and 16 birtl1s in this township. 20 children were rc- 
turned as attending school. 
The census by religion, as taken in 1861, shows :-Church of England 
105, R. Catholic 149, W. l\Iethodists 12, j1-'ree Church 16, Church of 
Scotland 6, Baptists 9, other :Methodists 2,1, and other churches 31. 
The namcs of the Reeves and Township Clerks of this and the other 
new townships will be found in tabular fonn in a future page. 
1'he number of ratepayers in Galway in 1866, was 122; the total 
assessed value of property $20110, and the sum levied for -county rate 
$76.85. The Hssessment roll shows J2 of the first anù 58 of the second 
class militia for thnt yenr, 

Proceeding further along the Bobcaygeon road, the next township to 
Galway is Snowden, This township was surveyed in 1859 by M. Dean, 
Esq" P. L, S. To convey a general idea of its topography, we quote the 
following from his official report :- 
" For the purpose of more fully dcscribing the land and timber, I have 
lUade a tracing from the plan to accompany the returns, on which I have 
divided the town
l1Îp into five sections-number one embracing the north 
and north-western portion of the townsbip, is a tract of hardwood land 
composed of a sandy loam soil, gcnera]]y stony and rocky in places; thc 
prevailing timber is !l1aple, beech, elm, birch, hemlock, ironwood, b3ß8wood 
anù balsam, Section llumber two i
 a swall traet of inferior land, v
rocky, and timbered with pine) hemlock :md balsam.. . ßection nwnher 



three i03 all exten&ive baet of hioh rollinó 1andt- being &.'8uca::.33Îon of hillEl, 
eB and knoll
, thc summits of which are all more or less rocky, while 
thc interycnillg valleys, owing to dep08its wabhed from tho &url"ounding 
11cights, p08SC
S a dec}), rich and fertilo soil j tbe prinoipal timber is pinc, 
hemlock, cedar, balsam and tamarack, each ranking contiecutivcly according 
to its aLumlance, and with rebpcct to the pine, of which there arc white 
and red, thc formcr ið not of a good quality, and the latter is gcnerally too 
small for merchantable timber. Seotion number four il:l a tract of land 
which was burned about twenty years ago, and is now oyerrun with a 
sceond growth of poplar, birch, hemlook and pine, Section number five is 
a small tract of' undulating land of good quality, timbered witII mapJe, 
beech, basswood, hemlock, elm and ironwood; the Boil is sandy loam, and 
stony in places," 
The following were among the first Bettlers of Snowden :-l\Iessrs. S, S. 
Peck, J. B. Edmison, Henry Edmison, Richard McCracken, 'V. B. 
Brower, Stephen Moore, R, C. Garratt, Archibald Scott, Robert ltitchie, 
Henry Agglestône, John Scheffee, David Roxborough, David Chalmers 
and Andrew Chalmers. 
The want of roads, mills and stores, were among the disadvantages of 
the early settlement, but the latter were ere long supplied, by the spring- 
ing up of the village of Minden, in the adjacent portion of the township of 
1\1inden, which at once became the chief market and place of trade of tl1Ís 
and adjoining townships, 
In consequence of this proximity to the village of. :Minden, Snowden 
has no resident clergymen, no Post Office, and nO tavern. S. S. Peck, 
Esq., who for several years has been elected Reeve of the township, is also 
a Justice of the Peace, a Commissioner in the Queen's Bench, and also 
Issuer of Marriagc Licenses. 1\11'. Robert Ritchie was first Reeve of 
Snowden, after its erection into a separate municipality. The names of 
those who successively filled that office in the different munieipa1ities, and 
those of the scvera1 township Clerks, &0., will be given hereafter in tabular 
form, as more concise and convenient for reference. 
A W esleyan 
t Church was erected on lot 15 in the 13th con- 
cession, in 1863, The first school houae, known as ccPeck'8," was erected 
on lot 30, concession A. The fin;t trustees were :Messrs. Rueben C, Gar- 
tcpheu )Iunll, Imù \Villiam Heartell. 'l'he first tC8.cher waF.! l\Ii!!8 


1. A. Peck. The second school house in ðnuwden was that now knuwu 
;u; belonging to Section no. 4, on lot 16, concession ..\. 3lr. Thos, Smith 
was the first school teachcr. 
Bears, foxes and wild cats were plentiful, and arc still occaf
ionally met 
with. but occasion no special inconvcnicnce. 
At the taking of thc last census, (in 1861) Snowden had residcntH, from 
Ireland 25, England 15, Scotland 5, United States 6, Uppcr Canada 125, 
Lower Canada 1, other conntries 11. 
There were, members ofthc Church of Engla'nd 88, It Catholic 12, 'V. 
)Iethodist 8-1-, E, Methodist 11, Free Church 2, Church of Scotland 22, 
other churches 19. 
The total population was then 188, of which 110 were males and 7'8 
The assessment roll for 1866, shows the names of 83 ratepayers in 

nowden. The total valuation of property for that year was $17666, 
and the county rate 893.72, The militia enrolled were, first claHs 23, 
second class 32, third class 10. 


The township of l'Iinden was surveyed by J. W. Fitzgerald, Esq" 
P. L. S" in 1859, and contains 46,000 acres. In his official report to the 
Commissioner of Crown Land
, he thus speaks of it :- 
" I am pleased, Sir, to be able to report very favorably of this township. 
which is now being fast settled ,vith an industrious and intelligent class of 
people, composed chiefly of emigrants of a few years' experience in the 
country, who have acquired a good knowledge of Canadian life. There 
are already several large clearings varying from two to fifteen acrcs, the 
greater portion of which is under crop; the soil is generally composed of 
:;andy loam, in some cases resting upon a substratum of clay and gravel, it 
is of good depth, and capable of affording a profitable yield to the industri- 
ous husbandman," 
" The timber in thc township is principally beech, maple and pine of 
average size, and well balanced to supply all the wants of the inhabitants; 
there are ocollsional cedar and spruce swamps, which, by a little drainage, 
could bi rwdered exceedingly feItile. Thi Gull and Burnt rivers havlt 


their ßourC8S in 'linden; upon tlu'ln are 
eYeral mill privilegei, whic'b will 
soon be required to be put into operation to satisfy tbe demands of the 
settlers, There is one mill site on Gull river, on lot no. 3, in the 3rd con- 
cession. having an unbroken fall of 14 feet, and capable of being easily 
applied. " 
"A large portion of th(' township is occupied with lakes. in which 
Salmon Trout are very abundant, and from three to five pounds weight. 
Beaver, Mink, Otter and Martin are very abundant all through this part 
of the country, and Deer are very plentiful. I have coutlted as many as 
seventeen in a drove." 

" The geological and mineral features of the country are also deserving 
uf some notice. The formation is entirely granite, and orops out in a 
north-westerly direction, at fight angles to the ridges which define the 
valleJs and water-courses, in a north-easterly direction, I have found 
good specimens of galena, which would probably yield from 30 to 50 per 
cent, of lead, and 20 to 30 of sulphur; evidences of copper orc also exist, 
though not abundant," 
The first settler in Minden was :Mr. Francis Kent, who located himself 
there in 1858, before the township was surveyed, In 1859, the following 
settIel's found their way into that townsl1Ïp :-:Messrs, Malachi Campbell, 
1Villiam Murray, .James Murray, Harry Dawkins, J:l.mes and Henry 
'fhe first saw mill in the township of 
Iinden was built in 1860, by 
'Vm, Gainor, on Beaver creek, on lot 
, con, A, l\Ir, Richard Smith also 
built a saw mill in 1863. 

The rïllage of 1/i'ld It.-The villa{!e 01' )Iinùen has the distinction 
of being, in a sense, the pivot around Wl1ich the more remote of the new 
townships Dlay be said to revolve. It is there that clergymen of the dif- 
ferent religious denominations reside, who, by their ministrations, supply 
the spiritual wants of all the aùjacent townships. Thithf'r the settlers 
from a large area around flock to mill. market, store, Post Office and Di- 
vision Court, 80 important a place iR worthy of all the Jetails w}1Ích we 
may be aLle to give, In the editorial column
of the Peterbol'ough Review 
of October, 18GO, we nnd the following mt'mor
lDdum of a visit to thi:.. 
place, a little mor
 than iix yearf\ ago:- 


.: Gull riyer, cr what t9 the traveller on the Bobcaygeon roail j
niscd as such, if! a busy f'pot. It is the centre for the fine district Rur- 
lOunding it, and Mr, Daniel Buck, who keeps n t.avern there, lias his hand
full, usually, to entertnin his guest
. He i
 making preparations to erect 
a large frame building to be used tiS an hotel; anù hopes to h:I.Ye it up 
this fall. The lot opposite hi3 place, lot three in :\1inden, forming the 
corner, bounded on two sides by the Gull river :mù the ßobcaygeon road, 
has been reserved by the Government, and the settlemeut of the plnce i
50mewhat retarded in CODSe(!Uence of this, A petition is now in course of 
signature praying the Government to c:m
e it to be surveyed as a town 
plot, and placed on sale with getdement condition
Mr. Daniel Buck, it will be seen, was the first hotel keeper in Minden, 
He was also the first Postmaster, and the office, first. opcned in 1860, hav- 
ing then only a weekly, is now supplied with a tri-weekly mail. 1\lr, 
Thomas Young opened the first general store in )linden in 1860, whic11 
was followed by that of l\iessrs. George and H, Andrews in the fall of 
1862, To these have since been added the stores of Messrs. 'Vm, Dumble, 
Andrew Bell, Francis l\Iason and James J...angtûn. 
A saw mill, at a falls about a mile above the village, was built in ] 861, 
and a frame grist mill at the same place followed in 1862, The first 
mill had one run of stones, was commenced and partial1y completed by 
l\lr, J, \V. Cummings, and then passed into the h:mds of l\Ir, Francis 
The McthodÍßt minister who first visited Minden, and the neighboring 
townships, was the Rev. John A. Dowler, who was stationed at Bobcay- 
geon. His Ruccessors in the work were the James 'V. ::;loan, Rev, 
'Vm, Sheridan, Rev. Wm. Shortt, and the Rev. 'V. II. Schofield, 
The li'l'ee Presbyterian church also sent mif:sionari{'s into Minden and 
the neighboring townships at an early period, Among these was tIle Rev. 
William Clarke, who officiated for two years, (18GC amI 1861.) The 
Uev. Walter )1. Roger in 18G2. The Rev. James )lcNaugl1t-ûn in 1863. 
The Uev. 
1r, Reeve in 1864, who resided 10 Minden. Rev, J, W. Ferris 
in 1865, and the !lev. J, W, Bell in 186G. 
The Rev. John Vicars of the Episcopal churcli, Lindsay, al&l minister- 
ed to the spiritual wants of t.he new settlers in }Iindcn and the neighbor- 
ing t<>wnships, at intervals, for 
everal ye:H'I
. In 1865, th
 Rev. l\Ir. 


Burt, a clcrgyman of that church, wa:-- 10caL
d at H<tliburtou, iu the to\\I1- 

hip of Dy
art, but rcmov@d during the same )car to }lindcn, wbf're he ha
';;ince resided. 
The Epiðcopal )lcthodiðb; ,,"ere among the earlic
t in occupyin
ncw field. The Rev, Mr, Egan was the piunccr øf this chmch in 'lin- 
den in 1
61. lie ha::; been followed h) thc Rc
', J. ß, 
parrow, Rc" 
, ncv. ..:\braham )Jaybec, and thc Hc,'. p, L. Sparro\\. 
Thcsc gentlcmen't! attentions havc not bccn confincd to )liuden, but a
well as thc clcrgyrncn of other denomination::;, have fn,-cly "i::;ited all t1J(' 
back townships, In 1862 a i\Icthodist Episcopal church, a log building. 
was crectc(l at Austiu's narro\V
, ou Kaù
hagawigamog lake. A 'Vc
Mcthodist church, also log, \Va::; erccted in thc town::;hip in 186:{, whilc the 
,'illage of Minden possesscs twu c1mrchcs; the first, a :Fl'ce, Prcsbyterian 
('hurch, a frame building, crcctcd in 186.1: and thc second, ;1 'V csleyau 
l\lethodist ehurc11, crectcd in 186:'), also a framc building. This last if; 
used by thc residcnt cler
yman of the Church of England, in the absence' 
of any church edifice of his own. Thc Biblc Christian church was repre- 
sented at 
Iinden as early a::; 1862. of which thc Rev. 
Ir. Browning wm..: 
the first minister. 
JfrOlll what h
 bccn t!aid of thc number of christian churches reprp- 
sented at :Mindcll, and the variety of Rev. teachers who during a féw brief 
years have ministered to the spiritual wants of that people, it is ev
en has been highly favored in this respect. Founded in 1860, 
it h
s had during the six ycars which have elapsed, no less than nineteen 
religious teachcrs reprcsenting five christian churches j-a number and a 
variety con
iderably in advance of much older localitics. 'Vere the term 
not incongruous, as applied to such a subject, we should certainly have 
written Minden down as a dceidcdly fast place religiously. 
The first school house ill Minden was erectcd at thc village in 1860, of 
which tllC trustees wcre 
IessrB. Daniel Buck, senior, 'Villiam Beavis and 
T. L. l\Ioore. 'fhe !Sccond school was organizcd at Peterson's corner& 
in 1864. Four othcrs have !5incc been added throughout the town- 
ship, making six school houses in all, a circumst:mcc which alone speak::; 
volumes for thc entcrprit!e and intelligence of so young a community, 
'l'hc hotel already mentioned is kept bý l\Ir, Daniel Bnck, senior, \ViIS 
on the '
ictoria side of th
 of the Bobcaygeon road, and has since passed 


intu the bamlli of hi
 bUll John, and wure l'Ct.:t:ull) b kq.L hy Lib )ouugt:.f 
iSon, Daniel Buck, junior. The fust hotel, uctuillIy ill Mindcn, \fab that 
opended by :Mr, Ucujau1in Sawyer,.; in 1
\ second at somc di:slancc 
from thc villagc, ib kept by 
1r. "ïlliam GlJrvai

\ Divi:-ioll Court wa::; l'RtubliiShcd at )lindcn in 18ljj, :It which Hi 
HOlloI' R. )1, &uchcr f .EHJ., J uclge 1UT the 
ounty, prObidc
. S. Peck, 
Esq" is Clerk, and .1\Ir. H. C. Garrett. ßailifi
 of the Court. 
'Villiam Gainor, .Esq., of the township of 
Iilldcn, is a Justice of the 
!'eacc, as is also the Recve of Minden, and tIle Uecvçs of thc township
'Villia1l1 :McKelvcy, Esq., who for many ycars has acted as Clerk of the 
municipality of Minden, is also a COlllmissioner of the Queen's Bcnch anll 
Issuer of Marriage Licenses. 
The total population of the townships uf l'linden dud Stanhope in 18G1, 
was 230, Of these 110 were males and 88 fcmales. 
There were from Ireland 49, England 35, Scotland 5, rnited States 3, 
1Tpper Canada 136, Lower Canada 1, other countries 1: 
As regards religion, there werc (in 1861) Church of England 32, R, 
Catholic 4, 'V, Mcthodist 69, Bible Christian 4, Free Church 4, Church 
of Scotland 14, and Baptists 
The Assessment Roll for 1866, shows the number ('f ratepayers for 
that year to be 188, thc total value of assessed property $31002, and the 
county rate $114,79, The militia of Minden for 1866, were, 1st class 27, 

nd class 68, third Cla8S 27. 


This township was surveyed by C. R. Stewart, Esq., P. L. S.,in 1860, 
He says of it in his official report:- 
" The land in this township i:s more hilly and undulating than in 
den and the 80il is generally lightel'; north of a chain of lakes previously 
referrcd to, flowing into Big Bushkonk, are a scrics of hardwood ridgcM of 
modcrate height; the soil in the valleys betw
el1 thcw iM very rich, but un 
them is light aud stony; the abo\e water chaiu flows thl'ough severallü.J;ge 


rlJ1berry m8.r[l'hf'
. ^bout tã p(lf ff'nt. of t-'hi" township is !luitable fQr 
The fir!'t settlcr in Sbml10pe W3A 
Ir. I
a3c lIunter, WllO found his waJ 
into thnt wilder,ncs.
 in 18!jj, long bcl'orc th(' bud was sun"cyed, H(' wa
ed in 18[,9 by j)lr. George A. )rm
on, :md in 1860 by ?\Iessrs, Jamcs 
':Uellville :md Ruel CbrkE'. In J8G1 the following persons bpcame nctual 
settlerl'l :-)Iesí'r
. Robert Sturgf'OD, J :tmeg A, Fergu
n, Thomas :\fa!'on. 
Caleb Davi
, S."muel Sim!õl, Willi:nn "el
h :md Renjf\min Chnk. 
Stanhope c:m bOfl
t of two 
, the first of which wa
 erected in 
1862, by l\fr. Willinm C3meroD, on the north hr:tDrh river flowing into 
lake Bushkonk. The seconù wa
 built by Daniel Buck, senior, on the 
west branch flowing into that lake, A third saw mill on Ùle e:tst branch, 
was commenced in 18G3, by )fr. .James A_ Fergup-on, but i
 not. yet fuBy 
completed. . 

taJlhope, 3S yet, Jws neither store nor grist mill, clHlrch 01' SdlOOl. .A 
Post Office is expected to be op('ned shortly. Clergymen, from Miuden 
and elsewhere, visit the townsllip and officiate in private housc
, It be- 
came a s<'11arate municipality in 186G, and in that ycm' had the names of 
;')1 ratepayers Oil its :tssessment roll. Its tot:ll 3
sesscd property for that 
year was $8998, and its county r3tc 
;}l,S:!. Its militia was enrolled as 
followed, 1st class 17, 2nd c1:j

 17. 3rd cla


[) E
Y'R L:\:\ùs, 
'fhe townships of Dysart, ])ndl(,y, H:n'cOUl't, (J-nilford. lI
tl'burn, Bl'utOll, 
Havelock, Eyre :md CI)'de, nine townsl1Ïp!'1 "('II Mor," :1re the property of 
the Canadian IJ:tnù and Emigration ('omp3ny, (limited) of London, :En
md, 1.:250,UOO, 
In ISlì1, th(" compan)' ag-Iccd to lillrchaf!è these towlJshi}J
, and onc 
other in the ('uunt.y of Victoria, from the ('rOWll Lands ùepartment, on 
which they p3id ùown over 
9;).OOO. By the t('rm
 of the purchase, it was 
ugl'eed that the comp3oy w('re tlot to p:1Y fi)l' bnd eoven'J hy 13kf'
. rivcr
or swamp!'!, and th:lt t'{,l'tain allowanc('
 wpre to marlt' fOl' rO:ld", &c. 
Au ('xpluratory :;;urve,y was mad!> by :\Ir. t:os!'!agc, 1), L. 
.. who wa
suhseq1\('ntly {>ntrn..,ted with the survey :mJ suhrli\"i
ion of tht> town
int.o farm lot
 of IOU :wrf'q t-
ch. The urigin!!l term
 of the agree1llrnt 
werp. in the opinion of the comp:mv, not 
dhered to JJY the Uoyernment. 


and a great deal (If negotiation took phwc on the 
nbjf'ct,-tht" tt"rm
being fimilly settlcd until AuguRt, 1864, 
By the agreement rntrl'cd into, (puLlished ill the report. of the Commis- 

ioner of Crown Land:::: for the }wlf YC:Jr ending 30th .Junc, 1865,) it 
:lppcars that the arc. of tIle tpn t<]wnship
 iR 403,125 acres, from which the 
Commissioner deducted 41,0011 acres for area covered by Bwamps, &c" 
lcaving 3G2,12r> acres to bc paid for at the rate of:>O cents per acre. The 
ordinary settlement dutics are to be performed on an area of 2fìl,J44 
acrcs, within a period of 15 ycars from 1st January, 1865, 
Ten per cent, of the purchase money is to be refunded to the company 
for the construction of leading lines of road tl1rough their lands, 
to the inspection of the Superintendent of Colonization ronds, 
The purchase of the ten townships was completed in 1\Iay, 1865, wIlen 
:1 patent was issued to the company, and a Provincial Act of incorporation 
was subsequently obtained. 
The difficulty of arriving at. :).ny definite 3rrangement with 
he Crown 
JJauds department, :md various other matters for some time retarded the 
opcrations of tllC company. Among these may be noted the case of 
"Gossage l'S. the Company," which excited considcrable interest at the 
timc; the (luestion bcing thc fair intcrpretation of the following words in 
a contract "average for the year 1861 of the acreage cost:of thc Govern- 
mcnt surveys,"-the various officials of the Crown Lands department giv- 
ing threc diffcrent average ratcs, Under these circumstances, the company 
can in fact be only said tQ have b('cn in actiw opcration for a littlc ovcr 
two ycars. 
In Septcmher, 18G3. the present 
ecrct3ry, then unconnected with the 
company, mat1e a trip with the Surveyor to thc town
hip of Dysart. 
There waH at tlmt t.ime no :tcreSR at all to the township from the {BobcaJ- 
geon r03d, except through the towm,hip of )Iin<lt:n by a portage road or 
l'athcr track of three miles to the foot of lake K:lh
htlgawigmnog', (now gCll- 
erally caUlid Kushog by thp settlers) :md theUl
e by water. The inhabi- 
bnts numbercd ahout h3If a dozen settlers, two of whom WC'l'(, old trappers 
who had "
qURttcJ" there b('fore thf' comp
my W3S heard of, In the fhll 
and t<pring. he fore the ice had thoroughly formt'll ;lI1d bpfore it broke up, 
f' fmnilieA were pri
 in the town
hil), dependent for su
tenanc(' on 
tht'> company's store,-at that time by no meanq furni'!ht.d with thp luxu- 
 :md ('()mfort
 of civilized life.>, It j
 due, however, to _ thr comp:my to 


statt' that they aS1'i
omc of the early 
ettler8 who were unable to 
earn a livelihood, in a most liberal manner and fbr a eOllsidcrablc time. 
Thc now rising ,-illage of Haliburton, at the head of lakc Kushog, exi::;tcd 
then only to the eye of faith and 
rophecy, there being but one small 
shanty, minus a roof, in which the gentleman abovc mentioned bivouac/.-cd 
for a few days. 
Thc first commen"ement of a road through Dysart was made at that 
date, September, 1863, and was completcd in the summer of 1865 as far as 
Haliburton, It is now open to the Peterson road, from which the company 
arc clc3ring off thc brush which has grown up since its construction by 
(i, ovcrnment Through the joint cxertions of the company and the ad- 
joining municipalities of Snowdon and :Minden, a connecting road has also 
bcen opened to the Bobcaygeon road, at a point about two milcs south of 
the village of 
Iinden or Gull river. The Burleigh and Buckhorn 
roads, when completcd, will givc more direct access to the compuuy's 
The character of thc country is uudulating, studded with beautiful 
-from onc to fiftecn miles in length, fed by streams containing many 
cxcellent mill f':ites, The scenery is everywhere picturesque, and thc air 
extremcly healthy. The soil is a rich sandy loam, and of its fitncss for 
agricultural purposes, a sufficient proof is afforded by a refercnce to the 
report of the Provincial Exhibition in 1865, held at London, C,\V., whcrc 
it will be seen that an assortment of farm produce from thc settlers in 
Dysart obtained a special prize, and the grain was particularly commcnd- 
ed by the Judges. The country is also admirably adapted for stock · 
raising, and for shecp farming as thc clcarings increase, The timber 
if': principaUy good hardwood., with sufficicnt pinc for local purpo
_\n excellent gri
t mill at Haliburton supplies thc wants of the commu- 
nity, and therc are also a saw mill, store and boarding house, Post Office, 
&c. J.Jots lutYc been grantcd by the company to the val'Ïous religious 
dcnominations for the erection thereon of placcs of worship, Threc school 
sections have bt'cn formed, anù an 
\gri('ultural So(.iety has been propcrly 
The fir
 in Dysm.t were>, ..\le
srs, David Sawyer
 and 'Villiam 
:md .James )lurr3.)', who located there in 18G3. During the> following 
r, they were joined by .\Je8
rs, Jolin anù James n. l
, - Lf'er.eI', 
HiC'hard Thomp
ol1, Stpl'hcn Thompson, l
e()rge Thompson. .Jal11f'


land, William Holland, \Yilleft JUf.tÌn, .John Luc&8. 'Y'illiam Gainor, 
"Tilliam Ellstone, :md subsequently by others. 
The saw mill, alrcady mentioned, was erected in 1864, as was also the 
school hou."e and church at Hnliburton. The grist mill Wß$ completcd in 
] 865, and hfls one run of 
, Tht' fi1'
t. tru!'tce
 of 1.h(' Haliburton 
school were l\1eRsrs, John Luca
, J. R. Erskine ond .Jobn Stoddard. On" 
other f':chool now exist
 in DYRart, erected in 1866, and t3ught by Mi:o:l;,J 
A\' Giggins, whORe sister wa
 tC:lcher of the school at Haliburton, 
.1\Ir. A, H. Garratt's general store was opened at Haliburton in 18()5, 
and :Mr, Samuel Pocket's t:l'fCrn during tbe same ycar. A blacksmith. 
carpenter and other tradesmen alRo ply their avocations. 
An enterprising settler has recently built a small steamboat, which is 
intended to run from Haliburton to thc foot of Lake Kushog, 3 miles 
from :Minden, a distance of about 13 milcs, 
Dysart has been set off this year in conjunction with three other town- 
ships of the cornp3ny as a separate municipality, John Lucas, Esq., hcing 
the first Reeve. 
On the whole, thc progress mado in this township, so far in thc rear of 
our beautiful county, cannot be looked upon ns otherwisc than encourag- 
ing; and the largc capital which the company have invested in the land, 
is a sufficient guarantee that they will do all in thcir power to develope 
settlement, from which alone they can hopt' to realize :my considerable 

.For conciseness of dctail, as well as e
ls(' of reference, the following 
statement has bcen })reparcd, s110wing thc date of the formation of new 
municipalities in the back country, 
md the nmncs of the Reeves and 
township Clerks who have successively or t;e\'cr311y performed the import:mt. 
trusts committed to thèm on their election or nppointment to these officc
The municipality first formed, in the back country.-as \Vr suppose it 
must still be called,-wMI composed of t.he tuwnHhips of Galway, Snowden 
and l\Iinden, in the County of Pcterhorough, :md those of Auson :md Lut- 
terwortl1 in the County of Victoria, for as Yl't thc two counties Imt! not been 
separated. The municipality as thus formed came into offidal exi
on the first of January, 1860, 
md cnntinufd to cOlJlpril-c the samc town- 
sllip;; for two years, At tbt' clo!'e of 18lìl, An'ion allll, bein
on 1he Yictori
 ..ide of the bound:.try line: withdrew on the Qt'p3ratioD ot" 


tùat t.:Ouuty from l'dcrborougb, lca,in:; the ro-unidpdlity formed as men- 
tioned below. Othcr withdrawalB bave gradual1y been made as new 
townshipb bccame }108scs:-eù of a k'u:fficient number of ratcpayen. to entit1c 
. them to a separate 1l1ulJicipai cxi
tcnce of thcir own; bO that in J867 wc 
find fivc (listillct municipal councils, with their officers and legal powerl'5, 
where six years ago. littlc :savc a wild wildernct!l'5, but l)artially sun'eyed, 
existed. :-:uch ha
 bccn the growth aud prospcrity of these ncw tuwn- 

hip:; ! 

Of Rates, (,laTLs, rr.nd Jflluicipalitia, composed of the ,tCU" 'Pt)il'ilShip.
from J(oi/lar,lf, 1860, to Janullry, 1867, 

Year Townships comprising 
'I unicipalities. 


Township Clerk. 


18GO Galway, Snowden, )1 in den , 
Anson and Lutterworth. Charles Austin, 
1861 The same................. ,.. ThOlnas Probert. 
1862 Snowden, :Minden and 
Stanhope................. S. S, Peck. 
1862 Galway....................... Thomas Probert, 
1863 Snowden.................... Robert Ritchie. 
1863 .Minden and Stanhope...., 'rillimll Gainor. 
1863 Galway....................... Thomas Probert, 
1864 Snowden,.................... S, S. Peck, 
1864 Minden, Stanhope anti Dy- 
sart..,."......,.. ...,..,.. \Vm. Gainor. 
1864 Galway....................... Thos, 
1865 Snowden,................,. S. S, Peck. 
1865 Minden, Stanhope and Dy- 
sart...... ...............,.. Charles Austin, 
1865 Galway. . .. ... ............... Thomas Probert, 
1866 fo'nowdcn,.................... R S, Pcck. 
1866 3Jinden and Dysart. ....., John Lucal'5. 
1866 Galway.......... ............ Thomas Probert. 
1866 Stanhope (1st year) ....... J amcs 3Iellvillc, 
1867 Snowden,...., ............... 
1867 Mindcn.......... ............ 
1867 Galway....................., 
1867 Stanhopo.....................\ 
18G7 j Dysart, &e, (1st year),.....1 

 -'-- - 

'Vlll. Hartle, 
'Wm, :.\IcKelvey, 
'Vm, l\lrKelve)', 
Wm, Leeson, 
'Vm. :\lcKelvey. 
'Vm, Leeson, 
Benj. Rothwell, 
'V m. Leeson. 
Francis Peck, 

'V111, .McKelvey. 
'Vm. Leeson. 
rancis Peck. 
'Vm. McKelvey. 
Christopher Irwin. 
George J. Rowe, 


T:o. OJ" 

The progTl'''s of edusation in tbe new town
bips has kept pal:c with thc 
advancement in materiaJ progress. In 181j6, the 
('hools numbered 1-1 
in all, and were distrihutcd as follows :-Galway 3, Snowdcn 4, )lind"l1 ;). 
'rhe following Hev. gontlcmcn have hUCCCððivcly fillcd the ofliec of Local 
Rupcrintendcnt for the 
everalllluni('ipalities named :- 
Rev. .John A, Dowler,.......,.......Bobcaygcon. 
Rev, John Yicarh;.............,..... Lindsay, 
Rev, 'Villiam Sheridan........... ..Bobcaygeon. 
Rev. 'Villiam Shortt.... ..... ..... . Bobcaygeon , 
Hev, :F. Burt., .......,..............Mimlcn. 
Tlw last named gentlemen at l)resent fills the offic{', 



The construction of the Burleigh Colonization road was commenced iu 
] 860, under t.he superintendence of the late l\fr. Gibson, W}lO had then 
the supervision of these roads throu
hout the Province. 
The plan adopted was to let the work of constructing the roaù in sec- 
tions, of considerable length, to contractors, who were paid on completion 
of the work according to agreement. Mr. James 'Valsh entered into con- 
tract for the first 23 miles, and Mr. 'Villi am Lackey for the next section 
of 20 miles, Thcse were the gentlemen with whom the Government had 
to deal, but they sub-let portions of "the distance to others, whose names 
:tre not material to this narrative. 
The roads constructed in this manner were far from satisfactory or per- 
manent, and owing to various causes, the contract system was abolished 
on all the Colonization roads, after a trial of a year or two. The plan 
then adopted was to place some competent person in charge of the work, 
who should emploJ men bJ the Jay] sUI)erintend their operations, and bi 


rcspollsiblc to the department for the result. This system was commenced 
on the Burleigh roai during the season of 1865, under John Carroll, Esq., 
who from the beginning of 1864 hall been acting as Crown Land Agent 
for this settlement, During the year 1864, the road became utterly im_ 
passable, partly from UlC wearing out of the temporary material med in 
constructing it, but chiefly owing to the destructive fires which swept the 
woods, and burned several of the bridges; thus rendering the position of 
the settlers, who chiefly resided at its further extremity, at once precarious 
and disheartening, 
In the spring o
 1865, the work of repairing the road,-it might indeed 
be said of re-construeting it,-was commenced at Burleigh bridge, and was 
prosecuted with vigor. The "Burleigh rocks," which fill up the south- 
western portion of the townshil), arc immense boulders of granite, whose 
oval surfaces occupy an area often of half an acre, Over these the ro
d had 
to bc carried, This was successfully accomplished by filling the little valleys 
and interstices between them with solid stone, broken on the surface, thus 
forming an even and permanent road-way. The burned bridges were 
replaced by excellent timbers, necessarily brought from a distance, 
and in this way, 24 miles werc not only rendered passable, but convcrted 
into an excellent road during 1865, Up tû Kovember, 1866, eleven miles 
more were finished, of which eight had been cut out and partially made 
under the old system, while three were entirely new, It is under- 
stood that this road wiU be continued as far as Peterson's line, and if it is 
to be as really useful as it is expected to be, this should be the case; 
for its first twenty miles have to be passed over before land of average 
quality is reached, or the prospects of a settlmnent fairly appear; so 
that thc lauds best fitted for settlement will be found towards its further 
The entire back country is of the Laurentian or granite formation, 
which passes under Stoney lake, ami forms its nume-rous islets, Occasion- 
al ridges of limestone, however, arc found; and the land, so far as tested 
by practical experience, bus proved it:;;elf capable of yielding abundant 
"r e l)ass now to a })fief notice of the several townships along the road, 
commenoing with 



Thili township was surveyed as early as 1834, and was l'e-surveyed ill 
1864-5 by J. W. Fitzgerald, Esq" p, L. S. The "Burleigh rocks" before 
referred to, were long a barrier to settlement, and would doubtless remain 
so still, were it not for the road which now enables them to be passed over 
with comparative ea
The first settler who ventured beyond these rocky impediments, and 
located himself in the eastern sidc of Burleigh, was 1\Ir. Giles Stone, 
This was in the year 1861; and now, in 1866, the ABsessment roll for Bur- 
lcigh shows, ratepayers to the number of forty-six in that township alone. 
...\. number of settlers found their way there in 1862-3, and we proceed to 
give the names of these pioneers, as in the older townships, They were 
1tlessrs. James Goulbourn, Peter Phelnn, Alexander Brown, Atwood 
Brooks, 'Villiam Clifford, Edward Sandcrson, William Spencer, - :Myers, 
Isaac Meers, Christopher'Vhitc, Ephraim Burt, John :McConnell, Charlm
:Burt and John Coon. 
There is one tavern in Burleigh-that kept by 
Ir, Peter Phelan, The 
first Post Office was opened in 1864, under the name of "Burleigh," of 
which .Jamcs Goulbourn, Esq" is Po
tlllaster, Thc second in 1866, called 
after the member for the county, "Haultain," of which 1\11'. Giles Stone, 
the first settler, is Postmaster. Two school ]lOUSCS wcrc erected in Bur- 
leigh duriu
 1866, one near l\Ir, GiJes Stone's, the other near 1\11', 
:Burt's. Both of them arQ hewed logs, and well aùapted for the purposes 
The first saw mill was erected in Burleigh by In.mes Goulbourn. Esq" 
on Eel's creek, ill 18G3, and a :;;eeond dnring the following year on the !'ame 
stream, by Charles J. Vizarll, Esq.. a gentlcman who lla
 contributed much 
to the succeps of t.he settlement by furnishing employment to the settlers, 
for which tbey were Proml)tly paid in caRh, at a time when they )Iad few 
other resources upon which to ðepeud. During 18GC, a Rmall 
riBt mill 
was erected by 1\lr, Goulbourn, and is now in operåtion, 
U ntH the present time, Burleigh has been tbe senior municipality, hav- 
 the greater number of ratepayers, ..lud it and the adjoining townships 
bave been associated together us one municipality. The rapid ÍncrentiC 
of settlers, however, will speedily give rise to two or more corporations, 
amid which ChandoR promi
es to take t,he lead, as lu\Ying now the lnrgest 
population , 


The chief difficultie:; with which the earÌy :settlers had to contend, were 
owing to the distance which their sUl)plies had to be transported, anrl the 
abscncc of propcr facilitics for doing so. Tho bummer of 1864 proved 
especially trying. The unu
ual droug;11t affecteù thcir harvcsts, whiie the 
dcstruction of thc brid
es on the road by firc, and thc practical closing up 
of their thoroughfare, bad as it w(1), greatly disheartcned the settlers, Thc 
destructive fires bwcpt away the fruits or the indm;try of some, while the 
non-paymcnt of wages by a sub-contractor di
al)pointed the hopes of others; 
<md all these causes together, presseù 8cvercly upon the infant settlement. 
The difficulties of thc position werc grcater than even during the first 
year, for thcre were more mouths to fill, with diminishcd facilities for pro- 
curing thc necesöary supplies, Three days were usually rc(!uired for the 
transport of thcBc from Pctcrborough, Thc first ,stagc was by a hired 
team t.o Young's, lIcrc a canoe or boat was engagcd, which wLcn laden 
was paddl
d up Clear and Stony lakes to Julien's landing, and from this 
point, partly by ox teams, but oftener on thcir shoulders, the bard earncll 
necessaries were carried somc miles furthcr. through a bush with barcly 
the semblance of a road, 
Fortunatcly, this statc of things was not of long continuance. The 
expenditure of money on thc road in 1865; the l"C-opening of their 
thoroughfarc; and th(' cxcellent crops of that season, restored confidcncc 
and hope, and with thesc the settlemcnt has continued to progref:s, 
]3urleigh was for several years attachcd to Dummer for municipal pur- 
poses, The separation took place on thc 1st day of January, 1865; and 
James Goulbourn, Eblh was returned as first Recvc, and took his scat in 
the County Council for that year, In 1866, John Carroll, Esq., Crown 
Land Agcnt, was choscn Reevc, and ably fulfilled thc duties of that- 
A diffi
ulty exists betwccn this township and the county in refercncc t-o 
the re-payment of moneys expended by thc County Council in the rccent 
re-survcy of thc township, to which further rcfcrcl1cc need not be ll1adc 
hcre; and which, it is hoped, will cre long admit or a solution at once 
just to the county and sa.tisfactory to the ratepaycrs of Burleigh. 



The township of Austruthcr lies immediately in the rear of Burleigh; 
the Colonization road passing through its south-cast corner before entering 
the township of Chandos, which bounds it on the cast. Anstruther was 
surveyed in 185D-60 by Geo. A, Stewart, Esq.) P. L. S, 
Among the earliest settlers of' this tQwnship were )Iessrs, 'rhomas 
Stewart, Patrick Breen, 'Villiam 'Vilson and sons, Edward S. Hall) D. R. 
Castidy, Charles J, Vizard) -Captain Lynch Bloss, Dr. Clegg, Caleb 
Lousley, John Steen, Philip Lousley, and John Young, most of whom 
found their way there in 1862. 
1\1r, D, R. Castidy and 1\11', Philip Lousley now keep store in Anstru- 
ther. Mr, Edward S Hall has charge of the "Apsley" Post o ffic e- 
opened in 1865, of which 1\1r, Charles J. Vizard was first Postmaster. 
Two Union School sections have been formed between Anstruther and 
Chandos, in one of which a substantial log school house was f:rected in 
1866, at a cost of about $150. In the other) which is situated north of 
the Chandos Post Office, an unoccupied dwelling bouse erected by a settler, 
is temporarily used for this purpose; a school haviRg been opened there 
by Miss Sheehan in August, 1866, 
A small 'Vesleyan church was erected in Anstruther during the same year, 
(1866) which is intended for use by the entire settlement. As yet the 
Rev. 1\1r. Sheridan and the Rev. 1\1r. Gander, of the Methodist church, 
are the only ministers of any denomination who have conducted religious 
services in this settlement. 
Anstruther has two taverns, kept respecti\'ely by l\Ir, Thomas Stewart, 
and 1\1r. E. S, Hall. 
The remarks made in reference to the difficulties and trials of settle- 
ment, in connection with Burleigh, apply equally to Anstruther, and also 
the next township, viz :- 

This townsbip bas made the most r
pid progress of any in the settle- 
ment. First settled in 1862, the names of fifty-seven ratepayers appear 
on the resident roll for 1866. 
Among tbe first settlers were Messrs. Henry J.1\Iaxwell, Samuel Edgar) 
Cornelius Maher, JamcA Young, Billings Kilburn, Michael O'Brien, 


Patrick, J aIDC!'!, 3lauricc, John anù Daniel O' Brien; Patrick Horan, 
John, Hobert and William Horan, \Yilliam Morrison, John Finarty and 
l'atrick Finarty, 
:Most of the settlers named in this and the other townships were men of 
families, Thc first child born in Chandos was a son of :Mr, .Billings 
Kilburn, in 1863. )1r, )Iaxwell, besidCi:! his farm, has a general stor
and is also Postmaster of the "Chandos" office, 
As already stated, this and the neighboring townships arc all united for 
municipal purposes, but ere long, Chnndos will be erected into a separate 
Both this and the adjoining townships are rich in iron, marble an(] 
other valuable deposits, which only await labor and enterprise to tUln to 
profitable account, and greatly to conduce not only to the wealth and 
population of these new settlements, but to the general resources and pros- 
l)erity of the Province. 

During 1862, the following settlers found their way int-o Cardiff,-a 
partly surveyed township in the rear of Chandos :-1\1essr8. lVheeler Arm- 
strong, George Patterson and Joseph Dunlop. 


There are in the County of Peterborough the remnant of two bands of 
Indians, both being of the l\Iassasaugua tribe; the one residing on the 
northern shore of Hice lake, and the other on a projection of the township 
of Smith, which is prominently visible in the upper part of Chemong or 
)1 ud lake, 
In the year 1818, the Indians of these two bands, surrendered to the 
Government 1,951,000 acres of land in the then Yewcastle District; in return 
for which they receive an annuity of 82960, being from $9 to $10 per 
head of their whole pol}ulation. 


The New England ConllJany, at an early period, inlcrcsted itself in the 
temporal and spiritual weJfàrc of the Indians; und have done much towards 
the amclioration of their condition, irrc
pcctivc of creed or locality. Their 
agent is invariably a clcrgyman of some christian dcnomination, Thc 
!tey. l\Ir. Scott at first acted in this c
pacity to the Indians of this county, 
and on his death, in 1837, the Re\'. John Gilmour was appointed by the 
company tû this charge. .Although.both of these bands have ado})ted the 
l\Iethodist form of belief
 and arc usually sU})plied by ministers of that 
church, the Rcy, ')Ir, Gilmour continues to visit each village alternately, 
preaching at Rice lale oncc in four wceks, and at Chclllong lake once in 
two weeks. This is done by mcans of an interpretcr-:\f1-, James McCue, 
-who resides at Rice lakc, 
It is remarkable of both thcse bands that their natural increase is bare- 
ly sufficient to make good the losscs by death; so that their numbers main- 
tain an uniformity which could hardly be predicated of any other people 
under like circumstances. 

Rice Lalæ Indialts.-According to official returns, published a few. 
years ago, the Rice lake Indians occupy 1550 acres of land,_of which 1120 
were granted in 1834 "to Trustees for the bcnefit of the Indian tribes of 
the Province, and with a view to their conver5ion and civilization," Thesc 
trustces are, His Lordship, Bishop Bethune, the Rev, John GilmoUl', Capt. 
Charles Rubidge, R, N" and Robert Dennistoun, Esq. The Rev. l\Iark 
Burnham has just been chosen successor to one of their number, who re- 
sides at Kingston. 
The Rice lake Indians subsequently purchased 430 acres of land; and 
20C more in Otonabee arc held in trust for the joint benefit of the Rice 
lake and lVI ud lake Indians, 
Their village, to which the name of Hiawatha lIas been given, is pleas. 
antly situated on thc northern shore of Rice lake, adjacent to the Cobourg 
and Peterborough railway, which passes through a portion of their prop- 
erty. Their land is of excellcllt quality, and well adapted for agricultural 
Thc number of the Rice lake Indians, a few years ago, was in all 145. 
Of late they have slightly diminished. Their village contains 26 houses, 
mostly of logs, and 13 out-houses. There is a framc church, in which a 
resident Methodist minister regularly preaches, through the interpreter 
already mentioned, Au effort is now being made to erect a neat brick 


church, which is likely to prove successful. There are also a school hour
and a school teacher's residence, The Methodist body largely supports 
this school, which is under the Common School system. Its attend- 
ance avcrages about twenty, a consiaerable number of which are whites. 
Of late years the New England Company has offered premiums for 
the best crops, and garden vegetables, In 1866, $38.75 wcre distributed 
in this way as an encouragement to industI"y, 
Hiawatha has a Post Office of the same namc, and also a small gencral 
Tlte Cltemong Lalæ lndians,-This band occupies a tract of 1600 
acres, on a peninsula of the township of Smith. It is deeded to the New 
England Company, in fee simple, in trust, for the benefit of the Indians. 
About 200 acres are Cleared. This was done by the company, who in 
formcr ycars attcmpted to farlll it, This system has been discontinued, 
and the land is now divided into little plots for the usc and occupation of 
each family separatcly, 
During the last thirty years, they have increased about two per cent; 
and in 1865 their entire population was 140. Thcy havc now 14 or 15 
houses. Thcir soil is less fertile than that of the Ricc lakc Indians; and 
they cultivatc it but sparingly, finding thcir chief occupation in hunting 
and fishing, Thcy shcw but little disposition to imitatc the husbandry 
and thrift of thc wllites, and even that uscful anima.l, the cow, is compara
ti,'ely rare among thcm. Thc Chemong lake Indians havc a good church, 
a frame building, on a stone foundation, and besides thc regular ministra- 
tions of the Rev. 1\1r. Gilmour, they are visited periodically by the rcsidcnt 
)lethodist minister at Lakcfield. They have a day school, widl an average 
of about 20 pupil
, to which is- attached a hoarding hou
e, in which about 
tcn youn
 Indians, malf' and femnJc, of from 8 to 14 years of agc, are fcd, 
clothcd and taught. A few of these are from the Rice lakc band, From 
1838 until 1843, t.hcir school was conducted by James :Edwards, Esq., 
our present Town Clerk; and during the lm!t lß or 17 ycars, it has been 
under the able superintendence of )Ir, and )lrs. Schofield, 
A small farm is carried on in conncction with the school, on whicb 
cnough is raised materially to aid in its maintenance, and to feed 45 
!heep and a few cows; which in their turn prove sources of profit to their 





The following are the names of the officers and privates of the several 
companies of Petcrborough V olunteer
, who rushed to arms in June, 1866, 
for the dcfence of the Provine
 against Fenian invasion :- 

Captain Edwin Poole, * Licute1lant II. C. Rogers, * Ensign Theo- 
dore B, Clementi,* Uolor-Sci'9('(lllt 'Villiam Johnson,* SeI'9t>wlts'Villiam 
J.Jogan, J, 1. Davidson*, Thomas Burke*, COi'ponrl Edward Cookson,* 
George Stevenson, Erasmus Grecn,* Buglcl' Edward Grecn, 
Pril'ates David Arnott, Henry Anderson, Douglass G. Bell, David 
Breeze, 'Villiam Clifford, J olm Craig, Uichard P. Cook, George Hazle- 
llUrst, Robert Donnelly*, Henry Easthnd, George Fisher, John Green, 
}")eter Gifford, A. G, Gilbert, John Irwin, Gcorge Kingdon, Hiram Lith- 
gow, George H. May, John :ì\1adden, Hugh l\Icì\Iann, .John M C)lil1 an , 
IcNeil, John 
Ie'Villiams, Samuel 
Iontp:omery, J-ames Roseboro, 
Thomas C. Nicholls, 'Villi am F. Orde, .John Roche, .John 
Thomas Rutherford, John Sawers, Robcrt .J. Stutt, Alfred Schofield, Geo. 
St-cnton, Edward Tully, Robert Thompson, Egerton 'Valton, 'Villiam 
}]nglish, David English, 

, H. Knapp, Salllnel Montgomery, H. Nesøett, 
D. l\IcFarlane. 

Y :r\O. 1. 
Captain John Kennedy*, Licutenant 'Yilliam N. Kennedy*, Ensign 
John ,V, Kennedy,* Color-SCi"gcant .\.lcxanùer .\Iorrow, SCI'geants 'Vil- 
limn McDonnell, James C. Kenneðy, anù John ,y, Bell, Co rpom I,; 
Joseph Graham, Ezekiel .James :Kt'sbett., Willia'll Langford, Charles II, 
Sweeting. La/
cc C(J/purals George B. Perry, WilHmn E, James, Johu 
'V. )Iiller, Harry Rush, John Mcintyre. Bugler Harry Philp, 
* Promoted, tilmporarily, during active service, 


Pricotu: .John Alexander. Willimll Anthony. WiHinm };'. Arm
.John _\nll!<trong, Petcr Arnott, .r
1IliC;; H, Albro. Robert BO'iweU, 
.fohn )1
. Barnes, James ßrick1y, Orlando (!Iarkr, G-eore;e Cronn, Lew
De Finney, Edward B. Edwards, Thomas 
'i.:;her, Robert FerguSOI:J, 
William E, Geegan, Henry T. Gleeson, Samuel G-la,:ol.
, Henry Glover, 
Isaac Hodgc, W"illiam Hodge, :ðbtthew Johnston, h33C Kenm_dy. Patrick 
Kennedy, Dawson Kennedy. .Tohn Kiley, John King. Davit} I., L:l'W
Alfred J,aw, 'Vm. Larmer, William I
undy, John r.htchrtt, Montgomery 
Neithel'cut. .John Norton, ltichard Purser, Geo. ß. Palmer, .John Uush*, 
Frank nickC'}'. Uichard S:mdcr.;on, "'iUiam Scollie, .Joseph Schofield, 
tCYenST Fr:mei:! ,,- 
rc, E3'èl't{)fi "'hitfield, John "Ïntcrbottorn, 
Daniel Perry, I,ewi:, Y OW1g, Thomas McCauley. Newcombe- Loucks, 
t1'r<>d. Mitchcll, .)o
eph 11. Kcnned)'*. (Military School.) Dri11 IU:.trurtor, 
* Promoted. t
'mput"<lrily. during actin' 5l'nicc. 

.\I'UIHfH!HI.\!I1 J.WU'I' I:'iF'A:\1'HY C'O!\! PA

Tbbi COIlil)auJ ww; caned to the front ill March, I MG6. tit 
hich timt. 
Major R. D, Uogcrs was Captain, II, T. Htrickland,l,icutcnant, and.J.
Rogers, I
n:::ign. Major Rogers and J,icutenant Strickland having 
after resigned, the f;Cvcral commission, were held a:; follow
 at tht. period 
of active 
eryice in June, 186G :- 
f!aptain .T. K Rogcrs, A('fing-LÙ'llf( IIrwt Ie z, nogcr
] Ew;iYIt .John 
"Burnham, (since promoted to be ],ieutcnallt. Srrgc(rllfs
. ,V. Oag". 
"rhomas Armstrong, 'Yilliam H. Deacon, Charl
 Philp; t
corgc HroVtn. 
OOìJ>omls "
alt{)r Ain::iley, .John Gow, Evans .L. !fair. 
PrivatI's James Armstrong, 'Villiam 
rmstroug, John (1. Baker. Ua'rid 
Brownlee, .James Baxter, David Brown, Thomas Brown. William Bab- 
ooek*, Thoma
 Cathcart, Robert Campbell, Dunc:m f'ampbell, Thoma
Orawford, .J. D_ Collins, .Jas, Clegg, C. S. Dudrnan*, (now Ensign) Tho,:, 
Douglass, 'Yilliam Douglass, .Jc.ssc Grey, Robert Hraharu. ]'
dward H. 
Gahnn, John Haggart, Robert \Y. Hall. James Hair, Job flumphrics. 
.James Johnston, }>hilip Jackson, John Kempt, Irwin !{ing, Charle..., 
Kirby, .Joscph Kirby, .Tohn Law, Pet-cr Launderville, 'Villiam J,UC.:ti, 
Richard Lean, John Lynn, John I\lowl'Y, John l\liddletol1. ""Ill. n. 
 :':ince promoted. 



tthia:-:, William )IcGl'cgor, 
r., \Villiam Jlclhegor, .Jr., David 3lcKin- 
ley, Thomas )lcQuoi, )Iatthew JlcCue, Thomas Pattersoo, Harry Ricb- 
ardson, Chas. Rubid
c, Fred. Rubidge::<, R. 31, Shephard, Geo, Stetham, 
mith, Jr., David Scott, James Ti he, Jo
ph Valoisc, Robert 
Wright, \Villiam Whitla, 
tewart \Vrifht. 
* Since promoted. 

Captain Edward Leigh, Lieutenant Charles Bowker, Ensign Ueorge 

h(.ppee, _lssiRtant-Sltrgeo1ì Alexander Bell, lIospital Sergeant Georga 
8he:ffield. Sergeants \Villiam Sharpe, Alexander Tharp, David Rae, 
Henry Mellor. Co rpoì'a7.o; John Todd, Samuel Jamieson, Thomas 
Gordon, Joseph Ban. 
Privatt:..>; Frank Bowker, Cha8, Bayley, George Bolton, Williftm Brum- 
mel, Robert Cassidy, John Carvcth, John Crawford, Alexanllcr Fairbairn, 
Albert Frost, John Fiugerald, .Alexander Fitzgerald, Edward Fitzgerald, 
Isaac Garbutt, Thomas Hill, David Hillman, Edward Hunter, William 
Hunter, John Jeffry, Adam Knox, William Leonard, David Lynn, Wil- 
liam Maiden!:', David )1 ann , Charles Portsmouth, 
Iark Porter, George 
PottIes, George Ray, \Villimn Sage, .John Stewart, Thomas W
Uace, 'V, 
Wallace, John Wat
on, Augu
tus Wiggin, _\ndrew Wilson, Edward 
Wilkinfl, .John Sta.I\lcs. 


The following are the names of officers and privates of other Volunteer 
Companies in the Town .and County, organized since June, 1866, who 
have not yet been called to active service; but who, on an emergency, 
would no doubt exhibit tbe same alacrity to meet the foe, and the same 
heroism at the post of danger, which characterized the officers and D1E'u 
Qí' the Companies already enumcrated:- 
Capt , The Hon. Sidney Smith, Lieutenant Jacob Green, .M:. D., 
Enðigft Henry H, Smith, }J, S" Color-Sergeant Alfred Leach, St;l'geants 
Sidney Smith, .Jr., Hugh D, Stoddart, 'Villiam J, Green, Corporals 
lcy 1\IolTow, Alex. GiUespie, Christopher Armstrong, Jo}m Pntter80n. 
Btlgla Benjamin J. Green, Jr. 


 John A, "', Hatton, Jåmcs Haggal.t, 'VilliàIl1 Blatchford, 
,John Campbell, Robert Craig, Thomas Tremaine, 'Villiam Campbell, J aI';, 
Fox, John Cømerie, \Vm, Green, Wm, Taylor, James Kinmouth, Jobn 
Kinmouth, James Lang, James L. Hughes, Thomas Tate, 'Vm. C. Holy- 
well, Porterfield \Vareham, Fredk, ScobcB, Robert J.Jee, Gord()n \Vright., 
'Valter Beal, George Cairnes, Thomas 
IcKee, Geor
e :\lcComb, Richard 
Reid, .James Graham, Joseph Graham, Samuel Secns, James Johnston, 
Daniel 3Iilliken, James 
IcComb, John Kent, Edward Eastland, Thorn;.!.,.; 
on, Thomat; Oakley, Robert Wilsön, Isaac Nurse, John Smith, 
Robert. Reid. Benjamin \Vhitc. \Vrn. Chamberf1, Charles L. Coultcr, Peter 

FAXTRY CmU).-\Ny. 

('aptaiu Robert WigmOTe
, Lirlltt nant Thomas)1. Gt'over, EllI;igl1' H. 
3Iatthcw V ar
. ('nlol'-S, }g('(lIlt Thomas F. Riggs, Sergtants Thos. H. 
Dewart, R. H. l\IcGill, Corporal... A. Morrison, Thomas P. Pe:1rce. M. 

icoll. Bugler Thomas Fraser. 
Privates Robt. .\.dam
, 'V. Andrews. J. Anùrews, J. Bannon, F. Bate- 
:-;on, C, Buck, James Calder, - Comstock, John Cunningham, Alexander 
Fostèr, Will, Glynn, John Harper, Jr., - Hewson, James Higgins, John 
Hir;gins, - Humphries, \Vm. Hutcheson, - Jakes, - Lynn, Bristow 
-'Ioffat, Jr" "-ohn )Iurray, Robt, McCasky, - 
IcFadden, Jas. !t'IcLaugh- 
lan, R. H. )lcLaughlan, Duncan )lcLaughlan, John 3IcPherson, - Nicoll, 
Edward Patterson, Alexander Patterson, - Perie, James Rae, Jesse 
Robertson, John Scott, C. Smith, 'V, Seabrooks, E. Southworth, Mat- 
thcw Switzer, - "\Vasscn, A. 'Vigmorc, S. 'Vigmore, \Villiam William
David Fitzpatrick, J. 'V. Pearce, - Bannon, William McCasky. 
:;< Since deceased, and Lieutenant Grover promoted to be Captain. 


Captain Henry Fowlds, Liwtennnt Henry H. Humphries, En
Robert Huston. 
Privates \Vm, )JcCo
nell, J, A. Howard, J, C. Brown, Joseph A. :Fifc, 
H. B. )Iorton, Henry Bently, John 
Iason, Thos, Lcarmoutb, Daniel Hu.If, 



.aa(. 'rh01n
, .J. (1. ]"l'il:-òl'l". II ugh Co1lin:::. .Jame
 Calnpbf'll, W. .1. Han-isnn. 
M. e. OIRrke, K ..T. J(rmp, Thoma
. n. (;riffi_-i, 1\1. U, :Elmbirst , 
Harry Morton, Andrcw Collins, 1
homa" 'V Carr. .T. :F., Hilton. Thoma[o: 
lHcMill('n, j)aul Huff, \\ïllf't (1. PlItt-er, Geor
e \\'. Bush, .Iûhn 
.John O'Ueg:m, A., 
t. Outie, If, H. West, Cornolius Huycke. .John Pitt, 
W m. 1\1. BOJd, ^ !4'lcmming, John Brick. 
. W Cot. \\ïl1iam Hill. Th08. 
E. Lobb, Thos. Gilchrht, 'Varner Lobb. G-eo. Hrcen, 'fro, Ferry: Henry 
Clarke, Reuben ,r nnnamaker, Rosh W. Harrison, Daniel 'l'ierncy, N. f), 
Robcrt:'On, .fohn Lobb, .Tohn Brak{'nridge, Oavid And('r50n. .Tohn Tl'\-j()t- 
cla1t,. rrtQn Hill. Carlf'ton Clifford. Hic-"harrl 

U\ iLL': I:\"L....r.TUy CO
(:Up/o;n John IJuudas, LÙtlf("Il/mf Allan C.\.theart, Rnsig" Ww, }h,'{'aml1
Sl"rgcotds \\'illiam 1\tc1ndoo. rotuud Graydon. Edward Archer, (,forpo;-al,,' 
Hugh B. !olchany, j)a\'id Walsh, .John W, 
any. Ruglrr Corndiu:;; Mahony. 
PrÙ'f!fc.'t John Armstrong, Uohprt Alli:;;ter, .Tames Atchinson, H.l\'id At- 
('hin::on, William Bcnnpt, Francis P,C'a.\"Ïs. 'Villiam Bone, Richard CO(', Ad.lm 
, Robert Dun]op. Thomas Dunlop, U:l\'id l)pwârt, ,Jame:-; Eastwood, 
William Fi
her, Valt'ntillE." Fail', .lame:; Ferguson, Edward G('nt. Andre\\ 
Goodfellow, William (ìoodfello\\. Janws Ho\\den. .John Howden. Robert 
Huston, William JJ)'th., Thoma
 Lytle, Jolm Littl{' , .James Mahony, Hugh 
', '''illiam M('
{'il, James .McCamus, MosL:' McCamus, 
m. l\IeRain. 
<'hJ.rle:::.M.eCall, Rol>l'l't 1\lcBrien, Richard :M:cBrien, George ,Muncrief, John 
Pakl', William Pattf'l'...oll, John Smyth, Edward Shields, John Shields, \Vm. 
TroUpl', (Jeorgp Troth'r. Edward Taylol', David W'rig11t, .Tolm "'1.jght. Tho
Wright, .
l'thnt' Whih'. Thnma,;: Whitlìl'ld. 

;"ý\:J }1r; AR-Tl:iI;J:, . 

( L lí)[,ARY 

Nl ..þtþ



lì L >\.RítE _\.t!


ed in du-' bf
l't m[1l'ket
. Rud !òlold at 

'l'HE LO"rl
8'r 1--()SSI1
 1\ l>'" ANCE. 



Bifort purcltCtsing elsewhere. 
- \USI,- 

RE AD Y -j\JIAI) ]


CIjorl'HIN G 

 GRE -\1' VARlET): A:\D AT 




 W()}{K "
 ,,-i!{R,AN'rEI) (fOOl). 
An Experienced Tailor alway. on the Premise.. 

.&.IIDJE l(1JF 'ifJ@ @lliTI>>rnm 



'l'YLE A
D 0:\ 'rI-lE SHOH'l'E
'1' NOTIUj( 
\. H.-Agent {ur U"nll.:'l'T',\; Cflehrated :'Sf!WÙI;! _J11aclllnt. fl . 
JtEIUEJIBEH Tltl; P1......I\- 

Montreal Bouse. Peterborongh. 

, 18rj';. 




J\.PE:þ" C:hl1-:wntl
. on hand 



taple <<. Fan(jY Dry üoods

and inyitf-., T hl-' Pl1bli,' to 


I)t-'Ii'))".. JJH1"('
rf'. IIi.. 


I... ALStI 

V E Rye ("""..J 
J P I.J ]-
 'I' E . 

\11 I)/' \\0 hich will bl' :'111<1 aT 

l E ,4 S () N ..Ill 


]'artirulaf nUrn1ÏolI 
iH.1I to tll{. 
fAlr,.tioll 01 'J'K\S. 

(Jnt )oor ;."]ol/f/' f!t .In IIlf)8 J'//
"eJl.';(JJi 's. 

{{ E 0 H (; E 
 '1' H E E T 

 E ")." -.f
 l=t II (:, I: <--. fJ 

 -I I . 

.Lm U)1 }-
', ) 81."1 -; . 



Oflt rs for 
ale, on the BEðT TERM
h h .md .,1 3 'rtm nt 


 Tools of e,,-ery deSCI'11il:>tion. 
Paints, Oils, Gla"" and Putty, Builders' Hardw"r! . &c., to which hE.. w(\uld 
invite thf> attf>ntÏ')n of F..rm!',,,, and the public g .ndrally, 





r I, ' I
__.,_...;'/ u r " " '==== _

Golden Anvil. 
_ Georf, Street, Pcterboro' 



( Late Do/wr'lj (l' [[(I lloJ , ) 

Carriage and Waggon Factory, 






.\_IRING, &r. 

E U;\ THE 
'J' \l>TICE. 

At O'Brien's Old Stand, Hunter Street, 
A L. 
umb l' of \Va ,-",om L .l'iu Bu .co '41< :nh
 l utt 
Harrow l\'(', of th, B 
Iat( ria] '. \V{)rb .. hip, alv 
on hand nnù ..,OLD CHEAl) J' In. l'ASI1 



Fancy &: Staple Dry (*oods

Both FOREIGN and DOMEsrrlt\ 



. A. L R 0 , 

Choice Pamily Teas, Sugars, &c. 

Ø" Buyer will find at all tinH: III thl" EE t..blj"hlll nt I 

for tl1l'" MOKEY 



Utm & 1Ö


The STOCK LARnE and PRICEð 1l'P V IW. 

W CTJ1, XTOl\ 

,January, 18L7. 

I feOI gP tl e Pet

Groceries and ProYi



tjll h01ù JIl/:) {)J 

Ill. OLD 
T \N.D. 

No.3, Burnham's Block, George Street, 

\\ h<= ..ill h llnrl th II II h 

Jrtnwnt 0t 

'l'eas, 8ugars, Coffres & General (fl'oceries 

\ 1. a Fir',d R. 
upply 0f 

(DíJG) t

 lJ ÇJ r}lj1



,y )fT'Ç1 p", PHOD"( ('E t.tkl n ill Ex('h
ngE' fOl Goods. and t.he 
High Mal'k4 t Pric ' aUowed. 

Carriage and Waggon Pactory, 


i f[j' "11 1." -,;1'" 
;' ! . j
' \ C L H.'lTO\' &. &
" \ un. tantJv on 

 _ 1ft ' 
 i- , " 
,,; 1 u,d ;-Iud marl t') ordE l', 
 .1.... "-
"1 YI!: 

 - Only Superior Workmen Employed, 

 \nd tL4 BE ,r l\fi\TERJ o\L F

 0\11 IJ'k W
rl.:llltpFL HOl honing: nd l'bp: irin
 don to ol'der. 
and in aU promptly a.tJ nd",d Þ). R.'m<= 
b('r the 1'1 0 ", Hunt '1' 
L. tv., \.lv Wt t vf .J. Doharh ...;t mct, PE.-terboro' 
pøh""h, p U ^6. po\THTrK h H...VTK 


Millinery and Dry Goods! 

 and Who], and R d
 JIm I in 130Y:IET









Millinery and Mantle Rooms! 

Connectbd wit.h t.he Establishment.. 


r - 
1:! . 

((oj '^ " 



W atüh 
Iaker, Je,veler &:ü. 

Str "")1'/'<; Bloc!'., G 19l Strtpt, PetlJ'bOi'Ollgh. 
Be b ::! to intimate to thp Public of Pett rb n 1'ough, that hE' kf'ep c')mtantlyon 
 (hoic A:, ortment of 

. J....: 3 -YJ - - ,J;.= 
 -> D I :. " 
F l\.N CY GO 0 DS, &0., &l 

 Intending Purchu '1'8 will do well to E:uminf' his 
tock beforp 
pure-hasing elfl.p"hprC' 


e: '!!fA J. m. þ 
Furniture, Cabinet "rare and lTpholstery. 
1 a 3uppI'il)1' Bnd Room S P..l'loUJ :Ful'nitm' (.\:-
 CJL\IR:-:' ill 
rt It -.riet;} Book I f-ich Board 

I ., 


nrR.R..\. r
. T ...\.BLES, l\lA_TRAI-'
I,ooking rUa Gilt l\Il)uldinr &c 
l'Loro . Jan. 2rd. 1817, GE( IRGE T


IR\"Ïtc attention to their Large Stock of 



..l.II Ð C 


.. r.



In the Newest Style anù Be
t Manner. 


\: :

f\\.. TRUXKS, V.ALISES, B___l GS, 
J\:. -
 - -.6,.1 SA TCHELJ..,I, WHIPS, <Í 

- :-
 :'= Collars 
A sph nditi f:tock, ullrivf111 d in rhMpnf>---,
Pet(>l'boro', ,J-afl. ind, Ibñ7. THOR DOI\ 
ET-,L Y. 

General Groceries, Dry Goods, 

 k). tf)




...- "___ 7 


'!! 1r

Would invitE hi. numE"'rou CUdtomn" in Town and f''Juntry, to examine 

elected from the B1.5t and f'heapest Mal'ketB which he offers for ..ale on a 
Good Terms as any othE r Establishment in Petel'borough. 



Kept on the Premis and a Perfect Fit Guaranteed for aU Clothing 
Made to Order. 
I6r REMEMBER THE PLACE Gf'orge Stl'e< t.. Peterboro' immediately 
oppositf" Stevf"ns(\n'p Rtove and Tin Shop, 
,Tanuary,1867. M. MOLONEY. 









Mrs. Dixon's New Block, Srd door South of Jas. Stevenson's shop 


Haf' always on hand a large and ,'aried stock, expre 'Sly manufactured for 
this markE't, under hi own inspertion. 


.\1\"1) MADE OF' 'THE BEST 

Foundry &: lVlachine Shop. 

 " ,.c.' -
D il:' 
 - ':...: ',.r':::;:"--- 

':' -:- . ' -, 
 - oj 
 - '.'1\ 

. '-;:--
 ./' ", 
.. :'

 ,- þ
" .'
- ;'J;


-- / -, 



The subscriber begs to intimate to hi
 customf that he i qtill at the 


Hill's Celebrated ,.\Ýteel Ploughs, 

ThetPatent for which he has. cured fur thr Count} HE is now preparLd 
to mak\.
 to JrdeJ 



Gri.' anll .4i"u' ..,'I.ill ,ßJ.a

 W}! @i1.

OF ALL DE:'-'( laPTI<r-.:...: 
All kinds of r ;ting
 that are uf';uall
 found in a FIR..
.('LAS8 E
-'7r k<>pt m
1 ntl,v on hand. 

Brass Casting'S of all descril)tion
 olatle to order. 
\11 kinds ('11 


Patteln" in genr al 
 "0 j1 .i h d Fr of Charg . 
'V ILL I A l\1 H E L 1\1 

Rimcoe Streei, Peterborough. 


 ntiatE of ApothemriL Hall, London, Et1glan r1 ,) 

IST and D

Ger"l'l'ge St eet, 2 doors .1Yo1't7
 of _Jfl' (?uxt r 



G-E nuilll Drug Chemica)'" P... nl Maùi"'ine Dy 
',- PerfumeIY, Hail', 
ail and Tonth Brmh( Fanc v Soap
nn ylvania Rock Oil bv B 1'1'1:'1 or f I lHon, a gl nelal a Ol't- 
ment of Coal Oil J.Jamps and Fittinf' of Latj 
t Patttôrnò". 
Pre'1criptiollF Carefully Pr
pared at all Hours. 

 J-, ! "" , ' ?! ,1 , 
-J'- df ,..), 'd I _ ...9.- 
JJj.- 3. :- j , . . '_ 
 -â , 

: ,,'., .'" 



 :J ,- 
If, -', '-







Office over Ormond 6; Gilmour's Drug Store, 

t,t ,.



.. --=--- 



Practical Tin and Copper Smith, 

, -iii, . ,....-.- , 

Plumber amI B"H Hanger, Manufacturer of all 
kindl" of Tin, f'h(oet Ir'Jll and Copper \Vare, find 
D(.aIE t' in all kinds o
Cooking', BOX and Parlour Stoves, 
Út(, and A '!'l'icultm .11 FUrUR( f( l' farmers' 
n. , the la
'g{"'':,t and bf'st 11 'ortl d "tock in 
Petl rbol'ough. P, ir Jr C'I'Y Rea. wble. 
'r } I 0 :\1 A H I
Strl t, neIld-if oþpo.sitt T. JrJen'l,ie's Book Store, 


GL \S(j()',
r "7 1 \ Itl
H 01JS






J -,.. '. ' - 

 f "iI ,..1
' -I.-
;-: I _

 ,-'1 - DrpnHTER ð DEALEH T'.: 
!', -. 
 . · r- 

 -.. 0< 

t--4. t'1
'Staple & Fancy 
!; , 
 . ii' 'f-' '11 1 : 
 . ì 
':' . I . I', ts 
. l" i, ., - 'H \ ,
- · - 1 - 
 l - - --- ' I " 
p" u.............. . .

;'!._. 1 1 . I 
 JIJf" _ .i ........ù.... L .. 
. ,

JUlY (;OOD:-:. 



, l' 

-J.:. ' 
 . ,....
. ' 
t \ .... .:- - 
' J ]!" f 
ij J
: '.. r'JJÞ.J:; \. k", .\ .., 
I I "
j, "":I"!'

( ) J
. '
 l 1f ' 
I " , --, J 
; I, 1 r:1 I . 
 ' , 
.._, .--r.. 

-_ -' ". < _


 .." '"f:t'I J 

- P 14
 T E R B () H () I ' C II 

ON l' A RIl) 


\\' A TEH 

P}1;'I':ERROROFC 1 t 

( NEAR THE pusr OFF[f.'K) 

_.I t I.
Ofirt11.";" Rank ÐP1)(I.'rfulPol 

Tnt('l'<"t on T),' in :':.' in;.!
 Bauk [)ep.I"tnw"t at Flit", IWI" ("'TIT 
pf'1' A 11J111 TI1 

n. :-:, 
:AR1'W()1 )}J. 


{ei:,hOl()., V..,.t'n"'
J'. t

Th{l ., PetP,rhorollgh,w." 


BY ROB E R T R () )( 
\. I N }1

J[o, i-. J.l{

Snbf'cription 82.00 !)CI' Annum: or if paid I'\" AD'\' ANN' 
]. 511. 








J.Vone but First-cia., Workmen e7nployed, and the 'Very beJft 
Material 'U.(jed. 





m. &




f'j,t,ly and expeditiomlly execut
 at Low lùt.ters, ..,.Remembe r the 
..ddJ"e:S3, So. 4 }!íil.l'k.t Block, GeorBe Sh'eftt next door to 'Yo Lundy 



" (,11(1 [)J/'olsfeff:r. 


"r l\R,ER,()O

\ largt
cl(>d :4oek of 8of:11'1,, Sideboard;;;. Chair", B.-}rii't(>
Toilet. Stands, &c., lie.. 


J) A')' THK 


George Street, .
erOlltl dool" ([bore Bl'ock .\)(1" 'Jt, 


(Late .T. << T, Douglas) has opened 3 

New Carriage {t Waggon Factory 

On Bethune Street, about 100 yards West of tlte old stand, 

Where First Class Buggies, Cnn-iageH, Waggons, I'leighs, &c., &c., will he 
kept on hand or made to order 

OJ!' 1'HE BES f 1' .;11-417'ERI.flL, 

All kind@ of- Blacksmit;hing" 

nu.I'Y, 18M. 

_YO [- ("-,1.1" B [-Y 
-! l:lfl 

...."^ - ..-::.

Suprrior /..i:;
',.:- (jarnlent 

:\ T 

}ì {E IT' S 




'l'han \"0\1 wi 11 1w Vp to Pa.\ {In' :\1\ r 11 r
'1'iot. OlW 

t ,1-.:(>\\' h (-1'1'4'. 

Next Door to 3fc.Grego{s HotrL 

1") A'f 11 T (;K rr I\ li
 Ii' I.

Pet81'bol'ougb. 186 -: . 


tgmf for Pfirrborúllgh. 

The Standard Life Assurance Co. 

;\?\NU.L\.L I

3,211,8 15. 
\.LBXA.'\DER :-:

D l<. .\l()

t!Vnf fur Pi'ferbnrou!J h , 

J{"dirrtl N(/i.Î'I' 


] 0 



(jrocfrirs and Pr()visioll

 I")li<:tamly Gh hnnd all kind- of (-il'o('o"'l'ie::o. \\hich will he 
old :l
- lr'l\', :1' al1
 hou..;{> in thr. tl Ide Pl'o\"i ion,.: of all d(,
(,l'iptionc:. Pork. 
Uat p, . BClh-, Bnrli \'. PotfltOt'
, Rutter, Lard. 


lFL\I. ()Al'i'll

.\.1;;0. L \.RI-iE sTOCK ÜF en r-_\R::':. whieh will hi old to 1'..1.\ el'll.keelh:'l'
:It 10wl'l' mt.., thaI! th(.,- !'.m I.1UI'('k! f' from P('dbr
. ('001 Oil, !-/1'!rJil. 15.. 
,... <""t11 011. low. l' .iT b,\ thp bal'l'C'l. 

. f'l\ i ' -1. 

1 "I' \!.7 r l 
. ... 


J 'ij 

 1]) lj G_'_ 

Ü_\ T? E.4..' (j 
tA n '- F. TFR V.'). 



hotographc-rs, &c.


SIJJ1L'OE S'l'llEE1', 

P }
rrERBOlt().UG H. 

list'lce oj. tl,c Peace. 




Gfr J"gt
' Stï.t,ll., eleì.bo/õflllglt, f'. Jt
January, 186

,J . t. f) I-tl\ r ( N I ) 


- .. 

11<1" till h-m r 1 Ii :<pl..w1irl -)"'()I'hut:ilt ..f 

r(J IIJ4:

 (J l
O( J]\ 

 ,r Î ""'. 
:- ---
J..ß.HHJl.t..",,) - ,; 
f.L--/ . , 

\ \ 
 . I 
'of .} \ "'" . 
',ö; JJ
_. - -... 


: .-' 

.r.'wdJ"". Sih 4>'I'1\:lT' f'tuten.- 

.\It'p1",,,,,'haUIII i01(l nth
r Pipt.:--. 

 P E ,_ T ,\ crE:--. 

. lluhbpf (J(J(Jd"i. 

í'om't'rtina", ('ombf. ßru"h,('1-. 

 If .. A\. -:J t if;iJ
,-h- I.\:'{". 

R ()F 
Hriti,..h, 1'}'(J1r./t. Gt5nlw r n Ú' J1m
ri,..rtl1 P'A1VU1 T GOODS 
\\lii,"'!. al'" Snl.l '\YUOLF:"::.\ 1.R å., RET.Ur...- H nfr"'
'_, {'Ift1/II-r! (I1ul 

:T ER BonOl ì (( II. 





T\1p "lIh'CTih"I' nf">;!," t'J ;11U10UllC"C to thl' I,ubli.. lOr P..t"I'hornt1
h th:tt h, 
ha" now OPPllPI! hi... 


HI ... [
.[-L." I_

1l., (-->> <> 


'''hidl {'ontain.; TWO 
L\T}'--; HßD T_\l
LES, nitb Impl'On:d Cushion", and. 
,'nmptf'tf" ",..t of Kf'w Balb, Cue
, "IH'. Thù Room i,.., no\vonf' of thf' T:r>!"t and 
:Most, ComfOl.tal)I
- F1!j'nj<;1w r l in the ('ounhy. 
(' :-\t.. PI'tt>rho!ú'. .Tan. 1811";", (rEORG'E CHnx
, I'rOpl'il'tfll. 

Roral Ca ladian 

Ba n k., 

PE1'ERHO}{( )rr;H. 

 I 110 Irs luttJ'Pst f)JI ()" I'l'fJil J.-lc('u" I;I,

_\wi on Dt'pn..:it:-: at tilt' Hatt' of Foul' Pel' f\'lIt. 
\\ \1. ()( d L r \, ._1 !!' ,,/, 




J";( ('j ';' ) l) N' . 

- ') 

I } E..' T 
 E H (

( 'Yines l
. Lj(lnOr


/ /


I I.. I V '. '", _ "" 

 I, , \ \.'. ! =" 1 
( 41 .. 1 ê' Y-- '=-- I 
. ---
., ",,_. 
.... -
,. - 
. (.

_. ./t\ I - 
. _ 

 ;'. .-or 'i
 r. \\, , 
. - 

( 1 1'11

 .it P 


F() H 

":'t '-l 'r:'" . . - '-'"- 
HErl'..\ I L. _
': : ,c....
 - _ "?f,
. _ .. 
, ---- - ?'":
:' ''_ü



 {;: -

, ,- l 


Teas, Sugars, .( 
, Tohaecos. 

KEPT Co.K'''T,f.Y7JJ
 r OA /1,1 -,"n. 

Country l\lerchnnt
. 110tel h.eepcr:-: and Fa.Inilie
<l fiupply uf the aooyc artide
 will find this 011(' of the B{'
t(){'ktol in Peterboron

@OO @L%
OO l 

; :\1 0 T TO. 

PleaRe ("all hpf01'0 Bll


1-'\:H'l'bol'o'. Jölll. 18b í. 

_L 11cDO

G R .--\ H ...

(\ S T Ii 

 T TO\" 
êlll (l [) II \) 1 i S 11 e r s 

o, 1. )L\HKET BLUt 'h. PETEHROHO'. 
I . 

lJ. \LL ;-:( 'ell 



uyIÙ,h. }lrfllrh ((/It! (tlasr;j,'(d. 
 ari" ill :!eUel..t 1 U
(> ill t h" 

 .\.\ f) II Y 'I.\


1 '\ '1 i'I' \1 " 1 Y \" "I . iI..
,..;..:l-f'il ..!'.l í}
f !J:t

F .!-!-J LJS 1"'....\.::
.iI ( 


NJ rrÍí 1JÎml
) 1f P.i}Q)Grr

nn LÙ :


 l N '\ 
 1.:= T
 4.."") T. I 
! .... t 

(_IF -\LJ :,-[':E
 \XTI 'lr \.l.lTlF::-:_ 

Photogltaph Ibulns of the Best lVIanufactul"e 


lÎ J l.t1ÀJ
J 4\LJ!J 1


I)" (; R E.l r 1 A J: lET r. 


\\ïnd..\\ :--:hadc":" :tlh.l \V:dl Papi"'l':- of till' l.ate..:t ;,t.\)e:-:. 
 _\1.\\ \y
 I" JL\


ERl ES uF 
(,Huul. HOOKS. 


. ; 
I ' 1' 
; ;

 II . 
A:..' : 
.. . I I 


-- ---. _:::...- 
1 -
, ',IT:"
- -: -.J 

l-J", '.'11 iI
ud it lal'gt. aud \H.II il,.:,,:'rlt'd ,,1.0('], ut 

(JrijoerÌes, Crockery. Glassware. 
\: IjI(JU()R.
f ( R 

1!J -L 4 



lY" (f 




\LL Kl
. IL


fIt L.SJ'H} PR(J/Jr(t.1
' (JF .ALL IlIA'lJ"':' lJúU&Hl' <-l' 

('lUXt4JIÙ, Block. Gt:'ur
't' Street, Peterbul'uugh. ('. \V. 




- "11 

.- OlIN s. 
Hoot (Jut! 

-0 H,l:S 



\\ r.STW'-IIID, will "'0'11 in ÙHU1'(' aT HEI)f'l 'EVL'RI(,E

UU '



/ ':1"Ji paid for Ilidt:<' Fann Pl'OdU
f làkeu in (:xc:haugë lul' work. I
ing (10m' ní'at1v and with dpS.}>:ikh. \ (, ,\ LI. -.:nI.TC'ITE11. 

\\.,-"',,,...,,,/1 ,buli;ìl'\. lRh';. 

.luH.\ :-'. nHl
t 'OLL. 

 c-. J






,'h ;::...'" 

? TE

\ 1111 

'!'EA_ \V -L\RE- - -() US

ub-criue.. mform<' the }Jublie that )le ha
 ....l)l1J1m:llt"cd bu"ine!o,> ,-,u 
C1-.>Ol'!!1' :'tret>t, in tho:' 

Shop lately occupied b
 Messrs. Johnston & Son, 

\Vhl!l'(' ill' will kee}J eun
talltly Ull haud. ànd which J-... \\111 




P A.\.. Y ()NIJ Y 

\t <.\,:::, LOW .PIUt'E
 auy huu
e m'1'u\\lI. 









JSTI!\tT lIt-' 

Teas:, Cofiec
. Tobaccu;--, 
pi('e1"'. .Fruit::,. &c. ; l'
Pails. 'rub
, \V [ll"lh-Roanh:. ..uu] P\'t-
Ufl.1l.V kept in :,lU'h c
t<l hli:..:luJlent:-:. 



Haviug hùd :::,t;)vCl'ål ,)ca1':-- CÀ}JcricliCt' ill :::,U.U1c uf [.lw bt:':"t },UU:"Cb ill t}1I 
ll'a<lo, both in Canada and the Fnit,cd 
. hp l1'Ust
, b
 <Jtrict attelltiolJ 
ro busines<J, amI keeping onh' the h('
t :1l'tÍ('l. ,:. in 
tnl'k. to llwrir a. "hArp 0\ 
thl' pnbli.

\r\1. JHÞ.:\

b. , 
=-"" :Ç-' 


, .?- "' J1 1 -= . it. , 

i :' :

o : 

' J




''''-'-'--=---'-'. .= . F ---0 -' t.: 
· n, 


t (J ß 

I-I A 
11 L '1' (-) X 

IIIlIJO)'t<; dU'PI,t 1'1'0111 Shdlh.llL :111d kl'l'}J1" l'Olbt:tlltly oil halld, 

BHJ rJ:-,H. I H
ll \ \1 EH/(' \.\ 



.( . 

\. L.\R(i-E 

''Ilte f 

., It 


t r 



' o


 \\hic.h \\ill ht' tOUl1IJ .tll df'S('} i1.H1ùl .11' 

' Toul
, FaI'J1rifl
 húplel1H.:'ul:-- S. Hon..w FUl'lli...;hill!-!' 
1 ronmongery; Cutlér:v, Plated Brittanin )Oletn 1 \V ar(l
PailLts. OiL;, Colúrs aud GlfL"
; Straw a.ufl Root 
: Double ana Sitn-.-le Guu::.. &. Pi
(}rindstones :llld Pùtent'--'Fridiùll Rollel'
aHd _A.xle
: i\ll descriptiun:;of 
....j ze:-: and yH:llitie
 01' Iron: 
E.\ F J1
r.J) r: 1FT ES 
\'rF\'"T BREECH LU..-\ J)J.:!::--: 

P:HClll. Ib.H-p:t.IPnt 
\nd l'úl11H10ll \:x.lf'-- P<lH>111 Le_lLhev, .E11;l111o...11. d Clutk 
 .r-r.lopted (,he Üt'3h .;y::<tem. I mn 
iI \bkJ to <'11 gvod;;: to L;F.IJ 
.:U3torneî'" on tlw most 
mL'geous t'-'lm-,.. 
,'IGX df TIH CUWrl,\I1 SAW. G-rORnf 
TP.EFT. PfTfr.nur.<J ' 

t. GEOBfiE"S Si

.-;t- , .-: 
- . 
. . . 


, -::..

 () .Il f} 


I 1'1' (] 1-1 E T
 I J 

P H () P t: I E'I' 0 J: . 

C01'ner of Geol'g'e and Huntel" Stl'eets. 

R 1\'1' ALL I-lO-UR.

'I'h(, B.\ H ('OJI:'l.\ fUl'ni:-:lH'd \\
ith tlw B(-'Ht BI'.lwi
.\ LE
. L)(
 :l1ld CIGA R

(J11tertioJlers. F'a11(
'T (

.\ L ,V A Y 
 H \ X n . 

- !I

... - 
 - - 

. -" 




f..7i} f)T ('OYS'!' I XTJ. r IX SE.tSOX. 

, [

(IR(jE .:\lITClIELL 

 ' r I-..i
; 1--<, 



R S 


'L'HE !-.ub"icl'ihf--'r wnuld annUu\}(' Ifh--'J' ,I ,tnIJ}J.tge (If lhree lJlont.h
 hv fire. 
11(\ i<.: !lnw ahle to 1'('''unw hn...ilJ{ ':': in hi- ::\EW BUI('I\" RrTT.nT
1 i:-\. 
\\ hil'h n:IYP \W1'1I Http" 1lJ I ""xpl,,''',h fO). tIll' 

Jlo,n1{lfu>'"J'() (
,,'h'J'ol 1"lplf)1l1

 :- T ::fo
 1:!; 1... , 

Bv confining his at.telltioll tn thi.., al'tich.:, amI h.LViug imlJol'ted the iille
(Iuality of steel that can he had in England, ll( fed:, confident that, h(> (,:H, 
offer inducement,;; to hiFl friendfi f,eCì)}'\(l to no "hop in Canada. 
IIi" f'TEEL PLOrn-Uö are of the mO
t improved patterns, of which he ha
., bl'!!f' :ls
Ol'tmel1t. \ new ;-:.tcel (


= rHE '1' \ TJJ, rHT\fKF.Y. :--i( )TTTH OF THE 'IARKET. '
.J. II A I'll f.. 'I' 4) 'N. 

t' ' 
,'I. " 


 '" I -=-
 It:! ..., 

 --...----"""'" '- 
;, ,-' '" --;:',f" , '. . 
I ,

 ' / ,,' 

,,, .' 
... / 
...-==- --)\'. .'.1.......-__ -- 
- -- -"-' 
, ^ :1 1 M " . 
i I, : I . ' I ' M l' I I 
" \- ',\'
 ; 1
",' W II A ð
_ -+- 
___ __J
< - ;:'Z' -

- .:;.- 

 . :ø:;:_-==--_ 


 R () r; 

 R IRS, 


Gl(JSS1"O}'P. -
(I}JtJ).'; (1.1/(/ f1 ()()(lp}1 fJ (I.}'P. 

_\11 killd
 of f'ol1ntr\ PJ'oduC'(' Roup:ht & 
Ílld 1ft hi:-: 
- 't f@
l" 1
 . .' 

,.. "'




:w"'d ...,., 
 .., ïJ \woof 
 rIÞ ...;0 'WI'.
 __ . 


(j ...
 I) f) rJ_i '1' )1

J, 0:-' II \

ff. ,=,,",- 

't -J:IEL 



1\- ,I!t 
- - .

1'1 L "Ji'f; IIIJ 

ug-al', (
oH('f'. l'ppppr, 
(tIH'('. t


..,i) --!:::J :-;:'$. ) 
!.. -...r 

11(fJ'.;;....'t. j."'.'II'JJj). !'í:...h. /'orl,. 

-, II 

..[! --'... t' _' .-;. . 

...;' -

-,. -t i -..I 4 

.1 .Ii 
 :-- ,,1)ffJ<. 


( J 

j(V))' tn (f;li__. Uuh..l) P..h rlÞ\, 

'h . 

'1' II () 

 1, ( :r.
"' 1\.......,. I T...

, 'I ,
 '" 4 Jf' I)"" 




H, if \\' 


'II If

1Ï1 ð 

r)k W' 11 "I 
('1/ H-i l' 1-'0". f! 1,

W' H


\ t,wrif"'!) '1(1 

B( 'ht nd 'old t HI....t g,

I', t"l"",.1 11 -7. 

.\r1". .J tJ II , 

t ll' J.: !, II 
1 _-\ 1 ( , 

18 1 (1 r r'Ì st(-' r, . 'for J1t("?J- /"..1 U I'l\ Sf I ;(,i t 01"", 
:Y \ [\.('I.:H, .....-t'. 

Mr L 11. IlIA IJiì,' l F: - 
(, ('UUlltJ ( 11 1M 
"'[<,If'1 Ih t JH-. r? -L] 1 '., J .l .. 
I P 

There is Nothing Like Leather ! 


'v\t i\ I!
 I'j\ fl v l'J1: I-
S() \ l\. 

WEIl,( ..: ,U .. w.:r\l[ 

f 4,u 

..HJd (Jf'ilJ
l'(.: it, aJl hmd:-- 01" LE.\TH 

FiU' illUllc",r tRICE 

it" Pajd iu ('(t
h rÖr Ilidcl-' and 
P I. }..\TIli
U FOR (,

t-ú ,.. It-, J.' H<",U' ' {'lrl 
\.y InH'r 
et.1J 'terhOl\ J'} 

1 ,7. 




, DeDtist

101m m th puBic thãt h ' J1 now pr-- t'
-t'd 4- 

" "(jl..:a,(.ott T..eí.}) 
'itho"(.1."t I.lÞo,j)f)L? 

y do ...HrnüUS OXIDE (jAS. Tc'eth Filk,d in 
h(' m",t; .ft.... 
m f4 D1 'I} J1Pn rJ. t'rom one to a :Full Sett,-in th, . ous ..J!., 

 w--' r1 . .} t<> dny work donè in the 1nr 
B ) \ I. 101' R. R Willium. . 

 (I. f 
dwa}.;; on hand. 

TH( S. \V. POOLB, A1.D., 

l>E'I'E11Bor:OUGlI, (
. \If. 

Jn,!i\U'iUtct' @r ffif l'. 

.. t) '1 :\J F 1: ( 'I \ r {
( 0 '\ 
 ('OInpany of' LundoH, 1
(' \1'1 r \1 ,",l
.:1 (L "> v: 
! I , I . 4 1 'flln 1. f, ,\- t..\ I \.

 .--,-XI. '\. t 1.:"1 ;\." n.. l> P,.t. T"] 

Londoll & Lancashire Insl1.ra.ncc Company., 
4 \Plf\L }:I 
I } IJ (J / }. J (' F fJ I, ( I X .1 [) I iJ U J\ r h I: l 
\. \. 'nt 

Lß f\J'C 1\
ij.lRl: l 

'SLR 1....

(' _\PTTAL, -t
T ltLI-";f
t If I ()1 1(' 1l\l' \V (':oo.t"l'U (
au;'da, Toronto., l \\' 
J:(). \. tj',x,..\ nt )r l' tf' '0 


.<1 On 
 IJ.....ililt n, ('. w. ( it 1 ,J11 nv (t I'-unG... 
 I, 7,1().{)( O. 
.. 1 f:'f D, KP
CAID. tf o. \. COX, 1., 6t rl P 

 T '\. B TJ I 
 Tf E fa 1 Q 2 3 . 
" 'lIillU1"h.-l .n" In \ d ruml
 üvt-'r . C
':Eu. \. c. ov 
h. -nto ...t P :tl'l'

"- j'are[lC(s. ]
ÍJ( ({. ..i. t C('i([r lit hv,'uratlCe ("o'y. 
 HAnT"f 0 D, CON 
I-11 /1 ',lll"J..IJ \Vi ,-..klv t'Of L I ,--at' OIl lor 1)4]rs.or 11 11 iUl',}'. 
{ 1:0. \. ("I)X, AK"'nt dt Pt:".'t r1-. 

E \L ()CE.\X I'TE.L\
lSr(lI) CO
uf'd t - ìd f1 .1111 all p: of (' '1ad:1 and 61'\>1' t J3riwn. ] ". 'IJ 
r 1" rl
l'-' '. r ull.: 
'f)n r la bi<' obt.ain JJ on .t>p
j ..1 ,.0 
GEO., A. (OX. AgeLt at Petel1ooro' 

PhotoQ:mphic It Fiw' \ rt (
al h\r



, .. 

II !) j1]

 ... '.1 .) J' ... i.-I 
.U.:.J!J ,U :, .. 

. .' .' 
 :X G, 
('ard Pi("tHn\
. LandSt',ap<'s. 

\ 11' I

 \\ i n 

II, f;, II II 

]":aONOlr CE

I 1 

\ 1'1. i s t i ('. a 1 h Li g h tl'd a JI( I Fit It · II 
4 I 

of \í\Y I
 TIlE pJ:orI.\(;E, 


 PEe I A I. I T Y. 
'1-, "
r \ I )1-:1. 1 - !\..T ( 

 I -' ( )- l )' l 
 J " _ \ I ' l t

" ' J 
 . \ U Á." J. \J \. --- 


.) F 

I ' · t ,"' -j)j. 
 11,;' ) I >> "/' R 

I J 
 '-.: A:. 
 .. r .:..

' 1Î' TO LlFE 

'1 1 11<! 1)()tì{}lIIJY ('()IJ()HI1
1) in ()IL. 

"'.;; ';' . 

T I I E 1) U B LIe L .L\ X 1) 


U 1\ N .J.\.. J ) .J.\ . 

The Public ]Jam}H of Canaùa. arc :-:ulr1 hy local Cro"n Laml A;..:t'nts in 
the several Counties and Ui:-ötrict:-:. t() W1.UI11 applicat.ions tor purc1Hl
c bJ 
int-ending settlel'3 should he uwdl'. "'it]. :-'1IU11' fì
w (\xce11tiong they a1'<- 
:;:old in ('ppCl' Cmm(la fi,l' cw..h at 7fl ccnt:-: .111 acre. and on time at OIW 
dollar an .wr'e; 
Hld in Lo\\r!" Canalla :It from 
H to tin cent
. one-fifth to 1)(' 
paid at the time of 
alc. anli the l"I
 fnur-fifthf' in four C(iual anl11wl 
talments, with interc
t at 6 per ,'('nt. (In tJ)(' unpaid }ml'f'hafo:c money. 
c :-;.rlt,s arc r!nul" subject to :-:eUIClllcut tInt}, and to current timhl'l' 
licCllSCS f()r the.) car. Pl
rcha:-;cr[oo: of l'uhlic ] ;amls not under license: bein
 with certain illlprovelllcnt
, can ubtain licen
e from tIll' 
J'cspl'di\"(' (1rowH Lanrl A
. or Cro\\ n Timbcl' .\
ent:-:. to cut :nul di
e of tlU' tiwhcr g\'nwin
 on th(' lots purchw.:p.{ by them; the value of 
the tilllner 1-0 cnt aur1 ,li:-;po
e,l of h('i1l
 applied in pflymcnt oftbc pm'l"It:iC:c 
' .] Il(' the (' rowu, 

CHt l'fX REf
I'L.\TlC )S:-: 

The sale aurllllalJaöCment uf' timl'cr lln tIll' Puhlic J
:md:; are gO\l'l'Ilctl 
hy the 
tattltc. Con. 
t<Jt::, of "'a1ltlftiJ, :!
. Cap. 
3, :Iud hy the Hcg- 
1l1atiolls undel' it. :-:andiolll'.l hy Hi
 Excl'lll'Ul'Y the I-;'U\ ernnr Uelleral ill 
_ ('onncil. Liccn
èb for \ acant JJcrtL:; arc uffercrl tor "ate .It Pu blil' Auction 
nil :'lIch date::; <1:-: thc Commissiuner uf Crown l;alld
 tnaJ' tix hJ Pubti.. 
.\"otil:c, at an up
ct pri('c ot tour (lolJar
 a "'qual'c mile, 01' nth!:!)" rate a
lIlay tix, .mò ;Irt
 awarded tu the hibhc:-t hidllm' making. iOJlueJiat{. }M.'- 
mellt. :O;ct' the Hl
ulatious thclUl'!t'!w':-i túr iufunuatiùu a
rnHl\d l't:ut. 

ize of hertha: H'hewilt
. fill'1eÌtUI'I'S. l'alt'ti !If duty Ol1 TiwLer. &c. 



T In' CROW:-.i LASDS. 

f)ffmr'(l. 20th .lul,lJ, 1866. 

\Vit}) reference to Hw Crown Timber Hcgnlatiom: of the 12th .June, 
] RßG, notice i:;; hereby given that the following Officers are the Crown 
Timber .\gents duly autllorised for the grantinp. of Timhl'r JJiccnscs, 3ml 
the collecting of Timber ltcnmuc. to whom all application!-\ fûr such J.Ji- 
('enses or Renewals of I
i('cns{'s within thp )'('
p<'('tiH' Agencit.s :-:honld he 
.\. J. Russell, Ottawa, for the Pppel' Ottawa Territory, 
.J. P. Way, Bcllcvillc, for thc Ontario Territor)'. 
J. It. Ka:-h, Toronto, for tIlC I-T mon :md Superior :md Pcninsnl:t of 
(1anada 'V cst Tcrritoric:-:, 
C, E. Bcllc, Montreal, for the I.ower Ottawa 
_\. Duhord, Thrcc Hiver/'. for thc 
t. l'Iauricc Territory. 
G. J, .Kuglc, St. Hyacintbc. for t.hc 
t. Francis Territor)". 
G. Dubcrgcr, Chieontimi. fur the SaguemlJ Territory. 
C, Dawson, Rivicrc du Lou}) en Ba
. Ui)unty i)f 1'('mi
collta, for the 
Chaudicre and :Madawa
ka Tcrritol'J. 
C, T, Dubc, Troi..; Pistolcs, for tIle Lower foit. Lu\Vrcncc TcrritorJ'. 
J. ". Yer
e, Carleton, County of Bonaventure, for thc Bai dc
h'Ufjo; l' Cl'l'itory . 

A. ('.\
LPlrJU.JJ.. ('olllmi:-:-io)}f'I'. 

ERA 1. JL\

lh:r,\ HT'n:;I,'f II'" ('now\" LA
Oft(I/I'(J, l
fl, 18111-ì. 
H Eun..'\ TrO:'\:-- fm' tht' sa](' uf )1 inel'nl l
 apl1l'o\wI h.v His Ewd 
Jellcy thf' C:
on'rnor Gí'nf'r
1 in COllueil. 
1 X F Er.lOn )! f.'1'.\ 1..', 
1. That (,
H:h l"eg,nlar mining traf't in nn
Ul'Yi'yed tpl'l'itOl'Y ;.;;l\f111 ,.onsi:-t 
uf Llock
 of two honndI'f'd or 
J1lr hllndI',

. Tlwt thf' diruen
ions of {'
c-h ff'!.!;ulm' JHiHin
 U'ad of Jom hundrcd 
acres b(' furt.r ('hain
 in fmlll hy om' ì;nndl'e\1 ch
 in t\{'pth, :md 1'ß1f1llrr 
, excCI)t on lahs nnd ri rcI's. in the 

lIne proportion. TIll' bf'aring
tbe outlines to be 
onth. ancl East :Hu1 W est, :1
in thc unor

miz('d territOf'i\'
 in (' ppt'l" (';mad;;a, 
md pfll'flHel to thE" out1inc; 
of the town
:1, That mining tracts hl)llieriu
 uIJun hlll.s 
UJJ riveI'I'- 
haH haYe' their 
front:l):!;c Hl,olI SH<:h water
I\fI1I Le 
nb.ieet in an ca
cs tn the publi\j 
rights in navigahle nr floatablr. wntcrR; :1Il11 tlwt minin;.!; trncts, 
:-;hall have a mean clepth of nUt' ImndrcI1 chains hack frolU snell river 01' 
lake, (exclnsive of'1'o;l(l :Jl10 WaJWI' of unl' \']1:Iill ill width. which !'hall b<' 
reservcd nlong- the m:lrgin of 
Hch rirel' '11' 1:11..1'.) in (,ollformity with tlu. 
;tboV(' mentioned hearin

4, 'I'hat minin
 tI':le:tS ill ulI,";l1L'wyed tr'nitory 
hall hp s\U'\'t'yed by a 
nrveyol'. :11111 c'ollnl'ctèll "itla 
lJmí' l.nown point in pre- 
,ious surveys, (
m th
t thp tract Tlw)" tIC' I
id down on the oflic(' uw.p
It th(. ('o:-:t ortl.e :lppli(,:lIIt
. who shall },er<'qnired tofumish 
with th('il' apl'lieatioll the' SU1'WYor's l'bn, ti"lll not('
, :111(1 flí'
thereof in ;t('cordan\.(' with HIl' {(wl'
. fmd to till' sati:-.f:lctiou 
.,1' thc DI'p:lrtuu.ut. :11111 pay fh,' pli"e fIr nllC ,lullar 1"'1' :1('1'(' iufo thc He- 
pnrtmcllt ,,1' ('rown L:mdo; :1/ thp tilhP of Il1:1Ung; :'pplie
:t. Th:lt ill sm'\ t>Yl
d township Q Int
 01' 1I1illt'l'al:-:. 
be' sold on thl' :Ihow ('OJ,ditiùålfI. but at Hot le'SQ th:m one dollnr per acre 
in an,\' townsllip. :111l1 at tht> 
:1ml' plÏ'"f' :I
 the othí'l' bllrf
 in tIlt' town
whcn it is Ultll'l' t h:m onc dollar pel' 3.clc, 
C'. That Ulinin
 buds in sun'C'}'I'J to"w..hird IJe ::::oìel by till' ll)("
ll 3gcllt
1:)1' I';l
h. }Jut :111 bnd..; in uH'<lH'\'t'ye'cl tt'rritor.\ 
hall hr :-:nld }JY the [)<,parhucnt. 
j, Tlap 3hoVl' l",'
 do not :lPIJ}Y to min"" {It' 
,'olt1 :mtl <<il\'e'I', 
._,.)1.D A
I[ \TEt. 

. 'J'h;lt in st'lling th., bUll", iü tht' golfl luill1l1
lIIu!'. tilt' Ve"part- 
IIIcnt i
 to \1Ï:,cl'iruiunte :'S 1
IS I.l"âl'tieal,lt: }Jt'tweéil l'Ul'l'h;l"'er
 {In' :lC'tllal 
:;t"ttll'uu.nt. l/flll., ßlt,. and lll.,.::e 1;11' mining or 
IJ< cu1ati\l' pnrposl'
; :'f'lIir.
to the fûl'fIU'r t
Jr tiU' l'i'I'seDt pri(;I'
 and tClIbs. (subji'C't to :m iuC'l'c,,!o;(' to 

 :10 tll'l'e, UltJ,-j' the mdt..r (If 8th Angu..t. 1Rt
-L wheu :1('tn:I11)' worh.,1 
old.) :mll t" t h.' bUI--'r ti)r {JOt-' ll, tli:lI" 
'u .rert:'- (:l'<h. 

I. Il'hât in 3.11 Lt'ttd
 P.tlo-nt J
,i' J:lild' th,' d!lu t' !r t'l'dll
 .rli Ihint'
ull.l .ehtl .:il\'d' b.. .)[JIlIlnl. 
1U. _\1I1'le yi,til<: i't....,HbtiOiJ . inr,lu",i..trnt with tlw :,hOYè are caul.'..lll'd. 
\. ('.\.\J P BEL L. ('OHlin i ,,

._'.1 . 


Latit"t!, (([)(Jill Ihat I
/ J/oll/nul. 
Thl' Parry 
uHnd l)il'trict lJl:I: be ,1l'
crib('ù as l'lI1brm:iu
 that :sectiun 
I)f country boundell by French rivC'r .m the Xorth; the Rou
:-,cau :Iud Xi- 

 Road Hne on tbl' R:ì
t; L:l1\:f',"; ROllss[':H1, St, .To
md other 
:-mallel' lakc
 to Hw 
onth; :n1l1 tlll' wflt('r
 of the Oeorf.!,i:m TIny 
un t hI' W e

 :-:cctiull (.üutainin
 a largè }H",pol'lion or wry rail' l:nll} tit lor 
tlcUlcnt. A\ rO:Jllline h
 .been explored and carcfhHy located, leading ill 
almof;t a direct line fmIll the head of nOUH:,;e
lU I..akc to the mouth of 
South river at Lnke 
-. caBed thc non
sc:\u :lud Xipissiug road
_\ road liue forming :\ jl1uetion with the -'[n
koka l'uad. anù intel'scctiu
the Hous
cau 1'O
ld dose to tlw lake uf that ualllC, and cOlltinuiD
 iu a 

orth-'V I'st direction to thp \'il1a
'l' of Parry :O:OUlill. ('alkd the })al'l'Y 

uund I'ofld: 
.\ 1'u:lt1 line frolu Parry 
omJ(l iu a XOl'thl'rly llil'ectioll \"I'IJ;:,
ing ihc 

anetcw:l.n :md I,'rendl rinr!4, :md l'ontinned to form :1 junction with 
the Hrcat Northrrn road at '" alhlelr

These liJle
, and thl o explor:\lion
 eOhlll'ctl'Ù t1u'l'l'with, haw llcvclupcll 
e tri1cts v1'land well caJ('I1J:th,d for 

fuJ ngricu1tnr:1J 
On the P;lfl'Y Sound roaù gr:1ut Jots haw heen sHl'w,yed throng-hout. amI 
tlw following 'rüwn
. hOl'llcrinp. ullon 01' l'luhr:lciug till' road, ha\'<, becn 
:-nb-dividf'\1. n:l1uely,-W"att. {':Il'dwell. IIUI'lphi'ey. Foley and JI('Dou
'rite 'l'nwJJ;.;hip of "'alt is :Ihuo....t I:lItil'd,y 
t:'uled. :tllti ,dOil

 the whole 
ll'ugth of the road, flUlI in lite utht>l' TOWll!"hips n:mH'11. ,...l>ttl,.HJ(>nt ì
tivcl)' progr<,

, 'J'hi
 l't1f111 h:l
 }1t:-èl1 opf'lIul null l"I)mJ,leted l'Or trawl 
iu a sub:.,kmtial and superior Il1aDllèl" 1-:0 th:lt T .ake Hous
l'aU ",Ill he 
l'L'aùily rt';It'ltcd frulIl the 
()l1Ull, mill 1';1"1 n oil ill OUt' lIa) ':-:, 1ravel. 
t)n the JÎl'st linf' ll:uueJ, road opci'ati{lll" Wl'I'{' eUllllJ1t'lIl"crl Ja
t :'ca
;ulll it i:ò eXl'ccÌf'J tltp t'U
ujug sUJuUlcr will witlJ('
s it.:,: cfIluplt.tioli :IS illr 
a:- the 3Iag.mdew.m riwr. Ou fhi:-< rivcr tllí' 1;11111 i
II:1I1.v good. It 
is des('ri h(.d flS :1. ric.h loam)' elay, l"C1\'l'1'1'1( wi t h lilH' hardwooù. free' from 
...tone;o;. hnt! uu1Jl',)kpll hy l'jJ
 :md }':Willf'8. FUlllh'l' \In tll!' linp al
tàil' aVt'1'3gp :and 
npf'j'illr laud exi
 in VCl'Y J:U)5l JJI"lpOl'tjIl11
. :0.,) 11111<:h !4l1. 
dwt thè gùnd bnd i
cl'ibl'd ..
 :\ }'I'II}Jllrtillll of' I'l'lÎIU seventy 
1.1 .t"y,'nt,'-hvt" })I'}' l'wut. of tlw whull'. 

The 50rthem road passes throu
h some tractE of f'xcellent land and 

ettlClllCHt i:s J
u..t prof"ceding; in t Ii i
 11il'cdiun abu. 
The facilitic13 :Ifiòrncd for illgre

 to thif' country an' lllm
T great. 
III the :.;\1111111('1' sea:-:ún thp iutenùin1! :>ettll'l' h:I;o; the choice of t1l1'1,-
(' routc
He C:ln pl'ocred from rrorouto tll Collillgwooll 11)" r;lil. :md theut.c by 
steamboat. every 'Ionlb,v, direct to j)arry bound, tilt' l:lttcI' di:-.wncc hciu;:; 
about Rcvcuty miles. At P;lI'l'Y SO\1l1d thcI'l' is already tlte nucleus of a 
hanùsoult. :-IUÙ thriving village, with ltliH
, stores and clmrc11, This is one 
termium; of the Pany 
OUllÙ road whid. here CI'O
:-;C:s the :-,cguin river hy 
:l ham]f'01lle and f'uhHtanti:II trn::s IJl'i
lgl" and PUlers the main :;tl'cct of the 
Ir, Beatty, thc proprietor of the mill, a'ud the fuunùer of tht, 
village rc
 here, anù oRcrs liberally every a:-:si
tance in his power ü
dustrious set.tlel'
, Ahnnùant 
 of dothin
, provi::;iouf'. uml implc- 
lIleuts are also to be fonnù hcre, which (";lH h(' lwd at Toronto }wice:-:, with 
thc adùitiun of frcight chargc:" 
)11', W akl'firlr1. tlli', ('rown LalHl _\
('nt tor the Di:--tl'ict. al
o l"c:-il{l':) 
Thc :-;ccond route iö frum 1'urouto tu Deli BWill't Ly rail, from thcuce to 
(,,'iIlia and 'V asha
o mill, at thc fO(Jt of lake Uouchiching, by :;tcilll-ibuat. 
thcllce fonrteen miles by :;t:lges running daily to }luskolu bay on the lake 
of thc same ualllc, :md thence by )lr. Cockburn'ð new and l'xcellcul 
:.;ttamel' to the Indiall \'ill3ge at the UillTOWS bctweeu the above lale :ll1ll 
lake Rou
seau, ùuù tlll'nee Ly open boat
 to the Hou
seau and l':tl'ry 
:5ound roads. 
The third route il::i Ly the abuve line a:; far '-I:; Wa::;ha,!.!-o. thcucc ") the 
)1 uskoka and Parry Suund ruad
 to the hcad uf Hons;-Sl'ilU lake. anù 
2 JUi1c
 to P:Jrry Sound. 

<< I r rF 
:0:: 5 

 r- :.., 
";,) r :::. 
<( I :-:e, ('nt
- cents ca!'h, or $1 hy inl'it-3 ]men t!'. ..... 
' ;; ("" 
ë: ::J 
c:;> :.I 
r ----^ --- 7i i
:;; I 

 :::r::; x :;. x X ç 
n ð 
!, ? => 5 Õ ð 
ë2 ;: :3 Q- o

:;) is I .;f .'j 00 :X 
 --' S 
-< '-.I 
:>:I ':'1 
I ":', -. I 
-< II 
- I 
-: .... '-' 
 0:-:: C'j 
-: I 
< 5 s:: 
c:::: 0 s:: 

 Co) .8 


p:j .... (""' 

 --::: .- C; - 2 
:.... s:: ... 
:.... c;: .8. .- II 

L- a t>() 
I :.: 0 -<-" s:: 
 r:: 0 
;; 0 ?;: a 
,- .=; 
 C,) Q) 
 !:. ..r:: ... 
.h 2 S ? 

 '"S :.- 
 0:-:; -r 
E-' S 
c; 8 
:..'; I 
 "'0 .'"' -- 

 '2 ê 
:i: 0,..... 0 c:: .::, ê 
0 õ c .; oS ..... .tÈ 
... j' >- is 
I ..? -+" 
< S 
 c á .... ,- c 
 .5 2 

 7. ;...- -- 
.=;. P'-i "- 
0 0,..... 
 '-' =0 -< 
/; I 0 .... t"' 
L f' - 

 Æ +-' .... ...;;, ... I, 
;... õ 2: 
C; c;: 
c:: .

 Z :ï.:; -- 
-- I -

 I 1 0 ..-! 
.- ,-; 
:;; 9- ... +-' " - 5 

 ø ç òi) , :i, 'l. -L 
S c 
I f 
 r .z "" ;;. 

; ..... C,) 

 ...... '- 'l. - 
- - -- 
I J 
 :., .... :., 
- "!' ; s ? I, 
I ] 2 
 ..... j Z - 
:i. :; t '=' 
 ...;- - ,>:. 
 ; .

- 1 I: 
 - ..x E 
 õ 0 ç 
 .... :I: ..... ........ 
,.... ,r; 

r,." ., 























;;.; I ,; 


 I g 
: I 
 I - 







































.a ...= 
















































 l I 
'õ 'õ 'õ 















j ." 


c "8 
Cè :J







:FAlti\tlIN G LAN J)8 



..l\ T 


 R E A

Advantages Otfereu 1ú SeHlrrs. 

For V:lt'kular:-: apply to 

c: .J. 
ßljO l
IFIElJ 1), 

"Ift'fdaf.'l Cnnadian Land nUll EntÌgratio1l CO'fnpany, 

TOB!));T!) B.\;\"h. B['ILrn

TU, (j, 'V, 

Toronto. JallUary 211d, 188ï,