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SLEAFORD CHURCH. 



< 

NTARIC 



SLEAFOBD, 



AND THE 



WAPENTAKES OF 



PLAXWELL AND ASWARDHURN, 



IN THE 



COUNTY OF LINCOLN; 

5447 1 



THE 



VENERABLE EDWARD TROLLOPE, M.A., F.S.A., 



ARCHDEACON OF STOW. 



LOHDOtf : 

W. KENT AND CO., 23, PATERNOSTER ROW ; 

SLEAFORD : 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY WILLIAM FAWCETT, 

1872. 



TO THE BIGHT REVEREND 



CHRISTOPHER WORDSWORTH, D.D., 
LORD BISHOP OF LINCOLN. 



BELIEVING- your Lordship to be one of those who regret that 
there is no History of Lincolnshire worthy of such a desig- 
nation, although I cannot supply that want, I beg leave most 
respectfully to dedicate this little volume to you, as one which 
may supply some materials towards a future History, and I trust 
prove useful in affording information respecting Sleaford, formerly 
a possession of the Bishops of Lincoln, and the parishes around 
it. 

Looking back upon the past, as you are accustomed to do 
with a keetn perception and deep interest, I fear your Lordship 
has found but little information gathered up ready for your use 
with respect to the important County of Lincoln, except the acts 
of some of the more distinguished of your predecessors, although 
from its size and wealth, and connection with the Eoyal House of 
Lancaster, it is one of the most important in England. 

I have often been urged to undertake the task of compiling 
such a History ; but have ever felt that the labour required would 
be too great for me, engaged as I constantly am in more urgent 
and ceaseless professional duties, as well as from the fact that the 
cost of its production would be very great, if illustrated and 
printed in a form worthy of the County of Lincoln, and of com- 
parison with the already published Histories of other Counties. 

No doubt much has been lost through the delay that has 
occurred in the supply of such a work ; but something also has 
been gained, because until of late years the knowledge of ecclesi- 
astical architecture, and of archaeology generally was so limited. 



11. 



I fear that my task of attempting to describe the town of 
Sleaford and the parishes within the Wapentakes of Flaxwell 
and Aswardhurn, together with a few others, will not by any 
means be found faultless, and has certainly not been accom- 
plished in so complete a manner as I could have wished ; but 
yet considering the very great difficulties of compiling even a 
little work like this, arising from the scantiness of materials and 
other causes, I trust that you will accept it as a small mark of 
the deep respect I feel for your Lordship personally, as well as 
in your public capacity, as one of the most learned and excellent 
of that long series of Prelates who have successively presided 
over the great Diocese of Lincoln. 

I am, 
With the utmost respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

EDWAUD TBOLLOPE. 



PBEFACE. 

IT is now forty-six years since the only work descriptive of 
Sleaford and its vicinity was published by the late Mr. 
James Creasey, so that had this been a perfect production ori- 
ginally, it would now require considerable revision and additions ; 
but as the knowledge of Ecclesiastical Architecture, of Antiquities, 
and other kindred subjects, has in this interim very greatly ad- 
vanced, and thus enabled us to describe the fabrics of churches 
and relics of past ages with far greater accuracy than could have 
been done half a century ago, a demand for a new History of 
Sleaford and its vicinity has naturally arisen. 

At first it was proposed to make the old work serve as a 
foundation of a new one, in the hope that with alterations and 
additions it might be reproduced in a more correct form ; but by 
degrees the old materials have almost entirely disappeared during 
this process, except the extracts from Domesday book, Testa de 
Nevill, and Gervase Holies, &c., which only required revision, 
while even the limits of the area around Sleaford now described, 
differ from those adopted in Creasey 's work, so as distinctly to 
confine these to two of the ancient Wapentakes or Hundreds of 
Lincolnshire, although at the earnest desire of some, a few 
parishes beyond those boundaries are described in a supplement 
of this volume, because they were included in the old History, 
but contrary to my own judgment, because this interferes with 
the limits of other Wapentakes or Hundreds, the history of which 
I hope may hereafter be written. As, however, by the arrange- 
ment adopted, the supplement can easily be detatched from this 
volume whenever this work is undertaken, I am reconciled to its 
temporary appearance in this volume. 

Excepting the engravings of the Churches, taken from pho- 
tographs, and a few others kindly drawn by the !Rev. Charles 
Terrot, all the illustrations have been engraved from the Author's 
own drawings. 



As the history of each parish usually begins with extracts 
from Domesday Book, a few words respecting the origin and 
character of that important work will perhaps be acceptable. It 
is not quite certain when its compilation was commenced, some 
asserting that this took place so early as the year 1080, but 
from the evidence of the following entry at the end of the second 
volume it certainly appears to have been finished in the year 
1086. "Anno milessimo octogessimo sexto, ab incarnatione 
Domini facta est ipsa descriptio, non solurn per hos tres Coniita- 
tus, sed etiam per alios." If so, it did not altogether owe its 
origin to the tyranny of the Conqueror as is usually supposed, 
but from the necessity of providing means for the defence of 
the kingdom against enemies, most probably when a Danish 
invasion was apprehended in 1085, and there was no national 
army to protect England, so that King William was forced to 
procure a large force from Normandy and Brittany ; but as these 
troops were quartered upon the English to their dislike and in- 
convenience they readily submitted to a measure providing for 
their future defence through themselves, according to the evidence 
of the Council of Sarum. To apportion this burden equitably a 
survey of England was ordered to be made, and the feudal tenure 
of its lands was then commenced, on the ground of the necessity 
for supplying the necessary means for the national defence. 

This survey was made by Commissioners, of whom Eemigius 
Bishop of Lincoln, Walter Gifford Earl of Buckingham, Henry 
de Ferrers and Adam the brother of Eudo Dapifer were ap- 
pointed to survey the midland counties, including Lincolnshire, 
whence we may fairly assume that the first of these took a leading 
part in the compilation of the report referring to Lincolnshire. The 
name Domesday Book was not a novel one, for Alfred's Codex, 
or Liber Judicialis, consisting of his laws, was termed his " Dom- 
Boc ;" but king William's book is of a different character, con- 
sisting as it does, not of laws, but of a record of the quantity of 
the lands of England and of their value in the time of Edward 
the Confessor and when the record was taken, together with a 
description of the same and other particulars, as well as of their 
possessors, tenants and servants. Occasional reference is also 
made to the churches and priests of the places described, and 
other matters, but only in an incidental and imperfect manner, 
was also called formerly by other names, viz., Liber Eegis 
Itotulus Wintpniae, and Scriptura Thesauri Eegis, &c. 



V. 

It contains the united returns of the Commissioners employed 
in its production, who were empowered to summon all persons 
they pleased to give evidence as to the value, quantity and particu- 
lars of the lands and possessions of every lordship. These returns 
were transcribed into two volumes, one rather larger than the 
other, the first of which begins with Kent and ends with Lin- 
colnshire, and was long kept in the royal Treasury at Winchester 
under the guardianship of the auditor, chamberlain, and deputy 
chamberlain of the Exchequer, but is now preserved in the new 
Eecord House attached to the Rolls Chapel. 

The other earlier authorities often quoted are Testa de Nevill, 
compiled in 1270; Yalor Eceleeiasticus, 1535 ; Leland's Itinerary, 
1546; Willis's MS. 

Some explanation of the character and quantity of the lands 
referred to in this volume under different terms may perhaps be 
useful. Of these the following are most frequently mentioned, 
viz : 

A soc, sock, or soke. This was a territory over which a lord 
exercised the right of administering justice, and in connection 
with which he possessed various privileges. 

A manor is a lordship, the name of which is still in common 
use. It was first adopted in England in the reign of Edward the 
Confessor, and derives its name from tha French manoir. 

Demesne, or demesne lands, a term retained, in that of do- 
main, consisted of a portion of a manor usually lying around or 
near to the aula of the lord, and cultivated for him by his servants. 

A knight's fee consisted of 8 carucates or hides. 

A carucate was a piece of plough land varying in quantity 
according to the character of its soil, but usually consisted of 120 
acres. 

An oxgang, or bovate, also varied in quantity according to 
the quality of the land, because it was computed to be as much 
land as an ox could plough annually, but most commonly con- 
sisted of 16 acres, 

A selion was a ridge of land, or headland, lying between two 
furroughs of no definite extent. 

A croft was a small home close. 

A toft, a small plot of ground with a house upon it, or on 
which a house had once stood. 

A curtilage, a garden, or yard, attached to a house. 



VI. 



Under the feudal system all subjects held their lands of the 
king, and these were usually granted by the holders to subten- 
antswholly or in part. Below these were two classes of inferior 
tenants termed sokemen i.e., free sokemen, who simply paid rent 
for the land they held of a lord or sub-tenant ; and base sokemen, 
who paid for their land in labour. Next in rank came bprdars, 
who were small tenants or cottagers paying for their holdings in 
kind to their territorial lord. Lastly came viUans, who were 
bondmen attached to their lord's land, and sold or given to others 
with the land on which they lived and died. 

The right of ''free warren" was a license from the king to 
preserve and kill game ; and a license to " crenellate," was one 
sanctioning the fortification of a castle or house, also obtainable 
only through the king's consent. 

One particular respecting a now well known house in Slea- 
ford, that has come under the Author's notice since the description 
of the town has been printed, he desires now to record. About 
the year 1700, Mr. William Alvey, the founder of the school in 
Sleaford still bearing his name, built the handsome old house in 
Northgate next to the Sessions House, now used as Messrs. 
Peacock & Handley's banking house. He erected it on the site 
of an old inn called the Talbot, and lived in it until his death in 
1729. Originally the door was in the middle of the house, and 
over it are the initials E. A. in a cipher, which were those of his 
wife, in compliment to whom they appear there. This noted 
Sleaford benefactor was succeeded by Mr. Alvey Darwin, probably 
a nephew of his; and then by a surgeon. In 1803, Messrs. 
Peacock & Handley's Bank, first established in the Market-place, 
April 2nd, 1792, was removed to this house, but its original 
character has been but little altered and is an excellent specimen 
of a small but handsome house of the 17th century, besides 
which the fact of its having been Alvey's house gives it additional 
value. 

In 1723, a disastrous fire occurred at Sleaford, the recollec- 
tion of which has now entirely passed away locally, but a record 
of which remains through the medium of the following adver- 
tisement in the Stamford Mercury, dated Thursday, March 26th, 
1723-4: "These are to give notice to the several Towns and 
the Ministers and Churchwardens of the same, unto whom 
divers Letters Recommendatory have been sent, to collect their 



charity for the relief of the sufferers by the late sad and violent 
fire, which happened at New Sleeford in the County of Lincoln, 
that such of the said Towns as have not collected or returned 
their collections for the said fire, are desired to collect and pay 
in their respective sums so to be gathered at the next Visitation, 
viz., unto Mr. Joseph Williamson at Boston, the Reverend Mr. 
Thomas Sellers at Sleeford, and Mr. John Algate at Grantham, 
who will be there, and ready to receive the same." 

Last year 1871, two large stones were found in Ruskington 
opposite the churchyard gate, and about a foot below the surface 
of the town street. These were a little more than 3 feet square. 
In the centre of one was a socket about a foot square, which 
seems to indicate that they once served as the base of a village 
cross. 

The William Benningworth, or Benniworth, mentioned in 
the account of Howell as its first recorded rector, was the 
founder of the Franciscan Friary at Lincoln, 1230. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

SI, atonl Church Frontispiece. 

Anns of the See of Lincoln, &c ...Title-page. 

Britishcanoe Page 25 

Do. sword " 29 

Do. dagger Plate I, 1 

Do. do -. 2 

Do. flint hammer ,1 

Do. earthen vessel ,, 

Section of the Ermine Street ' Page 33 

Mediaeval cross ^ 39 

British celt " 40 

Roman milliary stone ,, 48 

,, implements ,, 64 

Car Dike sections Pages 70 & 71 

Roman camp at Kyme Page 78 

Roman vases found at Halfpenny Hatch and Billinghay ' ,,79 

Danish comb case ... .. ,, 98 

Saxon vases found at Quarrington Plate II, Figs. 1, 2 & 3 

Do. fibulte found at do. ,, ,, 4, 5 & 6 

Do. dart head ... Plate III, Fig. 1 

Do. glassbeads ,, ,, 2 

Do. bronze oval fibula .. ,, ,, 3 

Do. iron spear head , ,, ,,4 

Do. bronze tag ,, ,, 5 

Do. glassbeads ,,6 

Do. bronze clasp ,, ,, 7 

Do. bronze buckles Plate IV, Figs. 1, 2 & 3 

Do. bronze and bone pins Plate IV, Fig. 4 

Do. horse's cheek -piece ,, ,, 5 

Do. bronze balance beam !. , ,,6 

Do. iron spear heads Plate V, Figs. 1 to 7 

Do. iron bosses of shields 8&9 



Do. bronze clasp 

Do. iron knife 

Do. knife handle 

Do. bronze circular fibula 

Do. do. do. 



Fig. 10 

M 11 

12 
13 
14 



Do. bronze purse suspender ,, 15 

Plan of Sleaford Castle :. ... Page 108 

Sleaford Castle in 1781 120 

t Sleaford Castle ... 121 



ix. 

Sleaford tokens ..................... ........ Page 137 

Monument of Sir Edward Carre in Sleaford Church ....... ,. ,, 158 

The Handley Monument at Sleaford .................. ,, 169 

The Black Bull sign at Sleaford ........ ............. ,, 170 

The Old Place, Sleaford ................. . ... ....... ,, 183 

The Drake Stone, Anwick ...... .... ... ., ..... \ ....... 188 

Anwick Church ... ..... , ................ ....... , 190 

Ashby Church ... ............ ........ .. ... . ....... , 206 

Bloxholm Hall in 1825 ................. ......... 210 

Digby Church ..... .................. ...... , ... ,, 225 

Leasinghain Church ., .......................... , 270 

Rauceby Church .................. . ........ ....... ,, 280 

W. Styrlay's brass ... ... ................. v . ... ... 282 

Rowston Church. ............................... 290 

Ruskington Church . .......................... , 303 

Temple Bruer .............. ............... , ... ,, 317 

Wilsford Church ................... ............ 322" 

Aswarby Church ................................. ,, 335 

Aunsby Church ........... .................. 341 

Culverthorpe Hall in 1825 ...................... , ... ,, 35$ 

Ewerby Church ........ .. . ... ... ... .... ... ....... 363 

Heckington Church ............................. . M 389* 

Easter Sepulchre in Heckington Church ........ . ...... ,, 393 

Helpringham Church .............. .............. .. 400 

Do. token ................... ......... M 403 s 

Howell Church ..................... ; ........... n 409 

Saxon vase ................................ 416 

Do. scissors ... ... ............. ......... i^ 

Arrowhead .............................. fa 

Osbournby Church ....................... ....... 422 

Quarrington Church ......... ... , ........... 430 

Swaton- Church .............. . ., ............. 449. 

Mediaeval cross at Silk "Willoughby- ... ....... ..... 453 

Silk Willoughby Church ..... ............... "'..." 464' 

Ground Plan of Roman Ancaster ..................... 470 

Saxon comb .............................. 472 

Roman coffin ......... , ........ t> tfi ^73 

Group of Deae Matres ...... ... ... ... . ...... 477 

Roman altar ......... .............. 47g 

Roman column .. ...................... -^ 

Plan of Honington Camp .. ...... . ... ...... 4g^ 

Roman pottery ... ........ ............ ^g-j 

Roman fibula o. 



Ancaster Church 
Billinghay Church ... 
Folkingham Church 
Threckingham Church 
Halbert . 



LIST OF SUBSCKIBEES. 



Ashington, Eev. H., Anwick 
Anders, Rev. H.,. Kirkby Laythorpe 
Andrews, Mr., Osbournby 
Amcotts, Colonel, M.P., Hackthorne 

Hall, Lincoln 
Abraham, Mr., Sleaford 
Adlard, Mr., Ruskington 
Atkin, Miss A., Heckington, 
Almond, Mr., London 
Allen, Mr. E., Sleaford 
Allen, Mr. W., Sleaford 
Appleby, Mr. E., Grantham 
Bristol, the Most Noble the Marquis of 
Brownlow, the Right Hon. the Earl of , 
Boot, J. H., Esq., M.D., Sleaford 
Bedford, J., Esq., Sleaford 
Barnes, Rev. C., Digby 
Brewitt, Mr. Jno., Sleaford 
Bampton, Mr. T., Sleaford 
Barnes, Mr. Jas., Heckington 
Bellamy, Mr., Spanby 
Bennison, Mr. M., Sleaford 
Blasson, G., Esq., Heekington 
Blasson, Thos., Esq., Billingbo-rough 
Bettis, Rev. G. R., Doncaster 
Bacon, Alfred, Esq., Cheadle, near 

Manchester 

Brand, Mr. J., Billinghay 
Brown, Mr. J. C., Sleaford 
Buttifant, Mr. J. G., Romsey 
Blaze, Mr., Louth 
Baxter, Mr. John, Sleaford 
Bell, Rev. James, Sleaford 
Bacon, Mr. John, Sleaford 
Bacon, Mr. John T., Sleaford 
Chevin, Mr. H., Leasingham 
Chamberlain, Mr. G., Sleaford 
Cragg, E., Esq., Threckingham 



Child, Rev. C., Sleaford 

Cook, Mr., Heekington 

Cameron, Rev. G. T., Heckingtoa 

Clarke, Miss, Seredington 

Coney, Mr., Sleaford 

Collinson, Mr. H., Burton-on-Trent 

Collinson, Mr. F. 

Clements, E., Esq., Sleaford 

Chambers, Mr. John, South Kyme 

Cumberworth, Mr. H., Heckington 

Christopher. Mr. Z., Heckington 

Cammack, T., Esq., M.D., Spalding 

Clay, Mr., Holdingham 

Count, Mr. J. C., Sleaford 

Chapman, Mr. 

Cartwright, Mr. E. r Sleaford 

Dolby, Rev. J. S., Howell 

Dudding, W., Esq., Howell 

Dibben, Mr. E. R., Sleaford 

England, C., Esq., Sleaford 

Elcombe, Mr. E., Sleaford 

Evison, Mr., Ewerby 

Ellwoood, Mr. D., Sleaford 

Frudd, Mr. J., Bloxholm 

Fawcett, Mr. T., Sleaford 

Foster, "W. H., Esq., Cranwell 

Fane, W D., Esq., Norwood, South- 
well 

Ffytche, J. L., Esq., Thorpe Hall, 
Louth 

Fryer, Mr. W., Sleaford 

Graves, Mr., Ashby 

Gardner, Rev. H., B.A., Liverpool 

Green, John, Esq., Knipton 

Godson, G., Esq., Heckington 

Gibson, Mr. Joseph, Sleaford 

Goodacre, Mr. W., Sleaford 

Green, Mr., Sleaford 



ERRATA. 

Page 98, line 20 "Saxon" for "Roman." 

Page 115, line 25 "1431 " for "1820." 

Page 333, line 15 "Angus" for "Anjou." 

Page 421, Hue 20 "Donington" for "Dorrington." 



HISTOEY 



OF 



SLEAFOED AND THE NEIGHBOUEHOOD, 



INCLUDED IN THE 



WAPENTAKES OF FLAXWELL AND ASWAEDHUEN. 



THE boundaries of the area around Sleaford proposed to be 
described, and lying within the Wapentakes of Flaxwell 
and Aswardhurn, are these, viz. : the High Dyke on the west, 
Langoe Wapentake on the north, or a line just south of Wellin- 
gore, Kirkby Green, Thorpe Tilney, Walcot, and Billinghay, 
Kyme Eau and Holland Dyke on the east, separating the Divi- 
sion of Kesteven from that of Holland; and the Wapentakes 
of Winnibriggs with Threo and Aveland on the south, or a 
line a little to the north of the Bridgend road. This area con- 
stitutes nearly a perfect square, from 12 to 13 miles across, 
diagonally subdivided by the boundary between the two Wapen- 
takes it comprises, with Sleaford almost exactly in the middle. 
In the Wapentake of Flaxwell there are 22 parishes or hamlets, 
containing in all 50,937 acres, and a population of 9,705; and 
in Aswardhurn 24 parishes or hamlets, an acreage of 48,134, 
and a population of 8,070. The soil of the first is heath over an 

A 



2 SLEAFOKD. 

Oolite rock on the west, clay of various qualities and occasionally 
gravel in the middle, and peaty soil on the east over silt, gravel, 
or clay. That of the latter is for the most part clay, and fen 
towards the east over Oxford clay. Except the fen portion of 
these Wapentakes their surface slightly undulates and is scored 
by several small rivulets flowing from west to east towards the 
sea, of which the Slea is the chief. 

As the heath and fen portions of the two Wapentakes are 
peculiar features some description of these will perhaps be ac- 
ceptable. Formerly one continuous tract of light land called 
generally Lincoln Heath extended from the high table ground on 
the south of Lincoln and the Witham to Cranwell, or about 1 3 
miles. It rises gradually from under the Oxford clay stratum on 
the east and terminates in a steep ridge as it sinks suddenly towards 
the Lias district on the west ; but besides this, its whole surface 
consists of a series of gentle undulations resembling those of the 
Atlantic after a storm, and the straight white road carried over 
these in succession on its way northwards, does not very inaptly 
represent the foamy track of some vast steam- ship, such as the 
Great Eastern leaves behind her in calm weather, while the 
shadows of the little clouds passing over the surface of the Heath, 
just as they do on the real ocean, add to the correctness of the 
comparison. Beneath a thin layer of light soil, from 9 to 18 
inches in depth, is a thick stratum of limestone, belonging to 
what geologists call the series of the " Great Oolite." At some 
very remote period, and during countless centuries, water was 
gradually depositing the limy particles with which it was charged 
on the clay beneath it, until it formed a coating many feet in 
thickness, sometimes sympathising with the undulations of the 
subsoil, and sometimes drifting into its deeper hollows, so as 
to cause a considerable degree of variation in its thickness. It 
has also been subjected to other subsequent disturbing causes, 
from the pent-up powers of the earth's deeper recesses. A 
remarkable example of this may be seen in a railway- cutting 
between Ancaster and Wilsford, where an upward thrust from 
below is exhibited, forming a rounded eminence beset with fis- 
sures, now filled in with earth that has been washed in from 
the surface. 

Many deeds of violence have been perpetrated on this heath. 
One was long recorded in the nave of Lincoln Minster to this 



SLEAFOED. 3 

effect : " Here lies John Kanceby, formerly Canon of this 
church, who was with malice prepense nefariously slain on the 
'Haythe' (spelt thus) in the year of our Lord 1388 by William 

. God have mercy upon his soul." The surname of the 

murderer had been effaced either by accident or design. In latter 
times it was men's purses rather than their lives that were in 
great danger on the heath through highwaymen, by which it 
was infested. Even in the last century the Windmill House in 
the parish of Leasingham, was a favourite place of assemblage 
for these gentlemen of the road as they were termed, and a 
little hollow on the Lincoln road in Dunsby parish, now marked 
by a row of cottages, was the most common scene of attack 
upon travellers. But there were also natural dangers arising 
from the character of the heath in olden days. When no well- 
kept roads traversed it, and it could boast of still fewer houses 
upon it than at present, poor folks were often lost upon its 
dreary expanse, and some died from prolonged exposure to cold 
and wind and snow on the heath. In the register of Leasingham 
parish are several evidences of such misfortunes, within a space 
of 53 years nine poor travellers having apparently just reached 
that place, on the southern confines of the heath, to die. They run 
as follows in the list of burials : " Elizabeth Ping, a stranger ;" 
" Susanna Ellis, a traveller ;" " Dolton Pickworth, a poor stran- 
ger;" and sometimes even still shorter, such as " A travelling 
woman," or "A travelling man," without a name at all; yet 
these speak of unknown sufferings as well as of unknown persons. 
Two remarkable instances of thank-offerings for preservation 
from starvation on the heath still throw light upon this point : 
the first is connected with the parish of Blankney, where a small 
field was left by a female whose life had been saved through the 
tolling of its church bell, on condition that that bell should be rung 
every evening at 8 o'clock. The other case is connected with Pot- 
terhanworth, where 23 acres of land, called Culfrey-lands, were 
left by a traveller who had been rescued from the heath by hear- 
ing the sound of Potterhanworth church bell, on condition that 
that bell should be tolled every evening at 1 minutes to 7, by 
the oldest parishioner who had not received parochial relief, and 
who was to have the proceeds of the land as his fee. But at length a 
greater benefactor was found in the person of Sir Francis Dash- 
wood, who erected Dunston Pillar, and placed upon its summit a 



4 SLEAFORD. 

large glass lantern that was lighted every night for the purpose of 
guiding benighted travellers on their way across the heath. And 
no doubt it served that purpose well, but yet did not always 
enable people to get to their own homes in safety, especially when 
they had been carousing at the Green Man club formerly much 
frequented by the gentry of the neighbourhood, and when far 
more liquor was unhappily consumed than now ; for it is recorded 
that two of these on their way towards Lincoln, after they had been 
assisted into their carriage, and their coachman had been previ- 
ously assisted into his box, thought it prudent to give him the 
following directions: "John, be sure you keep the pillar light 
upon your right, and then we shall get home safe," before sinking 
into sleep. But when these sleepers awoke they found the sun 
was rising, and that they were still near the Pillar, and still in 
their carriage instead of being in their beds, one of them called 
out, " Why, John, where are we ?" Upon which John answered, 
" Oh, it's all right, sir, the light is upon my right ;" and so it was, 
for he had been circling round it all night, and was not much 
nearer home than when he began to drive. Violence and dangers 
have now happily passed away, and there are no murderers or 
robbers on the Heath, nor need even for a light on Dunston 
Pillar. Hence instead of a lantern, a statue of good King 
George III. surmounts the Pillar at Dunston ; but could he see 
the wonderful change that has taken place on the surrounding 
district between the time of his accession to the throne and the 
year 1870, he would be indeed greatly astonished; and although 
when it was told him that Lord Buckinghamshire intended to set 
up a statue in his honour upon Lincoln Heath, he is reported to 
have said, " Ah! Lincolnshire, all flats, fogs, and fens!" and did 
not relish the idea at all ; could he now see the locality where 
that statue still stands he might be justly proud of that portion 
of his kingdom. 

Some notice of the character of the fen land of Lincolnshire, 
a portion of which lies within the Wapentakes of Flaxwell and 
Aswardhurn, is next required, 

A great contest between the sea and the land, leading to fre- 
quent changes in their respective boundaries, had certainly been 
raging upon the Lincolnshire coast for centuries before the arrival 
of the Romans in Britain, and that period when written records 
began to be kept. Doubtless the ocean has there, from time to 



SLEAFORD. 5 

time, swept far beyond its natural limits with an irresistible tide, 
reaching points in Lincolnshire now removed nearly twenty miles 
from it ;* and yet, little by little, it has, through its very fury, 
aided to form a future barrier against itself. This it has done by 
the accumulation of the silt left upon its retreat, in concert with 
the earthy deposits caused by the continual flow of the inland 
waters, not only on either side of those points where they have 
respectively found an exit into the sea, but generally in that great 
bay of the Wash and its adjoining shores, reaching from Wain- 
fleet to Hunstanton on the Norfolk coast, and so appropriately 
termed by Ptolemy " Mentaris cestuarium" or bay of river mouths. 
In this manner a considerable portion of the division of Holland 
has gradually been gained, or perhaps we may say, regained from 
the bed of the sea, whilst the continued growth of its coast, as 
well as of that of the southern part of Lindsey, is evinced by the 
relative position of the sea-banks that have been successively 
raised for its defence. 

The subsoil of this district is Oxford clay, lying in waves, and 
once forming the surface. Over this has swept at some very 
remote period a vast and violent tide of waters from the N. W. to 
the S.E. portion of the county, which has left thick beds of drift 
behind it, consisting of white silty clay, boulders, large yellow 
water-worn flints, numerous beds of gravel, intermingled with 
which are teeth and bones of elephants and various animals, f 
besides other deposits. Lincolnshire has, apparently, to thank 
Yorkshire, or some more northern locality for this furious in- 
road, for through some convulsion of nature a compound and 
chaotic marine flood once swept along the vale of York and the 



* At Roxholme, near Sleaford, there exists a silty substratum abounding 
with cockle and other ordinary sea shells ; and at Holbeach Hum, a distance 
of three miles from the sea, a seam of cockle shells, three inches thick, was 
traced by Dr. Latham two or three feet below the present surface. This was 
on land in the occupation of Mr. Daily, near Fleet Haven. 

t At Partney, a fossil tooth was found, weighing two pounds three ounces, 
in the gravel bed near Partney Mill, in 1822, twelve feet belqw the surface. 
It was supposed to have been one of the grinders of a hippopotamus or elephant. 
Oldfield Addenda, p. 20. Another similar tooth was found at Quarrington, 
a few years ago, also in the gravel ; and the skull of a cetacean, from the 
Lincolnshire fens, now in the Cambridge Museum, was supplied by the late 
Mr. Hopkinson, of Morton. 



6 SLEAFOED. 

north-eastern portion of Lincolnshire, until, reaching that point 
of the Cliff hills through which the Witham flows, at Lincoln, 
it burst over the whole tract of the lowlands of this county, 
and found an exit eventually in the sea. This will fully 
account for the layer of white silty clay often found above the 
Oxford clay, and filled with marine shells, as well as for the 
boulders and beds of gravel, &c , such as those near Lincoln, at 
Kyme, Tattershall, Edenham, Baston, Deeping, &c. So far the 
sea had lorded it over a considerable portion of the Lincolnshire 
soil, but a rival then became predominant, for fresh-water gained 
the ascendancy, and has plainly left the mark of its reign behind 
it in the form of a soapy blue clay, varying in tint and abounding 
with fresh-water shells. This is doubtless the deposit of sluggish 
streams and prevalent floods occasioned by the continual run of 
waters from the higher lands of the county before they were 
assisted on their way towards the sea by the hand of man ; but 
the ocean was not tamed as yet, and we can see that it occasion- 
ally gave battle to the fresh waters and their prey, at this period, 
by the existence of channels filled with marine silt running up 
into the blue clay in the form of bays and creeks. This stratum 
contained amply sufficient fertilizing matter for the sustenance of 
the finest trees of various kinds, and from it sprang up oaks of 
vast dimensions, lofty firs, alders, hazels, and birch trees, whose 
roots are still firmly fixed in the soil that originally so amply 
nourished them, whilst their innumerable trunks lie prostrate 
beneath a funeral pall of black peaty earth created by the debris 
of their own leaves mixed with decayed vegetable matter, such as 
stagnant waters always produce. 

Occasionally, but more rarely, the sea still disturbed these 
vegetable cemeteries, for we find silty deposits of considerable 
thickness in some portions of the fens above the peaty stratum, 
and in a few instances alternating with it more than once.* How 
long the lands we are speaking of remained at a sufficiently high 
level above both fresh and sea waters to enable them to nourish 
trees of great size, including oaks varying from one foot to ten in 



* Tn Sutton St. Edmund's Parish, two strata of peat are found, alternat- 
ing with others of silty clay, two or three feet thick ; also in Ramsey Fen, 
where, below the peaty surface and a clay substratum, a second deep deposit 
of peat exists. 



SLEAFORD. 7 

diameter, is, of course, uncertain, but from their dimensions we 
may safely presume that this period of their growth lasted for 
at least five centuries. Again, how long these fen districts 
continued to be covered with stagnant fresh-water, after it had 
wrought such terrible ruin upon thousands of acres of the finest 
forest lands, is undeducible from any internal evidence, but they 
certainly were for the most part still prevalent, when a new and 
intelligent power drew near, already well practised in the art of 
combating with nature as well as with man, and that was the 
power of Borne. Probably the Romans were attracted to take 
possession of the rich Lincolnshire lowlands before the close of the 
first century, when they, no doubt, soon experienced considerable 
inconvenience from occasional irruptions of the sea, and from 
almost unceasing floods of fresh- water ; but as they never sub- 
mitted to such diificulties without a struggle, in which they were 
usually successful, they in this instance proceeded to encircle the 
whole coast of their new possession with a vast sea bank, capable 
of resisting all further encroachments of the sea,* and to deepen 
and defend the outfalls of its rivers. Next they began to gather 
up the valuable land they had by so much labour secured, and by 
the formation of a main drain, fifty-seven miles long, called the 
" Car Dyke," reaching from the Nen to the Witham, which 
caught all the waters flowing from the higher lands before they 
spread themselves over the lowlands, and by other drains, they 
completely secured for themselves the territorial fruits of their 
patient and enormous labours. 

But, besides the coastal line of fen lands, there are vast 
tracts in the interior of Lincolnshire of a similar character, form- 



* It is interesting to observe how cleverly the Romans took advantage of 
all such assistance from the hand of nature as could be rendered available in 
aiding them to form this marine barrier, incorporating in their work, as they 
did, every sand bank or range of Dunes tossed up upon the shore by the 
united agency of tides and violent winds, so as to save labour. In Tetney 
parish, one of these banks, about three acres in extent, and fourteen feet high, 
has thus been made use of, and still bears distinct evidences of having been occu- 
pied by the Britons. These consist of five circles of earth, from one to two feet 
high, and from nine to thirty-eight feet in diameter ; and on a similar adjoining 
bank, upwards of four acres in extent, and divided from the first by a little 
streamlet, is another circle, thirty-six feet in diameter, and a large oval one, 
sixty -five feet long,^by forty-seven in width. 



8 SLEAFOKD. 

ing together an aggregate of 522,000 acres, lying from four to 
sixteen feet below high water level. The largest of these extends 
from the Trent through the Isle of Axholme into Notts, and far 
into Yorkshire, in the direction of Doncaster ; De la Pryme, in his 
Paper on Hatfield Chase (Philosophical Transactions, No. 275, 
p. 980), observing, " That round about by the skirts of the 
Lincolnshire wolds unto Gainsburgh, Bawtry, Doncaster, Bain, 
Snaith, and Holden, are found infinite millions of the roots and 
bodies of trees, great and little, of most part of the sorts that this 
island either formerly did, or at present does produce, as firs, 
oaks, birch, beech, yew, winthorn, willow, ash, &c., the roots of 
all, or most of which stand in the soil in their natural postures, 
as thick as ever they could grow, as the bodies of most of them 
lie by their proper roots. Most of the great trees lie all their 
length about a yard from their great roots (unto which they did 
most evidently belong, both by their situation and the sameness 
of the wood,) with their tops most commonly north-east, though 
the smaller trees lie almost every way cross those, some above, 
some under, a third part of all of which are firs, some of which 
have been found of 30 yards length and above, and have been 
sold to make masts and keels for ships. Oaks, have been found 
twenty, thirty, and thirty-five yards long, yet wanting many yards 
at the small end." But perhaps the monarch of all these sub- 
merged trees was an oak, also alluded to by De la Pryme, which 
was fourteen yards in diameter, and forty yards long. This was 
calculated to have been not less than seventy yards high, and to 
have contained 1,080 feet of timber.* 

Prom observations made in sinking a well in the Trent valley 
it was found that a stone causeway existed on a shingly gravel 
foundation, twenty-seven feet below the present level, above 
which were fragments of Roman pottery, &c., then a thick 



* During the year 1858 an oak was extracted from Conington Fen, Hunts, 
sixty feet long to the collar, whence sprang two large limbs, each of which 
alone would have formed tolerably large sized trees, the diameter of the trunk 
was four feet. The level of Conington Fen has sunk five feet in consequence 
of its drainage, from which cause the above-mentioned tree was revealed. 
There the oaks alone are broken off from their roots, which remain embedded 
in the clayey subsoil ; the elms, firs, and yews, having been uprooted when 
they fell, and lie prostrate in all directions. 



SLEAFOED. 9 

stratum of bog earth divided into two layers by a thin interven- 
ing stratum of sand, next foundations of buildings and bones of 
domestic animals, then bog earth again, and finally evidences of 
modern cultivation. Hence it may fairly be assumed that during 
the Roman occupation of Britain, this vast tract of fen land bore 
quite a different character to what it has since done ; that it had 
a gravelly subsoil* and an ordinary earthy surface covered with 
trees, not usually if at all subject to floods, but that subsequently 
it became, more or less, constantly submerged so as to destroy 
its previous forest growth, and to cover the bodies of the former 
vegetable giants of the district beneath one uniform dark surface 
the offspring of a very inferior annual vegetable growth and 
decay, mingled with earthy deposits. 

This great change has usually been attributed to the burn- 
ing of the forests by the Romans, on account of the covert it 
afforded to swarms of suffering Britons, who lost no opportunity 
of harassing the forces of their subjugators on their march along 
the great military road, or Ermine Street, between Lindum and 
Danum ; and there certainly are apparent signs of burningf about 
the stumps of some of these trees, but others have clearly been 
cut down, the marks of the axe still remaining perfect on their 
surfaces, and many more have been torn up by the roots, and 
occasionally splintered, perhaps by their fall. It is quite clear 
that the Britons and the BomansJ used this great forest, traces 
of both having been discovered intermingled with its remains ; 
and to them may be attributed the marks of cutting and burning 
still apparent. But great though the power of Rome was, and 
abundant her supply of British slave labour, it is not possible to 

* In the valley of the Witham, at Lincoln, all the burials in the south- 
ern Koman cemetery are in the sandy subsoil of that locale, and the sepulchral 
monuments, &c., of that people are always found below the present superin- 
cumbent moorish soil. 

t It is very observable (says De la Pryme) and manifestly evident, that 
many of those trees, of all sorts, have been burnt, but especially the fir trees, 
some quite through, and some all on a side, some have been found chopped 
and squared, some bored through, others half riven with great wooden wedges 
and stones in them, and broken axe heads, somewhat like sacrificing axes in 
shape, and all this in such places and at such depths as could never be opened 
from the destruction of this forest until the time of the drainage. 

J Close to one of the roots of the submerged trees in Hatfield, eight or 
nine Roman coins were found, also much Roman pottery at other spots. 



10 SLEAFOED. 

conceive that such an enormous tract of woodland, as Hatfield 
Chase, was destroyed by the hand of man, particularly as a 
clearance of a few miles on either side of their military way and 
around their various Stations by the Eomans, would have an- 
swered every purpose of security ; nor would the felled trees ever 
have so impeded the flow of the inland waters as to convert an 
immense district of previously dry land into a permanent swamp, 
as has been suggested. Another solution of this phenomenon, 
therefore, must be suggested, in connection with a still more re- 
markable fact which remains to be described, namely, the 
existence of a submarine forest off the present Lincolnshire coast. 

At intervals along the shore of this county, from Sutton to 
Glee-Thorpes, many banks or islands are from time to time ex- 
posed to view. These are usually covered with silt, but when 
occasionally stripped of that marine deposit, they are found to 
possess a substratum of moory vegetable soil, filled with the roots 
of prostrate trees of very large size, accompanied by their 
berries, nuts, and leaves. Some may be particularly instanced at 
Huttoft, in^Calce worth Hundred, and marked in Mitchell's chart 
of this coast under the term of " Clay-huts," whence Huttoft 
perhaps derives its name. These were visited in 1796 by Sir 
Joseph Banks, and Corria de Serra, a scientific member of the 
Society of Antiquaries, who published an account of his observa- 
tions on that occasion in the Philosophical Transactions of the 
Royal Society, whence we gather that these islands abounded 
with the roots of oaks, firs, and birches, still firmly imbedded in 
the soil where they grew, whilst their fallen trunks, covered with 
bark in a very fresh condition, were lying near them in the midst 
of a bed of partially decomposed leaves, mixed with decayed 
rushes, sedges, and other vegetable matter, forming a black peaty 
stratum ; the water was observed to deepen on the seaward side 
of the line of islands, so as to form a steep bank, and the chan- 
nels between them were from four to twelve feet deep. From 
experiments made below the surface of the islands, as well as at 
Sutton, Mablethorpe, and other spots on the mainland, it was 
clearly ascertained that the subsoil of both was identical. 

It will now be desirable to answer the very natural ques- 
tions that may be put in connection with these facts, namely, 
"When these districts were severally submerged by fresh and 
salt water ?" and " By what agency ?" 



SLEAFOED. 



11 



Various theories have been advanced for the purpose of 
solving these problems, the principal of which are 

1. The interference of the Eomans with the natural drainage. 

2. A change in the coastal line through the action of the sea. 

3. The agency of earthquakes causing subsidence of the 

earth. 

Let us shortly consider each of these. There is no doubt that 
the Romans did raise a continuous sea bank along the greater 
portion of the Lincolnshire coastal line, of which considerable 
remains still exist ; also that they deepened the outfalls of rivers 
and such drains as they chose to make or retain, so that in 
after times, during the Saxon period, should these have been 
neglected, as was most probably the case, the original evil would 
be greatly increased, because as the drainage of the whole low- 
land space within the sea bank was then dependent solely upon 
the artificial and not numerous outlets provided for them by the 
Eomans, if these should be silted up, a permanent flood would be 
the consequence, bringing death and burial with its waters for 
the forests that once doubtless covered the fens of Lincolnshire, 
no tree being able to survive a continued immersion of its roots 
in water. This theory, however, respecting the subterranean 
forests of Holland and Kesteven, although very plausible, is not 
tenable, because it has been clearly ascertained that portions, at 
least, of the Eoman bank are raised upon this very peaty stratum 
of which it has been supposed to be the originator,* so that the 
submersion of the forest land below, clearly belongs to a date 
anterior to the works above it ; although from observations on 
the subsoil of Hatfield Chase, and portions of the Trent and 
Witham valleys, we have reason to suppose that a change of 
levels in those districts took place at a later period, Eornan 
remains having been found there below the peat stratum very 
commonly, particularly when the enclosure of Austerfield was in 
progress. 

Secondly, finding that the submersion of these forest lands 
was not affected by the agency of the Eomans, also that large 
tracts of similar lands exist beyond the sea bank, and far below 



* Farming of Lincolnshire, by John Algernon Clarke, Agricultural 
Journal, vol. 12. 




ONTARIO 
12 SLEAFOKD. 

the usual level of the sea, it has been suggested that a change in 
the coastal line has been effected by the action of the sea. 

Great changes have no doubt taken place in the outline of 
the Lincolnshire coast, owing to the action of the sea on its ex- 
terior, and the ceaseless flow of the inland waters from its interior. 
Many large estuaries are now completely filled up, which are 
known to have formerly existed;* whilst, from the remains of 
forests below the ordinary level of the sea, it is clear that the 
coastal boundary once extended far beyond its existing limits. 
To account for this last-named fact it has been supposed that a 
higher ridge of land may have once existed beyond the present 
tidal line, serving to protect a plain lying below the sea level, of 
which the islets still occasionally visible are a portion, and that 
this ridge was either gradually worn away by the continual 
action of the oceanic currents, which are remarkably strong off 
the Lincolnshire coast, or suddenly broken down by some extra- 
ordinary combination of wind and tide, upon which the low tract 
behind it would also of necessity become the prey of the ocean. 
It has also been suggested that as sandbanks off this shallow 
coast have been repeatedly known to disappear, and to form again 
on other spots with great rapidity in long lines parallel with the 
shore, a continuous barrier may have been thrown up under some 
extraordinary combination of wind and tide, behind whose shelter- 
ing limits vegetation might soon demonstrate its power, so as to 
gradually produce a forest that existed for some centuries, until 
at length that element from which it had been rescued, putting 
forth unwonted strength, broke through the boundary of its own 
creation, and again claimed its supremacy over the tract beyond it. 
This theory is supposed to have been strengthened by the fact of 
the destruction in the llth century, of a great part of Earl God- 
win's lands on the Kentish coast, the site of which is still so 
often and so fatally indicated by the Goodwin sands, off Deal, 
and exposed to view during low tides ; but I believe both this 
Kentish submersion of land and that of Lincolnshire arose from 
another cause, which now remains to be considered, namely, 



* Such as Bicker Haven, seven miles long, which still remained a salt 
marsh in 1611, being marked as such, at that date, by Hondius, on a map of 
the lowlands of Lincolnshire, &c., published at Amsterdam, and which, when 
existing, must have entirely altered the outline of the "Wash. 



SLEAFOKD. 13 

" Subsidence." This phenomenon of the existence of submarine 
forests is by no means a rare one, and may be witnessed at 
various points of the shores of Scotland, England, and Wales. 
On the northern shore of Fife, bordering the estuary of the Tay, 
such a forest may be seen occasionally, although usually concealed 
by a bed of stratified silty clay, from fifteen to twenty-five feet 
thick, interspersed with marine shells. In Hartlepool Bay, such 
another forest may be seen during the lowest neap tides, whose 
stumps of oaks, firs, alders, thorns, and hazels, intermixed with 
their berries, nuts, seeds, and also with the horns of the ox, red- 
deer, and even with the wing-cases of land beetles, not unfrequently 
excite considerable attention. In Yorkshire are several similar 
instances. Off Owthorne is a bed of fresh-water deposit, usually 
below the sea, containing roots of oaks, hazels, &c., and amongst 
their fallen nuts and leaves, a British " dug-out," or canoe, was 
discovered, together with the horns and bones of the red-deer ; 
and I am informed that at other points, on the Holderness coast, 
submarine forests have also occasionally become visible, as well 
as at Holme, in Norfolk, on the southern side of the Wash. 
The south coast possesses many examples of the same character, 
of which Bournemouth offers one, and the tract between Newlyn 
and St. Michael's Mount another. This was once no doubt 
forest land, and confirms in a remarkable manner, the ancient 
title of that extraordinary eminence, which, according to Oarew, 
was termed " the rock in the wood." Sir H. de la Beche 
says the shores of West Somerset, Devonshire, and Cornwall 
abound with instances of these submerged lands ; and one has 
been recently observed in Padstow Harbour, on the northern 
coast of the last named county, which was suddenly exposed 
to view by the shifting of a sand bank. In South Wales, 
Giraldus de Barri, or Cambrensis, as he is usually termed, ob- 
served such a phenomenon so long ago as 1188. He says in 
his "Itinerary," chapter 13, page 217 1 "The sandy shores of 
South Wales being laid bare by the extraordinary violence of 
a storm, the surface of the earth which had been covered for 
many ages re-appeared, and discovered the trunks of trees cut 
off, standing in the very sea itself, the strokes of the hatchet 
appearing as if made only yesterday ; the soil was very black, and 
the wood like ebony. By a wonderful revolution, the road for 
ships became impassable, and looked not like a shore, but like a 



14 SLEAFOKD. 

grove, cut down perhaps at the time of the deluge, or not long 
after, but certainly in very remote times." In my opinion, how- 
ever, these, and many other instances that might have been 
mentioned, of the present position .of what have clearly once 
formed large forest districts, but are now far below the usual 
level of the sea, can only be satisfactorily accounted for by partial 
subsidences of the crust of the earth. This theory may indeed 
appear to be moro marvellous than the preceding ones, and 
therefore less likely to be true in the opinion of those who are 
acquainted with geology ; but when from the study of that 
science we find that certain strata, the undoubted deposit of 
water, are now upheaved far above the reach of that element, 
and that large tracts of land have sunk beneath it, we can only 
regard such changes as one of the usual, but always wonderful, 
operations of nature. Strabo was well acquainted with this 
motive power in the earth's crust, who says, "It is not because 
the lands covered by seas were originally at different altitudes 
that the waters have risen or subsided, or receded from some parts 
and inundated others ; but the reason is that the land is some- 
times raised up, and sometimes depressed, and the sea also is 
simultaneously raised and depressed, so that it either overflows 
or returns into its own place again." It may be said, however, 
these were old perhaps antediluvian changes, and we are quite 
sure the earth has long stood firm. It will be well, therefore, to 
mention an instance of the subsidence and elevation of land during 
the historic period. Perhaps the most noted one is that which 
occurred at Pozzuoli, in the bay of Baise, as indicated by the 
pillars of the temple of Jupiter Sera pis at that place, and certified 
by documentary evidence. Originally, that temple of course was 
built above the level of the sea ; the site then sank twelve feet, so 
as to submerge its columns in a fresh- water deposit which pro- 
tected them from future injury. The subsidence, however, 
continued, and then the sea swept over this newly-formed marshy 
surface, covering the columns of Jupiter's temple to a depth of 
nine feet more, and exposing them to the depredations of that 
destructive marine bivalve, the "Lithodomus" of Cuvier, from 
which they have greatly suffered. At one period then they were 
sunk twenty-one feet below the sea level,* leaving a little less 

* Evidence of a most conclusive character was obtained by Mr. Babbage, 



SLEAFOBD. 15 

than half their original height above it ; but then another change 
began, and the flat shore where this temple stands gradually rose 
again ; a document of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella of 
Spain, referring to a grant of land at Pozzuoli made to the Uni- 
versity of that town "where the sea is drying up," and another 
of Ferdinand's alone, a little later, speaking of the same 
locale as one "where the ground was dried up." In the year 
1538, the year of a great eruption of Vesuvius, the land about 
Pozzuoli rose rapidly, but it has since slightly sunk again, and 
now is apparently stationary. Again, an earthquake that occurred 
in 1819, on the Delta of the Indus, was followed by very extra- 
ordinary and permanent changes in the levels of the adjacent 
district ; the eastern channel of that river bounding the province 
of Cutch, suddenly deepening at Luckput from one foot to eighteen 
feet, so as to render it navigable, and at the same time creating 
a large inland lake, whilst Sindree, above Luckput, together with 
its fort, gradually sank below the newly-created waters, until its 
angle towers alone appeared above their surface ; but in exchange 
for this depression, an elevation fifty miles long appeared rising 
from a previously flat plain, at a distance of about five miles from 
Sindree, which the inhabitants very appropriately termed "Ullah 
Bund," or mound of God. Peihaps, however, the most striking 
modern illustration of what has once taken place in many portions 
of England, may at this time be witnessed in the United States. 
In 1811, the valley reaching from the mouth of the Ohio to that 
of the St. Francis (300 miles long), was convulsed, after which 
several new lakes were formed, such as Obion in Tennessee, twenty 
miles in length, and another near New Madrid, about ten miles 
west of the Mississippi in Missouri, termed "the sunk country." 
This is seventy or eighty miles long, and thirty wide, and from 
its placid surface rise the trunks of innumerable semi-submerged 
trees, . all dead, and whitening in the wind previous to the final 
plunge they must all shortly make into that deadly element 
below, wherein so many of their brothers have already sunk 
before them. 



as to the elevation of a considerable tract of land in the vicinity of this temple, 
for at thirty-two feet above the present sea level, he discovered a wave- 
worn line covered with barnacles, and pierced by boring testacea on the face 
of the banks above the tract of land lying below them. 



16 SLEAFOKD. 

It may be remarked, however, that in these instances, vol- 
canic agency was the cause of the subsidences spoken of, whereas 
no signs of such a power exist in the lowlands of Lincolnshire or 
on its coast. But neither are they to be found in that of the 
American sunk country, nor do earthquakes usually leave any 
direct evidences of their mighty agency behind them, although 
they often have been connected with permanent changes of the 
earth's surface of a great and extraordinary character. Again, 
even some natives of Lincolnshire may say " But when had we 
earthquakes?" I will therefore instance a few. In 1048 there 
was a serious convulsion in that county,* also another in 1117, 
that particularly affected the division of Holland, greatly endan- 
gering and injuring Croyland Abbey, portions of which, then just 
built, were with difficulty stayed up by vast timber props. f In 
1185 Lincoln was much damaged by an earthquake. J In 1448 a 
violent shock was again felt in the southern parts of the county. 
In 1750 a shock occurred throughout its whole extent, and in 
parts of Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire, attended by a 
rumbling noise. It happened on a Sunday and the people ran 
out of churches from their devotions in great alarm ; chimneys 
fell; houses tottered, and plates, &c., fell from shelves. || And 
so late as 1792, Bourne and the neighbouring towns experienced 
another shock of an earthquake. It is not necessary to point 



* 1048. Quo anno terrsemotus factus est magnus Cal. Martii die, Domi- 
nica. Historia Ingulphi (Oxford edition, 1684), p. 64. 

f Hoc terrsemotu cum etiam Anglia in multis provinciis gravissime vex- 
aretur, verum Ecclesise Croylandensis opus recens, et adhuc sine constabiliente 
nave tenerum, proh dolor ! in australi muro corporis sui horribilibus orificiis 
dehiscens, proximam ruinam minabatur acturum, nisi Carpentariorum indus- 
tria longissimis trabibus et tignis transversis stabili concordia, usque ad 
navis impositse confoederatiorem deinceps solida constantia fulciretur. Ibid, 
p. 129. Petri Blesensis continuatio. 

A.D. 1185. Terrse motus magnus auditus est fere per totam Aiigliam, 
qualis ab initio mundi in terra ilia non erat auditus. Petrse enim scissae sunt, 
donms apidese ceciderunt, Ecclesia Lincolniensis metropolitana scissa est a 
summo deorsnm. Contigit autem terrse motus iste in crastino diei dominicse 
in ramis palmarum, viz. xvii Kal. Maii. Roger Hoveden, 359. 

Historia Croylandensis continuatio, p. 526. 

H Collections for a Topographical History of the Hundred of Aveland, by 
John Moore. 



SLEAFOED. 17 

to any instances of elevation of land in Lincolnshire as a 
counterpoise to the subsidence of others for the purpose of 
corroborating this theory which I have ventured to advance, 
because none was observable in the case of the Mississippi valley 
and other examples, but I am inclined to think that a slow 
upward movement has begun to take place in large districts of 
Lincolnshire long ago, and that by means of carefully conducted 
scientific observations this will be hereafter certainly proved, and 
accurately measured. The filling up of channels and estuaries 
of large size that formerly existed, and the rapid growth of its 
coasts at various points, apparently indicate this, whilst the 
known gradual but continually increasing elevation of the 
Danish coast, and parts of Norway, greatly strengthen such a 
supposition.* Nor need such an hypothesis be considered extrava- 
gant. There stands the fact of the existence of submarine forests. 
They must have acquired their present depression through some 
convulsion of nature, that I believe to be subsidence, and surely 
the upheaval of lands is not more extraordinary than their 
depression ; at all events both phenomena have repeatedly 
occurred on a very large scale ; and, in conclusion, I thankfully 
shelter my opinion behind the strong shield of Sir Charles Lyell, 
who says (Principles of Geology, page 289,) "If we could com- 
pare with equal accuracy the ancient and actual state of all the 
islands and continents, we should probably discover that millions 



* Professor Worsaae, in his Primaeval Antiquities of Denmark, page 9, says, 
" Denmark seems to have been raised, by a powerful revolution of nature, 
from the bottom of the sea. By degrees its naked banks of gravel became 
covered with aspen forests. When the land rose still higher, and the damp- 
ness diminished, the aspen disappeared after having, by numerous growths, 
formed a way for the fir, which now spread all over the country. This species 
of tree continued for a very long period, but at length was compelled to give 
place to a very different and a higher class. At first the beech was unable to 
grow here. The earth was covered with oaks, of that species termed the 
winter oak, which differs from the now prevailing species the summer oak ; 
these were succeeded by groves of alders, until all was so prepared and develo- 
ped that the light and beautiful beech spread its crowns over the whole 
country. That Denmark in its primaeval times, before it possessed its present 
vegetation, had passed through these four periods, is clearly proved from the 
ancient peat bogs, in which are found stems of trees of each distinct period 
lying like beds one over the other." 

B 



18 



SLEAFORD. 



of our race are now supported by lands situated where deep seas 
prevailed in earlier ages. In many districts not yet occupied by 
man, land animals and forests now abound, where ships once 
sailed ; and on the other hand we shall find on inquiry, that 
inroads of the ocean have been no less considerable. When, to 
these revolutions produced by aqueous causes, we add analogous 
changes wrought by igneous agency, we shall perhaps acknow- 
ledge the justice of the conclusion of Aristotle, who declared 
(Meteorics, chapter 12,) " That the whole land and sea on our 
globe periodically changed places." 



THE BRETONS. 

Chroniclers of all ages have usually been tempted to cast a 
glittering veil over the origin of the nations whose history they 
have undertaken to record, whence the truth is often with 
difficulty discovered after the mind of the reader has recovered 
from the influence of this medium, and gathered strength to view 
historic incidents in their just proportions. Such fictitious bright- 
ness was shed by the Roman Poets and Historians over their 
descriptions of the original colonization of their afterwards 
mighty capital, and nothing less than a semi-Divine semi-Heroic 
origin could be ascribed by them to so great a people as the 
Romans, or entertained by their countrymen, so that whilst their 
chroniclers gilded the stern, or perhaps really unknown truth, 
those for whom they wrote gladly fostered it.* Anchises and 
Venus were said to have been the progenitors of the Roman 
race ; and in like manner Brutus, the Great Grandson of these 
same illustrious personages, has been fixed upon by some of our 
earlier historians as the first British Colonist, and the founder of 
our nation. 



* But few if any Nations know for certain the exact particulars of their 
first origin. Richard of Cirencester saying Cap. III. "Solis quippe Judseis, 
et per ipsos fmitimis quibusdam gentibus, hoc contigit felicitatis, ut a 
primo inde mundi exordio gentis suse originem coiitinua serie ex infallibilibus 
deducere possint monumentis. 



SLEAFOED. 19 

The time has however arrived when no such baseless fictions 
can be indulged in, and writers as a rule desire only to elicit and 
record the truth when speaking of the past, without prejudice or 
exaggeration. 

The existence of Britain was known to several southern 
nations for five centuries before the Christian JEra, Herodotus 
alluding to it under the term of the Cassiterides, or tin-islands ; * 
but Aristotle, who lived B.C. 350, is the first author who mentions 
it by name, describing it as consisting of two very large islands 
Albionf and Ierne,J called the Britannic, and lying beyond the 
Celtse. 

Little however was known of this country for some centuries 
after this period, except by the Phoenicians, who had held com- 
munication with parts of Albion || from the time of Homer for the 
purpose of exporting tin, but they were probably only acquainted 
with some of its ports on the Cornish coast, the Scilly Isles, the 
Isle of Wight, and perhaps some portions of the Irish and Welsh 
coasts ; and what they did know they kept a profound secret 
from interested motives connected with their trafiic ;^[ so that 
with the exception of a visit from Himilco sent from Carthage 
on an exploratory expedition between the years B.C. 362 and 350, 
and occasional visits from the traders of Massilia** 4 and Narbona, 



* Strictly speaking the Scilly Isles only were implied by this term. 

f A term doubtless derived from the whiteness of its cliffs. 

J Derived perhaps from "Hiera" or sacred, as being the supposed 
original seat of some of the Celtic Deities. 

The Britons and their country are said by some to have received their 
name from the word "brit " or spotted, because of the devices they painted 
upon their bodies, Martial terming them "Ccerulei" and "Picti," Propertius 
"Infecti," and Ovid " Virides," from the same custom. But perhaps they 
were originally so termed from the name of one of their tribes, as was 
Brittany on the other side of the channel. 

|| From their celebrated settlement at Gades or Cadiz. 

U It is narrated by Strabo, III. 175, that a Roman vessel continuing to 
follow a Phoenician one when on a cruise to Britain, the captain of this last 
purposely ran his Galley on shore so as not to disclose the position of that 
Island, and that he was most liberally rewarded for his patriotism on his return 
to Cadiz. 

** Pythias, a Greek of Massilia, first uses the term Britannia, who coasted 
along its shores for six days, and reached " Thule " or the Shetland Isles. 



20 SLEAFOED. 

Britain remained almost detached from the rest of the world* 
until Julius Caesar made his celebrated descent upon the Kentish 
Coast, B.C. 55. He had previously discovered how the Phoenicians 
reached Britain, and had learnt some particulars of their trade 
through Publius Crassus whom he had left on the coast of Gaul 
after his first Campaign in that country ; but when he was 
advancing himself towards the British channel he could gather 
no further particulars concerning the land beyond it he was 
proposing to invade, although he summoned the chief merchants 
and sea-faring people of the coast for this purpose ; and as the 
Belgae who then occupied the nearest points of the opposite 
shore, still kept up communication with their parent tribe on the 
continent, it was probably through their influence that they 
would not, rather than that they could not comply with his desire. 
"Whilst therefore Csesar was assembling his troops on the plains 
near Calais he sent Caius Yolusenus in a Galley to explore the 
opposite coast, who ran along it for five days, but never ventured 
to disembark, as the coming invasion was well known, and the 
Britons were generally prepared to offer a fierce resistance, 
although some tribes had offered to submit and to give hostages 
to the Roman Chief. Then followed the descent, Csesar embark- 
ing from the " Portus Iccius, " or Boulogne in 80 vessels, 
containing his 7th and 10th Legions, the issue of which adventure 
we need not describe, but will pass on to the condition of 
Britain and its inhabitants at this very important period of its 
history. 

There is little doubt but what this Island was originally 
peopled by the Celtic Gauls, f perhaps by some, who worsted 
in the contest with a stronger or more fortunate one pressing 
upon it from the interior, boldly betook themselves to their boats, 



* Scipio Africanus Minor, and Polybius the historian, during the interval, 
viz : B.C. 150, had vainly endeavoured to find out the course to these islands 
although they instituted inquiries concerning this point in the chief cities of 
Gaul. Polybius however speaks of the manner in which tin was smelted in 
Britain, and wrote a treatise upon the subject, which is now lost. 

t The Celts were driven forward by the German tribes, who were them- 
selves in some measure pressed upon by the Sarm'atian race. Tacitus doubts 
whether the Britons were immigrants or an indigenous people, he suggests 
however that the Caledonians might be of German, the "Welsh of Spanish, 
and the remainder of Gaulish origin. 



SLEAFORD. 21 

and ventured across the sea to that line of white cliffs occasion- 
ally appearing on the horizon, which seemed to offer them a 
peaceful asylum. Then other expeditionary parties followed no 
doubt, who also settled themselves in various parts of Albion, 
the fresh arrivers either driving forward the older settlers, or 
retreating inland themselves according to the issue of the en- 
counters between them. Multitudes of Celtic Gauls were driven 
out from the district between the Rhine and the Seine, and took 
refuge in Britain B.C. 150, under pressure from the Belgse,* 4 
( " Musgrave's Belgium Britannicum," page 94), whilst this 
strong and more than usually intelligent people, in its turn, had 
been compelled to cross the channel, and to settle themselves in 
the South Eastern portion of our Island, again expelling those 
feebler tribes from their new settlements whom they had pre- 
viously driven from the Continent, not long before the period 
of Csesar's landing on the Kentish Coast. That great man 
informs us that Britain was then very thickly peopled, that it 
abounded with habitations resembling those in Gaul, and with 
cattle, that the Belgse, or inhabitants of the East Coast were the 
most civilized, and that those beyond them sowed no corn, and 
wore no woollen clothing, their food being flesh, milk, and fruit, 
their covering skins of deer and sheep, whilst they stained their 
persons with a blue dye to render their appearance more fearful 
on the battle field, f allowing their hair to flow freely over their 
shoulders and their moustaches to grow, but otherwise being 
completely shaved. In height they exceeded both the Romans 
and the Gauls. All were warriors, their frequent intestine 
wars having served as a school in which the art of war had been 
rudely but generally studied according to Gaulish rules, their 
women even being ready to join in the fray, who frequently 
contended side by side with the men They fought on horseback, 



* Csesar says, Lib. I, cap. I, " Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres ; 
quarum unam incolunt Belgse, aliam Aquitani, tertiam, qui ipsorum lingua 
Celtse, nostra Galli, adpellantur. Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se 
differunt. Wright, together with other authors, supposes that these first were 
of German origin. 

t They deck out and paint their bodies with curious devices, and the 
shapes of all sorts of creatures, and are only partially clad, lest these orna- 
ments should be concealed. Herodian Liber III. 



22 SLEAFOKD. 

in chariots, and on foot, the last being by far the most numerous, 
and from their extraordinary agility they were most formi- 
dable. Their arms were spears, huge pointless swords, and small 
shields. They commenced the combat by charging their opponents 
with their chariots, whence they first discharged their spears, 
and then rushed on foot into the midst of the enemy's ranks in 
the hope of throwing them into confusion ; but if they failed in 
this, they rapidly retreated to their chariots, in the management 
of which they were extraordinarily skilful, and fell back upon 
their infantry. Despising the aid of breast plate and helmet, 
they were the better able to execute all manoeuvres requiring 
speed and agility. Herodian in his " Life of Severus, Liber II" 
gives the following interesting description of the Britons as 
soldiers when they were supporting the rebel Albians in Gaul 
against Severus. The British army, (says he) consisted of great 
and brave troops of most excellent soldiers, and though Severus 
in his speech to his army when about to commence his campaign 
against it affected to despise it, calling it a poor army of Island- 
ers utterly unable to resist his Roman forces, when a great battle 
was fought between the two armies near Lyons, the encounter 
was so fierce and protracted, that it was for a long time doubtful 
which way the victory would incline ; for, says this author, the 
Britons were not at all inferior to the Illyrians in manhood or 
martial ardour. Some historians indeed narrate that Severus 
was at one time put to flight, beaten off his horse, forced to throw 
off his imperial mantle, and hide himself; buf that Laetus one of 
his commanders charging the conquering Britons with fresh 
troops, altered the fate of the day, put the Britons to flight, and 
pursuing them into Lyons sacked and burnt that town, whence 
he sent the head of Albinus to Borne. Herodian in his 3rd book 
also gives us the following particulars of the character of 
British Warriors and their country, which are particularly 
applicable to Lincolnshire. " The most part of Britain (says he), 
being surrounded by the ocean's continual irruption, is fenny and 
moorish. In those bogs the Barbarians are accustomed to swim 
and run up and down, plunging into them up to the middle, 
because being half naked they care not for mire and mud." 
Severus therefore to cope with such amphibious foes gave orders 
for the formation of Causeways and Bridges in the marsh dis- 
tricts before the opening of his campaign in Britain, so that his 



SLEAFOED. 23 

forces might have a better chance of standing upon solid ground. 
The Government of the Britons was first in the hands of the 
Druids,* and secondly of the Chiefs of tribes, who often came 
into collision through their mutual struggles for supreme com- 
mand. The Druids were exempt from serving in war, from 
tribute, and various liabilities to which all others were subject ; 
their President or Chief being elected by the Druidical body. 
They held grand councils at certain times and places, a sacred 
oak grove in " Mona," or Anglesea, being held in the highest 
veneration for this purpose, when their most solemn decrees and 
judgments were delivered, which none dared to despise under 
fear of being in consequence excluded from the public sacrifices ; 
when they were, they were regarded as outcasts, utterly unworthy 
of associating with their brethren living within the pale of 
Druidism. Their sacred rites were performed in the depths of 
ancient oak groves, a circle of huge stones indicating the limits 
of their sanctuaries ; and if they found the misletoe growing upon 
an oak, esteeming it sent from heaven as a token of the Deity's 
selection of that particular spot to be worshipped in, they held it 
in the highest veneration, and after sacrificing two young white 
bulls, coming in white robes, they cut the sacred plant with a 
golden sickle, and placed it with much reverence upon a white 
cloth. But they had a far worse habit than this, namely the 
offering human sacrifices, which they believed to be necessary 
to appease the Q-ods when they were about to engage in war or 
any other dangerous enterprise, or when sickness prevailed, for 
which purpose they discreetly reserved thieves and other male- 
factors ; but if this supply failed they scrupled not to offer up 
innocent persons as expiatory sacrifices. In their hands also were 
the interpretation of all portents, the administration of law, and 
the practice of medicine ; so that enjoying as they did so many 
privileges and possessing so much power, it is not wonderful to 
find that their body was very numerous, and that multitudes of 
young men, amongst whom many came from Q-aul, were com- 
mitted to their care for instruction. These they taught orally, 
disallowing all written records, but teaching the mysteries of 
their Order, and preserving the annals of their country by the 



* Lucan refers to the Druids, as does Pliny, Liber XXX. 



24 SLEAFOED. 

aid of memory alone, they poured forth, their learning in profuse 
viva voce versification. They also indulcated a belief in the transmi- 
gration of souls, as one lessening the fear of death, and were 
skilled in astronomy and natural philosophy. Besides the 
Druids, there were Bards, who sang of the heroic deeds of their 
countrymen in poetic strains, accompanied by the harp.* Poly- 
gamy appears to have widely prevailed among the Britons. 
Bright or golden coloured hair was common among both sexes, 
and it is a curious fact that the ladies of Borne, admiring this, 
dyed their hair in imitation of the British prevalent tint, just as 
some English ladies have of late given the same tint to their 
hair, through a foolish temporary fashion. To this Propertius 
alludes, saying : 

" Nunc etiam infectos demens imitare Britannos 

Ludis et externo tincta nitore caput." 

The word infectos or, as some read " insectos;" referring to the 
blue dye procured from woad, still grown in Lincolnshire, with 
which the Britons tattooed their skins. Cattle and sheep were 
their chief wealth ; but some of the Eastern tribes wore a gold 
ring on the middle finger of their left hand, and their chiefs a 
tore of the same precious metal round their necks. The more 
northern natives wore rings of iron round their waists and necks 
(says Herodian) which they esteemed as valuable as other bar- 
barians do gold. For money they used brass pieces, and iron rings 
of a fixed weight ; but they had also a coinage, whose character 
was rudely copied from classical types. Besides the tin, for which 
Britain has been ever justly celebrated, it is said to have produced 
thus early white lead, iron, and some gold and silver, as well as 
muscle pearlsf of various hues, and a kind of cockle producing 
an unfading red dye. The Britons had also bracelets of glass, 
amber, ivory and jet, in great plenty, and of good quality ; but 
most of these were imported. Their habitations were log huts 
thatched with reeds, and defended by an inclosure of felled 



* These, as well as the Druids, are alluded to by Lucan. 

t These are said to have attracted Caesar to make his invasion, and Pliny 
reports, Lib. IX. 35, that upon his return to Rome he dedicated a breast- 
plate covered with British Pearls to the Goddess Venus Genetrix. Tacitus 
says the British Pearls were cloudy. 



SLEAFOPJX 



25 



trees ; * these were not intended for per- 
manent use, as the Britons were for the 
most part Nomades ; but some tribes of 
Kent and Cornwall had better houses, 
and wore more cultivated and hospitable 
than those of the interior. They had 
boats, the keels and foot-stocks of which 
were of light wood, and the rest of wattles 
covered with hides, besides dug-outs or 
canoes hollowed out of whole trunks of 
trees. Several such canoes have been 
found at various times in the fens of Lin- 
colnshire, and in 1828 a very perfect 
specimen was discovered at Horsey, near 
Peterborough, at the junction of the old 
river with the Nene. This is figured in 2 
Artis's Durobrivse, from which Fig. 1 is C 
taken. It was 30 feet long, 2 feet 8 inches 
across at the widest point, and formed out 
of the trunk of a tree. Fig. 2 gives the 
plan of the same. Near it were found 
part of another canoe, formed of two logs 
pinned together, the heads of two barbed 
fish spears, two spear heads, and two 
forks. 

According to Solinus, the Britons, 
whenever they were making a voyage, 
abstained from food. They were of an 
inquisitive disposition, besetting such tra- 
vellers or merchants as ventured amongst 
them with questions, and compelling them, 
to disclose all they knew concerning 



* Others were probably formed of withies or wattles covered with mud, 
their interiors being partly sunk in the ground, groups of shallow pits of a 
circular form still existing in various parts of this country, once forming the 
substructures of such dwellings, particularly in Wiltshire, and have been 
described by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, but as Roman vestigia have been found 
on the sites of many of these, there is often much difficulty in determining 
positively to what people such sites should be assigned. 

C 



26 SLEAFOKD. 

foreign lands. Diodorus describes the corn growing tribes as 
storing up the produce of their fields in thatched houses, from 
which they took sufficient for their daily wants in the straw. 

Some tribes burnt the bodies of the dead, and heaping up 
around them a pile of such articles as were pleasing or necessary 
to the deceased when living, viz : animals, arms, vessels, the 
whole were burnt together ; after which the ashes of each body 
were deposited in an earthen jar ; but other tribes deposited 
their dead in the ground accompanied by their arms, over which 
large tumuli were raised, subsequently termed, "beorh," or 
" bearw," by the Saxons, and now barrow, or else hlaew, now low 
or hoe. These often enclosed a " cromlech "* or rude sepulchral 
chamber formed of three or more huge stones, over which the 
earth was piled to a great height, and sometimes surrounded by 
a circle of stones, whilst in other cases a single flat stone covered 
the remains of the deceased. Such were the habits of the Britons, 
once termed by Virgil, " Penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos." 
The few particulars respecting the character of this country which 
may be gathered from ancient authors must next be recorded. 
Csesar compares its form to a triangle, having its southern 
shore, or base, opposite to Gaul j Livy and Fabius Rusticus to an 
oblong shield or a two edged axe, (bipennis) ; whilst Tacitus 
assents to this comparison should Calidonia be exeepted, which 
lie describes as stretching out far to the North, and terminating 
in a wedge-shaped form. As regards its climate, we find that 
the present common opinion respecting it, dates from a very 
early period. Herodian saying, Lib. III., "The pools and fens 
out of which the foggy Vapours continually arise make the sky 
always cloudy." Strabo and Diodorus describe this Island as 
being for the most part flat and woody, but as having some 
strong places on the hills. Its salt and hot springs are also 
spoken of, as being used for baths, and aleo its profusion of birds 
and fish, Juvenal alludes to its whales and porpoises, Sat. X. 14, 
and other authors mention its " vituli manni," or seals, its sal- 
mon, herrings, eels, and oysters. f British dogs were famous, and 
highly prized by th Koinans. Some of these, Strabo informs 
us, were trained for war, and used by the Q-auls against their 



This is a Celtic term meaning a sidle tabkj 
From "Rutupise," or Richboroughi 



SLEAFOBD. 27 

enemies in battle, a custom still practised by the Spaniards in 
the 16th century against the American Indians under Vasquez, 
Nunez de Balboa and others ; these were probably mastiffs ; and 
Claudian, "IE Consul Stilichonis, 301," refers to others as being 
employed against bulls, i. e. bull- dogs ; these were required for 
the amphitheatre at Rome, and an officer or agent, termed " Cu- 
rator Cynegii," was appointed to reside in Britain, for the express 
purpose of collecting them, and transmitting them to Borne to 
take part in the combats exhibited there. " Pennant's British 
Zoology, Vol. I. p. 80." Lastly, we gather that British funerals 
were magnificent, and especially those of great chiefs. 

Lincolnshire, on the arrival of the Bomans in Britain, was 
part of the territory of the Coritam, a Celtic race. The boundaries 
of this people no doubt varied at different times,* 4 but their coun- 
try certainly lay between that of the Brigantes on the north, and 
the Iceni on the south. Its seaboard reached from the Humber 
to the Wash ; it was probably bounded by the Humber and Trent 
on the north and north west, the Severn on the west and south 
west, and the Avon and Welland on the south ; thus including 
the counties of Lincoln and Leicester, and parts of Nottingham- 
shire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Worcestershire, and Warwick- 
shire ; although others think that it was bounded by the Dove 
and Goit on the west, and the Nene on the south, including within 
it Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Butlandshire, Nottinghamshire, 
Derbyshire, and part of Northamptonshire. Their chief towns 
were Lind-Coit or Lincoln, and Bage or Leicester. They were 



* Bishop Gibson, in Camden Col., p. 433> ooserves, "The bounds of the 
ancient nations inhabiting Britain can not be nicely determined, for how can 
we hope exactly to distinguish them when our ancient authors only deliver at 
large in what quarter of the nation they were sealed) without descending into 
their particular limits. Besides most Of the barbarous nations seem according 
to their strength at different times to have had dominions larger and narrower. 
Especially in Britain (where were so many kings), we cannot imagine but that 
they were frequently making encroachments upon one another. The boundary 
west of the Hltmbe? Seems to have been that mountainous country which 
stretches between the DoUne and the ' Seteia ' or Mersey, and afterwards the 
Mersey itself." This chain of rivers and mountains, which it is presumed con* 
tinned afterwards to be the march or limits between the kingdoms of Mercia 
and Northumberland, seems to have been a sufficient security against mutual 
encroachments of the Brigantes and Coritani, and that this was really th<* 
limits of the kingdom of Mercia in the after times might be easily shown-. 



28 



SLEAFORD. 



either a peaceful or a timid people, who through retiring before 
their foreign invaders into the fastnesses of their forests, or the 
ready asylum of those fens with which the eastern part of their 
territory abounded, thus escaped defeat, and the bitter conse- 
quences of revolt against their better disciplined invaders, which 
befel the more pugnacious Brigantes, and impatient Iceni. 
When Ostorius Scapula, the Roman commander in Britain A.D. 50, 
was securing the dominion of that great people here, and subdued 
the Brigantes beyond them, the Coritani did not resist him, as 
he passed through their country ; and when Petilius Cerealis 
subsequently made a successful campaign against the same people 
the Coritani again refrained from resistance, as they did when 
the famous Julius Agricola, in the year A.D. 78, and subsequently 
not only pushed the victorious Roman arms far beyond all previous 
limits, but consolidated the Roman dominion in Britain generally 
by the formation of admirable military roads, and the construction 
of permanent camps and stations along their lines, the remains of 
which are still distinctly visible on the soil of Lincolnshire, 
and especially in that portion of it about to be described. The 
celebrated geographer, Ptolemy is, however, the first author that 
actually speaks of the Coritani, A.D. 120, who in giving the names 
of the British tribes, mentions the Ordovices, the Cornubii, 
the Coritani, the Catyeuclani, and the Dobuni ; of these the 
Coritani appear to have possessed themselves of Lincolnshire and 
Leicestershire. The greater part of their territory was covered 
with a vast forest, which appears to have been termed Sylva 
Calidonia, in common with another forest district so called in 
Kent. L. Florus, Lib. Ill, describing Csesar as following the 
Britons " in Calidonias Sylvas,"* called after the actual Sylva 
Calidonia of Scotland, while much later records refer to the great 
forest formerly covering the present Division of Kesteven. This 
woodland tract during the British period was tenanted by the 
elk, red deer, wolf, and wild boar ;f and perhaps by the bear and 
beaver, remains of all of which have been found beneath the 



* Florus appears to speak of Calidonia Sylva in common with Saltus 
Hercynius proverbially when he mentions a forest of any size. Camden 
derives Calidonia from kaled rough. 

t To these we might perhaps add the great Irish Elk, " Cervus Megace- 
ros," as its horns have been found in the adjoining County of York, viz., in 



SLEAFOED. 29 

surface of its soil. Then also the eagle, bustard, stork, crane, 
bittern, kite, rough and reve, and heron abounded, besides 
water fowl, and fish in extraordinary profusion. 

Csesar was utterly unacquainted with the more remote Celtic 
tribes such as the Coritani,* 4 and we have reason to think 
exaggerated their barbarous condition. The Druids were certainly 
acquainted with the use of letters, although they preferred oral 
instruction and learning gathered through that medium, they had 
considerable skill in constructing large sea-going vessels and war 
chariots, casting bronze weapons, stamping gold coins after Greek 
types, and making pottery ; but above all in transporting and 
erecting huge stones for religious or sepulchral purposes, which 
still excite admiration, and in throwing up defensive earthworks 
of prodigious size and extent. 

The Wapentakes of Flaxwell and Aswardhurn are not rich in 
British remains. A large mound or tumulus in Aswarby Park 
close to the Sieaford and Falkingham road, and now surmounted 
by a very large oak several hundred years old, may be of British 
origin, as tumuli of this size usually were. A large leaf-shaped 
sword was found with another less perfect specimen in 1852 
in a field at Billinghay Dales, between the Tattershall turnpike 
road and Billinghay Skirth, about a mile and a half from Tatter- 
shall Bridge, and two miles from the Car Dyke. It was produced 
by casting, and still has a very sharp edge on both sides. It has 
lost its point, but when complete was 22 inches long without its 
handle, and If inches wide across the broadest part of the blade. 




The handle is now gone, but some of the rivets that once fastened 
this on to the blade still remained when it was found. Two 



Hornsea Mere, Holderness. Claudius Paulinus, the Propraetor, sent from 
Britain as a present to Solemnis, in Gaul, amongst other articles, the skin of 
a seal, six months old. This is recorded in an inscription on a marble slab 
found at Vieux, near Caen, in Normandy. Gold and silver are reported also 
to have been found in Britain, by Tacitus, in his "Life of Agricola." 

* But little was known of the character of Britain at Eome for some time 
after its invasion by Julius Csesar. Horace seems to speak of it as the very 



30 SLEAFOED. 

brass daggers of British origin were found in removing a bank 
in South Kyme, during the year 1820. One is 10 J inches long, 
the other 7 j inches. See Figs. 1 and 2, Plate II. These are of 
peculiar shape, from the great width of their bases originally 
enclosed in handles, and the very bright colour of their platina, 
which gives them a golden appearance. They are now in the 
Duke of Northumberland's Museum, at Alnwick, An excellent 
example of a grooved and looped brass palstave, or implement 
used as an axe or chisel, when supplied with a wooden handle 
attached to it by a thong passed through the metal loop, was 
found in 1818, at the old ford of the river Slea. A very fine flint 
hammer was discovered in digging gravel on some rising ground 
east of Sleaford by the Tattershall road ; Fig. 3, Plate I, and 
a very beautiful vessel was found at Billinghay a few years ago ; 
it is of pale dull red earthenware of the usual British form, and 
carefully ornamented ; 7 inches high, and 5| inches diameter at 
the widest part. Fig. 4, Plate I. 



EOMAN BEMAINS. 

The district we are describing has been indelibly scored by 
the Eomans, and is still interspersed with traces of their former 
supreme dominion over it. One of the greatest of their works 
in' Britain the Ermine-Street, or High-Dyke, forms the western 
boundary of the Wapentakes tinder notice ; a branch, of it now 
represented by Mareham lane, intersects that of Aswardhurn, as 
does another great Roman work unrivalled in England, viz : the 
Car-Dyke a long and broad navigable drain. These must first 
be described through their just claim to such preference. 



end of the earth, 

" Serves itumm Caesatem in ultimas 

Orbis Britannos." Carm. Lib, I., Ode 15. 

It was however in some measure described by Liv~y, Stfabo, Fabius Busticus, 
Pomponius Mela, and Pliny, besides Csesar, and Tacitus. This last author 
agrees with Herodian in saying the sky was there cloudy and rainy, although 
the cold was not so great as in Gaul. He reports that its vegetable growth 
was quick, but its maturation slow, also that the sea surrounding it was slug' 
gish and laborious to the rower, 



PLATE I. 










THE ERMINE-STREET, OR OLD ROMAN 
ROAD. 

This great work, constituting one of the four principal Roman 
Roads of Britain, may fairly vie with any of the other three, both 
as to length and grandeur of design. 

Its Roman name is lost, but by the Saxons it was termed 
Earminga-Street, or Eormen- Street,* the terminal of which de- 
rived from the Roman stratum, is still represented by the modern 
word street, or road. Perhaps the term Earminga or Eormen 
was derived from the name of some British tribe, as Weetlinga- 
Street was from Wsetla, or from Eormen, a Saxon deity, or the 
same word applied to anything vast or noble. That portion of it 
running from Castor, near Peterborough, to the Humber, which 
will now be described, is called by various names in different 
localities, such as the Forty-foot or Norman-gate, the High-Dyke, 
the Old-Street, and the Ramper, but the whole constituted one 
continuous road, still usually designated the Ermine-Street. The 
Romans were certainly not the first road-makers in Britain, whence 
it is quite possible that part of the great military roads they con- 
structed followed the lines of more ancient ones ; but these Roman 
works so far surpassed all that had before existed, as to constitute 
a new era in British road-making, f which must have been re- 
garded with wonder by the natives of this island, although they 



* This term has often been given to one or more other ancient roads : but 
there is now a general agreement with Morton's opinion, who says, in his 
History of Northamptonshire, p. 502 : "Whether there be another Erming- 
street, or not, this I take to be the very Erming-street which is usually reckoned 
one of the four great Ways ; this being in many places as signal and consider- 
able for its breadth and height as the Watling Street, and also paved as that 
is in some places." 

i 1 Hollinshed, in his Chronicle, V. I, p. 189, says that a British king, 
Dunwallon, commanded four principal roads to be formed in his dominions, 
B.C. 483, " which should lead such as trauelled into all parts thereof from sea 



32 SLEAFORD. 

perhaps looked angrily upon them, as serving to confirm their 
subjugation.* 

Had not the Roman Itineraries served to prove the origin of 
such roads, the remaining entrenched camps through which the 
Ermine-Street passes, the inscribed stones, the articles of bronze, 
iron, and pottery, together with the innumerable coins found, 
and still being found along its line, would have proclaimed this 
beyond doubt. The great utility of such roads to the Romans is 
palpable, for they at first needed these as subjugators, and subse- 
quently as colonists, after the Britons had ceased to oppose them 
, openly, but were ready to make covert attacks upon them when 
they could do so with any hope of success, and especially when 
the nature of the country facilitated such movements. 

In Lincolnshire this was peculiarly the case, where the great 
forest of Kesteven offered shelter to the natives, who were inti- 
mately acquainted with its fastnesses, as well as with the fens and 
estuaries with which it then abounded to a far greater extent 
than at present, and were always safe from the avenging hand of 
their subjugators, against whose iron sway they long chafed and 
rebelled whenever they dared to do so. To counteract such 
natural advantages on the part of the Britons, the Romans 



to sea, his subjects having been previously sorely oppressed by theives and 
robbers as they trauelled to and fro. To these he gave sundrie large privileges, 
whereby they became safe and verie much frequented, and caused the same to 
be paued with hard stone of eighteene foot in breadth, ten foot in depth, and 
in the bottom thereof hugh flint stones, also to be pitched, least the earth in 
time should swallow up his workemanship, and the higher ground ouer-grow 
their rising crests, and the names of these four waies are the Fosse, the 
Gwethelin, or Watling, the Erming, and the Ikenild." The importance of 
the Ermine -street, during the later Saxon period, is declared, by the more 
severe penalties imposed upon persons guilty of assault or other misdemeanors 
upon it, the Watling-Street, and the Foss Way, than elsewhere, as ordained 
by Edward the Confessor, and confirmed by the Conqueror. 

* Most bitterly must the British tribes have lamented over their own 
want of Union when they were subject to such hard masters as the Romans 
were ; for as only ft few tribes could be induced at one time to act in concert 
against their foreign invaders, they were defeated in detail. Their stubborn- 
ness was subsequently manifested on many occasions, and they only submitted 
to their conquerors through the severest pressure, being always eager to regain 
their freedom, which, for want of wise counsel rather than of valour, they 
had lost, 



SLEAFORD. 33 

most wisely constructed roads, in connection with which they 
formed stations and entrenched camps at convenient intervals, 
whence forces could be sent from point to point as required; 
and thus the whole country was eventually supplied with a com- 
plete system of military roads. So well was this design planned 
and carried out, that considerable remains of these roads still 
exist; and especially of the Ermine-street, which serve to attest 
the energy and perseverance of those Eoman Legions formerly 
stationed in Britain to secure its possession. The structure of the 
Ermine- Street was not so elaborate as that enjoined by Eoman 
authorities on this art, for from a section of it discovered in the 
parish of Winterton, as carefully recorded by Mr. Padley, the 
earth had simply been excavated to the depth of seventeen inches, 
and then two layers of rough stones on edge, slanting in opposite 
directions, were laid to constitute the foundation of the road, 
which had no central rise, nor was there any trace found of the 
summum dor sum, or surface paving. The width of this paved 
portion of the road was between twelve and thirteen feet, and the 
ordinary height of its embankment three feet ; but some portions 
of it are considerably higher. Of the date of this ancient work 




we have no record. It is possible that its formation may have 
been commenced by the Propraetor Ostorius Scapula,* A.D. 50, in 
connection with his campaign against the Brigantes, and who on 



He was famed for his defeat cf the Icerti, who had submitted to the 
Romans without giving battle, but who at length took courage to make irrup- 
tions into what had become Roman territory, and finally to revolt openly in 
concert with other tribes, after they had formed an entrenched stronghold, and 
thought that no Roman general Would advance against them during the 
winter. Ostorius, however, did take action, and notwithstanding the great 
Valour they exhibited, stormed their stronghold) and entirely routed their 
forces, so that all the Wavering tribes were forced to declare for the Romans, 
among whom were, no doubt, the Coritanians of Lincolnshire. Then followed 
the campaign against the Cangi, or people of Cheshire and Lancashire, and 
that against Caractacus and the Silures. Ostorious died A.D* 55. See Tacit. 
L. xii*, c. 31, 32, and L. XVL, c. 23. 






34 SLEAFORD. 

his return, we are told, had time to give all due attention to the 
province committed to his charge : or it may have been begun or 
carried on during the subsequent campaigns of his successor, 
Didius, the ally of Cartismandua, queen of the Brigantes, against 
her husband Yenusius, when Vettius Bolanus took the same course 
in the reign of Vitellius, or when Petilius Cerealis,* during his 
second stay in Britain, made his northern campaign : but if not 
made before, it certainly must have been constructed when Julius 
Cnseus Agricola, the celebrated Propraetor and nominee of Yitel- 
lius, had firmly established the Roman rule in Britain, who 
advanced three times towards the north of Britain before his 
removal from it, A.D. 85. f No doubt this road, in common with 
the other great Roman military roads, was subsequently exten- 
sively repaired, and perhaps added to or altered, according to 
Galen, Book IX, c. 13. Trajan, as we might have expected, 
desired such works to be carried out, when all roads that were 
wet or miry, were ordered to be either raised or paved, such as 
were overgrown with bushes were cleared, circuitous roads were 
made straight and their lines altered so as to avoid the ascent of 
steep hills, or desert districts troubled by wild beasts, and their 
surfaces were levelled. His great predecessor, Augustus, had 
ordered mansiones and mutations, or stations, to be erected along 
such roads; and probably in Trajan's time, at least, such neces- 
sary adjuncts had been supplied for the use of the Roman army 
in Britain. 



* Petilius Cerealis was by no means always a successful commander, for 
when in command of the 9th Legion, first sent to Britain by Claudius, A.D. 
43, he advanced against the Iceni, under Boadicea and her allies, A.D. 61, the 
Romans suffered a signal defeat, of whose force 70,000, including their allies, 
are said to have fallen, and Petilius only saved his cavalry by flight ; but in a 
subsequent battle 80,000 Britons fell, which insured the supremacy of the 
Roman rule in Britain. As, however, the 9th Legion had been almost exter- 
minated, it was subsequently largely recruited by Nero, who sent over 2,000 
Legionary soldiers, eight cohorts of auxiliaries, and 1,000 horses from 
Germany, to strengthen it. Tacit. Ann., L. 14, c. 31 58. "When Petilius 
came a second time to Britain, A.D. 71, he was victorious in a series of battles 
with the Brigantes. 

t In the spurious Chronicle of Richard of Cirencester it is stated that 
Agricola did make roads to the north, for the purpose of conveying corn to 
the praetenturas of Scotland. Stukeley's Richard of Cirencester, p. 120. 



SLEAFORD. 35 

The Ermine-Street, in its entirety, may be reckoned to com- 
mence at Pevensey Anderida t whence it ran to Chichester 
Itegnum, and London : passing along Bishopsgate-Street, it pro- 
ceeded by Enfield, Cheshunt, Ware, Broughing Ad Fines, 
Eoyston, where the Ikenild-Street crosses it, Caxton, Godman- 
chester Durotipons, Huntingdon, Stukley, Sawtry, Stilton, to a 
point between Chesterton and Alwalton, or the site of the great 
station of Durobrivce, close to the village of Castor, f in the county 
of Northampton. This, at least in part, existed before the 
Ermine-Street was constructed, as demonstrated by the remains 
of a Roman potter's kiln found by Artis beneath the bank of 
the Ermine- Street, and when made, was either carried through 
the centre of an entrenched camp, of an irregular oblong form, 
now called "the castles," or else the camp was subsequently 
formed to take advantage of the road. 

The extensive remains of a town and numerous detached 
residences on this spot clearly prove the former existence of an 
important Roman station here, round which many wealthy colo- 
nists had subsequently settled ; but these remains cannot now be 
noticed, because their description would unduly prolong this 
description of a portion of the Ermine-Street. 

A little north of Castor this ancient road crosses the river 
Nene, and its bank is very perceptible, but soon after, that which 
may be regarded as the principal line, continues its course towards 
the north-west, while the other takes a due north direction. At 
first the bank of this last is entirely gone, although originally it 
appears to have been as important as the other road ;f but at a 
point called Lang-dyke, a mile north of Upton, it again becomes 
visible, and hereabouts it was itself called Lang-dyke according 
to Camden, and also High-Street. Passing by Hilly Wood, two 
miles eastward of Woodcroft, where a Roman flanged roof tile 



* An abbreviation of Dorm-ceaster, by which name this place was origin- 
ally known, and whence, in Camden's time, the term of Dormons was given to 
the Roman coins often found there. 

f Stukeley thought that this was made first, from its being "Nearer the 
first intention of a meridian line than the other," which he supposed was sub- 
sequently struck out when the Romans had become better acquainted with the 
geography of the country, and upon their finding that they must incline the 
original line westward to reach Lincoln, as well as to avoid the fen district, 
where it would require constant reparation. 



SO SLEAEORD. 

was found in 1867, bearing the stamp LEG IX HIS. of the 
9th Legion, surnamed Hispanicus, it then runs through the 
parish of Ashton,* where the foundations of a square structure, 
supposed to be Roman, formerly existed, and perhaps are still 
visible in a little wood called Ashton Lawn, and is intersected 
by the Syston and Peterborough railway, before it crosses the 
low meadows and bridge of Lollam, wrongly thought by Stuke- 
ley to retain a reminiscence of Lollius Urbicus. After reaching 
the Welland, where two Roman swords, two daggers, and 
what was thought to be the iron frame of the tablet of a 
vexillum, were found in 1740, also a large brass of Pertinax, 
and other Roman coins five years later, (Gentlemen's Society of 
SpaldingJ its first appearance on the soil of Lincolnshire is in 
the parish of West Deeping ; whence, under the term of King- 
Street, it runs in a straight line, leaving Langtoft on the east, 
and Gretford, Braceborough, and Wilsthorpe on the west, at 
which last place Stukeley thought there had been a Roman 
station, and where many Roman coins have been found at inter- 
vals. It crossed the Glen at Katesbridge, after which its bank is 
not distinguishable ; but it appears to have run parallel with the 
Car-Dykef and the present road to Thurlby and Bourn. In and 
about Bourn many Roman coins have been occasionally found, 
including a gold one of Nero, and others of the Maxim ian and 
the Constantino period. 

Marratt, in his History of Lincolnshire, Yol III, p. 79, thus 
speaks of certain Roman remains at Bourn: "In what is called 
the Home Close, at the south end of the town, adjoining the 
turnpike road, there is a square entrenchment, single ditched. 
The rampart at each of the corners Was formerly twice as high 
as the sides, but of late years it has been levelled, and the ditch 



* This parish, with the adjoining ones of tffford afld Bainton, constituted 
the once royal manor of Torpell, now the property of Lord Kesteven. "When 
possessed by Margaret, Countess of Derby, a quadrangular mansion, sur- 
rounded by a moat, in Torpell park, stood on the west of the Ermine -street ; 
but her principal residence in this locality was at Colly-Weston, afterwards 
inherited by Henry VIII., and where he stayed from the 1st to the 5th of 
August, 1541, when on his way to meet the King of Scotland in the north. 

+ The celebrated Roman navigable drain, reaching from the Nene to the 
parish of Washingborough, on the Witham, a description of which will be 
subsequently given. 



SLEAFOBD. 37 

on the west side filled with, earth ;" and in the same vol., p. 81, 
says : "About 60 years ago a tesselated pavement was found in 
the Park grounds, but destroyed a few days after ; also, a large 
urn near it, containing coins in such a perishable condition that 
they soon fell to pieces. The stone that covered it was preserved ; 
there appears to have been an inscription on it, but it was quite 
illegible." " Extensive potteries continued to exist at Bourn, 
until May 25, 1637, when a great fire broke out in Potter-street, 
Eastgate, which destroyed them, and they were never rebuilt." 
Ibid., HI, p. 73. 

From Bourn the Ermine-Street ran west of Morton and east 
of Stainfield, where there appears to have been a station from the 
evidence of Boman foundations, pottery, and innumerable coins 
found there, chiefly in a close called Blackfield. 

Here there was also a branch road, or via vicinalis, running 
westward, described by Mr. Thomas Leman, in a letter to the 
Bev. Samuel E. Hopkinson, in the year 1819. 

Perhaps this road first branched off a little to the north of 
Morton, or at a right angle from it on the line of the present road 
from Hacconby to Stainfield ; but subsequently it certainly ran in 
a line towards Ponton. The first actual remains of this road Mr. 
Leman found just to the north of Norwood ; he then traced it in 
the adjoining pasture field abutting upon the Grimsthorpe and 
Irnham road, next in two other small pasture closes on the east 
of that road, in the southern portion of Irnham Park, where it 
still retained its high ridge, and then, after a break, he found an 
equally well preserved portion of it in Corby low pasture, extend- 
ing as far as the Corby and Irnham road, which it crossed about 
1 00 yards south of a large pond. Beyond this it was lost in the 
arable ground, but it appears to have run thence a little to the 
north of Burton Goggles, and by Stony-lane towards the main line 
of the Ermine-Street in the direction of Ponton. After leaving 
this road to the west, what may be termed the eastern Ermine- 
Street, ran nearly on the line of the modern road between Morton^ 
Hacconby, Dunsby, and Bippingale, on the east, and Hanthorpe 
and Kirkby Underwood on the west, as far as Graby toll-bar, at 
Which place it How diverges into a grass field, where its bank is 
traceable. Passing the road leading to the hamlet of Graby, in 
the form of a grass lane, or riding, it runs northwards a little to 
the east of Aslackby, where it has been infringed upon by some 



.38 SLEAFOED. 

cottage gardens. Hence it continues its course over a series of 
undulations, the highest of which is called Beacon Hill, near 
Sempringham,* whence the blue plains of the Division of Holland 
may be seen below, stretching out widely towards the east ; then 
intersecting a small brook, by what is still called the Street 
bridge, and crossing the road from Folkingham to Billingborough, 
it reaches Stow Green, celebrated for the decisive battle fought 
there between the Saxons and Danes, A.D. 870, and also for its 
fair. Next it surmounts the ridge on which stands Threck- 
ingham, and crosses another very ancient road, now called the 
Holland Road, but formerly the Salters' Way. This also was 
thought to be Eoman by Stukeley; and was certainly, as the 
name implies, used by those engaged in the great salt trade 
formerly carried on between the Lincolnshire coast and the inte- 
rior of the country. The position of Threckingham at the junction 



* Famous as the birthplace of Gilbert de Sempringham, son of Joceline 
de Sempringham, rector of that place. Gilbert, having determined to retire 
from the world and lead a strictly religious life, built a retreat for himself on 
the north side of St. Andrew's Church, in his native village, where he could 
devote his whole time to prayer and holy meditation. Subsequently he 
admitted a certain number of persons of both sexes into his retreat, and thus 
founded a monastery whose inmates lived under one roof, but where the 
monks and nuns were most rigidly separated from each other, the latter 
receiving their food and other necessaries through a window. The Gilbertine 
rule may be considered as a distinct one, which received the sanction of Pope 
Eugenius III., by means of a bull to that effect ; but the monks nearly 
followed the rule of St. Austin, and the nuns that of St. Benedict. For the 
maintenance of Sempringham Priory, Gilbert de Gant gave its inmates three 
carucates of land, which gift was amplified by similar grants of land made by 
Reginald de Ba, Hugh de Baiocis, and the proceeds of the church of Fordham, 
given by Henry III. Gilbert de Sempringham was admitted as a saint into 
the Eoman calendar by Pope Innocent III, A.r>. 1202, and lived to see thirteen 
monasteries of his order founded, of which he was the master or grand prior. 
One very laudable object of the order was to foster learning ; to promote 
which Robert Lutteril, rector of Irnham, gave a house in St. Peter's parish, 
Stamford, together with lands and tenements in Ketton, Cottesmore, and 
Casterton, for the benefit of the Gilbertine scholars, studying divinity and 
philosophy in a school of this order at Stamford. To this was attached a 
chaplain, by a license of John Dalderby, Bishop of Lincoln, dated 1303. St. 
Gilbert was buried between the high altars of St. Mary and St. Andrew, of 
the monastic church of Sempringham, and beneath the wall separating the 
monks' from the nuns' choir, so that both could venerate his grave. 



SLEAFOED. 



39 



of these two ancient roads was an important one, and here many 
Eoman coins have been found. From this point to Sleaford 
the Eoman road we are describing pursues a nearly straight course 
in an embanked form, leaving Spanby and Scrediugton on the 
right, and Osbournby and Aswarby on the left. Between the 
last named parish and Burton the base and part of the shaft of a 




mediaeval boundary cross stands by the side of the road, which is ' 
here twenty-eight feet wide, with a grassy margin on either side 
of nearly the same width. Next the site of an old moated man- 
sion, called Mareham Hall,* in the parish of Burton Pedwardine, 
is passed, whence the whole of this ancient road from Graby bar 
to Sleaford, thirteen miles in length, derives its present name. 



* Mareham constituted a grange, granted to Sir Thomas Horseman in 
1564. Previously it belonged to Simon Hall. Burton Pedwardine, of which 
Mareham now forms a part, is so called from the Pedwardine family, who once 
possessed it. The manor of Burton was originally granted by the Conqueror 
to Wide de Credon or Croun, whose descendants possessed it until the eventual 
heiress of the family, Petronilla, married William de Longchamp, son of the 

D 



to SLEAFOED. 

Here it is in a very perfect condition, because it has neither been 
disturbed by the plough, nor otherwise injured. Still continuing 
its straight course, and leaving the beautiful spire of Silk Wil- 
loughby Church on the left, at a point about half a mile from 
Sleaford, the modern road to that town has been diverted from 
the ancient one. The course of this last, however, may still 
be clearly traced on its way towards the site of an ancient 
moated mansion, now termed the Old Place, about half a mile 
eastward of Sleaford, which first belonged to Lord Hussey, subse- 
quently to the family of Carre, and now to the Marquis of Bristol. 
Before crossing the Sleaford and Boston road, the old road under 
notice has degenerated into a worn hollow track, instead of 
standing upon a bank, and in the same condition, under the term 
of Old Eau Lane, it descends on the eastern side of the Old Place 
to the site of an ancient ford over the Slea, a little to the east of 
Cogglesford Mill, and used as such until 1792. On the grounds 
of the Old Place many Eoman coins and occasionally fragments 
of Samian ware and other pottery have been found ; and in the 
river by the ford, a fine brass British celt was discovered in 
1818, of which a cut is subjoined. 




Before the inclosure of Sleaford and Leasingham Moors, 
a portion of the embankment of this ancient road leading towards 
Euskington, was plainly visible. This ran nearly parallel with 
the present Tattershall road, and westward of it ; but now the 
only remnant of this consists of a section of its bank in a hedge- 
row between two small fields south of the Moor-lane, in the 



Abbot of Croyland. Their son, Henry Longchamp, had an only daughter and 
heiress, Alice, who, through her marriage with Roger Pedwardine, transferred 
the manor of Burton to her husband's family, and died 1330. The Pedwar- 
dines held Burton until the reign of Edward IV. For further particulars see 
subsequent account of Burton Pedwardine. 









SLEAFORD. 41 

parish of Leasingham. Passing westward of Ruskington Church, 
it most probably was continued in some form towards the great 
Lindum Colonia, through the parishes of Dorrington, Bloxholm, 
Ashby, Scopwick, Blankney, Metheringham, Dunston, Nocton, 
Potterhanworth, and Branston, again joining the other and 
more important line of the Ermine-Street at a point about a mile 
south of Lincoln. No trace, however, of such a road now remains, 
and Roman vestiges have been found only in two of the above- 
named parishes, viz., Ashby and Potterhanworth. In the former, 
a portion of a tesselated pavement was discovered in 1831. It 
was 18 feet long by 6 feet wide, and consisted of black and white 
tesselae, of different sizes forming bands of various widths. At 
Potterhanworth great quantities of Roman pottery of different 
kinds were found on the site of the parish school-house, when 
its foundations were laid. 

Returning to the main line of the Ermine-Street a little 
north of Castor, we find that it passes Sutton Wood on the east, 
and runs through the hamlet of Southorpe, where coins of Antoni- 
nus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Claudius Gothicus, Magnentius, and 
Constantino the Great have been found, together with Roman pot- 
tery, &c., chiefly in the pits on the eastern side of the road. Next 
it may be traced in the parish of Barnack as a wide bank, thus 
described in Gough's edition of Camden, II, p. 270, " Here it 
rears a high ridge, particularly in the little wood of Barnack, 
where it has a watch-tower upon it." This so-called watch- 
tower, however, no longer exists, but a Roman fibula and some 
urns were found close to the Ermine-Street at Barnack, in 1731 ; 
since then many Roman coins have also been picked up here, and 
more recently the torso of a small nude male figure cut in Barnack 
stone was dug up, now in the possession of the Incumbent, the 
Rev. Canon Argles. Hence the Ermine-Street runs by Walcot 
Hall and through Burghley Park, since its enlargement by John, 
Earl of Exeter, in 1655, but before that time it formed part of 
the public road between Stamford and Peterborough. Here it 
is now not traceable, because its bank having been formed of 
gravelly materials, was carted away to make walls about Burgh- 
ley House. Bridge's Northamptonshire, II, p. 501* Next it may 



* Portions of its materials were also subsequently used for the repair of 
a neighbouring road ; Stukeley in a MS. memorandum, when speaking of it, 



42 



SLEAFOED. 



be detected crossing a branch of the Welland, near Worthope 
Park wall, where its bank is three feet high and twenty feet 
wide, whence it descends the valley of the Welland, and crossing 
that river at a spot on which Bredcroft Hall* formerly stood, 
enters Lincolnshire, according to Stukeley's words, " with a broad 
elated crest." Passing by the sites of the Benedictine Nunnery 
of St. Michael and the Augustine Priory, it leaves the town of 
Stamfordf on the east, in the form of a broad raised bank, called 
Green-bank, and then, as a turnpike road, reaches Oasterton. 
None of the Roman Itineraries mention the existence of a"hy town 
or station between Durobrivse and Causennse, yet there certainly 
was a large camp at Casterton, ten miles north of Durobrivse, or 
Castor, a considerable portion of which still remains, close to 
Ermine-Street. Probably this camp, like the one below Castor, 
was made before the road that subsequently passed by it. It 
is situated in a bend of the river Wash, which thus . defended 



says, "The overseers of the highways of St. Martin's parish, Stamford, had in 
a^sacrilegious manner digged it up to mend their wicked ways withal." 

* This spot was so called in King John's reign, when it belonged to Lucy, 
wife of "William de Humet, lord of Stamford, who, out of her lands here, gave 
half a mark of silver yearly to the nuns of St. Michael, on condition that they 
should observe her anniversary with an obsequy ; half of which was to be ex- 
pended on a pittance on that day, and the other half to be bestowed upon the 
infirmary. Peck's Antiquarian Annals of Stamford, Lib. VIL, p. 11. Sub- 
sequently the sessions for the county of Eutland are said to have been held in 
Bredcroft or Bradecroft Hall, the foundations of which were still visible on 
the north bank of the adjacent water course in the last century. 

t During the year 1868, a Eoman stone coffin, lying east and west, was 
discovered in a field of Mr. Gilchrist's farm, near Stamford, about half a mile 
from the Ermine-street, through the grating of a plough against its lid. 
Unfortunately it was immediately disinterred, and dragged out of its long 
resting-place by horse-power, and then its contents were emptied out hurriedly 
by persons wholly incompetent either to observe or report the result. It is of 
a massive character, without ornament, and simply coarsely tooled, a flat slab 
forming its lid. "Within were remains of two bodies, a male and female, 
whose skulls lay at each end of the coffin ; also about a dozen earthen vessels 
probably of Durobrivan ware, a glass lachrymatory, and some bone pins. 
On the north side of this coffin other human remains were found, forming 
portions of another skeleton ; and, from the fact of some large iron nails being 
discovered with these, we may conclude they were originally deposited there 
in a wooden coffin. Shortly after a tesselated pavement also was found near 
this spot, indicating the former existence there of a Koman house. 






SLEAFORD. 43 

nearly two-thirds of its circumference. Its area was about twenty- 
seven acres in extent, and it was probably wholly surrounded by 
a fosse and vallum. These still remain so far as they existed 
on the north-eastern side of the turnpike-road passing through 
the village of Castor, beginning at a point a little to the south of 
the church, and joining it again after having enclosed an irregular 
shaped parallelogram just before the road to Ryhall branches off 
from it; but there are now no traces of the remainder. Its 
situation in a low valley, although objectionable in some respects, 
secured for it a plentiful supply of water, and also an additional 
source of strength from its proximity to the little river Wash. 
Stukeley thought that the Ermine-Street diverged from its direct 
course so that it might pass through this station, but in reality it 
is only the modern road that does so, which leaves the old via a 
little to the south of Casterton Church. This, pursuing a 
straighter course, must have crossed the Wash twice, although 
its bank here for some little way is lost ; but near Tickencote it 
again becomes visible on the western side of the turnpike road 
from Stamford to Grantham, with which it is once more incorpora- 
ted. Stukeley reports that many foundations of .Roman buildings 
had been found at Casterton before he wrote his Itinerarium, and 
also many coins, of which he mentions a denarius of Pompey, a 
large brass of Nero, and specimens of the reigns of Trajan, 
Antoninus Pius, Severus, Claudius Gothicus, Maximianus, and 
Constantino. 

North of Tickencote Hall the Ermine-Street, under the name 
of Horn Lane,* runs straight to Greetham Mill, leaving Bloody 
Oaksf on the west. At Greetham Mill it turns directly towards 
the north, and Gale thought that a branch road led hence to 



* Horn was formerly a distinct parish, containing 830 acres of land, but 
is now included in the parish of Empinghain, and the site of its church is in 
Exton Park, to which the successive rectors were long inducted under a cer- 
tain old thorn bush in that park. 

i 1 So called from the slaughter of the Lancastrians here, after a desperate 
battle between Sir Robert Welles, placed at the head of 30, 000 Lincolnshire 
men by the Earl of Warwick, and Edward IV. at the head of a still larger 
force, which was fought in Horn-field, March 12, 1470. In this battle King 
Henry's adherents were utterly defeated. Sir Robert Welles and his brother- 
in-law, Sir Thomas De la Launde, were taken prisoners, and beheaded at 
Doncaster three days later. The name of Bloody Oaks still commemorates the 



44 



SLEAFOED. 



Nottingham ; but there are no traces of such a road now. Pass- 
ing Stretton, or Street-town, on the east, and South Witham on 
the west, where it constitutes a portion of the old North-Eoad, 
and thence on between the site of Lobthorpe Hall* and North 
Witham, it reaches a point half-a-mile north of the once well- 
known Black Bull of Witham Common, where the modern road 
turns northward and passes through Colsterworth, and the old 
Eoman via is difficult to trace for a space of about two miles, so 
that it will be well to describe this more particularly. On its 
first divergence from the North-Eoad, soon after passing Honypot- 
Lane on the right, it runs along the eastern side of a triangular 
field belonging to Earl Dysart, whence it proceeds as a grass lane 
until it reaches the Colsterworth and Bourn turnpike-road. On 
the north of this it has again ceased to exist as a road, but its 
line may still be traced, running through a field in which are 
some stone pits, belonging to Mr. J. Dove, two fields belonging 
to the Eev. J. Mirehouse, two others belonging to Christopher 
Turnor, Esq., and then between two old pasture fields (also Mr. 
Tumor's), where an oak tree stands on the right of the line. It 
continued to run in the same direction through the parish of 
Easton, having an old hedge there marking its eastern boundary, 
until it reached that point where it is still used as a modern road 
under the ancient term of the High Dyke, with which it now 
communicates by a short grass lane running abruptly westward, 
instead of running on straight as it did originally. In a field 
north of the road leading to the village of Easton, and about 150 
yards from that road, was a Eoman camp of considerable size, on 
the site of which Eoman relics have been occasionally found, 
including a horse's bronze bit, broken in two, but otherwise in 
perfect condition. Here, also, among others, the following 
Eoman coins have been discovered, viz. : a small silver one, 
having on the obverse the head of Nero, and the legend, " NERO' 
CAESAR AUGUSTUS "; reverse, Jupiter seated, holding a bolt in 



fall of the 10,000 men who fell in the conflict, and a field between Little Cas- 
terton and Stamford, is also called Losecote -field, from a local tradition that 
the Lancastrians here divested themselves of all that encumbered their flight 
from the battle field and their victorious foes. 

* This was the ancient seat of the Sherard family. It is surrounded by 
a fosse originally nine yards wide, and is 130 yards long and 100 yards wide. 






SLEAFORD. 45 

his right hand and a hasta pura in his left; legend, " JUPITER 
GUSTOS." A small brass, having on the obverse the head of 
Licinus, and the legend, " LICINUS. jmsr. NOB. c." ; reverse, two 
trophies between two soldiers, each holding a spear in one hand 
and a shield in the other. In the exergue, " T. R. P.", and a 
star. Licinus became Caesar A.D. 317, and was executed A.D. 
326. After passing through Easton parish the Roman road 
shews itself clearly enough, sometimes a little on the right and 
sometimes on the left of its present representative, first leaving 
Stoke Rochford on the west, and next Great Ponton, where, 
according to Stukeley, many Roman vaults, tesselated pavements, 
urns, coins, bricks, &c., were found during the last century.* 
Then it passes by a group of cottages at Woodnook, a mile west- 
ward of Little Ponton, f and on to Cold Harbour, J two miles 
westward of Grantham, where it is intersected by the old Salter's 
Way now called the Brigend-road or Haydor-lane. Scarcely 
any Roman remains have been found at Grantham, but Burton, 



* In the township of Little Humby, three and a half miles east of the 
Ermine-Street, and nearly parallel with Great Ponton, many Roman vestiges 
were found in 1828, such as pottery, pins, and coins, most of which were 
secured by the late Mr. William Cragg, of Threckingham. These last chiefly 
consisted of small brasses of Claudius Gothicus, Magnentius Posthumus, 
Constantinus Magnus, and Constantinus II. 

f Four miles westward of Little Ponton, a Roman villa was discovered 
in the parish of Denton, during the year 1727. Two of its tesselated pavements 
were engraved by William Fowler, one from a drawing made by Dr. Stukeley, 
the other by himself, in 1800. These were both composed of grey tesselse, 
with a centre-piece of richer work, the one being an oblong, nine feet by three, 
having long octagons and small squares designated by grey and white borders 
upon a red ground ; the other a square of nine feet, having a star-like figure 
in the centre, surrounded by diamonds, each having an interlaced knot in its 
centre, within a square surrounded by a guilloche border, composed of grey, 
red, and yellow tesselse. See Philosophical Transactions for 1804. 

J It is remarkable that spots so named are very frequently found near to 
ancient roads ; one exists in Cammeringham parish, near Tillbridge Lane, a 
branch of the Ermine-Street, north of Lincoln ; another near Stewton, by 
Louth ; another near Hessle, Yorkshire ; another near Wye, in Kent ; and 
another at Titsey, by the Pilgrim's Way, in the same county. 

Leading to Bridge end or as it is commonly spelt Brigend Priory, 
from its nearness to Holland bridge. This was a Gilbertine House, founded 
in the reign of John, by Godwin, a rich citizen of Lincoln, in honour of Our 
Lord. At the dissolution, as parcel of Sempringham Abbey, it was granted 



46 



SLEAFOED. 



in his Commentary on the Antonine Itinerary, p. 216, states that a 
great stone trough, covered with a stone, and filled with Roman 
coins, was dug up there. He also remarks that one of its streets 
is called Castle-street ; that between this and the river founda- 
tions of a castle were discovered, and that he had a piece of glass 
found in the Grange garden, which he believed to be Roman. 
The Ermine-Street, from the Brigend-road, takes a perfectly 
straight course northwards, over a series of undulations, leaving 
Welby on the east, and Londonthorpe, Belton, Syston, Barkston, 
and Honington on the west. On an eminence in this last-named 
parish, and a mile and a half westward of the Ermine-Street, is 
a strongly entrenched earthwork, pronounced to be a castrum 
exploratorum of the Romans, by Stukeley , but it must certainly 
be of British origin, and in no respect resembles a Roman camp. 
It consists of an area of irregular form, containing an acre and a 
quarter of ground, surrounded by a triple vallum and a double 
fosse, occupying two more acres. The average height of the 
outer vallum is three feet, that of the other two, seven feet, and 
the level of the enclosure is three and a half "feet above that of 
the bottom of each fosse. The width of the inner vallum is nine- 
teen feet four inches, of the middle one twenty-seven feet four 
inches, of the outer one fifteen feet four inches. As the slope of 
each vallum can be easily surmounted, perhaps there were no 
regular entrances to the central area, but there are slight depres- 
sions at four different points through these, which may or may 
not be of subsequent formation. The whole remains in a very 
perfect state, only a portion of the outer vallum having been par- 
tially cut away at two points. This earthwork was undoubtedly 
occupied by the Romans, as in 1691 an urn containing a peck of 
Roman coins was discovered within it, and subsequently others 
were found, a score of which Stukeley obtained in 1728. 
Amongst these he names a large brass of Agrippa, another of 
Julia, the daughter of Augustus, and one of Magnentius. Frag- 
ments also of weapons are said to have been ploughed up here. 



to Edward Lord Clinton, up to which time prayers had been daily said by its 
inmates for travellers who had to encounter the dangers of the fens. The 
remains of its buildings were taken down in 1770, and were employed in 
building an adjacent farm house. 



SLEAFOED. 47 

In a direct line between this earthwork and Ancaster, in a 
field called the Twelve Acre Close, a rudely formed Roman stone 
coffin was more lately discovered, still bearing upon its outer 
surface the tooling of its makers very distinctly. It is six feet 
ten inches long, two feet two inches wide at the head, diminish- 
ing to one foot ten inches at the foot, and one foot eight inches 
deep. The head is rounded like other examples of Roman stone 
coffins found at Bath. Upon it was a rude slab, four inches 
thick. It lay in a north and south direction, at so slight a depth 
as to have been discovered through the action of the plough, and 
contained the skeleton of a male, in a tolerable state of preserva- 
tion. It now stands in Ancaster churchyard. 

The Ermine-Street descends sharply before it passes through 
Ancaster, a once important Roman station, most probably that of 
Camennis or Isinnis, placed by the pseudo Richard of Cirencester 
and the Antonine Itinerary between Lindum and DurofcivOj and 
estimated at thirty miles from the latter, which is nearly correct ; 
but at twenty-six miles from the former, or twelve miles too much, 
probably through the interpolation of a superfluous Roman X. 

Such a site was an excellent one for a Roman station, from 
its proximity to a never-failing streamlet, and its sheltered 
situation. Here, accordingly, an irregular parallelogram, contain- 
ing nine acres of land, was surrounded by a fosse ten feet deep 
and fifty feet wide, affording a secure camp, through which the 
Ermine- Street ran. 

Postponing a description of Ancaster, we must here advert 
to a via vicinalis, which branches off from the great Roman road 
at this place, and is now called the Potter-gate Road. This runs 
nearly on the edge of a high ridge on the west of the Ermine- 
Street, and overlooking the villages of Caythorpe, Eulbeck, 
Leadenham, and Welbourn, it passes close to the east of Wellin- 
gore, and rejoins the parent road at Navenby. Roman coins 
have frequently been found near this road, and in 1857 an 
interesting discovery was made within forty yards of it, in a 
field at Caythorpe, belonging to the Rev. C. D. Crofts, through 
the grating of a plough against a large stone. This, on examin- 
ation, led to the uncovering of the base of a pillar two feet in 
diameter, upon which was another circular stone, containing 
within a cavity a small black earthenware olla, enclosing sixteen 
Roman coins, among which were a large brass of Faustina Junior 

E 



48 



SLEAFOBD. 



reverse, Juno ; a small brass of Constantius ; one of Magnen- 
tius; one bearing on the obverse " UEBS ROMA"; reverse, the 
wolf and twins ; one of Gratianus, and another of Honorius or 
Arcadius. Here also were found a very small square incense 
altar, the base and feet of a statuette and portions of the legs 
and arms, cut in stone. This not improbably formed the sepul- 
chral effigy of a Eoman colonist, placed, as usual, within a 
niche. 

After the Ermine-Street has emerged from the little valley 
in which Ancaster lies, its bank is both wide and high, and 
especially so on the summits of the natural undulations of the 
line it traverses. A quarter of a mile north of Ancaster, and 

close to the edge of the old road we 
are describing, nearly the whole of 
a small rough stone, forming a mil- 
liary,* was discovered, bearing this 
inscription : " IMP c FL VAL 

CONSTANTINO P F ' INT ' AVG ' DIVI ' 
CONSTANTINI ' PII ' AVG FILIO" ; Or, 

Imperatori, Ccesari, Flavio, Valeria, 
Constantino, Pio, Fetid, Invicto, Au- 
gusto, Dim, Comtantii, Pii. Augusti, 
Filio. This was not in its original 
position, and its base had been bro- 
ken off. In size it is two feet three 
inches long, one foot wide, and seven 
inches thick. It was apparently 
used to mark the spot where a fu- 
neral deposit had been made, as 
some fragments of human bones 
and pottery, and also part of a red 
deer's horn sawn cleanly from the 
remainder, were found with it. 




* Had this military stone been perfect, we might possibly have ascer- 
tained with certainty the Roman name of Ancaster, as in the case of the one 
found at Leicester, which bears the Roman name of that town, and formerly 
constituted the second milestone from it. These stones were renewed from 
time to time by the curatores viarum, or road surveyors. 



SLEAFOKD. 49 

Stukeley mentions the existence of stones by the side of the 
Ermine-Street in his time, but he never saw one with an inscrip- 
tion cut upon it, and perhaps in reality no milliary at all. In Iter. 
V., p. 87, he says, " Upon our road there are many stones placed, 
but most seem modern, and like stumps of crosses, yet probably 
are milestones;" and speaks still more positively in Iter. I., p. 
80, when describing this via, " I have seen bases of milliaries, 
and one or two fragments of milliaries on its sides." These are 
no tests of the date of a Eoman road, as they were often replaced, 
and probably sometimes at least in anticipation or commemoration 
of the transit of some great personage, in whose honour they 
were inscribed ; but we are more fortunate than Stukeley was, 
for we may still see a milliary existing at Ancaster, bearing a 
complimentary legend cut in honour of Constantine the Great * 
and not improbably so cut by persons who actually saw him in 
company with his father Constantius, on their way from Boulogne 
to York, at the head of a large Roman force marching against 
the Calidonians, along the Ermine- Street, and through Ancaster ; 
or when, after the loss of his father, he hastened back to secure 
the empire for himself. 

Between Ancaster and a spot called Bayard's Leap,f where 
the Ermine-Street is intersected by the Sleaford and Newark 
road, it presents a grand appearance, its well developed bank, 
from three to six feet high, and wide in proportion, remaining in 
nearly as perfect a condition as when it was first made by the 
Romans ; but before reaching the above-named spot, its bank 
has been partly destroyed. From this point the Ermine-Street is 
no longer stoned, and the whole space devoted to the public use 



* Constantine had made a wonderfully fast journey from Nicomedia 
across Europe, by the aid of the imperial military roads, and the mutationes 
agminales, or posting houses, established along their lines, and was just in 
time to join the Emperor at Boulogne, or Gessoriacum, before he embarked for 
Britain. He accompanied him in his campaign against the Calidonians, and 
back to York, or Eboracum, where Constantius died, which occasioned Con- 
stantine's speedy return to Italy. 

f Or the bay horse's leap, so called from a local tradition that a nameless 
horseman, pursued by a witch, who sprang upon his steed, fled towards the 
refuge of a cross road, over which both horse and man bounded with a pro- 
digious leap still marked upon the turf margins of that road and at which 
point the supernatural assailant fell dead. 






50 SLEAFOBD. 

on either side of it is deeply scored with ruts. Through this the 
bank of the old road wends its way, but just before it reaches a 
small planting called, from its shape, the Cocked-hat plantation, 
near Temple Bruer* it inclines to the western side of its modern 
area, and its bank has been partly carted away. Beyond this 
point it has been much injured, and sometimes almost obliterated, 
until it reaches the turn to Wellingore, where it has been repaired 
and stoned for a short distance. Soon, however, it resumes its 
former dilapidated condition, occasioned by turf-cutting and par- 
tial removal of its bank ; and as a grassy way, but little used, 
passes by Navenby and Boothby Graffoe on the west, where the 
towers of Lincoln Minster begin to constitute a grand terminus 
towards which this ancient road directly points, and J)unston 
Pillar f is seen about two miles to the east. Parallel with the 
village of Harmston, on a slight eminence, the bank of the old 
road is distinctly visible, where it extends into an adjoining field 
on the right, and at another spot a little further on. Hence it 
continues its course northwards as a grassy way in a perfectly 
straight line until it reaches a small house called Waterloo Cot- 
tage, from which point not even a footpath indicates the former 
course of this great road ; yet some very slight traces of its bank 
may be detected even here, pointing towards the west end of a 
farm house, called Friezland, soon after which it begins to serve 
its original purpose as a foundation to the .road between "Wad- 
dington and Lincoln, which it will be observed has a higher bank 
as long as it runs on the line of the old Roman road. Before 
approaching Red Hall these two roads again diverge, the Ermine- 
Street pursuing its course northwards, which is marked by a 
footpath in front of the above-named house, and terminates in an 



* Temple Braer, or the Temple Preceptory on the heath. This was 
founded by Elizabeth de Cauz, in the reign of Henry II., and afterwards richly 
endowed with lands for the maintenance of the Templar fraternity. In 1324 
this establishment was granted to the Hospitallers, when it became a Com- 
mandery of that order, and so continued until its suppression in 1538. A 
small Early English tower is all that now remains of its once extensive build- 
ings, the lower story of which is richly arcaded, and served as a chapel. 

t Erected as a lighthouse for the benefit of persons travelling across the 
formerly desolate Lincoln Heath, by Sir Francis Dashwood, in 1772. Its 
lantern was eventually blown down by a storm, and in 1810 the pillar was 
surmounted by a statue, in terra cotta, of George III. 



SLEAFORD. 51 

irregular strip of grass land by the side of the modern Sleaford 
and Lincoln turnpike-road, exactly on the summit of the high 
ground bordering the valley of the Witham, before it descends 
that valley. There more care was required in making its bank, 
and more pains were taken in constructing the road itself, as it 
passed over the fenny soil through which the Witham flows, to 
the southern entrance of the important Roman colonial town of 
Lindum. Here it was joined by the via fossata, or Foss-road, as 
it is still called, and crossing the two branches of the Lindis, 
Viciius, or Witham river, whether by bridges or fords we know 
not, ran through the lower Roman town, then beneath the 
southern gateway of the upper town, which it nearly bisected,. 
and its northern gateway, or Newport Arch, after which it con- 
tinued its course northwards, through the centre of Lincolnshire, 
towards the Aim, or Humber, whence it has been called the 
Hulnber-Street, as well as the High-Street, and the Old-Street. 

"The Hermen-Street," says Stukeley, " going northward 
from Lincoln, is scarce diminished because its materials are hard 
stones, and the heath on both side favours it." Itin. Y., p. 93. 
While Abraham de la Pryme, an antiquary of the last century, 
speaking of this ancient road, says, "It is cast up upon both 
sides with incredible labour to a great height, yet discontinued in 
many places, and then begun again. Where it runs over nothing 
but bare mould and plain heath, it then consists of nothing but 
earth thrown up ; but when it runs through the woods, there it 
is not only raised with earth, but faced with great stones set 
edgeways, very close together, the better to preserve it its 
width being seven yards." We have seen, however, that at one 
point the paved portion of this via did not exceed thirteen feet in 
width. From a recent excavation it has been discovered that the 
Ermine-Street immediately after it left the Newport Arch, ran 
slightly to the east of the present road, but with this exception 
it followed the line of that road very exactly, and its swelling 
bank may still be seen in much perfection as it passes Riseholme, 
in a series of undulations on its way to the north. At a point 
four miles distant from Lincoln is a Roman branch road, or via 
vicinalis, now called Till Bridge Lane, which leads to the Trent, 
and eventually to Doncaster. 

It was naturally conjectured by Horsley, Brit. Horn., III., c. 2, 
p. 434, that this road, sometimes called the Old-Street, ran 



52 SLEAFOBD. 

directly from the great colonial city of Lindum to Danum, or Don- 
caster ; but such, was not the case, as it branched off from the 
Ermine-Street as above mentioned. The first mile-and-a-quarter 
of this old road is now disused, but may be detected in the fields 
through which it ran ; and on its site various small brass Roman 
coins have been found of the Oonstantine period, as recorded by 
Archdeacon Blingworth, in his Topographical Account of the Parish 
of Scampton, p. 4. Half-a-mile northward of this point Till 
Bridge Lane branches off at a right angle from the Ermine- 
Street, and into this the old Roman road to Doncaster falls near 
to the village of Scampton, where, as one and the same road, it 
runs in a straight line to the Trent (Trevona), and Littleborough, 
on its western bank the Roman Agelocum or Segelocum, its whole 
length being ten miles. Stukeley thus describes it : " This ridge 
is likely to be of eternal duration, as wholly out of all roads, it 
proceeds directly on the heath, then descends the cliff through 
the rich country at bottom, between two hedge-rows, by the name 
of Till Bridge Lane , When you view it on the brink of the hill, 
'tis as a vista or avenue running through a wood or garden, very 
straight, and pleasanter than when you come to travel, wanting a 
Roman Legion to repair it." Iter. V., p. 87. 

At Scampton, the remains of a very large Roman villa were 
found in 1795, chiefly through the instrumentality of Archdeacon 
Illingworth, the then incumbent of Scampton, who published an 
account of that discovery. Having heard that some bricks had 
been turned up in getting stone from a pit, in a field lying south- 
east of the village, and north of Till Bridge Lane, he was led to 
examine them, and finding they were Roman, he ordered exca- 
vations to be made, which disclosed the foundations of a Roman 
house, that had occupied an elevated site about 200 feet square 
in area, and contained forty rooms. It was built of the stone of 
the district, and its walls were usually two to three feet thick, but 
one wall was from five to five-and-a-half feet thick. These 
foundations were from two to three feet below the surface, and 
from one to two feet only in height, chiefly forming the substruc- 
ture of the house, so that it could not be ascertained how one 
room communicated with another, nor what was the character of 
the superstructure ; but the sill of the principal doorway still 
remained in situ. Probably most of the hypocausts of this villa 
escaped notice, as the furnace of only one of these, on the eastern 



SLEAFORD. 53 

side, seems to have been discovered and noted. In all, the remains 
of thirteen tesselated pavements were laid bare, some of quite 
coarse work, but others of much beauty ; the white tesselse being 
cut from the native limestone, and the red and grey being formed 
of terra cotta, or baked clay, varying from half an inch to an inch 
and-a-half in size. These pavements were laid upon a thick 
substratum of cement composed of lime, gravel, and pounded 
brick. The most beautiful of the pavements was engraved by 
Fowler. This was found in a room, fifty feet long, but only ten 
feet wide, on the eastern side of the house. It was not quite 
perfect, but its general design, composed of grey, red, yellow, 
and white tesselee still retaining their original tints was as 
perfect as ever. Portions of the fallen stucco, or plaster, with 
which some of the rooms were lined remained on the floors, and 
especially in the above named .room. These were painted with 
various colours, such as green, or red and white, and blue and 
white in stripes. On the floors of the rooms also lay quantities 
of flanged and scored roof tiles, charred wood, and melted lead, 
clearly indicating the way in which this house, like almost all 
others of Roman origin eventually perished. Here also were 
found the shaft of a small pillar, a spear head, innumerable frag- 
ments of earthenware, and some glass vessels, fibulae, bone pins, 
and many coins of the lower Empire. Since this many others 
have been found, and also the skeleton of a female, round the 
bone of one of the fingers of which still remained a small Roman 
bronze ring, now in the possession of the Diocesan Architectural 
Society. Many skeletons were disclosed during the excavations 
carried on in and about the site of this villa, but these were the 
remains of bodies buried in the cemetery of St. Pancras's Chapel, 
built in the twelfth century on this spot, which has also passed 
away. A well of Roman origin close by, called St. Pancras's Well, 
besides the adjacent chapel now unfortunately destroyed, thus 
commemorated that young Roman saint martyred in Diocletian's 
reign, to whom Augustine dedicated the first Christian church at 
Canterbury, and whose name was perhaps given to this well 
and chapel, as being appropriate in connection with the site of a 
Roman house, some remains of which may then have been 
apparent above ground. 

Till Bridge Lane, after passing Scampton and crossing two 
branches of the little river Till, whence it derives its name, passes 



54 SLEAFOBD. 

through Sturton or Street-town, which evidently is so called 
from its propinquity to the Roman road. North of this is Stow, 
whose venerable church justly claims to be the mother church of 
the Diocese of Lincoln, and probably stands on the site of the 
Roman Sidnacester, although, so far, unfortunately, very few 
Roman remains, such as coins, &c., have been found in or about 
it, to confirm this belief. 

Crossing the railway from Lincoln to Retford, this old road 
passes near to Marton, situated on a ridge overlooking the valley 
of the Trent. Here portions of the pavement of a Roman house 
were remaining until the beginning of the last century, Magna 
Britannia, II., p. 1454, and many Roman coins have since been 
found in this parish, including a large brass of Hadrian, and 
another of Oarausius. 

From Marton the road descends into the valley below, point- 
ing directly to Littleborough, on the Nottinghamshire bank of the 
Trent. Here was a ford made by the Romans in the manner 
they usually adopted as an aid to the transit of rivers. On either 
side the bank was sloped away, so as to make an easy descent 
leading to a raised causeway in the bed of the river. This was 
eighteen feet wide, and held up by strong stakes driven into the 
soil on either side, and paved with stones. It existed until 1820, 
when through the obstruction it created to the navigation of the 
river during dry seasons, it was removed ; but a portion of the 
paved descent on the Nottinghamshire side still remains. Such 
works were ordered to be constructed by the Emperor Hadrian, 
during his visit to Britain, A.D. 120, when he directed the banks 
of roads to be repaired, and their surfaces to be paved afresh, 
built bridges over some rivers, and made paved causeways across 
the beds of others, such as this at Littleborough. He therefore 
may have been the author of this work, and it is a curious fact 
that in a cleft of one of its piles, a large brass coin of his reign 
was found, bearing a figure of Justice on the reverse. It afforded 
the means of communication with a Roman station surrounded, 
as usual, by a wall and deep fosse, of which some remains may 
still be detected. It is generally agreed that this was the 
Agelocum, of the Antonine Itinerary, or the Argolico of the pseudo 
Richard of Cirencester, an opinion which is confirmed by its 
relative distance from Lindum Colonia, or Lincoln, and Danum, or 
Doncaster, viz., fourteen miles from the former and twenty one 



SLEAFORD. 55 

from the latter. Many Roman relics have been found at various 
times on this spot, and especially on the eastern side of the village, 
where the river has disturbed part of its site. Here Stukeley 
observed foundations of buildings and portions of pavements pro- 
jecting from the river bank, and here Gale likewise, when crossing 
the river, saw a cor aline urn, i.e., a piece of Samian ware, in its 
bank, " This (says he,) I pulled out, but it was broken in 
pieces, as it stood it had bones in it, and a coin of Domitian." 
Gale's It. Anton., p. 13. In 1718, part of a coarse gritstone altar 
was found in a sandpit here, whose foculus, or hollow for fire on 
the top, was perfect, and whose mouldings were quite entire, and 
clean as if newly cut, but nearly the whole of the inscription on 
it had been cut away, as if preparatory to cutting another upon 
it, but the end of the original one remained legible, viz., c< us 
AKAM D D." By this was found another wrought stone, which a 
contemporary antiquary, conceived to be of a monumental cha- 
racter. These formerly stood on each side of the steps leading 
from the ferry to the inn above, but have now disappeared. Per- 
haps one of these is what Stark, in his History of the Bishopric of 
Lincoln, p. 1 1 2, calls a milliary stone, and was used as a horse block. 
Ella, in a letter to Stukeley, contained in Reliquiae, Galeanoe, p. 
118, thus speaks of his researches at Littleborough : " Frag- 
ments of the finest coral coloured urns are frequently discovered, 
and some with curious bassi relievi upon them, and the workman's 
name generally impressed with extant letters at the inside of the 
bottom. I have in my hands the fragments of some urns and 
vessels, one of which is the largest part of a Roman discus, or sacri- 
ficing platter, another which seems to be a cover, but I never had 
the good fortune to meet with any urn or vessel complete, nor 
heard of any, except one of a singular make, with an Emperor's 
head embossed upon it, the same which Dr. Gale has given us 
the figure of, found at York." Gale's It. Anton., p. 23. " The 
urns, or vessels, are most of them of this coral colour, and but 
few of the coarse grey sort which are met with in other places ; 
though we might have expected great numbers of this coarse sort, 
this station being within a few miles of one of the most noted 
potteries in this island, Santon, near Brigg, in Lincolnshire, 
where these were made." Phil. Coll, JST. IV. p. 88. " There are 
also found here, but very rarely, Roman signets of agate and 
cornelian ; one of the finest and largest I ever saw was found at 



56 SLEAFOBD. 

this place ; I thought it so valuable as to bestow the setting upon 
it, but the workmen did it so slightly, that, to my great regret, it 
dropped out, I know not when, and was lost. The engraving was 
well performed, and the polish, though it must have lain 1300 
years at least in the soil, much exceeded anything I have seen 
of English workmanship. Here also a Roman medical seal or 
tally was found." Gough's Camden., II. p. 404. This station has 
produced a vast number of coins, especially about the year 1736, 
when the fields between the town and bridge were ploughed up, 
including many very minute pieces (minnims). They have also 
been picked up at the edge of the river, very commonly when the 
tide has been out, in dry seasons, besides being found in plough- 
ing and digging, and used to be termed " Swine Pennies," 
because they were sometimes rooted up by those animals. Mr. 
Ella regrets that so many specimens were so covered with rust as 
to be of little use for the cabinet, and that no Thecce Nummarice had 
been discovered, the contents of which might be better preserved. 
Coins, however, have been found here of Nero, Vespasian, 
Domitian, Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, Faustina, Gallie- 
nus, Yictorinus, Tetricus, Carausius, Allectus, Constantinus 
Magnus, Constantius, Constantinus Secundus, and Crispus, 
besides many of the Constantine period, having on the obverse a 
galeated head and " TJRBS BOMA " ; reverse, the wolf and twins ; 
and others with " CONST ANTINOPOLIS " as a legend. Two, struck 
in Trajan's reign, and described in a letter of Ella to Stukeley, 
are particularly interesting; the one a large brass of that 
Emperor, bore on the reverse a representation of one of his 
great works, the mole at Ancona, and the other a figure of Bri- 
tannia, holding a spear in her left hand, with a shield at her left 
foot, and the name " BRITANNIA " on the exergue. From Little- 
borough this Eoman road may be distinctly traced on its way 
through a second Sturton, or Street-town distinguished from 
the other by the addition to its name of " le steeple," South 
and North Wheatley, Doncaster, Castleford Legiolium, Tad- 
caster Colearia, to York Eburacum or Eloracum. 

Returning to the main line of the Ermine- Street, where 
Till Bridge-lane branches from it, this ancient road proceeds to 
Spital * after passing which it becomes very conspicuous from 

* The usual abbreviation of hospital, a retreat or home for poor widows 






SLEAFOED. 57 

the size of its bank, where, in some instances, it is very promi- 
nent. Blyborough is then left on the west, where part of a coarse 
tesselated pavement was found some years ago, and then Kirton, 
which lies a-mile-and-a-half westward of the Ermine-Street, and 
was thought by Pegge to be the In medium of the spurious 
Eichard of Cirencester, as it is about half way between Lincoln 
and the Humber. Opposite Kirton the Ermine-Street becomes 
simply a grass lane, and part of its bank lies on the left of the 
modern track ; but when it reaches Eedbourn the bank is on the 
right of the present road, and planted with trees. About a mile 
further northward, and on the west of the road, is Grainstrop, the 
site of a destroyed village, where Eoman coins, pottery, and 
bricks, have at different times been discovered. Just beyond the 
point where the Ermine-Street is intersected by the Manchester, 
Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Eailway, and in the parish of Hibald- 
stow, is an entrenched camp of Eoman construction. This lies 
low between two small streams, which probably led to its forma- 
tion there. The northern and southern limits are traceable through 
a slight rise and fall in the ground, still serving to indicate the 
fosse and agger of those sides of the camp. The eastern boundary 
is entirely gone ; but its western one, four hundred yards long, is 
quite discernible. Eoman coins have occasionally been found 
here, and the pavement and hypocaust of a Eoman house were 
laid bare near the camp, when the adjacent railway was made. 
Two miles northward of this, two pavements, with hypocausts 
beneath them, were discovered some years ago in the farm yard 
of Mr. Granthani, of Scawby, and were engraved by Mr. W. 



having been established here in the reign of Edward II. This charitable 
institution was subsequently enriched by Thomas de Aston, Prebendary of 
Centum Solidorum, Lincoln, Sept. 17th, 1390, but subsequently Prebendary 
of Liddingtou, and Archdeacon of Stow. Born at Aston, Staffordshire, he 
obtained a licence from Richard II., to build and endow a chapel there, as 
well as to reconstruct and endow "a certain habitation at Spittall-o'-the-Strete 
for poor men," in 1394. At both places daily prayers were to be offered up 
for the king while living, and for his soul's salvation when dead, as well as 
for the souls of the Prince of Wales his father, his grandfather Edward III., 
and others. This grant to the hospital consisted of four messuages in 
Hemswell, one toft and thirty acres of land at Spital, and the profits of the 
churches of Skellingthorpe and Carlton. Thomas de Aston died June 7th, 
1401, and was buried in the nave of Lincoln Cathedral. 



58 SLEAFOED. 

Fowler, in 18 18. One was composed of a light grey or white 
ground, having an oblong compartment in the centre, filled with 
a scale pattern of black, red, and white tesselae. The other had 
four central squares, filled with alternated devices, surrounded 
by the guilloche pattern, a wider border of the same device, 
a strip of chequered work on the sides, and then a narrow white 
and a broad red border, beyond which were coarser light grey 
tesselse. A small camp is also said to have existed in Scawby 
parish, as well as some of the original stone pavement of the 
Ermine-Street, until the middle of the last century. After passing 
the turn to the village of Scawby, the bank of the old road be- 
comes very conspicuous, being about five feet high here. Running 
past Twigmoor,* a long tract of woodland on the west, and then 
across a light sandy district, whose surface is liable to shift, 
through the action of the wind, the ancient road is partly buried 
by these sands. At Broughton is a conspicuous mound, looking 
like a barrow, but when it was opened some years ago no evidence 
appeared that it was of artificial origin. Here, however, some 
Roman vestiges have occasionally been discovered, such as frag- 
ments of pottery, and bricks or tiles.f Emerging from the sand, 
and as a gravelled road passing through a still sandy tract 
covered with wood, past the site of Gokewell Nunnery,^ the 

* A remarkable moor, in the centre of which is a piece of water, round 
which countless numbers of the larus ridibundus, or black -headed gull, have 
bred for many years. These birds arrive in February, and leave about the 
middle of July. The black patch on their heads disappears during the winter 
season. Some breed also in the adjoining parish of Manton. Two other 
instances of such inland gulleries exist in England, one at Scoulton Mere, 
near Hingham, Norfolk, twenty-five miles from the sea, and the other at 
Pallinsburn, the seat of A. Askew, Esq. 

f Eight British barrows were opened in this parish during 1850, by 
Messrs. Arthur Trollope and Joseph Moore. Several vases of rude earthen- 
ware, flint implements, &c., were then discovered. Archaeological Journal, 
VIII., pp. 341, 351. In this parish also certain lands are held by an 
extraordinary manorial service of cracking a gad -whip in Caistor Church once 
a year, which service, however, has of late years been discontinued. Archaeo- 
logical Journal, VI. pp. 239, 248. 

A Cistercian nunnery, founded by William de Alta Bipa, previous to 
1185. At the Dissolution its prioress and six nuns were dispossessed of their 
home, and their house and lands were granted to Sir William Tyrwhit. A 
few year\ago several stone coffins buried in the cemetery were brought to 
light. 



SLEAFORD. 59 

Ermine-Street reaches a spot called Britons' Graves, on the edge of 
Thornholme Moor, whence the site of the once stately priory of 
Thornholme* may be seen. Here is another sandy district, often 
suffering much injury from its tendency to blow, appropriately 
called Santon,f where a Roman pottery, and several furnaces were 
discovered some years ago, also a brass grating of a cruciform shape, 
and many fragments of pottery, together with a few coins. Towards 
the summit of one of the numerous sand hills near the Ermine- 
Street a large flat stone was found some time since, probably indi- 
cating a sepulchral deposit below, but whether Roman or not is 
uncertain. A mile and a half north of Santon lies Appleby, where 
an earthern vase, surrounded by dark soil, and containing a con- 
siderable number of Roman silver coins, was discovered in a rabbit 
warren. Two miles north of Appleby, and a mile and a half to the 
west of the Ermine- Street, lies Roxby, where, in the last century, 
a labourer, in repairing the fence of a small field of Robert 
Gary Elwes, Esq., lying to the south-west of the church, discovered 
part of a Roman tesselated pavement, many large stones and 
roof-tiles of the house to which it belonged, and portions of its 
wall- plaster, painted red and yellow, near to which Roman coins 
have since been found. Subsequently this pavement was so far 
uncovered as to allow of its being copied and engraved in 1799, 
by Mr. William Fowler, of Winterton. After passing through 
Roxby pasture the Ermine-Street enters the next parish, Win- 
terton, where very beautiful tesselated pavements have been 
discovered, indicative of the former existence there of a superior 
class of Roman Colonial houses, the whole of which were drawn 
and engraved by Mr. Fowler. In 1 747 three more were uncovered 
just below the Cliff House, to the west of the village, and a mile 
and a half from the Roman road now being described. One is 
twenty-eight and a half feet long and nineteen feet wide ; the 



* This was an Augustine house founded by King Stephen, and dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary. At the Dissolution its site and lands were given to 
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. 

t In dry times these sands drift so much as to injure the adjacent land 
greatly, and sometimes are so heaped up in ridges as to resemble snow drifts. 
In this parish there were three barrows previous to its inclosure, where procla- 
mation was made of any straying cattle by a bellman, which cattle, if not 
redeemed within twelve months and a day, were sold by public auction. 



60 SLEAFOKD. 

second forty feet long and thirteen feet wide. In the centre is a 
bust of Ceres within a circle surrounded by a double guilloche 
border, placed within a square, flanked first by two narrow 
compartments, filled with a scale pattern formed by red and grey 
tesselse, and then by two oblongs, ornamented with interlaced 
circles in a very pleasing manner; a plain border composed of 
red, white, and grey tesselse, disposed in bands of various widths, 
surround the whole. The third was damaged, but it had a border 
composed of red, white, and grey squares, containing oblong 
compartments within, in one of which was a stag. Another 
pavement was found here in 1797. This had a figure of Apollo, 
within a circle, surrounded by a guilloche border of red, grey, 
and white tesselse in the centre, a compartment on either side 
filled with an interlacing pattern, and a series of red, white, and 
grey bands round these, constituting the outer border. Other 
Roman remains have also been found here, snch as a brass eagle, 
as recorded in the Minutes of the Society of Antiquaries, a spear 
head, much pottery, and many tiles, bricks, and coins, including 
a large brass of Yespasian, a silver one of Antoninus Pius, and 
many of the Constantino period. About half way between the 
Ermine-Street and these pavements, a Roman potter's kiln was 
accidentally discovered in 1868. It had been formed by excavat- 
ing a hollow penetrating the surface soil, a thin stratum of clay, 
and the sand below, and resembled one or more found by the late 
Mr. Artis, at Castor (DurolrivceJ, in Northamptonshire. Its 
shape was that of an inverted cone, six feet deep, and the same 
in diameter at its widest part. Its wall was constructed of clay, 
mixed with gravel, four inches thick below, increasing to ten 
inches above. The floor of the furnace was covered with black 
ashes and broken pottery. With this a lateral flue communicated, 
formed of flat oolitic stones, whose blackened and reddened sur- 
face indicated the great heat to which they had been exposed. 
From the middle of the furnace rose a concave clay shaft, one 
foot nine inches high, whose widely spreading- base and head 
enable it the better to support the floor of the piles above. This 
floor was broken, but appears to have been made, as usual, of 
tiles covered with clay. The domed top of the kiln had also dis- 
appeared, but its debris, consisting of broken tiles and pieces of 
plaster, lay within the kiln. The surface of the clay lining and 
the flue -shaft, was of a pale blue, fading off into red and ochreous 



SLEAFOED. 61 

yellow, occasioned by exposure to heat. Many fragments of pot- 
tery were found in and about this kiln, chiefly of grey ware, plain 
and scored, among which were some of vessels having compressed 
sides. Three miles and a half eastward of Winterton the tesse- 
lated pavement of a Eoman villa was discovered in the parish of 
Horkstow. It was not wholly uncovered, but evidently belonged 
to a long narrow room, and was divided into three compartments, 
surrounded, first by a narrow grey and white border, and then by 
another of red and white. One of these compartments contains 
a most curious representation of a Eoman chariot race. On a 
white ground the cavea, carceres, spina, and metce, of the circus are 
depicted, and four drivers of liga are contending for a prize* 
The first of these is triumphantly pulling up hi^ steeds opposite 
the winning point ; the second, when closely following, loses his 
advantage by the fall of one of his steeds, for the third, through 
this misadventure, will give him the go-by, and the fourth, through 
collision with one of the other chariots, or with the wall of the 
spina, is in the act of being thrown out of his chariot from the 
loss of one of its wheels, while two horsemen hasten to his 
assistance, one of whom is dismounted and is attending to this 
unfortunate competitor. A portion only of the corresponding 
compartment of this pavement remains, but its subject is that of 
the Parcce, or Fates. The circular centrepiece pourtrays Genii 
preparing the thread of the Fates gathered from the contents of 
a high basket or calathus. Eound this is a large circle divided 
into four compartments, each having a circular medallion within 
it. In one of these Clotho and Lathesis are represented with the 
thread of Fate between them, and in another Atropos,* whose task 
it was to cut this vital thread. On either side of these medallions 
are Nerieds mounted on Seahorses, attended by Grenii ; in the 
angles of the squares without the wide interlaced border of this 
circle, are Tritons, in reference to the idea that the Fates were 
the daughters of the sea. Divided from the last-named subject 
by a narrow compartment composed of interlated circles, &c., is 
part of a circular subject within a square. In the middle is 



* The charioteers of the circus were often distinguished by colours repre- 
senting the four seasons of the year ; one set wearing green, for spring, termed 
the factio prasina ; a second red, for summer, termed russata ; a third blue, 
for autumn, termed veneta ; and a fourth white, for winter, termed alba. 



62 SLEAFORD. 

a figure of Orpheus in a Phrygian cap, playing on a lyre, and 
attended by a peacock; in a circle around, divided into eight 
compartments, edged by a guilloche border, are various beasts 
and birds, supposed to have been attracted by Orpheus's strains. 
Among the former appear a dog, deer, boar, bear, and a young 
elephant. In the angles between this circle and the square com- 
partment in which it is placed, are large busts composed of red 
tesselee on a white ground, accompanied by small red circles, one 
bearing a white and the other a red cross, like a Christian dedi- 
cation symbol. 

The Ermine-Street can no longer be traced in Winteringham, 
its bank having been destroyed through the enclosure of that 
parish, and subsequent cultivation ; but there is no doubt as to 
its line, and the spot where it reached the Humber ; for, continu- 
ing its former straight course northwards, it would at length 
reach the summit of a small promontory on that great river, half 
a mile north-east of the village of Winteringham,*" which for- 
merly protected a little haven called Flashmire, now silted up. 
This terminal was marked by a Station, probably that ofAdAbum, 
which Stukeley states was ploughed up a few years before he 
wrote his Itinerarium Curiosum. In his account of this spot, he 
speaks of the existence of a fine spring here always a desirable 
adjunct to a Station of vast stones, pavements, and foundations, 
which often broke ploughers' shares, and of remains of streets or 
roads made of gravel or sea sand. He also gives an engraving of 
the appearance of this spot, dated 1776, and states that several 
intakes had been made here in the memory of man. Roman coins 
have not unfrequently been found at Winteringham ; one of 
Claudius was brought to Stukeley, and a collection from Flash- 
mire was brought to the author when he visited the site ofAdAbum, 
in 1855. Stukeley, speaking of Winteringham, says, " This place 
is over against Brough, the Roman town on the Yorkshire shore, 
but it is rather more eastward, so that, with the tide coming in, 
they ferried over very commodiously thither ; " and, in confirma- 
tion of this opinion, a discovery was made here, and at Brough, 
during the remarkably dry summer of 1826, when the Humber 



* In this parish is a tumulus near the Church, surrounded by a stone wall, 
and here, in north beach gravel-pit, a cinerary urn and twenty celts were 
discovered probably British. 



SLEAFORD. 



63 



was very low, viz., the remains of a raised causeway, or jetty, 
stretching out from both places, similar to the vadum descent in 
the Trent at Littleborough, and apparently of Roman construc- 
tion. Brough was undoubtedly a Eoman Station perhaps 
Prsetorium. Hence the Ermine-Street ran to Market Weighton, 
where it divided ; one branch leading thence, by Thorpe-on-the- 
Street and Wilberfoss, to York, the other by Londesborough, 
New Malton, and Cawthorn, to Whitby. 

From Winteringham, in Stukeley's opinion, a Roman road 
ran over Whitton brook, not far from West Halton, where many 
Roman coins have occasionally been found, to Alkborough, 
where, on a commanding height overlooking the confluence of 
the Trent, Humber, and Ouse, as well as the whole Isle of 
Axholme, is a Roman camp, surrounded by a fosse and vallum, 
three hundred feet square, having an entrance on the north, 
and its western side protected by a steep declivity of the cliff 
on which it stands. The field in which this camp lies used to 
be called Countess Close, from a Countess of Warwick, who 
gave the manor of Alkborough to Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge. Close to this camp is a turf labyrinth, thirty feet in 
diameter, of mediaeval design, supposed to be of Roman origin, 
but in reality of later date.* These works were sometimes called 
Julian's bowers, or Troy towns, which helped to deceive Stukeley 
as to their extreme antiquity, and although there certainly were 
Roman labyrinthine devices, one of which has lately been dis- 
covered worked in a tesselated pavement at Caerleon, the turf 
labyrinth at Alkborough is distinctly a medieeval work, or at 
least a copy of one. 



* For the history of such works, see Archaeological Journal, vol. 15, 
p. 16, "or Architectural Societies' Papers, vol. 4, p. 351. 

F 



THE CAE-DIKE. 




I. Pickaxe from Trajan's Column. II. A Hoe from do. III. A Spade from a sepulchral 
bas-relief. IV. A Shovel from Pompeii. V. A Spade from a sepulchral painting. VI. A two- 
pronged Hoe from a gem. VII. A Hatchet from Trajan's Column. In the centre is a 
Labourer's Basket, also represented on Trajan's Column. 

The fens of this portion of England afforded the means of 
exhibiting the versatile genius of the Eomans during the period 
of their dominion in Britain. It was nature that here offered far 
greater difficulties to that people than the owners of the soil, 
for after the Romans had enforced the submission of the Girvii, 
or fen men, settled on the border of the Wash, they found that 
they had to control an element whose power had hitherto remained 
undisputed within their newly acquired territory and to rescue 
the fen lands of parts of Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire 
from the dominion of the upland waters, before much profit could 
be derived from the extraordinary fertility of their newly acquired 
lowlands^ 



SLEAFOBD. 65 

An immense amount of labour was required to effect this 
design ; but the Eomans were not a people to shrink from its 
execution ; and that they succeeded in accomplishing it is evident 
from the still existing testimony of one of their great earthworks, 
termed " the Car-Dike." This was once a wide and deep catch- 
water canal, commencing at a point on the Nene about half a mile 
from Peterborough, and terminating in the parish of Washing- 
borough, near Lincoln, where it formerly communicated with the 
Witham after a course of 56 miles in length. Such being its 
character, we may perceive two additional inducements that would 
lead the Eomans to carry out such a work. As the depth of the 
Oar-Dike was amply sufficient to float boats of considerable size, 
such a canal, before the Coritani were completely subjugated, 
would afford a ready means of transporting military stores through 
a dangerous district, because here the light armed natives would, 
from the nature of the ground, possess unusual advantages over 
their heavily armed invaders ; while afterwards, in peaceful times, 
such an inland navigation would be very valuable to the Eomans 
for trading purposes, connecting as it did, the river Nene with 
the Witham, and thus affording a means of inland communica- 
tion by water between the important cities of Lindum Colonia and 
Durolrivce, whereby the dangers of the ocean were avoided, as 
well as the difficulties of land transportation. 

Of the Eoman origin of the Oar-Dike there has never been 
any doubt, although the date of its formation is unrecorded, and 
the name of its originator unknown, because the Britons never 
dedicated so great an amount of labour as this required in behalf 
of a peaceful object, while the Eoman remains and traces that 
have been left on or near it point most satisfactorily to the nation 
under whose auspices it was created. 

It has been thought by some that the name Car-Dike 
may have been derived from some entrenched strongholds in its 
vicinity, as well as from its having afforded a means of transit 
between the British " Caer Dorm," or "Durobrivse," and " Caer 
Lin," or " Lindum Colonia " ; but it is far more likely that this 
name is of a much later date, and one that simply means fen-dike, 
or a cutting carried through the "cars," a term still commonly 
used in connection with fen lands. 

This ancient work is also occasionally called " the Bell-Dike," 
from a tradition, partially prevalent, that the original large bell, 



06 SLEAFOED. 

or " Great Tom" of Lincoln Cathedral,* was floated on a raft 
or boat to its destination all the way from Peterborough by 
means of the Car-Dike canal ; some adding that the bell was a 
present from an Abbot of Peterborough to the Cathedral of Lin- 
coln, and others that it was forcibly abstracted from his Minster. 
Such a popular belief is probably founded on the fact of some bell 
having been floated along the Car-Dike, and certainly points to a 
time when this cutting was used as a navigation for the trans- 
mission of heavy goods. 

Evidence on this head was also afforded some years ago by 
the discovery of a quantity of sculptured stones in that portion of 
the Car-Dike passing through the parish of Morton. These 
stones were clearly intended for the construction or reparation of 
some ecclesiastical building, but seem to have been accidentally 
sunk in the Car-Dike, in whose bed they remained for several 
centuries. 

This great work was most probably formed under the super- 
vision of a Eoman military engineer, and in part by the actual 
labour of Eoman troops, as they were habitually employed upon 
such works of utility, as well as of defence, when their services 
were not immediately required in the field ; for instance, in the 
midst of a war with Gaul, the Senate, while it commissioned one 
of the Consuls, Lucius Anicius Gallus to prosecute the campaign 
ordered the other, Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, to superintend the 
drainage of the Pontine Marshes, " they thinking," as Livy in- 
forms us, "that they could in no way better prove themselves to 
be faithful supervisors of the Commonwealth than by redeeming a 
large tract of land for its use;" the same author also elsewhere 
states, " that the Eoman Consuls, to prevent idleness on the part 
of the soldiery, habitually employed them in making highways, so 
that they were almost as well versed in the use of the spade as of 
the sword." The Eomans were accustomed to take a part in works 
of drainage on a large scale, so that we need not be surprised at 
the magnitude of those they have left behind them in this part of 



* The present bell, weighing 9894 Ibs., was cast in a furnace erected in 
the Minster Yard, by Henry Holdfield, of Nottingham, and William New- 
combe, of Leicester, who were co-contractors for this particular work alone, in 
the year 1610. It replaced one weighing 7807 Ibs., which possibly may have 
been transported from Peterborough. 






SLEAFORD. 67 

England. A large fenny district near Placentia in the valley of . 
the Po was drained by Scaurus, and supplied with navigable 
canals. The Emperor Claudius undertook the drainage of the 
Fucine Lake, employing 30,000 men for eleven years upon the 
work, but yet was forced to leave its completion to Hadrian. 
" Sueton in vita Claudii." Tacitus alludes to the cutting of a 
canal between the Rhine and the Meuse, 23 miles long, by means 
of which, he adds, the dangers of the ocean were avoided, and we 
may remember that the navigable canal of the Pontine Marshes 
along which track boats plied, and made so familiar to us by 
Horace, was but the drain of that fen district to which we have 
before alluded. 

But, although the Romans were fully accustomed to execute 
great works of drainage, no doubt they compelled the unfortunate 
natives of such countries as they had subdued to take a large 
share in the more laborious portions of these operations, and we 
actually find from the " Life of Agricola," that the Britons com- 
plained deeply of the Roman tyranny in this respect, declaring 
that their conquerors " wore out and consumed their bodies and 
hands in clearing the woods and embanking the fens." 

Stukeley has suggested that both the Ermine- Street and the 
Car-Dike were works of the reign of Nero, and from the mere 
fact of finding a series of synonymous names of places, &c., in the 
vicinity of the latter, such as Catesbridge, Catwater, Catscove, 
Catley, &c., he has, with his usual fervid imagination, proposed 
to hail Catus Decianus a Procurator in the above named Emperor's 
reign as its author ; all however that we know of that personage 
militates against such a decision, because during the short time 
of his administration he only exhibited his utter incapacity, 
having first allowed the Roman arms to be signally defeated, and 
then fled disgracefully into Gaul : In addition to which, as we 
find Stukeley afterwards proposing to make Carausius the con- 
structor of the Car-Dike on equally insecure ground, and that 
thus his opinion was capable of oscillating between two dates 
about 200 years apart, we can not look upon him as a safe 
authority, or indeed any authority at all, on this point. 

With far greater reason it may be surmised that the intelli- 
gent and indefatigable Cnseus Julius Agricola was the constructor 
of the Car-Dike, about the year A.D. 79, when he had succeeded 
in establishing the Roman rule almost universally in Britain, and 



68 SLEAFOED. 

was beginning to instruct its inhabitants in agriculture and com- 
merce, at the same time that he was securing and consolidating 
his conquests by forming lines of communication through Britain, 
and when such a canal as the Car-Dike would be most useful for 
the transmission of stores to the north during his Scottish cam- 
paigns. Agrieola was re-called by Domitian A.D. 84 ; hence, if 
he was the Car-Dike constructor, its date can thus be pretty 
accurately arrived at ; and this hypothesis is strengthened by the 
testimony of the Roman coins that have been found in many 
instances, and occasionally in large quantities, near the banks of 
this originally vast fen- dike ; but if after all it is of a later date, 
we can not possibly suppose it could have been carried out during 
the next 35 years when there was a temporary stagnation of 
Roman enterprise, and must therefore attribute it to Hadrian, 
when he visited Britain A.D. 120. 

Stukeley has surmised that the Car-Dike was defended by a 
series of "forts" that is military entrenchments, guarding its 
extremities, and commanding its navigation at intervals ; these 
he fixes at Eye, Narborough, Billinghay and Walcot, simply 
from an idea he entertained that those names appeared to point 
to such works, and not from a personal inspection of the Car- 
Dike ; but there are not the slightest traces of entrenchments at 
any of those places. His assumed Roman origin also of the 
" Low," the site of a medieval building near Peterborough, is 
very doubtful : here, he says very positively, was a camp ditched 
about, just where the Car-Dike begins on one side of the river, 
and another such fortification at Horsey- bridge on the other 
side of the river." Her. I. p. 8. Whereas, although the Low 
moat certainly did once communicate with the Car-Dike, it is far 
more probable that it was cut in that situation simply for the 
purpose of drawing the amount of water necessary for its supply 
from the adjacent and more ancient work. 

During the Saxon period the Car-Dike was no doubt entirely 
neglected in common with all the other great and useful Roman 
works ; hence its channel gradually diminished in depth through 
the washing in of soil and the yearly growth of weeds, although, 
from the magnitude of its banks, neither the neglect of man, nor 
the re-action of nature during many centuries has been able to 
efface its original grandeur entirely ; those evidences of its former 
importance still for the most part rising up. boldly along the edge 



SLEAFORD. 69 

of the lowlands between Peterborough and Lincoln, in rivalry 
with the modern railway and drainage works in their vicinity, 
although their formation was the result of simple manual labour 
unaided by the various appliances of modern science, or the 
gigantic power of steam. The first written allusion to the Car- 
Dike is to be found in the pseudo Chronicle of Ingulphus, who 
was elected Abbot of Croyland Abbey, A.D. 1076. In that 
work it is said that "Richard de Rulos, Chamberlain to the 
Conqueror, enclosed all his ands eastward to Car-Dike, and 
beyond Car-Dike to Cleylake beyond Crammor, excluding the 
river Welland with a mighty bank." Afterwards it is occa- 
sionally alluded to in the reports of the various commissioners 
successively appointed to examine the condition of the drains 
and embankments of the Lincolnshire fens ; whence we gather 
that it was considered to be an important feature in the then 
drainage of those lowlands for a considerable period, although 
its original use has now been superseded by more modern drains 
such as the Forty-foot and others. 

As might be expected, the original depth and width of the 
channel of the Car-Dike have now been for the most part greatly 
reduced, while its banks have at some points been expanded and 
lowered by the action of the plough, and at others, either mutila- 
ted or entirely removed ; there are, however, but few spots where 
its course may not still be traced, and from a careful inspection 
of its now very varying outline, and from measurements at many 
different points, I am of opinion that, at first, its channel was 
fifty feet wide, and eight feet deep, and that its banks were 
thirty feet wide below, lessening to ten feet above, whence the 
height of the banks above the natural ground level would also 
be ten feet. (See Section I.) 

As a rule, the Car-Dike forms the western boundary of the 
fens between Peterborough and Lincoln, the most trifling portions 
of rising land being carefully left on the west, except at Eye, 
Kyme, and a few other spots. The banks are entirely formed of 
the black fen soil, whenever this was of a sufficient depth for the 
purpose, but more usually of the silty clay forming the subsoil, 
strewn with the large flints and pebbles found between those 
strata ; hence they may be often readily discerned from the light 
colour and poor character of their soil, when their elevation can 
no longer be detected, as in Walcot and Timberland parishes. 



70 



SLEAFOKD. 
CAR-DIKE SECTIONS. 



T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

100 FEET 



THE PROBABLE ORIGINAL FORM. 



OPPOSITE STANDGROT7ND. 



NEAR PETERBOROUGH. 




NEAR NEWARK. 




NEAR EYE. 

6 



NEAR NORWOOD. 



SLEAFOED. 

7 
NEAR THURLBY. 

8 



71 



THE MIDDLE OF THE MIDFODDER BAR-DIKE. 



NEAR HECKINGTON TUNNEL. 

10 



SOUTH KYME. 
II 



NORTH KYME. 

12 



BILLINGHAY. 

13 



WALCOT. 

14- 




METHERINGHAM. 



72 SLEAFORD. 

Rennie, the engineer, gave high praise to the originators of 
this ancient work ; after he had inspected it professionally, pro- 
nouncing it "to have been well conceived," while even an 
ordinary observer can readily see how boldly it was executed. 

The level throughout is nearly uniform ; hence it has been 
a matter of surprise to some how it could have retained a supply 
of water sufficient to enable it to act as a navigation in summer, 
and yet to afford a means of exit to the upland waters during 
the winter months. It must, however, be remembered that 
as the Car-Dike was intersected by various natural streams, 
it would thus be kept full of water even in the driest seasons, and 
yet that through the same medium, as well as through its own 
natural terminals on the banks of the Nene and Witham, it 
would be able to pass off its redundant waters ; in addition to 
which, it must be borne in mind, that if flood gates were formerly 
required for the occasional protection of the Car-Dike from the 
overflowing of the said rivers, the Romans were fully acquainted 
with the use of such artificial hydraulic aids, so that no doubt 
they adopted them, if needful, although no traces of these can 
now be discerned. 

The southern end of the Car-Dike is close to Peterborough, 
but it was by no means out of any consideration for it that such a 
point was selected for the commencement of the canal under notice, 
because no such town as Peterborough was then in existence. 
The great town of this district during its Roman occupation was 
" Durobrivee," whose site is now partly marked by the village of 
Caistor, six miles distant from Peterborough. This was one of the 
ten cities in Britain put under the Latin law by the Romans 
" civitates Latio Jure donatae," according to the pseudo Richard 
of Cirencester, whence its inhabitants enjoyed all the. rights of 
Roman citizenship ; and perhaps it derived such a privilege from 
its situation on that great Roman via, the Ermine-Street, as well 
as on the Nene, then navigable up to its site, whence it enjoyed 
a means of water communication with " Lindum Colonia," 
through the Car-Dike. 

The grandeur of " Durobrivee " was partly revealed by the 
discoveries of the late Mr. E. T. Artis, while on the line between 
its site and Peterborough many Roman coins, vases, portions of 
pavements, &c., have occasionally been found, and especially in 
Longthorpe field. These coins belonged to the reigns of Augustus, 



SLEAFOKD. 73 

Claudius, JElius the adopted son of Hadrian, &c. Descending the 
Nene to a point half a mile to the south east of Peterborough,* 
and opposite Standground sluice toll house, the southern entrance 
of the Car-Dike was reached, and there faint traces of its channel 
and banks may still be seen. (Sec. 2.) 

These, after crossing a modern drain, become more conspi- 
cuous, the former being indicated by a shallow bed 30 feet wide, 
which afterwards resembles an ordinary ditch, and is flanked by 
some remains of its banks, until it approaches the Low, before 
alluded to, where a variety of Celtic implements and a boat, or 
dug-out, of the same period, were discovered, in the bed of the 
Nene, as recorded by Artis. 

Running by a high modern bank in the direction of Wisbech, 
the Car-Dike may be clearly seen on its way towards Fen-gate, 
where its banks are now surmounted by a windmill and a few 
cottages, shortly beyond which they begin to assume a far more 
imposing character. (Sec. 3.) Passing through the Boon field, 
the channel then gradually increases in width, until upon 
approaching the village of Newark it is 50 feet wide, and is used 
as an osier bed. (Sec. 4.) Then contracting again, upon enter- 
ing Newark, a turnpike road is carried along its eastern bank, 
which, with its companion bank, fringed with willows, thus runs 
nearly to Eyef There -turning abruptly to the west, the Eoman 
engineer boldly cut through a promontory of rising ground, 
instead of skirting it, according to the general rule observed, 
whence this is one of the most remarkable points of the Car-Dike, 
a lofty bank on one side, and a plantation on the other, here 
rising on either side of the canal. (Sec. 5.) 

Afterwards the eastern bank is crowned for a short space by 
the modern Wirrington road, before it reaches Norwood. There 
both banks are very striking, particularly at a turn they make 
westward, (Sec. 6.,) whence they may be seen stretching over the 
plain to a considerable distance. Afterwards they decline in 



* A silver coin of Antoninus was found near the Car-Dike at the back of 
Peterborough Minster, and many Roman coins about its precincts. Iter Cur., 
I., p. 7., Note. 

f Absurdly thought to derive its name from "agger," by Stukeley. 
Here sundry Celtic remains were found in the last century, consisting of brass 
spear heads and celts. 






74 SLEAFOED. 

height, but not in width, making several turns for the purpose 
of leaving all the elevated ground on the west, and nothing but 
fen land on the east. 

Opposite Wirrington this ancient work was remodelled about 
30 years ago, so as to form a modern drain, termed, from its 
supposed unnecessary size, "the folly." This runs into the 
Welland a little above Peakirk, but the Car-Dike has been 
allowed to continue its course from a point about a mile south of 
that village, as an ordinary ditch accompanied by some traces of 
its banks, until it is entirely lost on the western side of the Rail- 
way Station. Thence it passed by Peakirk, towards the foot of 
the slight eminence crowned by Glinton ; after which it again 
resumed its northern course, as it may next be traced, as a simple 
ditch flanked by slight remains of its banks, a little to the south 
east of Northborough, and as far as the junction of the Deeping 
and Maxey road with that leading from Northborough to Peakirk, 
where it is again lost. 

It appears however to have pursued its course northwards, 
until it reached the Welland, and entered Lincolnshire at Market 
Deeping ; after which it ran a little to the east of Towngate, on 
a line now designated by a perfectly straight road, as it may 
again be seen at the end of this, where it joins the Towngate 
Outgang road, at first as a ditch only, but afterwards flanked by 
portions of its old wide banks as far as Langtoft,* with one 
exception, about a mile south of that village, where a deep hollow 
now alone indicates its former existence. After crossing the 
Langtoffc Outgang road, the Car-Dike has been forced to do ser- 
vice in connexion with a moat surrounding an old Mansion there, 
and also as a small fishpond. Hence it runs as a ditch, accompa- 
nied by slight signs of the ancient banks to Baston ;f crossing 
the Baston road, it may be subsequently traced in the form 



* At a spot about half a mile from the Car-Dike and Langtoft, an urn 
was found, some fifty years ago, containing about a thousand small brass 
Roman coins ; since which time others of silver and brass hare been occasion- 
ally found, as well as in Ufnngton parish near here, including one of Vespasian. 

( Many Roman coins have been found in this parish, one person there 
now possessing about eighty of these, including a large brass Trajan, and 
several good specimens of Claudius Gothicus, Constantino the Great, Con- 
stantine the 2nd, Magnentius, and Yalens. 



SLEAFORD. 75 

of a wide hollow as far as Thetford Hall, where it becomes 
a long fishpond again, reaching nearly to the river Glen by 
Kates-bridge. After crossing that stream, the Car-Dike shrinks 
into the limits of an ordinary ditch, but, presently, its eastern 
bank again becomes apparent, at some spots being 90 feet wide 
and 5 feet high, while both banks are evident on approach- 
ing Thurlby, whose Church is built upon one, and the parsonage 
upon the other. Passing Thurlby Hall as a wide, bankless, 
and not very odoriferous ditch, it arrives opposite Elsea wood, 
where the eastern bank is 90 feet wide and 4 feet high (Sec, 
7.), and is again occasionally visible until it reaches some 
garden ground in the immediate vicinity of Bourn,* whence it 
runs through the eastern suburb of that town to a point about a 
mile and a half further to the north, accompanied only by 
occasional traces of its original banks ; but then they again be- 
come conspicuous and are 90 feet wide in the hamlet of Dyke. 
After passing Morton, f the banks sink, but still flanking a ditch 
between them, the Car-Dike passes through the parishes of 
Hacconby, Dunsby, and Dowsby ;J in this last a modern road 
occasionally surmounts the eastern bank ; then the channel con- 
tinues in a dwindled form until it approaches Billingborough, 
where, for a short space, its ancient width is well defined, as well 
as the magnitude of its banks. After having been crossed by 
the Bridge-end road, or Salter's way, near Threekingham, its 
wide banks are still conspicuous in the parish of Swaton, and its 



* The ancient course of the Car-Dike has been altered for a short space 
here, but is still well knowii from the difficulty it presents to persons wishing 
to build or rebuild on its site. 

f In this parish many Koman coins have formerly been found, as well 
as in Grimsthorpe Park, including a fine large brass of Hadrian. Iter. 
Cur., I., ps. 7, 12." And this is not surprising, for at Stainfield, near 
Morton and Grimsthorpe, there was once clearly a considerable Roman 
Station as indicated by the blackness of the soil there, mingled with Eoman 
pottery ; this spot, indeed, used to be a perfect treasury of Roman coins, whence 
the market women brought many specimens for sale to Bourn on market days. 
There was an entrenched camp also at Edenham, a little to the south west of 
Stainfield. 

J Between this village and Pointon, at a spot about half a mile from the 
Car-Dike, is a group of six tumuli, probably British, now termed "the Hoe 
Hills." 



76 SLEAFOKD. 

bed is used as a modern drain for about a mile, but this again 
dwindles to a ditch between low banks in Helpringham parish 
until it approaches the Great Hale road, where both the banks 
and the channel are better defined ; then again the latter lessens 
and the former sink, although still wide, before they are crossed 
by the Boston and Sleaford road and railway. This ancient 
work then reaches a group of cottages in Star Fen, beyond the 
Littleworth road, where its banks have been sadly mutilated, and 
occasionally entirely removed. Hence passing by the Heckington* 
Eau Dyke, and through the parish of Ewerby, it runs in a straight 
line to Heckington tunnel a little to the west of South Kyme. At 
first the banks of this portion of the Oar-Dike, here termed the 
Midfodder, are wide, but after awhile the western one has been 
more or less removed, and then again both now present much the 
same appearance as they originally did, having been remodelled 
of late years and planted with a triple row of willows ; but the 
channel has here been divided by a central bank thrown up in 
the midst of it. (Sec. 8.) 

Before reaching Heckington tunnel the Oar-Dike assumes a 
less perfect form, (Sec. 9,) and next it constitutes a portion of the 
Boston and Sleaford Navigationf for about a quarter of a mile 



* In Heckington parish Boman coins are sometimes found, among which 
one of Julia Mammsea, and also in the adjoining one of Kirkby-Laythorpe, 
including some of Septimius, Severus, Faustina the younger, and Constantino 
the 2nd. 

f From this point to its junction with the "Witham, it is called the Kyme 
Eau, which was used as a navigable canal in the early part of the 14th century, 
as we gather from documentary evidence ; in the 16th Ed. 3d., Gilbert de 
Humfraville, Earl of Angus, then exhibiting a petition to the king, wherein he 
set forth, that a certain water called the Ee of Kyme, between Doc-Dyke on 
the east, and Brentfen on the south, which ran through his lands for the space 
of six miles in length, was so obstructed and stopped by reason of mud and 
other filth, that ships laden with wine, wool, and other merchandize, could 
neither pass through the same in summer nor in winter, as they had been used 
to do, except it were scoured and cleaned, and the banks so raised, that the 
tops of them might appear to mariners passing that way, whensoever the 
marshes there should be overflowed. And that as the said Earl had for the 
common benefit of those parts bestowed no small cost towards the repair of 
the said place, called the Ee, and heightening of those banks, so he intended 
to be at much more, in case the said king would please to grant unto him and 
his heirs for ever, certain customs of the merchandize passing in ships through 



SLEAFOKD. 77 

before reaching a house termed Halfpenny Hatch. In cleaning 
out its bed here a few years ago a small Roman vase of grey ware, 
was discovered, figured subsequently on page 79. 

A hollow, 50 feet wide, there indicates its line, flanked by 
detached portions of the banks resembling a range of tumuli ; but 
soon again, as a broad ditch between low wide banks, it reaches 
the Sleaford and Tattershall road. (Sec. 10.) Near this point, 
in the parish of North Kyme,* is a small entrenched camp, for- 
ming a parallelogram 554 feet long, and 354 feet wide (figured 
on the next page). This is formed by an outer agger, or bank, 
20 feet wide, and an inner one, 13 feet wide, and 138 feet long. 
The angles of this last are rather higher than the other portions, 
to give additional security at those points, but the average height 
of both aggers is about 4 feet. It will be seen from the plan that 
the lines of the outer and inner aggers do not run at equal dis- 
tances from each other, there being only a space 12 feet wide 
between these at the east end to correspond with one 47 feet wide 
at the west end. There are now gaps through both aggers, on the 
north, south, and west sides of the camp, of which the chief are 
on the south side and may be original. In the area so enclosed 
are traces of three mounds or tumuli, placed at nearly equal 
distances from one another. 

A little to the north of this was formerly a tumulus 100 feet 
wide at its base. In 1820 some spear heads were found within 



the same, to have and receive in form above said, viz : for every sack of wool 
carried through the channel, fourpence ; for every pocket of wool, twopence ; 
for every ton of wine, fourpence ; for every pipe of wine, twopence ; for every 
four quarters of corn, a penny ; for every thousand of turfs, a penny ; for 
every ship laden with cotton, fourpence ; and for every ship laden with other 
commodities than aforesaid, twopence. 

"Wherefore the said king directed his precept to "William Fraunk, then 
his Escheator in this county, that he should forthwith make inquisition, and 
certify whether it would be to the damage of him the said king or his subjects, 
if the said customs were granted unto the before mentioned Gilbert for the 
purposes above expressed. And accordingly the said Escheator did certify 
that it would not be prejudicial to the said king or any others to make such 
a grant. Gougtis History of Imbanking, p. 196." 

* In digging into a bank near the Car-Dike here, two bronze leaf-shaped 
swords were discovered, in 1820 ; the one was 1ft. lO^in. long, and the other 
1ft. 7in. 



78 



SLEAFOKD. 

E. 




W. 

PLAN OF KYME CAMP. 



it, probably of tlie Britisli period; but when it was entirely 
removed, a few years ago, nothing further was discovered. 

After crossing the Sleaford and Tattershall road the banks 
of the canal are more fully developed, especially when running 
parallel with the village of North Kyme, (Sec. 11,) but again 



SLEAFOFvD. 79 

sink, until they arrive at a point where they have been repaired 
for the purpose of forming a drain connected with the Billinghay 
Navigation. (Sec. 12.) 

There the Tattershall road is carried along the eastern bank, 
but diverges from it again before it reaches Billinghay. In a 
gravel pit a little to the north of this village, and about a quarter 
of a mile from the Car-Dike, ten skeletons were recently found, 
lying north and south, within two feet of the surface, and with 
them a portion of a conglomerate quern, and three small vases of 
dark grey Durobrivan pottery ; two of these are represented in 
the subjoined cuts, the tallest of which is 5 inches high, the other 
3j inches high. 




VASE FOUND AT HALFPENNY HATCH. VASES FOUND AT BILLINGHAY. 



After passing by the parsonage garden and some cottages 
built on its western bank, the channel, here resembling an ordi- 
nary ditch, turns abruptly to the north west, under a small tunnel 
near the church ; but soon traces of its original wide banks again 
appear, and at a point about a mile and a half from Billinghay, 
are conspicuous from the poverty of the yellow silty clay of which 
they are made, as contrasted with the natural surface soil by the 
side of them. 

After passing Walcot, the whole work still remains very per- 
fect, (Sec. 13,) and forms a striking line of demarkation between 
the undulating ground on the left and the perfectly level fen lands 
on the right, extending almost as far as the eye can reach towards 

G 



80 SLEAFOBD. 

the Wolds ; but before reaching Thorpe Tilney, it has been much 
mutilated. Here Walcot Delph, the first of several large modern 
drains, crosses the Car-Dike at right angles. Opposite Thorpe 
Tilney there are some sharp turns in its banks, which have been 
considerably altered before they reach Timberland* parish, where 
they again become more perfect. At this point rising ground is 
seen extending towards the right, and on advancing this will be 
found to form a promontory skirted by the Car-Dike, where its 
usually sluggish waters are enlivened by a running brook. After- 
wards the natural sloping ground on the right served as one bank 
of the canal, while the other has been made to correspond with it 
artificially, for a considerable distance. (Sec. 14.) 

At the end of Martin wood Timberland delph is passed, and 
here a modern road runs along the top of the eastern bank past 
the village of Martin, f an old Jacobean house called Linwood,]: 
surrounded by trees, a farm house, and some cottages, built 
upon its edge. From this point its western bank is covered with 
trees, forming the edge of Blankney wood, and the eastern one 
is also prettily dotted with thorns. About a mile further to 
the north, Metheringham delph is passed, and here for a short 
space the Dike banks have been removed, but again are seen 
rising on either side of a wide channel, (Sec. 15.) until they 
reach the road leading to the village of Metheringham, where the 
former become less apparent, and the latter shrinks into a ditch ; 
but upon approaching Nocton wood, the channel is 12 feet wide, 
owing to the waters of Dunston beck which here flow into it ; and 
the flat treeless plain through which the Car-Dike has so far 
passed, is exchanged for a woodland scene on either side. Here 
its banks, although covered with trees and bushes, are very visible 
until they reach Nocton delph, where the eastern one emerges from 
the wood, but the other still continues just within its limits as far 
as its northen boundary marked by some rising ground called 



* A hoard of Roman coins was found near the Car-Dike, in this parish, 
in 1808. 

t When Martin mere was drained, no less than eight British canoes were 
discovered. Itin. Cur. Iter., I., Note, p. 16. 

% Formerly a gold tore was dug up here, but it was immediately disposed 
of to a Jew, and melted up. 



SLEAFORD. 81 

Abbey hills, near Nocton Hall.* Hence a road runs along its 
eastern bank, here for the most part much worn down, so as to be 
detected at times only by the lighter colour of its soil, and a long 
wood known by the names of Low-barf, Norman-hay, and Han- 
worth-spiney covers the western bank. After passing the road 
leading to Bardney, once so famed for its Abbey, the Oar-Dike 
turns more towards the east, and is bordered by Branston wood, 
until reaching Branston delph, where a modern road runs along 
the western bank, which is still conspicuous from its size as it passes 
opposite Washingborough wood on its way to the turn to Heigh- 
ington. Hence the banks run towards the east without so much 
as a ditch between them to represent the ancient channel, and 
even these are occasionally almost lost, the lighter colour of the 
remains of the subsoil of which they were originally made being 
the principal evidence of their former existence. 

After diverging slightly from the Washingborough road, 
where the Car-Dike for a short way is almost obliterated, it may 
again be traced running parallel with that road on the right, 
until it passes behind a row of houses forming the northern por- 
tion of the village of Washingborough, and is then finally lost 
within a very short distance of the Witham, near the Railway 
Station, and opposite the village of Greetwell. 

Here terminates this great work, giving access to Lindum 
Colonia during the Roman dynasty, and thence by the Foss-dike, 
another similar Roman canal, to the Trent, Humber, and Ouse. 
Thinking it would be interesting to give representations of the 
implements used by the Romans in the formation of their earth 
works, a group of these is given as a heading to this description 
of the Car-dike, taken from various authentic sources. (See 
page 64.) 

Such are the greater Roman remains connected with the 
Wapentakes of Flaxwell and Aswardhurn, forming a part of 
their province of Flavia Caesariensis, and reference will be made 
to many smaller vestiges of that wonderful people in connection 
with the various parishes about to be described in this volume. 

* In cleaning out the Car-Dike in this parish, some clay moulds for 
casting Roman coins were discovered, in 1811, also two boats, or canoes, of a 
very early period. These were presented by Sir Joseph Banks to the British 
Museum. 



82 SLEAFOED. 

General history informs us why the Eomans eventually re- 
tired from Britain, whose coming was considered a national 
infliction, but whose departure was viewed with dismay; and 
then it records how another human wave, also considered as 
another very grave infliction, was preparing to sweep over our 
country before the Eomans retired from it, and destined to pro- 
duce far more permanent results as regards the character of its 
population, although not calculated to astonish us with such 
mighty works of art and such proofs of indomitable perseverance 
as were exhibited by the Eomans. To these and to the next 
invaders of the British soil we must shortly advert, because they 
also have left traces of their former occupation of that part of 
Lincolnshire proposed to be described. 



THE SAXONS AND THE DANES. 

The Saxons, coming from the shores of the Caspian across 
the centre of Europe in a north westerly direction, at length 
reached the Cymbric peninsula, and, dispossessing its former 
inhabitants, they gradually peopled Jutland, Schleswick and 
Holstein, as also the islands of North Strandt, Busen, and Heli- 
goland or Heiligiland.* Not content, however, with the territory 
they had thus boldly wrested from its earlier occupants, the 
Saxons were in the habit of making such frequent incursions on 
the coast of England, as well as of Belgium and Gaul, as to com- 
pel the Eoman government to equip a fleet at Boulogne for the 
especial purpose of repelling their attacks; which fleet was 
placed under the command of the celebrated Carausius.f Aland 



* The Saxon confederation at length reached from the Elbe to the Ehine. 
This people is first mentioned by name in Ptolemy's Geography, where the 
Saxons are described as living on the north side of the Elbe, on the neck of 
the Cimbric Chersonesus, and inhabiting three small islands Lib. II, c. 11. 

t Carausius, a low born Menapian, having amassed great wealth by plun- 
dering smaller naval plunderers, excited the anger or the jealousy of the 
Emperor Maximian, who ordered the execution of Carausius. Upon this, the 



SLEAFOED. 83 

force was also raised for the same purpose, whose chief was 
termed " Count of the Saxon Shore." 

For two hundred years a series of petty invasions had been 
carried on by the Saxons before the landing of Hengist and 
Horsa at Ebbes Fleet ; and sometimes these had assumed a seri- 
ous aspect, as in the year 368, when combining with the Picts, 
Scots, and Attacottians, they slew Nectaridus, the Boman com- 
mander of the Saxon shore, and defied several of his successors, 
until Yalentinian sent Theodosius as a commander, who com- 
pletely subdued them for a time. 

After the departure of the Bomans, however, the Saxons by 
degrees took possession of the greater part of Britain ; but it was 
one hundred and thirty years before the Heptarchy, or perhaps 
we may say the Octarchy,* of that people was established, Hen- 
gist founding the kingdom of Kent in 457, Ella that of Sussex 
in 477 ; Cerdic, "Wessex, in 495 ; certain chiefs, Essex, in 530 ; 
and others, East Anglia, about the same date ; Ida, Bernicia, in 
547 ; Ella, Deira, in 559 ; and, last of all, Mercia was founded 
in 586. 

Of the three Teutonic peoples combining in the invasion of 
England, the Saxons established themselves in the south, except- 
ing Kent, the Isle of Wight, and part of the adjoining coast of 
Hampshire, which were seized by the Jutes from South Jutland ; 
while the Angles, from the district of Anglen in Sleswick, settled 
themselves in the northern and midland portions of our island. 
Thus Lincolnshire was undoubtedly a portion of the Anglian 
province of Mercia. f 

Deep must have been the sufferings of the Britons at this 
time, although for the most part unrecorded. Their faith in 



intended victim boldly assumed the imperial purple, and for seven years 
defied the power of Borne, holding supreme power in Britain from 287 to 293. 

* The number of the Saxon kingdoms varied at different periods, through 
the absorption of some by conquest for a time, and again by their after sepa- 
ration ; but they were once clearly eight in mimber. 

f This province comprising the central portion of England was divided 
into north and south Mercia by the course of the Trent ; North Mercia com- 
prising the modern counties of Chester, Derby, and Nottingham ; South 
Mercia Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Eutland, Huntingdon, parts of 
Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Gloucester- 
shire, Worcestershire, Herefordshire, Staffordshire, and Shropshire. 



84 SLEAFOKD. 

Christ, which at least some of them had embraced, derided by 
the fierce heathen conquerors of their land, their dominion lost, 
their hunting grounds seized, their persons enslaved ; by flight 
alone could they save themselves from a grinding tyranny, and 
perhaps from a cruel death. Many, therefore fled from the scene 
of their birth and from their lawful inheritance, to the mountains 
of Wales, and to the remote wilds of Cumberland and Cornwall ; 
but some did not feel themselves secure until they had placed the 
sea between themselves and their oppressors by emigrating to 
Bretagne,* a fact still attested by its name. Attacking the 
Britons on all sides, the Saxons gradually drove them all out 
like beasts from the confines of their several kingdoms, except 
such as they converted into slaves and drudges. Yet these 
retired before their invaders only by slow degrees, fought with 
them often and obstinately, and were occasionally victorious even 
long after that period when this country had assumed a national 
Saxon character ; thus Exeter was only lost to the Britons so late 
as the reign of Athelstan ; and Gloucester, Cirencester, and Bath 
not until A.D. 571 ; whilst they obtained a signal victory over the 
people of Wessex, at Wanborough, in 581. 

But a great change was now at hand ; the holy leaven of 
Christianity was about to exercise its benignant influence over 
the Saxon kingdoms of Britain, under the auspices of the good, 
as well as great Gregory of Rome, and through the instrumen- 
tality of Augustine; Ethelbert of Kent and his subjects having 
embraced Christianity in 596 a happy precedent, which was by 
degrees followed by all the other Saxon princes of England and 
their people, of whom, Edwin of Deira introduced Christianity 
into Yorkshire in 627, and shortly afterwards into Lincolnshire. 
The continental Saxons, however, still remained in their heathen 
condition, until Charlemagne took some steps to forward their 
conversion ; and we find from an exceedingly interesting letter, 
written by that emperor to Offa, our Saxon king of Mercia, in 



* Another large body of Britons emigrated to Bretagne in 664, owing to 
a pestilence which terribly afflicted England and "Wales at that time. Those 
that remained suffered much from the Saxons, and were visited with fire as 
well as with the sword. Bangor monastery, for instance, with its library, 
was destroyed by Ethelfrith. Humph. Lhuyd Comm. Frag. Brit. Descrip. 
58. 



SLEAFORD. 85 

777, that his efforts had met with some success, and that he 
offered his protection and every encouragement to all pilgrims 
engaged in Christian missionary work.* 

It was well that the Saxons had secured some consolation 
for themselves, which no man could take from them, for great 
troubles were at hand; and as they had harried the Britons, 
driven them out with fire and sword from their hereditary lands, 
or else had enslaved them so, now they, in their turn, were 
about to experience a calamity, which, though apparently not 
of great moment, yet eventually afflicted the whole Saxon terri- 
tory, and was most severely felt, more or less, by its entire 
population. This plague was the Danish Invasion. 

Prodigies foreboding the advent of the Danes are said by 
our old chroniclers to have preceded the arrival of that people ; 
and, amongst others, that men's clothing was found mysteriously 
marked with the symbol of the Cross, in token that they were, 
by repentance, to prepare for the coming visitation. f But 
why were the Danes to be so deeply and so justly dreaded ? 
They were Teutons from Denmark and Norway, of the same 
race with the Saxons of Britain ; and yet they were about to 
rob, to burn, to slay, without pity and without remorse, their 
brother Teutons, who still used nearly the same language, dress, 
and arms that they did themselves. Such an act demands 
a reason for its perpetration ; and we shall find on enquiry that 
there were two principal causes leading to this result. First, 
Necessity ; and secondly, a Difference as to the religious faith of the 
two peoples. As the Saxons had been, in some measure at least, 
compelled to leave the shores of Northern Germany through the 
inconvenient increase of their numbers, J so, towards the close of 



* Du Chesne, Script. Fr. II., p. 28. 

t Chronicle of Henry of Huntingdon, Lib. IV. 

i "Et sicut hi, qui lascivientes arborum ramos solent succidere, ut radix 
reliquis, sufficire poterit, sic incolae illarum provinciarum sorte terram allevi- 
ant, ni tarn numerosae prolis pastu exhausta succumbat .... Inde est 
quod homines illarura provinciarum tantam invenerunt ex necessitate vir- 
tutem, ut a patria ejecti peregrinas sedes armis vindicarent ; sicut Wandali 
olim Africam, Gothi Hispaniain, Longobardi Italiam, Normanni partem 
Gallise, quain Normaniam ex suo nomine notaverunt, subsiderunt." Historic*, 
Monasterii S. Augustini Cantuaricnsis, p. 139 (by Thomas of Elmham). 



86 SLEA.FOBD. 

the 8tli century, Denmark found that she could no longer sup- 
port her enlarging population with the scanty produce of her 
northern soil.* Hence her boldest and most daring sons already 
in the habit of entrusting themselves to their vessels with as 
much confidence as that wherewith they trod their mother earth 
sought the coasts of more southern countries, whence corn, 
cattle, and spoil of various kinds could be readily carried off by 
brave adventurers like themselves. Nor had they any scruple 
in committing such wrong and such robbery upon the English 
soil ; for, although there existed a tie of blood between them- 
selves and the Saxons, an event had occurred tending to fill their 
hearts with mingled feelings of contempt and hatred towards 
their kinsmen, instead of with sympathy and affection. The 
Saxons no longer believed in Odin, in the glory reserved in Val- 
halla for the shedders of blood, in the banquets prepared for the 
brave, in the future delight of drinking beer and strong liquors 
out of the skulls of their enemies. No, they were a renegade 
race, who showed mercy and pity, believed in some new and 
strange superstition, whose warriors had become women, whose 
children were only fit to be hurled in sport from one true hero's 
spear-head to another, whose temples ought to be consigned to 
the flames. 

The Danes in the first instance dreamt of nothing but pirat- 
ical descents on the shores of this island. Entering our great 
bays, such as that of the Wash ; or ascending rivers such as 
the Humber, Ouse, and Trent, until they drew near the fat 
beeves and sheep of our rich alluvial lands, they pursued their 
pillaging, burning, bloodstained course on land, and loaded them- 
selves with spoil ; after which, a cloud of dust betokened their 
return towards the water's edge, and columns of smoke rose be- 
hind their fatal track, as witnesses of their savage depradations ; 
nor was it until they were emboldened by repeated successes, 
that the Danish Yikingr thought of aiming at permanent terri- 
torial conquests, in addition to the migratory stimulus they 
experienced at home from the redundancy of their increasing 
population ; but at length just as adventurous spirits from 
Spain and Portugal were always forthcoming for a voyage to 



* Olafs Saga, p. 97. 



SLEAFOED. 87 

America, after its discovery by Columbus and others, and eventu- 
ally to settle there in constantly increasing numbers so the 
Danes, after repeated visits to our shores, began to take posses- 
sion of the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire soil, and gradually to 
advance the line of their settlements by driving out all such of 
its former owners as resisted this usurpation. 

The first recorded Danish descent upon the British shore 
took place in 786 under Kebright, who entered the Humber and 
landed with his marauding followers on its bank, when a fight 
ensued between them and Herman, an officer of Brightric, a local 
chief, who had married king Offa's daughter, which ended in 
Herman's death, but in the defeat of the Danes, who fled to 
their ships. " Peter Langtoft's Chronicle." 

The next recorded Danish descent on the coast of Lincoln- 
shire was more successful, when those Northmen, again entering 
the Humber and seizing all the horses they could find, advanced 
into Lindisse, defeated and slew the Earldorman Herbert, and 
marched triumphantly through Lincolnshire to East Anglia and 
Kent. The cruel death of Regner Lodbrog at the hands of ^Ella, 
king of Northumbria, in 865, led to the most disastrous conse- 
quences ; for as the captivity of Cceur de Lion so plaintively 
bewailed by the mediaeval troubadours led to enormous sacri- 
fices on the part of his people, and, as his death in an Austrian 
prison would have aroused the deepest spirit of vengeance 
throughout the kingdom, so the horrid details of Regner's death 
no doubt exaggerated by the bards of Scandinavia* aroused 
all the naturally fiery feelings of the Northmen against the in- 
habitants of that land where it occurred ; and quickly an immense 
army of commingled Danes, Swedes, Norwegians, and even 
Russians, bent on vengeance, under the command of Hinguar 
and Hubbo, reached the shore of East Anglia, where they win- 



* The Lodbrokar Guida, as it is termed or poem relating to the death 
of this noted hero is one of the most celebrated ancient compositions of the 
North. It is thought by most to have been Eagner's own composition, or 
that of his wife Aslanga, who is known to have been a Schald, or poetess. 
A Schald usually accompanied any important warlike expedition, for the pur- 
pose of recording its progress, and encouraging the fighting men to perform 
acts of valour by reminding them of the feats of their fathers. The great 
Canute, we may remember, was a Schald as well as a mighty king. 



88 SLEAFOKD. 

tered, and prepared for their intended conquest of Northumbria, 
by collecting from the surrounding population forced tributes of 
horses and other necessaries for their coming campaign. 

Being on their mission of revenge, the Danes rapidly tra- 
versed Lincolnshire on their way to York. During this campaign 
the Northmen not only took that city, but permanently reduced 
Northumbria to subjection ; after having completely defeated its 
army with great slaughter, killed Osbert, one of its princes, and 
wreaked upon ^Ella, the slayer of their Regner, that vengeance 
they had vowed to visit him with whom they first most cruelly 
tortured, and then finally executed.* Having secured the con- 
quest of Northumbria, the Danes during the following year again 
crossed the Humber, and then either ascended the Trent, or 
perhaps marched through a portion of this county on their way 
to Nottingham, where they wintered, but whence they were 
forced to retire again to York, by the forces of Burhead, king of 
Mercia, aided by those of Ethelred of Wessex.f There they 
remained stationary during 868, perhaps in consequence of a 
severe famine that then occurred ; but in the spring of the follow- 
ing year, the Northmen commenced their celebrated progress of 
blood from one extremity of Lincolnshire to the other. Landing 
at Humberstone, deliberately did the sword descend ; slowly, but 
surely, was fire applied, until there was nothing left to burn. 
First, Lindsey suffered throughout that fatal summer, when the 
splendid and venerated abbey of Bardney was utterly destroyed, 
and all its defenceless monks were cruelly slain within its church. J 
At Michaelmas the Witham was passed ; and the wail of Keste- 
ven began, as its monasteries, churches, and villages were fired 
in succession, and its unresisting inhabitants of both sexes and 
all ages were given to the sword. Resistance, however, was at 
hand the result of desperation. Osgot, the sheriff of Lincoln, 
took the field with 500 men, in concert with Earl Algar from 
Holland, who, assisted by Wibert and Leofric, raised 300 men 



* The sons of Eegner are said to have divided his back, spread his ribs 
in the figure of an eagle, and agonized his lacerated flesh by the addition of a 
saline stimulant. Anglo-Saxons, by Sharon Turner, II, p. 20. 

f In this campaign Earl Algar the younger, of Spalding, greatly distin- 
guished himself. Historia Ingulphi, anno 866. 

I Historia Ingulphi, anno 869. 



SLEAFOED. 89 

from Deeping, Boston, and Langtoft, and Toll, once a soldier but 
then a monk of Croyland, with 200 of the inmates of that abbey, 
and Morcar, lord of Bourn. These on the feast of St. Maurice 
dared to attack the van of the invading army, and gained a 
complete victory over the Danes, killing three of their chiefs, 
and chasing their forces from the battle-field to their camp in the 
rear. Unhappily, however, an immense reinforcement of North- 
men arrived during the ensuing night at the quarters of their 
defeated countrymen, headed by ten chiefs of different grades, 
including Hinguar and Ubbo ;* and this coming to the ears of 
the associated Lincolnshire forces, so terrified them that many 
individuals fled secretly during the night, and thus most inop- 
portunely diminished their already far too small numbers. Earl 
Algar, however, who acted as commander-in-chief, boldly and 
skilfully marshalled his little band, after having first joined 
with it in offering up public prayer to Gk>d, and partaken of 
the "viaticum," all that remained with him being determined 
to die in defence of their faith and their country, rather than 
to yield to their heathen foes. With Toli on his right, aided by 
Morcar ; and Osgot on his left, supported by Harding of Eyhall 
and a band of young fighting men from Stamford, he remained 
in the centre with his two Senecshals as Ingulphus terms them 
Wibert and Leofric, being prepared to aid either wing as 
occasion required. The Danes, very early on this fatal morn- 
ing, having first buried their three fallen chiefs, advanced, 
burning with fury to avenge their previous loss, against the little 
band of Saxon warriors they saw before them. This had been 
so skilfully formed in a wedge shape, that the Danish cavalry 



* A most extraordinary birth has been attributed to these savage chiefs 
by one of the old chroniclers, in consequence of the merciless ferocity of their 
deeds, Thomas of Elmham saying "Quo tempore venerunt Hynguar et 
Hubba, qui ut fertur, filii fuerunt cujusdam ursi, qui illos contra naturam de 
filia regis Dacise generabat ; quam Sanctus Edmundus, ob eandam causam 
Daciam transiens, cum illud horribile facinus, favore cujusdam cubicularii 
ejusdem dominae, perpendisset, in camera noctu latitans sub cortinis infaustum 
contra naturam aspiciens ursinum cum faemina coitum, extracto gladio ursi 
caput abscidit, et mox in Angliam rediit. Ob quam causam eadem mulier, 
filiis adultis retulit Edmundum prsetactum patrem eorundem, quern ilii homi- 
nem fuisse putaverant occidisse. Et hsec fertur fuisse causa adventus illorum. " 



90 SLEAFOKD. 

charged time after time against each of its faces in vain. Through- 
out the whole day did the men of Lincolnshire stand, as firmly 
in their triangle on the Kesteven soil, as did their fellow 
countrymen centuries afterwards, in squares, on the plains of 
Waterloo ! But then the Danes had recourse to other means ; 
they feigned a retreat ; upon which, deaf to the call of their 
leaders, the Lincolnshire men, breaking up their position, pur- 
sued the flying host with eager impetuosity, and thus sealed their 
own destruction ; for quickly did the Danes return, and entirely 
surrounded the little band that could be formed no more, 
slaughtering them all in turn ; their six heroic chiefs, planting 
themselves on a slight eminence, vainly fought to the last over 
the bodies of their fallen followers, returning blow for blow with 
their raging foes, until they one after another sank, and expired, 
with the name of patriot as justly attaching to their memory as 
it does to any of the heroes of Greece or Borne. Two or three 
Sutton and Gedney lads alone escaped, bearing the afflicting and 
alarming news to the inmates of Croyland Abbey, presaging their 
own fate, or at least that of their stately and revered sanctuary. 
Theodore, the abbot, after the sad celebration of matins for the 
last time, dismissed all the able-bodied monks to the safe keeping 
of the fens, who bore away with them the relics, charters, and 
most precious effects of the monastery. Other articles of value, 
such as cups, and vessels of brass, were thrown into the cloister 
well ; and also the large super altar, covered with plates of gold, 
presented by king Witlaf to the abbey, but as one end of it could 
not be sunk below the surface of the water, Theodore, assisted 
by two of his aged monks, was obliged to take this up again, and 
hide it in another spot. And now rapidly advancing columns of 
smoke, arising from the successive firing of the villages, announced 
the near approach of the dreaded Danes. To the altar then, 
was the cry of the aged abbot ; and there, fully robed, he was in 
the act of celebrating high mass assisted by Elfgy, his deacon ; 
Savin, his sub- deacon ; and his candlebearers, when the heathens 
rushed in, and Theodore quickly fell by the hand of Osketil; 
afterwards all the aged priests were slain, many first suffering 
torture cruelly administered, to compel them to disclose the 
spot where the treasures of their establishment had been con- 
cealed. Of the other inmates one boy alone escaped Tugar 
saved by the younger Sidroc, who threw a Danish cloak over 



SLEAFORD. 91 

him as a token of his protection. The Danes then broke open 
all the marble tombs of the abbey, including that of St. Guth- 
lac, in the vain hope of finding treasures in them ; and at length, 
after three days' havoc, they set fire to the whole fabric, and 
continued their destructive course towards Medeshampstead (or 
Peterborough), Huntingdon, and Ely ; and there, after defeat- 
ing Earl Wilketil with his East Anglian forces, they took 
Edmund, its king, prisoner, whom they first bound to a tree 
and shot at wantonly with their arrows before his execution; 
after which they possessed themselves of his territory. 

Such were the fatal consequences of the Saxon JElla's cruelty 
towards the far-famed Eegner Lodbrog; thus did the Danes 
accomplish the conquest of Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Norfolk, and 
Suffolk. About this time, also, they appear to have established 
five strongholds for the future protection of the territory they had 
acquired, viz., Stamford, Lincoln, Leicester, Nottingham, and 
Derby ; to which were afterwards added those of York and 
Chester. 

In 873, a large body of Danes, after having wintered in 
London, advanced northwards under Heafdene, laden with much 
booty, through East Anglia and Lincolnshire ; but on this occa- 
sion, as these districts had been previously subjugated by the 
Northmen, no acts of violence appear to have been perpetrated. 
This winter was passed by them at Torksey, the next at Repton, 
when, by the conjunction of their forces with those of Ghithrun, 
Oskytel, and Anwynd, they drove out Burhed, king of Mercia, 
who retired to Rome, where he died.* 

Up to the year 880, the Danes had simply by force of arms 
possessed themselves of Lincolnshire and much of the north- 
eastern part of England ; but then, Alfred ceded to them in a 
regular manner all the territory north of the Thames following 
the Lea to its rise, and thence to Bedford and the Ouse hence- 
forth termed the Danelagh; and by another treaty, signed in 941 
by Edmund the elder, and Anlaf that prince of Northumbria 
who had previously fought with Athelstan the celebrated battle 
of Brunanburgh all the territory north of the Watling- Street 
was ceded to the Danes; but whichever prince might be the 



Saxon Chronicle, anno 874. 



92 SLEAFOKD. 

survivor was to be the sole sovereign of the whole.* The rever- 
sion falling to Edmund, the dominion of the Danes was thus for 
a time ended ; and in consequence of internal commotions in 
Denmark during the middle part of the tenth century, England 
reposed awhile from any fresh Danish invasions, excepting an 
attempt made by Eric, son of Harald of Norway, to regain pos- 
session of Northumbria during the short reign of Edred in 946 ; 
but Eric was defeated, and fell on the battle-field. 

Under the weak unready Ethelred the Danish Vikingr again 
began to ravage our shores, and in 991 he began that wretched 
system of attempting to buy off the Northmen by the payment of 
Danegelt, or imposts levied from his subjects wherewithal to 
bribe the Danes to withhold their ravages. Then followed an 
execrable act of treachery on Ethelred's part, who, without the 
sword of a soldier or the policy of a counsellor, hoped to rid 
himself of the Danes by their secret and simultaneous massacre, 
when, in accordance with his orders, the Danes dispersed over 
England, together with their wives and children including even 
Ghinhilda, the Christian sister of Svein, and her boy were sud- 
denly slaughtered. Probably this massacre did not extend to 
those parts of England, such as Lincolnshire, where the Danish 
element was generally predominant, but this county shared the 
lamentable results of Ethelred's deed of blood, for when the 
Danish Svein came as an avenger of his people, after having 
sailed up the Humber and the Trent to Q-ainsborough and re- 
duced the people of Northumbria and Lindisse to submission, 
leaving his celebrated son Knut behind, he advanced through 
Kesteven slaying, burning, pillaging, torturing its wretched 
people not sparing even monks, who were subjected to bar- 
barous atrocities before they were slain and for a short time 
was master of England. 

Still backwards and forwards swayed the contest between the 
Saxon and the Dane in this part of England, when first, through 
the return of Ethelred and his gallant son Edmund Ironside, 
Knut fled from Lincolnshire and took to sea again from the 
Humber ; but then, two years later, again invading this county 
from the south, he marched through it unopposed towards 



* Matt. Westm., p. 365. 



SLEAFOBD. 93 

Northumbria, where he established his sway, after which many 
contests took place between these two brave princes, until at 
last, after a battle fought at Assingdon, in which Ednoth, Bishop 
of Dorchester, and Godwin, Earldorman of Lindsey, fell, the 
partition of England was agreed to by Knut and Edmund, and 
thus Lincolnshire became an acknowledged part of Knut's do- 
minion before he succeeded to the sovereignty of all England 
through the death of Edmund the following year. After Knut's 
death in 1035, a contest for dominion took place between his 
two sons Hardiknut and Harald, when the partisans of the latter 
were the predominant party in the North ; but the only result as 
far as Lincolnshire was concerned, amounted to this, that dread- 
ing the coming conflict, hundreds of families from the south took 
refuge in our fens, accompanied by their cattle and all their 
portable goods. These were a terrible plague to the inmates of 
Croyland Abbey, in whose vicinity they located themselves in 
swarms, for they so eagerly and constantly entreated the monks 
and their servants for counsel and assistance, pouring into their 
ears such long stories of their fears and their woes, that the poor 
Brothers dared no longer shew themselves in their own cloister, 
nor scarcely to leave their dormitory for the purpose of joining in 
Divine worship, or taking their meals in the refectory. But the 
anchorites of the surrounding fens were still more despondent at 
this time, and from the same cause ; one Wulfius of Pega-land 
being so worried by clamorous companies coming to his cell by 
night, as well as by day, that, tired of his life, he bound a 
bandage over his eyes to shut out from view as much of the 
troublesome scene around him as he could, and finally sought a 
more quiet retreat at Evesham. Five years later, by the death 
of Harald, Hardiknut became the undisputed king of England. 
He reigned for two years only, having first greatly injured his 
constitution by his excesses, and then suddenly fallen down dead 
when attending a marriage feast an event which gave rise to a 
great change in the destiny of England, for the Danish dynasty 
in England had now come to an end, never to be renewed. This 
was a subject of great rejoicing throughout the greater part of 
our land, but not so, probably, in Lincolnshire and the north, 
where the Danish element had become so strong as almost to 
supersede the original Saxon basis on which it had been 
overlaid. 



94 SLEAFOKD. 

The crown was then offered to Edward, the son of Ethelred, 
by Godwin the Fairfax of the eleventh century who, after its 
assumption, re-established the Saxon laws of his father, abolished 
the burthensome tax of Danegelt, and banished a few of the re- 
maining Danish chiefs ; but, for the most part, he suffered the 
Danes that were peaceably disposed to dwell in his newly acquired 
kingdom without molestation, whilst they on their part submitted 
quietly to the mild rule of the Confessor. Thus, before long, an 
amalgamation of the two races began to take place, which even- 
tually so completely blended them together, as to exhibit only 
some lingering traces of their original distinctive characteristics. 

Throughout the long reign of Edward the Confessor the 
Northmen attempted no fresh invasions, although Magnus, king 
of Norway, sent letters to him claiming the crown of England, 
1046 ; but after Harald's accession, the Humber once more wit- 
nessed the approach of a Norwegian fleet of vast magnitude, in 
accordance with the prayer of the brother of the then king of 
England Tostig, who had been expelled from Northumbria dur- 
ing the Confessor's reign, and was so indignant with his brother 
Harold for declining to reinstate him in his former government, 
that he sailed off to the north for the purpose of persuading the 
kings of Denmark and Norway to join with him in an expedition 
against England ; the former, although a connexion of his own, 
sternly declined his proposition, but with the latter he was more 
successful. Harald Hardrada had inherited a large share of 
the old viking spirit ; and perhaps the following flattering address 
on Tostig's part urged him the more to undertake the proposed 
adventure. " The world," said Godwin's son, " knows that there 
is no warrior living fit to be compared with thee ; thou hast only 
to will it, and England is thine."* In reply, the fair-haired 
monarch promised to equip a fleet in the spring for this purpose, 
as soon as the icy ports of Norway were open. Tostig then ad- 
journed to the court of William of Normandy, from whom he 
received some aid; and having collected together in Flanders 
60 ships, sailed for the English coast. First, he levied supplies 
in the Isle of Wight; thence, sailing northwards, he at length 
entered the Humber, and committed great depredations in 



Suorre's Hcimskringla, III., p. 149. 



SLEAFOBD. 95 

Lindsey, until he was driven out by the Earls of Mercia and 
Northumbria, with the loss of all but twelve ships. In the 
meantime Harald had set sail with his Queen Ellisif, his daugh- 
ters, his son Olaf, and his forces, in 300 ships, had touched at 
Shetland and the Orkneys, and was running along the Scotch shore, 
when .Tostig fell in with him. Joining their fleets, they then in 
concert attacked Scarborough, which they burnt and pillaged, 
and afterwards boldly sailed up the Humber and the Ouse to 
York, where they gained a signal victory over the late conquerors 
of Tostig Earls Edwin and Morcar who retreated within the 
walls of York. This event compelled Harold of England to leave 
the southern coast, where he was watching the movements of 
William of Normandy and his assembling host, to give battle to 
his ambitious brother and his northern allies. Palling in with 
them after a rapid march through Lincolnshire, at Stamford 
Bridge, a little beyond York, he there gained a most complete 
victory, and slew both Tostig and Harald ;* so that the remnant 
of their forces were thankful to fly from the scene of their dis- 
aster in twenty-four ships only, swearing before their departure 
never again to make war with England. 



* Saxon Chronicle, anno 1066. A very remarkable reminiscence of this 
prince has recently been brought to light and in a place where it could 
have been least expected viz., at Venice, Professor Eafn of Copenhagen, 
having ascertained that his name appears upon the large Pentelic marble 
Lion of the Venetian arsenal. This Lion was brought from the harbour of 
Pirseus at Athens in 1687, by Francesco Morosini, the distinguished General- 
issimo, and afterwars Doge of Venice, among other trophies of his success 
against the Turks. On a winding scroll, on the left side of this Lion is a 
Eunic inscription, that has long baffled the attempts of the learned to de- 
cipher owing to the effects of time upon the surface of the marble ; but, 
by the aid of casts and photographs, Eafn happily succeeded in reading this 
specimen of the Norse language, formerly in use throughout Scandinavia, 
and still retained in Iceland. It runs thus, " Hakon, in conjunction with 
Ulf, Asmond, and Orn conquered this Port. These men, and Harald the 
Great (i. e. of great stature), imposed large fines, or contributions on account 
of the insurrection of the Greek people. Dalk remained captive in distant 
countries ; Egil had gone on an expedition with Eagnar into Eumania 
and Armenia." After a sanguinary conflict in the north, Harald (then quite 
a youth) fled to the south, and arrived at Constantinople in 1033, when he 
was only 18 years of age, and where he became Chief of the Varangian Guard 
under the Emperor Eomanus III. He remained in the south until 1043, when. 

H 



96 SLEAFOKD. 

But no such vow was made by the Danes, nor did they fear 
to attack the new and powerful conqueror of England three years 
later. In 1069 the three sons of Svein, with a large force con- 
veyed in two hundred and forty ships, entered the Humber, and 
reached York, where they demolished the castle, slew the Norman 
governor, and carried off many prisoners ; after which, in defiance 
of the Conqueror, who marched against them, they wintered in 
the country between the Ouse and the Trent.* 

Again, during the following year, king Svein himself sailed 
up the Humber, when he was joined by a large number of 
persons, who, either from the frequencj 7 of these invasions, from 
sympathy with them, or from witnessing the formidable cha- 
racter of Svein's forces, allied themselves with him, in the belief 
that he would become a second conquering Knut the Great. 
Advancing southwards to Ely, the fen men of that district joined 
them in great numbers. Thence they pressed on, intent on 
plunder, to Peterborough ; and although accompanied by Chris- 
tien, one of their bishops, they scrupled not sacrilegiously to steal 
all the valuables from its abbey, before they committed it and 
the adjacent town to the flames. These consisted of a crown of 
pure gold from a figure of our Lord, a beautiful footstool of the 
same material from under its feet, a super-altar of mixed gold and 
silver (that was vainly attempted to be hid in the tower), two gilt 
shrines, nine silver ones, fifteen great crosses of gold and silver, 
besides an incalculable amount of other valuables, such as money, 
vestments, and books. With these they retired to Ely, and, 



he returned to his own country, at first sharing the rule of Norway with 
Magnus the Good, and then becoming its sole king in 1047. The above- 
named Ulf is a very interesting character in connection with the subject of 
Harald's invasion of this country, as he is recorded to have opposed that king's 
daring proposition most warmly, warning him of the improbability of success 
against the great valour he must expect to meet with in England. 

The other scroll, on the right side of the Venice Lion, tells us that Harald 
the fair-haired was the author of both inscriptions. It is as follows : "As- 
mund engraved these Runes, with Asgeir, Thorleif, Thord, and Ivar, at the 
request of Harald the Great, although the Greeks had endeavoured to prevent 
it-" Inscription Runiyue du PirZe,, par C. C. Rafn ; and Archaeological 
Journal, XVI., p. 188. 

* Saxon Chronicle, anno 1069. 



SLEAFORD. 97 

through, some arrangement with the Conqueror, who perhaps at 
this time was not in a position to cope with them, they sailed away 
in a portion of their fleet ; this was, however, dispersed by a great 
storm, which threw some of the ships on the Irish coast, and 
wrecked others on the Danish and Norwegian shores ; whilst the 
author of the Saxon chronicle exultingly remarks that the only 
portion of the plunder that was secured having been deposited in 
a church for security perished by fire, occasioned by the drunken- 
ness of the guard. The remainder of the Humber fleet then 
sailed for the Thames, where it hung about for two nights ; but 
its commander probably hearing there of king William's strength, 
returned to Denmark. 

The last Danish attack upon our north-eastern shore occurred 
1075. In that year, Ralph, Earldorman of Norfolk, in concert 
with Waltheof, Earldorman of Huntingdon, Northants, and 
Northumberland ; Roger, Earldorman of Hereford, son of Wil- 
liam Fitz Osbert ; together with several bishops and abbots of 
East Anglia, conspired against William ; and as the mother of 
Roger was a native of Wales, he succeeded in bringing some 
Welsh forces into the field ; but not content with these, he applied 
to Denmark for an additional body of men, and obtained his 
request. Knut, the son of Svein, and Jarl Hacco, were its 
commanders ; but upon their arrival they found that their Eng- 
lish allies had been completely dispersed, and not daring alone 
to face the then formidable sovereign of this island, they deter- 
mined to make a foraging expedition more to the north, when 
for the last time the Humber saw a hostile Danish fleet, consisting 
of two hundred vessels, ascending its broad yellow waters on its 
way to York, and, after a while, again descending with the 
valuable spoils of its minster* stored away in their holds, and 
steering for the north. Another invasion, indeed, was planned 
in Denmark ten years later, viz., in 1085, when Knut agreed to 
combine his forces with those of his father-in-law, Robert, Earl 
of Flanders, for the purpose of making a descent upon England ; 
and of so threatening a character was this, that King William, 
who was then in Normandy, quickly returned with an immense 
army of Normans, French, and Bretons; these he quartered 



* Saxon Chronicle, anno 1075. 



98 8LEAFOKD. 

upon this nation at large, to its great distress, and even caused 
portions of the coast to be laid waste, where the expected invad- 
ers would be likely to land, so that they might not be able 
to maintain themselves with facility.* Happily, however, for 
this country, a mutiny occurred on board the Danish fleet, which 
occasioned its return to the north ; and Knut was eventually 
slain by his own soldiers in a church at Odensee, dedicated to 
St. Alb an, our English saint, whose relics or some portion at 
least of them Knut had previously taken over to his own coun- 
try from England. 

Space will not allow comment at any length on the traces of 
the Danes still discernible in Lincolnshire ; but perhaps it may 
be well to mention that there are 212 places in this county having 
the Scandinavian terminal of "%," and that in this respect it 
exceeds all others ; Yorkshire, although far larger in extent, and 
also long forming a portion of the Danish possessions in England, 
possessing only 167 places of the same character; while in the 
Wapentakes of Flaxwell and Aswardhurn alone the names of 15 
parishes terminate in this Danish form. 

It is impossible to distinguish Danish from Roman antiqui- 
ties, as they are so nearly if not exactly alike, but the subjoined 
cut represents one of their bone comb -cases, discovered on the 
site of the Great Northern Eailway Station at Lincoln. Upon 
this is engraved in ancient northern lettering, "A good comb 
makes Thorfaster." Two Saxon cemeteries have yielded a pro- 





>R u: 

fusion of their weapons, vases, and ornaments, as also Sleaford 

Saxon Chronicle, anno 1085. The obnoxious tax of Danegelt was now 
i revived, to furnish means for the maintenance of the defensive army 
levied by William, at the rate of twelve silver pence for every hundred acres 
of land. Concilia Magnoe Brit. I., 312; WilUns. 



PLATE II. 







PLATE III 




SLEAFORD. 99 

and its immediate vicinity. The first was discovered in 1828, 
lying for the most part in a field called Grey Lees, in Quarring- 
ton, on the north of the road from Sleaford to Ancaster and 
Grantham, but extending over some portion of the field on the 
other side of that road. This discovery was made through dig- 
ging for gravel, on the top of which some human skeletons were 
found, but more remains of bodies that had been consumed by 
fire and partly gathered into vases. With these were also found 
numerous articles, such as spear heads, horse harness, fibulae (or 
brooches), clasps, buckles, bead necklaces, and pins of bronze 
and bone. The most interesting of these are given in the accom- 
panying Plates taken from drawings made by the skilled pencil 
of the Rev. Charles Terrot. 

Plate II. Fig. 1 : A rough grey vase, found full of frag- 
ments of burnt bones and dark earthy matter ; now in the British 
Museum. Fig. 2 : A vase of grey ware, scored with lines and 
dots forming a simple pattern. It is 7 inches high, and was got 
up entire, excepting a small hole made by a workman's pick in its 
side. It was filled with fragments of bones like the other, and 
is now in the Duke of Northumberland's Museum at Alnwick. 
Fig. 3 : Another grey cinerary vase similar to Fig. 1 . Fig. 4 : 
a bronze harp-shaped fibula, or brooch, the pin of which is lost. 
Fig. 5 : a large bronze fibula of the same form. This is quite 
perfect, and still retains much of the cobalt blue and red enamel 
with which it was originally enriched. Fig. 6: a still larger 
bronze fibula, bowed in the middle. 

Plate III. Fig. 1 : the iron head of a small dart or arrow. 
Fig. 2 : part of a bead necklace, consisting of one large crystal 
bead and others of amber and different coloured vitreous pastes 
or glass. Fig. 3 : a flat oval-shaped fibula, the pin of which is 
lost, and also a piece of its ring. Fig. 4 : an iron spear head, 
now 19 inches long, but originally 3 or 4 inches longer, when its 
socket was complete. This was found on the south side of the 
Sleaford and Grantham road. Fig. 5 : two sides of a bronze tag, 
or small strap end, originally enclosing the end of a strap between 
them. Fig. 6 : part of another necklace, similar to Fig. 2, com- 
posed of variously shaped and coloured opaque and transparent 
vitreous pastes, or glass. Fig. 7 : a pair of bronze clasps intended 
to be attached to a belt. The under sides of these are represented 
to shew the way in which they served as a belt fastener. Their 



100 SLEAFOED. 

outer faces have hollows or beds minutely hatched and gilt, 
originally filled with transparent enamel. 

Plate IV. Figs. 1, 2 and 3 : bronze buckles of various sizes. 
Fig. 4 : a group of pins ; the two with their heads on the right 
are of bronze, the other two of bone. Fig. 5 : an iron cheek- 
piece of a horse's bit, one end of which has been accidentally 
bent. Fig. 6 : a bronze fragment, perhaps half of the beam of 
a pair of balances. Most of these articles are in the possession 
of Mr. Jacobson, surgeon, of Sleaford, and have been kindly lent 
by him for the purpose of being drawn and engraved. Many 
more similar articles were found in this cemetery, including 
duplicates of those represented, but on the whole these are the 
most distinctive and interesting. 

As a stone, 6 feet long and 2 feet wide, was said to have 
been uncovered here in 1828, but that from its great weight it 
was not raised, the author of this volume employed one of 
the men who made this statement to search for it, thinking it 
might possibly prove to be the lid of a Roman stone coffin similar 
to one found at Ancaster, but the search was unsuccessful ; many 
fragments of pottery, however, and a small brass of Valens, were 
found in the soil thus thrown up. 

The other Saxon cemetery was discovered in 1858, when the 
Grantham and Sleaford railway was extended to Boston. On 
excavating the earth for this purpose in an ancient pasture field 
in Old Sleaford, lying immediately on the outskirts of the town 
and on the eastern side of its southern approach, the skeletons of 
a number of Teutons were found about eighteen feet below the 
surface, surrounded by darker mould than ordinary. Each skele- 
ton was accompanied by a shield, spear head, and knife, differing 
in size and form, and in a fair state of preservation, the remains 
of the spear shafts being still distinguishable, and even the kind 
of wood of which they were made viz., ash. 

Plate V. Figs. 1 to 7 : iron spear heads of different shapes, 
varying from 8 to 19 inches in length. All have a slit in their 
sockets, and in some of these the remains of the ash shafts once 
fitted into them are distinctly visible, as well as the rivets passing 
through them and the shafts. The length of the sockets greatly 
varies, as will be seen by comparing Fig. 4 with Fig. 7, both still 
being in a perfect state, but the spear head Fig. 3 has lost part 
of its socket. Figs. 8 and 9 : bosses of shields, large enough to 



PLATE IV. 




PLATE V. 



FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. 



FIG. 5. FIG. 




SLEAFOKD. 101 

protect the hands of the bearers, and attached to the shield by 
three large rivets. The first seems to have been twice pierced 
either by the sword or spear of an enemy. When perfect they were 
7 inches in diameter, and 4^ inches across the hollow. Fig. 10 : 
a pair of bronze clasps, nearly 1 J inches long, originally orna- 
mented with enamel filling the now gilt but otherwise empty beds 
at its ends, and provided wth little eyes to attach these clasps to 
a belt. Fig. 11 : an iron knife blade, 4 inches long. Many 
smaller ones were found, only 3 inches long, of the same shape. 
Fig. 12 : a portion of a knife fitted into a bone handle, 2j 
inches long, through which the ferule of the knife blade passes 
and just protrudes at the other end. With these weapons and 
fibulae, &c., were also found a small brass coin of Yalentenianus ; 
reverse, Victory marching and the legend " Securitas Republicse." 
Fig. 1 3 : a flat circular bronze fibula, the pin of which is gone. 
It is 2 inches in diameter, and is simply ornamented with minute 
circlets. Fig. 14 : another fibula, 1 inches in diameter, which 
has also lost its pin. Its pattern resembles the classical mould- 
ing now commonly called the egg and tongue. Fig. 15 : a bronze 
aiticle, 5 inches long ; intended with a fellow to suspend a pouch 
from the belt of the wearer. 

It would be impossible within the limits of this volume, 
which only professes to be one on local history, to attempt even a 
sketch of those general historical events which occurred subse- 
quent to the Conquest ; but their bearing upon Sleaford and its 
neighbourhood will be in some measure shewn by the account of 
each place about to be described. Then a great and disastrous 
change took place, which we may devoutly trust will never occur 
again, a change that was only ushered in by the decisive battle 
of Hastings, but not completed until but very few estates re- 
mained in the hands of their former Saxon lords, and the 
Norman interlopers introduced by William of Normandy had 
by his stern will possessed themselves of the lands of England, 
and exercised a pi-oud harsh rule over both Saxon nobles as well 
as Saxon serfs; when also Saxon bishops, priests, and monks 
were replaced by Norman successors, who looked down with 
contempt upon their new flocks, not one word of whose language 
they knew. 



NEW SLEAFOKD. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1800. 3325.* 

Although. Sleaford is not one of the larger towns of Lincoln- 
shire, it may be at least regarded as one of some consideration, 
as it contains, with Old Sleaford, the portion of Quarrington 
adjoining it, and the hamlet of Holdingham, a population of 4089 
souls, according to the census of 1861. It is situated as near as 
possible in the centre of the Wapentakes of Maxwell and As- 
wardhurn, but just within the border of the former, and was 
enclosed in 1796, It is 115 miles from London, 18 from Lincoln, 
Boston, and Newark, and 9 from Falkingham. From its healthy 
and well chosen position, in the midst of a large agricultural 
district without a rival, from its well attended Fairs and Markets, 
and a Railway passing close by it, so as to supply an easy means 
of communication between it and all parts of England ; it is a 
thriving place, whose inhabitants have reason to be proud of its 
beautiful Church, spacious Market-place, handsome Court-house 
and Corn-exchange, as well as of its general appearance ; whilst 
the little river Slea supplies it with a never failing source of pure 
water, and communication with Boston, formerly of great value. 

The Slea rises in Willoughby, a hamlet of Ancaster, but is 
chiefly fed by a more abundant spring a mile west of Sleaford, 
called Bully Wells, from which spot it is now navigable, and 
runs through what was formerly a little fen, before the Sleaford 
and Boston navigation was carried out, by virtue of an Act of 
Parliament, passed in 1792; this work took two years to com- 
plete, but has now been almost entirely superseded by the Sleaford 
and Boston Railway. The Slea divides before it approaches 
Sleaford, and thus necessitates two bridges in South-gate, which 
passes over both streams. One of these bridges formerly bore 



* The population in this and all subsequent eases is taken from the last 
census. 



SLEAFORD. 103 

the date 1673, and a shield with the Arms of Carre quartering 
Bartram, and a Baronet's hand gules on an escutcheon at the 
fesse point. The other was built in 1765. The Slea again 
becomes one stream a little to the west of the Navigation basin, 
and it is a remarkable fact that it very seldom freezes. For a 
long time the terms Old and New Sleaford were unknown, 
the whole being called Eslaforde in Domesday Book and Lafford 
in Testa de Nevill ; but in the Yalor Ecclesiasticus, compiled in 
1535, the present distinction between them is first found, wherein 
they are termed Lafford Vetus and Lafford Novus, or Old and 
New Sleaford ; but they were always distinct manors. 



ANCIENT HISTORY. 

Probably the advantages offered by the Slea induced some 
British family or families of the great Coritanian tribe to estab- 
lish themselves on its bank where it first became navigable for 
their canoes, and certainly traces of their presence about the 
site of the present town of Sleaford have been detected from time 
to time beneath its soil, as previously described in the prefaratory 
notice of the Britons. 

The Romans assuredly also occupied this spot, to which one 
of their roads directly led from their important station and town 
of Durobrivae ; and as the greater part of the Roman coins found 
here from time to time have been discovered on the southern bank 
of the Slea, either on the site of the Castle, or near the Old Place 
and Roman road and ford, we may conclude that they at least 
chiefly settled themselves there. But from the same evidence we 
can still trace them at the very source of the Slea, which no doubt 
they naturally often visited. A coin of Nerva was found on the 
Castle site in 1823, and Stukeley in his Itinerarium Curwsum, Iter. I, 
p. 9, says, that many Roman coins of the Constantino period had 
been found in his time about the Castle and Bully Wells, or at 
the spring head, as he calls it, near to which have of late years 
been found a dark coloured urn, containing a small implement 
like an awl, and more coins. 

Some sept of the Angles subsequently settled on the site of 
Sleaford, and gave the first recorded name to the present town, 
viz: Slowaford. 



104 SLEAFOED. 

Before the conquest Bardi the Saxon was the chief, if not the 
only owner of the land in Eslaforde, or Sleaford, and also the 
lord of the manors of Quarrington, Carlby, Holywell, and Corby. 
All these were given to Eemigius, the first Norman Bishop of 
Lincoln, previous to the compilation of Domesday Book, and 
probably in connection with his removal of the seat of the See 
from Dorchester to Lincoln, and his erection of the then new 
Cathedral Church in that already ancient city. The possessions 
the Bishop thus acquired at Sleaford consisted of 1 1 caracutes of 
land ; part of this he kept in demesne, or cultivated himself, by 
the aid of 3 ploughs, and 29 villans, 6 sockmen, and 11 bordars, 
using 4 ploughs. He had also three mills here, worth 10 ; 120 
acres of meadow, 330 acres of marsh, and 1 acre of coppice. The 
whole was valued in Edward the Confessor's time at 20, but in 
the Conqueror's reign at 25. There were also here 2 sockmen 
ploughing with 2 oxen, 15 acres of meadow, and 13 acres of 
coppice. To this manor there also belonged some lands in Howell 
and Heckington, also a parcel of land within the manor belong- 
ing to Eamsey Abbey in Quarrington ; while on the other hand 
some land in Sleaford was soke of that manor. 

From Testa de Nevill, p. 321, we find that by an inquisition 
taken in the reign of Henry III., before Hugh de Vedasto, 
Alexander de Lafford, Robert de Heckington, William son of 
Jordan, of Ashby, Lawrence de Howell, Eoger de Kelby, Thomas 
de Kelby, William de Kelby and others, the Bishop of Lincoln 
held the whole of Sleaford as an alms gift of the king. The 
Bishop appears to have been then holding all his lands here in 
his own hands, except an eighth part of a knight's fee, which he 
had let to William de Morteyn, by knight's service, and who had 
sublet it to Eobert de Lafford. A subsequent inquisition reports 
that the Bishop of Lincoln had appropriated to himself the whole 
of the vill of Sleaford in burgage on the north side of the water, 
which was accustomed to belong to the wapentake of Flaxwell. 
"Hundred Eolls." In 1275, Oliver Sutton, Bishop of Lincoln, 
was asked by the king's commissioners by what authority he 
claimed to have a market, fair, gallows, waif, view of frank 
pledge, and hue and cry, in his manor of Lafford ; in answer to 
which he said, that he and his predecessors had always enjoyed 
these, interrupted only by the vacation of the See. " Plac de quo 
war, p. 429." In 1321-2 when the Barons revolted against 



\ 



SLEAFORD. 105 

Edward II., as Bibhop Burghersh was probably with reason sus- 
pected of infidelity towards the Crown, the king seized the Castle 
of Sleaford, and placed it in the custody of Robert Lord Darcy. 
" Hundred Rolls." But it was soon restored to the See; for in 
1330 the Bishop of Lincoln was again holding it, the manor and 
its appurtenances, together with the right of free warren. "Inq. 
p. m. 3. E. 3 " ; and from that time it was held by all the suc- 
cessive Bishops until the middle of the 1 6th century, and let to 
various persons, one of whom Sir Richard de Willoughby died 
seized of the profits of the suit of court there 1369, and another 
Thomas de la Warre, died seized of the manor in 1398. " Inq. 
p. m. 22. R. 2." 

In the reign of Henry VII., the first of the family of Carre 
to which Sleaford is still so much indebted, came to reside here. 
This was George Carre, son of Richard, and grandson of Sir John 
Carre, of Hetton, Northumberland, a wool merchant, of the staple 
of Calais. Prospering in his trade, he bought the manor of 
Tetney and some lands in and about Sleaford, where he also 
built himself a handsome house opposite the south side of the 
Church, on the spot now occupied by the Hospital, and bounded 
on one side by a narrow street, both of which still commemorate 
his name. He died 1520, and was succeeded by his son Robert, 
to whom the family was indebted for the vast estates it subse- 
quently enjoyed. 

Henry YIII visited Sleaford, August 8th, 1541, on which 
day he arrived there from Grimsthorpe, where he had been the 
guest of the Duke of Suffolk, his brother-in-law. Sleaford is 
referred to by Leland, in his Itinerary, published 1546, as a town 
built for the most part all of stone, and having two houses that 
were superior to the rest, the one being the parsonage, the 
other the residence of the Carre's, the then possessor of which 
(the first or old Robert Carre) he describes as being a proper 
gentleman, whose father was a rich merchant of the staple. He 
also speaks of " the house or manor-place lately almost new- 
builded of stone and timber by the Lord Hussey, which standeth 
northward without the town." This was then probably in the 
king's own hands through its forfeiture in 1537, and the execution 
of its rebuilder. As the Castle was then habitable, probably the 
king was the guest of the Bishop of Lincoln ; but we have no 
record as to this, except that on the morning after his arrival 



106 SLEAFORD. 

at Sleaford, August 9th, the king held a council there before he 
passed on to Lincoln. On his return from the North, the king 
again stopped at Sleaford, October 14th, coming from Nocton, 
where he had been the guest of Thomas Wymbysh and his 
wife, the only daughter of Gilbert, Lord Tailboys, the half 
sister of Henry, Duke of Richmond, the king's illegitimate son. 
On this occasion the king received at Sleaford an Ambassador of 
the king of Portugal, who came to treat respecting the transport 
of corn from England to Portugal, and then passed on to Grims- 
thorpe. 

In 1535, the Bishop's manor here was valued by the king's 
commissioners at 57 4s. Od. a year, derivable from the following 
sources : 

s. d. 

Fixed rents per annum 39 16 Oj 

Movable ditto ditto 6 

Firm of the demesne lands per annum 314 8 

Firm of Pasturages, with exits of the Castle, 

per annum 7 6 2 

Firm of the Market Toll there, per annum .... 113 4 
Sale of One Acre and a Half of Underwood, in 
the Wood belonging to the Bishop, at Bope- 

sley, year by year 1 10 

Amount of common Fines per annum 213 4 

Perquisites of the Court there, one year with 

another . 10 



57 4 



EEPBISES OB DEDUCTIONS. 
To the Lord Hussey, Seneschal there, by letters 

patent, for his Fee per annum ............ 2 

To John Mawdley, Constable of the Castle there, 

by letters patent, and by ancient usage and 

custom, being his Fee .................. 613 4 

To Thomas Smith, Bailiff there, by letters patent 

from old time, being his Fee ............ 3 6 8 



12 



SLEAFORD. 107 

In 1550 the Manor and Castle of Sleaford were alienated by 
Henry Holbeaeh, Bishop of Lincoln, to Edward, Duke of Somer- 
set, who exchanged them with the king for the Monastery and 
Manor of Glastonbury. " Brown Willis." 

It will now be advisable to advert to the history of the 
Castle, which is to a considerable extent connected with the 
history of Sleaford. 

SLEAFORD CASTLE. 

Little did William the Conqueror foresee that on the Manor 
of Sleaford which he presented to Kemigius, Bishop of Lincoln, a 
stronghold would arise calculated to excite the jealousy of one of 
his successors ; yet through the disputed right to the Crown, after 
the death of Henry I, and the troublous time that ensued, when 
most of the Nobles of England built strongholds as a means of 
increasing their power, as well as of conducing to their personal 
safety, the Bishops, as temporal lords, took part in this movement ; 
of these, Henry de Blois, Bishop of Winchester, was in advance 
of his brethren, for we are told that he converted all his episco- 
pal residences into Castles ; while Hoger, Bishop of Salisbury, 
erected four such strongholds, viz., those at Sherbourne, Devizes, 
Malmesbury, and Salisbury ; an example that was followed by 
his nephew, Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, who erected three 
Castles in his diocese, viz., those of Newark, Banbury, and 
Sleaford. 

Sleaford Castle was strong in itself, but made far stronger by 
its water defences. An elevated bank running north and south and 
connecting the higher ground on one side of the Castle site with 
the other, always supplied a means of access to it, even when all 
the land around was flooded for its defence ; and while this raised 
causeway was necessary for the use of the Castle garrison, it could 
be easily defended against assailants. Newark Castle we are 
told was magnificently as well as massively built, and Henry of 
Huntingdon says, that Sleaford Castle was in no wise inferior to 
it. Protected by an outer and an inner moat, fed by the unfail- 
ing waters of the Slea, and by the little fen through which it 
flowed on the west, with a gate-house, or barbican, at the sole 
entrance to the outer and inner baily, or court, it must have been 



108 SLEAFOED. 

most difficult for any foe to approach it ; but supposing it had 
stood on undefended ground, from the thickness of its massive 
walls it could well defy all such engines of war as were then in 
use, and long protect itself, almost without the aid of a garrison. 
In plan it consisted of a quadrangle, with square towers at its 
angles, walls having shallow buttresses of the usual Norman type, 
placed at irregular intervals, and a master tower or keep in the 
middle. The general ground-plan of the Castle, as far as it can 
now be ascertained from an examination of its site, taken by Mr. 
Charles Kirk, of Sleaford, is subjoined. 

After Stephen had got possession of Newark Castle, through 
the half starvation of its episcopal builder and owner, who was 
compelled to order his faithful retainers holding out against the 
king to deliver it up, the same process recurred at Sleaford ; and 
thus both Castles were seized by Stephen. These, however, were 
soon restored to their former owner. 

The next important event connected with Sleaford Castle, was 
the visit of another king, October 14th, 1216, not coming to seize it 
with a strong hand, but as a half-ruined fugitive, just escaped 
from the devouring waters of the Wash, when his subjects were 
alienated from him ; a foreign Prince was at hand, waiting to 
receive the Crown already more than half stolen from him, and he 
was sick unto death. This was John, who, although usually un- 
stable, at times displayed the fierce courage and determined 
resolution of his Norman ancestors ; when, therefore, he heard 
that his offended barons had selected a foreign prince to be 
their ruler, in preference to himself, and felt that after a suc- 
cessful progress through England, Prince Louis of France had 
almost thrust him off his throne, he determined to struggle 
desperately in defence of his crown and sceptre. Hence, know- 
ing the powerful effect of his personal presence, in the month 
of September, 1216, he had hurried from Chippenham to 
Cirencester, and thence successively to Burford, Oxford, "Wal- 
lingford, Beading, Ailesbury, Bedford, Cambridge, Eockingham, 
and Lincoln, which last city he reached on the 22nd.* There he 
paused awhile, and thence he started on two progresses through 
Lincolnshire, from a desire, apparently, to make personal ap- 
peals on his own behalf to the people of this county. The first 

* Itinerary of King John. Archceologia, vol. 22, pp. 159, 160. 



PLAN OF SITE OF THE CASTLE, SLEAFOED. 



Note. The parts shaded ivith diagonal 
lines indicate the position of the 
buildings. 




SLEAFOED. 109 

was a short one, commencing on the 24th, during which he 
stopped successively at Burton, Retford, Scotter, and Stow, 
whence he returned to Lincoln on the 28th, where he remained 
until October 2nd. Then he commenced a longer progress ; first 
northwards to Grimsby, and then southwards to Louth, Spalding, 
and Lynn, where he remained from the 9th to the llth of Octo- 
ber. There he heard that the expected crisis had arisen, and 
that his revolted barons had taken possession of the city of 
Lincoln, and were pressing his garrison in the castle hard, who 
most urgently requested immediate relief at his hands. Therefore, 
once again marching northwards, he arrived at Wisbeach on the 
llth, and on the following morning resumed his march. Such 
being the case, he must have left Sutton Wash behind him on 
the right, as well as the now so called King John's House, before 
he met with his memorable catastrophe in the Wash, as there 
could have been no possible reason for his wandering in that 
direction so far from the direct line between Wisbeach and Lin- 
coln, when speed was of the utmost consequence to him. On, 
therefore, he hurried, over a track of fen land, as fast as his 
baggage waggons would permit, until a wide expanse of sand 
was reached, intersected by shallow channels, beyond which a 
distant low bank and a church tower or two indicated at least a 
more hopeful travelling district, while on the right a blue streak 
marked the presence of the sea in that direction. A question 
probably arose as to whether that sandy plain might be safely 
crossed ; but the necessity was great ; therefore the cavalry ad- 
vanced, the infantry followed, and then the baggage waggons 
were dragged along, deeply scoring the yielding silty surface, 
and sometimes sinking still more deeply, where hollows and 
channels had to be crossed, until the panting horses began to be 
exhausted through their frequent and severe struggles ; and 
while the shouts and goadings of the drivers were becoming 
gradually less and less effective, their anxiety increased in pro- 
portion. Still the sea looked distant, yet threads of white were 
drifting inland with great rapidity, whence the native fen-men, 
who were compelled to assist the royal progress, knew that the 
tide had turned, and that ere long all that wide space, which 
intervened between them and those delicate yet insidious streaks, 
would be covered with water. Deeper, therefore, did the goads 
penetrate the sides of the labouring beasts ; more eagerly did the 



110 SLEAFOED. 

men-at-arms aid in turning the wheels of the waggons, and 
especially of those containing the royal treasure, plate, jewels, 
and the precious vessels of the chapel ; yet nearer and nearer 
advanced those dreaded streaks, and then the natives first cry, 
" "We must fly for our lives ! " Still, at the king's command, one 
more effort is made to hurry on the now utterly exhausted horses, 
and especially those attached to the waggons in which were placed 
the crown jewels. Then it was seen, beyond a doubt, that they 
must leave all, and if possible save themselves, for the bank of 
safety in front was still distant, and those slender threads but 
lately so far off are now seen plainly enough to be foaming 
waves, advancing towards them with the most alarming speed. 
Therefore the traces were cut, the king's treasure was left to 
become a prey of the waters, and both man and beast, as far as 
possible unincumbered, rushed on for dear life's sake, and were 
half submerged before they escaped from the fearful dangers of 
the Wash. 

Unwell at Lynn,* greatly excited by the news from Lincoln, 
and now again still more deeply moved by the irreparable loss of 
his regalia and treasure in addition to having been exposed to 
a wet journey through a portion of the Lincolnshire fens no 
wonder that King John's illness increased before he reached the 
shelter and repose he sought at Swineshead Abbey, the nearest 
place capable of affording him a temporary harbour of refuge. 

There he was received with such honours and such hospital- 
ity as that monastery could command, and the king, whose 
feverish thirst was now great, hastened to quench it with long 
draughts of cyder and fruit from the monastic orchards. f From 
the evening of the 12th until the morning of the 14th of October, 
the king remained at Swineshead, during which time his illness 
increased, which now plainly declared itself to be an ague fit, 
attended by dysentery. During that time his conduct, bad 
though it was throughout his worthless life, has probably been 
unnecessarily and untruly maligned by some chroniclers ; while 



* Stow's Annals, edition of 1615, p. 174. 

t "The pernicious greedie eating of peaches, and drinking of newe cidar 
increased his sicknesse, and kindled the heate of the ague the more strongly." 
Ibid. 



SLEAFOBD. Ill 

that of the inmates of Swineshead Abbey has been painted in 
still darker colours by the same authors, and with an equal 
amount of untruthfulness. 

John, in his wretched condition of body and mind, we can 
readily conceive, made use of violent and threatening language 
as to what he would do to reduce his rebellious subjects to sub- 
mission, but he can scarcely have been so insensate as to have 
vowed, as is reported, that he would greatly raise the price of 
bread throughout England. Again, although John was undoubt- 
edly an immoral, as well as a violent man, yet, when very ill and 
anxious above all things to hurry on to the relief of Lincoln, upon 
the success of which design his crown was almost dependent, it 
is not the least likely that he could have committed such an out- 
rage upon his host, the Abbot of Swineshead, as Knyghton* has 
recorded ; nor, on the other hand, is it credible that any of the 
brotherhood of that abbey should have been implicated in the 
foul murder of the king, during his two days' sojourn with them 
as their guest, even had they been greatly tried by his violent 
expressions or the irregularity of his conduct. John was not on 
the whole unfriendly to the monastic Orders, although he was 
sometimes rapacious in his dealings with them, as he was with 
the laity. The variety of ways, also, in which John's death is 
said to have been compassed, appears to throw the greatest doubt 
upon the presumed fact of his murder, and to indicate the un- 
soundness of those reports that arose after his death, which were 
probably only the offspring of idle rumours, although adopted by 
some of our chroniclers, and accepted by our greatest dramatic 



* "Rex ipse Johannes ad monasterium de Swynsheaed quod a Sancto 
Botolpho distat per quinque leucas, hospitandi causa declinaret. Audivit ab- 
batem ejusdem loci pulchram habere sororem, priorissam cujusdam loci 
propinqui ; accensusque ex more libidine, misit satellites suos ut earn addu- 
cerent ad se. Quod cum audisset abbas frater ejus, tristis admodum aifectus 
est, noluitque a fratribus consolationem accipere. Cui dixit unus conversus 
suus qui curam gerebat hospitii, et familiaris, et notus domino regi, Quidnam 
habes, Pater, cur decidit vultus tuus, et tristior solito est fades tua ? Cui abbas : 
JSowrem hdbeo, inquit, unam sponsam Christi, quam dilexi ; proponit earn 
delurpare Rex ; et ille : Ignosce mihi, Pater, et ora pro me, et auferam vitam 
iniqui a terrd, et timorem ipsius a conversatione hominum ; cui ille : vellem 
hcec, inquit, fili mi, non tamen licet in personam regis manum extender e." 
Henry de KnygUton, de Event. Angl. 



112 SLEAFORD. 

bard. He was poisoned, says Ralph of Chester, by one of the 
white monks of Swineshead, as report says, when he was intoxi- 
cated, because he had threatened to increase the price of bread 
enormously throughout England ; and the poisoner perished with 
him.* His death was occasioned by poison inserted in some 
pears, says Henry de Knyghton ;f and this was administered by 
a monk with the complicity of the abbot, because the king had 
proposed to send for the abbot's sister, the prioress of a convent 
in the neighbourhood, whose reported beauty had tempted him 
to do so. He was destroyed by venom extracted from the body of 
an unfortunate toad, pricked to death for the purpose, and mixed 
with a cup of ale administered by a patriotic monk, who, first 
making the accustomed assay thereof, was shortly carried off to 
the infirmary, where his body became more and more swollen 
until it burst from the effects of the poison, while the king died 
two days afterwards .J 



* " Tradit tamen vulgata fama quod apud monasterimn Swynheade al- 
borum monachorum intoxicatus est. Juraverat enim ibidem (ut asseritur) 
prudens, quod panem tune obolum valentem faceret infra annum, si viveret, 
12 denarios valere. Quod audiens, unus de conversis fratribus loci illius 
venenum confecit porrerit, sed et ipso sumpto prius viatico catholico simul 
cum Kege interiit." Ranulphus Censtrensis in Polycron, 1. 7, c. 33. 

f "Tulit pira nova quibus ipsum Regem libenter vesci sciebat, apposuit 
que venenum singulis piaster tria, quse cum cseteris reposita optime denotabat. 
Venit, itaque conversus ille, et applausit Regi sicut et alias facere consue- 
verat, et dixit ei : Placitur tibi, Rex, comedere defructu novo ? Placet, inquit, 
vade et offer. Tulitque prseparata pira et statuit coram Rege, et ait Rex : Quid 
attulisti. frater ? At ille : Non venenum, Rex, sed fructum opitimum. Et 
Rex : Comede, inquit, defructu tuo. Moxque apprehenso uno ex piris cognitis 
comedit. Et Rex : Comede, inquit, et alterum ; et comedit. Adde, inquit, 
et tertium, et fecit sex. Nee se ulterius potuit continuere ; Rex apprehenso 
uno ex venenatis comedit, eadem nocte extinctus est." Henry de Knyghton 
de Event. Angl., 1. 2, c. 15. 

I " The Monke that stode before the Kynge was for this worde full sory 
in his herte, and thought rather hee would himselfe suffre deth, yf he might 
ordeyne some manere of remedye. And anone the Monke went unto his 
Abbot and was shriven of him, and tolde the Abbot all that the Kynge had 
sayd ; and prayed his Abbot for to assoyle him, for he would give the Kynge 
such a drynke that all Englonde should be glad thereof and joyfull. Then 
yede the Monke into a gardeyne, and founde a grete tode therein, and toke 
her up and put her in a cuppe, and prycked the tode through with a broche 



SLEAFORD. 113 

Believing, however, that these reports were not founded on 
fact, from their conflicting character, strengthened by the result 
of a post mortem examination of the body by his friend and confes- 
sor, the Abbot of Croxton, we may reasonably conclude that his 
indisposition, which commenced at Lynn, was so aggravated by 
his hurried and agitating journey to Swineshead, and thence to 
this town, as to lead to its eventual fatal termination. 

In vain was the king bled at Sleaford, for his disorder 
continued to gain ground ; and the more so after travel- worn 
messengers from Dover were ushered into his presence, who 
announced to him the certain fall of Dover Castle, within a few 
days, unless he could send a force to the relief of the garrison. 
This was, however, beyond his power ; yet, although so sick, on the 
following morning the miserable king resumed his suffering pro- 
gress, and by the aid of support did so on horseback. Whether 
he removed from want of proper provision for himself and 
followers at Sleaford, or from political reasons, is unknown, but 
certain it is that on the 15th he travelled to another of the Bishop 
of Lincoln's castles at Newark. On his way thither he probably 
rested awhile at Hough Priory,* where indeed Robert de Brunne 
records that he died, saying, 

"At the abbay of Suyneshued ther he drank poyson, 
At Hauhe his lef he leued, so say men of that toun. " 



many tymes, tyll that the venym came out of evry syde in the cuppe. And 
he toke the cuppe and filled it with good ale, and brought it before the Kynge 
knelynge, sayinge ; Sir, sayd hee, "Wassayll, for never the dayes of all your 
lyfe dronke ye of so good a cuppe. Begyu, Monke, sayd the Kynge. And 
the Monke dranke a grete draught, and toke the Kynge the cuppe ; and the 
Kynge dranke also a grete draught, and so sat downe the cuppe. The Monke 
anone ryght went in to the farmerye, and there dyed anone, on whoas soule 
God have mercy, Amen. And fyve Monkes synge for his soule specially, and 
shall whyle the Abbaye standeth. The Kynge rose up anone full evyll at 
ease, and commaunded to remove the table, and axed after the Monke ; and 
men tolde him that he was dede, for his wombe wes broken in sundre. Whan 
the Kynge herde this, he commaunded for to trusse, but it was for nought, 
for his belly began to swelle for the dranke that he had dronke, and withen 
two dayes hee deyed, on the morrowe after Saynt Lukis day." St. Allan's 
Chronicle, printed by Caxton, Anno 1502, Pars 7. 

* Hough, formerly spelt Hagh, Halgh, and Howghe on the Mount. 
About 1164, King Henry II. gave this manor to the Abbey of St. Mary de 
Voto at Cherburgh in Normandy (which was founded by his mother the 



114 SLEAFOED. 

But such, a tradition, although not true, may very probably 
have arisen from the king's resting at Hough, in a dying condi- 
tion, on his last earthly journey. When he reached Newark, 
feeling that his end was near, he immediately took measures to 
secure the succession of his son, Prince Henry, by causing such 
nobles as were with him to swear allegiance to him as his suc- 
cessor, and sent off letters to the principal constables of castles, 
and to all sheriffs, enjoining them to serve the future king 
faithfully. Then John sought religious consolation at the hands 
of the Abbot of Croxton, and committed his body to the keep- 
ing of St. Wolstan ; but when the dying king was thus making 
ready for his transit from this world, an unexpected event occurred, 
that only a few days before would have elated his spirits beyond 
measure, but which now failed to move him. The Barons had 
begun to repent of their treason. Excommunicated by the Pope, 
and roughly treated by Prince Louis, who failed not to let them 
see in what light he looked upon them whenever they hesitated 
to obey his orders, their position was finally most alarmingly put 
before them by the Earl of Melun* on his death bed, who told 
them that as soon as Louis had established himself upon the 
throne of England he would treat it as a conquered country, and 
portion out its lands among his Erench subjects, just as the 
Conqueror had once done before. This led forty of the barons 
to send messengers to John, stating their readiness to return to 
their allegiance to him, and seeking pardon for the past at his 
hands ; but when these arrived at Newark, they found that a 
similar supplication, to one far higher than any earthly king, had 
shortly before proceeded from the lips of him of whom they 
sought favour ; that his ear was dull to hear their words, and 
that his mind was wandering, so that he fancied he saw nothing 



Empress Maud and himself), so that here was an alien priory of some Austin 
canons subordinate to that foreign monastery. This cell, valued at 20 per 
annum, was seized by the Crown, and granted by King Eichard II., first to 
the Priory of the Spittle on the street in this county, and then to the Car- 
thusians of St. Ann's near Coventry. It was restored, by Henry IV., to 
Cherburgh, but with other alien Priories was given by Henry V. to the Priory 
of Montgrace in Yorkshire, and subsequently as parcel, thereof, was granted to 
John, Lord Russell, 33 Henry VIII. Tanner's Notitia Monastica, p. 272. 
* Speed's History of Great Britain, edit. 1632, p. 570. 



SLEAFORD. 115 

but cowled monks* trooping around him ; shortly after which 
his agitating final fears were hushed by the hand of death, on 
the night of the 18th of October. 

As might have been expected, the unworthy followers of so 
worthless a king instantly began to pillage their deceased master ; 
and he who had fared so luxuriously, and was attired so gorge- 
ously in life, in death was stripped of everything by his servants, 
who, as Stow says "left him not so much as would cover his 
dead carcase," and fled. True, however, to his trust, the Abbot 
of Croxton performed the last offices for the late king, ascertained 
that no poison had been administered to him* and, clothing the 
royal corpse in a monastic habit, conveyed it honourably to 
Worcester Cathedral, where the Bishop received it ; and a spot 
near the grave of St. Wolstan was selected as a fitting one for 
that of King John, in compliance with his dying request. 

Hugh de Welles, then Bishop of Lincoln, was away with his 
vassals among the rebel Barons, when his dying Sovereign thus 
made use of two of his Castles, as temporary places of harbour, 
coming as a moribund man to Sleaford Castle, and actually dying 
at that of Newark. 

No doubt the successors of Bishop Hugh II., from time to 
time made use of the Castle on their journies to and from Lincoln, 
for which purpose it was well situated ; but scarcely any records 
of such visits now remain. We have, however, an account of 
Bishop Flemming's death here, January 25th, 1820, who was 
such a remarkable prelate that a little Memoir of his life will 
perhaps be acceptable. 



* This delusion can scarcely be deemed to indicate either John's dislike 
of monks, or his desire for their presence. He had indeed, during his way- 
ward life, dealt harshly with monks at times, but he had also proved himself 
to be a munificent patron of several Orders. He founded the Benedictine 
monasteries at "Waterford and Cork, before he ascended the throne, and after- 
wards the grand Cistercian abbey of Beaulieu in Hampshire, the monasteries 
of Faringdon, Hales Owen, and Otterington ; he built those of Godstow and 
Worhall, and enlarged a chapel at Knaresborough ; while his last moments 
were comforted, at his own request, by the Abbot of Croxton, to whose house 
he left a very liberal bequest. 

* "The Physitian that dis-bowled his body, found no sign of poison in 
it." Baker's Chronicle, p. 109. 



116 SLEAFOED. 

BISHOP FLEMYNG. 

Richard Flemyng, eventually Bishop of Lincoln, was born 
at Crofton, near Wakefield, towards the close of the 14th century. 
After having received his early education in his native county, 
he became a student of University College, Oxford, where he 
distinguished himself through his attainments in Logic and 
Philosophy. Soon after he had taken his M.A. degree he warmly 
enbraced the doctrines of Wycliffe, and induced several persons 
of eminence to follow his example ; but when he found that he 
had thus prevented his advancement in the church, and was 
tempted by the persuasions of his friends, and the offers of tem- 
poral advantages, he succumbed, and soon became at least as 
warm an advocate of the Roman Catholic faith, as he had been its 
opposer. As a clever disputant, he was selected to advocate those 
very doctrines he had previously condemned while still a student 
of the University, having in 1396 been deputed to act as one of 
twelve doctors as examiners and judges of Wycliffe' s tenets, by 
all of whom they were condemned and execrated as most perni- 
cious heresy. Promotion quickly followed. In 1403 he became 
Rector of Staithbourne, Yorkshire. In 1406, he was presented to 
the Prebend of North Newbold, in the Cathedral of York, and the 
next year was Proctor at Oxford. Early in 1414, he was presented 
to the Rectory of St. Michael's, Oxford ; but resigned it later in 
that year, when he became Incumbent of Boston, and soon after 
exchanged the Prebend of South Newbold, for that of Langford, 
in York Cathedral. 

Having attracted the favourable regard of Henry V, he was 
promoted by him, April 24th, 1420, to the Bishopric of Lincoln, 
with the sanction of the Pope. Four years later he attended the 
council of Sienna, convened for the purpose of opposing the 
Reformers, where he so distinguished himself by the power 
of his rhetoric, in defence of the Papal supremacy, that 
Pope Martin V, appointed him his Chamberlain, and selected 
him to fill the vacancy that then occurred in the Archiepiscopate 
of York; but the young King's Council, and the Chapter of 
York, so strongly resisted the proposed appointment, that the 
Pope was obliged to retract it, by a fresh Bull, and the Bishop 
only regained the temporalities of his vacated Bishopric through 
the presentation of a humble petition to the King. 



SLEAFOBD. 117 

In 1426, Bishop Flemyng founded a College at Oxford, 
built at great cost, and endowed with the Churches of All Saints, 
Saint Michael, and Saint Mildreds, Oxford, by virtue of a licence 
from the king, and termed the College of the blessed Mary the 
Virgin, and All Saints, Lincoln, now called Lincoln College. 
This was intended for the use of literary men, who were to write, 
preach, and dispute against Wycliffe ; but eventually it languished 
through the premature death of the Bishop, until it was freshly 
endowed by Thomas Scott, or Eotherham, his successor at 
Lincoln, in 1471. 

In 1428, Bishop Flemyng executed that decree of the Coun- 
cil of Constance, which ordered the exhumation and burning of 
Wycliffe' s bones, after they had lain in the grave at Lutterworth 
for more than 50 years. This he did as Bishop of Lincoln, by 
the authority of Archbishop Arundel, in which diocese Lutter- 
worth then was, as quaintly described by Fuller ; " He sent his 
officers vultures with a quick scent at a dead carcase to ungrave 
him accordingly. To Lutterworth they came, Summner Commis- 
sorie, Official, Chancellor, Proctors, Doctors, and their servants, 
so that the remnant of the body would not hold out a bone among 
so many hands, to take what was left out of the grave, and burn 
them to ashes, and cast them into Swift, a neighbouring brook 
running hard by. Thus, this brook hath conveyed his ashes 
into Avon, Avon into Severn, Severn into the narrow seas, they 
into the main ocean : and thus the ashes of Wycliffe are the em- 
blems of his doctrine, which now is dispersed all the world over. 
Only two of his literary works remain, viz : his " Etymologia 
Anglic," and his tl Orationes in Concilio Sienensi." According to 
the words of a contemporary biographer, " he delivered his spirit 
into the hands of mercy, at his Castle of Sleaford, on the 25th of 
January, in the feast of the Conversion of St. Paul, about two 
o'clock in the afternoon, according to the pleasure of the Most 
High." Harl. M.S. 6952." He is termed by Shelton, " one of 
those eminent men whose names have exalted University College, 
Oxford, the oldest establishment in that place." He had pre- 
viously built a beautiful little mortuary chapel, attached to his 
cathedral at Lincoln, for the reception of his body, to which it 
was removed for sepulture from Sleaford. His monument still 
remains there beneath a vaulted canopy, between this chapel and 
the south aisle of the presbytery of the Cathedral. This consists 

K 



118 SLEAFOBD. 

of an altar tomb surmounted by the Bishop's effigy in full ponti- 
fical vestments. The pillow on which his mitred head rests, is 
supported by figures of angels, and at the feet is a lion grasping 
a serpent, probably in allusion to his conflict with the holders 
of Wycliffe's doctrines. 

Within the arched open sided tomb below, is one of those 
ghastly contrasts not uncommonly adopted during the 15th cen- 
tury, as a memento mori, viz : the emaciated body of the dead 
prelate, almost reduced to a skeleton, and stripped even of the 
shroud, which lies below. Formerly there were two coats of 
arms at the head and foot of this monument. The two first bore 
Barry of 6 Arg and Az, in chief 3 lozenges Ohi ; on the second 
bar a mitre labelled Arg. ; on the third bar, a mullet Sa, and the 
other two had a sword point in base as a difference. 

Subsequently, Bishop Alnwick either largely repaired or 
added to Sleaford Castle, during his episcopate, lasting from 1436 
to 1450. Of his residence here we have a record in the Issue 
Boll 24, Henry YI, p. 453, as follows : " Paid 5 to William 
Gedney, lately sent by the king's command to the Bishop of 
Lincoln, then at Sleaford, in the County of Lincoln, and else- 
where, to obtain a copy of the last Will of his Father Lord 
Henry V." And that he very often travelled between Lincoln 
and Sleaford when he was repairing or adding to Sleaford Castle, 
we have proof, from the fact of his having made a new track or 
road over Lincoln-heath, called the "brode way," according to 
testimony given at a trial between the commander of Temple 
Bruer Sir Thomas Newport, and de la Launde, of Ashby ; but 
at length the obsequious Henry Bands, or Holbeach, was base 
enough to alienate much of the episcopal property to the Crown, 
when the Castle and Manor of Sleaford first passed into the 
hands of the Duke of Somerset, ever greedy for the plunder of 
the Church, although regarded as a Saint by the Puritans, who 
was eventually executed for high treason. These then reverted 
to the Crown, and were granted by Queen Mary to Edward Fines, 
Lord Clinton, afterwards the famous Earl of Lincoln and Not- 
tingham, for his services in suppressing Wyatt's rebellion ; but 
he did not keep them long, for in 1559, with the consent of the 
crown, he sold them to Bobert Carre, together with all the rights, 
members, liberties, and appurtenances belonging thereto, with 
divers lands, tenements, meadows, pastures, mills, and other 



SLEAFORD. 



119 



hereditaments, to be held by him and his assigns of the queen 
for ever, for the sum of 60 a year, from the 1st day of March 
in that year, at the feast of Saint Michael and the Pask, in equal 
portions. " Pipe Rot., 29 Eliz." At this time the appurte- 
nances of the Castle and Manor of Sleaford were very great, 
consisting of various other manors, lands, tenements, and rights 
of various kinds, a list of which is still preserved in the form 
of a record drawn up in 1627, by Mr. William Burton, a faith- 
ful steward of the Carre family, for the instruction of the young 
Sir Robert Carre, the second Baronet, then a minor, son of Sir 
Edward Carre, the first Baronet. 

In right of the Castle, all the freeholders in Sleaford and 
Holdingham held their lands and tenements in burgage of its 
lord, although some owners of these claimed to be freeholders. 

The Manor of Old Sleaford was within the liberty of the 
Castle, and held of it by knight's service, and its lands were pur- 
chased by Robert Carre, after the confiscation of Lord Hussey's 
lands. 28, Henry VIII. The following also belonged to it, 
viz : The Manor of Quarrington, formerly held by Stanton : The 
Manor of Evedon and Thursby, or Blackhills, in right of which 
Robert Carre had enjoyed the wardship first of Bartholomew 
Harby, and then of his son Daniel Harby ; respecting which 
right a suit had taken place in 1589, which was decided in Carre's 
favour. The Manors of Lessingham and Ringston were held 
successively by members of the Marmyon and Hesslewood fami- 
lies, but in 1627 the former was held by Mr. Brownlow, the latter 
by Mr. Bernard, who then paid the fees for both Manors. Ther 
Manor of Hougham held by two knights' fees, of the Castle, by 
Sir Thomas Brudnell, whose tenants did fealty to the Castle 
court, paid yearly fines, and acknowledged its lord's right to 
wardships. The manor of Boughton in the parish of Asgarby. A 
capital messuage in Silk Willoughby, called Dounehall, held by 
knight's service, formerly Thomas Hussey's, but then William 
Berrie's; lands in Rippingale, Dunsby, and Stainfield, held of 
the Castle by rents service ; besides these the right of presentation 
to the Church of Quarrington belonged to the lord of Sleaford 
Castle, after its alienation by Bishop Holbeach, as determined by 
a suit instituted by Robert Carre against Bishop Barlow, who 
claimed his right as Bishop of Lincoln ; when Lord Cook decided 
that the Bishop's presentee should continue to hold it ; but, that 



120 



SLEAFOED. 



its future presentation was to be Carre's. The Castle was cer- 
tainly in good order when Leland visited it about 1545, for he 
thus describes it, " Withoute the towne of Sleaford standith 
west south west the propre Castelle of Sleford, very welle man- 
taynid, and it is compasid with a rennyng streme, cumming by a 
cut oute of a litle fenne, a lying almost flatte weste againe it. In 
the gate-house of the Castelle, be 2 porte colices. There is an 
highe toure in the midle of the Castelle, but not sette upon a hille 
of raised yerth." " Itinerary, Vol. I, p. 27." But during the 
next 5X) years its demolition had in a great measure taken place. 
Perhaps the Duke of Somerset had commenced this, by selling 
the lead and timber of its roofs always the first and most profit- 
able act of spoliation ; and then the stonework was carried off 
for building purposes elsewhere as required. The next we hear 
of its condition is a reference to " the late fair Castle at Sleaford," 
in a deed executed by Robert Carre, in 1604, which he would 
have scarcely used if he himself had destroyed it. But we are 
hence enabled distinctly to disprove the popular error that Crom- 
well battered down the Castle, as some harmless remains of it 
alone then existed : for much of its materials had been carried 
off at that time, and according to tradition, were used in the 
erection of the then two principal inns of Sleaford ; more no 
doubt followed ; but even so late as 1720 a considerable portion 
of the north wall and north western tower, as well as of a much 
larger tower, and a compound turret perhaps the Keep were 
still standing. (See Cut taken from a contemporary drawing.) 




And the Eev. Edward Waterson, vicar of Sleaford, from 1781 
to 1809, has left it on record that persons were still living during 
his incumbency who remembered the existence of the west gate 
of the Castle ; but now only an upturned portion of the above 



SLEAFOBD. 121 

named north, western tower remains of all its former vast stores 
of stone. Its walls are five feet thick, and this fragment seems 
likely to endure awhile still, to serve as a solitary relic of the 
past grandeur of Sleaford Castle. During some recent exca- 
vations on the site of the Castle, one of its keys was found, of 
which a cut is given below. 




GUILDS. 

There were several Guilds at Sleaford in mediaeval times as 
in other towns, the chief of which, were those of the Holy Trinity, 
or Saint Thomas, Corpus Christi, and Saint John. These were 
semi-religious, semi-charitable Institutions, or Corporations, 
intended to give aid in life, in death, and after death. ; but some 
were more especially founded to advance prosperity in trade. If 
rich enough, each had its House, or Hall, commonly called the 
Gruild Hall, and consisted of an Alderman, Chamberlains, and 
often a Chaplain, besides the brethren and sisters. They were 
prosperous popular Societies, possessing lands and tenements 
bequeathed to them, besides the proceeds of the subscriptions of 
their members. Their objects were to relieve the distressed, to 
celebrate the funerals of their deceased members with solemnity, 
and to have masses said for the repose of their souls. They often 
met for business, but once a year kept a grand Festival when 
they attended mass in great state, offered up especial prayers for 
all the brotherhood both living and dead, audited their accounts, 
and dined together, sometimes with unhappy results. The 
chaplains of these GKiilds were usually the directors of those 
religious plays got up with great splendour by such communities, 
attended by the Magistrates and chief personages of the neigh- 
bourhood, and celebrated with bell ringing, singing, and playing 
of minstrels, and feasting. The Alderman was elected by the 



122 SLEAFOED. 

brethren annually, and usually the choice fell upon the senior 
Chamberlain of the preceding year. 

The Holy Trinity Guild existed at Sleaford in 1477, but how 
long before that date we know not. An account book of this 
Guild, commencing that year, still exists, of which the following 
is given as a specimen of its character. 

"Compotus lohis Swynshed aldyrman, "Willi Pynder, et 
Kicardi Franke camerariorum Gylde Sancte Trinitatis anno Dni 
millmo CCCCLXXVIJ. 

Md. that the next sonday aftyr the fest of the Trinite the yer 
afor wretyn, that Jon Swynshed countyd and delyveryd the day 
aforsayd, apon hys count to the toun of Sleford, and bredyr and 
systers of the Q-yld of the Trinite, of the saule scott to hym 
delyveryd be the hands of John Gylbert and Eobert Wryght, 
sum iij li., xi s., ix d., of the quych sume ther remaynys in the 
charge of John Gylberd, iv li. 

Also ther remanys in the hand of Jon Swynshed, Alderman 

of the year aforsayd iij li xi s. ix d. ob. 

Item, the increase of the Stoke iij li x virj s. j d. 

Item, of hold soulscott vi li xi s. ix d. 

Item, of New brodyrod xiij s. 

Item, of legat vi s. iij d. 

Item, for malte sold to the chaumerlayns . . xx xviij s. viij d. 

Summe total iij li- xy iij s - iij d. ob. 

This ben the parcels in expens don be the sayd Aldyrman 
an hys chaumerlayns. 

Item. Fyrst payd to the prest * v li. v ii. viij d. 

Item, payd to the dirige xx d. 

It. payd to the prest for messe penys for ye 

bredyr dyssesyd that yer x d. 

It. payd to the mynstrells xiiij d. 

It. payd to the mynstrells of Corpus day . . iiij d. 

It. payd for the synging of the same day . . ij d. 

Summe v li. x s. xd. 

Item, in expens don be the hands of the chaumerlayns in all 

maner chargs iij li- xiii s. vj d. 

The sume of the Stoke, althyngs countyd and aloud delyveryd 
to the hands of "William Curwyn chosen for Aldyrman, and the 

next yer following is iij li- X XJ s. iijd. 

Sum totalis de claro iijix li. xvj s. iijd. 



SLEAFORD. 123 

This Guild lasted until the dissolution of all such Institu- 
tions, when its rents and profits were made over to the Crown. 

Corpus Christi Guild was famous for the magnificence with 
which it presented its religious plays to its brethren and visitors. 
and especially on Corpus Christi day. It had a property belong- 
ing to it called Nelson's lands. It existed after the confiscation 
of its property until 1613, under the management of the church- 
wardens. It is not improbable that the chapel at the west end 
of the south aisle of the parish church belonged to one of these 
Guilds, as its peculiar situation and distinct bell-pinnacle favour 
such a suggestion. 

THE HUSSEYS. 

The earliest mention of the name of Hussey in connection 
with Sleaford is in the reign of Richard II., when Robert Halden, 
Yicar of Sleaford, is recorded to have married Elizabeth daughter 
of John Husay, of Sleaford. Next we hear of a Sir William 
Hussey, knight, of Sleaford, who married a Lumley. Their son, 
John Hussey, of Sleaford, living circa 1441-58, married Elizabeth 
Nesfield, and they were the parents of a second Sir Wm. Hussey, 
of Sleaford, besides whom they had a younger son, Sir Robert, also 
settled at Sleaford, whose name occurs on a roll of knights and 
gentlemen employed to fix the boundaries between Kesteven and 
Holland, in the year 1500. Sir William was a student at Gray's 
Inn Hall, and through his great skill and learning rose to the 
top of the legal profession, and thus exalted the position of his 
family. He certainly continued to live occasionally in Lincoln- 
shire, for we find his name as one of the Commissioners of Sewers 
for Kesteven, in 1467. He was made Attorney General, June 
16th, 1471, and Chief Justice of the King's Bench, May 7th, 1481, 
with the allowance of 100 marks a year, an office which he con- 
tinued to hold by subsequent patents of Edward V., Richard III., 
and Henry VII. In the reign of Richard he was appointed one of 
his Commissioners for treating with the King of Scotland respect- 
ing a proposed marriage between his eldest son James, with 
Anne, Richard's niece, and daughter of John, Duke of Suffolk. 
In the first year of Henry "VTL, he attended that king on the 
northern progress he made after his coronation, and three years 
later acted as one of the commissioners for the array of archers 



124 SLEAFOBD. 

in the County of Lincoln, to be sent to the relief of Brittany. 
In the year 1490 he acted as one of the king's commissioners 
appointed to treat for peace between Charles, king of France, and 
Anne, duchess of Brittany, and did so again the year following. 
He was a benefactor to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, " Leland's 
Collectanea," Vol. Y, p. 200. After having been admitted as 
a Canon of Lincoln, he died September 8th, 1495, and was 
buried at Sempringham. A record of him, and his wife Eliz- 
abeth Berkeley, still remains in one of the windows of Gray's 
Inn Hall, viz., his armorial bearings, and below them this legend, 
" Willus Husee, miles, capitalis, Justic ad placita cora Rege, et 
Elizabetha uxor ejus, filia Thome Berkeley, Armigeri." His 
above named wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Berkeley, 
of Wymondham, died 1505. They had four sons, John, after- 
wards Lord Hussey ; Sir William, Sir Robert, and George ; and 
two daughters : Elizabeth, married to Richard Grey, Earl of 
Kent, and Mary, married to William, Lord Willoughby de 
Eresby. John Hussey was born 1465, and became an important 
public character. In 1494 he was appointed custodian of the 
manor of Holewell (Holywell), in Lincolnshire, and of Stretton, 
in Rutland, through the mainprisal of William Hussey, of Lon- 
don, and Thomas Archer, of Swineshead. The same year also 
he was appointed Sheriff of Lincolnshire. He fought at the 
battle of Stoke, June 16th, 1487, and at that of Blackheath 
1497 ; after which he was knighted by Henry VII. In 1509, on 
the accession of Henry VIII., he obtained a release of all debts 
due to the king, dated at Oxford, May 22nd., and the same year 
was admitted as a Commissioner of oyer and terminer in the 
County of Lincoln. In 1513 he went as a captain of 328 
men to the French war, previous to which he obtained letters 
of protection during his absence, and a license to alienate lands 
worth 20 a year, to the Master and Fellows of Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge. Two years later as Justice of the Peace, and Gustos 
Rotulorum for Holland, in Lincolnshire, he was called upon to 
attend the French queen. In 1520 he followed the king to the 
celebrated Field of the Cloth of Gold, accompanied him where- 
ever he went, and jousted on the queen's side at the tourney. 
The next year he was made Chief Butler of England. In 1523 
he attended the king, when he went to meet the Emperor at 
Canterbury, May 7th, and on the 3rd of November, 1530, was 



SLEAFORD. 



125 



created Baron Hussey of Sleaford. After such, services rendered 
to the Crown, and such rewards as he had received from Henry 
VIII. in return for those services (who, as a mark of his per- 
sonal regard, had stood sponsor for one of Lord Hussey' s 
children), we should have thought he would ever have remained 
faithful to his sovereign; but, although he aided in putting 
down the first popular movement against the suppression of 
the monasteries, and the old faith, under Dr. Mackarel, prior of 
Bardney, commonly called Captain Cobler, he subsequently 
joined with others, and especially with Sir Thomas Darcy, 
under whose influence he is supposed to have acted in this 
matter, in taking part in a similar rebellion, which cost him 
his life. When warned of the threatened danger of the first 
rising of the people of Lincolnshire, by the then Dean of Lin- 
coln the famous Wolsey, he directly sent the following proper 
instructions to some authority in command at Lincoln perhaps 
the Governor of the Castle. " Cotton MSS., Vespasian F 113., 
fol. 116." 

"In my right herty manner I recommend me unto you, 
Advertysing the same, that this daye at ix of the clocke in the 
mornyng, I had word from the Dean of Lincoln that there is a 
company of fals rebellious knaves rysen and gathered to gether 
in Lyndsey ; wherefore, I will advise you, and in the King's be- 
half I commaunde you that ye do see the citie of Lyncoln surely 
kept, so that there passe no suche evyll desposed persons thorough 
the same : And further that ye be in redynes with suche com- 
pany as ye can make, to serve the King in suppressing the same, 
if nede reqwyres : And that ye immediatly cause forthwith all 
the bowes and arrowes being in the bowers' and fletchers' hands 
to be taken up at a reasonable price, if ye so nede : And that ye 
handle this matter so discretely and secretely as ye can ; And if 
ye see cause that ye be not able to resist, send me word. And I 
shalbe redy at all tymes to assist you with suche power as I can 
make. And thus fare ye well. From Sleaford, this tuesday the 
iij d daye of October, with the hande of 

"Yours to 

"JOHN HUSSE/' 

Eventually this movement became a very serious one, and 
20,000 men of Lincolnshire were, as far as they could be, in 
arms against the king ; but, backed by a large force, Henry is 



126 SLEAFOED. 

said to have persuaded the leaders to submit, and then addressed 
the rest in terms neither conciliatory nor nattering to this county r 
telling them that he had never read or heard that rude and 
ignorant common people were meet persons to discern and choose 
sufficient counsellors for a Prince, called them presumptuous 
rude commons, of a shire the most brute and beastly of the 
whole realm, who dared to take upon them to rule their king ; 
and finished by ordering the poor Prior of Bardney and others 
to be executed. A similar rebellion however soon broke out 
again, further to the north, first under Aske, and then under 
Lord Darcy, Sir Eobert Constable, Sir John Bulmer, Sir Thomas 
Percy, brother of the Earl of Northumberland, Sir Stephen 
Hamilton, Nicholas Tempest, and others ; and in this Lord 
Hussey joined. All of these are said to have been offered par- 
don at an early stage of their proceedings on this occasion ; 
but although their cause was hopeless, they persevered, failed, 
and fell into the hands of the king. Lord Darcy and Lord Hussey 
were then arraigned at Westminster, before the Marquis of 
Exeter, High Steward of England, and were pronounced guilty 
of high treason, for which the former was sentenced to be be- 
headed on Tower-hill, and Lord Hussey shortly afterwards 
suffered the same fate at Lincoln. At his death he possessed 
the manor of Old Sleaford and adjacent lands, and the manors of 
Leake, Leverton, and Skirbeck ; but although his children were 
restored in blood 5 Eliz., they did not recover his estates. It is 
a question which of his two wives he married first, but probably 
this was Margaret, daughter and co-heir of Sir Simon Blount, of 
Mangotsfield, Gloucestershire, and widow of John Bane, of Banes 
Court, in the same County, by whom he had Sir Charles Hussey, 
of Caythorpe, knighted at Morlaix, in Brittany, and Thomas 
Hussey, of Holton Holgate. His other wife was Anne, daughter 
of G-eorge Grey, Earl of Kent. For further particulars of this 
family see the subjoined pedigree. 

On the attainder of Lord Hussey, Eobert Carre bought the 
Manor of Old Sleaford, and the residence of the Husseys, now 
called "the Old Place," and it remained in the hands of his 
descendants until it passed into the Hervey family, by the mar- 
riage of Isabella Carre with John Hervey, the ancestor of the 
present Marquis of Bristol, who is now its proprietor. 



SLEAFOKD. 127 

THE FAMILY OF CARRE OF SLEAFORD. 

The Carres of Sleford* were a Northumberland family, 
of Anglo-Norman origin, who removed into Lincolnshire in the 
reign of Hen. VII. Their chief residence in the north was 
Hetton, in Grlendale, a few miles from the borders of Scotland. 

The immediate ancestor of the Sleaford family Sir John 
Carre, temp. Henry VI., married Margaret Clifford, daughter of 
the eighth Lord de Clifford, Lord of Hartlepool, and great 
granddaughter of the renowned Hotspur, of Chevy Chase, so 
celebrated by historians. They had several children, of whom 
the youngest son James, married a sister of Lord Ogle, and 
was grandfather of the Margaret Carre, whose monumental 
brass at Pinchbeck in this county, has long been an object of 
interest with antiquaries. 

Sir John Carre, Kt., of Hartlepool, the eldest son, was a 
favourite of Henry VIII. He was Squire of the Body, to the 
King, in 1509, and, afterwards a "Sewer of the Mouth," (an 
officer equivalent to^that of cupbearer). The king lavished upon 
him many honors and estates ; amongst others, a slice of the pos- 
sessions of the attained Lord Lovel of Blankney, and also the rent 
which Lord Hussey paid to the Crown for the grant of that 
Barony. In 1514 the king gave him considerable estates in 
Yorkshire, and, in the following year, he served the office of 
Sheriff for that County, on which occasion he obtained a 
"Grant of Standard." This Grant, dated 14 March, 1515, 
under the seals of Wryothesley and Yonge, Kings at Arms, 
was found in the archives at Sleaford, and is a most curious 
document. Sir John is therein described as " descended of 
noble lineage : " the device was a Stag's head, decorated, as it 
may be seen on the old monuments in Sleaford church. Sir 
John died at Cambridge in 1522. In his will he bequeathed 
his "cheyne and crosse" to Sir Wm. Compton, mentioning the 
love he had borne him through life : his debt to the King of 100 
marks, he trusted of his forgiveness, of all or half, if his executors 



*The greater part of the following account of the Carre family is derived 
from a treatise on that subject, by the late M. P. Moore, Esq., of Sleaford, 
published in the reports of the Associated Architectural Societies, Vol. 6. 



128 SLEAFORD. 

did sue for it and lie also trusted that a small sum would 
content the executors of George Carre, of Sleford, for what he 
owed to them. His "reyment, plate, and effects," he bequeathed 
to his priest, and desired to be buried " afore St. John the Bap- 
tist, in St. John's College; " thus adopting its patron saint, after 
the manner of Geo. Carre of Newcastle, who in his will desired 
that the image of St. George, that was kept iu the Hall, should 
remain there during the life of his wife, and then be preserved 
" in the cupborde as an heirelome." 

The nephew and heir, Greorge Carre, of Sleaford, (who 
was the son of Richard Carre, by a daughter of Sir John Elmden, 
of the Bishoprick), was the first of whom we have any record as 
being settled in this place ; and it is somewhat singular that so 
many Northumberland families should have migrated into Lin- 
colnshire about the same period, such as the Herons of Cressy, 
the "Widdringtons of Blankney, the Talboys of Kyme, the Ogles 
of Pinchbeck, &c. George Carre established himself at Sleaford 
as a merchant of the staple of Calais, trading in the export of 
wool from Boston to the continent the wool at that time passing 
down by water (by the Old river, and through Haverholme 
Park) to St. Botolph's, as in the time of Edward I. The com- 
merce was regulated by a wealthy Guild at Sleaford, called the 
Guild of the Holy Trinity, to early Irethyren of which ancient 
fraternity we are said to be indebted for our parish church. 

In these pursuits, George Carre acquired a large fortune, in- 
cluding the manor of Tetney on the coast, and other estates in 
this town and neighbourhood. He dwelt in the " Carre House," 
south of the church, described by Leland, (who travelled in the 
wake of Hen. VIII.,) as one of the great ornaments of the town. 
It now forms the site of the Carre Hospital. 

The eldest surviving son, Robert Carre, Esq., (familiarly 
known as old Robert Carre,) became the founder of the great 
landed wealth of the family. He survived his father for seventy 
years, and throughout that long period, and with an unlimited 
command of money, he devoted himself to the continual extension 
of his landed possessions. He lived in eventful times, favourable 
to that object, especially for one whose antecedents gave him the 
ear of the King. Living all through the reigns of Hen. YIIL, 
Ed., VI., and Mary, he survived to assist Elizabeth, in 1588, 
with a loan against the Spanish Armada. Born a catholic, he 



SLEAFORD. 129 

was a close observer of the Reformation ; more especially of tlie 
manner in which, the monastic possessions, the Chantries, Guilds, 
&c., were transferred to the Crown ; and in that century, too, 
more private property was forfeited by attainder, than in any 
other period of our history. He purchased the manor of Old 
Sleaford, forfeited on the attainder of his fellow-townsman, Lord 
Hussey, and which estate Cranmer had granted to the Goodrich 
family, He also purchased the ancient Castle, manor, and 
great Barony of Sleaford, forfeited by the attainder of the Pro- 
tector Somerset, and which had been granted to Lord Clinton, 
for his services in suppressing the rebellion of Wyatt. The 
learned editor of the Progress of King Henry with Q. Catherine 
Howard, through Lincolnshire, in 1541, after the rebellion in 
Lincolnshire, conjectures that the King rested at the Old Place, 
and held his councils there, under the erroneous impression that 
the Old Place then remained in the hands of the King : but it 
is more probable that he was received at the Castle, which was 
then in all its splendour "very welle mantaynid." Moreover 
it belonged to Bishop Longland, who in the previous week had 
proudly entertained the King and all his Court, at his other 
Episcopal palace of Liddington, in [Rutland. The precise time 
when this Castle was dismantled is not known. Leland classes 
it amongst the Religious Houses of the County, and probably it 
was left to share the fate of the Abbeys. In the grant to Lord 
Clinton, 1556, it is treated more as a ruin, and much mention 
is made of its stone, lead, and iron. 

It may further be mentioned, that Robert Carre bought 
the manor and mansion of Aswarby and Asgarby, of his niece, 
the Lady Ambrose Dudley, which had devolved upon her as 
the daughter and heir of Lord Talboys ; he also bought the 
manor of Eauceby, of Sir John Huddylstone, Kt., of Sawston, 
Yice Chamberlayne to the Kynge's Hyghnesse ; the manor 
of Ingleby Hall, in Kirkby, of John Stanlow and Myles Bus- 
sye ; another manor there, of Thos. Sleford, Esq., who had 
removed to Willesthorp ; Cattley Abbey, and the manors of 
Digby and Brauncewell, with the manor and mansion of old 
Dunsby on the Heath, that were appurtenant to that monastery ; 
large estates in South Elloe, of the Welby family ; great posses- 
sions of the dissolved Monasteries of Haverholm, Bourn, Louth, 
&c. ; and a well-known spot on the heath, described in those days 



130 SLEAFOBD. 

as " the shepegate, called May den House, in Fulbec, parcel of tlie 
possessions of the late priory of Sempringham." 

But it would be tedious to continue the enumeration of these 
purchases, which he made on most favourable terms for himself, 
through their doubtful titles, as having been either forfeited 
estates or monastic property. He was hence enabled to exhibit 
his patriotism in a very substantial manner at the time of the 
threatened Spanish Invasion, by contributing 100 towards the 
defence of the country, or more than all the other Lincolnshire 
contributors towards that fund, excepting Thomas Conye, of 
Bassingthorpe, who gave the same sum, most of the leading 
gentry giving only 25. 

In private life, old Leland speaks of him as "a proper 
gentilman." He took a prominent part in the judicial business 
of the county, and was an active supporter of the Lord Treasurer 
Burleigh, in the business of the Musters. 

Robert Carre was thrice married : 1st, to Elizabeth Cawdron, 
(daughter of the King's Bayliff at Heckington) by whom he had 
seven children ; 2nd., to the widow Irby ; and Srdly, to the 
widowed Lady Dymoke, the sister of Lord Talboys. He died in 
1590, at an advanced age, and was buried in the church where 
his monument indicates. 

Throughout his life, Bobert Carre continued to reside in the 
old Carre House at Sleaford ; his three sons, Bobert, Sir 
"William, and Sir Edward, respectively occupying the Old Place, 
Aswarby Park, and the old Hall at Dunsby. 

Of his six surviving children, the eldest daughter, Elizabeth, 
married Mr. Fairfax, of Swarby, nephew of Balph Fairfax, the 
last Prior of Kyme. Anne, the second daughter, married Bobt. 
Whichcote, Esq., of Harpswell, ancestor of Sir Thomas Which- 
cote, Bart. Ann Bridget married Bichard Bossiter, of Somerby, 
and was the grandmother of Col. Sir Ed. Bossiter, M.P., Gene- 
ral of all the Lincolnshire Forces in Cromwell's time, and Gov- 
ernor, in usurpation, of Belvoir Castle ; afterwards " a promoter 
of the nation's happiness," and knighted at Canterbury on the 
Bestoration of Charles IE. He married the Lady Arabella Hollis. 

George Carre, the eldest son, predeceased his father, leav- 
ing by Mary Sutton, his wife, grandniece of Lord Hussey, a son, 
Robert, who died young, s.p., and a daughter, Elizabeth, who 
married, imprudently, Edward Sisson, Esq., and was disinherited. 



SLEAFORD. 131 

Robert Carre, the second son, High Sheriff 1581, was 
Founder of the Sleaford Grammar School, and of other charities 
at Rauceby and Aswarby. He went as Treasurer of the Army 
of the North, accompanied by many Lincolnshire gentlemen, to 
quell the rebellion against Queen Elizabeth, got up by the Earls 
of Northumberland and "Westmoreland. The list of " the prin- 
cipal officers and captaynes " included, 

Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick. ) L. L. 
Ed. Lord Clinton, Adm. of England, ) Lieuts. 

Robert Carr, of Sleford, Esq Treasurer. 

Leonard Irby, Esq. , Muster Mayster. 

John Heneage, Esq Master Harbinger. 

Captains of Horse, Dymock Nevile, St. Poll, tyc. 
Purveyor John Death. 

Robert Carre married the widow of the great warrior, 
William, Lord Gray of Wilton, Lord Warden of the English 
Marches ; and secondly, the widow of Adlard Welby, Esq., of 
Gedney ; and died without issue in 1606. 

The next brother, Sir William Carre, was knighted with his 
younger brother, Edward, at Belvoir Castle, on going to greet 
James I in his progress to take possession of the Crown of Eng- 
land. Sir Wm. married Bridget Chaworth, of Wyverton, 
who, as her monument at Ufford relates, " served the late Queen 
"Elizabeth of most famous memory, being one of the Gentlewomen of 
*' Her Majesties Privy 'e Chamber, for the space of five and twenty 
" years ; and afterwards served the most renowned Queen Anne, Wife 
"to our most gracious Soveraigne, Ring James, for the space of 14 
"years, leing the residue of her life" 

Sir William died without issue in 1611, and was succeeded 
by his youngest brother, 

Sir Edward Carre, Knight, who was created a Baronet by 
James I, but did not long survive to enjoy that honour. He was 
twice married : by his first wife, Catherine Bolle, he had no 
family ; by the second, Anne Dyer, he left three children, Sir 
Robert, Rochester, and Lucy, and died in 1 6 1 8 . The monument, 
and recumbent effigies of the knight and his lady, are said to 
have been mutilated in the civil war, when General Cromwell 
and the Earl of Manchester were so " much about Sleford," and 
Col. Rossiter desecrated the parish church, by converting it into ' 
a stable for his troop-horses. 



132 SLEAFORD. 

Sir Edward, by his will, augmented the jointure of his widow 
to 5000 acres leaving her also her jewels, her coach and horses, 
her own riding horses, the white nag called " Gray Cawdron," 
and the white silver plate belonging to her own chamber; the 
manor of Upton he left to his daughter Lucy-Englishe ; the 
Aswarby estates to his second son Rochester, together with the 
service of white silver plate ; the eldest son, Sir Robert, taking 
the residue of the family estates, and the service of plate " all 
gilt," much of which had been birth-day presents from Queen 
Elizabeth to Sir Wm. and his lady, when in waiting at that 
Court. 

In Sir Edward's time, the Carre estates were in the zenith 
of their integrity. Besides the old property in Northumberland, 
Yorkshire, and Hunts., and in Kesteven, (far exceeding what 
remains in the present day,) there were manors, advowsons, and 
estates in 19 parishes in Lindsey, and 24 parishes in the Parts of 
Holland. 

The widow of Sir Edward Carre, within a twelvemonth of 
her first husband's death, married her countryman, Col. Hen. 
Cromwell, M.P., the eldest son of the veteran Royalist, Sir Oliver 
Cromwell, of Hitchinbroke, elder uncle of the Protector. 

Sir Robert Carre, the second Baronet, on coming of age, 
founded the Sleaford Hospital, A.D. 1636, endowing it with 
estates that at the present time yield an income of 1200 a year. 
In very early life he married one of the daughters and co-heirs 
of Sir Richard Grargrave, Kt., of Kingsley Park, and Nostell, in 
Yorkshire. This unhappy person, " Dick Gar grave" was of 
antient family, and the owner of an immense estate, the whole 
of which was wasted at the gaming-table. " He could once ride 
on his own land from Wakefield to Doncaster," and was at last 
found dead, in the stable of a small inn, resting his head on the 
saddle of his packhorse. His daughter, a beautiful woman, be- 
came known in many after sorrows, as " the Lady Mary Carr." 

Rochester Carr, of Aswarby, named after his godfather, 
Sir Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester and Earl of Somerset, in 
1637, was found lunatic, and continued in that state for 40 
years. His guardianship became the subject of fierce contention 
^between Lady Mary Carr, for her husband on one side, and 
Dame Anne Cromwell and her family, on the other side. The 
struggle was maintained incessantly for 30 years through the 



SLEAFORD. 133 

remaining years of Charles I through the Commonwealth and 
down into the reign of Charles II : but the Carres, having the 
right, were successful throughout. 

The affairs of the elder "brother, Sir Robert Carr, proved if 
possible, a greater anxiety to his wife, Lady Mary, than those of 
Rochester for he too, as Fleetwood asserted, became "of very 
weake understanding." 

Early in his married life, when he had daughters only, he 
made a remarkable settlement of his castle and estates upon the 
Earl of Ancram, conditional upon either of Lord Ancram's sons, 
(Lord Charles Carr or Stanley Carr) marrying one of these young 
ladies. This settlement, which was attested by six of the great 
ministers of state, was afterwards as solemnly revoked on the 
birth of a son. Then followed a series of settlements, in the time 
of Sir Robert's weakness, confiding the estates to different sets 
of trustees, for various family purposes each succeeding settle- 
ment being followed by suit for breaches of trust Lady Mary 
alleging " sales of estates by the trustees to themselves and their 
friends, at nominal prices, and rendering no account of the 
money : " and notwithstanding the friendly interest taken by 
King Charles himself, and although the trustees were most of 
them Ministers of State, Speakers of the House of Commons, 
and Law Officers of the Crown, or of the Commonwealth, it 
would seem that they did take advantage of the times in which 
they lived, for " they could render no account, because during 
the war, Sleford having been an usual quarter for soldiers, they 
had divers times imprisoned the agents, and plundered and 
embezzled all their papers." Of all the trustees, the first and 
last friend of the Carrs, seems to have been their countryman, 
Algernon, Earl of Northumberland. 

Sir Robert Carr died in 1667, and now " new troubles came 
upon Lady Mary " in her widowhood. 

Sir Robert left four children, of whom, the eldest daughter, 
Elizabeth, married Sir William Trollope, Bart., and had an only 
daughter, Elizabeth Carr Trollope, wife of Charles Eox, Esq., 
paymaster to the Forces of Charles II, and elder half-brother of 
the first Earl of Ilchester, and the first Lord Holland. 

Mary, the second daughter, married Sir Adrian Scrope, Kt., 
of the Bath, and was ' the greate witt ' of Evelyn's time. 

L 



134 SLEAFOBD. 

Lucy, third daughter, was married in Westminster Abbey, 
to the second Lord Hollis ; who in time claimed and recovered 
from Sir Robert Oarr, for his wife's portion, the greater part then 
remaining of the Lindsey and Holland estates which property 
he carried to the Newcastle family. 

The shares of the elder sisters, were happily bought up by 
the first Earl of Bristol. 

The only brother, The Eight Hon. Sir Eobert Carr, Knt. 
and Bart., Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, was the last of 
this Eoyalist family, in the male line, that attained to man's 
estate. He was returned M.P. for the County in several Parli- 
aments, as his cousin Eossiter had been in the Commonwealth. 
He married a sister of Bennett, Earl of Arlington, joined 
"THE CABAL" Administration, and was one of the favourites of 
Charles II. Before his death at Aswarby, in 1682, he appointed 
the Et. Hon. Sir Stephen Fox, Sir Wm. Yorke, of Leasingham, 
and Sir Gervas Elwes, of Suffolk, to be his executors ; and desi- 
red to be buried in the family vault in Sleaford church by torch 
light. 

Sir Edward Carr, the 4th Bart., died in his minority, (when 
the Baronetcy became extinct) leaving an only sister, 

Isabella Carr, the sole heir, and the last of her race, who in 
1688, married John Hervey, Esq., of Ickworth Park, Suffolk, 
afterwards created Earl of Bristol ; the ancestor of the present 
Marquis of Bristol. 



PEDIGBEE OF CAKEE OF SLEFOKD, 

Formerly of Hetton, Northumberland. 



SIR JOHN CARRE, Knight,=MARGARET, daughter of Thos. 8th Lord Clifford, 
Temp. Hen. VI. Lord of Skipton and Hartilpole. 



SIR JOHN CARRE, RICHARD 

of Hartilpole, Squire of Sir Job 
to Hen. VIII., mar. of the Bisl 
Wid. Corners, d. of 
Montford. ob. 1522. 
s. p. 
3 


, ma a dau. ANN, wife of JAMES, of Thornton, 
n Elmden, Roger Tempest; married a sister of Lord 
oprick. of Broughton. Ogle, ob. 1515. 

2 145 


ROBERT, Prioress of GEORGE= 
of Boston, Brinkburne. CARRE, of 
ob. 1508. Slyford, ob. 
1520. 

1 2 3 


=ANNE, dau : JAMES ob. s p. EMORY 
of Flower, RALPH, married Ja: 
of Notts. BRYAN, Medoppe: 
ob. 1521. &c. ob.1638. 

456 


RICHARD, ROBTCARRE= 
JOHN, died of Sleford, the 
minors, great landown- 
er, ob. 1590. 

1 2 


1 Eliz. Cawdron GEORGE, MARGARET 
2 Wid Irby THOMAS, LAMBERT, of 
3 Wid Dymoke, JANE, Pinchbeck ob. 
sis. of Ld. Talboys. &c. 1608 : set, 84. 

3 


GEORGE, ma. Mary, ROBERT, ma. Wid. 
Sutton. Wid ma. A r- of Ld. Gray, of Wilton, 
myn. Son Robt. ob. 2. Wid.< Welby. ob. 
s.p. Dau. Eliz=Sisson. 1606, s. p . 


I 1 
SIR WILLIAM, ELIZABETH, ma. 
ma. Bridget Cha- W. Fairfax, nep. of 
worth, of the Bed- the Prior of Kyme. 
chamber.ob. 1611, s.p 2 Chr. Kelk of Kelke 


ANNE, w. of Robt. SIR ED. CARRE,= 
Whichcote, Harps- created Bart. 1611. 
well. 2. Chr. Legard, ob. 1618, Married 
Anlaby. 1, Katherine Bolle. 

2 1 


ANNE. dau. of Sir BRIDGET, wife of 
R. Dyer. 2. ma. R. Rossiter. 
Col. Hen. Cromwell. 2. Greg. Wolmore, 
by whom he had of Bloxholm. 
several children. 


ROCHESTER SIR ROB. CARR,= 
CARR, of Aswarby: Bart, of Old Sle- 
a lunatic. ford, ob. 1667. 


MARY, dau of Sir LUCY, wife of H. 
Rich. Gargrave, of English, Sussex. 
Kingsley & Nostell. 


ELIZABETH, Rt. Hon.SIR= 
wife of Sir Wm. ROBT. CARR ; 
Trollope, Bt. da. Chan, of Duchy 
and heir, mar. Lancaster. Ob. 
Chas. son of Rt. 1682, aet. 45. 
Hon.SirSt.Fox. 


=ELIZABETH, MARY, wife LUCY, wife of 
sister of the Earl of Sir Adrian Francis, second 
of Arlington, Scrope Knight Lord Hollis. 
ob. 1696. of the Bath. 



SIR EDWARD CARR, of Sleaford, 
4th Baronet, ob. 28th Dec. 1683, aet. 18, 
when the Baronetcy became extinct. 



ISABELLA CARR, sole heir, ma. 1688, 
John Hervey, Esq., of Ickworth Park, Suff. 
created Earl of Bristol. 



SLEAFOED. 
TKADESMEN'S TOKENS. 



137 



Various little copper tokens of Sleaford tradesmen are worthy 
of notice in connection with the 17th century, Four of these are 
represented in the annexed cuts. Fig. 1 : Obverse James 
Adamson and a queen's head on a shield ; reverse In Sleeford, 
1656, and the initials I. M. A. Fig. 2 : Obverse John Farn- 
field, and a shield having a chevron between 9 cloves, or the 
Grocers' bearings ; reverse I. E. F., In Sleeford, 1656. Fig. 3 : 
Obverse Richard Cawdron, and a shield bearing the figure of a 
woman, probably intended for a Queen ; reverse E. C., In Slee- 
ford, 1664. Fig. 4: Obverse Christopher Green, and a shield 
the same as the last ; reverse 0. M. G., In Sleaford. 







Until the reign of James I., there was no Koyal copper 
money, which led to the use of private tokens by retail tradesmen 
for the mutual convenience of their customers and themselves. 
To meet this want, and to check what was an infringement upon 
the royal prerogative, royal farthing tokens were issued in 1613, 
and continued to be struck from that time until the close of his 
successor's reign ; but as this practice was discontinued during 
the Commonwealth, cities, corporations, merchants, and trades- 
men then issued tokens in greater abundance than ever, until at 
length their use was pronounced illegal in 1672, and such speci- 
mens as still exist are now simply curiosities of the past. 



138 SLEAFORD. 

In the last year of the 18th century an event occurred at 
Sleaford worthy of record from its amusing character, and as 
being characteristic of that period. Now, of all religious sects, the 
Society of Friends, or Quakers, are the most quiet and inoffensive; 
but in the 17th century and for some years subsequently they 
were violent beyond measure, and often experienced violence in 
return, especially from their chief opponents the Baptists. In a 
collision between these that occurred at Panton, in this county 
(as described in a curious contemporary tract), a judgment is 
said to have befallen one of the polemical divines in the form of 
a leprosy that was subsequently removed at the prayer of his 
opponent ; and at Sleaford a remarkable disputation took place 
between a Baptist bearing the unenviable name of Bugg and a 
Quaker named Pickworth. The former, in a quixotic spirit con- 
ceiving that he was bound to contend with Quakerism in general, 
and provided with a certificate from certain "worshipful persons 
vouching for the honest and sober life of the bearer, and further 
discreetly asserting that he was not disturbed in his mind, or 
discomposed, arrived at Sleaford, August llth, 1700. Bugg 
was originally a Quaker himself, and as an ardent pervert had 
previously disputed with Pickworth, by whom he had been 
challenged to a polemical contest, and was encouraged to do so 
by James Gardiner, Bishop of Lincoln, then holding a Visitation 
at Sleaford, who spoke to the clergy in his behalf. The use of 
the Sessions House for the forthcoming disputation was obtained 
from Mr. Hervey, Lord of the manor, then at Sleaford, and in it 
the Quaker erected a lofty platform capable of accommodating 
20 persons. After lodging with the Rev. Edward Smith, then 
vicar of Sleaford, the next day Bugg triumphantly mounted his 
platform from which poor Pickworth was excluded, who could 
scarcely be heard from the floor ; while the magistrates Edward 
Payne and Robert Cawdron, took their seats as judges. Pick- 
worth spoke first; before a crowded assembly, and then the ardent 
Bugg poured forth his declamations against Quakerism for such 
a length of time that the justices at last despairingly exclaimed 
in what would now be considered too familiar terms on a public 
occasion, " Come, Bugg, 'tis now three o'clock, 'tis time to give 
over, we want to go to dinner," reminding us of one of Pope's 
lines- 

"And wretches hang, that jurymen may dine." 



SLEAFOKD. 139 

Eventually, however, judgment was passed as follows : 
"March. 11, 170^. We whose names are hereunto subscribed, being 
two of his majesties justices of the peace for the parts of Kesteven, 
in the county of Lincoln, do testify, that being at a conference at 
Sleeford, Aug. 25, last past, between Mr. Fran. Bugg and Hen. 
Pickworth, a quaker of that town, Mr. Bugg did produce several 
books, wrote by the quakers, to prove those pernicious and anti- 
christian principles which he had charged them with in several 
books printed by him, which he did to the great satisfaction of 
the auditors, by fairly and openly reading the quotations out 
of the said quaker authors ; nor did the quakers then present 
deny, but that the books which Mr. Bugg produced were wrote 
by their own people, and fairly printed, except one which was 
written by some one C. Atkinson ; but it was fairly proved and 
owned by some of them, that it was written by him when he was 
a quaker. After some hours dispute, Mr. Bugg having made 
good his charge against them, we did, in abhorrence of their base 
principles, pursuant to an agreement under their hands in print, 
order two of the quaker 's books, in which were very scandalous 
expressions, and directly contrary to the fundamentals of Christi- 
anity, to be burnt in the market- place, (which books were pro- 
duced by Mr. Bugg, but wrote by the quakers), and they were 
accordingly burnt in the presence of many people ; and indeed 
several others of the quaker books deserved the same fate, but 
we thought in destroying them all, we should prevent Mr. Bugg 
from detecting their pernicious doctrines, and defending himself 
against the quakers, which consideration preserved them ; for 
there were very mischievous principles contained in most of 
them : in witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the 
day and year abovewritten. 

"EDW. PAYNE. 

"KOBEKT CAWDKON."* 

Thus 'burning was the sentence, but happily not of Pick- 
worth the Quaker, two of his pamphlets only having been 
consigned to the flames at the cross in the Market-place. Of 
course Bugg triumphed beyond measure, gloating over the twelve 



* "A Narrative of the Conference at Sleeford, in Lincolnshire, Aug. 25, 
1701, by Francis Bugg ; sold by John Taylor, at the Ship, and K. Withers, 
at the King's Head, in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1702." 



140 SLEAFORD. 

Quaker teachers, a hundred of their body, and many hundreds of 
Christians who had listened to his redundant address, and he 
recorded his victory in the Evening Post, a journal of that time, and 
wrote a batch of fresh tracts. One of these he entitled, " News from 
new Rome, i.e. New Sleaford ;" another, " Quakerism deeply 
wounded, and now lyes a bleeding in Sleaford and Colchester ;" 
and a third, " Quakerism drooping and its cause sinking, clearly 
manifested from divers conferences at Banbury, Sleaford, 
Colchester, and Mildenhall, by a servant of the Church. F. 
Bugg." " Bugg's Sleaford Conference and other Tracts, by the 
Rev. B. Leveling, vicar of Banbury. London, 1 703. B. M. Cata- 
logue, 13 M.M. a. 1582." 

Probably the last instance in Lincolnshire of the public 
burning of books, deemed to be of an obnoxious character, was 
the destruction of Tom Paine's works on the Cornhill, Lincoln, 
after they had been suspended awhile from the gallows; and 
when the Mayor and Corporation of Lincoln in their gowns, 
witnessed that act. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

There was a church and a priest here when Domesday Book 
was compiled. The patronage of the former was in the hands 
of Remigius, Bishop of Lincoln, and long remained in those of 
his successors. 

The vicarage was founded and endowed in 1274,* of which 
the original record still remains in the Bishop's Registry at Lin- 
coln. From this we gather that Henry de Sinderby was presented 
by Richard de Belleau, Treasurer of Lincoln, and Prebendary 
of the church of Sleaford, to the vicarage of the same church, 
and was instituted by the Bishop at Lydington, on the 4th of 
the nones of March. The vicarage consisted of all portions 
and profits appertaining to the alterage by whatever name 

* In 1252 the famous Kobert Copley, or Grostete, obtained permission 
from the Pope to institute Vicarages in churches where there had been none 
so far, and to augment those that were slenderly endowed, at his pleasure. 
"Hollinshed's Chronicle, Vol. 3, reign of Henry III."; but Benedict de 
Gravesend was Bishop of Lincoln, in 1274, when the Vicarage of Sleaford 
waa founded. 



SLEAFOED. 141 

known, viz : the tyth.es of wool, lambs, calves, pigs, pullets, 
geese, curtilages, flax and hemp ; also four principal oblations 
in the year, with other oblations of what kind soever, and obla- 
tions placed under the candles with all manner of mortuaries, 
and the tenths of private merchants ; to it was also given the 
tythes of mills and fisheries, a house near the church, which 
Roger the chaplain formerly inhabited ; and at the cost of the 
Prebendary a sufficient road to the said house was to be made ; 
the vicar for the time being was to pay to the Prebendary 
yearly fifteen marks at the feasts of the Nativity of our Lord and 
St. John the Baptist by equal portions, and to serve Sleaford 
church by himself and another priest or deacon, and other proper 
ministers, and to maintain ten wax torches and one lamp burn- 
ing in the church ; but the Prebendary was to retain all his 
right of jurisdiction in the Prebend, and was to sustain all or- 
dinary and extraordinary burdens, also to build and repair the 
chancel and find books and other necessary ornaments for the 
church, which might be needed, and the vicar extraordinary ones 
by a rate on his portion, found by a legal inquisition to amount 
to the sum of twenty marks, the aforesaid fifteen marks excepted ; 
and no more. 

From the above record it is clear that the Prebend of Slea- 
ford existed previous to the year 1274, and most probably Eemi- 
gius or one of his successors was its founder, as the patronage has 
always been in the hands of the Bishops of Lincoln. This was 
endowed with the great tithes of Sleaford, and its proceeds were 
valued in the King's books at 11 19s. 7d., and in 1616 at 13 
a year, when the Prebendary was patron, and the number of 
communicants 440. " Willis's M.S., p. 37" A pension of 57s. Id. 
used to be paid annually to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln. 

Upon the inclosure of the parish of New Sieaford in 1797, 
500 acres of land, in that portion of Holdingham called the Anna, 
were allotted to the Prebendary and his lessee in lieu of the 
greater rectorial tithes. The Eectory at that time was held by 
the Earl' of Bristol as lessee under the Eeverend Basil Bury 
Beridge, then Prebendary. The lease of the Eectory shortly 
afterwards become vested in Eichard Yerburgh, Esq., to whose 
son, the Eev. Eichard Yerburgh, D.D., a renewed lease was 
granted for three lives in 1829, by the Eight Eev. John Matthias 



142 SLEAFORD. 

Turner, Bishop of Calcutta, then Prebendary. Upon the death 
of Bishop Turner, the Rectory, subject to the lease, passed into 
the hands of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In 1847 the 
lessee's interest in the farm at Holdingham Anna was sold by the 
late Dr. Terburgh, to the late Anthony Willson, Esq., of Rauceby , 
who in 1853 acquired the fee simple by purchase from the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners ; but the patronage of the Vicarage, with 
the tithe yard adjoining the churchyard, was reserved, and will 
remain in the gift of Dr. Yerburgh's family until the termination 
of the lease, when it will pass into the hands of the Bishop of 
Lincoln. 

The following is a list of the Prebendaries of Lafford, or 
Sleaford : 

Date of Institution. 
Circa 1274. Richard de Belleau 

1279. John de Wydrington 
. Roger de Martival 

1293. William de Stockton 

1310. Thomas de Bray 

1316. Peter de Dalderby 

1322. Luchin, alias Anthony de Flisko 

1327. William de Exon 

1336. GeofFery de Groppo 

1340. William de Cusance 

1369. John Ufford 

1376. Thomas de la Warre 

1390. William HalsweU 

1418. Ralph Lowth 

1432. Richard Tone, L.L.D. 

1434. Nicholas Clark 

1459. Thomas Salisbury 

1460. John Sapton 

1463. Thomas Gauge 

1465. Nicholas Rawdon 

1479. Richard Langton, S T.P. 

1482. Richard Norton, L.L.D. 

1492. Nicholas Haleswell 

1520. James Mallett 

1533. Thomas Robertson 



SLEAFOKD. , 143 

Date of Institution. 
Circa 1536. Owen Oglethorpo, S.T.P. 

1557. John Hurd or Herd, M.D. * 

1588. George Huddleston 

1613. John Williams, S.T.P. 

1614. Nicholas Greenhill 

1660. John Mantel 

1668. John Lee 

1670. Thomas Meriton 

1683. George Thomason, A.M. 

1686. Thomas Meriton 

1712. William Wake 

1712. Thomas Seller, A.M. 

1737. Henry Gibert 

1770. Basil Bury Beridge 

1808. Charles Proby, A.M. 

1822. George Tumor, L.L.B. 

1824. John Matthias Turner, A.M. 

1829. Edward Smedley, M.A. 

1843. John Coker, B.C.L. 

1867. Eobert Bateman Paul, A.M. 

After the Commonwealth was established, the then vicar 
of Sleaford was expelled from his cure, and the church was de- 
secrated, and robbed of its brass lectern and other valuables. 
Puritan Ministers then obtained possession of the church, of 
whom Richard Mil ward died 1656, and was succeeded by George 
Boheme, a Pomeranian of Colberg, born in 1628. He was ejected 
by the Act of Uniformity passed in 1662, when he retired to 
Walcot near Falkingham, where he kept a school, and was al- 
lowed to preach in the Church there by the Incumbent, until 
this was stopped by Bishop Gardiner because Boheme had never 
been ordained, and was simply a dissenting preacher. He died 
at Falkingham, September 9th, 1711, aged 83, and was buried 
there. Several suffering clergymen living at Sleaford, who had 

* The following reference to Dr. Hurd is made in one of the Bishop's 
Registers. "Lafford Decanatus. Sleaford. Johannes Herd, in medicinis 
doctor, habet peculiarem jurisdictionem in et per totam parochiam ididem, et 
Dominus Georgius Cocket, vicarius institutus, habet curam animoram in 
eadem parochia, quse consistit de villa de Sleaford, in qua sunt familise vn. 
hamlet de Holdingham, ubi families xx. 



144 SLEAFORD. 

been harshly ejected from their livings by the Puritans, regained 
possession of them, after the Restoration ; such as Thomas Gib- 
son, first, master of the Free Grammar School of Carlisle, and 
then vicar of Horncastle, who, after having been deprived of his 
living, and imprisoned at Hull, Lincoln, and Tattershall, was 
elected master of the Free School at Newark in 1 644. In 1 650 he 
was appointed master of the Sleaford Grammar School by Elizabeth 
Lady Carre, and retained that post until the Restoration, when, 
accompanied by several hundred rejoicing friends, he regained 
possession of his vicarage at Horncastle, and was made Preben- 
dary of St. Mary Crackpool by Bishop Saunderson. On the 
other hand several extruded ministers came to live at Sleaford or 
in the neighbourhood, such as Theophilus Brittaine, Colonel 
King's dissenting chaplain, who was minister of Brocklesby du- 
ring the Commonwealth, but being ejected at the Restoration, 
turned farmer at Roxholm ; subsequently he took part in Mon- 
mouth's rebellion, and, with Nathan Drake, the then disloyal 
rector of Leasingham, and some others, was imprisoned at Gran- 
tham. He died 1696, and was buried at Sleaford. The vicarage 
is valued in the King's books at 8., and is discharged. 

The following is a list of the Vicars of Sleaford, extracted 
from the Bishop's Registers at Lincoln : * 
A.D. 1274 Henry de Sinderby. 
Richard de Bray 

1313. John de Kirkeby 

1336. Henry de Levesingham, or Lessingham 

1340. Thomas de Werdale 

1343. Richard de Hugate 

1349. John Whittlelegh 

1391.- Thomas le Warre 

1404. William Smyth of Rauceby 

1416. William Penyman 

1416. William Hoghton 

1432. John Bower 

* These Registers, extending from Bishop Hugh de Welles's episcopate, 
1209, to that of Bishop Barlow, 1608, are extremely valuable, and in an ex- 
cellent state of preservation. Those of Bishops "Welles, Grostete, Lexington, 
Gravesend, and Sutton, constitute rolls, the others are written in large parch- 
ment volumes. The endowments of the Yicarages of the Diocese are contained 
in Bishop Welles's roll of Institutions, written in a small good hand. 



SLEAFOBD. 145 

A.D. 1467. John Walker 

1468. Richard Mareys 

1477. Eichard West 

1489. Adam Grafton 

1491. Gilbert Cowell 

1515. John Godfre 

1539. William Warre 

1545. Eobert Bayt 

1553. George Cocket 

1577. Joseph Overton 

1587. Thomas Westcott 

1606. Edmund Newton 

1618. Eichard Flear 

1630. Eobert Alford, A.M. 

1640. Miles Long 

1644. Eichard Milward 

1656. George Boheme 

1660. Henry Allen 

1682. William Wyche * 

1691. Edward Smith, A.M. 

1703. Thomas Seller, A.M. 

1737. William Seller, A.M. 

1769. Edward Smith 

1780. John Plampin 

1781. Edward Waterson, A.M. f 

1809. Eichard Yerburgh, D.D. 

1851. Eichard Yerburgh, B.A., the present patron of 

the Yicarage. 

The oldest Eegister of Sleaford parish commences with the 
date 1575, only 36 years after the first order for keeping such 
records was issued by Henry YIII. The following are a few of 
the most interesting entries they contain : 

1588 Edward Barnard, gentilman, was Xtned. 1601 Two strangers, 
young men, that were found kyld in our field were buried in our church-yard. 
1602 A child Xtned the day of its father's burial. 1614^-Two ran from 
Sleaford with a license, and Mr. Morice married them. 1638 A poor stranger 
boy found dead in our field. 1639 Goodwife Washingborough the elder 



* Subsequently Rector of Silk Willoughby. 
t Subsequently Hector of Quarrington. 



14G SLEAFOED. 

buried. 1656 Lancellot Foster of Lincoln, gent., stabbed by a soldier, 
Thomas Nicholls was hanged for the same, and Mr. Foster was buried. 
1662 Old Goodman Squire of Holdingham, buried. 1663 Mr. Robert Cook 
(burnt in his fired stable), buried. 1665 John Waite buried of the plague. 
1698 A soldier kill'd and buried. 1728 A father and his child baptized 
together. 1751 The bell knolled for the Prince of Wales 4 hours. 1760 
The bell knolled for king George II. 12 hours. 1775, was buried the wife of 
William Farmery, who was murdered by her son. The above William 
Farmery died a few days after this melancholy fate of his wife's, having been 
sexton of the parish 49 years. 1817 On November 19th, the bell tolled, in 
minute time, from eight o'clock at night until twelve, being four hours, in 
consequence of the funeral of the Princess Charlotte of Wales. 1818 The 
bell tolled one hour on the death of her majesty queen Charlotte. 1820 On 
January 30th, Sleaford passing bell, after ringing as usual on the death of a 
male, tolled twelve hours, viz : from one o'clock in the day, as soon as the 
melancholy news arrived by the mail, till one o'clock in the night, for his late 
majesty king George III., as was the the case with king George II. 1821 
On August 8th, the passing bell tolled for queen Caroline one hour, as it did 
for queen Charlotte. 

The following is an extract from another parish book, com- 
mencing with the year 1606, and ending in that of 1627, which 
is interesting as giving a list of the church goods at that time : 
1606 John Parke, Senr., and Henry Carre, Church- Wardens. Edward 

Newton, Yicar. 
1607 Book signed by Robert Cammock & Richard Warsope on account of 

goods delivered to the new Church- Wardens. 

Imprimis. In money 31b. 9s. ijd. 

Item A Comunion table, & a carpett & a table clothe. 

Item A Comunion cuppe with a cover. 

Item 2 quart pewter potts, & a new pewter pott of 3 quarts. 

Item One Surplice and a Hood. 

Item One Darning Covering for a Beare, given by J. Parke, Sr. 

Item One pulpit cloth, & a cushen, given by J. Parke, Sr. 

Item One brazen Eagle.* 

item One great Beare, & 2 lesser Beares. 

Item Tree yron Hookes. 

Item One great cable rope to hoyst up Bells, & one little rope. 

Item One ould Hutch, & one ould Chist, given by Mil. Hailes. 

Item Nine pieces of yron for the Organs. 

Item One long ladder given by John Parke, Senr. 

Item One great locke. 

Item One ton of lead, One Web, & one peece of a Web. 

Item Erasmus, his paraphrase & Bullenghers Decades. 



Mentioned for the last time in 1622. 



SLEAFORD. 
THE CHURCH. 



147 



This is dedicated to St. Dionysius, or as he is now commonly 
called, St. Denis, and is by far the most beautiful and attractive 
building in the town. Its west front not only at once commands 
attention, but has the merit of continuing to please when all its 
features have become thoroughly well known. This arises from 
the variety of its component parts quite as much as from their 
individual character. From the midst springs a venerable tower, 
which had been endangered by the insertion of arches in three 
of its walls and a window in the fourth, but the original solidity 
of which has of late years been reverentially confirmed through 
the varied resources summoned to its aid by a skilful architect of 
the present century. As in the case of Lincoln Cathedral, this, 
constituting a part of the original fabric, has been here retained 
and incorporated into a later one. It is certainly not so old as 
the time of Bishop Alexander, during whose episcopate it is said 
to have been built, and which terminated in 1147; there being 
more reason to suppose that it formed part of a church erected 
during the episcopate of Bishop Grravesend, perhaps partly at his 
own cost, and partly at that of Richard de Belleau, treasurer 
of Lincoln, prebendary of Sleaford, and patron of the vicarage. 
Subsequently Bishop Alnwick left 40s. to be expended on the 
fabric. In the south-west angle of the tower is a beautifully 
finished newel staircase, the whole being of the early part of the 
13th century, when the Early English style was thoroughly in 
vogue, but when the round-headed arch was still often blended 
with the pointed one. The bold mouldings, the banded shafts, 
and the stiffly foliated capitals of the belfry window lights are 
well worthy of notice, as well as the angle shaft of the southern 
buttress. The spire is well placed upon the tower, and evidently 
shows how satisfactorily it is fulfilling its duty as a covering to 
the same. As it is one of the earliest examples of a spire remain- 
ing to us, it is the more valuable, on this account. The break 
in the upward run of the octangular lines near its top, where 
they assume a quadrangular form, is a quaint feature that is 
not often seen. The height of the tower and spire together is 
144 feet. Of the same period with that of the tower there was 
once certainly a nave, and at least a south aisle. The roof pitch 
of the former is still indicated on the eastern face of the tower, 



148 SLEAFORD. 

and the extent of the latter is marked by a piece of walling 
at the east end of the present south aisle, below the plinth. The 
north doorway is also of the same date. About 1 370 the whole 
of the present nave with its aisles overlapping the tower, except- 
ing the new outer north aisle, was built. It, like its predecessor, 
had a high-pitched roof, as may still be seen. Externally the 
tower, flanked and supported by the aisles, constitutes a very 
pleasing composition; and while inclined cornices honestly indicate 
the slope of the aisle-roofs behind, richly carved perforated para- 
pets above, in conjunction with central bell-cots and exquisite 
angle pinnacles, give considerably increased dignity to the west- 
ern elevation. The doorway, in the end of the south aisle, ori- 
ginally opened into a chantry, and the numerous enriched niches 
beside and above it were no doubt once filled with figures of 
saints. The beautiful gabled doorway, at the end of the north 
aisle cuts into the window above it, which last is rather too large. 
The figure of a female saint still remains in one of the canopied 
niches of the west end of this aisle, as does another of St. Marga- 
ret in the adjacent angle turret. The south elevation, with its 
varied and delicately-moulded aisle windows, is a fine piece of 
ecclesiastical architecture of the Decorated period, that any town 
might be proud to possess, and one scarcely surpassed in beauty 
by any in England. On this side is a very beautiful porch 
both as to design and detail. Below is a crypt, access to which 
is supplied by means of an entrance in the west wall. This was 
probably simply intended to be used as a vault. 

The transept was next added, perhaps some ten or twenty 
years later ; and that it was an addition not at first contemplated, 
is clear from a remaining jamb of the east window of the original 
south aisle. This was long used as a school-room, but is now 
purged from such desecration. 

During the prevalance of the Perpendicular period the 
chancel was rebuilt, the clerestory was added to the nave, with 
its richly panelled and embattled parapet, surmounted by numer- 
ous crocketed pinnacles, and its moulded panelled roof within, 
formerly adorned with shields bearing, GKi, a lion rampant 
regardant Arg. Gu, 3 bendlets Or. and Glu, 3 goats heads erased 
Arg. "Harl. M.S.S., 6829, p. 288." Then also the present 
arches were inserted in the tower, together with its stone vaulting 
and its west window. Breaks in the chancel walls, near their 



SLEAFORD. 149 

junction with the nave, show where the newer work commenced, 
and an external weather-moulding marks the pitch of the earlier 
roof. The chancel will not bear any comparison with the nave, 
yet from the additional length it gives to the fabric its value is 
considerable. 

A few years ago the whole of the north wall of the north aisle 
exactly corresponded with that of the opposite or south aisle ; but 
as more accommodation was required, this was pulled down 
and re-erected more towards the north, so as to form a second 
aisle, separated from the original one by a new arcade. The 
north elevation is much less ornate than the southern one, but yet 
is by no means plain. Within, a most striking improvement was 
effected at the same time, 1853, when this church, after having 
been thoroughly and most appropriately restored, at a cost of 
3,500, was again opened for divine service; and perhaps no other 
is now better adapted to the purposes of public worship. The fol- 
lowing are its internal dimensions, viz : length (including the 
chancel), 154 feet ; breadth of the nave, 64 feet ; breadth of the 
chancel, 25 feet ; length of the transept, 45 feet ; breadth, 25 
feet. The lofty arcades of four bays each, with their manifold 
mouldings and their slender clustered pillars are very admira- 
ble. Originally there were certainly chapels at each end of the 
south aisle, as indicated by their beautiful canopied piscinae 
which remain, although their enclosing screens have long since 
disappeared. In the wall of what was once the westernmost 
chapel is a sepulchral arch, but this with the piscina adjoining 
are of later date than the wall in which they are inserted. 

The chancel screen, with its overhanging canopy, its central 
projecting feature, its varied outline, and its richly- worked 
details pronounced by Pugin to be one of the most perfect in 
England not only constitutes an unusually beautiful specimen 
of mediaeval oak carving, but also affords relief to the great ex- 
panse of stonework by which it is surmounted. On the north of 
this are two staircases one leading to the rood-loft, the other to 
the transept roof, within a turret. There is also another similar 
staircase to the rood-loft on the southern side of the chancel arch ; 
but these are now blocked up by the Carre monuments at their 
bases, which will be subsequently described. The pulpit, with 
its deeply cut oak panels, rising from a stone base, is a good 
example of modern design and workmanship. The Decorated 

M 



150 SLEAFORD. 

font, at the west end of the north aisle, is the original one, but 
has been too freely repaired. In this part of the church a clever 
expedient was adopted for the purpose of strengthening the tower, 
in the form of a buttress, combined with an arch, the structural 
character of which is worthy of notice. The sedilia and east win- 
dow in the chancel are fair examples of Perpendicular work. 
The tracery of the former is so designed as to form a large cross, 
which has of late years been made more conspicuous by the 
distinctive colouring of the glass inserted in it. Adjoining the 
chancel on the north side is a small coeval sacristy, now used as 
a vestry. There are as many as 32 windows in this church, some 
of which have been filled with painted glass as memorials. 
Several crosses within circles will be observed painted upon the 
walls, which were disclosed on the removal of the plaster. From 
their form they might have been of a much earlier period than 
they really are, such crosses being both cut and painted on very 
ancient Christian churches erected within some of the heathen 
temples of Egypt, as reminiscences of their dedication to God's 
service ; but as some of these crosses appear on the walls of 
the chancel, they cannot be earlier than the 15th century, and 
are probable reminiscences of the period when the existing 
chancel was consecrated. 

In the tower hangs a peal of eight bells, cast by Thomas 
Osborn, of Downham, Norfolk, in the year 1796. The weight of 
the tenor bell is nineteen hundred weight, three quarters, and six 
pounds, and is in the key E. They bear the following in- 
scriptions : 

1. The Lord to praise, my voice I'll raise. 
2. Give no offence to the church. 
3. Peace and good neighbourhood. 
4. Edward Waterson, vicar. 
5. Long live king George the third. 

6. William Kirton and George Robinson, Churchwardens. 
7. These eight bells were cast in the year 1796. 
8. I to the church the living call, 
And to the grave do summon all. 

Thomas Osborn, Founder, Downham, Norfolk. 

Previously there were only six bells, one of which bore no inscrip- 
tion, but the others were thus lettered : 

1. A. E., founder. Thomas Seller, Vicar. 
T. Harriman & W. S., Ch. W. 1707. 



SLEAFOBD. 



151 



2. Jhesus be our speede. 1600. 

Prayes ye the Lorde. 1600. 
4. God save the Church, our Queen, and Realm, 

And send us peace through Christ, Anien. 1600. 
5. This town subscribed to have me here, 

Thro him whose name below I bear. 

Geo. Arnett. 

Then also there were chimes connected with the works of the 
clock, which played at four, nine, and twelve o'clock every day. 
The morning bell sounds at six o'clock and the evening one at 
eight o'clock, representing the curfew, or couvre-few bell, ordered 
to be rung by the Conqueror. 

The communion plate is very handsome, and is thus in- 
scribed : 

Ex dono Annoe Ashby, Gul. Ashby de Leicestriee, Armig. nuper uxoris. 
On two pieces. 

Donum Parochiale, 

Ex dono Dorothse Roper, Jos. Roper, D. D. Relictse. 

Ex dono Thomae Seller, A. M. Hujus ecclesise per 34 Annos nuper 
Vicarius, 1737. 

And on a piece given by the Earl of Bristol in the year 1810. Sleaford 
Church. 

During the fanaticism of the Commonwealth times this 
church is supposed to have been dealt with very gently, com- 
paratively speaking ; nevertheless, the following extract from 
the parish register, dated 1647, records plainly enough the 
general disorder that then prevailed : " Per totum hoc triennium 
lella civilia inter Uegem fy Parliament" 1 omnia turlant <Sf perturlant, 
omnes constitutiones ecclesiasticas 8f quamplurimas politicas vertunt, 
Sf evertunt. Quid mirum si per hos annos multa omnino in hoc Registro 
valde imperfecte tractenF." Then, the painted glass of this 
church was destroyed, rich with the armorial bearings of several 
Bishops of Lincoln and those of the Hussey, Wymundham, and 
other families ; then the seating was torn up and cast on one 
side, according to tradition, so as to convert it into a barrack 
for the Parliamentary soldiery ; then its plate was not considered 
too superstitious to find its way into the pockets of the despoilers : 
then its organ was destroyed, its fine brass eagle lectern was 
broken up for the sake of the metal ; and in fact all that could 
either be readily injured or abstracted, was maltreated or stolen ; 
but perhaps we can not fairly attribute those marks of fire on the 
piers and arches about the chancel screen to the Puritans, as this 



152 SLEAFOED. 

last fortunately still remains, and was probably substituted for 
an older one accidentally destroyed by fire. The organ was 
replaced in 1772 by Mr. Edward Evans, * at a cost of 300, and 
has since been added to, improved, and repaired, so as to render 
it, at least, in some degree, worthy of the church in which it 
stands. Happily we live in more truly Christian days, when 
none would injure buildings dedicated to God's service, however 
widely we may still differ as to our religious principles or opinions, 
and when we are at least more disposed to combine for the public 
good than to separate in hostility. 

It was probably thought that when the present Bishop of 
Lincoln ordained five persons in Sleaford Church last year, such 
an interesting sight had never been witnessed there before ; but 
from certain records in the Bishop's registry we find that he was 
then simply following the example of some of his predecessors in 
this respect, viz. : " Ordines celebrati in eccl prebendal de Sle- 
ford, Non. Apr. 1432, p John Stephon, auctoritate episc, &c." 
" Ordines celebrati apud Sleeford, 14 Kal Jan, 1472, pr Thos. 
Both, vice et auctoritate Tho epus Lincoln." " John Chambre 
de Corringham, ordinatur pbr 5 Kal Apr. 1479, apud Sleeford, 
p. Thos. Kothram, epum." 

CHANTRIES. 

In 1271 Thomas Blount and John de Bucham, merchants of 
Sleaford, founded a chantry, which they constructed in the north 
aisle of Sleaford church. This was dedicated to the Virgin Mary 
for the benefit of the founders' souls, and those of their prede- 
cessors. It was richly endowed with lands and tenements in 
Old and New, or Great Sleaford, Holdingham, Quarrington, 
Kirkby-Laythorpe and Evedon ; all of which were to be held of 
the founders while living, for the maintenance of a perpetual 
service at the altar of the chantry chapel. The chaplain enjoying 



* The builder was Greene, of London. On the south side of the church- 
yard is the grave of the donor, marked by a stone thus inscribed : To the 
memory of Mr. Edward Evans, who died Jany. 20th, 1780, aged 58 years. 
He was surgeon to his Majesty's ship the Egmont, and after a successful 
voyage from America (being a patron of the musical science) he gave an organ 
to this parish, in the year 1772. 



SLEAFOKD. 153 

this care was, with his clerk, to celebrate a full service of the 
Virgin, or Mass, after the great Mass, in which he was to make 
especial mention of the founders of the chantry in his prayers, 
and this daily, unless Sunday services and other solemnities 
should prevent his doing so. He was also to celebrate Vespers, 
Matins, and other Hours of the Virgin before the said altar daily, 
without note, except on the principal Feasts of the Virgin, and 
was to take part in the canonical Hours with the parochial choir, 
and to aid the vicar if needed, gratuitously. The furniture of the 
chapel and its altar, such as the chalice, books, vessels, vestments, 
lights and ornaments of the same, for which the founders had 
made ample provision, were to be kept and maintained by the 
chaplain, and none were to be alienated. The presentation to the 
chantry was to be retained by the founders for life, but after 
their death, they willed that three worthy men of Lafford, elected 
by the community of the same, should have the power to present 
after having made oath that they would faithfully fulfil this duty, 
and then the chaplain on his part was to make oath, before 
the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln that he would faithfully execute 
his duties, and do nothing to injure the greater or lesser oblations 
of the parish church of Sleaford, and to repeat that oath before 
the Prebendary of Lafford, then Richard de Belleau, Treasurer of 
Lincoln. If these three should not present within 20 days after 
a vacancy, the Dean and Chapter were to present. If the chaplain 
should become unworthy or inefficient he was to be removed by 
the Dean and Chapter, and another appointed ; but if through 
age or infirmity he could not fulfil his duties he was to provide a 
fitting assistant at his own charge. During vacancies all the 
profits of the chantry were to be reserved by the founders while 
they lived, and subsequently by the Dean and Chapter for the 
next chaplain. If the founders disagreed in their selection of a 
fresh chaplain, the Dean and Chapter were to decide the choice. 
To this deed, taken in duplicate, the seals of the Dean and 
Chapter of Lincoln, the Treasurer of Lincoln, and the founders 
were attached in the chapter house at Lincoln, in the month of 
January, 1271. One copy was to be kept in the Treasury at 
Lincoln, the other by the founders. " Ex lib de ord Cant. fol. 46. " 
At the suppression of chantries, the incumbent, Robert Walrood, 
then 40 years of age, had the profits amounting to 4 5s. Od. 
clear, after the payment of 15s. due to the Duke of Somerset as 



154 SLEAFOKD. 

Lord of the Manor of Sleaford. Then also it is noted, that a 
toft in Old Sleaford, worth 9s. 4d. a year, belonging to the chantry 
had been unjustly seized by Thomas Horseman. 

This chantry chapel must have been reconstructed during the 
14th century, but probably in the same relative position as- 
before, viz : at the east end of the north aisle of Sleaford church, 
and when it was restored, a stone plinth and part of a carved 
oak screen, which had stood upon it, were disclosed between the 
coupled pillar at the east end of the north aisle, and the first 
pillar westward of it, whence no doubt another screen ran across 
the aisle, and thus chancelled off the easternmost bay of this 
aisle, that constituted St. Mary's chapel. 

Another chantry chapel certainly existed in connection with 
Sleaford church, but by whom founded and where situated, is not 
recorded. This was worth 3 Os. 6d. at the dissolution of chan- 
tries, out of which 10s. had to be paid as a reprise to the Duke of 
Somerset. 

Until very lately the east wall of the chancel was plain and 
bare, having nothing to relieve it but two equally plain aumbry 
recesses, and two crosses within circles painted upon it. For a 
time it and the greater part of the window above had been cov- 
ered by a classical oak screen, designed by Sir Christopher Wren 
for Lincoln Cathedral, but subsequently ejected from it, when its- 
utter incongruity with all the beautiful Gothic features around it 
became apparent to the then Dean and Chapter, and it found 
a temporary asylum within Sleaford church; but eventually 
being thought equally incongruous there, it was cast out thence, 
as it had been from the Cathedral, and the bare wall behind it 
was preferred to such a cumbrous inappropriate ornament. Now, 
a beautiful Gothic reredos of finely carved Ancaster stone, clothes 
this wall as far as it requires such an application, erected in 
memory of the late Mr. M. P. Moore, of Sleaford, from designs 
by Mr. Charles Kirk. The lower part consists of an arcade with 
crocketed canopies and panels of Minton's encaustic tiles ; over 
the altar table is a very delicately diapered central panel, in the 
middle of which is a quatrefoil containing a cross, and above, the 
words " This is my body. This is my blood." carved upon a rich 
foliated cornice. On either side of the window the reredos rises 
as high as the springing of its arch, in the form of pedimented 
niches supported by green marble shafts, which niches will per- 



SLEAFORD. 155 

haps hereafter be filled with, coloured figures of Angels, Evange- 
lists, or Apostles, to obviate the coldness of its present appearance. 
At the same time the space within the altar rail was paved 
with encaustic tiling, the upper part in memory of the late Dr. 
Yerburgh, vicar of Sleaford, and the lower part in memory of the 
late Rev. H. Manton, master of the Sleaford grammar school. 

MONUMENTS. 

The oldest tombstone in this church is a grey marble slab 
in the south aisle. This is of the 13th century, and has a bor- 
der legend in detached Lombardic letters, now so worn away 
as to be illegible. 

Of the 14th century is a small brass plate found during the 
recent restoration of the church, and now attached to the wall of 
the tower staircase at the entrance to the south aisle. This 
bears the following legend : 

Quisquis eris qui transieris. sta. p lege. plora. 
Su q d . eris. fuera qd. es. pro me. precor. ora. 
Disce. q d . es. et quid eris. memer esto qd, morieris. 

Also a grey slab in the pavement of the south aisle, which has 
evidently borne the effigy of an ecclesiastic with a legend plate 
below, and a small scroll on either side, all of which however are 
now gone. 

Of the 15th century is this inscription neatly cut on a stone 
beneath the external face of the east window sill. 

Orate pro aiab Eicardi Dokke (or Cokke) & Johanne uxoris 
ejus. Jobis filii eorum, & oium benefactorum, quorum aibus 
propitietur Deus Ano MCCCCO xxx. 

Also another cut on the plinth below the sill of the westernmost 
window of the south aisle running thus : 

Here lyeth. "William Harebeter and Elizabeth his wife 
Chryest Ihu graunte yem everlastyng lyfe. 

Of the 1 6th century Holies saw many monuments which are 
now gone, viz : in the chancel three thus inscribed : 

Here lyeth the body of Richard Buller, Priest, who deceased 
the 21st day of August, 1540. 

Hie jacet Rob'tus Bayt, Vicarius, qui obiit 30 die Maii, 
A'no D'ni 1553. 

Hie jacet Jo'hes Godfray, Vicarius, qui obiit 25 die Julii, 
Anno D'ni 1639. Cujus a'i'se, &c. 



156 SLEAFOBD. 

There are, however, two memorials of this century still remain- 
ing, which are not mentioned by Holies, viz : a slab in the north 
aisle bearing a brass plate thus inscribed : 

Here lyeth ye bodie of Kycherd Pikeworth, mercer, ye which 

depted this world ye xxm daie of Julie in ye year of our Lord 

God MCCCCCLVII of whose soull God have mercie, Amen. 
Below this is his trade mark between his initials B. P. Holies 
observed the only monuments of the Carre family then existing. 
The first was a raised tomb in the nave bearing this inscription : 
Hie Jacet Georgius Carre et Anna uxor ejus, qui quidem 

Georgius obiit Ano. Dni. 1521. 

He was the first of the family who settled at Sleaford. The grey 
marble slab of this tomb is now laid in the floor of the chancel. 
It is 8 feet 6 j inches long, and 4 feet 2 inches wide. At the 
four angles were inserted as many brass shields, each charged 
with the Carre bearings. Three of these still remain, but have 
lost their enamel colouring. Towards the upper part were the 
effigies of George and Anne Carre engraved also on brass plates. 
His effigy is now preserved at the vicarage, and represents him 
in his merchant's dress. That of his wife still remains. She is 
depicted in the pointed and lappeted cap, the long gown with 
large furred cuffs, and long pendent girdle of her period, and 
with her hands conjoined in prayer. Immediately below these 
was a narrow brass plate now lost, on which the epitaph was 
inscribed, and, beneath this again a group of four kneeling sons 
below their father, and a corresponding group of three daughters 
below their mother, both of which still remain. 

The other monument Holies noticed was one of alabaster, 
near the chancel, which still stands against the wall of the stair- 
case leading to the rood loft in the angle between the north aisle 
and chancel walls, and close to the northern respond of the 
chancel arch. This consists of a base suggestive of an altar 
tomb, whence spring pilasters panelled with grey marble, sup- 
porting a flat canopy; above this is a grey marble obelisk 
at each corner, and in the centre springing from some orna- 
mental work, a circlet, on which are carved the Carre and 
Bartram* bearings, viz: Gu on a chevron Or, 3 mullets Sa, 
quartering Or, an orle Arg, surmounted by a mantled helm 

* Barons of Mitford. 



SLEAFORD. 157 

with the Carre crest, viz : a Stag's head couped Arg, attired Or, 
and about the neck 2 bars gemelles Gu, painted, and gilt. At the 
back of the recess below this canopy is a pedestal, on the front of 
which is a large shield bearing the same device impaling, Arg, 
a chevron Sa between 3 martlets, on a chief Sa, 3 cross crosslets 
Or. Cawdron, for Elizabeth first wife of Robert Carre. On 
either side above are small shields on which were painted the 
following bearings in Holles's time, but of which a portion only 
now remains, viz ; Arg a saltire Gu, on a chief Gu 3 escallops of 
the first, Tailboys, for Robert Carre's second wife. Arg, a 
bend Sa within a border engrailed of the same. Knyvet, for Anne 
Knyvet the third wife. Or, on a chevron between 3 annulets 
Gu, 3 crescents of the first. Sutton, for Mary Sutton, wife of 
Robert Carre's eldest son George. Arg, on a fesse France 
and England, a border gobony, Arg & Az. Somerset, for Eliz- 
abeth, daughter of Henry, Earl of Worcester, the widow of 
Lord Grey de Wilton, and wife of Robert, second son of Robert 
Carre. Fourteen closets Arg & Gu, 3 martlets 2 and 1 Sa. 
Chaworth, for Bridget, daughter of John Chaworth, and wife 
of William Carre, Robert's third son. Az, 3 bowls Or jessant de 
boar's heads Arg. Bolle, for Catherine, daughter of Charles 
Bolle, of Scampton, wife of Edward, afterwards Sir Edward 
Carre, Robert's fourth son. Sa, a bend between 2 cottises fleury 
Arg. Kelke, for Christopher Kelke, second husband of Robert 
Carre's eldest daughter, Elizabeth. Erm, two sangliers trippant 
Gu. Whichcote, for Robert Whichcote, first husband of Anne, 
Robert Carre's second daughter. Arg, on a bend, Sa 3 roses of 
the first, Rosseter, for Richard Rosseter, husband of Bridget, 
third daughter of Robert Carre. This monument bears the 
following inscription : 

Here lieth bvried Robert Carre, Esqvire, who by his 
first wife Elizabeth ye davghter of William Cawdron, 
Esqvire, liad yssve 4 sonnes & 3 davgliters. George 
Carre, his eldest sonne, by Marie ye davghter of Ambrose 
Svtton, Esqvire, had yssve Robert Carre, the no we 
heire livinge. Robert Carre, his seconde sonne, first 

married Marie y e davghter of Earl of Worcestr, 

then widdow to Lord Gray of Wilton, 

& afterwardes he married Cassandra ye davghter 

of Price, Esqvire. Willi Carre his thirde 

sonne, married Bridgett the davghter of S* John 
Chaworth, Knight, one of the Gentlewoemen of y 9 



158 SLEAFOKD. 

Qveene's Maties Privie Chamber. And Edward Carre 
his fourth sonne, married Katherine y e davghter 
of Charles Bolle, Esqvire. Elizabeth his eldest 
davghter, first married Willia Fairefaxe, Esqvire, 
& afterwards Christopher Kelke, Esqvire. Anne 
his seconde davghter, first married Robert "Whitchcote, 
Esquire, & afterwards Christopher Legerde, Esqvire. 
And Bridgett his third davghtr married Richard 
Rosseter, Esqvire. 

The first saide Robert Carre, secondlie married 
Anne the davghter of S r . George Tailboyes, 
Knight, then widdow to S r . Edward Dymocke, 
Knight. And thirdlie Anne the davghter of 
Charles Knivett, and died, without yssve 
by them, the xi daie of September, Anno 
Domini 1590. 

Above is this inscription : '- 

"Christus mihi vita, et mors mihi lucrum ; or, To me 
to live is Christ, and to die is gain. " 

In a corresponding position on the southern side of the 
chancel arch is a similar but grander monument, commemo- 
rating Kobert Carre's fourth son, but eventually his heir Sir 
Edward Carre, Bart., and probably his second wife, Anne Dyer. 
It is composed of alabaster, relieved by an admixture of grey 
marble, paint, and gilding. On a base or altar tomb are placed 
the effigies of Sir Edward and his wife. His is placed in front 
upon a mattress, the end of which is so folded up as to form 
a rest for the head. He is represented in the armour and 
dress of his time, with a formal ruff round his neck, and his 
sword by his side. The ankles, feet, and greater part of the 
right arm are now gone. Lady Carre's effigy is more perfect, 
but although the hands are lost, we can see that these, like 
those of her husband's, were raised in prayer. She wears the 
pendent veil, tight bodice buttoned down the front, the thickly 
plaited skirt, looped together, and mantle depending from the 
shoulders, of the time of James I. Her hair is crisply curled, 
and her head rests upon an embroidered cushion. Behind is a 
highly ornamented dossier, or back piece, which, with its demi 
returns and composite pillars at the front angles, serve to support 
a flat canopy similarly enriched with carving. On the front of 
the cornice is a grey marble insertion within a carved alabaster 
frame and various sepulchral emblems, and its under face is 




1 



SLEAFOED. 159 

panelled and decorated with gilt roses. Above this canopy is 
a grey marble obelisk at each of the front angles, placed on 
alabaster bases, and in the middle a panel between two piers 
supporting a cornice, on which is a large shield bearing Carre 
quartering Bartram, with the Baronet's hand on a canton, 
surmounted by the Carre helm, crest, and mantling, filling up 
the rest of the panel. In the middle of the dossier is the 
epitaph on a black marble slab, which runs thus : 

Here lyeth the bodye of Sr. Edward Carre, Kniglit and 
Baronett, who marled two wyves. The first was 
Katherine, davghter of Charles Boll, Esqvier, by 
whom he had noe issve. His second wief was Ann the 
davghter of Sr. Richard Dyer, of Stovghton in y e covn- 
ty of Hvntingdon, Knight, by whom he had issve two 
sonnes and one davghter, vidlt. S r . Eobert, now Baro- 
nett, Rosseter, and Lvcy, He departed this lief the 
first daie of October, Anno Domini 

1618. 

This is surrounded by a carved frame having four groups of 
funereal objects below, such as bones, a skull, coffin lid, book, 
pick- axe, shovel ; and also such emblems of death as an hour- 
glass, scythe, darts, and reversed torches. On either side are 
naked boys as mourners holding reversed torches, of which the 
lower ends alone now remain, and above are wings and an hour- 
glass surmounted by a steelyard evenly balanced. 

At the south eastern angle of the transept is a noble altar 
tomb composed of black and white marble, and surmounted by a 
grand slab of black marble. This commemorates the Eight 
Honorable Sir Eobert Carre, Kt., 3rd Bart., and Chancellor of 
the Duchy of Lancaster, and his young son Sir Edward Carre, 
4th, and the last Bart., who died under age. It is thus inscribed 
on the south side : 

Within 

Resteth ye body of y e Right Hon^ie Sr. ROBERT CARR, of Sleaford, in 
ye Covnty of Lincolne, Kt. & Barro*., Chancellor of y e Dvtchy & 
Covnty Palatine of Lancaster, and one of his Ma tie * Most Hon ble Privie 
Covncell. 

Son of Sr. ROBERT CARR, of Sleeford, Barrt. and Dame MARYhis Wife. 
Hee married ELIZABETH BENNET, one of the davghters of Sr. JOHN 
BENNET, of Harlington, in ye Covnty of Middlesex, Kt. by whome 
hee had issve sonns and davghters. 

Hee departed this life November ye 14th, in y e 45th yeare of his age, 
and in ye yeare of ovr Lord, 1682, leaving behinde him only two 
children, EDWARD and ISSABELLA. 



160 SLEAFOKD. 

Hee was a gentleman of great parts, loyall to his prince, 
beloved of his country, and a true protestant according to the 
Church of England. 
And thus on the north side : 

Within 

Rests all that remaines of Sr EDWARD CARR, Bart, 
ye only son & heir yt snrviv'd ye Right Honble Sr 
ROBERT CARR, KA and Bart, whos early vertves 
gave jvst hopes, and most fair promises of great 
fvtvre perfections, for he was indeed vertvous 
to an example. 

He dyed ye 28th of Decem^, 1683, & in y 18th year of his 
age, to ye great sorrow of his acqvaintance, greater loss of 
his family, but greatest grief of his dear indvlgent mother, 
who caused this inscription in memorial of him. 

It is surrounded by a pavement of black and white marble, and 
originally had an iron railing round it. Connected with this 
monument is a well-executed bust of the young Sir Edward in 
white marble, representing him in the long curling wig of his 
time. This stands on a bracket beneath the north window of the 
transept, and is thus inscribed : 

Sir Edward Care, sonn of Sir Robert Care, the 4th 

Baronet of the family. 
Departed this life Deer, ye 28, 1683. 

On the left is a large shield carved and coloured, bearing 
Lozengy Arg and Sa, a bend Sa, 3 crescents of the first, sur- 
mounted by a helm wreathed and mantled. Gargrave. On the 
right is a corresponding shield bearing quarterly Gu on a chev- 
ron Arg, 3 mullets Sa. Carre. Or, an orle Az. Bartram. 
In the middle chief an escutcheon bearing a Baronet's hand Gu, 
and on an escutcheon of pretence 

1 . Lozengy Arg & Sa, a bend Sa, 3 crescents Arg. 

2. Arg, on a fesse indented Gu 3 cross crosslets fitche, Or. 

3. Az, a cock standing upon an escallop Gu. 

4. Gu, a chevron between 3 mullets Sa. 

5. Sa, 3 lioncels Gu bendwise, between 2 bendlets indented, Or. 

6. Sa, a cross fleure between 4 annulets Arg. 

At the west end of the tomb is the same shield beautifully cut in 
white marble but not coloured, surmounted by a helm wreathed 
and mantled, and the Carre crest, a stag's head couped Arg 
attired Or, collared with 2 bars gemelles Gu. This altar tomb 
was erected by Elizabeth Lady Carre, the wife of Sir Bobert, and 



SLEAFORD. 161 

mother of Sir Edward, who seems also to have desired to record 
the marriages made by her husband's three sisters upon their 
family monument, for it originally bore four other shields, two on 
either side, but of which only two now remain, viz : Sa, 3 goats 
salient Arg with a label of 3 points as a mark of cadency, 
Thorold, recording the marriage of Elizabeth Carre with William, 
eldest son of Sir William Thorold, of Marston, Bart. Vert, 
within a bordure Arg, 3 bucks trippant Arg. Trollope, referring 
to the second marriage of the same Elizabeth with Sir William 
Trollope, Bart., of Casewick, Az a bend Or, marking the marriage 
of Mary Carre, Sir Robert's second sister, with Sir Adrian Scroope, 
K. B., of Cockerington, and Ermine, 2 piles Sa a crescent for 
difference, for Holies, referring to the alliance between Lucy 
Carre, Sir Robert's third sister with Sir Francis Holies, Kt. and 
Bart., afterwards the second Lord Holies. All four of these 
impaled the Carre bearings and were surmounted by helms and 
crests. Two of these however are now entirely gone, and the only 
remaining crest a panache, or Ducal coronet surmounted by a 
plume of feathers, which is the Scroope crest, now appears on 
the Thorold helm. 

Elizabeth Lady Trollope died 1661 ; Mary Lady Scroope 
1685 ; and Lucy Lady Holies 1667. 

Beneath is the vault of this family whose name ought ever 
to be held in grateful remembrance at Sleaford. It could 
formerly be entered by a doorway and steps descending into it, 
but is now closed. 

Of the 1 7th century the following monuments are the most 
interesting, viz : a marble mural monument on the south wall of 
the chancel bearing this inscription : 

Here lyeth the body of John Walpoole, 
of Whaplode, Esq., who departed this 
life Ano 1591, having no issve of his body : 
and his wife was after married to John 
Markham of Sedebroke (Sedgebrook), 
Esq., and after his decease, to S r . William 
Skipwith, of Cootes (Coates), Knight, 

at whose cost and 

chardges this nionvmt was erected, Ano 
1631. 

A slab on the north side of the chancel pavement near the vestry 
door bearing this legend : 



162 SLEAFORD. 

Robert Camock his remembrance of his Friend. 

Here vnder lyeth the body of Richard 

"Warsope. woollen draper, who departed 

this life the 21st of September, 1609, 

JLtatis svse 52. 

Another slab in the chancel is thus inscribed : 

+ 

Resvrgemvs 

depositvm fidei 

fidelis uxoris 

Milonis Long, gener'. 

10 Marcij, 1664. 
Nostra autem conversalio 

in Cadis est. 

And a brass plate on the wall of the tower stairs with this legend :-- 

Theophili Brittaine, 

cantabridgiensis allum' 

ffi delis evangelii prseconis 

reliquiae hie depositse, 
sunt decimo secundo die 

Septembris, Anno Dom. 
1696. ^Etatis suse LXIII. 

Of the 18th century two mural monuments are perhaps 
worthy of notice as specimens of their period, viz : one on the 
north side of the chancel towards the west end, thus inscribed : 
Near this place lies the Body of Eleanor the Wife of 
John Peart Gen*., who was one of the Daughters of 
Robt. Cawdron Esq., and departed this life the 29th 
Day of June Anno Dom 1725. JStatis suse 34. 

Above is a shield, bearing Arg, a bend lozengy, impaling Arg, 
a chevron between 3 martlets Sa, a chief Sa charged with 3 cross 
crosslets Or. Crest a pelican and its young. 

Another mural monument near to this, but on the west wall 
of the chancel bears this inscription as if written upon a pendent 

cloth : 

M. S. Annas nuper Uxoris Gul Seller hujus ecclesise 
Preb, Jam nunc Vicarii, et Sororis unicae Ant Taylor 
de Heckinigton in hoc Comitatu Armigeri quse obiit 
14 die Januarii 1765. Mi suse 54. 

On a shield above are these bearings, viz : Arg a bar Erm, a 
chief charged with three red roses, impaling Sa, a lion ram- 
pant Or. Monuments of the present century in this or in any 
other church will not be described for obvious reasons. 



SLEAFORD. 163 

PAINTED GLASS. 

From Holies' s church notes, taken in 1640, we gather that 
when he visited this church the following armorial bearings were 
painted on some of the nave windows, viz : Or, a plain cross 
Yert. Hussey, impaling Gu, a chevron between 10 cinquefoils 
Arg. Barkley. For Sir William Hussey, obiit 1495, and his 
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Barkley, of Wymondham, 
Leicestershire. Az, on a chief Or a demi lion rampant Gu within 
a border Arg. Markham. Quarterly Az, 3 crowns in pale 
Or. Arg, a cross patonce Sa. Sa, 3 shuttles Or. Probably 
Shuttleworth. Gu, a cross patonce Arg. Gu, a cross patonce 
Erm. Az, 2 chevrons Or between 3 roses Arg. Russel, Bishop 
of Lincoln. These have all now disappeared ; but in their place 
several of the windows have of late years been filled with modern 
painted glass as memorials. Unfortunately however no general 
scheme for the adornment of the church in this manner has been 
devised, so that in several instances the same subjects are re- 
peated, and some from the Old Testament are, without sufficient 
reason, commingled with others from the New. 

In the east window of the chancel are the following subjects, 
by Ward, viz : Jacob blessing his sons. Christ stilling the 
storm. The brazen serpent. The raising of Jairus's daughter. 
The raising of Lazarus. The good Samaritan ; and the Presen- 
tation in the Temple, severally commemorating the late Dr. 
Yerburgh, Charles Kirk, Francis and Benjamin Handley, 
Caroline E. Moore, Robert George Bankes, John Bissill, and 
John Caparn. Above are small figures of the Evangelists, 
and below emblems of our Lord's passion, &c. The construc- 
tional figure of the cross in the tracery of this window has been 
brought out by the distinct colouring of its glass. One light of 
the adjacent window in the south wall was the gift of Mrs. 
Rochfort, and is in memory of Lucy, wife of the Rev. H. Ashing- 
ton, and daughter of the Rev. R. Yerburgh, D.D. The subject 
is : The death of Rachel. The next window, by Holland, of 
Warwick, was presented by the late Miss Bankes, of Heckington, 
in memory of her brother Captain Robert George Bankes. The 
subjects are : The raising of Jairus's daughter. The miracle at 
Cana. The raising of Lazarus, with David above and Solomon 
below. Christ healing the sick. Christ stilling the storm. The 






164 SLEAFOKD. 

other south, window, by the same artist, and erected by the same 
donor in memory of her sister Henrietta Bankes, contains these 
subjects : The good Samaritan. The labourers in the vineyard. 
The wedding feast. The good shepherd. Christ dividing the 
sheep from the goats. The rich man and Lazarus ; and the 
Sower. In the opposite window, on the north side of the chancel, 
by the same artist, erected in memory of John, son of William 
and Mary Pearson, are represented : Christ raising the widow's 
son. Christ casting out devils. Christ feeding the multitude. 
The faith of the Centurion. The miraculous draught of fishes, 
with the figures of Abraham and Isaac at the top and bottom of 
light ; the figures of Joseph and Mary are also introduced in the 
tracery. In the quatrefoil light at the east end of tho nave is a 
figure of our Lord in the attitude of blessing, by O'Connor, the 
gift of Mr. Thomas Parry. The glass of the small two-light 
window over the south aisle door, representing Christ blessing 
little children, and Christ raising the widow's son was presented 
by Mr. C. Drake Newton and Mrs. Warwick ; and the west 
window in the tower is made up of fragments of old painted glass 
supplemented by modern additions ; but by far the finest glass in 
this church is in the east window of the south aisle, placed there 
in memory of the late Mr. William Foster, by his friends. This 
is by Hardman, and represents the following scenes in the life 
of St. Paul : 1, His education by Gamaliel; 2, His commission 
from the Sanhedrim ; 3, His preaching at Antioch ; 4, His 
address to Felix, and censing angels in the smaller lights of the 
head above. 



THE LECTERN. 



There was a brass eagle lectern in Sleaford church, referred 
to for the last time in 1 622, previous to the unhappy Republican 
days of Cromwell ; but this was far too tempting a bit of metal 
to escape the despoiling hands of his troopers, by whom it was 
converted to their own use, and it long remained unreplaced ; but 
a few years ago an anonymous benefactor presented another 
lectern, which is admirable as a work of art, and most useful 
to those ministering and ministered to in this church. 



SLEAFOED. 165 

OLD CHESTS. 

There are two chests worthy of notice in this church. One 
of these now stands under the north window of the transept. 
This is of solid oak, covered with stout iron banding applied 
cross ways. A small portion of this chest can be opened with one 
key, but the remainder, having three locks, requires as many keys 
to open it, which were no doubt formerly in the possession of the 
vicar and churchwardens. The other chest is a larger and later 
n e also of oak, now kept in the vestry. On a small panel in 
front is carved the helmeted bust of a man, and above the initials 
E. T. This is either of the time of James I. or Charles I. It 
contains a beautifully worked pulpit cushion of the same date, 
bearing the same initials as the chest in which it is deposited. 
In the centre is a figure of Judith with the head of Holophernes 
in her hand, and the camp of his host in the back ground. The 
rest of the cushion is covered with flowers of the finest needle- 
work, and is finished with a border of the same, representing 
hunting scenes, birds, fruit, &c., after the style of the tapestry 
then in vogue, in miniature. In this chest also is a once superb 
altar cloth, evidently the work of some devoted lady or ladies 
who thought no amount of labour too great to dedicate to the 
service of Gtod and his church. The foundation is puce 
coloured velvet, relieved by a broad border and stripes of white 
corded silk, fringed ; the whole of these were overlaid with 
the finest needlework of a foliated character, and chiefly of 
a tint matching the velvet which these stripes so beautifully 
relieve ; but much of this work is now dropping from its silken 
foundation through age. It is 10 feet 6 inches long, and 4 feet 
6 inches wide. 

OLD BOOKS. 

In the passage leading from the chancel to the vestry is a 
curious old oak reading desk, containing a collection of books of 
Divinity, each of which is fastened to a rod by a chain sliding 
upon it, long enough to allow of its being placed on any part of 
the desk above, but intended to prevent its abstraction. The 
oldest volume is a black letter copy of the Paraphrase of the 
Gospels, by Erasmus, wanting the title and other pages. This 

n 



166 SLEAFOKD. 

is no doubt the volume referred to in the list of church goods 
given before, p. 146 ; but the other old book mentioned in it 
also, viz : " Bullinger's Decades," is not now forthcoming. The 
other volumes are : 

A brief discourse concerning Faith. 1639. 

Antidote against Atheism, by Henry Moore, D.D. 1662. 

A modest enquiry into the mystery of iniquity, by the same author. 

1664. 
Thirty-five Sermons, by Robert Saunderson, Bishop of Lincoln, with 

a Life of the same, by Isaac Walton. 1681. 
The works of Isaac Barrow, D.D. 1683. 
Homilies appointed to be read in churches in the time of Queen 

Elizabeth. 1683. 
Forty Sermons, the greatest part preached before the King, by 

Richard Allstree, D.D., King's Professor at Oxford, Provost of 

Eton, and Chaplain to the King. 1684. 
The Great Exemplar of Sanctity and Holy Life, by Jeremy Taylor. 

Sixth edition. 

Practical Discourses, by John Scott, D.D. 1697. 
Ditto, by the same author. Two vols. 1698. 
The Christian Life, by the same author. Five vols. 1669. 
An Exposition of the 39 Articles, by Gilbert, Bishop of Sarum. 1700. 
A Companion to the Temple, by Thomas Comber, D.D., Dean of 

Durham. 1 702. 
Pearson on the Creed, an old undated edition. 

THE CHURCH YARD. 

This is no longer used as a burial ground, but forms an ap- 
propriate enclosure around the church, protecting it from injury. 
It has several times been added to, as the increasing population 
of the town required more room for the reverent burial of its dead. 

In 1391, John Bokingham, Bishop of Lincoln, paid the king 
half a mark for a license to give a strip of land, 150 feet long 
and 8 feet wide, held of the king in burgage to Thomas le Warre, 
then parson of Sleaford, for the enlargement of its cemetery. 
Pat 15 Eic 2, dated at Westminster, July 28th, in that year. 

In 1796 the church yard was considerably enlarged, by 
taking in a piece of ground on the north. 

A simple dwarf wall formerly surrounded the church yard, 
and on each side of the principal entrance to it and the church 
itself on the west side, were lofty stone piers surmounted by 
representations of skulls wreathed with chaplets. This wall and 



SLEAFOBD. 



167 



these piers were removed in 1837, and replaced by the present 
handsome stone and iron fence supplied by public contributions. 
Since the church yard has ceased to be used for burial purposes, 
its surface has been levelled and almost all the tombstones are 
now laid flat so as to facilitate the mowing of the grass, which is 
always kept in good order, and in conjunction with the trees 
planted where there is room for them, presents a pleasant 
appearance. 

THE CEMETEEY. 

In consequence of an Act of Parliament affecting church 
yards and burial grounds passed in the 16 and 17 of Victoria, 
the future disuse of the ancient burial place of the inhabitants of 
Sleaford became imperative, and it was necessary to provide a 
cemetery. Accordingly an appropriate piece of ground for this 
purpose was bought in 1856, situated on a slight eminence east- 
ward of the town, and near to the Sleaford and Tattershall road. 

At the entrance is a very pretty lodge, whence a road, having 
a row of pinus on either side, leads to the cemetery. This is a 
rectangular piece of ground surrounded by a yew hedge and sub- 
divided by the same means. Originally it was laid out on correct 
principles, and thoughtfully planted with appropriate evergreen 
trees and shrubs, like that of Grrantham, which is always so much 
admired ; but as this was at first ill cared for, almost all the trees 
and shrubs died, the turf became coarse, and the walks, with 
ragged edges and rough surfaces, made the whole ground look 
miserable ; and then instead of renewing the evergreen shrubs 
so placed as not to interfere with interments, deciduous trees 
were planted as if in child's play irregularly over the ground, 
while the old formal walks remain to protest against such very 
inappropriate treatment. 

THE WESLEYAN CHAPEL. 

This was built in 1848 on the site of the Old Falcon Inn, in 
North- street, and is a neat building of yellow brickwork and 
Ancaster stone dressings. The architect, Mr. James Simpson, of 
Leeds, had some Tudor example before him when he designed 
this structure, but has interpolated a Perpendicular window over 
the doorway, and classical projecting quoins at its angles. Its 



168 SLEAFOKD. 

internal dimensions are 75 feet by 43 feet, and, with the accom- 
modation afforded by its galleries is calculated to seat 800 persons. 
Behind are vestries and class-rooms. The cost of its erection 
was about 2000. The builders were Messrs. Baker, of Sleaford. 

THE CONGREGATIONAL CHAPEL. 

The original Congregational Chapel, built in 1776, was in 
Jermyn-street, and chiefly supplied by ministers of the Countess 
of Huntingdon's College, at Cheshunt ; but through the liberal 
donation of 500 by Mr. Simpson, of Sleaford, on condition that 
1000 more should be raised towards the erection of a new and 
larger chapel, this was effected in 1868, and by subsequent con- 
cession on his part the present chapel in South-street was erected 
from plans by Messrs. Habershon and Pite, of London, carried 
out by Messrs. Pattinson, of Ruskington. It is built of roughed 
stone from the Bulley- wells quarry, relieved by Ancaster stone 
dressings after the example of some church of the early Decora- 
ted style ; but its features are of too light a character if intended 
to represent any real grave old church of which it is an imitation, 
and its clerestory of timber especially adds to its fragile appear- 
ance. Within, its fittings are neat and in good taste, and it 
possesses a good organ by Mr. Holdich. It is calculated to 
accommodate 450 persons. 

THE BAPTIST CHAPEL. 

This was erected in 1811. It is a plain square brick edifice, 
situated in Old Sleaford, behind the houses facing the street on 
the north side of the Boston road, whence it is approached by a 
passage. It was opened in 1812 by Mr. William Huntingdon, 
and is capable of seating 250 persons. 

THE PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL. 

This is a red brick edifice situated on the south side of West- 
gate. It was built in 1814 at a cost of 725, together with a 
house for the minister behind it ; but as this was inconvenient 
and an enlargement of the chapel was needed, these alterations 
have just been made, much to the improvement of the chapel, 
which can now accommodate 240 persons. 




THE MONUMENT, SLEAFORD. 



SLEAFOED. 
THE WESLEYAN EEFORM CHAPEL. 



169 



This is a small unpretending brick building, on the West 
Bank, 27 feet long by 22 feet wide, with a gallery at one end. 
It was opened in 1864, and is calculated to hold 200 persons. 

THE HANDLE Y MONUMENT. 

This stands at the southern end of South-street, and is a 
great ornament to the town. Designed after the manner of Queen 
Eleanor's crosses, its spire-like form, Gothic details, and appro- 
priate iron fence below, render it an attractive feature. It was 
erected by subscription in 1851, after the designs of Mr. William 
Boyle, of Birmingham, and executed by Mr. W. M. Cooper, of 
Derby, at a cost of 1000. It commemorates Henry Handley, 
Esq., one of the Representatives of South Lincolnshire in Parlia- 
ment from 1832 to 1841, who died in 1846, and whose statue in 
Caen stone, by Mr. Thomas, stands within its lower stage. 
Above this are two other diminishing stages, highly enriched 
with emblematical statuettes in canopied and crocketed niches, 
&c., and terminates with a crocketed spirelet. Its height is 65 
feet. In front of this a supply of good water may always be 
obtained by the public, through a considerate gift of a pump 
and stone basin below it, bearing the inscription " Every good 
gift is from above." The accompanying plate gives a good idea 
of the character of this monument. 

THE MARKET PLACE. 

This consists of a large open space in the heart of the town, 
adjoining two of its principal streets, and enables the public to 
have an excellent view of the picturesque west front of the fine 
old Parish Church, the Sessions House, the Corn Exchange, and 
some of the principal shops of the town. Formerly a Market 
Cross stood here nearly opposite to the north west door of the 
church. It consisted, as usual, of several steps, a base, on the 
sides of which were carved shields, each bearing a saltire 
between 4 roundels with the date 1575, and a shaft springing 
from it. This cross was removed about 70 years ago, when for 
a time the base was preserved in the church, but has now dis- 
appeared. Near to it strangely stood the Stocks and Whipping 






170 



SLEAFOBD. 



Post. In a corresponding position on the other side of the 
gravelled way now crossing the Market Place long remained a 
less religious object, viz : a stout post buried in the ground, 
having its head covered with an iron plate and a ring inserted in 
it. This was a Bull Ring, to which unhappy bulls were attached 
and baited by dogs for the amusement of the people. A few 
persons are still living at Sleaford who remember a bull being 
thus baited in the Market Place for the last time, about the year 
1807, when at least one wretched dog was gored to death. This 
post was at length taken up when Royalty had long ceased to 
countenance such a barbarous sport, and the riotous conduct that 
usually attended it, as well as a growing feeling against all such 
brutal scenes tending to degrade the tastes and habits of the 
populace, led to its total disuse throughout England. A curious 
illustration of this once popular sport is supplied by the still 
existing sign of the Black Bull, in Southgate, of which an accurate 
M nun tf WIT . cut is given. This is carved in 

stone, and represents a bull in 
lilKMLL the act of being baited. Tied 
IE by a cord round its neck to a low 

Jpost or stake, one dog, after the 
manner of its kind, hangs upon 
pr the poor brute's lip, while two 
lil others are attacking it, and a 
man in the dress of the 17th 
century is urging them on. The 
whole is painted with appropri- 
ate colours. Above are the initials R. M. B., doubtless those of 
the then landlord of the Black Bull when the accompanying date 
of 1689 was cut, and below is a subsequent date with the 
initials I. W. A Market is held at Sleaford every Monday, and 
five Fairs take place annually, viz : on Plough Monday, Easter 
Monday, Whit Monday, the 1st of October, and the 20th of 
October ; the last of which is the most important, and represents 
the day on which the old feast of the Patron Saint of Sleaford, 
St. Dennis, was kept, or the 9th of October, according to the old 
style. 

From the Market Place diverge the four principal streets of 
the town, severally called Northgate, Southgate, Eastgate and 
Westgate, not because there were ever gates and walls pro- 




SLEAFOED. 



171 



tecting the town, but simply because these streets led towards the 
four cardinal points, the common Lincolnshire expression, " I 
am going this a gate " illustrating the use of such terms, i.e., " I 
am going this way" 

THE SESSIONS HOUSE. 

This is a large and conspicuous stone building of the Tudor 
style, on the north side of the Market Place. It was built in 
1829-30 at a cost of 7000, after the designs of Mr. Edward 
Kendall, by the late Mr. Charles Kirk. It contains a spacious 
Court, in which the Quarter and Petty Sessions are held, retiring 
rooms for the Magistrates and Grand Jury, and other apartments. 
In front of it is an arcade for the convenience of persons in 
attendance. Formerly the only receptacle for prisoners or 
drunkards in Sleaford was a little building still standing on the 
eastern edge of the church yard, and only fit for a toolhouse. 
This has now long since been disused as a place of detention, and 
in 1845 a Police Station with cells adjoining was built in a little 
street branching from Eastgate, at a cost of 1000, which, with 
some subsequent alterations and additions, serves its purpose 
well. 

THE CORN EXCHANGE. 



In 1857, the great desideratum of a Corn Exchange was 
supplied, after some difference of opinion as to the best site for 
the purpose had been brought to a happy conclusion. This stands 
next to the Bristol Arms, in the Market Place, and its Gothic 
elevation is not only handsome in itself, but one that harmonizes 
well with the buildings near it. It was built by shareholders on 
a site sold to them for the purpose by the late Miss Bankes ; its 
interior is spacious, handsome, and well adapted to its purpose. 
The roof is on the ridge and furrow system, glazed on one side, 
and boarded on the other, so as to supply ample but not too 
great an amount of light to the corn buyers and sellers, for 
whose use it was intended. Underneath is a butter market, and 
attached to it are other rooms and offices. The architects were 
Messrs. Kirk and Parry, of Sleaford. 






172 SLEAFOED. 

THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

This was founded in 1604, by Robert Carre, of Aswarby, 
second son of Eobert Carre, the purchaser of so many estates 
near Sleaford, who also exhibited a charitable disposition by acts 
of benevolence towards the parishes of Eauceby and Sleaford. 
He was High Sheriff of the county in 1581, and took part in 
quelling the rebellion against Elizabeth, fostered by the Earls of 
Northumberland and Westmoreland. He married, 1, the widow 
of Lord Gray, of Wilton, Lord Warden of the English Marshes ; 
and 2, Cassandra, daughter of William Apreece, of Washingley, 
in the parish of Lutton, Hunts, and widow of Adlard Welby, of 
Gredney, but had no issue by either, and died two years later 
1606. The school was to be called The Free Grammar School of 
Sleaford, and was intended for the better education of the youth 
and children born or living with their parents within the 
parishes of New Sleaford, Old Sleaford, Aswarby, Holdingham, 
Quarrington, North Eauceby, South Eauceby, Anwiek, Kirkby 
Laythorpe, and Evedon. The Master was to receive 20 a year 
out of a freehold estate consisting of 100 acres of land in Gedney, 
probably acquired through Eobert Carre's marriage with the 
widow of Adlard Welby, and the rest of its profits was to be 
disposed of in alms to the poor of Old and New Sleaford and 
Holdingham at the discretion of the Trustees, in whom this 
estate was vested. All went well with the school until Cromwell's 
time, when, according to a memorandum in its records " From 
1644 until May 1646 the times were so confused in respect of 
warrs, that neither rents could be received, nor accounts taken 
up, yet the money that could be got was disposed of as appears 
by bills, &c.," i.e. was alienated from its proper application. 
After this the Masters again received their stipend, but at last 
this became so utterly insufficient that difficulty was found in 
securing the services of an efficient Master in Orders, and at one 
time the office was vacant for two years 

To improve its condition, a small house and garden at the 
extremity of Northgate was bought for the use of the Master in 
1825, and in 1834 the present Master's house and school-room 
adjoining were built. The school was then started again under 
an order of Chancery, made April 7th, 1830, and certain regula- 
tions were agreed to by the Patron and Trustees for its future 
management in 1835. 




SLEAFOBD. 173 

It is under the control of the Marquis of Bristol as the present 
representative of the Founder, and ten Trustees resident in 
Sleaford. 

The following is a list of the Masters : 
A.D. 1640. Anthony Baston 

1608. Mr. Browne 

1609. Mr. Newell 

1615. Mr. Etherington 

1619. Bev. John Kitchen 

1622. Mr. Northern 

1629. Mr. Trevillian 

1635. Bev. M. Fancourt 

1638. Bev. Edmund Trevillian 

1650. Bev. Thomas Gibson 

1663. Bev. Peter Stevens 

1683. Bev. William North 

1691. Bev. Matthew Smith 

1723. Bev. Benjamin Wray 

1736. Bev. William Ghmnil 

1781. Bev. Edward Waterson 

1811. Bev. Elias Huelin 

1835. Bev. Henry Manton 

1867. Bev. C. Child 



ALVEY'S SCHOOL. 

William Alvey, by his will, dated 26th August, 1726, be- 
queathed an estate in Fishtoft to Trustees for the purpose of 
paying 20 annually for the education of poor children of New 
Sleaford, who were to be taught to read, write, sew, and knit. 
He also left 8 annually to educate poor children at Balderton, 
and 40s. a year to the Incumbents of Sleaford and Balderton to 
preach anniversary sermons". The residue of the income from the 
estate was to be divided for the benefit of Sleaford and Balderton, 
in the proportion of two thirds to the former and one third to the 
latter. The gross annual income is now 160 a year. New 
school-rooms and a house for the Master were erected in the 
Elizabethan style in connexion with this charity in 1851, at a 
cost of 1000 raised by subscription. These stand on a site in 



174 SLEAFORD. 

East- gate, given by the late Marquis of Bristol, and each school- 
room can accommodate 100 children. 

Several other persons left small sums in trust for the benefit 
of the scholars of this school ; viz : Mrs. Ann Ashby, who be- 
queathed the interest of 20 for providing them with bibles and 
spelling books, in 1770, and Sir John Thorold, Bart., who the 
same year left the interest of 5 for the same purpose. In 1785 
James Harryman became their benefactor in a different way, by 
leaving the interest of 100 a year to provide shoes and stockings 
for them. 

THE INFANT SCHOOL. 

In 1855 a building in "Westgate, formerly used as a theatre, 
was purchased by subscription and converted into a school-room 
for young children. This is supported by subscription and a 
Government Grant, much to the benefit of the poorer classes of 
Sleaford. 

WESLEYAN SCHOOLS. 

These schools, adjoining the Wesleyan chapel, were erected 
by Mr. M. Bennison, after designs furnished by Messrs. Pattinson, 
of Euskington, at a cost of 1100, and are intended to accom- 
modate 200 children. They are built of white brick, and consist 
of one large school-room, 48 feet long by 30 feet wide and 17 
feet high, and class-rooms, well adapted for educational purposes. 

CARBE HOSPITAL. 

This was founded by Sir Robert Carre, 3rd Baronet, son of 
Sir Edward Carre, Bart., and nephew of Robert Carre the founder 
of the Grammar School, on his coming of age in 1636. It was 
intended for the use and support of twelve poor men, three to be 
chosen from New Sleaford and Holdingham, two from Kirkby 
Laythorpe, one from Quarrington and Old Sleaford, two from 
Great or North Rauceby, with power to select from Little or 
South Rauceby if the former should not supply fitting persons, 
and one from Anwick, Asgarby, Little Hale and Aswarby. He 
endowed it with the great tithes of Metheringham and Kirkby 
Laythorpe, a rent charge of 20 out of the manor of Kirkby, and 
the site of the Hospital in Sleaford. This last is situated south 



8LEAFOED. 175 

of the church, on which, the ancient residence of the Carre 
family stood called Carre House, and described by Leland as 
being one of the great ornaments of the town. A portion of this 
seems to have constituted the Hospital until 1823, judging from 
a slight sketch of its appearance, when it was pulled down and 
the materials were used in building a chapel in the autumn of 
that year. Then also the road to the Navigation was altered, 
which previously ran through the Hospital ground. In 1844 
this chapel was taken down and replaced by the present one, when 
the Hospital itself also was almost entirely rebuilt as it exists'at 
present, forming two sides of a quadrangle with the chapel in the 
middle of the facade facing the fine old Parish Church. The 
following year, through the enlargement of the building, six 
additional poor men were provided for in accordance with a new 
scheme then sanctioned by the Court of Chancery. At the in- 
closure of Metheringham parish in 1777, an allotment was made 
to the Hospital in lieu of the glebe and tithes of 777 acres of land, 
and in 1852 the great tithes of Kirkby Laythorpe were commuted 
for an annual payment to the Hospital of 130 charged upon the 
estates of the Marquis of Bristol. In 1857, when the funds of 
the Hospital had accumulated to a considerable extent, an 
addition to the number of inmates was determined on by the 
Governors, and as there was not room for this on the old site a 
new one in Northgate adjoining the Grammar School was pur- 
chased, and a handsome building in the Tudor style erected, 
sufficient for the accommodation of eight extra pensioners, who 
now enjoy in common with their brethren of the older building 
the great boon bequeathed to them by Sir Robert Carre. Each 
of these is allowed 10s. a week in addition to their comfortable 
apartments, a blue cloth cloak and some coals ; besides^ the 
services of a chaplain, a medical attendant, and a nurse. 

The Hospital is managed by five Lay and four Clerical 
Governors. The former at this time are Sir T. Whichcote, Bart , 
H. Chaplin, Esq., M.P., Charles Pearson, Esq., H. Peake, Esq., 
"W. H. Holdich, Esq. ; the latter, the Vicar of Sleaford, the 
Hector of Aswarby, the Rector of Kirkby Laythorpe cum Asgarby, 
the Rector of Quarrington, and the Yicar of Anwick cum 
Brauncewell. Their annual meeting is on Whit Tuesday, when 
they and the Bedesmen have a dinner, vacancies are filled up, 
and the business of the trust is transacted. 



I 



176 SLEAFOKD. 

THE UNION HOUSE. 

This stands on the north side of the Sleaford and Tattershall 
Road, and is a much more pleasing building than the prison-like 
type usually adopted. It is of the Tudor style, and built of 
Ancaster stone after the designs of the late Mr. "W. J. Donthorn, 
of London, in 1838, at a cost of 4000 ; but since then much has 
been done to render it more commodious. It is intended for the 
use of the "Wapentakes of Aswardhurn, Flaxwell, Langoe, Love- 
den, Av eland and Boothby Graffoe, which comprise 56 parishes 
or townships, and is a very well managed Institution. 

THE VICARAGE. 

This is on the north side of the church, and abuts immedi- 
ately upon the churchyard. The original parsonage stood at the 
east end of the church, as we learn from Leland, and was one of 
the only two very good houses he remarked on his visit to 
Sleaford, his words being " For houses in the towne I marked but 
2 very faire, the one longith to the personage as a prebend of 
16 yn Lincoln, and standith at the est ende of the chirch." 
This stood eastward of the present Waggon and Horses, and its 
representative, together with the old tithe yard, were sold in 
1797 to redeem the land tax. It was taken down in 1816 and 
replaced by a small new house. The present vicarage house was 
most probably the residence of one of the chantry priests attached 
to the church of Sleaford, and part of it is of the latter end of 
the 16th century, bearing the date 1568 on its gable facing the 
church. It has of late been added to and improved. 

OLD HOUSES. 

There are several houses still remaining in Sleaford of that 
style of domestic architecture prevalent in England from the 
reign of Elizabeth to that of Charles II. A portion of one of 
these now forms an adjunct of Miss Peacock's house in North- 
gate. All its details are not honestly its own, but it is a pictur- 
esque fragment that generally attracts attention ; and on a 
building in the stable yard adjoining is a very beautiful mediae val 
chimney shaft, brought from the old Deanery, at Lincoln. 



SLEAFOED. 177 

Opposite to this is an exceedingly well-designed modern 
public house, called the Marquis of Granby, in which a little 
old bay window is inserted, brought from an ancient house that 
formerly stood on the site of the present Corn Exchange ; and a 
little southward of it is another small ancient house, having a 
gable filled with characteristic mullioned windows. 

On the east side of Eastgate, just beyond the chancel of the 
parish church, is a larger house of the same date. This adjoins 
the site of the old residence of the Carres, and perhaps was built 
by one of that family, although nothing is now known of its 
history previous to 1707, when it was bought by Mr. Austen 
Cawdron, whose family was connected with that of the Carres by 
marriage. Four years later it was sold to Mr. John Peart, of 
Sleaford, and in 1773 to Mr. John Brown, Mayor of Lincoln, at 
which time it was occupied by Sir William Moor, Bart. The 
next year it was sold to the Bev. John Andrews, and at his death 
in 1800, was sold to the grandfather of the present owner, Mr. 
Henry Snow. It is a picturesque gabled house, and still retains 
its original chimnies, one or two of its mullioned windows, and 
the head of a handsome doorway opening into the garden attached 
to it, but not now standing in its original position. Of a later 
period is the handsome old house adjoining the Sessions House, 
now constituting the bank of Messrs. Peacock and Handley. 

CHARITABLE BEQUESTS. 

At a date unknown, but probably at the beginning of the 
17th century, John Cammocke left a house and garden in South- 
gate with some land in the open field beyond, the rents of which 
were to be applied to the embellishment of the parish church. 
This bequest is now represented by three tenements, a yard and 
garden in Southgate, and 3 acres 2 roods and 1 3 perches, let at 
20 a year, situated on the north side of the Tattershall road. 
In 1631, Robert Cammocke the younger charged a farm at 
Harmston, now in the possession of B. H. Thorold, Esq., with 
an annual payment of 14 ; of which 5 were to be given to the 
Vicar of Sleaford, 4 to the Master of the Carre Grammar School, 
and 4 were to be devoted to the purchase of a freize gown, a 
pair of shoes, and a pair of stockings for five poor persons, if the 
fund allowed of this. 



178 8LEAFOKD. 

In 1657, Henry Callow left two fields in Ruskington, out 
of the rents of wliicli 2 were to be paid annually to the Yicar 
of Sleaford, and 5 for the purchase of five gowns, five pairs of 
shoes, and five pairs of stockings to be given to five poor persona 
of New Sleaford ; after which the surplus was to be expended in 
the reparation of the church at the discretion of the church- 
wardens. 

In 1681, Samuel Eaulinson left a yearly rent of 5 derived 
from his house, called the Old Hall, in Sleaford, now a black- 
smith's shop, to the poor of the parish. 

In 1688, Miles Long gave 20s. a year to the Yicar of Slea- 
ford, secured on two houses in Southgate, now belonging to Mr. 
Hipkin and Mrs. Green. 

In 1715, James Harryman left the interest of 150, to be 
expended in bread for the poor. 

In 1730, Margaret Kinsey and others left a small sum to 
be expended annually in bread for the poor, to be distributed on 
St. Thomas's day. This is secured on the Old Hall, now belong- 
ing to Mr. Hackett. 

In 1784, Susannah Darwin, of Sleaford, left 100 in trust, 
the interest of which was to be given to the organist of the 
parish church. 

In 1788, Ann Fenwick, of Sleaford, left 50, the interest of 
which was also to be given to the organist of Sleaford. 

In 1835, Mrs. Anne Bankes left 400, the interest of which 
was to be spent in the purchase of coals and flour to be given to 
twelve poor women of Sleaford, and the same number of 
Gosberton. 

In 1841, Benjamin Holmes left 100, the interest of which 
was to be distributed in money among the poor widows of New 
Sleaford, on the 15th of August every year, and was to be called 
Holmes's gift. 

THE EAILWAY FBOM SLEAFORD TO GEANTHAM AND 
BOSTON. 

For this great boon Sleaford is indebted to the late Mr. 
Herbert Ingram, M.P., for Boston, by which it is placed in easy 
reach not only of Boston and Grantham, but of Nottingham, 
Lincoln and London. 



SLEAFOKD. 



179 



That portion of it "between Grantham and Sleaford was 
finished and opened formally, June 13th, 1857. It is 14 miles 
in extent, and was made at the cost of about 8000 a mile, by 
Messrs. Smith and Knight. Its completion was celebrated by a 
grand dinner given by the Directors, in the Goods Shed of the 
Sleaford Station, and a general holiday in the town, when all 
sorts of good wishes were uttered in behalf of the new line, which 
have been amply fulfilled. 

Subsequently the line was extended from Sleaford to Boston, 
when great rejoicings took place at Boston, and a first excursion 
trip was made by the Directors and their friends from Boston to 
Grantham ; after which, as at Sleaford, the day concluded with 
a public dinner in the Exchange Hall, under the presidency, 
as before, of the late Mr, Herbert Ingram, whose life has since 
been so lamentably lost through a calamitous accident in 
America. 



HOLDINGHAM. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1360. 142. 

THIS is a hamlet of New Sleaford, lying northward of it. Its 
name was originally spelt Haldingham. It is not men- 
tioned in Domesday book, nor in Testa de Nevill, perhaps because 
it always constituted an adjunct of Lafford or Sleaford ; and the 
first we hear of it, is as a portion of the Bishop of Lincoln's 
manor of Sleaford. 

It gave birth, we may presume, to Eichard de Haldingham 
circa 1250-60, the author of a very early and curious map of the 
world, drawn on vellum, now preserved in Hereford Cathedral. 
He was an ecclesiastic of Lincoln Cathedral, who subsequently 
held the Prebend of Norton, in Hereford Cathedral from 1299 to 
1310, during which time he no doubt produced his map. Next 
he was connected with the Chapter of Salisbury, and finally 
became Archdeacon of Berks. This map represents the various 
countries of the world as an island surrounded by an illimitable 
ocean, with Jerusalem in the centre, and is interspersed with 
various religious and other devices. Among these is a portrait of 
a horseman followed by a page holding two greyhounds in a 
leash, towards whom he is represented as turning, and saying, 
Passe avant. This is intended for Augustus Caesar ; beneath is 
the following reference to the artist of the map : 

Tuz ki cest estoire ont. 

Ou oyront ou lirront on ueront. 

Prient a ihesu en deyte. 

De Richard de Haldingham e de Lafford eyt pite. 

Ki la fet e compasse. 

Ki ioie en eel li seit done. 
Which may thus be rendered in English : 

May all who this fair history 

Shall either hear, or read, or see, 

Pray to Jesus Christ in Deity 

Eichard of Haldingham and Lafford to pity 

That to him for aye be given 

Who made this map, the joy of Heaven. 






HOLDINGHAM. 181 

The next we hear of any person connected with this hamlet 
is in a deed of Bishop Oliver Sutton, by which, with the consent 
of the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, he manumitted William 
Rauceby, of Haldingham, his bondsman, and confirmed to him 
5 tofts and 2 oxgangs of land in Lafford and Haldingham, which 
he had previously held in villanage of the Bishops of Lincoln for 
a rent of 20s. to be paid at the court of the manor of Lafford, and 
all secular services, customs, and demands for ever. This was 
dated and signed at Lincoln on the Thursday next after the feast 
of the Assumption, 1287, and was confirmed by the King, at 
Waltham, February 4th, 1332. 

Before the enclosure of this hamlet, part of it at the angle 
between the Lincoln and Newark roads was called the Anna, a 
term possibly derived from Annachorage or Anchorage, marking 
the site of an ancient hermitage. On this was an enclosure sur- 
rounded by a fosse and the remains of an ancient building within 
it, now incorporated in the farm premises on its site. 

In the 1 6th century there was a chapel here dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, but how long it had then existed is unknown. This 
stood in the small pasture close bounded on the east and north by 
the Lincoln and Newark roads, and from a former examination 
of its site appears to have been 70 feet long and 30 feet wide. 
It had fallen into a ruinous state in Queen Mary's reign, when 
inquisition was made into its condition, and its reparation ensued. 
It still existed in Holles's time 1640, for he noted four armorial 
bearings painted on its windows, viz : those of Eussell, Bishop of 
Lincoln, Hussey, Berkley, and Markham. In front of this by 
the road side formerly stood the octagonal base of a cross ; but 
this has now disappeared. 

The whole of the land in Holdingham now belongs to the 
Marquis of Bristol through the marriage of his ancestor Mr. 
Hervey, with the heiress of the Carre family. 




OLD SLEAFORD. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1150. 372. 

THIS is a small distinct parish, separated from New Sleaford 
on the north by the little river Slea, bounded on the west 
and south by Quarrington, and by Kirkby Laythorpe on the east. 
It was formerly the property of the Husseys, whose residence 
here in Leland's time was jotted down in his Itinerary as being 
one of the chief ornaments of Sleaford, and whose history has been 
previously given in connection with the general history of Sleaford. 
Besides the principal manor of Sleaford and its adjuncts, there 
was certainly another distinct manor here, eventually called Old 
Sleaford, although for a time both were comprised under the 
general name of Lafford, because both were long held by the 
Bishops of Lincoln, and considered as one. No doubt Old Slea- 
ford was part of the original gift of the Conqueror to Bishop 
Remigius on the removal of his See from Dorchester to Lincoln, 
and it was let in common with his other lands to various tenants 
by him and his successors, or rather such portions of them as 
they did not require for their own use. When the distinctive 
terms of Old and New Sleaford begun to be used is uncertain, 
but such was certainly the case towards the close of the 14th 
century, from the evidence of the following will, proved Januaiy 
19th, 1397 : 

' ' 1 Sidonia Story de Veteri Lafford, on Saturday in the feast of 
St. Thomas the Martyr in the week of the Nativity of our 
Lord 1397 make my will." 

" I leave my body to be buried in the church of All Saints in 
the afore said vill. To the fabric of the church of Lincoln 
I leave 4s. 3d. To the house of St. Katharine 3s. 4d. To 
the fabric of the church of Old Sleaford 20s. To the church 
of North Eauceby 3s. 4d. To the chapel of South Eauceby 
in the same parish 3s. 4d. The residue of my goods I leave 
to my executors, and I appoint them, viz : John Storey, 
my son, John Gillham of Falkingham, and William Scote 
of North Kyrkby. The following being witnesses : John 
Helveston, Dominus Thomas, Chaplain of the parish and 
Dominua Thomas Welton. " ' ' Buckingham's Eegisters 451. " 






OLD SLEAFORD. 
THE OLD PLACE. 



183 



This lies half a mile eastward of Sleaford, on the north of 
the Sleaford and Boston road, and is bounded on the east by the 
remains of the old Roman road from Peterborough to Lincoln, 
before it crossed the Slea near to Cogglesford mill by means of a 
ford, which existed until 1792. It appears to have been erected 
on the site of a small Roman Station, the fosse of which was 
probably incorporated in, or adopted as the one formerly defending 
the residence that subsequently was built within the area it 
surrounded, where many Roman coins and some pottery have 
occasionally been found, bespeaking its Roman occupation. 
About the year 1400, if not before, a house arose on this spot, 
apparently the work of the first of the Husseys settled at Sleaford, 
whose descendants certainly lived here until their estates were 
forfeited by the attainder of John, Lord Hussey. This was 
formerly represented by an interesting old mullioned window 
house, having a stepped gable of which the subjoined cut is a 
representation ; but in 1822 it was unfortunately taken down and 





the present farm house was erected in its stead. There are how- 
ever still some portions of the old fosse remaining, and the garden 
wall and doorway attest the handsome character of its adjuncts. 



184 OLD SLEAFOED. 

The manor of Old Sleaford was held of the castle of Sleaford 
by Lord Hussey, but was purchased by Eobert Carre after the 
attainder of that unfortunate nobleman, and thus transmitted to 
its present owner, the Marquis of Bristol. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

When first we hear of the church of Old Sleaford, it had 
fallen into the possession of the Monastery of the " Blessed Mary 
of Haverholme," and was served by a vicar of its appointment. 
The following were some of the later vicars and the dates of their 
presentation by the Prior and Canons of Haverholme Priory : 
A.D. 1503. Eobertus Grayme. 

1505. Eichardus Symson. 

1507. Johannes Thomason. 

1535. Galfridus Wodnot. 

1538. Eobertus Walker (presented by the King.) 
In Ecton's Liber Eegis, the church of Old Sleaford is called a 
vicarage. It is said to have been dedicated to St. Giles, but from 
the evidence of Sidonia Storey's will, previously given, it appears 
really to have been called that of All Saints. This stood east- 
ward of the Old Place, and within the farm yard of the present 
house representing it. Some carved stones belonging to it were 
found built into the chimneys of its predecessor and some of 
the painted glass of its windows was found in digging into the 
ground near to its site. It appears that Haverholme Priory ap- 
propriated to itself all the proceeds of this church, and although 
vicars were appointed, these served it from Haverholme without 
endowment. Thus when the tithes of Old Sleaford as part of the 
proceeds of Haverholme Priory fell into the King's hands at the 
dissolution, he first granted a least of them to Thomas Horseman, 
and subsequently sold them to Eobert Carre. The parishioners, 
then consisting of ten families, attended New Sleaford church. 
Some time after, the Eector of Quarrington, thinking to benefit 
himself, got a presentation to the church of Old Sleaford under the 
great seal ; but when he found " noe manner of tythes belonging 
unto it he exceedingly repented him of his folly, & soe left it," as 
old Burton informs us in his instructions to the then young repre- 
sentative of the Carres, Subsequently an arrangement was made 
between Eobert Carre and the Eector, that the latter should 



OLD SLEAFOBD. 



185 



admit to his church, the inhabitants of Old Sleaford on condition 
of receiving a yearly payment for the accommodation. As the 
Eector of Quarrington failed to get any tithes from Old Sleaford, 
so in the time of Bishops Chatterton and Barlow the Crown 
failed to get any tenths from it, after having twice tried to do so. 







ANWICK. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1965. 277. 

THE name of this village, lying 5 miles north east of Sleaford, 
was spelt differently even in Domesday book, viz : Amuinc 
and Haniuuic, and subsequently Hanewic, Anewyke, Amwyk, 
and Anwyk. According to the above named ancient record 
An wick was a berewick of Euskington, and contained 6 carucates 
of taxable land when the Conqueror's survey was made. Ealph, 
the grandson of Geoffrey Alselin, had here 21 sokemen and 4 
villans, cultivating the greater part of this land, also a vassal 
called Drogo holding 5 oxgangs of land of him, worth 25s. 
Subsequently the land here was divided between the families of 
Alselin, or Hanselin, and de Calz. Then that of the former 
passed to the Bardolf family, of whom William Bardolf died 
possessed of the manor here 1252-4, another William in 1290, 
and John in 1372. The de Calz heiress Matilda, after having 
given certain lands in Anwick in pure and perpetual alms to the 
Prior of Haverholme, left the rest to the de Everinghams, of 
whom Eobert obtained a right of free warren over his lands in 
Anwick, let to John de Everingham, who sub-let them again to 
Walter de Anwick by knight's service. This Eobert de Evering- 
ham died 1287. "Testa de Nevill, p. 318." In 1356 died 
David de Fletewicke, knight, seized of a messuage in this vill. 
In 1431 died John Tyrwhit, of Harpswell, seized of a manor here, 
held as of the manor of Euskington, and ten years later died 
William Phelip, knight (husband of one of the Bardolf co- 
heiresses), seized of this vill. "Inq. p. m. 9 & 19, H. 6." In 
1544 the king granted a license to Edward Lord Clinton to 
alienate the manor of Anwick to Eobert Carre and his heirs, 
" Harl. M.S. 6829 ; " and the next year he answered at the Ex- 
chequer for the sum of 1 10s. lid. due from him out of the 
exists of the manors of Haverholme, Euskington, and Anwick, 
held of the King in capite. " Pip. Eot. 283." Then we hear of 



ANWICK. 



187 



a John Thompson, of Boothby, who died April 7th, 1559, seized 
of two thirds of the manor of Anwick, which he left partly to his 
widow and partly to his son Francis, who, when he died, had 
increased this third to one half. " Haii M.S. 6829." On the- 
13th of December, 1561, died Hamond Whichcote-, seized of 
the manor of Anwick, held of the manor of Ruskington by fealty, 
and on the 14th of September, 1578, Robert Whichcote died 
possessed of it. On the 24th February, 1593, died Robert Carre, 
of Sleaford, seized of the manor of Anwick, leaving his uncle 
Robert Carre, of Aswarby, his heir, from whom it descended to 
the heiress of that family, and thus eventually passed into the 
hands of the present possessor, the Marquis of Bristol. In 
Elizabeth's reign there were only 30 houses in this parish. This 
was enclosed in 1791. Previous to the formation of the turnpike 
road passing through it to Tattershall and Horncastle, Anwick 
was difficult of access during the winter months, and all commu- 
nication with places eastward of it was entirely stopped. 

THE DRAKE STONE. 

Many absurd stories have been told respecting this stone, 
the present popular name of which is said to be derived from the 
form its guardian spirit assumed when disturbed by a vain 
attempt to move it, he took flight in the form of a drake. With 
the assistance of the late Rev. S. Hazelwood, Dr. Oliver had this 
stone exposed to view in 1832, and put forth various bold state- 
ments respecting it, in which he connected it with the Druids and 
Druidical uses ; but in reality it bears no trace of any such ap- 
plication, nor even of havicg served as a cromlech, or sepulchral 
memorial. Originally it stood on the surface of the ground about 
half-a-mile north of the village of Anwick, or in the fifth field 
from the church, but some years ago was sunk to allow of the 
free action of the plough over it. Lately, through the kindness 
of the present vicar, the Rev. Henry Ashington, it was once more 
laid bare, and a drawing made of it, from which the accompany- 
ing cut was engraved. It consists of a large mass of dark reddish 
grey sandstone full of sea shells, and its partially water worn 
appearance clearly indicates that it has been brought here by the 
action of water during some long past great convulsion of nature. 
By its side lies a fragment that has evidently been broken off 



188 



AN WICK. 




from^it. It is still however nearly 6 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 
the same deep. Other boulders and their fragments abound 
around it, proving that it is only one of a number of such stones 
that have been brought from a distance by water power. This 
stone is said to have stood upon another stone at one time, which 
renders it possible that it may have been used as a cromlech ; 
but perhaps this second stone may only have been a fragment 
of itself, like the one now beside it, although there is no evidence 
whatever to suggest that it did serve this purpose, neither has 
man left any mark upon its surface, so that it cannot be classed 
with any degree of certainty among British relics. The greater 
part of this parish belongs to the Marquis of Bristol. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

In 1150-60, Ralph Anselin confirmed to God, the Blessed 
Mary, and the Priory of Haverholme, 3J acres of land in the 



ANWICK. 



189 



plains of this vill, which Robert, the son of Geoffrey had given 
them. Matilda de Calz gave to the same Priory 5 oxgangs of 
land in this parish, the privilege of cutting as many reeds for 
thatching as two men could cut annually, and liberty to fish in 
the Anwick waters. "Lansdown M.S. 207." Ralph, the son of 
Fulco de Anwick gave five parts of the church of Anwick to the 
same, for the benefit of his own and his wife's soul ; which gift 
his nephew, Walter, son of William de Anwick confirmed. 
Another member of this family, Geoffrey, son of Roger de Anwick, 
gave a fifth part of the church of Anwick for the health of his 
own and his wife's soul. "Ibid." William, the son of Philip de 
Kyme, gave in pure alms to the nuns of Haverholme pasturage 
for their flocks in Anwick fen. "Ibid." Richard, the son of 
Robert, the priest of Anwick, gave one acre of arable land in 
Anwick to Haverholme Priory. " Holies." Alan de Cranwell 
gave it one toft and one bovate in Anwick which had been given 
to him by William de Anwick, and Ralph, the son of Robert gave 
it 6 selions of his own fee in this parish. " Ibid." The follow- 
ing also gave lands in Anwick to the adjacent Priory of Haver- 
holme, viz : William, son of Falco de Anwick, who presented it 
with 22 acres of arable land of his fee in Coleland, on the east of 
its Bercary, for the benefit of the souls of his parents, his brother 
Ralph, his wife Emma, and his own. " Lansdown M.S. 
207." Geoffrey, the son of Agnes de Anwick, who gave it all his 
fen land in Anwick. Walter, parson of Anwick, who gave a toft 
and 2 oxgangs that had been held by his mother Lina, and given 
him by his brother Ralph. " Holies." The firm of one tenement 
and 4 acres of land and pasture in the plains of Anwick were 
given by Robert Falkner, for the annual observance of his obit 
in the church of Anwick for ever; out of which 12 pence was to 
be paid to Robert Carr and William Thompson, and 4 pence in 
alms to the poor at Michaelmas worth 7 shillings a year at the 
dissolution. So also 22 pence a year arising from the firm of 
2 acres of meadow were given for the same purpose by an un- 
known person. 

The following is a characteristic Will of the first half of the 
16th century, connected with Anwick : 

"By "Will, dated 21 Jan. 1534, I John Thompson of ye parishe 
of Anwick leave my body to be buried in the churchyards 
of the Holly Aposteyl in the pishe of Anwick. I will to 



190 AN WICK. 

Wm. my son a cowe, and he to be in the governaunce of 
John Chamlayn. To Richd. my son a cowe, and he to be in 
the governance of John Freeman. To John my son a cowe, 
and he to be in ye gov nce - of John Potte. To Emma my 
daughter a cowe with calfe, and she to be under the 
g 0v nce. of John Skayth and Isabell my wyfe. To Isabell 
my daughter 10 shepe, to Jenet my daughter a brandyd 
eo we of 4 yer age. Exors John Potte and Robt. my son." 
Proved 21 Ap. 1535. 

The vicarage was formerly impropriate of Haverholmo 
Priory. In 1616, this was valued at 20 a year, and there were 
140 communicants. " Willis's M.S. f. 39." It is now in the 
patronage of the Marquis of Bristol. The following is a list 
of the later vicars : 
Date of Institution. 
A.D. 1535. Eichard Symson. 
1590. John Lillington. 
1593. Robert Wilson. 
1610. Geoffrey Wood. 
1648. John Simpson. 
1650. John Walker. 
1668. -Gilbert Nelson. 
1684. Eichard Disney. 

1691 . William Everingham (also Rector of Brauncewell. ) 
1717. Henry Croske. 
1730. Robert Gardener. 
1760. William Tongue. 
1769. John Andrews. 
1799. George Matthew. 
1812. Robert Denny Rix Spooner. 
1826. Samuel Hazelwood. 
1852. Charles Cotteriil. 
1854. Henry Ashington. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated to St. Edith, and consists of a tower and 
spire, a nave, north and south aisles, a porch, and a fragmentary 
part of a chancel. Externally it is wholly of a good Decorated 
character, except an Early English doorway inserted in the north 
wall of the nave. The tower and spire are the most conspicuous 
features of the fabric. Their mouldings, in common with those 



ANWICK. 



191 



of the whole church, are bold and good ; and their hood mould 
terminals, finials, and other ornaments, spring forth most 
effectively, but are perhaps slightly too large. The sills of the 
belfry lights are cleverly carried right through the thickness of the 
tower walls at a very acute angle, so as to exhibit their full depth. 
A newel staircase is contrived in its south western angle, and 
curiously enough large putlog holes have long remained un- 
stopped in its faces. It was built before the aisles, as may be 
seen by the manner in which their west walls are built on to the 
eastern buttresses of the tower. The spire scarcely tapers enough, 
and is rather oppressed by its three tiers of lights, and ornaments, 
but is a handsome feature. The pitch of the first roof of the nave 
is clearly marked out by its weathering remaining upon the east 
face of the tower, and a still higher one appears to have been 
afterwards added, reaching more than half way up the eastern 
belfry light. Unfortunately the present wretched roof is nearly 
flat. The aisles are low, and only a little later than the tower. 
Their windows are all alike, and of two lights with segmental 
arched heads, except those at the east ends of the aisles, which 
have three lights. It will be at once seen that the east end of 
the chancel, and its original roof are gone ; a wretched modern 
wall and window now robbing it of its proper length, and an 
equally wretched low roof curtailing its due height. It once had 
two lights in its north wall, but one of these is stopped up. On 
the south side is one light that has lost its head, and a door. 
The porch, on the south side of the nave, has a well moulded 
arch without, and a richer doorway within. In the external face 
of the north aisle is the charming little Early English doorway 
before spoken of. On each side is a small pillar having a keel- 
shaped shaft and a small nail-head band passing round its cap ; 
its arch is enriched with two rows of a boldly cut tooth ornament. 
Within, the north aisle arcade is of the same beautiful 
character as the above-named doorway, which no doubt at first 
served in a contemporary aisle, before the present Decorated one 
was built. It consists of four bays, supported by clustered 
filleted pillars, with a little band of the nail-head ornament on 
their caps, and the water mould adorning their bases ; the whole 
springing from plain square plinths. The responds have keel- 
shaped shafts and a bold band of the tooth mould on either side 
of them. The hood mould of the whole arcade is enriched with 
a similar band of the nail-head ornament. 



192 ANWICK. 

The south, aisle arcade also of four bays, together with all 
the rest of this church, is Decorated. Its pillars spring from 
diagonal plinths, and have clustered shafts supporting plainly 
moulded arches. The tower and chancel arches are similar to 
these. A piscina in the south wall of the chancel near the east 
end indicates that there was once a chapel there. 

The staircase, formerly leading to the rood loft at the south 
eastern angle of the nave, still remains perfect. On opening its 
long closed doorway in 1859, when this church was iu part 
restored, a small mutilated sedent figure of the Yirgin and child 
was found within. This is of Ancaster stone, painted. There 
also three little octagonal shafted pillars were found, which had 
perhaps served as supports to an altar slab. One is Norman and 
has a scalloped cushion cap, the others are Early English, but 
dissimilar in detail. The font is a plain octagonal Decorated 
one, and retains the staples on the edge of its bowl formerly used 
to fasten down the cover. Here also is an iron hour-glass stand, 
formerly of service, we may hope, both to the preachers and con- 
gregations. On the three bells of this church are the following 
inscriptions : 

1. God save this church. 1654. 

"W. Thompson. T. Squire. Wardens. 
2. Grata sit arguta resonans campanula voce. 
3. _\\rm Gladwin. Warden. 1656. 

In the chancel floor is a large sepulchral Blab bearing the 
following border legend : " Hie Jacet corpus Thomae Whichcote 
de Haverholme fili Hamond Whichcote de Dunston armigeris 
vitam expiravit die Julii Ano. Dni. 1615," and a boar's head, 
or the Whichcote crest, upon a shield in the centre. 

Close to the porch in the churchyard is the clustered base of 
a shaft, once no doubt surmounted by a cross. 



ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 



ACREAGE, 
1298. 



POPULATION, 
176. 



THE name of this village, lying 6 miles north of Lincoln, has 
been variously spelt Aschebi, Asheby, Askeby, Eshebie and 
Esseby. The principal Saxon landowners here were Aschil, from 
whom Ashby perhaps derived its name, and Outi. After the 
Conquest Colsuein became the possessor of their lands. These 
consisted of 3 J carucates subsequently reckoned as 4 carucates, of 
which Colsuein retained J in demesne. He had 12 villans, 2 
sokemen, having 1 oxgang of this land, 1 bordar with 2 carucates, 
and 15 acres of meadow, worth in King Edward's time 40s., but 
subsequently 70s. From the time of Stephen to that of Henry 
VIII. two distinct manors continued to exist in Ashby. One, 
constituting Colsuein' s lands, and consisting of 2 knight's fees, 
first held of the King by the Earl of Salisbury, was let by him to 
Jordan de Essheby. Subsequently the de la Hayes held this 
manor as the representatives of that Earl, and it continued to 
be held of them by the Esshebys. The other was at first 
possessed by Simon Tuchet, who gave his manor and half his 
lands in Ashby to the knights of Temple Bruer, and the remainder 
to the Prior and fraternity of Haverholme. " Testa de Nevill p. 
313, and Peck's MSS." William de Essheby, temp. Henry I., 
for the better security of his lands and person joined the fraternity 
of the Templars, and presented them with certain lands on the 
heath near their residence, and four oxgangs of land in Ashby on 
certain conditions, according to the tenor of the annexed transla- 
tion of his gift-deed as recorded in " Peck's MSS. 4934," now in 
the British Museum. 

William de Eshebie greets all the Barons and Vavassors of 
Lincolnshire (Lyndecolnshyre), as well as his friends and 
the Sheriffs, both French and English. 

Know all of you, as well present as future, that I, William, did 
when the knights of the Temple received me into their 



]9 4 ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 

Brotherhood, and took me under their care and protection, 
grant by the full assent of my brothers Inhillus, Gerhard, 
and Jordan, and did give to God, the blessed Mary, and to 
the said knights of the Temple, whatever had been left me 
of the waste land and breure, besides that which I had con- 
firmed to them by my former charters. And I will and 
grant that they may have and hold in perpetual alms all 
that portion of the waste land and breure, which had 
formerly belonged to me, situated between the way which 
leads from Sleaford to Lincoln, and that other road which 
leads from Lincoln to Stamford. I have also given and 
confirmed to them 4 oxgangs in Ashebie, on condition that 
Henry my son hold three oxgangs of these s,aid knights'of 
the Temple for an annual rent of 2s. This donation 1 have 
made into the hands of brother Robert Leigner, there being 
present witnessing the same my brothers Inhillus, Gerhard 
and Jordan, also Robert, Westburne, Richard the deacon, 
and Galfrid the priest of Gilbert de Cressy, and others. 

William de Essheby was succeeded by his son Henry, his 
grandson Colsuein, and his great-grandson Robert, whose son a 
second William, in the reign of Richard I., gave the church of 
Ashby to the Templars of Temple Bruer, as will be seen more 
fully subsequently. This son, Jordan de Essheby, was Constable 
of Lincoln Castle, temp Henry III., when disputes began to arise 
about the respective rights of the Templars and the lords of 
Ashby to the amount of common pasture on the heath, but were 
temporarily settled. He died circa 1247, and was succeeded by 
his son Jordan. Then the old disputes about the heath pasturage 
commenced again, together with a fresh one respecting the right 
to Ashby church. He married Alice, daughter and coheir of 
Sabina de Mustell, and had two sons William and John, but as 
they both died before him, his sister Cecilia became his heir, 
married to William de la Launde, of Laceby, living circa 1 345, 
who thus transferred to him her family estates, and gave to the 
parish of Ashby that useful distinguishing name which it still 
bears. He, in his wife's right, held the manor of Ashby of the 
Lady Wake, Countess of Kent, wife of Edmund of Woodstock, 
and of the fee of de la Haye. He paid also an annual rent of 
10s., as Warden of Lincoln Castle, and was obliged to give suit 
of court at Bardolf Hall in the bail of Lincoln every six weeks. 
In his time the Templars were suppressed. He was succeeded by 



ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 



195 




his son William, who on attaining his majority did homage and 
fealty to the Lady Wake's steward for his lands in Ashby. He 
was one of the Commissioners of array for the parts 'of Kesteven 
for the defence of the kingdom in the King's absence, 1359. He 
married Isabel, daughter and heir of William de Londerthorpe, 
both of whom were buried at Ashby. Their eldest son, Edmund, 
diedjwithout issue 1387, when Thomas became their heir. His 
son Simon, lord of Ashby and Londerthorpe, and his wife Isabella 
were buried beneath tombs formerly existing in Ashby church. 
They had two sons, Henry, the eldest, a priest, who assigned the 
manor of Ashby to his younger brother Robert. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Eobert Blyth, of Leadenham, by whom he 
had Thomas, born 1466. He was attached to the household of 
the Earl of Oxford, and was famous for his litigious propensities. 
His first dispute with .the Master of the Hospitalers of Temple 
Bruer was respecting the right of the church of Ashby, which 
will be described subsequently. His next was as to an advantage 
he had been deprived of during his minority by Sir John 
Boswell, the then Master, and for which he presented him after 
he came of age in 1492. It appears that one John An wick, of 
Anwick Place, in Ashby, married a daughter of John Grubton, of 
Lincoln, and by her had a son called John the younger, an idiot. 
The mother died, when the father married secondly Janette 
Cappe, of Harmston, and died soon after. Janette then took 
possession of Anwyke Place belonging to the family of that name, 
and their deeds, &c., and married John Glayston, when the idiot 
Anwick heir was taken from her and placed under the warden- 
ship of Eobert de la Launde, his lord superior, as a minor 8 years 
of age. This Eobert then let Anwick Place to a relation 
William de la Launde, Henry Wymbish, and others, for his 
own benefit, and instead of taking proper care of the little 
wretched idiot owner, made him over to Sir John Boswell of the 
Temple, as a fool for the amusement of the community at Temple 
Bruer. Happily for himself this poor child soon died, and then 
Boswell's conduct assumed even a darker hue than that of Eobert 
de la Launde, for he persuaded Janette Glayston to give him the 
deeds connected with Anwick Place, and pretended to purchase 
that property ; but although this was proved to be untrue at a 
court held at Colly Weston, before the Lady Margaret the 
King's grandmother, he was still able to retain it through the 



196 ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 

poverty of de la Launde, and to enfeoff William Smith, vicar of 
Ashby, and William Audelyn, of Welbourn, with it, for the 
benefit of his bastard son William Bosswell by Janette (perhaps 
the relict of John Anwick, and John Grlayston), before he took 
his departure for Ehodes, where he died. Sir Thomas de la 
Launde on his accession to his father's property ought by feudal 
law to have inherited Anwick Place as escheator ; but he was 
absent for some time with the Earl of Oxford, so that he could 
not attend to this matter, and when he did do so he found that 
Audelyn had died, and that Smith, after cutting down all the 
timber on the estate, had allowed it and the house to go to ruin. 
He then demanded possession of the property, but was refused as 
he had no title deeds or other proofs to exhibit. Next he sued 
Smith for trespass, who then produced the documents given by 
Janette Boswell, and with these a forged Will pretended to have 
been made by John Anwick, in which authority was given to 
Janette to sell his property if driven to any great necessity ; but 
when ordered by Sir John Ormston, Chamberlain to the Lady 
Margaret sitting in council to exhibit any Will proved under the 
Bishop's seal, he was unable to do so, and de la Launde' s right 
was admitted. Finally he sued Smith at common law, got 
damages in his favour, and so reduced that recreant that he 
humbly urged his late opponent not to allow the Sheriff to return 
him an outlaw, which entreaty was granted, and he removed his 
goods from Anwick Place, gave it up to Sir Thomas de la Launde, 
and paid damages to the amount of 60. " Add. MSS, 4936. 
B.M." In the following reign Thomas de la Launde proceeded 
against another Master of Temple Bruer, John Babyington, for 
wrongs he accused him of having committed, and as the complaint 
and the answer to it are very curious and characteristic of the 
period when the case was heard, the whole will perhaps be read 
with interest. The former is as follows : 

The complaynte of Thomas de la Launde of Assheby against 
Frere John Babyngton of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
Fermer of ye Comaundery of Temple (Bruer) for certeyn greet 
injuries done to hym by the sd Babyngton put yn afore my Lord 
Cardynall 12. H. viij. 1520-1. 

1. Piteously complayneth and shaweth unto yor grace yor 
daily orator and bedeman Thomas de la Launde of Assheby, next 
Bloxham, in the countie of Lincoln, gent, that, 



ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 197 

2. Whereas yr said orator being seized in his demesnes as 
of fe of a parcel and a pece of ground and pasture callyd Assheby 
Hethe, in ye parish of Assheby, in the countie of Lincoln afore- 
said. 

3. Which pasture and heith yor orator and all other his 
tenants and all they whos estate he hath in the sd manor and 
their tenants at all tyme, without tyme of mind of men hath 
occupied and taken the profites of the seyd heyth with ther shepe 
and other catell, necessary for the compastryng, gayngny, and 
tyllyng of the seyd lande and lyfyng within ye seyd manor with- 
out impediment or let of any person. 

4. Unto now of late that one Frere Babyngton of the order 
of religion of St. John of Jerusalem, and fermer of the Comaun- 
dery of Temple Breur in the countee aforesaid, caused his chaplyn 
and 1 6 of his servants (whose names yr sd orator knoweth not) 
in the Rogation days in the XI of the king that now is, to go in 
a riotous manner, (that is to say with billys, bowys, arrows, 
swords, and bucklers and order wepyns) under color of a pro- 
cession about the said Hethe of Assheby. 

5. And also avised and commaunded them to marke and 
cleyme the sd hethe to be parcell of the sd commandry of 
Tempull, and to put out the catell of yor sd orator and other hys 
tenaunts without any ryghte or title, '(the whiche commaundment 
they did observe and kepe), but only intending by his myght of 
power to vex and treble yr sd orator and his tenaunts for occupy- 
ing and taking the pfittes of the sd Hethe, and to cause them to 
avoyde from their fermes of Assheby aforesaid. 

6. And farther the sd Sir John Babyngton threwith not 
being content immedyately after avised his sheperd to kepe 
VCCC shepe and LX kyne and other cattell on ye sd hethe fro 
the feste of the nativity of St. John Baptiste in the foresd XI 
yere of ye Kyng that now is, unto the feste of Allhallows next 
ensuying, by meane whereof not only the pasture of ye sd hethe 
was wasted and destroyed, but also the corn of ye sd orator 
growing in ye fields of Assheby to the value of X I. was destroyed 
and eten with the sd shepe and catell. 

7. And also the sd Frere John Babyngton in the wynter 
season in ye sd XI yeer caused his servts to bayt with dogs ye 
shepe and catell of yr sd orator and other his tenaunts when 
they wer dryven by tempest of wether in ye nyght tyme unto the 
fields of Temple Breuer. 

P 



198 ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 

8. And after they had so bay ted them caused his said 
tenaunts to impound ye sd shepe at ye Temple aforesaid in a 
place full of dung and myre to ye belyes of ye said shepe. 

9. And wold not suffer delyvre of them to be made unto 
such tyme as yr sd orator had made a fyne with ye said Sir 
John Babyngton and his servaunts as they pleased. 

10. By furze (force) of the which unlawfull pinning and 
bayling of the sd shepe and destroying of the sd pasture, whence 
they shold have had relief, the shepe and catell of yr sd orator 
to the number of iiij wer destroyed and lost to the hurt and 
damage of ye sd orator of LX L 

1 1 . And also whereas yr sd orator and his ancestors and 
all they whose estate he hath in the sd manor of Assheby have 
usyd the tyme without mynde of man to have lete wayf and stray 
within the said manor of Assheby unto now of late that the sd 
Syr John Babyngton by his myght and power wrongfully hath 
taken dyvers strayes wythyn ye sd manor, and causyd them to 
be dryven to a ferme of his called Hanford (which is about vij 
myle by the sade Temple) whereof ye oon half is in Nottingham 
shyre, to the intente that yr sd orator should have no knowledge 
where they wer becom. 

12. And also caused the steward of Courte of the sd 
Comaunderie of Temple for to usurpe and kepe a Leyte Courte 
within the sd manor to the use and pfitt of the seyd Syr John 
Babyngton, whereupon ye sd Babyngton hath usurped wrong- 
fully of ye ryght and rialte that belongeth to our Sovn. Lord the 
Kyng in the said Lordshippe and manor of Assheby as chief 
Lord ther, the which maner all the auncesters and fore elders of 
the sd Thomas de la Launde holdith in chief of our sd soverign 
Lord the Kyng by reason of his Duchie, and Fee de Hay, and 
was always chief lords ther under the Kyng's grace, and hath 
pecebly had, enjoyed, and kept ther letes and iij weekes courts 
yerely fro tyme to tyme, and hath had all the penalties as felle 
wyth wayfs and strayes and other penalties ther paying yerely 

Xs of Duche rente with comon sute to the holdyn 

at the Castle of Lincoln for the Duche to the utter undoyng of yr 
sd orator without yr gracious Sovryn to hym be shewed in this 
behalf, forasmuch as yr sd orator is not of power to maynteyn 
sute accordyng to course of comon Lawe nor none action lyeth 
ayt the sd Frere John Babyngton, for as much as he is a 
religious person, and under obedience to his prior. 



r 



ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 199 

13. Wherfor tlie premises tenderly considered it may plase 
yor grace to graunte a special comission to be directed to certyn 
persomies comaunding them by the same to call afore them the 
sd Syr John to answer to the premised and all other varyances 
between the sd partgyes to here and to determyne the thyngs 
concernyng the same, or els to certyfy before the kyng's most 
hon councell at a certain day what they have dune conceryng 
the same. 

In answer to this petition a commission of enquiry was ap- 
pointed by the King, consisting of Sir John Hussey, Knt., 
Robert Hussey, his brother, John Wymbish, of Nocton, William 
Disney, of Norton, and Richard Clerk, of Lincoln, recorder, who 
met at Sleaford, and received the following defence from Sir 
John Babyngton : 

1. The sayd Syr John saith the sd Bille is untrue, and the 
more part of the matter of the same fayned by the said Thomas 
for the vexation of the said Syr John, without gode grounde or 
cause, but for answer or declaration of the truth in the premises 
ye sd Syr John say the, 

2. As to any ryot, rout, or unlawful assemblie or other 
mysdemeanor in the sd bylle agt the Kyng's pease supposed to 
be done, he is nothyng gylty : and as to the residue of the sd 
matter conteyned in the sd byll, the said Syr John as fermor of 
the Comaundre sayth, 

3. That the sd Hethe, which the sd Thomas surmyseth 
and claymeth to be Assheby Hethe, is, and out of tyme of minde 
hath bene, parcell of Temple Hethe. 

4. And at such tyme as the sd Syr John entred as fermor 
of the sd Temple the same parcell of heth amongst others was 
shewn to be parcell of Temple Hethe by certain old boundes and 
markes not known in the said countrie, by reason whereof the 
sd Syr John at dyvers tymes hath had both shepe and oder 
bests kept upon the seyd heith in lyke manner and forme, as 
master Newport late comaunder of the same and other prede- 
cessors have kept on the same. 

5. And as to dryfte, the same hethe yt lay most convenient 
for the kepyng of the catell of the sd Syr John, but not so many 
kye (kine) or oder bests as he supposith in the seyd bill have 
bene kept there. 

6. And sayth that such as wer tho tenaunts to Sr. John's 
in Assheby by lycence of the sd Syr John have dyvers weite 



200 ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 

(wet) years been suffred to come wyth ther sliepe upon the same 
hethe and oder places adjoining amongst whom the sd Thomas 
as a tenaunt to St. John's hath beene lykewyse' sufferid. 

7. And sayth that the sd XI yere the begynnyng thereof 
was verrey day. 

8. And the sd Syr John being at London his preste and 
V oder men persons, and 3 women persons went in procession 
in peaseable and devout manner about all the Temple Hethe to 
pray for seasonable wedder. 

9. And as he understode at his comyng fro London they 
went upon ye sd. heyth claymd by ye sd de la Laundes, and by 
the old marks and bounds of the same. 

10. And if any of the sd marks were removed, it was the 
same compas that the olde marks was, as may appere. 

11. And further that the seyd Thomas takyth upon hym as 
chief Lord in Assheby, when ye sd Syr John supposith he is 
but a tenaunt, and that the lordship belongyth to the said 
Comaundrie. 

12. . But by craking and pratyng among the pore tenauntes 
ther the sd XI yere he toke upon hym as lorde to brake the 
pasture and eddyshe of the sd towne of Ashby, a day or two, or 
more before other tenaunts ther, by reason wherof the sd Syr 
John supposyth the shepe of the sd delalande dyed. 

13. And also the latter end of the sd yere was so dry or 
droughty that it was in manner universal dethe of shepe in all 
places for ye same yer. 

14. The same Syr John lost above VC of his shepe at 
Temple, which cum not into the low grounds as the sd dela- 
launde's did, wher few or none escapid. 

15. And sayth that the sd Thomas and oder have dyvers 
tymes trespassed in the corne and grasse of the sd Syr John at 
Temple and oder besyde on ye sd heythe, which he claymeth, 
for the which sometimes his servaunts, if they wer nyghe ye 
utter borders, did peaceably dryve them oute, and if they war far 
wythin ye uttergates of ye Temple as a distress for trespasse, and 
sometyme kept them in his gresse withaul til some person cum 
to borow them, and to know that they had trespassed : at all 
which tymes ye sd Syr John never toke anything for amends of 
ye sd delalaunde, or any other, but in curtos maner prayed them 
to forbeare of eftsoons trespassyng : and, if anything wer gyften 
by any persone it was but some small rewarde as Id. or ij d. or 






ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 201 

iij if they wer a hole flock of shepe, to the person who pynned 

the catell as the herdsman and shepherds pay to the 

The remainder of these instructions is now wanting, which served 
as Thomas de la Launde's brief to Hugh Clarke, of Welbourn. 
The issue is thus described by de la Launde : I gaf him (Hugh 
Clarke) to make my byll of complaynt after I was departed from 
London for dyvers matters of the Lord Willoughby's, and to get 
me a comyssion, and to be dyrect to dyverse men of worship in 
the cuntre, and I gaf hym vj s. viij d. to pay for the commysion 
and other money to pay for other charges, and also left him part 
of my evidences in his kepyng for to take more councill, who 
promised to bryng all to Lincoln at the assize time in Lent in 
the viij of or Lord Henry viij. And he brought down the com- 
yssion, but left out Sir Christ "Wyllughby tho ordered to put 
hym in by my bill of instructions, because he knew well he was 
my gode master, and wolde take for my ryght, wherfor he left 
hym out, and put yn Sir John Husey, his brother Robert, "Wm. 
Dysney, of Norton, Richd. Clarke, of Lincoln, and John "Wym- 
bush, of Norton, which dyd me no good, but was brought agt 
me, and so was the said Clarke yt I put my special trust to, who 
falsly deceyved and bewrayed all my matter to Babyngton, and 
made him privy to all my evidences and wrytyngs that I left 
wyth hym to my great hyndrance, and losse of CC markes. 

Through the subsequent poverty of Thomas de la Launde, 
occasioned partly by his father's extravagance, partly by his own 
losses in law suits, his lands at Ashby passed into other hands, 
while about the same time his opponents at the Temple were 
dispossessed of theirs through the dissolution of all Hospitaler 
establishments. 

In 1543 the King granted these to John Bellow and Robert 
Brockleby, and circa 1550-60 John Bussey was in possession of 
a manor here probably that of the Temple. About the same 
time Robert Huddleston held of the Crown a toft and grange 
here called Sheepgate, situated partly in Ashby, partly in Ling- 
holm.* He died 1559, and was succeeded by his son Geoffrey, 



* Probably the same as Lingo Grange, which no doubt derived its name 
from the ling formerly growing upon its soil. It consisted of an inclosure of 
5 acres on the east of the Lincoln road. Upon it once stood a Grange, but 
now there are no traces of this, or of the inclosure around it. 



202 ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 

who died the following year, and another son Robert, who died 
1564. About this time the de la Launde manor and its appur- 
tenances in Ashby, and the greater part of the Temple lands 
were bought by Thomas York, of a merchant family, probably 
deriving its name from the City of York. These last are des- 
cribed as consisting of the manor, 10 messuages, 1 cottage, 40 
acres of plough, 100 of pasture, 60 of warren and heath, a rent of 
3 in Ashby, held of the Preceptory of Temple Bruer, and of 
the King in chief. "Had. MSS. 757." Thomas York died 
September 7th, 1574, and was succeeded by his son Greorge, who 
is stated to have held the de la Launde manor of the Honour of 
Bolingbroke by a knight's service. "Hot. Cur. Ducat. Lane." 
In 1580, Ashby again changed owners, for then George York 
sold it to Edward King, who in 1595 built a goodly mansion 
there, part of which is still standing and bears that date. 
He was son of John King, of Long Milford, Suffolk, and held 
the manors and advowson of Martin and Salmonby, half the 
manor of Humberstone in right of his wife, besides the manor 
and advowson of Ashby ; also lands in Leasingham, Walcot, 
Digby, Timberland and Eowston. He was succeeded by his son 
Richard King, who, by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Anthony 
Colly, left a numerous family. His eldest son Anthony died 
before him, whence his second son Edward succeeded to his 
estates. He afterwards gained considerable, notoriety as a 
Parliamentary Commander, and appears to have been an inde- 
pendent turbulent man living in turbulent times. He fought 
against the King, but would never pay taxes to the Common- 
wealth Government, and was desirous of defending his Sovereign's 
person. He was a Parliamentary Officer, but was accused of 
High-treason and other misdemeanors by Colonel John Lilburne 
when a prisoner in the Tower through his agency, viz : that he 
misspent the large sums of money he exacted from the county of 
Lincoln, that when before Newark he ordered Captain Cony 
most improperly to leave his command at Crowland, then en- 
dangered by the enemy, and dismissed 100 musqueteers therefrom, 
providently thrown in by Ireton as a stop-gap, which led to the 
taking of Crowland, that he protected the enemies of the Parlia- 
ment and discountenanced and imprisoned its friends, that when 
the enemy attacked Grantham, and Major Savile then Major 
of the town, commanded Colonel King to march in defence of 



ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 203 

that place, lie answered that lie scorned to be commanded by 
him and would sooner let the enemy into the town, owing to 
which act of insubordination the enemy entered and took the 
town, that he opposed himself to Lieutenant General Cromwell, 
that he quarrelled and fought with the committee who were men 
of the best estates, quality and integrity, that he was a persecutor 
of godly men at whom he scoffed, that he was of a turbulent and 
factious spirit, that he kept about 20 men around him as a life 
guard, to whom he gave extraordinary pay though they were 
exempted from all duty except waiting upon him and aiding 
him to alarm the country, and that he falsely styled himself 
Lieutenant General of the county of Lincoln. Poor Lilburne's 
piteous complaint seems to have been disregarded ; but as King- 
continued to be the same turbulent man, he soon after found 
himself in a very difficult position, for he was arrested by order of 
Parliament, October 21st, 1648, "on a charge against him of 
dangerous consequence to the Army under Lord Fairfax." 
Perhaps this catastrophe calmed his spirit and cooled his Repub- 
lican sympathies, for we hear no more of him until 1660, when 
he was elected as a representative of Grimsby in the Convention 
Parliament, and subsequently of the Long Parliament. He 
was the first to move for the restoration of Charles II. , and took 
part in the wholesome act of disbanding the army. But his 
troubles were not as yet ended, for his loyalty being suspected by 
Sir Anthony Oldfield and Sir Robert Carre, Deputy Lieutenants 
of Lincolnshire, they called upon him to sign a bond of 2000, 
and, on his refusal, would not admit him to bail, but sent him a 
prisoner to Lincoln Castle, September 16th, 1665. He then 
appealed to the Lord Lieutenant, demanding the right of habeas 
corpus ; but there he was kept for 12 weeks during a time of 
pestilence, when through a petition to the King, in which he 
stated that he had ever been loyal, had promoted the Restoration, 
had taken the oath, and had helped to disband the army; he 
obtained his release, but through Sir Robert Carre's accusations 
was incarcerated in the Tower, early in the following year. 
Then he again petitioned the King for the benefit of the Act of 
oblivion, for reparation of the wrong done him, and for his 
maintenance while in prison. "Domestic State Papers V. 135." 
He at last obtained his release, and died at Ashby, 1680. His 
lineal descendant, the Rev. John William King, is now in 
possession of the manor and rectory of Ashby. 



204 ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

In the reign of Henry I. William de Essheby gave the 
church of Ashby to the Prior and Brotherhood of Haverholme 
Priory ; but before long it was recovered by his family, for in 
the reign of Richard I. his descendant of the fourth generation, 
another William de Essheby, made a fresh presentation of it to 
the Brotherhood of Temple Bruer on condition that they provided 
a chaplain to perform mass twice a week in the chapel of St. 
Margaret, at his hall at Ashby for ever, which grant was con- 
firmed by his brothers Inhellus, Gerhard, and Jordan. 

The gift of the church of Ashby to the Templars was con- 
firmed by Simon Tuchet, who succeeded as lord of Ashby after 
the death of William de Asheby's son Henry, in the reign of 
Stephen ; but at length its ownership was disputed by Robert de 
la Launde, a descendant of the Ashby's, in the reign of Henry 
VI. through a curious arrangement made by the second Jordan de 
Ashby with his son William. It appears that Jordan was in 
monetary difficulties, and that his son, who had acquired con- 
siderable means, fearing lest his father should alienate all his 
estates and rights agreed to advance him 15 marks on condition 
that he secured the succession of his lands to himself, also that 
this clause should be inserted in the deed drawn up to effect the 
negotiation: " Confirmavi Willo filio meo et heredi meo, et 
heredibus suis totum jus quod habui in ecclia de Asheby sine 
aliquo relevemento." But this speaks of a past right, and was 
really worth nothing, for the church had clearly been given to 
the Templars by his ancestor William. Then William de Ashby 
died before his father Jordan, who thus regained that which he 
had granted to his son for a consideration, after which he signed 
a fresh grant or confirmation of the church at Ashby to the 
Templars. Yet Kobert de la Launde on the strength of this 
temporary arrangement between Jordan and William de Ashby, 
in the reign of Henry VI., as the then representative of the 
Ashby's, tried to recover it from Robert Skayfe, or Skayth, the 
then Master of the Commandery of Temple Bruer, to whom the 
Templar possessions there had been granted by the King ; but 
he justly failed, although Thomas de la Launde, son of Robert 
the claimant was naturally not satisfied, and has left this memor- 
andum behind him of his view of the matter. "I suppose 



ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 205 

rekoverie thereof myghte be hadde by ye means of ye lawe ; and 
Robert Delalaunde my father sued Master Skayfe late Knight 
of ye Temple in his dayes, and had hym at for processe, and 
should have had recoverie thereof of hym, if he had lyved. But 
then he decessed, and so the sute was lost. Horbeit the said 
Master Skayfe preferred Robert my fader a grete rewarde till 
have been agreed with him, and he died : and this I heard ye said 
Robert Delalaunde my fader say, of my conscience in his life, 
and oon John Saynton of Lincoln was attorney for my said fader 
in ye said matter." 

The de la Laundes no doubt were for the most part buried 
in Ashby church, and of these William, the first who possessed 
the manor in right of his wife the Essheby heiress, desired that 
his body might repose there, according to his will, which runs 
thus : 

" On Thursday in the vigil of the Epiphany 1345 I. William de 
la Launde make my will. I desire that my body be buried 
in the church of the Holy Trinity at Essheby, to which I 
give my best animal for a mortuary. The residue of my 
goods I bequeath to Master John de Rouceby parson of the 
Church of Holdhm (Holdingham) to William my son and 
to Thomas his brother to dispose of them as they think 
best. Witness. William vicar of Essheby." "Bishop 
Beck's Reg. 102." 

In 1616 the living was valued at 16 a year, when Edward 
King, the first of that family after its establishment here was 
patron, and there were 1 02 communicants. ' ' Willis's MSS. f. 30." 
The list of the vicars of Ashby is lamentably deficient. We 
only just gather the name of one from the above document in the 
14th century. In 1492 Thomas Smith resigned the living, when 
it was given to Thomas Dalby. " Lansdown MSS. 968." For a 
time it is almost impossible to discriminate between the vicars of 
this Ashby and the several others in the Diocese of Lincoln, but 
after they were termed vicars of Ashby de la Launde in the 
books of Institutions at Lincoln, the following occur : 
A.D. 1671. Kobert Whitehead. 
1681. John Lascells. 
1731. William Jessop. 
1742. Joseph Mason. 
1745. Francis Willis (died 1782). 
1791. George King. 
1822. John William King. 



206 ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 

THE CHUKCH. 

This is dedicated to St. Hybald. The earliest portions of 
the fabric are the tower and beautiful doorway in the north wall 
of the nave. These are contemporaneous Early English features. 
The former is a plain structure springing from a severe but well 
moulded base, and finished with a string thickly beset with the 
tooth ornament before it is surmounted by the belfry stage. In 
each face of this are coupled lancets, and between the northern 
pair is a grotesque figure, besides some heads inserted about 
them. Above, is a coeval string ornamented with half circlets 
projecting from its chamfered face, whence rises a Decorated 
embattled parapet having boldly projecting monsters springing 
from the angles and gurgoyles between them. Erom the midst 
of this rises a spire relieved only by minute lights, and terminat- 
ing in an acute point, perhaps rebuilt in 1605, when Edward 
King restored this church. In the lower part of its western face 
a small Decorated window was subsequently inserted circa 1320. 
Within, it opens into the nave by means of a low but effective 
plainly chamfered arch partly springing from circular corbels. 
It contains only two bells. The above-named doorway, now 
sheltered by a plain modern porch, is the most attractive feature 
of this church. Its jambs and arch are beautifully moulded ; 
the former is adorned with keel-shaped shaftlets, the caps of 
which are encircled with a delicate little nail-head band, and 
the latter with two bands of the tooth ornament. 

The nave and chancel, except the north arcade and chancel 
arch, were rebuilt in 1854, after the designs of Mr. Huddleston, 
of Lincoln, at the cost of the present incumbent, the Rev. John 
William King. Previously, this arcade, once opening into a 
north aisle, was buried in the north wall ; but the new wall 
now rises just beyond it, so as to exhibit all its details. It con- 
sists of three arches springing from low clustered and filleted 
shafted pillars and responds of the Decorated period. The 
chancel arch is a low and poor Perpendicular feature, having a 
four-leaved flower carved on each face of its pier pillar caps. On 
the south of the chancel is a modern vestry, and on the north a 
heating chamber. 

The font is a well-designed Decorated example, having a 
band of effective four-leaved flowers encircling its octagonal bowl. 




ASHBY-DE-LA-LAUNDE CHURCH. 



ASHBY DE LA LAUNDE. 207 

When Holies visited this church, in 1640, he found two 
monuments here commemorating Simon and Isabel de la Launde, 
the last of which remained in the northern part of the nave 
pavement until the late restoration, but is now gone. It was a 
slab bearing the effigy of the above-named lady with the de la 
Launde armorial bearings on her robe, and in the usual attitude 
of prayer. But portions of a Jacobean monument commemorat- 
ing Edward King and his wives Mary Clopton and Elizabeth 
Colly still remain in the chancel. Their effigies in a kneeling 
position are now placed on a ledge in the north wall ; opposite 
are those of their three daughters, Mary, Anne and Elizabeth, 
and of a baby in a cradle representing either Amy a fourth 
daughter, or Edward, only son of Edward King, by his second 
wife, who died an infant, all carved in the dress of their time 
with much care. On the eastern face of the north pier of the 
chancel arch is a small brass plate thus inscribed : 

Here lyeth Edwarde Kinge, Esqyier, who died the 
XXIII of July, 1617. He married two wives, the first 
beinge Mary Clopton, one of the daughters of Richard 
Clopton, of Ford Hall, in the County of Suffolke, Esq. 
by whom he had issue two sonnes and foore daughters ; 
the second wife was Elizabeth Colly, late wife of 
Anthony Colly, of Glaston, in the County of Rutland, 
Esq., and one of the daughters and coheires to Henry 

Keeble, son to S Keeble, by whom he had issue 

one 

Below are the remains of four latin lines, begining " Quis situs 
hac sub mole." When Holies visited this church it had then 
been lately restored by Edward King, viz: in 1605, who had 
taken the opportunity of displaying his armorial bearings there- 
in : Sa, on a chevron engrailed arg 3 scallops of the first, for 
King ; impaling, Sa, a bend arg between 2 cotises dancette or, a 
mullet as a difference for Clopton ; and King impaling Arg, 2 
bars nebuly sa, on a canton gu a bend or, for Keeble. Holies 
also noted the following armorial bearings in the east window 
of the chancel, viz : Gu, 3 darts or feathered and bearded arg, 
for Hales. Sa, a bend arg charged with heads of rye, for Bye. 
Arg, a fesse dancette between 10 billets gu, for de la Launde. 
The communion plate consists of a silver flagon and a chalice 
dated 1719. 



BLOXHOLM. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1298. 115. 

THIS village, situated a little more than 5 miles north of 
Sleaford, was originally called Blochesham, and then 
Bloxham, now unwisely changed into Bloxholm because this 
entirely alters the meaning of its original terminal, which simply 
means village or settlement, whereas the present one means 
island, to which Bloxholm has no true claim. After the Conquest 
the unfortunate Saxon possessor of Bloxham, Turver by name, 
was ejected, and his lands were given to Eoger of Poitou. These 
consisted of 9 carucates and 5 oxgangs, of which he held 1 
carucate in demesne ; he had 18 sokemen and 2 villans cultivat- 
ing 5 carucates and 13 acres of meadow. The whole was valued 
at 4 in King Edward's time, subsequently at 3. Part of the 
land here lay within the soke of Alured's manor of Brauncewell. 
This consisted of 2 carucates and 3 oxgangs, connected with 
which were 2 sokemen cultivating half a carucate. Out of this 
Wigolus de Brauncewell, in the reign of Henry H., gave to 
Haverholme Priory a toft in Bloxham with the consent of Alice 
his wife, Mary, Matilda, Margaret, and Beatrix wife of William 
de Sares, his daughters. This gift was formally made in the 
King's Court, at Lincoln, in the presence of his Justices, 
Geoffrey, Bishop of Ely, Geoffrey, Eitzpiers, Jocelyne the Arch- 
deacon, and Eobert de Hordres. It was also confirmed by Hugo 
Baiocis the representative of Alured of Lincoln. He also gave 
the Templars of Temple Bruer another toft. The de Grelles, 
Gresles, or Gresleys next held the manor of Bloxham, of the honour 
of Lancaster, of whom Eobert de Gresley, circa 1150, for the 
redemption of the souls of his father, mother, and all his deceased 
ancestors, as well as for the good of his own soul, his wife 
Matilda's, his sons, and for the love of God, gave in perpetual 
alms to God and the brethren of St. Mary at Haverholme, 3 
acres, near to 10 perches he had before given them, whereon to 



BLOXHOLM. 209 

build certain edifices and also common pasturage throughout the 
vill of Bloxham. This gift was made in the presence of Albert 
his son. In 1185, Isabella, his widow, and as such regarded as 
the lady of the manor during the minority of her son, became 
the ward of the King himself for a year, after which her ward- 
ship was given to Thomas Bassett, when Blchard son of Siward, 
and William de Cornur were her tenants, who paid her 9 3s. 8d., 
besides 100s. and 12d. for corn they had sold. Her son, then 
1 1 years of age, was placed in the King's custody, and the Barony 
of Gresley, put in charge of Nigel, son of Alexander de Gresley 
Sheriff of the county of Lincoln. The widow was then married 
to Wido de Credon, by the King's order. They con firmed the 
grant of Eobert de Gresley her first husband's father. In the 
next century another Thomas de Gresley probably her son, was 
holding half a knight's fee and a quarter of another here of the 
honour of Lancaster. In 1253, William Bardolfe was holding 
this manor, and obtained a right of free warren in Bloxham from 
the crown, but in 1297 Robert Gresley was in possession of it. 
Previous to this both the Templars of Temple Bruer and the 
Priory of Haverholme had received gifts of lands in Bloxham 
from the Gresley 's, or by their consent, for in 1275 the Prior of 
Haverholme was holding 8 oxgangs of land in Bloxham, given 
by Alexander of Bloxham 32 years before, and held of the King 
by him, and also 2 oxgangs given about 80 years before by 
Margaret, daughter of Wygratus, who had held them of John 
Haxhouse, and he of the King. Under the date 1304 reference is 
made to the Templar lands here, when Eobert de Swaynesthorpe 
on the part of the Temple was taxed for a messuage and 12 
bovates of land in Bloxham. In 1325 Eobert de Gresley was 
in possession of the manor, whose heiress' daughter, Johanna, 
by her marriage with John le Warre, carried the manor of Blox- 
ham into that family. He died in 1347. In 1360 died John 
Chaumberlayn, of Drax, Yorkshire, seized of the manor, and in 
1371 Eoger le Warre, Kt, seized of it conjointly with Alianora 
his wife. Then a Bardolfe again possessed it, viz : John, who 
died 1372, but in 1402 another Thomas de la Warre had suc- 
ceeded to it. Sir Thomas West and his descendants next became 
its owners. He died in 1413, his son, Eeginald in 1426, and 
his son another Eeginald, in 1451, all of whom possessed the 
advowson of the church as well as the manor. .In 1529 died 






210 BLOXHOLM. 

Christopher Wymbysh, and in 1559 Richard Woolmer, both 
seized of the manor of Bloxholm. Gregory Woolmer then 
held it of the honour of Bolingbroke by the service of one 
knight's fee and the tenth part of another. " Eot. Cur. Ducat 
Lane." In 1632 the manor passed into the hands of one who is 
termed the Eight "Worshipful Nathaniel Hubberd. Its next 
owner was Septimus, or Septimius Cyprian Thornton,* who also 
acquired by purchase the adjoining manor of Digby, and built 
the present Hall at Bloxham. He planted the trees skirting the 
road between Bloxholm and Digby, and otherwise improved his 
estate ; but subsequently lost all his property through specu- 
lating in the South Sea Scheme, and died at Linwood Grange, 
at that time belonging to his uncle, Mr. Gilbert Bury. The 
Earl of Harrowby then bought the manor of Digby, and Lucy 
daughter and heiress of Lord Sherard by Elizabeth the heiress 
daughter of Sir Robert Christopher, bought that of Bloxholm on 
the death of her husband, John, 2nd Duke of Rutland, in 1771. 
She left it to her eldest surviving son Lord Robert Manners,! 
who bequeathed it to his eldest son, General Robert Manners. 
He died in 1823, and left Bloxholm to his brother George, who 
died in 1828, and bequeathed it first to his spinster sister Lucy, 
and then to Lady Mary Bruce, granddaughter of his eldest sister 
Mary, the wife of William Hamilton Nisbett, Esq., of Dirleton, 
county Haddington, married to R. A. Dundas, Esq., now the Rt. 
Honble. R. A. N. Hamilton, formerly Chancellor of the Duchy of 
Lancaster, the present owners of the estate. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



John de Bloxham, a Carmelite friar at Chester, and Pro- 
vincial of the Order in England, circa 1333, was distinguished 
for his learning and ability. He may possibly have derived his 



* In the parish register are the following entries connected with this 
family: "Aug. 30. 1708. Sep. Cuprianus Thornton. Arm. Feby. 14. Sep. 
Cuprianus. films Annas relictse Gulielmi Thornton Armigeri." "When the 
above-named were apparently buried. 

f Lady Robert Manners survived her husband and both her sons, as she 
died in 1829, aged 92. 




BLOXHOLM HALL. 




CULVERTHCRPE HALL---SEE PAGE 356. 




ONTARIO 



BLOXHOLM. 211 

name from this place or been a native of it ; but there is no proof 
whatever of this, and it is more probable that he was connected 
with Bloxam in Oxfordshire. 

The lords of the manor of Bloxholm appear to have been 
always the patrons of the living. The names of only a few of its 
Hectors have been preserved and the dates of their institutions, 
viz : 

A.D. 1229. Henry Blundus, presented by Robert Gresley. 

1280. Eobert de Easton. 

1535. Milo Garnett. 

1616. William Colsell. 

1667. Thomas Siston. 

1670. Thomas Sicker. 

1676. Timothy Quarle. 

1680. Henry Dixon. 

1689. Simeon Ashe. 

1691 . Richard Disney. 

1732. Gilbert Smith. 

1782. Henry Pickwell. 

1787. Daniel Mackinnon. 

1825. John Mackinnon. 

In 1616 the living, then in the gift of Gregory Woolmer, 
was valued at 20 a year, and there were 50 communicants. 
" Willis's MSS. f, 39." 



THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and was originally an 
entirely Early English structure having two aisles and a bell- 
gable of that style ; but its exterior has been subsequently so 
altered as to conceal most of its earlier remaining portions. 

The greater part of the aisle walls, as evidenced by their 
base- moulds, and lancet windows at their ends, and also by the 
lower portion of the western wall of the present tower, are of this 
early style. Subsequently two segmental arched Perpendicular 
windows were inserted in the side wall of the north aisle, and a 
similar window together with a flat headed coeval light were 
placed in the opposite aisle wall. Above these is a clerestory of 
the Tudor period, having three similar lights on either side. 



212 BLOXHOLM. 

The chancel and porch are poor substitutes for their predecessors. 
These, together with the roofs of the nave and aisles were erected 
by General Manners in 1812. 

The tower also is Perpendicular, except that part of its west 
wall before spoken of, and was erected within the area of the 
older nave, but it received a new battlemented parapet under 
General Manners's auspices, whose armorial bearings are con- 
spicuously carved upon the gable of the porch. 

In the interior each aisle arcade originally consisted of three 
bays, but half of the western one on each side is now incorporated 
in the base of the present tower, the staircase of which is on the 
southern side. The pillars of both arcades are octangular and 
well moulded, but the caps of the southern one are rather richer 
in detail, having a little band of the nail-head ornament intro- 
duced into their composition. The eastern pier of the north aisle 
has a keel-shaped shaft. The chancel arch is a plain Early 
English feature. 

In a vault beneath the chancel are buried the remains of 
Lord John James Manners, ob. 1762, Lord Hobert Manners, ob. 
1782, General Robert Manners ob. 1822, the colours of whose 
Regiment the 30th Foot after having been gallantly borne on 
the field of Waterloo and exposed to the thickest of the fire, now 
hang within this church as a trophy of that signal victory 
accorded by Divine providence to the English Arms on the 
famous 18th of June, 1815. George Manners was also buried 
here in 1828, and Lady Eobert Manners in 1829. 



BKATJNCEWELL. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

2480. 112. 

THE name of this village, situated 5 miles north, of Sleaford, 
was originally spelt Branzeuuelle and Branzewelle. In it 
there were 9 carucates and 2 oxgangs ; of which Aldene had 2 
carucates and 6 oxgangs, and Geoffrey Alselin held another 
carucate in demesne. Here were 13 sokemen and 3 bordars hold- 
ing 4 carucates, besides 2 vassals holding 1 carucate and 13 
oxgangs, 4J acres of meadow and 14 acres of coppice ; and Alured 
of Lincoln had 3 villans and 2 bordars who ploughed with 3 
oxen ; yet the whole was only valued at 20s. in King Edward's 
time and subsequently at 10s. 

In the 1 3th century John de Baiocis, a descendant of Alured, 
held a manor here comprising 1 knight's fee of the old feoffment, 
let to William de Brauncewel. At the same time Alselin' s land 
comprised 1 knight's fee and 13 oxgangs, of which half a knight's 
fee was held by William Bardolf a descendant of his, who had 
let it to William de An wick by knight's service ; the other half, 
partly in Brauncewell, partly in Dunsby, was let to Alexander 
de Cressy, and the 13 oxgangs were held by the Templars 
of Temple Bruer as follows, viz : 1 oxgang and the 3rd part of 
another let to Clemens the Dean for a rent of Is. 8d., which land 
had been given by Wigotus ; 9 oxgangs let to Walter Winter- 
head and Walter de Bovill for 4s., of the gift of Eobert de Calz ; 
2 parts of an oxgang let to Ainfrid for 16d., of the gift of 
Wigotus ; 1 toft let to Roger for 2s., le present, and 4 days work, 
of the gift of Alexander de Cressy, and another toft of the gift of 
Eobert de Ansewic (An wick) let for 12d. and le present, to 
Vulbernus (perhaps Welbourn). 

William, the son of Fulco de Anwick, gave to Haverholme 
Priory a toft and an oxgang in Brauncewell which Walter 
Winterhead held of his brother ; and then we hear of the last 
gifts made to the Templars in 1302, when William Eivel 

Q 



214 BRAUNCEWELL. 

petitioned the King to allow him to give 3 acres and-a-half of 
meadow in Brauncewell to the brethren of the Temple, and Eobert 
de Swaynesthorpe gave 1 messuage 12 oxgangs and Id. of annual 
rent in this vill and Bloxham to them. " Inq. p. m. 31. E. 1." 
The custody of the Templars property here at the suppression of 
their Order was given to William de Spanby. " Ab. Rot. Orig. 
5. E. 2." In 1303 died John de Brauncewell, who held lands 
here under the son of Elias de Rabaj r n then a minor. " Rot. 
Fin. 31. E. 1." In 1353 Norman de Swynford, Lord of Lea, 
gave to John his son, born 1346, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter 
of Edmund Pierpont, Kt., the manors of Brauncewell and 
Dorrington to be held of them and their heirs, but still retained 
a carucate of land here, of which he died seized 1386. In 1397 
died John Lord Beaumont seized of a knight's fee in Brauncewell, 
which was held of him and his wife Katherine by John de Swyn- 
ford, the Priors of Haverholme and the knights of St. John of 
Temple Bruer. "Inq. p. m. 20. R. 2." In 1422 died Hawise 
Lutteril, wife of Godfrid Hilton, first married to Thomas Belesby, 
grandson of William Swynford, seized of a toft here ; and six 
years later Thomas Bleseby, her son and heir, by her first 
husband. In 1473 died Elizabeth, wife of John Stanley, and 
daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Beelsby, Kt., seized of property 
here. Robert Carre, of Sleaford, who died 1590, bought among 
other manors that of Brauncewell. In 1619 John Fisher was 
the tenant of the manor lands, which were then possessed by 
Ann, widow of Sir Edward Carre, when it appears she either 
thought of residing there, or expected Fisher to act as her bailiff, 
which he had objected to, for this odd entry still remains in an 
account book of the then young Sir Robert Carre : " John Fisher 
to pay an additional rent of 5, ifhe refused to wear my Ladie" 
i e. to buy and sell for her. The site of the manor house is 
described as being on the west side of the street. From that 
time all the lands in Brauncewell belonged to the Carres until 
1688, when, through the marriage of Isabella, daughter of the Rt. 
Honble. Sir Robert Carre with John Hervey, afterwards Earl of 
Bristol, they passed into his hands, and so into those of his 
descendant the present possessor, the Marquis of Bristol. 

Although this place is now so small as scarcely to be called 
a village, there are distinct traces of its once having been much 
larger ; for on each side of what is termed the Old Lane on the 



BEAUNCEWELL. 215 

east of the church are foundations of many buildings, apparently 
, of cottages, and when these are laid bare, the marks of burning 
are found upon them very distinctly. No record of any great 
fire here now remains ; but from the above-named reliable evi- 
dence it is quite clear that at some time or another such a 
calamity must have occurred, which has reduced Brauncewell to 
its present modest dimensions. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

When Ealph Deyncourt founded Thurgarton Priory he gave 
the church of Brauncewell to its Prior and Canons. 

In 1446-8, John, Lord Beaumont obtained a licence to assign 
certain lands here, in Kirkby and Dunsby, to a chaplain for the 
purpose of performing divine service in Brauncewell church for 
the good of the King's soul and his own. " Inq. ad. q. d. 24 H. 
YI." An acre-and-a-half of arable land was given here by Adam 
Pinchbeck for the annual observance of his obit in Brauncewell 
church for ever. This was worth 20d. a year at the suppression 
of chantries, and was let to Eobert Burton. In 1616 the living 
was valued at 13 6s. 8d., when Sir Edward Carre was patron, 
Henry Holds worth, Eector, and the communicants were 60 in 
number. " Willis's MSS. f. 39." It is now with the hamlet of 
Dunsby annexed to the vicarage of Anwick, and valued in the 
King's books at 35 7s. The following is a list of the later 
Eectors of Brauncewell : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1667.- Stephen Masters. 

1680. James Troughton. 

1680. William Wyche. 

1683. Peter Stephens. 

. William Everingham. 

1730. Eobert' Gardiner. 

1760. William Tonge. 

1769. John Andrews. 

1799. George Matthew. 

1812. Eobert Denny Eix Spooner. 

1826. Samuel Hazlewood. 

1852. Charles Cotterill. 

1854. Henry Ashington. 



216 BRAUNCEWELL. 

THE CHUECH. 

We know from Domesday book that a church, served by a 
priest, existed at Brauncewell before the Conquest. This had 
probably been rebuilt more than once, when its representative 
having fallen into a ruinous state at the beginning of the present 
century, it was taken down and the present small structure was 
erected. From the time when this took place it would be hope- 
less to expect to see such a church as we should now build, but 
it is a noteworthy fact that the nave was built entirely at the cost 
of a tenant of Lord Bristol's, who then farmed the land around 
it. It is dedicated to All Saints, and consists of a nave and 
miniature tower surmounted by an embattled parapet and angle 
pinnacles, and a small chancel added in 1855, sufficient to accom- 
modate the few parishioners of this little place. When Holies 
visited Brauncewell church he observed the name Henricus de 
Eouceby inscribed upon one of the windows. 



CEANWELL. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

2506. 233. 

THE name of this village, situated 4% miles north west of 
Sleaford, was originally spelt Cranewelle, and consisted of 
12 carucates of land, belonging to Ulf. After the Conquest these 
lands were given to Gilbert de Q-ant. Here one of his vassals, 
Geoffrey by name, held 1 carucate in demesne, 21 sokemen had 
9 carucates and 2 villans, and 5 bordars had 8 carucates and 29 
acres of meadow. The arable land was reckoned at 22 furlongs 
in length and 7| in breadth. This was worth 100s. in King 
Edward's time, but subsequently 7, Besides this there was 1 
carucate and-a-half of land that had belonged to Azor, worth in 
King Edward's time 20s., and subsequently 10s. This was a 
berewick of Gilbert de Gant's manor of Falkingham, and was a 
separate holding let also to the above-named Geoffrey, who had 
6 villans and 1 bordar cultivating 1 carucate, and 17 J acres of 
meadow. 

St. Benedict of Eamsey, or Eamsey Abbey, possessed half a 
carucate of meadow land here, the gift of the Conqueror. This 
was subsequently held by Geoffrey Selvein, or Selvayn, when it 
was valued at the eighth part of a knight's fee. 

In 1185 David de Armentiers, or Ermentiers, who then held 
the de Gant fee here had given to the Templars of Temple Bruer 
6 carucates of land in Cranwell, of which Thomas de Fulbec was 
then holding 5 carucates at a rent of 12s. 4d., and William de 
Armentiers the other half carucate at a rent of 7s., some work, 
and " le present," or pocket money. Besides this gift, the 
Templars then possessed 1 carucate of land, the gift of Eobert 
Selvein, let at -a rent of 5s. to William de Cranewell, and half a 
carucate, the gift of Henry Selvein let at a rent of 3s. 4d. to Falco, 
son of Maurice. Subsequently Galfrid de Ermentiers held the de 
Gant fee here, part of which he let to Adam de Cranewell, and 
the remainder to Humphrey de Welle, who sublet it to the Prior 



218 CEANWELL. 

of Sempringham. The Templars land here was then reckoned as 
half a knight's fee, and held by Adam de Cranewell of Galfrid 
de Ermentiers, he of the de Grants, and they of the King in capite. 
Adam de Cranewell died 1262. 

In 1286 Peter de Goushull died seized of lands here, held of 
John de Baiocis in right of his barony. He was followed by 
Ealph de Goushull, who died 1295, and Philip le Despenser the 
husband of Margaret de Goushull, who died 1314. Previous to 
this, viz : in 1299, Eobert de Kirton obtained the King's licence 
to give to the Prior of Sempringham certain lands and tenements 
in Cranwell, " Inq. p. m. 27. E. 1 " ; and Eobert de Carlton took 
the same means to be allowed to give 2 oxgangs of land and a 
messuage here to the Templars. " Inq. p. m. 30. E. 1." In 
1330 died Margaret de Goushull, first the wife of Philip le 
Despenser, and then of John de Eoos, and at the same time her 
young son and heir Philip le Despenser. 

In 1376 died Henry de Beaumont in possession of the old fee 
of John de Baiocis. 

Early in the 16th century the manor of Cranwell had passed 
into the hands of the ancient family of Thorold. It appears to 
have been purchased by William Thorold of Hough and Marston, 
who in the year 1541 had to exhibit his title to it and his other 
possessions here. He died November 24th, 1569, seized of the 
manor of Cranwell, 34 messuages, 30 tofts, 1000 acres of land, 
120 of meadow, 200 of pasture, 500 of warren, 200 of moor, and 
an annual rent of 20s. in Syston and Cranwell, held of the Queen 
in capite. 

He left his estates in Hough, Marston, Syston and Cranwell 
to his son, Sir Anthony Thorold, who died seized of these June 
26th, 1594, from whom they have descended together with other 
lands, subsequently acquired, to the present head of the family. 
Formerly the Thorolds had a good old Hall at Cranwell, at which 
they occasionally resided, and Sir John Thorold, the 8th Bart., 
born in 1703, certainly made this his principal residence. He died 
in 1775. His son, the 9th Bart., established himself at Syston, 
but members of the family continued to reside at Cranwell until 
1816. The present Sir John Thorold, Bart., of Syston Park, is 
lord of the manor, impropriator, and the owner of all the land, 
except a farm belonging to St. John's College, Cambridge. In 
the middle of the village is the base of an old stone cross. 



OR AN WELL. 219 

Cranwell Hall was a handsome spacious stone mansion, 
having a lofty roof covered with tiles. On the west was a court, 
bounded by the stables on the south, and a row of horse chest- 
nuts on the north, having a wide gravelled ring in the centre 
leading to the usual entrance of the house ; and in the middle of 
this ring was a large lime tree, whence it was called Eing Tree 
Court ; but the principal front was the southern one, where the hall 
and grand staircase were situated. The walls of these and all the 
principal rooms were panelled, and enriched with carving, frag- 
ments of which now most incongruously appear in the church ; 
and their ceilings were ornamented with rich plaster decorative 
work. From the eastern front ran a gravelled path, bordered by 
box hedges, leading to a raised terrace, shaded by a row of yews. 

The poor of this parish receive the benefit of 8 2s. yearly 
through a benefaction of Sir William and Ann, Lady Thorold, 
bequeathed by them in 1682, and Margaret, Lady Thorold out of 
a farm in South Eauceby, land in Silk Willoughby, &c., left for 
various charitable purposes, supplied the means of apprenticing 
a boy of this parish and aiding the education of its poor children. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOKY. 

According to Leland, Joel de Lincoln, a monk of Eamsey, 
gave to that Abbey the church of this vill on XI. Kal. Feb, 
(Jany. 22d.) but no year is given. Dugdale also reports that 
Eobert de Armentiers gave a mediety of this church to the 
Templars, for which John, the clerk, paid during his life in the 
nave of the church half a mark. The extreme antiquity even of 
a part of the present fabric proves that there was a church here 
before the Conquest, although it is not made mention of in 
Domesday book. The Priors of Sempringham were for some 
time patrons of the living ; bub it is now in the gift of the Bishops 
of Lincoln. Its value having been formerly very small was first 
augmented by a gift of 200 from the Governors of Queen Anne's 
Bounty, and by a similar gift from Margaret, the then Dowager 
Lady Thorold, with which and 60 further added by Lady 
Thorold, 80 acres of land in Eauceby, together with right of 
commonage for 30 sheep, 4 cows, and 4 beasts were happily 
bought to augment the living, together with a moiety of the 
impropriate tithes of Eauceby ; and again in 1787 the same 



220 CEANWELL. 

process was repeated by a further grant from the Governors of 
Queen Anne's Bounty of 200, and 20 given by the then vicar, 
the Rev. John Pugh, with which another piece of land adjoining 
the first was purchased, consisting of 18 acres in Westfield, in 
the parish of Leasingham. It is valued in the King's books 
at 8, and is in the patronage of the Bishop. The list of the 
incumbents is very imperfect, but it is clear from the first extract 
that the living was once divided into two medieties, an eastern 
and a western one : 

A.D. 1218. Robert de Gravel was presented to the eastern 
mediety. 

1571. Thomas Johnson. 

1604. Richard Flear. 

1729. Abraham Wilcox. 

1744. William Gunnell. 

1771. John Pugh. 

1799. Matthew Barnett. 

1833. George John Skeels, 

1834. Owen Davys now Archdeacon of Northampton. 

1846. Robert Allan Scott. 

1870. John Thorold. 

THE CHURCH. 

So humble is the appearance of this little church that most 
would hardly think it worthy of inspection ; but it will well repay 
a visit on the part of any ecclesiologist. It is dedicated to St. 
Andrew, and consists simply of a nave, small porch, and chancel ; 
this last having a tile covered roof raised far above the flat lead 
covered one of the nave. 

The earliest fragment is at the north east angle of the nave, 
where about ten feet of long and short work still remains. This 
may readily be of Saxon origin. Then comes the Norman aisle 
arcade within, perhaps added to a Saxon nave now totally gone. 
This consists in all of four bays, but a pier separates the western- 
most one from the others, and has its own distinct half-round 
shafted responds with plainly moulded caps and square abaci and 
bases. It may have served as a belfry, screened off by a partition 
wall, or wooden screen, from the rest of the nave. The responds 
and pillars beyond this pier are of the same date and character, 



CEANWELL. 221 

but their caps differ as to detail, that of the western respond 
having volutes at its angles and stiff foliage between, its corres- 
ponding one has similar volutes, with the scalloped cushion device 
between, and the intermediate pillar caps are wholly of that 
character. The arches above have three members, the inner one 
being a half-round, the next a plain chamfered rectangular one, 
the third the same unchamfered. The hood-mould is enriched 
with the billet ornament. 

It is clear that with the exception of this arcade and the 
little fragment of long and short work, the whole church was re- 
built during the Early English period, of which the following 
features still remain, viz : the west end of the nave with its 
deeply splayed lancet light, that of the aisle with its smaller 
lancet, and their external bold base-moulding, the large lancet in 
the south wall of the nave, the porch, the now crushed and 
mutilated chancel arch, and part of its south wall containing a 
doorway. 

During the Decorated period the east end of the aisle seems 
to have been rebuilt wholly or in part from a small piece of base 
moulding seen there, and a good two light window of that style 
surmounted by a quatrefoil was inserted in the south wall, 
between the porch and the above-named lancet. 

When the Perpendicular style was in vogue, the chancel 
was considerably lengthened and supplied with a three light east 
window of that style and a two light one in its south wall ; then 
also one was inserted in the south wall of the nave, west of the 
porch, and the large angle buttress at the east end of the nave 
was erected. 

In the 17th century the top of the Early English gable at 
the west end of the nave was taken down and replaced by a very 
incongruous successor containing a small bell, and surmounted 
by an obelisk finished with a weathercock. The north wall of 
the aisle was rebuilt about 60 years ago. The nave roof is 
nearly flat, and the chancel ceiled. The font is a plain Early 
English one, having an octangular bowl, stem, and base. 
When Holies visited this church there were the following shields 
of arms in the east window of the chancel, viz : Barry of 8 Arg 
& G a bend bearing a cross potent Az., St. Gilbert. Gu. 3 bars 
Arg a label of 4 points Az, impaling Gu, 3 cranes Arg., Gran- 
well, and this legend : " Orate spialiter pro aibus Willi Cranwell 



222 CEANWELL. 

Armig. et Margarete consortis sue." Also in a south window of 
the nave probably the Perpendicular one, in which are still 
figures of angels harping, delicately drawn, these bearings, viz : 
Arg, a cross patonce Sa, and Arg within a border Sa, a chief Gu, 
over all a bend Az., Cranwell, and an address to the Virgin in 
latin. The condition of this church now is most miserable, and 
totally unworthy of the sacred purposes to which it is dedicated. 



DIGBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

2351. 330. 

THE name of this village, lying 6 miles north, of Sleaford, was 
originally spelt Dicbi, and then Diggeby. After the Con- 
quest Geoffrey Anselin obtained its lands as a gift from the new 
Norman King. These consisted of 12 carucates, 100 acres of 
meadow, and 10 acres of coppice wood ; here also he had 35 
sokemen. About 1 150 Ralph Anselin, grandson of Geoffrey, con- 
firmed to God, St. Mary and the Nuns of Haverholme, 6 acres 
of arable land in the plains of Digby that his vassal Roger had 
given them. The same Ralph gave 2 tofts of land here to the 
Templars, who also possessed a mill at Digby, given them by 
Saer or Sayer de Arceles, afterwards let to Ralph, the clerk of 
Hagworthingham, at a rent of 8s. In the first half of the 13th 
century the Anselin lands here comprised 2 knight's fees, both of 
which were then held by William Bardolf ; one he kept in his 
own hands, half the other he let to Robert de Tilton, and half to 
William, son of Goisfrid, by knight's service. William Bardolf 
died in 1245; another William Bardolf, 1290; Hugo, 1304; 
Thomas, 1328-9 ; John, who appears to have let certain lands 
and tenements here to Robert de Digby, and then to Lena, 
wife of John Aylmer, of Digby, for which she paid a fine of 20s., 
1333. " Inq. p. m. 7. E. 3." In 1335-6 William, son and heir 
of Robert Bate, paid the King 2 marks on his acquiring certain 
lands and tenements here. " Pip. Rot. 9. E. 3." In 1358 Agnes, 
wife of William Bardolf died, and in 1372 John Bardolf, possessed 
of the manor of Ruskington and its appurtenances in Digby. In 
1397 died Thomas Mortymer, Kt., seized of a manor then for- 
feited, in 1441 William Philip, husband of one of the Bardolf 
heiresses, seized of this rill, and in 1454 Anna, relict of Reginald 
Cobham, Kt. In 1462-3, through the attainder of William 
Viscount Beaumont as a Lancastrian, the manor of Digby became 
an escheat of the crown, when Thomas, Archbishop of Canter- 



224 DIGBY. 

bury, and George, Bishop of Exeter, were enfeoffed with it. In 
1514 the manor of Digby was granted to Thomas Lord Howard, 
Admiral of England, when he was created Earl of Surrey for 
services he had rendered to the State. In the reign of Elizabeth 
a Chancery suit took place between Richard Huddlestone and 
William Gannock, respecting a claim of the former to a manor 
called Bowers Hall and 10 oxgangs of land in Digby and lands 
in Dorrington and Rowston that had belonged to Godfrey Hud- 
dlestone, the grandfather of the said Richard, and of the said 
William Gannock's wife. In 1592 died Edward Digby seized of 
the manor of Digby, and in 1606, after its forfeiture by his son, 
Sir Edward Digby, a lease of it was granted to Thomas Merry. 
"Domestic State Papers, James I., Y. 23. N. 11." Two years 
previous to this the plague, or some other similar fatal pestilence, 
prevailed in this parish, 134 funerals having occurred here in 
July, August, and September of the year 1 604, as appears by a 
memorandum to that effect in one of the old parish registers. 
Before 1680 Colonel Edward King had acquired the disputed 
estate of Bower Hall, as he died seized of it in that year, and left 
it to his daughter Anne who was living at Lincoln at the com- 
mencement of the next century. In 1720 this parish was enclosed, 
when it and the adjoining parish of Bloxholm were possessed by 
Mr. Thornton, who was subsequently ruined by speculating in 
the South Sea Scheme. Soon after it was purchased by Sir 
Dudley Rider, from whom it has descended to its present Noble 
owner the Earl of Harrowby, K.G. 

A little to the south east of the church is a village cross in a 
more perfect state than usual, eight feet of the shaft still remain- 
ing. 

Henry Young, gardener to the Duke of Rutland, who died 
in 1761, gave 9 acres of land in Frieston for the benefit of four 
poor widows of this parish and a house, each of whom was to 
have 5s. on St. Thomas's day, and the remainder of the proceeds 
of this land was to be applied to the education of eight poor 
children. A tablet in the church commemorates this humble 
benefactor. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The vicarage of Digby was formerly in the gift of the Prior 
of Catley, and subsequently of the Carres. It was united to the 




DIGBY CHUROI. 






DIGBY. 225 

Rectory of Bloxholm in 1717, through the purchase of Catley 
Priory by Robert Carre, 31 Henry VIII. Reference is made to 
a chantry once existing here, at the time of the suppression of 
chantries, to which John Bell of this vill had given certain tene- 
ments in this parish, worth 2s. 4d. a year, for the annual observ- 
ance of his obit in Digby church. In 1616 the living was valued 
at 10 a year, Edward Carre was patron, and there were 140 
communicants. " Willis's MSS. f. 39." The earliest register 
commences 1679. The following is a list of the vicars as far as 
can now be ascertained : 

A.D. 1535. John Bardock. 

1616. Henry Hackley. 

1672. Roger Brecknock. 

1701. Thomas Seller. 

1705. James Middleditch. 

1711. William Harvey. 

1720. Richard Disney. 

1731. Gilbert Smith. 

1782. Henry Pickwell. 

1787. Daniel Mackinnon. 

1825. John Mackinnon. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket, and consists of a 
nave, aisles, chancel, tower and spire. The oldest feature is a 
late Norman doorway in the south aisle, constituting the principal 
entrance. This is ornamented with reticulated work and the 
nail-head, and was thought good enough to be incorporated into 
the Early English church forming the basis of the present 
structure. In front of this a monstrous modern porch has been 
built, when one of the aisle buttresses was destroyed for its sake. 
This aisle is for the most part Early English as declared by its base 
moulds and a large lancet light remaining in its west end, but 
the others have been superseded by two flat-headed Decorated 
windows in its side wall, and a three light one of the same date, 
circa 1320-40, in its eastern end. The north aisle is also Early 
English. In this is one lancet light towards the west end, and 
another in its western wall, also the usual north doorway, but 
two Decorated windows similar to those in the opposite aisle have 



226 DIGBY. 

also been inserted in the wall of this aisle. The nave is sur- 
mounted by a Perpendicular clerestory having six lights arranged 
in couples on either side, and an embattled parapet. The chancel 
walls are Early English. In the southern one are two little 
lancets, a square low-side window towards its western end, and a 
poor modern doorway, probably the successor of a better old one. 
In the north wall is a solitary little light or slit with a semicircu- 
lar head after the Norman fashion, which, from its position might 
also have served as a low- side window. The east window is an 
after insertion, and the terminals of its hood mould are well 
carved ; the one representing a lady's head having broad bands 
of plaited hair projecting from the temples, the other a man's 
head in a hood, the upper edge of which is turned back from the 
forehead, and its under edge worked in a nebulated form. 

The lower stage of the tower is Early English having a lancet 
in its western wall. Above this is a Decorated stage constituting 
the belfry. This 4s surmounted by a coarse but effective Perpen- 
dicular parapet and a well proportioned spire. 

Within, both arcades, each of three bays, are excellent, but 
of different periods. The northern one is Early English. Its 
pillars stand upon square sub-bases, from which clustered and 
filleted shafts of the most delicate character spring. These have 
good water-moulded bases, and from their very slender character 
scarcely appear up to the work imposed upon them. The eastern 
arch above springs from a large bracket ornamented with con- 
ventional foliage, and a tuft of the same is carved above the 
pillar caps, at the points whence the arches spring. The western- 
most bay of this aisle is separated from it by an arched division 
of the Decorated period, and now serves as a vestry. 

The southern arcade is of the same style as this partition, 
and is supported by three clustered and filleted pillars. 

There was once a chapel at the east of both aisles, as 
evidenced by an aumbry towards the eastern end of the north 
aisle wall, and a piscina in a corresponding position in the south 
aisle. 

A plain massive Early English arch springing from brackets 
ought to throw the tower and its western lancet light open to the 
nave ; but this is now stopped up. In its south wall is a door- 
way. 

Most of the old oak benches still remain. The font is a 
large coarsely carved one of the Perpendicular period. 



DIGBY. 227 

The chancel arch is Early English, but the caps of its piers 
are most dissimilar, that of the northern one being enriched with 
foliage, while the other is merely moulded and has an octangular 
abacus. 

In this arch is a Perpendicular oak screen in fair condition. 

In the south wall of the chancel are two piscense and a smal L 
recessed Early English sedile. Opposite is an aumbry, and in 
the east wall are two statue brackets. When Holies visited this 
church he saw in what he terms the east window of the nave, i.e. 
of one of the nave aisles, this inscription : " Priez pur Johan 
Elmere (Aimer) & Loue sa femme. Johannes Aylmer & uxor sua 
mefecerunt"; and in the southern clerestory windows legends 
recording the names of Cooke and Beecke as benefactors. 

In the tower are three bells, one of which is modern, the 
others bear these dates and legends : Will. Medcalf. Warden. 
1656. Be God with us. 1672. 

The chalice is a small silver one with a paten cover inscribed 
Dygbe Coup. 1569. 



DOREINaTON. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1881. 467. 

THE name of this place, situated 5 miles north, of Sleaford, 
has been variously spelt Diringtone, Dirington, Derington, 
Dyrington. The Conqueror gave it to Greoffrey Alselin as part 
of his manor of Euskington. It consisted of 12 carucates. 
Geoffrey had 1 carucate in demesne, 28 sokemen, and 8 bordars 
.cultivating 7 carucates. One of his vassals here had also 9 ox- 
gangs of land and 1 plough. Besides these had 160 acres of 
meadow and 50 acres of underwood. The whole was worth 20s. 
in King Edward's time. 

In 1185 the Templars had been given some lands here, of 
which Ealf the Dean held 2 oxgangs, of the gift of Walter de 
Dirington at a rent of 4s., Robert Winterhard 1 oxgang at 16d., 
Robert, the Chaplain 1 toft, the gift of Eobert de Calz at 12d. 
some work, and " le present." Lund 1 toft at 12d., 4 hens, and 
4 days work. William de Bovill 1 toft and a particule of land, 
the gift of _ Ealf de Ledenham at 12d., some work and " le 
present." In the 13th century Anselin's land here comprised 2 
knight's fees. One of these was held by William Bardolf who 
let it to Eobert de Dirington by knight's service. Half a knight's 
fee was held by the Prior of Haverholme to whom it had been 
given by Ealph Hamslap, and the remaining half was held by 
Eobert de Everingham, who let it to Ealph Hamslap, he to 
William de Boville, and he to the Prior of Haverholme. It was 
of the new feoffment, and the Prior paid scutage to Eobert de 
Everingham, who died 1237, and he to the King. In 1275 the 
Prior of Haverholme held a knight's fee in Dorrington the gift 
of Ealf de Totenhall and William Sparwe 56 years before. They 
had held this land of Matilda de Calz, and she of the King. In 
1304 died Alicia de Scopwyk seized of this vill and the profits of 
its court. " Inq. p. m. 33. E. 1." In 1327 the Prior of Haver- 
holme acquired the right of free warren in Dorrington, and two 



DORRINGTON. 229 

years later John de Dirington was his tenant here. In the time 
of the Civil War it is reported that several fugitive loyalists were 
hid beneath some barley straw in a barn that formerly belonged 
to the Todkills, and escaped the search of some of the Roundhead 
troops in pursuit of them, although these got upon the straw 
beneath which they were hid, and pierced it with their swords. 
"William Burton, the faithful steward of the Carre family, relates 
that three woods in Dorrington, first the property of the Duke of 
Norfolk, then of the Earl of Suffolk, and then of James Standish, 
were bought by ^ir Edward Carre, father of Sir Robert the 2nd 
Baronet. In the 17th century Robert Oldfield, son of Anthony 
of Metheringham had acquired lands here, and was succeeded by 
Anthony, his son, of Dorrington, who died 1666. He seems only 
to have had four daughters, Mary, wife of a Mr. Low, of Denby, 
Derbyshire, obiit February 1st, 1667, Elizabeth, Lucy, and 
Margaret. Of these Mrs. Lucy Oldfield left a house and garden 
to the clerk of the parish, situated south of Chapel Hill. The 
Oldfield house was that occupied until lately by the Thackers. 
The Enderby family lived in the old manor house, now pulled 
down, the Standishes in a house near Chapel Hill, and the 
Todkills in another house of some size ; of whom Mrs. Lucy 
Oldfield and Edward and Thomas Standish left small sums for 
the benefit of the poor of this parish. 

The Earl of Harrowby is now the lord of the manor and 
the possessor of the greater part of the land, who bought these 
of the late Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart., but Joseph Dent, Esq., 
is also a large landowner here, including the Rectorial lands. 
In the village is a cross consisting of a square base and part of 
an octagonal shaft 7 feet high, and a little to the north of this is 
a piece of ground called Play garth, left to the parish by some 
charitable person for the recreation of its boys and girls who 
used especially to assemble there on St. Bartholomew's day, after 
having strewed the church with rushes and decorated it with 
flowers. On this spot stood a remarkable old oak having fine large 
limbs, ascent to which was supplied by nicks or steps cut in its 
bole ; but through long continued ill-usage by the thoughtless 
youngsters of the parish it at last died. The lower portion of 
this parish was once forest land, the trunks and stumps of many 
large trees having been from time to time dug up, lying from 
one to six feet below the surface. Some of these appear to have 

R 



230 DOEEINGTON. 

been felled and others partially burnt. Near to one of these 
was found an axe head or celt. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

After William Bardolf had acquired lands and rights in 
Dorrington through the Anselins, he gave a mediety of the 
church here to the Prior and Convent of Haverholme, and Walter 
de Dirington gave it the other mediety by the consent of his son 
John, at the same time that he gave it 2 oxgangs of land here 
that had belonged to Nicholas the clerk. In 1228 the Templars 
had acquired the right of its presentation, who in that year pre- 
sented Eichard de Stapelford to it. In 1574 Thomas York, of 
Ashby, died possessed of the Eectory of Dorrington. Next we 
hear of it as being in the hands of Greorge Wolmer, viz : in 1580, 
and in 1617 Eobert Oldfield had to shew cause why it should not 
be seized by the King as of the Monastery of Shelford. " Harl. 
MSS. f. 757." In 1616 a Mr. Brown, of London, was patron of 
the vicarage, then worth 10 a year, and when there were 102 
communicants. " Willis's MS. f. 39." Lord Aveland is now 
the patron of the living. Certain tenements and lands were 
given by John Thien, Thomas Stenygs, and others, for the 
purpose of supplying perpetual lights in this church. The 
registers commence with the date 1653. 

The following is a list of the vicars as far as can now be 
ascertained : 

A.D. 1228. Eichard de Stapleford. 

1535. William More. 

1660. John Young. 
. John Harrison. 

1686. Matthew Smith. 

1698. Eichard Parke. 

1 726. James Thompson. 

1737. Francis Hetherington. 

1764. Lawrence Wright. 

1772. Joseph Arnall Eyre. 

1792. Eobert Blyth. 

1799. John Maydwell. 

1823. Zachariah Shrapnel Warren. 

1862. William Sykes. 



DOKKINGTON. 231 

THE CHURCH. 

The isolated position of this church, on a little eminence 
quite apart from the village is remarkable ; but there is reason 
to believe that formerly some houses stood nearer to it, as con- 
necting links between the village of Dorrington and its church. 
This is dedicated to St. James, and consists of a tower, nave, 
north and south aisles, chancel, and a modern porch and vestry. 
The whole was no doubt originally Early English, as evidenced 
by its tower and chancel aisle, the north arch arcade and side 
walls of the chancel which still remain, while the pitch of its 
former roof is indicated on the eastern face of the tower. The 
south aisle is low and buttressed at its angles. It is now wholly 
Decorated ; on the north side of the porch is a two light seg- 
mental arched window, a similar one at its east end, and a slit 
at its western end. Above this is a Tudor clerestory, having 
three windows, each of three lights, on either side, and a plain 
parapet. In the north aisle wall is an Early English segmental 
arched doorway towards the west end, and a two light Decorated 
window, the head of which has been restored ; besides a pretty 
small one of the same date in its east wall. In the south wall of 
the chancel is a single lancet, a plain low-side window, and a 
segmental arched doorway. The east wall appears to have been 
wholly rebuilt circa 1 330, and certainly in a very careful manner. 
It is flanked by angle buttresses, whence sprang pinnacles. The 
east window has reticulated tracery, and is well moulded through- 
out. Its arch is of the ogee form, and terminates with a foliated 
pinnacle. Above is a piece of sculpture on two stones, represent- 
ing the Judgment, and in the right hand corner of which is 
pourtrayed the entrance of Hell, or its dread jaws. Above this 
is a small niche for some other sculpture, just below a beautiful 
gable cross. On the north side a small modern vestry has lately 
been attached to the chancel transeptally, and a lancet light. 

The tower is a good specimen of Decorated work, once 
supporting a spire, but now simply finished with a plain parapet 
without angle pinnacles which it once had. Its belfry lights are 
effective from their being deeply set, and in the south west angle 
is a staircase contrived between its buttresses. There are two 
small lights in its western face, the upper one being now partly 
filled in by a tombstone on which a cross may be discerned. 



232 DOEEINGTON. 

Within, the Early English north aisle arcade consists of two 
wide arches springing from low pillars, and responds having 
keel-shape^ piers. Its central pillar has a line of the tooth 
ornament between its four members, and the effective water 
mould is employed in the composition of its base. The south 
aisle arcade is Early English, but greatly inferior to that of the 
north aisle. Its central pillar is octangular in plan, and its 
arches are ill formed. Formerly a chantry chapel clearly existed 
at the east end of either aisle as indicated by a small corbel-like 
piscina still remaining in the wall towards the east end of the 
north aisle, and the remains of another within a little pointed 
headed niche in a corresponding position in the opposite aisle, 
as well as a canopied and pinnacled statue niche at its eastern 
end. 

The tower arch piers have keel-shaped shafts flanked by 
outer subsidiary ones. The caps of those on the south side are 
plain, but their compeers are carved. 

The seating, pulpit, and font are new. On either side of 
the east window of the chancel is an ogee arched statue niche 
having shafts with carved caps, and finials corresponding with 
the window between them, which is filled with good painted 
glass by Hughes, representing our Lord's birth, resurrection,, 
and ascension. In the south wall is the low side window before 
adverted to, and in the opposite one a square aumbry. Here 
also are a few old bench ends, being remnants of the old nave 
seating. 

Besides the parish church there was formerly a chapel here 
called Shefford chapel, perhaps erected by some Prior of Shelford. 
Its site is still called Chapel Hill, and consists of a little eminence 
in the village, about half-a-mile south east of the church. In 
1535 reference is made to this chapel, as William More was then 
' presented to it as well as to the church of Dorrington. Its bell 
dated 1643, now in the church, shews that it was then still used, 
but in 1698, it was pulled down, and its materials were used to 
repair the church with, as both had then become much dilapida- 
ted. The bell long continued to remain in the village suspended 
on an oak frame, and was rung there previous to divine service 
in the church, in consequence of its distance from the village ; 
but through its misuse was at length wisely removed to the 
church. 



DOERINGTON. 233 

There is a tradition that divine service was performed here 
three times a month, and only once a month at the parish church, 
also that on St. Bartholomew's day, its floor was strewn with 
rushes. 

The grave stones of Anthony Oldfield and Elizabeth his wife 
still remain in this church. He died September 30th, 1668, and 
she January 16th, 1686. Here also is a handsome monument 
erected in memory of them and their daughters. It bears this 
inscription : 

Near this place lieth interred the bodies of Anthony 
Oldfield, late of this parish, Gentleman, and of Eliza- 
beth his wife, and also of their four daughters, Mary, 
married to John Lowe, of Denby, in the county of 
Derby, Esquire, Elizabeth, married to James Ground- 
man, of the Middle Temple, London, Gent., Lucy, who 
died unmarried, and Margaret, married to Samuel 
Anderson, of Lincolnshire, Gent. 
The said Lucy Oldfield by her last Will in October, 
1715, desired this monument to be erected in memory 
of her said father, mother, and sisters. 

In the chancel pavement are the grave stones of Margaret 
Anderson, who died October 26th, 1697, and of her sisters 
Elizabeth Groundman and Lucy Oldfield, the last of whom died 
October 31st, 1715, On the first is a shield bearing Anderson 
impaling Oldfield. On the north wall of the chancel is a slab 
commemorating William Thacker, who died January 16th, 1783, 
Maria and Lucy his wives, and Elizabeth a daughter of William 
Thacker, and his first wife. Here also is a white marble tablet 
recording the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Earmer, one of the most 
benevolent of women, who lived for many years in Leasingham, 
but was buried next to her mother's grave in the chancel of this 
church, according to her desire. 

Dorrington parish was enclosed 1787. 



h ' c 

ONTARIO 



DUNSBY. 

THIS is a hamlet of Brauncewell, situated 4j miles north of 
Sleaford. From Domesday book we find that its name 
was originally spelt Dunesbi, and that when that record was 
compiled it consisted of 6 carucates. The Conqueror gave part 
of it to Geoffrey Alselin as an adjunct of his manor of Eusking- 
ton. He held 2 carucates in demesne, and here he had 13 soke- 
men and 1 bordar holding 1 carucate and 6 acres of meadow. 
The rest, consisting of 3 carucates and 6 acres of meadow, was 
held by the Abbot of Eamsey as soke of his manor of Quarrington. 
This was cultivated by 11 sokemen and 3 bordars. In the 13th 
century Alselin's lands were divided between the Bardolfs and 
Everinghams, and comprised 1 knight's fee, of which one third 
was held by Eobert de Everingham, who died 1287, and the 
remainder by William Bardolf . The first was then let by knight' s 
service to Eobert Dayville, and^by him to Alexander de Cressy, 
who was also Dayville's tenant. " Testa de Nevill." 

About 1370, the manor of Dunsby constituted part of the 
property made over in mortmain by John Ginwell, Bishop of 
Lincoln, for the support of his chantry in Lincoln Cathedral ; but 
at the Bishop's death it was sold by his executors, John de 
Warrsop and John de Thorpe, of Eippingale, to Eobert, Abbot 
of Newbo, and his convent, "Lib de ord Cant, f. 385 6 " ; but 
the Abbot was charged with the payment of the amount entailed 
on the manor by the maintenance of Bishop Ginwell' s chantry. 

In 1 185 Alexander de Cressy held the third part of a knight's 
fee here, out of which he gave 1 toft to the Templars of Temple 
Bruer, then let to one "William for 2s., some work, and " le 
present," or an offering. 

In" 1544 the^King granted to John Bello and John Bales the 
Grange of Dunsby. " Harl. MSS. 6829." 

Towards the close of thaf century the manor was bought by 
Eobert Carre, of Sleaford, and it appears to have usually formed 
part of the jointure of the widows of that family. In 1595 the 



DUNSBY. 235 

house upon it was occupied by Mrs. Carre, probably the third 
wife and widow of Robert Carre, and in 1619 it formed part of 
the jointure of Anne Lady Carre, widow of Sir Edward the first 
Baronet, who was about to reside there, when her intention was 
altered through her second marriage with Colonel Henry Crom- 
well. It then became the residence of the Death family, 
connected with the Carres through the Irbys. Of these, Henry 
Death, J.P., was buried at Dunsby in 1639, and several children 
of Edward Death, probably his son's, were baptised here, one of 
whom was christened Cromwell Death, and another, with very 
doubtful taste and feeling, Welcome Death ! During the Civil 
Wars some Parliamentary troops, probably the regiment raised 
by Colonel King, of Ashby, , took possession of the place, felled 
the timber round it, and left it in a half ruined condition, after 
which time it was never again inhabited, and the materials of 
the old manor house were gradually removed, so that now only 
portions of the garden wall and some mounds mark the site where 
it once stood, close to the eastern verge of the road between 
Sleaford and Lincoln ; while the houses around it and the chapel 
have also quite disappeared. The site of this old hall afforded 
covert for marauders on the Heath during the last century, 
and perhaps from the unpleasant name of the last family who 
occupied it a tradition survives in connexion with it : that through 
the rash and impious vow of the last lady of the Death family, 
who was long childless, she at last did give birth to a queer little 
son, who after awhile was suddenly whisked away from his 
nurse's lap and disappeared up the chimney in the midst of 
more than ordinary smoke ! 

The living was united to that of Brauncewell in the 17th 
century. 



EVEDON. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1588. . 62. 

THIS little village lies 3 miles north, east of Sleaford. Its 
name was originally spelt Evedune, and subsequently 
Evedun. After the Conquest it was divided among several great 
Normans. To the Bishop of Durham was given 2J carucates 
that had been Turvert's, together with members in North and 
South Bauceby, Willoughby, and Kirkby Laythorpe. His 
vassal Colsuein had 1 carucate, 4 villans, 2 bordars having 1 
carucate and 2 oxgangs, and 20 acres of meadow. Part of Earl 
Mortar's land here, constituting a berewick of his manor of 
Kirkby Laythorpe, was retained by the King. It consisted of 2 
carucates, apparently in the hands of 2 sokemen, another caru- 
cate worked by 2 villans, a mill worth 5s. 4d., the site of a mill, 
6 acres of meadow, 8 of underwood, and, 40 of marsh. 

The Bishop of Lincoln had 5 carucates, 20 acres of meadow, 
100 acres of marsh, and 16 acres of underwood cultivated by 13 
sokemen, soke of his manor of Quarrington. Of this Colsuein 
held 1 carucate, and had 4 villans and 2 bordars holding another 
carucate and 20 acres of meadow, and Osmund who held land 
under him at Quarrington, also held 1% carucate here in demesne 
for which he paid 30s. annually. Two carucates here which had 
belonged to Outi, a mill and 40 acres of marsh, were given by 
the Conqueror to Geoffrey Alselin. Another part was a berewick 
of Colsuein's manor of North Kyme, and consisted -of 2 carucates 
of land sufficient for 2 ploughs ; and another portion was in the 
soke of Colgrim's manor of Ewerby, on which the church was 
situated. This land consisted of 2 oxgangs, 2 acres of meadow, 
1 of coppice, and 5 of marsh. 

In 1185 the Templars had acquired lands here, viz : 1 ox- 
gang, the gift of William the son of Eanulf, let to William de 
Beaubrach for a rent of 2s., and 1 toft let to Pcidras for 2s., 
some work, and "le present." 






EVEDON. 237 

Alexand de St. Vedasto gave 6 andenas of his meadow in 
Evedon lying under his brother Hugh's wood, and near the 
meadow of Thorold Talmuord, also 2 andenas westward of that 
meadow to the Prior and Convent of Haverholme. Robert de 
Evedon also gave to the same 5 andenas of his meadow near to 
the last named piece of ground. 

Circa 1200 the Bishop of Lincoln's land here and at Quar- 
rington was let to Hugh St. Vedasto. " Testa de Nevill p. 340." 
Circa 1270 we have from the same authority that Hugh de 
Nevill, Beatrice de Engleby, Alan son of Wittenden, Henry de 
Horningherd, and others were then in possession of lands here, 
of whom more will be found in the history of Kirkby. In the 
14th century the family of Hardby, Hardeby, Herdeby, Herby, 
or Harlby had become the tenants of the Bishop of Lincoln here, 
of whom are mentioned a Thomas Herby, Brian de Hurdeby, to 
whom the King granted a license of free warren in 1331, Richard 
Herdeby 1419, William Hardby, who died November 4th, 1540, 
Brian Hardby his son and heir, Bartholomew Herdebye, who 
held the old episcopal manor of Robert Carre, its then possessor, 
as of his Castle of Sleaford, who died April 19th, 1576, and 
Daniel Hardby, who died in 1616. 

The faithful old steward of the Carres, William Burton, in 
his instructions to the then young representative of that family, 
1627, speaking of Evedon says : "You have wood in Evedon, 
contents about tenne acres, yt belong to ye Manner of Whilhull 
in Kirkebye. Eor the Timber thereof being olde, very tall, & 
well harted, I know that Sir William Carre, yr Uncle, was 
offered a Thousand Pounds." The manor of Evedon and 
Thursby had been bought by Robert Carre, and were held of 
him as the possession of Sleaford Castle by rent service. Through 
this right Robert Carre had acquired the wardship both of 
Bartholomew and Daniel Harby when minors ; but this had been 
disputed, Burton thus quaintly recording the particulars of a 
suit respecting it : " About ye wardshipp of ye said Daniel, yr 
Grandfather had a long and chargeable suite in ye Cort of wards, 
wth one Tucke, an auditor of that Cort, who protended yt there 
was fower oxgand of land in Thursbye, some times Blackvills, 
yt was held in Capite ; but upon a writt of Melius inquirendo 
granted by ye Cort & returned, as I take it, in Michms terme 
anno 1589, all yr lands were again found to be held of yr Castle 



238 EVEDON. 

of Sleaford ; and soe there was an end of yt suite, which writt & 
returne being upon record, will be a speciall evidence for you if 
ye like happen to come in question hereafter." Daniel Harby 
had 5 sons and 8 daughters. Of the latter Anne married the 
Honorable Sir Peregrine Bertie, 3rd son of Eobert Earl of 
Lindsey in 1631, and through the death of her brothers and elder 
sisters having become the heiress of her family, she and her 
husband resided at Evedon. Here their eldest son Eobert was 
born in 1634, but died in 1637, and also a second son, Peregrine, 
born in 1638, besides a daughter, Ann, born in 1636. But at 
Sir Peregrine Bertie's death in 1652, he left an only surviving 
child, Elizabeth, who married William, 2nd Lord Widdrington, 
of Blankney. 

This parish was enclosed in 1639. The whole of it now, 
together with the advowson of the Rectory, is at this time held 
in trust for the Honorable Murray Finch Hatton, second son of 
th6 late Earl of Winchilsea. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

We have seen that there was a church here on Colgrim's 
land at the time when Domesday book was compiled. The 
Bishops of Lincoln were probably the first patrons, as in the 14th 
century Brian de Hardeby, in 1346, the then holder of the 
Bishop's lands, presented John de Eoos to it, and Eichard 
Hardeby termed lord of Evedon, in 1419 presented another 
incumbent. "Lansd. MSS. 963. f. 213." In 1616 the living 
was valued at 20 a year when the last of the Hardeby's was 
the patron, and there were 86 communicants. " Willis's MSS. 
f. 39." The following characteristic Will connected with a 
former parishioner of Evedon will perhaps prove interesting to 
some : 

" By Will dated 19th of June 1532 I John Stele of Evedon leve 
my body to be buryed in the church yd of our Lady of 
Evedon. To Mr. "William Harbe the best land of wheet. 
To Mr. John Harbe an amblyng fole. To my wyfe 4 best 
oxen, and to Janet Peikell 3 Kyen. To Eobert my son 2 
bullock & a grey bald stagge. To Margaret my dorter a 
strong gwye (probably a kye or cow), and to Alice my 
daughter a gwye calf (cow calf). To my brother William 
my soul (only) horse. To William his son, and Emota his 



EVEDON. 239 

daughter a lamb. Residue to Wm. my brother and Alice 

my wife. Exor. Sir Bartholomew Ingolesby, parson of 

Evedon, supervisor. Witness. John Harby. gent." 
The registers of this parish really commence with the date 
1562, although the oldest is headed "The Eegister booke of 
Evedon penned in the year of our Lorde 1599." For the first 
30 years the entries are made in Latin. The following is an 
extract from the same : 

The Register Books of Evedon, penned in the year of our Lord 1562. 
The inventorie of all the names of such as have been baptized, &c. A festo 
Mich'is, 1562, usq. ad Mich'am festum, 1563. Exd. apd. Lincoln, 25 Oct. 
1563. A festo Paschse, Anno 1599, usq ad dictum festum, Anno 1600. 
Isabell Alarm buried Nov. 25, and Thomas Alarm, her husband, buried Nov. 
28, 1638 ; an old couple. 1662 To 2 gentlewomen travelling northward, 6d. 
An hue & cry to Ruskington & Ewerby, 4d. Spent at the bonefire on the 
King's birthday, 7s. Item at Sleeford among the soldiers and townsmen, 
8s. 6d. Colours for the New Town soliders, 3s. Bandilerres (leathern belts), 
2s. 8d. Powder and match, lOd. Musket mending, . For training the 
last day at Rossby, 2s. 4d. The soldiers at Willowby training, 5s. One 
gentleman and 4 children with letter of request, 6d. 1663 An hue & cry 
to Kirkby for a horse, 3d. Item, muster master, 3s. 2d. 1664 Perambula- 
tion, spent 7s. Bread & drinke, watchers all night, 6d. An hue & cry for 
a grey maire, 2d. The first three months tax for the royal aid, 5d. in the 
pound. Repaire of Lincoln cathedral, 8s. 2d. 1665 To 14 gipsyes, Is. 
3 maimed soldiers, 3d. A sword fourbishing, . Edward Clarke, sen., for 
whipping the dogs, Is. 2d. 1676 Spent with the neighbours on Holy 
Thursday, 6s. For two foulmords heads, 4d. William Widdrington, gent, 
buried 1683, a Roman catholic priest. 
List of the Rectors : 
A.D. 1341. John de Eoos. 

Richard Flemyng, Bishop of Lincoln. 

141 9. Thomas Marshall. 

1535. Bartholomew Ingoldesby. 

1560. William Cantrell. 

1584. William Glen. 

1604. Nathaniel Tuke. 

1619. John Nixon. 

1664. Edmund Thorold. 

1670. Josiah Miers. 

1687. Anthony Beveridge. 

1702. Rowland Fox. 

1722. Benjamin Rudge. 

1741. Francis Hetherington. 



240 EVEDON. 

A.D. 1769. Bracklay Kennett. 
1772. Thomas Griffith. 
1773. Thomas Treacher. 
1777. Edward Turner. 
1804. Edward Turner. 
1837. Edward Pollard. 

THE CHURCH. 

The foundations of this little edifice, dedicated to St. Mary, 
must have been bad throughout, as no one of its walls is now 
upright, and the whole structure looks as if it might fall at any 
time, yet it has remained in this condition for many years. 
Originally it was an Early English fabric, consisting of a tower, 
nave, north aisle, and chancel of that style. Then a Decorated 
chantry chapel was added to the nave, on the south side of which 
the arch still remains, partly filled in with masonry, and partly 
with glass to light the interior in a strange fashion, and a square- 
headed window of the reticulated type was inserted in the 
north wall beneath a new head and label. Next a Perpen- 
dicular embattled parapet, angle pinnacles, and perhaps a shield 
on the south side, bearing a plain cross, were added to the tower; 
then the present wretched little chancel was built, and finally in 
1809 the aisle was pulled down and its arcade filled in with 
masonry and glazing in the strangest manner to serve as an outer 
wall. Happily however its character may still be seen from 
such portions of its features as remain exposed to view, whence 
we gather that it consisted of two bays, and that it had clustered 
filleted pillar shafts and responds, the caps of which were orna- 
mented with the nail-head ornament. The tower is low, and was 
lighted by plain coupled lancets serving as belfry windows in 
each of its walls, three of which still remain. At the west end 
was a large window, now filled in with masonry, pierced only by 
three small rude lights. 

"Within, the chancel and tower arches are Early English, 
the pier caps of the former are ornamented with the nail-head 
ornament, and shew that a screen once stood within it. The 
latter has plainly chamfered square piers surmounted by a 
roll mould and massive plain brackets, whence the arch springs. 
The Font is a carefully carved octangular specimen of the 



EVEDON. 241 

Perpendicular period. On two of its panels are cut the sacred 
monograms I. H, C. and M. R., and on others, shields now almost 
smooth, but two of which bore a fesse dancette between 10 billets 
4. 3. 2. & 1., for Hardeby or Harby ; another a fesse dancette 
between 3 lions heads erased, and a fourth a chevron between 
3 escallops. There are three bells. The largest bears this in- 
scription, " God save his church." The second, ''Acknowledge 
me to be the Lord." The third, " We praise thee, God ; " all 
are dated 1745. When Holies visited this church the tomb of 
Thomas Hardeby still remained within it, and as he saw upon it 
the same shields as upon the Font with the addition of Erm, a 
fesse dancette, impaling a fesse between 3 griphons passant re- 
gardant, probably Thomas Hardeby was the donor of the Font. 
In the south window of the chancel he also saw two shields, one 
bearing Or, 3 griphons passant Az. 2 & 1, the other Sa, a fesse 
between 3 griphons passant regardant Arg. On brass plates 
now attached to the front of a modern gallery are the portrai- 
tures of Daniel Harby and Anne his wife, kneeling in prayer on 
either side of a double desk supporting devotional books. Above 
is a curtain, and below a chequered pavement. Behind him 
kneel five sons, and behind her eight daughters. On a second 
plate is this legend : 

"Danieli Hardeby de Evedon in Com Lincoln Armigero. Uni 
Justiciar Dni Kegis ad pacem in Com prsed." 

Just did this Justice lieue, and dyinge Just 
As all good Mortalls ought, sleeps here in dust ; 
Blest sleepe ! where dyinge ashes do receiue, 
An Heauenly body from an Earthly graue. 

( John. Bryan. f Elizabeth. Mary. Katharine. 

Filii j William. Filise j Mary. Susan. 

( Charles. Edward. ( Ann. Susan. Judith. 

On a third plate is a shield bearing Harby, impaling a fesse 
charged with 3 fleurs de lis. Here also is a mural monument 
commemorating Sir Peregrine Bertie, the husband of Ann 
Hardby, bearing this inscription : 

"Here lyes the bodys of Sir Peregrime Bertie, son of 
the Hon. Eobt. Earl of Lindsey, and Lord Great 
Chamberlain of England, and Governor of the City of 
Lincoln in the Civil Wars under King Charles the 
First, and Anne his wife." 

In the churchyard is a mediseval stone coffin with a small drain 
hole in the bottom^ found together with its lid in digging a 
grave some years ago, and still exposed to view. 



HAVEEHOLME. 

rpHIS lies 4 miles north, east of Sleaford, and is simply termed 
Holm, or Island, in Domesday book, whence also we gather 
that Ulf had 12 carucates of land in demesne here, and the same 
quantity in soke; that Gilbert de Grant had 4 carucates in 
demesne, 28 sokemen, 28 villans, and 3 bordars having 14 caru- 
cates ; and that there were 2 churches, 2 priests, and a mill worth. 
13s. 4d. a year. The annual value in King Edward's time was 
the same as it was in King William's, viz: 10, and it was 
tallaged at 3. 

Subsequently Holm was called Hufreholme, and Hafreholm, 
from the situation of part of its land between two branches of the 
river Slea, consisting of 300 acres. Next we hear of it as being 
chiefly in the possession of Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln from 
1123 to 1147, and of his presenting it and its appurtenances to 
the Abbot and Monks of Fountain's Abbey, Yorkshire, in 1137 
for the good of the souls of King Henry, Roger, Bishop of Salis- 
bury (Alexander's uncle), and others, from a desire he had to 
establish another Cistercian House emanating from Fountain's ; 
but after a little band of Cistercians had come to Haverholme 
and settled there, suffering most probably in mind and body from 
the dreary swamps then around it, and had tried it for two years, 
they despairingly vacated it, and were compassionately settled by 
their considerate patron on his manor of Louth Park. Haver- 
holme having thus reverted to the Bishop, he then gave it to 
the Gilbertine Order in 1139.* Tanner informs us that the 



* " The Sempringham or Gilbertine Canone were instituted by St. 
Gilbert at Sempringham in Lincolnshire, A. D. 1148, and confirmed by Pope 
Eugenius III. This devout man composed his rule out of those of St. Austin 
and St. Benedict, (the women following the Cistercian regulation of St. 
Benedict's rule, and the men the rule of St. Austin), with some special statutes 
of his own. The habit of these Canons, as described in the Monasticon, is a 
black cassoc with a white cloak over it, and a hood lined with lamb skins. 
This order consisted of both men and women, who lived in the same houses, 



HAVEKHOLME. 243 

Cistercians had made some progress in providing monastic build- 
ings for themselves at Haverholme ; but the Gilbertines, more 
easily contented than their predecessors, soon built a church here 
which they dedicated as usual to the blessed Virgin Mary, and 
erected all the necessary conventual buildings. The following is 
a translation of the Charter of Bishop Alexander, which throws 
much light upon the foundation of this House : 

"Our blessed God and Lord Jesus Christ, who has opened 
the eyes of mercy upon us, and illuminated the eyes of our mind, 
and inclined our heart to the necessities of his handmaidens, the 
faithful holy nuns, viz : of that wonderful religion, who under 
the guidance and learning of Gilbert the priest, are devoutly 
meditating in behalf of Christ and God. These nuns taking upon 
them a self denying life, a life holy, viz : of the monks of the 
Cistercian religion, are endeavouring to maintain, and indeed do 
maintain it ; we, because they have not a place befitting their 
religion, have prepared by the inspection of divine grace, and 
given one to them, which may be sufficiently adapted to their 
mode of life. For we have given them the Island before called 
Hafreholm, which is now called and believed to be the Island of 
St. Mary, with all which belongs to it, in meadow and land, which 
is convenient for culture, and in march and in waters, and in all 
things even to the end of the said Island, with the 2 mills, the 
whole Island to be exempt and quit from all human and secular 
service, and to be kept in perpetual possession." 

" Now to those persons, who with us had share in the same 
Island, we have made for that share full satisfaction, viz : to 
Half Halselin and Robert de Calz for we have given to them to 
their satisfaction in exchange for their part of the land one mill. 
And this donation, which we have made to the said holy nuns, 
we have confirmed and do confirm by the assent and testimony of 
our chapter that of the holy Mother church of Lincoln, and by 
the testimony of Half Earl of Chester, and William Earl of Cam- 



but in such different apartments that they had no communication with each 
other, and increased so fast that St. Gilbert himself founded thirteen monas- 
teries of it, viz : four for men alone, and nine for men and women together, 
which had in them seven hundred brethren and fifteen hundred sisters. At 
the dissolution there were about twenty -five houses of this order in England." 
"Preface to Tanner's Not.-Mon. p. 19." 



244 HAVERHOLME 

bridge his brother, and by the testimony of my own seal. And 
whatever faithful persons for the love of God, and by our prayer, 
shall stretch a hand of mercy to them, or shall render any benefit, 
or extend to them a defence against the enemies of God, and the 
adversaries of these nuns, we will be mindful of these persons in 
our prayers as much as pertains to the dignity of our order and 
our power, and will commemorate them in all the benefits of our 
Mother church of Lincoln, as also in our own, and in those of all 
the churches of our diocese. At the same time we will grant 
them to be partakers also in all those of the faithful abbots, 
monks, canons, priests, hermits, anchorites, and all faithful 
people." 

"But all persons who shall wish to annihilate this our 
gracious favour, or to change it for worse, or to intercept its 
effects, or diminish them, or shall trouble these sisters or these 
brothers with a malevolent intention, or shall take from them by 
violence, or shall circumvent them by fraud, or molest them by 
any injury, we will, unless such evil doers truly repent and correct 
their errors by ecclesiastical discepline and council, condemn and 
curse, and anathematize them in that damnation, in which that 
Judas, the betrayer of God and our Lord Jesus Christ perished, 
and that to which the apostle Peter consigned Simon magus, and 
that which Dathan and Abiram deserved and suffered. Amen. 
Now this favour we have confirmed on the aforesaid handmaids 
of Christ for the comfort and advancement of our Mother Church, 
and for our own selves and our friends, and for the soul of King 
Henry and my Uncle Eoger, who was Bishop of Salisbury, and 
for the souls of my father, my mother, and my deceased friends. 
Be mindful of him who is most dear to you in your prayers, that 
God may have mercy on you. Amen. In the year 1139 from 
the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, I, A., Bishop of Lincoln, 
confirmed by this my charter the aforesaid donation, by the 
testimony of the aforesaid and many others." " Ex autog in bibl 
Cotton." 

Adam Fitz-Piers, or Peter, was a subsequent benefactor to 
this Priory, who made the following grant in its favour : 

"To all the Sons of our Holy Mother the Church, Adam 
Pitz-Peter, Greeting. Be it known to you that I have given, 
and by this present deed confirm to the Nuns, Canons, and 
Brothers, at Haverholme, there serving God and St. Mary, ail I 



HAVERIIOLME. 



245 



had in the town of Norford, viz : one carucate of land, with all 
its appurtenances in wood and plain, waters, meadows, and 
pastures. Besides this, I will give to the aforesaid Nuns, Canons, 
and Brothers, for ever, one stone of wax yearly, at the feast of 
St. Michael, and my heirs shall do so for me for ever : All this I 
have given them with the good will of my wife Maud, and of my 
heirs, in free and perpetual alms, as is most freely given to any 
free religious persons, quit of all secular service, exaction and 
occasion, as any alms is most freely given to any religious person ; 
and we will warrant and maintain all these things aforesaid, 
against all men, as our proper and special alms, saving ourselves 
and the reasonable service of our Lord the King. But it is to be 
observed, that this carucate at Norford defends itself for a four- 
teenth part of a Knight, and the two carucates at Kikely for the 
eighth part of a Knight's service. All this I have given to the 
aforesaid Convent of Haverholme, witii my daughter Juliana and 
my niece Maud, for the health of all our kindred, as well living 
as deceased. But at my death they shall perform the service for 
me and my wife Maud, which they do for any Canon or Nun of 
their order. These being witnesses : Robert Pyron, Alexander 
Cressy, Robert Divell, Robert, my heir, Helias Fitz-Richard^ 
Robert Divell, Peter Filad, Richard Such, Roger Fitz-Richard, 
Helias Man, Robert Pyron, Geoffry York." * 

This House had also the patronage of the following 
churches, viz : Anwick, Old Sleaford, Ruskington, Quarrington, 
and Dorrington alternately, A.D. 1209. The following notices 
refer to the presentation to some of the above livings: "John 
de Kirkeby, chaplain, was presented by the Prior and Convent 
of Haverholme to the vicarage church of Amewyk, 1286." "Con- 
rad de Kokenato was presented by the Prior, &c., to the church 
of Old Sleaford, 1245." " Alexander de Brancewelle, clerk, was 
presented, to the church de Querington, 1218." 

It is an interesting fact that when Thomas a Becket, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, fled in 1 1 64 from his angry sovereign in 
fear of his life, he took refuge in the hermitage belonging to 
Haverholme Priory, on the edge of the fen, under the guidance 
of a monk who knew the country,, after which he returned to his 
own manor of Eastry in Kent. " Wilson's Notes." 



* Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. 2, p. 264. 

S 



246 



HAVERHOLME. 



The sum of 1 OOs. per annum formerly payable by the Prior 
and Convent of Haverholme to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, 
was dedicated by them to the use of the poor chorister boys of 
the Cathedral. Through the manorial tenure of Eeligious 
Orders some of their houses were liable for the maintenance of 
the drainage of the fens in Lincolnshire and the ferries over the 
rivers and drains of the same, and were often complained of for 
not fulfilling such duties. Thus, in 1316, the Prior of Haver- 
holme was reported as having neglected to provide a ferry boat at 
the "Bothe jnear to the Wathe mouth, which he was bound to 
supply for foot folks by night and by, day as being a public 
passage for the King's liege subjects passing from Kesteven to 
the river Witham ; also that the said Prior in right of his lands 
in Ewerby and Ousthorpe had neglected to maintain the south 
side of the water or drain from Appletreeness to Kyme, and had 
refused to do so, although the whole marsh of Kesteven and 
Holland was drowned thereby." ''Dugdale's Imbanking, p. 
290." In 1327, the King granted to the Abbot of Haverholme 
the right of free warren in all his demesne lands in Haverholme, 
Ruskington, Anwick, Quarrington and Dorrington. 

In 1360 a disagreeable contretemps occurred in connexion 
with this Priory, for then Alice, daughter of John de Everingham 
fled from it, but was captured and brought back ; upon which she 
was taken before the Bishop, and the case was tried by him and 
12 jurors, when ner declaration was believed that she had never 
"professed herself," or taken the full vows, and was released. 
This Priory was always a popular one and well conducted 
throughout its existence ; but it was nevertheless abolished in 
comTuon with all others at the dissolution of Monastic establish- 
ments, when its possessions were as follows, taken from an 
Abstract Boll, 30. H. 8., in the Augmentation Office : 

s. d. 
Ryskington, Anwyke, and elsewhere, rent fixed 

from free tenants 4 13 4 

Rents from tenants at mill 21 3 5 

Dyrington, movable rents in 2 4 

Ryskington and elswhere, farm of lands in 20 7 1 

Holme, windmills in 5 6 8 

Lesyngham, fullers mill in 1 6 8 

Slyford, a mill called Tylby mill in 16 




HAVERHOLME. 



247 



s. d. 
Marston, a mill in 1 

Ryskington, portion from the rectory 6 6 8 

Dirryngton, do. do 2 13 4 

Anwyk, tithes of the grain in 3 

Laford vetus, pension in 2 

Haverholme, farm of demesne lands in Notts .... 10 15 

Stanton le vale and elsewhere, fixed rents 3 14 2 

Thorp, rents of tenants in 5 18 8 

Thorowton and elsewhere, farm of lands , 14 2 

Stanton, farm of manor in 4 14 8 

Shelton, farm of house and tenements 2 13 4 

Shelton, messuage and lands in 1 10 

Warbrough, farm of grange of , 1 1 8 

Slaturne, farm of grange in 2 13 4 

Thorpe, pension from 1 

The seal appended to the deed of surrender represents our 
Lord and the Virgin Mary enthroned beneath a canopy, and under 
a sub-arch, a monk kneeling and a priest celebrating mass. 
Around is the legend, Sigill Prioris de Haverholm. This deed is 
dated September 5th, 1539, and by it William Hall, then Prior, 
and six canons gave up the Priory and all the estates belonging 
to it, and in return, together with some nuns, received pensions 
for life varying from 4 to 2 per annum. Happily the inmates 
of this Priory had dwindled down to a small number before its 
dissolution; for once it held 50 brothers and 100 nuns, for whom 
accommodation was provided in its more palmy days. 

The site of the Priory was granted to Edward Lord Clinton, 
who, by the King's licence, alienated half the manor to Robert 
Carre in 1544, and the other half to William Thorold. " Harl. 
MSS. 6829." The heirs of Robert Carre and William Thorold 
continued to enjoy their portions of the Priory spoils for some 
years, of whom Sir Edward Thorold, of Hough, died seized of 
his part called Haverholme Grange, in 1604, held of the 
manor of East Grenwich, leaving a son Alexander as his heir. 
The Abdys succeeded the Clintons, and next Sir John Shaw, 
Bart., seems to have possessed all the land in Haverholme, of 
whom Sir Samuel Gordon, Bart., bought it in 1763. He was 
succeeded by his son, Sir Jenison William Gordon, the second 
Bart., by whom Haverholme was bequeathed to the late Earl of 



248 HAVEKEOLME 

"Winchilsea, Bart., on certain conditions, and is now held in trust 
for his second son, the Honble. Murray Finch Hatton. 

All remains of the old Priory buildings above ground have 
long since passed away, but the house built upon its site previous 
to the, present one was intended to be of the Gothic style and 
of a monastic appearance, although ill carried out, and of poor 
materials. The present edifice is a handsome and far better 
specimen of modern work, produced by casing the old house with 
Ancaster stone, and adding an elevated terraced garden, &c., to 
it. Attached to it on the south side is a large deer park in the 
parish of Ewerby. The cemetery of the Priory was on the east 
side of the present mansion, as several stone coffins containing 
the remains of some of the former inmates of the Priory have 
occasionally been uncovered here, and with fragments of painted 
glass and other small relics was found a little square leaden 
ventilator like the model of a 14th century traceried window, 
when certain alterations were being made at the Priory in 1854, 
and during the present year the foundations of a portion of the 
Priory buildings on the west of the house were disclosed, lying 
from 3 to 4 feet below the present ground level. These con- 
sisted of several courses of large dressed stones, and over an 
angle of these a large elm tree had grown and fallen, in some 
measure, indicating the time that has elapsed since the super- 
structure of these buildings was removed. On the east was a 
room 34 feet by 18 feet, next to it a small one 31 feet by 8 feet, 
then a larger one 32 feet by 21 feet, then a passage 4 feet wide, 
and finally another large room, at least 32 feet by 21 feet, but its 
west wall was gone. Behind this range of rooms the foundations 
of 4 small ones were also discovered, and of other walls south 
and east of them. 



SOUTH KYME. 



ACREAGE, 

8458. 



POPULATION, 
1004. 



THIS lies 9 miles north, east of Sleaford. Previous to the 
Conquest Earl Morkar possessed 4 carucates and 2 oxgangs 
of land at this place, then called Chime, also 2 acres of meadow, 
210 acres of wood, 700 acres of fen, and 6 fish garths worth 4s. a 
year, altogether valued at 3 13s 8d. Then also there were two 
churches and one priest here. After the Conquest King William 
for a time retained Kyme in his own hands, but subsequently 
gave it and its appurtenances in Morton, Edenham, and elsewhere, 
including 14 oxgangs of land that had belonged to the Saxon 
Tunne, to Gilbert de Gant, when its value had increased to 7. 
All that time Egbright, a vassal of Gilbert's had half a carucate, 
6 villans with another half carucate, 1 acre of meadow, 82 acres 
of coppice wood, and 3 fisheries, worth 20s. in King Edward's 
time, subsequently increased to 40s. The family of Kyme, no 
doubt deriving their name from this place, next possessed this 
manor. The first of these, William, a tenant of Gilbert de Gant's 
circa 1100, was the son or grandson of a Ralph Kyme, of Bulling- 
ton. His son, Simon, sometimes called Fitz- William, or son of 
William, founded a Priory for nuns on his ancestral lands at 
Bullington 1136, and died before 1160. He had three wives, 
Agnes, who had died before 1136, Sybilla, and Beatrice, but their 
respective progeny is unknown. Simon's son and heir was 
Philip, a munificent benefactor to his father's religious founda- 
tion at Bullington, and also the founder of St. Mary's Priory at 
Kyme, the inmates of which, were to pay for the present and 
future welfare of his soul, his wife's, and also for their an- 
cestors and descendant's souls. He gave the church, of North 
Carlton, or Carlton Kyme, to found a prebend at Lincoln, the 
presentation of which he reserved for himself and his descendants, 
which was confirmed by his son Simon, 1208. He was Sheriff of 
Lincolnshire from 1168 to 1170, and held two knight's fees under 



250 



SOUTH KYME. 



Eobert, Bishop of Lincoln. He married either Hawise, daughter 
and heir of Eobert Fitzooth, or of Eobert Deyncourt, and died at 
the close of the 12th century. He was succeeded by his son 
Simon de Kyme, who held the office of Sheriff of Lincolnshire 
from 1195 to 1198. He joined the Barons against King John, 
and was taken prisoner at Lincoln, 1217. He married Eohaisia 
or Eohisia, called the Eose of Bullington, daughter and heir of 
Eobert the dapifer, or steward to Earl Percy and his wife the 
relict of Gilbert de Gant, and daughter of William de Eomara, 
Earl of Lincoln. She had lands at Thornton le Moor, given her 
by Adam de Percy, a knight's fee in Elkington, and dowry lands 
elsewhere. After the death of her husband in 1219, she gave 
the King a palfrey for a summons against her husband's brother, 
William de Kyme, calling upon him to surrender her lands to 
her. Both she and her mother the Countess Eohaisia were buried 
in Bullington Priory church. Their son Philip had been on the 
Barons side until their discomfiture at Lincoln in 1217, when he 
returned to his allegiance and paid 100 for the King's pardon. 
He held the office of dapifer to the Percies as his grandfather 
had done, and married Agnes de Wallys, or Welles, or, according 
to Dugdale, Agnes, daughter of William Fitzallan. By her he 
had two sons, Simon and William, and a daughter Johanna, a 
nun of Bullington, for whose sake her father gave all his lands 
in Huttoffc to that Priory. It is uncertain which of the sons was 
the eldest ; but as Simon gave the nuns of Bullington a wood 
near his park there, and he is said to have been succeeded by his 
brother in a cartulary of Yalle Dei Monastery, probably he was the 
eldest. He died without issue, 1247. 'William de Kyme then 
certainly succeeded to his family possessions and the office of 
Dapifer to William de Percy, paying as a relief for his inherit- 
ance 100 in 1256-7. He married first Matilda, or Maude, 
daughter of Sir Giles Thornworth, and secondly Lucy de Eoos, 
who had in dowry the toll of all loaded vehicles coming out of 
Immingham, also free warren over the Thorntons and Newstead, 
as dowry lands of the heirs of Philip de Kyme. William de 
Kyme confirmed all his ancestor's gifts to Bullington Priory, and 
added to these all his meadows by the Trent. He died in 1259, 
and his heart was interred in the church of that House. His son 
and heir Philip, being then a minor, was assigned to the custody 
of Hugh Bigod by the King, and whose daughter he subsequently 



SOUTH KYME. 251 

married. He was one of the Barons who signed the remonstrance 
sent to the Pope from Lincoln 1300, and in the same year pro- 
cured a licence from the crown to hold a weekly market at his 
manor of Borwell, and also a grant of free warren in Authorpe, 
Billinghay, Walcot, and Metheringham. Eight years later he 
obtained a grant of the house of Black Eriars near his family 
house in Thorngate, Lincoln. In 1311 he was selected with 
Edmund Lord Deyn court, David Eletwyck and Lawrence Hoi- 
beach to lead the Lincolnshire levies to Roxburgh, which they 
were ordered to reach before July 15th in that year, a service 
he was the better able to perform because in his youth he had 
served in a previous war with Scotland, and in 1276 had supplied 
three knights and their attendants properly mounted for the 
King's service. In the Oarlaverock roll he is mentioned in high 
terms, and as bearing a red banner charged with a golden chevron 
surrounded by crosslets. In 1317 he was excused from farther 
attendance on the Scotch war on account of his advanced years, 
and died 1322, when he was possessed of a messuage in Thorn- 
gate, Lincoln, worth 4 a year, the manors of Kyme, Sotby, 
Croft, Goltho, Calceby, Muckton, Immingham, &c. His son and 
heir William de Kyme, born circa 1282, paid his relief for lands 
in Thorganby, &c., in 1324. He married Johanna, daughter of 
Adam Lord Welle of Hellowe, bringing as her dowry the manors 
of Burwell, Croft, Thorpe, and Eriskney, who after the death of 
her husband, circa 1339, married Nicholas Lord Cantilupe, and 
was the foundress of the Cantilupe chantry in Lincoln Cathedral, 
1358, which she endowed with the church of Leake, lands there 
and in Panton, Hardwick, and Stretton. Lord Cantilupe died 
135, and she in 1361. Both were buried in the Cantilupe 
chantry chapel in the Cathedral. On the death of William de 
Kyme, the last Baron, without issue, his sister Lucy, or her son 
became his heir. She married Kobert de Humfraville, Earl of 
Angus, second son of Gilbert de Humfraville, Baron Prudho of 
Northumberland, created Earl of Angus, who died 1308, his 
eldest son, Gilbert, having predeceased him in 1303 without issue. 
Thus, Eobert, 2nd Earl of Angus, inherited his father's estates 
as well as his wife's, or those of the de Kynie's, then consisting 
of lands in Kyme, Sotby, Stallingboro', Aswardby, Methering- 
ham, Baumber, Calceby, Elkington, Immingham, Ealdingworth, 
Bullington, &c. He died 1325, leaving a son and heir Sir 



252 SOUTH KYME. 

Gilbert de Humfraville, 3rd Earl of Angus, and a daughter 
Elizabeth. Sir Gilbert paid the King a fine of 10 for the profit 
of the customs taken on Kyme Ea, " Ab. Eot. Orig. 16. E. 3.," 
and obtained a charter for holding a fair at South Kyme in 1 344, 
when he was also appointed one of the Guardians of the northern 
marshes. In 1359 the King selected him to keep the peace in 
Lindsey during his absence. He appears to have let the manor 
to Sir John de Kirketon, who died 1367. In 1379 he gave his 
manor of Immingham to a religious Fraternity, and died in 1381. 
His first wife was Johanna, daughter of Eobert Lord Willoughby, 
and his second Matilda, daughter of Sir Thomas Lacy, and his heir 
after the death of her brother Sir Anthony, and who had the manor 
of Croft as her dower on the death of her husband. Subsequently 
she married Henry Earl of Northumberland, and died 1399. By 
Sir Gilbert she had an only son, Sir Eobert, who died before his 
father, when Elizabeth, or Eleanor, daughter of Elizabeth Hum- 
fraville and sister of Sir Gilbert married to Sir Gilbert Burdon, 
Boroughdon, or Barrowden, became his coheir with her uncle 
Thoma.s de Umfraville. She was born about 1347, and married 
Sir Henry Tailboys, son and heir of Sir William Tailboys, Baron 
of Hephall, Northumberland, but died before his uncle Sir 
Gilbert, whence her son, Sir Walter Tailboys, succeeded to the 
patrimony of the Barons of Kyme, and eventually to that of 
the Barons of Hephall. He was High Sheriff of the county in 
1389-90, and the following year sold the old family residence by 
Thornbridge Gate, Lincoln, commonly called Kyme Hall. He let 
the manor of Kyme to Sir Henry Grey de Wilton, and died 1417. 
By Margaret his wife he had a son Walter, born 1414, who paid 
his relief for his ancestor's estates in 1419, and on the death of Sir 
Eobert Umfraville succeeded to his lands at Eiddesdale and Har- 
bottle, and died, seized of the combined lands of the Kyme's, 
Umfraville's, and Tailboy's, 1443. By his wife Alice, daughter 
of Humfrey Stafford, he had a son and heir, William Tailboys, 
sometimes called Earl of Kyme, a distinguished Lancastrian in 
the reign of Henry VI. He was taken prisoner at Eedesdale, 
conveyed to Newcastle, and there beheaded, after which his 
estates were forfeited, and the manor of Kyme was given to 
George Duke of Clarence, 1461-2. By Elizabeth, daughter of 
Lord Bonville, William Tailboys had a son and heir, Sir Eobert, 
who obtained the restoration of his ancestor's estates, 1478, when 






SOUTH KYME. 253 

he became lord of Kyme and Eedesdale, &c. He was High. 
Sheriff for Lincolnshire 1481, and died June 18th, 1495. In ac- 
cordance with his Will, dated November 16th, 1494, and proved 
June 19th, 1495, he was buried in the Priory church of Kyme. 
It runs thus : 

" I leave my body to be buried in the north side of the choir in 
the Priory church of Kyme, and there I will have a tomb 
with a picture of me, and another of my wife, my son 
George, my son William, and my 2 sons Eobert and John, 
&c., &c. "Whereas a marriage is intended between George 
my son and Elizabeth, sister to Sir William Gascoigne, Kt., 
I will that my manor of Faldingworth and the advowson of 
the church and the manor of Eottingham, in Lancashire, be 
settled on my son William Tallboys for life. I will that 
my manors of Kyme, Newton, Hornington, and Oxton, in 
the county of York, be settled on Kobert Tailboys my son 
for life. My sons John, William, Eobert, and Eichard, 

and my daughters I will that an obit 

be kept yearly for me in the Priory of Kyme, and the like 
obit in the Priory of Bullington, in Lincolnshire. And I 
appoint William Hussee, Thomas Welby, and Thomas 
Wymbish my executors. " " Nicholas's Testamenta vetusta, 
p. 420." 

According to his Will his obit was kept at Kyme and Bullington 
until the dissolution of monastic houses. By Elizabeth his wife, 
daughter of Sir John Heron, Kt., he had a son, Sir George 
Tailboys, born 1467. He was High Sheriff for Lincolnshire 
1495-6, and was buried in the Priory church of Bullington. Sir' 
George, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Eobert Gascoigne, 
who died in 1554, had a son Sir Gilbert, created Lord Tailboys of 
Kyme, by Henry VIII. He chiefly lived at Kyme, and was 
buried in the Priory church there on his death, April 15th, 1530. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Blount, of Shrop- 
shire. She was one of the most beautiful and accomplished 
ladies of the Court, but untrue to her husband, as she became the 
mother of a son by the King ; he was born at Blackmore manor, 
Essex, 1519, and went by the name of Henry Eitzroy until 1524, 
when he was created Earl of Nottingham, and in 1533 Duke of 
Bichmond and Somerset. He married Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Howard, Duke of Norfolk, and died 1536. Lord Tailboys had 
two sons, George and Eobert, who died in their infancy, and were 
buried in Kyme Priory church, and two daughters, Elizabeth and 



254 SOUTH KYME. 

Margaret. The first thus became his heir. She had married 
Thomas Wymbysh, of Nocton, but was childless, and when he 
petitioned the King to be allowed to claim the Barony of Kyme, 
this was refused, and led to an important decision " that 
thenceforth none should use the style of his wife's dignity, but 
such as by courtesy of England had also a right to her possessions 
for the term of his life." She married secondly Ambrose Dudley, 
Earl of Warwick, second son of John Dudley, Duke of North- 
umberland. Her sister Margaret married Sir George Vernon, 
of Bakewell, Derbyshire, by whom she had Dorothy, married 
to Sir George Manners, and Margaret, married to Thomas 
Stanley, Earl of Derby. On the death of Elizabeth, Countess of 
"Warwick, her family estates were divided among the descendants 
of her aunts, who had intermarried with the Willoughby, Ingleby, 
and Dyrnoke families, when the Castle and manor of Kyme thus 
passed to the Dymokes through the marriage of Sir Edward 
Dymoke with Anne, fifth daughter of Sir George Tailboys and 
Elizabeth his wife. In 1607 this Sir Edward Dymoke, Kt., and 
Lionel Massenberde, both of Kyme, each paid 500 marks for 
counsel in the Star Chamber, i.e. were fined to that amount. 
" Pip. Eot. 6. J. I." The Dymokes continued to reside at Kyme 
until the close of the 18th century. In 1730 the manor was sold 
to the then Duke of Newcastle, and in 1748 to Abraham Hume, 
Esq., the father of Sir Abraham Hume, Bart., from whom it 
descended to Earl Brownlow, and its present owner the Honble. 
Charles Cust. 



THE CASTLE. 

Erom the natural value of the land constituting the manor 
of Kyme, a Saxon anla or hall most probably existed upon it at a 
very early period , and when the family of de Kyme began to live 
here they no doubt provided a suitable residence for their ac- 
commodation, which most probably was gradually enlarged and 
strengthened by themselves and their successors until it at last 
assumed the form of a grand moated Baronial Castle. This 
still remained in the reign of Henry VIII., when Leland, after 
having visited it, speaks of it in his Itinerary as "the goodly 
house and park at Kyme, belonging to Sir George Tailboys." 




KYME TOWER. 



SOUTH KYME. 255 

Its moat still pioclaims the size of its area, and happily one of its 
towers still remains as a monument of its past grandeur. This was 
spared at the beginning of the last century when all its other 
features were pulled down. It is an admirable piece of masonry 
of the middle of the 14th century, almost as perfect as when it 
was erected. In plan it is nearly square, with a square staircase 
turret attached to its south eastern angle, and is 77 feet high. 
It consists of a basement story, vaulted with eight plainly 
chamfered ribs converging to an octangular cusped panel in the 
centre serving as a boss, on which is a carved shield bearing 
Gules, a cinquefoil within an orle of cross crosslets Or, for Huin- 
fraville. The doorway giving access to this is in the inner or 
court yard side of the Castle, and by its side is a flat arched 
recess as if for a fireplace, but it has no chimney. This room 
is only lit by narrow slits for the sake of security, and probably 
only served as a cellar or office. Above this were three other 
rooms one over the other, reached by a newel staircase in the 
turret. The first of these was called the chequered chamber, 
perhaps from the character of its now lost pavement, and this 
communicated with another portion of the Castle by means of 
a doorway over the one below. From traces on the south side 
of this it is clear that a flat roofed building only as high as the 
lower string of its remaining tower adjoined it. This perhaps 
gave access to the hall, which is said to have stood on the south 
of this tower, and to have been adorned with carved figures of 
mounted knights, perhaps representing jousts. Above were two 
similar rooms, each supplied with a fireplace and lighted by well 
moulded two light windows surmounted by a quatrefoil. The 
roof was very low pitched, having gurgoyles on either side to 
carry off the water from it through the parapet walls, which are 
plainly embattled. 104 steps give access to this. The turret 
staircase is covered by richly carved stone vaulting, supported by 
a little central shaft. From its summit a fine view of the old 
Castle precincts and the vast flat tract around it is obtained, 
whence also Lincoln Cathedral, Tattershall Castle, and other 
distant objects of interest may be seen. Now, all traces of the 
drawbridge over the moat are lost, but these were still visible 
long after the destruction of the Castle. The ruined base of an- 
other tower has also been removed, which remained until the 
last century, and is spoken of as affording a convenient and safe 



256 SOUTH KYME. 

platform on which women and children stood to witness bull 
baitings, then not unfrequently exhibited on the site of this once- 
grand residence of the Umfravilles. 



THE PKIORY. 

This was a House of the Black or Regular Canons of the 
Order of Sfc Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, A.D. 395. Their habit 
was a long black cassock with a white rochet over it ; and over 
this a black cloak and hood. It was founded by Sir Philip de 
Kyme, 1170, who dedicated it to the blessed Virgin Mary, 
and was further endowed by his son Simon de Kyme, and others, 
until its possessions became very considerable, as will be seen 
from the subjoined list of these taken from a Roll in the Augmen- 
tation Office, written at the time of its dissolution in 1539 : 

s. d. 

Kyme, Fixed rents in 6 8 

Conesbye do. do 4 7 

Swarbie do. do 10 8 

Calverthorpe do 8 8 

Asgarby do. do 1 4 

Evedon do. do 4 

Esthorpe and Ywardbye do. do 2 4 

Anwyke do. do , . 1 

Dodyngton and Westborough do. do 1 

Boston do. do 1 8 

Wyberton do. do 1 6 

Kyme, Farm of a cottage and garden 2 5 8 

Osburnbye, Farm of lands and tenements 2 

Oroston, Farm of a tenement 8 8 

Hasbye, Farm of tenements and lands 11 6 

Aswarbye, Farm of tenements 4 

Evendon, Farm of lands 1 3 8 

Eathorpe and Ywardbye, Farm of tenements and 

lands 10 

Anwyke, Farm of lands 4 

Thorp and Tilney, Farm of cottages and lands . . 714 

Merton (Morton), Farm of lands 1 8 

Billinghay, Farm of marsh , 6 8 



SOUTH KYME. 257 

s. a. 

North. Kyme, Farm of cottages 068 

Lincoln City, Farm of a toft 17 

Boston, Farm of a house 2 14 4 

Byker, Farm of tenements and lands 1 

Quadrynge, Farm of tenements and lands 13 4 

Horblyn do. do. 0100 

Dodyngton and Welbourne, Farm of tenements and 

lands 19 

Langton, near Wragbye, Farm of lands ........ 13 4 

Ewerbye, Farm of Eectory 12 7 

Swarbye, Farm of Eectory 3 

Kyme, Farm of Eectory 6 

Osbournbye, Farm of the manse of Eectory 6 13 4 

Medringham, Farm of the Eectory 7 

Ewdon, Pension from the church 1 

Ormesby, Pension from the rector 16 8 

Asgarbye, Pension from the church 2 

Aswarby, Pension of lib. of incense 6 

Northome and elsewhere, Fixed rents 5 

Northome, Farm of a cottage, garden, and pasture 016 9 

Waynenete, All Saints, Farm of pasture 3 4 

"Waynenete, Blessed Mary, Farm of cottage and 

lands 13 10 

Thorpe, Farm of lands - 3 5 

Fryskney, Farm of lands and marsh 10 

Cokeryngton, Farm of lands 3 4 

Crofte, Farm of lands 4 

Crofte and Thorpe, Farm of Eectory 18 

Northome, Tithes of the chapel 2 

Calceby, Pension from the rectory 13 4 

Wainnete, .All Saints, Pension from church 3 6 8 

Immingham, Fixed rents 8 2 9 

Immingham, Farm of lands, &c 22 17 4 

Kyme, Farm of demesne lands 2 16 10 

But few names of the many Priors who ruled this House 
for nearly 400 years have been placed on record ; the following, 
however, are some of these : Jordan, circa 1195; Lambert, 1200; 
Henry, (called Abbat of Kyme) ; Hugh de Waynnete, obiit 2. 
H. 4. ; Thomas de Bykeyre (Bicker), 3. H. 4. ; Eobert de Lang- 



258 SOUTH KYME. 

ton, who resigned 9. H. 4. ; and Thomas Day, the immediate 
predecessor of Ealph Fayrfax, who succeeded as Prior, March 
27th, 1511, and in whose time this House was suppressed. 
" Harl. MSS. 5943. p. 29." 

In 1450 the Priors and Convents of Kyme and Thornholm 
were appointed collectors of a tenth of every ecclesiastical benefice 
not taxed nor accustomed to pay a tenth granted to the King by 
the clergy, in the Archdeaconry of Stow. " Pip. Eot. 34. H. 6." 
The seal of the Priory bore this legend : "Sigillum Prioris et 
Conventus de Kima." 

At the dissolution there were 10 inmates of the House, who 
were pensioned off through the representation and recommenda- 
tion of John London, one of Cromwell's commissioners for the 
suppression of Monastic establishments, who especially spoke of 
the blameless life of the Prior, and of his being " an honest 
preste well estemed in his contreye." He therefore received a 
pension of 30 a year, and the others between 5 and 6 each a 
year. From another letter of London's it appears that John 
Heneage and two others, Wiseman and Cotton by name who 
acted with him, committed the custody of the Priory to Lord 
Tailboys's bailiff, and in 1541 the site of the house, &c., was 
given to Thomas Earl of Eutland, and Eobert Tyrwhit ; but 
the whole of the site and capitular house, together with all the 
demesne lands, edifices, orchards, applegarths and gardens within 
its demesnes and circuit, the advowson of Kyme, its tithes and 
glebes, and certain lands in North and South Hykeham, were 
to be held of the King in capite." " Harl. MSS. f. 829." 

In 1580 died Eobert, son and heir of Sir Edward Dymoke, 
seized of the manor of South Kyme, 20 messuages, 1 windmill, 
3000 acres of land in South and North Kyme, Dogdike, Billing- 
hay, Skirbeck, Walcot, Swinshead, Bicker, Austhorpe, Asgarby, 
Anwick, and Coningsby, also the advowson of South Kyme of 
Lord Clinton, as of his manor of Falkingham. " Harl. MSS, f. 
829." In 1616, Francis Colly was curate, and there were 300 
Communicants. " "Willis's MS. f. 39." 

In 1646, Sir Edward Dymoke, of Kyme, was obliged to 
compound for his estates and settle the Eectories of North and 
South Kyme and Billinghay (worth 200 a year), upon the 
two churches or chapels whence the tithes were taken. 



SOUTH KYME. 259 

PERPETUAL CURATES. 

A.D. Charles Dewsnop. 

1806. John Bellaman. 
1837. Henry Sidney Neucatre. 
1870. Edward Garvey. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is simply a fragment of the great cruciform church of 
the Augustine Priory at Kyme, dedicated to the Virgin Mary by 
its founder Philip de Kyme, circa 1170. The greater part of its 
nave existed until 1805, when it was reduced to its present di- 
mensions, and its area now comprises the south porch of the 
Priory church, the greater part of its southern nave aisle, and a 
small longitudinal slip of its nave having a wide modern gable 
at each end, and a uniform span roof of a common description 
surmounted at the west end by a little nondescript bell gable. 

Its earliest feature is an elaborately carved semicircular 
headed Norman doorway, circa 1140. Two circular shafted 
pillars adorn its jambs, the inner pair having foliated caps, the 
outer pair scalloped cushion ones ; from these spring the two 
members of its arched head, the one enriched with a lozenge 
shaped ornament worked partly on its face and partly on its 
soffit, the other with the dove-tailed device not uncommon in 
Norman work. Above these is a cable hood mould springing 
from dragons heads and surmounted by a lion's or a leopard's 
head boldly projecting from its apex. This doorway was no 
doubt spared from its rich character when all the contemporary 
work around it was destroyed and replaced by excellent Decora- 
ted work about 1360, with which it still remains incorporated. 
The aisle, out of which the present church was formed, evidently 
consisted of five bays, the porch occupying one, and four three 
light windows the others. Two of these still remain quite perfect, 
and are fine well moulded specimens of their period, having 
tracery of a flamboyant character. Part of a third also re- 
mains ; but this has been barbarously curtailed and filled in 
with mullions and a transom brought from elsewhere and incon- 
gruously put together. At the west end is an equally good but 
smaller window of the same date, and two excellent pedimeiited 



260 SOUTH KYME. 

buttresses. Similar buttresses appear on the south side ; and in 
the one east of the porch is a carefully executed statue niche 
flanked by little pillars and having a trefoiled head. The base 
mouldings are bold, and add much to the appearance of the fabric. 
The side walls of the porch have been meanly rebuilt with brick- 
work and the commonest masonry, but the front is in a good 
state of preservation. Its well moulded archway is flanked by 
buttresses, and above it is a large niche, having a trefoiled head, 
in which still remain two well sculptured figures, representing 
the Coronation of the Virgin. On the right is the representation 
of our Lord seated with his left hand placed upon a globe, but 
the head and the other arm probably raised towards the Virgin's 
head is now gone, as well as the upper portion of her figure. 
On the lower part of the west buttress of the porch is cut this 
legend, now much worn : " Orate pro anima Thos. Weston, 
hujus prioratus pincerna," and without it is a much mutilated 
stoup. 

Within, at the west end, is the respond of the now destroyed 
south arcade of the Priory church, serving to indicate precisely 
its former position, and also that it was supported by clustered 
pillars. 

The Pont is a small octangular one of the Perpendicular 
period, having a blank shield cut in each face of its bowl, and is 
only in part original. In the south eastern angle of the church 
is inserted a Decorated piscina having a trefoiled head. 

Towards the east end of the north wall is a fragment of the 
monument of Gilbert Lord Taylboys. This consists of part of a 
Purbeck marble slab, still retaining the epitaph on a brass plate 
and the beds formerly filled in with the kneeling effigies of himself 
and his wife, their armorial bearings, and two short legends. 
The epitaph runs thus : 

Here lyetli Gylbert Taylboys lorde Taylboys, lorde of 
Kyme, whych marled Elizabet Blount, one of the 
dowghters of ser John Blount of Kynlet in the counte 
of Shropshier, kniht, wych lord Taylboys departed 
fourth of this world the XV. day of A prill, a. Dni. 
MoCCCCOXXXo., whose solle god pardon, amen. 
Gervase Holies telles us that the now wanting armorial bearings 
were, Arg, a saltire Gu, on a chief Gu 3 escallops of the first, for 
Taylboys, impaling Nebuly of 6 pieces Or & Sa, for Blount, sur- 
mounted by the Taylboys crest a bull's head couped. The 



SOUTH KYME. 261 

effigy of Lord Taylboys represented him in a tabard over his 
armour, on the body and sleeves of which appeared his armorial 
bearings, as did those of his lady on her mantle. When the 
present north wall was built, the vault containing the remains of 
Lord Taylboys and three children in leaden coffins was accident- 
ally disclosed, and one of the latter was found to have been 
filled with a liquid serving to preserve the body in a wonderful 
way ; the coffin of Lord Taylboys was not opened. 

At the west end is a stone mural monument consisting of 

two panels flanked by the figure of Death with a dart on one 

side, and that of Time with an hour glass and a scythe on the 

other. It commemorates one, who, as a poor boy of Kyme, was 

apprenticed to a tailor at the cost of the parish, but lived to acquire 

a considerable fortune in London through honest industry, and by 

his Will benefited his birthplace, as thus recorded by his epitaph : 

To the memory of Mr. Marmaduke Dickenson, Citizen 

of London, who dyed January ye 9th, 1711, and by his 

last will gave to y e poore of South Kyme two hun d 

pounds, to be paid unto ye Minister and Churchwardens 

within twelve months after his decease, and to be by 

them laid out in a purchase of free land, and y e yearly 

income of y e same to be by them distributed unto ye 

poorst sorte of people of South Kyme, and accounted 

for unto their Jury upon December ye 21st day for ever. 

In the lower panel are the following lines, in which the arbitrary 

use of capital letters is remarkable : 

Kind Eeader Stay, Goe Not Away, 

Your Silent Lectures Take ; 
Kedeem your time, Now in your prime, 

That May You Happie Make : 
Cease not to Pray, Both nighte and day, 

God Would Repentance Give, 
That when you dye, Eternally 
You May A Crown Receive. 

Holies, under the head of " Tumuli lapidei cum sere," in 
this church, describes the tombstone of Mary wife of Thomas 
Whichcote, gentleman, who died 16th January, 1591, which bore 
the following armorial bearings quarterly, viz : Erm, 2 sangliers 
trippant Gtu, Whichcote. Gru, 3 lapwings Or, Tirwhit. Gu, a 
chief indented Or, Gronall, impaling quarterly Arg, on a bend 
Sa, 3 owls of the first, Savile of Newton. Or, an escutcheon 
within an orle of martlets Sa. Sa, a bend, in chief an eagle 

T 



262 



SOUTH KYME. 



displayed. On a bend 3 escallops. Holies also speaks of an- 
other stone commemorating " John, son of Thomas and Mary 
Whichcote, deceased 15<>. Sept. A. 1588. JEtat. 8.," and of 
the representations of a man and a woman holding in their 
hands the armorial bearings of the Kyme family, and displaying 
them upon their tunics, viz : Gu, a chevron between 9 crosses 
botony Or. 

During the unhappy contest between Charles I. and the 
Parliament, the troops of the latter were quartered in the old 
Priory church here, and did much injury to it. 

In 1719, when Commissioners were appointed to inquire 
into the value of livings, for the purpose of taxing them, the 
curacy of Kyme was returned as being only worth 10 per annum. 



NOBTH KYME. 

A SAXON of the name of Mere possessed lands in North- 
Chime as it was then called, before the Conquest. These 
were subsequently given to Robert de Todeni, and consisted of 6 
carucates of land, valued in King Edward's time at 3 13s. 8d., 
but after the Conquest at 7. Ivo, a vassal of Eobert de Todeni, 
had then 3 carucates, 12 villans, and 2 bordars with 4 carucates, 
50 acres of meadow, and 30 acres of wood. Outi, another Saxon, 
also possessed 2 manors here, consisting of 5 carucates and 2 
oxgangs of land sufficient for 2 ploughs, including their appur- 
tenances in Westby, Haydor, Evedon and Kirkby, 20 acres of 
meadow, 5 acres of coppice, and a fishery worth 40s. in King 
Edward's time. This was given to the Norman Colsuein, when 
it was valued at 4, and afterwards constituted the fee of de la 
Haye. Subsequently Simon de Kyme held it of the Earl of 
Salisbury, and he of the King by the tenure of a hawk. In 1315 
died Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, lord paramount of 
North Kyme, then computed at one knight's fee. " Inq. p. m. 
8. E. 2." In 1325 William de Kyme was holding this vill of the 
de la Haye fee by the service of a hawk, or a payment of 2s. a 
year. 

In 1392 died Thomas, Earl of Stafford, eldest son of Joan 
the heiress of the Wake family, seized of the above-named land. 
"Inq. p. m. 16. E. 2." 

Eight years later died Matilda, wife of Henry, Earl of 
Northumberland, and sister and heir of Anthony Lord Lucy, 
seized of the manor and its members here. In the same year 
William, brother and heir of Thomas Earl of Stafford became 
lord paramount of the manor, then held by Philip de Kyme. 
"Inq. p. m. 22. E. 2." In 1576 this was held by Sir Edward 
Dymoke of the honor of Bolingbroke, and afterwards of Lord 
Taylboys by the old tenure of a hawk, or 2s. a year for all 
services. " Eot. Cur. Ducat. Lane." In 1402-3 William Lord 
Willoughby was responsible to the Treasury for the sum of 20, 



264 



NOKTH KYME. 



being the value of divers goods and chattels, late belonging to 
Henry Percy, found in the manor of Kyme, forfeited by him 
for being in arms against the King. " Pip. Eot. 6. H. 4." 
The last great personage connected with North Kyme was the 
late Earl Fitzwilliam who possessed the manor, but who sold it 
in various lots. S. S. Muggliston, Esq., is now lord of the manor, 
and Mr. N. Jackson, of Tattershall, is the owner of Kyme Vacherie, 
once the old manor house, but now simply a modern farm house. 
In the village still stands part of a mediaeval cross. 



LEASINGHAM. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

2800. 381. 

THIS is situated 2 miles due north of Sleaford. Its name was 
at first spelt Levesingham or Levesyngham, then Lesyng- 
ham, Lessingham, and now Leasingham. Before the Conquest 
its land was divided between the two Saxons, Barne and Outi. 
After that great event Barne' s land, consisting of 6 carucates, 
was given to Bishop Remigius, who let part of it and of his 
manor of Ringsdon to one Adam. He had originally here 2 
carucates, 1 6 villans, 1 sokeman and 4 bordars, to whose use was 
assigned 30 acres of meadow. The whole was valued in King 
Edward's time at 6, but subsequently only at 5. Afterwards 
this manor passed from Adam's grandson Elias to his four sons : 
Elias, Adam, Hugo and Ralph in succession, then to one of 
his daughters, Nichola, and then, as all these died without 
issue, to his sole remaining daughter, Hillaria, married to David 
de Fletwyke in 1240. Of these, Elias de Eingsdon granted the 
right of free access for vehicles through all parts of his lands in 
Leasingham to the fraternity of Haverholme Priory. Outi's 
lands here, consisting of 6 carucates, and 30 acres of meadow, 
were given by the Conqueror to Geoffrey Alselin as part of his 
manor of Ruskington. " Domesday Book." Out of these Ralph 
Anselin gave to God, the blessed Mary, and the Nuns of Haver- 
holme, a toft called Goosebert, in Leasingham, together with the 
increase that Lefwin son of Sywar had given them, with pasture 
for 40 sheep, 4 animals (beasts), and 1 horse. At the same time 
he made a like donation to them from his lands in Ruskington, 
circa 1150-60. This Ralph Anselin also appears to have given 
the fraternity of Temple Bruer 1 oxgang of land in Leasingham, 
which they had let to Outi and Osmond in 1185, for a rent of 
8s., some work and "le present." 

In 1253-4 William Bardolf, the then possessor of the Alselin 
manor, obtained a right of free warren in Leasingham. He was 



266 LEASINGHAM. 

succeeded by Hugli Bardolf in 1304, and then by John Bardolf 
termed of Wermsegeye, who possessed it circa 1372. Mean- 
while the Bishop's manor was held by Sir David Fletwyke, 
son of David and Hillaria, who was obliged to sue an impudent 
intruder, John Eippingale, clerk, in 1300, before he could oust 
him. " Lansdown MS. 204." In 1311 he was appointed to take 
charge of the Lincolnshire levies, and led them to Roxburgh, 
"Rot. ParL," and died seized of the regained manor here and 
another at Ringsdon in 1356. " Inq. p. m. 26. E. 3." He left 
a son David born 1349, by his wife Laura, daughter of Sir Guy 
Gumbard, of Rippingale, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Sir 
Roger de Colville, through which marriage the Grumbard lands, 
held of the Wakes, accrued to the Fletwykes. In 1420 died one 
of the descendants of this David Fletwyke, who married 
Katharine, daughter of Sir Walter Pedwardine, of Burton. In 
the 15th century the Bardolfs had ceased to be lords of the 
Alselin manor through the marriage of their heiress daughter 
with Sir William Phelip, who, in her right, died seized of 
it, 1441. " Inq. p. m. 19. H. 6." In 1454 died Anna, relict of 
Sir Reginald Cobham, Kt., seized of this vill perhaps the 
Phelip heiress. "Inq. p. m. 32. H. 6." In the 15th century 
Mancerus Marmyon had probably through marriage succeeded 
to the Metwyke manor here and at Ringsdon. He died 1449, 
and was buried at Ringsdon ; his son William Marmyon also 
died possessed of it June 8th, 1520-3, leaving an heiress daughter 
Katharine. " Harl. MSS. 6827." After the dissolution of the 
Hospitaler or knights of St. John's establishments, Sir John 
Williams, first acquired the lands of that fraternity at Temple 
Bruer, and subsequently sold them to John Bloxholme and 
John Bellowe. Some members of the Hesslewood family next 
held the manors of Leasingham and Ringsdon of the Castle of 
Sleaford by knight's service, after it had been alienated by Henry 
Holbeche, Bishop of Lincoln ; then Ringsdon, or Ringston, was 
sold to the Brownlow family, and the Leasingham manor was sold 
to a Mr. Bernard, who, in turn, sold different portions of its 
land to William King, Joyce King, John Morice, George Swan, 
Richard Glen, and others ; but the Carres as possessors of the 
Castle of Sleaford, the ancient possession of the Bishops of 
Lincoln, stall claimed fealty of all the tenants of the Bishop's 
manor of Leasingham in 1527. After Edward York, of Ashby, 



LEASINGHAM. 



267 



had sold his property there to Edward King in 1580, he bought 
the manor of Leasingham, and left it to his son William York, 
of Burton Pedwardine and Leasingham, at his death in 1681, 
aged 82. His son William was knighted, and represented Boston 
in Parliament from 1681 to 1702. He was the first of his family 
who lived at Leasingham, and his descendants continued to do 
so until the death of the last male heir Thomas York, of 
Leasingham, in 1782, when his property here was inherited by 
his daughter Frances, the wife of the Rev. John N. Birch, 
Eector of Leasingham, his residence was pulled down, and his 
estate was divided between his four daughters. 

There were formerly two village crosses here. The base or 
stump of one of these, termed the Butter Cross, stood in a small 
paddock called the Nut Yard, just opposite to the road leading to 
Roxholm. The other popularly termed the Baker's Cross 
stood on the rising ground north of the village, near the 
present turn in the turnpike road leading to Lincoln. The site 
of the old house occupied by the Yorks is marked by a clump of 
old trees and some remains of its offices, now converted into 
cottages. For a time this house was supposed to be haunted by 
an evil spirit, the very littleness and folly of whose reputed deeds 
ought to have assured its inmates that a mischievous wag alone 
was the author of them ; yet the then vicar of Sleaford Mr. 
William Wyche, carried on a grave correspondence with a 
college friend of his a Mr. J. Richardson, of Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, respecting this subject, and an account of the same 
was thought worthy of a place in a work called " Remarkable and 
True Stories of Apparitions and Witchcraft, by Henry More, 
D.D., with the evidence of Joseph Glanvil concerning the same," 
under the heading of " A true and faithful narrative of the dis- 
turbance which was in the house of Sir William York, in the 
parish of Lessingham, in Lincolnshire," from which the following 
is an extract: "In May, 1679, Sir William York being from 
home, there was a great noise made by the lifting up of the 
latch of the outmost door, which continued with great quick- 
ness and noise for the space of two or three hours, till betwixt 
ten and eleven o'clock in the night. His lady then being at 
home with few servants, apprehended it to be thieves, and there- 
upon they went to the door and spake to them, and afterwards 
winded a horn and raised the town, and upon the coming in of 



268 LEASINGKHAM. 

the town the noise ceased and they heard no more of it till May 
following; and then, Sir William being at London, the same 
noise was made at the door as before, for two or three nights 
together, and then they began to believe it to be occasioned by 
some extraordinary means. This was heard alike by twenty 
several persons then in the family, who looked out of the windows 
over the door, heard the noise, but saw nothing." 

The account then goes on to state that about a month after, 
when Sir "William was at home, this noise was heard very 
distinctly several times in the night. From that time to the 
month of October following, this nuisance appears to have con- 
tinued in various ways, for we find that besides beating at the 
doors, windows, ceilings, &c., the chairs were taken from their 
places and put in the middle of the hall, which, on being set 
right again, were removed into a passage between the hall and 
kitchen, and a lighted candle, which Sir William had at another 
time placed in the hall, was extinguished, and the candlestick 
carried into the same passage. The noise is said to have some- 
times resembled the carpenters and plumbers, who were there 
doing some repairs, at work, "insomuch that the head carpenter 
said that if he had not known his servants to be in the house, he 
should have thought they had been chopping." 

A shoemaker of the name of Follet who desired to be thought 
a wise man and one that could read the language of the stars, 
was subsequently suspected of having made all these noises, &c., 
either for his own amusement, or in the hopes of being called in 
to purge the house of himself, and he grew bolder as Sir 
William's terror increased. 

The same wretched cobbler is supposed to have terrified the 
daughter of William Medcalf, a farmer in Leasingham about the 
same time, who fancied she was bewitched by a demon or spirit 
in the form of a fair-haired man often seen by herself, but never 
apparent to any one else, who continually annoyed her by rat- 
tling her milk pancheons, turning her frumenty into hard curd, 
matting her hair, &c., which case of presumed witchcraft has also 
been gravely recorded. 

Besides the Eectory, built by the late Eector, and added to 
by the present one, there are two pleasant residences in this 
village, of which the larger one, having a handsome classical 
elevation, said to have been brought from Dunsby when the 



LEASINGHAM. 269 

Hall there was pulled down, now belongs to the Eev. Oswald 
Fielden; the other is the pretty little house of Captain Myddleton 
nearly opposite to it. The Windmill House, now occupied by 
Henry Hammond, and situated about half way between the 
villages of Leasingham and North Rauceby, stands on the site 
of a little public house formerly existing there, where the high- 
waymen who formerly infested Lincoln Heath and the solitary 
parts of the London road used to assemble and agree upon their 
nefarious plans. One of these rascals was shot dead by General 
Manners, of Bloxholm, when attempting to rob him on his way 
to London. There is a very picturesque old farm house in the 
middle of the village. It bears the date of its erection cut on a 
shield inserted in the centre gable, viz: 1655, and the initals 
B. E. K. Originally the door was in the centre, but it now con- 
stitutes two cottages, and from its grey walls, mullioned windows, 
and general design, is worthy of the attention it usually receives 
from visitors. On the gable of another house northward of this 
on the higher ground, are the initials I. E. P., and the exhor- 
tation " Aspice viator et memento te mortalem esse. Anno 
Domini 1687." This was perhaps provided for the builder one 
of the -Poyntells by the then Eector of the parish Geoffrey 
Eves. There is a neat little schoolhouse here, built partly 
with the proceeds of a legacy left for the purpose by the late 
Mrs. Elizabeth Farmer, and partly at the cost of the present 
Rector, 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

There is no mention of the existence of any church at 
Leasingham in Domesday book, but before the close of the 12th 
century there was certainly one church here on the site of the 
present one, and probably a second, that of St. John the Evange- 
list, which we are sure subsequently stood on the rising ground 
north of the remaining church. There were also two separate 
Rectories here having different patrons, but these were united in 
1726, and the living was bought by Sir John Thorold, Bart , in 
1782, in whose family the patronage still remains. In 1330 
David de Fletwyke obtained the Bang's licence to make over in 
mortmain 3 messuages and 3 oxgangs of land in Leasingham to a 
chaplain, for the purpose of celebrating divine service in the 



270 LEASINGHAM. 

chapel of the Virgin, at Leasingham. "Inq. ad. q. d. 3. E. 3. 
Rot. Hun. 277." 

In 1307 William, parson of Leasingham with Adam de 
Dunslode, chaplain, and Roger Barbdoc, gave the King 12 for 
a licence to assign a certain tenement with its appurtenances in 
the suburb of Lincoln, to the Prior and Convent of Nocton Park, 
to be had in mortmain. 

In 1390 Stephen de Houghton, Eector of a moiety of the 
church of Lesyngham, left 13s. 4d. for the repairs of its chancel, 
" Bishop Buckingham's Memorandums, f. 371, Capit, Beg. Line." 
and at the same time, with others, obtained the King's licence to 
amortize to the Abbey and Convent of Barling, 2 messuages, 3 
acres of plough land, and 5 acres of meadow land lying in the 
suburb of Lincoln ; also a salt pan in Quadring, and a messuage 
and lands in Middle and North Carlton. " Inq. p.m." In 1 61 6 
both medieties of Leasingham were in the patronage of the King, 
and worth 16 a year. There were then 80 communicants in 
each mediety. " Willis's MSS. f. 39." 

The following is a list of the Incumbents as far as can now 
be discovered : 
Date of Institution. 
Circa 1220. William de Brauncewell. 

1228. John de Bridgeford, chaplain of Shelford Priory. 

1280. Roger de Trekingham. 

1307. William 

1390. Stephen de Houghton. 

1394. William de Ketell. 

1535. Christopher Huchynson, Eector of the south 
mediety. 

1535. John Green, north mediety. 

1597. Thomas Crook, south mediety. 

1597. Morice, south mediety. 

1614. William Green, south mediety. 

1616. John Marris, south mediety. 

1643. William Eves, south mediety. 

1662. Hales, ejected by the Act of Uniformity. 

1680. Gasper Justice. 

1682. Lawrence Benson, north mediety. 

1682. Wilfred Eves, south mediety. 

1687. Nathan Drake, north mediety. 



LEASINGHAM. 271 

Date of Institution. 

1694. Matthew Smith, north, mediety. 
1696. Matthew Smith, south Mediety. 
1709. Stephen Nickols, south mediety. 
1720. Nathan Drake, south mediety. 
1754. John Nevill Birch, both medieties. 
1779. Thomas Taylor, both medieties. 
1784. Friskney Ghmniss, both medieties. 
1838. Ainslie Henry Whitmore. 
1843. Edward Trollope, Archdeacon of Stow. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated to St. Andrew, and from the evidence of a 
few carved stones found during its recent restoration, now in- 
serted for their preservation in the vestry wall, it is clear that a 
Norman church constituted the predecessor of the present fabric. 
This last consists of a tower and spire, nave, south aisle and 
porch, chancel and vestry. Of these features the tower is the 
oldest, and by far the most striking. Built in part of small 
rubble work circa 1175, 1200, through the excellence of its 
ashlar framework and buttresses, it still stands firm after the 
lapse of some 670 years. 

In its western face is a most beautifully moulded semicircular 
headed doorway, and just above it a circular cusped light, 
formerly walled up, but now opened, and faithfully restored by the 
aid of evidence derived from a fragment of the original cusping 
found among the stones used to block up its light. In addition 
to this a small lancet in the southern wall of the tower serves to 
light its lower stage. A single minute window lights the middle 
stage constituting the ringing chamber, and in the upper one 
are coupled belfry lights, each consisting of two plain lancets 
having a small pointed oval above, subdivided by a pillar- 
mullion springing from an angular transom, instead of from the 
sill below. The lower parts of these are filled in with stonework 
of a very peculiar kind. A little interlaced arcaded ornament 
gives a pleasing appearance to the cornice of the tower. Above 
this rises a beautiful Decorated broach spire having three tiers 
of lights, the ornaments of which spring forth from them with 
effective boldness. 



272 



LEASINGHAM. 



"Within the porch is a doorway of the same date and style 
as the tower, being a relic of an earlier nave. Subsequently, 
but when the Early English style was still in vogue, the nave 
was rebuilt, of which a now closed north doorway, and a beautiful 
double lancet surmounted by a cusped circlet in the north wall 
are remaining features. At the east end of the aisle is a large 
Decorated window, near to it in the south wall a small coeval 
two light one, and at the west end a single light, all having cusped 
heads ; in addition to which a wretched debased window has been 
inserted in the south wall, perhaps instead of a better predecessor. 
In the north wall of the nave, besides the beautiful window 
above mentioned, there are two large Perpendicular lights, one 
of fair character, the other ill proportioned and weak. The porch 
is an ill worked Decorated one, its most remarkable features 
being beautifully carved figures of kneeling angels, one having 
a sickle in his hand, serving as the hood mould terminals. There 
had been no chancel for about 200 years, and a poor Perpen- 
dicular window probably that of the destroyed chancel, was 
placed in the east wall of the nave. The present chancel was 
erected in 1863, the style of which was adopted from that of 
the older beautiful window still remaining in the north wall of 
the nave. In the eastern wall is a good three light window sur- 
mounted by three cusped circlets, and in the south wall two 
smaller windows of the same style, the sills of which are laid at 
different levels, and a small door with a good moulded head. 
Above is a well designed corbel table supported by crocket 
shaped corbels. On the north side is a lean-to vestry ; this was 
built of materials taken from the east wall and window of the 
nave necessarily pulled down when the chancel was erected. 

Within, a Decorated arcade of three bays separates the 
nave from the aisle, and a wide Early English arch, crushed out 
of shape through the weight placed upon it, gives access to the 
tower. 

Until recently the nave with its aisle, forming nearly a 
square, was all the space available for public worship, for the 
tower arch was stopped up with masonry faced by a gallery, and 
no chancel at all existed ; but now through the opening of the 
former, and the addition of the latter, the plan of the fabric is 
long, rather than square ; so also the nave was low, its walls 
being covered with a very roughly constructed and nearly flat 



LEASINGHAM. 273 

roof, access to which, was supplied by steps descending from a 
doorway in the tower above it, but this now stands far below 
the present noble high pitched roof, and enables the ringers in 
the belfry chamber to see into the church. Standing at the west 
end, the eye passes over the newly floored central alley and a 
series of neat open seats towards the really grand chancel arch, 
the solid carved oak stalls beyond, the richly coloured tile reredos, 
and the east window, with satisfaction. The pulpit in the north 
east angle of the nave is composed of Ancaster stone, delicately 
carved, and is a pleasing specimen of modern art. The Font has 
often puzzled visitors, whose attention it naturally attracts. It 
has an Early English base and stem, on which is placed an 
octangular Tudor bowl, rudely carved with subjects apparently 
copied from others of an anterior date, giving it the appearance 
of a degree of antiquity to which it has no just claim ; for, from 
the character of the square head dresses of the females pourtrayed 
thereon, and the short plaited tunics of the males, we may assign 
it to the reign of Henry YIII. Besides a single male figure 
cut on one panel, now too much mutilated to be intelligible, the 
following subjects are perhaps intended to be represented, viz : 
The marriage of the Virgin, indicated by a couple joining hands 
before a priest and an attendant. The temptation, or Satan 
fleeing from our Lord. Herodias and her daughter with the 
head of the Baptist. Christ crowned and bearing the wood of 
the cross lashed together. The entry into Jerusalem, or our 
Lord mounted on the ass and bearing a rod or staff in his right 
hand. The resurrection of the dead, or Michael with a conical 
cap, blowing the summoning trumpet, with the Sun of righteous- 
ness above, and two kneeling praying figures on one side below, 
and a single one on the other. Christ crowned and seated on 
the rainbow in Judgment, with the wound of the spear in his 
right breast, and the sun and moon above him. On the spring 
of the bowl beneath are the following figures at the angles, viz : 
a female with her arms extended, a second with her hands resting 
on her hips, a third holding a bag or purse, a fourth holding a 
distaff, an eagle displayed, perhaps the symbol of St. John, an 
angel holding out two scourges, and an angel holding three 
heads before him, perhaps intended to represent souls. 

In front of the south pier of the chancel arch is a white 
marble tombstone bearing this inscription : 



274 



LEASINGHAM. 



"Carolus Medlycot, obijt 20 Jan., 1737." 

Above this in a circular panel is a shield bearing quarterly per 
fesse indented, 3 lions rampant two and one ; over all, an escut- 
cheon of pretence bearing a chevron between 3 stag's heads 
caboshed, the whole surmounted by a helm mantled and a demi 
eagle with wings elevated springing from a mural crown. Tra- 
dition reports that the Charles Medlycot thus commemorated was 
murdered by his servant, who subsequently confessed the deed 
when about to be hung for sheep stealing. An iron hour-glass 
stand, formerly in front of the old pulpit, still remains affixed to 
the eastern pillar of the aisle arcade, and a panel from the 
back of the same dated 1672, is now preserved as a relic in an 
adjacent seat. When Holies visited this church these armorial 
bearings were displayed in the east window, viz : Cheeky or & 
az, Warren. Arg, 2 lions passant sa. Fletwycke, and Or, 3 
chevrons gules, Clare. In a north window also, i.e. in the one 
nearest to the east end of the nave, he speaks of one having the 
Fletwycke armorial bearings and part of a legend " David de 

me fecit in honore bese Marise." This last is 

now gone ; but the former still appears in the cusped circlet of 
the head of this window. The lectern is of solid brass, and the 
standards of the altar rail are beautiful specimens of modern 
metal work. The terminals of the chancel arch hood mould are 
half angels bearing scrolls, one inscribed with the prayer "Lord 
save thy people," and the other with " Bless thine inheritance." 
On the hammer beams of the chancel roof is this prayer : " By 
thy cross and passion good Lord deliver us " ; and on the labels 
held by the four Evangelical symbols below, the words " Holy, 
holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to 
come." At the east end of the aisle is a piscina now partly con- 
cealed, and the remains of the usual entrance to the rood loft. 
Here most probably was St. Mary's chapel. In the tower are 
four heavy bells. Three of them bear these legends, viz : " God 
save the King " ; " God save his church " ; " Jesu be our 
speed" ; and are dated 1617, when they were recast. A very 
pretty little 14th century coped child's tombstone was found some 
years ago in the churchyard. This was as usual simply ornamen- 
ted with a cross carved upon it, to indicate that a little Christian 
child's body was once deposited below it. 



NORTH RAUCEBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

6573. 744. 

THIS village is situated on one of the highest spots in Lincoln- 
shire, 3 miles north west of Sleaford, and the spire of its 
church forms a land mark that may be seen for many miles around 
it. Its name has been variously spelt Rosbi, Roscebi, Rousby, 
Rouceby, and finally Rauceby. It, together with South Rauceby, 
is made mention of in five different places in Domesday book, 
and in some cases it is difficult to determine which Rauceby is 
referred to. Before the Conquest the land here belonged to 
Archil, a royal Thane. After that great event it was for the 
most part given to Robert de Stadford, the ancestor of the 
Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham ; but a small portion was in the 
soke of the Bishop of Durham's manor of Evedon, another in 
that of Robert de Vesci's manor of Caythorpe, and a third in 
that of Geoffrey Alselin's manor of Ruskington that had belonged 
to the Saxon Outi. This last consisted of 6 carucates 2 oxgangs 
and a half, sufficient for as many oxen, on which land Geoffrey's 
grandson had 25 sokemen, 8 villans, and 5 bordars with 8 
ploughs ; also 1 carucate sufficient for 12 oxen, on which were 7 
sokemen and 2 bordars with 1 plough and 5 oxen. Of Robert 
de Stadford' s land Ulsi held 3 carucates and half an oxgang, 
and Osmond nearly the same quantity, of whom Siward held 
11^ oxgangs. Edelo, one of Robert Stadford's vassals, had 7 
sokemen and 1 villan here. Bishop Remigius had also some 
land in Rauceby, and claimed more that had been Archil's ; but 
the jurors rejected his claim because Archil had only possessed 
10 oxgangs of the demesne lands here, which he had obtained 
through exchange. Before and after the Conquest the land in 
Rauceby was valued at 40s. 

Circa 1200-20 the Bishop of Durham's land here was held 
by Geoffrey de Evermue, and consisted of a third of a knight's fee. 



276 



NOBTH RAUCEBY. 



The Bishop of Lincoln's land, reckoned as the twelfth part 
of a knight's fee, was held by William Morteyn, who had sublet 
it to Roger Backet. About this time gifts of land began to be 
made to the Templars of Temple Bruer, of which the following 
is a list taken in 1 185 : 

Galfrid Perrun then held a tenement, the gift of Robert de 
Staford, at a rent of 33s. 4d. 

Ulbern, 2 oxgangs and a toft, the gift of Galfrid Perrun, at 
a rent of 10s., 4 hens, and 4 days' work. 

Jordan, 1 oxgang and a toft, the gift of Reginald de Nor- 
manville, at a rent of 4s., 4 hens, and 4 days' work. 

Hermbern, % an oxgang and 1 toft, the gift of the same, at 
a rent of 2s., 4 hens, and 4 days' work. 

Peter, $ an oxgang and a toft, the gift of the same, at a 
rent of 2s., 4 hens, and 4 days' work. 

Colswain Ophilio, \ an oxgang and a toft, the gift of the 
same, at a rent of 2s., 4 hens, and 4 days' work. 

Thomas Kafot, 4 oxgang and i, and a toft, the gift of Robert 
de Oalz, at a rent of 3s. 

Anneis, mother of the last, held J an oxgang of the gift of 
Robert de Calz, at a rent of 12d. 

John, the skinner, 1 oxgang and a toft, of the same gift, at 
a rent of 5s., 4 hens, and 4 days' work. 

Walter Holdicum, 3 oxgangs and a toft, of the same gift, at 
a rent of 5s. 

Thomas, the provost, 1 oxgang and a toft, of the same gift, 
at a rent of 5s., 4 hens, and 4 days' work. 

Randolf, the thresher, 1 oxgang and a toft, the gift of 
Walter, son of Holdewin, and a rent of 3s. 5d., 4 hens, and 4 
days' work. 

Picot, a toft of the gift of Henry, of the fee of Galfrid de 
Perrun, at a rent of I2d., 4 hens, and 2 days' work. 

Walter de Nuecum, a toft of the gift of Walter, son of 
Haldiwen, at a rent of 12d., 4 hens and 2 days' work. 

Ralf, the son of John, a toft, of the gift of William, son of 
Herveius, at a rent of 12d. 

Roger, son of Holdanus, 1 oxgang and a toft, of the gift of 
Gilbert de Evermew, at a rent of 2s. and 2 days' work. 

Walter Peri, a toft, of the gift of Galfrid, at a rent of 12d. 
" Dugdale's Monasticon." 



NOKTH EAUCEBY. 277 

In the 13th century Hervius Bagot, through marriage with 
one of the Stafford family, was holding half a knight's fee here 
of the King in chief, which he let to the Hospitalers of St. John. 
Robert de Everingham about the same time possessed half a 
knight's fee in this vill as the representative of Geoffrey Alselin, 
who had let it by knight's service to Geoffrey, the son of "William, 
and subsequently to Eandolf de Normanville. 

In 1287 died Eobert de Everingham, lord paramount of 
part of Eauceby, and in 1302 the family of St. Laudo held lands 
here. In 1373, Ealph Earl of Stafford, and Margaret his wife, 
daughter and heir of Hugo de Audeley Earl of Gloucester, were 
in possession of their ancestor's lands in Eauceby. In 1393, 
Thomas Earl of Stafford, eldest son of Joan the great Wake 
heiress, died seized of a knight's fee in Eauceby, "Inq. p. m. 
16. E. 2," and in 1399, William, his brother and heir, was lord 
paramount of half a knight's fee here, then held by the knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem. " Inq. p. m. 22. E. 2." In 1446 died 
Sir Hugh Basinges, seized of a messuage and 2 vjrgates of 
land here. In 1470 died John Tiptoft Earl of Worcester, seized 
of the manor of Kent or Wake fee in Eauceby ; and from the 
Inquisition stating this we gather the names given to some of 
the old woods in this parish, it telling us that that Earl died 
possessed of the third part of Kelbyehawe, Brunwood, Asshehold, 
or Ashholt, Hawberry-hill, and Trygoldthweyte woods. " Inq. 
p. m. 10. E. 4." 

In 1540 died John Puller seized of land; and in 1544 the 
King granted a licence to Edward Lord Clinton to alienate a 
grange in North Eauceby to William Monson, of Oarlton, and 
his heirs. " Harl. MS. 6829." In 1559-60 died Thomas 
Hussey, seized of 6 acres of arable land, 10 of pasture, and 40 
of marsh in this vill, held of Eobert Carre as of his manor of 
Sleaford by military service. " Ditto." The said Eobert Carre, 
of Sleaford, died February 24th, 1593, seized of the manor, 
leaving his uncle Eobert Carre, of Aswarby, his heir. "Harl. 
MS. 758." This, and all the other numerous lands possessed by 
the Carres, passed into the hands of Mr. John Hervey through 
his marriage with Isabella the eventual heiress of that family, 
and so into those of his descendant, the Marquis of Bristol, who 
still possesses the greater part of the land in North Eauceby. 



278 



NORTH EAUOEBY. 
ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, 



From the time of the Conquest the advowson of the church 
was divided into two medieties, of which, as we have seen, Alnod, 
the Bishop of Durham's vassal, possessed one. At the rebuilding 
of Croyland Abbey after its destruction by the Danes, 84 men 
of Rauceby with Godscal its priest, and John its deacon, built 
one of the pillars of the new choir of that Abbey, by the aid of 
workmen and quarrymen to whom they gave 6 marks for the 
purpose, and paid for the carriage of the stone from their own 
quarry to the boat, and hired two "baidours," or carriers, to 
unload the stone and carry it to the Abbey site. " Peter de 
Blois's History of Croyland." 

At the beginning of the 1 3th century, the Prior and Convent 
of Shelford Priory, Notts., was in possession of one mediety, and 
in the Roll of of Institutions of the time of Hugh de Welles, still 
preserved in the Bishop of Lincoln's Registry, we find that 
William de Lexington, the chaplain, was presented in 1229 to 
the vicarage of this mediety by the Prior of Shelford; also that 
it consisted of the whole altarage of that mediety, a sufficient 
house, and some land. Out of this the vicar was to pay 20s. 
annually to the Prior and Convent, and the synodals, but they 
undertook to pay 'the procuration fees to the Archdeacon, and to 
bear all other burdens. The vicarage was then valued at 5 a 
year. In 1535 we have a notice of the other mediety of the 
vicarage in the Ecclesiastical Survey in the First Fruits Office, 
taken in the 26th year of Henry VIII., when William Styrlay 
was vicar, and the proceeds of the vicarage were as follows : 



For the tithes of lamb and wool per annum 

For oblations at Easter, with other lesser oblations 

For pigs, geese, hemp, and flax 

For hay 

For house with glebe 

For the church yard 

Total, as by the book then shown 5 

Deductions in money paid to the Archdeacon of 

Lincoln in Synodals and Procurations 

Leaving clear 5 

The tenth thereof , . 




16 
2 

5 

6 

5 



10 



d. 

8 
6 

12 
4 
6 


1 

11 
1* 



NOETH EAUCEBY. 279 

In the minister's or bailiff's accounts of the possessions of the 
Priory of Shelford, 28. H. VIII., is the following notice of the 
liability of the then Eector : He answers for 100 shillings for 
the rent of a mediety of the Eectory with all the houses built upon 
the same, also for a mediety of the tithe corn and hay belonging 
to the said Eectory, demised to William Styrlay, clerk, and 
Eichard Carre, by indenture dated 16th February, in the 21st 
year of the reign of King Henry VIII., for the term of 18 years, 
to be paid at the terms of St. Martin and St. John equally, all 
reparations during the term aforesaid to be paid at the expense 
of the former, and the same sufficiently repaired at the end of 
his term, to be left and delivered up as in the indenture aforesaid 
is fully contained. The following is the Will of William Styrlay, 
dated 29th of November, 1536 : 

"I, Wm. Styrlay, Vicar of Rowceby, leave my body to be 
buried in ye church of Rowceby. To James Styrlay, mv 
brother, I leave my horse and saddyll, and fower quarters 
of barley, and 22s. of the parsone of Gedlying, and 8s. of 
the Vicar of Gedlyng : and to every one of Richard Carre's 
servaunts a shepe, and to W. Smyth a shepe : To Myles 
Styrlay, my brother, the residue of my shepe with a 
fatherbedd : and to Margaret Powtrell a kirchiff : to Sir 
William Tractall a gowne : to Sir Henry Edwarde my best 
gowne, my best typete, and a sylver spone : Item to Richard 
Carre all my hyves, and he to finde a lighte afore the whyte 
Mary, and 2 kyne, to fynde an objt in ye parishe of 
Rauceby, during his lyfe with my woode and my cole : to 
Isabell Carre, all my pewter and sylver spones, &c. : to 
Elizabeth Carre a quarter of malte : to Alice Styrlay a 
quarter of barley : to Robt. Rede my best bonat : to dame 
Eliz. Stanhope half a quarter of malte : Residue to Sir 
Hen. Edwardes, and Richd. Carre, Exors., and Mr. Geo. 
Cateler, supervisor, to have 11s. 3d. Proved 15th Deer., 
1536, by Exors." 

In the 31st year of the same reign the Eectory was granted 
to Michael Stanhope and Anne his wife, together with that of 
Westborough. In Bishop Neal's time, 1616, the vicarage was 
valued at 5 a year, and there were 110 communicants. 
"Willis's MS. f. 39." 

The following is a list of the vicars of Eauceby : 
Date of Institution. 

A D. 1229. William de Lexington. 



280 



NOETH EAUCEBY. 



Pate of Institution. 

A D. 1294. Eoger de Cestrefield. 
1314. Henry de Eouceby. 
1341. Dionysius de Elsham. 
1352. Hugh de Cranewell. 
1378. Simon de Wotton. 
1399. John de Westrasen. 
1401. Eobert de Hirneby. 
1432. William Smyth. 
1494. William Talbot. 
. Henry Edward. 
1552. Christopher Massyngberd. 

.William Styrlay. 
1574. Philip Tilney. 
1576. John Talbot. 

.. Greaves. 

1675. Eichard Kelham. 
1680. Wilfrid Eves. 
1682. Edmund Thorold. 
1710. Thomas Spencer. 
1729. Abraham Wilcox. 
1744. William Gunnell. 
1771. John' Pugh. 
1800. George Thorold. 
1823. WiUiam Verelst. 
1830. Henry Baugh Thorold. 
1836. Ainslie Henry Whitmore. 
1838. Owen Davys, subsequently Archdeacon of 

Peterborough. 
1841. Edward Trollope, subsequently Archdeacon of 

Stow. 

1843. Granville Wheler Stuart Menteath. 
1854. Charles Thoroton. 

Eobert Carre, of Aswarby, left 5 a year, and Margaret 
Lady Thorold 3 a year to be given to the poor of North and 
South Eauceby. North Eauceby also enjoys the privilege of 
sending two persons to the Carre Hospital at Sleaford, but 
should it fail to have fitting persons, South Eauceby enjoys 
this boon. 



NOETH EAUCEBY. 281 

THE CHURCH. 

The fine old tower and spire of this church, dedicated to St. 
Peter, resemble generally those of Sleaford church, but are a 
little later, or of the commencement of the 1 3th century. Here, 
as at Sleaford, the round arch is intermingled with the lancet. 
The very bold tooth moulding of the belfry window in the 
southern face of the spire, and the circular perforated finial on 
the gable above it are worthy of attention. The spire is not 
quite so heavy as that at Sleaford, and the gentle graduation of 
the squinches produces a pleasing effect. In the tower are four 
bells, thus severally inscribed: "Hn. Badge gave this bell. 
Ten L. 1619." " Jesus be our speed. 1621." "Do. 1684." 
" Do. 1723." The southern aisle of the nave is of the Decorated 
period, except the porch, which is Early English. The reticula- 
ted tracery of the carefully moulded windows, and other details, 
gives the date of 1320-50 to this portion of the church. The 
variation in the size of the windows adds to its picturesqueness, 
and the smaller window on the eastern side of the porch is a little 
gem of its kind. The staircase turret at the western end of this 
aisle is provided with a stone cover or hood. Until a few years 
ago the chancel was a very poor structure, built by William 
Styrlay in the time of Henry VIII. This, through the liberality 
of the late. Anthony Willson, Esq., has now been replaced by a 
more ornate successor from designs supplied by Mr. Teulon. Its 
general outline, well-pitched roof, and some of its details are 
good, but the window tracery, although of a more ambitious 
character than that of the nave, from the omission of all mould- 
ings, has a comparatively crude look. The north elevation of the 
nave is of a far plainer character than the southern one, but is of 
the same date, and retains its old doorway externally, although 
now walled up within. 

Inside the porch is a Decorated niche above the door, and 
on entering, it will be seen that there was once an Early English 
nave as well as a tower of that period here ; the chancel arch, 
that of the tower now rebuilt on heightened piers, the western 
respond of the north aisle, and the porch, on the capitals of the 
pillars of which the nail-head moulding is cut, all demonstrating 
this. 



282 



NOETH EAUCEBY. 



The south arcade, of three bays, was the next addition to the 
fabric, and it would be difficult to find more elegant clustered 
shafts than those which support its arches. 

The corresponding north arcade and both aisle walls, circa 
1 320-50, follow. There have been chapels at the east end of both 
aisles, as indicated by the remains of a canopied niche in the east 
wall of the north aisle, and the following evidences at the east 
end of the south aisle, viz : a piscina, a canopied bracket for a 
statue, and an arched recess with splayed jambs, which originally 
enabled the priest officiating in this chapel to look into another 
formerly attached to the chancel. 

Through the removal of the old pews in this aisle a low 
arched sepulchral recess was disclosed beneath the easternmost 
window of its side wall, with a piscina below a little cusped 
head recess. This arch is well moulded and of the same date as 
the aisle, circa 1330-50. Below was found a sepulchral slab 
which still remains there, but is of later date, and has probably 
been brought there from some other place in this church. It is 
ornamented with an incised stemmed cross, and this border 
legend : 

Hie Jacet Willus ffraunk de Rauceby, qui obiit 

die mensis septembris Anno, domini MCCC octogesimo : 
.quinto : cujus anime propicietur deus. Amen. 

Close to it now lies another sepulchral slab of the same date, also 
adorned with an incised cross, but in this instance the cross 
springs from a base of carefully squared ashlar work. A round- 
headed doorway now supplied with a new door in the tower above 
the arch was probably intended for the use of the sacristan of 
old, who could hence see when he was to commence or cease 
ringing. The original pitch of the nave roof may still be 
discerned, through its weathering attached to the tower. About 
1500 the clerestory and a flat roof were added, perhaps by William 
Styrlay, which certainly give loftiness to the fabric, but scarcely 
any increase of beauty. The former is surmounted by an em- 
battled parapet enriched with quatrefoil panels and blank shields. 
Between the windows of the north aisle a large painting on the 
old plaster was revealed during the late restoration of this 
church. It was twenty feet long and five and a half wide. 
Within a red border a large figure remained, dressed partly in 
monastic and partly in priestly vestments ; the whole of the back 



NOETH KAUCEBY. 283 

ground was powdered with stars, and in front of the figure was 
the head of some indescribable animal or monster. The whole 
was executed in distemper and with only three tints, viz : 
Venetian red, neutral tint, and a reddish brown. In the hands 
of the figure were a book, and perhaps a bell. If so, it was in- 
tended for St. Anthony. The rood-loft staircase still remains 
quite perfect, together with its doorway that formerly communi- 
cated with the rood itself. The font is a good specimen of the 
Perpendicular period, having cusped panels. Most of the old 
oak bench ends are still doing service in the nave, and on one 
of them is carved a male figure in the dress of the reign of 
Henry VIII. 

The chancel was built in the time of William Styrlay, vicar, 
and Henry Edward, curate of Eauceby, at a cost of 44 8s. 8d. 
"Holies Harl. MS. 6829." Holies observed the following 
armorial bearings in a window of the north aisle, viz : Gru, 3 
mullets arg, a label of 3 or, Hansard. Gu, 2 bars arg, in chief 
3 roundels erm. Arg, on a bend sa double cotised gu a chevron 
sa charged with 3 crosses botony of the first sa, a chevron between 
10 crosses botony arg, Kyme. Arg, 2 bars gu, in chief 3 
torteaux a bend sa, Threckingham. Arg, a chevron gu between 

3 . Arg, a fesse between 3 cinquefoils, Powtrel. He also 

noted down the following sepulchral inscriptions on stones within 
this church near the chancel : 

Hie Jacet Willus Powtrel de Eowsby, qui obiit 

Hie Jacet Elizabetha quondam uxor Blci Pinchbeck, que obiit 
18o die Septembris 1505, cujus &c. 

There are fragments of old painted glass in several of the 
nave windows, and the westernmost window of the north aisle is 
filled with modern glass by Lavers and Barraud. The east 
window of the chancel is filled with glass by Hughes, represent- 
ing the leading subjects of our Lord's life, and is a very good 
specimen of modern art. One of its south windows is also filled 
with painted glass. 

In the middle of the chancel pavement formerly stood the 
gravestone of William Styrlay, canon of Shelford, and vicar of 
Eauceby. This consisted of a massive grey marble slab in which 
were set brass plates engraved with the effigy and epitaph of that 
canon vicar ; but most unfortunately this was broken in pieces 
during the process of rebuilding the chancel, and the brass plates 



284 



NOETH EAUCEBY. 



now alone remain attached to the vestry wall. Most faithful 
representations of these are given in the accompanying wood 
cut, and the inscription runs thus in modern lettering : 
Hie Jacet Dus Willms Styrlay, quondam vicaris istius 
ecclesie et canonic 8 de Slielford, qui obiit iiii die mensis 
Decebris, Ano. Dni. MoCCCCOXXXlV, cujs aie 
ppicietur Deus. Amen. 

He was also commemorated by a painted glass window in the 
clerestory on the north side, bearing his arms, viz : Paly of 6 
Arg & az, in chief a cinquefoil gu, and the inscription : " Orate 
pro aia Willi Styrlay, vicarii, qui hane fenestram fieri fecit." 
Here also was the grave of his curate, marked by a slab thus 
simply inscribed : 

Hie Jacet Henri Edward, Curatus de Rawsby, qui obiit xi die 
Julii, Ano. Dni. 1552, &c. 

Near to this was the grave of a noted later vicar of Eauceby 
marked by a slab bearing this epitaph : 

To the memory of the Rev. JohnPugh, M.A., 29 years 
Vicar of the Parishes of Rauceby and Cranwell, who 
died April 26th, 1799, aged 56 years. 
Also of Ann his wife, who died May 10th, 1780, aged 
40 years. And of Sophia his relict, who died Sept. 
5th, 1803. 

Mr. Pugh was one of the founders of the Church Missionary 
Society, and a most earnest evangelical clergyman of high 
ministerial reputation, set as a spiritual light on Eauceby hill, in 
a time of ecclesiastical supineness, and resorted to by many for 
miles round desirous of profiting by his counsel, and receiving 
the holy communion from his hands, so that certain of the 
parishioners murmured at the cost of supplying the necessary 
amount of bread and wine. He was a stern disciplinarian, and 
insisted on public penance on the part of persons who had 
offended against the laws of morality ; and perhaps one of the 
latest instances of the enforcement of penance occurred at Eauceby 
through the instrumentality of this evangelical clergyman, viz : 
in the last quarter of the last centmy, John Dough, a very old 
man, still living in 1842, having told the author of this work 
that he remembered a frail woman standing in a sheet during 
divine service in Eauceby church, a& a penitential infliction, 
ordered by its then vicar, before he absolved her. 



NOETH EAUCEBY. 285 

The gravestone of such a man should surely have been 
venerated and carefully preserved over his grave , but it, like 
those of William Styrlay and his curate, has now disappeared, 
together with various mural monuments. One of these com- 
memorated the Eev. Thomas Spencer, vicar, who died 1729, aged 
55. Another, the Eev. William Gunnell, vicar, who died 1771, 
aged 59, his wife Mary, 1768, and their sons William and 
Peregrine, in holy orders. On a slab in the north aisle was the 
following touching inscription : 

In memory of the Eev. John Flavell, B.A., of Clare 
Hall, Cambridge, and of Cleobury Mortimer, Salop, 
aged 23 years. 

This very amiable pious person was ordained Deacon 
at Buckden, June 11, 1797, at that time very weak in 
body. On the day following he came hither, and on 
Sunday the 18th, took his happy flight hence rejoicing 
in his God and Saviour. 

One old monument however still remains, now erected over 
the entrance to the tower staircase. It bears the following very 
quaint epitaph : 

Near this place are interred the "Wives of Eichard Jessap ; viz : 

Alice on Sep. 27, 1716, aged 25. 
And Joanna, on Aug. 31, 1720, aged 29. 
How soon ye objects of my love 

By death were snatcht from me ; 
Two loving matrons they did pro^e, 

No better cou'd there be. 
One child the first left to my care, 

The other left me three ; 
Joanna was beyond compare, 

A Phoenix rare was she ; 
Heaven thought her sure too good to stay 

A longer time on earth, 
In childbed therefore as she lay, 
To God resign'd her breath. 
In Morte Quies. 

In pulling down the chancel of the 16th century it was found 
that many old tombstones of the 13th and 14th centuries had 
been used in its construction, as well as worked stones of the 
Early English period. These are described in the Archaeological 
Journal, vol. 10, pp. 63 and 162. 



286 



NORTH EAUOEBY. 



In the churchyard is the tombstone of an ecclesiastic, on 
the top of which is carved his effigy, clothed in eucharistic vest- 
ments, and holding a chalice in his hands. This is of the 14th 
century. 

At' the corner of the vicarage garden where the road to 
Ancaster branches from the one leading to South Rauceby has 
long stood the base of a village cross. This has of late years 
been supplied with a graceful shaft and finial, and constitutes a 
pleasing ornament to this village. 



SOUTH KAUCEBY. 

THIS adjoins North Eauceby, and is a distinct parish except 
for ecclesiastical purposes. 

The greater part of its land had belonged to Turvert before 
the Conquest. Subsequently his land was given to the Bishop of 
Durham and held of him by Aland his vassal, who had 15 soke- 
men, and 6 bordars ; he had also half the advowson of the church. 
South Bauceby was valued at 70s. in King Edward's time, after- 
wards at 60s. Subsequently Galfrid de Evermue held the third 
part of a knight's fee here by knight's service of the Bishop of 
Durham, he of the heir of Brune, and he of the King, Roger 
Kachet held the twelfth part of a knight's fee of William de 
Mortayn, and he of the Bishop of Lincoln, and William Perun 
was a tenant of the Templars. 

There was a chapel in South Eauceby dedicated to St. James, 
and in the gift of the Priory of Shelford. It stood a little to the 
north of this village, and on the east of the road leading to 
North Eauceby. Holies, about the year 1640, speaking of South 
Eauceby says : "In this place the church is down." 

Formerly a beacon stood near to Parham Dam, and a farm 
house called by that name. A younger branch of the Welby 
family was the principal land owner in this parish during the 
earlier part of the present century ; but before his death he sold 
his estate here to the late Anthony Willson, Esq., who built the 
present excellent house now possessed by his widow, which, by 
the aid of further purchases of land and judicious planting 
around it has become one of the most pleasing residences near 
Sleaford. 

In the time of Elizabeth the population of North and South 
Eauceby was nearly alike, in the former there having then been 
22 families, and in the latter 21 ; but now, although North 
Eauceby is sometimes called Great Eauceby, the population of 
South Eauceby is by far the most considerable. 



ROWSTON. 



ACREAGE, 
1833. 



POPULATION, 

224. 



THIS village lies 7J miles north, east of Sleaford. After the 
Conquest, when its name was spelt Rouestune, King 
Willliam gave its lands to Geoffrey Alselin, who granted a 
portion of them to two of his knights according to Domesday 
Book. In all he had 12 carucates and 150 acres of meadow, also 
32 sokemen cultivating 10 carucates ; but the whole was only 
valued at 20s, 

In the 1 3th century Geoffrey Alselin's lands here had passed 
into the hands of the de Calz family, when they consisted of 
half a knight's fee, and an eighth part of another. These were 
held by the Templars through the gift of Matilda de Calz ; then 
let by them to Philip de Eouston and Eichard West by knight's 
service. Five oxgangs here were then held by the Chapter of 
Lincoln to whom they had been given by Matilda de Calz, and 2 
oxgangs were held by the Prior of Catley, through the gift of 
Geoffrey de Calz. "Testa de Nevill." In 1275 the Prior of 
Haverholme held 5 oxgangs of land in this vill, 4 of which he 
let to Robert de la Grene for 20s. per annum, and the other to 
Robert Clerk at a rent of 3s. per annum. The first lot had been 
given to the Prior by Philip son of William de Scaupewyke, who 
had received it of Matilda de Calz, and she of the King ; and 
the last was the gift of Matilda herself, some 60 years previously. 

In 1287 died Robert de Everingham, lord paramount of part 
of this vill. "Inq. p. m. 15. E. I." In 1291 died William 
Eitzpiers seized of lands here. " Inq. p. m. 20. E. I." In 1321 
Hugo de Tighler or Tigheler, of Lincoln, paid the King a fine of 
5 marks for having acquired the manor of Rowston for life. 
" Ab. Rot. Orig. 15. E. 2." But this act led to litigation between 
him and Sir Adam de Everingham, of Laxton, and others ; and 
although he recovered possession of the manor in 1327, by re- 
cognizance, was disseized of it the following year by judgment of 



EOWSTON. 289 

the King's court at Lincoln. " Ab. Eot. Orig. 1 & 2 E. 3." In 
1550 Richard Huddleston was holding the manor of Rowston. 
Nine years later Robert, son of Geoffrey Huddleston, died seized 
of the manor and a capital messuage here, held of the King by 
military service. In 1560 died Geoffrey Huddleston seized of the 
manor, leaving a son Robert, who lived at Pinchbeck, and died 
1564. " Harl. MS. 6829." He was succeeded by his son Richard, 
who alienated the manor to William Ryvitt, citizen and mercer of 
London, by licence from the crown in 1569, except a small portion 
in the hands of Geoffrey Huddleston, consisting of a messuage, a 
cottage close containing 7 acres, called Crathe close, another 
called Lages or Sand close, and 16 acres of moor and marsh held 
of the King in chief by the service of an eleventh part of a 
knight's fee. " Pip. Rot. 16 J. 1." His son, John Huddleston, 
succeeded to these in 1618. Benjamin Thorold, Esq., is the 
owner of the greater part of this parish now. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

Matilda, daughter of Robert and Sibilla de Oalz, during her 
widowhood, and previous to 1176, gave the advowson of Rowston 
church to the Templars of Temple Bruer, whose House she in 
part founded. This gift was confirmed by her successor, Ralph 
Eitzpiers son of Stephen, the King's chamberlain, in 1177, and 
several members of the Everingham family. In 1185, Peter de 
Tilney paid to the Templars during his life from the church of 
this vill, the sum of 3 marks annually. 

In Bishop Neal's time, 1616, James Eivett was patron of 
the living, and the number of communicants was 70. " Willis's 
MS, f. 39." 

The following is a list of the vicars : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1562. Thomas Parker. 
1566. Edmund Hickson. 
1601. Christopher Hawes. 
1604. William Northan. 
1630. John Harrison. 
1686. John Lascells. 
1731. Andrew Graham, D.D. 
1759. John Gage. 
1770. Thomas Nocton. 



290 EOWSTON. 

Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1809. John Rawlins Deacon. 
1821 .Henry Clarke. 
1862. Thomas Cooper Lewty. 

THE CHURCH. 

The original design of this church, dedicated to St. Clement, 
may still be clearly detected. Built at an early period after the 
introduction of the Early English style, it consisted then, as it still 
does, of a nave, a very narrow and low north aisle, a remarkably 
small tower, a chancel, and a chantry chapel opening into it and 
the aisle. 

The principal doorway, nearly in the centre of the south wall 
of the nave, is well designed. The jambs are adorned with 
pillars having plain elongated caps and square abaci, whence 
springs a well-moulded arch ; the inner member is enriched by a 
band of the tooth ornament on a large scale cut on its chamfer. 
This doorway was not originally protected by a porch, but simply 
stood in the middle of a slight structural projection common in 
Norman churches. 

On the east of this is a pretty little window consisting of two 
minute lancets with a tiny circlet above originally cusped and 
surmounted by a delicately moulded hood-mould. On the west 
are the remains of a similar window, but through the removal of 
its mullion, &c. probably for the purpose of gaining more light 
it is now simply a wide lancet. 

In the south wall of the chancel are two plain lancets, the 
westernmost one being set at a lower level than the other, 
probably to serve as a low-side window. 

The east end has been rebuilt, and a very small poor little 
Tudor window has taken the place of the original Early English 
lights there. The roof is a poor modern one covered with tiles. 

On the north side of the chancel is a square parapeted ad- 
junct on the site of a chantry chapel, formerly used as a school- 
room, and now as a vestry. 

About the middle of the nave aisle wall is an Early English 
doorway, having necessarily a very depressed head from the 
extreme lowness of the wall in which it is placed. A string runs 
along the aisle wall, which is only interrupted by the later intro- 
duction of a flat headed Decorated window, circa 1320-40, 




ROWSTON CHURCH. 







4@ 

QNTARIQ 




BOWSTON. 291 

towards its western end. In its western wall beneath a semi- 
circular hood-mould is a pretty little quatrefoil light. In the 
west wall of the tower is a little light, and above this a single 
lancet with shafted jambs in each wall of the belfry chamber. 
This contains two small bells bearing the name of Humphery 
Wilkinson, of Lincoln, and the date 1622. The tower is finished 
with a corbelled cornice, whence now springs a coarsely executed 
crocketed spire, perhaps of the same late date as the east window 
of the chancel. The appearance of this miniature tower and 
spire is remarkable. The base mouldings of the former are bold 
and effective ; and probably it was at first covered only by a 
pyramidal or slightly conical roof. A striking addition was made 
to the nave of this church during the Perpendicular period, when 
its former roof was removed and a clerestory added. This is 
lighted with four three-li^ht windows on either side, and sur- 
mounted by an embattled and pinnacled parapet. 

On entering this church the beautiful Early English aisle 
arcade will first attract attention. This consists of four bays. 
At its west end is a circular bracket springing from a small 
foliated pillar cap, but swelling out into a feature sufficiently 
large to support the spring of the westernmost arch, and is en- 
riched with manifold mouldings. The corresponding bracket is 
of a similar but not identical character ; it springs from a little 
corbel surmounted by a man's head and has a little band of the 
nail-head ornament encircling it. The pillars of this arcade are set 
upon square sub-bases, and differ greatly in treatment. The 
westernmost one is circular, and has simply a well-moulded 
circular cap and base. The second consists of a cluster of four 
filleted members, with a bold band of the nail-head encircling 
the middle of its cap ; and the third has four filleted principal 
members of the keel-shape with subsidiary shafts between them. 
This is a very beautiful feature, and round the middle of its 
delicately worked cap a little band of the nail-head ornament is 
introduced. The two westernmost springing points of the hood- 
mould above this arcade are finished with circular bosses 
overlaid by a peculiar leaf resembling that of the horse-chestnut, 
and on the others are carved two male heads. The construction 
of the eastern face of the tower and its newel staircase partly 
projecting into the south-western angle of the nave is peculiar. 
On the north side at its point of junction with the aisle wall is a 




292 



ROWSTON. 



characteristic banded shaftlet, and in its angle nearly opposite is 
a shorter similar shaftlet. The Perpendicular font is, as usual, 
octangular in plan, and on its bowl Tudor flower devices are 
coarsely carved. Some slight remains of the chancel screen still 
stand within the Perpendicular chancel arch ; but both of these 
features are almost smothered by a vast painted timber super- 
structure filling up the whole of the arch above. Through the 
art of a local painter this displays the facade of some Classical 
Building, the Eoyal Arms, the Tables of Commandments, &c., 
and finally the arms of Mrs. Millicent Neate, together with an 
inscription stating that she was the donor of this huge specimen 
of art, and also of the fittings of the church generally, in the 
year 1741. 

The chancel, with its low ceiling and poor east window, is a 
most wretched feature. In its north wall is an Early English 
arch opening into the chantry chapel before alluded to, and also 
another opening into the aisle. The last is filled in with some 
old oak screen- work, perhaps taken from the one formerly in the 
chancel arch. In the north wall of this chapel is an acutely 
pointed recess. This appears to have been a single sedile in the 
1 3th century, but now constitutes a cupboard. The silver flagon 
and paten of this church were presented to it by Anne Lady 
Hodgson, in 1761. She was the daughter of Anthony Thorold, 
eldest son of Sir William Thorold, Bart., of Cranwell, and left 
lands for several charitable purposes, the benefit of which is still 
experienced by this and other parishes. 

When Holies visited this church the following armorial 
bearings remained in its windows, all of which have since 
disappeared, viz : in a south window of the chancel, Or, on a 
cross sable 3 bull's heads couped arg. Sa, on a chevron arg 3 
mullets pierced gu between 3 pheons arg, a chief gu charged 
with a cross arg ; and in the aisle windows, Arg on a bend sa 
3 owls of the first for Savile, with the fragment of a legend : 
" Savyle & Agnetis uxoris." " Orate pro bono statu Eobti 
Hodleston & Emmotso consortis suao." " Orate pro bono statu 
Johis Inman, & Johae consortis suse." " Orate pro bono statu 
Johis Inman, & Johse consortis suae." " Orate pro aie Willmi 
Grege & Alicieo consortis suse." Also the effigy of St. Egidius, 
-ZEgidius, or Giles, and beneath the figure of a man and this 
legend : " Tu tutus a cervii repellas cuncta proterva." 



ROXHOLM. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

880. 61. 

rr^HIS village lies 3 miles north east of Sleaford. In Domesday 
JL Book its name is spelt Rochesham ; it has also been called 
Roheston, Roxton, Roxtkom, Roxanne, and Roxham, now most 
improperly converted into Roxholm, instead of Roxham, as 
though it was an island instead of a hamlet. Prior to the Con- 
quest the Saxon Aldene had 2 carucates and 6 oxgangs of land, 
and 40 acres of meadow here. This was given by the Conqueror 
to Alured of Lincoln, who let the greater part of it to his vassal 
Ralph, under whom were 8 villans. The remainder of the land 
belonged to Outi's manor in Ruskington, which was given by the 
Conqueror to Geoffrey Alselin. This consisted of 3 carucates and 
6 oxgangs of land, sufficient for the same number of ploughs 
and oxen. Its value was 40s. in King Edward's time, and 
subsequently 50s. 

In the 13th century John de Baiocis had become possessed 
of the manor of Roxham, as part of the Barony of that name, of 
whom, and probably of his heirs, several generations of the de 
Gowshull family held it, viz : Egidius de Gowshull who obtained 
a right of free warren here 1258 ; Ralph de Gowshull circa 1270, 
whose land was reckoned at two parts of a knight's fee ; Peter, 
who died 1286 ; and Ralph 1295 ; but at length it passed into 
the hands of Philip le Despenser, through his marriage with 
Margaret de Gowshull. He died 1314. By him she had a son 
and heir Philip, and then married John de Roos, who died 1338. 
She finally died in 1350, and her son Philip le Despenser also 
died the same year. Previous to this, viz: in 1290, William 
Bardolf died seized of lands here in right of his manor of Rus- 
kington, as did Hugo de Bardolf in 1304. Then Henry de Bello 
Monte, or Beaumont, possessed them, who died 1376. In 1441 
died William Philip, Kt., seized of the vill of Roxholm in right 
of his wife, one of the Bardolf co-heirs. " Inq. p. m. 19 H. 6." 

W 



294 



BOXHOLM. 



Next Hugh Basynges, Kt., was seized of the manor here, who 
died 1446. "Ibid. 24 H. 6." In 1454 Anna, relict of Sir 
Reginald Cobham, Kt., died seized of half this vill. In 1478 died 
Margaret, wife of Boger Wentworth, and relict of John Lord 
Boos, seized of the Despenser manor here. In 1560 Simon 
Freeman was holding some lands in Boxholm, and in 1569 William 
Thorold died possessed of a fifth part of 4 messuages, 130 acres 
of land, 70 of meadow, 50 of pasture, and a small rent in Eoxholm, 
leaving a son Anthony. In 1573 John Bushy and others, then in 
possession of the manor of Eoxholm, had to prove their title to 
the same. Soon after, this passed into the hands of William 
Thompson, who, as well as five generations after him, were small 
squires or gentlemen here. The last of these, William, died in 
1710, soon after which it was bought by Mr. Barry Neale, and 
subsequently by the late Wyrley Birch, Esq. It has now just 
again once more changed owners, having been purchased by Mr. 
J. M. Qole, late of Eothwell, Northamptonshire. In 1627 the 
Blackthorn farm in Eoxholm, consisting of 126 acres of land, was 
in the possession of the Carre family, and had probably been 
bought by Eobert Carre in the previous century. It is now the 
property of the Marquis of Bristol. The house in which the 
Thompsons lived still has an air of respectability about it from its 
mullioned windows, &c., and until very lately two very fine yew 
trees stood in front of it, but it is now only a farm house ; and a 
larger house has been built upon the property. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

There was once a chapel here, annexed to the church of 
Leasingham. This still existed in 1 560, but has long since passed 
away. It probably stood close to the old manor house, but its 
exact site can not now be ascertained. The circular head of a 
tombstone, on which is cut an elaborate cross in relief, and part 
of an octangular shaft, each face being hollowed, were found 
within the last few years at Eoxholm, and probably belonged to 
this chapel. 



RUSKINGTON. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

4700. 1089. 

THIS large village lies 4 miles north north east of Sleaford, 
and has the advantage of a little stream of pure water 
flowing through it, which divides it into two nearly equal parts. 
This is supplied from two sources, one rising close to the site of 
Dunsby Hall, near to the Sleaford and Lincoln road, the other 
at Brauncewell, which, after uniting westward of Ruskington, 
and running through Ruskington, discharges into the Sleaford 
canal near Haverholme. 

Last year some Saxon remains were found here in digging 
gravel about 20 yards north east of the windmill, where many 
human bones had previously been found without exciting any 
attention, but which, from the evidence now afforded, may 
certainly be termed a Saxon cemetery. Here two skeletons were 
found that had been laid in the same grave one over the other, 
the skull of the lower one lying to the east, and that of the upper 
one to the west. With one of these was interred an iron spear 
head, 8 inches long, in the socket of which still remained a 
portion of its ash shaft, and undoubtedly of Saxon make. 

In Domesday Book Ruskington is called Rechintone and 
Risehintone. We also gather from that record that Tochi had 
12 carucates here, afterwards given to Geoffrey Alselin. He kept 
2 of these in demesne, and had 22 sokemen cultivating 3 carucates 
and 2 oxgangs, 8 villans and 8 bordars cultivating 8 carucates, 
60 acres of meadow, and 240 acres of woodland with some pasture 
intermixed. Its annual value in King Edward's time was 25, 
and subsequently double that sum ; but was only taxed at 10. 
Drogo held 6 oxgangs of this land, worth 20s. a year, and Adestan 
appears to have been his tenant. Here also were 3 mills worth 
4 12s. 8d. a year. It had sokes in Leasingham, Roxholm, 
Dorrington, Digby, Rowston, Brauncewell, Dunsby, North and 
South Rauceby ; and berewicks in Anwick and Evedon. 



296 RUSKINGTON 

Ralph, the grandson of Geoffrey Alselin succeeded to this 
and all his other numerous possessions, and in 1150-60 he gave to 
the Nuns, and Clerical and Lay Brethren of Haverholme Priory, 
Ruskington wood, and all the plow lands belonging to him 
eastward of that wood,* 22 acres of land in Colelaunde, a manse 
on Ruskiugton moor, pasturage on the common for 500 sheep 
and 40 beasts, pasturage for all their stock throughout his fee in 
this vill, as much flag thatch for their houses from the marshes 
as they could take thence, two tofts in Ruskington, a forrery 
(headland) near the same, and pasturage for 60 sheep, 4 beasts, 
and ^ draft horses, also another forrery. This gift deed was 
witnessed by Humfrey the Sub-dean, and Hamo the Chancellor 
of Lincoln. It was subsequently confirmed by Robert de Calz 
in a deed quoted by Holies, and running thus : 

" Robt. de Calz and his wife to the Archdeacon, the Dean, 
and the Chapter of St. Mary at Lincoln, and to all the faithful 
of the Holy Church, health, &c. 

"Whereas by advice and authority, things which have been 
collected in alms for the Holy Church it is very useful to confirm, 
we therefore implore your clemency that ye will benignly hear 
this Chapter, and cause it to be confirmed by your consent. 
Know that we have granted and given in alms to the holy Nuns 
of Haverholme the Grove of Ruskington and 5 acres of arable 
land called Ruckhill, for the souls of our father and mother, and 
all our relations, in free and perpetual alms, in the presence of 
Isabella de Ferrars, and Geoffrey the Chaplain, and John de 
"Westboro, and others." These gifts to Haverholme Priory were 
subsequently ^confirmed, and added to by Robert and Matilda de 
Calz's successors at Ruskington the Everinghams. Ralph 
Anselin the elder or younger also gave to the Nuns of Haver- 
holme a foot road on his lands in Ruskington, liberty to dig for 
sand on his part of Ruskington moor, to repair roads with, and 
for building purposes, together with the right of fishery in all his 
waters at Ruskington and Anwick. He also gave them Robert, 
son of Hals, of Levesingham, his bondman, and all his chatties 
and homage. 

Ralph Anselin also bestowed lands in Ruskington upon the 
Templars of Temple Bruer, which, in 1185, were let as follows : 
Reginald held 1 oxgang and a toft at a rent of 3s., 4 hens, and 
4 days' work ; John, a parson, held a toft at a rent of 12d., 4 



RUSKINGTON. 297 

hens, and 4 days' work ; Adam Belle held half a toft at a rent of 
20d., 4 hens, and 4 days' work ; Robert, son of Een, held half a 
toft at a rent of 16d., 4 hens, and 4 days' work ; and Rocelinus, 
the smith, held a toft at a rent of 12d., 4 hens, and 4 days' work. 

In the 12th century the fee of Anselin was reckoned at 2 
knight's fees, when one was held by William Bardolf and the 
other by Robert de Everingham, both being descendants of the 
Anselins. Robert had then let his lands to John de Everingham, 
anddiedin 1287. "Inq. p. m. 15 E. 1." William Bardolf obtained 
the right of holding a market and two fairs here in 1272, and 
died possessed of the whole manor in 1290 ; Hugh Bardolf 
died in 1304, and Thomas Bardolf in 1328. Agnes, the wife of 
Thomas Bardolf, next held the manor, perhaps during the 
minority of her son John, and died in 1353. John Bardolf, of 
Wrymagye, died seized of the manor of Ruskington with its 
members in Digby, Anwick, Leasingham, Bloxholm and Braunce- 
well, in 1371. In 1383 William Bardolf, Kt., gave this manor 
and a mediety of the advowson of the church to his son Thomas 
and Amicia his wife, daughter and co-heir of Ralph Cromwell, 
"Inq. p. m. 6 R. 2," and died five years later. In 1397 died 
Thomas Mortymer, Kt., seized of the manor here then forfeited, 
"Inq. p, m. 21 R. 2," and in 1403-4 Agnes, wife of William 
Bardolf, Kt., seized of a third part of it. In 1441 died William 
Phelip, Kt., husband of Johanna, one of the Bardolf co-heirs, who 
died in 1447 seized of half of this manor and its members in 
Dorrington, Digby, Leasingham, Dunsby, Anwick, Brauncewell 
and Sleaford. "Inq. p. m. 25 H. 6." In 1454 died Anna, relict 
of Reginald Cobham, Kt., seized of the manor. On the attainder 
of William Beaumont Yiscount Bardolf in 1462, all his lands 
here were forfeited to the Crown, and consigned to the keeping 
of Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury, and George, Bishop of 
Exeter. These were eventually restored to Lord Beaumont ; but 
on the rebellion of Francis Lovel Viscount Beaumont in 1487, 
and his attainder after the battle of Stoke-upon-Trent, were 
again forfeited to the Crown. 

As the families of Bardolf, Calz and Everingham are 
immediately connected with the parish of Ruskington, and 
reference is made to various members of the same in other parts 
of this volume, it will perhaps be acceptable to give a brief 
account of them here. 



2 o 8 ( EUSKINGTON. 

Thomas, son of Dodo Bardolf, and younger brother of a 
second Dodo, married Eohesia, eldest daughter and co-heir of 
Ealf Alselin the younger, grandson of Geoffrey Alselin, to whom 
the Conqueror gave the manor of Euskington. Their son Dodo, 
born 1167, married Beatrice, daughter and heir of William de 
Warren, and possessor of the manor of Wormigay, who, after 
her first husband's death 1290-1, married Hubert de Burgh. 
William, Dodo's son, born 1195, was subsequently knighted, and 
held Nottingham Castle from 1255 to 1263. He was a large 
landed proprietor, as declared by a grant of free warren given to 
him in Euskington, Eoxholm, Anvvick, Brauncewell, Thorpe, 
Digby and Leasingham, in 1252. He married Juliana, daughter 
of Almiric de Spencer, and Anabella daughter of Walter de 
Chesney, and died 1275. He was succeeded by his son William 
Bardolf, who married Juliana, daughter and heir of Hugh de 
Gournay, and died seized of the manors of Euskington, Filling- 
ham, Westborough and Blyborough, 1296. He was succeeded 
by his second son Hugh Bardolf, born circa 1260, his eldest son, 
Eoger, having predeceased him. Hugh was summoned to Parlia- 
ment as Baron Bardolf from 1299 to 1302. He married Isabel, 
daughter and heir of Eobert Aguillon, and died 1304. He was 
succeeded by his son Thomas, second Baron Bardolf, born 1283, 
and summoned to Parliament from 1307 to 1331. His wife's 
name was Agnes, and he died seized of the manor of Euskington 
and its members*, and of the manors of Westborough and 
Pillingham 1331, when his widow held them until her death in 
1353. John, third Baron Bardolf, son of William, younger 
brother of Thomas, succeeded to the family estates. He was born 
1313, and summoned to Parliament from 1336 to 1372. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Eoger Damony, 
by Elizabeth de Burgh, and died 1372-3 seized of the manors of 
Euskington, Westborough and Caythorpe, the last in right of 
his wife. He was succeeded by his son William, fourth Baron 
Bardolf, a minor at the time of his father's death, when his 
Wardship was purchased by Sir Michael Poynings, whose 
daughter Agnes he eventually married. He was summoned to 
Parliament from 1376 to 1386. He lived at Bardolf Hall, Cay- 
thorpe, and in 1383 enfeoffed his son Thomas and Amicia his 
wife with the manor of Euskington and half its advowson, also 
with the manors of Caythorpe, Wesborough and Fillingham, and 



KUSKINGTON. 299 

left to him an additional precious legacy in the form of a frag- 
ment of the true cross set in gold. He died September 12th, 
1384, and was buried in the choir of the church of the Carmelites, 
at Lynn. His son Thomas, fifth Baron Bardolf, born 1369, 
espoused the cause of Henry Earl of Northumberland, and conse- 
quently was forced to flee from England, but returning after 
three years, was slain at Bramham Moor in 1408, when his body 
was quartered and exposed in various towns, and his head was 
set up over one of the gates of Lincoln. He married Hawise or 
Amise, daughter and co heir of Ralph de Cromwell, who died 
March 10th, 1408-9. He left two co-heir daughters, Anne and 
Johanna. The first married Sir William Clifford, Kt., who died 
1418, and subsequently Sir Eeginald Cobham. She died child- 
less 1454, seized of the manors of Caythorpe and "Westborough, 
and the vills of Frieston, Normanton, Sudbrook, Willoughby, 
half of Ancaster, Leasingham, Roxholm, Digby and Anwick. 
Johanna married Sir William Phelip, created Lord Bardolf, who 
died June 6th, 1441. She died 1447, seized of the above-named 
manors and those of Doddington and Stubton. Her only heiress 
daughter, Elizabeth, married Sir John Beaumont in 1436, created 
Yiscount Beaumont 1440, and slain at the battle of Northampton 

1460. They had three children, Henry, who died in infancy, 
William, seventh Baron Bardolf and second Yiscount Beaumont, 
and Johanna. William was born at Edenham 1439. He fought 
at Towton fight on the Lancastrian side, and was taken prisoner 

1461, after which his estates were confiscated, but were restored 
to him by Henry VII., November 7th, 1485. He married Joan, 
daughter of Humphrey Stafford Duke of Buckingham, and 
secondly Elizabeth Scroop relict of John de Yere Earl of Oxford, 
but had no issue by either. He died October 22nd, 1506, when 
the Barony went into abeyance, and the Yiscounty expired. 
Johanna married John Lord Lovel, of Titmarsh, Northamp- 
tonshire, and died before her brother Lord Beaumont. She 
had three children, Francis Yiscount Lovel, who perished 
miserably at Minster Lovel after the battle of Stoke-upon- 
Trent, 1487 ; Johanna married to Sir Brian Stapleton, of 
Carlton ; and Frideswide married to Sir Edward Norreys. 
The Bardolf armorial bearings were Az, 3 cinquefoils or. 
Those of Phelip quarterly Gu & Arg an eagle displayed or 
in the first quarter. 



300 RUSKINGTON. 

"Walter de Calz, Forester of the counties of Notts, and 
Derby, a tenant of Ralph Alselin, and most probably his son-in- 
law, eventually shared his lands with his grandson Ralph. His 
son Robert thus became the owner of half the Alselin lands in 
Ruskington, and of half the church which he gave to Haverholme 
Priory. He married Isabella, daughter of Richard Earl Ferrers, 
and second Sibilla daughter of Richard Bassett, and died circa 
1185. He left an only heiress daughter Matilda, the famous 
benefactress of several Religious Orders, and foundress of the 
Templar House at Temple Bruer. It is thought that she 
had three husbands ; but the first recorded is Adam Fitzpiers, 
lord of Birken, Yorkshire, and the second Ralph Fitz- Stephens,, 
the King's Chamberlain. In 1222-3 her lands in the counties of 
Lincoln, Leicester, Notts, and York, were seized by the King on 
account of her non attendance during his Welsh campaign. She 
was buried in Brompton church, near Chesterfield, where her 
monument still remains. Adam and Matilda Fitzpiers had six 
children, viz : John, Peter, Roger, William, Robert, and Juliana. 
John Fitzpiers or John de Birkin, warden of the forests of Notts. 
and Derby, by Johanna his wife had two children, Thomas and 
Isabel. Thomas died without issue in 1231, when Isabel became 
his heir, the wife of Sir Robert de Everingham, Kt., who gave 
the manor of Temple Bruer to the Knights Templars, and died 
circa 1,251. Thus the Alselin lands in Ruskington were trans- 
mitted by marriage, first to the de Calz's, then to the Fitzpiers' s, 
and next to the de Everinghams. Sir Robert de Everingham 
had three sons, Sir Adam, John, to whom his mother gave 
the manor of Birken and advowson of its church, and Robert in 
holy orders presented to the rectory of Birken by his brother 
John. Sir Adam paid his relief for his lands 1252, and attended 
Edward I. into Scotland. He held a knight's fee in Claypole, 
which he granted to Adam de St. Lando and Roger de Cressy, 
and died seized of the manor of Westborough 1280-1. He left 
two sons, Sir Robert and Sir Adam. The first, born circa 1257, 
confirmed the gifts of his ancestress Matilda de Calz or Fitzpiers 
to the Templars, and married Lucy, daughter and heir of Robert 
de Thwenge, a lady of light conduct who was divorced from 
William de Latimer, junior, and had a natural son by Nicholas 
de Meinil, also called Nicholas, who acquired a Barony by sitting 
in Parliament from 1336 to 1343, which descended to his daughter 



EUSKINGTON. 301 

Elizabeth, married first to John Lord Darcy, and subsequently to 
Peter de Mauley. Sir Eobert de Everingham died 1287, and 
was succeeded by his brother Sir Adam, and sat in Parliament 
from 1309 to 1316. He alienated the manor of Westborough 
to a member of the Barony of Shelford in 1310. He resided at 
Fillingham, dispossessed Hugh de Tigler of the manor of 
Houston, and died 1342. By Margaret his wife he left six 
children, viz : his successor Sir Adam, Eobert, Alexander, 
Edward, Nicholas, and Margaret a nun of Brodholme. Sir 
Adam, born 1312, was one of the commissioners for cleansing 
the river Axholme, 1357, and married Johanna, daughter of 
John de Eyville. He died seized of the manor of Westborough 
in 1372 according to Dugdale, but most probably not until 1388. 
He had two sons William alias Adam, and Eeginald. William 
married Alice, daughter of John Lord Grey, of Codnor, and died 
in his father's life-time, 1370. He had one son, Robert, who 
died without issue 137!, and two daughters, Johanna, born 
1363, married to Sir William Elys, and had a son Eobert. 
The other daughter, Katharine, born 1366, married Sir John 
Etton, and had a son Milo Etton or Elton, whose daughter 
and heir married John Eoos. The armorial bearings of Calz are 
Sa, a chevron arg between 3 fleurs de lys of the same. Of Fitz- 
piers, Arg, a fesse az, a label of 6 gu. Of Everingham, Gu, a 
lion rampant vairee az & arg crowned or. 

Eeturning to the history of Euskington, we find that after 
its earlier noble possessors had passed away, one of the numerous 
merchant families that became prominent after the desolating 
Wars of the Eoses, became connected with this parish, viz : Sir 
John Hussey, Kt., who in 1509 was appointed steward of the 
manor by a patent dated at Greenwich, July 27th, in that year, 
and had previously held that office under Lord Beaumont and 
John, Earl of Oxford. In 1514 the manor was granted to 
Thomas Lord Howard, Admiral of England, for the services he 
had rendered to his father, Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, at the 
battle of Branston. In 1528 died John Everingham, Kt., leaving 
a son and heir Henry, born 1507, seized of a manor here with 
appurtenances in Thorpe and Timberland. Sir Thomas Johnson 
next possessed it, and in 1544 died Thomas Johnson, of Lyndeby, 
Yorkshire, seized of this manor, who bequeathed it to his wife 
Isabel and William Skrjmsher for the term of 26 years, with 



302 



EUSKINGTON. 



remainder to his son Arthur Johnson for life, Henry Johnson 
being his heir. " Dods worth MS. 99. f. 234." Subsequently 
this Arthur Johnson was made to shew cause why he held the 
manor of Euskington. " Originalia Exchequer." In 1544 
Edward Lord Clinton obtained a licence to alienate the manor of 
Euskington to Eobert Carre and his heirs, " Harl. MS. 6829." ; 
but in 1556 Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, is said in the same docu- 
ment to have been holding the manor of the Queen in capite by 
free service 

In 1569 William Thorold held half the manor with its 
appurtenances of the Queen, as did Anthony Thorold after him. 

In 1659 William Watson left 2 per annum, partly to the 
poor, partly towards the repair of the church of Euskington, but 
as this was secured on Lord Widdrington's estate, it was lost on 
his attainder in 1715. Mrs. Martha Chamberlain who died in 
1709, and was buried in the chancel of the church during that 
year, left 40s. yearly for instructing 10 poor children of Eusking- 
ton ; and Ann Thorold, Lady Hodgson widow of Sir Thomas 
Hodgson, of Eowston, who died in 1719, left certain lands in 
Euskington in trust, partly to be applied to the building and 
maintenance of 3 alms houses and their inmates, to consist of 
3 poor women of Eowston or Euskington, partly to put out 
apprentices, and partly to aid in educating the boys of those 
parishes. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



When Domesday Book was compiled there was a church 
served by a priest here. 

At a very early period, as now, there were two medieties of 
the church, Eobert de Calz the elder, husband of Matilda so 
noted for her numerous benefactions having given one mediety 
of the church here to the Nuns and Brethren of Haverholme, and 
towards the relief of the poor. 

An acre-and-a-half of arable land in the plains of Eusking- 
ton were left by an unknown person for the support of a lamp to 
be kept ever burning in the church. This was appropriately 
called Lamp Land, and valued at 7d. per annum at the sup- 
pression, when it was held by John Brian, the vicar. 




RUSKINGTON. 303 

In 1616 the rectory was valued at 30 a year and the 
vicarage at 8 a year, when the communicants were 231. 
" Willis's MS. f. 39." 

The following is a list of the rectors as far as can now be 
ascertained : 

Circa 1229.- Walter de Kantebury, presented by William 

Bardolf. 
1535. William Pell. 

. John Owen. 
1616. William Willemont, presented by the Earl of 

Suffolk. 

1662. Frederick Jack. 
1668. Edward Stokes. 
1707. William Wyche. 
1718 Francis Lascelles. 
1738. Joseph Eyre. 
1780. Joseph Arnall Eyre. 
1781. Irton Murthwaite. 
1794. John Myers. 
1832. Charles John Myers. 
1871 .Arthur Myers. 
Vicars : 

1535. John Bray. 
1547. John Brian. 
1616. William Willdeton. 
1738. Joseph Eyre. 
1781. Joseph Arnall Eyre. 
1793. John Eymer. 
1804. John Nelson. 
1845. James Heckford. 
1867. Grover Scarr. 

The earliest Register is thus entitled : "A Register book 
containinge all the mariages whiche haue happened within the 
pishe of Ruskington since the beginninge of the Raigne of our 
most gracious Souigne Lady queene Elizabethe." 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated to All Saints, and consists of a tower, nave, 
north and south aisles, south porch and chancel. The earliest 



304 



EUSKINGTON. 



feature is the tower arch, circa 1150, which so often survives the 
loss of a coeval nave and chancel. Its piers rise from square 
stilted bases in the form of a main circular shaft and subsidiary 
ones having scalloped cushion caps, whence springs a semicircular 
headed arch of two plainly chamfered members. About 1220 
the church appears to have been rebuilt, the south arcade, south 
doorway and chancel arch being of that period. This arcade 
consists of three bays, in which great variety of treatment is 
displayed. Its pillars and responds spring from wide circular 
sub-bases, and the plain elongated bells of their caps bespeak 
their early date in the First Pointed period. The western respond 
has a massive keel-shaped shaft. The pillar next to this is of a 
curved lozenge form, having circular shafts at the angles, and 
square features between them. The next pillar is a most 
beautiful one composed of four circular and four keel-shaped 
shafts, the latter having a row of the tooth ornament set widely 
apart on each of its faces. The eastern respond consists of a 
keel-shaped shaft flanked by circular filleted shafclets, between 
which are rows of the tooth ornament set close together. Its 
cap has been beautifully foliated, but much of its ornamental 
work is now destroyed. The chancel arch, of the same character 
and date as the south arcade, is deficient in elevation, and far 
inferior in beauty and richness to the contemporary south door- 
way. Its jambs are N worked into filleted keel-shaped pillars, 
whence springs a most richly and delicately-moulded arch, having 
three rows 6f the tooth ornament introduced at intervals between 
its mouldings. The next feature in order of date is the north 
aisle, which corresponds generally with its companion aisle, and 
is also Early English, but of later date and purer style, although 
perhaps less attractive. Its design, however, and its mouldings 
generally, but especially those of its clustered keel-shaped pillar 
bases are excellent. Its arches are plainly chamfered. In the 
west wall of this aisle is a little cusped quatrefoil and the head 
of one of the windows it originally surmounted, but the rest 
of this is now either destroyed or concealed by masonry 
filling it up. At the east end of the south aisle is a large 
Decorated window, and during the prevalence of the Perpen- 
dicular style two good windows were inserted in the side wall 
of each of the aisles, and one of three lights in the east wall of the 
northern aisle, still retaining some few fragments of broken glass. 



EUSKINGTON. 



At the north east angle of the nave is a rude recess in the wall, 
apparently occupied once by a statue niche belonging to a 
chapel there, and as many as six small statue brackets in the 
east wall of the opposite aisle give evidence of the former 
existence of a chapel there also. A late doorway of the Tudor 
or Stuart period remains in the west wall of the south side, but 
is now filled in with masonry, and the little subsidiary building 
to which it gave access is destroyed, but the weathering of its 
lean-to room still remains on the face of the aisle wall. The 
font is an octangular specimen of the Perpendicular period. On 
one of its panels the instruments of our Lord's crucifixion are 
carved, and on another appears the pillar of flagellation flanked 
by a sword and some other emblem, perhaps the pelican. About 
six feet has been cruelly abstracted from the east end of the 
chancel, and a plain square-headed transomed light was inserted 
in its new east wall of a late Tudor or Stuart character ; this is 
more to be regretted as the character of the chancel is otherwise 
excellent. It is of a pure simple Early English type, having two 
long lancet lights on the north side, one similar one towards the 
west end of the south elevation, and another shorter one nearly 
over a coeval door still retaining a portion of its original iron 
work. Besides these there is a well-moulded lancet-headed low- 
side window towards the west end of the north and south walls. 
One sedile remains in the south wall, and a fragment of another 
has been forced to aid in the construction of an aumbry-like 
recess opposite to it. A large oak chest effectively carved, of 
the commencement of the 1 6th century, now stands in the tower. 
Holies observed the following armorial bearings in the windows 
of this church when he visited it, viz : Arg a fess Az, a label of 
5 points G-. Everingham, impaling Az a cross patonce voided Arg, 
Melton, the same reversed, probably only through the accidental 
reversal of the shield, Everingham alone, Grules, a chevron 
between 10 crosses crosslet Or, Kyme, and Az 3 cinquefoils Or, 
Bardolf ; but these are now all gone. The tower, which was 
originally Norman, had probably been at least partially rebuilt, 
and certainly was surmounted by a spire ; but unable to bear 
such a burden it fell in 1618, and was rebuilt in its present 
form, in 1620, which date is cut upon its southern face. 
Assistance to repair this calamity was sought for beyond the 
parish, of which the following record still remains in the church- 
wardens accounts of St. Martin's, Lincoln : 



306 



EUSKINGTON. 



"In 1618 the inhabitants of R-usldngton obtained a brief 
for collecting money towarde the building of there steeple. It 
was presented to the churchwardens of St. Martin's, in the city 
of Lincoln, December ye xxvii that year, John Wallor & Robert 
Storr being then churchwardens." 

The tower contains three bells, bearing the following 
legends : " God save our church, our Queen and .Realm " ; " Jhs 
be our spede " ; " Campana sacina fiat." In 1862 this church 
was judiciously restored, when its former flat roof was exchanged 
for the present high-pitched one, and it was reseated. 

A 1 4th century stone coffin lid surmounted by the effigy of 
a priest vested, now lies near the tower in the churchyard. 



TEMPLE BEUEE. 

HE name and remains of a Templar establishment on Lincoln 
JL Heath, which was afterwards possessed by the Hospitallers, 
or knights of St. John of Jerusalem, will probably lead to a desire 
for a slight sketch of those once famous Orders ; so that before 
describing the past history and present remains of Temple 'Bruer 
the following little account of those Fraternities will perhaps be 
acceptable : 

The famous semi-religious, semi-military order of the 
Templars was founded A.D. 1118, during the period of the first 
crusade, and consisted originally of nine French knights, whose 
object was to protect all pilgrims on their way to the Holy 
Sepulchre at Jerusalem. At first its members voluntarily lived 
in a condition of the strictist poverty, depending for their sub- 
sistence solely upon the alms of the faithful, and were termed 
"Poor Knights " a condition referred to by one of their seals, 
on which two knights are pourtrayed riding upon one horse. 
Baldwin II. assigned to them a portion of his palace at Jerusalem ; 
and the abbot of the adjoining convent of the Temple afforded 
further accommodation for their use, whence they derived their 
appellation of "Templars." In 1128 they assumed a white 
mantle as their distinctive habit, with the sanction of Pope 
Honorius II. ; to which a red cross on the left breast was added 
by the direction of Eugenius III. in 1 1 66, when they also began to 
bear the same emblem on their banners. This occurred shortly 
after a more strictly religious element had been infused into the 
Order by a bull of Pope Alexander III., in 1162, who then pre- 
mitted the admission of spiritual members into this society, 
termed " chaplains " ; after which, if not before, it began to 
observe the rule of the canons regular of St. Austin. The fame 
of the Templars, and their feats of arms in the Holy Land, now 
soon became so great, that not only many scions of the noblest 
houses of France and England flocked to their standard, but 
multitudes of a lower grade so earnestly begged to be enrolled 



308 TEMPLE BETTER. 

as humble members of the society that a third class was added 
to it, acting as servitors to the knights ; whilst offerings were 
poured into its treasury, and many broad lands were made over 
to its use in various parts of Europe, so extensively, that it soon 
became as celebrated for its wealth as it had been at first 
remarkable for its poverty. The society was governed by a 
Grand Master, aided by other officers resident in Palestine, until 
A.D. 1192, and afterwards in Cyprus, and by Grand Preceptors 
in other countries, each of which was termed a Province of the 
Order. The Templars first obtained a footing in England in the 
early part of Stephen's reign, at a spot termed "The Old Temple," 
very near the present Southampton Buildings in London ; but 
removed to another site A.D. 1185, celebrated for that beautiful 
circular church once connected with this Order, still called " The 
Temple Church." 

The wealth of the society, however, at length having led to 
much corruption of character on the part of many of its members, 
it began to be viewed with a jealous, and finally with a hostile 
eye, as well by the nobles as by the monarchs of France and 
England; so that, all sorts of exaggerated accusations having 
been brought against it, whereby it was attempted to be shown 
that its further existence was dangerous to those nations, Philip 
IY. of France, Sept. 12th, 1307, arrested every Templar in his 
dominions, and threw them into prison, whence he brought them 
to trial at intervals during the four following years with the 
sanction of the Pope, when fifty-four knights were sentenced to 
be burnt, and their whole property was confiscated. At the same 
time Edward II. exercised nearly the same degree of severity 
towards the Templars established in England, who both im- 
prisoned their persons, and seized their estates, although he does 
not appear to have put any of them to death ; and on March the 
22nd, 1312, Clement Y. abolished this society altogether, when 
it was found to be possessed of 9000 manors and 16,000 lordships, 
besides other lands, situated in various parts of Christendom. 
After an interval of some years, Edward II. A.D. 1324, made a 
grant of the whole property possessed by the Templars to another 
similar society, termed the " Knights Hospitallers," whose origin 
it will now be necessary to refer to. 

Certain traders of Amalfi having obtained leave of the Caliph 
of Egypt to build a church, and monastery for the Latins, near 



TEMPLE BETTER. 309 

the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, dedicated the establishment to 
St. Mary of the Latins, and committed to its inmates the care of 
the sick, and the poor pilgrims then resorting in great numbers 
to that sacred city ; to which was shortly added an hospital, or 
reception-house, together with a chapel, dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist, erected through the proceeds of the offerings and 
gifts of more wealthy pilgrims made to the community. But 
it was not until the Christians became masters of Jerusalem 
that the Hospitallers formed themselves into a distinct society ; 
at which time, A.D. 1099, Grerard and others, who then were 
the curators of the sick of this hospital, took a vow that 
they would perpetually defend the Holy Sepulchre, wage war 
against the infidel, and observe the rule of St. Austin ; they then 
also began to assume a white cross, which they wore on their 
breasts as the badge of their new Order. From this time they 
were termed 1 Knights of the Hospital, or of St. John, from their 
patron saint ; and in 1154 they procured a bull in their favour 
from Anastasius IV., the predecessor of that distinguished and 
sole British pontiff, Adrian IV., whereby they were exempted 
from the payment of tithes on all their lands, wherever situated, 
on the ground of their having been bequeathed to them for the 
support of the pilgrims and the poor ; and by the same bull 
Anastasius forbade the publication of all episcopal interdicts, 
suspensions, or excommunications in any of the churches 
belonging to their Order ; allowed them to have divine service 
performed in their churches with the doors shut, even in places 
that were under a general interdict ; to receive priests and 
clerks to officiate in their churches from what diocese soever they 
came, and to keep them even without the consent of their 
respective Bishops, as being subject to none so long as they 
continued with them, except their Chapter and the Apostolic 
See ; to have their churches and altars consecrated, their clerks 
ordained, and the sacraments administered by the Bishop of the 
diocese, if he should be willing to perform those functions with- 
out fee or reward, but if he required the least acknowledgment, 
to avail themselves of the services of any other Bishops they 
should think fit ; and, lastly, he confirmed to them all the lord- 
ships, lands, and territories they possessed, or ever should 
acquire, on either side of the sea, in Asia or in Europe, but for- 
bade the knights, after they had taken the cross and made their 

X 



310 



TEMPLE BKUER. 



profession, to return to the world, or to enter any other religious 
Order. Raymond de Podio was at this time Grand Prior of the 
Order ; but he and his knights appear to have so presumed upon 
these extraordinary marks of the Papal favour, that only two 
years afterwards, viz : in 1156, when Adrian had succeeded to the 
Papal chair, Pulcher, Patriarch of Jerusalem, attended by six 
Bishops, went to Home in person, although nearly 100 years of 
age, for the purpose of pouring out a series of bitter complaints 
against the Hospitallers, wherein he accused them of having 
abused the Papal privileges, insulted him and his Bishops, and 
engrossed all the benefactions of the faithful ; so that they 
besought him to rescind, or at least to modify, the bull of his 
predecessor. Pulcher, however, does not appear to have obtained 
his request, / although the subject was discussed in council for 
several days ; and it is curious to find that Temple Bruer, 
amongst other old possessions of the Hospitallers, after the lapee 
of so many centuries and the occurrence of great religious and 
political changes, still remains exempt from the payment of tithe, 
and until very lately from episcopal jurisdiction, as being extra 
parochial. 

After the expulsion of the Christians from Palestine, the 
Knights retreated to Cyprus, but succeeding in conquering the 
island of Rhodes from the Turks, they then established them- 
selves there so firmly that no Sultan for a long period was able 
to dispossess them of their spoil; until, at length, A.D. 1522, 
Solyman II. advanced in person against the island with an 
immense force, and after a siege of six months obliged its brave 
defenders to capitulate. And now they were in great danger of 
extermination, as most of the princes of Europe, when they heard 
of the fall of Ehodes, were on the point of seizing the Hospital- 
lers' lands in their respective dominions ; but this blow was 
averted by a hurried visit of the then Grand Master, L'Isle 
Adam, to the principal courts of Europe, who, by his urgent 
appeals, not only saved the property of the Order, but obtained 
an asylum from the Emperor, Charles V. for the Knights, who 
then conceded Malta to them, which was to be held by the tenure 
of an animal presentation of a falcon. L'Isle Adam and the 
Hospitallers took possession of their new rocky home in 1530, 
after which they were commonly called the Knights of Malta, 
and immediately began to fortify that island, to import earth from 



TEMPLE BKUEB. 311 

Sicily to lay upon its stony surface, and adopt other means to 
render it productive ; so that under their nurturing care, the 
vine, the orange, and other fruit trees, together with some 
vegetable produce, quickly sprang up. But war against their 
old infidel enemy was still their chief occupation ; and from this 
strong and beautiful retreat, their galleys continually swept the 
sea in quest of Turkish spoil ; nor did they often return into port 
without a captured Turkish vessel in tow, or Turkish property in 
their possession. 

Boused by such repeated injuries, and especially by the 
capture of a ship of 20 guns, richly laden, belonging to one of 
his chief officers, Solyman, who still reigned, raised a force of 
30,000 men, which he dispatched to Malta, in 180 galleys 
under the command of Mustapha, one of his best generals, with 
the intention of driving out the Knights from that island, as he 
had done from Bhodes. The fleet arrived off Malta, May 18th, 
A.D. 1565 ; and then followed that celebrated siege, so well known 
in the annals of history, an<J so amply described by many 
authors, especially by Prescott in his History of Philip II. 
Then it was that Jean Parisot de la Valette,' the most famous 
Grand Master, after the loss of the fortress of St. Elmo in the 
capture of which 8000 Moslem troops fell caused Mustapha 
their commander to exclaim, " what will not the parent cost, 
when the child has cost me so dear?" This hero, after the 
exhibition of feats of prowess, rarely if ever surpassed, at length 
received the succour of 11,000 men sent by the Emperor to his 
relief, under Don Garcia de Toledo ; when after one more struggle 
in the open field, wherein Mustapha was twice unhorsed and 
nearly taken prisoner, the Turks retreated from their intended 
prey utterly baffled and defeated. After Valette' s death, the 
Knights of St. John still continued for some time to harass the 
Turks, by the aggressive expeditions of their galleys ; but they 
gradually assumed more peaceful habits, until at length the 
Order was dissolved at the close of the last century by the fiat of 
Napoleon, when he visited Malta on his way to Egypt ; the 
last Grand Master then retiring to Germany with a pension, and 
most of the Knights accepting commissions in the French army. 

Such was the end of this once illustrious Order, at first 
fostered by Godfrey de Bouillon and Godfrey, the crusader kings 
of Jerusalem, the provincial establishments of which were termed 

*$ v> 

"^ 



**^\ \ k IA I f\ 



312 TEMPLE BETTER. 

Commanderies, to distinguish, them from the Preceptories of the 
Templars, and whose chief, or Prior, took precedence of all 
Barons in Parliament. 

There were three Preceptories in Lincolnshire ; one at 
Willoughton, near Kirton in Lindsey ; another at Aslackby, near 
FaLkingham ; and the one termed Temple Bruer, near Sleaford, 
now under our notice. This is situated ten miles south, of 
Lincoln, and one mile east of the High Dyke, or nearly in the 
centre of Lincoln Heath, whence it derived its appellation of 
Templum de la Bruere, or Temple on the Heath, now shortened 
into Temple Bruer. It was first founded by the Lady Elizabeth 
de Calz, according to a record in the " Additional MSS. B. M. 
4936," on land given for the purpose by William de Ashby, 'as 
Tanner says previous to the year 1185, "Notitia Monastica, p. 
274," and probably about 1134, but certainly in the reign of 
Henry II., as the occupants of the new Preceptory on Lincoln 
HeatK obtained from that King a charter for holding a market 
every Thursday on their manor. Their first possessions were 
various parcels of land given them by landowners of Bowston. 
Elizabeth de Calz gave them the advowson of the church and 25 
oxgangs there, Bobert de Everingham the manor of that vill and 
some appurtenances, Philip de Branston 25 oxgangs, and Gilbert 
de Oressy 2 quarantines of heath, and pasturage for 500 sheep in 
the same parish. Their next benefactor appears to have been 
Walter Lord D'Eyncourt, who gave them 6 bovates of land, a 
toft, 3 shillings, 4 hens, and 4 days' work in Scopwick, which 
grant was amplified by his descendant, John D'Eyncourt, in 
1175, by the gift of 1 barcary and 2 carucates of land in that 
parish. Several landowners of Bauceby were also early bene- 
factors of the Templars on the Heath, viz : Galfrid de Perun, a 
tenant of Bobert de Stafford, who gave them a whole knight's 
fee there valued at 15 a year, and a carucate of land valued at 
48s. a year ; Geoffrey de Evermue, an oxgang of land he held of 
Baldwin de Wake, he of the Bishop of Durham, and he of the 
King ; Balf de Normanville, an-oxgang-and-a-half ; and Galfrid 
de Bouceby, 3 oxgangs. " Bot. Hund., p. 278." Simon Tuchet 
was another important early benefactor of the Templars, who 
gave them a knight's fee in Ashby which he held of Balf Pagnell, 
and he of the King. In 1258 the Templars obtained a licence 
from Henry III. for holding a market at their manor of Breuere 



TEMPLE BEUEE. 313 

every Wednesday instead of on Thursday as before, "Lit. Pat. 
Julii 20, 43 H. 3.," and also of holding an annual fair for three 
days at the feast of St. James. The same year they attached 
their seal to a deed connected with an exchange of lands with 
Henry de Colville, when Eobert Button was their Preceptor. 
This seal, according to Holies, was of a circular form, having an 
Agnus Dei and flag as a device, surrounded by the legend 
" Sigillum Militis Templi." For the better security of their house, 
they obtained a license " 34. E. 1," to build a strong gate-house, 
no doubt consisting of two circular towers with a stout door and 
portcullis between them. By degrees the Templars of Temple 
Bruer acquired many other possessions and rights, viz : from the 
Crown, 5 carucates of land and a rent of l4s. in Navenby, a 
knight's fee and an oxgang of land in Leasingham, 3 carucates 
of land in Carlton, given by Elias de Ainundeville, and other 
smaller lots ; a toft and 20 acres of land in Ormsby, given by 
Hugh de Oaythorpe, and other lands situated in Normanton, 
Navenby, Grantham, South Witham, Ingoldsby, Hacconby, 
Metheringham, Dorrington, Dunsby, Quarrington, and Heeking- 
ton, besides 2000 acres of heath lying around the Preceptory 
with two granges upon it, amounting in all to upwards of 10,000 
acres, besides tenements at Grantham (including the Angel Inn 
there), Blankney, Metheringham, Kirkby Green, Evedon, Scop- 
wick, Timberland and Billinghay. They also possessed the 
advowsons of Caythorpe and Normanton, given by William de 
Vesci, a mediety of that of Cranwell, given by Robert de Armen- 
tiers, that of Ashby, given by Jordan de Ashby, that of Gedney, 
given by Matilda de Engaine, a mediety of Wyn, given by Galfrid 
de Cleypole, the advowson of Bottelbrigge, given by Eobert de 
Gimiges, that of Sibthorpe, given by Ealf and Eobert Malebisse, 
that of Drystoke, given by Gilbert de Dristoke, that of Friseby, 
given by Jordan Foliot, and a mediety of that of Willoughton, 
given by Simon de Cansy, besides the advowson of Eowston, the 
gift of the foundress Matilda de Calz. They also claimed the 
rights of amerciam^nt, waifs, and fines in the vills of Sleaford, 
Evedon, Ewerby, Blankney, Metheringham, Scopwick, Kirkby 
Green, Billinghay and Timberland, and exemption from all the 
services to which their lands had been subject before they had 
passed into their hands ; and from the payment of all taxes and 
tithes. 



314 



TEMPLE BRUER. 



No doubt the Templars were sometimes covetous and ex- 
tortionate, notwithstanding their original vow of poverty, a 
curious instance of which is recorded in one of the Hundred 
Rolls, p. 280, under the date 1270, viz: a complaint of one 
Adrian Lewin, of Rowston, that Robert de Stratton, then Pre- 
ceptor of Temple Bruer, had compelled him to supply him with 
half a mark of silver to enable him to purchase a Roman gold 
coin, termed a denarius, that had been found by one Catherine 
de Foston, and which he ardently longed for. One of the rules 
of local Preceptories, however, was that after paying for the cost 
of their maintenance out of their common fund, they were bound 
to transmit the surplus annually to the Grand Master of the 
Temple in London ; and they professed to desire that if any 
Member of their Order died possessed of wealth his money should 
be buried with him in unconsecrated ground with the imprecation 
"Thy money perish with thee." In the early part of the 13th 
century the first recorded dispute between the Templars and the 
Ashby's arose about the pasturage of 300 sheep on the Heath, 
which was settled in 1221 ; but a similar one about the pasturage 
of 408 sheep, 8 oxen, and 100 hogs, about 26 years later, which 
was settled in 1247, and from that time these continued to arise 
during their occupation of Temple Bruer and that of the Hos- 
pitallers, as described in the history of the paris]i of Ashby, 
whose contentions with the De la Laundes, the successors of the 
Ashbys, were fully as frequent and violent as those of their 
respective predecessors. 

Both the Templars and the Hospitallers were accustomed to 
hold Tournaments at Temple Bruer, until this practice was for- 
bidden by a writ of Edward II. in consequence of the disturbances 
that had been occasioned by them ; but one of the latter Order 
was certainly worse employed in the 15th century, although under 
the highest ecclesiastical authority, viz : John Seyvill, who acted 
as a Papal Procurator of indulgences under Alexander V., and 
his successor, from the evidence of a still-existing form of 
indulgence or absolution he granted to Henry Marshall and his 
sisters, dated at Temple Bruer, 1412, two years after the death 
of Alexander. 

In 1260 Amadeus was installed as Preceptor, "Bp. Welles' 
notes"; circa 1270 Robert de Stratton was Preceptor; in 1282 
Robert de Turville ; in 1290 Guido de Foresta; and in 1300 



TEMPLE BEUER. 315 

William de la More the last Preceptor of Temple Bruer, and 
Grand Prior of all England. In 1307, Edward II. who had jusfc 
ascended the throne, summoned the Grand Master to his first 
parliament ; and two months afterwards, sent a writ to John de 
Cormel, sheriff of Lincolnshire, commanding him with a sufficient 
force, to seize both the persons and property of the Templars. 
This was accomplished January 10th, 1308, and William de la 
More and his knights were carried off to Lincoln, and imprisoned 
in Claxlede Gate and other city prisons. There they were kept 
until November 25th, 1309, when they were tried in the Cathedral 
Chapter-house, and accused of blasphemy, infanticide, cruelty, 
the most atrocious debauchery, &c., divided into many counts ; 
but it was their wealth that was wanted ; Fuller saying, " Their 
lives would not have been taken, if their lands could have been 
got without ; but the mischief was, the honey could not be got 
without burning the bees." Eventually, however, they did escape 
with their live's, but were stripped of all their estates, which were 
seized by the King. An account of these was taken by Thomas 
Burnham, and they were committed to the charge of William de 
Spanby. In 1324 the King granted them to another Order, that 
of the Hospitallers, or knights of St. John of Jerusalem, a slight 
sketch of whose origin has been already given, when Temple 
Bruer thus became a Commandery of that Order, and remained 
such until the suppression of all their Houses in 1535. Ifjs 
estates were then granted to Hamond Sutton in fee for an annual 
rent of 22 10s. Od., and the whole, including the salaries of the 
Members of the Order, according to an account of John Sutton, 
its treasurer, was valued at 183 10s. Od., or according to 
Dugdale at 184 6s. 8d. 

The names of the following Commanders have alone been 
preserved, viz : 

A.D. 1364. John Percley. 

1430. William Hulles. 

1432. Eobert Mallore. 

1441. Robert Botyll. 

1460. Skafe. 

1469. John Langstrother. 

1471. William Turnor. 

1477. John Weston. 

1484. John Roswell. 



316 TEMPLE BETTER. 

A.D. 1503. Thomas Newport. 
1509. Thomas Docwra. 
. John Babyngton. 

In 1541 Henry VIII. granted the site and capital messuage 
of the Hospitallers of Temple Bruer with its appurtenances, 
messuages, and 2000 acres of land around it to Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk, to be held of the crown in chief. " Harl. MS. 
B.M. 6829." 

In the course of the same year the King paid Temple Bruer 
a visit in person, on his Way towards the north, for the purpose 
of holding a conference with his nephew, the young King of 
Scotland, and pacifying the people of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire 
after the suppression of their Monasteries. The King had held 
an early council at Sleaford, Tuesday, Aug. 9th, and the same 
day dined at Temple Bruer on his way to Lincoln, accompanied 
by his unfortunate Queen Catherine Howard, the Dukes of 
Norfolk and Suffolk, the Earls of Oxford and Southampton, the 
Bishop of Durham, and others. Leland visited Temple Bruer 
the following year, viz: in 1542, who says, "Itin. vol. 1, f. 32": 
" There be great and vast buildings, but rude, at this place, and 
the este end of the temple is made opere circular 4 de more." The 
church must have been preserved for another century, for Holies 
in his " Church Notes " gives a long list of the coats of arms then 
emblazoned on its windows including those of Cromwell, 
Tateshall, D'Eyncourt, Ufford, Beke, Mowbray, Beaumont, 
Bardolfe, Cantelupe, ia Warre, Welles, Zouch, Grey, Savile, 
Middleton of Fulbeck, Eoleston, Babington, &c. ; besides the 
following : Erm, a chevron Sa. Or, on a cross Sa, 5 bull's heads 
couped Arg, impaling Sa, on a chevron Arg 3 mullets G between 
3 pheons of the 2nd, over both a chief extended G charged with 
a cross Arg. Arg, a chevron between 3 eaglets Sa. G, a chevron 
Erm, a bordure engrailed Az. Az, 2 reynards passant Or. He 
also speaks of a tomb here, commemorating Dorothy, wife of 
Eoger Eolston, who died January 18th, 1529, and having these 
bearings displayed upon it, viz : Party per fesse G & Arg, a lion 
passant in chief Arg, in base a cinquefoil pierced Az Eolston, 
quartering a chevron between 10 martlets Sa, impaling Arg, 
10 torteaux, in chief a label of 3 Az Babington. Buck published 
an engraving of this church in 1726 ; but it perished within the 
next period of fifty years, for, when Gough visited it, nothing 




TEMPLE BRUER. 



TEMPLE BEUEE. 317 

but a tower and a few vaults then remained the former of which 
still happily exists, although in a sadly mutilated condition, and 
but for a strong bracing of iron work would probably have fallen. 

This is of the Early English period, and was probably, 
erected about the middle of the 1 3th century. Its total height 
is 5 1 feet, and it contains three stories ; the entrance was on the 
north side, and is now walled up, whilst a modern substitute has 
been broken through on the opposite side, under an interpolated 
window of the Perpendicular period. The interior of the vaulted 
basement story is richly decorated on the south and west sides 
with a series of well moulded arches, once supported by circular 
shafts, of which but one now remains. Under the south-eastern- 
most arch is a piscina ; the level of the two next arches is slightly 
higher than that of the others, from which arrangement there is 
but little doubt that this apartment was used as a chapel, and 
that the altar stood in the centre of the arched recess at its east 
end. It still retains its original vaulted roof, and was lighted by 
a window on its east, west, and south sides. A newel staircase 
in the north-west angle leads to a chamber above, which is lighted 
by three lancet windows, and was once vaulted like the one below ; 
then to a low room above, and, finally, to the roof, which was 
surrounded by a parapet, a small portion of which still remains 
at the south-west angle of the tower. The corbel table of the 
south elevation, and of the flat buttresses on the north and west 
fronts, are of a very effective design. See accompanying plate, 
giving a section of this tower from a drawing by Mr. J. Padley. 

The elevation of the circular church, built so appropriately 
after the model of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, in common 
with that of the Temple in London, of Little Maplestead, Essex, 
St. Sepulchre's, Cambridge, and St. Peter's at Northampton, 
is now quite gone ; but the bases of its pillars still lie below 
the soil, a little to the west of the, tower, and were laid bare for 
the last time in the year 1833, under the superintendence of Dr. 
Oliver, from whose account of Temple Bruer, published by the 
Lincolnshire Topographical Society, the following particulars are 
gathered : " The circular church was 52 feet in diameter within, 
and was supported on a peristyle of eight cylindrical columns, 
with massive bases and capitals, and a series of circular arches 
profusely ornamented with zigzags and other Norman enrich- 
ments, forming a circular area, which occupied exactly one half 



318 



TEMPLE BKUER. 



of the diameter ; and the aisle, or space betwixt this colonnade 
and the exterior walls occupied the other half. The aisle, it 
appears, had a groined roof; and a portion of it on the north 
eide contained the tomb of the founder. On the west was the 
principal door of entrance, with an ascent of stone steps, and a 
magnificent porch, the foundations of which remain perfect. In 
the floor are two coffin-shaped stones, one plain, the other charged 
with 'a cross botony in relief." This circular church was certainly 
united, either by an extension of the fabric or by a cloister, to 
the still-remaining tower, as may be seen in Buck's view of 
Temple Bruer, published in 1736, and in the plan given in Dr. 
Oliver's Paper on this place, referred to above ; whilst the 
clustered column and bracket on the north side of this last, si ill 
present visible evidences of its former existence at that point. 
Here also two stoups will be observed on the left of the tower 
entrance. Beneath the tower, and other portions of the remains, 
various vaults were discovered (probably cellars) connected by 
passages, seven feet six inches high, arched over above, running 
under the cloister, &c., giving rise to the popular belief that a 
subterranean communication existed between this establishment 
and Wellingore. Dr. Oliver also discovered many human remains 
in his researches, which is not surprising, as there was certainly 
a burial garth here, from which has lately been extracted a much 
worn monumental slab, or coffin lid (still remaining on the 
premises) having the effigy of a recumbent Ecclesiastic cut upon 
it. A portion of one of the old vaults is yet visible, now used as 
a saw-pit, and another spot sounds hollow, so that further sub- 
structures may hereafter be discovered. The whole of the ground 
in the vicinity of the tower abounds with evidences of the extent 
of the buildings once existing here ; portions of columns, ribs, 
and other worked stones having frequently been turned up, of 
which a few still remain ; whilst a pretty little Decorated window, 
doubtless derived from the ruins, is inserted in the gable of the 
adjoining farmstead. There is also a remarkably fine well here, 
nine feet in diameter, never known to be dry perhaps a legacy 
from the knights of St. John; and in another well, discovered 
during the last century to the west of the Temple site, three 
bells of large dimensions were found. Two mounds existed, 
until lately, in an adjoining close ; but these were probably only 
archery butts, and upon their removal no signs of any deposit 



TEMPLE BEUEE. 319 

were disclosed. One of the Temple boundary stones stood, until 
1776, by the side of the High Dyke, as recorded by Stukely, who 
says, "Iter. 5, p. 87 " "Over against Temple Bruer, is a cross 
upon a stone, cut through in the shape of that borne by the - 
Knights Templars;" but this has since been removed, or 
destroyed. He also adds, " Some part of their old Church is left 
of a circular form as usual." In 1628 the Earl of Dorset, then 
the possessor of Temple Bruer, disposed of it to .Richard 
Brownlow, Esq., of Belton, and through the marriage of Alice, 
daughter of Sir John Brownlow, with Francis North Earl of 
Guildford, passed into his hands. He sold it to the ancestor of 
the present owner of Temple Bruer, Henry Chaplin, Esq., M.P., 
of Blankney. 



WILSFOKD. 



ACREAGE, 

2900. 



POPULATION, 
641. 



village lies 5 miles west of Sleaford, and is bounded on 
_1_ the west by the Ermine street, where some of its houses 
immediately face those on the other side of that ancient road in 
the parish of Ancaster. 

Its name was originally spelt Wivelesforde. Here Siward 
had 12 carucates of land, rated at 9 carucates. Azor and his 
brother held 6 bovates of this and a mill, subject only to military 
service. Gunfrid, or Geoffrey of Cambrai, had 3 carucates in 
demesne, 12 sokemen with 3 carucates, 6 villaus and 2 bordars 
having 6 carucates ; and the church had 2 bovates, 45 acres of 
meadow, and 20 of underwood. This was valued before and 
after the Conquest at 4, and taxed at 20s. Subsequently Bishop 
Remigius bought the manor for the church of St. Mary at Lincoln. 
Four carucates here, rated at 3, together with 9 sokemen and 2 
bordars. were soke of the manor of Sedgebrook. This had 
belonged to Godwin, but was granted to Robert Mallet, and com- 
prised in the Honour of Eye, in Suffolk, and subsequently possessed 
by the Uffords and Poles, Earls of Suffolk. In the reign of 
Stephen, Hugh de Evermue or Wake, held the manor of Wils- 
ford, and founded an alien Priory here. Haverholme Priory 
possessed three oxgangs-and-a-half of land in Wilsford, the gift 
of John, the son of William de Odenby and Elizabeth his wife, 
besides certain tofts, and the villans on this land, together with 
their families and chattels. About the middle of the 1 3th century 
the Honour of De la Haye in Wilsford and Ancaster, constituting 
a quarter of a knight's fee, was held of Earl Richard by the Prior 
of Haverholme Priory, half a knight's fee of the Honour of Eye 
was held by Peter de Mallet, and a similar portion of land was 
held by William de Yesci of the King. 

Erom the " Inquisitiones post mortem" of the 14th, 15th, 
and 16th centuries, we find that Ralph, son of Walran de Mor- 



WILSFOED. 321 

timer died in 1325, seized of a messuage in Wilsford, 60 acres of 
land, 5 of meadow, and 10 of wood, valued at 112s. Eobert de 
Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, in 1348, seized of the fee of the Honour 
of Eye, and his successor of the same name in 1369. Sir Henry 
de Scroop, seized of part of the same Honour in 1393. Michael 
de la Pole, slain at Harfleur, Sept. 14th, 1415, and his son, also 
called Michael, slain at Agincourt on the 25th of October 
following, both being lords paramount of the same portion of 
Wilsford ; also William de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, in 1449. 

The picturesque old house close to the parish church, was 
formerly occupied as a hunting-box by the then Duke of Rutland, 
but is now simply a farm-house. Probably it was built by Sir 
Charles dotterel, an accomplished gentleman attached to the 
court of Charles II., and who was born at Wilsford. 

The land in this parish now principally belongs to Messrs. 
Myers, Parkinson, and Calcraft, and Captain Willson. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



There was a church at Wilsford when Domesday Book was 
compiled. In the reign of Stephen, Hugh de Evermue, or 
Wake, founded a Priory here, which he attached to the famous 
Benedictine Abbey of Bee in Normandy, and endowed it with 9 
carucates of land in this place, when a number of its monks came 
over to secure the profits of this gift. " Testa de Neviil." During 
the war with France in 1369 this, with all other alien Priories, 
was seized by the King of England, but its own Prior was 
appointed its custodian as long as the war lasted, at the annual 
rent of 6 marks. " Pipe Kolls 45. E. 3." At this time he had 
a right to hold a market and fair at Wilsford. In 1397 Thomas 
Holland, Earl of Kent, the King's half brother, obtained a grant 
of the Priory and all its possessions and bestowed it upon the 
Abbey of Bourn. u lnq. p. m. 20 E. 2." When, at the petition 
of the Commons the King took possession of all alien Priories, 
John Oudeby was the clerk of Wilsford Priory. At the dissolu- 
tion as parcel of Bourn Abbey, its lands were granted to Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, " 30 H. 8," who died seized of them 
1545. 



322 



WILSFOKD. 



The following is a list of the rectors : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1661. William Letts, presented by Lord Rockingham. 

1676. William Barriffe, ditto. 

1691. Lewis Smith, ditto. 

. Stephen Atton. 

1721. Chamberlain Atton. 

1731. Watson Tookey. 

173 4. John Lowth. 

1753. Thomas Mirehouse. 

1758. John Image. 

1 762. John Eichard Middlemore. 

1770. John Richard Middleniore. 

1771. Thomas Marsham. 

1791. John Middleton. 

1831. Charles Brackenbury. 

1849. George Bugg. 

1852. John Parkinson Bayly Younge. 

THE CHURCH. 

The tower and spire of this church, dedicated in honour of 
St. Mary, produce a pleasing effect. The proportion between the 
two is far better than that of Ancaster, and the boldly projecting 
gurgoyles beneath the parapet of the tower add much to its 
appearance ; but on a nearer examination v the weakness of the 
spire-lights and other details become fully apparent. 

The south aisle was once wholly Early English. The pitch 
of its first roof will be seen at the east end, above a lancet window 
there. Close to a similar window, in the nave wall beyond the 
aisle, is some ancient long and short masonry, forming the south- 
eastern angle of the nave. During the prevalence of the Perpen- 
dicular style this aisle was renewed, and a clerestory was added 
to the nave, both of which were then surmounted by embattled 
parapets and ' pinnacles, the bases of which alone now remain. 
Over the porch arch is a shallow niche that once probably con- 
tained a sculptured representation of the Virgin and Child. 
Near the porch is a plain low- side window. The chancel is 
essentially Early English, to which subsequent additions have 
been made. In its south wall are two lancet windows and a 



WILSFORD. 323 

Decorated one nearest to the nave. The whole design of the 
east end with its well developed angle buttresses and its very 
beautifully traceried window is excellent. In the north wall there 
is only room for one lancet window before the commencement 
of a chantry chapel, which now forms a prolongation of the north 
aisle. In the east end of this there is a large Decorated reticu- 
lated window, and a smaller window in the lateral wall. In the 
north aisle proper is another Decorated window and a doorway. 
Between the windows of the clerestory are four canopied niches 
which produce a good effect, but prove to be of a weak design 
when examined closely. Pinnacles appear to have riseu above 
the parapet here as on the other side of the clerestory. 

In the interior, the north- east angle of the original nave 
will be inspected with much interest. It is composed oi long and 
short work, and corresponds exactly with the south-east angle of 
the nave before alluded to, and which still remains an external 
feature. These must be either of Saxon origin, or of Saxon work- 
manship, during the early Norman rule. 

Adjoining this very interesting feature are a pair of Norman 
pillars, carrying a pointed arch of a later period, and adorned 
with the nail-head ornament. This opens into what was a chapel, 
where a piscina, credence, and the supporters of the altar slab 
still remain. The Early English north aisle arcade has lofty 
cylindrical pillars and wide semicircular arches. The pillar 
capitals, with their brackets to support the outer members of the 
arches above are of a peculiar t} T pe. 

The arrangement of the south aisle arcade is curious. This 
is of the Decorated period, and consists of one very large arch 
and a smaller one ; nearly above which, is the outline of another 
archway that appears to have opened into the nave, as it is 
certainly not a constructional one, although now filled in with 
masonry. What this can have been for is perplexing, unless it 
was for the accommodation of a recluse, whose chamber might 
possibly have been constructed over the eastern portion of the 
south aisle. Below was certainly a chapel, the piscina and 
aumbry of which still remain. In the last was found much char- 
coal, when it was opened during the late restoration of this church. 
The chancel is said to have been re-built by a former rector of 
the name of Warde, in 1479, according to the inscription' upon 
his gravestone ; but the word restored, or repaired, would 



324 



WILSFOBD. 



have been more correct, as the east window and one of the side 
ones are the only remaining features of the above-named period, 
the rest being very considerably older. The chancel arch is 
supported by pillars on elevated bases. In the sill of the south- 
eastern window, which has been lowered for the purpose, is a 
double piscina. One bowl is plain, and its drain passes horizon- 
tally through the wall behind it ; the other is fluted, and has the 
usual perpendicular drain. Here also is a credence. 



HANDBECK. 

THE name of this hamlet, attached to Wilsford, was originally 
spelt Handebec, or Handebeck, and sometimes Hanebeck. 
The Vescis and Clintons are the first recorded proprietors of land 
in Wilsford, but in the 1 2th century the Templars had acquired a 
footing here, Osmund Ferling in 1185 having given an oxgang 
to that Order in Handbeck, let for a rent of 2s. a year, 4 hens, 
and 2 day's work, and another benefactor having given another 
oxgang and a toft, let at 2s. a year. 

The Yesci fee here in the 13th century was reckoned at half 
a knight's fee, then held of the King by William de Vesci, and 
let by him to John Oolman. Early in the same century the 
Clinton lands in Handbeck were reckoned only at the tenth part 
of a knight's fee, when they were held by Henry de Clinton, and 
let to Osbert, son of Nigel. In 1240 their value was reduced to 
the twelfth part of a knight's fee, when they were held by Roger 
de Kingerby of the King in chief, and let to Robert Croc. " Testa 
de Nevill." 

In 1584 John Bucke bought Handbeck Grange of Sir Henry 
Sidney. He was Provost Marshal in the expedition to Cadiz in 
1596 under the Earl of Essex, when he was made a knight. He 
married Eleanor, daughter of John Wymarhe, of Gretford, and 
died November 20th, 1596. His son Sir John Bucke was Sheriff 
of the county in 1619, who, after his marriage with Elizabeth, 
daughter and heir of William Green, of Eiley, resided at Filey, 
and died 1648. Their eldest son, John, was created a Baronet 
December 22nd, 1660, and died 1668. He married first, Anne, 
daughter of John Style, of Winteringbury ; and subsequently, 
Mary, daughter and sole heir of William Ashton, of Tengrey, 
Beds., by whom he had a son, Sir William, who married Frances, 
daughter of Daniel Skinner, of London, and died August 15th, 
1717. Their son, Sir Charles Bucke, born 1692, married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Edward Sebright, of Besford, Worcestershire, and 
died June 20th, 1729 ; and lastly their son, the second Sir Charles, 

Y 



326 



HANDBEOK. 



born January 31st, 1721, died without issue by his wife Mary, 
daughter of George Cartwright, of Ossington, Notts., June 7th, 
1782, and was the last male heir of his family. He was buried 
in Osbournby church, where his sisters erected a monument to 
his memory. The Bucke armorial bearings were Lozengy Or & 
Az, a canton Ermine. Crest, a portcullis. There are now no 
remains of the residence of this family in Handbeck, which now 
belongs to John Archer Houblon, Esq. 




THE 

WAPENTAKE OF ASWAEDHUEN. 



npHE boundaries of this Wapentake liave been mentioned at 
JL the commencement of the History of Sleaford, &c. It 
contains the following parishes and hamlets, which will be des- 
cribed in their alphabetical order, viz : Asgarby, Aswarby, 
Aunsby, Burton, Culverthorpe, Bembleby, Ewerby, Hale, 
Haydor, Heckington, Helpringham, Howell, Kelby, Kirkby, 
Osbournby, Quarrington, Scredington, Spanby, Swarby, Swaton, 
Welby, Willoughby (Scot), and Willoughby (Silk). 

Since the description of the Wapentake of Flaxwell has 
been printed, a new census has appeared, which of course varies 
from that of 1861 so far quoted. It will be well therefore to 
give the population of the parishes already described according 
to this later record, or the census of 1871 here, which is as 
follows : 

POPULATION OF THE FLAXWELL WAPENTAKE 
ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1871. 

New Sleaford 3592 

Old Sleaford 397 

Holdingham 143 

Anwick 324 

Ashby 161 

Bloxholm 84 

Brauncewell 139 

CranweU. . 219 



328 THE WAPENTAKE OF ASWAEDHUBN. 

Digby 307 

Dorrington 495 

Evedon 71 

Haverholme 11 

Kyme North and South 1221 

Leasingham 390 

Eauceby 691 

Eowston , 233 

Eoxholm 115 

Euskington 1156 

Temple Bruer 149 

Wilsford ; 647 

The population of the parishes in the Wapentake of 

Aswardhurn will be given according to the census of 1861 

and of 1871. 



ASGAEBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

838. 186180. 187192. 

THE name of this place, situated 3 miles east of Sleaford, was 
at first spelt Asgerebi, then Asgerbi and Asgardby, now 
shortened into Asgarby. After the Conquest it was given to 
Gilbert de Grant, and consisted of 3 carucates of plough land and 
80 acres of meadow, upon which were 20 sokemen and 2 villans. 
About 1200 its land was reckoned at the fourth part of a 
knight's fee, held by Simon de Kyme, when Mauger de Asgurdby 
and others were tenants here. " Testa de Nevill." In the 16th 
century Lord'Tailboys, of Kyme, was holding land in Asgarby; 
and in 1553 died Blasius Holland the younger, seized of a 
messuage, 60 acres of plough land, and 20, of pasture in this vill, 
which he held of the heirs of Lord Tailboys. " Harl. MS. 757." 
Soon after Robert Carre of Sleaford purchased the manor of 
Asgarby and the smaller one of Boughton connected with it, 
which last he sold to Sir Edward Dymoke ; but he subsequently 
became re-possessed of it, and left the whole, together with ap- 
purtenances in Monkthorpe and Brothertoft to his cousin, Robert 
Carre, from whom they have descended to the present owner of 
the same, the Marquis of Bristol. This parish was enclosed in 
1688. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The church here was given to the Prior of Bridlington in 
the reign of Pope Eugenius III., by whom that gift was 
confirmed. In 1416 Agnes, the wife of John Wright, of 
Asgarby, bequeathed her body to be buried in the cemetery of 
the church of St. Andrew here, to the fabric of which she left 4s. 
Robert Toterowe of Bughton (i.e. Boughton in this parish), by 
his will dated on the feast of St. Praxidis the Yirgin 1450, 
bequeathed his body to be buried in the church of Asgarby, to 



330 



ASGAEBY. 



the high altar of which he left 12d., and for ornaments of the 
said altar 1 3s. 4d. To the high altar of the Cathedral church of 
Lincoln 20d., and to its fabric 40d. Besides which certain lands 
and tenements here were given by an unknown person for the 
support of two lamps in this church for ever. " Cot. MS. Tib." 
In 1616 the value of the living was 31, Edward Carre was 
the patron, and there were 60 communicants. " Willis's MS. 
f. -89." The following is a list of the rectors : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1292. John de Maiden. 

1315. Hugo de Harewood, presented by the Prior of 
Kyme. 

1616. William Williams, presented by Edward Carre. 

1662. Eichard Bull. 

1662. John Kennington. 

1663. Samuel Sutton. 

1681. Thomas Meriton. 

1687. William Pearson. 

1732. Charles Hervey. 

1735. Grascoigne Wright. 

1777. Edward Mills. 

1821. William Andrew Hammond. 

1823. John Smith. 

1829. John Morgan. 

1844. Henry Ashington. 

1854. Henry Anders. 

THE CHURCH. 



This is dedicated in honour of St. Andrew. The height and 
size of its tower as compared with the rest of the fabric, and the 
smallness of the spire in proportion to it, are the features that 
most attract attention at a distance. 

Here was an Early English chancel, of which the south door- 
way and the piscina inside, are all that remain. The lower part 
of the tower, the arcades of the nave, and the whole south aisle 
are of the Decorated period, and the masonry is remarkably 
substantial and perfect. The remainder of the church is of the 
latest period of the Perpendicular style. 




ASGARBY CHURCH. 



BLOXHOLM CHURCH SEE PAGE 211. 




ASGAEBY. 331 

In the interior, the solidity of the tower-arch, the old stair- 
case to the roodloffc, the brackets and aumbries at the east end 
of the aisles, and the bracket on the north side of the chancel- 
arch, are worthy of notice. 

The easternmost bay of both aisles has been chancelled off 
to form chapels, as evidenced by incisions in the caps of the 
piDars at those points. In the northern one is a piscina and two 
rude statue brackets. On x the north wall close to one of these a 
painting has recently been discovered. This consists of the 
figure of a kneeling angel in an alb and red stole, upon a green 
mound surrounded by a rope-like border. The ground is dark 
red, powdered partly with Tudor roses, partly with a foliated 
device in a lighter red. Above is this legend upon a scroll : 
" Intercede p. nobis ad dnm reginam ; " and below upon another 
scroll : " Orate p. aia henrici Tirrwyt," as far as this last word 
can be deciphered ; but the middle letters are entirely gone, and 
the others are injured. Most probably this painting was intended 
to appear in connexion with an image of the Yirgin Mary that 
formerly stood on the adjacent bracket. 

In Holies' s time in the east window of the chancel were the 
arms of Umfraville and Tailboys. In the south window, Gules, 
3 livery pots Arg, for Bland, and the legend " Orate pro anima 
Stephani Muston et Agnetis uxoris ejus." In the north window, 
the portrait of a man holding a shield, bearing S. a chevron 
between 3 escallops Arg, and the legend " Orate pro aia Willi 
Kingsman et Elizabethse consortis suse." In the tower window 
this legend : " lohes More & Margareta uxor ejus." On a 
stone tomb in the choir was this epitaph : 

Es testis, Christe quod non jacet hie lapis iste 
Corpus ut ornetur, sed spiritus ut memoretur. 
Istuc qui graderis, senex, medius, puer, an sis, 
Pro me funde prcees quia sic mihi fit venie spes. 

MCCCCLX. 
And on another : 

Orate pro aia "Willi Fish & Johanne uxoris ejus. 

On the wall of the eastern chapel is a monument bearing this 
legend : 

Carolus primogenitus Johannis Butler de Baketon 
(Boughton) obiit xviio die Mail MDCIII. ^Etatis 



332 



ASGARBY. 



And above, a shield tearing a chevron charged with 3 covered 
cups between 3 demi lions crowned with a martlet as a mark of 
cadency, surmounted by a horse's head erased, as a crest. 
On the north wall is this curious epitaph : 

Here lyeth the body of Mrs. Cecily Sutton, late wife 
of Mr. Samvel Sutton, Sector of this church, who upon 
ye 2nd daye of December, anno 1680, setatis suae 62, 
was gathered to the Spirits of the Just that are made 
perfect. 

I liv'd, I lov'd, I gave to the poore, 

I'm dead, I'm blest, I'm mist therefore. 
Hie requiscit in spe beatae Eesurrectionis. 

Over the tower arch is a characteristic memento mori of the last 
century, viz : a figure of Death as a skeleton with a scythe erect 
over his head, and an hour glass. Above is the precept, 
"Redeem the time," below, the counsel, " Prepare to die." 
This church has lately been well and carefully restored. 



ASWABBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1548. 1861128. 1871142. 

THE land in this parish, situated 4|- miles south of Sleaford, 
at first called Aswardebi, was reckoned at 9 carucates, 
according to Domesday Book, but only at 4^- carucates and 1 
bovate for taxation. Here also were 180 acres of meadow. Of 
this Gilbert de Gant was then holding 4J carucates and 1 bovate, 
and also the above-named meadow land ; Wido de Credon was 
holding a smaller portion, and Ealph, the priest of Aswarby, 
another. At the beginning of the 13th century Simon de Kyme 
was holding the de Gant lands here, reckoned at one knight's 
fee, " Testa de Nevill," and in 1336 William de Kyme was their 
possessor. In 1334 Eichard Whitwell and others obtained the 
King's licence to give certain lands in Aswarby, Swarby and 
Willoughby to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, "Inq. ad, q. 
d. 27 E. III. ;" and in 1381 Gilbert de UmfraviUe, Earl of 
Anjou, died seized of the manor of Aswarby conjointly with 
Matilda his wife. "Inq. ad. q. d. 8 E. II." In 1421 died Sir 
Gilbert de UmfraviUe seized of this manor, which he held of the 
Honour of Bolingbroke, " Inq. p. m. 9 H. 5." In 1462 Edward 
IV. granted the manor of Aswarby to Sir John Fogge, after the 
attainder of Sir William Tailboys ; but it was subsequently 
restored to that family, and eventually inherited by Lady Ambrose 
Dudley, the daughter and heir of Gilbert Lord Tailboys, who 
sold it to her uncle, Eobert Carre, of Sleaford, from whom it 
descended to his sons in succession, and then to his grandson 
Eochester, son of Sir Edward and brother of Sir Eobert Carre, 
who held it of the Earl of Lincoln, as of the Castle of Falking- 
ham at an annual rent of 6s. 8d. " Harl. MSS. 758." On his 
death as a lunatic, the manor reverted to his brother Sir Eobert, 
and then passed to his son the Eight Honourable Sir Eobert 
Carre, and his young grandson Sir Edward Carre, who died 
under age in 1683. The manor was sold by Lord Carre Hervey 



334 ASWAKBY. 

to Sir Francis Whichcote, Bart., in 1723, whose descendant, the 
present Sir^Thomas Whichcote, still possesses it. 

Sir Jeremy "Whichcote, the 1st Baronet, created 1660, was 
Solicitor General to the Prince Palatine, and Warden of the 
fleet during the Commonwealth. He married Anne, daughter 
and heir of Joseph Grave, Esq., by whom he had a large family 
and^was'succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Paul, 2nd Bart., who 
married Jane, daughter and coheir of Sir Nicholas Gould, Bart. 
He died in 1721, and was succeeded by his son Sir Francis, 3rd 
Bart., M.P. for Cambridgeshire. He married, first, Mary, only 
daughter of Joseph Banks, Esq., of Revesby, and secondly, 
Frances, daughter of Edward Hall, Esq., and relict of Sir Nevill 
Hickman, Bart., of Gainsborough. He died in 1775, and by his 
second wife left as his heir Sir Christopher, 4th Bart., who 
married Jane, daughter and coheir of Thomas Whichcote, Esq., 
Harpswell. He died in 1785, and was succeeded by his son Sir 
Thomas, 5th Bart, High Sheriff for Lincolnshire in 1790. He 
married Diana, daughter of Edward Tumor, Esq., of Panton and 
Stoke Rochford, and died in 1828, and was succeeded by his son 
Sir Thomas, 6th Bart., who married Lady Sophia Sherard, third 
daughter of Philip, 5th Earl of Harborough. He died in 1829, 
and was succeeded by Sir Thomas, the 7th and present Bart., 
who married, first, Marianne, daughter of Henry Becket, Esq., 
and secondly, Isabella Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Henry C. 
Montgomery, Bart., by whom he has one daughter. 

Aswarby Hall is a large mansion, a small part of which is 
of some antiquity ; the park and grounds around it are flat, but 
well timbered. The cottages in the village and the buildings on 
all the farms are of an excellent description, clearly indicating that 
they belong to a wealthy landowner who desires that his estate 
should be well maintained. Formerly a medicinal spring, 
mentioned by Camden, was of some note, but its fame has now 
entirely passed away. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOKY. 

There was a church here at the time of the Conquest, served 
by a priest called Ralph, who held 3 carucates of land in 
Aswarby, the profits of which were divided into two parts. 







ASWARBY CHURCH, 



ASWAEBY. 335 

Gilbert de Gant became the possessor of these by the gift of the 
Conqueror, and they subsequently passed into the hands of the 
Priors of Kyme. 

In 1225 Adam de Aswardby was elected Abbot of Bardney 
Abbey, over which he presided for 12 years. In 1616 the value 
of the rectory was 40 a year, and Sir Edward Carre was the 
patron. " Willis's MS. p. 39." The following is a list of the 
rectors : 

Date of Institution. 

A.D. . Gilbert de Byham, presented by the Prior of 

Kyme. 
1263. Hugo de Heckington. 

. Robert Daunce, died 1460. 
. Stephen Scarbruth (Scarborough), died 1537. 
. William Jones, died 1580. 
.William Williams, died 1616. 
1660. William Wood. 
1680. Francis Hopes. 
1714. John Mason. 
!748.--William Bassett. 
1754, Eichard Brown. 
1777. Nathaniel North. 
1814. John Hanmer. 
1818. Francis Whichcote. 
1850. Christopher Whichcote. 

The old rectory house stood on the south side of the churchyard, 
but was taken down when the present one was substituted for it. 



THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St Dionysius or Dennis, and 
consists of a tower and spire, a lofty nave, a north aisle, porch 
and chance}, On examining its various features it will be readily 
seen that the whole fabric has been more or less completely 
rebuilt at two distinct periods, and also that this operation was 
repeated some 30 years ago. From the evidence of the fine old 
doorway within the porch on the north side of the nave, and the 
font, we are assured that a church stood here when the Norman 
style of architecture was in the act of being exchanged for that 



336 



ASWAEBY. 



of the Early English. The first feature is a very beautiful 
specimen of its kind. The head is semicircular, and the whole 
consists of three members supported by as many pillars on the 
jambs below. The inner pair and the corresponding moulding 
above are thickly banded, and the foliated caps of the others 
vary in their treatment in common with them. Besides being 
beautifully and effectively moulded, the head of the doorway is 
enriched with two series of four-leaved flowers. The font is a 
large and curious one of the same period. It resembles a circular 
stone well-head, to which are attached four pillars at equal 
distances, the foliation of each cap being prolonged so as to trail 
over the adjoining surface of the bowl. This and the before- 
mentioned doorway are of the last quarter of the 12th century. 
Next we have some Decorated work in the aisle and its arcade. 
This last consists of three clustered and filleted pillars and their 
responds, supporting four well-moulded arches. The aisle is 
lighted by a two-light window at each end, and two others towards 
the east end of- its north wall. How far the older church here 
succumbed to this newer style can not now be ascertained ; but it 
also in turn was afterwards considered inferior to the subsequent 
Perpendicular style, when the greater part of the present fabric 
was erected, viz : the south elevation of the nave, a chancel pre- 
ceding the present one as evidenced by the present chancel arch, 
the clerestory with its range of six windows on either side, and 
the tower and spire. These last are imposing at a distance, 
although it will at once be seen that the latter is not well set 
upon the former, and that its apex has been restored in a clumsy 
manner, while on a nearer view the usual weak details of the 
Perpendicular style will detract from the merit of both tower 
and spire. 

About 30 years ago the chancel and porch were rebuilt; 
two Decorated windows, copied from others in this church, were 
inserted in the south wall of the nave, and it was re-roofed and 
re-seated. In the present year the chancel, separated from the 
nave until the restoration of the fabric by a carved oak screen, 
has been supplied with handsome seats for the choir. The 
staircase formerly leading to the rood loft still remains at the 
east end of the aisle with a handsome piscina near it, and a plain 
one opposite, indicates the former existence of a chapel there. 
There are three bells in the' tower. 



ASWAEBY. 337 

The following memorials were observed in this church, by 
Holies, viz : in a window of the chancel, Gu, a cinquefoil pierced 
within an orle of cross crosslets Or Umfraville, repeated twice. 
Above the sedilia in the chancel, Arg, 3 escutcheons Az Lowd- 
ham, and Gu, 3 lucies hauriant Arg Lucy. On the chancel 
screen once richly gilt he saw, Gu, a chevron between 10 cross 
crosslets Or Kyme, Arg, a saltire Sa on a chief Gu 3 escallops 
of the first Tailboys ; also Umfraville and another. Of these, 
the shields bearing Umfraville and Tailboys still remained upon 
the panels of the western face of the screen until its removal ; 
and in a south window, probably of the chancel, this legend : 

Orate p. aiabus Dni Robert! Daunce et Johanne uxoris ems. 
Also a stone slab bearing this inscription : 

Hie Jacet Dns Robertas Dawnce quondam Rector istius 
ccclie, qui obiit xxviii die Januarii, An Dni MCCCCIX 
cuius anime ppicietur Deus. Amen. 

In the north aisle was a stone slab bearing this epitaph : 

Hie Jacet corpus Willi Jones qui obiit ixo die Octobris 
A Dni MDLXXX. Vana. Deum. requiem, sprevit. 
amavit. habet. 

Also near the door probably the southern one another slab 
thus inscribed : 

Hie Jacet Willus Dymson, et Johanna uxor ejus, qui 
obiit Vto. die Augusti Ano Dni MDLVIII, cuius aie 
ppicietur Dius. Amen. 

All of these are now gone. The only monument of any interest 
still preserved here, excepting quite modern ones, is a marble 
tablet in the chancel commemorating Francis Hopes, a former 
rector, who died 1704, and his wife Christiana, whose daughter, 
of the same name, was the second wife of Sir Stephen Fox, by 
whom he had a son, Stephen, created Earl of Ilchester. 



AUNSBY. 



AdiEAGE, 

1200. 



POPULATION, 
1861140. 1871139. 



THIS parish lies 5 miles south, west of Sleaford. Its name 
was formerly spelt Ounesbi or Ounesby. According to 
Domesday Book its land consisted of 7 carucates, 2 bovates of 
inland, 70 acres of meadow, and 6 acres of underwood, upon 
which were 25 sokemen, when that computation was taken. 
Part of it lay within the soke of Wido de Rernbrudcurts' manor 
of Scot Willoughby. In the 12th century Cristina Belet or Ledet 
held one knight's fee here of the King, when she had let it to 
Nicholas do Ounesby by knight's service. " Testa de Nevill." 
Subsequently through the marriage of Lucy, daughter of Michael 
Belet, with John Pigot, it passed to the the Pigpt family, of 
whom John, son of Baldwin de Pigot, knight, of Dodington, sold 
the manor and all its appurtenances in 1318, to William de 
Baiocis, clerk, who derived the means of making this purchase 
through the will of Eobert de Lasey or Lucy, Treasurer of 
Lincoln Cathedral. Five years later he left it in trust to Eichard 
de Hiltoft, John de Bratingham, and Eobert de Luda, chaplains 
and vicars of the choir of Lincoln Cathedral, for the purpose of 
making it over to the Dean and Chapter, on condition of their 
finding three chaplains to say masses for their souls and thosQ of 
all the faithful, with the consent of William, de Waure, who 
held the manor of Sir William Latymer, by each of whom, and 
by William Latymer, son of Sir William, consent was given to 
this deed. "Lib. de ordinationibus cantariarum, f. 146," and 
" Pip. Eot. 17 E. 2." The validity of this transaction however 
was questioned by John Pigot in 1326, and the manor was 
transferred according to his will, but charged with a small annual 
payment of 13d. for the purpose of saying masses for the souls 
of his above-named executors on their anniversary day. Subse- 
quently the Prioress of Stixwold became possessed of lands here, 
held by Anna, widow of John Slidolph, who died June 1st, 1525. 



AUNSBY. 339 

These consisted of 300 acres of arable land, 60 of meadow, and 
60 of pasture; besides a rent of 6s., 4 messuages, and 4 cot- 
tages.. " Harl. MS. 758." 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The Prior of Croxton at one time held the patronage of 
Aunsby church, but his right was disputed in 1305 by Baldwin 
Pigot, who claimed it through the marriage of his grandfather, 
John Pigot, with the daughter of Michael Belet, who thus 
acquired not only all the vill of Aunsby, but also its advowson, 
according to his statement. How the dispute was settled is not 
recorded. In 1371 some property in Aunsby was given by Canon 
Richard Whitlock towards founding two chantries in Lincoln 
Cathedral for the benefit of the soul of the donor, and that of the 
King Edward III. In 1376 a payment from the manor of this 
vill was given to a mass priest towards saying masses for the 
soul of John Ginwell, Bishop of Lincoln. 

In the 14th century William Pilet, of Scredington, founded 
a chantry at Aunsby according to the following record : An 
agreement by indenture was entered into between the Dean and 
Chapter of Lincoln on the one part, and William Pylet, of 
Scredington on the other, in 1384, by which the former and 
their succesors were to find a chaplain to celebrate divine service 
in the parochial church of Aunsby, in Kesteven, in the chapel 
of St. Nicholas, for the souls of Walter de Ounesby, his father 
and mother, brothers, sisters, kinsfolks, friends, all his benefac- 
tors, and all the faithful, for ever. The chaplain was also to pray 
for the good estate of William Pilet and Margery his wife while 
they lived, and for their souls and those of all their kin, friends, 
and benefactors when they died; he and his successors were 
also bound to celebrate every week in the chapel of the blessed 
Mary at Croketon (Croxton), viz : on Wednesday and Saturday, 
for^ the souls of the same. For this service he was to receive a 
competent salary from the lands and tenements which had 
formerly belonged to the said Walter at Aunsby and Croxton as 
was agreed upon between the said Dean and Chapter and the 
chaplain, and in such a way that the said chantry was never to 
cease, so long as the said lands and tenements were found to be 



340 



AUNSBY. 



adequate for the support of the burdens of the same ; but when- 
ever that was not the case, the chaplain was to celebrate for the 
said souls according to the quantity and the portion of the value 
of the possessions ; or he was according to his discretion to pray, 
or perform other good works, as often as those possessions 
sufficed for the finding of a chaplain, when he was bound to 
perform the aforesaid services. The seals of the Dean and 
Chapter, and of William Pilet were affixed to this indenture in 
the Chapter house at Lincoln, on the Saturday after the feast of 
St. Bartholomew, 1384. " Lib. de ordinat. cant. f. 355. " 

At the suppression of chantries the incumbent was 72 years 
old, and had no other preferment. The profits were then as 
follows : An annual rent of 2 13s. 4d. issuing from all the lands, 
tenements, and hereditaments soever belonging to the Dean and 
Chapter, payable at the feast of St. Mary the Yirgin and St. 
Michael, and a cottage in the tenure of John Austyn, rented at 
3s. ; also the firm of a tenement and 12 acres of land lying in 
the vill and plains of Aunsby, let to John Bydell, and payable 
as above, 12s. Out of these emoluments 3d. was paid to the 
Duke of Suffolk as to the monastery of Nocton Park. The goods 
were valued at 12d., and the jewels weighed 5 ounces. The 
chaplain received a pension of 3 5s. 2d. 

The following is a list of the rectors of Aunsby : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. . Armstrong. 

1670. Eichard Calcroft. 

1671. William Colthurst. 

1692. Eobert Fish. 

1694. Henry Williamson. 

1709. William Bass. 

1711. Benjamin Stokes. 
. Robert; Sampson. 

1721. John Adcock. 

1753. Emanuel Langford. 

1778. John Baker. 

1786. George Hickes. 

1800. Michael Thorold. 

1836. Arthur Leapingwell. 

1856. Octavius Luard. 




AUNSBY CHURCH. 



AUNSBY. 341 

THE CHUKCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St. Thomas a Becket, and 
from the age of some of its features, and the beauty of others, 
well repays investigation on the part of ecclesiologists. It would 
scarcely be suspected that the whole of the beautiful early 
Decorated tower and spire had been entirely re-built very lately, 
from the excellent and careful manner in which this operation was 
carried out. The details of the spire-lights are delicately finished, 
and a crown-like finial of a later period surmounts the legend 
of " Ave Maria," cut in separated letters just below it. The slits 
for lighting the tower stairs are curiously contrived. The aisles 
partly overlap the chancel, and the southern one, of an early 
Perpendicular character, is very pleasing ; above the sills proper 
of its windows is a structural filling-in, or stone panelling. 

Within, the Norman north arcade with the varied and 
pendent details of its pillar capitals is striking. This was in a 
most dangerous condition, partly from a rash incision made 
through its eastern end, for the purpose of giving access to the 
rood loft, and partly from the failure of its foundations ; but it 
has now been set in order very satisfactorily. When the modest 
Perpendicular aisle beyond was built, it was not carried on so far 
eastward as its predecessor, from the evidence of a piscina now 
seen externally in the chancel wall, whilst its present east end 
cuts off a portion of the wall opening into the chancel. The 
piers of the chancel arch are Norman, but these have been 
subsequently surmounted by a later arch. At the east end of 
the south aisle was formerly a chapel, enclosed by a coped wall 
four feet high, and having a stone bench within, evidences of 
which still remain ; here is also a rude bracket piscina. The 
east window of the chancel is new. The fine old Norman font, 
at the other extremity of the church, has a remarkably good 
effect there. 

Gervase Holies observed the following memorials in Aunsby 
church when he visited it, viz., this fragment of an epitaph : 

Priez pour lalme Walter de Ownsby q. dona 

On a brass inserted in the wall : 

Orate pro anima Christopher! Hogekinson quondam 

manerii de Ownesby, qui obiit xx die 

Decembris, Anno Domini MDXCIIII. 
Z 



342 



AUNSBY. 



On the base of a stone tomb on the left hand side of the chancel : 
Johannis Colthirst, patris Johis, gui vixit 1600. 

A flat stone still remains in the pavement of the chancel, having 

this inscription : 

Here lyeth the body of Calthurst, Gentleman 

of Ownsby, who was buried 2 day of December, Anno 
Dni, 1627. 



BURTON PEDWARDINE. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1800. 1861135. 1871161. 

BEFOEE the Conquest Adestan and Azor were the principal 
Saxon landowners here. Subsequently their lands were 
bestowed upon Wido de Credon and Ivo Tailbois. The first of 
these new Norman lords allowed the unfortunate Adestan to 
retain 10 carucates of what had been his own land as tenant of 
the same, who had 30 sokemen and 9 villans. Of the rest, 
reckoned at 17 carucates, he retained in demesne 5 carucates. 
Besides these plough lands there were 120 acres of meadow, 12 
bordars having 11 carucates of land, and a mill worth 2s. a 
year. The whole annual value in King Edward's time was 6 
and subsequently 8, tallaged at 40s. Ivo Tailbois's land here 
was mixed up with other land in Ewerby Thorpe. It consisted 
of 14 carucates of land. Part of this was occupied by Azor, who 
had 3 villans under him, and 2 bordars having 2 carucates of 
plough land, 300 acres of underwood, and 13 acres of meadow. 
The annual value in King Edward's time was 30s., subsequently 
20s. Gilbert de Grant also possessed 2 carucates in this parish 
belonging to his manor of Falkingham. Wido de Credon, of 
Bretagne, whose family name subsequently assumed the form of 
Croun, received from the Conqueror in return for the services he 
had rendered him, lands in 60 parishes of Lincolnshire and 
others in Leicestershire. The chief seat of his barony was at 
Freiston, where he built a residence for himself. His manor of 
Burton consisted of 10 carucates of plough land, 120 acres of 
meadow, and a mill worth 2s. a year. It had also appurten- 
ances in Heckington, Aswarby, and Mareham. Wido himself 
had 3 carucates, 30 sokemen, 9 villans, and 12 bordars cultivating 
1 1 A- carucates. The whole was worth 6 in King Edward's time, 
subsequently 8, and was tallaged at 40s. It is doubtful whether 
Wido's eldest son Godfrey, the first Prior of Freiston, succeeded 
him, but certainly his second son Alan eventually became his 



344 BUETON PEDWAEDINE. 

heir. He was called " Open door " from his great hospitality, 
and was Grand Steward of the Household to Henry I., by whom 
he was summoned to Parliament as Baron Oredon. He founded 
Freiston Priory 1142, and when Orowland Abbey was rebuilt he 
laid one of its foundation stones, and placed upon it the gift of 
the church of Freiston. He died 1150, and was buried on the 
north side of the high altar of that famous Abbey. By his wife 
Muriel de Bellechamp he had a son Maurice, made Governor of 
Anjou and Maine by Henry II. He married Clarissa, or Isabella, 
sister to William de Yalence, who after his death married the 
Duke of Burgundy. 

Their son Wido succeeded, who accompanied Richard I. to 
Palestine, and was present when the treaty took place between 
Richard and Tancred, 1190. He was a benefactor to Haver- 
holme Priory and to the Templars. He married Isabella, 
daughter of Thomas Bassett and widow of Albert de Qresley. 
Their heiress daughter Petronilla de Credon married William de 
Longchamp, son of William Abbot, of Crowland, and nephew to 
the Bishop of Ely. At this time both manors in Burton were 
held by the de Credon heiress, who then possessed here 5 caru- 
cates of the old enfeoffment, 4 oxgangs of which were let to 
Lambert de Quaplode, and a similar quantity to Peter Angevin. 
"Testa de Nevill, pp. 322, 340." She subsequently married 
Henry de Mara or de Meris, and lastly Oliver de Vallibus, by 
whom she had a son, John de Vallibus, who inherited his 
mother's manor of Freiston, and died circa 1280. Henry de 
Longchamp succeeded to the Burton manor. He married Sibilla, 
daughter of Thomas de Herrigrande, Earl of Suffolk. He gave 
lands in Burton to the Abbot of Crowland in perpetual alms, and 
two days before his death 2 oxgangs of land in Hale, together 
with his body for burial in Crowland Abbey. 

He had a son William, living 3 E. 2 ; but who died before 
him, so that his only daughter Alice became his heiress, married 
to Eoger Pedwardyn or Pedwardine* son and heir of Walter 



* He derived his name from Pedwardine, a small lordship containing 
about 700 acres in the parish of Brampton Brian, Herefordshire. Most 
probably he possessed that lordship, and certainly his family was connected 
with it, as one of its members was called Brian in the 14th century, and 
Christopher^ son of Roger Pedwardine, High Sheriff of Lincolnshire, 1430-1, 



ONTARIO 



BUETON PEDWARDINE. 345 

Pedwardine and Maude his second wife, daughter of John 
Lyngayne. Thus the manor of Burton passed from the Creon 
family through that of Longchamp to Roger Pedwardine, whose 
name is still associated with this parish. In 1312 Eoger Ped- 
wardine alienated the manor to Bartholomew de Baddlesmere for 
a payment of 20 a year, "Ah. Rot. orig. 5 E. 2," and five years 
later paid the King a fine of 10 for a licence to do so again 
" Pip. Rot. 11 E. 2 " ; but this was only a temporary alienation, 
as he certainly lived at Burton the greater part of his life after 
his marriage, and died 1 340 seized both of it and of the manor 
of Clipstone, Northamptonshire, in right of his wife, who had 
inherited it from John de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. He was 
succeeded by his son Roger, who married Agnes, daughter and 
co-heir of Philip Darcy, of Nocton, and died 1368. This son and 
heir, Walter, knighted 1358, enjoyed the manor of Burton with 
its members by the service of one barony, half the manor of 
Nocton and the advowson of Flixborough, as parcel of the barony 
of Darcy, the manor of Thorntoft, in the parish of Leake, of the 
Honour of Richmond, and the manors of Friskney, Croft, and 
Dalby. He married Isabella, daughter and heir of Sir Robert 
Hilton, and Mary, his wife, daughter of Sir Marmaduke Tweng, 
and died June llth, 1405. 

Thomas de Roos, of Hamlake, next possessed the manor of 
Burton as a descendant of Oliver de Yallibus or Vaux, third 
husband of Petronilla de Croun. His son John de Vallibus 
having left two co-heir daughters, the second of whom Maude 
married William de Roos, lord of Hamlake and Freiston. 
Thomas de Roos died 1415, and was succeeded by his son and 
heir, John de Roos, who died 1421. The manor of Burton then 
reverted to Sir Robert Pedwardine, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Robert or Edward Pierpont. John Auteyn, of 
Burton, granted all his lands and tenements here to Sir Robert by 
a deed dated December 7th, 19 R. 2. He died April 26th, 1432. 
His eldest son, Walter, lived at Thorntoft, but died before his 
father, possessed of that manor, and lands in Friskney and 



is termed of Brompton, i.e. Brampton, in a contemporary deed, as if he 
retained some rights or interest in that lordship. Pedwardine is still 
connected with the title of a noble family, the Earl of Kirkwall being also 
Baron Hay, of Pedwardine, and sitting in the House of Lords as such. 



346 BUETOX PEDWARDINE. 

Wrangle, and was buried in Friskney church. He married, first, 
Katharine, daughter of John Ingleby, of Ripley, Yorkshire, and 
secondly, Katharine, daughter of Sir John Markham, of Notts., 
the widow of Matthew Leake. 

Their son, Roger, accompanied the King to France, and was 
Sheriff of Lincolnshire, 1441-2. He paid his relief for half the 
manor of Stanley, in Westmoreland, 1439, and the same year 
was fined for not taking up the order of knighthood. He was 
also fined 40s. for an improper return of a brief connected with 
Hamond Sutton, of Burton. He married Beatrice, daughter of 
Matthew Leake, and his own step-mother. Their son, Christopher 
Pedwardine, of Brompton, Salop, succeeded, who alienated all 
his lands in this parish. Thomas Daniel, a Lancastrian, next 
possessed it together with the advowson of the church, but 
forfeited it on his attainder in 1464 ; when it was granted to Sir 
William Hussey. Then for the last time we hear of the name 
of Pedwardine in connexion with Burton, when Sir Walter 
Pedwardine paid his relief for the whole barony of Darcy, and 
for the lands of Elizabeth, late wife of Sir William Hussey, 
including the manor of Burton. 

In 1552 Sir Thomas Horsman, of Mareham, obtained from 
the King a grant of the manor commonly called Hussey's lands, 
forfeited for high treason, and some land that had belonged to 
Swineshead Abbey. "Harl. MS. 6829." He died November 
26th, 1610, and was succeeded by his nephew Thomas, who 
married Mary, daughter of John Tredwaye, of Easton, North- 
amptonshire, and died possessed of the manor of Burton and 
Mareham grange, April 2nd, 1631. 

Grants of Mareham to the Horsmans were repeatedly 
made, viz: in 1531, 1542, 1551-2, and 1564, who held it of the 
Crown by military service. "Harl. MS. 6829." Sir Thomas 
Horsman let Mareham in 1565 to Thomas Fulbeck, who lived 
there until his death, and subsequently to Simon Hall. At 
Thomas Horsman' s death his lands at Burton and Mareham 
passed to his daughter, the wife of Sir Cha'rles Orby, Bart., then 
to his brother Sir Thomas, and lastly to his daughter and heir 
the wife of Eobert Hunter, Esq. The estate then descended to 
his son Thomas Orby Hunter, Esq., who sold it to Mr. Benjamin 
Handley, about 1808. Subsequently it was inherited by Henry 
Handley, Esq., M.P. for the Southern Division of Lincolnshire, 



BUKTON PEDWAEDINE. 347 

and then by his son Captain Handley, who sold the estate to the 
present owners of the same in 1864. 

Three acres of land in Spanby were left by an unknown 
person to the parish of Burton. This is now let for 6 a year, 
and after augmentation by the parishioners, is distributed to the 
poor on St. Thomas's day. 

Some members of the Yorke family, descended from a 
merchant, probably deriving his name from that of the city of 
York, lived here towards the close of the 17th century and during 
the following one. The present principal landowners are, Sir 
Thomas Whichcote, Bart., Eetford Hospital, the Rev. B. Snow, 
Mr. Erasmus Tomlinson, Mr. Millns, Mr. Gr. Hercock, Mr. 
E arrant, and Mr. Ward. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOEY. 



There was a church here when Domesday Book was com- 
piled, and a priest serving it. Wido de Credon gave certain 
lands in Burton to God and St. Nicholas for the good of the 
souls of King William and Queen Maude, that the Lord might 
grant him success in life, and bring him to a good end. 

In 1114, Matilda, daughter of Alan and Muriel de Oroun, 
after laying the fifth stone of the east wall of the choir of Crow- 
land Abbey, placed upon it the title to the patronage of Burton 
church. 

In 1191, Henry de Longchamp, son and heir of Petronilla 
de Croun, gave to the altar of the blessed Mary at Burton, in the 
presence of his brother William, and to the vicar ministering 
there, 3 acres of arable land in Burton, to provide 'a wax candle 
of half-a-pound weight to be burnt every festival upon the altar 
at mass time, and to insure the saying of a weekly mass at the 
altar for his soul and the souls of his heirs and all the faithful, 
when the said candle was to be lighted. Any vicat 1 neglecting 
these conditions was by power of the grant subject to distraint 
on the part of the donor and his heirs. He died 1274, when his 
heart was buried before the above-named altar. " Inq. p. m. 3 
E. 1." Alice, daughter and heir of Henry de Longchamp, and 
wife of Sir Roger Pedwardine, after her death 1330, was buried 
on the north side of the above-named chapel near her father's 



348 BUETON PEDWARDINE. 

heart. In grateful memory of his last wife, Sir Roger rebuilt 
this chapel and the greater part of the church to which it was 
attached; but the parishioners rebuilt the south aisle and the 
chapel of St. Nicholas attached to it. He was aided in this work 
by a Papal Bull granting an indulgence of 520 days to all who 
would contribute towards it. Sir Walter Pedwardine, grandson 
of Sir Roger, by his will, dated 1404, bequeathed his body to be 
buried in the chapel of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, at 
Burton, near to his parents, and left to it a ruby coloured vest- 
ment (i.e. a chasuble) with its orphrey, two silver phials, six 
pounds of wax to make two torches to be placed at the head and 
foot of his corpse on his burial day, and nine ells of russet cloth 
to cover the same, which was afterwards to be given to three 
poor persons. "Repingdon's Register, 6 b." 

In 1616 the vicarage was valued at 26 13s. 4d. a year. 
" Willis's MSS. f. 39." 

The following is a list of the vicars of Burton as far as can 
be ascertained : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1280. John de Puson, presented by the Abbot of 

Crowland. 
1616. William Westhall, presented by Thomas Hors- 

man. 

1643. Samuel Lee, indicted for high treason at Grran- 
tham for taking part with the Parliament, and 
afterwards ejected from his living by the Act of 
Uniformity in 1662. 
1663. Jeremiah Goodknapp. 
1681. Peter Bold. 
1702. John Sedgwick. 
1717 . Edward Jones. 
1732. Philip Sedgwick. 
1737. James Dove. 
178. William NickoUs. 
1744. William Gery. 
1787. William Braithwaite. 
1800. Lewis Jones. 
1833. Henry Cheales. 
1837. Henry Handley Brown. 
1859. Benjamin Snow. 



BUETON PEDWAEDINE. 349 

THE CHUKCH. 

The church, dedicated in honour of St. Andrew, known to 
have been rebuilt by Sir Eoger Pedwardine and the parishioners 
1330-40, consisted of a central tower, a nave, transeptal chapels, 
aisles, and a chancel. This remained until 1802, when a sad 
catastrophe occurred through the previous long neglect of the 
ancient fabric. Then, as the tower shewed evident signs of 
weakness, the materials of the chapel of St. Nicholas were taken 
to build up a large pier against its south-eastern angle, and a 
girdle of iron was thought sufficient to ensure its stability in 
conjunction with this pier; but when the workmen were em- 
ployed in putting up, scaffolding for this purpose the upper 
portion of the south-western angle of the tower suddenly fell, 
partly upon the roof of the church, but principally upon that of 
the south aisle, so as almost entirely to destroy it. The rest of 
the tower and its bells still stood, but for safety's sake were pulled 
down, and the next year the whole of the church, except St. 
Mary's chapel, was taken down, and a very poor successor erected 
in its place. This consisted simply of a small nave having 
semicircular headed windows and a little tower scarcely higher 
than the roof of the nave, whilst the remainder of the materials 
of the old church served the purpose of aiding the construction 
of a farm house in the parish. 

Holies observed the following armorial bearings in the 
windows of the old church, viz : in the east window of the 
chancel, Or, 2 lions passant or Pedwardine, and Lozengy or & 
gu Croun. In an upper north window Pedwardine thrice again, 
one shield having the difference of a label of 5 arg. In a 
south window Pedwardine, and Or, 3 crescents gu each charged 
with a plate Longchamp. Also the Pedwardine crest twice 
out of a crown gu, a lion's paw or. In a window of St. Mary's 
chapel he saw depicted the two heiresses of Burton in a kneeling 
posture, viz : Petronilla Croun with her bearings on her robe 
holding up a shield charged with those of William Longchamp, 
her husband; and Alice Longchamp, similarly pourtrayed, 
holding a shield charged with the bearings of her husband 
Eoger Pedwardine. 

Very lately this church has been again entirely rebuilt, when 
the interesting little 14th century chapel was once more spared. 



350 BUETON PEDWAEDINE. 

It now consists of a smaU nave and chancel, substantially built 
in the Decorated style, with a little be,ll-cot surmounted by a 
crocketed spirelet above its western gable and a pretty cross on 
the eastern one. The nave is lighted by two single-light 
windows in the southern wall, three similar ones in the north 
wall, and a good three-light window at the west end. At the 
east end of the chaneel is a three-light window. The roofs are 
substantial and well-pitched. 

In pulling down the former church several portions of 
Norman tombstones, having the intertwining ornamentation of 
that period carved upon them were discovered, as well as part of 
a hood-mould ; also some pieces of Early English work, all 
of which have been inserted in the west wall of the new church 
for their preservation. The base of one of the pillars of the old 
fabric, found at the same time, is now used as a credence on the 
north side of the chancel. There were also found at the same 
time fragments of a beautifully carved font and part of a church- 
yard cross. 

St Mary's chapel, now serving as a vestry, is an interesting 
relic of Eoger Pedwardine's church. It has good base mouldings 
and angle buttresses enriched with pedimented crocketed niches, 
and a well-moulded three-light window in its north and. east 
walls. In its west wall is an arch formerly opening into the 
north aisle of the old church, and another on the south com- 
municating with the present church. This had been filled up 
when Sir Thomas Horsman or his family took possession of this 
chapel for a burying place, and a little new door made by its 
side to provide access to it, but has now been very properly 
restored. 

In the north wall of this chapel still remains a well-moulded 
sepulchral arch, beneath which is the grey marble tombstone of 
Alice Pedwardine, once adorned with her bust engraved upon a 
brass plate inserted in it, flanked by two shields, no doubt 
originally charged with the Longchamp and Pedwardine 
bearings. It still retains the greater part of the following 
border legend : 

Dame Alls de Pettewardine gist icy. 
File de Longchampe S. Henri. 
Den de sa alme eyt merci. 

Here also was the effigy of a lady, with angels supporting a 



BUETON PEDWAEDINE. 351 

cushion beneath, the head, and a dog at the feet, but this had 
disappeared previous to 1815. There still however remains an 
ancient slab in the floor of this chapel that once had a brass 
border legend with the evangelical symbols at its angles, as well 
as the more ambitious monument of Sir Thomas Horsman, now 
erected against the west wall of the chapel. This consists of a 
base, or altar tomb, on which is placed the effigy of Sir Thomas 
in armour, with the head reposing on a cushion and the hands 
upraised in prayer. In front are black marble pillars with gilt 
capitals, supporting a canopy, and behind is a reredos, the whole 
being for the most part of alabaster. On two black marble 
tablets is the following epitaph : 

Memorise sacrum. 

Thomas Horsmannus, eques auratus, Thomse Hors- 
maiini armigeri quondam domini huius manerii et 
Elizabetse unius filiamm et coheredum Robert! Hussei 
militis, films et hseres ab ineunte adolescentia liberaliter 
institutus a latere fuit ornatissimo viro Gulielmo Baroni 
de Burghley summo Anglise thesaurario, postea in 
famulitium Reginae Elizabethse adscriptus, per 40 
annos serenissimse Reginse ministravit, et pregustatoris 
munere perfunctus fuit. 

Yir summa fide, eximia constantia morumque probitate 
insignis xxvjo die Novembris, anno Domini 1610 ab 
hac luce migravit plenus dierum atq. cum in corpore per 
74 annos tanquam migraturus habitascet. 
Hujus memorise Thomas Horsmanus, Armiger eius e 
fratre Nepos et hseres hoc monumentum charissimse 
pietatis ergo dicavit. 

Above are the Horsman armorial bearings. In the pavement 
near this is a slab commemorating his nephew, Thomas Hors- 
man, Esq., and his wife, whose arms, effigies and epitaph were 
engraved on brass plates inserted in it ; but of these the effigy of 
the lady and the epitaph above now alone remain. The former 
is well cut and represents Mary Horsman as usual in a devotional 
attitude and grave costume, with a veil over her head and falling 
behind, and in a cloak having a thickly pleated short cape round 
her shoulders. The epitaph runs thus : 

Here lieth interred the bodie of Thomas Horsman, 
Esqvire, who was Lord of this towne. He tooke to 
wife Mary, the davghter of John Tredwaye, of Easton, 
in Northamptonshire. He departed this life the 2 of 
Aprill, in the Yeare of our Lord 1631. Whose wife in 
her pious memorie erected this memoriall. 



352 BURTON PEDWAKDINE. 

Formerly there were three bells belonging to this church, 
one inscribed "W. Eden, 0. W. I. N. cast me 1591," and 
another " M. Collingwood cast me 1671," which are now gone, 
but the third remains, and is thus inscribed: " Cum voco ad 
ecclesiam venite 1 604." A beautiful little piece of ironwork, used 
as a grating or ventilator in the door formerly opening into St. 
Mary's chapel, still remains here. 

A tablet erected in memory of a Mr. William Yorke is now 
placed in the vestry of the new church, or St. Mary's chapel, and 
bears this inscription : 

Within this chancell lyeth ye body of Mr. William 
Yorke, late of Lessingham and formerlie an inhabitant 
of the parish, who departed this life March 16, 1681, 
in ye eighty second yeare of his age. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter and one of the co-heirs of Mr. 
Simon Walgrave, who lyes here interred with him, by 
whom he had issue 3 sonnes and 6 daughters, Mary, 
John, Anne, Elizabeth, Thomas, Elizabeth, Sarah 
deceased and here likewise buried ; Philip, now wife of 
Mr. Edward Browne, * of Horbling ; and Sir William 
Yorke (now living at Lessingham), who married 
Penelope, daughter of Mr. Richard Sam veil, of Gayton, 
in ye County of Northampton, by whom he had issue 6 
sonnes and 2 daughters, Penelope, William, Samvell, 
Thos., Francis, Wenman, Philip, Richard, whereof 
Samvell, Francis and Richard lye here buried. 

A black marble slab commemorating another William Yorke 
lies in the chancel pavement, just below the step of the sacrarium, 
and is thus inscribed : 

Wilhelinus Yorke, Arm : films Wilhelmi Yorke de 
Lessingham, Equitis : obiit 2 d <>- die Janvarii Ano 1725. 

Above is a circlet containing a shield bearing the Yorke Arms, 
impaling those of Elizabeth Gates, of Pontefract, his wife, sur- 
mounted by a mantled helm, and a Griffin's head erased for a 
crest. 

On another mural slab in this church is this inscription : 

To the memory of Ann ye wife of Thomas Smith, and 
the daughter of Mr. Joseph Thorold, of Boston, who 
died October 12, 1727. 



* The founder of the free school of Horbling in 1691, from whom was 
descended the late wealthy Edward Brown, of Stamford. 



MAKEHAM. 

E name of the land so called in Burton parish was spelt 
I Marham and Marnham, as well as Mareham, in former 
days. This was probably derived from the name of some former 
occupant, as it never constituted a separate hamlet of Burton, 
but was simply a grange belonging to Haverholme Priory. Its 
buildings were protected by a square enclosure surrounded by a 
bank and ditch, of which there are remains on the eastern side 
of the Roman road passing by it, now called Mareham lane after 
this old Monastic grange. 

After the dissolution of Monasteries, Mareham was granted 
by Henry VIII. to Thomas Horsman, the husband of Elizabeth, 
daughter and co-heir of Robert Hussey. He was succeeded by 
his son, Sir Thomas Horsman, brought up in the famous Lord 
Burghley's family, and subsequently a courtier at Queen 
Elizabeth's court. He died November 26th, 1610, aged 74. 

The after possessors of Mareham are recorded in the pre- 
ceding history of Burton. 



CULYERTHOEPE. 

T^HIS is a hamlet of Haydor, lying 5j miles south west of 
Sleaford, called Ledvlvetorp in Domesday Book, and 
subsequently Cudtorp, Cudetorp, Culverthop, Thorpe, and now 
Culverthorpe. When that record was taken Tor and Aschil had 
5 i carucates of land here, and Oonded and Anschitel, two of 
Colsuein's vassals, had 4 carucates, 7 villans, 10 bordars, and 
1 sokeman. Here also was a church and a priest. It was, valued 
in King Edward's time at 4, and the same subsequently. 

Circa 1200, Eicherus de Billingburgh and Adam de Buck- 
minster held in this vill, of the fee of La Haya, 6 oxgangs of 
land then in possession of Gerard de Kamville, by the service of 
one knight's fee. The canons of Kyme at the same time held 
the like quantity of land, partly in this vill and partly in 
Dodington, of the fee of the Earl of Chester, through the 
donation of Philip de Kyme. Eobert de Hasceby was then 
holding one knight's fee of Gilbert de Giant, situated partly in 
Culverthorpe and partly in Swarby ; and Wido de Croun had in 
this vill, in Kelby, and Swarby, the third part of a knight's fee, 
then held by Alan de Thorpe. " Testa de Nevill." 

In 1338 Sir Bartholomew de Burghersh, the brother of 
Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, had acquired either the 
whole manor or the greater part of it, and obtained a grant of 
free warren over his lands here. " Dugdale." 

In 1610 Sir Edmund Bussy,^ Kt., of Haydor, conveyed to 
William Lister, of Eippingale, a messuage, its yards, gardens, 
and 344 acres of land, with the consent of Frances his wife and 
Miles his son and heir for the sum of 1850 ; and in 1619 Miles 
Bussy, of Oseby, his son, gave a bond to William Lister 
connected with the release of certain lands abutting upon his 
estate in Culverthorpe, and occupied by William Barbolt and 
Bobert Goggles. This William Lister was desirous of securing 
more than he was justly entitled to through his purchase, viz : 
a piece of land at Culverthorpe belonging to the prebend of 



CULVEETHOEPE. 355 

Haydor, as evidenced by this crafty letter addressed to a Mr. 
Towne, of Sudbroke, probably a land surveyor or agent : 

"Mr. Towne. I w d - 'mend me hertilie unto you. I pray 
you sett down under yr hand with this my letter, and send it me 
againe by this bearer. The lands which doe belong to the 
prebend of Haydor yt- le within the grounds in Oulverthorp 
which I bought of Sir Ed. Bussy, and as neare as you can con- 
jecture the contents of the lands, yt I may know how much there 
is of it. And I praye you kepe your knowledge thereof to 
yourselfe, & do not disclose it to any person, for I w d - not have 
it known to any person yt you can sett forth the land. And so 
resting myself assured of yr kindness herein, I rest 

" Your Loveing frende, 

"WILLM. LISTEE. 
" Downe Hall, this 24 March, 1619. 

" To his loveing frende Mr. John Towne at his house at 
Sudbroke these." 

The reply was short and explicit, viz : 

" Sir, As I take it there is within ye groundes xiiij Landes, 
and as I gese them to conteane in quantitei betwene thre or 
foure acres. From Sudbroke this 26 March, 1619. 

" Yrs to my power, 

"JOHN TOWNE." 

In 1658 William Lister and Mary his wife and William 
their son granted a lease of the house and lands at Culverthorpe 
to John Colthurst and Mary his wife for a term of 2 1 years, at 
an annual rent of 21. 

In the reign of Charles II. the manors of Culverthorpe and 
Haydor passed into the hands of the Newton family, of whom 
John Newton was created a Baronet in 1661, whose estate was 
valued at 3000 a year, and was thrice the representative in 
Parliament for the borough of Grrantham. He was succeeded by 
his son, the second' Sir John, in 1699, and he by his son, Sir 
Michael, who was made a Knight of the Bath in 1725, and was 
twice M.P. for Grrantham. Through the early death of his only 
son, on his decease in 1743, his estates, amplified by a large one 
left him by his uncle Sir Michael Wharton, were inherited by 
his sister Susanna, the wife of William Eyre Archer, Esq., M.P. 
for Berks., whose son Michael took the name of Newton ; but he 
dying without issue in 1803, his estates were inherited by his 



356 CULVERTHOKPE. 

sisters, and subsequently by the present owner, John Archer 
Houblon, Esq. 

THE HALL. 

This is built in the Italian style, and consists of a central 
feature with a high-pitched roof, and wings, intended to have 
been connected with other subsidiary buildings, or pavilions, and 
is a pleasing specimen of that style. Within, is a remarkably 
fine drawing room, adorned with a curious painting of Sir John 
Newton and his family equipped for hunting, by Wootton, and 
several portraits of the Newtons. Here also is a fine staircase, 
the roof of which was probably painted by Laguerre, a pupil of 
Verrio's. 

Formerly there was a chapel here dedicated in honour of St. 
Bartholomew, to which Holies apparently refers when he speaks 
of " Or, a cross patonce " that he observed at Culverthorpe. 
Now there is a little classical building east of the hall which was 
used for divine service until the death of Mr. Michael Newton. 



DEMBLEBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

1071. 186151. 187178. 

fT^HIS little village is situated 6 miles south, west of Sleaford. 
JL Its name was spelt Delbebi in Domesday Book, whence we 
gather also that Gouchil's manor here was given to Colsuein, but 
that he was allowed to retain 10 bovates of land reckoned as 1 
carucate, and that Rainald, a vassal of Colsuein, had 1 carucate 
here, 4 sokemen, a bordar having another carucate and 1 t> acres 
of meadow and 20 of underwood, the whole being valued before 
and after the Conquest at 20s. 

A portion of this parish was within the soke of Gilbert de 
Grant's manor of Falkingham. This consisted of 12 bovates, 
reckoned at 1 carucate ; he also had here 20 sokemen and 3 
bordars having 3 carucates, 18 acres of meadow, and 16 of 
underwood. Wido de Credon also had 2 carucates, reckoned at 
6 bovates, and of 1 sokeman and 2 villans having 1 carucate, 14 
acres of meadow and 20 of underwood as soke of his manor of 
Osbournby. About 1200 Gilbert de Gant's land was reckoned 
as the fourth part of a knight's fee then in the tenure of Gilbert 
de Lekeburne but subsequently as one third only, when it was 
held by Henry de Lekeburne of William de Dyve, At the same 
time the said Henry de Lekeburne also held the de Credon or 
Croun land here, of Henry Camerarius, and he of Petronilla de 
Croun, when it was valued at one fourteenth part of a knight's 
fee. The said Henry obtained a grant of free warren over all his 
lands here 1312-13. One fifth part of a knight's fee in Dembleby, 
of the fee of de la Haye, was held by William de Dembleby of 
William Lungspee, the de la Haye heir. Adam Pescam also 
held some land here of Gerard de Kainville, valued at one 
fourth part of a knight's fee. " Testa deNevill." At the beginning 
of the 14th century the de Gant fee in this vill passed by marriage 
into the hands of John de Bussey, who died lord paramount of 
this soon after, viz : in 1305. " Inq. p. m. 34 E. 1." His son, 

AA 



358 DEMBLEBY. 

John de Bussey, next inherited them. In 1321 William de 
Twynge and Matilda his wife held one messuage and a carucate 
of land of John Hundset, her first husband, which land was 
afterwards held by Eichard Brown, of Osbournby. In 1338 
Henry de Legburne and Robert his son did homage to John 
Bussey for half a knight's fee they held of him. "Sari. MS. 
1758." In 1372 John de Eouceby did homage to William de 
Bussey in 'the hall at Hougham for one fourth part of a knight's 
fee in Dembleby, and the next year John Goldsmith did the same 
as his successor. In 1397 John Lord Beaumont died seized of 
the same quantity of land held of him and Katharine his wife by 
Sir John Bussey, also of one twentieth part of a knight's fee held 
by William Spaine. "Inq. p. m. 20 E. 2." In 1428 died 
Johanna, widow of Sir Eobert Byron, seized of messuages and 
lands here, " Inq. p. m. 5 H. 6," and in 1520 died John Stanley 
possessed of the manor of Dembleby, who left it to his son 
William, then a minor. " Harl. MS. 756." In 1576 Sir 
Eichard Pell, descended from the Pells of Water Willoughby, 
and knighted July 23rd, 1603, held lands here of the fee of the 
Honour of Bolingbroke, formerly held by William de Twenge, 
and afterwards by Eobert Manall. He died April 19th, 1607. 
By his second wife. Katharine, daughter of Sir Anthony Meeres, 
he left a son and heir, Anthony, who lived at Dembleby, and was 
knighted May 24th, 1608. He bought the office of the King's 
Master Falconer, and in 1624 obtained an increase of the salary 
attached to it of 300 a year. He married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir William Willoughby, of Carlton, Notts., and had four 
sons, Eichard, William, Anthony, John, and two daughters, 
Katharine and Anne. The present owner of the manor is T. E. 
Buckworth, Esq. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

A rood of meadow land in the plains of Dembleby was left 
by an unknown donor for the support of a lamp in Dembleby 
church for ever. This, at the suppression of such endowments, 
was valued at 6d. a year. The rents also of two tenements in 
Aslackby, amounting to 2s. a year, were given for a similar 
purpose. On the other hand two messuages in Dembleby were 
given by Thomas Wymbish in 1478 to the Priory of Nocton Park. 
"Inq. p.m. 18 E. 4." 



DEMBLEBY. 359 

In Bishop Neale's time the living was valued at 16, when 
Richard Tomlinson was rector, and Sir Anthony Pell patron. 

The following is a list of the rectors : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. . Thomas Watson. 
1662. George Campion. 
1670. Eichard Moore. 

. Benjamin Stokes. 
1721. John Jones. 
1731. Wyat Francis. 
1780. Joseph Mills. 
1804. Thomas Mills. 
1856. James Tillard Bonner. 

THE CHUECH. 

Until lately a small ancient church, dedicated in honour of 
St. Lucy, existed here. This was chiefly of the Early English 
style, but possessing some Norman features, and some of later 
date. As the whole was in a very dilapidated condition, its almost 
entire re-building was requisite, when it became a question 
whether the distinct features of the old fabric should be retained 
and restored, or whether one or other style should predominate 
in a new church. The latter plan was finally adopted, and with 
the exception of the old Norman chancel arch, the present church 
is entirely new, and built in a corresponding Norman style. It is 
a solid well-built structure having a bell-gable at the west end, a 
spacious porch, and a chancel terminating in an apse ; the 
roofs of both nave and chancel are covered with Staffordshire 
brindled tiles. 

Within, it is neatly seated, and the whole now constitutes a 
creditable place of worship for the parishioners. The font is a 
very elegant late Norman one, consisting of a square base, a 
sexagonal stem ornamented with the chevron mould from top to 
bottom, having an enriched scalloped cap supporting a small 
square bowl, the faces of which are enriched throughout with a 
delicate diapered pattern cut upon them. 



EWEKBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

2789. 1861473. 1871461. 

THIS village lies 4 miles north east of Sleaford, and was 
conjoined with Ewerby Thorpe, or Austhorpe, when 
Domesday Book was compiled, in which the former is called 
Bergesbi, Grenesbi and Leresbi, the latter Oustorp. Subsequently 
the name of Ewerby was spelt Ywarby and Iwardeby or Iwardby, 
and that of Oustorp Ousthorpe. 

In Ewerby were, according to the same authority, 2 carucates 
of land rated at 3 carucates, 24 acres of meadow, and 20 of 
underwood ; also 9 sokemen, and 9 bordars having 4 carucates. 

Previous to the Conquest the lands here belonged to Leofric, 
Earl of Mercia, and were at that time in the hands of his widow 
the famous Godiva, sister of Thorold of Bucknall and Sheriff of 
Lincolnshire. Subsequently they were distributed between 
Gilbert de Gant, Eemigius, Bishop of Lincoln, and Colsuein. 
Previous to 1185 the Templars had obtained a considerable estate 
in Ewerby, which was then let to various tenants. Circa 
1200-10, Gilbert de Gant's fee, constituting the fifth part of a 
knight's fee, was held by Alured de Ywarby ; and the Bishop's, 
consisting of half a knight's fee, was held by Nicholas Fitzwilliam. 
At the same time Osbert, son of Nigel, held 2 carucates of land 
of the fee of Henry de Quenton, then underlet by him to Nicholas 
and Walter de Hoyland. In 1 337 died Eoger de Kerdeston, seized 
of a manor in Ewerby, and twenty-four years later, Eanulph de 
Eye was lord of this vill and its hamlet Ousthorpe. He gave to 
Sir Alexander Aunsel a windmill here, together with suit of all 
the holders of rents and tenements in Ewerby and Ousthorpe. 
" Lansd. MSS. 863." In 1383 Peter de Malo-Lacu died, seized 
of certain lands and tenements here. In 1397, John, Lord Beau- 
mont, seized of the fifth part of a knight's fee let to the Lady de 
Welles, and a similar quantity let to John Aunsel. In 1451, 
Constance, widow of Sir John Bigod, seized of half the manor, 



EWEEBY. 361 

and ten years later her son and heir Sir Ralph Bigod. In 1453, 
Elizabeth, one of the heiresses of the Hebden family, and relict 
of Sir Thomas Dymoke, died seized of half of the manor, then 
held of the Duchy of Lancaster. This was forfeited on the 
attainder and decapitation of her son Sir Thomas in 1470, but 
recovered by his widow, Margaret, who died eleven years 
afterwards. In 1515 died Sir Ralph Bigod, possessed of a manor 
here; and in 1521, Edward Skip with, seized of another, leaving 
a daughter, Margaret Tempest. Four years later Maurice 
Berkeley died, also seized of a manor in Ewerby ; upon the death 
of whose son and heir, his sister succeeded to it, who died in 1583. 
Haverholme Priory was enriched with lands in Ewerby, viz : two 
acres of meadow, the gift of Simon the son of Stephen de 
Horbling; ten-and-a-half of 'meadow, situated between Ewerby 
wood and the lake made by Bishop Alexander, also a certain 
marsh called Otrisholm, i.e.. Otter's Isle, containing ten acres, the 
gift of William the son of Ulf, for the benefit of his parents' 
souls, which gift was confirmed in the Chapter-house at Lincoln 
in the presence of many witnesses. " Gervase Holies." 

In the 17th century Sir Henry Packenham was possessed 
of lands here, of whom Burton, the Carre steward, records, 
that Robert Carre had bought 4 acres of wood besides a great 
store of ashes and elms in hedge rows. In 1661 Richard Roth- 
well, created a Baronet that year, possessed lands at Ewerby, but 
dying without issue in 1674, the Baronetcy became extinct. His 
armorial bearings were Arg, 3 chevrons engrailed Az, each 
charged with 3 plates Or, a crescent Sa in dexter chief for a 
difference. In 1667 Henry Pell bequeathed a sum of 10 a year, 
a house and garden towards the maintenance of a schoolmaster 
here who was to teach the poor children of the parishes of 
Ewerby, Evedon, Asgarby, and Howell. The present principal 
landowners here are the Honourable Murray Finch Hatton, and 
T. P. Tindale, Esq. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



There was a church and a priest here when Domesday Book 
was compiled. Subsequently the patronage of the former be- 
longed to Kyme Priory. 



36 2 EWEEBY. 

The following are some of the gifts made at various times to 
the church of Ewerby : In 1327 Master William de Baiocis, par- 
eon of Iwardeby, for a fine of one mark, obtained the King's license 
that John Scarle, of Lincoln, might give one messuage and the 
moiety of another, with its appurtenances in this vill, situated 
close to the rectory manse and the church, and assign it to the 
said William, to be held by him and his successors, parsons of 
that church, for ever, for the enlargement of the manse or rectory. 
" Ab. Kot. Qrig., 10 Edw. 3." 

In 1352 Sir Alexander Aunsel and others petitioned the 
King for a license to give John de Haburgh one rood of land for 
the enlargement of the cemetery of Iwardby, at a cost of 6s. 8d. 
"Inq. p. m., 26 Edw. 3." 

Three acres of land and some tenements in Ewerby were 
left by a person, whose Christian name was Hugh, for the 
annual observance of his obit for ever! These lands were let 
for 12d. a year by the churchwardens, of which half went to 
the vicar, and the other half was expended in bread and pottage 
given to the poor on the obit day. " Cotton. MS." Two acres 
of land, let for lOd. a year, were left by a person of the name 
of Gibson, for the purpose of keeping his obit, of which Id. 
went to the vicar, and the remainder was distributed in the form 
of bread and pottage for the poor. Two other acres, let at 8s. 3d. 
a year, were left by an unknown person for a similar purpose. 
" Ibid." 

In 1616 the King was patron of the church, and Edward 
Bowman, vicar, when the vicarage was worth 8 a year, and 
there were 280 communicants. The registers commence with 
the year 152. 

The following is a list- of the incumbents : 
Date of Institution. , 

A.D. . William de Baiocis, circa 1327. 

. Eichard de Ouingham, rector, died 1396. 
. Eichard Tupler or Typler, rector. 
. Edward Bowman, circa 1616. 
1639. Henry Bryerly, vicar. 

. Ciprian Day. 
1669. Eoger Smyth. 
1677. Silvester Leech. 
1732. Matthew Alexander. 




EWERBY CHURCH. 



EWERBY. 363 

/ 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1735. Joshua Dewsnop. 
1 769. Charles Dewsnop. 
1806. John Bellaman. 
1837. Edward Pollard. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St. Andrew, and is a most 
beautiful example of a Gothic church entirely built in one style, 
and with very little variation. The promise of excellence held 
out by the distant view of the beautiful broach spire is abundantly 
fulfilled on a near approach. The perfect masonry of the whole 
fabric, the depth of the mouldings, and the vigour of its carved 
ornaments (among which may be noticed the figure of a boat), are 
very striking. The original entasis of the spire, 172 feet high, 
is best seen on the western face, where it least suffered when 
struck by lightning in 1810, whence its outline is now some- 
what distorted. Besides this, the fabric consists of a nave, north 
and south aisles, south porch, and chancel. The chapel at the 
east end of the north aisle, and the east gable of the chancel with 
the sedilia and piscina, are the earliest portions as to style, and 
there is a simpler character aboiit them than in the later work. 
The acute point of the west window of the north aisle, the 
moulding of the north door, and the carving of the outer arch 
of the porch all deserve attention. Unfortunately the nave has 
lost its original high pitched roof. 

Internally there is no chancel arch, nor any other separation 
between the nave and chancel than a noble screen, of the same 
date and character as that in Sleaford church. Another screen, 
enclosing the chantry chapel on the north side, is exceedingly 
valuable as being one of the earliest remaining examples of such 
features. Within this chapel, the corbels for the altar slab and a 
piscina are still visible ; but its chief feature is the, tomb and 
effigy of its founder, Sir Alexander Aunsell. This monument is 
remarkable as having been formerly overlaid with rich orna- 
mental work, of which portions yet remain. On the effigy the 
chain mail of the gorget is thus represented, and the breast- 
plate was similarly covered with a fretted wavy pattern, very 
like the tracery of the windows. The arch above was overlaid 



364 EWERBY. 

with stars, flowers, and interlaced figures, and the wall behind 
was covered with bands of lozenges having a flower in the centre, 
as on glass quarries. On the pediment above is carved a shield 
and tilting helmet. 

There are two shields represented in stained glass in the east 
window of this chapel, one bears Threckingham, the other, Or, 
2 chevrons Gu within a bordure of the same, a label of 5 Az. 
The bowl of an old Norman font is now serving as a base to its 
successor of the Decorated period. The panels of this are en- 
riched with carvings resembling traceried windows surrounded 
by borders of diapered work. 

Passing through the fine old carved oak chancel screen the 
desolate condition of the chancel becomes the more painful to the 
eye. In the south wall are three canopied sedilia and a piscina, 
and behind the altar table is an aumbry or locker. The table 
itself is made of fen oak and was presented by the late Sir J. W. 
Gordon, Bart. In the north wall is another locker. 

Gervase Holies observed the following armorial bearings in 
this church, viz : in the south window of the chancel, Arg, 2 bars 
Gu, in chief 3 torteaux over all a bend Sa. repeated twice Threc- 
kingham. In a north window of the nave (or north aisle), the 
effigy of a man kneeling, having on his surcoat and a shield in 
his hands, Barry of 6 Or & Az, a bend Gu Gant. In the west 
window of the north aisle, Arg, 2 chevrons Gu, a label of 5 points 
Az. and Threckingham. In the tower window, Or, 2 chevrons 
Gu a label of 5 Az, and Gu, 2 chevrons Or a label of 5 Az. In 
the east window of the north, or Aunsell chapel, where they still 
remain, Threckingham, and Or, a chevron Gu within a bordure 
of the same, a label of 5 az. Formerly there was this legend 
below: " Stephanus Capellanus de Iwardby me fecit"; and in 
another window of this chapel, the effigy of a man kneeling, 
having on his surcoat and shield the Threckingham bearings. 

In this chapel he further observed the tomb and effigy of 
Alexander Aunsell, before described, but when the now blank 
shield above it bore, Erm, on a fesse Gu 3 crosses botony Or. He 
also saw the following epitaphs on tombstones or slabs, viz., on 
one in the chancel : 

Hie Jacet Ricus de Ouingham, quondam Eector istius 
ecclesie, qui obiit x<> die Aprilis Ano Dni MCCCXCVI 
cuius aie ppicietur Deus. Amen. 



EWEKBY. 365 

On another : 

RicusTupler, Hector. 
And the following in the nave : 

Hie Jacet Willus Broun, qui obiit xvi die Augusti 
Ano Dni MCCCCLXIV cujus aie ppicietur Deus. 
Amen. 

Hie Jacet Glouer, qui obiit xx<> die Februairi 

Ano Dni MDV cujus aie ppicietur Deus. Amen. 
Hie Jacet Johannes Boulle, qui obiit ii d die Octobris 
Anno Dni MDV cujus aie ppicietur Deus. Amen. 

Also over the chancel arch : 

Pray for ye welfare of Mrs. Joane Gibson. 
On a mural tablet in the chantry chapel is this inscription : 

To the memory of Henry Pell, &c., ob. Novr. 1667. 
By his last will he gave out of his lands at Ewerby and 
Kirkby ten pounds towards the maintenance of a 
schoolmaster to teach the poor children of Ewerby, 
Asgardby & Howell, and a cottage at Ewerby for a 
school house for ever, & 2 grey gouns yearly for two 
poor widows of Ewerby. 

Cloaths for the body, learning for the mind, 

So here a friendly helper in each kind. 

And which doth crown his charitable deed, 

He doth this when & where there is most need. 

On a fragment of a slab in the chancel is cut a chalice reversed 
and a label bearing a now illegible inscription. 

Here also are the tombstones of two former incumbents of 
Ewerby, the one bearing this memorial : 

Depositum Roger (Smith) nuper Vicarus 1677 ; 
the other : 

Revd. Matthew Alexander, Rector, obiit 1735. 

In the church yard is the base of a cross, erected by a former 
rector, which once bore this legend : " Sumptu Eectoris fuit hsec 
crux facta Johannis Hauburgh, inceroris expers sit in omnibus 
annis " ; and four shields bearing severally Three lions passant 
England. A lion rampant. Three lucies hauriant. A cinque- 
foil between 8 cross crosslets Umfraville. At the back of the 
head of the cross were figures of the Virgin, St. Peter, and St. 
Paul. 



366 EWERBY. 

There are four bells in the tower, thus inscribed : 



1. -All laude and praise 
Be unto God alwaise. 



1616. 



2. John Bulliman, William Tindale, Ch. Wardens. 

T. Osborn. Downhain. Norfolk fecit 1783. 
3. Ihesus be our spede. 
4. Henry Penn. Fusore 1710. 



E WEBBY THOBPE. 

THE name of this hamlet has been variously spelt Ousthorpe, 
Oustorp, Housthorpe, and Owesthorpe ; but was often 
simply called Thorp, or Torp. Part of it was originally Earl 
Morkar's land, afterwards an appurtenance of the King's manor 
of Kirkby Laythorpe. Another portion, that had belonged to the 
Saxon Tunne, was subsequently given to Gilbert de Gant as an 
appurtenance of his manor of Kirkby Laythorpe. This consisted 
of 3 carucates of land, upon which stood the church, and attached 
to which were 9 sokemen and 9 bordars cultivating 4 carucates, 
and of 24 acres of meadow, and 20 acres of coppice wood. Eddiva 
possessed a small manor here, consisting of 3 carucates and a 
half, and 1 oxgang. This was given by the Conqueror to Colsuein, 
besides 44 acres of meadow and 23 of coppice. The whole was 
worth 36s. in King Edward's time and subsequently 30s. 

Circa 1200 Gerard de Camville held lands here in right of 
his wife, the De la Haye heiress, by the service of one knight's 
fee ; which lands were let to William de la Launde. " Testa de 
Nevill." 

In 1262 Eobert de Tibbethot, Kt., granted to Sir John de 
Bye all his manor of Houstorp, in the vill of Ewerby, to be held 
by him and his heirs as Reginald de la Launde once held it of 
Sir Richard de Haye, by paying to him and his heirs one pair of 
gilt spurs or 6 denarii at the feast of St Botolph. Dated the 
46th year of Henry III, 1262. " Dods worth's MS." 

In 1325 John de Rye held the manor of Ousthorpe of the fee 
of de la Haye, and died seized of it 1335-6. " Inq. p. m. 9 E. 3." 

In 1453, Elizabeth, a co-heiress of the Hebden family and 
widow of Sir Thomas Dymoke, Kt., died seized of half this 
manor, held of the Duchy of Lancaster. " Inq. p. m. 31 H. 6." 

In 1470 by the attainder and execution of Sir Thomas 
Dymoke, half the manor in his possession was forfeited. " Inq. 
p. m. 10 E. 4." But it appears to have been given back to his 
widow, Margaret Dymoke, who died seized of this in 1481, " Inq. 



368 EWEEBY THOEPE. 

p. m. 20 E. 4," and her descendant, Eobert Dymoke, held this 

still by the service of one knight's fee. 

The following will of a yeoman of Ewerby Thorpe, who died 

in the 16th century, is so characteristic of that period as to be 

worthy of record : 

1 'By my Will dated 14th. June, 40 Eliz. I Michael Stennett, 
of Austrop, Yeoman, leave my body to be buried in the 
parish church of Ewrebee. To my son Augustine Stennet 
60, and as he, has grown to be of small government and 
little discretion. I will the said money to be kept in custody 
of Thomas Stennet and George Stennet my sons, and not to 
be paid him unless he marry some honest discreet woman, 
and live according to his friends advice, otherwise the legacy 
to be void. To my daughter Elizabeth Stennet 80 shepe at 
Euskington and 80, and, if she die under age and unmarried 
then to be divided among the rest of my children. To 
Thomas Swyer a cowe and 40s. when of age. To widow 
Hooton of Antwicke 10s. To my three daughters Agnes 
Garwell, Grace Swier, and Johanna Pierson each 2 angells 
in gould or 20s. To Michael Stennet a cubborde in my hall, 
with table forms, &c., all the glass in my house, and the 
pales and gates on my grounde, ce to dire, * my steepefate, 
hare cloth, howels, herse herk, cribes, planchers, and beast 
howses, after the death of Johanna my wife. To Elizabeth 
Swan a ewe hogge. To my sd wife Johanna, the lease I 
have of Master Pagnam for her life, the remainder to my 
said sonnes Thomas Stennet and George Stennet. To my 
son George 7. Residue to my wife Joan, whom I make 
my Exix, and Thomas Stennet and George Stennet my 
sonnes, my supervisors. To my brother William Stennet's 
children 8s. To the poor of Ewerby and Austrop 2 seams 
of barley and 2 seams of pease. To William Thorles and 
William Hides 12d, each. 

"Mem. That 1 now will that Thomas my son have all the lease 
of Master Pagnam after my wife's death, for that I stand 
doubtful my said sonnes will not agree for the division 
thereof. My son George to have 6 acres of arable land out 
of the same for himself. Witnesses : John Crudock, Henry 
.Bennet, Edmond Kendall, Thomas James Tyson, &c. 
Debts owing the testator : Thomas Swier, of Ruskington, 
4 ; Master Thomas Whichcote, 40s. ; Holledge Lief, 15s. ; 
Ralf Newton, 12s. Proved 12th of June, 1600, by Johan 
Stennet exix." 

* A failure in an unnecessary attempt to introduce the French expression 
"c'est a dire." 



GEE AT HALE. 

ACHEAGE, POPULATION, 

5633. 18611059. 18711086. 

GEE AT Hale lies 6 miles east south east of Sleaford, and 1 
mile south of Heckington. According to Domesday Book, 
when that record was taken there were 10 carucates of land here, 
rated at 8| carucates, upon which were 38 sokemen. These were 
given to Gilbert de Grant as soke of his manor of Kirkby Lay- 
thorpe, of which Ealph, one of his vassals, was then holding 3 
carucates in demesne. 

Circa 1200 the de Gant lands here were reckoned at a twelfth 
part of a knight's fee, and were held by John de Hal or Hall. 
He had also another part of a fee here held by Hugo de Neville, 
surnamed crassus, or the fat. His son Henry de Nevill gave 5 
tofts and 3 oxgangs of land in Great Hale for the purpose of 
finding a lamp to be lit every day before the body of our Lord in 
the church of the blessed Mary at Haverholme. He died in the 
beginning of the reign of Henry III. 

In 1220 Oliver de Vas or Vaux had in Hale, Heckington, 
and Scredington, the third part of a knight's fee, held of him 
by Simon Camerarius ; a little later Gilbert de Gant is reported 
to have held in Great Hale 3 carucates of land of the King, then 
let to William de Dive, whose sub-tenant was Hugo de Nevill, 
and Simon de Hall. " Testa de Nevill." 

In 1247 Hugo de Nevill, son of Henry, of Great Hale, made 
an agreement with Henry de Longchamp, of Burton, and his 
heirs, that he would never hunt in his warren without his leave ; 
which leave, however, would be granted at his request to himself 
personally from the nativity of the blessed Virgin to pentecost 
provided he should send either his esquire or some other 
messenger to the house of Henry de Longchamp to obtain leave 
of his officers, and if these should not be in the way, having 
provided himself with the testimony of two or three men of 
Burton, that he had done so, he might go to the said warren and 
hunt in the plains without leave. 



370 GREAT HALE. 

The said Henry de Longcharnp, lord of Frieston, four days 
before his death gave 2 oxgangs of land in Great Hale along 
with his body for burial to the Abbey of Swineshead, presenting 
a charter of seizen by one of his vassals, and ordering him to 
expel thence two female tenants of the same that the land might 
be ploughed directly for the benefit of the Abbot. In 1327 by 
virtue of this act, John, the son of Elye, the cooper, held this 
land under the Abbot of Swineshead. " Inq, ad, q. d. 1 E. 3." 

In the 21 E. 3, Thomas Howard gave divers lands in Great 
Hale to William Auncell, who with Alice his wife transmitted 
them to their son William, 34 E. 3 ; but previous to this Hugo 
de Bussey as the heir of one of the descendants of Sir John de 
Dive, had become lord paramount of a portion of this vill as a 
part of the Barony of Gant, which he held of the King. He was 
succeeded by his son John de Bussey, who held lands here, in 
Dembleby, Skellingthorpe, and Fenton, amounting to two 
knight's fees. " Lansdown MS. 863, f. 189." 

In 1397 died John, Lord Beaumont, seized of the third of a 
knight's fee in Great Hale, held of him and Katharine his wife, 
by John Bussey : but in 1463 these lands, constituting the manor 
of Hale, and held in succession by the Beaumonts and Bardolfs, 
were forfeited by the attainder of William, Lord Bardolf. " Inq. 
p. m. 3 E. 4." 

The Husseys next acquired them, of whom Robert, the first 
possessor, died May 28th, 1545. His son and heir, Thomas, held 
the manors of Great and Little Hale of the Duke of Norfolk, as 
of his manor of Heckington, and various messuages, one of which 
he held of the Queen as of her manor of Swineshead. Dying 
without issue 1559-60, he divided his estates between his sisters 
and their issue. On the 29th of January, 1609, died Charles 
Hussey, of Honington, seized of these manors which he held of 
the manor of Heckington, leaving them to his son and heir, 
Edward. 

In 1629, Elizabeth, wife of Sir Thomas Horsman died seized 
of a manor here, which she left to her son, Thomas. 

The present principal landed proprietors here are the Marquis 
of Bristol and Colonel Packe. 



GREAT HALE. 371 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The church of Hale was given to that of St. Lazarus without 
the walls of Jerusalem by Simon de Grant and Alice his wife in 
the presence of King John, who confirmed the gift in 1208. In 
1314 the King (Edward II.,) granted a license to Robert de 
Asheby enabling him to mortmain 2 messuages, 1 croft, and 36 
acres of meadow in Great Hale, Little Hale, and Heckington, to 
a chaplain to celebrate divine service in the church of St. John 
of the Baptist at Hale, for the soul of the said Eobert, the souls of 
Richard, his father, Auline his mother, Robert de Kyrington,. 
and John Elys, chaplains, William de Tye, and all faithful 
people. " Pat. Rot. 7 E. 2." 

In 1345 the Abbot of Bardney obtained the King's licence 
to appropriate the church of Great Hale to the use of that Abbey. 
"Inq. ad. q. d. 18 E. 3." 

In 1634, when Sir Nathaniel Brent, vicar general, visited 
this church, he found it without a chancel although the irnpro- 
priator, Robert Cawdron, was worth 200 a year. " Dom. State 
Papers, V. 274." 

The following is a list of the vicars of Hale since 1561 : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. . Samuel Saunders. 
. Thomas Schockey. 
. J. Pearson. 
. J. Manby. 
. Benjamin Deacon. 
1700. Richard Parke. 
1727. Richard Can. 
1758. William Harding, senr. 
1775. William Harding, junr. 
1794. William Benwell. 
1796. Richard Bingham. 
1858. Frank Sugden. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St. John the Baptist, and is a 
fine spacious edifice, although now deprived of its chancel. The 
tower is by far the oldest feature. This is perfectly plain, with- 



;]7l > GEEAT HALE. 

out any plinth or string courses, and appears to have been always 
plastered within its quoins. In the western and southern faces 
of its lower stage is a small semicircular-headed light, the arch of 
the latter being moulded ; and in the stage above is a little key- 
hole slit, the head of which has been mutilated. In the upper 
stage is a coupled semicircular-headed belfry light in each face 
with a circular shaft between them, having a scalloped cushion 
capital, supporting a long saddle impost. In the north east angle 
of the tower is a narrow newel staircase lighted by four slits, 
and it is surmounted by a poor Perpendicular embattled parapet, 
and eight coarsely cut crocketed pinnacles. 

The nave has been deprived of its original roof, the pitch of 
which is indicated by its weathering on the eastern face of the 
tower. 

The south aisle is late Early English, and has a good boldly 
moulded plinth, and buttresses finished with pedimented caps. 
At the west end is a three-light intersecting lancet window now 
foreshortened through the introduction of a modern doorway 
below it. In its south wall are five similar windows of larger 
size, and a spacious porch having a wide well-moulded arch and 
pillared jambs. Within, is a doorway of a plainer character, and 
above it a little niche. At the east end is rather a weak four- 
light Decorated window. From the absence of parapets on the 
aisles and the nave, as well as from the loss of its roof, this church 
suffers much in its external appearance. 

At the east end of the nave the outline of the chancel arch 
may be seen, against which are built buttresses ; within this is 
a poor window feebly copied from the design of one of the south 
aisle windows, and below it a stopped- up Tudor doorway. The 
north aisle has a well-moulded plinth and good buttresses, but 
of a later character than the southern one. At the east end is a 
good deeply-moulded four-light window, and in the side wall 
four three-light windows and a doorway with pillared jambs 
similar in design to the arch of the porch attached to the south 
aisle. 

Within, a plain semicircular-headed arch, relieved only by a 
simple cornice on either side, gives access to the tower from the 
nave. Originally the nave was lofty as well as spacious through 
the breadth of its aisles. Its arcades, of five bays, are supported 
by circular-shafted pillars rising from square bases, and their 



GKEAT HALE. 373 

arches consist of two plainly chamfered members, and a hood 
mould. The last pair of arches towards the west are narrower 
than the others. There was a chapel at the east end of both, as 
evidenced by an aumbry and a piscina still remaining in the 
usual position there. On the south side of the chancel arch was 
the rood loft staircase, part of which still remains, and the old 
oak chancel screen now cuts off the westernmost bay of the north 
aisle, to serve as a lobby. A similar arrangement exists in the 
south aisle, to provide a vestry, on the plaster wall of which 
has been ingeniously painted a copy of the real screen opposite, 
by some local artist. The font is an octangular one. In each 
face of its bowl is a cusped-headed niche having a border of 
quatrefoils above and on each side of it. Holies mentions the 
following armorial bearings which he saw in a north window of 
the church when he visited it, viz : those of Clare, Warren, de 
Gant, Beaumont, Yere, and Deyncourt. Here also he saw 
England and France ancient, Latimer, and Goldesburgh or 
Goldsboro' Az, a cross fleuree arg. Towards the east end of the 
north aisle are several monuments of the Cawdron family. The 
oldest of these is a small mural one of white marble between the 
two easternmost windows of this aisle ; on this are represented 
Robert Cawdron and his first wife in a kneeling position above, 
and his two subsequent wives below. It bears the following 
epitaph : 

To the sacred and perpetuel memory of Robert Cawdron, 
of Little Hale, in the Coun. of Line., Gent : who 
departed this life ye 30 day of December, 1665. Ann 
uEtat sue LVI, being 3 times married : first unto 
Katherine daughter of Edward Netham,_ of listen in " 
ye count of Leicest. Gent. 2dly. unto Susanna Fauk- 
enbridge, relict of Richard Gamble, Gent. Lastly unto 
Elizabeth Sansome, ye relict of John Woods, Gent., 
now living, which said sorrowful widow out of tender 
affection she beareth to her deceased husband caused 
this monument to be erected at her own proper charge 
and cost, this 20th day of May, 1668. 

The memory of ye just is blessed, but ye name of the wicked shall rot. 

The body of this Eobert Cawdron was buried beneath the 
sepulchral slab of an ecclesiastic of the 14th century. This is of 
grey marble and was once adorned with a stemmed cross spring- 

BB 



374 GEEAT HALE. 

ing from a lion at the base, a bust of the priest it commemorated 
and a border legend, engraved on brass plates, all of which are 
now lost, but the initials E. C. and the date 1665 were interpo- 
lated upon it, when it was used to cover the remains of Eobert 
Cawdron by his third wife. 

On a small white marble mural tablet, next to this on the 
right, are the incised effigies of Eobert Cawdron, Ann, his first 
wife, daughter of Edward King, of Ashby, Eleanor, his second 
wife, 9 sons, 6 daughters, and 5 children who died in infancy. 
These are ranged in a kneeling posture behind their parents 
praying on either side of a central desk, while the dead infants in 
their grave clothes lie beneath these, each accompanied by a 
skull as an indication of their death. Below is this inscription : 

Memoriae sacrum. 

Roberti Cawdron Armig vitse integeri in egenos 
largissrai in patriam fidissim 1 , uxores duas habuit, 
Jam. Anna nota Edwardi King, Armigeri, que peperit 
et 10 filios et 6 filias. 2 Maria, viduam loliannis 
Austen generose, e qua 3 filios et unam filiam. 
Mortuns est die II Martii A- 1652. ./Etatis sue 73. 
Eleanora filia obsequentessmo. parenti amantissimo 
lugens posuit. Antonius films fecit. 

On the other side of the first-named Eobert Cawdron's monu- 
ment is a stone tablet in which a brass plate is inserted 
commemorating Anne Cawdron, first wife of the first Eobert 
Cawdron, and below is a second plate set in a stone, recording 
the death of Francis Cawdron. Eastward of these is another 
mural monument commemorating a third Eobert Cawdron, which 
is thus/ inscribed : 

Here lyeth the body of Eobert Cawdron, Esq., who by 
Sarah his wife, youngest daughter of Sir Edward 
Hussey, of Welbourn, Baronet, had issue one daughter 
Elizabeth. He departed this life October ye' 18th, 
1728, in the 41 year of his age. 

Another daughter of Sir Edward Hussey is also thus commemora- 
ted in this church : 

Here lieth the body of Mrs. Sarah Smith, wife of 
Weston John Smith, Esq., of this parish. She was 
the youngest daughter of Sir Edward Hussey, Bart., 
of Welbourn, in this County, who departed this life 
the 17 of May, 1767, in the 80 year of her age. 



LITTLE HALE. 

T ITTLE Hale always appears to have been associated with. 
JLj Great Hale, as it is at present. 

Circa 1200-10 Gilbert de Gant was holding a sixth part of a 
knight's fee here, then in the tenure of Simon Camerarius. 
" Testa deNevill." 

In 1418 died Thomas Geene, Kt., of Norton, Northants., 
seized of a capital messuage here. " Inq. p. m. 5 H. 5." 

In 1590 died Robert Carre, of Aswarby, seized of the manor 
of Little Hale, which he had bought with many others. 

In 1603 died William Callis, yeoman of this place, seized of 
lands and tenements here, having a young son and heir, William. 
"Harl. MSS. 758." 

In 1629 died Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Horsman, who held 
this manor, leaving a son and heir living Thomas, born 1615. 

William Burton, the faithful steward of the Carres, thus 
instructs his young master, Sir Robert Carre, 2nd Bart., in 1627, 
respecting Little Hale. " This is a manor whereof divers free 
tenants hould their lands by rents service : You have there not 
above 14 acres of inclosed land ; all ye rest of yor lands, being 
arable & meadow, lie in ye open fields, intermixt with ye free- 
holders ; and part of them have bin so long held by freeholders, 
together with their owne landes, that they cannot be distinguished 
there from ye other ; soe you may by incrochments & conceal- 
ments be much wronged in this place, and likewise in Great 
Hale, if yor officers look not ye better about them. I hold it 
therefore very requisite that a survey be taken of all yor lands & 
meadows in those 2 Townes." 

Subsequently the Cawdron family was established at Little 
Hale for some time. Now the principal landed proprietors here 
as in Great Hale are the Marquis of Bristol and Colonel Packe. 



HAYDOR. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

3700> 1861466. 1871447. 

THIS village, the name of which was originally spelt Heidure, 
lies 6 miles south west of Sleaford. 

After the Conquest 4 carucates of land in this parish lay 
within the soke of Wido de Oredon's manor in Swaton, and a 
smaller portion belonged to Colsuein's manor of North Kyme. 
This last was afterwards held by Petronilla de Croun, who let it 
to Henry Camerarius, and he to Eichard de Thuschit, with the 
exception of 4 oxgangs held by Walter de Eudestager of the 
mother church of Lincoln, 3 oxgangs belonging to Haydor 
church, and half an oxgang held by the " Hospital at Lincoln," 
all of which Were free from scutage. 

Circa 1200-20 Eobert de Pickworth held 3 carucates here 
of the Constable of Lincoln, by the service of half a knight's 
fee, and Henry de Longchamps 5 carucates of the fee of Grant. 
Subsequently this last fee was held by the Bishop of Worcester, 
for a daughter of Henry de Longchamps, who was probably his 
ward, and afterwards by the family of Dyve, After the death of 
the last Gilbert de Grant without male heirs, his lands here were 
granted by the Crown to John, son and heir of Hugo de Bussey, 
of Hougham, in 1307. About the same time a family of the 
name of Gloucester was resident at Haydor ; of whom Hawise, 
the wife of Sir Walter de Gloucester, quitclaimed for herself and 
heirs to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, all right she had to 
some tenements in Lincoln, through their enfeeoffment by her 
son, Walter de Gloucester. This grant was signed at Haydor 
in 1324, in the presence of several knights. " Lib. de Ordinat. 
Cant." Previous to, or during the year 1338, Sir Bartholomew 
Burghurst, or Burghersh, (the brother of Henry Burghersh, 
Bishop of Lincoln), had obtained the manor of Haydor, and a 
grant of free-warren over its lands. He died seized of the said 
manor in 1356, leaving a son and heir, Bartholomew, born in 



HAYDOE. 377 

1336. "Dugdale, and Inq. p. m. 26 E. 3." A branch of the 
great house of Scrope next became lords of this manor. In 1391 
died Sir Roger de Swillington, seized, conjointly with Margaret 
his wife, of a messuage and 2 carucates of land in Haydor, as of 
the castle of Falkingham. He assigned to the Dean and Chapter 
of Lincoln an annual rent of 20 marks, arising from his manor 
of Haydor and lands in Haceby and Braceby. That body also 
received an annual payment of 4 5s. 8d. from the profits of 
the churches of Haydor, and Waltham, Bucks., towards the 
support of a prebendary of Lincoln.. Sir Roger left a daughter 
and heir, Margaret, wife of Sir John Gray, who died 1429, in 
possession of Southwood and certain rents at Haydor. In 1397 
died John, Lord Beaumont, seized, conjointly with his wife 
Katherine, of half a knight's fee, then held by him of William 
Disney. When Ralph, Lord Cromwell, founded his college at 
Tattershall, he gave 16 acres of wood at Haydor, for its support, 
together with an annual rent of 4 13s. 4d., derived from tene- 
ments here and at Burton. A descendant of the Busseys-was 
still resident at Haydor in 1587, in the person of Edward Bus- 
sey, who was fined 50 to the -Star Chamber for some offence 
he had committed. " Pip. Rot., 29 Eliz." Perhaps Leland 
referred to this gentleman when he says, " Itin., i, 29," " One 
Bussey, coming of a younger brother of the house of Busseys 
of Hougheham, dwelleth in an old place at Haider, that he 
and his parents hath of a fee farm, of the church of Lincoln." 

The site of that old place is still clearly indicated by the 
remains of its moat ; and a few other relics have survived its 
destruction. Among these is a large figure of a female playing 
upon a musical instrument, carved in stone, now built into a 
garden wall on the north side of the church, where the old 
manor house of Haydor formerly stood. 

The antiquary Leland, in his Collectanea, speaking of 
Haydor, says : " Bussey that was so great in Richard the 
Second's days, and was beheaded at Bristol, although he had his 
principal house or manor place at Hougheham, about three miles 
from Grrantharn, yet resided sometimes at this place also." 'But 
full two centuries before the time of Richard II., viz : the 29th 
and 30th of Henry I., we find that a Hugo de Bussey was Sheriff 
of Lincolnshire ; and that in the 35th of the same reign, a John 
de Bussey held of the King two knight's fees in capite, as of the 



378 HAYDOE. 

barony of Gant. Again, a William Bussey was Sheriff of Lin- 
colnshire the 47th of Edward III., and a John Bussey de Hather 
held that high office in the 7th, 9th, and 14th of Eichard II. 
This John Bussey was one of the six Commoners, who, with, 
twelve Lords, were, on the dissolution of Parliament, A.D. 1398, 
elected as a committee, and invested with the whole power of 
the Lords and Commons : but in the general insurrection in the 
month of August, in 'the following year, occasioned by the return 
of the Duke of Lancaster, he, with others of Eichard 's ministers, 
threw themselves into Bristol for security, and, on the surrender 
of that place to the Duke, was, together with others, led to im- 
mediate execution without any previous trial. 

The following notes ralative to the ancient family of Bussey, 
transcribed from a vellum, book of devotions, formerly belonging 
to some of that family, formerly in the possession of the late Mr. 
Edward James "Willson, of Lincoln, may not improperly find a 
place here:* 

30. Julii. Obitus Joh'is Bussy, militis, qui obiit apud Bristowe 

A'no D'ni m,ccc,lxxxix. 
21. Octob. Hie natus est Johannes films et heres domini 

Johannis Bushi, anno domini m,cccc,22f 
Hie natus est Hugo filius et heres Joh'is Bussy A'o D'ni 

m,cccc,liii. 
21. Jan. Obitus Domine Katerine Bussy, que fuit uxor Johannis 

Bussey, qui quidem Joh'es fuit heres D'ni Joh'is Bussy, qui 

obiit apud Byrstowe in anno regni Eichardi secundi xii., &c. 

Katerine obiit in A'no D'ni m,cccc,lvi, et in regni 

Edwardi iiii. 
4. Mar. Obitus Joh'is Bussy, militis, qui obiit Hogham A'o 

D'ni m,cccc,lviii. Iste Johannes fuit filius et heres Joh'is 

Bussy, qui obiit apud Bristowe pro Eicardo Secundo, in 

anno regni sui xii. 



* These Notes are written in the margins of those leaves which contain 
the annual calendar, at the beginning of the volume ; making up a family 
register. 

t This entry is written in a most exact manner, apparently by the person 
o wrote the book itself. The last two figures in the date are the earliest 
Arabic numerals in this register. 



HAYDOE. 379 

28. Jan. Obitus Edmundi Perpont* qui obiit in die sancte 

Agnetis supradicto, A'o D'ni m ; cccc,lxxxv. A'o regni 

Henrici septimi primo. 
26. Jan. Obitus Joharinis Bussy filii iij. Tho. Bussey, militis, 

de Hogham, et dictus Johannes obiit apud Scotter, A'o D'ni 

m,cccc,lxxxvii, et regni Henrici septimi, tercio. Cujus 

anime propicietur deus, amon. 
16. Feb. Obitus Magistri Willi. Bussy, filii Joh'is Bussy, militis, 

ac rectoris de Hogham, and Winfield in com. Derbii, A'o 

D'ni m,cccc, nonagessimo iij. 
5. Aug. Obitus D'ne Eliz. Bussy uxoris Johannis Bussey, milits, 

& filie Laurencii Barkeley. Anno D'ni m,cccc, nonagessimo 

quarto. Cujus auime propicietur deus, amen. 
Jun. 6. Isto die natus est Edwardus Bussy filius Edmundi 

Bussi, A'o m,d,xi, & A'o H. viij. tercio. 
24. Decemb. Edwardus Bussy filius Edwardi Bussy, natus fuit 

apud Haidor vicessimo quarto die Decembris, Anuo D'ni 

1552. 
Octob. Isto die nata erat Elizabetha Bussy filia Johannis Bussy 

apud Wythecoke in A'o D'ni 1558. 
Primo die Januarii natus fuit Johannes Bussy filius Johannis 

Bussy apud Haidor, anno domini 1559. 
2. Feb. Isto die obiit Henricus St. Poolle apud Wythcoke, in 

A'o D'ni 1559. 
15. Mar. Isto die natus fuit Edmundus Bussy filius Johannis 

Bussy apud Haydor, in A'o D'ni 1562. 

Anna Bussy filia Johannis Bussy, nata fui^t apud Haidor vices- 
simo die Septembris, anno domini 1563. 
Bridget Bussey filia Johannis Bussy, nata fuit apud Haidor 

octavo die Januarii, anno domini 1565, eodemque die 

baptisata fuit Jana Bussy filia ipsius Johannis, A' no D'ni 

15761577. 
Francis Bussy filius Johannis Bussy, natus fuit apud Haidor 

vicessimo die Aprilis, anno domini 1567. 
Christopher Bussy filius Johannis Bussy, natus fuit apud Haidor 

undscimo die Aprilis, anno domini 1568. 
Mary Bussy filia Johannis Bussy, nata fuit apud Haidor secundo 

die Aprilis, anno domini 1570. 

* This probably was some relative of the Bussey family. 



380 HAYDOE. 

Isto die (27. Novemb.) obiit Edmundus Bussy, apud Willow, 

films Edwardi Bussy, anno domini 1570. 
Charles Bussy filius Johannis Bussy, natus fuit apud Haidor 

undecimo die Mali, anno domini 1572. 
Brudnell Bussy filius Johannis Bussy, obiit apud Haidor decimo 

die Maii, anno domini 1578. 
Isto, quarto viz., die Octobris an'o dom. 1580, baptizatus fuit 

Andrew Bussy filius Johannis. 
15. die Aprilis, A'o regni Elizabethe 28, 1586, natus fuit Eawley 

Bussy filius Johannis Bussey, qui fuit filius Joh'is Bussey 

de Hather, armigeri. 
Nupta fuit [Elizabeth Bussy, born 1558] Johanni Babington de 

Eampton in com. Nottingha', arm. per quern habuit nullum 

exitum, nisi vnicum filium vocatum Johannem, natum Hador 

mense Januarii, 1587, A'o regni Elizabethe regine, &c., 

vicessimo nono. 
Johannes Babington obiit apud Eampton anno domini 1588, 

mense Aprilis. 
Edwardus Bussy filius Edmundi Bussy, natus fuit apud Eampton, 

in com. Nott'. quarto die Novembris, A'o D'ni 1590. 
Milo Bussy filius E'di natus fuit apud Haydor xix die Augusti, 

anno domini 1592. 
Elizabetha Bussey filia Edmundi Bussy, nata fuit apud Haydor 

xi Augusti, 1593. 
Elizabeth Bussy filia Edmundi Bussy, nata fuit apud Haidor 14. 

die Julii, A'o D'ni 1594. 
Francisca Bussey filia Edmundi Bussy, nata fuit apud Haidor 

29. die Aprilis, A'o Eegni Eegine Elizabethe 30. A'o D'ni 

1596. 
Jane Bussy filia Edmundi Bussy, nata fuit apud Haidor 12. 

Julii, 1597. 
Edmundus Bussy filius Francisci, natus fuit apud Eampton tercio 

die Augusti, anno d'ni 1597. 
Elizab. Bussye fiilia Milonis Bussye, nata fuit apud Haidor 

vicessimo die martii, anno domini 1609. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOBY. 

There was a priest and a church at Haydor when Domesday 
Book was composed. In the reign of Henry HI. 4 oxgangs 



HAYDOR. 381 

here were held by the Chapter of Lincoln Cathedral, then let to 
Walter de Rudestayn ; the church of Haydor was endowed with 
3 oxgangs, and a hospital at Lincoln held half an oxgang, prob- 
ably that of St. Catharine. Formerly the vicarage of Haydor 
with Kelby was a peculiar, under the jurisdiction of the pre- 
bendary of Haydor with Walton instead of that of the Arch- 
deacon of Lincoln. The following is a list of the incumbents : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1361. Thomas de Appelby, presented by Galfrid le 
Scroop, Canon of Lincoln. 

1585. Leonard Towne. 

1599. Eobert Rambody. 

1604. Francis Quiningbcrow. 

1628. Richard Northam. 
. Henry Peight. . - 

1675. Isaac Carter. 

1688. Joseph Wild. 

1726. Robert Lamb. 

1747. Emanuel Langford. 

1778. John Baker. 

1786. George Hicks. 

1800. Michael Thorold. 

1836. Arthur Leaping well. 

1856. Gordon Frederick Deedes. 

THE CHUKCH. 

The general appearance of this church, dedicated in honour 
of St. Michael, is imposing, partly arising from its advantageous 
situation on a little eminence, and partly from the character of 
its features. The spire sits well upon the tower, but the angle 
pinnacles of the latter are over heavy. There was clearly at one 
time a Norman church here, as indicated by a small arch of that 
period, now inserted over the staircase doorway of the tower. 
Then succeeded an Early English fabric, the chancel of which still 
remains, together with its lateral lancet windows. The tower 
arch, together with the lower portion of its northern wall, are 
also Early English. During the Decorated period the whole 
of the nave was re-built, and the pitch of its roof is still manifest. 
The aisle windows are for the most part of the reticulated type 



382 HAYDOE. 

so common in this district, but the tracery of two of these in the 
south aisle varies from the usual principles observed in de- 
signing such features for the purpose of forming crosses. The 
east end of this portion of the cnurch has. been made to serve 
as a chapel, the remaining piscina of which has a drain of a sin- 
gular character. Here was an entrance to the rood loft, but 
there appears to have been another on the opposite side of the 
nave, from the evidence of a doorway on the north side of the 
chancel arch. The font, of the same period as the nave, is 
pleasingly adorned with shallow carving, resembling traceried 
windows. In the north aisle windows is some old glass of the 
reign of Richard II., which has lately been carefully repaired. 
The westernmost one contains figures of the then three favourite 
patron saints of England, viz : St. Edward, St. George, and St. 
Edmund. Below are three shields ; of these the central one is 
modern; both the others bear Gules, a bar argent., for Scrope, 
with a label of three points over all, as a difference. The second 
window contains figures of St. Vincent, St. Lawrence, and St. 
Stephen ; the third, modern representations of Melchisedec, 
Moses, and Ellas. In the border of one of these windows the 
letter M is frequently interspersed with the other ornaments of 
the same, and probably refers to St. Michael, the patron saint of 
this church. Some fragments of the old painted glass are now 
misplaced, such as a figure of our Lord in glory, and a head of 
Christ, which are inserted below figures of angels. The nave 
was subsequently surmounted by the present Perpendicular 
clerestory, which no doubt adds dignity to the fabric by increas- 
ing its elevation, but is in itself a plain and unattractive feature. 
Within the porch is a Decorated niche over the doorway ; it has 
a stone roof supported on plain ribs, and a staircase, which 
formerly gave access to a room above. 

In a small chapel on the north side of the chancel are two 
small "hagioscopes," looking towards the chancel altar, also a 
curious old carved chest ; but the most conspicuous objects here 
are a number of marble monuments recording the deaths of 
members of the Newton fomily, formerly the wealthy proprietors 
of Culverthorpe Hall, whose last male heir was cut off in a very 
extraordinary manner. The marble slab that covers his infantine 
remains is thus inscribed : 



HAYDOE. 383 

Here lyeth the body of John Lord Viscount Coningesby, 
son of Sir Michael Newton, Bart., Knight of the Most 
Honble. Order of the Bath, and Margaret, Countess of 
Coningesby, his wife : who was born the 16th day of 
October, 1732, and dyed the 14th day of January, 
1732-3. 

Hence we might naturally suppose that this little heir of the 
united wealth and titles of his parents simply died of one of the 
ordinary complaints to which infants are subject ; but it was one 
of the strangest misadventures that in reality cut off this hope of 
the house of Newton. During the eighteenth century a fashion 
prevailed of keeping large monkeys as pets, and the Countess of 
Coningesby unhappily followed that foolish fashion ; afterwards 
a far nobler and more precious pet became hers in the form of a 
lovely baby ; but in about two months' time she was again child- 
less, for her monkey, during the temporary absence of its nurse, 
stole the infant from his cradle, and absconded with him. Upon 
her return, the nurse wildly pursued the flying monkey with 
its precious burthen. Upstairs scrambled the beast, and then, 
frightened by her screams, he dropped the stolen infant, and 
nothing remained for the wretched parents to do but to weep 
and to wail over the child, and to commit the remains of this 
last little Viscount Coningesby to the grave. The truth of this 
story has been doubted from the existence of a note in the parish 
register stating that the body of this unfortunate infant was 
brought from London for burial at Haydor; but the incident 
related may have occurred in London just as well as at Culver- 
thorpe, and it depends not upon mere untraceable tradition, but 
upon reliable oral authority. 

A white marble monument of the Countess, by Bysbrach, 
is also in this chapel. 



HECKINGTON. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

5049. 18811725. - 18711865. 

THIS large village lies 5 miles east of Sleaford and on the 
turnpike road between it and Boston. The parish is 6 
miles long and 1^ broad. 

Its name was at first spelt Eschintune, then Hechintune, and 
next Heckintone, before it assumed the present form of Hecking- 
ton. Morkar, Turchil, and Algar the deacon, were the chief 
Saxon landed proprietors here before the Conquest, but subse- 
quently Colsuein obtained a grant of lands here, together 
with appurtenance:^ in Helpringham, Howell, and Kirkby Lay- 
thorpe. Of this, Ealph Paganel claimed 6 oxgangs which had 
been Algar's, but the jury of the Wapentake disallowed it. 
Gilbert de Grant received 3 carucates of arable land, 100 of 
meadow, and 3 fisheries worth 5s. 4d. a year. The King 
retained Morkar' s land as an adjunct of his manor of Kirkby 
Laythorpe. Wido de Credon obtained 4 oxgangs of plough land 
and 3 of meadow as an adjunct of his manor of Burton. The 
Bishop of Lincoln 2 oxgangs of plough land and 3 of meadow as 
of his manor of Sleaford, and Robert de Vesci a small portion 
of land as parcel of his manor of Steveninge, in the parish of 
Swineshead. 

In the reign of Henry III. the fifth Gilbert de Gant was 
holding 5j carucates of the King ; of which he had given the 
twelfth part of a knight's fee to Lawrence de Howel, the same 
quantity to Robert de Heckington, and the twentieth part of a 
knight's fee to Thomas Anglicus. At the same time Simon de 
Hall held, of Petronilla de Vallibus, 4 oxgangs of land by the 
service of 40d. and a scutage of 40s. ; when also William de 
Latimer held the third part of a knight's fee of William de 
Vesci. "Testa de Nevill, p. 321-2." On the death of the 
above-named Gilbert, in 1298, his fee in Heckington accrued to 
the Crown together with other lands ; for, having no issue by 



HECKINGTON. 385 

his wife, Laura, sister of Alexander de Baliol, lie bequeathed 
these to the then King, Edward I. "Inq. p. m. 26 E. 1," and 
"Pip. Eot. 30 E. 1." Whether the tenants gained by this 
transfer we know not, but certainly the last of the de Gants was 
in the habit of illegally impounding his neighbours cattle through 
his over anxiety to preserve the game on his manor of Hecking- 
ton, and he also in a most arbitrary manner ordered a high road 
between Hale park and Garrick to be closed and certain fences 
to be levelled, because this interfered with his hunting. 

The great family of Beaumont next obtained the manor of 
Heckington through a grant from the King to Henry de Beau- 
mont 1310-11. Twenty years later, viz: August 19th, 1330, he 
probably had the honour of receiving the then young King 
Edward III. at Falkingham and at Heckington, on his way to 
Clipston ; who, while at the last place, signed several important 
deeds, among which was a grant of the customs of wool, hides 
and skins, at Boston, to Robert Stamford, clerk. "Pat. Eot. 4 
E. III." In 1463 the manor of Heckington was forfeited to the 
Crown through the attainder of "William, Yiscount Beaumont, 
and given to Sir William Hastings, who died in 1484 ; but on 
the accession of Henry VII., that attainder was reversed, and 
his estates were restored to him. He died childless, 23rd Henry 
VII. The manor then accrued to Lord Willoughby de Broke, 
from whom it descended through marriage to the Duke of Suffolk 
in 1540. Henry, Lord Cobham, was the next possessor of the 
manor, who with his brother George Broke conspired against 
James I., for which they were tried and found guilty of high 
treason in 1603. George Broke was beheaded for this ; but 
'Lord Cobham was respited ; and after having suffered much from 
poverty, died January 24th, 1618-19. His life was spared 
through his abject excuses, in which he most meanly laid the 
blame of his conduct upon others, and especially upon his own 
brother ; but he pleaded for mercy in a more legitimate manner, 
viz : by reminding the King that his royal father had been his 
baptismal sponsor, and that his own father had suffered imprison- 
ment on account of the King's mother, the unfortunate Mary of 
Scotland. Lord Cobham was betrayed by his steward, named 
Mellows, in whom he thoroughly confided. Sir William Cobham, 
K.B., nephew of Lord Cobham, was his heir, who although 
restored as to blood, never obtained the title of Lord Cobham. 



386 HECKINGTON. 

On His death without issue, circa 1643, Sir John Broke, or 
Brooke, often called Sir John Cobham, son of Sir Henry, 
Ambassador to Spain, France, and Germany, succeeded to part 
of his grandfather's estates in accordance with his will. From 
his loyalty to the Crown the title of Lord Cobham was bestowed 
upon him and his heirs male, through letters patent to that 
effect, dated at Oxford, January 3rd, 1644. Tradition relates 
that this Lord Cobham, through his manorial rights in Hecking- 
ton over its then uninclosed lands, so overstocked them as nearly 
to deprive all others of their privileges, whence they were induced 
to give up 600 acres of land at the east end of Heckington fen to 
him in lieu of his rights. By his first wife Anne he had no issue. 
After her death 1625-6, he married Frances, daughter of Sir 
William Bamfield, knight, by whom he had an only son, born 
1636, who died young, so that he died without leaving issue, 
when he was upwards of 90 years of age. His widow, Frances, 
Lady Cobham, survived him 17 years, and was buried in Surfleet 
church 1676 where her monument still remains. The residence 
of the Cobhams stood on the south side of Heckington, and its 
stables and other buildings remained standing near an old fish- 
pond until towards the close of the last century c On the death 
of Lady Cobham, Sir Peter Frazier, in right of his wife, succeeded 
to the Cobham estate in Heckington, who is stated to have 
removed the furniture and pictures of the Cobham family to 
Cressy hall, in the parish of Gosberton. 

In a field near the old hall stood a tumulus called the Butts 
hill, from its having long been used as an archery butt ; but 
from the discovery of a part of an urn, sevei-al socketed spear 
heads and many fragments of human bones within it, when it 
was levelled in 1815, there is no doubt but what it was originally 
either a British or Saxon barrow ; subsequently several skeletons 
deposited in a regular manner accompanied by some fragments 
of iron were found in digging for gravel in a small field near to 
the spot where this tumulus stood. 

Besides what may be called Cobham hall, there were two 
other old houses of some consideration in this parish, viz : that 
belonging to Winkhill manor, and Holmes house. The family 
of .WinkhiU, long resident in Heckington, gave their name 
to the south aisle of the church, either because they were 
benefactors to the same, or worshipped there. Their residence 



HECKINGTON. 387 

stood half a mile north, east of the village, within a moated area 
consisting of about an acre of land, the only approach to which 
was over a bridge on the western side. It was pulled down in 
1780. It had a spacious porch in front with a room above it. 
Over the door was a shield bearing Erm and Fretty quarterly, on 
a chief a mullet, surrounded by an oak wreath, which shield was 
inserted in a new house built on the site of the old one by Mr. 
Christopher. 

Holmes house stood on the east branch of the Carre dike in 
this parish. 

Heckington fen was enclosed in 1764. 

The present principal landed proprietors here, are Messrs. 
Godson, and Mr. William Little. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

There was a church and priest at Heckington when Domes- 
day Book was compiled. The profits of the former were given 
by Simon de Gant and Alice his wife in 1208 towards the support 
of the church of St. Lazarus outside the walls of Jerusalem, 
which gift was confirmed by King John. The patronage thus 
exercised was inherited by Simon de Gant from his ancestor, the 
first Gilbert de Gant, who obtained it as an appanage of a 
berewick in Heckington, belonging to his manor of Kirkby 
Laythorpe. Although the claim of Ralph Paganel with respect 
to some land that had belonged to Algar the Deacon was 'dis- 
allowed, he appears to have possessed some other lands here, for 
in the 15th century his descendant, John Pouger, of West Rasen, 
was patron of a chantry chapel at Heckington dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary and St. Nicholas. Its founder was then unknown, 
but the rents of certain lands and houses in Heckington had been 
given for the support of a chaplain, who was to pray for the 
founder and others, and to celebrate divine service in this chapel. 
Prom an indenture dated February 21st, 1545, we find that the 
endowment of the chantry then consisted of a messuage, " a 
common en le farre fenne," i.e. a right of commonage, 40 acres 
of arable land and 8 of meadow, then let to Thomas Morell for 
20 years, at a rent of 2 to be paid at the feasts of St. Michael 
and the blessed Virgin. " Cott. MS. Tib." Several cottages 
and small parcels of land in Heckington were given by various 



388 HECKINGTON. 

persons for the purpose of having their obits observed in the 
parish church as they vainly hoped for ever. For instance, 
one of them gave 12d., the rent of a cottage, for this purpose, 4d. 
of which was to be given to the priest celebrant, and 8d. to the 
poor in alms on the obit day ; and another left 2 acres of land in 
the plains of Heckington, worth 8d. a year, half of which was to 
be given to the priest and half to the poor on the obit day. 
Others left lands, &c., for the support of lights to be kept burn- 
ing, as they also vainly hoped, for ever, in Heckington church ; 
but, in every instance it is somewhat remarkable the name of the 
donor has now been forgotten. 

Since the time when the patronage of Heckington church 
was given to the Abbot and Convent of Bardney Abbey it has 
been served by vicars. The following is A list of the incumbents : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1218. Henry de Colevile, chaplain of the chantry of 
St. Nicholas in Heckington church, presented 
by Henry de Colevile, with the consent of the 
Abbot and Convent of Bardney. 
. Simon the chaplain. 
1241. Eobert de Caden. 
1292. Simon de Baston. 

1307. Eichard de Pottesgrave, presented by Edward 
I. during a vacancy in the Abbey of Bardney. 
1400. Eobert de Somerby. 
1401. Henry Yorkfleet. 
1423. Christopher Estwode. 
1509. John Doghson. 
1 5 1 0. Henry Cartorge. 
1520. John Green, presented also to the chaplaincy of 

St. Nicholas. 
1535. Henry Gaskyon. 
1540. George Metcalffe. 

1 562. William Cawtrell, presented by Queen Elizabeth. 
1577. Thomas Morley, ditto. 

1606. Eobert Tatther, presented by James I. 
1610. Thomas Noke. 
1611 . Eobert Lussher. 
1618. Eobert Sanderson. 
1619. Eichard Harrison. 




HECKINGTON CHURCH. 



HECKINGTON. 389 

Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1636. Bobert Sharpe. 

1646. John Duckling. 

1660. Bobert Sharpe. 

1666. Edward Whiston. 

1670. Anthony Beridge. 

1686. Edward Gheast. 

1694. William TunstaU. 

1712. Thomas Townsend. 

1717. Joseph Greenhill. 

1741 . Wyatt Francis. 

1754. William Nottingham. 

1783. Bobert Benson. 

1822. Henry Bristowe. 

1833. Charles De la Cour. 

1861. George Thomas Cameron. 

The parish registers commence Michaelmas, 1559. The 
entries for about 150 years are made in Latin, and beautifully 
written. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St. Andrew, and has been 
justly entitled the Queen of village churches. The great starting 
point of its history is the year 1345, when the Abbot and 
Convent of Bardney obtained the royal licence to appropriate the 
church of Heckington to their own use. " Inq. ad. q. d., 18 E. 3." 
Soon after that date the present grand structure was probably 
commenced, the size of which, as compared with the former 
population of Heckington, clearly indicates the different 
principles on which our forefathers built churches to those now 
usually prevalent. When the eye is at liberty to examine the 
features of this church, after having been awhile absorbed by its 
spaciousness and beauty, it will readily be seen that its plan 
consists of a tower and spire, a south porch, nave and aisles, 
transepts, chancel, and adjoining vestry, with an undercroft 
beneath it. The whole fabric is very nearly of the same period, 
and was constructed between the years 1345 and 1380. The 
north transept and aisle are of an earlier style than the rest, as 
will be seen externally from the character of their base-mouldings 

CC 



ggo HECIONGTON. 

and other evidences. Why this should be so we cannot teU, unless 
one of the Pougers of W. Easen, the then patrons of the chantry 
previously alluded to, supplied the means for the reconstruction 
of that chantry when the remainder of the fabric had become 
dilapidated, and thus led the way to the rebuilding of the whole. 
In 1310 Henry de Bellomonte, or Beaumont, obtained a royal 
grant of the manor of HecMngton, and was probably, in conse- 
quence, one of the principal promoters of the above-named good 
work. After the building of the north transept and aisle had 
been completed a short pause appears to have ensued ; but then 
a grander work was planned and commenced, viz : the re-building 
of the whole remaining portions of the church in a still more 
ornate and beautiful manner. From the time of this re-com- 
mencement of the work it was apparently carried on gradually 
until its completion in the early part of the reign of Eichard 
H., when the porch, forming an integral portion of the south 
elevation, was certainly erected, from the evidence of the bearings 
displayed upon one of the shields there. Presuming that the 
nave of this church was erected through the instrumentality of 
its clerical patrons, there is actual evidence to prove that a 
former vicar, Eichard de Potesgrave, erected the chancel, but 
probably by the aid of Sir Henry de Beaumont ; and that he 
dedicated it to the Virgin Mary, St. Andrew, and All Saints, the 
following legend in Holies' s time remaining in one of the 
windows apparently shewing this : 

Ricus de Potesgrave istms ecclie hoc cancellum fecit 
in honore beae Marise, Sti Andrese & oim Stor., Ao 
Dni mccc. . 

Holies also intimates that the recumbent effigy placed beneath 
an arch in the north wall of the chancel is that of the same 
personage. We should have been glad to have seen the features 
of one through whose instrumentality so fine a structure as the 
chancel of this church was built, but unfortunately the face of 
Eichard de Potesgrave's effigy has been almost entirely destroyed ; 
hence we can now only mark the richness of the priestly euchar- 
istic vestments in which it is appropriately habited. Some years 
since this monument was removed and the grave below was 
searched. In addition to the remains of a body that were then 
disclosed, an article was found with them which was pronounced 



HECKINGTON. 391 

to be a " candlestick," but in reality this was the stem of a 
chalice, the bowl of which had partly perished. 

At a distance the effect of the tower and spire is not so 
perfect as that of the same features at Ewerby, the spire 
here being a little too slight and the tower pinnacles too heavy, 
while the flying buttresses connecting these pinnacles with the 
spire appear to serve as ties to the pinnacles rather than as 
supports to the spire. But when approached the massive features 
and grand repose of this tower, its perfect condition and the 
beautiful tone of its colouring are especially striking. In a niche 
of one of the southern buttresses a statuette still remains, indicat- 
ing the character of the remainder with which this church was 
formerly richly adorned. From the eagle cut on the pedestal 
of this figure we may presume that it was intended to represent 
St. John. A female head at this angle, turned towards that 
of a Queen on a larger scale, has a most charming expression, 
that has retained all its original freshness since the days 
of Edward III. The whole southern elevation of this church is 
one of the finest examples of Decorated work after it had attained 
its full perfection, and previous to the period of decadence, which 
soon followed. The noble base mouldings, the freely flowing 
tracery of its aisle windows, the range of the large clerestory 
lights above, the numerous canopied niches, the beauty of some 
of the boldly projecting sculptured ornaments, and the strange 
grotesqueness of others, the crocketed pinnacles, the enriched 
parapets, and the beautiful porch, together combining to present 
one of the most triumphant examples of the power of Gothic 
architecture, as applied to the production of a parish church, that 
we possess. One bay of the nave, eastward of the transept, being 
without an aisle, has a peculiar effect, and gives variety to the 
composition. A beautiful turret staircase surmounted by an 
equally beautiful pinnacle, constitutes the south-eastern angle of 
the nave. The south transept, usually termed the "Winkhill 
aisle," corresponds with the remainder of this elevation as to its 
windows, &c., but is surmounted by a closed panelled parapet of 
inferior beauty to that of the chancel, and of a later date. The 
original oak trussed rafter roof still covers the porch. This is 
exceedingly rich in canopied and crocketed niches, as well as in 
other sculptured ornaments ; its whole contour also is most 
pleasing. Just below the gable apex is a niche, once filled with 



39:2 HECKINGTON. 

a sculptured figure ; immediately below is a small shield bearing 
the arms of England supported by little angels, and on either 
side, at a lower level, are carved kneeling angels, apparently 
bearing the emblems of the crucifixion, and also the presumed 
arms of Edward the Confessor adopted by Eichard II., and of 
St. Edmund. The southern elevation of the chancel is exceedingly 
fine, with its three large flamboyant windows, its rich open 
parapet, and its grand angle pinnacles. The doorway, partly 
taken out of one of the windows, is surmounted by a finial of 
unusual beauty, and the sculptured ornaments grotesquely 
jutting out from the walls give additional power to the composi- 
tion ; among these is a boat, on the gunwale of which sits a 
knight bearing a shield charged with two bars and three mullets 
in chief, also a dragon with a curiously knotted tail, a demon 
seizing a woman, a pig and other animals. The chancel gable 
contains a grand window filled with freely flowing tracery, and 
is most efficiently supported by its massive buttresses. At the 
east end are fine angle pinnacles. The vestry attached to the 
north side of the chancel, is surmounted by two perfect pinnacles, 
whence the other mutilated ones could be readily restored in 
accordance with their original design. The arched aperture in 
the east end below is simply the window of the undercroft, the 
tracery of which has been destroyed. The northern elevation of 
this church is not so rich as the southern one, but is beautifully 
designed. Although the north aisle, formerly called the " Eiby 
quire," and the north transept are of rather an earlier character 
than the rest of the fabric, it is remarkable that the northern 
clerestory windows are of a later type than the southern ones. 

After having wondered awhile at the size and general 
grandeur of the interior, it will be perceived that the arcades are 
of a date ranging between 1360-80. Here, as at Sleaford, are 
double columns, or responds flanking a short piece of walling 
between the nave and transept arches, an expedient that gives no 
additional strength at those points, and is inferior to simple 
columns. The font stands in a conspicuous position, as at Boston, 
and one that is appropriate in the case of a large church like this. 
The upper parts of the niches of this font are shaUow, and could 
not be deepened lest they should cut into the bowl. Probably 
sculptured subjects originally concealed this defect. In the 
eastern wall of the north transept are evidences, both externally 




II 



gsi 



ffiia5OEiij<&'H i H two 



HECKINGTON. 393 

and internally, of the former existence of two chapels there, 
together with their altars. Two piscinae and a locker still remain 
which belonged to one of these chapels, and part of a piscina and 
of a Perpendicular screen connected with the other. The south 
transept was once screened off from the nave and its aisles, so as 
to form two more chapels. Three enriched sedilia, having 
detached pillars with foliated capitals, together with a piscina 
belonging to one of these chapels, remain in the south wall of 
this transept On the south side of the sacrarium are three 
sedilia enriched with beautiful sculptured work to a most unusual 
extent. In the centre above are figures of our Lord and the 
Virgin, and on either side of these, others, both of which 
apparently represent St. Barbara with the heavenly suggested 
tower. On the right is a figure of St. Catherine with the wheel, 
on the left, one of St. Margaret with the Dragon. On the cornice 
above is a range of angels, some of whom guard the crowns of 
the holy persons below, and others are ready to administer 
spiritual food to them. 

The delicate vaulting within the canopies of the sedilia 
recesses is admirable, as well as the sculptured ornaments 
generally, but the admixture of grotesques with the other 
legitimate figures and enrichments does not accord with our 
present taste, although very prevalent during the 14th century. 
Under the window, beyond the sedilia, is a beautiful double 
piscina surmounted by a crocketed gablet, the label of which 
terminates in little figures, one of whom holds a vessel, perhaps 
suggestive of purification. The finial of this piscina consists of 
a richly foliated feature, that has been restored by a sincere 
lover of such fair specimens of Gothic art as the one now under 
examination. Nearly opposite is one of the finest Easter 
Sepulchres remaining in England. Below are sculptured the 
sleeping Roman guard, clothed in the armour and bearing 
the shields of soldiers of the 14th century. In the centre above 
is the recess, in which the Host was solemnly deposited on Good 
Friday, where it remained until an early hour on Easter Day ; 
but in some cases our Lord's entombment and resurrection were 
enacted by means of a temporary sepulchre, and through the 
medium of the priests and their subordinates, as is still the case 
at Ober Ammergau, in Bavaria, which has of late attracted so 
much attention. On either side of the aperture are carved the 



394 



HECKINGTON. 



guardian angel, and the three Marys ; above is the figure of our 
Lord freshly risen, together with censing angels. Such are the 
principal features of this beautiful work of art, every portion of 
which is further enriched with subsidiary ornamentation ; but 
here, as in the case of the sedilia opposite, some grotesque 
figures have been unmeaningly introduced, together with some 
heads on a larger scale than the other ornaments, with very 
questionable taste. 

As the exact character of the mediaeval Office of the Sepul- 
chre is but little known, it is here subjoined, together with a 
translation. The original constitutes a MS, Ordinary of the 
Church of Eouen, whence it was extracted by Du Fresne, and is 
contained in " Yetusta Monumenta, vol. iii." : 



Finite tertio responsorio officium sepulchri 
celebratur. Ties diaconi canonici induii 
dalmaticis et amictis, habentes super capita 
sua ad similitudinem muHerum, vasculum 
tenentes in manibus, veniant per medium 
chori, et versus sepulchrum properantes vul- 
tibus submissis dicant pariter huncwersum, 
Quis revolvet nobis lapidem? Hoc finito, 
quidam puer quasi angelus indutus albis et 
tenens spicam in manu ante sepulchrum, 
dicat, Quern quceriiis in sepulchro? M arise 
respondeant, Jesum Nazarenum crucifixum. 
Tune angelus dicat, Non esthic, surrexit enim, 
et locum digito ostendens. Hoc facto, angelus 
citissime discedat, et duo presby teri de majori 
sede in tunicis intus sepulchrum residentes, 
dicant, Mulier, quid ploras, quern quceris ? 
Medius trium mulieium respondeat ita, 
Domine, si sustulisti eum, dicite. Sacerdos 
crucem illi ostendens dicat, dicens, Quia 
tulerunt Dominum meum. Duo residentes 
dicant, Quern queeritis, mulieres? Mariae 
oscu'entur locum, postea exeant de sepulchro. 
Interim quidam sacerdos canonicus in 
persona Domini, albatus cum stola, tenei,s 
cructm, obvians eis in sii istro cornu altaris 
dicat, Maria : quod cum audierit pedibus 
ejus citissime se offerat, et alta voce dicat, 
Cabboin. (Kabboin). Sacerdos innuens dicat, 
JVo/i me tangere. Hoc finito sacerdos in 
dextro cornu altaris iterum appareat, et illis 
transeuntibus ante altare dicat, Arete: nolite 
timere. Hoc finito se abscondat, et mulieres 
hoc audito Jsetae inclinent ad altare conversae 
ad chorum, et hunc versum cantent, Alleluia, 
Resurrexit Dominus, Alleluia. Hoc finito, 
archiepiscopus vel sacerdos ante altare cum 
turibulo incipiat alte, Te Deum laudamue : et 
sic neupma (pneurna) finiatur. 



At the end of the third response the office 
of the sepulchre is thus performed. Let 
three Canon Deacors, robed in dalmatics and 
amices, having on their heads women's attire, 
carrying a little vessel, come through the 
middle of the choir, and hurrying with 
downcast looks towards the sepulchre, let 
them together say, Who shall roll away ihis 
stone for us 1 This over, let a boy, dressed in 
white, like an angel, and holding a wand in 
his hand! sav before the altar, Whom seek ye 
in the sepulchre ? Let the M arys answer, The 
crucified Jesus of Nazareth. Then let the 
angel say, He is not here for He has risen, 
shewing the place with his finger. This done 
let the angel very quickly depart, and let 
two priests, in tunics, from the higher seat 
sitting within the sepulchre say, Woman, why 
weepest t/iou, whom seek ye? Let the third 
woman answer thus, Sir ifthou hast taken him 
hence tell us. Let the priest shewing the 
cross, say, Because they have taken away my 
Lord. Let the two seated priests say, Whom 
seek ye, women ? Let the Marys kiss the spot ; 
afterwards let them go forth from the 
sepulchre. In the mean time let a priest 
cadon, representing the Lord, in albe and 
stole, holding a cross, meeting them at the 
left corner of the altar say, Mary : Which as 
soon as she has heard, let her fall quickly at 
his feet, and with a loud voice say, Rabboni. 
Let the priest, restraining her, say, Touch me 
not. This over, let the priest appear again 
at the right hand corner of the altar, and 
let him say to those passing across before the 
altar, Hail, fear not. - This done, let him hide 
himself, and let the woman hearing this, 
gladly bow before the altar turned towards 
the choir, and let them sing this verse, 
Hallelujah, the Lord hath risen, Hallelujah. 
This done, let the archbishop or the priest 
with the thurible say aloud, We praise thee, 
Lord ; and thus let the office be finished. 



The little building on the north side of the chancel, now 
used as a vestry, contains a piscina, which has led some to 



HECKINGKTON. 395 

suppose that it necessarily was used as a chapel in days of old ; 
nevertheless it probably only served as the sacristy to the church, 
where the sacramental vessels were washed in part, as well as 
near the altar. Below is a vaulted undercroft, thought by some 
to have been the chamber of a guardian priest, whose private 
chapel was above it ; but it was more probably used as a store 
room. 

Besides the tomb of Eichard Potesgrave, already mentioned, 
Holies observed two others in the chancel ; one of marble com- 
memorating Henry Asty, knight, who died in 1383, the other of 
stone commemorating his wife Alice, and thus inscribed : 

Hie Asty fossa nunc Alicie tenet ossa, 
Propter earn stantes hie vos estote precantes. 

Holies also recorded the following then existing epitaphs, viz., on 
a brass plate : 

Here lyeth John Cadroii, ye which deceased 20 Nov.,. 
1488. For Goddes love pray for me. Thou wotest not 
what nede I have to thee. For charitie say a Pater 
noster and an Ave. 

Another commemorating Henry Cadron, who died 1503, and his 
wife Elizabeth. A third of one of the same family, who died 
1554, having a brass plate thus inscribed : 

Here lyeth W. Cawdron, sometime Baylyf of Heck"- 

Also two more placed over the graves of this William Cawdron' s 
two wives, Margery Meres, who died 1509, and Elizabeth, who 
died 1556. In the south transept he saw epitaphs recording the 
names of Robert Marshall, Stephen Boston, and "William 
Lyndsey, and others near the chancel commemorating John 
Dogson, who died 1510, andEobert Thornburgh, who died 1487. 

Besides these there still remains in the south-eastern angle 
of the south transept a slab having a deeply sunk quatrefoil, 
within which is the carved bust of a civilian of the time of 
Edward III., represented in a hood, and a tunic with tight 
sleeves ornamented with rows of minute buttons ; and in the same 
transept another that once evidently commemorated a knight and 
his lady in the butterfly head-dress of the time of Edward IV. 

This church was also rich in painted glass, of which much 
remained in Holies' s time. In the chancel he observed the 
following armorial bearings, viz : Az, seme of fleurs de lys a 



396 



HECKINGTON. 



lion rampant Or, a bend gobony Arg & Gu Beaumont, and the 
legend: "Sire Henry de Beaumont Dnus de Heckington Ano 
50. Ed. III." The same without the bend. Or, a cross Sa 
Vesci. Erm, on a cross Gu a crown Or, repeatedly. Gu, 3 crowns 
Or, and the effigies of a knight and his lady bearing the Beau- 
mont shield of arms. In a south window of the chancel the 
Beaumont and Vesci bearings were again displayed. The aisle 
windows of this church were also enriched with painted glass, in 
the east window of one of these, given by Simon Baston, vicar of 
Heckington, about the year 1300, the Beaumont bearings again 
appeared ; also Az, 3 crowns Or ; and in the one over the porch 
was displayed the effigy of a benefactor said to be a de Gant. 
Only a few fragments of all this glass now remain, and these 
have unfortunately been gathered up into one window in an 
unintelligible melange. 

In the church-yard is the base and shaft of a stone cross. 



HELPEINGHAM. 

ACEEAGE, POPULATION, 

1861912. 1871911. 



THIS village lies 7 miles south, east of Sleaford, and is remark- 
able for the height and beauty of its church tower and 
spire, which may be seen for miles round in every direction. 
Originally it was called Helpricham, and its land before the 
Conquest belonged wholly or in part to the Saxon Eilric, who 
had 7 carucates, 3 bovates, 9 bordars, 13 villans, and 15 acres of 
meadow here, worth 13 in King Edward's time and 12 in the 
Conqueror's reign. Subsequently this was divided into several 
parcels, of which Robert de Yesci received 3 carucates, which he 
held in demesne, also 13 villans, and 9 bordars having 15 acres 
of meadow, valued at 3 in King Edward's time ; Gilbert de Gant 

3 carucates and 2 bovates, as soke of his manor of Falkingham ; 
Ivo Tailbois 6 bovates, 3 sokemen, 1 bordar, and 1 acre of 
meadow ; and Colsuein 2 bovates, 2 acres of meadow and 1 
villan, berewick of Heckington, stated to be in a manner waste, 
perhaps through frequent inundation. 

In the 13th century the de Gant fee comprised half a knight's 
fee, and was held by Simon de Kyme. In the reign of Henry 
III. Margery de Greley and John de Hayled stopped up a drain 
called Cheges dyke, between Helpringham and Swineshead to 
their own advantage, but to the great detriment of the public, 
who could obtain no redress from Peter le Brus, the Sheriff's 
Bailiff. About the same time a poaching case was tried and lost 
by William le Latymer before the Royal Commissioners, who 
accused William Ward of hunting with harriers over his domain 
here, where he had the exclusive right of free warren, and killing 

4 hares regardless of prohibition, whereby he had forfeited 10 ; 
but the verdict of the jury was in favour of the defendant. 

In 1322 the fee of Philip de Kyme here was held by Thomas 
de Wyke, who, in right of his wife, descended from the Dribys, 
became tenant of that fee. In 1322 died Gerard de Chancy 



398 HELPEINGHAM. 

seized of rents and tenements here ; in 1387 William de Bardolf, 
knight, lord paramount of two parts of a knight's fee here. In 
1436 John Kevermond, husband of Matilda heiress of the Mon- 
bouchers, seized of half a manor ; and in 1451 Isabella Burgh, 
another Monboucher heiress, seized of the whole manor. In 
1522 died Maurice Berkeley, one of the heirs of Sir Thomas de la 
Launde, possessed of a manor here. " Harl. MSS. 756." Subse- 
quently Elizabeth, sister and heir of John Berkeley, died seized 
of the manor, leaving a son and heir, Eobert. In 1568 Eobert 
Levesley and his wife were made to shew by what title they held 
a manor in Helpringham perhaps that of Knott Hall and in 
1595 died Eobert Packenham also seized of a manor here. 

The family of Cawdron next appear to have been land-owners 
here, of whom Edward Cawdron died in 1621. This parish was 
enclosed in 1773. Its principal land-owners now are Lord 
Willoughby de Broke, and Messrs. Pearson, Cragg, Tomlinson, 
Thorold and Barnes. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



There was a church here before the Conquest endowed with 
4 bovates of arable land and 4 acres of meadow, apparently in 
Deeping, which belonged to Azor. Subsequently it was possessed 
by the Abbot of Bourn. In 1328 Lambert de Threckingham 
obtained the King's licence to give 37 acres of plough land and 
3 acres of meadow, partly in Helpringham and partly in Little 
Hale, for the support of a mass priest in Helpringham. " Inq. 
p. m. 2 E. 3." The Abbots of Bourn were accustomed to pay 
10s. a year as a pension to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln for 
the church of Helpringham. In 1616 Anthony Newlove was the 
patron of the vicarage when it was valued at 10 a year, and 
there were 320 communicants. " Willis's MSS. f. 39." In 1621 
Edward Cawdron left to the churchwardens 20, the interest 
of which was to be given to the poor of the parish of Helpringham 
on St. Thomas's day. "Parish Eegister." In 1663 Eobert 
Cawdron left by will 40s. a year out of the tithes of Little Hale 
to the vicar of Helpringham for ever, for a sermon to be preached 
on the anniversary of his funeral. 



HELPEINGHAM. 399 

The parish registers commence with the year 1559, from 
which the following entries are selected : 

The church corne was sould by the chuchwarden in 1576, for 7 13s. 4d. 
In 1580 the Bull Dale (by estimation 2 acres), was let to John Smyth for 10s. 
and he to keep the Bull. 1605. Money given towards the buiinge of Mr. 
Fox his Booke of Acts & Monuments, for the Towne. Henry Twell, 10s. 
"William Morrice, 6s. 8d. 1606. The south aisle repaired by the parish. 
Before that Mr. Robert Crebell claimed the quire at the east end thereof, as 
belonging to Thorpe Latimore. 1610. 24. June, being midsummer day, the 
greate bell fell down as the people were ringing, & brake through the high 
bell-chamber, & strucke thorow the stone floor into the ground 3 quarters of 
a yard ; which was throwe one of her yndyrons breaking, and had no hurt at 
all to her. 1621. Mr. John Cawdron payd to the Churchwardens 20, given 
by his father, Edward Cawdron, Esquire, the use whereof is to be distributed 
to the poor on St. Thos. day. 1662. Mem. It is agreed that every 20 
assessed shall find a horse for a dragoon man, and if he shall be out two days 
together, then the party whose horse they shall have, shall be excused when 
it shall come to their turn agayne. 1673. No Churchwarden shall relife no 
manner of persons except they have Sir Edward Lake hands. No Church- 
warden shall pay above twopence for a fulmard's head. 1675. The church 
corn sold for 13. 

The following is a list of the vicars of Helpringham as far 
can be ascertained : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1227. Henry de Sandwick, presented by the Abbot of 
Bourn. 

1263. Eichard de Munaton, presented by Hugh Bigot. 

1272. William de Northbury, presented by the Ex- 
ecutors of Hugh Bigot. 

1535. Edmund Preston. 

1559. William Burneby. 

1570. Anthony Newlove. 

1608. William Barnes. 

1631. John Foster. 

1660. John Duckeing. 

1671. Benjamin Deaken. 

1707. Eobert Smith. 

1716. Samuel Galley. 

1769. Isaac Cookson. 

1784. John Moore Brooke. 

1799. Thomas Mitchinson. 

1836. Thomas Mitchinson. 

1855. Frederick Latham. 



- 



ONTARIO 



400 HELPRINGHAM. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St. Andrew, and from the 
loftiness of its tower and spire, which may be compared with 
those of Hecldngton, Ewerby, and Asgarby, is a conspicuous 
object for miles in every direction around it ; nor will it be found 
less attractive when approached, from the beauty of its archi- 
tecture and the perfection of its masonry, to which time has only 
given a charming tint instead of effecting any injury. 

The oldest portion is the chancel. This is a good sober 
Early English structure, now rather overpowered by the larger 
and later work of the nave and tower, besides having been 
robbed of its original high-pitched roof as evidenced by the waU 
between it and the nave, and the sad way in which the head of 
its east window has been mutilated through the substitution of 
the present roof for its original one. On either side nearest to 
the nave is a single lancet serving as a low-side window, and two 
coupled lancets, the easternmost on the south side being placed 
at a higher level than the other on account of the sedilia partly 
placed below it within ; between these is a priest's door. The 
lowering of the gable at the east end, and the necessary mutila- 
tion of the window below was a barbarous act, and especially as 
it may be seen from its pillared jambs and other remaining details 
that it was originally an excellent one. 

About 1340 the whole of the re"st of this church was rebuilt. 
On the west is a fine tower of three stages, having angle but- 
tresses rising in lofty lines, and with scarcely even a minute 
flaw in any of its stones. In the lower stage is a most beautiful 
doorway, the jambs of which are enriched by four pillars, on 
either side supporting as many well-moulded members constitut- 
ing the arch above. In the next stage is a three-light window 
having flowing tracery in its head,' and in the upper one a plainer 
two-light window of a stiffer character, the whole being sur- 
mounted by a plain parapet and square crocketed Perpendicular 
pinnacles. At the south-west angle is a projection containing a 
circular newel staircase giving access to the top, from which rises 
a good lofty Perpendicular spire closely crocketed, having little 
flying buttresses at its base connecting it with the angle pinnacles. 
In the western faces of the aisles are windows similar to the 
lower one in the tower between them. 




HELPRINGHAM CHURCH. 



HELPKINGHAM. 401 

Both elevations of the nave are nearly alike, in each aisle 
are four three-light windows and a doorway, but the windows 
of the south aisle have reticulated tracery, and those of the 
northern one cusped heads, but are of the same date. The 
doorways seem to have been originally precisely alike, both 
having some effective cusped carved work in the upper part of 
their pediments, two pillars on each of their jambs and well- 
moulded arches of the same date and character as that in the 
tower, but in front of the southern one a poor debased Perpen- 
dicular porch was subsequently added. In both the clerestory 
walls are four Decorated lights coeval with those of the aisles, 
and three projecting gurgoyles, the whole being surmounted by 
an embattled parapet, and on its gable is a very beautiful cross. 
At the south-east angle is a staircase turret giving access to the 
south aisle roof, and also formerly to the rood loft, the doorway 
to which still remains within. This turret assumes an octangular 
form above, and in it is a pretty little slit filled in with stone 
lattice work. It is finished with an embattled parapet and a 
crocketed pinnacle. Within, the tower arches are perhaps the 
most beautiful features of the fabric. The noblest of these opens 
into the nave, the other two communicate with lateral features 
opening by means of other arches into the aisles. These arches 
are now boarded up, but it can be readily seen how beautiful this 
portion of the church would be if they were set free from their 
present incumbrances. The nave is spacious and lofty. On 
either side is a fine aisle arcade of four bays supported by three 
clustered pillars and their responds, but the clerestory above is 
covered by a poor roof in bad condition. 

At the east end of each aisle was, as usual, a chantry chapel, 
the piscina and aumbries of which still remain. The former are 
alike, each having a pedimented and crocketed head, and the 
usual circular drain within a niche below ; that of the south 
chapel is in the usual place, viz., at the east end of the south wall, 
close to an aumbry in the east wall ; that of the north chapel is 
against the responcj. of the north arcade ; in the adjoining north 
east angle of this aisle is a statue bracket, and near to it an 
aumbry. 

The font is a very interesting one of the Early English 
period. It has a square base, from which rises a circular bowl 
supported by four octagonal shafted pillars. An arcade of narrow 



402 HELPRINGHAM. 

and acutely arched arches enriched with the nail-head ornament 
runs round three quarters of the bowl ; but the fourth part is 
differently treated, half of it being ornamented with foliated work, 
the other half with a representation of the Holy Lamb and 
banner, in front of which is a pendent object, perhaps a divine 
ray, or the censer of an angel above ; but as the whole surface 
of this font is covered with many 'coats of washes and paint, the 
last intended to represent marble, it is impossible at present to 
determine positively what this object is. 

The chancel arch is low and poor ; but in front of it stands 
a good Perpendicular carved oak screen. Within, as well as 
without, the substitution of the present low pitched roof for the 
original one is greatly to be regretted. On the south side is a fine 
range of Early English sedilia. These have circular shafted 
pillars dividing them and bold trefoiled arched heads with a 
semicircular hood mould above each, and also a piscina adjoining 
these sedilia on the east, and incorporated with them. In the 
chancel is a large oak parish chest bound with many iron bands 
having fleur de lys terminals. 

Holies observed the following armorial bearings in a north 
window of this church, viz : Gu, 3 chrevronels Or, a label of 5 
Az. Clare. Gu, 3 waterbougets Arg. Eoos. Arg, 2 bars Gu, 
in chief 3 torteaux, over all a bend Sa. Threckingham, with 
this legend, "Dominus Lambertus de Threckingham me fecit" ; 
also Arg, a chief Gu. Sa, a cross engrailed Or, a label of 3 
points Arg. Ufford, and Gu, a cross patonce Or. Latimer. He 
also saw in a south window here Latimer again and Gu, a chevron 
between 10 crosses botony Or. Kyme. These are now all gone, 
but on a small brass plate attached to the north wall of the 
chancel is this memorial legend : 

Here lieth the boddie of Anthonie Newlove, the elder, 
patron of the Vicaridge of this churche of Helpringham, 
whoe departed this world ye fift daye of October. 1597. 

It appears that he was a mercer of Helpringham from the 
evidence of his tokens, a cut of one of which is given on the 
adjoining page, but he was lay rector of Helpringham, 12th 
Elizabeth, when he was called upon to show how he had become 
possessed of this, from the following unclassical entry in the 



HELPEINGHAM. 403 

Exchequer Originalia: "De Antonio Newlove occasianato ad 
ostendum quo titulo tenet Kectoriam de Helpryngham in com. 
Line." 




In the pavement of the chancel are slabs commemorating 
William Cawdron, who departed 1615, a second William, who 
died 1719, and a third who died 1720 ; and in the registers are 
other records of this family. 

The bells are thus inscribed : 

1. Daniel Hederby, Foundr, 1758. J. Springthorpe, C.W. 
2. All glory be to God on high. 1707. 
3. Praise the Lord. 1600. 

4. Anthony Kewlove, Rector. William Barnes, Vicar. 
Omnia fiant ad gloriam eccl. 1608. 
All men that heare my mournfull sound, 
Eepent before you lye in the ground. 1627. 



THOEPE LATIMEE. 

THIS hamlet of Helpringham lies three quarters of a mile 
south east of it, and was originally part of the Saxon Eilric's 
possessions, subsequently given to Eobert de Yesci. Tn the time 
of his descendant, Eustace de Yesci, circa 1200, his land here 
was reckoned at the seventh part of a knight's fee, let to Thomas 
de Latimer, a descendant of William de Latimer, surnamed the 
interpreter, who came from the Welsh border and became a 
tenant under John de Yesci, in Helpringham and its hamlet 
Thorpe, at a yearly rent of 48 marks, from which family Thorpe 
had derived its additional name of Latimer as early as the reign 
of Edward I. William de Latimer obtained a charter enabling 
him to hold a market and fair on his manor of Helpringham and 
Thorpe. He also enjoyed the right of free warren there, and 
other privileges. " 44 H. 3." He married a daughter and co- 
heir of Eoger de Lumley, and by her had a son William, 
summoned to Parliament as Lord of Corby, 28 E. 1., and died 
seized of the manors of Helpringham and Thorpe in 1303. He 
was succeeded by William, 2nd Baron, his second surviving son 
by his second wife, Alice, daughter and co-heir of Walter Leydet, 
who died 1 E. 3., leaving by Sibilla his wife, widow of William 
de Huntingfield, a son, William, the 3rd Baron. He died 1336, 
and left by Elizabeth his wife, daughter of Lord Botetourte, who 
died 1384, a son, William, the 4th Baron Latimer. He enjoyed 
the right of acting as High Almoner at the Coronation of Eichard 
II., as the inheritor of certain lands that had belonged to William 
Lord Beauchamp. He died May 28th, 1384, and by Elizabeth 
his wife left an only surviving child, Elizabeth, the second wife 
of John Lord Neville, of Eaby. By his will he bequeathed all 
his lands in trusifor the young Lord Neville and his heirs, on 
condition that they should bear the arms of Latimer Gules 
a cross fleury Or. his executor being Eichard de Eavenser, 
Archdeacon of Lincoln. At this time the Latimer lands, thus 
transferred to Lord Neville, consisted not only of the manors of 



THOEPE LATIMEE. 405 

Helpringham and Thorpe Latimer, but of lands in Bicker, Heck- 
ington, Donington, Swineshead, Sway ton, Beckingham, Syston, 
and Gipple, being parcel of the old Vesci fee. Their son, John, 
was summoned to Parliament as Lord Latimer from 1405 to 
1431. He married Maude, daughter of Thomas Lord Clifford, 
Countess of Cambridge, who died in 1446, without issue. This 
led to another change in the destiny of the manor of Thorpe 
Latimer, for it then passed into the possession of Elizabeth 
Melville, sister and co-heir of the second John Lord Melville, or 
Latimer, and wife of Sir Robert Willoughby, by whose descend- 
ants it was in succession inherited, viz : Sir John, his son a 
second Sir John, and then Sir Robert, who was a claimant of the 
Barony of Latimer in the reign of Henry VII. ; but although he 
did not obtain that title, he was created Lord Willoughby de 
Broke in 1492, and his descendant is still lord of the manors of 
Helpringham and Thorpe Latimer. 

The site of the ancient residence of the Latimers and their 
descendants is still clearly indicated by a moated inclosure con 
taining about half an acre. 



DD 



HOWELL. 

ACIIEAGR, POPULATION, 

145 3. . 186180. 187186. 

village lies 5 miles east ,of Sleaford. Its name was 
_ formerly spelt Huulle, and Huwell, sometimes shortened 
into "Well. Before the Conquest Colsuein's here wick here, which 
had soke in Kirkby, consisted of two-and-a-half oxgangs of land ; 
and another part of this vill was a berewick of his manor in 
Helpringham. Other lands, that had been Morkar's, were 
afterwards appropriated by the Conqueror to himself as an 
adjunct of his manor in Kirkby. Five carucates and 3 oxgangs 
were within the soke of the Bishop of Lincoln's manor of Slea- 
ford, and were cultivated by 10 sokemen and 7 bordars, for 
whose service the Bishop provided a priest, and a church endowed 
with 3 1 acres of land. One carucate and half an oxgang belonged 
to Gilbert de Gant's manor of Ealkingham, and other lands to his 
manor of Kirkby Laythorpe. A family of the name of Howell 
were at an early period tenants of the Bishop's and of Gilbert de 
Gant, of whom were "Walter de Howell, who was fined 40s. by the 
King for some transgression " Pipe Bolls, H. 2.", Gilbert, circa 
1200-10, and Sir Eichard de Howell, who was the Bishop's 
tenant in the 13th century. In 1282 John de Neville died seized 
of lands here, " Inq. p. m., Edw. I." ; and in 1397, John, Lord 
Beaumont, seized conjointly with Katharine his wife of a twelfth 
part of a knight's fee in Howell. " Inq. p. m., p. 2, 20 Eic. 2." 
During the 14th century the Hebdens became lords of this vill 
through the marriage of Sir Eichard de Hebden with the Howell 
heiress ; and in a similar way it was acquired by the Dymokes 
of Scrivelsby, in the year 1448, through the marriage of Sir 
Thomas Dymoke with Elizabeth Hebden. By the attainder and 
decapitation of Sir Thomas Dymoke in 1470 the manor was for- 
feited; subsequently however it was restored to that ancient 
Lincolnshire family, who possessed it for a considerable period ; 
but from the evidence of the parish terrier it had passed into the 



HOWELL. 407 

hands of Joseph Edmonds, Esq., before 1707, as he was then 
lord of the manor and owner of nearly all the land in the parish. 
He was succeeded by his son, Sir Joseph, who assumed the name 
of More through his marriage with Henrietta Maria More. One 
of their sons was baptized at Howell, 1737, and another the 
following year. Next the manor passed into the hands of Sir 
William Smith, Bart., one of whose family perhaps a brother 
the Eev. Edward Smith, rector of Howell, married the widow of 
Sir Joseph Edmonds More, by whom he had a son and a 
daughter. The Eev. William Holland next possessed the manor. 
Then Mr. J. C. L. Calcraft bought it. who sold it in 1803 to a 
Mr. Ingall and a Mr. Vessey, from whom it passed to the present 
proprietors. 



ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



The Howells and Dymokes were the first recorded patrons 
of the living ; but it, together with the manor, was forfeited on 
the attainder of Sir Thomas Dymoke, and subsequently seems to 
have followed the fortunes of the succeeding lords of the manor. 
In 1616 the living was valued at 30 a year, and there were 84 
communicants. " Willis's MSS. f. 39." In 1707 the curate in 
charge, Thomas Tonstall, was paid at the rate of 5s. 6d. a Sunday. 
"Howell Terrier." On the 12th of June, 1416, Nicholas de 

Hebden, of Gosberton, made his will to this effect : 

\ 

"In nomine Dei. Amen. I, Nicholas Hebden, of Gosberkirke, 
Knt., leave my body to be buried in the chancel of the 
parochial church of Howell. I give to the fabric of the 
church 20s. To the fabric of Claypole 20s. To the high 
altar of Gosberkirke, for tythes forgotten, 20s. To each of 
the orders of friars in Boston 20s., to be distributed on the 
day of my burial. That there shall be 5 wax candles weigh- 
ing lOlbs. shall be burning around my body at my exiques 
* with 6 torches. The residue of my goods, my Exors., viz., 
the lady Katharine my wife, Master John Boterill, And de 
Gedney, John Flete de Frampton, Thomas Spenser of 
Somercotes, and Richard Melton of Howell, shall dispense 
for the good of my soul. Proved by Katharine, his relict." 
"Repingdon's Reg. 139." 



408 HOWELL. 

The following is a list of the rectors : 
Date of Institution. 

A D 1218. William de Benning worth, presented by the 
Bishop because the then patron, William de 
Howell, was excommunicate. 
. Hugh de Cleypole. 
1322. John de Strettonhill. 
1349. Eobert de Howell. 
1355. Theophilus Guido Leterill. 
1361. Thomas de Luda (Louth). 
1371. Thomas de Languon. 
1384. John Humfrey. 
1412. Thomas Newton. 
1417. Edward Langford. 
1418. Kalf Langford. 
1420. Nicholas Gibthorpe. 
. William Stephenson. 
1424. John Spencer. 
1448. John Croxby. 
1460. John Gygar. 
1490. William Gygar. 
1493. Eobert Baldwin. 
1521. Thomas Stukeley, or Southley. 
1524. William Merike. 
1525. Henry Mallett. 

. Samuel Saunders. 
1574. Eobert Wells. 
1616. Charles Weldale. 

1650. Thomas Eoe, ejected during the Commonwealth 
(see "Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 345"). 
1667. Edward Carter. 
1681 .Henry Gr eenhill. 
1709. William Jones. 
1713. Joseph Greenhill. 
1740. John Eichardson. 
1749. Edward Smith. 
1780. William Holland. 
1812. George Holt. 
1828. George Savile. 
1840. Henry Handley Brown. 



HOWELL. ' 409 

Date of Institution. 

1859. David Hunter. 
1864. John S. Dolby. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St. Oswald, and consists of 
nave, north aisle and chantry, porch and chancel. At the west 
end is a very beautiful double bell-gable. The inner door of the 
porch is Norman. The arcade between the north aisle and nave, 
although it has semicircular arches, is decidedly Early English. 
There is also a diminutive lancet window of the same period, at 
the west end of the north aisle. The chancel and bell- gable are 
Decorated. The window in the north aisle chapel and south side 
of the nave are Perpendicular. On the remaining bell is this 
legend: " Tobie Norris cast me, 1666." 

At the east end of the chancel lies the altar slab, which 
bears the usual five crosses. On the upper step of the ascent to 
the altar was cut this injunction : " Hie Deum adora." There 
is also a double locker projecting curiously from the wall. 

In the chapel adjoining are the corbels of an altar slab, a 
locker, and brackets for images, and in the western gable of this 
chapel there is a quatrefoiled opening which formerly gave light 
above the roof of the Early English aisle, traces of which may be 
seen both here and at the west end. 

Above the porch entrance the following bearings are cut 
upon a shield, viz., Ermine, 5 fusils in fesse for Hebden, 
impaling a bend, charged with rye ears for Bye. 

On the panels of the font are other shields charged with the 
bearings of Hebden, Hebden impaling Bye, Lutterell, A chevron 
between 3 chaplets and a bend between 6 martlets. This font 
was the gift of Bichard de Hebden, who died in 1373. In the 
east window of the north aisle are two shields, one bears Argent, 
2 bars Ghi, in chief, 3 torteaux, over all, a bend sable Threck- 
inghani. The other, Or, 2 chevrons Ghi, with a label of 5, within 
a border, Glu. Beneath the subjects of this window was formerly 
this legend, " Stephanus Capellanus de Iwarby me fecit." 

A monument of the time of James I. bears the following in- 
scription : 

Sir Ch. Dimok, of Howell, seed son to Sir Ed. Dimok 
of Screelsby, knig., champion to y e crowneof England, 
and his wife Margaret, widow to Mr. Anthony Butler 
of Coates. 



410 . HO WELL. 

Holies observed a stone tomb near the altar, bearing this 
border legend, viz : 

Hie Jacet Magister Johnes Croxby, quondam Rector- 

istius eclie, qui obiit die mensis A dni MCCCC, 

cuj aie per Deus. 

This still remains; it was prepared in the rector's life time, 
blank spaces being left in the inscription to record the date of 
his death, which however was never supplied. In the centre, 
beneath a canopy, is an incised effigy of John Croxby in 
eucharistic vestments, with his hands upraised in prayer. 

In the chapel adjoining is a low well moulded and cusped 
sepulchral arch, beneath which is the tombstone of a lady of the 
14th century, in a veil and wimple, and a young child, whose 
busts are sculptured in arched recesses. The hands of both are, 
as usual, upraised in prayer. In the nave is an incised slab, 
with this inscription : 

Hie Jaeet Ricardus Boteler de Howell, qui obiit primo 
die Januarii, Anno Domini MCCCCL VII, et Matildis 
uxor ejus que obiit vi die Augusti, Anno MCCCLVI, 
quorum aniinabus ppicietur Deus. Amen. 

On a stone tomb Holies saw this epitaph : 

Hie Jacent Ricardus de Hebden miles, qui obiit xxv 
die Aprilis Anno Domini MCCCLXXIII, cujus anime 
ppicietur Deus, et - quondam uxor Ricardi de 

Hebden militis, que obiit xv die Anno Dni 

MCCCLIII. Cujus anime propicietor Deus. 

At the head of the tomb were two shields, the one on the right 
bearing, Arg. a bend Sa between 6 mullets of the same 
Lutterell ; that on the left, Erm, 5 fusils in fesse, Gu Hebden, 
impaling Gu, a bend Erm Eye. On the side was a shield bear- 
ing Hebden alone, and at the foot one bearing Arg. a chevron 
between 3 chaplets Gu ; the other, Erm, 2 bars Gu, a bend Sa. 
Holies has also recorded these epitaphs : 

Hie Jacet Willielmus films Nicholai de Hebden militis 
et Catharine uxoris sue, qui obiit Anno Domini 
MoCCCLXXXVI. 



HO WELL. 411 

In the north choir : 

Hie Jacet Ricardus Spenser ) Conjuges qui obierunt 
Hie Jacet Emota Spenser i 8 Hen. fr* 

Hie Jacet Ricardus Whitead, qui obiit xxvii die mensis 
Septembris, Anno Domini MoDYIII. Cujus anime 
ppicietor Deus. Amen. 

Also figures of St. Peter and St. Andrew. In the chancel a 
large incised slab still remains bearing this inscription : 

Hie Jacent Nicholaus de Hebden, miles qui obiit xix 
die mensis Aprilis A.D. MCCCCXVI, cujus aie propi- 
tictur Deus, et Katerina ejus uxor, quoe obiit xxvii die 
mensis Novembris An. Dom. MCCCCXXVII. 

On the cross in the church yard is this inscription : 

Orate pro anima Johannis Spenser Rectoris ecclesie- 
istius. I.H.C." 



They endowed the chantry chapel in which their remains were buried. 



: 



KELBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

990. 186199. 187187. 

THE naine of this place, situated 5 miles south, west of 
Sleaford, was originally spelt Chileby or Chillebi. Previous 
to the Conquest the land here chiefly belonged to the Saxons 
Aslac, Britric, and Achil, all of which was given to the Norman 
Bishop of Durham by the Conqueror, and held of him by 
Remigius, Bishop of Lincoln, and Colgrim. Some land of the 
priest Aschil's at the same time passed away to Wido de Credon, 
as a member of his manor of Swarby, which, together with its 
appurtenances in Thorpe, was reckoned as the third part of a 
knight's fee, circa 1200-10, when it was held by Alan de Thorpe. 
At the same time the Bishop of Durham's land here and in 
Eauceby constituted two parts of a knight's fee, and was held 
by Geoffrey de Evermue, who also held 1 carucate in Kelby of 
the fee of Gant, for the service of the third part of a knight's 
fee. In the 13th century the fees of Durham and Gant were 
held by Hugh de Wake, and of him by Geoffrey de Evermue 
when the fee of Croun had diminished to 1 oxgang, which was 
let by Petronilla de Croun to Henry Camerarius, by him to 
Robert de Thorpe, and by him, again, to Roger de Kelby. 
" Testa de Nevill." 

Towards the latter part of the 13th century the great family 
of Wake had become lords paramount of Kelby, of whom Baldwin 
died 1282; Thomas Wake de Lyddel, 1350; Blanch, his wife, 
1381 ; and Johanna, Princess of Wales, the mother of Richard 
II., 1384, all successively seized of the manor of Kelby. Thomas 
Holland, Earl of Kent, next held it, but forfeited it by his 
attainder in 1400. In 1449 died Sir Henry Grey, possessed of 
land here ; in 1473, Elizabeth, wife of John Stanley, and daughter 
and heir of Sir Thomas Belesley, in possession of other lands ; 
and in 1532, William Armyn, who held some land that had 
formerly belonged to the Priory of St John of Jerusalem. 



KELBY. 413 

THE CHUECH. 

It is not known in honour of what Saint this church was 
dedicated. It is a small and modest looking fabric, but possesses 
some features that are well worthy of examination. The tower 
and spire at the west end were re-built a few years ago ; yet 
evidences of the original Early English character of the former 
are still apparent in the form of the buttresses at its base and the 
angle shafts of its upper stage. The nave arcades were also built 
during the prevalence of the same style. The windows of the 
south aisle are very beautiful, and among the remains of the 
painted glass in that at the east end, is a small figure of an angel 
censing. The aisle is vaulted with stone, and on the corbels are 
very quaintly carved sculptures. At the east end is a niche and 
a bracket. The construction of the north aisle is curious, and 
almost suggests the notion that there may have been another 
aisle beyond. The chancel has been re-built, and has now only 
a piscina, conjoined with a credence, worthy of attention. The 
clerestory is Perpendicular on the north side, but has been re-built 
on the south side. The font is a plain Early English one. The 
old Perpendicular oak benches, from the evidence of the dress of 
the figures cut upon some of them, are of the time of Henry VIII. 



KIEKBY LAYTHOEPE. 



ACREAGE, 
2357. 



POPULATION, 
1861218. 1871230. 



rpHIS village lies 2 miles east of Sleaford. Originally its name 
JL was spelt Kireheby or Chirchebi, and to distinguish it from 
other villages of the same name, that of Ledulvetorp was super- 
added, probably derived from Ledulve or Ledulph, one of its 
Saxon lords. This adjunct was subsequently altered into 
Leilthorp, Laylthorp, and finally Laythorp, sometimes shortened 
into Torp or Thorpe. Thus the fresh mode of spelling the name 
of this place Kirkby la Thorpe is clearly wrong. 

Here Earl Morkar had 4 carucates of land, afterwards rated 
at 5 carucates and called the King's manor, as the Conqueror 
retained this for himself. It was valued at 4 before the Con- 
quest, but at 8 in King William's time, who kept 1 carucate in 
demesne, and had 14 sokemen cultivating 1 carucate, and half 
the profits of the church. 

Besides this there was another manor that had belonged to 
Tunne, consisting of 4 carucates, rated at 3 carucates 3 bovates. 
This, with very many other lands, was given to Gilbert de Gant 
as soke of his manor of Folkingham, who had 5 carucates in 
demesne here, 8 villans cultivating 2 carucates, and 120 acres of 
meadow. Its value in King Kdward's time was 18, and 
subsequently 25. 

Circa 1250, three parts of a -knight's fee, termed that of De 
la Haye, was held by the Earl of Salisbury, who had let it to 
Beatrice de Engleby. He also possessed one knight's fee and the 
tenth part of another fee here, which he let to Simon de Kyme, 
and he to Alan Eitzwilliam. At the same time Eosea de Yerdon 
held two parts of a knight's fee of the honour of Lancaster, who 
fulfilled her service to the King through the medium of William 
de Lancaster. The fee of Gant, comprising one-fourth of a knight' s 
fee of the old enfeoffment, was held by Hugo de Neville of Gilbert 
de Gant. The fief of Durham was held of the Bishop by Henry 



KIRKBY LAYTHOEPE. 415 

de Horningend. Adam de Cranwell also possessed lands in 
Kirkby Laythorpe at that time, who died 1257. " Inq. p. m., 
40 H. 3." Previous to 1185, the Templars had acquired lands 
here, at which date Gerard held 1 oxgang, the gift of Alan the 
son of Nigel, for a rent of 5s., le present, and four days' work. 
Azer held another oxgang of the same donation, on the same 
terms ; William Parisiensis half an oxgang, the gift of William 
Grim, of Asgarby, at a rent of 18d. ; and Herwardus, 1 toft, at a 
rent of 6d. 

Circa 1325 the Prioress of Grace Dieu was holding four 
parts of a knight's fee here, Thomas de Multon, the royal manor 
with its members in Kirkby, Evedon, Heckington, and Howell, 
together with the advowson of a mediety of the church of St. 
Dionysius at Kirkby, and William the son of Thomas (i.e. 
Thomson) 2 carucates and 1 messuage by the service of three 
parts of a knight's fee, of William de Kyme. In 1402 half a 
knight's fee was held by Ealph Copledyke of the fee of Lancaster. 
In 1497 Mary, daughter and heiress of Neville of Scotton, one of 
the representatives of the Deyncourts, of Knapthorpe, and relict 
of John Bussy who was decapitated at Bristol, died seized of 
Ingleby manor in this parish, and of others at Morton and 
Willingham. " Inq. p, m., 6 H. 4." In 1444 Beatrice de 
Ingleby was holding one knight's fee in this vill and Evedon. 
" Claus. Hot., 22 H. 4." 

After the Dissolution, the property possessed by Catley 
Priory and Grace Dieu monastery, in Kirkby, was sold to John 
Bellow and John Broxholm, 22nd May, 1545 ; a capital messuage 
here had been sold to John Bellow and John Bales the previous 
year. "Harl. MSS., 6825." 

Robert Carre, of Aswarby, bought an estate here, apparently 
called Spalding hall, in 1566, of Thomas Sleford, of Willesthorpe, 
that had belonged to Thomas Skynner ; and in 1559 he bought 
another estate at Kirkby called Ingleby hall, of John Stanlowe, 
of Stickford, and Edmund Bussey, of Silk Willoughby. At his 
death, September 3rd, 1590, he left these and all his other estates 
to his cousin Robert Carre, from whom they have descended to 
the present proprietor, the Marquis of Bristol. 



416 



KIEKBY LAYTHOEPE. 



Some Saxon remains have at 
different times been discovered in 
this parish, among which is the 
little vessel of which a cut is given. 
This is of grey ware, 3^ inches high 
and 4 inches in diameter, the lines 
upon its outer surface consisting of 
a series of minute markings made 
by some little pointed implement. 

It was filled with fragments of human bones when found. 

Another relic found at Kirkby consists of a little pair of 

iron shears or scissors of the usual Saxon form. A cut also is 

given of these of the size of the original. 






Another ancient article, o'f 
the mediaeval period, was also 
found half a mile east of the Old 
Place, but in the parish of Kirk- 
by. This is the iron head of a 
large arrow, 3j inches long, a 
portion of one of its barbs having 
been broken off. See accompanying cut. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

There was a church here before the Conquest. The Con- 
queror retained half its advowson with one of its manors for 
himself; and probably from that early period there were two 
medieties of the living, but certainly there were subsequently two 
benefices and two churches here, the one being dedicated to St. 
Dionysius or Denis, which still exists ; the other to St. Peter, in 
the patronage of Sempringham Abbey, so early as Bishop Welles' s 
episcopate. These were united in 1593, but the rectorial rights 
of the latter having passed into monastic hands were alienated at 



KIRKBY LAYTHOEPE. 417 

the dissolution, and in 1636 were purchased by Sir Eobert Carre, 
who bestowed them upon his hospital at Sleaford. Soon after 
this the northern church of St. Peter was pulled down, and its 
sole relic now is the bowl of its font. This is an octangular 
specimen of the Perpendicular period, having panelled faces with 
a blank shield in the centre of each. It was long used as a 
sink in a small farm house, but has now been rescued from such 
degradation and stands in front of the parish school-house as a 
reminiscence of the lost church. The rectory of Kirkby Laythorpe 
was consolidated with that of Asgarby, April 1st, 1737, when the 
Rev. Gascoigne Wright was incumbent. 

The following is a list of the incumbents as far as can now 
be ascertained : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1535. Henry Norton. 
1535. William Downes. 
.Valentine Tangelly. 
. John Maheris. 
. Thomas Willesdon. 
. William Follarby. 
1630. Eobert Garland. 
1661. Edward Dix. 
1670. Thomas Meriton. 
1690. William Pearson. 
1732. Charles Hervey. 
1735. Gascoigne Wright. 
1777. Edward Mills. 
1821. William Andrew Hammond. 
1823. John Smith. 
1829. John Morgan. 
1844. Henry Ashington. 
1854. Henry Anders. 

THE CHURCH. 

Formerly there were two churches in this parish, one of 
which was dedicated to St. Peter, and is now destroyed. The 
vicarage of the remaining one, dedicated to St. Dionysius or 
Denis, was endowed in the time of Hugh de Welles, A.D. 1209, 
and was subsequently possessed by the Prior of Kyme. The two 



4 1 8 IQRKBY LAYTHOEPE. 

livings were consolidated in 1593, when William Carre was the 
patron,* after which St. Peter's church was pulled down. 

The plan of the small remaining church is very simple, con- 
sisting of a low tower, nave, north aisle, south porch and chancel ; 
yet small as the fabric is, we have here features belonging to 
each of the four periods of Gothic Architecture. The doorway 
'represents the first or Norman period, and has a plain solid 
tympanum with the billet-mould both on the outer and inner 
chamfer of the hood-mould above it. On the voussoirs of the 
arch the letter M, or perhaps the monogram of V. M., and crosses 
have been cut, or scratched, at some subsequent time in a 
systematic manner. The humble arcade of four bays, and the 
wall of the nave are of the Early English period ; the latter still 
retains one of its original lancet windows on the west side of the 
porch, and the remains of a similar one the other side of it. The 
chancel is also of the same period ; but this has been lately re- 
built, when the old lateral windows were inserted in the fresh 
walls, and a new one was erected at the east end. All of these 
windows are filled with modern painted glass by Lavers and 
Barraud. The aisle wall, a flat-headed window opposite, the 
greater part of the tower, and portions of the nave roof are 
Decorated. 

The original form of the last-named feature will be under- 
stood from a remaining intermediate principal, on which the 
nail-head ornament is cut. Fragments of some delicately painted 
coeval glass will be observed in the aisle windows, including a 
shield bearing Arg, a chevron gu, between 3 trefoils vert for 
Sleaford. The entrance to the rood loft has been preserved ; but 
it will be seen that there is no chancel arch, and that the height 
of the chancel is the same as that of the nave. Of the Perpen- 
dicular period, are the porch with its good old oaken roof, the 
chancel screen, some of the bench ends, and, externally, the tower 
lights and parapet. For many years the lead, covering a portion 
of the roof, has been allowed to slip downwards by slow degrees, 
and to curve over the walls below in a somewhat unprecedented 
manner. 



* At this time Hugh Davyas was the incumbent, but as the dates of the 
institution of several of the incumbents about this time are not known, his 
name is not inserted in the list before given. 



OSBOUBNBY. 

ACEEAGE, POPULATION, 

1400. 1861613. 1871606. 

THIS village lies '6 miles south of Sleaford. Its name has 
. been variously spelt Esbernesbi, Osbernedebi, Osbernebi, 
and Osburnby. After the Conquest a manor here was given to 
Wido de Credon by the Conqueror, together with its appurten- 
ances in Dembleby and Willoughby. This had belonged to the 
Saxons Aluric and Adestan, the former of whom was allowed to 
remain as the tenant of 3 carucates of land, rated at 2 carucates. 
Then also Vitalis, a vassal of Wido's, held 1 carucate, and had 1 
sokeman holding another carucate, 5 villans and 3 bordars holding 
H carucates and 24 acres of meadow, valued in King Edward's 
time at 40s., afterwards at 6. Wido had also more land here 
constituting an appurtenance of his manor of Swaton. Ralph 
Pagnell claimed the right of sac and soke over the lands that had 
belonged to Aluric, but when examination of this claim was 
made by the Wapentake, although not conceded, they pronounced 
that Ealph had a right to be supplied with one horse from Aluric's 
land whenever he went on military service. Here Gilbert de Grant 
had 5j carucates, rated at 4 carucates, lying within the soke of 
his manor of Folkingham, upon which were 16 sokemen and 6 
bordars. Circa 1200 this was reckoned at half a knight's fee, 
then held by Simon de Kym.e, and let by knight's service to 
Hugh Bussey, Philip d'Arcy, John de Somercotes, and Richard 
de Saltfleetby. " Testa de Nevill." In the reign of John or of 
Henry III. Sir Philip de Kyme confirmed to the nuns of Bolyng- 
ton his serf Reginald of Osbournby, together with some land he 
had held of him, which William, son of Richard, steward of Sir 
Philip's father, had given them, when he assumed a religious 
habit. This land was then let by the nuns of the above-named 
House together with other parcels they possessed here, to Walter, 
son of Reginald de Osbournby. 



420 OSBOURNBY. 

In 1301 Hugh, son of Lambert- de Bussey, sued the Prior of 
Kyme for lands in Osbournby of which he had been unjustly 
deprived, and died seized of certain rents here in 1305. "Inq. 
p m., 34 E. 1." In 1325 John Surdival was holding two thirds 
of the manor of the de la Haye fee here, together with its appur- 
tenances in Newton and Threckingham, by the service of an 
eighth part of a knight's fee, and John Drewe, of Wyvill, the 
other third with its appurtenances in Newton, Swarby and Man- 
thorpe, by the service of the fifth part of a knight's fee. Then 
also Adam de Braceby and Philip de Duneby were holding other 
smaller portions of land in Osbournby. In 1371 certain lands 
here were given to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln for the 
purpose of endowing two chantries in the Cathedral, by Canon 
Richard de Whitwell, for the good of his own soul, and that of 
King Edward III. " Pat. E. 3." In 1388 died Thomas Tryvett, 
knight, lord of Scott Willoughby, seized of certain messuages and 
lands in Osbournby ; and in 1417 the relict of Thomas, Earl of 
Kent, also possessed of lands here, which were then divided 
among the co-heirs of her husband. " Inq. p. m., 2 H. 6." 

Circa 1458-61 Nicholas Wymbish died, seized of the manor 
of Osbournby conjointly with others. He had bought it of 
Eobert Stevenot, clerk, in 1451, when it was valued at five marks. 
In 1478 Thomas Wymbish petitioned the King for a licence to 
give the manor to the Prior of Nocton Park. "Inq. p. m., 18 
E. 4." In 1576 one Wasteneyes held some land in Osbournby by 
the service of half a knight's fee of the Honour of Bolingbroke. 
At the same time Eobert Carre held other lands here, which, 
with appurtenances in Newton, Swarby and Manthorpe, com- 
prised the fourth part of a knight's fee. 

This parish was enclosed in 1705, by virtue of a private Act 
of Parliament for enclosing the open fields and wastes here, at 
Newton and Scott Willoughby. 

With the exception of some small lots of land belonging to 
Lord Aveland, Mr. Cragg, of Threckingham, and others, the 
whole lordship now belongs to Sir Thomas Whichcote, Bart., 
who, in 1846, built a handsome school-house here for the benefit 
of the parish. 



OSBOUKNBY. 421 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

We gather from Domesday Book that there was a church at 
Osbournby and a priest serving it when that work was compiled. 
Half of its profits were given by the Conqueror to Wido de Credon. 
Subsequently 15 selions of land in Handbeck, worth 8d. a year, 
were given by an unknown person for the support of a light for 
ever in this church ; and other lands and tenements by another 
person for a similar purpose. Three acres of Jand were also 
given by a third unknown person for the observance of his obit 
here. This land was worth 2s. 8d. a year, of which Id. was to 
be given to the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, 13d. to the priest, 
and ISd.l to the poor. Maria Hall gave two acres here for her 
obit, and William Johnson and another gave a cottage and lands 
in Osbournby for the same pupose. 

In 1616 the vicarage was valued at 8, and a lady of the 
Eigden family was patron. There were then 60 communicants 
according to Bishop Neales' record. Now, the glebe consists of 
111 acres, and the patronage of the vicarage is in the hands of 
Hulmes's Trustees. It has been augmented by the Governors of 
Queen Anne's Bounty assisted by a private benefaction, through 
which the vicar possesses 32 acres of land in Dorrington. The 
following is a list of the vicars : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. . Miles Whole, vicar in 1616. 

1 682. George Dickens. 

1720. John Burman. 

1730. John Denison. 

1763. Isaac Cookson. 

1784. Eobert Drury Eye. 

1797. John Corrie. 

1836. John Pearson. 

1863. Thomas Molineux Jackson. 

Of these the Eev. George Dickens inserted the following 
practical advice to his successor in 1717, at the end of one of the 
parish register books : 

Keep in sheep a good stock, yr lambs do not sell, 
And then at Osbournby you may live well. 
Rear most of your pigs, keep 4 or 5 cowes, 
And you may maintains a pretty frugal good house. 
EE 



422 OSBOUBNBY. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of S. S. Peter and Paul, and 
possesses some points of considerable interest. Its oldest feature 
is the font. This is octangular in plan and of a late Norinan 
period. It stands on a plain solid base, and is enriched with 
intersecting arcading, in which the nail-head ornament is intro- 
duced. Next in date comes the tower, which, from the flatness 
of its buttresses, the character of its simple bold base mouldings, 
and other details, appears to be of the first quarter of the 13th 
century. In the south west angle is a staircase, access to which 
is supplied by an ogee arched doorway within. In the west face 
of the lower stage is a small lancet window, to which much effect 
is given by the great thickness of the tower wall. Little slits 
alone light the next stage, and the upper one was partly re-built 
during the Decorated period. In this are four two-light belfry 
windows of that time, now sadly mutilated by the excision of 
their mullions and tracery, apparently simply for the purpose of 
filling up the whole of their apertures with louvre boards. 
Within, the arch opening into the nave is now filled in with 
masonry, but the cap of its southern pier is partly exposed to 
view. The extent to which the foundations of this tower failed 
at an early period is especially evidenced by the outward thrust 
of its contemporary northern aisle respond. From the base of 
this feature we gather that it was at fir t semicircular in plan, 
then mutilated, and that finally its upper portion was made to 
agree with a subsequently added Decorated aisle. The corres- 
ponding pier on the south side of the arch is of a similar 
character, but not so massive, and has an octangular cap. 

About 1320 the present nave, south aisle, porch, both 
arcades, and the chancel were re-built in an excellent manner, 
but all the roofs of that period are now unfortunately gone. 
Each arcade consists of five bays supported by clustered filleted 
pillars. The hood-mould terminal at the east end of the northern 
arcade represents the head of a female with a wimple. The 
porch, towards the west end of the south aisle, is large and hand- 
some. It has double buttresses at its angles, and a well-moulded 
arch giving access to a similar doorway forming the principal 
entrance to the church. The internal faces of its side walls above 
the seats are adorned with good arcading, having ogee arched 




ONTARIO 



OSBOURNBY. 423 

heads and crocketed hood-moulds ending in foliated finials. In 
the side wall of the south aisle are three three-light windows, one 
of these and another at the east end have reticulated tracery. 
Here was clearly a chapel, from the evidence of a piscina in a 
square recess towards the east end of the south wall, and two 
statue brackets opposite, close to the doorway formerly giving 
access to the rood loft, the staircase of which still remains. The 
north aisle is of a poor Perpendicular character, and its side wall 
now leans considerably outward. In this is a doorway towards 
the west end, and three three-light windows ; its east window is 
of the same kind. Here also was a chapel, the piscina of which 
still remains in a square recess close to the eastern pier of the 
north arcade ; a large debased statue bracket, on which are cut 
two shields bearing crosses, now inserted between the first and 
second windows from the west of this aisle, probably belonged to 
this chapel. A good many very richly carved old oak bench ends 
still happily remain in this church. All of these are elaborately 
ornamented, and on some are figure subjects. One represents 
the always popular contest of St. George and the dragon. In this 
instance the Saint is represented in a suit of plate armour and a 
salade. Part of his broken lance is below, and with his sword 
upraised he is about to despatch the prostrate dragon beneath his 
horse's feet ; from the mouth of the monster protrudes a barbed 
tongue, and its tail also is furnished with a smaller head and a 
venemous-looking tongue, or sting. Another subject is a sarcastic 
grotesque, representing a fox in a pulpit preaching to a goose and 
goslings. A third represents Adam and Eve with the fatal tree 
between them and bushes on either side. A fourth, a King 
placing his hand upon a conventional tree or bush. A fifth, a 
lady in a helmet-like head-dress and mantle, holding an open 
book in her left hand, between two boys, one of whom holds a 
closed book in his left hand and upraises the other, and the 
second, standing in front of a chair, also holds an open book in 
one hand. Smaller figure subjects are also carved upon some of 
the heads of these bench ends, one of which may be intended for 
that of Boaz and Ruth. 

The chancel arch is Perpendicular, and a little in front of 
this is the lower part of a carved oak screen of the same period. 
Owing to the lowering of the roof of the chancel a fine four-light 
Decorated window at its east end has been decussated, much to 



424 



OSBOUBNBY. 



its injury. In each of its side walls are three coeval two-light 
windows, and a priest's doorway in the southern one. Here are 
three sedilia of great beauty, separated from one another by 
pillars, and surmounted by ogee arches crocketed and terminating 
in foliated finials, grotesque heads being placed at the terminals 
of the hood-moulds. Eastward of these is a piscina with a 
cusped drain, in the south wall, and opposite is an ogee arched 
aumbry formerly provided with two shelves. 

Holies records that when he visited this church the following 
armorial bearings appeared in one of its south windows, viz : 
1, Percy; 2, Manley Or, a bend sa ; and these in the east 
window: 1, Bussey ; 2, Kyme ; 3, Limbury Arg, 3 cinquefoils 
pierced gu. 4, Marmyon ; but only a very small fragment or 
two of these now remain. 

In the chancel are several monuments of the family of Buck. 
One of these commemorates Frances, daughter of Sir William 
Buck, Bart. Above are his armorial bearings on a lozenge, viz : 
Paly bendy a canton arg, and below, this inscription : 
Francisca Buck, spinster Gulielmi Buck de Haceby 
Grange, in Cora. Lincoln, Equitis Aurati filia. JStat 27. 

A slab in the chancel pavement bears a shield, on which are cut 
Buck, impaling a chevron engrailed between 3 lions rampant, in 
chief 3 buck's heads couped, surmounted by a Baronet's helm 
with a portcullis as a crest. Below is this inscription : 

H. S. E. 

Dna Diana Buck, Gulielmi Buck de Haceby Grange, 
in Com. Lincoln, Equitis Aurati conjux. Defuit e 
vita setat 51. 1711. 

On the south wall is a white marble tablet with a large urn of 
the same material above it. On this is the following record : 
Sir Charles Buck, Bart., of Haceby Grange, in the 
County of Lincoln, was born 31 Janry., 1724, died in 
London, June, 1782. He married, April 20th, 1758, 
Mary, eldest daughter and co-heiress of George Cart- 
wright, of Ossington, in the County of Northampton, 
Esqre., by whom he had no issue ; his widow and 
sisters, Anne, wMow of Ambrose Isted, Esqre., of 
Ecton, in the County of Northampton, and Katharine, 
widow of Sir Henry Inglefield, Bart., of White Knights, 
in the County of Berks., his co-heiresses, consecrated 
this marble to the memory of their excellent and 
lamented friend, the last of his name. 



OSBOUENBY. 425 

In the church-yard is a stone recording the murder of Thomas 
Pinder, a poor apprentice of this parish, by a chimney sweep, 
1784-5 ; but he was buried at Colsterworth where that foul deed 
was committed. 



QUARKINGTON. 



ACREAGE, 
1268. 



POPULATION, 
1861299. 1871340. 



T^HE name of this parish has been spelt Corninctune, Curr- 
mington, Kermington, Querrington, Quarringdon and 
Quarrington. Before the Conquest Bardi, Joel of Lincoln (a 
monk of Eamsey Abbey), Earl Morkar, and Archil were the 
principal landowners here. 

After that great event Remigius, Bishop of Lincoln, received 
Bardi's lands at the hands of the Conqueror. These consisted of 
9 carucates, 2 oxgangs of land, connected with which were 32 
sokemen and 15 bordars cultivating 7| carucates, besides 60 acres 
of meadow and two mills worth 1 6s. Of this Osmund held 2 
carucates in demesne worth 60s. a year, and Hugh Rufus 1 
carucate in demesne and another carucate worth 25s. a year. 
Remigius also claimed some land in the hands of Archil in 
Quarrington through a mortgage he had upon it, but this was 
disallowed by the men of the Wapentake. One oxgang here lay 
within the soke of Earl Morkar's manor of Kirkby Laythorpe. 

Joel of Lincoln, a monk of Ramsey Abbey, in the reign of 
the Confessor, gave a manor consisting of 1 carucate and 6 ox- 
gangs of land in Quarrington to the Benedictine Abbey of Ramsey, 
together with its appurtenances in Sleaford and Dunsby. The 
first consisting of 1 carucate, 1 sokeman and 2 vilJans, cultivating 
1 carucate, and also 27 acres of meadow ; the second of 6 caru- 
cates, 1 1 sokemen and 3 bordars cultivating 3 carucates besides 
6 acres of meadow. The whole was valued in the Confessor's 
time at 40s.. subsequently at 4. " Ex. lib. Anniv. Rams." 

Ogerius, or Osgar Brito, had 5 acres of meadow, 8 of coppice, 
half a carucate and 4 villans in Quarrington as an appurtenance 
of his manor of Morton ; Waldin Brito claimed 14 acres here as 
of his manor of Willoughby, but this claim was not allowed. 

Circa 1200-10 Hugh de St. Yedasto, or Vedeto, held of the 
Bishop of Lincoln a knight's fee in Quarrington and Evedon, and 



QUARRINGTON. 427 

Galfrid Salvein held the Abbot of Ramsey's lands, viz : 8 oxgangs 
reckoned at the eighteenth part of a knight's fee and 2 other 
oxgangs. " Testa de Nevill, p. 321." 

Of the Yedeto family, Araicia, wife of Hugh de St. Yedasto, 
died possessed of lands and tenements here in 1253, and Beatrix 
de Gundy gave to Haverholme Priory 1 oxgang of land and a 
toft in Quarrington ; when she became a nun, her son, Alexander 
de Vedeto, gave the sisterhood she joined 1 oxgang and 20 acres 
of land, 1 toft, and 1 croft of three acres in this parish, and a 
William de St. Vedeto gave them an annual rent of 1 3d. Both 
the Bishop of Lincoln's and the Abbot of Ramsey's lands in 
Quarrington long remained in the hands of their successors ; but 
at length Henry Holbeach, 33rd Bishop of Lincoln, alienated his 
lands and the living in 1547 to the Crown, whence they passed 
into the hands of the Duke of Somerset. Subsequently these 
were given by Queen Mary to Lord Clinton, who sold them to 
Robert Carre in 1559, and they are now possessed by the Marquis 
of Bristol. 

In 1691 Widow Timberland lived in the manor house of 
Quarrington. 

The appearance of this quiet little village, lying around its 
well cared for church, is very pleasing. The old parsonage house 
was burnt down in 1760, during the incumbency of the Rev. 
George Ray, through the discharge of a gun up the chimney for 
the purpose of clearing it, when a spark falling upon the thatched 
roof below ignited it, and only a fragment of the house was 
preserved. The new parsonage is a comely and suitable clerical 
house, built by the late rector, the Rev. H. T. : Hine, in 1845. 

About the time of the enclosure of this parish, in 1796, it 
having been thought that coal might exist below the surface, 
search was made for this in a valley about half a mile south of 
the church, near the western side of the turnpike road from 
Sleaford to Folkingham ; but although no coal was found, the 
boring for it produced an abundant flow of water which has never 
since ceased to be of service, not only at its source, but in the 
parishes of Burton, Helpringham and Swaton. 

Two stone crosses formerly existed in this parish. The shaft 
of one of these, about five feet high, stood near the toll gate 011 
the fc. leaford and Folkingham road. Half a mile nearer the village 
was the other, on a spot called after it Stump Cross Hill 



4 28 QUARRINOTON. 

marked by a small plantation. Latterly its circular head alone 
remained which had a cross carved on both its sides. 

p 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 



There were two churches in this place when Domesday Book 
was composed, the one standing, we presume, on the site of the 
only remaining church, the other not far distant, and probably 
in a farm yard now occupied by Mrs. Gubley, all remains of 
which have long since passed away. 

Joel of Lincoln gave a church here to Ramsey Abbey, of 
which he was a monk ; and Henry Salvein, or Henry de Cran- 
well, probably a descendant of Galfrid Salvein, and the tenant, of 
the Ramsey Abbey lands here, gave the other church to Haver- 
holme Priory, for the good of his soul and that of Julian, his wife. 
In 1412 Olivia, wife of John Rossen, of Quarrington, bequeathed 
her body to be buried in the cemetery of St. Botolph's church, 
at Quarrington, and left 12d. to its rector and 12d. to the church. 
" Rep. Reg. 68." The same year, Joan, wife of William Ward, 
of Quarrington, left her body to be buried in the same place, 
leaving to the church two stones of wool, &c. ; Robert Timber- 
land, chaplain, being one of her executors. " Rep. Register, 78." 
In 1464, Margaret, widow of Roger Catelye, of Quarrington, 
left a tenement in Quarrington to Thomas, her son, chaplain of 
Sleaford church, and his heirs, besides one lectur (lectern) entire, 
six vases of amber, her best brazen pot, a patella (dish), and 
six silver spoons, on condition that he should say a mass for her 
soul. She also left to the church of Lessingham 20d. ; the same 
to the chapel of Roxham ; to Trinity guild in Sleaford church 
12d. ; to St. Anne's guild in the same church 6d. ; and the same 
to St. Christopher's guild there. "Rep. Reg." The price of 
two acres of land in the plains of this parish, worth 8d. a year, 
was given by an unknown person to the churchwardens for the 
maintenance of a light for ever. 

In Elizabeth's reign there were 17 families in Quarrington, 
and 120 communicants. 

There are no marriage entries from 1642 to 1648 in the 
parish register, during which time marriages were performed by 
magistrates and regarded simply as civil contracts. 



QUARRINGTON. 429 

The flagon and paten were the gift of Sir Robert Carre, 
Bart., whose arms they bear, viz : Carre impaling Bouchier with 
an annulet for a difference. 

About 1800, a stone coffin found in the church-yard, for 
some time served as a trough in a neighbouring farm-yard. 

In 1616 the living was valued at 30 a year, when John 
Nixon was rector, and the patronage was contested for by the 
Bishop of Lincoln and Edward Carre. The following is a list of 
the incumbents of Quarrington as far as they are known : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1218. Alexander de Brauncewell, presented by the 

Prior and Convent of Haverholme. 
1248. "William de Foxton, presented by the Master of 
the Order of Sempringham and the Prior and 
Convent of Haverholme. 
1269. Richard de Herton, Canon of Lincoln, presented 

by Richard de Gravesend, Bishop of Lincoln. 
1280. Augustin de Stane, presented by the same. 

. Thomas Hill. 
1405. Richard Birket. 

. John Percy. 
1431. John Spaldyng. 
1535. Robert Yonge. 
1558. Robert Barton. 
1575. Robert Hichcock. 
1611. John Nixon. 

. Thomas Bouchier. 
1636. Edward Trevillian. 
1646. Thomas Appleby. 
1684. John KelsaU. 
1689. Edward Thomas. 
1691. Thomas Graves. 
1725. George Ray. 
1772. William Thomas Hervey. 
1792. Edward Waterson. 
1801. Henry St. John Bullen. 
1805. Robert Willoughby Carter. 
1810. C. J. Blomfield afterwards Bishop of London. 
1820. William Stocking. 
1821. Isham Case. 






430 QUAKBINGTON. 

Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1825. Eobert Willoughby Carter. 
1826. Samuel Forster, D.D. 
1843. Henry Asliington. 
1844. Henry Thomas Cooper Hine. 
1861. Frederick William Shannon. 

THE CHURCH. 

The tower of this church, dedicated in honour of St. Botolph, 
is a medium specimen of the Decorated period, the southern face 
of which is varied by a slight projection and a line of little lights 
indicating the position of the belfry staircase. The spire is sadly 
out of proportion with the tower, and looks as if it had slipped 
down within it. This un pleasing effect was slightly mitigated 
when pinnacles sprang from each corner of the tower parapet, 
yet the want of union between it and the spire must always have 
been very apparent. The masonry of the nave generally is very 
indifferent, yet its southern elevation is attractive from its three 
large windows filled with varied and beautiful tracery, of which 
the central one is the largest. At a little distance the doorway 
appears to be of a more ancient date than it really is. This 
arises from the extreme obtuseness of its arch, as its mouldings 
and details belong, like the rest of this fabric, to the Decorated 
period. Until 1812 a very miserable chancel was to be seen 
here, erected by Bishop Blomfield, who was the rector of 
Quarrington from 1810 to 1820, before he succeeded to the See 
of Chester. The present chancel is a good example of modern 
taste and skill ; its east end terminates in a quinquangular apse, 
in each face of which is set a window with slightly varied tracery. 
The base mouldings are divested of all crudeness of outline, and 
are of a solid character, while the masonry throughout is pleasing 
to the eye and structurally excellent. The carving of the hood- 
mould terminals, the designs of which are borrowed from nature, 
is excellent. The north aisle of the nave was re-built upon the 
old foundations some years ago ; this is now agreeably relieved 
by the gable of a new vestry which communicates with the 
chancel as well as with the aisle. 

In the interior, the aisle arcade is the earliest portion of the 
nave. It consists of three .bays, the westernmost one of which is 




QUARRINGTON CHURCH. 



QUAEEINGTON. 431 

wider than the others, and its arch something lower, which gives 
a very awkward appearance to the whole. One capital only has 
been moulded, the others having been left in an unfinished state. 
The arches are very obtusely pointed, which, in conjunction with 
the plain capitals below them, might mislead a casual observer 
as to their date. At the east end of this aisle has been a chapel, 
as indicated by a bracket, and a singularly small piscina. A few 
of the old carved Perpendicular bench ends are still existing. 
The font, of the same period, is a poor one, without a base, and 
the stem of which is a strangely coarse feature. 

In the churchyard is a beautiful monument cross forming 
an appropriate ornament in this quiet resting place of the bodies 
of the faithful dead, as well as a memorial. 

On a slab formerly inserted in the chancel wall was this 
inscription : 

Hie infra situs est Thomas Appleby, A . M. , qui post- 
quam hanc ecclesiam per annos septem et triginta 
surnma cum vigilantia rexerat. mortalitatem exuit vi : 
id : Martii. anno Dom : MDCLXXXIIR ^Etatis sure. 

Below was a low tomb observed by Holies, the slab of which 
still remains in the pavement. On this were carved several 
shields bearing a chevron between three turrets. 

The following quaint epitaph on a mural slab formerly 
appeared on the south wall of the former chancel : 

Consecreted to the memory of his deare Father Thomas 
Bouchier, borne at Hanborow, in the County of Oxon : 
a worthy Divine and sometime faithful Preacher in 
this Church. A man of singular integrity and piety, 
who (changing this fraile life for eternity) expired 
Sept. 18. A'o ^Etatis 67. et Sal : Jesu, 1635. 

The patterne of conjugall love, the rare 

Mirror of father's care ; 

Candid to all, his ev'ry action pen'd 

The copy of a friend ; 

His last words best ; a glorious eve (they say) 
Foretells a glorious day. 

Erected and composed with 

teares by his pensive Sonne, James Bouchier. 



432 



QUARBINGTON. 



On a slab, formerly over the arch of the porch, was this 
epitaph : 

To the memory of his dear father, mother, wife and 
children. Here under lyes ye Bodyes of these, who 
are here named. Will : Chester, Gardiner, Bury'd 
April 1st, 1662, and the wife of Will : Chester, Bury'd 
Feb. 2. 1662. Alice ye wife of Henry Chester, Bury'd 
Jany. 30. 1667. 

Will : Chester. Alice, Bury'd April 10. 1671. 

Bury'd Jany. 24. Elizabeth, Bury'd July 12. 1681. 
1668. Elizabeth, Bury'd Sept. 2. 1682. 



SCKEDINGTON. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

2530. 1861397. 1871394. 

THIS village lies 4 miles south of Sleaford. Its name was 
spelt Scredintune, Scredincton, Skrediton, and Scredding- 
ton, before it became fixed as Scredington. It used also to be 
termed Scredington cum Northbec. Before the Conquest the 
Saxon Leuric was the chief if not the only landowner here ; but 
after that great event part of its lands was given to Robert de 
Stafford, and part to Gilbert de Grant in connexion with his 
manor of Folkinghani. Circa 1200-10 Henricus de Stafford held 
12 oxgangs of land here of the King in capite, and a few other 
small portions, but the greater part of Robert de Stafford's land 
had then passed into the tenure of the de Crouns. Originally 
this consisted of only half a knight's fee of the old feoffment. 
Subsequently, Petronilla, the heiress daughter of Wido de Croun, 
let part of it to Eobert Auteyne and part to William de Latimer. 
She married first William de Longchamp, then Henry de Mara 
or Meris, and lastly Oliver de Vallibus, Yas, or Yaux, who in 
right of his wife let a third part of a knight's fee in Scredington 
to Simon Camerarius, and a whole knight's fee to Simon de 
Markham. 

In 1328 Sir William Latimer, whose ancestors had held 
land under the do Crouns by knights service, obtained possession 
of their manor here, and died seized of it in 1336. " Inq. p. m., 
9 E. 3." In like manner, Elizabeth, his widow, subsequently 
married to Sir Robert Ufford, knight, died seized of it in 1384. 
"Inq. p. m., 7 R. 2." Their heiress daughter, Elizabeth, 
married Robert Lord Willoughby, so that when he died 1396, 
he was seized conjointly with his wife of this manor. The 
following year John Lord Beaumont died seized conjointly with 
his wife Katharine of the manor, which they had let to the Prior 
of Sempringham and William Disney. The next possessor was 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Lord Nevill, the heiress gran- 



434 



SCEEDINGTON. 



daughter of William, 4th Baron Latimer, and wife of Sir Eobert 
Willoughby. In 1404 died John Nevill Lord Latimer, and in 
1447 Matilda, his widow, who subsequently married the Earl of 
Cambridge. So also in 1469 died George Nevill Lord Latimer 
seized of this manor. The next possessor of it we hear of was 
Eobert Lord Willoughby de Broke, who died 1502, and left the 
profits of the same and of his manor of Helpringham partly to a 
mass priest of the church of Hoke, Dorsetshire, to pray for his 
soul and the souls of his wife and parents, who was to have ten 
marks a year for his services for twenty years, and partly in 
alms to fourteen poor persons for the same time. 

We must now return to the de Grant fee. In the beginning 
of the 13th century Gilbert de Gant held one knight's fee of the 
old feoffment in Scredington, formerly let to Thorold, but then 
to William de Dive, who had sublet it to Eobert Auteyne. He 
also possessed the sixth part of a knight's fee, let to Walter de 
Threckingham, and by him to the same above-named Eobert 
Auteyne. The Amundevilles previously held the land subse- 
quently in the tenure of the' Anteynes ; but on the marriage of 
Margaret, daughter of Jolland Ainundeville with John de 
Auteyne, this land was made over to them ; and in the year 1215 
their son Eobert was cited to answer for his not having paid the 
fine due from him as heir of Agnes de Amundeville, which he 
denied he was, and refused to pay ; but one of his descendants, 
Hamo, and his son were still more unfortunate, for when the 
former was Sheriff of the county, 1260, it appears he became 
indebted to the King for 1000 ; and in 1287, when he died, his 
lands in Scredington were seized on account of this claim, and 
thus lost to his son William ; but on his engagement to pay the 
debt they were restored to him by the King's command in 1289. 

The de Gants continued to be lords of this manor until 1307, 
when, on the death of the last Gilbert de Gant without male 
heirs, his fee in Scredington was granted to John, son and heir 
of Hugo Bussey, of Hougham. After this time it is impossible 
to trace the ownership of the lands in Scredington ; but in 1523 
died Eichard Hobson seized of the manor of Scredington, held of 
that of Folkingham, and therefore no doubt the old de Gant fee. 
He was succeeded by his young son, then only three years old. 
In 1615 the manor was in the possession of Eochester Carre, and 
held by him of the Crown. " Harl. MS. 758." 



SCREDINGTON. 435 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

In 1 349 the firm of this vill was granted by the Dean and 
Chapter of Lincoln to Richard Whitwell, Canon of Lincoln, as a 
reward for having continued to reside and fulfilled all the duties 
of the Dean and Chapter during the preceding year with another 
Canon, Half de Ergom, when all the others had fled to their 
respective livings to avoid contagion during the prevalence of a 
pestilence. He was also rewarded with the grant of other lands 
in Haynton, by the Dean and Chapter for his life, on condition 
of the payment of a mark as a nominal rent for the same. He 
died 1371, and gave certain prpperty in Scredington to the Dean 
and Chapter, perhaps that which he had received from them for 
the purpose of endowing two chantries in the Cathedral for the 
benefit of his own soul, and that of Edward III. " Pat. Rot., 
45 E. 3." 

In 1535 the church of Scredington was valued at 7 6s. 8d. ; 
out of which a pension of 1 6s. 8d. was to be paid in augmenta- 
tion of the vicar's stipend ; Thomas Smith then being vicar ; and 
also 6d. a year to the churchwardens for the support of a lamp. 
" Val. Eccl." 

In 1581 died Sir Robert Tirwhitt, knight, seized of the 
rectory of Scredington, 

In 1616 the value of the living was 13 6s. 8d., when it was 
a peculiar of the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, Richard Rochford 
was patron, and there were 140 communicants. " Willis's MS., 
f. 39." The following is a list of the vicars : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1743. John Stephen Masson. 
1776. Samuel Masson. 
1786. John Wilson. 
1849. William Grice. 
1851. Joshua Walthain. 

1861. Edward Stirling Murphy, who has since assumed 
the name of Berry. 

THE CHURCH. 

This church, dedicated in honour of St. Andrew, has just 
been partly re-built and so much restored that at first sight it 



436 



SCBEDINGTON. 



looks like an entirely new one. Previously it consisted of a 
little modern tower most improperly built within the nave, which 
last had so flat a roof as to be invisible, a small chancel with a 
high-pitched roof covered with red tiles, a north aisle, and a 
south porch ; but the whole was in such a dilapidated condition 
as to require extensive reparation. Now, the aisle, an Early 
English doorway within the porch, its Decorated arch, one of the 
nave windows, and a few other relics are still doing service ; but 
the west end, the whole of the south elevation including the 
porch, and the chancel have been rebuilt of roughened stones ; 
and at the west end of the south wall of the nave adjoining the 
porch stands an octagonal bell turret surmounted by a spirelet. 
Both nave and chancel are now covered by high-pitched roofs, 
and brindled tiles. At the west end of the aisle is a little 
coupled lancet, and in its north wall a doorway and three later 
windows, each having three cusped lights and low arched heads. 
At the west end of the nave is a three-light Perpendicular 
window, and at the east end of the chancel a similar one of four 
lights. Within, the old Decorated aisle arcade of three bays still 
remains, the easternmost bay of which serves as a vestry, and 
opens into the chancel by means of an old debased arch, and into 
the aisle by another arch. The font is an Early English one of 
the plain tub form. Here are two stone altar tombs. One of 
these formerly stood under an arch of the aisle arcade, but has 
now been placed at the west end of the nave. It is of a plain 
solid character, but its sides are relieved by square panels con- 
taining quatrefoils and blank shields. It bears the following 
inscription upon a small brass plate : 

Hie Jacet Willus Pylet de Scredyugton qui obiit xxviiio 
die Junii Anno dni Millo CCCC tcio. cui aia ppiciet. 
ds. Amen. 

Against the aisle wall is the other altar tomb placed within a 
mural reces's, and below a cusped arch ornamented with foliated 
crockets above. On the front are three plain quatrefoils con- 
taining blank shields, and on the slab above is the effigy of the 
person commemorated, viz., Thomas Wyke, rector of Scredington, 
who, according to Holies, was connected with Manchester, and 
was living 17 E. 2. He is represented in eucharistic vestments 
with his head on a tasselled pillow placed diagonally upon 



SCREDINGTON. 437 

another, and his feet against a dog. The hands are upraised, 
and perhaps originally held a chalice ; but these are now so 
broken that this cannot be determined. Out of the mouth of 
the dog at the foot of the effigy proceeds a wide label bearing a 
legend which Holies could not wholly decipher, nor can this be 
satisfactorily accomplished now, viz: 

Meminere thome Wyke, rector, p 

Gaudia de tumulus que car (or cor) 

Holies seems also to have met with the name of "Rici 
Scarlet " on some tombstone here. 



FF 



SPANBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION-, 

1019. 186175. 1871115. 

THIS village, the name of which was variously spelt Spanebi, 
Spanesbi, Spanneby and Spannby, lies 6 miles south of Slea- 
ford. From Domesday Book we find that 3 carucates of land in 
Spanby were in the soke of Colsuein's manor of Ulvesbi, or Welby, 
and that these were rated at 2 carucates ; besides which, there 
were 20 acres of meadow and 12 sokemen. Here also was a bere- 
wick of Bourn consisting of 6 bovates, rated at 4 bovates, and 1 8 
acres of meadow, valued before and after the Conquest at 10s. Of 
this, Oger then held 1 carucate and the meadow land in demesne. 

In the 13th century Colsuein's land had become part of the 
de la Haye fee, then held of the King by William Longspee, the 
representative of that family, and consisted of half a knight's fee. 
Christiana Ledet held this of him, and let it to John, son of 
William Foliot, a kinsman of the de la Hayes. " Testa de 
Nevill." William Foliot gave to Bolyngton Priory his vassal 
Ailrick, surnamed the chaplain of Spanby, his wife, chattels, 
house, buildings, a toft, a croft, an oxgang and 32 acres of land, 
a meadow, and pasture for 60 sheep formerly held at the rent of 
a mark by the said Ailrick. In like manner Richard Foliot gave 
.Ralph, son of Heine, one of his vassals together with 4 oxgangs 
of land in Spanby to the nuns of Bolyngton. Another member 
of this family, Paganus Foliot, gave to the Templars an oxgang 
of land, circa 1185, let at 2s. a year, some work and " le present." 

In 1325 Hugo de Spanneby was holding 20 oxgangs in 
Spanby by the service of half a knight's fee of the de la Haye 
fee, and in 1331 John de Spanneby obtained the right of free 
warren in Spanby. 

In 1 4 1 died Elizabeth, widow of John Holland, Earl of Kent, 
seized of half a knight's fee here, and in 1417, Alice, Countess of 
Kent, possessed of the same. In 1428 died Elizabeth, widow of 
John de Nevill, knight, seized of half a knight's fee here. 






SPANBY. 439 

In 1509 died Arthur Spanby possessed of the manor of 
Spanby with its members in Billinghay and Walcot, " Barl. 
MS., 756," and in 1540 the King granted to Eobert Dighton, of 
Sturton, certain messuages and tenements here that had belonged 
to Bourn Abbey to be held of him by knight's service. " Harl. 
MS., 6829." 

The manor and about half the land in this parish now 
belong to the Trustees of the late Mr. W. Cragg. The rest 
belongs to Sir Thomas Whichcote, Bart., Robert Kelham, Esq., 
Captain Smith, of Horbling, Captain Cragg, the vicar of Walcot, 
J. Conant, Esq., Mr. D. Bellamy, and the Trustees for the poor 
of Burton Pedwardine. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

The vicarage of Spanby was consolidated with that of 
Swaton in the reign of Henry VIII., as recorded in the "Liber 
Regis.," and perhaps before that time. 

The following is a list of the vicars of Spanby : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. . Thomas Wallis. 

1662. Peter Saunders. 

1663. Waring. 

. John Spademan. 
1681. Joseph Holton. 
1697. Jonathan Whaley. 
1702. John Spriggs. 
1729. William Ducros. 
1 744. John Stephen Mason. 
1777. Samuel Mason. 
1786. James Pigott. 
1813. John Shinglar. 
1828. Thomas Darby. 
1840. Henry Knapp. 

THE CHURCH. 

This was originally a small church, dedicated in honour of 
St. Nicholas, and apparently built during the second half of the 
13th century; but it has since been considerably curtailed by the 



440 SPANBY. 

shortening of its nave at the west end, the destruction of both 
its aisles and a chantry chapel on the north side of the chancel, 
besides the lowering of its roof ; yet, although most unpromising 
at first sight, is not without considerable architectural value, and 
certainly might be made a very comely edifice. 

The only subsidiary features of the south elevation are a 
doorway and one window in the nave. The first is inserted in 
the western arch of the lost aisle arcade, and is coeval with it, so 
that it was most probably simply taken from the aisle wall on its 
removal and inserted in its present position. The second is a 
small debased square headed window out of which the mullions 
have been cut. Both within and without the outlines of the 
aisle arcades may be plainly seen in the present external walls. 
These are of two bays supported by a central octangular 
pillar and corresponding responds. In the chancel is a com- 
paratively large east window, consisting of two lancet lights 
with a solid heading between them. In the south wall is an 
arch that once opened into a chapel ; and in the northern one a 
large semicircular-headed arch that gave access to another chantry 
chapel, now filled in with masonry, in which a small Decorated 
window is inserted, perhaps derived from one of the lost aisles ; 
a similar one was also placed in the easternmost arch of the nave 
arcade. The original west end of the church, whether consisting 
of a tower or simply a wall surmounted by a bell-cot, has been 
pulled down and replaced by a poor comparatively modern wall 
cutting off a portion of the nave. This is surmounted by a 
wooden cage-like structure, supported in part by timber props, 
and containing a bell. Within, besides the arcades before 
spoken of, and the arch in the north wall of the chancel, 
there are two slender octangular shafts between the nave 
and chancel which are too light to carry a chancel arch ; but 
may have supported a rood beam, or been connected with a 
wooden screen. The roofs of both nave and chancel have been 
so lowered that they are not seen externally, and spoil the 
appearance of the interior. The font is a remarkable specimen 
of the Early English period. Its stem consists of a central 
feature flanked by four pyramidal octangular shaftlets, and its 
bowl of a solid octangular block with its edges slightly chamfered. 
In the south wall of the chancel is a little trefoil-headed niche 
containing a piscina. 



SPANBY. 441 

Holies noted only one fragmentary epitaph here, viz : 

Hie Jacet Johannes de Spanby, qui obiit 

Ano Dni MCCCCXVII. cujus anime ppicietur Deus. 
Amen. 

Since then another slab has been revealed of nearly the same 
date, having a pleasing stemmed cross rising from a -stepped 
base or calvary, and a fragment of a border legend, having the 
date of MCCCCXIIIL, and the same termination as the other. 



SWAKBY. 



ACKEAGE, 

954. 



POPULATION, 
1861162. 1871175. 



village lies 4 miles south of Sleaford. Its name is spelt 
X Swarrebi in Domesday Book. After the Conquest Wido 
de Credon obtained land here with appurtenances in Kelby, 
Marston and Harrowby, of which Yitalis, his vassal, held a caru- 
cate. He had also 16 sokemen and 3 villans cultivating 2J 
earucates, and holding 80 acres of meadow and 80 of under- 
wood. Here Aluric held 4 bovates of land rated at 2 bovates, 
Godman 6 bovates, rated at 3j, and Odo the arbalist, or cross- 
bow man, 1 carucate, 20 acres of meadow, 12 of underwood, 
and the third part of the church, worth 10s. a year. 

Subsequently the de Credon manor was inherited by 
Petronilla de Credon, or Croun, when Hugo de Boothby was one 
of her tenants, who sublet his land to Half de Normanton, and 
Henry Camerarius held another smaller portion, which he sublet 
by knight's service to Robert de Thorpe, i.e. Culverthorpe. Circa 
1200-10 Gilbert de Gant's fee was held by Eobert de Haceby, 
and that of Croun by Alan de Thorpe. "Testa de Nevill," 
Eobert de Newton held 2 oxgangs here of the Earl of Salisbury, 
who sublet it to Ealf de Normanton, and subsequently to 
William de Lunda. In 1397 died John Lord Beaumont, seized 
conjointly with his wife, Katharine, of one knight's fee in Swarby, 
held by William Disney. In 1417 died Alice, relict of Thomas, 
Earl of Kent, and daughter of Eichard, Earl of Arundel, seized 
of lands and tenements here. " Inq. p. m., 2 H. 6." 

In 1544 the King granted to John Broxholme the lands, the 
rectory, a chapel and a messuage here, that had belonged to 
Kyme Priory. In 1545 died Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, 
seized of the manor of Swarby. In 1550 Christopher Kelke held 
of the King the rectory of Swarby, a capital messuage, a mill 
and certain lands in Swarby and Culverthorpe. " Harl. MSS. 
William Fairfax next obtained the rectory and advowson 



G829. ! 



SWAEBT. 443 

of Swarby, a columbary (dovecot), a garden, 100 acres of plough 
land, and 40 of pasture, held of the Queen, leaving a daughter, 
Elizabeth, as his heir. "Harl. MSS. 6829." In 1560 fciniori 
Freman was holding lands in this place; and in 1574 George 
Fairfax obtained a licence to alienate all his lands, together with 
the advowson of the rectory and vicarage of Swarby, to Eichard 
Fairfax, but he did not carry out this design, as he died seized 
of the rectory and vicarage of Swarby in 1635, leaving a son, 
Christopher, as his heir. In the beginning of the following 
century Robert Carre had obtained the fee of the Castle and 
Honour of Bolingbroke here, latterly held by the family of 
Hermyn by the service of the fourth part of a knight's fee. 
" Rot. Cur. Ducat. Lane." 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

In 1533 Walter Gyldyn, vicar of Swarby, bequeathed his 
body to be buried in the chancel of AUhallows, or All Saints, in 
Swarby. 

From the foregoing account it will be seen that in the 16th 
century the rectory of Swarby, which had belonged to Kyme 
Priory, passed successively into the hands of John Broxholme, 
Christopher Kelke, and William Fairfax ; also that it was 
subsequently inherited successively by George and Christopher 
Fairfax. 

In 1616, when George "^airfax was the patron, there were 
94 communicants. " Willis's Church Notes, f. 39." 

In the tower Holies observed this legend : " John Thurseby 
of thy soul God have mercy," and adds that this John Thurseby 
was thought to have been a vicar of Swarby. The following 
is a list of the vicars : 
Date of Institution. 

AD. . Walter Gyldyn, vicar 1533. 
1731. Eichard Brown. 
1795. Thomas Dawson. 
1804. William Turner Broadbent. 
1 8 1 8. Francis Whichcote. 
1823. John Hannar. 
1830. Christopher Whichcote. 
1851. Christopher Whichcote. 



444 SWAEBY. 

THE CHURCH. 

The modest little church, dedicated in honour of St. Mary 
and All Saints at Swarby, possesses some peculiar features. It 
consists of a tower, nave, north and south aisles, porch and 
chancel. The tower, of a late Perpendicular period, with 
pinnacles at its angles, is covered with a stone pyramidal roof, 
and surmounted by a pinnacle. The form of the parapet is 
unusual, partaking somewhat of the character of the cloven 
battlemented parapets common in northern Italy. Each pair of 
belfry windows is covered by a clumsily contrived hood-mould. 
The nave and aisles are now under one roof ; to effect which, it 
was deemed necessary to lessen the width of the aisles and to 
decapitate their windows ; an expedient that must be termed a 
most barbarous one. The southern aisle is Perpendicular, the 
northern one, Decorated. The windows here have double sills, 
or a filling-in of panelling, as at Aunsby. The door of the 
south aisle, and a portion of a crocketed label over its east 
window are worthy of notice. The chancel has been partly re- 
built, but it still retains one low-side Early English window in 
its south wall. The porch arch is also of this period. Within, 
there is but little worthy of notice. At the east end of the 
north aisle is a bracket supporting a portion of a seated figure 
cut in stone, and probably intended to represent Our Lord ; the 
old rood staircase remains on the north side of the Perpendicular 
arch, and a portion of the Early English font. 

In the chancel are the remains of a richly canopied niche. 
In the churchyard, at the east end of the south aisle of the 
church, is a mutilated recumbent effigy, and here formerly was a 
tombstone, erected in memory of two children, and bearing the 
following quaint inscription : 

Beneath this earthly tomb there lies 

Two of the world's best roses ; 
Pray God to take t^ieir souls 

To Abraham and to Moses ! 



SWATON. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

3150. 1861299. 1871336. 

i 

THE name of this village, lying 9 miles south east of Sleaford, 
has been thus variously spelt, Suavintone, Suavitone, 
Swaunetone, Swaueton, Swauton and Swayton. 

Before the Conquest Adestan, Auti, and Aluric were the 
Saxon landed proprietors here. After that great event the 
Conqueror gave Adestan' s lands to Wido de Credon, with its 
members in Horbling, Hay dor and Osbournby. Auti's lands, 
having soke in Haceby, and those belonging conjointly to Alsi, 
Adestan and Aluric three Saxon brothers to Colsuein ; and 
two oxgangs of land, constituting a berewick of Caythorpe, to 
Robert de Vesci, afterwards held of the King by William de 
Vesci, and let to William de Latimer. 

In 1185 Matilda, daughter of William de Verdun and relict 
of Richard de la Hay, then 57 years of age, was a ward of the 
King, and had this vill in dowry. Upon it were 3 ploughs, 60 
sheep, 10 swine and a boar, worth 30 a year and capable of 
being, considerably augmented. She had five daughters, one of 
whom was married to Gerald de Camville, another to Richard de 
Humer, and a third to William de Rollos. Of these sons in law 
Gerald de Camville succeeded to the manor of Swaton, and was 
in possession of it circa 1200 as parcel of his barony. " Testa de 
Nevill." In the 13th century William de Longspee held in 
capite 9 carucates and 2 oxgangs of land in this vill, in demesne, 
by knight's service of the old feoffment. By a grant dated at 
Perth, January 4th, 1282, Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, and 
Margaret Longspee his wife, obtained a charter of free warren 
over their lands in Swaton, a grant to hold a market at Swaton 
every Friday, a fair of four days continuance, viz : on the vigil, 
day, morrow, and day after the morrow of the feast of St. 
Michael, or the three last days of September and first of 
October ; and another fair also of four days continuance on the 
vigil, day, morrow, and day after the feast of St. Thomas. 



446 SWATON. 

In 1311 this Henry de Lacy died seized conjointly with, his 
heiress wife of this manor of the honour of Lancaster. " Inq. 
p. m., 4 E. 2." Alice de Lacy, Countess of Lincoln, gave and^ 
confirmed to God and the church and Canons of Barlings her 
manor of Swaton of the fee of de la Hay, by a charter dated at 
York on the 10th of July, 1322, " Ex cartular. Abb. Bail. Lib. 
Cott., f. 178," and by a licence dated at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
October 30th; Io34, the King allowed the Abbot and Convent of 
Barlings to give and assign GOs. a year out of their manor cf 
Swatoii and the advowsons of the churches of Sudbrook in 
Lincolnshire, and Middleton in Oxfordshire, to Henry de Burg- 
hurst, or Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln. " E. Pat E. 3 m. 10." 

In 1345, when an enquiry was made respecting the extent 
of the liberties of Barlings Abbey, it was found that its Abbot 
and monks were in poseession of a manor in this vill ; and they 
then obtained the privilege of holding a view of frank pledge 
in that manor, the profits of which were worth 2s. "Inq. p. 
m., 19 E. 3." 

On the 14th February, 1557, died William Middleton seized 
of a capital messuage, 1 4 oxgangs of land, and one toft called 
" le cottes," held of the King in capite. By Grace his wife he 
left a son John as his heir, whose wife's name was Elina. 
" Hail. MS. 757." The following is the will of this William 
Middleton, give,n as a characteristic example of a Yeoman's will 
of the close of the 16th century, dated November 17th., 1699 : 

" I William Middleton, of Swaiton, gent., leave my body to be 
buried in the church yard of Swaiton. I will that Mr. 
Francis Lumley be paid 20, and that Richard Needham 
be paid 20s., and Britton, of Grantham, the clothier, be 
paid 40s., and my uncle, Thomas Middleton, of London, 
as appeareth by his books, 18s., and to my brother, John 
Middleton, 20s., and to my brother in law, Nicholas Boole, 
10, and to my father in law 13s. 4d. I give to Jane, my 
wife, 20, 4 kine, 4 mares, 6 quarters of peas and 4 of 
barley, and half of my household stuff, and the other half 
I will my wife have to discharge my sd Exix. of the portion 
of Elizabeth Boole, her sister. To my son, William 
Middleton, 130, and all my right in 2 farms in Swaiton . 
called Luncheion House and Townsend House. And 
whereas I have sold the said lands to the Earl of Lincoln, 
and bound myself for the matter of the assurance, wherefore 
there is a sute commenced against me in the King's Bench, 



SWATON. 447 

and order given by the said Court that the Earl should 
accept the assurance, I will my supervisors set aside 100 
of 'my said portion to pay into the Court the same amount. 
I give to my said son William the land mortgaged to me in 
Spalding, late belonging to John Middleton, my uncle, and 
if my said uncle redeem them, I will my son William have 
the 50, for which they are mortgaged. I give to Elizabeth, 
my daughter, 50, when 18. To my- daughter Mary, 50, 
when 18. To my sister, Anne Middleton the elder, 40s. 
To Humphrey Middleton, my brother, 10s., to buy him a 
bible, and one baie yearling fillie. To my brother, Daniel 
Middleton, a black trotting colte. To my sister, Elizabeth 
Middleton, 2 french crowns at her marriage. To Robert 
Middleton and Joan his sister, each 20s. To Anne 
Middleton, my aunte, 40s. at her marriage. To Henrie 
Middleton, of Helpringham, 10s., which he oweth to me. 
To my father in lawe my birding piece, and my half of his 
caliver with the office. To my mother my bible and two 
of my best books that I have not bequeathed. To my 
cousin, John Coste, a black ambling mare, and to his wife 
two bookes of the said sorte of my bookes. To every of my 
god-children 12d. To everie of my servants 12d. To John 
Shepard 12 1 To the poor of Swaiton 6s. 8d. Of Osbournby 
5s. To the town of Horbling 5s. To good wife Berne one 
booke called Mr. Gren chain his works. My supervisors to 
have iny sons portion, &c., &c., till he be 21. Eesidue to 
Suzanna my daughter, whom I make executrix, and my 
friends, Thomas Middleton, of London, my unkell, Walter 
Audley, my unkell, Mr. Hugh Middleton, of London, gold- 
smith. Francis Braiham, of Swaiton, gent., and Richard 
Whittingham, of Horbling, gent., supervisors. Witnesses : 
Rlchd. Needham, William Hatfield and Win. Cham. 

The present principal landed proprietors here are J. Lee 
Warner, Esq., of Walsingham Abbey, who is lord of the maror 
and the owner of the greater part of the land. The vicar, who 
has in all 247 acres, and Mrs. Easen, the impropriator and patron 
of the living, who possesses 175 acres; but Lord Willoughby de 
Broke, and the Trustees of the late Mr. W. Cragg, of Threcking- 
ham, have also a few acres in this parish. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOKY. 

In the reign of Henry I. certain profits of the lordship and 
church of Swaton were given to the monks of Essay, in Nor- 
mandby, by Robert de la Hay. " Dugdale's Monasticon." 



448 SWATON. 

For a long time the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln received 
40s. a year from the Abbot and Convent of Bardney as a pension, 
derived from this place. 

The annual rent of an oxgang of land lying in the plains of 
this parish, containing about 10 acres, originally let at 5s. per 
acre, was left by an unknown person for the observance of his 
obit in the church of Swaton for ever, when a part of the money 
so left was to be given to the poor. 

In Bishop Neale's time, 1616, the living of Swaton was 
valued at 30 a year, when the Earl of Lincoln was patron, and 
there were 208 communicants. " Willis's MSS., f. 39." 

1662, when the Act of Uniformity was passed, John Spade- 
man, an M.A. of Magdalene College, Cambridge, then minister 
of the parish, as he is called, took the oath required of all the 
clergy of the church of England ; but soon after relapsed, and 
resigned his benefice. He then settled at Rotterdam and became 
the pastor of an English congregation there, where he ministered 
to certain students and assisted their studies, but subsequently 
returned to England and became a co-pastor with another non- 
conformist minister, and died in 1708. The following is a list of 
the vicars as far as can now be ascertained : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. . William Gregge, died 1488. 
. Edward Hassell, living 1616. 
.Thomas WaUis. 
. John Spademan, ejected 1662. 
1662. Peter Saunders. 

1663. Waring. 

1681. Joseph Holton. 
1697. Jonathan Whaley. 
1702. John Spriggs. 
1729. William Ducros. 
1744. John Stephen Mason.* 
1777. Samuel Mason. 
1786. James Pigott.f 

* This vicar and his successor, Samuel Mason, lived at Spanby in a 
house now belonging to Sir Thomas Whiehcote, Bart. 

+ Although vicar for many years, his nrv^e r< 

parish register, whence he was doubtless one oi taoe non-residfent incumbents. 
with which this parish was so sorely afflicted formerly. 




SWATON CHURCH. 



SWATON. 449 

Date of Institution. , 

A.D. 1813. John Shinglar. 
1828. Thomas Darby. 
1841. Henry Knapp. 

THE CHUKCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St. Michael, and is a remark- 
ably beautiful cruciform fabric, all the features of which are 
most carefully executed. Here no doubt once stood a Norman 
church, of which an arch springer still remains incorporated in 
the easternmost arch of the present north aisle. During the 
Early English period the tower was re-built, which has a good 
vaulted roof within it, and subsequently, but within the same 
architectural period, the chancel. When the Decorated period 
was prevalent, the fine nave, aisles, north porch, and transepts 
were erected, or in the first half of the 14th century ; and finally 
some additions were made to the fabric during the Perpendicular 
period. The tower is surmouuted by a Perpendicular upper stage, 
having a l^attlemented parapet and crocketed angle pinnacles ; and 
at the south-eastern angle is an octangular turret staircase finished 
with a pyramidal cap. The character of the chancel, built of 
two kinds of stone, is pure and grave. It has three good lancet 
lights in each of its side walls, and the middle one on the north 
side is shortened to admit of the introduction of a semicircular- 
headed doorway below it. In the east wall is a beautifully 
moulded two- light window with a cusped circlet above. The 
Decorated work of the nave and transepts of this church is so 
exquisitely designed and elaborately moulded as to be compar- 
able with the very best specimens of the same period, but most 
unfortunately much of this has been most barbarously treated. 
The west window of four lights, with its pile of reticulated work 
above, is especially beautiful. This is flanked by a smaller two- 
light window of the same character on either side, constituting 
the west windows of the aisles. From the' elevation of this end 
of the church it will be seen that both nave and aisles are covered 
by one roof, after the manner of Lombardic churches ; but this 
arrangement is in part concealed by the application of grand 
buttresses shoreing up the ends of the aisle arcades, besides 
others at the angles ; and also by the returns of the battlemented 



450 SWATON. 

aisle parapets. Attached to the south aisle is a fine porch 
having an excellent outline, and a well-moulded arch and door- 
way within it. West of this is a large beautiful window of three 
lights vigorously but delicately moulded, with reticulated tracery 
in its head, but unfortunately the corresponding window on the 
other side has lost all its tracery. In the side wall of the north 
aisle are two similar windows with a small door between them. 
Both aisles are surmounted by battlemented parapets. Each of 
the transepts had also a similar three-light window; but the 
southern one has now been most injurously deprived of its 
original tracery and filled in with mullions and transoms of a 
most debased character ; besides which its gable has been lowered 
in a most miserable way. 

The interior is lofty and spacious. The aisle arcades are 
uniform, and consist of. three bays each, supported by fine 
clustered pillars. The nave was re-seated, and the interior well 
restored, partly in 1851, partly five years later, through the 
efforts pf the present incumbent, the Rev. H. Knapp. At the 
west end of the north aisle stands the font upon two steps. This 
is an unusually beautiful specimen of the Decorated period. Its 
shaft is encircled by eight little pillars, and at the angles of the 
base of the bowl are ball flowers ; each of its panels also is 
enriched by nine four-leaved flowers in high relief. Both 
transepts constituted chantry chapels. The southern one, 
dedicated to St. John, and formerly called the south choir, still 
retains its piscina and aumbry ; and here is the entrance to the 
tower staircase, also a handsome old carved oak parish chest. 
It has a four-light window, and is the only one in this church 
having so many, except the western one. As a choir of the 
Virgin Mary in this church is alluded to by Holies, perhaps 
the north transept chapel was dedicated in her honour. Here 
is another and more ornamental piscina than the one in the 
opposite transept. It was found elsewhere, and inserted in 
its present position ; but most probably belonged to this chapel 
originally. 

On the wall space over and on each side of the chancel arch 
was a series of paintings representing scenes from the life of our 
Lord. These were divided from one another by borders orna- 
mented with a trailing foliated pattern. Above were four 
subjects representing the closing events of Christ's sojourn on 



SWATON. 451 

earth, viz : " His mockery by the soldiers," " His blind folding," 
''His flagellation," and perhaps "His bearing the cross on the 
way to Calvary," but this last was much mutilated. Below was 
a large compartment coloured red and powdered with stars, and 
on either side two more subjects, one above the other ; those on 
the left representing the crucifixion and burial of Christ, those 
on the right his resurrection, and probably his ascension ; but only 
a small part of this last was left. The remains of the chancel 
screen, originally a very handsome canopied one, now serve as a 
screen in the south transept. Passing through the tower into 
the chancel, in its south wall is a large arched recess, within 
which are two piscinae having shallow lobated bowls. 

Holies observed in this church the armorial bearings of 
Meschines, Earl of Lincoln, Warren, Lucy, Bohun, Beauchamp, 
Ros, Yere, Lacy, Holland, and Richard, Earl of Cornwall ; but 
of these only three now remain on shields placed upside down in 
the westernmost window of the north aisle, viz : those of Warren, 
Vere, and Bohun. He also saw a tombstone in the chancel thus 
inscribed : 

Hie Jacet Dus "Wills Gryge, quondam Vicarius istius ' 
ecclesie, qui obiit xiv die Februar Ano Dni 
MCCCCLXXXVIII, cujus aie ppicietur Dens. Amen. 

Also in the south transept the effigy of a man with his legs 
crossed, said to have been intended for Arthur de Spanby. Both 
these are now gone ; but the recumbent effigy of a lady of the 
14th century, executed in stone, has since been found and is 
placed near the font at the west end of the north aisle. She is 
represented in the gown, veil, and wimple of her period, with 
the hands, as usual, upraised in prayer. 



WELBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

2421. 1861499. 1871490. 

THIS village lies 8 miles south west of Sleaford. Its name 
has been variously spelt Ulvesbi, Wellebi, Welleby, and 
Welbye, before it assumed its present shortened form of Welby. 

Adestan, the Saxon, possessed the greater part of the lands 
here, and Queen Editha the rest. Subsequently Adestan' s lands 
were given by the Conqueror to Wido de Credon, and he retained 
Editha's in his own hands as parcel of his manor of Great Ponton. 
Circa 1200-10 Eobert de Eok was holding a knight's fee and-a- 
half here of the de Credon or Croun fee. Later in that century 
Petronilla de Yaux was the possessor of the fee, when the Abbot 
of de Valle Dei was holding 8 oxgangs and-a-half of her, the 
inmates of the Hospital at Lincoln, 5 oxgangs and-a-half, for 
which they paid scutage, also Hugo Selveyne and Thomas 
Eok. 

Here was also another fee, viz : that of Clinton, of which 
Osbert de Ingandelby (Ingoldsby) and the Abbot of de Yalle 
Dei each held the twenty-fifth part of a knight's fee in the 13th 
century. The remainder of Welby was then held in pure and 
perpetual alms of the socage of Grantham. " Testa de Nevill." 

Circa 1323 Eoger de Lunderthorpe (Londonthorpe) and 
Isabel his wife paid the King a fine for seizen of certain lands 
in Welby. " Pip. Eot, 17 E. 2." 

In 1330 Lambert de Threckingham and Walter his brother 
did the same upon their acquisition of a rent of 22s. 2d., 
charged on lands in this vill, belonging to William de Welleby. 
In the same way Eoger de Londonthorpe with Margaret his wife 
paid a fine to the King on their acquisition of a rent of 10s., 
charged on lands here and at Ancaster. " Pip. Eot., 4 E. 3." 

In 1479, Thomas Scott, Bishop of Lincoln, and others, 
petitioned the King for a licence to give certain property here to 
the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln. " Inq. p. m., 19 E. 4." 



WELBY. 453 

In 1538 the Priory of St. Katharine had a house and 3 tofts 
here, then held by Alice Novill and Eobert Brown on a lease of 
31 years, at a rent of 20s. a year; and also other land let to 
Thomas Watson. 

In 1545 Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, died, seized of 
the manor of Welby, and in 1613-14 John Longland, seized of a 
capital messuage and lands here, which he left to his son, Francis. 
" Harl MS., 4135." Francis Longland appears to have died soon 
after, for in 1618 Richard Longland, also termed son and heir of 
John Longland, paid 5s. for his relief for a capital messuage, 
some cottages, 100 acres of land, 4J of meadow, and 12 of ings in 
this vill, held of the King in chief. " Pip. Rot., 18 J. 1 ." 

The manor and the whole of the land in this parish, except- 
ing the glebe, now belongs to Sir Glynne Earle Welby Gregory, 
Bart., whose ancestors probably derived their name from that 
of this place. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 

A small sum was left by Robert White for the observance 
of his obit in Welby church for ever, arising from the rent of 
two tenements in the village, besides 22d. to be given yearly to 
the poor on the same day. The sum of 3s. 4d. was left by 
Edward Bust, or the annual rent of two cottages in Welby for 
the observance of his obit ; and also a similar small sum by 
another person for the same purpose, derived from two other 
cottages, then let to John Drewyre at 3s. 4d. a year. 

In 1616 the living was valued-at 25, when the Prebendary 
of South Grantham was the patron, and the number of communi- 
cants was 57. " Willis's MS., f. 39." 

The following is a list of the rectors : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. . John Robinson, rector in 1616. 

1661. Lawrence Jones. 
1663. Thomas Lodington. 
1691 .Samuel Forster. 
1730. Christopher Robinson. 
1750. Robert Cane. 
1771. Basil Cane. 
1775. William Dodwell. 
GG 



454 WELBY. 

Date of Institution. 

A.D. 1833. Charles Bethel Otley. 
1867. William A. Frith. 

THE CHURCH. 

Originally this church, dedicated in honour of St. Bar- 
tholomew, was wholly of the Early English period, when it was 
of the same length as at present, but its nave was narrower. 
The greater portion of the present tower and chancel walls are 
still of that style ; and within, the western aisle respond demon- 
strates that it also had a north aisle like the present one. 
Perhaps the low upper stage of the tower, and certainly its lights 
and the spire above now wanting a finial are additions of the 
Decorated period. The aisle was re-built, and widened at a later 
time ; but the pitch of the preceding one may still be seen in the 
west wall of its successor, built apparently in the latter part of 
the 14th century. Whether there was ever a south aisle we can- 
not now tell ; but about the year 1500 the whole of the present 
south elevation of the nave was re-built as handsomely as the 
taste and skill of that time allowed of, yet in a coarse, showy 
manner, and has a peculiar look from having two ranges of 
lights and an unusually large porch in the centre, surmounted 
by large crocketed pinnacles, and an octangular turret at its west 
end, containing a newel staircase formerly leading to the rood-loft. 
The whole is finished with a richly worked parapet, having blank 
shields in its cusped panels, and crocketed pinnacles above little 
piers placed between each of the upper tier of windows. These 
are three-light windows, six in number on either side, and below 
on each side of the porch is a wide four-light window. In the 
south wall of the chancel are three little lancets having hood- 
moulds enriched with the dog-tooth ornament. These have of 
late been restored when a new corbel table was added above. The 
roof is tiled. At the east end is a small Decorated window in- 
serted at too low a level in the old Early English wall. The 
present aisle overlaps the chancel so as to cover an originally 
external lancet window in the chancel wall, now constituting 
an internal one between the chancel and the eastern part of the 
aisle, serving as a vestry. Adjoining this window is a chantry 
chapel arch. The original aisle arcade, with the exception of its 



WELBY. 455 

western respond before alluded to, is of a date circa 1500, and 
consists of four bays. In the eastern respond is a minute niche, 
intended to hold the preacher's hour-glass in days of old. The 
chancel arch is of the same date as the aisle arcade. In the 
north wall of this last are traces of what appears to have been a 
sepulchral arch. In the upper part of the nave walls are coarsely 
carved brackets, from which the timbers of a former roof formerly 
sprung ; the present one is quite flat, and very plain. The arch 
of the small doorway in the tower is remarkably ill-shaped. The 
rude old oak bench ends are still doing service. The chancel 
screen is of a good character, and clearly had a canopy, of which, 
however, no fragments now remain. The entrance to the rood 
loft once existing above this is at a remarkably high level. The 
font is a small octangular Perpendicular one. Some few frag- 
ments of old painted glass still remain intermixed with modern 
glass in the little east window, including a pretty little roundel 
with a lion's head in the middle. 

In the churchyard is a curious stone tombstone of the 14th 
century, representing the upper part of a lady in a veil, cut in a 
deeply-recessed quatrefoil, with the hands upraised in prayer. 
Below, her feet are shown, and on one side an infant in a shroud 
is represented, perhaps indicating that its mother died in 
child-bed. 

Holies observed in a window of the north aisle the device of 
a purse and the words "Nay je droit " within a circlet often 
repeated. Also a stone tombstone in the chancel bearing this 
epitaph : 

De Billesfield natus Jacet hie Robert tumulatus, hujus 
et ecclesie quondam Rector fuit ille, qui obiit V to - Kal 
mensis Martii Ano MCCCCLXVII. 

" Church Notes, Harl. MS., 6829." 



SCOT, OR WATEE WILLOUGHBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

530. 186119. 187123. 

rFTHIS is a very small village, lying 6 miles south of Sleaford. 
_L After the Conquest Leuric's manor here was given to Wido 
de Eeeinbudcourt. This consisted of 3 carucates and 2 oxgangs 
of land, 30 acres of meadow, and 28 of coppice wood. It also 
had soke in Aunsby. Wido had 2 ploughs in demesne, 10 soke- 
men holding 10 oxgangs of land, and 3 bordars having 2 
carucates. Besides which the priest here had 37^ acres of land. 
The whole was worth 7 in King Edward's time, but subse- 
quently only 4, and was taxed at 20s. 

In the 13th century Christina Ledet held two parts of a 
knight's fee in Willoughby, of the King. She let this land to 
Michael Belet by the usual tenure of knight's service, and he 
sub-let it to Simon de Nevill and Peter de Cormory. " Testa de 
Nevill." 

In 1309 Eoger de Morteyne appeared at the manor house 
of Silk Willoughby, and owned that he held of John of Hougham 
the fourth part of a knight's fee in Scot Willoughby by homage. 
"Harl. MSS., 1756." 

In 1388 died Thomas Tryvett, seized conjointly with his wife 
Elizabeth of a manor here. " Inq. p. m., 12 E. 2." 

In 1458 died Nicholas Wymbish, seized conjointly with 
Thomas Wymbish, of Lincoln, Thomas Kirkgate, chaplain, John 
Eylston, of Lincoln, and William Beaufo, of Willoughby. They 
had purchased it of Eobert Stevenot, clerk, in 1451, and it was 
valued at four marks. " Inq. p. m., 1 E. 4." Three years later 
died another Nicholas Wymbish, clerk, seized of this manor; 
and in 1478 Thomas Wymbish and others petitioned the King 
for a licence to give it in mortmain to the Prior of Nocton Park. 
'Inq. p. m ., 18 E. 4." At a later period the family of PeUe 
possessed the manor and a residence here, of whom Sir Anthony 
PeUe, knight, of Dembleby, sold these to Sir John Brownlow in 



SCOT, OR WATER WILLOUGHBY. 457 

the reign of James I., for 5506. The manor is still possessed 
by the present representative of that family, the Earl Brownlow, 
but a few mounds alone mark the site of the old hall. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTOKY. 

The priest's lands here, after the Conquest, were subject to 
a customary rent of 1 6d. per annum due to Wido de Reeinbud- 
court as lord of the manor. Various bequests were made to the 
church of this place by unknown persons, viz : 8d. per annum, 
derived from the rent of two selions of land in the plains of this 
vill, for the support of a lamp always to be kept burning in the 
church, and the rent of half- an- acre of land in the plains of 
Dembleby for the same purpose. The following also were 
-benefactors to this church, viz : William Wynliff, who died 1415, 
and bequeathed his body to be buried in the church of St. 
Andrew in this place, to the fabric of which he left a bequest, 
viz : to its campanile, or steeple, half-a-quarter of barley, to its 
font half-a-quarter, to its crucifix and the lights of its sepulchre 
half-a-quarter, the same to the fabric of the church of the blessed 
Mary of Lincoln, to the altar 12d. and for tythes forgotten, two 
quarters of barley to the parochial, chaplain. To Robt. Vozon, 
senr., three over mattresses, and to the son of the same one 
common mattress. To the senr. Robt. three over mattresses and 
half-a-quarter of barley. To Agnes, daughter of John Vozon, 
two over mattresses. To Alice, daughter of Thomas Vozon, one 
over mattress and half-a-bushel of barley. To Thomas Vozon 
one bushel of barley. To Wm. Vozon half-a-quarter of barley. 
To Wm., son of Eobt. Norris, one sheep. To Matilda, wife of 
Wm. Mergery, one buculam. To Thomas her son, one buculam 
and half-a-quarter of barley. The residium to Joan, my wife, 
to Wm. Mergery, John Mergery, John Vozon, and Richard 
Duxworth, exors. Proved, May, 1416. "Repingdon's Registers." 

John Bardney, who died 1416, and bequeathed his body to 
be buried in the cemetery of the church of St. Andrew, left to 
the high altar of this church six quarters of barley, and to the 
steeple of the same church one bushel of barley; to Adam 
Bardney, his father, ten quarters of barley ; to Wm., his brother, 
one quarter and one gown with the cape ; to Thomas, his 
brother, one quarter of barley, some peas, his gown, best cape 



458 SCOT, on WATEE WILLOUGHBY. 

and duplicate ; to Margaret, his sister, six quarters of wheat and 
some peas ; to Joan, the sister of Agnes, the same ; to Margaret, 
the mistress of his household, one quarter of barley ; to the 
chaplain of the parish of Quarrington, 6d. The residue to 
Thomas, his brother, and to his executors. " Eepingdon's 
Eegister, 156." 

In Bishop Neale's time, 1616, the living was valued at 
13 6s. 8d., when Miles Whale was rector, John Townley, 
patron, and there were 22 communicants. " Willis's MSS., f. 39." 

The following is a list of the rectors : 
Date of Institution. 

A.D. . John Armstrong. 
1668. Eichard Moore. 

. - Cuthbert. 

1682. James Seaton. 
1691 .Anthony Barnes. 

. Eichard Moore. 
1716. Genge Dickins. 

. John Dickins. 
1720. William Cawthorne. 
1740. Eichard Palmer. 
1805. Honourable Henry Gust. 
1861. Octavius Pyke Halsted. 

THE CHURCH. 

This is dedicated in honour of St. Andrew, and although 
small, is quite large enough for the few inhabitants of the parish. 
It was re-built in 1826 with the materials of its predecessor, and 
is covered by an ordinary slated roof. It consists of a small nave, 
lit by a single Tudor window on each side, and of a consonant little 
chancel, having a two-light window of an ordinary Early English 

9sign at the east end. The whole is of a most unpretending 
character, and in good repair. It stiU retains two relics of an 

trher period, viz : a beU, hanging in a bell-gable at the west 
d a plain tub-shaped font, apparently of the 13th century. 



SILK WILLOUGHBY. 

ACREAGE, POPULATION, 

2450. 1861237. 1871258. 

THIS village lies 2 miles south of Sleaford. Its name was 
originally spelt Wilgebe, then Wilebi, Wylebi and Wilaby ; 
subsequently it was called North Willoughby to distinguish it 
from Scot, or Water Willoughby ; and lastly Silk Willoughby, 
in reference to its hamlet of Silkby. This last was also called 
North Willoughby, and formed a separate hamlet until 1337, 
when it was still termed Silkby in a deed of that date ; but before 
1494 Willoughby and Silkby , were conjoined ; for in a deed of 
presentation to the rectory of that year, this parish is termed 
North Willoughby, alias Silk Willoughby ; which is simply a 
shortening of its more correct title, viz : Silkby cum Willoughby. 
Silkby was that part of the parish lying eastward of the turnpike 
road, but its boundaries are now unknown. Here, according to 
Domesday Book, were 10 carucates of land, reckoned as 5 caru- 
cates for taxation, 29 sokemen and 1 bordar having 6 carucates, 
140 acres of meadow, besides 24 other acres. After the Conquest 
Archil was allowed to retain 2 carucates, rated at 1 carucate ; but 
the greater part of the land was given by the Conqueror to the 
Bishop of Lincoln, whose vassal, Ralph, held 2 carucates under 
him. He had also here 5 villans and 2 sokemen having 2 caru- 
cates and 30 acres of meadow. In King Edward's time it was 
valued at 30s., and subsequently at 50s. Part of this vill was 
within the soke of the Bishop of Durham's manor of Evedon, 
and had belonged to Turvert, the Saxon. During the reign of 
Henry III., Peter de Brus, the King's bailiff of the Wapentakes 
of Aswardhurn and Maxwell lived at Silk Willoughby, who was 
a great oppressor. He purposely held his courts at Sleaford at 
the most inconvenient times in order that he might fine persons 
for non-attendance, and among his various acts of tyranny the 
following are recorded : He seized a horse from Walter, son of 
Ralph, of Heckington, worth half-a-mark, and pined it to death 



460 SILK WTLLOUGHBY. 

because the owner refused to redeem it by a fine of 2s. He 
forcibly seized three quarters of malt worth 18s. from the 
premises of Eichard Asky, of Howell, and demanded a fine of 
;>s. 10|d. for its restitution, which, not being paid, the barley 
was kept. He also seized a horse from the same person who 
was forced to pay 9d. for its restitution, and kept a cow he had 
seized of Ealph, of Howell. His servant, Eobert, of Hay dor, 
took two young beasts from William Mackurness, of Ewerby, 
and he only gave them up for a payment of a mark of silver. 
He also interfered very much to his own profit when others were 
dishonest ; for hearing that a servant of Walter de Holgate, of 
Asgarby, had sold one of his master's oxen to Eobert, a servant 
of John de Evedon, but had not delivered it, he seized the said 
ox himself and kept it with its other spoils at Willoughby. At 
length, however, when an inquisition was about to be held 
respecting his nefarious doings, in 1275, he absconded, and was 
heard of no more. " Dr. Oliver's MSS." 

In the 13th century the Bishop's land here, constituting two 
parts of a knight's fee, was held by Osbert Selvein, and subse- 
quently by his son, Eobert Selvein. Being a minor, 11 years 
of age at the time of his father's death, he became a Eoyal ward, 
when his property in this vill, arising from the profits of 2 
carucates in demesne, a rent of the farm, and 200 sheep, was 
valued at 11 and half-a-mark. Jouleyn de Evermewe received 
the rents of the same for the King, together with 1 pound of 
cumin, 1 pound of pepper, and 2 Bennies ; and Eichard Brito and 
Eobert de Hardress took 111 skeps of corn, worth 9 17s. Od., 
probably the rent in kind, from Willoughby to the Castle of 
Lafford. Part of this vill lay within the soke of Gilbert de 
Gant's manor of Fol^ingham, reckoned as the sixth part of a 
koight's fee, and held circa 1200-10, by Thomas de Silkby. 
Subsequently this was reckoned at half a knight's fee and the 
eighth part of another, held by Eobert de Wilgheby, when also 
a quarter of a knight's fee held of Gilbert de Gant by William 
de Dyve, and let by him to Theobande de Stikeswaulde. " Testa 
de NeviD." 

In 1185 the Templars possessed a small property here, con- 
sisting of 1 oxgang and a toft, the gift of one Alfred, let to 
Eichard, the mason, at a rent of 6s. and 4 hens ; also a toft, the 
gift of Eobert de Wilhebi, let at a rent of 2s. and a present. In 



SILK WILLOUGHBY. 461 

1307 the fee of Gant here fell into the hands of Hugo de Bussey, 
upon the death of the last Gilbert de Gant, who died lord 
paramount thereof, 1 305, and left it to his son, John. 

We next hear of the family of Armyn, Aremyn or Ermyn, in 
connection with Silk Willoughby. They were