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ABACUS (afiaf), denoted primarily a squaiv 
tablet of any description, and was hence 
employed in the following significations : 
(1) A table, or side-board, chiefly used for 
the display of gold and silver cups, and other 
kinds of valuable and ornamental utensils 
The use of abaci was first introduced at Rome 
from Asia Minor after the victories of Cn. 
Manlius Vulso, B.C. 187, and their intro- 
duction was regarded as one of the marks 
of the growing luxury of the age. (2) A 
draught-board or chess-board. (3) A board 
used by mathematicians for drawing dia- 
grams, and by arithmeticians for the pur- 
poses of calculation. ( 4 ) A painted panel, 
coffer, or square compartment in the wall 
or ceiling of a chamber. (5) In archi- 
tecture, the flat square stone which con- 
stituted the highest member of a column, 
being placed immediately under the arehi- 

ABOLLA, a cloak chiefly worn by sol- 
diers, and thus opposed to the toga, the 
garb of peace. [TOGA.] The abolla was 
used by the lower classes at Rome, and con- 
sequently by the philosophers who affected 
severity of manners and life. Hence the ex- 
pression of Juvenal, facintu mtyont abdhe, 

" a crime committed by a very deep phi- 

Abolla. (Bellori, Arc. Triumph, pi. n, 18 ) 



ACAENA (ixotio;, icoti-a, or in later Greek 
ojtcKa, in one place axtuvov), a measuring rod 
of the length of ten Greek feet. It was used 
in measuring land, and thus resembles the 
Roman decempeda. 

ACATIUM (aJcaTiov, a diminutive of oucarw), 
a small vessel or boat used by the Greeks, 
which appears to have been the same as the 
Roman scapha. The Acatia were also sails 
adapted for fast sailing. 

ACCENSUS. (1) A public officer, who 
attended on several of the Roman magis- 
rates. The Accensi summoned the people to 
the . assemblies, and those who had lawsuits 




to court ; they preserved order in the courts, 
and proclaimed the time of the day when it 
was the third hour, the sixth hour, and the 
ninth hour. An accensus anciently preceded 
the consul who had not the fasces, -which 
custom, after being long disused, was re- 
stored by Julius Csesar in his first consulship. 
Accensi also attended on the governors of 
provinces. (8 ) The accensi were also a class 
of soldiers in the Roman army, who were 
enlisted after the full number of the legion 
had been completed, in order to supply any 
vacancies that might occur in the legion. 
They were taken, according to the census of 
Servius Tullius, from the fifth class of citizens, 
and were placed in battle in the rear of the 
army, behind the triarii. 

ACCLAMATIO, was the public expression 
of approbation or disapprobation, pleasure or 
displeasure, by loud acclamations. On many 
occasions, there appear to have been certain 
forms of acclamations always used by the Ro- 
mans; as, for instance, at marriages, lo 
Jit/mm, Hymenaee, or Talassio ; at triumphs, 
lo Triitmphe ; at the conclusion of plays, the 
last actor called out Plaudite to the specta- 
tors ; orators were usually praised by such ex- 
pressions as Bene et praeelare, Belle et festive, 
Non potest melius, &c. Under the empire the 
name of acclamationes was given to the praises 
and flatteries bestowed by the senate upon the 
reigning emperor and his family. 

ACCUBATIO, the act of reclining at meals. 
The Greeks and Romans were accustomed, in 
later times, to recline at their meals ; but 
this practice could not have been of great an- 
tiquity in Greece, since Homer always de- 
scribes persons as sitting at their meals ; and 
Isidore of Seville, an ancient grammarian, 
also attributes the same custom to the an- 
cient Romans. Even in the time of the early 
Roman emperors, children in families of the 
highest rank used to sit together, while their 
fathers and elders reclined on couches at the 

upper part of the room. Roman ladies con- 
tinued the practice of sitting at table, even 
after the recumbent position had become 
common with the other sex. It appears to 
have been considered more decent, and more 
agreeable to the severity and purity of ancient 
manners, for women to Kit, more especially if 
many persons were present. But, on the 
other hand, we find cases of women reclining, 
where there was conceived to be nothing bold 
or indelicate in their posture. Such is the 
case in the preceding woodcut, which seems 
intended to represent a scene of matrimonial 
felicity. For an account of the disposition of 
the couches, and of the place which each 
guest occupied in a Greek and Roman enter- 
tainment, see SYMPOSIUM and TRICLINIUM. 
ACERRA (9vp.ia.Tripi.ot', Ai/3afu>Tpi's), the in- 
cense-box or censer used in sacrifices. The 
acerra was also a small moveable altar placed 
before the dead, on which perfumes were 
burnt. The use of acerrae at funerals was 
forbidden by a law of the Twelve Tables as 
an unnecessary expense. 

Acerra. (From a Frieze in the Museum Capitolinum.) 

ACETABULUM (of is, 6fu/So0oi>, o?u/3a<f>iov). 
(1) A vinegar-cup, wide and open above, as 
we see in the annexed cut. The name was 

A ccubntio Act of Reclining. (Montfaucon, Ant. EXJI., 
Suppl., in. 80.) 

Acetabulum. (Dennis, Etruria, p. xcvi.) 

also given to all cups resembling it in size and 
form, to whatever use they might be applied. 
(2) A Roman measure of capacity, fluid 
and dry. It was one-fourth of the hemian, 
and therefore one-eighth of the sextarius. 



ACHAICUM FOEDUS. The Achaean league 
is divided into two periods. 1. The earlier 
period. When the Heracleidae took posses- 
sion of Peloponnesus, which had until thon 
been chiefly inhabited by Achaeans, a portion 
of the latter, under Tisamenus, turned north- 
wards and occupied the north coast of Pelo- 
ponnesus. The country thus occupied de- 
rived from them its name of Achaia, and 
contained twelve confederate towns, which 
were governed by the descendants of Tisa- 
menus, till at length they abolished the 
kingly rule after the death of Ogyges, and 
established a democracy. In the time of He- 
rodotus the twelve towns of which the league 
consisted were : Pellene, Aegeira, Aegae, 
Bura, Helice, Aegium, Rhypes (Rhypae), Pa- 
treis (ae), Phareis (ae), Olenus, Dyme, and 
Tritaeeis (Tritaea) . After the time of Hero- 
dotus, Rhypes and Aegae disappeared from 
the number, and Ceryneia and Leontium 
stepped into their place. The bond which 
united the towns of the league was not so 
much a political as a religious one, as is 
shown by the common sacrifice offered at 
Helice to Poseidon, and after the destruction 
of that town, at Aegium to Zeus, surnamed 
Homagyrius, and to Demeter Panachaea. 
The confederation exercised no great influ- 
ence in the affairs of Greece down to the time 
when it was broken up by the Macedonians. 
2. The later period. When Antigonus in 
B.C. 281 made the unsuccessful attempt to 
deprive Ptolemaeus Ceraunus of the Mace- 
donian throne, the Achaeans availed them- 
selves of the opportunity of shaking off the 
Macedonian yoke, and renewing their ancient 
confederation. The grand object however 
now was no longer a common worship, but a 
real political union among the confederates. 
The fundamental laws were, that henceforth 
the confederacy should form one inseparable 
state, that each town, which should join it, 
should have equal rights with the others, and 
that all members, in regard to foreign coun- 
tries, should be considered as dependent, and 
bound to obey in every respect the federal 
government, and those officers who were en- 
trusted with the executive. Aegium was the 
seat of the government, and it was there that 
the citizens of the various towns met at re- 
gular and stated times, to deliberate upon the 
common affairs of the league, and if it was 
thought necessary, upon those of separate 
towns, and even of individuals, and to 
elect the officers of the league. The league 
acquired its great strength in B.C. 251, when 
Aratus united Sicyon, his native place, with 
it, and some years later gained Corinth also 
for it. Megara, Troezene, and Epidaurus 
oon followed their example. Afterwards 

Aratus persuaded all the more important 
towns of Peloponnesus tp join the confede- 
racy, and thus Megalopolis, Argos, Hermione, 
Phlius, and others were added to it. In a 
short period the league reached the height of 
its power, for it embraced Athens, Megara, 
Aegina, Salamis, and the whole of Pelopon- 
nesus, with the exception of Sparta, Elis, 
Tegea, Orchomenos, and Mantineia. The 
common affairs of the confederate towns were 
regulated at general meetings attended by the 
citizens of all the towns, and held regularly 
twice every year, in the spring and in the 
autumn. These meetings, which lasted three 
days, were held in a grove of Zeus Homagyrius 
in the neighbourhood of Aegium, and near 
a sanctuary of Demeter Panachaea. Every 
citizen, both rich and poor, who had attained 
the age of thirty, might attend the assemblies, 
to which they were invited by a public herald, 
and might speak and propose any measure. 
The subjects which were to be brought before 
the assembly were prepared by a council 
(jSotArj), which seems to have been permanent. 
The principal officers of the confederacy were : 

1. At first two strategi (a-Tpanjyoi), but 
after the year B.C. 255 there was only one, 
who in conjunction with an hipparchus (iV- 
vrapxos) or commander of the cavalry and an 
under-strategus (uTroorpanj-yos) commanded 
the army furnished by the confederacy, and 
was entrusted with the whole conduct of war ; 

2. A public secretary (ypa(u.ju.aTev's) ; and, 3. 
Ten demiurgi (Sijiouovpyot). All the officers of 
the league were elected in the assembly held 
in the spring, at the rising of the Pleiades, 
and legally they were invested with their 
several offices only for one year, though it 
frequently happened that men of great merit 
and distinction were re-elected for several 
successive years. If one of the officers died 
during the period of his office, his place was 
filled by his predecessor, until the time for 
the new elections arrived. The perpetual 
discord of the members of the league, this 
hostility of Sparta, the intrigues of the Ro- 
mans, and the folly and rashness of the later 
strategi, brought about not onlv the destruc- 
tion and dissolution of the confederacy, but 
of the freedom of all Greece, which after the 
fall of Corinth, in B.C. 146, became a Roman 
province under the name of Achaia. 


ACINACES (<x<avaio)s), a Persian sword, 
whence Horace speaks of the Medus acinaces. 
The acinaces was a short and straight wea- 
pon, and thus differed from the Roman sica, 
which was curved. It was worn on the right 
side of the body, whereas the Greeks and Ro- 
mans usually had their swords suspended on 
the left side. The form of the acinaces, with 
B 2 



the mode of wearing it, is illustrated by the 
following Persepolitan figures. 

AcinaccB, Pereian Sword. (From ba-relii:fc at Pereepolis.) 


ACLIS, a kind of dart with a leathern 
thong attached to it. [AMENTUM.] 

ACROAMA (o<cp<&a/MO, which properly 
means any thing heard, was the name given 
to a concert of players on different musical 
instruments, and also to an interlude per- 
formed during the exhibition of the public 
games. The word is also applied to the 
actors and musicians who were employed to 
amuse guests during an entertainment, and 
is sometimes used to designate the anagnostae. 

ACROIJTHI (a<cpoAi0oO, statues, of which 
the extremities only were of marble, and the 
remaining part of the body of wood either 
gilt or covered with drapery. 

ACROPOLIS (a<cpd7roAi). In almost all 
Greek states, which were usually built upon 
a hill, rock, or some natural elevation, there 
was a castle or a citadel, erected upon the 
highest part of the rock or hill, to which the 
name of Acropolis, higher or upper city, was 
given. Thus we read of an acropolis at 
Athens, Corinth, Argos, Messene, and many 
other places. The Capitolium at Rome an- 
swered the same purpose as the Acropolis in 
the Greek cities ; and of the same kind were 
the tower of Agathocles at Utica, and that of 
Antonia at Jerusalem. 


ACKOTERIUM (afcpwnjpioi'), signifies the 
extremity of any thing, and was applied by 
the Greeks to the extremities of the prow of 
a vessel (ajcpoaro^ov), which were usually 

taken from a conquered vessel as a mark oi 
victory : the act of doing so was called cucpa*- 
Ti)piaetv. In architecture it signifies, 1. 
The sloping roof of a building. 2. The pedi- 
ment. 3. The pedestals for statues placed 
on the summit of a pediment. In sculpture 
it signifies the extremities of a statue, as 
wings, feet, hands, &c. 

ACTA. (1) The public acts and orders of 
a Roman magistrate, which after the expira- 
tion of his office were submitted to the senate 
for approval or rejection. Under the empire, 
all the magistrates when entering upon their 
office on the 1st of January swore approval 
of the acts of the reigning emperor. (2) 
ACTA FORENSIA were of two kinds : first, 
those relating to the government, as leges, 
plebiscita, edicta, the names of all the magis- 
trates, &c., which formed part of the tabulae 
publicae; and secondly, those connected with 
the courts of law. (3) ACTA MILJTARIA, 
contained an account of the duties, numbers, 
and expenses of each legion, and were pro- 
bably preserved in the military treasury 
founded by Augustus. (4) ACTA SENATUS, 
PATRXTM, contained an account of the various 
matters brought before the senate, the opi- 
nions of the chief speakers, and the decision 
of the house. By command of Julius Caesar 
they were published regularly every day as 
part of the government gazette. Augustus 
forbade the publication of the proceedings of 
the senate, but they still continued to be pre- 
served, and one of the most distinguished 
senators was chosen by the emperor to com- 
pile the account. (5) ACTA DIURNA, a ga- 
zette published daily at Rome by the autho- 
rity of the government, during the later times 
of the republic and under the empire, cor- 
responding in some measure to our news- 
papers. They were also called Ada Publica, 
Aeta Vrbana, Acta Rerum Urlianarum, Acta 
Populi, and sometimes simply Acta or Diurna. 
They contained, 1. A list of births and 
deaths in the city, an account of the money 
paid into the treasury from the provinces, 
and every thing relating to the supply of 
corn. 2. Extracts from the Acta Forensia. 
3. Extracts from the Acta Senatus. 4. A 
court circular, containing an account of 
the births, deaths, festivals, and movements 
of the imperial family. 5. An account of 
such public affairs and foreign wars as the 
government thought proper to publish. 6. 
Curious and interesting occurrences, such as 
prodigies and miracles, the erection of new 
edifices, the conflagration of buildings, fune- 
rals, sacrifices, a list of the various games, 
and especially curious tales and adventures, 
with the names of the parties. 



ACTIA (OXTIO), a festival celebrated every 
four years at Actium in Epirus, with wrest- 
ling, horse-racing, and sea-fights, in honour 
of Apollo. There was a celebrated temple of 
Apollo at Actium. After the defeat of An- 
tony off Actium, Augustus enlarged the 
temple, and instituted games to be celebrated 
every five years in commemoration of his 

ACTIO, is defined by a Roman jurist to be 
the right of pursuing by judicial means what 
is a man's due. The old actions of the Ro- 
man law were called legis actiones or legi- 
timae, either because they were expressly 
provided for by the laws of the Twelve Ta- 
bles, or because they were strictly adapted to 
the words of the laws, and therefore could 
not be varied. But these forms of action 
gradually fell into disuse, in consequence of 
the excessive nicety required, and the failure 
consequent on the slightest error in the plead- 
ings, and they were eventually abolished by 
the Lex Aebutia, and two Leges Juliae, ex- 
cept in a few cases. In the old Roman con- 
stitution, the knowledge of the law was most 
closely connected with the institutes and 
ceremonial of religion, and was accordingly 
in the hands of the patricians alone, whose 
aid their clients were obliged to ask in all 
their legal disputes. App. Claudius Caecus, 
perhaps one of the earliest writers on law, 
drew up the various forms of actions, pro- 
bably for his own use and that of his friends : 
the manuscript was stolen or copied by his 
scribe Cn. Flavius, who made it public ; and 
thus, according to the story, the plebeians 
became acquainted with those legal forms 
which hitherto had been the exclusive pro- 
perty of the patricians. After the abolition 
of the old legal actions, a suit was prosecuted ' 
in the following manner : An action was 
commenced by the plaintiff summoning the 
defendant to appear before the praetor or 
other magistrate who had jurisdictio; this 
process was called in jus vocatio; and, ac- 
cording to the laws of the Twelve Tables, was 
in effect a dragging of the defendant before 
the praetor, if he refused to go quietly ; and 
although this rude proceeding was somewhat 
modified in later times, we find in the time 
of Horace that if the defendant would not go 
quietly, the plaintiff called on any bystander 
to witness, and dragged the defendant into 
court. The parties might settle their dispute 
on their way to the court, or the defendant 
might be bailed by "a vindex. The vindex 
must not be confounded with the vades. This 
settlement of disputes on the way was called 
transactio in ria, and serves to explain a 
passage in St. Matthew, v. 25. When before 
the praetor, the parties were said jure agere. 

The plaintiff then prayed for an action, and 
if the praetor allowed it {dabat actionem), he 
then declared what action he intended to 
bring against the defendant, which he called 
edere actionem. This might be done in writ- 
ing, or orally, or by the plaintiff taking the 
defendant to the album [ALBUM], and show- 
ing him which action he intended to rely on. 
As the formulae on the album comprehended, 
or were supposed to comprehend, every pos- 
sible form of action that could be required by 
a plaintiff, it was presumed that he could 
find among all the formulae some one which 
was adapted to his case ; and he was, ac- 
cordingly, supposed to be without excuse if 
he did not take pains to select the proper 
formula. If he took the wrong one, or if 
he claimed more than his due, he lost his 
cause (causa cadebat) ; but the praetor some- 
times gave him leave to amend his claim or 
intentio. It will be observed, that as the 
formulae were so numerous and comprehen- 
sive, the plaintiff had only to select the for- 
mula which he supposed to be suitable to 
his case, and it would require no further 
variation than the insertion of the names of 
the parties and of the thing claimed, or the 
subject-matter of the suit, with the amount 
of damages, &c., as the case might be. When 
the praetor had granted an action, the plain- 
tiff required the defendant to give security 
for his appearance before the praetor (in 
jure) on a day named, commonly the day but 
one after the in jus vocatio, unless the matter 
in dispute was settled at once. The defen- 
dant, on finding a surety, was said -cades dare, 
vadimonium promittere, or facere; the surety, 
cas, was said spondere; the plaintiff, when 
satisfied with the surety, was said vadari 
reum, to let him go on his sureties, or to 
have sureties from him. When the defen- 
dant promised to appear in jure on the day 
named, without giving any surety, this was 
called vadimonium purum. In some cases, 
recuperatores [JUDEX] were named, who, in 
case of the defendant making default, con- 
demned him in the sum of money named in 
the vadimonium. If the defendant appeared 
on the day appointed, he was said tadimo- 
nium sistere; if he did not appear, he was 
said radimontum dtservisse; and the praetor 
gave to tlio plaintiff the bonorum possessio. 
Both parties, on the day appointed, were 
summoned by a crier (praeco), when the 
plaintiff made his claim or demand, which 
was very briefly expressed, and may be con- 
sidered as corresponding to our declaration 
at law. The defendant might either deny 
the plaintiff's claim, or he might reply to it 
by a plea, exceptio. If he simply denied the 
plaintiff's claim, the cause was at issue, and 



a judex might be demanded. The forms of 
the exceptio, also, were contained in the prae- 
tor's edict, or, upon hearing the facts, the 
praetor adapted the plea to the case. The 
plaintiff might reply to the defendant's ex- 
ceptio. The plaintiff's answer was called 
replicatio. If the defendant answered the 
replicatio, his answer was called duplicatio; 
and the parties might go on to the triplicatio 
and quadruplicate, and even further, if the 
matters in question were such that they 
could not otherwise be brought to an issue. 
A person might maintain or defend an action 
by his cognitor or procurator, or, as we should 
say, by his attorney. The plaintiff and de- 
fendant used a certain form of words in ap- 
pointing a cognitor, and it would appear that 
the appointment was made in the presence of 
both parties. The cognitor needed not to be 
present, and his appointment was complete 
when by his acts he had signified his assent. 
When the cause was brought to an issue, a 
judex or judices might be demanded of the 
praetor, who named or appointed a judex, 
and delivered to him the formula, which con- 
tained his instructions. The judices were 
said dari or addici. So far the proceedings 
were said to be in jure: the prosecution of 
the actio before the judex requires a separate 
discussion. [JUDEX.] 

ACTOR, signified generally a plaintiff. In 
a civil or private action, the plaintiff was 
often called petitor ; in a public action (catwa 
publica}, he was called accusator. The de- 
fendant was called reus, both in private and 
public causes : this term, however, according 
to Cicero, might signify either party, as in- 
deed we might conclude from the word itself. 
In a private action the defendant was often 
called adversarius, but either party might be 
called adversarius with respect to the other. 
Wards brought their actions by their guar- 
dian or tutor. Peregrini, or aliens, originally 
brought their action through their patronus ; 
but afterwards in their own name, by a fic- 
tion of law, that they were Roman citizens. 
A Roman citizen might also generally bring 
his action by means of a cognitor or procu- 
rator. [Acrio.] Actor has also the sense of 
an agent or manager of another's business 
generally. The actor publicus was an officer 
who had the superintendence or care of 
slaves and property belonging to the state. 

ACTUARIAE NAVES, transport-vessels, 
seem to have been built in a lighter style 
than the ordinary ships of burden, from which 
they also differed in being always furnished 
with oars, whereas the others were chiefly 
propelled by sails. 

ACTUARII, short-hand writers, who took 
down the speeches in the senate and the pub- 

lic assemblies. In the debate in the Roman 
senate upon the punishment of those who had 
been concerned in the conspiracy of Catiline, 
we find the first mention of short-hand 
writers, who were employed by Cicero to 
take down the speech of Cato. 

ACTUS, a Roman measure of length, also 
called actus quadratics, was equal to half a 
jugerum, or 14,400 square Roman feet. The 
actus minimus, or simplex, was 120 feet long, 
and four broad, and therefore equal to 480 
square Roman feet. Actus was also used to 
signify a bridle-way. 

ACUS ((SeXon), jSeAovi's, poll's), a needle, a 
pin. Pins were made not only of metal, but 
also of wood, bone, and ivory. They were 
used for the same purposes as with us, and 
also in dressing the hair. The mode of plat- 
ting the hair, and then fastening it with a 
pin or needle, is shown in the annexed figure 
of a female head. This fashion has been 
continued to our own times by the females of 

Acu.. (Montfaucon, Ant. Exp., Suppl., iii. 8.) 



ADLECTI, or ALLECTI, those persons 
under the empire who were admitted to the 
privileges and honours of the praetorship, 
quaestorship, aedileship, and other public 
offices, without having any duties to perform. 
The senators called adlecti seem to have been 
the same as the conscripti. 


ADMISSIONALES, chamberlains at the im- 
perial court, who introduced persons into the 
presence of the emperor. They were divided 
into four classes ; the chief officer of each 
class was called proximus admissionwm ; and 
the proximi were under the magister admis- 
sionum. Their duty was called officium ad- 
missionis. They were usually freedmen. 

ADOLESCENS, was applied in the Roman 
law to a person from the end of his twelfth 
or fourteenth to the end of his twenty-fifth 
year, during which period a person was also 
called adultus. The word adolescens, how- 
ever, is frequently used in a less strict sense 



in the Latin writers in referring to a person 
much older than the above-mentioned age. 

ADONIA (a&<av<.d), a festival celebrated in 
honour of Aphrodite and Adonis in most of 
the Grecian cities. It lasted two days, and 
was celebrated by women exclusively. On 
the first day they brought into the streets 
statues of Adonis, which were laid out as 
corpses ; and they observed all the rites cus- 
tomary at funerals, beating themselves and 
uttering lamentations. The second day was 
spent in merriment and feasting ; because 
Adonis was allowed to return to life, and 
spend half the year with Aphrodite. 

ADOPTIO, adoption. (1) GREKK. Adop- 
tion was called by the Athenians eioTrot'rjats, 
or sometimes simply n-oojo-is, or Se'cris. The 
adoptive father was said Troieia-Oai, e'unroiel- 
crftu, or sometimes TTOICII/ : and the father or 
mother (for a mother after the death of her 
husband could consent to her son being 
adopted) was said eKiroieti' : the son was said 
fKiroifio-ffat. with reference to the family which 
he left ; and eioTroieicrOai with reference to 
the family into which he was received. The 
son, when adopted, was called ironjros, eicnrot- 
rros, or Ceres, in opposition to the legitimate 
son born of the body of the father, who was 
called yiTJcrios. A man might adopt a son 
either in his lifetime or by his testament, 
provided he had no male offspring, and was 
of sound mind. He might also, by testa- 
ment, name a person to take his property, in 
case his son or sons should die under age. 
Only Athenian citizens could be adopted ; 
but females could be adopted (by testament 
at least) as well as males. The adopted child 
was transferred from his own family and 
demus into those of the adoptive father ; he 
inherited his property, and maintained the 
sacra of his adoptive father. It was not ne- 
cessary for him to take his new father's name, 
but he was registered as his son in the regis- 
ter of his phratria (<paTpticbc ypanna.Teioi'). 
Subsequently to this, it was necessary to enter 
him in the register of the adoptive father's 
demus (A^fiapxucbi/ yp<nma.relov), without 
which registration it appears that he did not 
possess the full rights of citizenship as a 

member of his new demus. (2) ROMAN 

The Roman relation of parent and child arose 
either from a lawful marriage or from adop- 
tion. Adoptio was the general name which 
comprehended the two species, adoptio and 
adrogatio; and as the adopted person passed 
from his own familia into that of the person 
adopting, adoptio caused a capitis diminutio, 
and the lowest of the three kinds. [CAPUT.] 
Adoption, in its' specific sense, was the cere- 
mony by which a person who was in the 
power of his parent (in potestate parentum), 

whether child or grandchild, male or female, 
was transferred to the power of the person 
adopting him. It was effected under the 
authority of a magistrate (magistratus), the 
praetor, for instance, at Rome, or a governor 
(praeses) in the provinces. The person to 
be adopted was emancipated [MANCIPATIO] 
by his natural father before the competent 
authority, and surrendered to the adoptive 
father by the legal form called in jure cessio. 
When a person was not in the power of his 
parent (sui juris), the ceremony of adoption 
was called adrogatio. Originally, it could 
only be effected at Rome, and only by a vote 
of the populus (populi auctoritate) in the 
comitia curiata (lege curiata) ; the reason of 
this being that the caput or status of a Ro- 
man citizen could not, according to the laws 
of the Twelve Tables, be effected except by a 
vote of the populus in the comitia curiata. 
Clodius, the enemy of Cicero, was adrogated 
into a plebeian family, in order to qualify 
himself to be elected a tribune of the plebs. 
Females could not be adopted by adrogatio. 
Under the emperors it became the practice to 
effect the adrogatio by an imperial rescript. 
The effect of adoption was to create the legal 
relation of father and son, just as if the 
adopted son were born of the blood of the 
adoptive father in lawful marriage. The 
adopted child was intitled to the name and 
sacra privata of the adopting parent. A per- 
son, on passing from one gens into another, 
and taking the name of his new familia, gene- 
rally retained the name of his old gens also, 
with the addition to it of the termination 
anus. Thus Aemilius, the son of L. Aemilius 
Paullus, upon being adopted by P. Cornelius 
Scipio, assumed the name of P. Cornelius 
Scipio Aemilianus, and C. Octavius, after- 
wards the emperor Augustus, upon being 
adopted by the testament of his great-uncle 
the dictator, assumed the name of C. Julius 
Caesar Octavianus. 

ADORATIO (n-poo-KvvTjcris), adoration, was 
paid to the gods in the following manner : 
The individual stretched out his right hand 
to the statue of the god whom he wished to 
honour, then kissed his hand, and waved it 
to the statue. The adoratio differed from the 
oratio or prayers, which were offered with 
the hands folded together and stretched out to 
the gods. The adoration paid to the Romar 
emperors was borrowed from the Eastern mode, 
and consisted in prostration on the ground, 
and kissing the feet and knees of the emperor. 
ADULTERIUM, adultery. (1) GREEK. 
Among the Athenians, if a man caught ano- 
ther man in the act of criminal intercourse 
ia with his wife, he might kill him 



with impunity; and the law was also the 
same with respect to a concubine (TraAAoKij). 
He might also inflict other punishment on 
the offender. It appears that there was no 
adultery, unless a married woman was con- 
cerned. The husband might, if he pleased, 
take a sum of money from the adulterer, by 
way of compensation, and detain him till he 
found sureties for the payment. The husband 
might also prosecute the adulterer in the ac- 
tion called noi\etas ypoujni- If the act of adul- 
tery was proved, the husband could no longer 
cohabit with his wife, under pain of losing 
his privileges of a citizen (ariftia). The adul- 
teress was excluded even from those temples 
which foreign women and slaves were allowed 
to enter ; and if she was seen there, any one 
might treat her as he pleased, provided he did 
not kill her or mutilate her. (2) ROMAN. 
The word adulterium properly signifies, in 
the Roman law, the offence committed by a 
man's having sexual intercourse with another 
man's wife. Stuprum (called by the Greeks 
<(>eopa) signifies the like offence with a widow 
or virgin. In the time of Augustus a law was 
enacted (probably about B. c. 17), entitled 
Lex Julia de adulteriis coercendis, which 
seems to have contained special penal provi- 
sions against adultery ; and it is also not im- 
probable that, by the old law or custom, if 
the adulterer was caught in the fact, he was 
at the mercy of the injured husband, and that 
the husband might punish with death his 
adulterous wife. By the Julian law, a woman 
convicted of adultery was mulcted in half of 
her dowry (dos) and the third part of her 
property (bona), and banished (relegata) to 
some miserable island, such as Seriphos, for 
instance. The adulterer was mulcted in half 
his properly, and banished in like manner. 
This law did not inflict the punishment of 
death on either party ; and in those instances 
under the emperors in which death was in- 
flicted, it must be considered as an extraordi- 
nary punishment, and beyond the provisions 
of the Julian law. The Julian law permittee 
the father (both adoptive and natural) to kill 
the adulterer and adulteress in certain cases, 
as to which there were several nice distinctions 
established by the law. If the wife was di- 
vorced for adultery, the husband was entitled 
to retain part of the dowry. By a constitu- 
tion of the Emperor Constantine, the offence 
in the adulterer was made capital. 

ADVERSARIA, a note-book, memorandum- 
be ok, posting-book, in which the Romans en- 
tered memoranda of any importance, especi- 
ally of money received and expended, which 
were afterwards transcribed, usually every 
month, into a kind of ledger. ( Tabulae jiistae, 
oodex accepti et expensi.) 

ADUNATI (aSvi/aroi), were persons sup- 
ported by the Athenian state, who, on account 
of infirmity or bodily defects, were unable to 
obtain a livelihood. The sum which they 
received from the state appears to have varied 
at different times. In the time of Lysias and 
Aristotle, one obelus a day was given ; but it 
appears to have been afterwards increased 
to two oboli. The bounty was restricted to 
persons whose property was under three 
minae ; and the examination of those who 
were entitled to it belonged to the senate of 
the Five Hundred. Peisistratus is said to 
have been the first to introduce a law for the 
maintenance of those persons who had been 
mutilated in war. 

ADVOCATUS, seems originally to have 
signified any person who gave another his 
aid in any affair or business, as a witness for 
instance ; or for the purpose of aiding and 
protecting him in taking possession of a piece 
of property. It was also used to express a 
person who in any way gave his advice and 
aid to another in the management of a cause ; 
but, in the time of Cicero, the word did not 
signify the orator or patronus who made the 
speech. Under the emperors it signified a 
person who in any way assisted in the con- 
duct of a cause, and was sometimes equiva- 
lent to orator. The advocate's fee was then 
called Honorarium. 

AEDILES (dvopai/o(u.oi). The name of 
these functionaries is said to be derived from 
their having the care of the temple (aedes) of 
Ceres. The aediles were originally two in 
number : they were elected from the plebs, 
and the institution of the office dates from 
the same time as that of the tribunes of the 
plebs, B. c. 494. Their duties at first seem 
to have been merely ministerial ; they were 
the assistants of the tribunes in such matters 
as the tribunes entrusted to them, among 
which are enumerated the hearing of causes 
of smaller importance. At an early period 
after their institution (B. c. 446), we find 
them appointed the keepers of the srnatus- 
consulta, which the consuls had hitherto 
arbitrarily suppressed or altered. They were 
also the keepers of the plebiscita. Other 
functions were gradually entrusted to them, 
and it is not always easy to distinguish their 
duties from some of those which belong to 
che censors. They had the general superin- 
tendence of buildings, both sacred and pri- 
vate; under this power they provided for 
the support and repair of temples, curiae, 
&c., and took care that private buildings 
which were in a ruinous state were repaired 




by the owners or pulled down. The care of 
the supply and distribution of water, of the 
streets and pavements, with the cleansing 
and draining of the city, belonged to the 
aediles ; and, of course, the care of the clo- 
acae. They had the office of distributing 
corn among the plebs, but this distribution 
of corn at Rome must not be confounded with 
the duty of purchasing or procuring it from 
foreign parts, which was performed by the 
consuls, quaestors, and praetors, and some- 
times by an extraordinary magistrate, as the 
praefectus annonae. The aediles had to see 
that the public lands were not improperly 
used, and that the pasture grounds of the 
state were not trespassed on ; and they had 
power to punish by fine any unlawful act in 
this respect. They had a general superin- 
tendence over buying and selling, and, as a 
consequence, the supervision of the markets, 
of things exposed to sale, such as slaves, and 
of weights and measures ; from this part of 
their duty is derived the name under which 
the aediles are mentioned by the Greek wri- 
ters (ayopavd/u.oi). It was their business to 
see that no new deities or religious rites were 
introduced into the city, to look after the 
observance of religious ceremonies, and the 
celebrations of the ancient feasts and festivals. 
The general superintendence of police com- 
prehended the duty of preserving order, 
regard to decency, and the inspection of the 
baths and houses of entertainment. The 
aediles had various officers under them, as 
praecones, scribae, and viatores. The AEDILES 
CUKULES, who were also two in number, were 
originally chosen only from the patricians, 
afterwards alternately from the patricians and 
the plebs, and at last indifferently from both. 
The office of curule aediles was instituted 
B. c. 365, and, according to Livy, on the, 
occasion of the plebeian aediles refusing to 
consent to celebrate the Ludi Maximi for the 
space of four days instead of three ; upon 
which a senatus-consultum was passed, by 
which two aediles were to be chosen from the 
patricians. From this time four aediles, two 
plebeian and two curule, were annually elected. 
The distinctive honours of the curule aediles 
were, the sella curulis, from whence their 
title is derived, the toga praetexta, precedence 
in speaking in the senate, and the jus ima- 
ginum. Only the curule aediles had the jus 
edicendi, or the right of promulgating edicta ; 
but the rules comprised in their edicta served 
for the guidance of all the aediles. The 
edicta of the curule aediles were founded on 
their authority as superintendents of the mar- 
kets, and of buying and selling in general. 
Accordingly, their edicts had mainly, or per- 
haps solely, reference to the rules as to buy- 

ing and selling, and contracts for bargain and 
sale. The persons both of the plebeian and 
curule aediles were sacrosancti. It seems 
that after the appointment of the curule 
aediles, the functions formerly exercised by 
the plebeian aediles were exercised, with some 
few exceptions, by all the aediles indifferently. 
Within five days after being elected, or en- 
tering on office, they were required to deter- 
mine by lot, or by agreement among them- 
selves, what parts of the city each should 
take under his superintendence ; and each 
aedile alone had the care of looking after the 
paving and cleansing of the streets, and other 
matters, it may be presumed, of the same 
local character within his district. The other 
duties of the office seem to have been exercised 
by them jointly. In the superintendence of 
the public festivals or solemnities, there was 
a further distinction between the two sets of 
aediles. Many of these festivals, such as 
those of Flora and Ceres, were superintended 
by either set of aediles indifferently ; but the 
plebeian games were under the superintend- 
ence of the plebeian aediles, who had an allow- 
ance of money for that purpose ; and the fines 
levied on the pecuarii, and others, seem to 
have been appropriated to these among other 
public purposes. The celebration of the 
Ludi Magni or Romani, of the Ludi Scenici, 
or dramatic representations, and the Ludi 
Megalesii, belonged specially to the curule 
aediles, and it was on such occasions that 
they often incurred a prodigious expense, 
with a view of pleasing the people, and 
securing their votes in future elections. This 
extravagant expenditure of the aediles arose 
after the close of the second Punic war, and 
increased with the opportunities which indi- 
viduals had of enriching themselves after the 
Roman arms were carried into Greece, Africa, 
and Spain. Even the prodigality of the em- 
perors hardly surpassed that of individual 
curule aediles under the republic ; such as C. 
Julius Caesar, the dictator, P. Cornelius Len- 
tulus Spinther, and, above all, M. Aemilius 
Scaurus, whose expenditure was not limited 
to bare show, but comprehended objects of 
public utility, as the reparation of walls, 
dock-yards, ports, and aquaeducts. In B. c. 
45, Julius Caesar caused two curule aediles 
and four plebeian aediles to he elected ; and 
thenceforward, at least so long as the office of 
aedile was of any importance, six aediles were 
annually elected. The two new plebeian 
aediles were called Cereales, and their duty 
was to look after the supply of corn. Though 
their office may not have been of any great 
importance after the institution of a praefectus 
annonae by Augustus, there is no doubt that 
it existed for several centuries, and at least as 




late as the time of the emperor Gordian. The 
aediles belonged to the class of the minores 
tnagistratus. The plebeian aediles were origi- 
nally chosen at the comitia centuriata, bu 
afterwards at the comitia tributa, in which 
comitia the curule aediles also were chosen 
It appears that until the lex annalis was 
passed (B. c. 180) a Roman citizen might be 
a candidate for any office after completing his 
twenty-seventh year. This law fixed the age 
at which each office might be enjoyed, and it 
seems that the age fixed for the aedileship 
was thirty-six. The aediles existed under 
the emperors ; but their powers were gradu- 
ally diminished, and their functions exercised 
by new officers created by the emperors. 
After the battle of Actium, Augustus appointed 
a Praefectus urbi, who exercised the genera] 
police, which had formerly been one of the 
duties of the aediles. Augustus also took 
from the aediles, or exercised himself, the 
office of superintending the religious rites, 
and the banishing from the city of all foreign 
ceremonials ; he also assumed the superin- 
tendence of the temples, and thus may be 
said to have destroyed tho aedileship by de- 
priving it of its old and original function. 
The last recorded instance of the splendours 
of the aedileship is the administration of 
Agrippa, who volunteered to take the office, 
and repaired all the public buildings and all 
the roads at his own expense, without draw- 
ing anything from the treasury. The aedile- 
ship had, however, lost its true character 
before this time. Agrippa had already been 
consul before he accepted the office of aedile, 
and his munificent expenditure in this nomi- 
nal office was the close of the splendour of 
the aedileship. Augustus appointed the 
curule aediles specially to the office of putting 
out fires, and placed a body of 600 slaves at 
their command ; but the praefecti vigilum 
afterwards performed this duty. They re- 
tained, under the early emperors, a kind of 
police, for the purpose of repressing open 
licentiousness and disorder. The coloniae, 
and the municipia of the later period, had 
also their aediles, whose numbers and func- 
tions varied in different places. They seem, 
however, as to their powers and duties, to 
have resembled the aediles of Rome. They 
were chosen annually. 

by the Greeks vewxopoi, faxopoi, andinrofaicopoi), 
were persons who took care of the temples, 
attended to the cleaning of them, &c. They 
appear to have lived in the temples, or near 
them, and to have acted as ciceroni to those 
persons who wished to see them. Subse- 
quently among the Greeks, the menial ser- 
vices connected with this office were left to 

slaves, and the persons called neocori became 
priestly officers of high rank, who had the 
chief superintendence of temples, their trea- 
sures, and the sacred rites observed in them. 
AEGIS (alyis) signifies, literally, a goat- 
skin. According to ancient mythology, the 
aegis worn by Zeus was the hide of the goat 
Amaltheia, which had suckled him in his 
infancy. Homer always represents it as part 
of the armour of Zeus, whom on this account 
he distinguishes by the epithet aegis-bearing 
(oiyioxos). He, however, asserts, that it was 
borrowed on different occasions both by 
Apollo and Athena. The aegis was connected 
with the shield of Zeus, either serving as a 
covering over it, or as a belt by which it was 
suspended from the right shoulder. Homer 
accordingly uses the word to denote not only 
the goat-skin, which it properly signified, but 
also the shield to which it belonged. The 
aegis was adorned in a style corresponding to 
the might and majesty of the father of the 
gods. In the middle of it was fixed the 
appalling Gorgon's head, and its border was 
surrounded with golden tassels (Sucrapoi), each 
of which was worth a hecatomb. The aegis 
is usually seen on the statues of Athena, in 
which it is a sort of scarf falling obliquely 
over the right shoulder, so as to pass round 
the body under the left arm. The serpents 
of the Gorgon's head are transferred to the 
border of the skin. (See the left-hand figure 




in the cut.) The later poets and artists 
represent the aegis as a breast-plate covered 
with metal in the form of scales. (See the 
right-hand figure.) 

AENEATORES, were those -who blew upon 
wind instruments in the Roman army; namely, 
the buccinatores, cornicines, and tubicines. 
They were also employed in the public games. 
AENIGMA (alviytna.), a riddle. It was an 
ancient custom among the Greeks to amuse 
themselves by proposing riddles at their sym- 
posia, or drinking parties. Those who were 
successful in solving them received a prize, 
which 'usually consisted of wreaths, cakes, 
&c., while those who were unsuccessful were 
condemned to drink in one breath a certain 
quantity of wine, sometimes mixed with salt 
water. Those riddles which have come down 
to us are mostly in hexameter verse. The Ro- 
mans seem to have been too serious to find any 
great amusement in riddles. 

AENUM, or AHENUM (sc. vas), a brazen 
vessel, used for boiling. The word is also 
frequently used in the sense of a dyer's cop- 
per ; and, as purple was the most celebrated 
dye of antiquity, we find the expressions 
Sidoniiim aenum, Tyrium aenum, &c. 

AEORA, or EORA (aiiipa, ecipa), a festival 
at Athens, accompanied with sacrifices and 
banquets, whence it is sometimes called 
euSeiiTvos. It was probably instituted in 
honour of Icarius and his daughter Erigone. 
AERARII, a class of Roman citizens, who 
were not included in the thirty tribes insti- 
tuted by Servius Tullius. Although citizens, 
they did not possess the suffragium, or right 
of voting in the comitia. They were cives 
sine suffragio. They also paid the tribute in 
a different mannei from the other citizens. 
The Aerarians were chiefly artisans and freed- 
men. The Caerites, or inhabitants of the 
Etruscan town of Caere, who obtained the 
franchise in early times, but without the 
suffragium, were probably the first body o! 
aerarians. Any Roman citizen guilty of a 
crime punishable by the censors, might be 
degraded to the rank of an aerarian ; so that 
his civic rights were suspended, at least for 
the time that he was an aerarian. All citi- 
zens so degraded were classed among the 
Caerites; whence we find the expressions 
aerarium facere and in tabulas Caeritum referrt 
used as synonymous. Persons who wer< 
made infames likewise became aerarians, fo 
they lost the jus honorum and the suffragium 
The aerarians had to pay a tributum pr< 
capite which was considerably higher than 
that paid by the other citizens. They wer 
not allowed to serve in the legions. 


AERARIUM (TO Sij/xocnov), the public trea- 
ury at Rome, and hence the public money 
tself. After the banishment of the kings the 
emple of Saturn was employed as the place 
or keeping the public money, and it con- 
inued to be so used till the later times of the 
>mpire. Besides the public money and the 
accounts connected with it, various other 
nings were preserved in the treasury ; of 
hese the most important were: 1. The 
tandards of the legions. 2. The various 
aws passed from time to time, engraven on 
>razen tables. 3. The decrees of the se- 
nate, which were entered there in books kept 
or the purpose, though the original docu- 
ments were preserved in the temple of Ceres 
under the custody of the aediles. 4. Various 
other public documents, the reports and 
despatches of all generals and governors of 
wovinces, the names of all foreign ambassa- 
dors that came to Rome, &c. Under the 
republic the aerarium was divided into two 
parts : the common treasury, in which were 
deposited the regular taxes, and from which 
were taken the sums of money needed for the 
ordinary expenditure of the state; and the 
sacred treasury (aerarium sanctum or sanc- 
tius), which was never touched except in 
cases of extreme peril. Both of these trea- 
suries were in the temple of Saturn, but in 
distinct parts of the temple. The produce of 
a tax of five per cent, (vicesima) upon the 
value of every manumitted slave, called 
aurum vicesimarium, was paid into the sacred 
treasury, as well as a portion of the immense 
wealth obtained by the Romans in their con- 
quests in the East. Under Augustus the 
provinces and the administration of the 
government were divided between the senate, 
as the representative of the old Roman people, 
and the Caesar : all the property of the former 
continued to be called aerarium, and that of 
the latter received the name of flscus. Au- 
gustus also established a third treasury, to 
provide for the pay and support of the army, 
and this received the name of aerarium militare. 
He also imposed several new taxes to be paid 
into this aerarium. In the time of the republic, 
the entire management of the revenues of the 
state belonged to the senate ; and under the 
superintendence and control of the senate the 
quaestors had the charge of the aerarium. In 
B. c. 28, Augustus deprived the quaestors of 
the charge of the treasury and gave it to two 
praefects, whom he allowed the senate to 
choose from among the praetors at the end of 
their year of office. Various other changes 
were made with respect to the charge of the 
aerarium, but it was eventually entrusted, in 
the reign of Trajan, to praefects, who appear 
to have held their office for two years. 




cos), properly signifies a compound 
of copper and tin, corresponding to what we 
call bronze. It is incorrect to translate it 
brass, which is a combination of copper and 
zinc, since all the specimens of ancient objects, 
formed of the material called aes, are found 
upon analysis to contain no zinc. The em- 
ployment of aes was very general among the 
ancients ; money, vases, and utensils of all 
sorts, being made of it. All the most ancient 
coins in Rome and the old Italian states were 
made of aes, and hence money in general was 
called by this name. For the same reason 
we have aes alienum, meaning debt, and aera 
in the plural, pay to the soldiers. The Ro- 
mans had no other coinage except bronze 
or copper (aes), till B. c. 269, five years 
before the first Punic war, when silver was 
first coined ; gold was not coined till sixty- 
two years after silver. The first coinage of 
aes is usually attributed to Servius Tullius, 
who is said to have stamped the money with 
the image of cattle (pecus), whence it is called 
pecunia. According to some accounts, it was 
coined from the commencement of the city, 
and we know that the old Italian states pos- 
sessed a bronze or copper coinage from the 
earliest times. The first coinage was the as 
[As], which originally was a pound weight ; 
but as in course of time the weight of the as 
was reduced not only in Rome, but in the 
other Italian states, and this reduction in 
weight was not uniform in the different 
states, It became usual in all bargains to pay 
the asses according to their weight, and not 
according to their nominal value. The aes 
grave was not the old heavy coins as distin- 
guished from the lighter modern ; but it sig- 
nified any number of copper coins reckoned 
according to the old style, by weight. There 
was, therefore, no occasion for the state to 
suppress the circulation of the old copper 
coins, since in all bargains the asses were not 
reckoned by tale, but by weight. Bronze or 
copper (xoAieos) was very little used by the 
Greeks for money in early times. Silver was 
originally the universal currency, and copper 
appears to have been seldom coined till after 
the time of Alexander the Great. The copper 
coin was called Chalcous (xaAxous). The 
smallest silver coin at Athens was the quarter- 
obol, and the chalcous was the half of that, 
or the eighth of an obol. In later times, the 
obol was coined of copper as well as silver. 

rowed from the Roman bankers fargentariij, 
who had shops in porticoes round the forum. 

and AES MILITARE, were the ancient terms 
for the pay of the Roman soldiers, before the 
regular stipendiwn was introduced. The aes 

equestre was the sum of money given for the 
purchase of the horse of an eques ; the aes 
hordearium, the sum paid yearly for its keep, 
in other words the pay of an eques ; and the 
aes militare, the pay of a foot soldier. None 
of this money seems to have been taken from 
the public treasury, but to have been paid by 
certain private persons, to whom this duty 
was assigned by the state. The aes hordea- 
rium, which amounted to 2000 asses, had 
to be paid by single women (viduae, i. e. 
both maidens and widows) and orphans 
(orbi), provided they possessed a certain 
amount of property. The aes equestre, which 
amounted to 10,000 asses, was probably also 
paid by the same class of persons. The aes 
militare, the amount of which is not ex- 
pressly mentioned, had to be paid by the 
tribuni aerarii, and if not paid, the foot sol- 
diers had a right of distress against them. 
It is generally assumed that these tribuni 
aerarii were magistrates connected with the 
treasury, and that they were the assistants 
of the quaestors ; but there are good reasons 
for believing that the tribuni aerarii were 
private persons, who were liable to the pay- 
ment of the aes militare, and upon whoso 
property a distress might be levied, if the 
money were not paid. They were probably 
persons whose property was rated at a certain 
sum in the census, and we may conjecture 
that they obtained the name of tribuni aerarii 
because they levied the tributum, which was 
imposed for the purpose of paying the army, 
and then paid it to the soldiers. These tri- 
buni aerarii were no longer needed when the 
state took into its own hands the payment of 
the troops ; but they were revived in B.C. 70, 
as a distinct class in the commonwealth, by 
the Lex Aurelia, which gave the judicia to the 
senators, equites and tribuni aerarii. 

AES UXORIUM, was a tax paid by men 
who reached old age without having married. 
It was first imposed by the censors in B. c. 403. 

AESYMNETES (aiovfti^njs), a person who 
was sometimes invested with unlimited power 
in the Greek states. His power partook in 
some degree of the nature both of kingly and 
tyrannical authority ; since he was appointed 
legally, and did not usurp the government, 
but at the same time was not bound by any 
laws in his public administration. The office 
was not hereditary, nor was it held for life ; 
but it only continued for a limited time, or 
till some object was accomplished. Thus we 
read that the inhabitants of Mytilene ap- 
pointed Pittacus aesymnetes, in order to pre- 
vent the return of Alcaeus and the other 
exiles. Dionysius compares it with the dic- 
tatorship of Rome. In some states, such aa 




Cyme and Ohalcedon, it was the title borne 
by the regular magistrates. 


Xcuv), the Aetolian league, appears as a power- 
ful political body soon after the death of 
Alexander the Great, viz. during the Lamian 
war against Antipater. The characteristic 
difference between the Aetolian and Achaean 
leagues was that the former originally con- 
sisted of a confederacy of nations or tribes, 
while the latter was a confederacy of towns. 
The sovereign power of the confederacy was 
vested in the general assemblies of all the 
confederates (KOIVOV r<Sv AmoA<oi>, concilium 
Aetolorum), and this assembly had the right 
to discuss all questions respecting peace and 
war, and to elect the great civil or military 
officers of the league. The ordinary place of 
meeting was Thermon, but on extraordinary 
occasions assemblies were also held in other 
towns belonging to the league, though they 
were not situated in the country of Aetolia 
Proper. The questions which were to be 
brought before the assembly were sometimes 
discussed previously by a committee, selected 
from the great mass, and called Apocleti 
(oiTrdKArjTot). The general assembly usually 
met in the autumn, when the officers of the 
league were elected. The highest among 
them, as among those of the Achaean league, 
bore the title of Strategus (orpaTrryos), whose 
office lasted only for one year. The stra- 
tegus had the right to convoke the assembly ; 
he presided in it, introduced the subjects for 
deliberation, and levied the troops. The 
officers next in rank to the Strategus were 
the hipparchus and the public scribe. The 
political existence of the league was destroyed 
in B.C. 189 by the treaty with Rome, and the 
treachery of the Roman party among the 
Aetolians themselves caused in B.C. 167 five 
hundred and fifty of the leading patriots to 
be put to death, and those who survived the 
massacre were carried to Rome as prisoners. 

AETOMA (aeTwjua). [FASTiaiUM.] 

ADFINITAS. Affines are the cognati [Coo- 
KATI] of husband and wife, the cognati of 
the husband becoming the afftnes of the wife, 
and the cognati of the wife the affines of the 
husband. The father of a husband is the 
socer of the husband's wife, and the father of 
a wife is the socer of the wife's husband. 
The term socrus expresses the same affinity 
with respect to the husband's and wife's 
mothers. A son's wife is minis, or daughter- 
in-law to the son's parents ; a wife's husband 
is gener, or son-in-law to the wife's parents. 
Thus the amis, avia pater, mater of the 
wife became by the marriage respectively the 

socer magnus, prosocrus, or socrus magna 
socer, socrus of the husband, who becomes 
with respect to them severally progener and 
gener. In like manner the corresponding 
ancestors of the husband respectively assume 
the same names with respect to the son's 
wife, who becomes with respect to them pro- 
nurus and minis. The son and daughter of a 
husband or wife born of a prior marriage are 
called privignus and privigna, with respect to 
their step-father or step-mother ; and with 
respect to such children, the step-father and 
step-mother are severally called vitricus and 
noverca. The husband's brother becomes 
levir with respect to the wife, and his sister 
becomes gins (the Greek ^yoAus). Marriage 
was unlawful among persons who had become 
such affines as above mentioned. 

AGALMA (dyoAfia) is a general name for a 
statue or image to represent a god. 

AGASO, a groom, whose business it was to 
take care of the horses. The word is also 
used for a driver of beasts of burden, and is 
sometimes applied to a slave who had to 
perform the lowest menial duties. 

AGATHOERGI (ayofloepyoi). In time of 
war the kings of Sparta had a body-guard of 
three hundred of the noblest of the Spartan 
youths (tmreis), of whom the five eldest re- 
tired every year, and were employed for one 
year under the name of Agathoergi, in mis- 
sions to foreign states. 

AGELA (ayeArj), an assembly of young 
men in Crete, who lived together from their 
eighteenth year till the time of their mar- 
riage. An agela always consisted of the sons 
of the most noble citizens, and the members 
of it were obliged to marry at the same time. 
AGEMA (dyjjfia from ay"), the name of a 
chosen body of troops in the Macedonian 
army, usually consisting of horsemen. 

AGER PUBLICUS, the public land, was 
the land belonging to the Roman state. It 
was a recognised principle among the Italian 
nations that the territory of a conquered 
people belonged to the conquerors. Accord- 
ingly, the Romans were constantly acquiring 
fresh territory by the conquest of the sur- 
rounding people. The land thus acquired 
was usually disposed of in the following way. 
1. The land which was under cultivation was 
either distributed among colonists, who were 
sent to occupy it, or it was sold, or it was let 
out to farm. 2. The land which was then 
out of cultivation, and which, owing to war, 
was by far the greater part, might be occu- 
pied by any of the Roman citizens on the 
payment of a portion of the yearly produce ; 
a tenth of the produce of arable land, and a 
fifth of the produce of the land planted with 
the vine, the olive, and other valuable trees. 




S. The land which had previously served as 
the common pasture land of the conquered 
state, or was suitable for the purpose, 
continued to be used as pasture land by 
the Roman citizens, who had, however, to 
pay a certain sum of money for the cattle 
which they turned upon it. The occupation 
of the public land spoken of above under the 
second head was always expressed by the 
words posscssio and possidere, and the occu- 
pier of the land was called the possessor. The 
land continued to be the property of the 
state ; and accordingly we must distinguish 
between the terms posscssio, which merely 
indicated the use or enjoyment of the land, 
and dominittm, which expressed ownership, 
and was applied to private land, of which a 
man had the absolute ownership. The right 
of occupying the public land belonged only 
to citizens, and consequently only to the pa- 
tricians originally, as they were the state. 
The plebeians were only subjects, and conse- 
quently had no right to the property of the 
state ; but it is probable that they were per- 
mitted to feed their cattle on the public 
pasture lands. Even when the plebeians 
became a separate estate by the constitution 
of Servius Tullius, they still obtained no 
right to share in the possession of the public 
land, which continued to be the exclusive 
privilege of the patricians ; but as a compen- 
sation, each individual plebeian received an 
assignment of a certain quantity of the public 
land as his own property. Henceforth the 
possession of the public land was the privi- 
lege of the patricians, and an assignment of a 
portion of it the privilege of the plebeians. 
As the state acquired new lands by conquest, 
the plebeians ought to have received assign- 
ments of part of them, but since the patri- 
cians were the governing body, they generally 
refused to make any such assignment, and 
continued to keep the whole as part of the 
ager publicus, whereby the enjoyment of it 
belonged to them alone. Hence, we con- 
stantly read of the plebeians claiming, and 
sometimes enforcing, a division of such land. 
With the extension of the conquests of Rome, 
the ager publicus constantly increased, and 
thus a large portion of Italy fell into the 
hands of the patricians, who frequently with- 
held from the state the annual payments of a 
tenth and a fifth, which they were bound to 
pay for the possession of the land, and thus 
deprived the state of a fund for the expenses 
of the war. In addition to which they used 
slaves as cultivators and shepherds, since 
freemen were liable to be drawn off from 
field-labour to military service, and slave- 
labour was consequently far cheaper. In this 
way the number of free labourers was dimi- 

nished, and that of slaves augmented. To 
remedy this state of things several laws were 
from time to time proposed and carried, 
which were most violently opposed by the 
patricians. All laws which related to the 
public land are called by the general title of 
Leges Agrariae, and accordingly all the early 
laws relating to the possession of the public 
land by the patricians, and to the assignment 
of portions of it to the plebeians, were 
strictly agrarian laws ; but the first law to 
which this name is usually applied was pro- 
posed soon after the establishment of the 
republic by the consul, Sp. Cassius, in B.C. 
486. Its object was to set apart the portion 
of the public land which the patricians were 
to possess, to divide the rest among the ple- 
beians, to levy the payment due for the pos- 
session, and to apply it to paying the army. 
The first law, however, which really deprived 
the patricians of the advantages they had 
previously enjoyed in the occupation of the 
public land was the agrarian law of C. Li- 
cinius Stolo (B.C. 366), which limited each 
individual's possession of public land to 500 
jugera, and declared that no individual should 
have above 100 large and 500 smaller cattle 
on the public pastures : it further enacted 
that the surplus land was to be divided 
among the plebeians. As this law, however, 
was soon disregarded, it was revived again 
by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus (B.C. 133), with 
some alterations and additions. The details 
of the other agrarian laws mentioned in 
Roman history are given under the name of 
the lex by which they are called. [LEX.] 

AGGER (xw^a), from ad and gero, was 
used in general for a heap or mound of any 
kind. It was more particularly applied : 
( 1 ) To a mound, usually composed of earth, 
which was raised round a besieged town, and 
which was gradually increased in breadth 
and height, till it equalled or overtopped the 
walls. The agger was sometimes made, not 
only of earth, but of wood, hurdles, &c. ; 
whence we read of the agger being set on 
fire. (%} To the earthen wall surrounding a 
Roman encampment, composed of the earth 
dug from the ditch (fossa), which was usu- 
ally 9 feet broad and 7 feet deep ; but if any 
attack was apprehended, the depth was in- 
creased to 12 feet and the breadth to 13 feet. 
Sharp stakes, &c., were usually fixed upon 
the agger, which was then called valhun. 
When both words are used, the agger means 
the mound of earth, and the vallum the 
stakes, &c., which were fixed upon the agger. 








AGONALIA or AGONIA, one of the most 
ancient festivals at Rome, its institution 
being attributed to Numa Pompilius. It was 
celebrated on the 9th of January, the 21st of 
May, and the llth of December; to which 
we should probably add the 17th of March, 
the day on which the Liberalia was cele- 
brated, since this festival is also called Agonia 
or Agonium Martiale. The object of this 
festival was a disputed point among the an- 
cients themselves. The victim which was 
offered was a ram ; the person who offered it 
was the rex sacrificulus ; and the place where 
it was oifered was the regia. Now the ram 
was the usual victim presented to the guar- 
dian gods of the state, and the rex sacrifi- 
culus and the regia could be employed only 
for such ceremonies as were connected with 
the highest gods and affected the weal of the 
whole state. Regarding the sacrifice in this 
light, we see a reason for its being offered 
several times in the year. The etymology of 
the name was also a subject of much dispute 
among the ancients ; and the various ety- 
mologies that were proposed are given at 
length by Ovid (Fast. i. 319-332). None of 
these, however, are at all satisfactory ; and we 
would therefore suggest that it may have re- 
ceived its name from the sacrifice having been 
offered on the Quirinal hill, which was origi- 
nally called Agonus. 

AGONES (aywi'es), the general term among 
the Greeks for the contests at their great 
national games. The word also signified law- 
suits, and was especially employed in the 
phrase ayui/es rt/aijTot and drifx>)Toi. [TIMEMA.] 

AGONOTHETAE (dywi/ofoVaO, persons in 
the Grecian games who decided disputes, and 
adjudged the prizes to the victors. Origin- 
ally, the person who instituted the contest 
and offered the prize was the Agonothetes, 
and this continued to be the practice in those 
games which were instituted by kings or 
private persons. But in the great public 
games, such as the Isthmian, Pythian, &c., 
the Agonothetae were either the representa- 
tives of different states, as the Amphictyons 
at the Pythian games, or were chosen from 
the people in whose country the games were 
celebrated. During the flourishing times of 
the Grecian republics the Eleans were the 
Agonothetae in the Olympic games, the Co- 
rinthians in the Isthmian games, the Am- 
phictyons in the Pythian games, and the Co- 
rinthians, Argives, and inhabitants of Cleonae 
in the Nemaean games. The Agonothetae 
were also called Aesymnetae (al<rvn.vriT<u), 
Agonarchae (aytovdpxai), Agonodicae (ayiovo- 
5ai), Athlothetae (<L0Ao0e'T<u), RhaMuchi 
(pa5oCxoi), or Rhaldonomi (pofi&ovonoi, from 
the staff which they carried as an emblem of 

authority), Brabeis (/Spo/Scis), and Brabeutat 

AGORA (ayopa) properly means an as- 
sembly of any kind, and is usually employed 
by Homer to designate the general assembly 
of the people. The Agora seems to have been 
considered an essential part of the constitution 
of the early Grecian states. It was usually 
convoked by the king, but occasionally by 
some distinguished chieftain, as, for example, 
by Achilles before Troy. The king occupied 
the most important seat in these assemblies, 
and near him sat the nobles, while the people 
stood or sat in a circle around them. The 
people appear to have had no right of speak- 
ing or voting in these assemblies, but merely 
to have been called together to hear what had 
been already agreed upon in the council of 
the nobles, and to express their feelings as a 
body. The council of the nobles is called 
Smile (/3ovA7J) and Thobcus (ftxo/cos), and some- 
times even Agora. Among the Athenians, 
the proper name for the assembly of the 
people was Ecclesia (eKKA^cri'a), and among 
the Dorians Halia (oAi'a). The term Agora 
was confined at Athens to the assemblies of 
the phylae and demi. The name Agora was 
early transferred from the assembly itself to 
the place in which it was held ; and thus it 
came to be used for the market-place, where 
goods of all descriptions were bought and 
sold. Hence it answers to the Roman forum. 

AGORANOMI (ayopavofj.oi.'), public func- 
tionaries in most of the Grecian states, whose 
duties corresponded in many respects with 
those of the Roman aediles. At Athens their 
number was ten, five for the city, and five 
for the Peiraeeus, and they were chosen by 
lot. The principal duty of the Agoranomi 
was, as their name imports, to inspect the 
market, and to see that all the laws respect- 
ing its regulation were properly observed. 
They had the inspection of all things that 
were sold in the market, with the exception 
of corn, which was subject to the jurisdiction 
of special officers, called Sitophylaces (airofyv- 
Aoxes). They regulated the price and quan- 
tity of articles exposed for sale, and pu- 
nished all persons convicted of cheating, 
especially by means of false weights and 
measures. They had the power of fining all 
citizens who infringed upon the rules of the 
market, and of whipping all slaves and 
foreigners guilty of a like offence. They also 
collected the market dues, and had the care 
of all the temples and fountains in the 
market place. 


AGRAULIA (oypavAio) was a festival cele- 
brated by the Athenians in honour of Agrau- 




los, the daughter of Cecrops. It was perhaps 
connected with the solemn oath, which all 
Athenians, when they arrived at manhood 
(e<J>7)oi), were obliged to take in the temple 
of Agraulos, that they would fight for their 
country, and always observe its laws. 

AGRlMENSORES, or " land surveyors," 
a college established under the Roman empe- 
rors. Like the jurisconsults, they had regular 
schools, and were paid handsome salaries by 
the state. Their business was to measure 
unassigned lands for the state, and ordinary 
lands for the proprietors, and to fix and 
maintain boundaries. Their writings on the 
subject of their art were very numerous ; 
and we have still scientific treatises on the 
law of boundaries, such as those by Frontinus 
and Hyginus. 

AGRIONIA (aypicui'ia), a festival which 
was celebrated at Orchomenus, in Boeotia, in 
honour of Dionysus, surnamed Agrionius. A 
human being used originally to be sacrificed 
at this festival, but this sacrifice seems to have 
been avoided in later times. One instance, 
however, occurred in the days of Plutarch. 

AGRONOMI (iypord/aoi), the country- 
police, probably in Attica, whose duties cor- 
responded in most respects to those of the 
astynomi in the city, and who appear to 
have performed nearly the same duties as the 
hylori (vAwpoi). 

AGROTERAS THUSIA (ayporepas flvcrta), 
a festival celebrated every year at Athens in 
honour of Artemis, surnamed Agrotera (from 
aypa, the chase). It was solemnized on the 
sixth of the month of Boedromion, and con- 
sisted of a sacrifice of 500 goats, which con- 
tinued to be offered in the time of Xenophon. 
Its origin is thus related : When the Per- 
sians invaded Attica, the Athenians made a 
vow to sacrifice to Artemis Agrotera as many 
goats as there should be enemies slain at 
Marathon. But as the number of enemies 
slain was so great that an equal number of 
goats could not be found at once, the Athenians 
decreed that 500 should be sacrificed every year. 

AGYRTAE (iyvpntu), mendicant priests, 
who were accustomed to travel through the 
different towns of Greece, soliciting alms for 
the gods whom they served, and whose 
images they carried, either on their shoulders 
or on beasts of burthen. They were, gene- 
rally speaking, persons of the lowest and 
most abandoned character. 


AIKIAS DIKE (aixtat Simj), an action 
brought at Athens, before the court of the 
Forty (01 TerrapaKovTa), against any indi- 
vidual who had struck a citizen. Any citi- 
zen who had been thus insulted might pro- 
ceed against the offending party, either by 

the aiKCan Suoj, which was a private action, 
or by the v/3peus ypatyj, which was looked 
upon in the light of a public prosecution. 

AITHOUSA (alflouou), a word only used 
by Homer, is probably for a-lOovaa <rn>d, a 
portico exposed to the sun. From the pas- 
sages in which it occurs, it seems to denote a 
covered portico, opening on to the court of 
the house, avAi), in front of the vestibule, 

ALA, part of a Roman house. [Donrus.] 

ALA, ALARES, ALARII. Ala, which li- 
terally means a wing, was from the earliest 
epochs employed to denote the wing of an 
army, but in process of time was frequently 
used in a restricted sense. (1) When a 
Roman army was composed of Roman citi- 
zens exclusively, the flanks of the infantry 
when drawn up in battle array were covered 
on the right and left by the cavalry ; and 
hence Ala denoted the body of horse which 
was attached to and served along with the 
foot-soldiers of the legion. (2) When, at a 
later date, the Roman armies were composed 
partly of Roman citizens and partly of Socii, 
either Latini or Italici, it became the prac- 
tice to marshal the Roman troops in the 
centre of the battle line and the Socii upon 
the wings. Hence ala and alarii denoted 
the contingent furnished by the allies, both 
horse and foot, and the two divisions were 
distinguished as dextera ala and sinistra ala. 
(3) When the whole of the inhabitants 
of Italy had been admitted to the privileges 
of Roman citizens the terms alarii, cohortes 
alariae were transferred to the foreign troops 
serving along with the Roman armies. 
(4) Lastly, under the empire, the term ala 
was applied to regiments of horse, raised it 
would seem with very few exceptions in the 
provinces, serving apart from the legions and 
the cavalry of the legions. 

ALABARCHES (oAo0apx>)), the chief ma- 
gistrate of the Jews at Alexandria, whose 
duties, as far as the government was con- 
cerned, chiefly consisted in raising and pay- 
ing the taxes. 

or pot used for containing perfumes, or rather 
ointments, made of that species of marble 
which mineralogists call gypsum, and which 
is usually designated by the name of alabas- 
ter. When varieties of colour occur in the 
same stone, and are disposed in bands or 
horizontal strata, it is often called onyx ala- 
baster ; and when dispersed irregularly, as it 
in clouds, it is distinguished as agate alabas- 
ter. The term seems to have been employed 
to denote vessels appropriated to these uses, 
even when they were not made of the ma- 
terial from which it is supposed they ori- 




finally received their name. Thus Theocritus 
speaks of golden alabastra. These vessels 
were of a tapering shape, and very often had 
a long narrow neck, which was sealed ; so 
that -when Mary, the sister of Lazarus, is 
said by St. Mark to break the alabaster box 
of ointment for the purpose' of anointing our 
Saviour, it appears probable that she only 
broke the extremity of the neck, which was 
thus closed. 

ALAHII. [Ai,A.] 

ALAUDA, a Gaulish word, the prototype 
of the modern French Alouctte, denoting a 
small crested bird of the lark kind. The 
name alauda was bestowed by Julius Caesar 
on a legion of picked men, which he raised at 
his own expense among the inhabitants of 
Transalpine Gaul, about the year B.C. 55, 
which he equipped and disciplined after the 
Roman fashion, and on which he at a subse- 
quent period bestowed the freedom of the 
state. The designation was, in all proba- 
bility, applied from a plume upon the helmet, 
resembling the " apex " of the bird in ques- 
tion, or from the general shape and appear- 
ance of the head-piece. 


ALBUM, a tablet of any material on which 
the praetor's edicts, and the rules relating to 
actions and interdicts, were written. The 
tablet was put up in a public place, in order 
that all the world might have notice of its 
contents. According to some authorities, the 
album was so called because it was either a 
white material or a material whitened, and 
of course the writing would be of a different 
colour. According to other authorities, it 
was so called because the writing was in 
white letters. Probably the word album 
originally meant any tablet containing any- 
thing of a public nature. We know that it 
was, in course of time, used to signify a list 
of any public body ; thus we find albiim ju- 
dicwn, or the body out of which judices were 
to be chosen [JUDEX], and album senatorimn, 
or list of senators. 

ALEA, gaming, or playing at a game of 
chance of any kind : hence aleo, aleator, a 
gamester, a gambler. Playing with tali, or 
tesserae, was generally understood, because 
this was by far the most common game of 
chance among the Romans. Gaming was 
forbidden by the Roman laws, both during 
the times of the republic and under the em- 
perors, but was tolerated in the month of 
December at the Saturnalia, which was a 
period of general relaxation ; and old men 
were allowed to amuse themselves in this 
manner at all times. 

ALICULA (oAAif O r aAAr;f), an upper dress, 
in all probability identical with the chlamys. 

In the Roman republic the poorer citizens 
were assisted by public distributions of corn, 
oil, and money, which were called conglaria. 
[CONGIARIUM.] The Emperor Nerva was the 
first who extended them to children, and Tra- 
jan appointed them to be made every month, 
both to orphans and to the children of poor 
parents. The children who received them were 
called pueri et puellae alimentarii, and also 
(from the emperor) pueri puellaeque Ulpiani, 

ALIPILUS, a slave, who attended on 
bathers to remove the superfluous hair from 
their bodies. 

ALIPTAE (iAetVrai), among the Greeks, 
were persons who anointed the bodies of the 
athletae preparatory to their entering the 
palaestra. The chief object of this anointing 
was to close the pores of the body, in order 
to prevent much perspiration, and the weak- 
ness consequent thereon. The athleta was 
again anointed after the contest, in order to 
restore the tone of the strained muscles. He 
then bathed, and had the dust, sweat, and 
oil scraped off his body, by means of an in- 
strument similar to the strigil of the Romans, 
and called stlengis (orAeyyi's), and afterwards 
xystra (fuorpa). The aliptae took advantage 
of the knowledge they necessarily acquired 
of the state of the muscles of the athletae, 
and their general strength or weakness of 
body, to advise them as to their exercises 
and mode of life. They were thus a kind of 
medical trainers. Among the Romans the 
aliptae were slaves who scrubbed and anointed 
their masters in the baths. They, too, like 
the Greek aliptae, appear to have attended to 
their masters' constitution and mode of life. 
They were also called unctores. They used 
in their operations a kind of scraper called 
strigil, towels (lintea), a cruise of oil (guttm), 
which was usually of horn, a bottle (ampulla), 
and a small vessel called lenticula. 

ALLOCUTIO, an harangue made by a 
Roman imperator to his soldiers, to en- 




courage them before battle, or on other occa- 
sions. On coins we frequently find a figure 
of an imperator standing on a platform and 
addressing the soldiers below him. Such 
coins bear the epigraph ADLOCUTIO. 

Allocutio. (Coin of Galba.) 

ALOA or HALOA (oAwo, i\wa), an Attic 
festival, but celebrated principally at Eleusis, 
in honour of Demeter and Dionysus, the in- 
ventors of the plough and protectors of the 
fruits of the earth. 



ALYTAE (oAvrai), persons whose business 
it was to keep order in the public games. 
They received their orders from an alytarches 
(oAimipxTjs), who was himself under the di- 
rection of the agonothetae, or hellenodicae. 

a slave, or freedman, whose office it was to 
write letters and other things under his mas- 
ter's direction. The amanuenses must not 
be confounded with another sort of slaves, 
also called ad manum servi, who were always 
kept ready to be employed in any business. 

0ia or afiapvcria), a festival of Artemis Ama- 
rynthia or Amarysia, celebrated, as it seems, 
originally at Amarynthus in Euboea, with 
extraordinary splendour, but also solemnised 
in several places in Attica, such as Athmone. 


AMBITUS, which literally signifies " a 
going about," cannot, perhaps, be more nearly 
expressed than by our word can passing. After 
the plebs had formed a distinct class at Rome, 
and when the whole body of the citizens had 
become very greatly increased, we frequently 
read, in the Roman writers, of the great 
efforts which it was necessary for candidates 
to make in order to secure the votes of the 
citizens. At Rome, as in every community 
into which the element of popular election 
enters, solicitation of votes, and open or 
secret influence and bribery, were among the 

means by which a candidate secured his elec- 
tion to the offices of state. The following 
are the principal terms occurring in the 
Roman writers in relation to the canvassing 
for the public offices : A candidate was called 
petitor ; and his opponent with reference to 
him competitor. A candidate (candidatus} 
was so called from his appearing in the 
public places, such as the fora and Campus 
Martius, before his fellow-citizens, in a 
whitened toga. On such occasions the can- 
didate was attended by his friends (deduc- 
tores], or followed by the poorer citizens 
(sectatores), who could in no other manner 
show their good will or give their assistance. 
The word assiduitas expressed both the con- 
tinual presence of the candidate at Rome and 
his continual solicitations. The candidate, 
in going his rounds or taking his walk, was 
accompanied by a nomendator, who gave him 
the names of such persons as he might meet ; 
the candidate was thus enabled to address 
them by their name, an indirect compliment, 
which could not fail to be generally gratifying 
to the electors. The candidate accompanied 
his address with a shake of the hand (pren- 
satio). The term benignitas comprehended 
generally any kind of treating, as shows, 
feasts, &c. The ambitus, which was the 
object of several penal enactments, taken as 
a generic term, comprehended the two species 
- ambitus and largitiones (bribery). Liber- 
alitas and benignitas are opposed by Cicero, 
as things allowable, to ambitus and largitio, 
as things illegal. Money was paid for votes ; 
and, in order to insure secrecy and secure 
the elector, persons called interprctcs were 
employed to make the bargain, sequestres to 
hold the money till it was to be paid, and 
dirisores to distribute it. The offence of 
ambitus was a matter which belonged to the 
judicia publica, and the enactments against 
it were numerous. One of the earliest, 
though not the earliest of all, the Lex Cor- 
nelia Baebia (B.C. 181) was specially directed 
against largitiones. Those convicted under 
it were incapacitated from being candidates 
for ten years. The Lex Cornelia Fulvia 
(B.C. 159) punished the offence with exile. 
The Lex Acilia Calpurnia (B.C. 67) imposed 
a fine on the offending party, with exclusion 
from the senate and all public offices. The 
Lex Tullia (B.C. 63), passed in the consulship 
of Cicero, in addition to the penalty of the 
Acilian law, inflicted ten years' exsilium on 
the offender ; and, among other things, for- 
bade a person to exhibit gladiatorial shows 
(gladiatores dare) within any two years in 
which he was a candidate, nnless he was re- 
quired to do so, on a fixed day, by a testator's 
will. Two years afterwards the Lex Aufidia 




was proposed, but not passed ; by which, 
among other things, it was provided that, if 
a candidate promised (pronvntiavit) money 
to a tribe, and did not pay it, he should be 
unpunished ; but, if he did pay the money, he 
should further pay to each tribe (annually ?) 
3000 sesterces as long as he lived. This 
absurd proposal occasioned the witticism of 
Cicero, who said that Clodius observed the 
law by anticipation ; for he promised, but did 
not pay. The Lex Licinia (B.C. 55) was spe- 
cially directed against the offence of soda- 
litiinn, or the wholesale bribery of a tribe by 
gifts and treating ; and another lex, passed 
(B.C. 52) when Pompey was sole consul, had 
for its object the establishment of a speedier 
course of proceeding on trials for ambitus. 
All these enactments failed in completely ac- 
complishing their object. That which no 
law could suppress, so long as the old popular 
forms retained any of their pristine vigour, 
was accomplished by the imperial usurpation. 
Caesar, when dictator, nominated some of 
the candidates for public offices : as to the 
consulship, he managed the appointments to 
that office just as he pleased. The popular 
forms of election were observed during the 
time of Augustus. Tiberius transferred the 
elections from the comitia to the senate, by 
which the offence of ambitus, in its proper 
sense, entirely disappeared. The trials for 
ambitus were numerous in the time of the 
republic. The oration of Cicero in defence 
of L. Murena, who was charged with am- 
bitus, and that in defence of Cn. Plancius, 
who was charged with sodalitiitm, are both 

AMBROSIA (ajiftxxrt'a), the food of the 
gods, which conferred upon them eternal 
youth and immortality, and was brought to 
Jupiter by pigeons. It was also used by the 
gods for anointing their body and hair ; 
whence we read of the ambrosial locks of 

AMBUBAIAE (probably from the Syriac, 
alub aubub, a pipe), Eastern dancing girls, 
who frequented chiefly the Circus at Rome, 
and obtained their living by prostitution and 
lascivious songs and dances. 

AMBURBIUM, a sacrifice which was per- 
formed at Rome for the purification of the city. 



AMICTUS. The verb amicire is commonly 
opposed to induere, the former being applied 
to the putting on of the outer garment, the 
pallium, laena, or toga (ipoa-iov, <>opo?) ; the 
latter, to the putting on of the inner garment, 
the tunic (x 1 1 ')- In consequence of this 
distinction, the verbal nouns amictus and 
indutus, even without any further denomina- 

tion of the dress being added, indicate re- 
spectively the outer and inner clothing. In 
Greek amicire is expressed by <iiJ.<f>Uiw(rOai, 
atiire\e<rtia.i, eiri/SaAAeotfcu, irepi/JoAAeuflai : and 
induere by ev&vvfiv. Hence came ofwrexovT/, 
e-i',SA7)fia, and eTTi/SoAatof, jrepi'^Aij^a, and irepi- 
/3dA.cuoi>, an outer garment, a cloak, a shawl ; 
and ivSv/jM, an inner garment, a tunic, a 

AMPHICTYONES (aM<J>urrvov). Insti- 
tutions called amphietyonic appear to have 
existed in Greece from time immemorial. 
They seem to have been originally associations 
of neighbouring tribes, formed for the regu- 
lation of mutual intercourse and the protec- 
tion of a common temple or sanctuary, at 
which the representatives of the different 
members met, both to transact business and 
to celebrate religious rites and games. One 
of these associations was of much greater 
importance than all the rest, and was called, 
by way of eminence, the Amphietyonic League 
or Council (on^iicTvocia). It differed from 
other similar associations in having two places 
of meeting, the sanctuaries of two divinities ; 
which were the temple of Demeter, in the 
village of Anthela, near Thermopylae, where 
the deputies met in autumn ; and that of 
Apollo, at Delphi, where they assembled in 
spring. Its connexion with the latter place 
not only contributed to its dignity, but also to 
its permanence. Its early history is involved 
in obscurity. Most of the ancients suppose 
it to have been founded by Amphictyon, the 
son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, from whom 
they imagined that it derived its name : but 
this opinion is destitute of all foundation, and 
arose from the ancients assigning the esta- 
blishment of their institutions to some my- 
thical hero. There can be little doubt as to 
the true etymology of the word. It was ori- 
ginally written i^ucriovt^, and consequently 
signified those that dwelt around some parti- 
cular locality. Its institution, however, is 
clearly of remote antiquity. It was originally 
composed of twelve tribes (not cities or states; 
it must be observed), each of which tribes 
contained various independent cities or states. 
We learn from Aeschines, that in B. c. 343, 
eleven of these tribes were as follows : The 
Thessalians, Boeotians (not Thebans only), 
Dorians, Ionian?, Perrhaebians, Magnetos, 
Locrians, Oetaeans or Oenianians, Phthiots 
or Achaeans of Phthia, Malians, and Phocians ; 
other lists leave us in doubt whether the 
remaining tribe were the Dolopes or Del- 
phians ; but as the Delphians could hardly be 
called a distinct tribe, their nobles appearing 
to have been Dorians, it seems probable that 
the Dolopes were originally member", and 
afterwards supplanted by the Delphians. All 
C 2 




the states belonging to each of these tribes 
were on a footing of perfect equality. Thus 
Sparta enjoyed no advantages over Dorium 
and Cytinium, two small towns in Doris : and 
Athens, an Ionic city, was on a par with Ere- 
tila in Euboea, and Priene in Asia Minor, 
two other Ionic cities. The ordinary council 
was called Pylaea (mAeu'a), from its meeting 
in the neighbourhood of Pylae (Thermopylae), 
but the name was given to the session at 
Delphi as well as to that at Thermopylae. 
The council was composed of two classes of 
representatives, one called Pylagorae (IIvAa- 
yopat), and the other Ificromnemones ( lepo- 
HiTJjLioi'es). Athens sent three Pylagorae and 
one Hieromnemon ; of whom the former were 
elected apparently for each session, and the 
latter by lot, probably for a longer period. 
Respecting the relative duties of the Pyla- 
gorae and Hieromnemones we have little 
information : the name of the latter implies 
that they had a more immediate connection 
with the temple. We are equally in the 
dark respecting the numbers who sat in the 
council and its mode of proceeding. It would 
seem that all the deputies had seats in the 
council, and took part in its deliberations ; 
but if it be true, as appears from Aeschines, 
that each of the tribes had only two votes, it 
is clear that all the deputies could not have 
voted. In addition to the ordinary council, 
there was an ecclesia (e/cicArjaia), or general 
assembly, including not only the classes 
above mentioned, but also those who had 
joined in the sacrifices, and were consulting 
the god. It was convened on extraordinary 
occasions by the chairman of the council. Of 
the duties of the Amphietyons nothing will 
give us a clearer view than the oath they 
took, which was as follows : " They would 
destroy no city of the Amphietyons, nor cut 
off their streams in war or peace ; and if any 
should do so, they would march against him, 
and destroy his cities ; and should any pillage 
the property of the god, or be privy to or 
plan anything against what was in his temple 
(at Delphi), they would take vengeance on 
him with hand and foot, and voice, and all 
their might." From this oath we see that 
the main duty of the deputies was the preser- 
vation of the rights and dignity of the temple 
of Delphi. We know, too, that after it was 
burnt down (B. c. 548), they contracted with 
the Alcmaeonidae for its rebuilding. History, 
moreover, teaches that if the council produced 
any palpable effects, it was from their interest 
in Delphi ; and though they kept up a standing 
record of what ought to have been the interna- 
tional law of Greece, they sometimes acquiesced 
in, and at other times were parties to, the most 
iniquitous acts. Of this the case of Crissa 

is an instance. This town lay on the Gulf of 
Corinth, near Delphi, and was much frequented 
by pilgrims from the West. The Crissaeans 
were charged by the Delphians with undue 
exactions from these strangers. The coun- 
cil declared war against them, as guilty of a 
wrong against the god. The war lasted ten 
years, till, at the suggestion of Solon, the 
waters of the Pleistus were turned off, then 
poisoned, and turned again into the city. The 
besieged drank their fill, and Crissa was soon 
razed to the ground ; and thus, if it were an 
Amphictyonic city, was a solemn oath doubly 
violated. Its territory the rich Cirrhaean 
plain was consecrated to the god, and curses 
imprecated upon whomsoever should till or 
dwell in it. Thus ended the First Sacred 
War (B. c. 585), in which the Athenians were 
the instruments of Delphian vengeance. The 
second or Phocian war (B. c. 350) was the 
most important in which the Amphietyons 
were concerned ; and in this the Thebans 
availed themselves of the sanction of the 
council to take vengeance on their enemies, 
the Fhocians. To do this, however, it was 
necessary to call in Philip of Macedon, who 
readily proclaimed himself the champion of 
Apollo, as it opened a pathway to his own 
ambition. The Phocians were subdued (B. c, 
346), and the council decreed that all their 
cities, except Abae, should he razed, and the 
inhabitants dispersed in villages not contain- 
ing more than fifty persons. Their two votes 
were given to Philip, who thereby gained a 
pretext for interfering with the affairs of 
Greece ; and also obtained the recognition of 
his subjects as Hellenes. The Third Sacred 
War arose from the Amphissians tilling the 
devoted Cirrhaean plain. The Amphietyons 
called in the assistance of Philip, who soon 
reduced the Amphissians to subjection. Their 
submission was immediately followed by the 
battle of Chaeroneia (B. c. 338), and the 
extinction of the independence of Greece. In 
the following year, a congress of the Amphic- 
tyonic states was held, in which war was 
declared as if by united Greece against Persia, 
and Philip elected commander-in-chief. On 
this occasion the Amphietyons assumed the 
character of national representatives as of old, 
when they set a price upon the head of Ephi- 
altes, for his treason to Greece at Thermo- 
pylae. It has been sufficiently shown that 
the Amphietyons themselves did not observe 
the oaths they took ; and that they did not 
much alleviate the horrors of war, or enforce 
what they had sworn to do, is proved by 
many instances. Thus, for instance, Mycenae 
was destroyed by Argos (B. c. 535), Thespiae 
and Plataeae by Thebes, and Thebes herself 
swept from the face of the earth by Alexander, 




without the Amphictyons raising one word in 
opposition. Indeed, a few years before the 
Peloponnesian war, the council was a passive 
spectator of what Thucydides calls the Sacred 
War (6 Upbs TrdAe/oios), whan the Lacedaemo- 
nians made an expedition to Delphi, and put 
the temple into the hands of the Delphians, 
the Athenians, after their departure, restoring 
it to the Phocians. The council is rarely 
mentioned after the time of Philip. \Ve are 
told that Augustus wished his new city, 
Nicopolis (A. D. 31), to be enrolled among 
the members. Pausanias, in the second 
century of our era, mentions it as still exist- 
ing, but deprived of all power and influence. 

AMPH1DROMIA (a^iSp^a or Spo/ou- 
afx^>top fjfiaf'), a family festival of the Athe- 
nians, at which the newly-born child was 
introduced into the family, and received its 
name. The friends and relations of the 
parents were invited to the festival of the 
amphidromia, which was held in the evening, 
and they generally appeared with presents. 
The house was decorated on the outside with 
olive branches when the child was a boy, or 
with garlands of wool when the child was a 
girl ; and a repast was prepared for the 
guests. The child was carried round the 
fire by the nurse, and thus, as it were, pre- 
sented to the gods of the house and to the 
family, and at the same time received its 
name, to which the guests were witnesses. 
The carrying of the child round the hearth 
was the principal part of the solemnity, from 
which its name was derived. 

AMPHITHEATRUM, an amphitheatre, 
was a place for the exhibition of public shows 
of combatants, wild beasts, and naval engage- 
ments, and was entirely surrounded with 
seats for the spectators ; whereas, in those 
for dramatic performances, the seats were 
arranged in a semicircle facing the stage. 
An amphitheatre is therefore frequently de- 
scribed as a double theatre, consisting of two 
such semicircles, or halves, joined together, 
the spaces allotted to their orchestras becom- 
ing the inner inclosure, or area, termed the 
arena. The form, however, of the ancient 
amphitheatres was not a circle, but invariably 
an ellipse. Gladiatorial shows and combats 
of wild beasts (venationesj were first exhi- 
bited in the forum and the circus ; and it 
appears that the ancient custom was still 
preserved till the time of Julius Caesar. The 
first building in the form of an amphitheatre 
is said to have been erected by C. Scribonius 
Curio, one of Caesar's partisans ; but the 
account which is given of this building sounds 
rather fabulous. It is said to have consisted 
of two wooden theatres, ma-ie to revolve on 
pivots, in such a manner that they could, by 

means of windlasses and machinery, be turned 
round face to face, so as to form one building. 
Soon after Caesar himself erected, in the 
Campus Martius, a stationary amphitheatre, 
made of wood ; to which building the name 
of amphitheatrum was for the first time given . 
The first stone amphitheatre was built by 
Statilius Taurus, in the Campus Martius, at 
the desire of Augustus. This was the only 
stone amphitheatre at Rome till the time uf 
Vespasian. One was commenced by Caliguia, 
but was not continued by Claudius. The one 
erected by Nero in the Campus Martius was 
only a temporary building, made of wood. 
The amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus was 
burnt in the fire of Rome in the time of Nero ; 
and hence, as a new one was needed, Vespa- 
sian commenced the celebrated Amphitheatrum 
Flavium in the middle of the city, in the 
valley between the Caelian, the Esquiline, 
and the Velia, on the spot originally occupied 
by the lake or large pond attached to Nero's 
palace. Vespasian did not live to finish it. 
It was dedicated by Titus in A. D. 80, but was 
not completely finished till the reign of Domi- 
tian. This immense edifice, which is even yet 
comparatively entire, covered nearly six acres 
of ground, and was capable of containing 
about 87,000 spectators. It is called at the 
present day the Colosseum or Colisaewn. The 
interior of an amphitheatre was divided into 
three parts, the arena, podium, and gradus. 
The clear open space in the centre of the 
amphitheatre was called the arena, because 
it was covered with sand, or sawdust, to 
prevent the gladiators from slipping, and to 
absorb the blood. The size of the arena was 
not always the same in proportion to the size 
of the amphitheatre, but its average propor- 
tion was one third of the shorter diameter of 
the building. The arena was surrounded by 
a wall distinguished by the name of podium ; 
although such appellation, perhaps, rather 
belongs to merely the upper part of it, form- 
ing the parapet, or balcony, before the first 
or lowermost seats, nearest to the arena. The 
arena, therefore, was no more than an open 
oval court, surrounded by a wall about fifteen 
feet high ; a height considered necessary, in 
order to render the spectators perfectly secure 
from the attacks of wild beasts. There were 
four principal entrances leading into the arena ; 
two at the ends of each axis or diameter of it, 
to which as many passages led directly from 
the exterior of the building ; besides secondary 
ones, intervening between them, and commu- 
nicating with the corridors beneath the seats 
on the podium. The wall or enclosure of the 
arena is supposed to have been faced with 
marble, more or less sumptuous ; besides 
which, there appears to have been, in some 




instances at least, a sort of net-work affixed 
to the top of the podium, consisting of railing, 
or rather open trellis-work of metal. As 
a further defence, ditches, called eiiripi, some- 
times surrounded the arena. The term po- 
dium was also applied to the terrace, or gallery 
itself, immediately above the arena, which 
was no wider than to be capable of containing 
two, or at the most, three ranges of moveable 
seats, or chairs. This, as being by far the 
best situation for distinctly viewing the sports 
in the arena, and also more commodiously 
accessible than the seats higher up, was the 

place set apart for senators and other persons 
of distinction, such as foreign ambassadors ; 
and it was here, also, that the emperor him- 
self used to sit, in an elevated place, called 
suggestus or eiMculum, and likewise the 
person who exhibited the games on a place 
elevated like a pulpit or tribunal (editoris 
tribunal^. Above the podium were the gra- 
dus, or seats of the other spectators, which 
were divided into maeniana, or stories. The 
first maenianum, consisting of fourteen rows 
of stone or marble seats, was appropriated 
to the equestrian order. The seats appro- 

; side of the preceding Sectk 


ji, The arena. 

p. The wall or podium inclosing it. 

r. The podium itself, on which were chairs, or seats, for 

the senators, &c. 
Ml, The first mai-nianum, or slope of benches, for the 

equestrian order. 
u". The second maenianum. 
w/'/, The third maenianum; elevated considerably above 

the preceding one, and appropriated to the pullati 
w, The colonnade, or gallery, which cent 

ats for 


pr, pr. The pitecinctiones, or landings, at the top of the 
first and second maenianum ; in the pavement oi 
which were grated apertures, at intervals, to admit 
light into the vomitoria beneath them. 

e o , The three external galleries through the circum- 
ference of the building, open to the arcades of thfi 

gg, Inner gallery. 

The situation and arrangement of the staircases, ftc., are 

not expressed, as they could not be rendered intelligible 

without plans at various levels of the building. 




priated to the senators and equites were 
covered with cushions, which were first used 
in the time of Caligula. Then, after an in- 
terval or space, termed a praecinctio, and 
forming a continued landing-place from the 
several staircases in it, succeeded the second 
macnianum, where were the scats called 
popularia, for the third class of spectators, or 
the populus. Behind this was the second prae- 
cinctio, bounded by a rather high wall ; above 
which was the third maenianum, where there 
were only wooden benches for the pullati, or 
common people. The next and last division, 
namely, that in the highest part of the 
building, consisted of a colonnade, or gallery, 
where females were allowed to witness the 
spectacles of the amphitheatre, but some parts 
of it were also occupied by the pullati. 
Each maenianum was not only divided from 
the other by the praecinctio, but was inter- 
sected at intervals by spaces for passages left 
between the seats, called scalae, or scalaria ; 
and the portion between two such passages 
was called cuneus, because the space gradually 
widened like a wedge, from the podium to 
the top of the building. The entrances to 
the seats from the outer porticoes were called 
vomitoria. At the very summit was the 
narrow platform for the men who had to 
attend to the velarium, or awning, by which 
the building was covered as a defence against 
the sun and rain. The velarium appears 
usually to have been made of wool, but more 
costly materials were sometimes employed. 
The first of the preceding cuts represents a 
longitudinal section of the Flavian amphi- 
theatre, and the second, which is on a larger 
scale, a part of the above section, including 
the exterior wall, and the seats included 
between that and the arena. It will serve to 
convey an idea of the leading form and general 
disposition of the interior. For an account of 
the gladiatorial contests, and the shows of 
wild beasts, exhibited in the amphitheatre, 

AMPHORA (ifi^opevs), a vessel used for 
holding wine, oil, honey, &c. The following 
cut represents amphorae in the British Mu- 
seum. They are of various forms and sizes ; 
in general they are tall and narrow, with a 
small neck, and a handle on each side of the 
neck (whence the name, from ap^i, on both 
sides, and <#>epw, to carry), and terminating at 
the bottom in a point, which was let into a 
stand or stuck in the ground, so that the 
vessel stood upright : several amphorae have 
been found in this position in the cellars at 
Pompeii. Amphorae were commonly made 
of earthenware. Homer mentions amphorae 
of gold and stone, and the Egyptians had 
them of brass; glass vessels of this form 

have been found at Pompeii. The most com- 
mon use of the amphora, both among the 

Amphorae. (British Museum.; 

Greeks and the Romans, was for keeping 
wine. The cork was covered with pitch or 
gypsum, and (among the Romans) on the 
outside the title of the wine was painted, the 
date of the vintage being marked by the 
names of the consuls then in office ; or, when 
the jars were of glass, little tickets (pittoric,, 
tesserae] were suspended from them, indicating 
these particulars. The Greek amphoreus and 
the Roman amphora were also names of fixed 
measures. The amphoreus, which was also 
called metretes (neTpijnjs) and cadus (xaSos), 
was equal to three Roman urnae = 8 gallons, 
7-365 pints, imperial measure. The Roman 
amphora was two-thirds of the amphoreus, 
and was equal to 2 urnae = 8 congii = to 5 
gallons, 7-577 pints; its solid content was 
exactly a Roman cubic foot. 

AMPLIATIO, an adjournment of a trial, 
which took place when the judices after hear- 
ing the evidence of the advocates were unable 
to come to a satisfactory conclusion. This 
they expressed by giving in the tablets, on 
which were the letters N. L. (non liquet), and 
the praetor, by pronouncing the word am- 
plins, thereupon adjourned the trial to any 
day he chose. The defendant and the cause 
were then said ampliari. 

AMPULLA (AjJKueos, j3o/uij3u'Aio?), a bottle, 
usually made among the Romans either of 
glass or earthenware, rarely of more valuable 

npulla. (Sketched bjr G. Scharf from a relief at 
Athens, ilicovercU in 1840.) 




materials. Ampullae were more or less glo- 
bular. From their round and swollen shape, 
the word was used by Horace to indicate grand 
and turgid but empty language. (" Projicit 
ampullas et sesquipedalia verba," Ar. Poet. 97.) 
Ampullae are frequently mentioned in con- 
nection with the bath, since every Roman took 
with him to the bath a bottle of oil for anoint- 
ing the body after bathing. The dealer in 
bottles was called ampullarius. 

Ampulla. (From a tomb at Myra in Lycia.) 

AMPYX (O^TU|, o/oiTnHc-rijp, Lat. frontale), 
a frontal, a broad band or plate of metal, 
which ladies of rank wore above the forehead 
as part of the head-dress. The frontal of a 
horse was called by the same name. The 
annexed cut exhibits the frontal on the head 
of Pegasus, in contrast with the correspond- 
ing ornament as shown on the heads of two 

Ampycre, FrontlcU. (F: 

AMUI.KTUM (jrepi'aTnw,, <f>v\aj(- 
njpiov), an amulet. This word in Arabic 

(hamalet) means that which is suspended. It 
was probably brought into Europe by Ara- 
bian merchants, together with the articles to 
which it was applied. An amulet was any 
object, a stone, a plant, an artificial pro- 
duction, or a piece of writing, which was 
suspended from the neck, or tied to any part 
of the body, for the purpose of warding on* 
calamities and securing advantages of any 
kind. Faith in the virtues of amulets was 
almost universal in the ancient world, so 
that the art of medicine consisted in a very 
considerable degree of directions for their 

AMUSSIS or AMUSSIUM, a carpenter's 
and mason's instrument, the use of which 
was to obtain a true plane surface. 

ANACEIA (avaxei.*, or avaxeiov), a festi- 
val of the Dioscuri or Anactes ('Avoueres), as 
they were called at Athens. These heroes, 
however, received the most distinguished ho- 
nours in the Dorian and Achaean states, 
where it may be supposed that every town 
celebrated a festival in their honour, though 
not under the name of Anaceia. 

ANACRISIS (avaicpuns), an examination, 
was used to signify the pleadings preparatory 
to a trial at Athens, the object of which was 
to determine, generally, if the action would 
lie. The magistrates were said avaxpCvciv 
T>)I> Bimfv or TOUS avn&Uovs, and the parties 
di/oKpiVeotfru. The process consisted in the 
production of proofs, of which there were 
five kinds : 1. The laws ; 2. Written docu- 
ments ; 3. Testimonies of witnesses present 
(/uoprvpuu), or affidavits of absent witnesses 
(eKfiopTvpuu) ; 4. Depositions of slaves ex- 
torted by the rack ; 5. The oath of the par- 
ties. All these proofs were committed to 
writing, and placed in a box secured by a 
seal (ex'TOs) till they were produced at the 
trial. If the evidence produced at the ana- 
crisis was so clear and convincing' that there 
could not remain any doubt, the magistrate 
could decide the question without sending the 
cause to be tried before the dicasts : this was 
called diamartyria (SiofiopTupia). The ar- 
chons were the proper officers for holding 
the anacrisis ; they are represented by Athena 
(Minerva), in the JZumenides of Aeschylus, 
where there is a poetical sketch of the process 
in the law courts. For an account of the 
anacrisis or examination, which each archon 
underwent previously to entering on office, 
see ARCHON. 

avayAvirra), chased or embossed vessels made 
of bronze or of the precious metals, which 
derived their name from the work on them 
being in relief, and not engraved. 

AXAGXOSTES, a slave, whose duty it was 



to read or repeat passages from books during 
an entertainment, and also at other times. 

AXAGOGIA (.avayiayia), a festival cele- 
brated at Eryx, in Sicily, in honour of Aphro- 
dite. The inhabitants of the place believed 
that, during this festival, the goddess went 
over into Africa. 





ANDROGEONIA (<ii>6poyii>ia), a festival 
with games, held every year in the Cera- 
meicus at Athens, in honour of the hero An- 
drogeus, son of Minos, who had overcome all 
his adversaries in the festive games of the 
Panathenaea, and was afterwards killed by 
his jealous rivals. 

AXDROLEPSIA (ifSpoArj^ta or av&po\rj- 
^Ix-ov), a. legal means by which the Athenians 
were enabled to take vengeance upon a com- 
munity in which an Athenian citizen had 
been murdered, by seizing three individuals 
of that state or city, as hostages, until satis- 
faction was given. 


ANGARIA (ayyopet'a, Hdt. dyyap^i.'oi'), a 
word borrowed from the Persians, signifying 
a system of posting by relays of horses, which 
was used among that people, and which, ac- 
cording to Xenophon, was established by 
Cyrus. The term was adopted by the Ro- 
mans under the empire to signify compulsory 
service in forwarding the messages of the 
state. The Roman angaria, also called anga- 
riarum exhibitio or praestatio, included the 
maintenance and supply, not only of horses, 
but of ships and messengers, in forwarding 
both letters and burdens ; it is defined as a 
personate munus ; and there was no ground 
of exemption from it allowed, except by the 
favour of the emperor. 

row lane between two rows of houses, which 
might either be what the French call a cul- 
de-sac, or it might terminate at both ends in 
some public street. 



ANXOXA (from anmis, like pomona from 
pomwn}. (1) The produce of the year in 
corn, fruit, wine, &c., and hence, (2) provi- 
sions in general, especially the corn, which, 
ir. the later years of the republic, was col- 
lected in the storehouses of the state, and 
sold to the poor at a cheap rate in times of 
scarcity ; and which, under the emperors, 
was distributed to the people gratuitously, or 
given as pay and rewards ; ( 3 ) the price of 
provisions ; ( 4 ) a soldier's allowance of pro- 
visions for a certain time. The word is used 

also in the plural for yearly or monthly dis- 
tributions of pay in corn, &c. 

AXXULUS (fioxTvAios), a ring. It is pro- 
bable that the custom of wearing rings was 
very early introduced into Greece from Asia, 
where it appears to have been almost uni- 
versal. They were worn not merely as "orna- 
ments, but as articles for use, as the ring 
always served as a seal. A seal was called 
sphragis (<rcf>payi's), and hence this name was 
given to the ring itself, and also to the gem 
or stone for a ring in which figures were en- 
graved. Rings in Greece were mostly worn 
on the fourth finger (irop<i/<Tos). At Rome, 
the custom of wearing rings was believed to 
have been introduced by the Sabines, who 
were described in the early legends as wear- 
ing golden rings with precious stones of great 
beauty. But, whenever introduced at Rome, 
it is certain that they were at first always of 
iron ; that they were destined for the same 
purpose as in Greece, namely, to be used as 
seals ; and that every free Roman had a right 
to use such a ring. This iron ring was worn 
down to the last period of the republic by 
such men as loved the simplicity of the good 
old times. In the course of time, however, 
it became customary for all the senators, 
chief magistrates, and at last for the equites 
also, to wear a golden seal-ring. The right 
of wearing a gold ring, which was subse- 
quently called the jus annul i aurei, or the 
jut annulorum, remained for several centu- 
ries at Rome the exclusive privilege of sena- 
tors, magistrates, and equites, while all other 
persons continued to wear iron ones. During 
the empire the right of granting the annulus 
aureus belonged to the emperors, and some 
of them were not very scrupulous in confer- 
ring this privilege. Augustus gave it to 
Mena, a freedman, and to Antonius Musa, 
a physician. The emperors Severus and 
Aurelian conferred the right of wearing 
golden rings upon all Roman soldiers ; and 
Justinian at length allowed all the citizens of 
the empire, whether ingenui or libertini, to 
wear such rings. The ring of a Roman em- 
peror was a kind of state seal, and the empe- 
ror sometimes allowed the use of it to such 
persons as he wished to be regarded as his 
representatives. During the republic and 
the early times of the empire the jus annuli 
seems to have made a person ingenuus (if he 
was a libertus), and to have raised him to 
the rank of eques, provided he had the re- 
quisite equestrian census, and it was probably 
never granted to any one who did not possess 
this census. Those who lost their property, 
or were found guilty of a criminal offence, 
lost the jus annuli. The principal value of 
a ring consisted in the gem set in it, or rather 




In the workmanship of the engraver. The 
stone most frequently used was the onyx 
(a-ap&iavo^, <rap&6w), on account of its various 
colours, of which the artist made the most 
skilful use. In the art of engraving upon 
gems the ancients far surpassed anything 
that modern times can boast of. The devices 
engraved upon rings were very various : 
they were portraits of ancestors or of friends, 
subjects connected with mythology ; and in 
many cases a person had engraved upon his 
seal some symbolical allusion to the real or 
mythical history of his family. The bezel or 
part of the ring which contained the gem 
was called pala. With the increasing love of 
luxury and show, the Komans, as well as the 
Greeks, covered their fingers with rings. 
Some persons also wore rings of immoderate 
size, and others used different rings for sum- 
mer and winter. Much superstition appears 
to have been connected with rings, especially 
in the East and in Greece. Some persons 
made it a lucrative trade to sell rings which 
were believed to possess magic powers, 
and to preserve the wearers from external 


ANQU1SITIO, signified, in criminal trials 
at Home, the investigation of the facts of the 
case with reference to the penalty that was 
to be imposed : accordingly the phrases pe- 
cunia capitis or capitis anquirere are used. 
Under the emperors the term anquisitio lost 
its original meaning, and was employed to 
indicate an accusation in general ; in which 
sense it also occurs even in the times of the 

ANTAE (mxpaoraSes), square pillars, which 
were commonly joined to the side-walls of a 
building, being placed on each side of the 
door, so as to assist in forming the portico. 

Temple in Anna. (Temple of Artemis at Eleusu.) 

These terms are seldom found except in the 
plural ; because the purpose served by antae 
required that they should be erected corre- 
sponding to each other and supporting the 
extremities of the same roof. The temple in 
antis was one of the simplest kind. It had 
in front antae attached to the walls which 
inclosed the cella ; and in the middle, be- 
tween the antae, two columns supporting the 

ANTEAMBULONES, slaves who were ac- 
customed to go before their masters, in order 
to make way for them through the crowd. 
The term anteambulones was also given to 
the clients, who were accustomed to walk 
before their patroni, when the latter ap- 
peared in public. 

SORES, horse-soldiers, who were accustomed 
to precede an army on march, in order to 
choose a suitable place for the camp, and to 
make the necessary provisions for the army. 
They do not appear to have been merely 
scouts, like the speculatorcs. 


ANTEFIXA, terra-cottas, which exhibited 
various ornamental designs, and were used 
in architecture to cover the frieze (sophorus) 
of the entablature. These terra-cottas do not 
appear to have been used among the Greeks, 
but were probably Etruscan in their origin, 
and were thence taken for the decoration of 
Roman buildings. The name antefixa is 
evidently derived from the circumstance that 
they were fixed before the buildings which 
they adorned. Cato, the censor, complained 
that the Romans of his time began to despise 
ornaments of this description, and to prefer 
the marble friezes of Athens and Corinth. 
The rising taste which Cato deplored may 
account for the superior beauty of the ante- 
flxa preserved in the British Museum, which 
were discovered at Rome. 




ANTHESPHORIA (arfetr^opta), a flower- 
festival, principally celebrated in Sicily, in 
honour of Demeter and Persephone, in com- 
memoration of the return of Persephone to 
her mother in the beginning of spring. 


ANTIDOSIS (aiTiSotrts), in its literal and 
general meaning, " an exchange," was, in 
the language of the Attic courts, peculiarly 
applied to proceedings under a law which is 
said to have originated with Solon. By this, 
a citizen nominated to perform a leiturgia, 
such as a trierarchy or choregia, or to rank 
among the property-tax payers, in a class 
disproportioned to his means, was empowered 




to call upon any qualified person not so 
charged to take the office in Eis stead, or 
submit to a complete exchange of property, 
the charge in question of course attaching to 
the first party, if the exchange were finally 
effected. For the proceedings the courts were 
opened at a stated time every year by the 
magistrates that had official cognisance of the 
particular subject ; such as the strategi in 
cases of trierarchy and rating to the pro- 
perty-taxes, and the archon in those of cho- 

ANTIGRAPHE ((ijTiypa<fj) originally sig- 
nified the writing put in by the defendant, 
his " plea" in all causes whether public or 
private, in answer to the indictment or bill 
of the prosecutor. It is, however, also ap- 
plied to the bill or indictment of the plaintiff 
or accuser. 

ANTLIA (an-Aia), any machine for raising 
water, a pump. The most important of these 
machines were : ( 1 ) The tympanum ; a 
tread-wheel, worked by men treading on it. 
( 2 ) A wheel having wooden boxes or buckets, 
so arranged as to form steps for those who 
trod the wheel. (3) The chain pump. (4) 
The cochlea, or Archimedes's screw. (5) The 
ctesibica machina, or forcing-pump. Cri- 
minals were condemned to the antlia or 
tread-mill. The antlia with which Martial 
(ix. 19) watered his garden, was probably the 
pole and bucket universally employed in 
Italy, Greece, and Egypt. The pole is curved, 
as shown in the annexed figure ; because 
it is the stem of a fir or some other tapering 

ANTYX (avTvf), the rim or border of any 
thing, especially of a shield or chariot. The 
rim of the large round shield of the ancient 
Greeks was thinner than the part which it 
enclosed ; but on the other hand, the antyx 
of a chariot must have been thicker than the 
body to which it gave both form and strength. 
In front of the chariot the antyx was often 
raised above the body, into the form of a 

curvature, which served the purpose of a 
hook to hang the reins upon. 

Antyx. (From 


APAGOGE (dmxyvyjj), a summary process, 
allowed in certain cases by the Athenian law. 
The term denotes not merely the act of ap- 
prehending a culprit caught in ipso facto, but 
also the written information delivered to the 
magistrate, urging his apprehension. The 
cases in which the apagoge was most gene- 
rally allowed were those of theft, murder, 
ill-usage of parents, &c. 

APATURIA (ajraTovpia) was a political 
festival, which the Athenians had in common 
with all the Greeks of the Ionian name, with 
the exception of those of Colophon and 
Ephesus. It was celebrated in the month of 
Pyanepsion, and lasted for three days. The 
name airarovpia. is not derived from anaTav, 
to deceive, but is composed of d=ana and 
irarvpta, which is perfectly consistent with 
what Xenophon says of the festival, that 
when it is celebrated the fathers and rela- 
tions assemble together. According to this 
derivation, it is the festival at which the 
phratriae met to discuss and settle their own 
affairs. But, as every citizen was a member 
of a phratria, the festival extended over the 
whole nation, who assembled according to 
phratriae. The festival lasted three days. 
The third day was the most important ; for 
on that day, children born in that year, in 
the families of the phratriae, or such as were 
not yet registered, were taken by their fa- 
thers, or in their absence by their repre- 
sentatives (xvpiot), before the assembled 
members of the phratria. For every child a 
sheep or a goat was sacrificed. The father, 
or he who supplied his place, was obliged to 
establish by oath that the child was the off- 
spring of free-born parents, and citizens of 
Athens. After the victim was sacrificed, the 
phratores gave their votes, which they took 
from the altar of Zeus Phratrius. When the 
majority voted against the reception, the 
cause might be tried before one of the courts 
of Athens; and if the claims of the child 
were found unobjectionable, its name, as well 




as that of the father, -was entered into the 
register of the phratria, and those who had 
wished to effect the exclusion of the child 
were liable to be punished. 


APEX, a cap worn by the flaraines and 
salii at Rome. The essential part of the 
apex, to which alone the name properly be- 
longed, was a pointed piece of olive-wood, 
the base of which was surrounded with a 
lock of wool. This was worn on the top of 
the head, and was held there either by fillets 
only, or, as was more commonly the case, by 
the aid of a cap which fitted the head, and 
was also fastened by means of two strings or 
bands. The albogalerus, a white cap made 
of the skin of a white victim sacrificed to 
Jupiter, and worn by the fl amen dialis, had the 
apex fastened to it by means of an olive twig. 

Apices, cipa worn bj- the Salii. (Frc 

APHLASTON (a^AoMrrov). [Nxvis.] 


APHRODISIA (<icf>poSria) were festivals 
celebrated in honour of Aphrodite^ in a great 
number of towns in Greece, but particularly 
in the island of Cyprus. Her most ancient 
temple was at Paphos. No bloody sacrifices 
were allowed to be offered to her, but only 
pure fire, flowers, and incense. 


APOCLETI (diroKArjToi). [AETOLicust FOE- 

APODECTAE (AiroSeVrai), public officers 
at Athens, who were introduced by Cleisthenes 
in the place of the ancient colacretae (xwAa- 
/epeVai). They were ten in number, one for 
each tribe, and their duty was to collect all 
the ordinary taxes, and distribute them 
among the separate branches of the adminis- 
tration which were entitled to them. 

APOGRAPHE (awoypcuj)!/)'), literally, " a 
list, or register;" signified also, (1) An ac- 
cusation in public matters, more particularly 
when there were several defendants. It 
differed but little, if at all, from the ordinary 
graphe. ( 2 ) A solemn protest or assertion 
in writing before a magistrate, to the intent 
that it might be preserved by him till it was 
required to be given in evidence. (3) A 
specification of property, said to belong to 
the state, but actually in the possession of a 
private person ; which specification was made 
with a view to the confiscation of such pro- 
perty to the state. 



APOLLONIA (an-oAAwi/ia), the name of a 
propitiatory festival solemnized at Sicyon, in 
honour of ApoUo and Artemis. 

APOPHORETA (dTro^dprjTa) were presents, 
which were given to friends at the end of an 
entertainment to take home with them. 
These presents appear to have been usually 
given on festival days, especially during the 

APORRHETA (airopfaTa), literally " things 
forbidden," has two peculiar, but widely dif- 
ferent, acceptations in the Attic dialect. In 
one of these it implies contraband goods ; in 
the other, it denotes certain contumelious 
epithets, from the application of which both 
the Kving and the dead were protected by 
special laws. 

APOSTOLEUS (an-ooToXev's), the name of a 
public officer at Athens. There were ten 
magistrates of this name, and their duty was 
to see that the ships were properly equipped 
and provided by those who were bound to 
discharge the trierarchy. They had the 
power, in certain cases, of imprisoning the 
trierarchs who neglected to furnish the ships 

APOTHECA (iTroe^K))), a place in the 
upper part of the house, in which the Ro- 
mans frequently placed the earthen amphorae 
in which their wines were deposited. This 
place, which was quite different from the 
cella vinaria, was above the fumarium ; since 
it was thought that the passage of the smoke 
through the room tended greatly to increase 
the flavour of the wine. The position of the 
apotheca explains the expression in Horace 
(Carm. ii. 21, 7), Dcscende, testa. 

APOTHEOSIS (an-oeeWts), the enrolment 
of a mortal among the gods. The mythology 
of Greece contains numerous instances of the 
deification of mortals ; but in the republican 
times of Greece we find few examples of such 
deification. The inhabitants of Amphipolis, 
however, offered sacrifices to Brasidas ai'tei 
his death. In the Greek kingdoms, which 




arose in the East on the dismemberment of 
the empire of Alexander, it appears to have 
been not uncommon for the successor to the 
throne to offer divine honours to the former 
sovereign. Such an apotheosis of Ptolemy, 
king of Egypt) is described by Theocritus in 
his 17th Idyl. The term apotheosis, among 
the Romans, properly signified the elevation 
of a deceased emperor to divine honours. 
This practice, which was common upon the 
death of almost all the emperors, appears to 
have arisen from the opinion which was 
generally entertained among the Romans, 
that the souls or manes of their ancestors 
became deities ; and as it was common for 
children to worship the manes of their 
fathers, so it was natural for divine honours 
to be publicly paid to a deceased emperor, 
who was regarded as the parent of his 
country. This apotheosis of an emperor was 
usually called consecratio ; and the emperor 
who received the honour of an apotheosis 
was usually said in deorum numerum referri, 
or consecrari, and whenever he is spoken of 
after his death, the title of divus is prefixed 
to his name. The funeral pile on which the 
body of the deceased emperor was burnt, was 
constructed of several stories in the form of 
chambers rising one above another, and in 
the highest an eagle was placed, which was 
let loose as the fire began to burn, and which 
was supposed to carry the soul of the em- 
peror from earth to heaven. 

APPARITOR, the general name for a 
public servant of the magistrates at Rome, 
VJATOR, of whom an account is given in 
separate articles. They were called appa- 
ritores because they were at hand to execute 
the commands of the magistrates (quod Us 
apparebant). Their service or attendance 
was called apparitio. 

APPELLATIO, appeal. (1) GREEK (efco-is 
or avaSiKia.) Owing to the constitution of 
the Athenian tribunals, each of which was 
generally appropriated to its peculiar sub- 
jects of cognisance, and therefore could not 
be considered as homogeneous with or subor- 
dinate to any other, there was little oppor- 
tunity for bringing appeals properly so called. 
It is to be observed also, that in general a 
cause was finally and irrevocably decided by 
the verdict of the dicasts (8unj auTOTeAijs). 
There were only a few exceptions in which 
appeals and new trials might be resorted to. 
(2) ROMAN. The word appellatio, and the 
corresponding verb appellare, are used in the 
early Roman writers to express the appli- 
cation of an individual to a magistrate, and 
particularly to a tribune, in order to protect 

himself from some wrong inflicted, or threat- 
ened to be inflicted. It is distinguished from 
provocatio, which in the earlv writers is used 
to signify an appeal to the populus in a 
matter affecting life. It would seem that the 
provocatio was an ancient right of the Roman 
citizens. The surviving Horatius, who mur- 
dered his sister, appealed from the duumviri 
to the populus. The decemviri took away 
the provocatio ; but it was restored by the 
Lex Valeria et Horatia, B.C. 449, in the year 
after the decemvirate, and it was at the same 
time enacted, that in future no magistrate 
should be made from whom there should be 
no appeal. On this Livy remarks, that the 
plebs were now protected by the provocatio 
and the tribunicium auxilium ; this latter 
term has reference to the appellatio properly 
so called. The complete phrase to express 
the provocatio is provocare ad poputum ; and 
the phrase which expresses the appellatio is 
appellare ad, &c. 

APSIS or ABSIS (<tyi's), in architecture, 
signified first, any building or portion of a 
building of a circular form or vaulted, and 
more especially the circular and vaulted end 
of a Basilica. 

AQUAE DUCTUS (vS P a V ;oyia), literally, a 
water-conduit, but the word is used especially 
for the magnificent structures by means of 
which Rome and other cities of the Roman 
empire were supplied with water. A Roman 
aqueduct, often called simply aqua, may be 
described in general terms as a channel, con- 
structed as nearly as possible with a regular 
declivity from the source whence the water 
was derived to the place where it was de- 
livered, carried through hills by means of 
tunnels, and over valleys upon a substruction 
of solid masonry or arches. The aqueduct is 
mentioned by Strabo as among the structures 
which were neglected by the Greeks, and 
first brought into use by the Romans. 
Springs (Kprjrai, (tpowoi) were sufficiently 
abundant in Greece to supply the great cities 
with water ; and they were frequently con- 
verted into public fountains by the formation 
of a head for their waters, and the erection 
of an ornamental superstructure. Of this 
we have an example in the Enneacrunos at 
Athens, which was constructed by Peisistratus 
and his sons. The Romans were in a very 
different position, with respect to the supply 
of water, from most of the Greek cities. 
They, at first, had recourse to the Tiber, and 
to wells sunk in the city; but the water 
obtained from those sources was very un- 
wholesome, and mu&t soon have proved in- 
sufficient, from the growth of the population. 
It was this necessity 1 hat led to the invention 
of aqueducts, in order to bring pure water 




from the hills which surround the Campagna. 
The number of aqueducts was gradually in- 
creased, partly at. the public expense, and 
partly by the munificence of individuals, till, 
in the fourth century of the Christian era, 
they amounted to fourteen. Of these only 
four belong to the time of the republic, while 
five were built in the reigns of Augustus and 
Claudius. 1. The Aqua Appia, begun by the 
censor Appius Claudius Caecus in B.C. 313. 
Its sources were near the Via Praenestina, 
between the seventh and eighth milestones. 
2. The Anio Vetus was commenced forty years 
later, B.C. 273, by the censor M. Curius Den- 
tatus, and was finished by M. Fulvius Flaccus. 
The water was derived from the river Anio, 
above Tibur, at a distance of 20 Roman miles 
from the city ; but, on account of its wind- 
ings, its actual length was 43 miles. 3. The 
Aqua Marcia, one of the most important of 
the whole, was built by the praetor Q. Mar- 
cius Rex, by command of the senate, in B. c. 
144. It commenced at the side of the Via 
Valeria, 36 miles from Rome. 4. The Aqua 
Tepula, built by the censors Cn. Servilius 
Caepio and L. Cassius Longinus in B.C. 127, 
began at a spot in the Lucullan or Tusculan 
land, two miles to the right of the tenth 
milestone on the Via Latina. It was after- 
wards connected with 5. The Aqua Julia, 
built by Agrippa in his aedileship, B.C. 33. 
It was conducted from a source two miles to 
the right of the twelfth milestone on the Via 
Latina, first to the Aqua Tepula, in which 
it was merged as far as the reservoir (pis- 
cina) on the Via Latina, seven miles from 
Rome. From this reservoir the water was 
carried along two distinct channels, on the 
same substructions ; the lower channel being 
called the Aqua Tepula, and the upper the 
Aqua Julia ; and this double aqueduct again 
wa3 united with the Aqua Marcia, over the 
watercourse of which the other two were 
carried. 6. The Aqua Virgo, built by Agrippa, 
to supply his baths. From a source in a 
marshy spot by the 8th milestone on the 
Via Collatina, it was conducted by a very 
circuitous route. 7. The Aqua Alsietina 
(sometimes called also Aqua Augusta), on the 
other side of the Tiber, was constructed by 
Augustus from the Lacus Alsietinus (Lago di 
Martignano), which lay 6500 passus to the 
right of the 14th milestone on the Via 
Claudia. 8, 9. The two most magnificent 
aqueducts were the Aqua Claudia and the 
Anio Novus (or Aqua Aniena Nova], both 
commenced by Caligula in A. D. 36, and 
finished by Claudius in A.D. 50. The water 
of the Aqua Claudia wag derived from two 
copious and excellent springs, near the 38th 
milestone on the Via SuUacensis. Its length 

was nearly 46 J miles. The Anio Novus began 
at the 42nd milestone. It was the longest 
and the highest of all the aqueducts, its 
length being nearly 59 miles, and some of its 
arches 109 feet high. In the neighbourhood 
of the city these two aqueducts were united, 
forming two channels on the same arches, the 
Claudia below and the Anio Novus above. 
These nine aqueducts were all that existed in 
the time of Frontinus, who was the curator 
of the aqueducts in the reigns of Nerva and 
Trajan. There was also another aqueduct, 
not reckoned with the nine, because its waters 
were no longer brought all the way to Rome, 
viz. : 10. The Aqua Orabra. The following 
were of later construction. 11. The Aqua 
Trajana, brought by Trajan from the Lacui 
Sabatinus (now Bracciano). 12. The Aqua 
Alexandrina, constructed by Alexander Se- 
verus; its source was in the lands of Tus- 
culum, about 14 miles from Rome. 13. The 
Aqua Septimiana, built by Septimius Severus, 
was perhaps only a branch of the Aqua Julia. 
14. The Aqua Alyentia had its source at 
M. Algidus by the Via Ttisculana. Its builder 
is unknown. Great pains were taken by 
successive emperors to preserve and repair 
the aqueducts. From the Gothic wars down- 
wards, they have for the most part shared 
the fate of the other great Roman works of 
architecture ; their situation and purpose 
rendering them peculiarly exposed to injury 
in war ; but still their remains form the most 
striking features of the Campagna, over which 
their lines of ruined arches, clothed with ivy 
and the wild fig-tree, radiate in various di- 
rections. Three of them still serve for their 
ancient use. They are (1.) The Acqua 
Vergine, the ancient Aqua 
Virgo. (2.) The Acqua Pel 'ice, 
named after the conventual 
name of its restorer Sixtus V. 
(Fra Felice), is, probably, a 
part of the ancient Aqua 
Claudia, though some take it 
for \hc Alexandrina. (3.) The 
Acqua Paola, the ancient 
Alsietina. The following 
woodcut represents a restored 
section of the triple aqueduct 
of Agrippa : a. the Aqua 
Marcia ; b. the Aqua Tepula ; 
c. the Aqua Julia. The two 
latter are of brick and vaulted 
over. The air-vents are also 
shown. The channel of an 
aqueduct (specus, canalis) 
was a trough of brick or 
stone, lined with cement, and 
covered with a coping, which 
was almost always arched; Triple Aqueduct. 



and the water either ran directly through this 
trough, or it was carried through pipes laid 
along the trough. These pipes were of lead, 
or terra-cotta (fictiles), and sometimes, for the 
sake of economy, of leather. At convenient 
points on the course of the aqueduct, and 
especially near the middle and end, there was 
generally a reservoir (piscina, piscina limosa) 
in which the water might deposit any sedi- 
ment that it contained. The water was re- 
ceived, when it reached the walls of the city, 
in a vast reservoir called castellum, which 
formed the head of water and also served the 
purpose of a meter. From this principal 
castellum the water flowed into other castella, 
whence it was distributed for public and 
private use. The term castellum is some- 
times also applied to the intermediate reser- 
voirs already mentioned. During the re- 
public, the censors and aediles had the super- 
intendence of the aqueducts. Augustus first 
established curatores (or praefecti) aquarum, 
who were invested with considerable au- 
thority. They were attended outside the city 
by two lictors, three public slaves, a secretary, 
and other attendants. In the time of Nerva 
and Trajan, 460 slaves were constantly em- 
ployed under the orders of the curatores 
aquarum in attending to the aqueducts. They 
consisted of: 1. The villici, whose duty it 
was to attend to the pipes and calices. 2. The 
castellarii, who had the superintendence of 
all the castella, both within and without the 
city. 3. The circtdtores, so called because 
they had to go from post to post, to examine 
into the state of the works, and also to keep 
watch over the labourers employed upon 
them. 4. The silicarii, or paviours. 5. The 
tectores, or masons. These and other work- 
men appear to have been included under the 
general term of AQUARII. 



AQUARII, slaves who carried water for 
bathing, &c., into the female apartments. 
The aquarii were also public officers who 
attended to the aqueducts. [AQUAE Ducrus.] 


ARA (/Sw/uds, Owrrjpiov), an altar. Ara was 
a general term denoting any structure ele- 
vated above the ground, and used to receive 
upon it offerings made to the gods. Altare, 
probably contracted from alta ara, was pro- 
perly restricted to the larger, higher, and 
more expensive structures. Four specimens 
of ancient altars are given below ; the two in 
the former woodcut are square, and those in 
the latter round, which is the less common 
form. At the top of three of the above altars 
we see the hole intended to receive the fire 
(ecrxopt'j, ecrxapa) : the fourth was probably 

intended for the offering of fruits or other 
gifts, which were presented to the gods with- 
out fire. When the altars were prepared for 

Arae, Altars. 

sacrifice, they were commonly decorated with 
garlands or festoons. These were composed 
of certain kinds of leaves and flowers, which 

Arae, Altars. 

were considered consecrated to such uses, 
and were called verbenae. The altars con- 
structed with most labour and skill belonged 
to temples ; and they were erected either 
before the temple or within the cella of the 
temple, and principally before the statue of 
the divinity to whom it was dedicated. The 
altars in the area before the temple were 
altars of burnt-offerings, at which animal 
sacrifices (victimae, <r<f>a.yia, tepeta) were pre- 
sented : only incense was burnt, or cakes and 
bloodless sacrifices offered on the altars within 
the building. 

ARATRUM (dpoTpo./), a plough. Among 
the Greeks and Romans the three most es- 
sential parts of the plough were, the plough- 
tail (yv>)?, bnris, bvra), the share-beam 
(eAv/ua, dens, dentale], that is, the piece of 
wood to which the share is fixed, and the polo 
(pujtids, ioTo/Soev'?, temo). In the time and 
country of Virgil it was the custom to force a 
tree into the crooked form of the bvris, 01 
plough-tail. The upper end of the luris be- 
ing held by the ploughman, the lower part, 




below its junction with the pole, was used to 
hold the dentale or share-beam, which was 
either sheathed with metal, or driven bare 
into the ground, according to circumstances. 
The term vomer was sometimes applied to the 
end of the dentale. To these three parts, the 
two following are added in the description of 
the plough by Virgil : 1. The earth-boards, 
or mould-boards (aitres), rising on each side, 
bending outwardly in such a manner as to 
throw on either hand the soil which had been 
previously loosened and raised by the share, 
and adjusted to the share-beam (dentale), 
which was made double for the purpose of 
receiving them. 2. The handle (stiva). Vir- 
gil describes this part as used to turn the 
plough at the end of the furrow ; and it is 
denned by an ancient commentator on Virgil 
as the " handle by which the plough is di- 
rected." It is probable that as the dentalia, 
the two share-beams, were in the form of 
the Greek letter A, which Virgil describes by 
duplici dorso. the buris was fastened to the 
left share-beam and the stiva to the right, so 
that the plough of Virgil was more like the 
modern Lancashire plough, which is com- 
monly held behind with both hands. Some- 
times, however, the stiva was used alone and 
instead of the buris or tail. In place of stiva 
the term capuhis is sometimes employed. The 
only other part of the plough requiring notice 
is the coulter (cutter), which was used by the 
Romans as it is with us. It was inserted 
into the pole so as to depend vertically before 
the share, cutting through the roots which 
came in its way, and thus preparing for the 
more complete overturning of the soil by the 
share. Two small wheels were also added 
to some ploughs. The plough, as described 
by Virgil, corresponds in all essential parti- 
culars with the plough now used about Man- 
tua and Venice. The Greeks and Romans 
usually ploughed their land three times for 

each crop. The first ploughing was called 
proscindere, or novare (feovo-Sai, vea^eotfai) ; 
the second offringere, or iterare ; and the 
third, lirare, or tertiare. The field which 
underwent the " proscissio " was called ver- 
vactum or novale (Veos), and in this process 
the coulter was employed, because the fresh 
surface was entangled with numberless roots 
which required to be divided before the soil 
could be turned up by the share. The term 
"offringere," from ob and f ranger e, was ap- 
plied to the second ploughing ; because the 
long parallel clods already turned up were 
broken and cut across, by drawing the plough 
through them at right angles to its former 
direction. The field which underwent thie 
process was called ager iteratus. After the 
second ploughing the sower cast his seed. 
Also the clods were often, though not always, 
broken still further by a wooden mallet, or 
by harrowing (occatio). The Roman plough- 
man then, for the first time, attached the earth, 
boards to his share. The effect of this ad- 
justment was to divide the level surface of 
the " ager iteratus " into ridges. These were 
called porcae, and also lirae, whence came 
the verb lirare, to make ridges, and also 
delirare, to decline from the straight line. 
The earth-boards, by throwing the earth to 
each side in the manner already explained, 
both covered the newly-scattered seed, and 
formed between the ridges furrows (auAaice?, 
sulci) for carrying off the water. In this 
state the field was called seges and rpiVoAo?. 
When the ancients ploughed three times only, 
it was done in the spring, summer, and au- 
tumn of the same year. But in order to ob- 
tain a still heavier crop, both the Greeks and 
the Romans ploughed four times, the proscis- 
sio being performed in the latter part of the 
preceding year, so that between one crop and 
another two whole years intervened. 

Aratruin, Plough (now ucd at Mantua). 

3. Dentale. 4. Culler. S. Von 

ARCA (Ki/3<oTds). (1) A chest, in which 
the Romans were accustomed to place their 
money ; and the phrase ex area solvere had the 
meaning of paying in ready money. The 

term arcae was usually applied to the chests 
in which the rich kept their money, and was 
opposed to the smaller loculi, saccuiits, and 
crumena. (2) The coffin in which persons 




were buried, or the bier on which the corpse 
was placed previously to burial. ( 3 ) A strong 
cell made of oak, in which criminals and 
slaves were confined. 

ARCERA, a covered carriage or litter, 
spread with cloths, which was used in ancient 
times in Rome, to carry the aged and infirm. 
It is said to have obtained the name of arcera 
on account of its resemblance to an area, or 


, Tav. 19, fig. 2.) 

ARCHEIOX (dpxeioi') properly means any 
public place belonging to the magistrates, but 
is more particularly applied to the archive 
office, where the decrees of the people and 
other state documents were preserved. This 
office is sometimes merely called TO 8r;n.ocn'oi>. 
At Athens the archives were kept in the temple 
of the mother of the gods (nrjrptjov), and the 
charge of it was entrusted to the president 
(e7n.orT>)s) of the senate of the Five-hundred. 

ARCHIATER (<Lpxi'<-ps), a medical title 
under the Roman emperors, the exact signifi- 
cation of which has been the subject of much 
discussion, but which most probably means 
" the chief of the physicians." The first 
person whom we find bearing this title is 
Andromachus, physician to Nero. In after 
times the order appears to have been divided, 
and we find two distinct classes of archiatri, 
viz., those of the palace and those of the 


ARCHITECTURA (apxiTe/CTOKio, apxtreit. 
TO,,<.KTJ), architecture. The necessity for a 
habitation, and the attempt to adorn those 
habitations which were intended for the gods, 
are the two causes from which the art de- 
rives its existence. In early times little 
attention was paid to domestic architecture. 
The resources of the art were lavished upon 
the temples of the gods ; and hence the 
greater part of the history of Grecian archi- 
tecture is inseparably connected with that of 
the temple, and has its proper place under 
TEMPLUM, and the subordinate headings, 
such as CoLf MNA, &c. But, though the first 
rise of architecture, as a fine art, is connected 
with the temple, yet, viewed as the science 
of construction, it must have been employed, 

even earlier, for other purposes, such as the 
erection of fortifications, palaces, treasuries, 
and other works of utility. Accordingly, it 
is the general opinion of antiquaries, that the 
very earliest edifices, of which we have any 
remains, are the so-called Cyclopean woiks, 
in which we see huge unsquared blocks of 
stone built together in the best way that 
their shapes would allow. [MURUS.] In ad- 
dition to these, however, there are other 
purposes for which architecture, still using 
the term in its lower sense, would be required 
in a very early stage of political society ; 
such as the general arrangement of cities, 
the provision of a place for the transaction of 
public business, with the necessary edifices 
appertaining to it [AGORA, FORUM], and the 
whole class of works which we embrace under 
the head of civil engineering, such as those 
for drainage [CLOACA, EMISSARIES], for com- 
munication [VIA, PONS], and for the supply 
of water [AQUAE DUCTUS]. Almost equally 
necessary are places devoted to public exer- 
cise, health, and amusement, GYMNASIUM, 
skill of the architect has been from the 
earliest times employed to preserve the me- 
mory of departed men and past events ; and 
hence we have the various works of monu- 
mental and triumphal architecture, which are 
described under the heads FUNUS, ARCUS, 
COLL T MNA. The history of architecture may 
be divided into five periods. The first, which 
is chiefly mythical, comes down to the tune 
of Cypselus, 01. 30, B. c. 660 : the second 
period comes down to the termination of the 
Persian war, Ol. 75. 2, B.C. 478 : the third is 
the brilliant period from the end of the Per- 
sian war to the death of Alexander the Great, 
Ol. 114, B.C. 323 : the fourth period extends 
to the battle of Actium, B.C. 31 : the fifth 
period embraces the architecture of the Ro- 
man empire till it became mingled with the 
Gothic. Strongly fortified cities, palaces, and 
treasuries are the chief works of the earlier 
part of the first period ; and to it may be 
referred most of the so-called Cyclopean re- 
mains ; while the era of the Dorian invasion 
marks, in all probability, the commencement 
of the Dorian style of temple architecture. 
In the second period the art made rapid ad- 
vances under the powerful patronage of the 
aristocracies in some cities, as at Sparta, and 
of the tyrants in others, as Cypselus at 
Corinth, Theagnes at Megara, Cleisthenes at 
Sicyon, the Peisistratids at Athens, and Poly- 
crates at Samos. Architecture now assumed 
decidedly the character of a fine art, and 
became associated with the s ster arts of 
sculpture and painting, whi'jh are essential 




to its development. Magnificent temples 
sprung up in all the principal Greek cities ; 
and while the Doric order was brought al- 
most, if not quite, to perfection, in Greece 
Proper, in the Doric colonies of Asia Minor, 
and in Central Italy and Sicily, the Ionic 
order appeared, already perfect at its first 
invention, in the great temple of Artemis at 
Ephesus. The ruins still existing at Paestum, 
Syracuse, Agrigentum, Selinus, Aegina, and 
other places, are imperishable monuments of 
this period. To it also belong the great works 
of the Roman kings. The commencement of 
the third and most brilliant period of the art 
was signalized by the rebuilding of Athens, 
the establishment of regular principles for 
the laying out of cities by Hippodamus of 
Miletus, and the great works of the age of 
Pericles, by the contemporaries of Phidias, at 
Athens, Eleusis, and Olympia. The first part 
of the fourth period saw the extension of the 
Greek architecture over the countries con- 
quered by Alexander, and, in the West, the 
commencement of the new style, which arose 
from the imitation, with some alterations, of 
the Greek forms by Roman architects, to 
which the conquest of Greece gave, of course, 
a new impulse. By the time of Augustus, 
Rome was adorned with every kind of public 
and private edifice, surrounded by villas, and 
furnished with roads and aqueducts ; and 
these various erections were adorned by the 
forms of Grecian art ; but already "Vitruvius 
begins to complain that the purity of that art 
is corrupted by the intermixture of hetero- 
geneous forms. This process of deterioration 
went on rapidly during the fifth period, 
though combined at first with increasing 
magnificence in the scale and number of the 
buildings erected. The early part of this 
period is made illustrious by the numerous 
works of Augustus and his successors, espe- 
cially the Flavii, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian 
and the Antonines, at Rome and in the pro 
vinces ; but from the time of the Antoninc 
the decline of the art was rapid and decided 
In one department a new impulse was given 
to architecture by the rise of Christian 
churches, which were generally built on tlr 
model of the Roman Basilica. One of th 
most splendid specimens of Christian archi 
tecture is the church of S. Sophia at Constan 
tinople, built in the reign of Justinian, A.D 
537, and restored, after its partial destructioi 
by an earthquake, in 554. But, long befor 
this time, the Greco-Roman style had becom 
thoroughly corrupted, and that new style 
which is called the Byzantine, had arisen ou 
of the mixture of Roman architecture wit 
ideas derived from the Northern nations. 
&RCH1THEORUS (apx^ewpos). [DELIA 

ARCHON (apxwv). The government ot 
thens began with monarchy, and, after pass- 
g through a dynasty * and aristocracy, ended 
i democracy. Of the kings of Athens, con- 
dered as the capital of Attica, Theseus may 
e said to have been the first ; for to b im, 
hether as a real individual or a representa- 
ve of a certain period, is attributed the 
nion of the different and independent states 
' Attica under one head. The last was 
odrus ; in acknowledgment of whose pa- 
riotism in meeting death for his country, 
le Athenians are said to have determined 
lat no one should succeed him with the 
tie of king (/3a<riX<rvs). It seems, however, 
qually probable that it was the nobles who 
vailed the-nselves of the opportunity to 
erve their own interests, by abolishing the 
ingly power for another, the possessors of 
vhich they called Archontes (apxovTes) or 
ulers. These for some time continued to be 
ike the kings of the house of Codrus, ap- 
ointed for life : still an important point was 
ained by the nobles, the office being made 
ccountable (inrev0i>i'os), which of course im- 
>lies that the nobility had some control over 
t. This state of things lasted for twelve 
eigns of archons. The next step was to 
imit the continuance of the office to ten 
'ears, still confining it to the Medontidae, or 
louse of Codrus, so as to establish what the 
Greeks called a dynasty, till the archonship 
of Eryxias, the last archon of that family 
elected as such. At the end of his ten years 
V B. c. G84), a much greater change took place : 
,he archonship was made annual, and its 
various duties divided among a college of 
nine, chosen by suffrage (xeipoiWa) from the 
Eupatridae, or Patricians, and no longer 
elected from the Medontidae exclusively. This 
arrangement lasted till the time of Solon, who 
still continued the election by suffrage, but 
made the qualification for office depend, not 
on birth, but property. The election by lot 
is believed to have been introduced by Cleis- 
thenes (B.C. 508). The -last change is sup- 
posed to have been made by Aristides, -who 
after the battle of Plataeae (B. c. 479) abo- 
lished the property qualification, throwing 
open the archonship and other magistracies 
to all the citizens ; that is, to the Thetes, as 
well as the other classes, the former of whom 
were not allowed by Solon's laws to hold any 
magistracy at all. Still, after the removal of 
the old restrictions, some security was left to 
insure respectability ; for, previously to an 
archon entering on office, he underwent an 
examination, called the anacrisis (ofrfjcptvtc), 
as to his being a legitimate and a good citizen, 

Ry this 18 meant that the supreme power, though nul 
monarchical, was confined to one family. 



a good son, and qualified in point of property, 
but the latter limitation was either done away 
with by Aristides, or soon became obsolete. 
Yet, even after passing a satisfactory ana- 
crisis, each of the archons, in common with 
other magistrates, was liable to be deposed on 
complaint of misconduct made before the 
people, at the first regular assembly in each 
prytany. On such an occasion the epichciro- 
tonia (eTrtxeipoTovta), as it was called, took 
place : and we read that in one case the whole 
college of archons was deprived of office 
(airoxeipoToceicrOai). In consequence of the 
clemocratical tendency of the assembly and 
courts of justice established by Solon, the 
arehons lost the great political power which 
they at one time possessed. They became, in 
fact, not as of old directors of the government, 
but merely municipal magistrates, exercising 
functions and bearing titles described below. 
It has been already stated, that the duties of 
the single archon were shared by a college of 
nine. The first, or president of this body, 
was called Archon, by way of pre-eminence, 
or Archon Eponymus (apX *" emui/vjuos), from 
the year being distinguished by and regis- 
tered in his name. The second was styled 
Archon Baslleus (apx""' jSaeriAeus), or the 
King Archon ; the third Polemarchus (iroAe- 
fiapxos), or commander-in-chief ; the remain- 
ing six, Thesmothetae (9eo>io0e'Tcu), or legis- 
lators. As regards the duties of the archons, 
it is sometimes difficult to distinguish what 
belonged to them individually, and what col- 
lectively. It seems that a considerable por- 
tion of the judicial functions of the ancient 
kings devolved upon the Archon Eponymus, 
who was also constituted a sort of state pro- 
tector of those who were unable to defend 
themselves. Thus he was to superintend 
orphans, heiresses, families losing their repre- 
sentatives, widows left pregnant, and to see 
that they were not wronged in any way. 
This archon had also the superintendence 
of the greater Dionysia, and the Thargelia. 
The functions of the King Archon were almost 
all connected with religion ; his distinguishing 
title shows that he was considered a repre- 
sentative of the old kings in their capacity of 
high priest, as the Rex Sacrificulus was at 
Rome. Thus he presided at the Lenaea, or 
older Dionysia ; superintended the mysteries 
and the games called Lampadephoriae, and 
had to offer up sacrifices and prayers in the 
Eleusinium, both at Athens and Eleusis. 
Moreover, indictments for impiety, and con- 
troversies about the priesthood, were laid be- 
fore him ; and, in cases of murder, he brought 
the trial into the court of the areiopagus, and 
voted with its members. His wife, also, who 
was called Sasilissa (j3a<n'Aio-<ra), had to offer 

certain sacrifices, and therefore it was re- 
quired that she should be a citizen of pui< 
blood, without stain or blemish. The Pole- 
march was originally, as his name denotes, 
the commander-in-chief, and we find mra 
discharging military duties as late as the 
battle of Marathon, in conjunction with the 
ten Strategi ; he there took, like the kings of 
old, the command of the right wing of the 
army. This, however, seems to be the last 
occasion on record of this magistrate ap- 
pointed by lot being invested with such im- 
portant functions ; and in after ages we find 
that his duties ceased to be military, having 
been, in a great measure, transferred to the 
protection and superintendence of the resident 
aliens, so that he resembled in many respects 
the praetor peregrinus at Rome. Thus, all 
actions affecting aliens, the isoteles and 
proxeni were brought before him- previously 
to trial. Moreover, it was the polemarch's 
duty to offer the yearly sacrifice to Artemis, 
in commemoration of the vow made by Calli- 
machus, at Marathon, and to arrange the 
funeral games in honour of those who fell in 
war. The six Thesmothefae were extensively 
connected with the administration of justice, 
and appear to have been called legislators, 
because, in the absence of a written code, 
they might be said to make laws, or thesmi 
(Secr/aoi), in the ancient language of Athens, 
though in reality they only explained them. 
They were required to review, every year, 
the whole body of laws, that they might 
detect any inconsistencies or superfluities, 
and discover whether any laws which were 
abrogated were in the public records amongst 
the rest. - Their report was submitted to the 
people, who referred the necessary alterations 
to a legislative committee chosen for the pur- 
pose, and called Nomothetae (yoiioQiraC). The 
chief part of the duties of the thesmothetae 
consisted in receiving informations, and bring- 
ing cases to trial in the courts of law, of the 
days of sitting in which they gave public 
notice. They did not try them themselves, 
but seem to have constituted a sort of grand 
jury, or inquest. The trial itself took place 
before the Dicastae. [DICASTAE.] It is ne- 
cessary to be cautious in our interpretation of 
the words ipxn and apx o " Te? i since they have 
a double meaning in the Attic orators, some- 
times referring to the archons peculiarly so 
called, and sometimes to any other magistracy. 
The archons had various privileges and ho- 
nours. The greatest of the former was the 
exemption from the trierarchies a boon not 
allowed even to the successors of Harmodius 
and Aristogeiton As a mark of their office, 
they wore a chaplet or crown of myrtle ; and 
if any one struck or abused one of the archons, 




when wearing- this badge of office, he became 
atimus (OLTIJOIOS), or infamous in the fullest 
extent, thereby losing his civic rights. The 
archons, at the close of their year of service, 
were admitted among the members of the 
areiopagus. [AREIOPAOUS.] 

ARCUS (also fornix), an arch. A true 
arch is formed of a series of wedge-like 
stones, or of bricks, supporting each other, 
and all bound firmly together by their mutual 
pressure. It would seem that the arch, as 
thus defined, and as used by the Romans, 
was not known to the Greeks in the early 
periods of their history. But they made use 
of a contrivance, even in the heroic age, by 
which they were enabled to gain all the 
advantages of our archway in making corri- 
dors, or hollow galleries, and which in ap- 
pearance resembled the pointed arch, such as 
is now termed Gothic. This was effected by 
cutting away the superincumbent stones in 
the manner already described, at an angle of 
about 45 with the horizon. The mode of 
construction and appearance of such arches 
is represented in the annexed drawing of the 
walls of Tiryns. The gate of Signia fSegni} 
in Latium exhibits a similar example. The 
principle of the true arch seems to have been 
known to the Romans from the earliest period ; 
it is used in the Cloaca Maxima. It is most 
probably an Etruscan invention. The use of 

it constitutes one leading distinction between 
Greek and Roman architectxire, for by its 
application the Romans were enabled to exe- 

Arch of Tirym. (Cell's Itinerary, pi. 16.; 

cute works of far bolder construction than 
those of the Greeks. The Romans, however, 
never used any other form of arch than the 
semicircle. The arcus triumphalis, triumphal 
arch, was a structure peculiar to the Romans, 
erected in honour of an individual, or in 
commemoration of a conquest. Triumphal 
arches were built across the principal streets 
of Rome, and, according to the space of their 
respective localities, consisted of a single 
archway, or a centi'al one for carriages, and 
two smaller ones on each side for foot-pas- 

Arch of Drusut at Ku: 




sengers. Those actually made use of on the 
occasion of a triumphal entry and procession 
were merely temporary and hastily erected ; 
and, having served their purpose, were taken 
down again, and sometimes replaced by others 
of more durable materials. Stertinius is the 
first upon record who erected anything of the 
kind. He built an arch in the Forum Boa- 
rium, about B. c. 196, and another in the 
Circus Maximus, each of which was sur- 
mounted by gilt statues. There are twenty- 
one arches recorded by different writers, as 
having been erected in the city of Rome, five 
of which now remain : 1. Arcus Drusi, 
which was erected to the honour of Claudius 
Drusus on the Appian way. 2. Arcus Titi, 
at the foot of the Palatine, which was erected 
to the honour of Titus, after his conquest of 
Judaea ; the bas-reliefs of this arch represent 
the spoils from the temple of Jerusalem 
carried in triumphal procession. 3. Arcus 
Septimii Severi, which was erected by the 
senate (A. D. 207) at the end of the Via 
Sacra, in honour of that emperor and his two 
sons, Caracalla and Geta, on account of his 

conquest of the Parthians and Arabians. 4. 
Arcus Gallieni, erected to the honour of Gal- 
lienus by a private individual, M. Aurelius 
Victor. 5. Arcus Constantini, which was 
larger than the arch of Titus. As a specimen 
of the triumphal arches, a drawing of the arch 
of Drusus is given in the preceding page. 

ARCUS (jSio's, Tofof), the bow used for 
shooting arrows, is one of the most ancient 
of all weapons, but is characteristic of Asia 
rather than of Europe. In the Roman armies 
it was scarcely ever employed except by aux- 
iliaries ; and these auxiliaries, called sagit- 
tarii, were chiefly Cretes and Arabians. 
The upper of the two figares below shows 
the Scythian or Parthian bow unstrung ; the 
lower one represents the usual form of the 
Grecian bow, which had a double curvature, 
consisting of two circular portions united by 
the handle. When not used, the bow was 
put into a case (rofoOrJ/oj, ycopuro's, corytus), 
which was made of leather, and sometimes 
ornamented. It frequently held the arrows 
as well as the bow, and on this account is 
often confounded with the pharetra or quiver. 

ArciM, Bow. (From paintings on vases. 

AREA (oAw?, or oAua), the threshing-floor, 
was a raised place in the field, open on all 
sides to the wind. Great pains were taken 
to make tliis floor hard ; it was sometimes 
paved with flint stones, but more usually 
covered with clay and smoothed with a roller. 

AREIOPAGUS (6 'Apecos jra-yos, or hill of 
Ares) was a rocky eminence, lying to the 
west of, and not far from the Acropolis at 
Athens. It was the place of meeting of the 
council (*H fv 'Apei'<j> irayta /3ovA>j), which was 
sometimes called The Upper Council ('H am 
pouArj), to distinguish it from the senate of 
Five-hundred, which sat in the Ccrameicus 
within the city. It was a body of very 
remote antiquity, acting as a criminal tri- 
bunal, and existed long before the time of 

Corytua, Bo' 

Vatican, V 

(Prom a Relief in the 
iti, iv. tav. 43.) 

Solon, but he so far modified its constitution 
and sphere of duty, that he may almost be 
called its founder. What that original consti- 
tution was, must in some degree be left to 
conjecture, though there is every reason to 
suppose that it was aristocratical, the mem- 
bers being taken, like the ephetae, from the 
noble patrician families. [EPHETAE.] By 
the legislation of Solon the Areiopagus was 
composed of the ex-arehons, who, after an 
unexceptionable discharge of their duties, 
" went up " to the Areiopagus, and became 
members of it for life, unless expelled for 
misconduct. As Solon made the qualification 
for the office of archon to depend not on birth 
but on property, the council after his time 
ceased to be aristocratic in constitution ; but, 




as we learn from Attic writers, continued so 
in spirit. In fact, Solon is said to have 
formed the two councils, the senate and the 
Areiopagus, to be a check upon the demo- 
cracy ; that, as he himself expressed it, " the 
state riding upon them as anchors might be 
less tossed by storms." Nay, even after the 
archons were no longer elected by suffrage, 
but by lot, and the office was thrown open by 
Aristides to all the Athenian citizens, the 
" upper council " still retained its former tone 
of feeling. Moreover, besides these changes 
in its constitution, Solon altered and extended 
its functions. Before his time it was only a 
criminal court, trying cases of " wilful mur- 
der and wounding, of arson and poisoning," 
whereas he gave it extensive powers of a 
censorial and political nature. Thus we learn 
that he made the council an " overseer of 
everything, and the guardian of the laws," 
empowering it to inquire how any one got 
his living and to punish the idle ; and we are 
also told that the Areiopagites were "super- 
intendents of good order and decency," terms 
as unlimited and undefined as Solon not 
improbably wished to leave their authority. 
When heinous crimes had notoriously been 
committed, but the guilty parties were not 
known, or no accuser appeared, the Areio- 
pagus inquired into the subject, and re- 
ported to the demus. The report or infor- 
mation was called apophasis. This was a 
duty which they sometimes undertook on 
their own responsibility, and in the exercise 
of an old established right, and sometimes on 
the order of the demus. Nay, to such an 
extent did they carry their power, that on 
one occasion they apprehended an individual 
(Antiphon), who had been acquitted by the 
general assembly, and again brought hiril to 
a trial, which ended in his condemnation and 
death. Again, we find them revoking an 
appointment whereby Aeschines was made 
the advocate of Athens before the Amphic- 
tyonic council, and substituting Hyperides in 
his room. They also had duties connected 
with religion, one of which was to superin- 
tend the sacred olives growing about Athens, 
and try those who were charged with destroy- 
ing them ; and in general it was their office 
to punish the impious and irreligious. Inde- 
pendent, then, of its jurisdiction as a criminal 
court in cases of wilful murder, which Solon 
continued to the Areiopagus, its influence 
must have been sufficiently great to have been 
a considerable obstacle to the aggrandisement 
of the democracy at the expense of the other 
parties in the state. Accordingly, we find 
that Pericles, who was opposed to the aristo- 
cracy, resolved to diminish its power and 
circumscribe its sphere of action- Ills coad- 

jutor in this work was Ephialtes, a statesman 
of inflexible integrity, and also a military 
commander. They experienced much opposi- 
tion in their attempts, not only in the assem- 
bly, but also on the stage, where Aeschylus 
produced his tragedy of the Etimenides, the 
object of which was to impress upon the 
Athenians the dignity, sacredness, and con- 
stitutional worth of the institution which 
Pericles and Ephialtes wished to reform. 
Still the opposition failed : a decree was 
carried by which, as Aristotle says, the Arei- 
opagus was " mutilated," and many of its 
hereditary rights abolished, though it is 
difficult to ascertain the precise nature of the 
alterations which Pericles effected. The juris- 
diction of the Areiopagus in cases of murder 
was still left to them. In such cases the 
process was as follows : The king archon 
brought the case into court, and sat as one of 
the judges, who were assembled in the open 
air, probably to guard against any contamina- 
tion from the criminal. The accuser first 
came forwards to make a solemn oath that his 
accusation was true, standing over the slaugh- 
tered victims, and imprecating extirpation 
upon himself and his whole family were it 
not so. The accused then denied the charge 
with the same solemnity and form of oath. 
Each party then stated his case with all 
possible plainness, keeping strictly to the 
subject, and not being allowed to appeal in 
any way to the feelings or passions of the 
judges. After the first speech, a criminal 
accused of murder might remove from Athens, 
and thus avoid the capital punishment fixed 
by Draco's Thesmi, which on this point were 
still in force. Except in cases of parricide, 
neither the accuser nor the court had power 
to prevent this ; but the party who thus 
evaded the extreme punishment was not 
allowed to return home, and when any decree 
was passed -at Athens to legalize the return 
of exiles, an exception was always made 
against those who had thus left their country. 
The Areiopagus continued to exist, in name 
at least, till a very late period. Thus we find 
Cicero mentioning the council in his letters ; 
and an individual is spoken of as an Areio- 
pagite under the emperors Gratian and Theo- 
dosius (A. D. 380). The case of St. Paul is 
generally quoted as an instance of the autho- 
rity of the Areiopagus in religious matters ; 
but the words of the sacred historian do not 
necessarily imply that he was brought before 
the council. It may, however, be remarked, 
that the Areiopagites certainly took cognizance 
of the introduction of new and unauthorised 
forms of religious worship, called emdera. lepd, 
in contradistinction to the n-arpia or older 
rites of tae state. 




ARETALOGI, persons who amused the 
company at the Roman dinner tables. 

ARGEl, the name given by the pontiflces 
to the places consecrated by Numa for the 
celebration of religious services. Varro calls 
them the chapels of the argei, and says they 
were twenty-seven in number, distributed in 
the different districts of the city. There was 
a tradition that these argei were named from 
the chieftains who came with Hercules, the 
Argive, to Rome, and occupied the Capitoline, 
or, as it was anciently called, Saturnian hill. 
It is impossible to say what is the historical 
value or meaning of this legend; we may, 
however, notice its conformity with the state- 
ment that Rome was founded by the Pelas- 
gians, with whom the name of Argos was 
connected. The name argei was also given 
to certain figures thrown into the Tiber from 
the Sublician bridge, on the Ides of May in 
every year. This was done by the pontifices, 
tbe vestals, the praetors, and other citizens, 
after the performance of the customary sacri- 
fices. The images were thirty in number, 
made of bulrushes, and in the form of men. 
Ovid makes various suppositions to account 
for the origin of this rite ; we can only con- 
jecture that it was a symbolical offering, to 
propitiate the gods, and that the number was 
a representative either of the thirty patrician 
curiae at Rome, or perhaps of the thirty Latin 

ARGENTARII, bankers or money changers. 
(1) GREEK. The bankers at Athens were 
called Trapezitae (rpaTreftVai), from their 
tables (rpan-esai) at which they sat, while 
carrying on their business,and which were in 
the market place. Their principal occupation 
was that of changing money ; but they fre- 
quently took money, at a moderate premium, 
from persons who did not like to occupy 
themselves with the management of their 
own affairs, and placed it out at interest. 
Their usual interest was 36 per cent. ; a 
rate that at present scarcely occurs except 
in cases of money lent on bottomry. The 
only instance of a bank recognized and 
conducted on behalf of the state occurs at 
Byzantium, where at one time it was let by 
the republic to capitalists to farm. Yet the 
state probably exercised some kind of super- 
intendence over the private bankers, since it 
is hardly possible otherwise to account for 
the unlimited confidence which they enjoyed. 
( 2 ) ROMAX. The Argentarii at Rome must 
be distinguished from the mensarii and num- 
mularii, or public bankers. [MENSARII/ 
The argentarii were private persons, who 
carried on business on their own responsi- 
bility, and were not in the service of the 

republic ; but the shops or tdbernae about the 
brum, which they occupied, and in which 
they transacted their business, were state 
property. The business of the argentarii may 
>e divided into the following branches. 1. 
Permutatio, or the exchange of foreign coin 
'or Roman, and in later times the giving of 
jills of exchange payable in foreign towns. 
2. The keeping of suras of money for other 
aersons. Such money might he deposited by 
;he owner merely to save himself the trouble 
of keeping it and making payments, and in 
this case it was called depositum ; the argen- 
tarius then paid no interest, and the money 
was called vacua pecunia. Or the money was 
deposited on condition of the argentarius pay- 
ing interest ; in this case the money was 
called creditum. A payment made through a 
banker was called per mensam, de mensa, or 
per mensae scripturam, while a payment made 
by the debtor in person was a payment ex area 
or de domo. An argentarius never paid away 
any person's money without being either au- 
thorised by him in person or receiving a 
cheque which was called perscriptio. The 
argentarii kept accurate accounts in books 
called codices, tabulae, or rationes, and there 
is every reason for believing that they were 
acquainted with what is called in hook-keep- 
ing double entry. "When a party found to bo 
in debt paid what he owed, he had his nanu 
effaced (nomen expedire or expimgere) from 
the banker's books. 3. Their connection 
with commerce and public auctions. In pri- 
vate sales and purchases, they sometimes 
acted as agents for either party (interpretes], 
and sometimes they undertook to sell the 
whole estate of a person, as an inheritance. 
At public auctions they were almost invari- 
ably present, registering the articles sold, 
their prices, and purchasers, and receiving 
the payment from the purchasers. 4. The 
testing of the genuineness of coins (probatio 
nummorum). This, however, seems originally 
to have been a part of the duty of public 
officers, the mensarii or nummularii, until in 
the course of time the opinion of an argenta- 
rius also came to be looked upon as decisive. 
5. The solidorum venditio, that is, the obli- 
gation of purchasing from the mint the newly 
coined money, and circulating it among the 
people. This branch of their functions occurs 
only under the empire. The argentaiii 
formed a collegium, divided into socletates or 
corporations, which alone had the right to 
admit new members of their guild. None 
but free men could become members of sucl; 
a corporation. It has already been observed 
that the argentarii had their shops round the 
forum : hence to become bankrupt was ex- 
pressed by/oro cedere, or abire, orforo mergi. 



ARGENTTJM (apyvpos), silver. The rela- 
tive value of gold and silver differed consi- 
derably at different periods in Greek and 
Roman history. Herodotus mentions it as 
13 to 1 ; Plato, as 12 to 1 ; Menander, as 
10 to 1 j and Livy as 10 to 1, about B. c. 
189. According to Suetonius, Julius Caesar, 
on one occasion, exchanged silver for gold in 
the proportion of 9 to 1 ; but the most usual 
proportion under the early Roman emperors 
was about 12 to 1. The proportion in modern 
times, since the discovery of the American 
mines, has varied between 17 to 1 and 14 
to 1. In the earliest times the Greeks ob- 
tained their silver chiefly as an article of 
commerce from the Phocaeans and the Sa- 
mians ; but they soon began to work the rich 
mines of their own country and its islands. 
The chief mines were in Siphnos, Thessaly, 
and Attica. In the last-named country, the 
silver mines of Laurion furnished a most 
abundant supply, and were generally regarded 
as the chief source of the wealth of Athens. 
The Romans obtained most of their silver 
from the very rich mines of Spain, which 
had been previously worked by the Phoeni- 
cians and Carthaginians, and which, though 
abandoned for those of Mexico, are still not 
exhausted. By far the most important use of 
silver among the Greeks was for money. 
There are sufficient reasons for believing 
that, until some time after the end of the 
Peloponnesian war, the Athenians had no 
gold currency. [AURUM.] It may be remarked 
that all th words connected with money are 
derived from apyvpoy, and not from XP" ' ?, as 
ia, " to bribe with money ;" apyv- 
, " a money changer, " &c. ; and 
is itself not unfrequently used to 
signify money in general, as aes is in Latin. 
At Rome, on the contrary, silver was not 
coined till B. c. 269, before which period 
Greek silver was in circulation at Rome ; and 
the principal silver coin of the Romans, the 
denarius, was borrowed from the Greek 
drachma. For further details respecting 
silver money, see DENARIUS, DRACHMA. 
From a very early period, silver was used 
also in works of art ; and the use of it for 
mere purposes of luxury and ostentation, as 
in plate, was very general both in Greece and 

ARGYRASPIDES (apyvpda-m&es), a division 
of the Macedonian army, who were so called 
because they carried shields covered with 
silver plates. 

ARGYROCOPEION (a.pyupoKomlov'), the 
place where money was coined, the mint, at 

ARIES (pios), the battering-ram, was used 
to hatter down the walls of besieged cities. 

It consisted of a large beam, made of the 
trunk of a tree, especially of a fir or an ash. 
To one end was fastened a mass of bronze 
or iron (Ke<J)aA)j, e/i/3oA.j, irpOTOjiHJ), which 
resembled in its form the head of a ram. 
The aries in its simplest state was borne 
and impelled by human hands, without other 
assistance. In an improved form, the ram 

Aries, Battering Ram. (From Column of Trajan.) 

was surrounded with iron bands, to which 
rings were attached for the purpose of suspend- 
ing it by ropes or chains from a beam fixed 
transversely over it. By this contrivance 
the soldiers were relieved from the necessity 
of supporting the weight of the ram, and 
could with ease give it a rapid and forcible 
motion backwards and forwards. The use of 
this machine was further aided by placing 
the frame in which it was suspended upon 
wheels, and also by constructing over it a 
wooden roof, so as to form a " testudo," 
which protected the besieging party from 
the defensive assaults of the besieged. 

ARISTOCRATIA (ipioroKpcma), signifies 
literally " the government of the best men," 
and as used by Plato, Aristotle, Polybius, &c., 
it meant the government of a class whose 
supremacy was founded not on wealth merely, 
hut on personal distinction. That there should 
be an aristocracy, moreover, it was essential 
that the administration of affairs should be 
conducted with a view to the promotion ot 
the general interests, not for the exclusive or 
predominant advantage of the privileged class. 




As soon as the government ceased to be thus 
conducted, or whenever the only title to poli- 
tical power in the dominant class was the 
possession of superior wealth, the constitution 
was termed an oligarchy (oAiYopxi'a), which, 
in the technical use of the term, was always 
looked upon as a corruption (Trope'/c/Sacris) of 
an aristocracy. In the practical application 
of the term aristocracy, however, the personal 
excellence which was held to be a necessary 
element was not of a higher kind than what, 
according to the deeply-seated ideas of the 
Greeks, was commonly hereditary in families 
of noble birth, and in early times would be 
the ordinary accompaniments of noble rank, 
namely, wealth, military skill, and superior 
education and intelligence. It is to be noted 
that the word api<rro<cpaTi'a is never, like 
the English term aristocracy, the name of 
a class, but only of a particular political 

ARMA, ARMATURA (lirea, Teu'xea, Horn. ; 
on-Aa), arms, armour. Homer describes in 
various passages an entire suit of armour, 
and we observe that it consisted of the same 
portions which were used by the Greek soldiers 
ever after. Moreover, the order of putting 
them on is always the same. The heavy- 
armed warrior, having already a tunic around 
his body, and preparing for combat, puts on 
1. his greaves (Ki^fuSes, ocreae) ; 2. his 
cuirass (ftopof, lorica), to which belonged 
underneath, and the zone (&VT), 

<i><rrfjp, cingulum], above ; 3. his sword, 
(fi<<>9, ensis, yladius], hung on the left side 
of his body by means of a belt which passed 
over the right shoulder ; 4. the large round 
shield (<raitos, derm'?, clipetts, scutum), sup- 
ported in the same manner ; 5. his helmet 
(/cdpus, Kvvh], cassis, galea) ; 6. he took his 
spear (ryx> oopv, hasta), or in many cases, 
two spears. The form and use of these por- 
tions are described in separate articles, under 
their Latin names. The annexed cut exhibits 
them all. Those who were defended in the 
manner which has now been represented are 
called by Homer aspistae (dcnrtorat), from 
their great shield (aom's) ; also angemachi 
I (VX^X'), because they fought hand to 
j hand with their adversaries ; but much more 
commonly promachi (n-pdnaxoi), because they 
; occupied the front of the army. In later 
times, the heavy-armed soldiers were called 
I hoplitae (onvUVai), because the term hopla 
(on-Ao.) more especially denoted the defensive 
armour, the shield and thorax. By wearing 
these they were distinguished from the light- 
armed (\//iAoi, dporrAoi, yv^voi, yi/|u,vf)Tat, yufx- 
KT)Ts), who, instead of being defended by the 
| shield and thorax, had a much slighter covej - 
ing, sometimes consisting of skins, and some- 
times of leather or cloth ; and instead of the 
sword or lance, they commonly fought with 
darts, stones, bows and arrows, or slings. 
Besides the heavy and light-armed soldiers, 
another description of men, the peltastae 

Greek Soldbr. t From an ancient vine.) 

human Soldicre. (From Column of Trujao.) 




(TrcAroorai), also formed a part of the Greek 
army, though we do not hear of them in 
early times. Instead of the large round 
shield, they carried a smaller one called the 
pelte (iroVn)), and in other respects their ar- 
mour, though heavier and more effective than 
that of the psili, was much lighter than that 
of the hoplites. The weapon on which they i 
principally depended was the spear. The j 
Roman legions consisted, as the Greek in- 
fantry for the most part did, of heavy and 
light-armed troops (gratis et levis armatura). 
The preceding figure represents two heavy- 
armed Roman soldiers. All the essential parts 
of the Roman heavy armour (lorica, ensis, 
clipeus, galea, hasta) are mentioned together, j 
except the spear, in a well-known passage of 
St. Paul ( 17). 

ARMARIUM, originally a place for keep- 
Ing arms, afterwards a cupboard, in which 

were kept not only arms, but also clothes, 
books, money, and other articles of value. 
The armarium was generally placed in the 
atrium of the house. 

ARMILLA (i//oAtov, <|/e'Aioi', or i/'eAAioi', 
xAiSuf, apQiSea), a bracelet or armlet, worn 
both by men and women. It was a fa- 
vourite ornament of the Modes and Persians. 
Bracelets do not appear to 'have been worn 
among the Greeks by the male sex, but Greek 
ladies had bracelets of various materials, 
shapes, and styles of ornament. They fre- 
quently exhibited the form of snakes, and 
were in such cases called snakes (o^eis) by 
the Athenians. According to their length, 
they went once, twice, or thrice round the 
arm, or even a greater number of times. 
The Roman generals frequently bestowed ar- 
millae upon soldiers for deeds of extraordinary 

ARMILITSTRIUM, a Roman festival for 
the purification of arms. It was celebrated 
every year on the 19th of October, when the 
citizens assembled in arms, and offered sacri- 
fices in the place called Armilustrum, or 
Vicus Armilustri. 

was the thing which purchasers and vendors 
gave to one another, whether it was a sum 
of money or anything else, as an evidence of 
the contract being made : it was no essential 
part of the contract of buying and selling, 
but only evidence of agreement as to price. 
The term an ha, in its general sense of an 
evidence of agreement, was also used on 
other occasions, as in the case of betrothment 
(spontalia). Sometimes the word arrha is 
used as synonymous with pit/mis, but this is 
not the legal meaning of the term. 

A nnilla, Bracelet. (On Statue of Sleeping 
Ariadne in Vatican.) 

ARRHEPHORIA (ipp>)<opia), a festival 
celebrated at Athens in honour of Athena 
(Minerva). Four girls, of between seven 
and eleven years (app,<popoi, po-r)<op<H, tppij- 
<opoi)> were selected every year by the king 
archon from the most distinguished families, 
two of whom superintended the weaving of 
the sacred peplus of Athena ; the two others 
had to carry the mysterious and sacred ves- 
sels of the goddess. These latter remained a 
whole year on the Acropolis ; and when the 
festival commenced, the priestess of the god- 
dess placed vessels upon their heads, the con- 
tents of which were neither known to them 
nor to the priestess. With these they de- 
scended to a natural grotto within the district 
of Aphrodite in the gardens. Here they de- 
posited the sacred vessels, and carried back 
Homething else, which was covered and like- 



-wise unknown to them. After this the girls 
were dismissed and others were chosen to sup- 
ply their place in the acropolis. 
ARTABA (apra/Sri), a Persian measure of 
capacity = 1 medimnus and 3 choenices (At- 
tic)=102 Roman sextarii=12 gallons, 5-092 

ARTEMISIA (ipTfuW), a festival cele- 
brated at Syracuse in honour of Artemis 
Potamia and Soteira. It lasted three days, 
which were principally spent in feasting and 
amusements. Festivals of the same name, 
and in honour of the same goddess, were held 
in many places in Greece, but principally at 

ARURA (apovpa), a Greek measure of sur- 
face, mentioned by Herodotus, who says that 
it is a hundred Egyptian cubits in every di- 
rection. Now the Egyptian cubit contained 
nearly 17f inches; therefore the square of 
100 by 17f inches, i.e. nearly 148 feet, gives 
the number of square feet (English) in the 
arura, viz. 21,904. 

ARVALES FRATRES, formed a college or 
company of twelve priests, and were so called 
from offering public sacrifices for the fertility 
of the fields. That they were of extreme an- 
tiquity is proved by the legend which refers 
their institution to Romulus, of whom it is 
said, that when his nurse Acca Laurentia losi 
one of her twelve sons, he allowed himsel 
to be adopted by her in his place, and callec 
himself and the remaining eleven " Fratres 
Arvales." We also find a college called thi 
Sodales Titii, and as the latter were con 
fessedly of Sabine origin, and instituted fo 
the purpose of keeping up the Sabine reli 
gious rites, it is probable that these college 
corresponded one to the other the Fratre 
Arvales being connected with the Latin, am 
the Sodales Titii with the Sabine element o 
the Roman state. The office of the fratre 
arvales was for life, and was not taken awa 
even from an exile or captive. One of thei 
annual duties was to celebrate a three days 
festival in honour of Dea Dia, supposed to b 
Ceres, sometimes held on the 17th, 19th, an 
20th, sometimes on the 27th, 29th, and 30t 
of May. But besides this festival of the De 
Dia, the fratres arvales were required on va 
rious occasions, under the emperors, to mak 
vows and offer up thanksgivings. Under T : 
berius, the Fratres Arvales performed sacr 
fices called the Ambarvalla, at various placi 
on the borders of the ager Romanus, or or 
ginal territory of Rome ; and it is probab 
that this was a custom handed down fro 
time immemorial, and, moreover, that it w; 

duty of the priesthood to invoke a blessing 
i the whole territory of Rome. There were 
so the private ambarvalia, which were so 
lied from the victim (hostia ambarvalis) 
at was slain on the occasion being led three 
mes round the corn-fields, before the sickle 
as put to the corn. This victim was ac- 
jmpanied by a crowd of merry-makers, the 
eapers and farm-servants dancing and sing- 
ng, as they marched, the praises of Ceres, 
nd praying for her favour and presence, 
hile they offered her the libations of milk, 
oney, and wine. This ceremony was also 
allod a lustratio, or purification. 
ARX signifies a height within the walls of 
city, upon which a citadel was built, and 
bus came to be applied to the citadel itself, 
hus one of the summits of the Capitoline 
ill at Rome is called Arx. The Arx was the 
egular place at Rome for taking the auspices, 
nd was hence likewise called augiiraculum ; 
r, more probably, the auguraculum was a 
lace in the Arx. 

AS, or Libra, a pound, the unit of weight 
mong the Romans. [LIBEA.] 

AS, the unit of value in the Roman and 
Id Italian coinages, was made of copper, or 
f the mixed metal called AES. It was ori- 
ginally of the weight of a pound of twelve 
ranees, whence it was called as libralis and 
aes grave. The oldest form of the as is that 
which bears the figure of an annual (a bull, 
ram, boar, or sow). The next and most com- 
mon form is that which has the two-faced 
lead of Janus on one side, and the prow of a 
ship on the other (whence the expression 
used by Roman boys in tossing up, Capita out 
navim.) Pliny informs us, that in the time 
of the first Punic war (B.C. 264-241), in or- 
der to meet the expenses of the state, this 
weight of a pound was diminished, and asses 
were struck of the same weight as the sex- 
tans (that is, two ounces, or one sixth of the 
ancient weight) ; and that thus the republic 
paid off its debts, gaining five parts in six ; 
that afterwards, in the second Punic war, in 
the dictatorship of Q. Fabins Maximus (B. c. 
217), asses of one ounce were made, and the 
denarius was decreed to be equal to sixteen 
asses, the republic thus gaining one half; but 
that in military pay the denarius was always 
given for ten asses ; and that soon after, by 
the Papirian law (about B.C. 191), asses of 
half an ounce were made. The value of the 
as, of course, varied with its weight. Before 
the reduction to two ounces, ten asses were 
equal to the denarius = about 8^ pence Eng- 
lish [DENABIUS]. Therefore the as=3'4 
farthings. By the reduction the denarius 
was made equal to sixteen asses ; therefore 
the as=2J farthings. The as was divided 




into parts, which were named according to 
the number of ounces they contained. They 
were the deunx, dextans, dodrans, bes, sep- 
tunx, semis, quincunx, triens, quadrans or 
teruncitis, sextans, scscunx or sescuncia, and 
uncia, consisting respectively of 11, 10, 9, 8, 
7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, H, and 1 ounces. Of these 
divisions the following were represented hy 
coins ; namely, the semis, quincunx, triens, 
quadrans, sextans, and uncia. After the re- 
duction in the weight of the as, coins were 
struck of the value of 2, 3, 4, and even 10 
asses, which were called respectively dussis or 
dupondius, tressis, quadrussis, and decussis, 
Other multiples of the as were denoted by 
words of similar formation, up to centttssis, 
100 asses ; but most of them do not exist as 
coins. In certain forms of expression, in 
which aes is used for money without specify- 
ing the denomination, we must understand the 
as. Thus deni aeris, mille aeris, decies aeris, 
mean respectively 10, 1000, 1,000,000 asses. 
The word as was used also for any whole 
which was to he divided into equal parts ; 
and those parts were called unciae. Thus 
these words were applied not only to weight 
and money, hut to measures of length, sur- 
face, and capacity, to inheritances, interest, 
houses, farms, and many other things. Hence 
the phrases haeres ex assc, the heir to a whole 
estate ; haeres ex dodrante, the heir to three- 
fourths. The as was also called in ancient 
times assarius (sc. nummus), and in Greek TO 
aero-apioj'. According to Polybius, the assarius 
was equal to half the obolus. 

ASCIA faitcirapvov), an adze. The an- 
nexed cut. shows two varieties of the adze. 

The instrument at the bottom was calloil 
acisculus, and was chiefly used by masons. 

Ascme, ad; 

ASCLEPIEIA (d<TKAi77rieca), the name of 
festivals which were probably celebrated in 
all places where temples of Asclepius (Aescu- 
lapius) existed. The most celebrated, how- 
ever, was that of Epidaurus, which took place 
every five years, and was solemnized with 
contests of rhapsodists and musicians, and 
with so_lemn processions and games. 

ASCOLIASMUS (io-KtoAiaoyids, the leaping 
upon the leathern bag, doxos) was one of the 
many kinds of amusements in which the 
Athenians indulged during the Anthesteria 
and other festivals in honour of Dionysus. 
Having sacrificed a he-goat to the god, they 
made a bag out of the skin, smeared it with 
oil, and then tried to dance upon it. 

ASEBEIAS GRAPHE ao-^eiasvpar;, one 
of the many forms prescribed by the Attic 
laws for the impeachment of impiety. Any 
citizen not incapacitated by disfranchisement 
(aTifu'al seems to have been a competent ac- 
cuser ; and citizens, resident aliens, and 

it gem.) 

strangers, were equally liable to the accusa- 
tion. Whether the causes were brought into 
the areiopagus, or the common heliastic 
court, seems to have been determined by the 
form of action adopted by the prosecutor, or 
the degree of competency to which the areio- 




pagus rose or fell at the different periods of 
Athenian history. 

ASIARCHAE (a.<napxa.C) were, in the Ro- 
man province of Asia, the chief presidents of 
the religious rites, whose office it was to ex- 
hibit games and theatrical amusements every 
year, in honour of the gods and the Roman 
emperor, at their own expense, like the Ro- 
man aediles. They were ten in number, 
selected annually by the different towns of 
Asia, and approved of by the Roman procon- 
sul ; of these, one was the chief asiarch, and 
frequently, but not always, resided at Ephe- 


ASSERTOR, or ADSERTOR, contains the 
same root as the verb adserere, which, when 
coupled with the word manu, signifies to lay 
hold of a thing, to draw it towards one. Hence 
the phrase adserere in libertatem, or liberali 
adserere manu, applies to him who lays his 
hand on a person reputed to be a slave, and 
asserts, or maintains his freedom. The person 
who thus maintained the freedom of a reputed 
slave was called adsertor. The person whose 
freedom was thus claimed was said to be ad- 
lertus. The expressions liberalis causa, and 
liberalis manus, which occur in connection 
with the verb adserere, will easily be under- 
stood from what has been said. Sometimes 
the word adserere alone was used as equiva- 
lent to adserere in libertatem. The expres- 
sion asserere in servitutem, to claim a person 
as a slave, occurs in Livy. 

ASSESSOR, or ADSESSOR, literally one 
who sits by the side of another. Since the 
consuls, praetors, governors of provinces, 
and the judices, were often imperfectly ac- 
quainted with the law and forms of pro- 
cedure, it was necessary that they should 
have the aid of those who had made the law 
their study. The assessors sat on the tribu- 
nal with the magistrate. Their advice or aid 
was given during the proceedings as well as 
at other times, but they never pronounced a 
judicial sentence. 


ASTRAGALUS (aorpdyoAos), literally, that 
particular bone in the ankles of certain quad- 
rupeds, which the Greeks, as well as the Ro- 
mans, used for dice and other purposes. 
[TALUS.] In architecture it signifies a certain 
moulding (the astragal) which seems to have 
derived its name from its resemblance to a 
string or chain of tali, and it is in fact always 
used in positions where it seems intended to 
bind together the parts to which it is applied. 
It belongs properly to the more highly de- 
corated forms of the Ionic order, in which it 
appears as a lower edging to the larger mould- 
ings, especially the echinus (ovolo), particu- 

larly in the capital, as shown in the following 


ypa^), the accusation instituted at Athens 
against persons who failed to appear among 
the troops after they had been enrolled for a 
campaign by the generals. The defendant, if 
convicted, incurred disfranchisement (arijii'a) 
both in his own person and that of his de- 

ASTROLOGIA, astrology. A belief very 
early arose, which still prevails unshaken in 
the East, that a close connection subsisted 
between the position and movements of the 
heavenly bodies and the fate of man. Few 
doubted that the destiny of a child might be 
predicted with certainty by those who were 
skilled to interpret the position of the stars 
at the moment of his birth, and that the re- 
sult of any undertaking might be foretold from 
the aspect of the firmament when it was 
commenced. Hence a numerous and power- 
ful class of men arose who were distinguished 
by various designations. From the country 
where their science was first developed, they 
were called Chaldaei or Sabylonii ; from ob- 
serving the stars, astronomi, astrologi, plane- 
tarii ; from employing diagrams such as 
were used by geometricians, mathematici ; 
from determining the lot of man at his natal 
hour, genethliaci ; from prophesying the 
consummation of his struggles, aTroTeAea^ia- 
TIKOI; while their art was known as aorpo- 
Aoyux, ficTeiopoAo-yi'a, yeve8\ia\oyia, airOTf^ecr' 
(iaTi/oj, Ars Chaldaeorum, Mathesis, or, from 
the tables they consulted, mi/oucuo}. Their 
calculations were termed Sabylonii numeri, 
XoASou'cui' ju.e'0o6ot, XoASai'wi' </n)$tSes, Kationes 
Chaldaicae ; their responses when consulted 
Chaldaeorum monita, Chaldaeorum natalicia 
pracdicta, Astrologorum praedicta. The stars 
and constellations to which attention was 
chiefly directed were the planets and the 
signs of the zodiac, some of which were sup- 
posed to exert uniformly a benign influence 
(iyaeoTToioi aare'pcs), such as Venus, Jupiter, 
Luna, Virgo, Libra, Taurus ; others to be 
uniformly malign (/coucoiroioi aore'pes), such as 
Saturnus, Mars, Scorpio, Capricornus ; others 




to be doubtful (tiriKoivot aore'pes), such as 
Mercurius. The exact period of birth (horn 
genitalix) being the critical moment, the com- 
putations founded upon it were styled yeVeo-is 
(genitura), lopoencoTros (horoscopus) , or simply 
Qifia., and the star or etars in the ascendant 
sitlus natalitium, sidera natalltia. Astrolo- 
gers seem to have found their way very early 
into Italy. In B.C. 139 an edict was promul- 
gated by C. Cornelius Hispallus, at that time 
praetor, by which the Chaldaeans were or- 
dered to quit Italy within ten days, and they 
were again banished from the city in B.C. 33, 
by M. Agrippa, who was then aedile. Ano- 
ther severe ordinance was levelled by Augus- 
tus against this class, but the frequent oc- 
currence of such phrases as " expulit et 
mathematicos," "pulsis Italia mathematicis," 
in the historians of the empire prove how 
firm a hold these pretenders must have ob- 
tained over the public mind, and how profit- 
able the occupation must have been which 
could induce them to brave disgrace, and 
sometimes a cruel death. 

ASTYNOMI (doTura/oioi), or street-police 
of Athens, were ten in number, five for the 
city, and as many for the Peiraeeus. The 
astynomi and agoranomi divided between 
them most of the functions of the Roman 
aediles. [AGORANOMI.] 

ASYLUM (OJTV\OV). In the Greek states 
the temples, altars, sacred groves, and sta- 
tues of the gods, generally possessed the pri- 
vilege of protecting slaves, debtors, and cri- 
minals, who fled to them for refuge. The 
laws, however, do not appear to have recog- 
nised the right of all such sacred places to 
afford the protection which was claimed, but 
to have confined it to a certain number of 
temples, or altars, which were considered in 
a more especial manner to have the oovAia, 
or jits asyli. There were several places in 
Athens which possessed this privilege ; of 
which the best known was the Theseium, or 
temple of Theseus, in the city, near the gym- 
nasium, which was chiefly intended for the 
protection of ill-treated slaves, who could 
take refuge in this place, and compel their 
masters to sell them to some other person. 
In the time of Tiberius, the number of places 
possessing the jus asyli in the Greek cities in 
Greece and Asia Minor became so numerous, 
as seriously to impede the administration of 
justice ; and, consequently, the senate, by the 
command of the emperor, limited the jus 
asyli to a few cities. The asylum, which 
Itomulus is said to have opened at Rome to 
increase the population of the city, was a 
place of refuge for the inhabitants of other 
states, rather than a sanctuary for those who 
Lad violated the laws of the city. In the 

republican and early imperial times, a right 
of asylum, such as existed in the Greek states, 
does not appear to have been recognised by 
the Roman law; but it existed under the 
empire, and a slave could fly to the temples of 
the gods, or the statues of the emperors, to 
avoid the ill-usage of his master. 

ATELEIA (areAeia), immunity from public 
burthens, was enjoyed at Athens by the 
archons for the time being ; by the descend- 
ants of certain persons, on whom it had been 
conferred as a reward for great services, as 
in the case of Harmodius and Aristogeiton ; 
and by the inhabitants of certain foreign states. 
It was of several kinds : it might be a general 
immunity (areAeia airavTiav) ; or a more spe- 
cial exemption, as from custom-duties, from 
the liturgies, or from providing sacrifices. 

ATELLANAE TABULAE were a species 
of farce or comedy, so called from Atella, a 
town of the Osci, in Campania. From this 
circumstance, and from being written in the 
Oscan dialect, they were also called Ludi 
Osci. These Atellane plays were not praetex~ 
tatae, i. e. comedies in which magistrates and 
persons of rank were introduced, nor taber- 
nnriae, the characters in which were taken 
from low life ; they rather seem to have been 
a union of high comedy and its parody. 
They were also distinguished from the mimes 
by the absence of low buffoonery and ri- 
baldry, being remarkable for a refined hu- 
mour, such as could be understood and ap- 
preciated by educated people. They were not 
performed by regular actors (histriones), but 
by Roman citizens of noble birth, who were 
not on that account subjected to any degra- 
dation, but retained their rights as citizens, 
and might serve in the army. The Oscan or 
Opican language, in which these plays were 
written, was spread over the whole of the 
south of Italy, and from its resemblance to 
the Latin could easily be understood by the 
more educated Romans. 

ATHENAEUM (i6r,v<uov), a school (Indus) 
founded by the Empcrior Hadrian at Rome, 
for the promotion of literary and scientific 
studies (ingenuarum artium), and called 
Athenaeum from the town of Athens, which 
was still regarded as the seat of intellectual 
refinement. The Athenaeum was situated on 
the Capitoline hill. It was a kind of uni- 
versity, with a staff of professors, for the 
various branches of study. Besides the in- 
struction given by these magistri, poets, ora- 
tors, and critics were accustomed to recite 
their compositions there, and these prelections 
were sometimes honoured with the presence 
of the emperors themselves. The Athenaeum 
seems to have continued in high repute till 
the fifth century. 




ATHLETAE (iSA^ou', iSATjiiipes), persons 
who contended in the public games of the 
Greeks and Romans for prizes (SOAa, whence 
the name of aOAijTcu), which were given to 
those who conquered in contests of agility 
and strength. The name was in the later 
period of Grecian history, and among the 
Romans, properly confined to those persons 
who entirely devoted themselves to a course 
of training which might fit them to excel in 
such contests, and who, in fact, made athletic 
exercises their profession. The athletae 
differed, therefore, from the agonistae (ayia- 
ciorai), who only pursued gymnastic exer- 
cises for the sake of improving their health 
and bodily strength, and who, though they 
sometimes contended for the prizes in the 
public games, did not devote their whole 
lives, like the athletae, to preparing for these 
contests. Athletae were first introduced at 
Home, B.C. 186, in the games exhibited by 
M. Fulvius, on the conclusion of the Aetolian 
war. Aemilius Paullus, after the conquest of 
Perseus, B.C. 167, is said to have exhibited 
games at Amphipolis, in which athletae con- 
tended. Under the Roman emperors, and 
especially under Nero, who was passionately 
fond of the Grecian games, the number of 
athletae increased greatly in Italy, Greece, 
and Asia Minor. Those athletae who con- 
quered in any of the great national festivals 
of the Greeks were called Jlieronicae (iepo- 
VIK(U), and received the greatest honours and 
rewards. Such a conqueror was considered 
to confer honour upon the state to which he 
belonged ; he entered his native city through 
a breach made in the walls for his reception, 
in a chariot drawn by four white horses, and 
went along the principal street of the city to 
the temple of the guardian deity of the state. 
Those games, which gave the conquerors the 
right of such an entrance into the city, were 
called Iselastici (from eio-eAavi/eii'). This 
term was originally confined to the four great 
Grecian festivals, the Olympian, Isthmian, 
\emean, and Pythian, but was afterwards 
applied to other public games. In the Greek 
states, the victors in these games not only 
obtained the greatest glory and respect, but 
also substantial rewards. They were gene- 
rally relieved from the payment of taxes, and 
also enjoyed the first seat (npoeSpia) in all 
public games and spectacles. Their statues 
were frequently erected at the cost of the 
state, in the most frequented part of the city, 
as the market-place, the gymnasia, and the 
neighbourhood of the temples. At Athens, 
according to a law of Solon, the conquerors in 
the Olympic games were rewarded with a 
prize of 500 drachmae ; and the conquerors 
in the Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian, with 

one of 100 drachmae ; and at Sparta they had 
the privilege of fighting near the person of 
the king. The privileges of the athletae were 
secured, and in some respects increased, by 
the Roman emperors. The term athletae, 
though sometimes applied metaphorically to 
other combatants, was properly limited to 
those who contended for the prize in the five 
following contests : 1. Running (8pd/u.os, 
cursus]. [STADIUM.] 2. Wrestling (miAr;, 
lucta). 3. Boxing (irvynrj, pugilatus). 4. The 
pentathlum (vivraS^ov), or, as the Romans 
called it, qmnqvertium. 5. The pancratium 
(vayicpa-Tiov). Of all those an account is given 
in separate articles. Great attention was 
paid to the training of the athletae. They 
were generally trained in the palaestrae, 
which, in the Grecian states, were distinct 
places from the gymnasia. Their exercises 
were superintended by the gymnasiarch, and 
their diet was regulated by the aliptes. 
[ALIPTAE.] The athletae were accustomed 
to contend naked. In the descriptions of the 
games given in the Iliad, the combatants are 
represented with a girdle about their loins ; 
and the same practice, as we learn from 
Thucydides, anciently prevailed at the 
Olympic games, but was discontinued after- 

ATIMIA (ari/xta), the forfeiture of a man's 
civil rights at Athens. It was either total or 
partial. A man was totally deprived of his 
rights, both for himself and for his descend- 
ants (<co#a7raf arijuios), when he was con- 
victed of murder, theft, false witness, par- 
tiality as arbiter, violence offered to a magis- 
trate, and so forth. This highest degree of 
atimia excluded the person affected by it from 
the forum, and from all public assemblies; 
from the public sacrifices, and from the law 
courts ; or rendered him liable to immediate 
imprisonment, if he was found in any of these 
places. It was either temporary or perpe- 
tual, and either accompanied or not with 
confiscation of property. Partial atimia only 
involved the forfeiture of some few rights, as, 
for instance, the right of pleading in court. 
Public debtors were suspended from their 
civic functions till they discharged their debt 
to the state. People who had once become 
altogether atimi were very seldom restored to 
their lost privileges. The converse term to 
atimia was epitimia (iirni.ii.ui). 

(reAa/Kwi/es), terms used in architecture, the 
former by the Greeks, the latter 1)y the Ro- 
mans, to designate those male figures which 
are sometimes fancifully used, like the female 
Caryatides, in place of columns. Both words 
are derived from rAni-at. and the former evi- 
dently refers to the fable of Atlas, wtfl sup- 



ported the vault of heaven, the latter perhaps 
to the strength of the Telamonian Ajax. 

I. I 



'emple at Airri<rentu 
r Ox-kcn-ll.) 

ATRAMENTUM, a term applicable to any 
black colouring substance, for whatever pur- 
pose it may be used, like the melon (jAaiO 
of the Greeks. There were, however, three 
principal kinds of atramentum : one called 
iibrarium, or scriptorium (in Greek, ypa.rjn.Kov 
jueAcu/Xwriting-ink ; another called sutorium, 
which was used by the shoemakers for dyeing 
leather ; the third tectorium, or pictorium, 
which was used by painters for some pur- 
poses, apparently as a sort of varnish. The 
inks of the ancients seem to have been more 
durable than our own ; they were thicker 
and more unctuous, in substance and dura- 
bility more resembling the ink now used by 
printers. An inkstand was discovered at 
Herculaneum, containing ink as thick as oil, 
and still usable for writing. The ancients 
used inks of various colours. Red ink, made 
of minium or vermilion, was used for writing 
the titles and beginning of books. So also 
was ink made of rttbrica, " red ochre ;" and 
because the headings of laws were written 
with rubrica, the word rubric came to be 
used for the civil law. So album, a white or 
whited table, on which the praetors' edicts 
were written, was used in a similar way. A 
person devoting himself to album and rubrica, 
was a person devoting himself to the law. 

ATRIUM (called avAij by the Greeks and 
by Virgil, "and also ju.e<rau'Aioi>, vepCa-mXov, 
ireoicTTtuov) is used in a distinctive as well as 
collective sense, to designate a particular part 
in the private houses of the Romans [DOMUS], 
and also a class of public buildings, so called 
from their general resemblance in construc- 

tion to the atriurL. of a private house. An 
atrium of the latter description was a build- 
ing by itself, resembling in some respects the 
open basilica [BASILICA], but consisting of 
three sides. Such was the Atrium Publicum 
in the capitol, which, Livy informs us, was 
struck with lightning, B.C. 216. It was at 
other times attached to some temple or other 
edifice, and in such case consisted of an 
open area and surrounding portico in front 
of the structure. Several of these buildings 
are mentioned by the ancient historians, two 
of which were dedicated to the same goddess, 
Libertas. The most celebrated, as well as 
the most ancient, was situated on the Aven- 
tine Mount. In this atrium there was a 
tabularium, where the legal tablets (tabulae] 
relating to the censors were preserved. The 
other Atrium Libertatis was in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Forum Caesaris, and was 
immediately behind the Basilica Paulli or 

AUCTIO signifies generally " an increasing, 
an enhancement," and hence the name is ap- 
plied to a public sale of goods, at which per- 
sons bid against one another. The sale was 
sometimes conducted by an argcntarius, or by 
a magister auctionis ; and the time, place, 
and conditions of sale, were announced either 
by a public notice (tabula, album, &c.), or by 
a crier (pracco). The usual phrases to ex- 
press the giving notice of a sale were, aue- 
tionem proscribcre, praedicare ; and to deter- 
mine on a sale, auction em constituere. The 
purchasers (emtores), when assembled, were 
sometimes said ad tdbulam adesse. The 
phrases signifying to bid are, liceri, licitari, 
which was done either by word of mouth, or 
by such significant hints as are known to all 
people who have attended an auction. The 
property was said to be knocked down (ad- 
dict) to the purchaser. The praeco, or crier, 
seems to have acted the part of the modern 
auctioneer, so far as calling out the biddings, 
and amusing the company. Slaves, when 
sold by auction, were placed on a stone, or 
other elevated thing, as is the case when 
slaves are sold in the United States of North 
America ; and hence the phrase homo de la- 
pide emtus. It was usual to put up a spear 
(hasta) in auctions ; a symbol derived, it is 
said, from the ancient practice of selling un- 
der a spear the booty acquired in war. 

ADCTOR, a word which contains the same 
element as aug-eo, and signifies generally one 
who enlarges, confirms, or gives to a thing 
its completeness and efficient form. The 
numerous technical significations of 'the word 
are derivable from this general notion. As he 
who gives to a thing that which is necessary 
for its completeness may in this sense be 



viewed as the chief actor or doer, the word 
auctor is also used in the sense of one who 
originates or proposes a thing ; hut this can- 
not he viewed as its primary meaning. Ac- 
cordingly, the word auctor, when used in 
connection with lex or senatus consultum, 
often means him who originates and pro- 
poses. The expressions patres auctores fiunt, 
patres auctores facti, have given rise to much 
discussion. In the earlier periods of the Ro- 
man state, the word patres was equivalent to 
patricii ; in the later period, when the pa- 
tricians had lost all importance as a political 
body, the term patres signified the senate. 
Hence some ambiguity has arisen. The ex- 
pression patres auctores fiunt, when used of 
the early period of Rome, means that the 
determinations of the populus in the comitia 
centuriata were confirmed by the patricians 
in the comitia curiata. Till the time of Ser- 
vius Tullius there were only the comitia cu- 
riata, and this king first established the 
comitia centuriata, in which the plebs also 
voted, and consequently it was not till after 
this time that the phrase patres auctores fiunt 
could be properly applied. Livy, however, 
uses it of an earlier period. The comitia 
curiata first elected the king, and then by 
another vote conferred upon him the impe- 
rium. The latter was called lex curiata de 
impcrio, an expression not used by Livy, 
who employs instead the phrase patres auc- 
tores fiunt (Liv. i. 17, 22, 32). After the 
exile of the last Tarquin, the patres, that is 
the patricians, had still the privilege of con- 
firming at the comitia curiata the vote of the 
comitia centuriata, that is, they gave to it 
the patrutn aitctoritas ; or, in other words, 
the patres were auctores facti. In the 
fifth century of the city a change was made. 
By one of the laws of the plebeian dictator Q. 
Publilius Philo, it was enacted that in the 
case of leges to be enacted at the comitia cen- 
turiata, the patres should be auctores, that is, 
the curiae should give their assent before the 
vote of the comitia centuriata. By a lex 
Maenia of uncertain date the same change 
was made as to elections. But both during 
the earlier period and afterwards no business 
could be brought before the comitia without 
first receiving the sanction of the senate ; and 
accordingly the phrase patres auctores fiunt 
came now to be applied to the approval of 
a measure by the senate before it was con- 
firmed by the votes of the people. This pre- 
liminary approval was also termed senatus 
auctoritas. When the word auctor is ap- 
plied to him who recommends but does not 
originate a legislative measure, it is equiva- 
lent to siuisor. Sometimes both auclor and 
suasoi are used in the same sentence, and the 

meaning of each is kept distinct. With re- 
'erence to dealings between individuals, 
auctor has the sense of owner. In this sense 
auctor is the seller (venditor), as opposed to 
the buyer (emtor) : and hence we have the 
phrase a malo auctore cmere. Auctor is also 
used generally to express any person under 
whose authority any legal act is done. In 
this sense, it means a tutor who is appointed 
to aid or advise a woman on account of the 
infirmity_of her sex. 

AUCTORAMENTUM, the pay of gladia- 

AUCTORITAS. The technical meanings 
of this word correlate with those of auctor. 
The auctoritas senatus was not a senatus- 
consultum ; it was a measure, incomplete in 
itself, which received its completion by some 
other authority. Auctoritas, as applied to 
property, is equivalent to legal ownership, 
being a correlation of auctor. 

AUDITORIUM, as the name implies, is 
any place for hearing. It was the practice 
among the Romans for poets and others to 
read their compositions to their friends, who 
were sometimes called the auditorium ; but 
the word was also used to express any place 
in which any thing was heard, and under the 
empire it was applied to a court of justice. 
Under the republic the place for all judicial 
proceedings was the comitium and the forum. 
But for the sake of shelter and convenience 
it became the practice to hold courts in the 
Basilicae, which contained halls, which were 
also called auditoria. It is first under M. 
Aurelius that the auditorium principis is 
mentioned, by which we must understand a 
hall or room in the imperial residence ; and 
in such a hall Septimius Severus and the 
later emperors held their regular sittings 
when they presided as judges. The latest 
jurists use the word generally for any place 
in which justice was administered. 

PICIUM. Augur or auspex meant a diviner 
by birds, but came in course of time, like 
the Greek o'uavos, to be applied in a more ex- 
tended sense : his art was called augurium 
or auspicium. Plutarch relates that the au- 
gures were originally termed auspices. The 
word auspex was supplanted by augur, but 
the scientific term for the observation con- 
tinued on the contrary to be auspicium and 
not augurium. By Greek writers on Roman 
affairs, the augurs are called oiui/oTrdAoi, 
otwvooxoiroi, ouopiorat, ot er' cxwvois tepci?. 
The belief that the flight of birds gave some 
intimation of the will of the gods FCems to 
have been prevalent among many nations of 
antiquity, and was common 'o the Greeks, as 
well as the Romans ; but it was only among 




the latter people that it was reduced to a 
complete system, governed by fixed rules, 
and handed down from generation to genera- 
tion. In Greece, the oracles supplanted the 
birds, and the future was learnt from Apollo 
and other gods, rarely from Zeus, who pos- 
sessed very few oracles in Greece. The con- 
trary was the case at Rome : it was from 
Jupiter that the future was learnt, and the 
birds were regarded as his messengers. It 
must be remarked in general, that the Roman 
auspices were essentially of a practical nature ; 
they gave no information respecting the 
course of future events, they did not inform 
men what was to happen, but simply taught 
them what they were to do, or not to do ; 
they assigned no reason for the decision of 
Jupiter they simply announced, yes or no. 
The words augurium and auspicium came to 
be used in course of time to signify the ob- 
servation cf various kinds of signs. They 
were divided into five sorts : ex caelo, ex 
avibus, ex tripiuliis, ex quadrupcdibus, ex diris. 
Of these, the last three formed no part of the 
ancient auspices. 1. Ex caelo. This in- 
cluded the observation of the various kinds of 
thunder and lightning, and was regarded as 
the most important, maximum auspicium. 
Whenever it was reported by a person autho- 
rised to take the auspices, that Jupiter thun- 
dered or lightened, the comitia could not be 
held. 2. Ex avibus. It was only a few 
birds which could give auguries among the 
Romans. They were divided into two classes : 
Oscines, those which gave auguries by sing- 
ing, or their voice, and Alitcs, those which 
gave auguries by their flight. To the former 
class belonged the raven (corvus) and the 
crow (comix], the first of these giving a 
favourable omen (auspicium ratum] when it 
appeared on the right, the latter, on the con- 
trary, when it was seen on the left : likewise 
the owl (nociua] and the hen (gallina}. To 
the aves alitcs belonged first of all the eagle 
(aquila), which is called pre-eminently the 
bird of Jupiter (Jovis ales), and next the vul- 
ture (vultur}. Some birds were included both 
among the oscines and the alitcs: such were 
the Picus Martius, and Feronius, and the 
Parra. These were the principal birds con- 
sulted in the auspices. When the birds fa- 
voured an undertaking, they were said addi- 
ccre, admittere or secundare, and were then 
called addictivae, admissicae, sccundae, or 
praepetcs : when unfavourable they were said 
abdiccre, arcere, refragari, &c., and were 
then called advcrsae or alterae. The birds 
which gave unfavourable omens were termed 
fund-res, inhibitac, lugubrcs, malae, &c., and 
such auspices were called clivia and cla- 
matoria. 3. I-.x, tripudiis. These auspices 

were taken from the feeding of chickens, and 
were especially employed on military expe- 
ditions. The chickens were kept in a cage, 
under care of a person called pullarius; and 
when the auspices were to be taken, the 
pullarius opened the cage and threw to the 
chickens pulse or a kind of soft cake. If 
they refused to come out or to eat, or uttered 
a cry (occinerent), or beat their wings, or 
flew away, the signs were considered unfa- 
vourable. On the contrary, if they ate 
greedily, so that something fell from their 
mouth and struck the earth, it was called 
tripudiwn solistimum (tripudium quasi terri- 
pavium, solistimum, from solum, according to 
the ancient writers), and was held a favour- 
able sign. 4. Ex quadrupedibus. Auguries 
could also be taken from four-footed animals ; 
but these formed no part of the original 
science of the augurs, and were never em- 
ployed by them in taking auspices on behalf 
of the state, or in the exercise of their art 
properly so called. They must be looked 
upon simply as a mode of private divination. 
When a fox, a wolf, a horse, a dog, or any 
other kind of quadruped ran across a person's 
path or appeared in an unusual place, it 
formed an augury. 5. Ex diris, sc. signis. 
Under this head was included every kind of 
augury which does not fall under any of the 
four classes mentioned above, such as sneez- 
ing, stumbling, and other accidental things. 
There was an important augury of this kind 
connected with the army, which was called 
ex acuminibus, that is, the flames appearing 
at the points of spears or other weapons. 
The ordinary manner of taking the auspices, 
properly so called (i.e. ex caelo and ex avibus}, 
was as follows : The person who was to take 
them first marked out with a wand (littius) 
a division in the heavens called templum or 
tescwn, within which he intended to make 
his observations. The station where he was 
to take the auspices was also separated by a 
solemn formula from the rest of the land, 
and was likewise called templum or tcsci/m. 
He then proceeded to pitch a tent in it (taber- 
naculum capere), and this tent again was also 
called templum, or, more accurately, templum 
minus. [TEMPLUM.] Within the walls of 
Rome, or, more properly speaking, within 
the pomoerium, there was no occasion to se- 
lect a spot and pitch a tent on it, as there 
was a place on the Arx on the summit of the 
Capitoline hill, called Auguraculum, which 
had been consecrated once for all for this pur- 
pose. In like manner there was in every 
Roman camp a place called augur ale, which 
answered the same purpose ; but on all other 
occasions a place had to be consecrated, and 
a tent to be pitched, as, for instance, in the 




Campus Martius, when the comitia centuriata 
were to he held. The person who was then 
taking the auspices waited for the favourable 
signs to appear ; but it was necessary during 
this time that there should be no interruption 
of any kind whatsoever (silentiiim}, and hence 
the word silentiiim was used in a more ex- 
tended sense to signify the absence of every 
thing that was faulty. Every thing, on the 
contrary, that rendered the auspices invalid 
was called vitium ; and hence we constantly 
read in Livy and other writers of vitio magis- 
tratus creati, vitio lex lata, e. The watch- 
ing for the auspices was called spectio or 
servare de coelo, the declaration of what was 
observed nuntiatio, or, if they were unfavour- 
able, obnuntiatio. In the latter case, the 
person who took the auspices seems usually 
to have said alto die, by which the business 
in hand, whether the holding of the comitia 
or any thing else, was entirely stopped. In 
ancient times no one but a patrician could 
take the auspices. Hence the possession of 
the auspices (habere aitspicia) is one of the 
most distinguished prerogatives of the patri- 
cians ; they are said to be penes patrum, and 
are called aiispicia patrum. It would further 
appear that every patrician might take the 
auspices ; but here a distinction is to be ob- 
served between the aiispicia privata and aus- 
picia publica. One of the most frequent 
occasions on which the aiispicia privata were 
taken, was in case of a marriage : and this 
was one great argument used by the patri- 
cians against conniibium between themselves 
and the plebeians, as it would occasion, they 
urged, perturbationem auspiciorum publico- 
rum prieatorumque. In taking these private 
auspices, it would appear that any patrician 
was employed who knew how to form templa 
and was acquainted with the art of augury. 
The case, however, was very different with 
respect to the aiispicia publica, generally 
called aiispicia simply, or those which con- 
cerned the state. The latter could only be 
taken by the persons who represented the 
state, and who acted as mediators between 
the gods and the state ; for though all the 
patricians were eligible for taking the aus- 
pices, yet it was only the magistrates who 
were in actual possession of them. In case, 
however, there was no patrician magistrate, 
the auspices became vested in the whole body 
of the patricians (aiispicia ad patres redeunt], 
who had recourse to an interregnum for the 
renewal of them, and for handing them over 
in a perfect state to the new magistrates : 
hence we find the expressions repetere de in- 
tegro aiispicia, and renovare per interregnum 
aiispicia. The distinction between the duties 
of the magistrates and the augurs in taking 

the auspices is one of the most difficult points 
connected with this subject, but perhaps a 
satisfactory solution of these difficulties may 
be found by taking an historical view of the 
question. We are told not only that the 
kings were in possession of the auspices, but 
that they themselves were acquainted with 
the art and practised it. Romulus is stated 
to have appointed three augurs, but only as 
his assistants in taking the auspices, a fact 
which it is important to bear in mind. Their 
dignity gradually increased in consequence of 
their being employed at the inauguration of 
the kings, and also in consequence of their 
becoming the preservers and depositaries of 
the science of augury. Formed into a col- 
legium, they handed down to their successors 
the various rules of the science, while the 
kings, and subsequently the magistrates of 
the republic, were liable to change. Their 
duties thus became twofold, to assist the ma- 
gistrates in taking the auspices, and to pre- 
serve a scientific knowledge of the art. As 
the augurs were therefore merely the assist- 
ants of the magistrates, they could not take 
the auspices without the latter, though the 
magistrates on the contrary could dispense 
with their assistance. At the same time it 
must be borne in mind, that as the augurs 
were the interpreters of the science, they 
possessed the right of declaring whether the 
auspices were valid or invalid. They thus 
possessed in reality a veto upon every im- 
portant public transaction ; and they fre- 
quently exercised this power as a political 
engine to vitiate the election of each parties 
as were unfavourable to the enclusive privi- 
leges of the patricians. But although the 
augurs could declare that there was some 
fault in the auspices, yet, on the other hand, 
they could not, by virtue of their office, de- 
clare that any unfavourable sign had appeared 
to them, since it was not to them that the 
auspices were sent. Thus we are told that 
the augurs did not possess the spectio. This 
spectio was of two kinds, one more extensive 
and the other more limited. In the one case 
the person who exercised it could put a stop 
to the proceedings of any other magistrate by 
his obnuntiatio : this was called spectio et 
nuntiatio (perhaps also spectio cum inmtia- 
tione], and belonged only to the highest ma- 
gistrates, the consuls, dictators, interreges, 
and, with some modifications, to the praetors. 
In the other case, the person who took the 
auspices only exercised the spectio in refer- 
ence to the duties of his own office, and could 
not interfere with any other magistrate : this 
was called spectio sine nuntiatione, and be- 
longed to the other magistrates, the censors, 
aediles, and quaestors. Now as the augur? 
E 2 



did not possess the auspices, they conse- 
quently could not possess the spectio (habere 
spectionetri) ; but as the augurs were con- 
stantly employed by the magistrates to take 
the auspices, they exercised the spectio, though 
Hiey did not possess it in virtue of their office. 
When they were employed by the magistrates 
in taking the auspices, they possessed the 
right of the nuntiatio, and thus had the 
power, by the declaration of unfavourable 
signs (fibmmtiatio}, to put a stop to all im- 
portant public transactions. The auspices 
were not conferred upon the magistrates in 
any special manner. It was the act of their 
election which made them the recipients of 
the auspices, since the comitia, in which they 
were appointed to their office, were held utts- 
picato, and consequently their appointment 
was rcgaided as ratified by the gods. The 
auspices, therefore, passed immediately into 
their hands upon the abdication of their pre- 
decessors in office. The auspices belonging 
to the oift'erent magistrates were divided into 
two claf ses, called ampicia maxima or majora 
and mi'iura. The former, which belonged 
originall? to the kings, passed over to the 
consuls, censors, and praetors, and likewise 
to the extraordinary magistrates, the dicta- 
tors, interreges, and consular tribunes. The 
quaestors and the curulc aediles, on the con- 
trary, had only the auxjiicia minora. It was 
a common opinion in antiquity that a college 
of three augurs was appointed by Romulus, 
answering to the number of the early tribes, 
the llamnes, Tities, and Lucerenses, but the 
accounts vary respecting their origin and 
number. At the passing of the Ogulnian 
law (B.C. 300) the augurs were four in num- 
ber. This law increased the number of pon- 
tiffs to eight, by the addition of four plebeians, 
and that of the augurs to nine by the addi- 
tion of five plebeians. The number of nine 
augurs lasted down to the dictatorship of 
Sulla, who increased them to fifteen, a mul- 
tiple of the original three, probably with a 
reference to the early tribes. A sixteenth 
was added by Julius Caesar after his return 
from Egypt. The members of the college of 
augurs possessed the right of self-election 
(cooptatio] until B.C. 103, the year of the 
Domitian law. By this law it was enacted 
that vacancies in the priestly colleges should 
be filled up by the votes of a minority of the 
tribes, i. e. seventeen out of thirty-five chosen 
by lot. The Domitian law was repealed by 
Sulla B.C. 81, but again restored B.C. 63, 
during the consulship of Cicero, by the tri- 
bune T. Annius Labienus, with the support 
of Caesar. It was a second time abrogated 
by Antony B.C. 44 ; whether again restored 
by Ilirllus and Tansa in their general annul- 

ment of the acts of Antony, seems uncertain. 
The emperors possessed the right of electing 
augurs at pleasure. The augurs were elected 
for life, and even if capitally convicted, never 
lost their sacred character. When a vacancy 
occurred, the candidate was nominated by 
two of the elder members of the college, the 
electors were sworn, and the new member 
was then solemnly inaugurated. On such 
occasion there was always a splendid banquet 
given, at which all the augurs were expected 
to be present. The only distinction in the 
college was one of age ; an elder augur 
always voted before a younger, even if the 
latter filled one of the higher offices in the 
state. The head of the college was called 
magister coUegii. As insignia of their office 
the augurs wore the trabea, or public dress, 
and carried in their hand the litutis or curved 
wand. [LiTuus.] On the coins of the Ro- 
mans, who filled the office of augur, we con- 
stantly find the litutis, and along with it, not 
unfrequently, the capis, an earthen vessel 
which was used by them in sacrifices. The 

science of the augurs was called jus migwuni 
anil jus augur ium, and was preserved in books 
(libri aitgurales], which are frequently men- 
tioned in the ancient writers. The expres- 
sion for consulting the augurs was rcferre ad 
augures, and their answers were called dc- 
creta or responsa augitrum. The science of 
augury had greatly declined in the time of 
Cicero ; and although he frequently deplores 
its neglect in his De Divinationc, yet neither 
he nor any of the educated classes appears to 
have had any faith in it. 

AUGURACULUM. [ARX ; AUGUR, p. 50, b.] 

AUGURALE. [AuouR, p. 50, b.] 


AUGUSTALES (1) (sc. ludi, also called 
Augustalia, sc. certamina, hidicra], games 
celebrated in honour of Augustus, at Rome 
and in other parts of the Roman empire. 
After the battle of Actium, a quinquennial 
festival was instituted ; and the birthday of 
Augustus, as well as that on which the vic- 
tory was announced at Rome, were regarded 
as festival days. It was not, however, till 
B.C. 1 1 that the festival on the birthday of 
Augustus was formally established by a de- 
cree of the senate, and it is this fcstiva* 


which is usually meant when the Augustales 
or Augustalia are mentioned. It was cele- 
brated iv. Id. Octobr. At the death of Au- 
gustus, this festival assumed a more solemn 
character, was added to the Fasti, and cele- 
brated to his honour as a god. It was hence- 
forth exhibited annually in the circus, at first 
by the tribunes of the plebs, at the com- 
mencement of the reign of Tiberius, but after- 
wards by the praetor peregrinus. (2) The 
name of two classes of priests, one at Rome 
and the other in the municipia. The Angus- 
tales at Home, properly called sodalcs Augus- 
tales, were an order of priests instituted by 
Tiberius to attend to the worship of Augustus 
and the Julia gens. They were chosen by 
lot from among the principal persons of 
Rome, and were twenty-one in number, to 
which were added Tiberius, Drusus, Claudius, 
and Germanicus, as members of the imperial 
family. They were also called sacerdotes Au- 
gustales, and sometimes simply Augustales. 
The Augustales in the municipia are supposed 
by most modern writers to have been a class 
of priests selected by Augustus from the liber- 
tini to attend to the religious rites connected 
with the worship of the Lares, which that 
emperor was said to have put up in places 
where two or more ways met ; but there are 
good reasons for thinking that they were in- 
stituted in imitation of the Augustales at 
Rome, and for the same object, namely, to 
attend to the worship of Augustus. They 
formed a collegium and were appointed by 
the dectiriones, or senate of the municipia 
The six principal members of the college were 
called Sei-iri, a title which seems to have been 
imitated from the Seviri in the equestrian 
order at Rome. 

AUGUSTUS, a name bestowed upon Octa 
vianus in B.C. 27, by the senate and the Ro 
man people. It was a word used in connec 
tion with religion, and designated a person a 
sacred and worthy of worship; hence th 
Greek writers translate it by 2eaoros. I 
was adopted by all succeeding emperors, as i 
descended, either by birth or adoption, from 
the first emperor of the Roman world. Th 
name of Augusta was frequently bestowe 
upon females of the imperial family; bu 
Augustus belonged exclusively to the reigning 
emperor till towards the end of the second 
century of the Christian aera, when M. Au- 
relius and L. Verus both received this sur- 
name. From this time we frequently find 
two or even a greater number of Augusti. 
From the time of Probus the title became 
perpetuus Augustus, and from Philippus or 
Claudius Gothicus semper Augustus, the latter 
of which titles was borne by the so-called Ro- 
man emperors in Germany. [CAKS\B ] 



AURUM (xpv"os), gold. Gold was scarce 
n Greece. The chief places from which the 
jreeks procured their gold were India, Arabia, 
\nnenia, Colchis, and Troas. It was found 
lixed with the sands of the Pactolus and 
ther rivers. Almost the only method of 
urifying gold, known to the ancients, seems 
o have been that of grinding and then roast- 
ng it, and by this process they succeeded in 
getting it very pure. This is what_we are to 
understand by the phrase \pva-iov airf^ov in 
Thucydides, and by the word obntssa in 
'liny. The art of gilding was known to the 
Jreeks from the earliest times of which we 
have any information. The time when gold 
was first coined at Athens is very uncertain, 
but on the whole it appears most probable 
that gold money was not coined there, or in 
Greece Proper generally, till the time of Alex- 
ander the Great, if we except a solitary issue 
of debased gold at Athens in B.C. 407. But 
from a very early period the Asiatic nations, 
and the Greek cities of Asia Minor and the 
adjacent islands, as well as Sicily and Cyrenc, 
possessed a gold coinage, which was more or 
less current in Greece. Herodotus says that 
the Lydians were the first who coined gold, 
and the stater of Croesus appears to have 
been the earliest gold coin known to the 
Greeks. The Daric was a Persian coin. 
Staters of Cyzicus and Phocaea had a consi- 
derable currency in Greece. There was a 
gold coinage in Samos as early as the time of 
Polycrates. The islands of Siphnos and Tha- 
sos, wLlch possessed gold mines, appear to 
have Lad i gold coinage at an early period. 
The Macedonian gold coinage came into cir- 
culation in Greece in the time of Philip, and 
continued in use till the subjection of Greece 
to the Romans. [DARICUS; STATER.] The 
standard gold coin of Rome was the aurein, 
nummus, or denarius aureus, which, accord- 
ing to Pliny, was first coined 62 years after 
the first silver coinage [ARGEXTUM], that is, 
in the year 207 B.C. The lowest denomina- 
tion was the scrupulum, which was made 
equal to 20 sestertii. The weight of the 
sorupulumwas 18'06 grains. The annexed 
cut represents a gold coin of 60 sestertii. 
Pliny adds that afterwards aurei were coined 




of 40 to the pound, which weight was dimi- 
nished, till under Nero they were 45 to the 
pound. The average weight of the aurei of 
Augustus, in the British Museum, is 121-26 
grains : and as the weight was afterwards 
diminished, we may take the average at 120 
grains. The value of the aureus in terms of 

Aureus of Augustus. (British Museum.) 

the sovereign = II. Is. Id. and a little more 
than a halfpenny. This is its value accord- 
ing to the present worth of gold ; but its 
current value in Rome was different from 
this, on account of the difference in the worth 
of the metal. The aureus passed for 25 de- 
narii ; therefore, the denarius being 8 \d., it 
was worth 17*. 8jrf. The ratio of the value 
of gold to that of silver is given in the article 
ARGENTUM. Alexander Severus coined pieces 
of one-half and one-third of the aureus, called 
Semissis and tremissis, after which time the 
aureus was called solidtis. Constantino the 
Great coined nurei of 72 to the pound; at 
which standard the coin remained to the end 
of the empire. 

ATJRUM CORONARIUM. When a general 
in a Roman province had obtained a victory, 
it was the custom for the cities in his own 
provinces, and for those from the neighbour- 
ing states, to send golden crowns to him, 
which were carried before him in his triumph 
at Rome. In the time of Cicero it appears 
to have been usual for the cities of the pro- 
vinces, instead of sending crowns on occasion 
of a victory, to pay morey, which was called 
attrttm coronariwn. This offering, which 
was at first voluntary, came to be regarded 
as a regular tribute, and was sometimes 
exacted by the governors of the provinces, 
even when no victory had been gained. 


AUSPEX. [AuouR.] 


AUTHEPSA (ai-e^s), which literally 
means "self-boiling," or "self-cooking," was 
the name of a vessel which is supposed to 
have been used for heating water, or for 
keeping it hot. 

AUTONOMI (avTovotLoi), the name given 
by the Greeks to those states which were 
governed by their own laws, and were not 
subject to any foreign power. This name 
was also given to those cities subject to the 

Romans, which were permitted to enjoy 
their own laws and elect their own magis- 

AUX1LIA. [Socn.] 




AXONES (amoves), also called ktirMa 
(iciip/3eis), wooden tablets of a square or pyra- 
midal form, made to turn on an axis, on 
which were written the laws of Solon. Ac- 
cording to some writers the Axoncs contained 
the civil, and the Kurbeis tie religious laws ; 
according to others the Kurbeis had four 
sides and the Axoncs three. But at Athens, 
at all events, they seem to have been iden- 
tical. They were at first preserved in the 
Acropolis, but were afterwards placed in the 
agora, in order that all persons might be able 
to read them. 

BALNEUM or BALINEUM (\oerpov or 
\ovrpov, fiaXavelov, also balncae or balineac], 
a bath. Balneum or balineitm signifies, in 
its primary sense, a bath or bathing vessel, 
such as most Romans possessed in their own 
houses ; and from that it came to mean the 
chamber which contained the bath. M'hen 
the baths of private individuals became more 
sumptuous, and comprised many rooms, the 
plural balnea or balinca was adopted, whicb 
still, in correct language, had reference only 
to the baths of private persons. Balneae and 
ballneae, which have no singular number, 
were the public baths. But this accuracy 
of diction is neglected by many of the later 
writers. Thermae (from OtpM, warmth) 
means properly warm springs, or baths of 
warm water, but was afterwards applied to 
the structures in which the baths were placed, 
and which were both hot and cold. There 
was, however, a material distinction between 
the balneae and thermae, inasmuch as the 
former was the term used under the republic, 
and referred to the public establishments of 
that age, which contained no appliances for 
luxury beyond the mere convenience of hot 
and cold baths, whereas the latter name was 
given to those magnificent edifices which grew 
up under the empire, and which comprised 
within their range of buildings all the appur- 
tenances belonging to the Greek gymnasia, as 
well as a regular establishment appropriated 
for bathing. Bathing was a practice familiar 
to the Greeks of both sexes from the earliest 
times. The artificial warm bath was taken 
in a vessel called asaminthus (ao-dfiivflos) by 
Homer, and puchis (m/eAos) by the later 
Greeks. It did not contain water itself, but 



was only used for the bather to sit in, while 
the warm water was poured over him. On 
Greek vases, however, we never find anything 
corresponding to a modern bath in which 
persons can stand or sit ; but there is always 
a round or oval basin (Aoim}p or Aoi/njpioc), 
resting on a stand, by the side of which those 
who are bathing are standing undressed and 
washing themselves. In the Homeric times 
it was customary to take first a cold and 
afterwards a warm bath ; but in later times 
it was the usual practice of the Greeks to 
take first a warm or vapour, and afterwards 
a cold bath. At Athens the frequent use of 
the public baths, most of which were warm 
baths (/SoAayeia, called by Homer deppa 
Aoerpa), was regarded in the time of Socrates 
and Demosthenes as a mark of luxury and 
effeminacy. Accordingly, Phocion was said 
to have never bathed in a public bath, and 
Socrates to have used it very seldom. After 
bathing both sexes anointed themselves, in 
order that the skin might not be left harsh 
and rough, especially after warm water. Oil 
(eAouof) is the only ointment mentioned by 
Homer, but in later times precious unguents 
QiOpa) w,ere used for this purpose. The bath 
was usually taken before the principal meal 
of the day (Seiirvov'). The Lacedaemonians, 
who considered warm water as enervating, 
wsed two kinds of baths ; namely, the cold 
daily bath in the Eurotas, and a dry sudorific 
bath in a chamber heated with warm air by 
means of a stove, and from them the chamber 
used by the Romans for a similar purpose 
was termed Laconicum. A sudorific or va- 

pour bath (TTvpCa. or TrvpiaTTJpiov) is mentioned 
as early as the time of Herodotus. At what 
period the use of the warm bath was intro- 
duced among the Romans is not recorded ; 
but we know that Scipio had a warm bath in 
his villa at Liternum, and the practice of 
heating an apartment with warm air by flues 
placed immediately under it, so as to produce 
a vapour bath, is stated to have been invented 
by Sergius Grata, who lived in the age of 
Crassus, before the Marsic war. By the time 
of Cicero the use of baths of warm water and 
hot air had become common, and in his time 
there were baths at Rome which were open 
to the public upon payment of a small fee. 
In the public baths at Rome the men and 
women used originally to bathe in separate 
sets of chambers ; but under the empire it 
became the common custom for both sexes to 
bathe indiscriminately in the same bath. 
This practice was forbidden by Hadrian and 
M. Aurelius ; and Alexander Severus prohi- 
bited any baths, common to both sexes, from 
being opened in Rome. The price of a bath 
was a quadrant, the smallest piece of coined 
money, from the age of Cicero downwards, 
which was paid to the keeper of the bath 
(balneator}. Children below a certain age 
were admitted free. It was usual with the 
Romans to take the bath after exercise, and 
before the principal meal (coena) of the day ; 
but the debauchees of the empire bathed also 
after eating as well as before, in order to 
j promote digestion, and to acquire a new 
appetite for fresh delicacies. Upon quitting 
the bath the Romans as well as the Greeks 

Human Bulb. (Krco from the Thermae of Tiltt.) 




were anointed with oil. The Romans did jioi 
content themselves with a single bath of hot 
or cold water ; but they went through a 
course of baths in succession, in which the 
agency of air as well as water was applied. 
It is difficult to ascertain the precise order in 
which the course was usually taken ; but it 
appears to have been a general practice to 
close the pores, and brace the body after the 
excessive perspiration of the vapour bath, 
either "by pouring cold water over the head, 
or by plunging at once into the piscina. To 
render the subjoined remarks more easily in- 
telligible, the preceding woodcut is inserted, 
which is taken from a fresco painting upon 
the walls of the thermae of Titus at Rome. 
The chief parts of a Roman bath vere as 
follow: 1. Apodyterium. Here the bathers 
were expected to take off their garments, 
which were then delivered to a class of slaves, 
called capsarii, whose duty it was to take 
charge of them. These men were notorious 
for dishonesty, and were leagued with all the 
thieves of the city, so that they connived at 
the robberies which they were placed to pre- 
vent. There was probably an Elacotliesium 
or Unctorium, as appears from the preceding 
cut, in connection with the apodyterium, 
where the bathers might be anointed with 
oil. 2. Frigidarium or Cello, Frigidaria, 
where the cold bath was taken. The cold 
bath itself was called Natatio, Natatorium, 
Piscina, Haptisterium, or Futeus. 3. Tepi- 
darium would seem from the preceding cut 
to have been a bathing room, for a person is 
there apparently represented pouring water 
over a bather. But there is good reason for 
thinking that this was not the case. In most 
cases the tepidarium contained no water at 
all, but was a room merely heated with warm 
air of an agreeable temperature, in order to 
prepare the body for the great heat of the 
vapour and warm baths, and upon returning 
from the latter, to obviate the danger of a 
too sudden transition to the open air. 4. The 
Caldarium or Concameraia Sudatio contained 
at one extremity the vapour bath (Laconicuin], 
and at the other the warm bath (balneum 
or calda lavatio), while the centre space 
between the two ends was termed stidatio or 
sudatorium. In larger establishments the 
vapour bath and warm bath were in two 
separate cells, as we see in the preceding 
cut : in such' cases the former part alone was 
called concamcrata sudatio. The whole rested 
on a suspended pavement (suspcnsura), under 
which was a fire (hypocaiutum), so that the 
flames might heat the whole apartment. (See 
cut.) The warm water bath (balneum or 
calda lavatio}, which is also called piscina 
or calida piscina, labrum and solium, appears 

to have been a capacious marble vase, some- 
times standing upon the floor, like that in the 
preceding cut, and sometimes either partly 
elevated above the floor, as it was at Pompeii, 
or entirely sunk into it. After having gone 
through the regular course of perspiration, 
the Romans made use of instruments called 
strigi/es or strigles, to scrape off the perspira- 
tion. The strigil was also used by the Greeks, 

Strigil (Fr. 

L Relief at Athens.) 

who called it stlengis (orAeyvt's) or xystra 
(fvorpa). The figure in the cut on p. 24 is 
represented with a strigil in his hand. As 
the strigil was not a blunt instrument, its 
edge was softened by the application of oil, 
which was dropped upon it from a small 
vessel called guttits or ampulla, which had a 
narrow neck, so as to discharge its contents 
drop by drop, from whence the name is taken. 

Strigil and Guttus. (From a Statue in the V:it 

In the Thermae, spoken of above, the baths 
were of secondary importance. They were a 
Roman adaptation of the Greek gymnasium, 
contained cxedrae for the philosophers and 
rhetoricians to lecture in, porticoes for the 
idle, and libraries for the learned, ai'd were 
adorned with marbles, fountains, and shaded 
walks and plantations. M. Agrippa, iu the 




reign of Augustus, was the first who afforded 
these luxuries to his countrymen, by bequeath- 
ing to them the thermae and gardens which 
he had erected in the Campus Martius. The 
example set by Agrippa was followed by 
Nero, and afterwards by Titus, the ruins of 
whose thermae are still visible, covering a 
vast extent, partly under ground and partly 
above the Esquiline hill. Thermae were also 
erected by Trajan, Caracalla, and Diocletian, 
of the two last of which ample remains still 
exist. Previously to the erection of these 
establishments for the use of the population, 
it was customary for those who sought the 
favour of the people to give them a day's 
bathing free of expense. From thence it is 
fair to infer that the quadrant paid for admis- 
sion into the balneae was not exacted at the 
thermae, which, as being the works of the 
emperors, would naturally be opened with 
imperial generosity to all, and without any 

BALTEUS (reAcmiiK), a belt, a shoulder 
belt, was used to suspend the sword. See 
the figs, on p. 41. In the Homeric times the 
Greeks used a belt to support the shield. The 
balteus was likewise employed to suspend 
the quiver, and sometimes together with it 
the bow. More commonly the belt, whether 
employed to support the sword, the shield, 
or the quiver, was made of leather, and was 
frequently ornamented with gold, silver, and 
precious stones. In a general sense balteus 
was applied not only to the belt which passed 
over the shoulder, but also to the girdle 
(cingitltim}, which encompassed the waist. 
In architecture, Vitruvius applies the term 
Baltei to the bands surrounding the volute 
on each side of an Ionic capital. Other 
writers apply it to the praecinctiones of an 
amphitheatre. [AMPHITHEATRUM.] 

BARATHRON (ftapaOpov), also called ORUO- 
MA (opiryfta), a deep cavern or chasm, like 
the Ceadas at Sparta, behind the Acropolis at 
Athens, into which criminals were thrown. 

BARBA (Ktayuv, yeVeiof , VTITJIT)), the beard. 
The Greeks seem generally to have worn the 
beard till the time of Alexander the Great ; 
and a thick beard was considered as a mark 
of manliness. The Greek philosophers in 
particular were distinguished by their long 
beards as a sort of badge. The Romans in 
early times wore the beard uncut, and the 
Roman beards are said not to have been 
shaved till B.C. 300, when P. Ticinitis Maena 
brought over a barber from Sicily ; and Pliny 
adds, that the first Roman who is said to 
have been shaved every day was Scipio 
Africanus. His custom, however, was soon 
followed, and shaving became a regular thing. 

In the later times of the republic there were 
many who shaved the beard only partially, 
and trimmed it, so as to give it an ornamental 
form ; to them the terms bene barbati and 
barbattili are applied. In the general way at 
Rome, a long beard (barba promissa) wag 
considered a mark of slovenliness and squalor. 
The first time of shaving was regarded as the 
beginning of manhood, and the day on which 
this took place was celebrated as a festival. 
There was no particular time fixed for this 
to be done. Usually, however, it was done 
when the young Roman assumed the toga 
virilis. The hair cut off on such occasions 
was consecrated to some god. Thus Nero 
put his up in a gold box, set with pearls, and 
dedicated it to Jupiter Capitolinus. Under 
the emperor Hadrian the beard began to 
revive. Plutarch says that the emperor wore 
it to hide some scars on his face. The prac- 
tice afterwards became common, and till the 
time of Constantino the Great, the emperors 
appear in busts and coins with beards. The 
Romans let their beards grow in time of 
mourning ; the Greeks, on the other hand, 
on such occasions shaved the beard close. 

BARBITUS (/3<v/3iTos), or BARBITON 
(/Sap/SiToi/), a stringed instrument, the ori- 
ginal form of which is uncertain. Later 
writers use it as synonvmous with the lyra. 

BASCAUDA, a British basket. This term, 
which remains with very little variation in 
the Welsh " basgawd " and the English 
" basket," was conveyed to Rome together 
with the articles denoted by it. 

BASILICA (sc. aedes, aula, portions 
/3a<nAi(oi, also regia), a building which served 
as a court of law and an exchange, or place 
of meeting for merchants and men of busi- 
ness. The word was adopted from the Athe- 
nians, whose second archon was styled archon 
basileus (opxioi/ /ScuriAevs), and the tribunal 
where he adjudicated stoabasileius tt /Jao-t'Aeiof 
area), the substantive aula or porticus in 
Latin being omitted for convenience, and 
the distinctive epithet converted into a sub- 
stantive. The first edifice of this description 
at Rome was not erected until B.C. 182. It 
was situated in the forum adjoining the curia, 
and was denominated Basilica Portia, in com- 
memoration of its founder, M. Porcius Cato. 
Besides this there were twenty others erected 
at different periods, within the city of Rome. 
The forum, or, where there was more than 
one, the one which was in the most frequented 
and central part of the city, was always se- 
lected for the site of a basilica ; and hence it 
is that the classic writers not unfrequently 
use the terms forum and basilica syuony- 
mousiy. The ground plan of ail these build- 



ings ia rectangular, and their width not more 
than half, nor less than one-third of the 
length. This area was divided into three 
naves, consisting of a centre (media portions), 
and two side aisles, separated from the centre 
one, each by a single row of columns. At one 
end of the centre aisle was the tribunal of the 
judge, in form either rectangular or circular, as 
is seen in the annexed plan of the basilica at 
Pompeii. In the centre of the tribunal was 




. 1 

. * i 


. . . . _x__l 

-- J- 

Ground Plan of a Basilica. 

placed the curule chair of the praetor, and seats 
for the judices and the advocates. The two side 
aisles, as has been said, were separated from 
the centre one by a row of columns, behind 
each of which was placed a square pier or 
pilaster (parastata], which supported the 
flooring of an upper portico, similar to the 
gallery of a modern church. The upper 
gallery was in like manner decorated with 
columns, of lower dimensions than those 
below ; and these served to support the roof, 
and were connected with one another by a 
parapet-wall or balustrade (plutcus), which 
served as a defence against the danger of 
falling over, and screened the crowd of loiter- 
ers above (sitb-basilicani) from the people of 
business in the area below. Many of these 
edifices were afterwards used as Christian 
churches, and many churches were built 
after the model above described. Such churches 
were called basilicae, which name they retain 
to the present day, being still called at Rome 

BASTERNA, a kind of litter (lectica) in 
which women were carried in the time of the 
Roman emperors. It appears to have resem- 
bled the Lectiea [LECTICA] very closely ; and 
the only difference apparently was, that the 
lectica was carried by slaves, and the basterna 
by two mules. 

BAXA, or BAXEA, a sandal made of vege- 
table leaves, twigs, or fibres, worn on the 
stage by comic actors. 

BEMA (j3wux). [ECCLESIA.] 

BENDIDEIA (jSevoVaeia), a Thracian festi- 
val in honour of the goddess Bendis, who is 
said to be identical with the Grecian Artemis 
and with the Roman Diana. The festival 
was of a bacchanalian character. From 
Thrace it was brought to Athens, -where it 

was celebrated in the Peiraeeus, on the 19tb 
or 20th of the month Thargelion, before the 
Panathcnaea Minora. The temple of Bendis 
was called Bendideion. 

term beneficium is of frequent occurrence in 
the Roman law, in the sense of some special 
privilege or favour granted to a person in 
respect of age, sex, or condition. But the 
word was also used in other senses. In the 
time of Cicero it was usual for a general, or 
a governor of a province, to report to the 
treasury the names of those under his com- 
mand who had done good service to the state : 
those who were included in such report were 
said in beneficiis ad aerarium dcferri. In be- 
neficiis in these passages may mean that the 
persons so reported were considered as per- 
sons who had deserved well of the state ; and 
so the word beneficium may have reference to 
the services of the individuals ; but as the 
object for which their services were reported 
was the benefit of the individuals, it seems 
that the term had reference also to the reward, 
immediate or remote, obtained for their servi- 
ces. The honours and offices of the Roman 
state, in the republican period, were called 
the bencficia of the Populus Romanus. Bene- 
ficium also signified any promotion conferred 
on or grant made to soldiers, who were 
thence called bcneficiarii. 

BESTIARII (flrjpiofAaxoi), persons who 
fought with wild beasts in the games of the 
circus. They were either persons who fought 
for the sake of pay (aitctor amentum], and 
who were allowed arms, or they were crimi- 
nals, who were usually permitted to have no 
means of defence against the wild beasts. 

BIBLIOPOLA (/3i/3Aco7rciAi)s), also called 
librarius, a bookseller. The shop was called 
apotheca or tabcrna Ubraria, or merely libra- 
ria. The Romans had their Paternoster- 
row ; for the bibliopolae or librarii lived 
mostly in one street, called Argiletum. An- 
other favourite quarter of the booksellers was 
the Vicus Sandalarius. There seems also to 
have been a sort of bookstalls by the temples 
of Vertumnus and Janus. 

BIBLIOTHECA (/3i/3Aio07JKi), or amOriKy, 
t0AiW), primarily, the place where a collec- 
tion of books was kept ; secondarily, the col- 
lection itself. Public collections of books 
appear to have been very ancient. That of 
Peisistratus (B.C. 550) was intended for public 
use ; it was subsequently removed to Persia 
by Xerxes. About the same time Polycrates, 
tyrant of Samos, is said to have founded a 
library. In the best days of Athens, even 
private persons had large collections of books ; 
but the most important and splendid public 
library of antiquity was that founded by the 




Ptolemies at Alexandria, begun tinder Ptolemy 
Soter, but increased and re-arranged in an 
orderly and systematic manner by Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, who also appointed a fixed 
librarian, and otherwise provided for the use- 
fulness of the institution. A great part of 
this splendid library was consumed by fire in 
the siege of Alexandria by Julius Caesar ; but 
it was soon restored, and continued in a 
flourishing condition till it was destroyed by 
the Arabs, A.D. 640. The Ptolemies were not 
long -a-ithout a rival in zeal. Eumenes, king of 
Pergamus, became a patron of literature and 
the sciences, and established a library, which, 
in spite of the prohibition against exporting 
papyrus issued by Ptolemy, who was jealous 
of his success, became very extensive, and 
perhaps next in importance to the library of 
Alexandria. The first public library in Rome 
was that founded by Asinius Pollio, and was 
in the atrium Libertatis on Mount Aventine. 
The library of Pollio was followed by that of 
Augustus in the temple of Apollo on Mount Pa- 
latine and by another, bibliothecae Oetavianae, 
in the theatre of Marcellus. There were also 
libraries on the Capitol, in the temple of 
Peace, in the palace of Tiberius, besides the 
Ulpian library, which was the most famous, 
founded by Trajan. Libraries were also 
usually attached to the Thermae. [BALNEUM.] 
Private collections of books "were made at 
Rome soon after the second Punic war. 
The zeal of Cicero, Atticus, and others, 
in increasing their libraries is well known. 
It became, in fact, the fashion to have a 
room elegantly furnished as a library, and 
reserved for that purpose. The charge of the 
libraries in Rome was given to persons called 

BICOS 03">s), the name of an earthen 
vessel in common use among the Greeks, for 
holding wine, and salted meat and fish. 

BlDEXTAL, the name given to a place 
where any one had been struck by lightning, 
or where any one had been killed by lightning 
and buried. Such a place was considered 
sacred. Priests, who were called bidentales, 
collected the earth which had been torn up 
by lightning, and every thing that had been 
scorched, and burnt it in the ground with a 
sorrowful murmur. The officiating priest 
was said condere fulgtir ; he further conse- 
crated the spot by sacrificing a two-year-old 
sheep (bidens), whence the name of the place 
and of the priest, and he also erected an altar, 
and surrounded it with a wall or fence. To 
move the bounds of a bidental, or in any way 
to violate its sacred precincts, was considered 
as sacrilege. 

BIDIAEI (f3iSuoi), magistrates in Sparta, 
whose business was to inspect the gymnastic 

exercises. They were either five or six IT. 




BIREMIS. (1.) A ship with two banks of 
oars. [NAVIS.] Such ships were called di- 
crota by the Greeks, which term is also 
used by Cicero. (2.) A boat rowed by two 


BOEDROMIA (/3o7)Spd/uua), a festival cele- 
brated at Athens on the seventh day of the 
month Boedromion, in honour of Apollo Boe- 
dromius. The name Boedromius, by which 
Apollo was called in Boeotia and many other 
parts of Greece, seems to indicate that by 
this festival he was honoured as a martial 
god, who, either by his actual presence or 
by his oracles, afforded assistance in the dan- 
gers of war. 

BOEOTARCHES (jSoiuropxis, or /Sotumw- 
Xs), the name of the chief magistrates of the 
Boeotian confederacy, chosen by the different 
states. Their duties were chiefly of a mili- 
tary character. Each state of the confederacy 
elected one boeotarch, the Thebans two. The 
total number from the whole confederacy 
varied with the number of the independent 
states, but at the time of the Peloponnesian 
war they appear to have been ten or twelve. 
The boeotarchs, when engaged in military ser- 
vice, formed a council of war, the decisions 
of which were determined by a majority of 
votes, the president being one of the two 
Theban boeotarchs, who commanded alter- 
nately. Their period of service was a year, 
beginning about the winter solstice ; and 
whoever continued in office longer than his 
time was punishable with death, both at 
Thebes and in other cities. 

BOXA, property. The phrase in bonis is 
frequently used as opposed to dominium or 
Quiritarian ownership (ex jure Quiritium}. 
The ownership of certain kinds of things among 
the Romans could only be transferred from one 
person to another with certain formalities, or 
acquired by usucapion (that is, the unin- 
terrupted possession of a thing for a certain 
time). But if it was clearly the intention of 
the owner to transfer the ownership, and the 
necessary forms only were wanting, the pur- 
chaser had the thing in bonis, and he had the 
enjoyment of it, though the original owner 
was still legally the owner, and was said to 
have the thing ex jure Quiritium, notwith- 
standing he had parted with the thing. The 
person who possessed a thing in bonis was 
protected in the enjoyment of it by the prae- 
tor, and consequently after a time would 




obtain the Quiritarian ownership of it by 
usucapion. [USUCAPIO.] 

BONA CADUCA. Caducum literally sig- 
nifies that which falls : thus glans caduca 
is the mast which falls from a tree. The 
strict legal sense of caducum and bona caduca 
is as follows : If a thing is left by testament 
to a person, so that he can take it by the jus 
civile, but from some cause has not taken it, 
that thing is called caducum, as if it had fallen 
from him. Or if a heres ex parts, or a le- 
gatee, died before the opening of the will, the 
tiling was caducum. That which was cadu- 
cum came, in the first place, to those among 
the heredes who had children ; and if the 
hcredes had no children, it came among those 
of the legatees who had children. In case 
there was no prior claimant the caducum 
belonged to the aerarium ; and subsequently 
to the fiscus. [AERARIUM.] 

BONA FIDES implies, generally speaking, 
the absence of all fraud and unfair dealing or 
acting. In various actions arising out of 
mutual dealings, such as buying and selling, 
lending and hiring, partnership and others, 
bona fides is equivalent to aequum and jus- 
turn ; and such actions were sometimes called 
bonae fidei actiones. The formula of the 
praetor, which was the authority of the judex, 
empowered him in such cases to inquire and 
determine ex bona fide, that is, according to 
the real merits of the case : sometimes aequius 
melius was used instead of ex bona fide. 

BONORUM CESSIO. There were two 
kinfls of bonorum ccssio, injure and extra jus. 
The injure ccssio was a mode of transferring 
ownership by means of a fictitious suit. The 
bonorum cessio extra jus was introduced by 
a Julian law, passed either in the time of 
Julius Caesar or Augustus, which allowed an 
insolvent debtor to give up his property to his 
creditors. The debtor thus avoided the in- 
fumia consequent on the bonorum emtio, 
which was involuntary, and he was free from 
all personal execution. He was also allowed 
to retain a small portion of his property for 
his support. The property thus given up 
was sold, and the proceeds distributed among 
the creditors. 

BONORUM COLLATIO. By the strict 
rules of the civil law an emancipated son had 
no right to the inheritance of his father, whe- 
ther he died testate or intestate. But, in 
course of time, the praetor granted to eman- 
cipated children the privilege of equal succes- 
sion with those who remained in the power 
of the father at the time of his death ; but 
only on condition that they should bring into 
one common stock with their father's pro- 
perty, and for the purpose of an equal divi- 
sion among all the father's children, whatever 

property they had at the time of the father's 
death, and which would have been acquired 
for the father in case they had still remained 
in his power. This was called bonorum col- 

expression bonorum emtio applies to a sale of 
the property either of a living or of a dead 
person. It was in effect, as to a living debtor, 
an execution. In the case of a dead person, 
his property was sold when it was ascertained 
that there was neither hercs nor bonorum 
possessor, nor any other person entitled to 
succeed to it. In the case of the property of 
a living person being sold, the praetor, on 
the application of the creditors, ordered it to 
be possessed (possideri) by the creditors for 
thirty successive days, and notice to be given 
of the sale. This explains the expression iri 
Livy (ii. 24) : " ne quis militis, donee in 
castris esset, bona possideret aut venderet." 

BONORUM POSSESSIO was the right of 
suing for or retaining a patrimony or thing 
which belonged to another at the time of his 
death. The bonorum possessio was given by 
the edict both contra tabulas, secundum tabu- 
las, and intestati. 1. An emancipated son 
had no legal claim on the inheritance of his 
father ; but if he was omitted in his father's 
will, or not expressly exheredated, the prae- 
tor's edict gave him the bonorum possessio 
contra tabulas, on condition that he would 
bring into hotchpot (bonormn collatio) with 
his brethren who continued in the parent's 
power, whatever property he had at the time 
of the parent's death. 2. The bonorum pos- 
sessio secundum tabulas was that possession 
which the praetor gave, conformably to the 
words of the will, to those named in it as 
heredes, when there was no person intitled to 
make a claim against the will, or none who 
chose to make such a claim. 3. In the case 
of intestacy (intestati} there were seven de- 
grees of persons who might claim the bonorum 
possessio, each in his order, upon there being 
no claim of a prior degree. The first three 
degrees were children, Icgitimi heredes, and 
proximi cognati. Emancipated children could 
claim as well as those who were not eman- 
cipated, and adoptive as well as children 
of the blood ; but not children who had been 
adopted into another family. If a freedman 
died intestate, leaving only a wife (in manu) 
or an adoptive son, the patron was entitled 
to the bonorum possessio of one half of his 

BOONAE (jSowvai), persons in Athens who 
purchased oxen for the public sacrifices and 
feasts. They are spoken of by Demosthenes 
in conjunction with the Uporroioi and those 
who presided over the mysteries. 




BOREASMUS (/3opeao>ios or /Sopeacr^toi), a 
festival celebrated by the Athenians in honour 
of Boreas, which, as Herodotus seems to 
think, was instituted during the Persian war, 
when the Athenians, being commanded by an 
oracle to invoke their yo/n/Spbt eirixovpos, prayed 
to Boreas. But considering that Boreas was 
intimately connected with the early history of 
Attica, we have reason to suppose that even 
previous to the Persian wars certain honours 
were paid to him, which were perhaps only 
revived and increased after the event re- 
corded by Herodotus. The festival, however, 
does not seem ever to have had any great 

BOULE (|3ovArj ^ riav ireiraxocriW) . In 
the heroic ages, represented to us by Homer, 
the boule is simply an aristocratical council 
of the elders amongst the nobles, sitting 
under their king as president, which decided 
on public business and judicial matters, fre- 
quently in connection with, but apparently 
not subject to an agora, or meeting of the 
freemen of the state. [AGORA.] This form 
of government, though it existed for some 
time in the Ionian, Aolian, and Achaean 
states, was at last wholly abolished in these 
states. Among the Dorians, however, espe- 
cially among the Spartans, this was not the 
case, for they retained the kingly power of 
the Heracleidae, in conjunction with the 
Gcroitsia or assembly of elders, of which the 
kings were members. [GEEOUSIA.] At Athens 
on the contrary, the boule was a representa- 
tive, and in most respects a popular body 
(Srjju.oTiicoi'). The first institution of the 
Athenian boule is generally attributed to 
Solon ; but there are strong reasons for sup- 
posing that, as in the case of the Areiopagus, 
he merely modified the constitution of a body 
which he found already existing. But be 
this as it may, it is admitted that Solon 
made the number of his boule 400, 100 from 
each of the four tribes. When the number of 
the tribes was raised to ten by Cleisthenes 
(B. c. 510), the council also was increased to 
500, fifty being taken from each of the ten 
tribes. The bmileutae (/SovAevrcu) or council- 
lors were appointed by lot, and hence tbey 
;tie called councillors made by the bean (01 
a:rb roO /SovAevTdi), from the use of 
beans in drawing lots. They were required 
to submit to a scrutiny or docimasia, in which 
they gave evidence of being genuine citizens, 
of never having lost their civic rights by ati- 
mia, and also of being above 30 years of age. 
They remained in office for a year, receiving 
a drachma (jiucrObs jSovAeunicos) for each day 
un which they sat : and independent of the 
general account (evWrat), which the whole 
body had to give at the end of the year, any 

single member was liable to expulsion foi 
misconduct by his colleagues. The senate oi 
500 was divided into ten sections of fifty 
each, the members of which were called pry- 
tanes (n-purawts), and were all of the same 
tribe ; they acted as presidents both of the 
council and the assemblies during thirty-five 
or thirty-six days, as the case might be, so 
as to complete the lunar year of 354 days 
(12X29^). Each tribe exercised these func- 
tions in turn ; the period of office was called 
a prytany (Trpvrai/ei'a), and the tribe that pre- 
sided the presiding tribe ; the order in which 
the tribes presided was determined by lot, 
and the four supernumerary days were given 
to the tribes which came last in order. More- 
over, to obviate the difficulty of having too 
many in office at once, every fifty was sub- 
divided into five bodies of ten each ; its pry- 
tany also being portioned out into five periods 
of seven days each ; so that only ten senators 
presided for a week over the rest, and were 
thence called proedri (irp6<?Spoi). Again, out 
of these proedri an epistates (cTrioTa-njs) was 
chosen for one day to preside as a chairman 
in the senate, and the assembly of the people ; 
during his day of office he kept the public 
records and seal. The prytanes had the right 
of convening the council and the assembly 
(e/cKArjcria). The duty of the proedri and 
their president was to propose subjects for 
discussion, and to take the votes both of the 
councillors and the people ; for neglect of 
their duty they were liable to a fine. More- 
over, whenever a meeting, either of the 
council or of the assembly, was convened, the 
chairman of the proedri selected by lot nine 
others, one from each of the non-presiding 
tribes; these also were called proedri, and 
possessed a chairman of their own, likewise 
appointed by lot from among themselves. 
But the proedri who proposed the subject for 
discussion to the assembly belonged to the 
presiding tribe. It is observed, under AUEIO- 
PAGL-S, that the chief object of Solon, in form- 
ing the senate and the areiopagus, was to 
control the democratical powers of the state : 
for this purpose he ordained that the senate 
should discuss and vote upon all matters 
before they were submitted to the assembly, 
so that nothing could be laid before the 
people on which the senate had not come to 
a previous decision. This decision, or bill, 
was called proboulewma (Trpo^ouAeufia) ; but 
then not only might this proboulcuma be re- 
jected or modified by the assembly, but the 
latter also possessed and exercised the power 
of coming to a decision completely different 
from the will of the senate. In addition to 
the bills which it was the duty of the senate 
to propose of their own accord, theie were 




others of a different character, viz. such, as 
any private individual might wish to have 
submitted to the people. To accomplish this, 
it was first necessary for the party to obtain, 
by petition, the privilege of access to the 
senate, and leave to propose his motion ; and 
if the measure met with their approbation, he 
eould then submit it to the assembly. A pro- 
posal of this kind, which had the sanction of 
the senate, was also called proboiilewna, and 
frequently related to the conferring of some 
particular honour or privilege upon an indi- 
vidual. Thus the proposal of Ctesiphon for 
crowning Demosthenes is so styled. In the 
assembly the bill of the senate was first read, 
perhaps by the crier, after the introductory 
ceremonies were over ; and then the proedri 
put the question to the people, whether they 
approved of it. The people declared their 
will by a show of hands (ff/joxeiporovta). If 
it was confirmed it became a pscphisma 
(i/nj$K7>ia), or decree of the people, binding 
upon all classes. The form for drawing up 
such decrees varied in different ages. In the 
time of Demosthenes the decrees commence 
with the name of the archon ; then come the 
day of the month, the tribe in office, and, 
lastly, the name of the proposer. The motive 
for passing the decree is next stated ; and 
then follows the decree itself, prefaced with 
the formula SeSc'xCat Tjf/SovAiJ xai TW Srj/J.&>. The 
senate house was called Bouleuterion (/SovAeu- 
njptoi/). The prytanes also had a building to 
hold their meetings in, where they were en- 
tertained at the public expense during their 
prytany. This was called the Prytaneion, 
and was used for a variety of purposes. [Pnv- 

BRACAE, or BRACCAE (avofupi'Ses), 
trowsers, pantaloona, were common to all the 
nations which encircled the Greek and Roman 
population, extending from the Indian to the 
Atlantic ocean, but were not worn by the 
Greeks and Romans themselves. Accordingly 
the monuments containing representations of 
people different from the Greeks and Romans 
exhibit them in trowsers, thus distinguishing 
them from the latter people. 

BRAURONIA (/Spavpcoi/ia), a festival cele- 
brated in honour of Artemis Brauronia, in the 
Attic town of Brauron, where Orestes and 
Iphigeneia, on their return from Tauris, were 
supposed by the Athenians to have landed, 
nnd left the statue of the Taurian goddess. It 
was held every fifth year, and the chief solem- 
nity consisted in the Attic girls between the 
ages of five and ten years going in solemn 
procession to the sanctuary, where they were 
consecrated to the goddess. During this act 
the priests sacrificed a. goat, and the girls 
performed a propitiatory rite, in which they 

imitated bears. This rite may have simply 
risen from the circumstance that the bear was 
sacred to Artemis, especially in Arcadia. 
There was also a quinquennial festival called 
Brauronia, which was celebrated by men and 
dissolute women, at Brauron, in honour of 

BRUTTIANI, slaves whose duty it was to 
wait upon the Roman magistrates. They are 
said to have been originally taken from among 
the Bruttians. 

BUCCIXA OvKdprj), a kind of horn trumpet, 
anciently made out of a shell (buecinum), the 
form of which is exhibited in the specimen 
annexed. The buccino, was distinct from the 

Buccinn, Trumpet. (Blanchini, DC Mus. Instrum. Vet.) 

cornu ; but it is often confounded with it. 
The buccina seems to have been chiefly dis- 
tinguished by the twisted form of the shell, 
from which it was originally made. In later 
times it was carved from horn, and perhaps 
from wood or metal, so as to imitate the 
shell. The buccina was chiefly used to pro- 
claim the watches of the day and of the 
night, hence called buccina prima, sccunda, 
&c. It was also blown at funerals, and at 
festive entertainments both before sitting 
down to table and after. 

BULLA, a circular plate or boss of metal, 
so called from its resemblance in form to a 
bubble floating upon water. Bright studs of 
this description were used to adorn the sword 

Bulls, (From the Collection of Mr. Rogers ; the goU chord 
added from a specimen in the Slit. Mun.) 




bflt ; but we most frequently read of bullae 
as ornaments worn by children, suspended 
from the neck, and especially by the sons of 
the noble and wealthy. Such an one is called 
licres bullatus by Juvenal. The bulla was 
usually made of thin plates of gold. The 
use of the bulla, like that of the praetexta, 
was derived from the Etruscans. It was 
originally worn only by the children of the 
patricians, but subsequently by all of free 


BUSTUM. It was customary among the 
Romans to burn the bodies of the dead before 
burying them. When the spot appointed for 
that purpose adjoined the place of sepulture, 
it was termed bitstwn ; when it was separate 
from it, it was called ustrina. From this 
word the gladiators, who were hired to fight 
round the burning pyre of the deceased, were 
called bustuarii. 

BUXUM or BUXUS, probably means the 
wood of the box-tree, but was given as a 
name to many things made of this wood. 
The tablets used for writing on, and covered 
with wax (tabulae ceratae], were usually 
made of box. In the same way the Greek 
nviov, formed from rvos, " box-wood," 
came to be applied to any tablets, whether 
they were made of this wood or any other 
substance. Tops and combs were made of 
box-wood, and also all wind instruments, 
especially the flute. 

BYSSUS (/Suercros), linen, and not cotton. 
The word byssus appears to come from the 
Hebrew lutz, and the Greeks probably got it 
through the Phoenicians. 

/^ABEIRIA (xa/Seipia), mysteries, festivals, 
\J and orgies, solemnised in all places in 
which the Pelasgian Cabeiri were worshipped, 
but especially in Samothrace, Imbros, Lemnos, 
Thebes, Anthedon, Pergamus, and Berytos. 
Little is known respecting the rites observed 
in these mysteries, as no one was allowed to 
divulge them. The most celebrated were 
those of the island of Samothrace, which, if 
we may judge from those of Lemnos, were 
solemnised every year, and lasted for nine 
days. Persons on their admission seem to 
have undergone a sort of examination respect- 
ing the life they had led hitherto, and were 
then purified of all their crimes, even if they 
had committed murder. 

CADtJCEUS ((ojpwceioK, K7)pu'/oi>), the staff 
or mace carried by heralds and ambassadors 
in time of war. This name is also given to 
the staff with which Hermes or Mercury is 
usually represented, as is shown in the fol- 
lowing figure of that god. From caduceus 

was formed the word caduceator, which signi- 
fied a person sent to treat of peace. The 
persons of the caduceatores were considered 

Hermes bearing the Cmhiceus. (Mua Borbonico. 
vol. vi. pi. 2.) 


CADUS (<coos, <caSSos), a. large vessel 
usually made of earthenware, which was 
used for keeping wine, drawing water, &c. 
The name of cadus was sometimes given to 
the vessel or urn in which the counters or 
pebbles of the dicasts were put, when they 
gave their vote on a trial, but the diminutive 
Koiunco? was more commonly used in this 

CAELATURA (Topeimioj), a branch of the 
fine arts, under which all sorts of ornamental 
work in metal, except actual statues, appear 
to be included. The principal processes, 
which these words were used to designate, 
seem to have been of three kinds : hammer- 
ing metal plates into moulds or dies, so as to 
bring out a raised pattern ; engraving the 
surface of metals with a sharp tool ; and 
working a pattern of one metal upon or into 
the surface of another : in short, the various 
processes which we describe by the words 
chasing, damascening, &c. The objects on 
which the caelator exercised his art were 
chiefly weapons and armour especially 
shields, chariots, tripods, and other votive 
offerings, quoits, candelabra, thrones, curulc 
chairs, mirrors, goblets, dishes, and all kinds 
of gold and silver plate. The ornamental 
work with which the chaser decorated such 
objects consisted cither of simple running 
patterns, chiefly in imitation of plants and 
flowers, or of animals, or of mythological 




subjects, and, for armour, of battles. The 
mythological subjects were reserved for the 
works of the greatest masters of the art: 
they were generally executed in very high 
relief (anaylypha). In the finest works, the 
ornamental pattern was frequently distinct 
from the vessel, to which it was either fas- 
tened permanently, or so that it could be 
removed at pleasure, the vessel being of silver, 
and the ornaments of gold, crustae aut emlle- 
mata. The art of ornamental metal-work 
was in an advanced stage of progress among 
the Greeks of the heroic period, as we see 
from numerous passages of Homer : but its 
origin, in the high artistic sense, is to be 
ascribed to Phidias, and its complete deve- 
lopment to Polycletus. In the last age of the 
Roman Republic, the prevailing wealth and 
luxury, and the presence of Greek artists at 
Rome, combined to bring the art more than 
ever into requisition. After this period ft 
suddenly^fell into disuse. 



CAESAR, a title of the Roman emperors, 
was originally a family name of the Julia 
gens ; it was assumed by Octavianus as the 
adopted son of the great dictator, C. Julius 
Caesar, and was by him handed down to his 
adopted son Tiberius. It continued to be 
used by Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, as 
members either by adoption or female de- 
scent of Caesar's family ; but although the 
family became extinct with Nero, succeeding 
emperors still retained the name as part of 
their titles, and it was the practice to prefix 
it to their own names, as for instance, Impo- 
rator Caesar Domitiamu Augustus, "When 
Hadrian adopted Aelius Varus, he allowed 
the latter to take the title of Caesar ; and 
from this time, though the title of Augustus 
continued to be confined to the reigning em- 
peror, that of Caesar was also granted to the 
second person in the state and the heir pre- 
sumptive to the throne. [AUGUSTUS.] 

CALAMISTRUM, an instrument made of 
iron, and hollow like a reed (calamus], used 
for curling the hair. For this purpose it was 
heated, the person who performed the office 
of heating it in wood ashes (tints) being 
called ciniflo, or cincrarius. 

CALAMUS, a sort of reed which the an- 
cients used as a pen for writing. The best 
sorts were got from Aegypt and Cniduc. 


CALATHUS (xiAaflos, also called roAopoiJ, 
usually signified the basket in which women 
placed their work, und especially the mate- 
rials for spinning. In the following cut a 
slave, belonging to the class called quasilLi- 

riae, is presenting her mistress with the cala- 
thus. Baskets of this kind were also user> 
for other purposes, such as for carrying fruits, 

flowers, &c. The name of calathi was also 
given to cups for holding wine. Calathus 
was properly a Greek word, though used by 
the Latin writers. The Latin word corre- 
sponding to it was qualus or gvasillus. From 
quasllhis came quaslllaria, the name of the 
slave who spun, and who was considered the 
meanest of the female slaves. 

TUM (yiroSritia., Tre'SiXoi'), a shoe or boot, any- 
thing adapted to cover and preserve the feet 
in walking. The use of shoes was by no 
means universal among the Greeks and Ro- 
mans. The Homeric heroes are represented 
without shoes when armed for battle. So- 
crates, Phocion, and Cato, frequently went 
barefoot. The Roman slaves had no shoes. 
The covering of the feet was removed before 
reclining at meals. People in grief, as for 
instance at funerals, frequently went bare- 
footed. Shoes may be divided into those in 
which the mere sole of a shoe was attached 
to the sole of the foot by ties or bands, or by 
a covering for the toes or the instep [SOI.KA ; 
CREPIDA ; Soccus] ; and those which ascended 
higher and higher, according as they covered 
the ankles, the calf, or the whole of the leg. 
To calceamenta of the latter kind, i. e, to 
shoes and boots, as distinguished from san- 
dals and slippers, the term calceus was ap- 
plied in its proper and restricted sense. There 
were also other varieties of the calceus ac- 
cording to its adaptation to particular profes- 
sions or modes of life. Thus the CALIGA war 
principally worn by soldiers ; the PERO by 
labourers and rustics ; and the COTHURXUS by 
tragedians, hunters, and horsemen. The 
calcei probably did not much differ from our 
shoes, and are exemplified in a painting at 
Heroulaneum, which represents a femule 




wearing bracelets, a wreath of ivy, and a 
panther's skin, while she is in the attitude of 
dancing and playing on the cymbals. The 
form and colour of the calceus indicated rank 
and office. Roman senators wore high shoes 
like buskins, fastened in front with four black 
thongs. They were also sometimes adorned 
with a small ci escent : we do not find on any 

Greek Shoe*. (From anolcnt Vases.) 

CALCULATOR (Aoyrnj<r), a keeper of ac- 
counts in general, and also a teacher of arith- 
metic. In Roman families of importance 
there was a calculator or account -keeper, who 
is, however, more frequently called by the 
name of dispensator, or procurator : he was a 
kind of steward. 

CALCULI, little stones or pebbles, used for 
various purposes, as, for instance, among the 
Athenians for voting. Calculi were used in 
playing a sort of draughts. Subsequently, 
instead of pebbles, ivory, or silver, or gold, 
or other men (as we call them) were used ; 
but they still bore the name of calculi. Cal- 
culi were also used in reckoning ; and hence 
the phrases ealculum ponere, calculum sub- 




generally signified an account-book, in which 
were entered the names of a person's debtors, 
with the interest which they had to pay, and 
it was so called because the interest had to 
be paid on the calends of each month. The 
word, however, was also used in the signifi- 
cation of a modern calendar or almanac. 
(1) GREEK CALENDAR. The Greek year was 
divided into twelve lunar months, depending 
on the actual changes of the moon. The first 
day of the month (vov^via.) was not the day 
of the conjunction, but the day on the even- 

ancient statues the crescent, but we may re- 
gard the bottom right hand figure in the 
annexed cut as representing the shoe of a 
senator. Among the calcei worn by senators, 
those called mullei, from their resemblance to 
the scales of the red mullet, were particularly 
admired ; as well as others called alutae, because 
the leather was softened by the use of alum. 

(Muoeo Borbonico.) 

ing of which the new moon appeared ; con- 
sequently full moon was the middle of the 
month. The lunar month consists of twenty- 
nine days and about thirteen hours ; accord- 
ingly some months were necessarily reckoned 
at twenty-nine days, and rather more of them 
at thirty days. The latter were called ftdl 
months (n-ATjpets), the former hollow months 
(icotAoi). As the twelve lunar months fell 
short of the solar year, they were obliged 
every other year to interpolate an intercalary 
month G"|i> en/3oAt/u.atos) of thirty or twenty- 
nine days. The ordinary year consisted of 
354 days, and the interpolated year, therefore, 
of 384 or 383. This interpolated year (rpte- 
njpis) was seven days and a half too long, 
and to correct the error, the intercalary month 
was from time to time omitted. The Attie 
year began with the summer solstice : the 
following is the sequence of the Attic months 
and the number of days in each : Heca- 
tombaeon (30), Metageitnion (29), Boedro- 

I mion (30), Pyanepsion (29), Maemacterion 
(30), Poseideon (29), Gamelion (30), Anthes- 
terion (29), Elaphebolion (30), Munychion 
(29), Thargelion (30), Scirophorion (20). 
The intercalary month was a second Poseideon 
inserted in the middle of the year. Every 
Athenian month was divided into three de- 
cads. The days of the first decad were desig- 
nated as ioro/atVov or apxt l "' ov p-wcx, and 
were counted on regularly from one to ten ; 

I thus, 5ev7'p<x Ap\oiuvov or iorofxeVou is " the 




second day of the month." The days of the 
second decad were designated as eni Se'/ca or 
(A<roCiTos, and were counted on regularly 
from the llth to the 20th day, which was 
called eiKtK. There were two ways of count- 
ing the days of the last decad ; they were 
either reckoned onwards from the 20th (thus, 
TTpwiTj tirl el/coSi was the 21st), or backwards 
from the last day, with the addition fflivovros, 
TrawofieVov, Aijyoi'TO?, or a;rtoi>Tos ; thus, the 
twenty-first day of a hollow month was ecdm; 
ijiOivovTOS ; of a full month, Sexan; $0U"OVrot. 
The last day of the month was called TJ <cai 
vea., " the old and new," hecause as the lunar 
month really consisted of more than twenty- 
nine and less than thirty days, the last day 
might he considered as belonging equally to 
the old and new month. Separate years were 
designated at Athens by the name of the 
chief archon, hence called archon eponymus 
(ap\iav ewtawnos"), or " the name giving ar- 
chon ;" at Sparta, by the first of the ephors ; 
at Argos, by the priestess of Juno, &c. 
(2) ROMAN CALENDAR. The old Roman, fre- 
quently called the Romulian year, consisted 
of only ten months, which were called Mar- 
tius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quinctilis, Sex- 
tilis, September, October, November, Decem- 
ber. That March was the first month in the 
year is implied in the last six names. Of 
these months, four, namely, Martius, Maius, 
Quinctilis, and October, consisted of thirty- 
one days, the other six of thirty. The four 
former were distinguished in the latest form 
of the Roman calendar by having their nones 
two days later than any of the other months. 
The symmetry of this arrangement will ap- 
pear by placing the numbers in succession : 
31, 30; 31, 30; 31, 30, 30; 31, 30, 30. 
The Romulian year therefore consisted of 304 
days, and contained thirty-eight nundinae or 
weeks ; every eighth day, under the name of 
nonae, or nundinae, beinjf especially devoted 
to religious and other public purposes. Hence 
we find that the number of dies fasti after- 
wards retained in the Julian calendar tally 
exactly with these thirty-eight nundines ; be- 
sides which, it may be observed that a year 
of 304 days bears to a solar year of 365 days 
nearly the ratio of five to six, six of the Ro- 
mulian years containing 1824, five of the 
Rolar years 1825 days; and hence we may 
explain the origin of the well-known quin- 
quennial period called the lustrum, which 
ancient writers expressly call an annus inag- 
nus ; that is, in the modern language of chro- 
nology, a cycle. It was consequently the 
period at which the Romulian and solar years 
coincided. The next division of the Roman 
year was said to have been made by Numa 
Pompilius, who instituted a lunar year of 12 

months and 355 days. Livy says that Numa 
so regulated his lunar year of twelve months 
by the insertion of intercalary months, that 
at the end of every nineteenth year (vicesimo 
anno) it again coincided with the same point 
in the sun's course from which it started. It 
is well known that 19 years constitute a most 
convenient cycle for the junction of a lunar 
and solar year. It seems oertain that the 
Romans continued to use a lunar year for 
some time after the establishment of the re- 
public ; and it was probably at the time of 
the decemviral legislation that the lunar year 
was abandoned. By the change which was 
then made the year consisted of 12 months, 
the length of each of which was as follows : 

Martius, 31 days. September, 29 days. 

Aprilis, 29 October, 31 

Maius, 31 ,, November, 29 

Junius, 29 ,, December, 29 

Quinctilis, 31 Januarius, 29 ,, 

Sextilis, 29 Februarius, 28 

The year thus consisted of 355 days, and this 
was made to correspond with the solar year 
by the insertion of an intercalary month 
(mensis intercalates or intercalarius), called 
Afercedonius or Mercidonius. This month of 
22 or 23 days seems to have been inserted in 
alternate years. As the festivals of the Ro- 
mans were for the most part dependent upon 
the calendar, the regulation of the latter was 
entrusted to the college of pontifices, who in 
early times were chosen exclusively from the 
body of patricians. It was therefore in the 
power of the college to add to their other 
means of oppressing the plebeians, by keep- 
ing to themselves the knowledge of the days 
on which justice could be administered, and 
assemblies of the people could be held. In 
the year 304 B.C., one Cn. Flavius, a secre- 
tary (sci-iba) of Appius Claudius, is said frau- 
dulently to have made the Fasti public. The 
other privilege of regulating the year by the 
insertion of the intercalary month gave the 
pontiffs great political power, which they 
were not backward to employ. Every thing 
connected with the matter of intercalation 
was left to their unrestrained pleasure ; and 
the majority of them, on personal grounds, 
added to or took from the year by capricious 
intercalations, so as to lengthen or shorten 
the period during which a magistrate re- 
mained in office, and seriously to benefit a 
injure the firmer of the public revenue. The 
calendar was thus involved in complete con- 
fusion, and accordingly we find that in the 
time of Cicero the year was three months in 
advance of the real solar year. At length, in 
the year B.C. 46, Caeear, now master of the 
Roman world, employed his authority, as 




pontifex maximus, in the correction of this 
serious evil. The account of the way in 
which he effected this is given by Censori- 
nus : "The confusion was at last carried so 
far that C. Caesar, the pontifex maximus, in 
his third consulate, with Lepidus for his col- 
league, inserted between November and De- 
cember two intercalary months of 67 days, 
the month of February having already re- 
ceived an intercalation of 23 days, and thus 
made the whole year to consist of 445 days. 
At the same time he provided against a repe- 
tition of similar errors, by casting aside the 
intercalary month, and adapting the year to 
the sun's course. Accordingly, to the 355 
days of the previously existing year he added 
ten days, which he so distributed between 
the seven months having 29 days that Janu- 
ary, Sex tills, and December received two 
each, the others but one ; and these addi- 
tional days he placed at the end of the seve- 
ral months, no doubt with the wish not to 
remove the various festivals from those posi- 
tions in the several months which they had 
so long occupied. Hence in the present 
calendar, although there are seven months of 
31 days, yet the four months, which from the 
first possessed that number, are still distin- 
guishable by having their uones on the 
seventh, the rest having them on the fifth of 
the month. Lastly, in consideration of the 
quarter of a day, which he regarded as 
completing the true year, he established the 
rule that, at the end of every four years, a 
single day should be intercalated, where the 
month had been hitherto inserted, that is, 
immediately after the terminalia ; which day 
is now called the bissextum." The mode of 
denoting the days of the month will cause no 
difficulty, if it be recollected that the kalends 
always denote the first of the month ; that 
the nones occur on the seventh of the four 
months of March, May, Quinctilis or July, 
and October, and on the fifth of the other 
months ; that the ides always fall eight days 
'later than the nones; and lastly, that the 
intermediate days are in all cases reckoned 
backwards upon the Roman principle of 
counting both extremes. For the month of 
January the notation will be as follows : 

1. Kal. Jan. 

2. a. d. IV. Non. Jan. 

3. a. d. lit. Non. Jan. 

4. Prid. Non. Jan. 

5. Non. Jan. 

G. a. d. VIII. Id. Jan. 

7. a. d. VII. Id. Jan. 

8. a. d. VI. Id. Jan. 

9. a. d. V. Id. Jan. 

10. a. d. IV. Id. Jan. 

11. a. d. III. Id. Jan. 



Prid. Id. Jan. 
Id. Jan. 

a. d. XIX. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. XVIII. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. XVII. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. XVI. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. XV. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. XIV. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. XIII. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. XII. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. XI. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. X. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. IX. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. VIII. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. VII. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. VI. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. V. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. IV. Kal. Feb. 
a. d. III. Kal. Feb. 
Prid. Kal. Feb. 

The letters a d are often, through error, writ- 
ten together, and so confounded with the 
preposition ad which would have a different 
meaning, for ad kalendas would signify by, 
i. e. on or before the kalends. The letters are 
in fact an abridgment of ante diem, and the 
full phrase for " on the second of January," 
would be ante diem quartum nonas Januarias. 
The word ante in this expression seems really 
to belong in sense to nonas, and to be the 
cause why nonas is an accusative. Whether 
the phrase kalendae Janvarii was ever used 
by the best writers is doubtful. The words 
are. commonly abbreviated ; and those pas- 
sages where Aprilis, Decembris, &e. occur are 
of no avail, as they are probably accusatives. 
The ante may be omitted, in which case the 
phrase will be die quarto nonarum. In the 
leap year (to use a modern phrase), the last 
days of February were called, 

Feb. 23. a. d. VII. Kal. Mart. 

Feb. 24. a. d. VI. Kal. Mart, posteriorem. 

Feb. 25. a. d. VI. Kal. Mart, priorem. 

Feb. 26. a. d. V. Kal. Mart. 

Feb. 27. a. d. IV. Kal. Mart. 

Feb. 28. a. d. III. Kal. Mart. 

Feb. 29. Prid. Kal. Mart. 

In which the words prior and posterior are 
used in reference to the retrograde direction 
of the reckoning. From the fact that the 
intercalated year hag two days called ante 
diem sextum, the name bissextile has been 
applied to it. The term anmis bissextilis, 
however, does not occur in any classical 
writer, but in place of it the phrase annut 
bissextits. The names of two of the months 
were changed in honour of Julius Caesar and 
Augustus. Julias was substituted for Quino- 
tilis, the month in which Caesar was born. 




in, the second Julian year, that is, the year 
of the dictator's death, for the first Julian 
year was the first year of the corrected Julian 
calendar, that is, B.C. 45. The name Augus- 
tus in place of Sextilis -was introduced hy the 
emperor himself in B.C. 27. The month of 
September in like manner received the name 
of Germanicus from the general so called, 
and the appellation appears to have existed 
even in the time of Macrobius. Domitian, 
too, conferred his name upon October ; but 
the old word was restored upon the death of 
the tyrant. The Julian calendar supposes 
the mean tropical year to be 365 d. 6 h. ; 
but this exceeds the real amount by 11' 12", 
the accumulation of which, year after year, 
caused at last considerable inconvenience. 
Accordingly, in the year 1582, Pope Gregory 
XIII. again reformed the calendar. The ten 
days by which the year had been unduly re- 
tarded were struck out by a regulation that 
the day after the fourth of October in that 
year should be called the fifteenth ; and it 
was ordered that whereas hitherto an inter- 
calary day had been inserted every four years, 
for the future three such intercalations in the 
course of four hundred years should be omit- 
ted, viz., in those years which are divisible 
without remainder by 100, but not by 400. 
Thus, according to the Julian calendar, the 
years 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, were to 
be bissextile as before. The bull which 
effected this change was issued Feb. 24th, 
1582. The Protestant parts of Europe re- 
sisted what they called a papistical invention 
for more than a century. In England the 
Gregorian calendar was first adopted in 1752. 
In Russia, and those countries which be- 
longed to the Greek church, the Julian year, 
or old style, as it is called, still prevails. In 
the ancient calendars the letters A, B, C, D, 
E, F, G, H, were used for the purpose of fix- 
ing the nundines in the week of eight days ; 
precisely in the same way in which the first 
seven letters are still employed in ecclesias- 
tical calendars, to mark the days of the Chris- 
tian week. 

CALIGA, a strong and heavy sandal worn 
by the Roman soldiers, but not by the supe- 
rior officers. Hence the common soldiers, 
Including centurions, were distinguished by 
the name of caligati. The emperor Caligula 
received that cognomen when a boy, in con- 
sequence of wearing the caliga, and being 
inured to the life of a common soldier. The 
cuts on pp. 1, 41, show the difference between 
the caliga of the common soldier and the cal- 
ceus worn by men of higher rank. 

CALIX (*uAif). (1) a drinking-cup used at 
symposia and on similar occasions. (2) A 
vessel used in cooking. (3) A tube in the 

aquaeducts attached to the extremity of each 
pipe, where it entered the castellum. 

Calicos, Drinkmg-ctipe. (Mucc Borbonioo, Tol. T. pi. 18.) 

CALLIS, a beaten path or track made by 
the feet of cattle. The sheep-walks in the 
mountainous parts of Campania and Apulia 
were the property of the Roman state ; and 
as they were of considerable value, one of the 
quaestors usually had these calles assigned to 
him as his province, whence we read of the 
Callium provincia. His principal duties were 
to receive the scriptura, or tax paid for the 
pasturage of the cattle, and to protect life and 
property in these wild and mountainous dis- 
tricts. When the senate wished to put a 
slight upon the consuls on one occasion they 
endeavoured to assign to them as their pro- 
vinces, the care of the woods (silvae) and 
sheep-walks (calles). 

CALLISTEIA (KoAAicrma), a festival, or 
perhaps merely a part of one, held by the 
women of Lesbos ; at which they assembled in 
the sanctuary of Hera, and the fairest received 
the prize of beauty. Similar contests of beauty 
are said to have been held in other places. 

CALONES, the slaves or servants of the 
Roman soldiers, so called from carrying 
wood (icaAa) for their use. The word calo, 
however, was also applied to farm-servants. 
The calones and lixae are frequently spoken 
of together, but they were not the same : the 
latter were freemen, who merely followed the 
camp for the purposes of gain and merchan- 
dise, and were so far from being indispensable 
to an army, that they were sometimes forbid- 
den to attend it. 

CALUMNIA. When an accuser failed in 
his proof, and the accused party was ac- 
quitted, there might be an inquiry into the 
conduct and motives of the accuser. If the 
person who made this judicial inquiry found 
that the accuser had merely acted from error 




of judgment, he acquitted him in the form 
non probasti ; if he convicted him of evil in- 
tention, he declared his sentence in the words 
calumniatus es, which sentence was followed 
hy the legal punishment. The punishment 
for calumnia was fixed by the lex Remmia, or 
as it is sometimes, perhaps incorrectly, named, 
the lex Memmia. But it is not known when 
this lex was passed, nor what were its penal- 
ties. It appears from Cicero, that the false 
accuser might be branded on the forehead 
with the letter K, the initial of Kalumnia. 
The punishment for calumnia was also exsi- 
lium, relegatio in insulam, or loss of rank 
(ordinis amissio) ; but probably only in cri- 
minal cases, or in matters relating to status. 

CAMARA (ica/idpa), or CAMERA. (1) A 
particular kind of arched ceiling, formed by 
semicircular bands or beams of wood, ar- 
ranged at small lateral distances, over which 
a coating of lath and plaster was spread, and 
the whole covered in by a roof, resembling in 
construction the hooped awnings in use 
amongst us (2) A small boat used in early 
times by the people who inhabited the shores 
of the Palus Maeotis, capable of containing 
from twenty-five to thirty men. These boats 
were made to work fore and aft, like the fast- 
sailing proas of the Indian seas, and continued 
in use until the age of Tacitus. 

CAMILLI, CAMILLAE, boys and girls 
employed in the religious rites and ceremo- 
nies of the Romans. They were required to 
be perfect in form, and sound in health, free 
born, and with both their parents alive ; or, 
in other words, according to the expression of 
the Romans, pueri seu puellae ingenui, felicis- 
rimi, patrimi matrimiqtie. 

CAMINUS. [DoMus.] 

CAMPESTRE (sc. subligar), a kind of 
girdle or apron, which the Roman youths 
wore around theij loins, when they exercised 
naked in the Campus Martius. The campestre 
was sometimes worn in warm weather, in 
place of the tunic under the toga. 


CANABUS OcovajSos), a figure of wood in 
the form of a skeleton, round which the clay 
or plaster was laid in forming models. Fi- 
gures of a similar kind, formed to display the 
muscles and veins, were studied by painters in 
order to acquire some knowledge of anatomy. 

CAXATHRON (tavaBpov), a carriage, the 
upper part of which was made of basket-work, 
or more properly the basket itself, which was 
fixed in the carriage. 


CANCELLI, lattice-work, placed before a 
window, a door-way, the tribunal of a judge, 
or any other place. Hence was derived the 

word Cancellarius, which originally signified 
a porter, who stood at the latticed or grated 
door of the emperor's palace. The cancel* 
larius also signified a legal scribe or secre- 
tary, who sat within the cancelli or lattice- 
work. The chief scribe or secretary was 
called Cancellarius KO.T' e^oxrjv, and was even- 
tually invested with judicial power at Con- 
stantinople. From this word has come the 
modern Chancellor. 

CANDELA, a candle, made either of wax 
(cerea), or tallow (sebacea), was used uni- 
versally by the Romans before the invention 
of oil lamps (lucernae}. In later times can- 
delae were only used by the poorer classes ; 
the houses of the more wealthy were always 
lighted by lucernae. 

CANDELABRUM, originally a candlestick, 
but afterwards the name of a stand for sup- 


Candelabrum in the Vatican. (Visconti vol. iv. lav. 5.) 




porting lamps (AuxvoCxoi), in which significa- 
tion it most commonly occurs. The cande- 
labra of this kind were usually made to stand 
upon the ground, and were of a considerable 
height. The most common kind were made 
of wood ; but those which have been found 
in Herculaneum and Pompeii are mostly of 
bronze. Sometimes they were made of the 
more precious metals, and eyen of jewels. 
The candelabra did not always stand upon 
the ground, but were also placed upon the 
table. Such candelabra usually consisted of 
pillars, from the capitals of which several 
lamps hung down, or of trees, from whose 
branches lamps also were suspended. 


CANDYS (<ca6w), a robe worn by the 
Medes and Persians over their trowsers and 
other garments. It had wide sleeves, and 
was made of woollen cloth, which was either 
purple or of some other splendid colour. In 
the Persepolitan sculptures, from which the 
annexed figures are taken, nearly all the 
principal personages wear it. 

Candys, Fenian Cloak. (From Bas-relief at Pcraepolis.) 

CANEPHOROS ((cajoj^xipos), a virgin who 
carried a flat circular basket (Kavtov, canis- 
trum) at sacrifices, in which the chaplet of 
flowers, the knife to slay the victim, and 

Canephori. (British Museum.) 

sometimes the frankincense were deposited. 
The name, however, was more particularly 
applied to two virgins of the first Athenian 
families who were appointed to officiate as 
canephori at the Panathaenaea. The pre- 
ceding cut represents the two canephori 
approaching a candelabrum. Each of them 
elevates one arm to support the basket while 
she slightly raises her tunic with the other. 

CANTHARUS (Kaxflopos), a kind of drinking 
cup, furnished with handles. It was the cup 
sacred to Bacchus, who is frequently repre- 
sented on ancient vases holding it in his hand. 


ient Vane.) 

CANTICUM, an interlude between the acts 
of a Roman comedy, and sometimes, perhaps, 
of a tragedy. It consisted of flute music, 
accompanied by a kind of recitative performed 
by a single actor, or if there were two, the 
second was not allowed to speak with the 
first. In the canticum, as violent gesticula- 
tion was required, it appears to have been 
the custom, from the time of Livius An- 
dronicus, for the actor to confine himself to 
the gesticulation, while another person sang 
the recitative. 


CAPISTRUM (<|>op/3<fid), a halter, or tie for 
horses, asses, or other animals, placed round 
the head or neck, and made of osiers or other 
fibrous materials. The Greek word ^opjSeui 
was also applied to a contrivance used by 
pipers and trumpeters to compress their 
mouths and cheeks, and thus to aid them iu 
blowing. It is often seen in works of ancient 
art, and was said to be the invention oi 
Marsyas. [TIBIA.] 






CAPSA, or SCRINIUM, a box for holding 
books among the Romans. These boxes 
were of a cylindrical form. There does not 
appear to have been any difference between 
the capsa and scrinium, except that the latter 
word was usually applied to those boxes which 
held a considerable number of rolls. The 
slaves who had the charge of these book- 




shests were called capsarii, and also custodes \ &c. of the sons of respectable Romans, when 
scriniorum ; and the slaves who carried in a they went to school, -were called hy the same 
capsa behind their young masters the books, 

The Muse Clio with a Capoa. (Picture d'Ercolano, vol. ii. pi. 2.) 

CAPSARII, the name of three different | This capitis deminutio was sustained by those 

classes of slaves. [BALNEUM ; CAPSA.] 

CAPUT, the head. The term " head " is 
often used by the Roman writers as equiva- 
lent to "person," or "human being." By 
an easy transition it was used to signify 
"life:" thus, capite damnari, plecti, &c., are 
equivalent to capital punishment. Caput is 
also used to express a man's status, or civil 
condition ; and the persons who were regis- 
tered in the tables of the censor are spoken 
of as capita, sometimes with the addition of 
the word civium, and sometimes not. Thus 
to be registered in the census was the same 
thing as caput habere : and a slave and a 
filius familias, in this sense of the word, were 
said to have no caput. The sixth class of 
Servius Tullius comprised the proletarii and 
the capite censi, of whom the latter, having 
little or no property, were barely rated as so 
many head of citizens. He who lost or 
changed his status was said to be capite 
minutus, deminutus, or capitis minor. Capitis 
mimitio or deminutio was a change of a 
person's status or civil condition, and con- 
sisted of three kinds. A Roman citizen pos- 
sessed freedom (libertas), citizenship (civitas), 
and family (familias) : the loss of all three 
sonstituted the maxima capitis deminutio. 

who refused to be registered at the census, or 
neglected the registration, and were thence 
called incensi. The incensu* was liable to 
be sold, and so to lose his liberty. Those 
who refused to perform military service might 
also be sold. The loss of citizenship and 
family only, as when a man was interdicted 
from fire and water, was the media capitis 
deminutio. [EXSILIVM.] The change of fa- 
mily by adoption, and by the in marram con- 
ventio, was the minima capitis deminutio. 
A judicium capitate, or poena capitalis, was 
one which affected a citizen's caput. 


CAPUT EXTORUM. The Roman sooth- 
sayers (haruspices) pretended to a knowledge 
of coming events from the inspection of the 
entrails of victims slain for that purpose 
The part to which they especially directed 
their attention was the liver, the convex 
upper portion of which seems to have been 
called the caput extorum. Any disease or 
deficiency in this organ was considered an 
unfavourable omen ; whereas, if healthy and 
perfect, it was believed to indicate good fortune. 
If no caput was found, it was a bad sign 
(nihil tristius accidere potuit] ; if well defined 
or double, it was n lucky omen. 




CARACALLA, an outer garment used in 
Gaul, and not unlike the Roman lacerna. It 
was first introduced at Rome by the emperor 
Aurelius Antoninus Bassianus, who compelled 
all the people that came to court to wear it, 
whence he obtained the surname of Caracalla. 
This garment, as worn in Gaul, does not 
appear to have reached lower than the knee, 
but Caracalla lengthened it so as to reach the 

CARCER (kerker, German ; yopyvpa, 
Greek), a prison, is connected with epicos 
and fipyia, the guttural being interchanged 
with the aspirate. (1) GREEK. Imprisonment 
was seldom used amongst the Greeks as a 
legal punishment for offences ; they preferred 
banishment to the expense of keeping prison- 
ers in confinement. The prisons in different 
countries were called by different names ; 
thus there was the Ceadas (KeaSas), at Sparta; 
and, among the lonians, the Gorgyra (yop- 
yvpa), as at Samos. The prison at Athens 
was in former times called Desmoterion (Secr- 
jwo-njpiov), and afterwards, by a sort of eu- 
phemism, oio)/u.a.Itwas chiefly used as a guard- 
house or place of execution, and was under the 
charge of the public officers called the Eleven. 
(8) ROMAN. A prison was first built at Rome 
by Ancug Martius, overhanging the forum. 
This was enlarged by Servius Tullius, who 
added to it a souterrain, or dungeon, called 
from him the Tullianum. Sallust describes 
this as being twelve feet under ground, 
walled on each side, and arched over with 
stone work. For a long time this was the 
only prison at Rome, being, in fact, the 
" Tower," or state prison of the city, which 
was sometimes doubly guarded in times of 
alarm, and was the chief object of attack in 
many conspiracies. There were, however, 
other prisons besides this, though, as we 
might expect, the words of Roman historians 
generally refer to this alone. In the Tul- 
lianum prisoners were generally executed, 
and this part of the prison was also called 

CARCERES. [Cmcus.] 

CARCHESIUM (/capXTJcriov). (1) Abeakeror 
drinking-cup, which was used by the Greeks 
in very early times. It was slightly con- 
tracted in the middle, and its two handles 
extended from the top to the bottom. It was 
much employed in libations of wine, milk, 
and honey. (2) The upper part of the mast 
of a ship. [Nxvis.] 

CARMENTALIA, a festival celebrated in 
honour of Carmenta or Carmentis, who is 
fabled to have been the mother of Evander, 
who came from Pallantium in Arcadia, and 
settled in Latium : he was said to have 
brought with him a knowledge of the arts, 

and the Latin alphabetical characters as distin- 
guished from the Etruscan. This festival 
was celebrated annually on the llth of Janu- 
ary. A temple was erected to the same 
goddess, at the foot of the Capitoline hill, 
near the Porta Carmentalis, afterwards called 
Scelerata. The name Carmenta is said to 
have been given to her from her prophetic 
character, carmens or carmentis being sy- 
nonymous with vates. The word is, of course, 
connected with carmen, as prophecies were 
generally delivered in verse. 

CARNEIA (Kapveta), a great national festi- 
val, celebrated by the Spartans in honour of 
Apollo Carneios. The festival began on the 
seventh day of the month of Carneios = Me- 
tageitnion of the Athenians, and lasted for 
nine days. It was of a warlike character, 
similar to the Attic Boedromia. During the 
time of its celebration nine tents were pitched 
near the city, in each of which nine men 
lived in the manner of a military camp, obey- 
ing in everything the commands of a herald. 
The priest conducting the sacrifices at the 
Carneia was called Agetes ('Ayrjnjs), whence 
the festival was sometimes designated by the 
name Agetoria or Agetorelon ('AyrjTopia or 
'AyrjTopeioi'), and from each of the Spartan 
tribes five men (Kapi/earai) were chosen as 
his ministers, whose office lasted four years, 
during which period they were not allowed 
to marry. When we read in Herodotus and 
Thucydides that the Spartans during the 
celebration of this festival were not allowed 
to take the field against an enemy, we must 
remember that this restriction was not pecu- 
liar to the Carneia, but common to all the 
great festivals of the Greeks : traces of it are 
found even in Homer. 

CARNIFEX, the public executioner at 
Rome, who executed slaves and foreigners, 
but not citizens, who were punished in a 
manner different from slaves. It was also 
his business to administer the torture. This 
office was considered so disgraceful, that he 
was not allowed to reside within the city, 
but lived without the Porta Metia or Esqui- 
lina, near the place destined for the punish- 
ment of slaves, called Sestertium under the 

CARPENTUM, a cart; also a two-wheeled 
carriage, enclosed, and with an arched or 
sloping cover overhead. The carpentum was 
used to convey the Roman matrons in the 
public festal processions ; and this was a high 
distinction, since the use of carriages in the 
city was entirely forbidden during the whole 
of the republican period. Hence the privilege 
of riding in a carpentum in the public festivals 
was sometimes granted to females of the impe- 
rial family. This carriage contained seats for 




two, and sometimes for three persons, besides 
the coachman. It was commonly drawn by 
a pair of mules, but more rarely by oxen or 
horses, and sometimes by four horses like a 
quadriga. -Carpenta, or covered carts, were 
much used by the Britons, the Gauls, and 
other northern nations. These, together with 
the carts of the more common form, Including 
baggage-waggons, appear to have been com- 
prehended under the term carri, or carra, 
which is the Celtic name with a Latin termi- 
nation. The Gauls took a great multitude of 
them on their military expeditions, and when 
they were encamped, arranged them in close 
order, so as to form extensive lines of circum- 

CARRAGO, a kind of fortification, consist- 
ing of a great number of waggons placed 
round an army. It was employed by bar- 
barous nations, as, for instance, the Scythians, 
Gauls, and Goths. Carrago also signifies some- 
times the baggage of an army. 

CARRUCA, a carriage, the name of which 
only occurs under the emperors. It appears 
to have been a species of rheda [RHEDA], 
had four wheels, and was used in travelling. 
These carriages were sometimes used in Rome 
by persons of distinction, like the carpenta ; 
in which case they appear to have been 
covered with plates of bronze, silver, and even 
gold, which were sometimes ornamented with 
embossed work. 


CARYA or CARYATIS (icapva, (capvaris), 
a festival celebrated at Caryae, in Laconia, in 
honour of Artemis Caryatis. It was celebrated 
every year by Lacedaemonian maidens with 
national dances of a very lively kind. 

CARYATIDES, female figures used in 
architecture instead of columns. Their name 
is usually derived from Caryae, a city in 
Arcadia, near the Laconian border, the 
women of which are said to have been re- 
duced to slavery by the Greeks, because 
Caryae had joined the Persians at the inva- 
sion of Greece. But this tale is probably 
apocryphal. One of the porticos of the 
Erechtheum at Athens is supported by Cary- 



CASTRA. Roman armies never halted for 
a single night without forming a regular en- 
trenchment, termed castra, capable of receiv- 
ing within ite limits the whole body of fighting 
men, their beasts of burden, and the baggage. 
So completely was this recognised as a part of 
the ordinary duties of each march, that pervc- 
nire ad locum tertiis . . . quartis ... tep- 
tuageimis castris are the established phrases 
for expressing the number of days occupied 

in passing from one point to another. When- 
ever' circumstances rendered it expedient fot 
a force to occupy the same ground for any 
length of time, then the encampment was 
distinguished as castra stativa. In wild and 
barbarian lands, where there were no large 
towns and no tribes on whose faith reliance 
could be placed, armies, whether of invasion 
or occupation, were forced to remain con- 
stantly in camps. They usually, however, 
occupied different ground in summer and in 
winter, whence arose the distinction between 
castra aestiva and castra hiberna, both alike 
being stativa. But whether a camp was 
temporary or permanent, whether tenanted 
in summer or in winter, the main features of 
the work were always the same for the same 
epoch. In hiberna, huts of turf or stone 
would be substituted for the open tents of the 
aestiva (hence aedificare hiberna}, and in sta- 
tiva held for long periods the defences would 
present a more substantial and finished aspect, 
but the general outline and disposition of the 
parts were invariable. Polybius has trans- 
mitted to us a description of a Roman camp, 
from which the annexed plan has been drawn 
up. It is such as would be formed at the 
close of an ordinary day's march by a regular 
consular army consisting of two Roman legions 
with the full contingent of Socii. Each legion 
is calculated at 4200 infantry and 300 cavalry; 
the Socii furnished an equal number of in- 
fantry, and twice as many cavalry, so that 
the whole force would amount to 16,800 foot 
and 1800 horse. Skill in the selection of a 
spot for a camp (capcre locum castris) was 
ever considered as a high quality in a general, 
and we find it recorded among the praises of 
the most renowned commanders that they 
were wont in person to perform this duty. 
Under ordinary circumstances, however, the 
task was devolved upon one of the military 
tribunes, and a certain number of centurions 
appointed from time to time for the purpose. 
These having gone forward in advance of the 
army until they reached the place near which 
it was intended to halt, and having taken a 
general survey of the ground, selected a spot 
from whence a good view of the whole pro- 
posed area might be obtained. This spot was 
considerably within the limits of the contem- 
plated enclosure, and was marked by a small 
white flag. The next object was to ascertain 
in what direction water and fodder might be 
most easily and securely provided. These 
two preliminary points being decided, the 
business of measuring out the ground (metari 
castra) commenced, and was executed, as we 
learn from various sources, with graduated 
rods (decempedae) by persons denominated 
metatores. In practice the most important 


points were marked by white poles, some of 
which bore flags of various colours, so that 
the different battalions on reaching the ground 
could at once discover the place assigned to 
them. The white flag A, which served as the 
starting point of the whole construction, 
marked the position of the consul's tent, or 
praetorium, so called because praetor was the 
ancient term for any one invested with supreme 
command. A square area was left open, ex- 
tending a hundred feet each way from the 
praetorium. The camp was divided into two 


parts, the upper and the lower. The upper 
part formed about a third of the whole. In 
it was the praetorium (A) or general's tent. 
A part of the praetorium was called the 
Auffiirale, as the auguries were there taken 
by the general. On the right and left of the 
praetorium were the forum and quaestorium ; 
the former a sort of market-place, the latter 
appropriated to the quaestor and the camp 
stores under his superintendence. On the 
sides of and facing the forum and quaesto- 
rium, were stationed select bodies of horse 

Porta Decumana. 



































cipesj tati 











V. P 

C B B C 

aaaaaa ainaaaa aanaaa oaaaaa 













Porta Praetona. 

. praetorium. B, tents of the tribunes. C, tents of the praefeeti f 
H, street* 50 feet wide. L, select foot and volunteers. K, select hon 
" lary foot of the allies. O, reserved fol 
i print ipalis, 100 feet wide. 

Drum. D, street 100 feet wide. E, F, G, olid 

-nd volunteers. M, extraordinary horse of the 
.1 auxiliaries. Q, the street called Quintana, 




(K) taken from the extraordinaries, with 
mounted volunteers, who served out of respect 
to the consul, and were stationed near him. 
And parallel to these were posted similar 
bodies of foot-soldiers (L). Before the quaes- 
torium and the forum were the tents of the 
twelve tribunes of the two legions (B), and 
before the select bodies of horse and infantry 
the tents of the praefecti sociorum were pro- 
bably placed (C). Again, behind the praeto- 
rium, the quaestorium, and the forum, ran a 
street or via (D), 100 feet broad, from one 
side of the camp to the other. Along the 
upper side of this street was ranged the main 
body of the "extraordinary" horse (M) : they 
were separated into two equal parts by a 
street fifty feet broad (E). At the back of 
this body of cavalry was posted a similar 
body of infantry (N), selected from the allies, 
and facing the opposite way, i. e. towards the 
ramparts of the camp. The vacant spaces 
(0) on each side of these tioops were reserved 
for foreigners and occasional auxiliaries. The 
lower part of the camp was divided from the 
upper by a street, called the Via Principalis 
(V P), or Principia, a hundred feet broad. 
Here the tribunal of the general was erected, 
from which he harangued the soldiers, and 
here the tribunes administered justice. Here 
also the principal standards, the altars of the 
gods, and the images of the emperors were 
placed. The lower part of the camp was 
occupied by the two legions and the troops of 
the allies according to the arrangement of the 
preceding cut. Between the ramparts and 
the tents was left a vacant space of 200 feet 
on every side, which was useful for many 
purposes : thus it served for the reception of 
any booty that was taken, and facilitated the 
entrance and exit of the army. The camp 
had four gates, one at the top and bottom, 
and one at each of the sides ; the top or back- 
gate, which was the side most away from the 
enemy, was called the decumana. The bottom 
or the front gate was the pructoria, the gates 
of the sides were the porta principatis dextra, 
and the porta principalis sinistra. The whole 
camp was surrounded by a trench (fossa), 
generally nine feet deep and twelve broad, 
and a rampart (valhtm) made of the earth 
that was thrown up (agger), with stakes 
(valli) fixed at the top of it. The labour of 
this work was so divided, that the allies com- 
pleted the two sides of the camp alongside of 
which they were stationed, and the two 
Roman legions the rest. In describing the 
Roman camp and its internal arrangements, 
we have confined ourselves to the informa- 
tion given by Polybius, which, of course, 
applies only to his age, and to armies consti- 
tuted like those he witnessed. When the 

practice of drawing np the army according to 
cohorts, ascribed to Marius or Caesar [EXER- 
CITUS], had superseded the ancient division 
into maniples, and the distinction of triarii, 
&c., the internal arrangements of the camp 
must have been changed accordingly. In each 
legion the tribunes divided themselves into 
three sections of two each, and each section in 
turn undertook for two months the superin- 
tendence of all matters connected with the 
camp. Out of the twenty maniples of Prin- 
cipes and Triarii in each legion, two were 
appointed to take charge of the broad passage 
or street called Principia, extending right 
across the camp in front of the tents of the 
tribunes. Of the remaining eighteen mani- 
ples of Principes and Hastati in each legion, 
three were assigned by lot to each of the six 
tribunes, and of these three maniples one in 
turn rendered each day certain services to the 
tribune to whom it was specially attached. 
One maniple was selected each day from the 
whole legionary force, to keep guard beside 
the tent of the general. Three sentinels were 
usually posted at the tents of the quaestor 
and of the legati : and by night sentinels 
kept watch at every maniple, being chosen 
out' of the maniple which they guarded. The 
Velites mounted guard by day and by night 
along the whole extent of the vallum : to 
them also in bodies of ten was committed the 
charge of the gates, while strong bodies of 
infantry and cavalry were thrown forward in 
advance of each gate, to resist any sudden 
onset, and give timely notice of the approach 
of the enemy. Excubiae; excubias agcre ; 
excubare ; are the general terms used with 
reference to mounting guard whether by 
night or by day. Vigiliae ; tigilias agere ; 
vigilare ; are restricted to night duty : Excu- 
biae and Vigiliae frequently denote not only 
the service itself, but also the individuals 
who performed it. Stationes is used specially 
to denote the advanced posts thrown forward 
in front of the gates. Custodes or Custodiae 
the parties who watched the gates themselves, 
Praesidia the sentinels on the ramparts, but 
all these words are employed in many other 
significations also. The duty of going the 
rounds (Vigilias circuire s. circumire) was 
committed to the Equites, and for this pur- 
pose each legion supplied daily four, picked 
out from each turma in rotation by the com- 
mander of the troop. The eight persons thus 
selected decided by lot in which watch they 
should make their rounds, two being assigned 
to each watch. They then repaired to the 
tribune, and each individual received a 
written order specifying the posts which he 
was to visit, every post being visited in each 
watch by one or other of the two to whom 




the watch belonged. Sometimes we find 
centurions, tribunes, and even the general in 
chief represented as going the rounds, but, 
under ordinary circumstances, the duty was 
performed as we have described. The watch- 
word for the night was not communicated 
verbally, but by means of a small rectangular 
tablet of wood (jrAaTeioc eTriyeypa/XfieVoc 
tessera) upon which it was written. Breaking 
up a Camp. On the first signal being given 
by the trumpet, the tents were all struck and 
the baggage packed, the tents of the general 
and the tribunes being disposed of before the 
others were touched. At the second signal 
the baggage was placed upon the beasts of 
burden ; at the third, the whole army began 
to move. 

CATALOGUS ((eardAoyos), the catalogue of 
those persons in Athens who were liable to 
regular military service. At Athens, those 
persons alone who possessed a certain amount 
of property were allowed to serve in the re- 
gular infantry, whilst the lowest class, the 
thetes, had not this privilege. [CENSUS.] 
Thus the former are called ot KaroAoyow 
(7rpaTv'oi/Ts, and the latter oi efco rov KO.TO.- 


CATAPHRACTI ((caTa^poucTot). (1) Heavy- 
armed cavalry, the horses of which were also 
covered with defensive armour. Among 
many of the Eastern nations, who placed 
their chief dependence upon their cavalry, we 
find horses protected in this manner ; but 
among the Romans we do not read of any 
troops of this description till the later times 
of the empire, when the discipline of the le- 
gions was destroyed, and the chief depend- 
ence began to be placed on the cavalry. This 
species of troops was common among the 
Persians from the earliest times, from whom 
it was adopted by their Macedonian con- 
querors. They were called by the Persians 
clibanarii. (2) Decked vessels, in opposition 
to Aphracti. 

CATAPIRATER (KaTan-eipanjpia, /3o\), the 
lead used in sounding (ev TO> 0oAi'feiv), or fa- 
thoming the depth of water in navigation. 
The mode of employing this instrument ap- 
pears to have been precisely the same as that 
now in use. 


CATARACTA ((caTappoicnis), a portcullis, 
so called because it fell with great force and 
a loud noise. It was an additional defence, 
suspended by iron rings and ropes, before the 
gates of a city, in such a manner that, when 
the enemy had come up to the gates, the port- 
cullis might be let down so as to shut them 
in, and to enable the besieged to assail them 
from above. 

CATEIA, a missile used in war by the Ger- 
mans, Gauls, and some of the Italian nations, 
supposed to resemble the ACLIS. 

CATENA, dim. CATELLA (iAuoris, dim. 
a\v<riov, oAueriSioi'), a chain. The chains 
which were of superior value, either on ac- 
count of the material or the workmanship, 
are commonly called catellae (dAu<7ia), the 
diminutive expressing their fineness and de- 
licacy as well as their minuteness. The spe- 
cimens of ancient chains which we have in 
bronze lamps, in scales, and in ornaments for 
the person, especially necklaces, show a great 
variety of elegant and ingenious patterns. 
Besides a plain circle or oval, the separate 
link is often shaped like the figure 8, or is a 
bar with a circle at each end, or assumes other 
forms, some of which are here shown. The 

Ancient Chains. 

links are also found so closely entwined, that 
the chain resembles platted wire or thread, 
like the gold chains now manufactured at 
Venice. This is represented in the lowest fi- 
gure of the woodcut. 

CATHEDRA, a seat or chair, was more 
particularly applied to a soft seat used by 

Caluedla. (From a Painting on a Vase.) 




women, whereas sella signified a seat common 
to both sexes. The cathedrae were, no doubt, 
of various forms and sizes ; but they usually 
appear to have had backs to them. On the 
cathedra in the annexed cut is seated a bride, 
who is being fanned by a female slave with a 
fan made of peacock's feathers. Women were 
also accustomed to be carried abroad in these 
cathedrae instead of in lecticae, which prac- 
tice was sometimes adopted by effeminate 
persons of the other sex. The word cathedra 
was also applied to the chair or pulpit from 
which lectures were read. 

CATINUS, or CATINUM, a large dish, on 
which fish and meat were served up at table. 
Hence Horace speaks of an angustus catinus 
as an indication of niggardliness on the part 
of the host. 



CAUPONA. (1) An inn, where travellers 
obtained food and lodging ; in which sense it 
answered to the Greek words navSoKeiov, Kara- 
ytayiov, and (caroAuo-is. Inns for the accom- 
modation of persons of all classes existed 
among the Greeks and Romans, although they 
were not equal either in size or convenience 
to similar places in modern times. An inn 
was also called taberna and taberna diversoria, 
or simply diversorium or deversorium. (2) A 
shop, where wine and ready-dressed meat 
were sold, thus corresponding to the Greek 
KaTrTjAeiov. The person who kept a caupona 
was called caitpo. In Greek KamjAos signifies 
in general a retail trader, who sold goods in 
small quantities ; but the word is more par- 
ticularly applied to a person who sold ready- 
dressed provisions, and especially wine in 
small quantities. In these KaTnjAeia only per- 
sons of the very lowest class were accustomed 
to eat and drink. In Rome itself there were, 
no doubt, inns to accommodate strangers ; 
but these were probably only frequented by 
the lower classes, since all persons in respect- 
able society could easily find accommodation 
in the houses of their friends. There were, 
however, in all parts of the city, numerous 
houses where wine and ready-dressed provi- 
sions were sold. The houses where persons 
were allowed to eat and drink were usually 
called popinae and not cauponae; and the 
keepers of them, popae. They were princi- 
pally frequented by slaves and the lower 
classes, and were consequently only furnished 
with stools to sit upon instead of couches. 
The Thermopolia, where the calida or warm 
wine and water was sold, appear to have 
been the same as the popinae. Many of these 
popinae were little better than the hipanaria 
or brothels ; whence Horace calls them im- 
mttndas popinas. The ganeae, which are 

sometimes mentioned in connection with the 
popinae, were brothels, whence they are often 
classed with the lustra. Under the emperors 
many attempts were made to regulate the po- 
pinae, but apparently with little success. All 
persons who kept inns or houses of public 
entertainment of any kind were held in low 
estimation both among the Greeks and Ro- 
mans. They appear to have fully deserved 
the bad reputation which they possessed, for 
they were accustomed to cheat their customers 
by false weights and measures, and by all the 
means in their power. 

CAUSIA (xava-ia), a hat with a broad brim, 
which was made of felt, and worn by the 
Macedonian kings. Its form is seen in the 
annexed figure. The Romans adopted it 
from the Macedonians. 

Cnusia, Hat. (From a Painting 

CAUTIO, CAVERE. These words are of 
frequent occurrence, and have a great variety 
of significations, according to the matter to 
which they refer. Their general signification 
is that of security given by one person to 
another, or security which one person ob- 
tains by the advice or assistance of another. 
The cautio was most frequently a writing, 
which expressed the object of the parties to 
it ; accordingly the word cautio came to sig- 
nify both the instrument (chirographum or 
instrumentum) and the object which it was 
the purpose of the instrument to secure. 
Cicero uses the expression cautio chirograph* 
mei. The phrase cavere aliquid alicui ex- 
pressed the fact of one person giving security 
to another as to some particular thing or act. 
The word cautio was also applied to the re- 
lease which a debtor obtained from his cre- 
ditor on satisfying his demand ; in this sense 
cautio is equivalent to a modern receipt ; it is 
the debtor's security against the same demand 
being made a second time. Thus cavere ab 
aliquo signifies to obtain this kind of secu- 
rity. Cavere is also applied to express the 
professional advice and assistance of a lawyer 
to his client for his conduct in any legal mat- 
ter. Cavere and its derivatives are also used 




.to express the provisions of a law, by which 
any thing is forbidden or ordered, as in the 
phrase, Cautum est lege, &c. It is also used 
to express the words in a will, by which a 
testator declares his wish that certain things 
should be done after his death. 

CEADAS or CAEADAS (iceaSas or icaia- 
&xs), a deep cavern or chasm, like the Bara- 
thron at Athens, into which the Spartans 
were accustomed to thrust persons condemned 
to death. 

CELERES, are said by Livy to have been 
three hundred horsemen, who formed the 
body-guard of Romulus both in peace and 
war. There can, however, be little doubt 
that these Celeres were not simply the body- 
guard of the king, but were the same as the 
equites, or horsemen, a fact which is ex- 
pressly stated by some writers. [EQUITES.] 
The etymology of Celeres is variously given. 
Some writers derived it from their leader 
Celer, who was said to have slain Remus, but 
most writers connected it with the Greek 
KS'AT)?, in reference to the quickness of their 
service. The Celeres were under the com- 
mand of a Tribunus Cclerum, who stood in 
the same relation to the king as the magister 
equitum did in a subsequent period to the 
dictator. He occupied the second place in 
the state, and in the absence of the king had 
the right of convoking the comitia. Whether 
he was appointed by the king, or elected by 
the comitia, has been questioned, but the 
former is the more probable. 

CELLA, in its primary sense, means a 
store-room of any kind. Of these there were 
various descriptions, which took their dis- 
tinguishing denominations from the articles 
they contained, as, for instance, the cella pe- 
nuaria or penaria, the cella olearia and cella 
vinaria. The slave to whom the charge of 
these stores was intrusted, was called cel- 
larius, or proimts, or condus, " quia 
quod condltum est" and sometimes promus 
condus and procurator peni. This answers 
to our butler and housekeeper. Any number 
of small rooms clustered together like the cells 
of a honeycomb were also termed cellae ; 
hence the dormitories of slaves and menials 
are called cellae, and cellae familiaricae, in 
distinction to a bed-chamber, which was 
ciibiculum. Thus a sleeping-room at a public- 
house is also termed cella. Cella ostiarii, or 
fanitoris, is the porter's lodge. In the baths 
the cella caldaria, tepidaria, and frigidaria, 
were those which contained respectively the 
warm, tepid, and cold bath. [BALNEAE.] 
The interior of a temple, that is the part in- 
cluded within the outside shell (cnjitck), was 
also called cella. There was sometimes more 
than one cella within the same peristyle or 

under the same roof, in which case each cell 
took the name of the deity whose statue it 
contained, as cella Jovis, cella Junonis, cella 
Minwvae, as in the temple of Jupiter on the 

CENOTAPHIUM, a cenotaph (icewk and 
Td<J>os), was an empty or honorary tomb, 
erected as a memorial of a person whose body 
was buried elsewhere, or not found for burial 
at all. 

CENSOR (TIJUITJTTJS), the name of two ma- 
gistrates of high rank in the Roman republic. 
Their office was called Ccnsvra (n/uiTjTeta or 
Ti^TjTi'a). The Census, which was a register 
of Roman citizens and of their property, was 
first established by Servius Tullius, the fifth 
king of Rome. After the expulsion of the 
kings it was taken by the consuls ; and spe- 
cial magistrates were not appointed for the 
purpose of taking it till the year B.C. 443. 
The reason of this alteration was owing to 
the appointment in the preceding year of 
tribuni militum with consular power in place 
of the consuls ; and as these tribunes might 
be plebeians, the patricians deprived the con- 
suls, and consequently their representatives, 
the tribunes, of the right of taking the census, 
and entrusted it to two magistrates, called 
Censores, who were to be chosen exclusively 
from the patricians. The magistracy con- 
tinued to be a patrician one till B.C. 35 i, 
when C. Marcius Rutilus was the first ple- 
beian censor. Twelve years afterwards, B.C. 
339, it was provided by one of the Publilian 
laws, that one of the censors must necessarily 
be a plebeian, but it was not till B.C. 280 that 
a plebeian censor performed the solemn puri- 
fication of the people (lustrum condidit). In 
B.C. 131 the two censors were for the first 
time plebeians. The censors were elected in 
the comitia centuriata held under the presi- 
dency of a consul. As a general principle, 
the only persons eligible to the office were 
those who had previously been consuls ; but 
a few exceptions occur. At first there was 
no law to prevent a person being censor a 
second time ; but the only person, who was 
twice elected to the office, was C. Marcius 
Rutilus in B.C. 2C5 ; and he brought forward 
a law in this year, enacting that no one 
should be chosen censor a second time, and 
received in consequence the surname of Cen- 
sorinus. The censorship is distinguished 
from all other Roman magistracies by the 
length of time during which it was held. 
The censors were originally chosen for a whole 
lustrum, that is, a period of five years ; but 
their office was limited to eighteen months, 
as early as ten years after its institution (B.C. 
433), by a law of the dictator Mam. Aemilius 
Mamercruus. The censors also held a very 




peculiar position with respect to rank and 
dignity. No imperium was bestowed upon 
them, and accordingly they had no lictors. 
The jus censurae was granted to them by a 
lex centuriata, and not by the curiae, and in 
that respect they were inferior in power to 
the consuls and praetors. But notwithstand- 
ing this, the censorship was regarded as the 
highest dignity in the state, with the excep- 
tion of the dictatorship ; it was a sanctus 
magistrates, to which the deepest reverence 
was due. They possessed of course the sella 
curulis. The funeral of a censor was always 
conducted with great pomp and splendour, 
and hence a funus censorium was voted even 
to the emperors. The censorship continued 
in existence for 421 years, namely, from B.C. 
443 to B.C. 22 ; but during this period many 
lustra passed by without any censor being 
chosen at all. Its power was limited by one 
of the laws of the tribune Clodius (B.C. 58). 
After the year B.C. 22 the emperors discharged 
the duties of the censorship under the name 
of Praefectura Morum. The duties of the 
censors may be divided into three classes, all 
of which were however closely connected with 
one another : I. The Census, or register of 
the citizens and of their property, in which 
were included the lectio senatus, and the re- 
cognitio eguitum ; II. The Regimen Morum ; 
and III. The administration of the finances of 
the state, under which were classed the su- 
perintendence of the public buildings and the 
erection of all new public works. 1. The 
CENSUS, the first and principal duty of the 
censors, for which the proper expression is 
censum agere, was always held in the Campus 
Martius, and from the year B.C. 435 in a 
special building called Villa Publica. After 
the auspieia had been taken, the citizens were 
summoned by a public crier (praeco) to ap- 
pear before the censors. Each tribe was 
called up separately, and every paterfamilias 
had to appear in person before the censors, 
who were seated in their curule chairs. The 
census was conducted ad arbitritim censoris ; 
but the censors laid down certain rules, 
sometimes called leges censui censendo, in 
which mention was made of the different 
kinds of property subject to the census, and 
in what way their value was to be estimated. 
According to these laws each citizen had to 
give an account of himself, of his family, and of 
his property upon oath, ex animi srntcntia. 
First he had to give his full name (praeno- 
men, nomen, and cognomen) and that of his 
father, or if he were a freedman that of his 
patron, and he was likewise obliged to state 
his age. He was then asked, Tu, ex animi 
ttti sententia, ttxorem habes ? and if mar- 
ried he had to give the name of his wife, anil 

likewise the number, names, and ages of his 
children, if any. Single women (i-iduae) and 
orphans (orbi orbaequ'e) were represented by 
their tutores ; their names were entered in 
separate lists, ad they were not included in 
the sum total of capita. After a citizen had 
stated his name, age, family, &c. ( he then 
had to give an account of all his property, so 
far as it was subject to the census. In mak- 
ing this statement he was said censere or cen- 
seri, as a deponent, " to value or estimate 
himself," or as a passive "to be valued or 
estimated :" the censor, who received the 
statement, was also said censere, as well as 
accipere censum. Only such things were 
liable to the census (censui censendo) as were 
property ex jure Quiritium. Land formed the 
most important article in the census ; next 
came slaves and cattle. The censors also 
possessed the right of calling for a return of 
such objects as had not usually been given in, 
such as clothing, jewels, and carriages. We 
can hardly doubt that the censors possessed 
the power of setting a higher valuation on the 
property than the citizens themselves had 
put. The tax (tributwn) was usually one 
per thousand upon the property entered in 
the books of the censors ; but on one occasion 
the censors, as a punishment, compelled a 
person to pay eight per thousand (octuplicato 
censu, Liv. iv. 24). A person who volun- 
tarily absented himself from the census, and 
thus became incensus, was subject to the se- 
verest punishment. It is probable that ser- 
vice in the army was a valid excuse for ab- 
sence. After the censors had received the 
names of all the citizens with the amount of 
their property, they then had to make out the 
lists of the tribes, and also of the classes and 
centuries; for by the legislation of Servius 
Tullius the position of each citizen in the 
state was determined by the amount of his 
property. [COMITIA CENTURIATA.] These 
lists formed a most important part of the 
Tabulae Censoriae, under which name were 
included all the documents connected in any 
way with the discharge of the censors' duties. 
These lists, as far at least as they were con- 
nected with the finances of the state, were 
deposited in -the aerarium, which was the 
temple of Saturn ; but the regular depository 
for all the archives of the censors was in 
earlier times the Atrium Libertatis, near the 
Villa publiea, and in later times the temple of 
the Nymphs. The censors had also to make 
out the lists of the senators for the ensuing 
lustrum, or till new censors were appointed ; 
striking out the names of such as they con- 
sidered unworthy, and making additions to 
the body from those who were qualified. 
[SENATUS.] In the same manner they held a 




review of the equites equo publieo, and added 
and removed names as they judged proper. 
[EQUITES.] After the lists had been com- 
pleted, the number of citizens was counted 
up, and the sum total announced ; and ac- 
cordingly we find that, in the account of a 
census, the number of citizens is likewise 
usually given. They are in such cases spoken 
of as capita, sometimes with the addition of 
the word civium, and sometimes not ; and 
hence to be registered in the census was the 
same thing as caput hdbere. [CAPUT.] II. 
REOIMEN MORUM. This was the most im- 
portant branch of the censors' duties, and the 
one which caused their office to be the most 
revered and the most dreaded in the Roman 
state. It naturally grew out of the right 
which they possessed of excluding unworthy 
persons from the lists of citizens. They 
were constituted the conservators of public 
and private virtue and morality ; they were 
not simply to prevent crime or particular acts 
of immorality, but their great object was to 
maintain the old Roman character and habits, 
the mos majorum. The proper expression for 
this branch of their power was regimen mo- 
rum, which was called in the times of the 
empire cura or praefectura morum. The 
punishment inflicted by the censors in the 
exercise of this branch of their duties was 
called Noia or Notatio, or Animadversio 
Censoria. In inflicting it they were guided 
only by their conscientious convictions of 
duty ; they had to take an oath that they 
would act neither through partiality nor fa- 
vour ; and in addition to this, they were 
bound in every case to state in their lists, 
opposite the name of the guilty citizen, the 
cause of the punishment inflicted on him, 
Subscriptio censoria. The consequence of 
such a nota was only ignominia and not in- 
famia [INFAMIA], and the censorial verdict 
was not a judicium.or res judicata, for its 
effects were not lasting, but might be re- 
moved by the following censors, or by a lex. 
A nota censoria was moreover not valid, un- 
less both censors agreed. The ignominia was 
thus only a transitory capitis deminutio, 
which does not appear even to have deprived 
a magistrate of his office, and certainly did 
not disqualify persons labouring under it for 
obtaining a magistracy, for being appointed 
as judices by the praetor, or for serving in 
the Roman armies. This superintendence of 
the conduct of Roman citizens extended so 
far, that it embraced the whole of the public 
and private life of the citizens. Thus we 
have instances of their censuring or punish- 
ing persons for not marrying, for breaking a 
promise of marriage, for divorce, for bad con- 
duct during marriage, for improper education 

of children, for living in an extravagant and 
luxurious manner, and for many other irre- 
gularities in private life. Their influence was 
still more powerful in matters connected with 
the public life of the citizens. Thus we find 
them censuring or punishing magistrates who 
were forgetful of the dignity of their office or 
guilty of bribery, as well as persons who 
were guilty of improper conduct towards ma- 
gistrates, of perjury, and of neglect of their 
duties both in civil and military life. The 
punishments inflicted by the censors are ge- 
nerally divided into four classes : 1. Motto 
or ejectio e senatu, or the exclusion of a man 
from the number of senators. This punish- 
ment might either be a simple exclusion from 
the list of senators, or the person might at 
the same time be excluded from the tribes 
and degraded to the rank of an aerarian. 
The censors in their new lists omitted the 
names of such senators as they wished to 
exclude, and in reading these new lists in 
public, passed over the names of those who 
were no longer to be senators. Hence the 
expression praeteriti senatores is equivalent 
to e senatu ejecti. 2. The ademptio equi, or 
the taking away the equus publicus from an 
eques. This punishment might likewise be 
simple, or combined with the exclusion from 
the tribes and the degradation to the rank of 
an aerarian. [EQUITES.] 3. The motio e 
tribu, or the exclusion of a person from his 
tribe. If the further degradation to the rank 
of an aerarian was combined with the motio 
e tribu, it was always expressly stated. 4. 
The fourth punishment was called referre in 
aerarios or facere aliquem aerarium, and 
might be inflicted on any person who was 
thought by the censors to deserve it. [AERA- 
NANCES OF THE STATE, was another part of 
the censors' office. In the first place the 
tributum, or property-tax, had to be paid by 
each citizen according to the amount of his 
property registered in the census, and, ac- 
cordingly, the regulation of this tax naturally 
fell under the jurisdiction of the censors. 
[TRIBUTUM.] They also had the superintend- 
ence of all the other revenues of the state, the 
vectigalia, such as the tithes paid for the 
public lands, the salt works, the mines, the 
customs, &c. [VECTIGALIA.] All these branches 
of the revenue the censors were accustomed 
to let out to the highest bidder for the space 
of a lustrum or five years. The act of letting 
was called venditio or locatio, and seems to 
have taken place in the month of March. 
The censors also possessed the right, though 
probably not without the concurrence of the 
senate, of imposing new vectigalia, and even 
of selling ttte land belonging to the state. 




The censors, however, did not receive the re- 
venues of the state. All the public money 
was paid into the aenrium, which was en- 
tirely under the jurisdiction of the senate ; 
and all disbursements were made by order of 
this body, which employed the quaestors as 
its officers. [AF.RARIUM ; SENATUS.] In one 
important department the censors were en- 
trusted with the expenditure of the public 
money ; though the actual payments were 
no doubt made by the quaestors. The cen- 
sors had the general superintendence of all 
the public buildings and works (opera pttb- 
lica) ; and to meet the expenses connected 
with this part of their duties, the senate voted 
them a certain sum of money or certain re- 
venues, to which they were restricted, but 
which they might at the same time employ 
according to their discretion. They had to 
see that the temples and all other public build- 
ings were in a good state of repair (aedes 
sacras tueri and sarta tccta exigere), that no 
public places were encroached upon by the 
occupation of private persons (loca tueri}, and 
that the aquaeducts, roads, drains, &c. were 
properly attended to. The repairs of the 
public works and the keeping of them in pro- 
per condition were let out by the censors by 
public auction to the lowest bidder. The 
persons who undertook the contract were 
called condiictores, mancipes, redemptores, 
susceptores, &e. ; and the duties they had to 
discharge were specified i.i the Leges Cen- 
soriae. The censors had also to superintend 
the expenses connected with the worship of 
the gods. In these respects it is not easy to 
define with accuracy the respective duties of 
the censors and aediles : but it may be re- 
marked in general that the superintendence 
of the aediles had more of a police character, 
while that of the censors had reference to all 
financial matters. After the censors had per- 
formed their various duties and taken the 
census, the lustrum or solemn purification of 
the people followed. When the censors en- 
tered upon their office, they drew lots to see 
which of them should perform this purifica- 
tion (lustrum facere or condere], but both 
censors were obliged of course to be present 
at the ceremony. [LUSTRUM.] In the Ro- 
man and Latin colonies and in the municipia 
there were censors, who likewise bore the 
name of quinquennales. They are spoken of 
under COLONIA. A census was sometimes 
taken in the provinces, even under the re- 
public ; hut there seems to have been no 
general census taken in the provinces till the 
time of Augustus. At Rome the census still 
continued to be taken under the empire, but 
the old ceremonies connected with it were no 
longer continued, and the ceremony of the 

lustration was not performed after the time 
of Vespasian. The word census, besides the 
meaning of " valuation " of a person's estate, 
has other significations, which must be briefly 
mentioned : 1 . It signified the amount of a 
person's property, and hence we read of 
census senatorius, the estate of a senator ; 
census equestris, the estate of an eques. 
2. The lists of the censors. 3. The tax 
which depended upon the valuation in the 

CENSUS. (1) GREEK. The Greek term 
for a man's property as ascertained by the 
census, as well as for the act of ascertaining 
it, is TCfirifia. The only Greek state concern- 
ing whose arrangement of the census we have 
any satisfactory information, is Athens. Pre- 
vious to the time of Solon no census had been 
instituted at Athens. According to his cen- 
sus, all citizens were divided into four classes : 
1 . Pentacosiomedimni (Ilej'TaKoo'iof/.eSijui'oi), 
or persons possessing landed property which 
yielded an annual income of at least 500 
medimni of dry or liquid produce. 2. Hip- 
peis ('Imreis), i. e. knights or persons able 
to keep a war-horse, were those whose lands 
yielded an annual produce of at least 300 me- 
dimni, whence they are also called Tptoucoo-to/oie- 
&invoi. 3. Zeugitae (Zevyirai), i. e. persons 
able to keep a yoke of oxen (fevyos), were 
those whose annual income consisted of at 
least 150 medimni. 4. The Thetes (yT(s) 
contained all the rest of the free population, 
whose income was below that of the Zeugitae. 
The constitution of Athens, so long as it was 
based upon these classes, was a timocracy 
(jiji.oKpa.Tia., or O.TTO Ti/u.ijju.aTCDt' jroAiTci'a). The 
highest magistracy at Athens, or the archon- 
ship, was at first accessible only to persons 
of the first class, until Aristides threw all the 
state offices open to all classes indiscrimi- 
nately. The maintenance of the republic 
mainly devolved upon the first three classes, 
the last being exempted from all taxes. As 
the land in the legislation of Solon was re- 
garded as the capital which yielded an annual 
income, he regulated his system of taxation 
by the value of the land, which was treated 
as the taxable capital. Lists of this taxable 
property (a7roypac}>ai) were kept at first by 
the naucrari, who also had to conduct the 
census, and afterwards by the demarchi. As 
property is a fluctuating thing, the census 
was repeated from time to time, but the 
periods differed in the various parts of 
Greece, for in some a census was held every 
year, and in others every two or four yearb. 
At Athens every person had to state the 
amount of his property, and if there was any 
doubt about his honesty, it seems that a 
counter-valuation (a>T<.Tijxi)<rts) might be made. 




Thi? system of taxation according to classes, 
and based upon the possession of productive 
estates, underwent a considerable change in 
the time of the Peloponnesian war, though the 
divisions into classes themselves continued 
to be observed for a considerable time after. 
As the wants of the republic increased, and 
as many citizens were possessed of large 
property, without being landed proprietors, 
the original land-tax was changed into a 
property-tax. This property-tax was called 
eioxjiopa, concerning which see EISPHOBA. 
Compare LEITVRGIAE ; and for the taxes paid 
by resident aliens, METOICI. (2) ROMAN. 

CENTESIMA, namely pars, or the hun- 
dredth part, also called vectigal rerum rma- 
lium, or centesima rerum vcnnlium, was a tax 
of one per cent, levied at Koine and in Italy 
upon all goods that were exposed for public 
sale at auctions. It was collected by persons 
called coactores. This tax was perhaps in- 
troduced after the civil war between Marius 
and Sulla. Its produce was assigned by 
Augustus to the aerarimn militare. Tiberius 
reduced the tax to one half per cent, (ducen- 
tcsima), after he had changed Cappadocia 
into a province, and had thereby increased 
the revenue of the empire. Caligula in the 
beginning of his reign abolished the tax alto- 
gether for Italy. 

CENTUMVIRI, were judices, who resem- 
bled other judices in this respect, that they 
decided cases under the authority of a magis- 
tratus ; but they differed from other judices 
in being a definite body or collegium. This 
collegium seems to have been divided into 
four parts, each of which sometimes sat by 
itself. The origin of the court is unknown. 
According to an ancient writer, three were 
chosen out of each tribe, and consequently 
the whole number out of the 35 tribes would 
be 105, who, in round numbers, were called 
the hundred men. If the centumviri were 
chosen from the tribes, this seems a strong 
presumption in favour of the high antiquity 
of the court. It was the practice to set up a 
spyar in the place where the centumviri were 
sitting, and accordingly the word hasta, or 
ttasta centumviralis, is sometimes used as 
equivalent to the words judicium centum- 
vlrale. The praetor presided in this court. 
The jurisdiction of the eentumviri was chiefly 
confined to civil matters, but it appears that 
crimina sometimes came under their cogni- 
zance. The younger Pliny, who practised 
in this court, makes frequent allusions to it 
in his letters. 





CERA (K)7p6s), -wax. For its employment 
in painting, see PICTURA ; and for its appli- 
cation as a writing material, see TABULAE and 


CEREiLIA, a festival celebrated at Rome 
in honour of Ceres, whose wanderings in 
search of her lost daughter Proserpine were 
represented by women, clothed in white, run- 
ning about with lighted torches. During its 
continuance, games were celebrated in the 
Circus Maximus, the spectators of which ap- 
peared in white ; but on any occasion of 
public mourning the games and festivals were 
not celebrated at all, as the matrons could 
not appear at them except in white. The 
day of the Cerealia is doubtful ; some think 
it was the ides or 13th of April, others the 
7th of the same month. 

CEREVISIA, CERVISIA (#0os), ale or 
beer, was almost or altogether unknown to 
the Greeks and Romans ; but it was used very 
generally by the surrounding nations, whoe 
soil and climate were less favourable to the 
growth of vines. According to Herodotus, the 
Egyptians commonly drank 'Sbarley wine ;" 
and Diodorus Siculus says that the Egyptian 
beer was nearly equal to wine in strength and 
flavour. The Iberians and Thracians, and the 
people in the north of Asia Minor, instead of 
drinking their beer out of cups, placed it 
before them in a large bowl or vase, which 
was sometimes of gold or silver. This being 
full to the brim with the grains, as well as 
the fermented liquor, the guests, when they 
pledged one another, drank together out of 
the same bowl by stooping down to it, 
although, when this token of friendship was 
not intended, they adopted the more refined 
method of sucking up the fluid through tubes 
of cane. The Suevi and other northern na- 
tions offered to their gods libations of beer, 
and expected that to drink it in the presence 
of Odin would be among the delights of 

CEROMA (fojpu/xa), the oil mixed with 
wax (lojpds) with which wrestlers were 
anointed ; also the place where they were 
anointed, and, in later times, the place where 
they wrestled. 


CESTRUM. [PicrtjRA.] 

CESTUS. (1) The thongs or bands of lea- 
ther, which were tied round the hands of 
boxers, in order to render their blows more 
powerful (i^apTes, or i/uaires n-vKTiKoi). The 
cestus was used by boxers in the earliest 
times, and is mentioned in the Iliad ; but in 
the heroic times it consisted merely of thongs 
of leather, and differed from the cestus used 
in later times in the public games, which was 




a most formidable weapon, being frequently 
covered with knots and nails, and loaded 
with lead and iron. (a) A band jr tie of any 

Ctatus. (Fabretti, de Col. Traj., p. 261.) 

kind, but more particularly the zone or girdle 
of Venus, on which was represented every 
thing that could awaken love. 

CETRA, or CAETRA, a target, . e. a small 
round shield, made of the hide of a quadru- 
ped. It formed part of the defensive armour 
of the Osci, and of the people of Spain, Mau- 
ritania, and Britain, and seems to have been 
much the same as the target of the Scotch 
Highlanders. The Romans do not appear to 
have used the cetra ; but we find mention of 
cetratae eohortes levied in the provinces. 
Livy compares it to the pelta of the Greeks 
and Macedonians, which was also a small 
light shield. 

CHALCIOECIA (xoAxtoi'/cio), an annual 
festival, with sacrifices, held at Sparta in 
honour of Athena, surnamed Chalcioecvs 
(XaAxioucos), i. e. the goddess of the brazen- 
house. Young men marched on the occasion 
in full armour to the temple of the goddess ; 
and the ephors, although not entering the 
temple, but remaining within its sacred pre- 
cincts, were obliged to take part in the 

CHALCUS (xoAxovs), a denomination of 
Greek copper-money. Bronze or copper (x^- 
(tos) was very little used by the Greeks for 
money till after the time of Alexander the 
Great. The \a\Kia irovrjpa. at Athens issued 
in B. c. 406 were a peculiar exception ; and 
they were soon afterwards called in, and the 
silver currency restored. It is not improbable, 
however, that the copper coin called x ** "* 
was in circulation in Athens still earlier. 
The smallest silver coin at Athens was the 
quarter obol, and the \O\KOVS was the half of 
that, or the eighth of an obol. Its value was 
somewhat more than 3 Hhs of a farthing. 
The xoAxous in later times was divided into 
lepta, of which it contained seven. In later 
times the obol was coined of copper as well as 

CHARISTIA (from x<*pA"", to grant a 
favour or pardon), a solemn feast among the 
Romans, to which none but relations and 
members of the same family were invited, in 
order that any quarrel or disagreement which 
had arisen amongst them might be made up. 
The day of celebration was the 19th of Feb- 

CHEIROXOMIA (xevovonwt), a mimetic 
movement of the hands, which formed a part 
of the art of dancing among the Greeks and 
Romans. In gymnastics it was applied to 
the movements of the hands in pugilistic 

CHEIROTOXIA (xetporovw). In the 
Athenian assemblies two modes of voting were 
practised, the one by pebbles (i/n^tfeotfac), 
the other by a show of hands (x^ipoTovetv). 
The latter was employed in the election of 
those magistrates who were chosen in the 
public assemblies, and who were hence called 
xetpoTOT|Toi, in voting upon laws, and in 
some kinds of trials on matters which con- 
cerned the people. We frequently find, how- 
ever, the word <Jrrj<ie<r0<u used where the 
votes were really given by show of hands. 
The manner of voting by a show of hands 
was as follows : The herald said : " Who- 
ever thinks that Meidias is guilty, let him 
lift up his hand." Then those who thought 
so stretched forth their hands. Then the 
herald said again : " Whoever thinks that 
Meidias Is not guilty, let him lift up his 
hand ;" and those who were of this opinion 
stretched forth their hands. The number of 
hands was counted each time by the herald ; 
and the president, upon the herald's report, 
declared on which side the majority voted. 
It is important to understand clearly the 
compounds of this word. A vote condemning 
an accused person is Karaxftporovta : one ac- 
quitting him, CLTroxtipOTOvia. ; emxeipoTOvelv is 
to confirm by a majority of votes : ejrixP- 
Tovia. rniv vofjMv was a revision of the laws, 
which took place at the beginning of every year : 
f-mxeipoTovia. TWV apx<av was a vote taken in the 
first assembly of each prytany on the conduct 
of the magistrates ; in these cases, those who 
voted for the confirmation of the law, or for 
the continuance in office of the magistrate, 
were said fTri\fiporovelv, those on the other 
side airoxeipOTOveif : Siaxfiporovia. is a vote for 
one of two alternatives : aynxfiforovflv, to 
vote against a proposition. The compounds 
of i/nj^t^eo-Ooi have similar meanings. 

CHIROGRAPHUM (xpoyp<<>'), meant 
first, as its derivation implies, a hand-writing 
or autograph. In this its simple sense, x"f> 
in Greek and man us in Latin are often sub- 
stituted for it. From this meaning was easily 
derived that of a signature to a will or rthei 
a 2 




instrument, especially a note of hand given 
by a debtor to his creditor. 
CHITON (x"-wv). [TUNICA.] 
CHLAENA (xA-atva). [PALLIUM.] 
CHLAMYS (xAocMti?, dim. x?vLt>.v&<.ov), a 
scarf, denoted an article of the amictus, or 
outer raiment of the Greeks. It was for the 
most part woollen ; and it differed from the 
himation (i/xanov), or cloak, the usual amictus 
of the male sex, in being smaller, finer, and 
oblong instead of square, its length being 
generally about twice its breadth. The so.arf 
does not appear to have been much worn by- 
children. It was generally assumed on 
reaching adolescence, and was worn by the 
ephebi from about seventeen to twenty years 
of age, and hence was called x^ a l u - e$i/j3r)uoj. 
It was also worn by the military, especially 
of high rank, over their body armour, and by 
hunters and travellers, more particularly on 
horseback. The usual mode of wearing the 
scarf was to pass one of its shorter sides 
round the neck, and to fasten it by means of 
a brooch (fibula], either over the breast (cut, 
HASTA), in which case it hung down the back, 
or over the right shoulder, so as to cover the 
left arm (cut, CAUSIA). In the following cut 
it is worn again in another way. The apti- 

Clilamy*. (The Figure on the left from a Pmnling on i 
Vase ; that on the right from the Brit. Mu.) 

tude of the scarf to be turned in every pos- 
sible form around the body, made it useful 
even for defence. The hunter used to wrap 
his chlamys about his left arm when pursuing 
wild animals, and preparing to fight with 
them. The annexed woodcut exhibits a 
figure of Neptune armed with the trident in 
his right hand, and having a chlamys to 
protect the left. When Diana goes to the 
chase, as she does not require her scarf for 
purposes of defence, she draws it from behind 
over her shoulders, and twists it round her 

waist so that the belt of her quiver passes across 
it. (See woodcut.) Among the Romans the 

scarf came more into use under the empe- 
rors. Caligula wore one enriched with gold. 
Severus, when he was in the country or on 
an expedition, wore a scarf dyed with the 

CHOENIX (xoiWf), a Greek measure of 
capacity, the size of which is differently 
given ; it was probably of different sizes in 
the several states. Some writers make it 
equal to three cotylae (nearly 1| pints Eng- 
lish) ; others to four cotylae (nearly 2 pints 
English) ; others again make it eight cotylae 
(nearly 4 pints English). 

CHOREGUS (xwxos), a person who had 
to hear the expenses of the choregia (xP'ny^ a \ 
one of the regularly recurring state burthens 
(ryxvKAioi AetTovpyi'cu) at Athens. The cho- 
regus was appointed by his tribe, though we 
are not informed according to what order. 
The same person might serve as choregus for 
two tribes at once ; and after B.C. 412 a de- 
cree was passed allowing two persons to unite 
and undertake a choregia together. The du- 
ties of the choregia consisted in providing 
the choruses for tragedies and comedies, the 
lyric choruses of men and boys, the pyrrhi- 
cists, the cyclic choruses, and the choruses of 
flute-players for the different religious festi- 
vals at Athens. When a poet intended to 
bring out a play, he had to get a chorus as- 
signed him by the archon [ CHORUS], who 
nominated a choregus to fulfil the requisite 
duties. He had first to collect his chorus, 
and then to procure a teacher (xopoSiSdo-KoAos), 
whom he paid for instructing the choreutae. 
The chorus were generally maintained, during 
the period of their instruction, at the expense 
of the choregus. The choregus who ex hi- 




bited the best musical or theatrical entertain- 
ment received as a prize a tripod, which he 
had the expense of consecrating, and some- 
times he had also to build the monument on 
which it was placed. There was a whole 
street at Athens formed by the line of tbsse 
tripod-temples, and called " The Street of the 

CHORUS (xopds) probably signified orig.n- 
ally a company of dancers dancing in a ring. 
In later times, a choric performance always 
implies the singing or musical recitation of a 
poetical composition, accompanied by appro- 
priate dancing and gesticulation, or at least 
by a measured march. In all the Dorian 
states, especially among the Spartans, choral 
performances were cultivated with great assi- 
duity. Various causes contributed to this, as, 
for example, their universal employment in 
the worship of Apollo, the fact that they were 
not confined to the men, but that women 
also took part in them, and that many of the 
dances had a gymnastic character given them, 
and were employed as a mode of training to 
martial exercises. [SALTATIO.] Hence Doric 
lyric poetry became almost exclusively choral, 
which was not the case with the other great 
school of Greek lyric poetry, the Aeolian ; so 
that the Doric dialect came to be looked upon 
as the appropriate dialect for choral compo- 
sitions, and Doric forms were retained by the 
Athenians even in the choral compositions 
which were Intel-woven with their dramas. 
The instrument commonly used in connection 
with the Doric choral poetry was the cithara. 
A great impetus was given to choral poetry 
by its application to the dithyramb. This an- 
cient Bacchanalian performance seems to have 
been a hymn sung by one or more of an irre- 
gular band of revellers, to the music of the 
flute. Arion, a contemporary of Periander, 
was the first who gave a regular choral form 
to the dithyramb. This chorus, which ordi- 
narily consisted of fifty men or youths, danced 
in a ring round the altar of Dionysus. Hence 
such choruses were termed cyclic (Kv/cAtoi. 
\opoC~). With the introduction of a regular 
choral character, Arion also substituted the 
cithara for the flute. It was from the dithy- 
ramb that the Attic tragedy was developed. 
For details see TRAOOEDIA. From the time 
of Sophocles onwards the regular number of 
the chorus in a tragedy was 1 5 ; but it is 
impossible to arrive at any definite conclusion 
with regard to the number of the chorus in 
the early dramas of Aeschylus. The fact 
that the number of the dithyrambic chorus 
was 50, and that the mythological number 
of the Oceanides and Danaides was the same, 
tempts one to suppose that the chorus in the 
Prometheus and the Supplices consisted of 

50. Most writers, however, agree in think- 
ing that such a number was too large to have 
been employed. The later chorus of 15 was 
arranged in a quadrarigular form (rerpd- 
ywi/os). It entered the theatre by the passage 
to the right of the spectators. [THEATRUM.] 
Its entrance was termed irdpoSos ; its leaving 
the stage in the course of the play fierdoTaa-ts ; 
its re-entrance eirtirdpoSos ; its exit d^ofios. 
As it entered in three lines, with the specta- 
tors on its left, the stage on its right, the 
middle choreutes of the left row (rptros apicr- 
re'pov) was the Coryphaeus or Hegemon, who 
in early times at least was not unfrequently 
the choregus himself. Of course the posi- 
tions first taken up by the choreutae were 
only retained till they commenced their evo- 
lutions. To guide them in these, lines were 
marked upon the boards with which the 
orchestra was floored. The flute as well as 
the cithara was used as an accompaniment to 
the choric songs. The dance of the tragic 
chorus was called e^jne'A.eia. The ordinary 
number of the chorus in a comedy was 24. 
Like the tragic chorus it was arranged in a 
quadrangular form, and entered the orchestra 
from opposite sides, according as it was sup- 
posed to come from the city or from the 
country. It consisted sometimes half of male 
and half of female choreutae. The dance of 
the comic chorus was the KopSag. In the 
Satyrie drama the chorus consisted of Satyrs : 
its number is quite uncertain. Its dance was 
called O-IKI.WIS. When a poet intended to 
bring forward a play, he had to apply for a 
chorus (xopbv aiTelv~) to the archons, to the 
king archon if the play was to be brought 
forward at the Lenaea, to the archon epony- 
mus if at the great Dionysia. If the play 
were thought to deserve it, he received a 
chorus (xP" b-a-pfio.vtLv'), the expenses of 
which were borne by a choregus. [CHORE- 
GUS.] The poet then either trained (SiSa.a-Kft.v~) 
the chorus himself, or entrusted that business 
to a professed chorus trainer (xopoSiSdffxaAos), 
who usually had an assistant (inroSiSdo-KaAos). 
For training the chorus in its evolutions there 
was also an bpx<l<rToS<.&d<rKa\os, 

CHOUS, or CHOEUS (xovs or x<*w), was 
equal to the Roman congius, and contained six 
fe'cmu, or sextarii (nearly six pints English). 
It seems that there was also a smaller mea- 
sure of the same name, containing two sex- 
tarii (nearly two pints English). 

CHRONOLOGIA (xpovo\oyCa~), chronology. 
The Greeks reckoned their years generally 
according to their magistrates, in the early 
times according to the years of the reign of 
their kings, and afterwards according to their 
annual magistrates. At Athens the year was 
called by the name of one of the nine archous, 




who from this circumstance was called opx""" 
eTTwi/ujuos, or the archon par excellence ; and 
at Sparta the years were called after one of 
the five ephors, who for this reason was like- 
wise termed imawiw;. In Argos time was 
counted according to the years of the nigh 
priestess of Hera, who held her office for life 
(qpecrc's) ; and the inhabitants of Elis probably 
reckoned according to the Olympic games, 
which were celebrated every fifth year during 
the first full moon which followed after the 
summer solstice. Thus there was no era 
which was used by all the Greeks in common 
for the ordinary purposes of life. Timaeus, 
who flourished about B.C. 260, was the first 
historian who counted the years by Olym- 
piads, each of which contained four years. 
The beginning of the Olympiads is commonly 
fixed in the year 3938 of the Julian period, 
or in B.C. 776. If we want to reduce any 
given Olympiad to years before Christ, e. g. 
Ol. 87, we take the number of the Olympiads 
actually elapsed, that is, 86, multiply it by 4, 
and deduct the number obtained from 776, so 
that the first year of the 87th 01. will be the 
same as the year 432 B.C. If the number of 
Olympiads amounts to more than 776 years, 
that is, if the Olympiad falls after the birth 
of Christ, the process is the same as before, 
but from the sum obtained by multiplying 
the Olympiads by 4, we must deduct the 
number 776, and what remains is the num- 
ber of the years after Christ. As the Olym- 
pic games were celebrated 293 times, we have 
293 Olympic cycles, that is, 1172 years, 776 
of which fall before, and 396 after Christ. 
Some writers also adopted the Trojan era, the 
fall of Troy being placed by Eratosthenes and 
those who adopted this era, in the year B.C. 
1184. After the time of Alexander the Great, 
several other eras were introduced in the 
kingdoms that arose out of his empire. The 
first was the Philippic era, sometimes also 
called the era of Alexander or the era of 
Edessa ; it began on the 1 2th of November 
B.C. 324, the date of the accession of Philip 
Arrhidaeus. The second was the era of the 
Seleucidae, beginning on the 1st of October 
B.C. 312, the date of the victory of Seleucus 
Nieator at Gaxa, and of his re-conquest of 
Babylonia. This era was used very exten- 
sively in the East. The Chaldaean era dif- 
fered from it only by six months, beginning 
in the spring of B.C. 311. Lastly, the eras of 
Antioch, of which there were three, hut the 
one most commonly used began in November 
B.C. 49. The Romans during the time of the 
republic reckoned their years by the names 
of the consuls, which were registered in the 
Fasti. Along with this era there existed 
another, used only by the historians. It 

reckoned the years from the foundation of the 
city (ab tirbe condita) ; but the year of the 
foundation of the city was a question of un- 
certainty among the Romans themselves. M. 
Terentius Varro placed it on the 21st of April 
in the third year of the 6th Olympiad, that 
is, B.C. 753 ; and this is the era most com- 
monly used. To find out the year B.C. corre- 
sponding to the year A.U.C., subtract the year 
A.U.C. from 754 ; thus 605 A.I.-.C. = 149 B.C. 
To find out the year A.D. corresponding to 
the year A.U.C., subtract 753 from the year 
A.U.C. ; thus 767 A.U.C. = 14 A.D. 

CHRtSENDETA, costly dishes used by the 
Romans at their entertainments, apparently 
made of silver, with golden ornaments. 







CIPPUS, a low column, sometimes round, 
but more frequently rectangular. Cippi were 
used for various purposes ; the decrees of the 
senate were sometimes inscribed upon them ; 
and with distances engraved upon them, they 
also served as milestones. They were, how- 
ever, more frequently employed as sepulchral 
monuments. It WE.S also usual to place at 
one corner of the burying-ground a cippus, 
on which the extent of the burying-ground 
was marked, towards the road (infronte), 
and backwards to the fields (in agrum). 

CippuB, m the Vat 






CIRCUS. When Tarquinius Priscus had 
taken the town of Apiolae from the Latins, 
he commemorated his success by an exhibi- 
tion of races and pugilistic contests in the 
Mureian valley, between the Palatine and 
Aventine hills, around which a number of 
temporary platforms were erected by the 
patres and equites, called spectacula, fori, or 
foruli, from their resemblance to the deck of 
a ship ; each one raising a stage for himself, 
upon which he stood to view the games. 
This course, with its surrounding scaffoldings, 
was termed circus ; either because the spec- 
tators stood round to see the shows, or be- 

cause the procession and races went round in 
a circuit. Previously, however, to the death 
of Tarquin, a permanent building was con- 
structed for the purpose, with regular tiers 
of seats in the form of a theatre. To this the 
name of Circus Maximus w>s subsequently 
given, as a distinction from the Flaminian 
and other similar buildings, which it sur- 
passed in extent and splendour ; and hence 
it is often spoken of as the Circus, without 
any distinguishing epithet. Of the Circus 
Maximus scarcely a vestige now remains ; 
but this loss is fortunately supplied by the 
remains of a small circus on the Via Appia, 
the ground-plan of which is in a state of con- 
siderable preservation : it is represented in 
the annexed cut, and may be taken as a mo- 

Ground Plan of the C'lrcu 

del of all others. Around the double lines 
(A, A) were arranged the seats (gradus, se- 
dilia, subsellia), as in a theatre, termed col- 
lectively the cavea ; the lowest of which were 
separated from the ground by a podium, and 
the whole divided longitudinally by praecinc- 
tiones, and diagonally into cunei, with their 
vomitoria attached to each. [AMPHITHE- 
ATRUM.] Towards the extremity of the upper 
branch of the cavea, the general outline is 
broken by an outwork (B), which was pro- 
bably the pulvinar, or station for the empe- 
ror, as it is placed in the best situation for 
seeing both the commencement and end of 
the course, and in the most prominent part 
of the circus. In the opposite branch is ob- 
served another interruption to the uniform 
line of seats (C), betokening also, from its 
construction, a place of distinction ; which 
might have been assigned to the person at 
whose expense the games were given (editor 
spectacular urn). In the centre of the area 
was a low wall (D) running lengthways down 
the course, which, from its resemblance to 
the position of the dorsal bone in the human 
frame, was termed spina. At each extremity 
of the spina were placed, upon a base (E, E), 
three wooden cylinders, of a conical shape, 
like cypress trees, which were called metae 

the goals. Their situation is distinctly seen 
in the cut on p. 89. The most remarkable 
objects upon the spina were two columns (F) 
supporting seven conical balls, which, from 
their resemblance to eggs, were called ova. 
Their use was to enable the spectators to 
count the number of rounds which had been 
run; and they were seven in number, be- 
cause seven was the number of the circuits 
made in each race. As each round was run, 
one of the ova was either put up or taken 
down. An egg was adopted for this purpose, 
in honour of Castor and Pollux. At the 
other extremity of the spina were two similar 
columns (G), sustaining dolphins, termed 
delphinae, or delphinarum columnae, which 
do not appear to have been intended to be 
removed, but only placed there as correspond- 
ing ornaments to the ova ; and the figure 
of the dolphin was selected in honour of 
Neptune. These figures are also seen in the 
cut on p. 89. At the extremity of the circus 
in which the two horns of the cavea termi- 
nate, were placed the stalls for the horses and 
chariots (H, II), commonly called carceres, 
but more anciently the whole line of building 
at this end of the circus was termed oppidum : 
hence in the circus, of which the plan is 
given above, we find two towers (I, I) at 



each end of the carccres. The number of upon the signal being given, by removing a 

carcereg is supposed to have been usually rope attached to pilasters of the kind called 

twelve, as in this plan. They were vaults, Hermae, placed for that purpose between 

closed in front by gates of open wood-work each stall, upon which the gates were imme- 

(cancelli), which were opened simultaneously diately thrown open by a number of men, as 

opening of the Gales. (Fn 


represented in the preceding woodcut. The 
cut below represents a set of four carceres, 
with their Hermae, and cancelli open, as left 
after the chariots had started ; in which the 
gates are made to open inwards. The pre- 
ceding account and woodcuts will be sufficient 
to explain the meaning of the various words 
by which the carceres were designated in 
poetical language, namely, claustra, crypta, 
fauces, ostia, fores carceris, repaguia, limina 
equorum. There were five entrances to the 
circus ; one (L) in the centre of the carceres, 
called porta pompae, because it was the one 
through which the Circensian procession en- 
tered, and the others at M, M, N, and O. At 
the entrance of the course, exactly in the 
direction of the line (J, K), were two small 
pedestals (hermtili) on each side of the po- 
dium, to which was attached a chalked rope 
(alba tinea), for the purpose of making the 
start fair, precisely as is practised at Rome 
for the horse-races during Carnival. Thus, 
when the doors of the carceres were thrown 
open, if any of the horses rushed out before 
the others, they were brought up by this rope 
until the whole were fairly abreast, when it 
was loosened from one side, and all poured 
into the course at once. This line was also 
called calx, and creta. The metae served 
only to regulate the turnings of the course, 

the alba tinea answered to the starting and 
winning post of modern days. From this 
description the Circus Maximus differed little, 
except in size and magnificence of embellish- 
ment. The numbers which the Circus Max- 
imus was capable of containing are computed 
at 150,000 by Dionysius, 260,000 by Pliny, 
and 385,000 by P. Victor, all of which are 
probably correct, but have reference to dif- 
ferent periods of its history. Its length, in 
the time of Julius Caesar, was three stadia, 
the width one, and the depth of the buildings 
occupied half a stadium. When the Circus 
Maximus was permanently formed by Tar- 
quinius Priscus, each of the thirty curiae had 
a particular place assigned to it ; but as no 
provision was made for the plebeians in this 
circus, it is supposed that the Circus Flami- 
nius was designed for the games of the com- 
monalty, who in early times chose their tri- 
bunes there, on the Flaminian field. However, 
in the latter days of the republic, these invi- 
dious distinctions were lost, and all classes 
sat promiscuously in the circus. The scats 
were then marked off at intervals by a line 
or groove drawn across them (tinea), so that 
the space included between two lines afforded 
sitting room for a certain number of specta- 
tors. Under the empire, however, the sena- 
tors and equites were separated from the 

Onroero, with Gates open. f&Iarble in British Museum.) 




common people. The seat of the emperor 
(puMnar or cubicuhim) was most likely in 
the same situation in the Circus Maximus as 
in the one above described. The Cireensian 
games (Ltidi Circenscs] were first instituted 
by Romulus, according to the legends, when 
he wished to attract the Sabine population to 
Rome, for the purpose of furnishing his own 
people with wives, and were celebrated in 
honour of the god Consus, or Neptunus 
Equestris, from whom they were styled Con- 
suales. But after the construction of the 
Circus Maximus they were called indiscrimi- 

nately Circenses, Bomani, or Magni, They 
embraced six kinds of games : I. CVRSUS ; 
NAUMACHIA. The two last were not peculiar 
to the circus, but were exhibited also in the 
amphitheatre, or in buildings appropriated 
for them. The games commenced with a 
grand procession (Pompa Circensii), in which 
all those who were about to exhibit in the 
circus, as well as persons of distinction, bore 
a part. The statues of the gods formed the 
most conspicuous feature in the show, which 

Chariot Hace in the Ci 

were paraded upon wooden platforms, called 
fercula and thcnsae. The former were borne 
upon the shoulders, as the statues of saints 
are carried in modern processions ; the latter 
were drawn along upon wheels. I. CUBSUS, 
the races. The carriage usually employed in 
the circus was drawn by two or four horses 
(bigae, quadrigae}. [CURRL-S.] The usual 
number of chariots which started for each 
race was four. The drivers (aitrigae, agita- 
tores) were also divided into four comp'anies, 
each distinguished by a different colour, to 
represent the four seasons of the year, and 
called a factio : thus factio prasina, the green, 
represented the spring ; factio russata, red, I 
the summer ; factio vereta, azure, the au- j 

tumn ; and factio alba or albata, white, the 
winter. Originally there were but two fac- 
tions, albata and russata, and consequently 
only two chariots started at each race. The 
driver stood in his car within the reins, which 
went round his back. This enabled him to 
throw all his weight against the horses, by 
leaning backwards ; but it greatly enhanced 
his danger in case of an upset. To avoid 
this peril, a sort of knife or bill-hook was 
carried at the waist, for the purpose 'of cut- 
ting the reins in a case of emergency. When 
all was ready, the doors of the carceres were 
flung open, and the chariots were formed 
abreast of the alba linea by men called mora- 
tores from their duty ; the signal for the 




start was then given by the person who pre- 
sided at the games, sometimes by sound of 
trumpet, or more usually by letting fall a 
napkin ; whence the Circensian games are 
called speetacula mappae. The alba linca 
was then cast off, and the race commenced, 
the extent of which was seven times round 
the spina, keeping it always on the left. A 
course of seven circuits was termed unus 
missus, and twenty-five was the number of 
races run in each day, the last of which was 
called missus acrarius, because in early times 
the expense of it was defrayed by a collection 
of money (aes) made amongst the people. 
The victor descended from his car at the con- 
clusion of the race, and ascended the spina, 
where he received his reward (bravium, from 
the Greek /Spa/Seio^), which consisted in a 
considerable sum of money. The horse- 
racing followed the same rules as the chariots. 
The enthusiasm of the Romans for these 
races exceeded all bounds. Lists of the 
horses (Kbella), with their names and colours, 
and those of the drivers, were handed about, 
and heavy bets made upon each faction ; and 
sometimes the contests between two parties 
broke out into open violence and bloody quar- 
rels, until at last the disputes which origin- 
ated in the circus had nearly lost the Empe- 
ror Justinian his crown. II. LUDUS TROJAE, 
a sort of sham-fight, said to have been in- 
vented by Aeneas, performed by young men 
of rank on horseback, and often exhibited by 
the emperors. III. PUONA EO.UESTHIS ET 
PEDESTRIS, a representation of a battle, upon 
which occasions a camp was formed in the 
LETAE, and the references to the articles there 
given. V. [VENATIO.] VI. [NAUMACHIA.] 

CISIUM, a light open carriage with two 
wheels, adapted to carry two persons rapidly 
from place to place. The cisia were quickly 
T . drawn by mules. 

Cicero mentions the 
case of a messenger 
who travelled 56 
miles in 10 hours 
in such vehicles, 
which were kept for 
hire at the stations 
along the great 
roads ; a proof that 
the ancients considered six Roman miles per 
hour as an extraordinary speed. 

CISTA (icicrn)). (1) A small box or chest, 
in which anything might be placed, but more 
particularly applied to the small boxes which 
were carried in procession in the festivals of 
Demeter and Dionysus. These boxes, which 
were always kept closed in the public proces- 
sions, contained sacred things connected with 

ium. (Frc 
at Igel, na 

the worship of these deities. In the repre- 
sentations of Dionysiac processions on ancient 
vases women carrying cistae are frequently 
introduced. ( 2 ) The ballot-box, into which 

Painting on a Vae.) 

those who voted in the comiiia and in the 
courts of justice cast their tabellae. It is re- 
presented in the annexed cut, and ~~i 
should not be confounded with the 
siMa or sitella, into which sortes 
or lots were thrown. [SITULA.] 

CISTOPHORUS (iaoToc/>opos), a silver coin, 
which is supposed to belong to Rhodes, and 
which was in general circulation in Asia 
Minor at the time of the conquest of "that 
country by the Romans. It took its name 
from the device upon it, which was either the 
sacred chest (cista) of Bacchus, or more pro- 
bably a flower called KIOTOS. Its value is 
extremely uncertain : some writers suppose 
it to have been worth in our money about 




CIVITAS, citizenship. (1) GREEK (n-oAi- 
rei'a). Aristotle defines a citizen (n-oAi'njs) to 
be one who is a partner in the legislative and 
judicial power (/U.CTOXOS xpurews <ca! dpx%). 
No definition will equally apply to all the 
different states of Greece, or to any single 
state at different times ; the above seems to 
comprehend more or less properly all those 
whom the common use of language entitled 
to the name. A state in the heroic ages was 
the government of a prince; the citizens were 
his subjects, and derived all their privileges, 
civil as well as religious, from their nobles 
and princes. The shadows of a council and 
assembly were already in existence, but theii 
business was to obey. Upon the whole the 




notion of citizenship in the heroic ages only 
existed so far as the condition of aliens or of 
domestic slaves was its negative. The rise 
of a dominant class gradually overthrew the 
monarchies of ancient Greece. Of such a 
class, the chief characteristics were good birth 
and the hereditary transmission of privileges, 
the possession of land, and the performance 
of military service. To these characters the 
names gamori (ya/^opoi), knights (iirireis), eu- 
patridae (evirarpi'Scu), &c. severally corre- 
spond. Strictly speaking, these were the only 
citizens ; yet the lower class were quite dis- 
tinct from bondmen or slaves. It commonly 
happened that the nobility occupied the forti- 
fied towns, while the demus (&wos) lived in 
the country and followed agricultural pur- 
suits : whenever the latter were gathered 
within the walls, and became seamen or 
handicraftsmen, the difference of ranks was 
soon lost, and wealth made the only standard. 
The quarrels of the nobility among themselves, 
and the admixture of population arising from 
immigrations, all tended to raise the lower 
orders from their political subjection. It 
must be remembered, too, that the possession 
of domestic slaves, if it placed them in no 
new relation to the governing body, at any 
rate gave them leisure to attend to the higher 
duties of a citizen, and thus served to increase 
their political efficiency. During the convul- 
sions which followed the heroic ages, natural- 
isation was readily granted to all who desired 
it ; as the value of citizenship increased, it 
was, of course, more sparingly bestowed. The 
ties of hospitality descended from the prince 
to the state, and the friendly relations of the 
Homeric heroes were exchanged for the 
Trpofevi'ai of a later period. In political inter- 
course, the importance of these last soon be- 
gan to be felt, and the Proyccnus at Athens, in 
after times, obtained rights only inferior to 
actual citizenship. [HOSPITIUM.] The iso- 
polite relation existed, however, on a much 
more extended scale. Sometimes particular 
privileges were granted : as en-iya/aia, the 
right of intermarriage ; eyioTjeris, the right 
of acquiring landed property ; arc'Aeta, im- 
munity from taxation, especially are'Aeia H.CTOI- 
KLOV, from the tax imposed on resident aliens. 
All these privileges were included under the 
general term icroreteia, or itron-oAiYeia, and the 
class who obtained them were called io-oreAeis. 
They bore the same burthens with the citizens, 
and could plead in the courts or transact 
business with the people, without the inter- 
vention of a frpooTdnjs, or patron. Respecting 
the division of the Athenian citizens into 
tribes, phratriae and demes, see the articles 
TRIBUS and DEMVS. If we would picture to 
ourselves the true notion which the Greeks 

embodied in the word polls (woAts), we must 
lay aside all modern ideas respecting the 
nature and object of a state. With us practi- 
cally, if not in theory, the essential object of 
a state hardly embraces more than the pro- 
tection of life and property. The Greeks, on 
the other hand, had the most vivid conception 
of the state as a whole, every part of which 
was to co-operate to some great end to which 
all other duties were considered as subor- 
dinate. Thus the aim of democracy was said 
to be liberty ; wealth, of oligarchy ; and edu- 
cation, of aristocracy. In all governments 
the endeavour was to draw the social union 
as close as possible, and it seems to have been 
with this view that Aristotle laid down a 
principle which answered well enough to the 
accidental circumstances of the Grecian states, 
that a pohs must be of a certain size. This 
unity of purpose was nowhere so fully carried 
out as in the government of Sparta. The 
design of Spartan institutions was evidently 
to unite the governing body among themselves 
against the superior numbers of the subject 
population. The division of lands, the sys- 
sitia, the education of their youth, all tended 
to this great object. [HELOTES ; PERIOECI.] 
In legal rights all Spartans were equal : but 
there were yet several gradations, which, 
when once formed, retained their hold on the 
aristocratic feelings of the people. First, 
there was the dignity of the Heraclide fami- 
lies ; and, connected with this, a certain pre- 
eminence of the Hyllean tribe. Another dis- 
tinction was that between the Homoioi (o/aoioi) 
and Sypomeiones (ujroneioi'es), which, in later 
times, appears to have been considerable. 
The latter term probably comprehended those 
citizens who, from degeneracy of manners or 
other causes, had undergone some kind of 
civil degradation. To these the Homoioi were 
opposed, although it is not certain in what 
the precise difference consisted. All the 
Spartan citizens were included in the three 
tribes, Hylleans, Dymanes or Dymanatae, and 
Pamphilians, each of which was divided into 
ten obes or phratries. The citizens of Sparta, 
as of most oligarchical states, were landowners, 
although this does not seem to have been' 
looked upon as an essential of citizenship. 
( 2 ) ROMAN. Civitas means the whole body 
of cites, or members, of any given state, and 
the word is frequently used by the Roman 
writers to express the rights of a Roman 
citizen, as distinguished from those of other 
persons not Roman citizens, as in the phrases, 
dare civitatcm, donare civitate, vsurpare civi- 
tatcm. Some members of a political commu- 
nity (cites) may have more political rights 
than others ; and this was the case at Rome 
under the republic, in which we find a dis- 




tinction made between two great classes of 
Roman citizens, one that had, and another 
that had not, a share in the sovereign power 
(optima jure, non optima jure cives). That 
which peculiarly distinguished the higher 
class, or the optima jure cives, was the right 
to vote in a tribe ( jus suffragiorum), and the 
capacity 01 enjoying magistracy (jus hono- 
runi). The inferior class, or the non optima 
jure cives, did not possess the above rights, 
which the Romans called jus publicum, but 
they only had the jus privatum, which com- 
prehended the jus connubii &n&jus commercii, 
and those who had not these had no citizen- 
ship. Under the empire we find the free 
persons who were within the political limits 
of the Roman state divided into three great 
classes. The same division probably existed 
in an early period of the Roman state, and 
certainly existed in the time of Cicero. These 
classes were, Gives, Latini, and Peregrini. 
Civis is he who possesses the complete rights 
of a Roman citizen. Peregrinus was inca- 
pable of exercising the rights of commercium 
and connubium, which were the characteristic 
rights of a Roman citizen ; but he had a 
capacity for making all kinds of contracts 
which were allowable by the jus gentium. 
The Latinus was in an intermediate state ; 
he had not the connubium, and consequently 
he had not the patria potestas nor rights of 
agnatio ; but he had the commercium or the 
right of acquiring quiritarian ownership, and 
he had also a capacity for all acts incident to 
quiritarian ownership, as the power of making 
a will in Roman form, and of becoming hcres 
under a will. The rights of a Roman citizen 
were acquired in several ways, but most com- 
monly by a person being born of parents who 
were Roman citizens. A slave might obtain 
the civitas by manumission (vindicta), by the 
census, and by a testamentum, if there was 
no legal impediment ; but it depended on 
circumstances whether he became a civis 
Romanus, a Latinus, or in the number of the 
peregrini dediticii, [MANUMISSIO.] The 
civitas could be conferred on a foreigner by a 
lex, as in the case of Archias, who was a 
'civis of Heraclea, a civitas which had a foedus 
with Rome, and who claimed the civitas Ro- 
mana under the provisions of a lex of Silvanus 
and Carbo, B. c. 89. By the provisions of 
this lex, the person who chose to take the 
benefit of it was required, within sixty days 
after the passing of the lex, to signify to the 
praetor his wish and consent to accept the 
civitas (profiteri). This lex was intended to 
give the civitas, under certain limitations, to 
foreigners who were citizens of foederate 
states (foederatis civitatibus adscripti). 
[FOEDERATAE CiviTATES.] Thus the great 

mass of the Italians obtained the civitas, and 
the privileges of the former civitates foede- 
ratae were extended to the provinces, first to 
part of Gaul, and then to Sicily, under the 
name of Jus Latii or Latinitas. This Latini- 
tas gave a man the right of acquiring the 
Roman citizenship by having exercised a 
magistratus in his own civitas ; a privilege 
which belonged to the foederatae civitates of 
Italy before they obtained the Roman civitas. 



CLAVUS ANNALIS. In the early ages of 
Rome, when letters were yet scarcely in use, 
the Romans kept a reckoning- of their years by 
driving a nail (clavus}, on the ides of each 
September, into the side walls of the temple 
of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, which ceremony 
was performed by the consul or a dictator. 


The clavus, as an article of dress, seems to 
have been a purple band worn upon the tunic 
and toga, and was of two fashions, one broad 
and the other narrow, denominated respect- 
ively clavus latus and clavus angustus. The 
former was a single broad band of purple, 
extending perpendicularly from the neck 
down the centre of the tunic ; the latter pro- 
bably consisted of two narrow purple slips, 
running parallel to each from the top to the 
bottom of the tunic, one from eaoh shoulder. 
The latws clavus was a distinctive badge of 
the senatorial! order ; and hence it is used to 
signify the senatorial dignity, and laticlacius, 
the person who enjoys it. The angustus 
clavus was the decoration of the equestrian 
order ; but the right of wearing the latus 
clavus was also given to the children of 
equestrians, at least in the time of Augustus, 
as a prelude to entering the senate-house. 
This, however, was a matter of personal in- 
dulgence, and was granted only to persons of 
very ancient family and corresponding wealth, 
and then by special favour of the emperor. 
In such cases the latus clavus was assumed 
with the toga virilis, and worn until the age 
arrived at which the young equestrian was 
admissible into the senate, when it was relin- 
quished and the angustus clavis resumed, if a 
disinclination on his part, or any other cir- 
cumstances, prevented him from entering the 
senate, as was the case with Ovid. But it 
seems that the latus clavus could be again 
resumed if the same individual subsequently 
wished to become a senator, and hence a 
fickle character is designated as one who is 
always changing his clavus. The latus clavus 
is said to have been introduced at Rome by 
Tullus Ilostilius, and to have been adopted by 
him after his conquest of the Etruscans ; nor 




does it appear to have been confined to any 
particular class during the earlier periods, 
but to have been worn by all ranks promiscu- 
ously. It was laid aside in public mourning. 


CLERUCHI (/cAijpouxoi), the name of 
Athenian citizens who occupied conquered 
lands ; their possession was called clcnichia 
(ncAijpovxia). The Athenian Cleruchi differed 
from the awoiKoi. or ordinary colonists. The 
only object of the earlier colonies was to 
relieve surplus population, or to provide a 
home for those whom internal quarrels had 
exiled from their country. Most usually they 
originated in private enterprise, and became 
independent of, and lost their interest in, the 
parent state. On the other hand, it was 
essential to the very notion of a cleruchia that 
it should be a public enterprise, and should 
always retain a connection more or less inti- 
mate with Athens herself. The connection 
with the parent state subsisted in all degrees. 
Sometimes, as in the case of Lesbos, the 
holders of land did not reside upon their 
estates, but let them to the original inhabit- 
ants, while themselves remained at Athens. 
The condition of these cleruchi did not differ 
from that of Athenian citizens who had es- 
tates in Attica. All their political rights they 
not only retained, but exercised as Athenians. 
Another case was where the cleruchi resided 
on their estates, and either with or without 
the old inhabitants, formed a new community. 
These still retained the rights of Athenian 
citizens, which distance only precluded them 
from exercising : they used the Athenian 
courts ; and if they or their children wished 
to return to Athens, naturally and of course 
they regained the exercise of their former 
privileges. Sometimes, however, the connec- 
tion might gradually dissolve, and the cleruchi 
sink into the condition of mere allies, or 
separate wholly from the mother country. 
It was to Pericles that Athens was chiefly 
indebted for the extension and permanence 
of her colonial settlements. His principal ob- 
ject was to provide for the redundancies of 
population, and raise the poorer citizens to 
a fortune becoming the dignity of Athenian 
citizens. It was of this class of persons that 
the settlers were chiefly composed ; the state 
provided them with arms, and defrayed the 
expenses of their journey. The Cleruchiae 
were lost by the battle of Aegospotami, but 
partially restored on the revival of Athenian 

KA>JTop5), summoners, were at Athens not 
official persons, but merely witnesses to the 
prosecutor that he had served the defendant 
with a notice of the action brought against him, 

and the day upon which it would be requisite 
for him to appear before the proper magis- 

CLIENS is said to contain the same element 
as the verb cluere, to " hear " or " obey," 
and may be accordingly compared with the 
German word horiger, " a dependant," from 
horen, "to hear." In the earliest times of 
the Roman state we find a class of persons 
called clientes, who must not be confounded 
with the plebeians, from whom they were 
distinct. The clients were not slaves : they 
had property of their own and freedom, and 
appear to have had votes in tiie comitia cen- 
turiata, but they did not possess the full rights 
of Roman citizens ; and the peculiarity of 
their condition consisted in every client being 
in a state of dependence upon or subjection to 
some patrician, who was called his patronus, 
and to whom he owed certain rights and 
duties. The patronus, on the other hand, 
likewise incurred certain obligations towards 
his client. This relationship between patronus 
and cliens was expressed by the word clientela, 
which also expressed the whole body of a 
man's clients. The relative rights and duties 
of the patrons and the clients were, according 
to Dionysius, as follows : The patron was the 
legal adviser of the cliens ; he was the client's 
guardian and protector, as he was the guard- 
ian and protector of his own children ; he 
maintained the client's suit when he was 
wronged, and defended him when another 
complained of being wronged by him : in a 
word, the patron was the guardian of the 
client's interests, both private and public. 
The client contributed to the marriage por- 
tion of the patron's daughter, if the patron 
was poor ; and to his ransom, or that of his 
children, if they were taken prisoners; he 
paid the costs and damages of a suit which 
the patron lost, and of any penalty in which 
he was condemned ; he bore a part of the 
patron's expenses incurred by his discharging 
public duties, or filling the honourable places 
in the state. Neither party could accuse the 
other, or bear testimony against the other, or 
give his vote against the other. This rela- 
tionship between patron and client subsisted 
for many generations, and resembled in all 
respects the relationship by blood. The 
relation of a master to his liberated slave 
(libertus} was expressed by the word patro- 
ntti, and the libertus was the cliens of his 
patronus. Distinguished Romans were also 
the protectors of states and cities, which were 
in u certain relation of subjection or depend- 
ence to Rome. In the time of Cicero we also 
find patronus in the sense of adviser, advo- 
cate, or defender, opposed to cliens in the 



sense of the person defended or the consultor, 
a use of the word which must be referred 
to the original character of the patronus. 


CLIPEUS (a<nris), the large shield worn 
by the Greeks and Romans, which was ori- 
ginally of a circular form, and is said to have 
been first used by Proetus and Acrisius of 
Argos, and therefore is called clipeus Argoli- 
cus, and likened to the sun. But the clipeus 
is often represented in Roman sculpture of an 
oblong oval, which makes the distinction be- 
tween the common buckler and that of Argos. 
The outer rim was termed dirvf by the Greeks ; 
and in the centre was a projection called 
6/u.<j>oAo$ or umbo, which served as a sort of 
weapon by itself, or caused the missiles of the 
enemy to glance off from the shield. In the 
Homeric times, the Greeks merely used a 
leather strap (ttXofM^v) to support the shield, 
but subsequently a handle (oxavov or 6xaf>?). 
The usual form of the clipeus is exhibited in 
the figure of the Greek warrior on p. 41. 
When the census was instituted by Servius 
Tullius at Rome, the first class only used the 
clipeus, and the second were armed with the 
scutum [SCUTUM] ; but after the Roman sol- 
diery received pay, the clipeus was discontinued 
altogether for the scutum. 

CLITELLAE, a pair of panniers, and there- 
fore only used in the plural number. 

CLOACA, a sewer, a drain. Rome was 
intersected by numerous sewers, some of 
which were of an immense size : the most 
celebrated of them was the cloaca maxima, 

the construction of which is ascribed to Tar- 
quinius Priscus. It was formed by three 
tiers of arches, one within the other, the 
innermost of which is a semicircular vault of 
14 feet in diameter. The manner of its con- 
struction is shown in the preceding cut. 
Under the republic, the administration of the 
sewers was entrusted to the censors : but 
under the empire, particular officers were 
appointed for that purpose, called cloaearum 

curatores, who employed condemned criminals 
in cleansing and repairing them. 

COA VESTIS, the Coan robe, was a trans- 
parent dress, chiefly worn by women of loose 
reputation. It has been supposed to have 
been made of silk, because in Cos silk was 
pun and woven at a very early period. 

Con Vcstis. (From a Painting at Hercul 

COACTOR, the name of collectors of various 
sorts, e. g. the servants of the publicani, or 
farmers of the public taxes, who collected the 
revenues for them, and those who collected 
the money from the purchasers of things sold 
at a public auction. Horace informs us that 
his father was a coactor of thiskind. Moreover, 
the servants of the money-changers were so 
called, from collecting their debts for them. 
The " coactores agminis " were the soldiers 
who brought up the rear of a line of march. 

COCHLEA (xoxAi'a?), which properly means 
a snail, was also used to signify other things 
of a spiral form. (1) A screw, used in 
working clothes-presses, and oil and wine 
presses. (2) A spiral pump for raising 
water, invented by Archimedes, from whom 
it has ever since been called the Archimedean 
screw. (3) A peculiar kind of door through 
which the wild beasts passed from their dens 
into the arena of the amphitheatre. 

COCHLEAR (Kox^iapiov), a kind of spoon, 
which appears to have terminated with a 
point at one end, and at the other was broad 
and hollow like our own spoons. The pointed 
end was used for drawing snails (cochleae) 
out of their shells, and eating them, whence 
it derived its name ; and the broader part 
for eating eggs, &c. Cochlear was also the 



name given to a small measure like our 

CODEX, identical with caudex, as Claudius 
and Clodius, claustrum and clostrum, cauda 
and coda, originally signified the trunk or 
stem of a tree. The name codex was especi- 
ally applied to wooden tablets bound together 
and lined with a coat of wax, for the purpose 
of writing upon them, and when, at a later 
age, parchment or paper, or other materials 
were substituted for wood, and put together 
in the shape of a book, the name of codex was 
still given to them. In the time of Cicero 
we find it also applied to the tablet on which 
a bill was written. At a still later period, 
during the time of the emperors, the word 
was used to express any collection of laws or 
constitutions of the emperors, whether made 
by private individuals or by public authority, 
as the Codex Gregorianus, Codex Theodosi- 
aniis, and Codex Justinianeus. 
COENA (Sewn/ov), the principal meal of the 
Greeks and Romans, dinner. (1) GREEK. 
Three names of meals occur in the Iliad and 
Odyssey ariston (,api-<nov\ deipnon (Seinroi'), 
dorpon (bopirov). The word ariston uni- 
formly means the early, as dorpon does the 
late meal ; but deipnon, on the other hand, 
is used for either, apparently without any 
reference to time. In the Homeric age it 
appears to have been usual to sit during meal- 
times. Beef, mutton, and goat's flesh were 
the ordinary meats, usually eaten roasted. 
Cheese, flour, and occasionally fruits, also 
formed part of the Homeric meals. Bread, 
brought on in baskets, and salt (&A?, to which 
Homer gives the epithet 0eu>s), are mentioned. 
The Greeks of a later age usually partook of 
three meals, called acratisma (airportcr/ia), 
ariston, and deipnon. The last, which corre- 
sponds to the dorpon of the Homeric poems, 
was the evening meal or dinner ; the ariston 
was the luncheon ; and the acratisma, which 
answers to the ariston of Homer, was the 
early meal or breakfast. The acratisma was 
taken immediately after rising in the morning. 
It usually consisted of bread, dipped in un- 
mixed wine (a/cparos), whence it derived its 
name. Next followed the ariston or luncheon ; 
but the time at which it was taken is uncer- 
tain. It is frequently mentioned in Xeno- 
phon's Anabasis, and appears to have been 
taken at different times, as would naturally 
be the case with soldiers in active service. 
We may conclude from man.y circumstances 
that this meal was taken about the middle of 
the day, and that it answered to the Roman 
prandium. The ariston was usually a simple 
meal, but of course varied according to the 
habits of individuals. The principal meal 

was the deipnon. It was usually taken 
rather late in the day, frequently not before 
sunset. The Athenians were a social people, 
and were very fond of dining in company. 
Entertainments were usually given, both tn 
the heroic ages and later times, when sacri- 
fices were offered to the gods, either on public 
or private occasions ; and also on the anni- 
versary of the birthdays of members of the 
family, or of illustrious persons, whether 
living or dead. When young men wished to 
dine together they frequently contributed 
each a certain sum of money, called symbole 
(<rvn/3oA>j), or brought their own provisions 
with them. When the first plan was adopted, 
they were said airb trvpfioMav Sfiirvelv, and one 
individual was usually entrusted with the 
money to procure the provisions, and make 
all the necessary preparations. This kind of 
entertainment, in which each guest contri- 
buted to the expense, is mentioned in Homer 
under the name of eparos. An entertainment 
in which each person brought his own provi- 
sions with him, or at least contributed some- 
thing to the general stock, was called a Selnvov 
airb cTTrvpi'Sos, because the provisions were 
brought in baskets. The most usual kind of 
entertainments, however, were those in which 
a person invited his friends to his own house. 
It was expected that they should come dressed 
with more than ordinary care, and also have 
bathed shortly before. As soon as the guests 
arrived at the house of their host, their shoes 
or sandals were taken off by the slaves and 
their feet washed. After their feet had been 
washed, the guests reclined on the conches. 
It has already been remarked that Homer 
never describes persons as reclining, but 
always as sitting at their meals ; but at what 
time the change was introduced is uncertain. 
The Dorians of Crete always sat ; but the 
other Greeks reclined. The Greek women 
and children, however, like the Roman, con- 
tinued to sit at their meals. [ACCCBATIO.] 
It was usual for only two persons to recline 
on each couch. After the guests had placed 
themselves on the couches, the slaves brought 
in water to wash their hands. The dinner 
was then served up ; whence we read of ras 
Tpaire'^as eicr^epeii', by which expression we 
are to understand not merely the disbfis, but 
the tables themselves, which were small 
enough to be moved with ease. In eating, 
the Greeks had no knives or forks, but made 
use of their fingers only, except in eating 
soups or other liquids, which they partook of 
by means of a spoon, called pv<rri\i), /uverrpor, 
or /tiiicTTpos. It would exceed the limits of 
this work to give an account of the different 
dishes which were introduced at a Greek 
dinner, though their number is far below 




those which were usually partaken of at a 
Koman entertainment. The most common 
food among the Greeks was the nafa, a kind 
of frumenty or soft cake, which was prepared 
in different ways. Wheaten or barley bread 
was the second most usual species of food ; it 
was sometimes made at home, but more 
usually bought at the market of the apTon-wAai 
or apTOTrciAiSej. The vegetables ordinarily 
eaten were mallows (/aaAaxrj), lettuces (flpi'Saf ), 
cabbages (pcwjuxyoi), beans (xvafioi), lentils 
(c/>a:ai), &c. Pork was the most favourite 
animal food, as was the case among the Ro- 
mans. It is a curious fact, which Plato has 
remarked, that we never read in Homer of 
the heroes partaking of fish. In later times, 
however, fish was one of the most favourite 
foods of the Greeks. A dinner given by an 
opulent Athenian usually consisted of two 
courses, called respectively irpurai rpawefai 
and Sevrepai Tpan-e^ai. The first course em- 
braced the whole of what we consider the 
dinner, namely, fish, poultry, meat, &c. ; the 
second, which corresponds to our dessert and 
the Roman bellaria, consisted of different 
kinds of fruit, sweetmeats, confections, &c. 
When the first course was finished, the tables 
were taken away, and water was given to the 
guests for the purpose of washing their hands. 
Crowns made of garlands of flowers were also 
then given to them, as well as various kinds 
of perfumes. Wine was not drunk till the 
first course was finished ; but as soon as the 
guests had washed their hands, unmixed wine 
was introduced in a large goblet, of which 
each drank a little, after pouring out a small 
quantity as a libation. This libation was 
said to be made to the " good spirit " 
(ayaSou Satyiovos), and was usually accompa- 
nied with the singing of the paean and the 
playing of flutes. After this libation mixed 
wine was brought in, and with their first cup 
the guests drank to Atbs Surqpos. With the 
libations the deipnon closed ; and at the in- 
troduction of the dessert (Sevrepai Tpan-e^ai) 
the TTOTOS, o-vfLTrocnov, or (ciofxos commenced, of 
which an account is given under SYMPOSIUM. 
(2) ROMAN. As the Roman meals are not 
always clearly distinguished, it will be conve- 
nient to treat of all under the most important 
one ; and we shall confine ourselves to the 
description of the ordinary life of the middle 
ranks of society in the Augustan age, noticing 
incidentally the most remarkable deviations. 
The meal with which the Roman sometimes 
began the day was the jcntacuhim, which was 
chiefly taken by children, or sick persons, or 
the luxurious. An irregular meal (if we may 
so express it) was not likely to have any very 
regular time : two epigrams of Martial, how- 
ever, seem to fix the hour at about three or 

four o'clock in the morning. Bread formed 
the substantial part of this early breakfast, to 
which cheese, or dried fruit, as dates and 
raisins, were sometimes added. Next followed 
the prandium or luncheon, with persons of 
pimple habits a frugal meal, usually taken 
about twelve or one o'clock. The coena, or 
principal meal of the day, corresponding to 
our " dinner," was usually taken about three 
o'clock in the time of Cicero and Augustus, 
though we read of some persons not dining 
till near sunset. A Roman dinner at the 
house of a wealthy man usually consisted of 
three courses. The first was called promulsis, 
antecoena, or gustatio, and was made up of 
all sorts of stimulants to the appetite. Eggs 
also were so indispensable to the first course 
that they almost gave a name to it (aft ovo 
vsque ad mala). The frugality of Martial 
only allowed of lettuce and Sicenian olives ; 
indeed he himself tells us that the promulsis 
was a refinement of modern luxury. It would 
far exceed our limits to mention all the dishes 
which formed the second course of a Roman 
dinner. Of birds, the Guinea hen (Afra avis), 
the pheasant (phasiana, so called from Pha- 
sis, a river of Colchis), and the thrush, were 
most in repute ; the liver of a capon steeped 
in milk, and beccaficos (ficedulae) dressed 
with pepper, were held a delicacy. The pea- 
cock, according to Macrobius, was first intro- 
duced by Hortensius the orator, at an inau- 
gural supper, and acquired such repute among 
the Roman gourmands as to be commonly sold 
for fifty denarii. Other birds are mentioned, 
as the duck (anas), especially its head and 
breast; the woodcock (attagen), the turtle, 
and flamingo (phoenicopterus), the tongue of 
which, Martial tells us, particularly com- 
mended itself to the delicate palate. Of fish, 
the variety was perhaps still greater ; the 
charr (scarus), the turbot (rhombus), the stur- 
geon (acipenser), the mullet (mulhis), were 
highly prized, and dressed in the most various 
fashions. Of solid meat, pork seems to have 
been the favourite dish, especially sucking 
pig. Boar's flesh and venison were also in 
high repute : the former is described by 
Juvenal as animal proptcr convivia natum. 
Condiments were added to most of these 
dishes : such were the mitria, a kind of 
pickle made from the tunny fish ; the garwn 
sociorum, made from the intestines of the 
mackerel (scomber), so called because brought 
from abroad ; alec, a sort of brine ; faex, the 
sediment of wine, &c. Several kinds of fungi. 
are mentioned, truffles (boleti), mushrooms 
(tuberes), which either made dishes by them- 
selves, or formed the garniture for larger 
dishes. It must not be supposed that the 
artistes of imperial Rome were at all behind 




ourselves in the preparation and arrangements ! 
of the table. In a large household, the func- 
tionaries to whom this important duty was 
entrusted were four, the butler (promus), the 
cook (archimttffirits),t\\e arranger of the dishes 
(structor), and the carver (carptor or scissor). 
Carving was taught as an art, and performed 
to the sound of music, with appropriate gesti- 

Quo vultu Icporre, ct quo giillinn sur." 

In the supper of Petronius, a large round 
tray (ferculum, repositorium) is brought in, 
with the signs of the zodiac figured all round 
it, upon each of which the artiste (structor) 
had placed some appropriate viand, a goose 
on Aquarius, a pair of scales with tarts (scrib- 
litae) and cheesecakes (placentae] in each 
scale on Libra, &c. In the middle was 
placed a hive supported by delicate herbage. 
Presently four slaves come forward dancing 
to the sound of music, and take away the 
upper part of the dish ; beneath appear all 
kinds of dressed meats ; a hare with wings to 
imitate Pegasus, in the middle ; and four 
figures of Marsyas at the corners, pouring 
hot sauce (garum piperatum) over the fish, 
that were swimming in the Euripus below. So 
entirely had the Romans lost all shame of 
luxury, since the days when Cincius, in sup- 
porting the Fannian law, charged his own 
age with the enormity of introducing the 
porcus Trojanus, a sort of pudding stuffed 
with the flesh of other animals. The third 
course was the bellaria or dessert, to which 
Horace alludrs when he says of Tigellius ab 
ovo usque ad mala citaret ; it consisted of 
fruits (which the Romans usually ate un- 
cooked), such as almonds (amygdalae), dried 

grapes (uvae passae), dates (palmulae, caryo- 
tae, dactyli) ; of sweetmeats and confections, 
called edulia mellita, dulciaria, such as cheese- 
cakes (cupediae, crustula, liba, placentae, 
artolaaani), almond cakes (coptae), larts 
(scriblitae), whence the maker of them was 
called pistor dulciariits, placentarius, liba- 
rius, &c. We will now suppose the table 
spread and the guests assembled, each with 
his map-pa or napkin, and in his dinner dress, 
called coenatoria or cubitoria, usually of a 
bright colour, and variegated with flowers. 
First they took off their shoes, for fear of 
soiling the couch, which was often inlaid 
with ivory or tortoiseshell, and covered with 
cloth of gold. Next they lay down to eat, 
the head resting on the left elbow and sup- 
ported by cushions. There were usually, but 
not always, three on the same couch, the 
middle place being esteemed the most honour- 
able. Around the tables stood the servants 
(ministri) clothed in a tunic, and girt with 
napkins ; some removed the dishes and wiped 
the tables with a rough cloth, others gave the 
guests water for their hands, or cooled the 
room with fans. Here stood an eastern youth 
behind his master's couch, ready to answer 
the noise of the fingers, while others bore a 
large platter of different kinds of meat to the 
guests. Dinner was set out in a room called 
coenatio or diaeta (which two words perhaps 
conveyed to a Roman ear nearly the same 
distinction as our dining-room and parlour). 
The coenatio, in rich men's houses, was fitted 
up with great magnificence. Suetonius men- 
tions a supper-room in the golden palace of 
Nero, constructed like a theatre, with shifting 
scenes to change with every course. In the 
midst of the coenatio were set three couches 

A Feast. (Vatican Virgil MS.) 




(triclinia), answering in shape to the square, 
as the long semicircular couches (sigmata) 
did to the oval tables. An account of the 
disposition of the couches, and of the place 
which each guest occupied, is given in the 
article TRICLINIUM. 



COGNATI, COGNATIO. The eognatio was 
the relationship of blood which existed be- 
tween those who were sprung from a common 
pair ; and all persons so related were called 
cognati. The foundation of eognatio is a 
legal marriage. The term cognatus (with 
some exceptions) comprehends agnatus ; an 
agnatus may be a cognatus, but a cognatus is 
only an agnatus when his relationship by 
blood is traced through males. Those who 
were of the same blood by both parents were 
sometimes called germani ; consanguinei were 
those who had a common father only ; and 
uterini those who had a common mother 




COLACRETAE (KioAaKpeVoi, also called 
KwXa-ypeVat), the name of very ancient magis- 
trates at Athens, who had the management of 
all financial matters in the time of the kings. 
Cleisthenes deprived them of the charge of 
the finances, which he transferred to the 
Apodectae. [APODECTAE.] From this time 
the Colacretae had only to provide for the 
meals in the Prytaneium, and subsequently to 
pay the fees to the dicasts, when the practice 
of paying the dicasts was introduced by 

COLLEGIUM. The persons who formed 
a collegium were called coHegae or sodales. 
The word collegium properly expressed the 
notion of several persons being united in any 
office or for any common purpose ; it after- 
wards came to signify a body of persons, and 
the union which bound them together. The 
collegium was the eraipi'a of the Greeks. The 
legal notion of a collegium was as follows : 
A collegium or corpus, as it was also called, 
must consist of three persons at least. Per- 
sons who legally formed such an association 
were said corpus hribcre, which is equivalent 
to our phrase of being incorporated ; and in 
later times they were said to be corpora ti, 
and the body was called a corporatio. Asso- 
ciations of individuals, who were entitled to 
have a corpus, could hold property in common. 
Such a body, which was sometimes also called 
a univcrsitas, was a legal unity. That which 
was due to the body, was not due to the indi- 
viduals of it ; and that which the body owed, 
was not the debt of the individuals. The 

common property of the body was liable to be 
seized and sold for the debts of the body. It 
does not appear how collegia were formed, 
except that some were specially established by 
legal authority. Other collegia were proba- 
bly formed by voluntary associations of indi- 
viduals under the provisions of some general 
legal authority, such as those of the publi- 
cani. Some of these corporate bodies resem- 
bled our companies or guilds ; such were the 
fabrorwn, pistorum, &c. collegia. Others 
were of a religious character ; such as the 
pontificum, augurum, fratrum arvalium col- 
legia. Others were bodies concerned about 
government and administration ;nstrib unorum 
plebis, quaestorum, decurionum collegia. Ac- 
cording to the definition of a collegium, the 
consuls being only two in number were not 
a collegium, though each was called eollega 
with respect to the other, and their union in 
office was called collegium. When a new 
member was taken into a collegium, he was 
said co-optari, and the old members were said 
with respect to him, recipere in collegium. 
The mode of filling up vacancies would vary 
in different collegia. The statement of their 
rules belongs to the several heads of AUOUE, 

COLONIA, a colony, contains the same 
element as the verb colere, "to cultivate," and 
as the word colonus, which probably origin- 
ally signified a " tiller of the earth." (1) 
GREEK. The usual Greek words for a colony 
are awoucla and (cArjpovx'a. The latter word, 
which signified a division of conquered lands 
among Athenian citizens, and which corre- 
sponds in some respects to the Roman colonia, 
is explained in the article CI.ERUCHI. The 
earlier Greek colonies, called airoucuu, were 
usually composed of mere bands of adventur- 
ers, who left their native country, with their 
families and property, to seek a new home for 
themselves. Some of the colonies, which 
arose in consequence of foreign invasion or 
civil wars, were undertaken without any 
formal consent from the rest of the community ; 
but usually a colony was sent out with the 
approbation of the mother country, and under 
the management of a leader (oi/ao-njs) ap- 
pointed by it. But whatever may have been 
the origin of the colony, it was always con- 
sidered in a political point of view indepen- 
dent of the mother country, called by the 
Greeks metropolis (, the " mother- 
city," and entirely emancipated from its con- 
trol. At the same time, though a colony was 
in no political subjection to its parent state, 
it was united to it by the ties of filial affec- 
tion ; and, according to the generally received 
opinions of the Greeks, its duties to the parent 
state corresponded to those of a daughter to 




her mother. Hence, in all matters of common 
interest, the colony gave precedence to the 
mother state ; and the founder of the colony 
(oiKmjs), who might be considered as the I 
representative of the parent state, was usu- 
ally worshipped, after his death, as a hero. 
Also, when the colony became in its turn a 
parent, it usually sought a leader for the 
colony which it intended to found from the 
original mother country ; and the same feel- 
ing of respect was manifested by embassies 
which were sent to honour the principal 
festivals of the parent state, and also by be- 
stowing places of honour and other marks of 
respect upon the ambassadors and other mem- 
bers of the parent state, when they visited 
the colony at festivals and on similar occasions. 
The colonists also worshipped in their new 
settlement the same deities as they had been 
accustomed to honour in their native country : 
the sacred fire, which was constantly kept 
burning on their public hearth, was taken 
from the Prytaneium of the parent city ; and 
sometimes the priests also were brought from 
the mother state. In the same spirit, it was 
considered a violation of sacred ties for a 
mother country and a colony to make war 
upon one another. The preceding account of 
the relations between the Greek colonies and 
the mother country is supported by the his- 
tory which Thucydides gives us of the quarrel 
between Corcyra and Corinth. Corcyra was 
a colony of Corinth, and Epidamnus a 
colony of Corcyra ; but the leader (oixicmfs) 
of the colony of Epidamnus was a Corinthian 
who was invited from the metropolis Corinth. 
In course of time, in consequence of civil dis- 
sensions, and attacks from the neighbouring 
barbarians, the Epidamnians apply for aid to 
Corcyra, but their request is rejected. They 
next apply to the Corinthians, who took 
Epidamnus under their protection, thinking, 
says Thucydides, that the colony was no less 
theirs than the Corinthians' : and also in- 
duced to do so through hatred of the Corcy- 
raeans, because they neglected them though 
they were colonists ; for they did not give to 
the Corinthians the customary honours and 
deference in the public solemnities and sacri- 
fices, which the other colonies were wont to 
pay to the mother country. The Corcyraeans, 
who had become very powerful by sea, took 
offence at the Corinthians receiving Epidam- 
nus under their protection, and the result 
was a war between Corcyra and Corinth. 
The Corcyraeans sent ambassadors to Athens 
to ask assistance ; and in reply to the objec- 
tion that they were a colony of Corinth, they 
said, " that every colony, as long as it is 
treated kindly, respects the mother country : 
but when il is injured, is alienated from it ; 

for colonists are not sent out as subjects, but 
that they may have equal rights with those 
that remain at home." It is true that am- 
bitious states, such as Athens, sometimes 
claimed dominion over other states on the 
ground of relationship ; but as a general 
rule, colonies may be regarded as independent 
states, attached to their metropolis by ties of 
sympathy and common descent, but no fur- 
ther. The case of Potidaea, to which the 
Corinthians sent annually the chief magis- 
trates (Srj/iuovpyot ), appears to have been an 
exception to the general rule.' {2) ROMAN. 
A kind of colonisation seems to have existed 
among the oldest Italian nations, who, on 
certain occasions, sent out their superfluous 
male population, with arms in their hands, 
to seek for a new home. But these were 
apparently mere bands of adventurers, and 
such colonies rather resembled the old Greek 
colonies, than those by which Rome extended 
her dominion and her name. Colonies were 
established by the Romans as far back as the 
annals or traditions of the city extend, and 
the practice was continued, without in- 
termission, during the republic and under 
the empire. Colonies were intended to keep 
in check a conquered people, and also to 
repress hostile incursions ; and their chief 
object was originally the extension and pre- 
servation of the Roman dominion in Italy. 
Cicero calls the old Italian colonies the pro- 
pugnacula imperil. Another object was to 
increase the power of Rome by increasing the 
population. Sometimes the immediate object 
of a colony was to carry off a number of tur- 
bulent and discontented persons. Colonies 
were also established for the purpose of pro- 
viding for veteran soldiers, a practice which 
was begun by Sulla, and continued under the 
emperors ; these coloniae were called mili- 
tares. The old Roman colonies were in the 
nature of garrisons planted in conquered 
towns, and the colonists had a portion of the 
conquered territory (usually a third part) 
assigned to them. The inhabitants retained 
the rest of their lands, and lived together 
with the new settlers, who alone composed 
the proper colony. The conquered people 
must at first have been quite a distinct class 
from, and inferior to, the colonists. No 
colonia was established without a lex, plebis- 
citum, or senatusconsultum ; a fact which 
shows that a Roman colony was never a mere 
body of adventurers, but had a regular or- 
ganisation by the parent state. When a law 
was passed for founding a colony, persons 
were appointed to superintend its formation 
(coloniam deducere}. These persons varied 
in number, but three was a common number 
(triumviri ad colonos deducendos). We also 
H 2 




read of duumviri, quinqueviri, mgintiviri for 
the same purpose. The law fixed the quan- 
tity of land that was to be distributed, and 
how much was to be assigned to each person. 
No Koman could be sent out as a colonist 
without his free consent, and when the colony 
was not an inviting one, it was difficult to 
fill up the number of volunteers. The colonia 
proceeded to its place of destination in the 
form of an army (sub vexillo), which is indi- 
cated on the coins of some coloniae. An urbs, 
if one did not already exist, was a necessary 
part of a new colony, and its limits were 
marked out by a plough, which is also indicated 
on ancient coins. The colonia had also a ter- 
ritory, which, whether marked out by the 
plough or not, was at least marked out by 
metes and bounds. Thus the urbs and terri- 
tory of the colonia respectively corresponded 
to the urbs Roma and its territory. Religious 
ceremonies always accompanied the founda- 
tion of the colony, and the anniversary was 
afterwards observed. It is stated that a 
colony could not be sent out to the same 
place to which a colony had already been sent 
in due form (auspicate deducta}. This merely 
means, that so long as the colony maintained 
its existence, there could be no new colony in 
the same place ; a doctrine that would hardly 
need proof, for a new colony implied a new 
assignment of lands ; but new settlers (novi 
adscripti) might be sent to occupy colonial 
lands not already assigned. Indeed it was 
not unusual for a colony to receive addi- 
tions, and a colony might be re-established, 
if it seemed necessary, from any cause. The 
commissioners appointed to conduct the 
colony had apparently a profitable office, and 
the establishment of a new settlement gave 
employment to numerous functionaries, among 
whom Cicero enumerates apparitores, scri- 
bae, librarii, praccones, architecti. The 
foundation of a colony might then, in many 
cases, not only be a mere party measure, car- 
ried for the purpose of gaining popularity, 
but it would give those in power an oppor- 
tunity of providing places for many of their 
friends. The colonies founded by the Romans 
were divided into two great classes of colo- 
nies of Roman citizens and Latin colonies ; 
names which had no reference to the persons 
who formed the colonies, but merely indicated 
their political rights with respect to Rome as 
members of the colony. The members of a 
Roman colony (colonia civium Romanorum] 
preserved all the rights of Roman citizens. 
The members of a Latin colony (colonia 
Latino) ceased to have the full rights of 
Koman citizens. Probably some of the old 
Lntin colonies were established by the Romans 
iu conjunction with other Latin states. After 

the conquest of Latium, the Romans esta- 
blished colonies, called Latin colonies, in 
various parts of Italy. Roman citizens, who 
chose to join such colonies, gave up their 
civic rights for the more solid advantage of a 
grant of land, and became LATTNI. [CIVITAS.] 
Such colonies were subject to, and part of, the 
Roman state ; but they did not possess the 
Roman franchise, and had no political bond 
among themselves. The lex Julia, passed 
B. c. 90, gave the Roman franchise to the 
members of the Latin colonies and the Socii ; 
and such Latin colonies and states of the Socii 
were then called municipia, and became com- 
plete members of the Roman state. Thus 
there was then really no difference between 
these municipia and the Roman coloniae, ex- 
cept in their historical origin : the members 
of both were Roman citizens, and the Roman 
law prevailed in both. In the colonies, as at 
Rome, the popular assembly had originally 
the sovereign power ; they chose the magis- 
trates, and could even make laws. When the 
popular assemblies became a mere form in 
Rome, and the elections were transferred by 
Tiberius to the senate, the same thing hap- 
pened in the colonies, whose senates then 
possessed whatever power had once belonged 
to the community. The common name of this 
senate was ordo decurionwn ; in later times, 
simply ordo and curia ; the members of it 
were decuriones or cnriales. Thus, in the 
later ages, curia is opposed to senatus, the 
former being the senate of a colony, and the 
latter the senate of Rome. But the terms 
senatus and senator were also applied to the 
senate and members of the senate of a colony. 
After the decline of the popular assemblies, 
the senate had the whole internal administra- 
tion of a city, conjointly with the magistratus ; 
but only a decurio could be a magistratus, 
and the choice was made by the decuriones. 
The highest magistratus of a colonia were the 
duumviri or quattuorviri, so called, as the 
members might vary, whose functions may 
be compared with those of the consulate at 
Rome before the establishment of the praetor- 
ship. The name duumviri seems to have 
been the most' common. Their principal 
duties were the administration of justice, and 
accordingly we find on inscriptions " Duum- 
viri J. D." (juri dicundr,), " Quattuorviri 
J. D." The name consul also occurs in in- 
scriptions to denote this chief magistracy; 
and even dictator and praetor occur under the 
empire and under the republic. The office of 
the duumviri lasted a year.- In some Italian 
towns there was a prarfcctus juri dicundo ; 
he was in the place of, and not co-existent 
with, the duumviri. The duumviri were, as 
we have seen, originally chosen by the people ; 




but the praefectus was appointed annually in 
Rome, and sent to the town called a prae- 
fectura, which might be either a muuicipium 
or a colonia, for it was only in the matter of 
the praefectus that a town called a praefec- 
tura differed from other Italian towns. Ar- 
pinum is called both a municipium and a 
praefectura ; and Cicero, a native of this 
place, obtained the highest honours that 
Rome could confer. The censor, curator, or 
quinquennalis, all which names denote the 
same functionary, was also a municipal ma- 
gistrate, and corresponded to the censor at 
Rome, and in some cases, perhaps, to the 
quaestor also. Censors are mentioned in 
Livy as magistrates of the twelve Latin colo- 
nies. The quinquennales were sometimes 
duumviri, sometimes quattuorviri ; but they 
are always carefully distinguished from the 
duumviri and quattuorviri J. D. ; and their 
functions were those of censors. They held 
their office for one year, and during the four 
intermediate years the functions were not 
exercised. The office of censor or quinquen- 
nalis was higher in rank than that of the 
duumviri J. D., and it could only be filled by 
those who had discharged the other offices of 
the municipality. 

COLOSSUS (KOA.OO-O-OS) is used both by 
the Greeks and Romans to signify a statue 
larger than life ; but as such statues were 
very common, the word was more frequently 
applied to designate figures of gigantic di- 
mensions. Such figures were first executed 
in Egypt, and were afterwards made by the 
Greeks and Romans. Among the colossal 
statues of Greece, the most celebrated was 
the bronze colossus at Rhodes, dedicated to 
the sun, the height of which was about 90 feet. 

COLUM (^<V-o), a strainer or colander, 
was used for straining wine, milk, olive-oil, 

Coluoi. (Mueeo Borbonku, vol. viii. pi. 14.) 

and other liquids. Those that were used as 
articles of luxury for straining wine were 
frequently made of some metal, such as bronze 
or silver. Occasionally a piece of linen cloth 
(aaKKos, saccits) was placed over the -rpvyoivos 
or colum, and the wine (oxwcxias, saccatus) 
filtered through. The use of the saccus was 
considered objectionable for all delicate wines, 
since it was believed to injure, if not entirely 
to destroy their flavour, and in every instance 
to diminish the strength of the liquor. For 
this reason it was employed by the dissipated 
in order that they might be able to swallow a 
greater quantity without becoming intoxi- 
cated. The double purpose of cooling and 
weakening was effectually accomplished by 
placing ice or snow in the filter, which under 
such circumstances became a colum nivarium, 
or saccus nivarius. The preceding wood- 
cut shows the plan and profile of a silver 

COLUMBARIUM, a dovecot or pigeon- 
house, also signified a sepulchral chamber 
formed to receive the ashes of the lower orders, 
or dependants of great families ; and in the 
plural, the niches in which the cinerary urns 
(ollae) were deposited. 

COLUMNA (KUOV, oruXos), a pillar or co- 
lumn. The use of the trunks of trees placed up- 
right for supporting buildings, unquestionably 
led to the adoption of similar supports 
wrought in stone. As the tree required to 
be based upon a flat square stone, and to have 
a stone or tile of similar form fixed on its 
summit to preserve it from decay, so the co- 
lumn was made with a square base, and was 
covered with an abacus. [ABACUS.] Hence 
the principal parts of which every column 
consists are three, the base (basis), the shaft 
(scapus), and the capital (capitulum). In the 
Doric, which is the oldest style of Greek 
architecture, we must consider all the co- 
lumns in the same row as having one common 
base (podium), whereas in the Ionic and Co- 
rinthian each column has a separate base, 
called spira. The capitals of these two latter 
orders show, on comparison with the Doric, 
a much richer style of ornament ; and the 
character of lightness and elegance is further 
obtained in them by their more slender shaft, 
its height being much greater in proportion 
to its thickness. Of all these circumstances 
some idea may be formed by the inspection of 
the three accompanying specimens of pillars. 
The first on the left hand is Doric, the second 
Ionic, and the third Corinthian. In all the 
orders the shaft tapers from the bottom to- 
wards the top. The shaft was, however, 
made with a slight swelling in the middle, 
which was called the entasis. It was, more- 
over, almost universally channelled or fluted. 




Columns were used in the interior of build- 
ings, to sustain the beams which supported 

the ceiling. Rows of columns were often em- 
ployed within a building, to enclose a space 
open to the sky. Beams supporting ceilings 
passed from above the columns to the adjoin- 
ing walls, so as to form covered passages or 
ambulatories (<rro<u). Such a circuit of co- 
lumns was called a peristyle OrepiVruAoi'), and 
the Roman atrium was built upon this plan. 
The largest and most splendid temples en- 
closed an open space like an atrium, which 
was accomplished by placing one peristyle 
upon another. In such cases, the lower rows 
of columns being Doric, the upper were some- 
times Ionic or Corinthian, the lighter being 
properly based upon the heavier. A temple 
so constructed was called hypaethral (virai- 
0pos). But it was on the exterior of public 
buildings, and especially of temples, that co- 
lumns were displayed in the most beautiful 
combinations, either surrounding the building 
entirely, or arranged in porticoes on one or 
more of its fronts. [TEMPLUM.] Their ori- 
ginal and proper use was, of course, to sup- 
port the roof of the building ; and, amidst all 
the elaborations of architectural design, this 
object was still kept in view. On the summit 
of the row of columns rests the architrave, 
i. e. chief beam (eTriorvAioi', epistylium} : above 
this is the frieze (<u)<x|>opo?, fu>(/>6pos, zophorus), 
in which the most ancient order, namely the 
Doric, sho\78, in its triglyphs, what were 
originally the ends of the cross-beams : in 
the other orders these ends are generally con- 
cealed, and the frieze forms a flat surface, 

which is frequently ornamented by figures in 
relief, whence its Greek name. Above the 
frieze projects the cornice (/copwi-i's, coronis or 
corona), forming a handsome finish to the 
entablature (for so these three members taken 
together are called), and also, on the sides of 
the building, serving to unite the ends of the 
rafters of the roof. The triangular gable-end 
of the roof, above the entablature, is called 
the pediment. [FASTIGIUM.] Columns in 
long rows were used in aquaeducts, and single 
pillars were fixed in harbours for mooring 
ships. Single columns were also erected to 
commemorate persons or events. Among 
these, some of the most remarkable were the 
columnae rostratae, called by that name be- 
cause three ship-beaks proceeded from each 

Columna Roetrata. 

side of them, designed to record successful 
engagements at sea. The most important 
and celebrated of those which yet remain, is 
one erected in honour of the consul C. Duil- 
lius, on occasion of his victory over the Car- 
thaginian fleet, B.C. 261. Columns were also 
employed to commemorate the dead. The 
column on the right hand in the last wood- 
cut exhibits that which the senate erected to 
the honour of the Emperor Trajan. Similar 
columns were erected to the memory of many 
of the Roman emperors. 

COLUMNARIUM, a tax imposed In the 
time of Julius Caesar upon the pillars that 
supported a house. The Ostiatium was a 




similar tax. [OSTIARIUH.] The columnarium 
levied by Metellus Scipio in Syria in B.C. 
49-18, was a tax of a similar kind, but was 
simply an illegal means of extorting money 
from the provincials. 

COLUS, a distaff. [Fusus.] 

COMA (KOP.TJ, (coupa), the hair. (1) GREEK. 
In the earliest times the Greeks wore their 
hair long, and thus they are constantly called 
in Homer icapTjKop-oajrres 'Ax<uoi. The Spartan 
boys always had their hair cut quite short (ev 
\pia Ktipovres) ; but as soen as they reached 
the age of puberty (e^nj/Sot), they let it grow 
long. Before going to battle they combed 
and dressed it with especial care. It seems that 
both Spartan men and women tied their hair 
in a knot over the crown of the head. The 
custom of the Athenians was different. They 
wore their hair long in childhood, and cut it 
off when they reached the age of puberty. 
The cutting off of the hair, which was always 
done when a boy became an etyrjjSo?, was a 
solemn act, attended with religious cere- 
monies. A libation was first offered to Her- 
cules, which was called oti>icrnjpi.a or oipiao- 
njpia, and the hair after being cut off was 
dedicated to some deity, usually a river-god. 
But when the Athenians passed into the age 
of manhood, they again let their hair grow. 
In ancient times at Athens the hair was 
rolled up into a kind of knot on the crown of 
the head, and fastened with golden clasps in 
the shape of grasshoppers. This fashion of 
wearing the hair was called jcpw/SuAos, and in 
the case of females Kopv/n/3o. The heads of 
females were frequently covered with a kind 
of band or a coif of net-work. Of these coif- 
fures one was called <r<t>fv&6ni, which was a 
broad band across the forehead, sometimes 
made of metal, and sometimes of leather, 
adorned with gold. But the most common 
kind of head-dress for females was called by 
the general name of Keicpv<j>a\os, and this was 
divided into the three species of <eeicpv</>aAos, 
<rdKKos, and furpa. The iceicpw^xiAo?, in its 
narrower sense, was a caul or coif of net- 
work, corresponding to the Latin reticulum. 
These hair-nets were frequently made of gold 
threads, sometimes of silk, or the Elean 
byssus, and probably of other materials. The 
OUKKOS and the /ntVpa were, on the contrary, 
made of close materials. The CTOKKOS covered 
the head entirely like a sack or bag ; it was 
made of various materials, such as silk, byssus, 
and wool. The fii'rpa was a broad band of 
cloth of different colours, which was wound 
round the hair, and was worn in various 
ways. It was originally an Eastern head- 
dress, and may, therefore, be compared to the 
modern turban. The Roman calautica or 
calvatica is said by Servius to have been the 

same as the mitra, but in a passage in the 
Digest they are mentioned as if they were 
distinct. With respect to the colour of the 
hair, black was the most frequent, but blonde 
(fai>0r) K<VTJ) was the most prized. In Homer, 

The left-hand figure on the top weare a /ee/cpu</>oAos 
proper (reticulum). Of the two bottom figures, the one 
on the left-hand weare a fu'rpa, and the one on the 
right a <ra.KK(K. 

Achilles, Ulysses, and other heroes are repre- 
sented with blonde hair. At a later time it 
seems to have been not unfrequent to dye 
hair, so as to make it either black or blonde, 
and this was done by men as well as by 
women, especially when the hair was growing 
gray. (&) ROMAN. Besides the generic coma 
we also find the following words signifying the 
hair : capillus, caesaries, crines, cincinnus, 
and cirrus, the two last words being used to 
signify curled hair. In early times the Ro-. 
mans wore their hair long, and hence the 
Romans of the Augustan age designated their 
ancestors intonsi and capillati. But after the 
introduction of barbers into Italy about B. c. 
300, it became the practice to wear the hair 
short. The women, too, originally dressed 
their hair with great simplicity, but in the 
Augustan period a variety of different head- 
dresses came into fashion. Sometimes these 
head-dresses were raised to a great height by 
rows of false curls. So much attention did 
the Roman ladies devote to the dressing of 
the hair, that they kept slaves especially for 
this purpose, called ornatrices, and had them 
instructed by a master in the art. Most of 
the Greek head-dresses mentioned above were 
also worn by the Roman ladies; hut the 



mitrae appear to have been confined to pros- 
titutes. One of the simplest modes of wear- 
ing the hair was allowing it to fall down in 
tresses behind, and only confining it by a 
band encircling the head. [VITTA.] Another 
favourite plan was platting the hair, and then 
fastening it behind with a large pin. Blonde 
hair was as much prized by the Romans as 
by the Greeks, and hence the Roman ladies 
used a kind of composition or wash to make 
it appear this colour (spuma caustica). False 
hair or wigs (<ei>oucT), mji/iKT;, galcrus] were 
worn both by Greeks and Romans. Among 
both people likewise in ancient times the hair 
was out close in mourning [FUNUS] ; and 
among both the slaves had their hair cut 
close as a mark of servitude. 

COMISSATIO (derived from K/OU>S), the 
name of a drinking entertainment, which 
took place after the coena, from which, how- 
ever, it must be distinguished. The comis- 
satio was frequently prolonged to a late hour 
at night, whence the verb comissari means 
"to revel," and the substantive comissator a 
"reveller," or "debauchee." 

COMITIA. This word is formed from co, 
cum, or con, and ire, and therefore eomitium 
is a place of meeting, and comitia the meet- 
ing itself, or the assembled people. In the 
Roman constitution the comitia were the 
ordinary and legal meetings or assemblies of 
the people, and distinct from the contiones 
and concilia. All the powers of government 
were divided at Rome between the senate, 
the magistrates, and the people in their as- 
semblies. Properly speaking, the people 
alone (the populus) was the real sovereign by 
whom the power was delegated to the magis- 
trates and the senate. The sovereign people 
or populus, however, was not the same at all 
times. In the earliest times of Rome the 
populus consisted of the patricians (or patres) 
only, the plebs and the clients forming no 
part of the populus, but being without the 
pale of the state. The original populus was 
divided into thirty euriae, and the assembly 
of these euriae (the comitia curiata) was the 
Tmly assembly in which the populus was re- 
presented. A kind of amalgamation of the 
patricians and the plebs afterwards appeared 
in the comitia of the centuries, instituted by 
king Servius Tullius, and henceforth the term 
populus was applied to the united patricians and 
plebeians assembled in the comitia centuriata. 
But Servius had also made a local division of 
the whole Roman territory into thirty tribes, 
which held their meetings in assemblies called 
comitia tributa, which, in the course of time, 
acquired the character of national assemblies, 
so that the people thus assembled were likewise 
designated by the term populus. 

We shall examine in order the nature, 
power, and business of each of these different 
comitia. (1) COMITIA CURIATA consisted of 
the members of the thirty euriae, that is, 
the patricians, who formed exclusively the 
populus in the early times. They \vere con- 
vened, in the kingly period, by the king 
himself, or by his tribunus celerum, and in 
the king's absence by the praefectus urbi. 
After the death of a king the comitia were 
held by the interrex. In the republican 
period, the president was always one of the 
high patrician magistrates, viz. a consul, 
praetor, or dictator. They were called to- 
gether by lictors or heralds. The votes were 
given by euriae, each curia having one col- 
lective vote ; but within a curia each citizen 
belonging to it had an independent vote, and 
the majority of the members of a curia deter- 
mined the vote of the whole curia. The 
meeting was always held in the eomitium. 
The comitia curiata did not possess much 
power in the kingly peiiod. They could only 
be called together when the king (or his re- 
presentative) chose, and could only determine 
upon matters which the king submitted to 
them. The main points upon which the po- 
pulus had to decide were the election of the 
king, the passing of laws, declarations of war, 
the capital punishment of Roman citizens, 
and, lastly, certain affairs of the euriae and 
gentes. The priestly officers, such as the 
Curiones, Flamines Curiales, were likewise 
either elected by the euriae, or at least inau- 
gurated by them. The right of finally de- 
ciding upon the life of Roman citizens (judicia 
de capite civis Romani) is said to have been 
given to the populus by king Tullus Hostilius. 
It must further be remarked, that when the 
king had been elected, the populus held a 
second meeting, in which he was formally 
inducted into his new office. This formality 
was called lex curiata de imperio, whereby 
the king received his imperium, together 
with the right of holding the comitia. Down 
to the time of Servius Tullius, the comitia 
curiata were the only popular assemblies of 
Rome, and remained of course in the uudi- 
minished possession of the rights above de- 
scribed ; but the constitution of that king 
brought about a great change, by transferring 
the principal rights which had hitherto been 
enjoyed by the euriae to a new national as- 
sembly or the comitia centuriata. But while 
the patricians were obliged to share their 
rights with the plebeians, they reserved for 
themselves the very important right of sanc- 
tioning or rejecting any measure which had 
been passed by the centuries. The sanction 
of decrees passed by the centuries is often ex- 
pressed by paircs atictores fiunt, and down to 




the time of the Publilian law no decree of the 
centuries could become law without this sanc- 
tion. By the Publilian law (B.C. 339) it was 
enacted that the curiae should give their 
assent before the vote of the comitia centu- 
riata ; so that the veto of the curiae was thus 
virtually abolished. The comitia curiata thus 
became a mere formality, and, instead of the 
thirty curiae themselves giving their votes, 
the ceremony was performed by thirty lictors. 
The comitia of the curiae were also called 
COMITIA CALATA or " the summoned comi- 
tia" (from calare, i.e.vocare), when sum- 
moned for the purposes mentioned below : 
1. On the calends it was proclaimed to the 
comitia calata on what day of the new 
month the nones fell, and perhaps also the 
ides as well as the nature of the other days, 
namely, whether they were fasti or nefasti, 
comitiales, feriae, &c., because all these things 
were known in the early times to the pontiffs 
exclusively. 2. The inauguration of the 
famines, and after the banishment of the 
/tings, also that of the rex sacrorum. 3. The 
tcstamenti factio, or the making of a will. 
4. The detestatio sacrorum, which was in all 
probability an act connected with the testa- 
ment! factio, that is, a solemn declaration, by 
which the heir was enjoined to undertake the 
sacra privata of the testator along with the 
reception of his property. The comitia calata 
were summoned by the college of pontiffs, 
who also presided in them. 

(S) COMITIA CENTURIATA. The object of the 

According to Livy. 
I. CLASSIS. Census : 100,000 asses. 
40 centuriae seniorum. 
40 centuriae juniorum. 

2 centuriae fabrum. 
II. CLASSIS. Census : 75,000 asses. 
10 centuriae seniorum. 
10 centuriae juniorum. 

III. CLASSIS. Census: 50,000 asses. 
10 centuriae seniorum. 

10 centuriae juniorum. 

IV. CLASSIS. Census : 25,000 asses. 
10 centuriae seniorum. 

1C centuriae juniorum. 

V. CLASSIS. Census: 11,000 asses. 
15 centuriae seniorum. 
15 centuriae juniorum. 
3 centuriae accensorum, cornicinum, 

1 ccnturia capite ccnsorum. 

legislation of Servius Tullius was to unite the 
different elements of which the Roman people 
consisted, into one great political body, in which 
power and influence were to be determined by 
property and age. The whole people was con- 
ceived as an army (exercitus), and was there- 
fore divided into two parts, the cavalry 
(equites), and infantry (pedites). The in- 
funtry was divided into five classes, or, as 
Dionysius has it, into six classes, for he re- 
gards the whole body of people, whose pro- 
perty did not come up to the census of the 
fifth class, as a sixth. The class to which a 
citizen belonged determined the tributum, or 
war tax, he had to pay, as well as the kind 
of service he had to perform in the army and 
the armour in which he had to serve. But 
for the purpose of voting in the comitia, each 
class was subdivided into a number of cen- 
turies (centuriae, probably because each was 
conceived to contain 100 men, though the 
centuries may have greatly differed in the 
number of men they contained). Hence the 
name of Comitia Centuriata. Each century 
was divided into the seniores and the juniores. 
Each century, further, was counted as one 
vote, so that a class had as many votes as it 
contained centuries. In like manner, the 
equites were divided into a number of cen- 
turies or votes. The two principal authori- 
ties on these subdivisions are Livy and Dio- 
nysius. The annexed table will show the 
census as well as the number of centuries or 
votes assigned to each class. 

According to Dionysius. 
I. CLASSIS. Census : 100 minae. 
40 centuriae seniorum. 
40 centuriae juniorum. 

II. CLASSIS. Census : 75 minae. 
10 centuriae seniorum. 
10 centuriae juniorum. 
2 centuriae fabrum (one voting with 
the seniores and the other with the 

III. CLASSIS. Census : 50 minae. 
10 centuriae seniorum. 
10 centuriae juniorum. 
TV. CLASSIS. Census : 25 rainae. 
10 centuriae seniorum. 
10 centuriae juniorum. 
2 centuriae cornicinum and tubicinum 
(one voting with the seniores, and 
the other with the juniores}. 
\. CLASSIS. Census : 12 J minae. 
15 centuriae seniorum. 
15 centuriae juniorum. 
VI. CLASSIS. Census : below 12J minae. 
1 centuria capite censonun. 




According to both Dionysius and Livy, the 
equites voted in eighteen centuries before the 
seniores of the first class ; and hence there 
were, according to Livy, 194, and, according 
to Dionysius, 193 centuries or votes. The 
latter number is the more probable, since 
Livy's even number of 194 centuries would 
have rendered it impossible to obtain an ab- 
solute majority. In this manner all Roman 
citizens, whether patricians or plebeians, who 
had property to a certain amount, were pri- 
vileged to take part and vote in the centu- 
riata comitia, and none were excluded except 
slaves, peregrin!, women and the aerarii. 
The juniores were all men from the age of 
seventeen to that of forty-six, and the seniores 
all men from the age of forty-six upwards. 
The order of voting was arranged in such a 
manner, that if the eighteen centuries of the 
equites and the eighty 'centuries of the first 
class were agreed upon a measure, the ques- 
tion was decided at once, there being no need 
for calling upon the other classes to vote. 
Hence, although all Roman citizens appeared 
in these comitia on a footing of equality, yet 
by far the greater power was thrown into the 
hands of the wealthy.- As regards the func- 
tions of the comitia centuriata, they were 
(a.) The election of magistrates. The magis- 
trates that were elected by the centuries are 
the consuls (whence the assembly is called 
comitia consularia], the praetors (hence co- 
mitia praetoria], the military tribunes with 
consular, power, the censors, and the decem- 
virs, (b.) Legislation. The legislative power 
of the centuries at first consisted in their 
passing or rejecting a measure which was 
brought before them by the presiding magis- 
trate in the form of a senatus consultum, so 
that the assembly had no right of originating 
any legislative measure, but voted only upon 
such as were brought before them as resolu- 
tions of the senate, (c.) The decision upon 
war, on the ground of a senatus consultum, 
likewise belonged to the centuries. Peace 
was concluded by a mere senatus consultum, 
and without any co-operation of the people, 
(d.) The highest judicial poiver. The comitia 
centuriata were in the first place the highest 
court of appeal, and in the second, they had 
to try all offences committed against the 
state ; hence, all cases of perdiiellio and ma- 
jestas : and no case involving the life of a Ro- 
man citizen could be decided by any other 
court. The sanction of the curiae to the 
measures of the centuriae has been already 
explained. The comitia centuriata could be 
held only on dies comitiales or fasti, on which it 
was lawful to transact business with the people, 
and the number of such days in every year 
was about 190 ; but on dies nefasti (that is, 

dies festi, feriati, comp. DIES), and, at first 
also on the nundinae, no comitia could be 
held, until in B.C. 287 the Hortensian law 
ordained that the nundinae should be re- 
garded as dies fasti. The place where the 
centuries met was the Campus Martius, which 
contained the septa for the voters, a taberna- 
culuin for the president, and the villa pub- 
lica for the augurs. The president at the 
comitia was the same magistrate who con- 
voked them, and this rignt was a privilege of 
the consuls, and, in their absence, of the 
praetors. An interrex and dictator also, or 
his representative, the magister equitum, 
might likewise convene and preside at the 
comitia. One of the main duties devolving 
upon the president, and which he had to per- 
fonn before holding the comitia, was to con- 
sult the auspices (auspicari}. When the 
auspices were favourable, the people were 
called together, which was done by three suc- 
cessive and distinct acts : the first w as quite 
a general invitation to come to the assembly 
(inlicium). At the same time when this in- 
vitation was proclaimed circum macros or de 
moeris, a horn was blown, which being the 
more audible signal, is mentioned by some 
writers alone, and without the inlicium. 
When upon this signal the people assembled 
in irregular masses, there followed the second 
call by the aceensus, or the call ad contionem 
or conventionem ; that is, to a regular assem- 
bly, and the crowd then separated, grouping 
themselves according to their classes and 
ages. Hereupon the consul appeared, order- 
ing the people to come ad comitia centuriata ; 
and led the whole exercitu; for, in these 
comitia, the Roman people are always con- 
ceived as an exercitus out of the city, to the 
Campus Martius. It was customary from 
the earliest times for an armed force to oc- 
cupy the Janiculum, when the people were 
assembled in the Campus Martius, for the 
purpose of protecting the city against any 
sudden attack of the neighbouring people; 
and on the Janiculum a vexillum was hoisted 
during the whole time that the assembly 
lasted. This custom continued to be ob- 
served even at the time when Rome had no 
longer anything to fear from the neighbour- 
ing tribes. When the people were thus regu- 
larly assembled, the business was commenced 
with a solemn sacrifice, and a prayer of the 
president, who then took his seat on his tri- 
bunal. The president then opened the busi- 
ness by explaining to the people the subject 
for which they had been convened, and con- 
cluded his exposition with the words, relitis, 
jubeatis Quirites, e. g. bellmn indict, or ut 
M. Tullio aqua igni interdictum sit, or what- 
ever the subject might be. This formula was 




the standing one in all comitia, and the whole 
exposition of the president was called rogatio. 
When the comitia were assembled for the 
purpose of an election, the presiding magis- 
trate had to read out the names of the candi- 
dates, and might exercise his influence by 
recommending the one whom he thought 
most fit for the office in question. If the 
assembly had been convened for the purpose 
of passing a legislative measure, the president 
usually recommended the proposal, or he 
might grant to others, if they desired it, per- 
mission to speak about the measure, either 
in its favour or against it (Contionem dare). 
When the comitia acted as a court of justice, 
the president stated the crime, proposed the 
punishment to be inflicted upon the offender, 
and then allowed others to speak either in 
defence of the accused or against him. When 
the subject brought before the assembly was 
sufficiently discussed, the president called 
upon the people to prepare for voting by the 
words, ite in suffragium, bene jucantibus diis. 
lie then passed the stream Petronia, and 
went to the septa. Respecting the mode of 
voting, it is commonly supposed that the 
people were always polled by word of mouth, 
till the passing of the leges tabellariae about 
the middle of the second century before 
Christ, when the ballot by means of tabellae 
was introduced. [LEGES TABELLARIAE.] It 
appears, however, that the popular assem- 
blies voted by ballot, as well as by word of 
mouth, long before the passing of the leges 
tabellariae, but that instead of using tabellae, 
they employed stones or pebbles (the Greek 
i/rrj$oi), and that each voter received two 
stones, one white and the other black, the 
former to be used in the approval and the 
latter in the condemnation of a measure. 
The voting by word of mouth seems to have 
been adopted in elections and trials, and the 
use of pebbles to have been confined to the 
enactment and repeal of laws. Previous to 
the leges tabellariae, the rogatores,- who sub- 
sequently collected the written votes, stood 
at the entrance of the septa, and asked every 
citizen for his vote, which was taken down, 
and used to determine the vote of each cen- 
tury. After the introduction of the ballot, if 
the business was the passing of a law, each 
citizen was provided with two tabellae, one 
inscribed V. R. i. e. Uti Rogas, " I vote for 
the law," the other inscribed A. t. e. Antiquo, 
" I am for the old law." If the business 
was the election of a magistrate, each citizen 
was supplied with only one tablet, on which 
the names of the candidates were written, or 
the initials of their names ; the voter then 
placed a mark (punctum) against the one for 
whom he voted, whence puncta are spoken of 

in the sense of votes. V'or further particu- 
lars respecting the voting ui the comitia, see 
DIHIBITORES and SITULA. In judicial assem- 
blies every citizen was provided with three 
tabellae, one of which was marked with A. 
i. e. Absolvo, " I acquit ;" the second with C. 
i. e. Condemno, " I condemn ;" and the third 
with N. L. i. e. Non Liquet, " It is not clea,- 
to me." The first of these was called Tabella 
absolutoria and the second Tabella damna* 
toria, and hence Cicero calls the former lite, -a 
saiutaris, and the latter litera tristis. There 
were in the Campus Martius septa or inclo- 
sures (whether they existed from the earliest 
times is unknown), into which one class of 
citizens was admitted after another for the 
purpose of voting. The first that entered 
were the eighteen centuries of the equites, 
then followed the first class and so on. It 
very rarely happened that the lowest class 
was called upon to vote, as there was no ne- 
cessity for it, unless the first class did not 
agree with the equites. After the time when 
the comitia of the centuries became amalga- 
mated with those of the tribes, a large space 
near the villa publica was surrounded with 
an enclosure, and divided into compartments 
for the several tribes. The whole of this en- 
closure was called ovile, septa, carceres, or 
cancelli; and in later times a stone building, 
containing the whole people, was erected ; it 
was divided into compartments for the classes 
as well as the tribes and centuries ; the ac- 
cess to these compartments was formed by 
narrow passages called pontei or ponticuli. 
On entering, the citizens received their ta- 
blets, and when they had consulted within 
the enclosures, they passed out of them again 
by a pans or ponticulus, at which they threw 
their vote into a chest (cista) which was 
watched by rogatoref. Hereupon the roga- 
tores collected the tablets, and gave them to 
the diribitores, who classified and counted the 
votes, and then handed them over to the cus- 
todes, who again checked them off by points 
marked on a tablet. The order in which the 
centuries voted was determined in the Ser- 
vian constitution, in the manner described 
above ; but after the union of the centuries 
and tribes, the order was determined by lot ; 
and this was a matter of no slight import- 
ance, since it frequently happened that the 
vote of the first determined the manner in 
which subsequent ones voted. In the case of 
elections, the successful candidate was pro- 
claimed twice, first by the praeco, and then 
by the president, and without this renuntiatio 
the election was not valid. After all the 
business was done, the president pronounced 
a prayer, and dismissed the assembly with 
the word discedite. Cases are frequently 




mentioned in which the proceedings of the 
assembly were disturbed, so that it was neces- 
sary to defer the business till another day. 
This occurred 1, when it was discovered 
that the auspices had been unfavourable, or 
when the gods manifested their displeasure 
by rain, thunder, or lightning ; 2, when a 
tribune interceded ; 3, when the sun set be- 
fore the business was over, for it was a prin- 
ciple that the auspices were valid only for 
one day from sunrise to sunset ; 4, when a 
tnorbus comitialis occurred, i. e. when one of 
the assembled citizens was seized with an 
epileptic fit ; 5, when the vexillum was taken 
away from the Janiculum, this being a signal 
which all citizens had to obey; 6, when any 
tumult or insurrection broke out in the city. 

(3) COMITIA TRIBUTA. These assemblies 
likewise were called into existence by the 
constitution of Servius Tullius, who divided 
the Roman territory into thirty local tribes. 
It is a disputed question whether the patri- 
cians were originally included in these 
tribes ; but, whether they were or not, it is 
certain, that by far the majority of the peo- 
ple in the tribes were plebeians, and that, 
consequently, the character of these assem- 
blies was essentially plebeian. After the 
decemvirate, the patricians had certainly 
the right of voting in the assemblies of the 
tribes, which were then also convened by the 
higher magistrates. The assemblies of the 
tribes had originally only a local power ; they 
were intended to collect the tributum, and to 
furnish the contingents for the army ; they 
may further have discussed the internal affairs 
of each tribe, such as the making or keeping 
up of roads, wells, and the like. But their 
influence gradually increased, and they at 
length acquired the following powers : 
1. The election of the inferior magistrates, 
whose office it was to protect the commonalty 
or to superintend the affairs of the tribes. 
Hence the tribunes of the plebs were elected 
in the comitia tributa. In like manner, the 
aediles were elected by them, though the 
curule aediles were elected at a different 
time from the plebeian aediles and under the 
presidency of a consul. At a still later time, 
the quaestors and tribunes of the soldiers, 
who had before been appointed by the con- 
suls, were appointed in the assemblies of the 
tribes. The proconsuls to be sent into the 
provinces, and the prolongation of the im- 
perium for a magistrate who was already in 
a province, were likewise points which were 
determined by the tribes in later times. The 
inferior magistrates elected by the tribes 
are : the triumviri capitales, triumviri mo- 
netales, the curatores viarum, decemviri liti- 
bus judicandis, tribuni aerarii, magistri 

vicorum et pagorum, praefecti annonae, du- 
umviri navales, quinqueviri muris turri- 
busque reficiendis, triumviri coloniae dedu- 
cendae, triumviri, quatuorviri, &c., mensarii, 
and lastly, after the Domitian law, B. c. 104, 
also the members of colleges of priests. The 
pontifex maximus had been elected by the 
people from an earlier time. 2. The legisla- 
tive power of the comitia tributa was at first 
very insignificant, for all they could do was 
to make regulations concerning the local 
affairs of the tribes. But after a time, when 
the tribes began to be the real representatives 
of the people, matters affecting the whole 
people also were brought before them by the 
tribunes, which, framed as resolutions, were 
laid before the senate, where they might 
either be sanctioned or rejected. This prac- 
tice of the tributa comitia gradually acquired 
for them the right of taking the initiative 
in any measure, or the right of originating 
measures, until, in B. c. 449, this right was 
recognised and sanctioned by a law of L. 
Valerius Publicola and M. Horatius Barbatus. 
This law gave to the decrees passed by the 
tribes the power of a real lex, binding upon 
the whole people, provided they obtained the 
sanction of the senate and the populus, that 
is, the people assembled in the comitia cu- 
riata or in the comitia centuriata. In B. c. 
339, the Publilian law enacted ut plebiscita 
omnes Quirites tenerent. This law was either 
a re-enactment of the one passed in B. c. 449, 
or contained a more detailed specification of 
the cases in which plebiscita should be bind- 
ing upon the whole nation, or, lastly, it 
made their validity independent of the sanc- 
tion of other comitia, so that nothing would 
be required except the assent of the senate. In 
B. c. 287, the Hortensian law was passed, 
which seems to have been only a revival and 
a confirmation of the two preceding laws, for 
it was framed in almost the same terms ; but 
it may also be, that the Hortensian law made 
the plebiscita independent of the sanction of 
the senate, so that henceforth the comitia 
tributa were quite independent in their legis- 
lative character. 3. The judicial power of 
the comitia tributa was much more limited 
than that of the comitia centuriata, inas- 
much as they could take cognizance only of 
offences against the majesty of the people, 
while all crimes committed against the state 
were brought before the centuries. Even 
patricians, when they had offended against 
the commonalty or its members, were tried 
and fined by the tribes. This again consti- 
tutes a difference between the judicial power 
of the centuries and that of the tribes, for 
the former could inflict capital punishment, 
but the latter only fines The comitia tri- 




buta might assemble either within or with- 
out the city, but not farther from it than 
1000 paces, because the power of the tri- 
bunes did not extend farther. For elections 
the Campus Martius was usually chosen, but 
sometimes also the forum, the Capitol, or the 
Circus Flaminius. The presidents were com- 
monly the tribunes, who were supported by 
the aediles, and no matter could be brought 
before the tribes without the knowledge and 
consent of the tribunes. As the comitia tri- 
buta, however, more and more assumed the 
character of national assemblies, the higher 
magistrates also sometimes acted as presi- 
dents, though perhaps not without previously 
obtaining the permission of the tribunes. 
The preparations for the comitia tributa were 
less formal and solemn than for those of the 
centuries. In the case of elections, the can- 
didates had to give in their names, and the 
president communicated them to the people. 
When a legislative measure was to be brought 
before the assembly, a tribune made the 
people acquainted with it in contiones, and 
that on the three preceding nundines. The 
same was the case when the people were to 
meet as a court of justice. The auspicia 
were not consulted for the comitia of the 
tribes, but the spcctio alone was sufficient, 
and the tribunes had the right of obnwitiatio. 
In the comitia the tribune who had been 
chosen to preside sat on the tribtinal sup- 
ported by his colleagues, and laid before the 
people the subject of the meeting, concluding 
with the words velitis,jbeatis Qtiirites. The 
bill was never read by the tribune himself, 
but by a praeco, and then began the debates, 
in which persons might either oppose or re- 
commend the measure, though private per- 
sons had to ask the tribunes for permission 
to speak. When the discussion was over the 
president called upon the people ite in suffra- 
gium, as at the comitia centuriata. They 
then formed themselves into their tribes, 
which, like the centuries, ascertained their 
own votes in enclosures (septa). Which of 
the 35 tribes was to give its vote first, was 
determined by lot, and that tribe was called 
praerogativa or principium (the others were 
termed jure vocatae}. The vote of the first 
tribe was given by some person of distinction 
whose name was mentioned in the plebisci- 
tum, if it was of a legislative nature. The 
manner of collecting the votes was, on the 
whole, the same as in the comitia centuriata. 
The announcing of the result of the votes 
was the renuntiatio. If it so happened that 
two candidates had the same number of votes, 
the question was decided by drawing lots. 
The circumstances which might cause the 
meeting to break up and defer its business till 

another day, are the same as those which 
put an end to the comitia centuriata. 

(4) The comitia centuriata mixed icith th 
comitia tributa. The Servian constitution 
was retained unaltered so long as no great 
change took place in the republic ; but when 
the coinage and the standard of property had 
become altered, when the constitution of the 
army had been placed on a different footing, 
and, above all, when the plebeians began to 
be recognized as a great and essential ele- 
ment in the Roman state, it must have been 
found inconvenient to leave to the equites and 
the first class so great a preponderance in 
the comitia of the centuries, and it became 
necessary to secure more power and influence 
to the democratic element. A change, there- 
fore, took place, and the comitia centuriata 
became mixed with the comitia tributa ; but 
neither the time nor the exact nature of this 
change is accurately ascertained. . Some refer 
it to the censorship of C. Flaminius, B. c. 220, 
others to that of Q. Fabius and P. Decius, 
B. c. 304. But there is evidence that it must 
be assigned to even an earlier date than this, 
for the (tribus) praerogativa is mentioned as 
early as B. c. 396 in the election of the con- 
sular tribunes, where the pure comitia tri- 
buta cannot be meant, and a centuria praero- 
gativa is a thing unknown. With regard to 
the manner of the change, the most probable 
opinion is, that the citizens of each tribe were 
divided into five property classes, each con- 
sisting of seniores and juniores, so that each 
of the 35 tribes contained ten centuries, and 
all the tribes together 350 centuries. Accord- 
ing to this new arrangement, the five ancient 
classes, divided into seniores and juniores, 
continued to exist as before, but henceforth 
they were most closely united with the tribes, 
whereas before the tribes had been mere 
local divisions and entirely independent of 
property. The union now effected was that 
the classes became subdivisions of the tribes, 
and that accordingly centuries occur both in 
the classes and in the tribes. Each tribe con- 
tained ten centuries, two of the first class 
(one of the seniores and one of the juniores), 
two of the second (likewise seniores and 
juniores), two of the third, two of the fourth, 
and two of the fifth class. The equites were 
likewise divided according to tribes and cen- 
turies, and they seem to have voted with the 
first class, and to have been in fact included 
in it, so as to be called centuries of the first 
class. The centuries of the cornicines, tubi- 
cines and fabri, which are no longer men- 
tioned, probably ceased to exist as distinct 
centuries. The voting by tribes can hardly 
be conceived, except in those cases in which 
the ten centuries of every tribe were unani- 




mous; this may have been the case very 
often, and when it was so, the tribus prae- 
rogativa was certainly the tribe chosen by 
lot to give its unanimous vote first. But if 
there was any difference of opinion among the 
centuries making up a tribe, the true majority 
could only be ascertained by choosing by lot 
one of the 70 centuriae of the first class to 
give its vote first, or rather it was decided by 
lot from which tribe the two centuries of the 
first class were to be taken to give their vote 
first. (Hence the plural pi aerogativae.) The 
tribe, moreover, to which those centuries 
belonged which voted first, was itself likewise 
called tribus praerogativa. Of the two cen- 
turies, again, that of seniores gave its vote 
before the juniores, and in the documents 
both were called by the name of their tribe, 
as Galeriajuniorum, i. e. the juniores of the 
first class in the tribus Galeria, Aniensis ju- 
niorwn, Veturia juniorum. As soon as the 
praerogativa had voted, the renuntiatio took 
place, and the remaining centuries then de- 
liberated whether they should vote the same 
way or not. When this was done all the 
centuries of the first tribe proceeded to vote 
at once, for there would not have been time 
for the 350 centuries to vote one after another, 
as was done by the 193 centuries in the 
comitia centuriata. These comitia of the 
centuries combined with the tribes were far 
more democratical than the comitia of the 
centuries ; they continued to be held, and 
preserved their power along with the comitia 
tributa, even after the latter had acquired 
their supreme importance in the republic. 
During the time of the moral and political 
corruption of the Romans, the latter appear 
to have been chiefly attended by the populace, 
which was guided by the tribunes, and the 
wealthier and more respectable citizens had 
little influence in them. When the libertini 
and all the Italians were incorporated in the 
old thirty-five tribes, and when the political 
corruption had reached its height, no trace of 
the sedate and moderate character was left by 
which the comitia tributa had been distin- 
guished in former times. Under Augustus 
the comitia still sanctioned new laws and 
elected magistrates, but their whole proceed- 
ings were a mere farce, for they could not 
venture to elect any other persons than those 
recommended by the emperor. Tiberius de- 
prived the people even of this shadow of their 
former power, and conferred the power of 
election upon the senate. When the elections 
were made by the senate the result was an- 
nounced to the people assembled as comitia 
centuriata or tributa. Legislation was taken 
away from the comitia entirely, and was com- 
pletely in the hands of the senate and the 

emperor. From this time the comitia may bo 
said to have ceased to exist, as all the sove- 
reign power formerly possessed by the people 
was conferred upon the emperor by the lex 
regia. [LEX REGIA.] 

COMMEATUS, a furlough, or leave of ab- 
sence from the army for a certain time. 

a book of memoirs or memorandum-book, 
whence the expression Caesaris Commentarii. 
It is also used for a lawyer's brief, the notes 
of a speech, &c. 


COMOEDIA (mofujifiia), comedy. (1) 
GREEK. Comedy took its rise at the vintage 
festivals of Dionysus. It originated with 
those who led off the phallic songs of the 
band of revellers (KW/XO?), who at the vintage 
festivals of Dionysus gave expression to the 
feelings of exuberant joy and merriment which 
were regarded as appropriate to the occasion, 
by parading about, partly on foot, partly in 
waggons, with the symbol of the productive 
powers of nature, singing a wild, jovial song 
in honour of Dionysus and his companions. 
These songs were commonly interspersed 
with, or followed by petulant, extemporal 
witticisms with which the revellers assailed 
the bystanders. This origin of comedy is 
indicated by the name /cu/u.u>Si'a, which un- 
doubtedly means " the song of the /cto^os," 
though it has sometimes been derived from 
Kiafj.ii, as if the meaning were " a village 
song." It was among the Dorians that 
comedy first assumed any thing of a regular 
shape. The Megarians, both in the mother 
country and in Sicily, claimed to be consi- 
dered as its originators, and so far as the 
comedy of Athens is concerned, the claim of 
the former appears well founded. Among 
the Athenians the first attempts at comedy 
were made at Icaria by Susarion, a native of 
Megara, about B. c. 578. Susarion no doubt 
substituted for the more ancient improvisa- 
tions of the chorus and its leader premedi- 
tated compositions. There would seem also 
to have been some kind of poetical contest, 
for we learn that the prize for the successful 
poet was a basket of figs and a jar of wine. 
It was also the practice of those who took 
part in the comus to smear their faces with 
wine-lees, either to prevent, their features 
from being recognised, or to give themselves 
a more grotesque appearance. Hence comedy 
came to be called rpvytaSta., or lee-song. 
Others connected the name with the circum- 
stance of a jar of new wine (rpu'f) being the 
prize for the successful poet. It was, how- 
ever, in Sicily, that comedy was earliest 
brought to something like perfection. Epi- 
channus was the first writer wb gave it H 




new form, and introduced a regular plot. 
In his efforts he appears to have been asso- 
ciated with Phormis, a somewhat older con- 
temporary. The Megarians in Sicily claimed 
the honour of the invention of comedy, on 
account of Epicharmus having lived in Me- 
gara before he went to Syracuse. In Attica, 
the first comic poet of any importance whom 
we hear of after Susarion is Chionides, who 
is said to have brought out plays in B. c. 488. 
Euetes, Euxenides, and Myllus were proba- 
bly contemporaries of Chionides ; he was 
followed by Magnes and Ecphanticles. Their 
compositions, however, seem to have been 
little but the reproduction of the old Megaric 
farce of Susarion, differing, no doubt, in 
form, by the introduction of an actor or 
actors, separate from the chorus, in imitation 
of the improvements that had been made in 
tragedy. That branch of the Attic drama 
which was called the Old Comedy, begins 
properly with Cratinus, who was to comedy 
very much what Aeschylus was to tragedy. 
The old comedy has been described as the 
comedy of caricature, and such indeed it was, 
but it was also a great deal more. As it ap- 
peared in the hands of its great masters Cra- 
tinus, Hermippus, Eupolis, and especially 
Aristophanes, its main characteristic was 
that it was throughout political. Everything 
that bore upon the political or social interests 
of the Athenians furnished materials for it. 
The old Attic comedy lasted from Ol. 80 to 
Ol. 94 (B. c. 458-404). From Cratinus to 
Theopompus there were forty-one poets, four- 
teen of whom preceded Aristophanes. The 
later pieces of Aristophanes belong to the 
Middle rather than to the Old Comedy. The 
chorus in a comedy consisted of twenty-four. 
[CHORUS.] The dance of the chorus was the 
icopSaf, the movements of which were capri- 
cious and licentious, consisting partly in a 
reeling to and fro, in imitation of a drunken 
man, and in various unseemly and- immodest 
gestures. Comedies have choric songs, but 
no oracnfia, or songs between acts. The most 
important of the choral parts was the Para- 
basis, when the actors having left the stage, the 
chorus, which was ordinarily divided into four 
rows, containing six each, and was turned 
towards the stage, turned round, and ad- 
vancing towards the spectators delivered an 
address to them in the name of the poet, 
either on public topics of general interest, or 
on matters which concerned the poet per- 
sonally, criticising his rivals and calling at- 
tention to his merits ; the address having 
nothing whatever to do with the action of the 
play. The parabasis was not universally in- 
troduced : three plays of Aristophanes, the 
Ecclesiazusae, Lysistrata, and Plutus, have 

none. As the old Attic comedy was the off- 
spring of the political and social vigour and 
freedom of the age during which it nourished, 
it naturally declined and ceased with the de- 
cline and overthrow of the freedom and vi- 
gour which were necessary for its develop- 
ment. It was replaced by a comedy of a 
somewhat different style, which was known 
as the Middle Comedy, the age of which 
lasted from the end of the Peloponnesian war 
to the overthrow of liberty by Philip of Ma- 
cedon. (01. 94-110.) The comedy of this 
period found its materials in satirizing classes 
of people instead of individuals, in criticising 
the systems and merits of philosophers and 
literary men, and in parodies of the compo- 
sitions of living and earlier poets, and tra- 
vesties of mythological subjects. It formed 
a transition from the old to the new comedy, 
and approximated to the latter in the greater 
attention to the construction of plots which 
seem frequently to have been founded on 
amorous intrigues, and in the absence of that 
wild grotesqueness which marked the old 
comedy. As regards its external form, the 
plays of the middle comedy, generally speaking, 
had neither parabasis nor chorus. The most 
celebrated authors of the middle comedy were 
Antiphanes and Alexis. The New Comedy 
was a further development of the last men- 
tioned kind. It answered as nearly as may 
be to the modern comedy of manners or cha- 
racter. Dropping for the most part personal 
allusions, caricature, ridicule, and parody, 
which, in a more general form than in the 
old comedy, had maintained their ground in 
the middle comedy, the poets of the new 
comedy made it their business to reproduce 
in a generalized form a picture of the every- 
day life of those by whom they were sur- 
rounded. There were various standing cha- 
racters which found a place in most plays, 
such as we find in the plays of Plautus and 
Terence, the leno perjtirus, amator fervidus, 
servulus callidits, arnica illudens, sodalis opi- 
tulator, miles proeliator, parasitus edax, pa- 
rentes tenaces, meretrices procaces. In 
the new comedy there was no chorus. It 
flourished from about B. c. 340 to B. c. 260. 
The poets of the new comedy amounted to 64 
in number. The most distinguished was 
Menander.- (2) ROMAN. The accounts of 
the early stages of comic poetry among the 
Romans are scanty. Scenic entertainments 
were introduced at Rome in B. c. 363 from 
Etruria, where it would seem they weie a 
familiar amusement. Tuscan players (lu- 
dioncs), who were fetched from Etruria, ex- 
hibited a sort of pantomimic dance to the 
music of a flute, without any song accom- 
panying their dance, and without regular 




dramatic gesticulation. The amusement be- 
came popular, and was imitated by the young 
Romans, who improved upon the original 
entertainment by uniting with it extempo- 
raneous mutual raillery, composed in a rude 
irregular measure, a species of diversion 
which had been long known among the Ro- 
mans at their agrarian festivals under the 
name of Fcscennina [FESCKNNINA], It was 
123 years after the first introduction of these 
scenic performances before the improvement 
was introduced of having a regular plot. 
This advance was made by Livius Andronicus, 
a native of Magna Graecia, in B. c. 240. His 
pieces, which were both tragedies and co- 
medies, were merely adaptations of Greek 
dramas. The representation of regular plays 
of this sort was now left to those who were 
histriones by profession, and who were very 
commonly either foreigners or slaves ; the 
free-born youth of Rome confined their own 
scenic performances to the older, irregular 
farces, which long maintained their ground, 
and were subsequently called exodia. [Ex- 
ODIA ; SATURA.] Livius, as was common at 
that time, was himself an actor in his own 
pieces. The first imitator of the dramatic 
works of Livius Andronicus was Cn. Nae- 
vius, a native of Campania. He composed 
both tragedies and comedies, which were 
either translations or imitations of those of 
Greek writers. The most distinguished suc- 
cessors of Naevius were Plautus, who chiefly 
imitated Epicharmus, and Terence, whose 
materials were drawn mostly from Menander, 
Diphilus, Philemon, and Apollodorus. The 
comedy of the Romans was throughout but 
an imitation of that of the Greeks, and 
.chiefly of the new comedy. Where the cha- 
racters were ostensibly Greek, and the scene 
laid in Athens or some other Greek town, the 
comedies were termed palliatae. All the 
comedies of Terence and Plautus belong to 
this class. When the story and characters 
were Roman, the plays were called togatae. 
But the fabulae togatae were in fact little else 
than Greek comedies clothed in a Latin dress. 
The togatae were divided into two classes, 
the trabeatae and tabernariae, according as the 
subject was taken from high or from low life. 
In the comediae palliatae, the costume of the 
ordinary actors was the Greek pallium. The 
plays which bore the name of praetextatae, 
were not so much tragedies as historical 
plays. It is a mistake to represent them as 
comedies. There was a species of tragi- 
comedy, named from the poet who intro- 
duced that style Rhinthonica. A tragedy the 
argument of which was Greek was termed 
repidata. The mimes are sometimes classed 
with the Latin comedies. [MIMUS.] The 

mimes differed from the comedies in little 
more than the predominance of the mimic 
representation over the dialogue. Latin co- 
medies had no chorus, any more than the 
dramas of the new comedy, of which they 
were for the most part imitations. Like 
them, too, they were introduced by a pro- 
logue, which answered some of the purposes 
of the parabasis of the old comedy, so far as 
bespeaking the good will of the spectators, 
and defending the poet against his rivals and 
enemies. It also communicated so much in- 
formation as was necessary to understand 
the story of the play. The prologue was 
commonly spoken by one of the players, or, 
perhaps, by the manager of the troop. Re- 
specting the Atellanae fabulae see that article. 

TALICII, a festival celebrated once a year in 
honour of the lares compitales, to whom sa- 
crifices were offered at the places where two 
or more ways met. In the time of Augustus, 
the ludi compitalicii had gone out of fashion, 
but were restored by him. The compitalia 
belonged to the fcriae conccptivae, that is, 
festivals which were celebrated on days ap- 
pointed annually by the magistrates or 
priests. The exact day on which this festi- 
val was celebrated appears to have varied, 
though it was always in the winter, generally 
at the beginning of January. 

COMPLUVIUM. [Do>rcs.] 

CONCILIUM generally has the same 
meaning as conventus or conventio, but the 
technical import of concilium in the Roman 
constitution was an assembly of a portion of 
the people as distinct from the general as- 
semblies or comitia. Accordingly, as the 
comitia tribnta embraced only a portion of 
the Roman people, viz. the plebeians, these 
comitia are often designated by the term con- 
cilia plebis. Concilium is also used by Latin 
writers to denote the assemblies or meetings 
of confederate towns or nations, at which 
either their deputies alone or any of the 
citizens met who had time and inclination, 
and thus formed a representative assembly. 
Such an assembly or diet is commonly de- 
signated as commune concilium, or TO KOIVOV, 
e. g. Achaeorum, Aetolorum, Soeotorum, Mace- 
doniae, and the like. 


CONGIARIUM (scil. vas, from congius], a 
vessel containing a congius. [CoNorus.] In 
the early times of the Roman republic the 
congius was the usual measure of oil or wine 
which was, on certain occasions, distributed 
among the people ; and thus congiariwn be- 
came a name for liberal donations to the 
people, in general, whether consisting of oil, 
wine, corn, money, or other things, while 




donations made to the soldiers were called 
donativa, though they were sometimes also 
termed congiaria. Many coins of the Roman 
emperors were struck in commemoration of 
such congiaria. Congiarium was, moreover, 
occasionally used simply to designate a pre- 
sent or a pension given by a person of high 
lank, or a prince, to his friends. 

Congiarium. (Com of Trnjnn.) 

CONGIUS, a Horn an liquid measure, which 
contained six sextarii, or the eighth part of 
the amphora (nearly six pints Eng.) It was 
equal to the larger chous of the Greeks. 


CONOPEUAT (Kiaviavelov), a gnat or mus- 
quito-curtain i. e. a covering made to be ex- 
panded over beds and couches to keep away 
gnats and other flying insects, so called from 
cuvta*!/, a gnat. Conopeum is the origin of 
the English word canopy. 

CONQUISlTORES, persons employed to go 
about the counti-y and impress soldiers, when 
there was a difficulty in completing a levy. 
Sometimes commissioners were appointed by 
a decree of the senate for the purpose of 
making a conquisitio. 




CONSUALIA, a festival, with games, cele- 
brated by the Romans, according to Ovid and 
others, in honour of Census, the god of 
secret deliberations, or, according to Livy, of 
Ncptunus Equestris. Some writers, how- 
ever, say that Neptunus Equestris and Con- 
sus were only different names for one and 
the same deity. It was solemnised every 
year in the circus, by the symbolical cere- 
mony of uncovering an altar dedicated to the 
god, which was buried in the earth. For 
Romulus, who was considered as the founder 
of the festival, was said to have discovered 
an altar in the earth on that spot. The so- 
lemnity took place on the 21st of August 
with horse and chariot races, and libations 
were poured into the flames which consumed 

the sacrifices. During these festive games 
horses and mules were not allowed to do any 
work, and were adorned with garlands ol 
flowers. It was at their first celebration that, 
according to the ancient legend, the Sabine 
maidens were carried off. 

CONSUL (un-aros), the title of the two 
chief officers or magistrates of the Roman 
republic. The word is probably composed of 
con and sul, which contains the same root as 
the verb salio, so that consules signifies 
" those who come together," just as praesul 
means " one who goes before, " and exsul, 
" one who goes out." The consulship is said 
to have been instituted upon the expulsion of 
the kings in B.C. 509, when the kingly power 
was transferred to two magistrates, whose 
office lasted only for one year, that it might 
not degenerate into tyranny by being vested 
longer in the same persons ; and for the same 
reason two were appointed instead of one 
king, as neither could undertake anything 
unless it was sanctioned and approved by his 
colleague. Their original title was praetores, 
or commanders of the armies, but this wan 
changed into that of consules in B.C. 449, 
and the latter title remained in use until the 
latest periods of the Roman empire. The 
consuls were at first elected from the patri- 
cians exclusively. Their office was suspended 
in B.C. 451, and its functions were per- 
formed by ten high commissioners (decem- 
viri), appointed to frame a code of laws. On 
the re-establishment of the consulship in B. c. 
449, the tribunes proposed that one of the 
consuls should be chosen from the plebeians, 
but this was strenuously resisted by the pa- 
tricians, and a compromise effected by sus- 
pending the consular office, and creating in 
its stead military tribunes (tribuni militum) 
with consular power, who might be elected 
indifferently both from the patricians and 
plebeians. They were first appointed in B.C. 
444. The plebeians, however, were not satis- 
fled with this concession, and still endea- 
voured to attain the higher dignity of the 
consulship. At length, after a serious and 
long-protracted struggle between the two 
orders, it was enacted by the Licinian law, 
in B.C. 367, that henceforth the consulship 
should be divided between the patricians and 
plebeians, and that one of the consuls should 
always be a plebeian. Accordingly, in B. c. 
366 L. Sextius was elected the first plebeian 
consul. This law, however, was not always 
observed, and it still frequently happened 
that both consuls were patricians, until, in 
later times, when the difference between the 
two orders had entirely ceased, and the ple- 
beians were on a footing of perfect equality 
with the patricians, the consuls were elected 




from both orders indiscriminately. During 
the later periods of the republic it was cus- 
tomary for persons to pass through several 
subordinate magistracies before they were 
elected consuls, though this rule was de- 
parted from in many particular cases. The 
age at which a person was eligible to the 
consulship was fixed in B. c. 180, by the lex 
annalis [LEX ANNALIS], at 43. The election 
of the consuls always took place in the co- 
mitia of the centuries, some time before the 
expiration of the official year of the actual 
consuls, and the election was conducted 
either by the actual consuls themselves, or 
by an interrex or a dictator, and the persons 
elected, until they entered upon their office, 
were called consules designati. While they 
were designati, they were in reality no more 
than private persons, but still they might 
exercise considerable influence upon public 
affairs, for in the senate they were asked for 
their opinion first. If they had been guilty 
of any illegal act, either before or during 
their election, such as bribery (ambitus), they 
were liable to prosecution, and the election 
might be declared void. The time at which 
the old consuls laid down their office and the 
consules designati entered upon theirs, dif- 
fered at different times. The first consuls 
are said to have entered upon their office in 
October, then we find mention of the 1st of 
August, of the ides of December, the 1st of 
July, and very frequently of the ides of 
March, until, in B.C. 153, it became an es- 
tablished rule for the consuls to enter upon 
their duties on the 1 st of January ; and this 
custom remained down to the end of the re- 
public. On that day the senators, equites, 
and citizens of all classes conducted in a pro- 
cession (deductio or proccssus consularis) the 
new magistrates from their residence to the 
capitol, where, if the auspices were favour- 
able, the consuls offered up sacrifices, and 
were inaugurated. From thence the proces- 
sion went to the curia, where the senate 
assembled, and where the consuls returned 
thanks for their election. There they might 
also speak on any subject that was of im- 
portance to the republic, such as peace and 
war, the distribution of provinces, the gene- 
ral condition of the state, the ferine Latinae, 
and the like. During the first five days of 
their office they had to convoke a contio, and 
publicly to take a solemn oath, by which, in 
the earliest times, they pledged themselves 
not to allow any one to assume regal power 
at Rome, but afterwards only to maintain the 
laws of the republic (in leges jurare}. On the 
expiration of their office they had to take 
another oath, stating that they had faithfully 
obeyed the laws, and not done anything 

against the constitution. The new consuls 
on entering upon their office usually invited 
their friends to a banquet. When a consul 
died during his year of office, his colleague 
immediately convoked the comitia to elect a 
new one. A consul thus elected to fill a 
vacancy was called consul siiffectus, but his 
powers were not equal to those of an ordi- 
nary consul, for he could not preside at the 
elections of other magistrates, not even in 
the case of the death of his colleague. In the 
latter case, as well as when the consuls were 
prevented by illness or other circumstances, 
the comitia were held by an interrex or a 
dictator. The outward distinctions of the 
consuls were, with few exceptions, the same 
as those which had formerly belonged to the 
kings. The principul distinction was the 
twelve lictors with the fasces, who preceded 
the consuls ; but the axes did not appear in 
the fasces within the city. This outward 
sign of their power was taken by the con- 
suls in turn every month, and while one 
consul was preceded by the twelve lictors 
with their fasces, the other was during the 
same month preceded by an accensus, and 
followed by the lictors ; and the one was 
called during that month consul major, and 
the other consul minor. Other distinctions 
of the consuls were the curule chair (sella 
cunilis}, and the toga with the purple hem 
(toga praetexta). The ivory sceptre (scijrio 
or sceptrum) and purple toga were not dis- 
tinctions of the consuls in general, but only 
when they celebrated a triumph. Under the 
empire a consul was sometimes distinguished 
by the senate with a sceptre bearing an eagle 
on the top, but his regular ensigns consisted 
of the toga picta, the trabca, and the fasces, 
both within and without the city. The con- 
suls were the highest ordinary magistrates at 
Rome. Their power was at first quite equal 
to that of the kings, except that it was 
limited to one year, and that the office of 
high priest, which had been vested in the 
king, was at the very beginning detached 
from the consulship, and given to the rex 
sacrorum or rex sacrificulus. Yet the aus- 
picia majora continued to belong to the 
consuls. This regal power of the consuls, 
however, was gradually curtailed by various 
laws, especially by the institution of the tri- 
bunes of the plebs, whose province it was to 
protect the plebeians against the unjust or 
oppressive commands of the patrician magis- 
trates. Nay, in the course of time, whole 
branches of the consular power were detached 
from it ; the reason for which was, that, as 
the patricians were compelled to allow the 
plebeians a share in the highest magistracy, 
they stripped it of as much of its original 




power as they could, and reserved these de- 
tached portions for themselves. In this man- 
ner the censorship was detached from the 
consulship in B. c. 443, and the praetorship 
in B.C. 367. But notwithstanding all this, 
the consuls remained the highest magistrates, 
and all other magistrates, except the tribunes 
of the plehs, were obliged to obey their com- 
mands, and show them great outward re- 
spect. The functions of the consuls during 
the time of the republic may be conveniently 
described under the following heads : 1. 
They were in all civil matters the heads of 
the state, being invested with the imperium, 
which emanated from the sovereign people, 
and which they held during the time of their 
office. In this capacity they had the right of 
convoking both the senate and the assembly 
of the people ; they presided in each (in the 
comitia of the curies as well as in those of 
the centuries), and they took care that the 
resolutions of the senate and people were 
carried into effect. They might also convoke 
contioncs, whenever they thought it neces- 
sary. In the senate they conducted the dis- 
cussions, and put the questions to the vote, 
thus exercising the greatest influence upon 
all matters which were brought before the 
senate either by themselves or by others. 
When a decree was passed by the senate, the 
consuls were usually commissioned to see that 
it was carried into effect ; though there are 
also instances of the consuls opposing a de- 
cree of the senate. 2. The supreme com- 
mand of the armies belonged to the consuls 
alone by virtue of their imperium. Accord- 
ingly, when a war was decreed, they were 
ordered by a senatus consultum to levy the 
troops, whose number was determined by the 
senate, and they appointed most of the other 
military officers. While at the head of their 
armies they had full power of life and death 
over their soldiers, who, on their enrolment, 
had to take an oath (saeramentum) to be 
faithful and obedient to the commands of the 
consuls. When the consuls had entered upon 
their office, the senate assigned them their 
provinces, that is, their spheres of action, 
and the consuls either settled between them- 
selves which province each was to have, or, 
which was more common, they drew lots. 
Usually one consul remained at Rome, while 
the other went out at the head of the army : 
sometimes both left the city, and carried on 
war in different quarters ; and sometimes, 
when the danger was very pressing, both 
consuls commanded the armies against one 
and the same enemy. If it was deemed ad- 
visable, the imperium of one or of both con- 
suls was prolonged for the particular province 
in which they were engaged, in which case 

they had the title of proconsuls [PROCONSUL], 
and their successors either remained at 
Rome, or were engaged in other quarters. 
During the latter period of the republic the 
consuls remained at Rome during the time of 
their office, and on its expiration they had a 
foreign province (in the real sense of the 
word) assigned to them, where they under- 
took either the peaceful administration, or 
carried on war against internal or external 
enemies. While in their provinces, both 
the consuls and proconsuls had the power 
of life and death over the provincials, for 
they were looked upon there as the chief 
military commanders ; and the provincials, 
being percgrini, did not enjoy the privileges 
of Roman citizens. 3. The supreme jurisdic- 
tion was part of the consular imperium, and 
as such vested in the consuls so long as there 
were no praetors. In civil cases they admi- 
nistered justice to the patricians as well as 
plebeians, either acting themselves asjudices, 
or appointing others as judices and arbitri. 
In criminal cases there appears from early 
times to have been this difference : that pa- 
tricians charged with capital offences were 
tried by the curies, while the plebeians came 
under the jurisdiction of the consuls, whose 
power, however, was in this case rather 
limited, partly by the intercession of the tri- 
bunes of the people, and partly by the right 
of appeal (provocatio) from the sentence of 
the consuls. The consuls might, further, 
summon any citizen before their tribunal, 
and, in case of disobedience, seize him fj>ren- 
dere), and fine him up to a certain amount. 
After the institution of the praetorship, the 
consuls no longer possessed any regular ordi- 
nary jurisdiction ; and whenever they exer- 
cised it, it was an exception to the general 
custom, and only by a special command of 
the senate. 4. Previous to the institution 
of the censorship the consuls had to perform 
all the functions which afterwards belonged 
to the censors : they were accordingly the 
highest officers of finance, held the census, 
drew up the lists of the senators, equites, &c. 
After the establishment of the censorship they 
still retained the general superintendence of 
the public economy, inasmuch as they had 
the keys of the aerarium, and as the quaes- 
tors or paymasters were dependent on them. 
But still in the management of the finances 
the consuls were at all times under the con- 
trol of the senate. 5. In all relations with 
foreign states the consuls were the represen- 
tatives of the Roman republic. Hence they 
might conclude peace or treaties with foreign 
nations, which had, however, to be sanc- 
tioned by the senate and people at Rome ; 
and unless this sanction was obtained a treaty 
i 2 




was void. They received foreign ambassa- 
dors, and introduced them into the senate, 
and in short all negotiations with foreign 
princes or nations passed through their 
hands. 6. In matters connected with their 
own official functions, the consuls, like all 
other magistrates, had the power of issuing 
proclamations or orders (edicta), which might 
be binding either for the occasion only, or 
remain in force permanently. Although the 
consular power had been gradually dimi- 
nished, it was in cases of imminent danger 
restored to its original and full extent, by a 
decree of the senate calling upon the consuls 
videant ne quid res publica detriments capiat. 
In such cases the consuls received sovereign 
power, but they were responsible for the 
manner in which they had exercised it. It 
has already been observed, that to avoid col- 
lision and confusion, the two consuls did not 
possess the same power at the same time, but 
that each had the imperium every other 
month. The one who possessed it, as the 
consul major, exercised all the rights of the 
office, though he always consulted his col- 
league. In the earliest times it was custo- 
mary for the elder of the two consuls to take 
the imperium first, afterwards the one who 
had had the greater number of votes at the 
election, and had therefore been proclaimed 
(rentmtiare) first. In the time of Augustus 
it was enacted that the consul who had most 
children should take precedence of the other ; 
and some distinction of rank continued to be 
observed down to the latest times of the em- 
pire. Towards the end of the republic the 
consulship lost its power and importance. 
The first severe blow it received was from 
Julius Caesar, the dictator, for he received 
the consulship in addition to his dictatorship, 
or he arbitrarily ordered others to be elected, 
who were mere nominal officers, and were 
allowed to do nothing without his sanction. 
He himself was elected consul at first for five, 
then for ten years, and at last for life. Under 
Augustus the consulship was a mere shadow of 
what it bad been : the consuls no longer held 
their office for a whole year, but usually for a 
few months only ; and hence it happened 
that sometimes one year saw six, twelve, or 
even twenty-five consuls. Those who were 
elected the first in the year ranked higher 
than the rest, and their names alone were 
used to mark the year, according to the an- 
cient custom of the Romans of marking the 
date of an event by the names of the consuls 
of the year in which the event occurred. 
During the last period of the empire it be- 
came the practice to have titular or hono- 
rary consuls, who were elected by the senate 
and confirmed by the emperor. Constantino 

appointed two consuls, one for Rome and 
another for Constantinople, who held theii 
office for a whole year, and whose functions 
were only those of chief justices. All the 
other consuls were designated as honorarii or 
consul arcs. But though the consulship had 
thus become almost an empty title, it was 
still regarded as the highest dignity in the 
empire, and as the object of the greatest am- 
bition. It was connected with very great 
expenses, partly on account of the public 
games which a consul had to provide, and 
partly on account of the large donations he 
had to make to the people. The last consul 
at Rome was Decimus Theodorus Paulinus, 
A.D. 536, and at Constantinople, Flavius Ba- 
silius junior, A.D. 541. 

CONSULARIS, signified, under the re- 
public, a person who had held the office of 
consul ; but under the empire, it was the 
title of many magistrates and public officers, 
who enjoyed the insignia of consular dig- 
nity, without having filled the office of consul. 
Thus we find commanders of armies and go- 
vernors of provinces called Consulares under 
the empire. 

CONTIO, a contraction for eonventio, that 
is, a meeting, or a convening. In the tech- 
nical sense, however, a contio was an assem- 
bly of the people at Rome convened by a 
magistrate for the purpose of making the 
people acquainted with measures which were 
to be brought before the next comitia, and of 
working upon them either to support or op- 
pose the measure. But no question of any 
kind could be decided by a contio, and this 
constitutes the difference between contiones 
and comitia. Still contiones were also 
convened for other purposes, e. g. of per- 
suading the people to take part in a war, or 
of bringing complaints against a party in the 
republic. Every magistrate had the right to 
convene contiones, but it was most frequently 
exercised by the consuls and tribunes, and 
the latter more especially exercised a great 
influence over the people in and through these 
contiones. A magistrate who was higher in 
rank than the one who had convened a contio, 
had the right to order the people to disperse, 
if he disapproved of the object. It should be 
remarked, that the term contio is also used 
to designate the speeches and harangues ad- 
dressed to the people in an assembly, and 
that in a loose mode of speaking, contio de- 
notes any assembly of the people. 

CONTUBERNALES (<nVinjw>O f signified 
originally men who served in the same army 
and lived in the same tent. The word is de- 
rived from tabertia (afterwards tabernacu- 
lum), which was the original name for a 
military tent, as it was made of boards (ta- 




bulae}. Each tent was occupied by ten sol- 
diers (contubernales), with a subordinate 
officer at their head, who was called decantis, 
and in later times caput contubernii. Young 
Romans of illustrious families used to accom- 
pany a distinguished general on his expedi- 
tions, or to his province, for the purpose of 
gaining under his superintendence a practical 
training in the art of war, or in the adminis- 
tration of public affairs, and were, like sol- 
diers living in the same tent, called his con- 
tubernales. In a still wider sense, the name 
contubernales was applied to persons con- 
nected by ties of intimate friendship, and 
living under the same roof ; and hence, when 
a free man and a slave, or two slaves, who 
were not allowed to contract a legal mar- 
riage, lived together as husband and wife, 
they were called contubernales ; and their 
connection, as well as their place of residence, 



COXVEXTUS, was the name applied to 
the whole body of Roman citizens who were 
either permanently or for a time settled in a 
provtace. In order to facilitate the adminis- 
tration of justice, a province was divided into 
a numoer of districts or circuits, each of which 
was called conventus, forum, or jurisdictio. 
Roman citizens living in a province were en- 
tirely under the jurisdiction of the proconsul ; 
and at certain times of the year, fixed by the 
proconsul, they assembled in the chief town 
of the district, and this meeting bore the 
name of conventus (<niro6os). Hence the ex- 
pressions conventus agere, peragere, convo- 
care, dimittere. At this conventus litigant 
parties applied to the proconsul, who selected 
a number of judges from the conventus to try 
their causes. The proconsul himself pre- 
sided at the trials, and pronounced the sen- 
tence according to the views of the judges, 
who were his assessors (consiliuifl or consi- 
liarii}. These conventus appear to have 
been generally held after the proconsul had 
settled the military affairs of the province ; at 
least, when Caesar was proconsul of Gaul, he 
made it a regular practice to hold the con- 
ventus after his armies had retired to their 
winter quarters. 


COPH1XUS (KO^ICOS, Engl. coffin], a large 
kind of wicker basket, made of willow 
branches. It would seem that it was used 
by the Greeks as a basket or cage for birds. 
The Romans used it for agricultural pur- 
poses, and it sometimes formed a kind of 
portable hot-bed. Juvenal, when speaking 
of the Jews, uses the expression cojphinus et 

foenitm (a truss of hay), figuratively to desig- 
nate their poverty. 

basket of very peculiar form and common use 
among the Romans, both for agricultural and 
other purposes. It was made of osiers twisted 
together, and was of a conical or pyramidal 
shape. A basket answering precisely to this 
description, both in form and material, is still 
to be seen in everyday use among the Cam- 
panian peasantry, which is called in the lan- 
guage ofjthe country " la corbella." 

CORBITAE, merchantmen of the larger 
class, so called because they hung out a 
corbis at the mast-head for a sign. They 
were also termed onerariae; and hence Plau- 
tus, in order to designate the voracious ap- 
petites of some women, says, " Corbitam cibi 
comesse possunt." 

CORXU, a wind instrument, anciently 
made of horn, but afterwards of brass. Like 

Corau. (Bartholini de Tibiis.) 

the tuba, it differed from the tibia in being a 
larger and more powerful instrument, and 



Altar of Julius Victor. (Ba.toli, Pict. Ant., p. 76.) 




from the tuba itself, in being curved nearly 
in the shape of a C, with a cross-piece to 
steady the instrument for the convenience of 
the performer. Hence Ovid says ( Met. i. 98) : 

" Non tuba direct i, non acris cornua flexi." 

The classieum, which originally meant a signal, 
rather than the musical instrument which gave 
the signal, was usually sounded with the cornu. 

" Sonuit rcflexo clawicum cornu, 
Lituuaque adunco rtridulcM van tin 
Elisit aere." (Sen. Oed. 734.) 

The Cornicines and Liticines, the persons who 
blew the Cornu and Lituus, formed a col- 
legium. In the preceding cut, M. Julius 
Victor, a member of the Collegium, holds a 
lituus in his right hand, and touches with 
his left a cornu on the ground. See engrav- 
ing und_er TUBA. 

CORONA (<rre<t>avos*), a crown, that is, a 
circular ornament of metal, leaves, or flowers, 
worn by the ancients round the head or neck, 
and used as a festive as well as funereal de- 
coration, and as a reward of talent, military 
or naval prowess, and civil worth. Its first 
introduction as an honorary reward is attri- 
butable to the athletic games, in some of 
which it was bestowed as a prize upon the 
victor. It was the only reward contended 
for by the Spartans in their gymnie contests, 
and was worn by them when going to battle. 
The Romans refined upon the practice of the 
Greeks, and invented a great variety of 
crowns formed of different materials, each 
with a separate appellation, and appropriated] 
to a particular purpose. I. CORONA OBSI- 
DIONALIS. Amongst the honorary crowns 
bestowed by the Romans for military achieve- 
ments, the most difficult of attainment, and 
the one which conferred the highest honour, 
was the corona obsidionalis, presented by a 
beleaguered army after its liberation to the 
general who broke up the siege. It was 
made of grass, or weeds and wild flowers, 
thence called corona graminea, and graminea 
obsidionalis, gathered from the spot on which 
the beleaguered army had been enclosed. 
II. CORONA CIVICA, the second in honour and 
importance, was presented to the soldier who 
had preserved the life of a Roman citizen in 
battle. It was made of the leaves of the oak. 

Corona CiTlca, on a Com of the Emperor Galba. 

SPQR OB CS = Sonatus PopnliMqiw Komanus i 

civem wnntum. 

The soldier who had acquired this crown had 
a place reserved next to the senate at all the 
public spectacles ; and they, as well as the 
rest of the company, rose up upon his en- 
trance. He was freed from all public bur- 
thens, as were also his father, and his pa- 
ternal grandfather ; and the person who owed 
his life to him was hound, ever after, to 
cherish his preserver as a parent, and afford 
him all such offices as were due from a son 
to his father. III. CORONA NAVALIS or Ros- 
TRATA, called also CLASSICA. It is difficult to 
determine whether these were two distinct 
crowns, or only two denominations for the 
same one. It seems probable that the navnlis 
corona, besides being a generic term, was 
inferior in dignity to the latter, and given 
to the sailor who first boarded an enemy's 
ship ; whereas the rostrata was given to a 
commander who destroyed the whole fleet, 
or gained any very signal victory. At all 
events, they were both made of gold ; and 
one at least (rostrata} decorated with the 
beaks of ships like the rostra in the forum. 
The Athenians likewise bestowed golden 
crowns for naval services ; sometimes upon 
the person who got his trireme first equipped, 
and at others upon the captain who had his 
vessel in the best order. IV. CORONA MTJ- 
RALIS, was presented by the general to the 
first man who scaled the wall of a besieged 
city. It was made of gold, and decorated 
with turrets. V. CORONA CASTRENSIS or VAL- 
LARIS, was presented to the first soldier who 
surmounted the vallum, and forced an en- 
trance into the enemy's camp. This crown 
was made of gold, and ornamented with the 
palisades (valli) used in forming an entrench- 
were three sorts of triumphal crowns : the 
first was made of laurel or bay leaves, and 
was worn round the head of the commander 
during his triumph ; the second was of gold, 
which, being too large and massive to be 
worn, was held over the head of the general 
during his triumph, by a public officer. This 
crown, as well as the former one, was pre- 
sented to the victorious general by his army. 
The third kind, likewise of gold and of great 
value, was sent as a present from the pro- 
vinces to the commander. [AURTJM CORONA- 
RIUM.] VII. CORONA OVALIS, was given to 
a commander who obtained only an ovation. 
It was made of myrtle. VIII. CORONA OLJ> 
AOINA, was made of the olive leaf, and con- 
ferred upon the soldiers as well as their com- 
manders. The Greeks in general made but 
little use of crowns as rewards of valour in 
the earlier periods of their history, except as 
prizes in the athletic contests ; but previous 
to the time of Alexander, crowns of gold 




were profusely distributed, amongst the 
Athenians at least, for every trifling feat, 
whether civil, naval, or military, which, 
though lavished without much discrimination 
as far as regards the character of the re- 
ceiving parties, were still subjected to certain 
legal restrictions in respect of the time, place, 
and mode in which they were conferred. 
They could not be presented hut in the public 
assemblies, and with the consent, that is by 
suffrage, of the people, or by the senators in 
their council, or by the tribes to their own 
members, or by the Srj/iorac to members of 
their own S^nos. According to the statement 
of Aeschines, the people could not lawfully 
present crowns in any place except in their 
assembly, nor the senators except in the se- 
nate-house ; nor, according to the same au- 
thority, in the theatre, which is, however, 
denied by Demosthenes ; nor at the public 
games, and if any crier there proclaimed the 
crowns he was subject to atimia. Neither 
could any person holding an office receive a 
crown whilst he was virevOvvos, that is, be- 
fore he had passed his accounts. The second 
class of crowns were emblematical and not 
honorary, and the adoption of them was not 
regulated by law, but custom. Of these there 
were also several kinds. I. CORONA SACER- 
DOTALIS, was worn by the priests (sacerdotes), 
with the exception of the pontifex maximus 
and his minister (camillus), as well as the 
bystanders, when officiating at the sacrifice. 
It does not appear to have been confined to 
any one material. II. CORONA FUNEBRIS and 
SEPVLCHRALIS. The Greeks first set the ex- 
ample of crowning the dead with chaplets of 
leaves and flowers, which was imitated by 
the llomans. Garlands of flowers were also 
placed upon the bier, or scattered from the 
windows under which the procession passed, 

Fimaic* with Crowns. (From an ancle:' Painting.) 

or entwined about the cinerary urn, or as a 
decoration to the tomb. In Greece these 
crowns were commonly made of parsley. 
III. CORONA CONVIVIALIS. The use of chap- 
lets at festive entertainments sprung likewise 
fi'om Greece. They were of various shrubs 
and flowers, such as roses (which were the 
choicest), violets, myrtle, ivy, philyra, and 
even parsley. IV. CORONA NUPTIALIS. The 
bridal wreath was also of Greek origin, among 
whom it was made of flowers plucked by the 
bride herself, and not bought, which was of ill 
omen. Amongst the llomans it was made of 
verbena, also gathered by the bride herself, 
and worn under the Jlammeum, with which 
the bride was always enveloped. The bride- 
groom also wore a chaplet. The doors of 
his house were likewise decorated with gar- 
lands, and also the bridal couch. V. CORONA 
N ATALITIA, the chaplet suspended over the door 
of the vestibule, both in the houses of Athens 
and Rome, in which a child was born. At 
Athens, when the infant was male, the crown 
was made of olive ; when female, of wool. At 
Rome it was of laurel, ivy, or parsley. 

CORONIS (/copwi/is), the cornice of an en- 
tablature, is properly a Greek word signify- 
ing anything curved. It is also used by 
Latin writers, but the genuine Latin word for 
a cornice_is corona or coronix. 

CORTINA, the name of the table or hollow 
slab, supported by a tripod, upon which the 
priestess at Delphi sat to deliver her re- 
sponses ; and hence the word is used for the 
oracle itself. The Romans made tables of 
marble or bronze after the pattern of the 
Delphian tripod, which they used as we do 
our sideboards, for the purpose of displaying 
their plate at an entertainment. These were 
termed cortinae Delphicae, oiDelphicae simply. 

CORYBANTICA ((copv/SaxriKct), a festival 
and mysteries celebrated at Cnossus in Crete, by 
the Corybantes. (SeeClass. -Die?.,CoRYBANTES.) 

CORYMBUS (<copvfx/3os). [CoMA.] 

CORVUS, a sort of crane, used by C. Dui- 
lius against the Carthaginian fleet in the 
battle fought off Mylae, in Sicily (B. c. 260). 
The Romans, we are told, being unused to 
the sea, saw that their only chance of vic- 
tory was by bringing a sea-figUt to resemble 
one on land. For this purpose they invented 
a machine, of which Polybius has left a mi- 
nute description. In the fore part of the 
ship a round pole was fixed perpendicularly, 
twenty-four feet in height and about nine 
inches in diameter ; at the top of this was a 
pivot, upon which a ladder was set, thirty- 
six feet in length and four in breadth. The 
ladder was guarded by cross-beams, fastened 
to the upright pole by a ring of wood, which 
turned with the pivot above. Along the 




ladder a rope was passed, one end of which 
took hold of the corvtis by means of a ring. 
The corvus itself was a strong piece of iron, 
with a spike at the end, which was raised or 
lowered by drawing in or letting out the 
rope. When an enemy's ship drew near, the 
machine was turned outwards, by means of 
the pivot, in the direction of the assailant. 
Another part of the machine was a breast- 
work, let down from the ladder, and serving 
as a bridge, on which to board the enemy's 
vessel. By means of these cranes the Car- 
thaginian ships were either broken or closely 
locked with the Koman, and Duilius gained a 
complete victory. 

CORYTOS or CORYTUS (ywpvrds, /cwpvTos). 

COSMETAE, a class of slaves among the 
Romans, whose duty it was to dress and 
adorn ladies. 

COSMI (KOO>U>I), the supreme magistrates 
in Crete, were ten in number, and were 
chosen, not from the body of the people, but 
from certain yeVr/ or houses, which were pro- 
bably of more pure Doric or Achaean descent 
than their neighbours. The first of them in 
rank was called protocosmus, and gave his 
name to the year. They commanded in war, 
and also conducted the business of the state 
with the representatives and ambassadors of 
other cities. Their period of office was a year ; 
but any of them during that time might resign, 
and was also liable to deposition by his col- 
leagues. In some cases, too, they might be 
indicted for neglect of their duties. On the 
whole, we may conclude that they formed the 
executive and chief power in most of the 
cities of Crete. 

COTHURNUS Ocoflopvos), a boot. Its es- 
sential distinction was its height ; it rose 
above the middle of the leg, so as to surround 
the calf, and sometimes it reached as high as 
the knees. It was worn principally by horse- 
men, by hunters, and by men of rank and 
authority. The sole of the cothurnus was 
commonly of the ordinary thickness ; but it 
was sometimes made much thicker than usual, 
probably by the insertion of slices of cork. 

Cutburau*. (From Statues of Artemis Diann.) 

The object was, to add to the apparent stature 
of the wearer ; and this was done in the case 
of the actors in Athenian tragedy, who had 
the soles made unusually thick as one of the 
methods adopted in order to magnify their 
whole appearance. Hence tragedy in general 
was called cothurnus. As the cothurnus was 
commonly worn in hunting, it is represented 
as part of the costume of Artemis (Diana). 

COTTABUS (KOTTot/So9),'a social game which 
was introduced from Sicily into Greece, where 
it became one of the favourite amusements of 
young people after their repasts. The sim- 
plest way in which it originally was played 
was this : One of the company threw out of 
a goblet a certain quantity of wine, at a cer- 
tain distance, into a metal basin. While he 
was doing this, he either thought of or pro- 
nounced the name of his mistress ; and if all 
the wine fell in the basin, and with a full 
sound, it was a good sign for the lover. This 
simple amusement soon assumed a variety of 
different characters, and became, in some 
instances, a regular contest, with prizes for 
the victor. One of the most celebrated modes 
in which it was carried on is called fit* ofv- 
/3d</>o>c. A basin was filled with water, with 
small empty cups (bt;v[ia<j>a) swimming upon 
it. Into these the young men, one after 
another, threw the remnant of the wine from 
their goblets, and he who had the good for- 
tune to drown most of the bowls obtained the 
prize, consisting either of simple cakes, sweet- 
meats, or sesame-cakes. 

COTYTTIA (VoTTtma), a festival which was 
originally celebrated by the Edonians of 
Thrace, in honour of a goddess called Cotys, 
or Cotytto. It was held at night. The wor- 
ship of Cotys, together with the festival of 
the Cotyttia, was adopted by several Greek 
states, chiefly those which were induced by 
their commercial interest to maintain friendly 
relations with Thrace. The festivals of this 
goddess were notorious among the ancients 
for the dissolute manner and the debaucheries 
with which they were celebrated. 

COTYLA (KOTUA.TJ), a measure of capacity 
among the Romans and Greeks : by the former 
it was also called hemina ; by the latter, 
Tpvfi\iov and rnj.iva or ripinva.. It was the 
half of the sextarius or fe'ernjs, and contained 
6 cyathi, or nearly half a pint English. 

COVINUS (Celtic, kmcain), a kind of car, 
the spokes of which were armed with long 
sickles, and which was used as a scythe-cha- 
riot chiefly by the ancient Belgians and 
Britons. The Romans designated, by the 
name of covinus, a kind of travelling carriage, 
which seems to have been covered on all sides 
with the exception of the front. It had no 
seat for a driver, but was conducted by the 



traveller himself, who sat inside. The covi- 
nrtrii (this word occurs only in Tacitus) seem 
to have constituted a regular and distinct part 
of a British irmy. Compare ESSEDUM. 

CRATER (ftpanip, Ionic KPITJJP, from Kfpav- 
wii.1, I mix), a vessel in which the wine, ac- 
cording to the custom of the ancients, who 
very seldo-n drank it pure, was mixed with 
water, and from which the cups were filled. 
Craters were among the first things on the 
embellishment of which the ancient artists 
exercised their skill ; and the number of 
craters dedicated in temples seems everywhere 
to have been very great. 

CREPIDA (KPTJTTI'?), a slipper. Slippers 
were worn with the pallium, not with the toga, 
and were properly characteristic of the Greeks, 
though adopted from them by the Romans. 

CRIMEN. Though this word occurs so 
frequently, it is not easy to fix its meaning. 
Crimen is often equivalent to accusatio (lomj- 
yopi'a) ; but it frequently means an act which 
is legally punishable. Those delicta which 
were punishable according to special leges, 
senatus eonsulta, and constitutiones, and were 
prosecuted in judicia publica by an accusatio 
publica, were more especially called crimina ; 
and the penalties in case of conviction were 
loss of life, of freedom, of civitas, and the 
consequent infamia, and sometimes pecuniary 
penalties also. 


CRITES (icpiTjjs), a judge, was the name 
applied by the Greeks to any person who did 
not judge of a thing like a Sixacmjs, accord- 
ing to positive laws, but according to his own 
sense of justice and equity. But at Athens 
a number of Kpirai was chosen by ballot from 
a number of selected candidates at every 
celebration of the Dionysia : they were called 
oi (cptTat, /car' efoxTJf. Their office was to 
judge of the merit of the different choruses 
and dramatic poems, and to award the prizes 
to the victors. Their number was five for 
comedy and the same number for tragedy, 
one being taken from every tribe. 


CROCOTA (sc. vestis, KpoKorrov sc. Ifidnov, 
or KpoKtarbs sc. XIT^I/}, was a kind of gala- 
dress, chiefly worn by women on solemn 
occasions, and in Greece especially, at the 
festival of the Dionysia. Its name was de- 
rived from crocus, one of the favourite colours 
of the Greek ladies. 



CRUX (oTavpds, oxoAoi//), an instrument of 
capital punishment, used by several ancient 
nations, especially the Romans and Cartha- 
ginians. Crucifixion was of two kinds, the 
less usual sort being rather impalement than 

what we should describe by the word cruci- 
fixion, as the criminal was transfixed by a 
pole, which passed through the back and 
spine and came out at the mouth. The cross 
was of several kinds ; one in the shape of an 
X, called crux Andreana, because tradition 
reports St. Andrew to have suffered upon it ; 
another was formed like a T. The third, and 
most common sort, was made of two pieces of 
wood crossed, so as to make four right angles. 
It was on this, according to the unanimous 
testimony of the fathers, that our Saviour 
suffered. The punishment, as is well known, 
was chiefly inflicted on slaves, and the worst 
kind of malefactors. The criminal, after sen- 
tence pronounced, carried his cross to the 
place of execution ; a custom mentioned in 
the Gospels. Scourging appears to have 
formed a part of this, as of other capital 
punishments among the Romans ; but the 
scourging of our Saviour is not to be regarded 
in this light, for it was inflicted before sen- 
tence was pronounced. The criminal was 
next stripped of his clothes and nailed or 
bound to the cross. The latter was the more 
painful method, as the sufferer was left to die 
of hunger. Instances are recorded of persons 
who survived nine days. It was usual to 
leave the body on the cross after death. The 
breaking of the legs of the thieves, mentioned 
in the Gospels, was accidental ; because, by 
the Jewish law, it is expressly remarked, the 
bodies could not remain on the cross during 
the Sabbath-day. 

CRYPT A (from (tpum-eiv, to conceal), a 
crypt. Amongst the Romans, any long nar- 
row vault, whether wholly or partially below 
the level of the earth, is expressed by this 
term. The specific senses of the word are : 
( 1 ) A covered portico or arcade ; called more 
definitely crypto-porticus, because it was not 
supported by open columns like the ordinary 
portico, but closed at the sides, with windows 
only for the admission of light and air. (Q) 
A grotto, particularly one open at both ex- 
tremities, forming what in modern language 
is denominated a " tunnel." A subterranean 
vault used for any secret worship was also 
called crypto,. ( 3 ) AVhen the practice of 
consuming the body by fire was relinquished 
[Fvuus], and a number of bodies was con- 
signed to one place of burial, as the cata- 
combs for instance, this common tomb was 
called crypto. 

CRYPTEIA ((cpvirma), the name of an 
atrocious practice at Sparta, said to have been 
introduced by Lycurgus. The following is 
the description given of the crypteia. The 
ephors, at intervals, selected from among the 
young Spartans, those who appeared to be 
best qualified for the task, and sent them iu 



various directions all over the country, pro- 
vided with daggers and their necessary food. 
During the day-time, these young men con- 
cealed themselves ; tut at night they broke 
forth into the high-roads, and massacred those 
of the helots whom they met, or whom they 
thought proper. 

COBICULARII, slaves who had the care 
of the sleeping and dwelling rooms. Faithful 
slaves were always selected for this office, as 
they had, to a certain extent, the care of their 
master's person. It was the duty of the cu- 
bicularii to introduce visitors to their master. 
CUBICULUM usually means a sleeping and 
dwelling room in a Roman house [DOMUS], 
but it is also applied to the pavilion or tent 
in which the Roman emperors were accus- 
tomed to witness the public games. It ap- 
pears to have been so called, because the 
emperors were accustomed to recline in the 
cubicula, instead of sitting, as was anciently 
the practice, in a sella curulis. 

CUBITUS (i^x"), a Greek and Roman 
measure of length, originally the length of 
the human arm from the elbow to the wrist, 
or to the knuckle of the middle finger. It 
was equal to a foot and a half, which gives 
1 foot 5-4744 inches Eng. for the Roman, and 
1 foot 6-2016 inches for the Greek cubit. 

CUCULLUS, a cowl. As the cowl was 
intended to bo used in the open air, and to 
be drawn over the head to protect it from the 
injuries of the weather, instead of a hat or 
cap, it was attached only to garments of the 
coarsest kind. The cucullus was also used 
by persons in the higher circles of society, 
when they wished to go abroad without being 

CUDO or CUDON, a skull-cap made of 
leather or of the rough shaggy fur of any 
wild animal, such as were worn by the velites 
of the Roman armies, and apparently syno- 
nymous with galena or galericulus. 

CULEUS, or CULLEUS, a Roman measure, 
which was used for estimating the produce of 
vineyards. It was the largest liquid measure 
used by the Romans, containing 20 amphorae, 
or 118 gallons, 7-546 pints. 

CULINA. [DOMUS, p. 143.] 

CULTER (p-axaipa, KOTTI'S, or orc/Hf/i's), a 
knife with only one edge, which formed a 

Cultri (From Tombstoni of a Cultrarn 

traight line. The blade was pointed, and 
ts back curved. It was used for a variety 
if purposes, but chiefly for killing animals 
ither in the slaughter-house, or in hunting, 
ir at the altars of the gods. The priest who 
conducted a sacrifice never killed the victim 
limself ; but one of his ministri, appointed 
'or that purpose, who was called either by 
;he general name minister, or the more spe- 
cific popa or cultrarius. 

CUNEUS was the name applied to a body 
of foot soldiers, drawn up in the form of a 
wedge, for the purpose of breaking through 
an enemy's line. The common soldiers called 
t a caput porcinum, or pig's head. The name 
unetis was also applied to the compartments 
of seats in circular or semi-circular theatres, 
which were so arranged as to converge to the 
:entre of the theatre, and diverge towards 
the external walls of the building, with pas- 
sages between each compartment. 

CUXICULUS (vTrdvojuos), a mine or pas- 
sage underground, was so called from its 
resemblance to the burrowing of a rabbit. 
Fidenae and Veil are said to have been 
taken by mines, which opened, one of them 
into the citadel, the other into the temple of 

CCPA, a wine-vat, a vessel very much 
like the dolitim, and used for the same pur- 
pose, namely, to receive the fresh must, and 
to contain it during the process of fermenta- 
tion. The inferior wines were drawn for 
drinking from the cupa, without being bot- 
tled in amphorae, and hence the term mnum 
de cupa. The cupa was either made of earth- 
enware, like the dolimn, or of wood, and 
covered with pitch. It was also used for 
fruits and corn, forming rafts, and containing 
combustibles in war, and even for a sarco- 

CURATOR. Till a Roman youth attained 
the age of puberty, which was generally fixed 
at fourteen years of age, he was incapable of 
any legal act, and was under the authority 
of a tutor or guardian ; but with the attain- 
ment of the age of puberty, he became ca- 
pable of performing every legal act, and was 
freed from the control of his tutor. As, 
however, a person of that tender age was 
liable to be imposed upon, the lex Plaetoria 
enacted that every person between the time 
of puberty and twenty-five years of age should 
be under the protection of a curator. The 
date of this lex is not known, though it is 
certain that the law existed when Plaulus 
wrote (about B. c. 200), who speaks of it as 
the lex guina vicemaria. This law established 
a distinction of age, which was of great prac- 
tical importance, by forming the citizens into 




two classes, those above and those below 
twenty-five years of age (minores riginti 
qulnque annis'}. A. person under the last- 
mentioned age was sometimes simply called 
minor. The object of the lex was to protect 
persons under twenty-five years of age against j 
all fraud (dolus). A person who wasted his j 
property (prodigus], and a person of unsound 
mind (furiosus, demens], were also placed 
under the care of a curator. 

CURATORES were public officers of various 
kinds under the Roman empire, such as the 
curatores annonae, the curatores ludorum, the 
curatores regiontim, &c. 

CURIA, signifies both a division of the 
Koman people and the place of assembly for 
such a division. Each of the three ancient 
Romulian tribes, the Ramnes, Tities, and 
Luceres, was subdivided into 10 curiae, so 
that the whole body of the populus or the 
patricians was divided into 30 curiae. The 
plebeians had no connection whatever with 
the curiae. All the members of the different 
gentes belonging to one curia were called, in 
respect of one another, curiales. The divi- 
sion into curiae was of great political im- 
portance in the earliest times of Rome, for 
the curiae alone contained the citizens, and 
their assembly alone was the legitimate re- 
presentative of the whole people. [COMITIA 
CURIATA.] Each curia as a corporation had 
its peculiar sacra, and besides the gods of the 
state, they worshipped other divinities and 
with peculiar rites and ceremonies. For such 
religious purposes each curia had its own 
place of worship, called curia, in which the 
curiales assembled for the purpose of discuss- 

ing political, financial, religious and othel 
matters. The religious affairs of each cuna 
were taken care of by a priest, Curio, who 
was assisted by another called curialis Fla- 
men. As there were 30 curiae, there were 
likewise 30 curiones, who formed a college oi 
priests, presided over by one of them, called 
Curio Maximum. The 30 curiae had each ite 
distinct name, which are said to have been 
derived from the names of the Sabine women 
who had been carried off by the Romans, 
though it is evident that some derived their 
names from certain districts or from ancient 
eponymous heroes. Curia is also used to de- 
signate the place in which the senate held its 
meetings, such as curia Hostilia, curia Julia, 
curia Pompeii, and from this there gradually 
arose the custom of calling the senate itself 
in the Italian towns curia, but never the se- 
nate of Rome. The official residence of the 
Salii, which was dedicated to Mars, was like- 
wise styled curia. 



CURIUS (icvpios), signified generally at 
Athens the person responsible for the welfare 
of such members of a family as the law pre- 
sumed to be incapable of protecting them- 
selves ; as, for instance, minors and slaves, 
and women of all ages. 

CURRUS (OPMO), a chariot, a car. These 
terms appear to have denoted those two- 
wheeled vehicles for the carriage of persons, 
which were open overhead, thus differing 
from the carpentum, and closed in front, in 
which they differed from the cisium. The 
most essential articles in the construction of 

Currua. I Ancient Chariot preserved in the Vatican..} 




the currus were, 1. The rim(ai'Tvf) [ANTYX]. 
2. The axle (afwv, axis). 3. The wheels 
((tu/cXa, rpoxoi, rotae), which revolved upon 
the axle, and were prevented from coming 
off by the insertion of pins (e^oXoi) into the 
extremities of the axles. The parts of the 
wheel were : (a) The nave (irAiJur?), modh- 
lus). (b) The spokes (icvf/nai, literally, the 
legs, radii.) (c) The felly (irv?). (d) The 
tire (eiritruTpov, canthus). 4. The pole (p"M<>, 
temo). All the parts above mentioned are 
seen in the preceding cut of an ancient chariot. 
The Greeks and Romans appear never to have 

used more than one pole and one yoke, and 
the currus thus constructed was commonly 
drawn by two horses, which were attached to 
it by their necks, and therefore called oYuyes 
t;r7roi ( owwpi's, gemini jugales, equi bijvgcs, 
&c. If a third horse was added, as was not 
unfrequently the case, it was fastened by 
traces. The horse so attached was called 
jrapijopos, Trapao-eipos, <mpa<dpo?, in Latin, fu- 
nalis, and is opposed to the uyiT<u or fvyio', 
the yoke-horses. The 'I'THI-OS TropTjopos is placed 
on the right of the two yoke-horses. (See 
woodcut.) The Latin name for a chariot and 

pair was biga, generally bigae. When a 
third horse was added, it was called triga. 
A chariot and four was called quadriga, 
generally quadrigae ; in Greek, rerpaopia 
or Te'OptTTjros. The horses were commonly 
harnessed in a quadriga after the manner 
already represented, the two strongest horses 
being placed under the yoke, and the two 
others fastened on each side by means of 
ropes. This is clearly seen in the two quad- 
rigae figured below, especially in the one on 
the right hand. It represents a chariot over- 
thrown in passing the goal at the circus. The 

charioteer having fallen backwards, the pole 
and yoke are thrown upwards into the air ; 
the two trace-horses have fallen on their 
knees, and the two yoke-horses are prancing 
on their hind legs. The currus was adapted 
to carry two persons, and on this account was 
called in Greek S<.'<pos. One of the two was 
of course the driver. He was called yvioxos, 
because he held the reins, and his companion 
7rapaj3dr>)5, from going by his side or near 
him. In the Homeric ages, chariots were 
commonly employed on the field of battle. 
The men of rank all took their chariots with 

Quadrigae, (From P aiming* on a Vane and a Tei ra-cotta.) 




them, and in an engagement placed them- 
selves in front. Chariots were not much 
used by the Romans. The most splendid 
kind were the quadrigae, in which the Ro- 
man generals and emperors rode when they 

sented on medals. It was enriched with 
gold and ivory. The utmost skill of the 
painter and the sculptor was employed to 
enhance its beauty and splendour. The 
triumphal car had in general no pole, the 

triumphed. The body of the triumphal car , horses being led by men who were stationed 
was cylindrical, as we often see it repre- | at their heads. 

Marble Chariot in the Vatican. 

CURSORES, slaves whose duty it was to 
run before the carriage of their masters. They 
first came into fashion in the first century of 
the Christian aera. The word cursores was 
also applied to all slaves whom their masters 
employed in carrying letters, messages, &c. 






CYATHUS (ituaflo?), a Greek and Roman 
liquid measure, containing one-twelfth of the 

Cjmthi. (Miuco Kurbunioo, Tol. IT. pi. I?.) 

sextarius, or -0825 of a pint English. The 
form of the cyathus used at banquets was 
that of a small ladle, by means of which the 
wine was conveyed into the drinking-eups 
from the large vessel [crater] in which it was 
mixed. Two of these cyathi are represented 
in the preceding woodcut. The cyathus was 
also the name given to a cup holding the same 
quantity as the measure. Hence Horace says 
(Carm. iii. 8. 13) : 

Sospitis centum." 

CYCLAS (<axcAas), a circular robe worn by 
women, to the bottom of which a border was 
affixed, inlaid with gold. It appears to have 
been usually made of some thin material. 

CYMA ((cC/ua), in architecture, an ogee, a 
wave-shaped moulding, consisting of two 
curves, the one concave and the other con- 
vex. There were two forms, the cyma recta, 
which was concave above, and convex below, 
thus, p~, and the cyma reversa, which was 
convex above and concave below, thus S". 
The diminutive cymatiwn or cumatium (KVJJ.O.- 
TIOV) is also used, and is indeed the more 
common name. 

CYMBA (Ku>j3rj) is derived from v>j3os, a 
hollow, and is employed to signify any small 
kind of boat used on lakes, rivers, &c. It 
appears to have been much the same as the 
acatium and scapha. 

CYMBALUM (<a!/u./3oAof ), a musical instru- 
ment, in the shape of two half globes, which 
were held one in each hand by the performer, 




and played by being struck against each other. 
The word is derived from Kv>j3o?, a hollow. 
The cymbal was a very ancient instrument, 
being used in the worship of Cybele', Bacchus, 
Juno, and all the earlier deities of the Gre- 
cian and Roman mythology. It probably 
came from the East. The crotalum (cpdraXoi') 
was a kind of cymbal. It appears to have 

Cymbala. (Fi 

the Vatican.) 

been a split reed or cane, which clattered 
when shaken with the hand. Women who 
played on the crotalum were termed crotalis- 
triae. Sucii was Virgil's Copa : 

" Crispum sub crotalo docta movere latus." 

The line alludes to the dance with crotala 
(similar to castanets).' For sistmm, which 
some have referred to the class of cymbalo, 

Crotala. (Borghese Vase 

DACTYLUS (SaxTvXos), a Greek measure, 
answering to the Roman digitus, each 
signifying a finger-breadth, and being the 
sixteenth part of a foot. [PES.] 

SdAeia), names used by the Greeks to signify 
those early works of art which were ascribed 
to the age of Daedalus, and especially the 
ancient wooden statues, ornamented with 
gilding and bright colours and real drapery, 
which were the earliest known forms of the 
images of the gods, after the mere blocks of 
wood or stone, which were at first used for 
symbols of them. 

DAEDALA (Sai'SoXa), the name of two 
festivals, celebrated in Boeotia in honour of 
Hera, and called respectively the Great and 
the Lesser Daedala. The latter were cele- 
brated by the Plataeans alone ; in the cele- 
bration of the former, which took place only 
every sixtieth year, the Plataeans were joined 
by the other Boeotians. 

DAMARETION (SajuopeVetoj' xpvVioiO, a 
Sicilian coin, respecting which there is much 
dispute ; but it was probably a gold coin, 
equal in value to fifty litrae or ten Attic 
drachmae of silver ; that is, a half stater. 


DAMOSIA. [ExERcrrrs.] 

DANACE (Saydio)), properly the name of a 
foreign coin, was also the name given to the 
obolos, which was placed in the mouth of the 
dead to pay_the ferryman in Hades. 

DAPHNEPHORIA (Sa^nj^opia), a festival 
celebrated every ninth year at Thebes in 
honour of Apollo, surnamcd Ismenius or Ga- 
laxius. Its name was derived from the laurel 
branches (Sa</>ra<.) which were carried by those 
who took part in its celebration. 

DS.REICUS (SapeiKos), or to give the name 
in full, the Stater of Dareius, a gold coin of 
Persia, stamped on one side with the figure 
of an archer crowned and kneeling upon one 
knee, and on the other with a sort of quad- 
rata incusa or deep cleft. It is supposed to 
have derived its name from the first Dareius, 
king of Persia. It is equal to about II. Is. 1 Orf. 
1-76 farthings. 

. (Bntisn Musi 




DECADUCIII (ieicaSovxoi), the members 
of a council of Ten, who succeeded the Thirty 
Jn the supreme power at Athens, B. c. 403. 
They were chosen from the ten tribes, one 
from each ; but, though opposed to the 
Thirty, they sent ambassadors to Sparta to 
ask for assistance against Thrasybulus and 
the exiles. They remained masters of Athens 
till the party of Thrasybulus obtained possession 
of the city and the democracy was restored. 

\Ca, SfKoSapxia), a supreme council established 
in many of the Grecian cities by the Lace- 
daemonians, who entrusted to it the whole 
government of the state under the direction 
of a Spartan harmost. It always consisted 
of the leading members of the aristocratical 

DECASMUS (Seicao-Aick), bribery. There 
were two actions for bribery at Athens : one, 
called Sexaa-^ov ypa^rj, lay against the person 
who gave the bribe ; and the other, called &<ap<av 
or SupoSoKias yp<wf>7), against the person who 
received it. These actions applied to the 
bribery of citizens in the public assemblies 
of the people (ovvSfiedffiv TTIV tKK\ri<Tia.v], of 
the Heliaea or any of the courts of justice, of 
the /3ouA>j, and of the public advocates. Ac- 
tions for bribery were under the jurisdiction 
of the thesmothetae. The punishment on 
conviction of the defendant was death, or 
payment of ten times the value of the gift 
received, to which the court might add a 
further punishment (npocrrifirjua). 


DECEMPEDA, a pole ten feet long, used 
by the agrimensores [AGRIMENSORES] in mea- 
suring land. Thus we find that the agrimen- 
sores were sometimes called decempedatores. 


DECEMVIRI, or the " ten-men," the name 
of various magistrates and functionaries at 
Rome, of whom the most important were : 
missioners, who were appointed to draw up 
a code of laws. They were entrusted with 
supreme power in the state, and all the other 
magistracies were suspended. They entered 
upon their office at the beginning of the year 
B.C. 451 ; and they discharged their duties 
with diligence, and dispensed justice with 
impartiality. Each administered the govern- 
ment day by day in succession as during an 
interregnum ; and the fasces were only car- 
ried before the one who presided for the 
day. They drew up a body of laws, distri- 
buted into ten sections ; which, after being 
approved of by the senate and the comitia, 
were engraven on tables of metal, and set up 
In the comitium. On the expiration of their 
year of office, all parties were so well satisfied 

with the manner in which they had discharged 
their duties, that it was resolved to continue 
the same form of government for another 
year ; more especially as some of the decem- 
virs said that their work was not finished. 
Ten new decemvirs were accordingly elected, 
of whom App. Claudius alone belonged to the 
former body. These magistrates framed 
several new laws, which were approved of by 
the centuries, and engraven on two additional 
tables. They acted, however, in a most 
tyrannical manner. Each was attended by 
twelve lictors, who carried not the rods only, 
but the axes, the emblem of sovereignty. 
They made common cause with the patrician 
party, and committed all kinds of outrages 
upon the persons and property of the ple- 
beians and their families. When their year 
of office expired they refused to resign or to 
appoint successors. At length, the unjust 
decision of App. Claudius, in the case of Vir- 
ginia, which led her father to kill her with his 
own hands to save her from prostitution, occa- 
sioned an insurrection of the people. The decem- 
virs were in consequence obliged to resigr 
their office, B.C. 449 ; after which the usual ma- 
gistracies were re-established. The ten tables 
of the former, and the two tables of the latter 
decemvirs, form together the laws of the 
Twelve Tables, which were the groundwork 
of the Roman laws. This, the first attempt 
to make a code, remained also the only at- 
tempt for near one thousand years, until the 
legislation of Justinian. (2) DECEMVIRI Li- 
trates forming a court of justice, which took 
cognizance of civil cases. The history as well 
as the peculiar jurisdiction of this court dur- 
ing the time of the republic is involved in 
inextricable obscurity. In the time of Cicero 
it still existed, and the proceedings" in it took 
place in the ancient form of the sacramentum. 
Augustus transferred to these decemvirs the 
presidency in the courts of the centum viri. 
During the empire, this court had jurisdic- 
tion in capital matters, which is expressly 
stated in regard to the decemvirs. (3) DE- 
simply DECEMVIRI SACRORUM, were the mem- 
bers of an ecclesiastical collegium, and were 
elected for life. Their chief duty was to take 
care of the Sibylline books, and to inspect 
them on all important occasions by command 
of the senate. Under the kings the care of 
the Sibylline books was committed to two 
men (duumviri) of high rank. On the expul- 
sion of the kings, the care of these books was 
entrusted to the noblest of the patricians, who 
were exempted from all military and civil 
dutif. Their number was increased about 
the year o67 B. c. to ten, of whom five were 




ehosen from the patricians and five from the 
plebeians. Subsequently their number was 
still further increased to fifteen (quindecem- 
viri), probably by Sulla. It was also the 
duty cf the decemviri to celebrate the games 
of Anollo, and the secular games. 

celebrated with games every ten years by the 
Roman emperors. This festival owed its 
origin to the fact that Augustus refused the 
supreme power when, offered to him for his 
life, and would only consent to accept it for 
ten years, and when these expired, for 
another period of ten years, and so on to the 
end of his life. 

DECIMAT10, the selection, by lot, of every 
tenth man for punishment, when any number 
of soldiers in the Roman army had been 
guilty of any crime. The remainder usually 
had barley allowed to them instead of wheat. 
This punishment appears not to have been 
inflicted in the early times of the republic. 

DECRETUM seems to mean that which is 
determined in a particular case after exami- 
nation or consideration. It is sometimes 
applied to a determination of the consuls, and 
sometimes to a determination of the senate. 
A decretum of the senate would seem to differ 
from a senatus-consultiim, in the way above 
indicated : it was limited to the special occa- 
sion and circumstances, and this would be 
true whether the decretum was of a judicial 
or a legislative character. But this distinc- 
tion in the use of the two words, as applied 
to an act of the senate, was, perhaps, not 
always observed. 

DECUMAE (sc. paries] formed a portion 
of the vectigalia of the Romans, and were 
paid by subjects whose territory, either by 
conquest or deditlo, had become the property 
of the state (ager publicus). They consisted, 
as the name denotes, of a tithe or tenth of 
the produce of the soil, levied upon the culti- 
vators (aratores) or occupiers (possessores] of 
the lands, which, from being subject to this 
payment, were called agri dccumani. The tax 
of a tenth was, however, generally paid by corn 
lands : plantations and vineyards, as requir- 
ing no seed and less labour, paid a fifth of the 
produce. A similar system existed in Greece 
also. Peisistratus, for instance, imposed a 
tax of a tenth on the lands of the Athenians, 
which the Peisistratidae lowered to a twen- 
tieth. At the time of the Persian war the 
confederate Greeks made a vow, by which all 
the states who had surrendered themselves to 
the enemy were subjected to the payment of 
tithes for the use of the god at Delphi. The 
tithes of the public lands belonging to Athens 
Were farmed out as at Rome to contractors, 
called StKariavai : the term SeKanjAo-yoi was 

applied to the collectors ; but the callings 
were, as we might suppose, often united in 
the same person. The title SeKarevraC is ap- 
plied to both. A SeicaTT), or tenth of a differ- 
ent kind, was the arbitrary exaction imposed 
by the Athenians (B.C. 410) on the cargoes 
of all ships sailing into or out of the Pontus. 
They lost it by the battle of Aegospotami 
(B. c. 405) ; but it was re-established by 
Thrasybulus about B. c. 391. The tithe was 
let out to farm. 

DECUNCIS, another name for the Dex- 
tans. [As.] 




DEDICATIO. [iNAuounATio.] 

DEDITICII, were those who had taken up 
arms against the lloman people, and being 
conquered, had surrendered themselves. Such 
people did not individually lose their freedom, 
but as a community all political existence, 
and of course had no other relation to Rome 
than that of_subjects. 


DEIGMA (Selyna), a particular place in the 
Peiraeeus, as well as in the harbours of other 
states, where merchants exposed samples oi 
their goods for sale. The samples themselves 
were also called deigmata. 


DELATOR, an informer. The delatores, 
under the emperors, were a class of men who 
gained their livelihood by informing against 
their fellow-citizens. They constantly brought 
forward false charges to gratify the avarice 
or jealousy of the different emperors, and 
were consequently paid according to the im- 
portance of the information which they gave. 


DELIA (fi>;Ai.a), the name of festivals and 
games celebrated in the island of Delos, to 
which the Cyclades and the neighbouring lo- 
nians on the coasts belonged. The Delia had 
existed from very early times, and were cele- 
brated every fifth year. That the Athenians 
took part in these solemnities at a very early 
period, is evident from the Deliastae (after- 
wards called flecopoi) mentioned in the laws of 
Solon ; the sacred vessel (Oewpi's), moreover, 
which they sent to Delos every year, was 
said to be the same which Theseus had sent 
after his return from Crete. In the course 
of time the celebration of this ancient pane- 
gyris in Delos had ceased, and it was not re- 
vived until B.C. 426, when the Athenians, 
after having purified the island in the winter 
of that year, restored the ancient solemnities, 
and added horse-races, which had never 
before taken place at the Delia. After this 
restoration, Athens, being at the head of the 




Ionian confederacy, took the most prominent 
part in the celebration of the Delia ; and 
though the islanders, in common with Athens, 
provided the choruses and victims, the leader 
(dpxiCewpos), \vho conducted the whole solem- 
nity, was an Athenian, and the Athenians 
had the superintendence of the common sanc- 
tuary. From these solemnities, belonging to 
the great Dclian panegyris, we must distin- 
guish the lesser Delia, which were men- 
tioned above, and which were celebrated 
every year, probably on the 6th of Tharge- 
lion. The Athenians on this occasion sent 
the sacred vessel (flewpi's), which the priest of 
Apollo adorned with laurel branches, to De- 
los. The embassy was called Oeiapia and 
those who sailed to the island, Cewpoi ; and 
before they set sail a solemn sacrifice was 
offered in the Delion, at Marathon, in order 
to obtain a happy voyage. During the absence 
of the vessel the city of Athens was purified, 
and no criminal was allowed to be executed. 

DELPHINIA (SeA<iW), a festival of the 
same expiatory character as the Apollonia, 
which was celebrated in various towns of 
Greece, in honour of Apollo, surnamed Del- 

DELPHIS (Seat's), an instrument of naval 
warfare. It consisted of a large mass of iron 
or lead suspended on a beam, w r hich pro- 
jected from the mast of the ship like a yard- 
arm. It was used to sink, or make a hole in, 
an enemy's vessel, by being dropped upon it 
when alongside. 


DEMARCIII (&jnopxoi), officer;;, who were 
the head-boroughs or chief magistrates of the 
demi in Attica, and are said to have been 
first appointed by Cleisthenes. Their duties 
were various and important. Thus, they 
convened meetings of the demus, and took 
the votes upon all questions under considera- 
tion ; they made and kept a register of the 
landed estates in their districts, levied the 
monies due to the demus for rent, &c. They 
succeeded to the functions which had been 
discharged by the naucrari of the old consti- 

DEMENSUM, an allowance of corn, given 
to Roman slaves monthly or daily. It 
usually consisted of four or five modii of corn 
a mojith. 


DEMIURGI (orjutoypyoi), magistrates, 
whose title is expressive of their doing the 
service of the people, existed in several of 
the Peloponnesian states. Among the Eleans 
and Mantineans they seem to have been the 
chief executive magistracy. \Ve also read of 
demiurgi in the Achaean league, who probably 
ranked next to the strategi, and put questions 

to the vote in the general assembly of the 
confederates. Officers named epidemiurgi, or 
upper demiurgi, were sent by the Corin- 
thians to manage the government of their 
colony at Potidaea. 

DEMOCRATIA (Sr^oKparia), that form of 
constitution in which the sovereign political 
power is in the hands of the demus (<$goc) 
or commonalty. In a passage of Herodotus 
(iii. 80), the characteristics of a democracy 
are specified to be 1.. Equality of legal 
rights (icrorojoitr)). 2. The appointment of 
magistrates by lot. 3. The accountability of 
all magistrates and officers. 4. The reference 
of all public matters to the decision of the 
community at large. Aristotle remarks 
" The following points are characteristic of a 
democracy ; that all magistrates should be 
chosen out of the whole body of citizens; 
that all should rule each, and each in turn 
rule all ; that either all magistracies, or those 
not requiring experience and professional 
knowledge, should be assigned by lot ; that 
there should be no property qualification, or 
but a very small one, for filling any magis- 
tracy ; that the same man should not fill the 
same office twice, or should fill offices but few 
times, and but few offices, except in the case 
of military commands ; that all, or as many 
as possible of the magistracies, should be of 
brief duration ; that all citizens should be 
qualified to serve as dicasts ; that the su- 
preme power in everything should reside in 
the public assembly, and that no magistrate 
should be entrusted with irresponsible power 
except in very small matters." It is some- 
what curious that neither in practice nor in 
theory did the representative system attract 
any attention among the Greeks. That dis- 
eased form of a democracy, in which from 
the practice of giving pay to the poorer citi- 
zens for their attendance in the public as- 
sembly, and from other causes, the predomi- 
nant party in the state came to be in fact the 
lowest class of the citizens, was by later 
writers termed an Ochlocracy (oxXoKpario 
the dominion of the mob) . 

DEMOSII (Srjuoo-ioi), public slaves at 
Athens, who were purchased by the state. 
The public slaves, most frequently men- 
tioned, formed the city guard ; it was their 
duty to preserve order in the public aGsem- 
bly, and to remove any person whom the 
prytaneis might order. They are generally 
called bowmen (TO|OTOU) ; or from the native 
country of the majority, Scythians (SxvOai) ; 
and also Speusinians, from the name of the 
person who first established the force. They 
originally lived in tents in the market-place, 
and afterwards upon the Areiopagus. Their 
officers had the name of toxarehs (Toopx0. 



Their number was at first 300, purchased 
soon after the battle of Salamis, but was after- 
wards increased to 1200. 

DEMUS (firj/oios), originally indicated a dis- 
trict or tract of land ; and in this meaning of 
a country district, inhabited and under culti- 
vation, it is contrasted with TTOA.IS. When 
Cleisthenea, at Athens, broke up the four 
tribes of the old constitution, he substituted 
in their place ten local tribes ($vAa! ron-ueai), 
each of which he subdivided into ten demi or 
country parishes, possessing- each its princi- 
pal town ; and in some one of these demi 
were enrolled all the Athenian citizens resi- 
dent in Attica, with the exception, perhaps, 
of those who were natives of Athens itself. 
These subdivisions corresponded in some de- 
gree to the naticrariae (yavKpapiaC) of the old 
tribes, and were originally one hundred in 
number. These demi formed independent 
corporations, and had each their several ma- 
gistrates, landed and other property, with a 
common treasury. They had likewise their 
respective convocations or " parish meetings," 
convened by the demarchi, in which was 
transacted the public business of the demus, 
such as the leasing of its estates, the elections 
of officers, the revision of the registers or 
lists of Sijuorai, and the admission of new 
members. Independent of these bonds of 
union, each demus seems to have had its 
peculiar temples and religious worship. 
There were likewise judges, called Satoo-Toi 
KO.TO. STjfiou?, who decided cases where the mat- 
ter in dispute was of less value than ten 
drachmae. Admission into a demus was neces- 
sary before any individual conld enter upon 
his full rights and privileges as an Attic citizen. 
The register of enrolment was called Aijf topx'- 
KOV ypofijtiareioi'. 

DENARIUS, the principal silver coin among 
the Romans, was so called because it was 
originally equal to ten asses ; but on the re- 
duction of the weight of the as [As], it was 
made equal to sixteen asses, except in mili- 
tary pay, in which it was still reckoned as 
equal to ten asses. The denarius was first 
coined five years before the first Punic war, 
B. c. 269. [ARGENTUM.] The average value 
of the denarii coined at the end of the com- 
monwealth is about 8jrf., and those under 
tlve empire about 7jd. If the denarius be 
reckoned in value 8jd., the other Roman 
coins of silver will be of the following value : 

Teruncius - 

Sembella - 

Libella - 

Sestertius - 

Quinarius or Victoriatus - 

Denarius - 














Some denarii were called scrrati, because 
their edges were notched like a saw, which 

Denarius. (British Museum.) 

appears to have been done to prove that they 
were solid silver, and not plated ; and others 
bigati and quadrigati, because on their re- 
verse were represented chariots drawn by two 
and four horses respectively. 


DESULTOR, a rider in the Roman games, 
who generally rode two horses at the same 
time, sitting on them without a saddle, and 
vaulting upon either of them at his pleasure. 



DIADEMA, originally a white fillet, used to 
encircle the head. It is represented on the 
head of Dionysus, and was, in an ornamented 
form, assumed by kings as an emblem of so- 

DIAETETAE (SiamjTai), or arbitrators, at 
Athens, were of two kinds ; the one public 
and appointed by lot (KArjpwToi), the other 
private, and chosen (aiperot) by the parties 
who referred to them the decision of a dis- 
puted point, instead of trying it before a court 
of justice; the judgments of both, according 
to Aristotle, being founded on equity rather 
than law. The number of public arbi- 
trators seems to have been 40, four for each 
tribe. Their jui-isdiction was confined to civil 


DIAMASTlGOSIS (&an<x0Tiya><ns), a so- 
lemnity performed at Sparta at the festival 
of Artemis Orthia. Spartan youths were 
scourged on the occasion at the altar of Ar- 
temis, by persons appointed for the purpose, 
until their blood gushed forth and covered 
the altar. Many anecdotes are related of the 
courage and intrepidity with which young 
Spartans bore the lashes of the scourge ; some 
even died without uttering a murmur at their 
sufferings, for to die under the strikes was 
considered as honourable a death as that on 
the field of battle. 

DIAPSEPHISIS (5i<u/nj<fu(nO, a political 
institution at Athens, the object of which was 
to prevent aliens, or such as were the off- 
spring of an unlawful marriage, from as- 
suming the rights of citizens. By this me- 




thod a trial of spurious citizens was to be 
held by the demotae, within whose deme in- 
truders were suspected to exist. 

DLASIA (Siaom), a great festival celebrated 
at Athens, without the walls of the city, in 
honour of Zeus, surnamed MeiAi'^ios. The 
whole people took part in it, and the wealthier 
citizens offered victims, while the poorer 
classes burnt such incense as their country 
furnished. The diasia took place in the lat- 
ter half of the month of Anthesterion with 
feasting and rejoicings, and was, like most 
other festivals, accompanied by a fair. 

DICA9TES (ioccurnis), the name of a judge, 
or rather juryman, at Athens. The condi- 
tions of his eligibility were, that he should 
be a free citizen, in the enjoyment of his full 
franchise (eirm/uu'a), and not less than thirty 
years of age, and of persons so qualified 
6,000 were selected by lot for the service 
of every year. Their appointment took place 
annually under the conduct of the nine ar- 
chons and their official scribe ; each of these 
ten personages drew by lot the names of 
600 persons of the tribe assigned to him; 
the whole number so selected was again di- 
vided by lot into ten sections of 500 each, 
together with a supernumerary one, consist- 
ing of 1000 persons, from among whom 
the oceasional deficiencies in the sections of 
500 might be supplied. To each of the ten 
sections one of the ten first letters of the 
alphabet was appropriated as a distinguishing 
mark, and a small tablet (mvaiaov), inscribed 
with the letter of the section and the name 
of the individual, was delivered as a certifi- 
cate of his appointment to each dicast. Be- 
fore proceeding to the exercise of his func- 
tions, the dicast was obliged to swear the 
official oath. This oath being taken, and the 
divisions made as above mentioned, it re- 
mained to assign the courts to the several 
sections of dicasts in which they were to sit. 
This was not, like the first, an appointment 
intended to last during the year, but took 
place under the conduct of the thesmothetae, 
de novo, every time that it was necessary to 
impanel a number of dicasts. As soon as the 
allotment had taken place, each dicast re- 
ceived a staff, on which was painted the let- 
ter and the colour of the court awarded him, 
which might serve both as a ticket to pro- 
cure admittance, and also to distinguish him 
from any loiterer that might endeavour 
clandestinely to obtain a sitting after busi- 
ness had begun. While in court, and pro- 
bably from the hand of the presiding ma- 
gistrate (xyttuav 5uca<7T>)ptou), he received the 
token or ticket that entitled him to receive 
his fee (SiKaorucdv). This payment is said to 
have been first instituted by Pericles, and 

was originally a single obolus ; it was in- 
creased by Cleon to thrice that amount about 
the 88th Olympiad. 

DICE (Sucij), signifies generally any pro- 
ceedings at law by one party directly or me- 
diately against others. The object of all 
such actions is to protect the body politic, or 
one or more of its individual members, from 
injury and aggression ; a distinction which has 
in most countries suggested the division of all 
causes into two great classes, the public anil 
the private, and assigned to each its peculiar 
form and treatment. At Athens the first of 
these was implied by the terms public Sucai, 
or ayiavf?, or still more peculiarly by 
ypcufitu ; causes of the other class were 
termed private Sutai, or ayii/es, or simply SI'KCU 
in its limited sense. In a Si'/oj, only the per- 
son whose rights were alleged to be affected, 
or the legal protector (xvpios) of such per- 
son, if a minor or otherwise incapable of ap- 
pearing suo jure, was permitted to institute 
an action as plaintiff; in public causes, with 
the exception of some few in which the per- 
son injured or his family were peculiarly 
bound and interested to act, any free citizen, 
and sometimes, when the state was directly 
attacked, almost any alien, was empowered 
to do so. The court fees, called prytaneia, 
were paid in private but not in public causes, 
and a public prosecutor that compromised 
the action with the defendant was in most 
cases punished by a fine of a thousand drach- 
mae and a modified disfranchisement, while 
there was no legal impediment at any period 
of a private lawsuit to the reconciliation of 
the litigant parties. The proceedings in 
the $007 were commenced by a summons 
(7rpd<rKAr)<ns) to the defendant to appear on a 
certain day before the proper magistrate 
(eicrayuyevs), and there answer the charges 
preferred against him. This summons was 
often served by the plaintiff in person, accom- 
panied by one or two witnesses (KA)T>)pes), 
whose names were endorsed upon the declara- 
tion (Aijf is or eyicAijua). Between the service 
of the summons and appearance of the parties 
before the magistrate, it is very probable that 
the law prescribed the intervention of a period 
of five days. If both parties appeared, the 
proceedings commenced by the plaintiff put- 
ting in his declaration, and at the same time 
depositing his share of the court fees (n-pu- 
Taveia), which were trifling in amount, but 
the non-payment of which was a fatal ob- 
jection to the further progress of a cause. 
When these were paid, it became the duty cf 
the magistrate, if no manifest objection ap- 
peared on the face of the declaration, to cause 
it to be written out on a tablet, and exposed 
foi the inspection of the public on the wall 
K 2 




or other place that served as the cause list of 
his court. The magistrate then appointed a 
day for the further proceedings of the ana- 
crisis [ANACRISIS], If the plaintiff failed to 
appear at the anacrisis, the suit, of course, 
fell to the ground ; if the defendant made 
default, judgment passed against him. An 
affidavit might at this, as well as at other 
periods of the action, be made in behalf of a 
person unable to attend upon the given day, 
and this would, if allowed, have the effect of 
postponing further proceedings (un-u^oo-ia) ; 
it might, however, be combated by a counter- 
affidavit, to the effect that the alleged reason 
was unfounded or otherwise insufficient (avOv- 
moju.o<ria) ; and a question would arise upon 
this point, the decision of which, when ad- 
verse to the defendant, would render him 
liable to the penalty of contumacy. The 
plaintiff was in this case said fprjpuiv e\elv ; 
the defendant, fpr/M" o^Aciv, Simpr being the 
word omitted in both phrases. The anacrisis 
began with the affidavit of the plaintiff (irpota- 
noo-t'a), then followed the answer of the de- 
fendant (aiT(oju.o<ria or drrtypacfn}), then the 
parties produced their respective witnesses, 
and reduced their evidence to writing, and 
put in originals, or authenticated copies, of 
all the records, deeds, and contracts that 
might be useful in establishing their case, as 
well as memoranda of offers and requisitions 
then made by either side (TrpoitAijcreis). The 
whole of the documents were then, if the 
cause took a straightforward course (evflu- 
6i(ct'a), enclosed on the last day of the ana- 
crisis in a casket (ex"* ?), which was sealed, 
and entrusted to the custody of the presiding 
magistrate, till it was produced and opened at 
the trial. During the interval no alteration 
in its contents was permitted, and accordingly 
evidence that had been discovered after the 
anaerisis was not producible at the trial. 
In some causes, the trial before the dicasts 
was by law appointed to come on within a 
given time ; in such as were not provided for 
by such regulations, we may suppose that it 
would principally depend upon the leisure of 
the magistrate. Upon the court being assem- 
bled, the magistrate called on the cause, and 
the plaintiff opened his case. At the com- 
mencement of the speech, the proper officer 
(6 <#>' iiStop) filled the clepsydra with water. 
As long as the water flowed from this vessel 
the orator was permitted to speak ; if, how- 
ever, evidence was to be read by the officer 
of the court, or a law recited, the water was 
stopped till the speaker recommenced. The 
quantity of water, or, in other words, the 
length of the speeches, was different in dif- 
ferent causes. After the speeches of the ad- 
vocates, which were in general two on each 

side, and the incidental reading of the docu- 
mentary and other evidence, the dicasts pro- 
ceeded to give their judgment by ballot. 
When the principal point at issue was de- 
cided in favour of the plaintiff, there followed 
in many cases a further discussion as to the 
fine or punishment to be inflicted on the 
defendant (muScii/ 17 ammom). All actions 
were divided into two classes, ayires ari- 
/ai)roi, suits not to 6e assessed, in which the fine, 
or other penalty, was determined by the 
laws ; and ayujvet TIHTJTOI', suits to be as- 
sessed, in which the penalty had to be fixed 
by the judges. If the suit was an ayiav 
T^TOS, the plaintiff generally mentioned 
in the pleadings the punishment which he 
considered the defendant deserved (rt'm/aa) ; 
and the defendant was allowed to make a 
counter-assessment (di/i-m/uoo-Sai or vtron- 
/uacrOai), and to argue before the judges why 
the assessment of the plaintiff ought to be 
changed or mitigated. In certain causes, 
which were determined by the laws, any of 
the judges was allowed to propose an addi- 
tional assessment (7rpo<rrt/ii)|u.a) ; the amount 
of which, however, appears to have been 
usually fixed by the laws. Thus, in certain 
cases of theft, the additional penalty was 
fixed at five days' and nights' imprison- 
ment. Upon judgment being given in a 
private suit, the Athenian law left its execu- 
tion very much in the hands of the successful 
party, who was empowered to seize the move- 
ables of his antagonist as a pledge for the 
payment of the money, or institute an action 
of ejectment (efovAijs) against the refractory 
debtor. The judgment of a court of dicasts 
was in general decisive (Si'icr) airoTeA^s) ; but 
upon certain occasions, as, for instance, when 
a gross case of perjury or conspiracy could 
be proved by the unsuccessful party to have 
operated to his disadvantage, the cause, upon 
the conviction of such conspirators or wit- 
nesses, might be commenced de novo. 

DICTATOR, an extraordinary magistrate 
at Rome. The name is of Latin origin, and 
the office probably existed in many Latin 
towns before it was introduced into Rome. 
We find it in Lanuvium even in very late times. 
At Rome this magistrate was originally called 
magister populi and not dictator, and in the 
sacred books he was always designated by the 
former name down to the latest times. On 
the establishment of the Roman republic the 
government of the state was entrusted to two 
consuls, that the citizens might be the better 
protected against the tyrannical exercise of 
the supreme power. But it was soon felt 
that circumstances might arise in which it 
was of importance for the safety of the state 
that the government should be vested in the 




hands of a single person, who should possess 
for a season absolute power, and from whose 
decision there should he no appeal to any 
other body. Thus it came to pass that in 
B.C. 501, nine years after the expulsion of 
the Tarquins, the dictatorship (dictatura] 
was instituted. By the original law respect- 
ing the appointment of a dictator (lex de dic- 
tators creando) no one was eligible for this 
office unless he had previously been consul. 
We find, however, a few instances in which 
this law was not observed. When a dictator 
was considered necessary, the senate passed a 
senatus consultum, that one of the consuls 
should nominate (dicere) a dictator ; and 
without a previous decree of the senate the 
consuls had not the power of naming a dicta- 
tor. The nomination or proclamation of the 
dictator was always made by the consul, pro- 
bably without any witnesses, between mid- 
night and morning, and with the observance 
of the auspices (surgens or oriens node silen- 
tio dictatorem dicebat). The technical word 
for this nomination or proclamation was 
dicere (seldom creare or facere). Originally 
the dictator was of course a patrician. The 
first plebeian dictator was C. Marcius Rutilus, 
nominated in B.C. 356 by the plebeian con- 
sul M. Popillius Laenas. The reasons which 
led to the appointment of a dictator, required 
that there should be only one at a time. The 
dictators that were appointed for carrying on 
the business of the state were said to be no- 
minated rei gerundae causa, or sometimes 
seditionis sedandae causa; and upon them, 
as well as upon the other magistrates, the 
imperium was conferred by a Lex Curiata. 
The dictatorship was limited to six months, 
and no instances occur in which a person 
held this office for a longer time, for the dic- 
tatorships of Sulla and Caesar are of course 
not to be taken into account. On the con- 
trary, though a dictator was appointed for 
six months, he often resigned his office long 
previously, immediately after he had dis- 
patched the business for which he had been 
appointed. As soon as the dictator was no- 
minated, a kind of suspension took place with 
respect to the consuls and all the other 
magistrates, with the exception of the tribuni 
plebis. The regular magistrates continued, 
indeed, to discharge the duties of their 
various offices under the dictator, but they 
were no longer independent officers, but were 
subject to the higher imperium of the dictator, 
and obliged to obey his orders in every thing. 
The superiority of the dictator's power to 
that of the consuls consisted chiefly in the 
three following points greater independence 
of the senate, more extensive power of 
punishment without any appeal (provocatio] 

from their sentence to the people, and irre- 
sponsibility. To these three points, must of 
course be added that he was not fettered by a 
colleague. We may naturally suppose that 
the dictator would usually act in unison with 
the senate ; but it is expressly stated that in 
many cases where the consuls required the 
co-operation of the senate, the dictator could 
act on his own responsibility. That there 
was originally no appeal from the sentence of 
the dictator is certain, and accordingly the 
lictors bore the axes in the fasces before 
them even in the city, as a symbol of their 
absolute power over the lives of the citizens, 
although by the Valerian law the axes had 
disappeared from the fasces of the consuls. 
Whether, however, the right of provocatio 
was afterwards given cannot be determined. 
It was in consequence of the great and irre- 
sponsible power possessed by the dictatorship, 
that we find it frequently compared with the 
regal dignity, from which it only differed in 
being held for a limited time. There were 
however a few limits to the power of the 
dictator. 1. The most important was that 
which we have mentioned above, that the 
period of his office was only six months. 2. 
He had not power over the treasury, but 
could only make use of the money which was 
granted him by the senate. 3. He was not 
allowed to leave Italy, since he might thus 
easily become dangerous to the republic; 
though the case of Atilius Calatinus in the 
first Punic war forms an exception to this 
rule. 4. He was not allowed to ride on 
horseback at Rome, without previously ob- 
taining the permission of the people ; a 
regulation apparently capricious, but perhaps 
adopted that he might not bear too great a 
resemblance to the kings, who were accus- 
tomed to ride. The insignia of the dictator 
were nearly the same as those of the kings in 
earlier times ; and of the consuls subse- 
quently. Instead however of having only 
twelve lictors, as was the case with/the con- 
suls, he was preceded by twenty-four bearing 
the secures as well as the fasces. The sella 
curulis and toga praetexta also belonged to 
the dictator. The preceding account of the 
dictatorship applies more particularly to the 
dictator rei gerundae causa; but dictators 
were also frequently appointed, especially 
when the consuls were absent from the city, 
to perform certain acts, which could not be 
done by any inferior magistrate. These dic- 
tators had little more than the name ; and as 
they were only appointed to discharge a par- 
ticular duty, they had to resign immediately 
that duty was performed. The occasions on 
which such dictators were appointed, were 
principally: 1. For the purpose of holding 




the comitia for the elections (comitiorum ha- 
bendormn causa], 2. For fixing the clavus 
annalis in the temple of Jupiter (clavi figendi 
causa] in times of pestilence or civil discord, 
because the law said that this ceremony was 
to be performed by the praetor maximus, and 
after the institution of the dictatorship the 
latter was regarded as the highest magistracy 
in the state. 3. For appointing holidays 
(feriarum constituendarum causa] on the ap- 
pearance of prodigies, and for officiating at 
the public games (ludorum faciendorum 
causa], the presidency of which belonged to 
the consuls or praetors. 4. For holding 
trials (quaestionibus exercendis.] 5. And on 
one occasion, for filling up vacancies in the 
senate (legendo senatui]. Along with the 
dictator there was always a magister equitum, 
the nomination of whom was left to the 
choice of the dictator, unless the senatus 
consultum specified, as was sometimes the 
case, the name of the person who was to be 
appointed. The magister equitum had, like 
the dictator, to receive the imperium by a 
lex curiata. ' The dictator could not be with- 
out a magister eqnitum, and, consequently, 
if the latter died during the six months of 
the dictatorship, another had to be nominated 
in his stead. The magister equitum was 
subject to the imperium of the dictator, but 
in the absence of his superior he became his 
representative, and exercised the same powers 
as the dictator. The magister equitum was 
originally, as his name imports, the com- 
mander of the cavalry, while the dictator was 
at the head of the legions, the infantry ; and 
the relation between them was in this re- 
spect similar to that which subsisted between 
the king and the tribunus celerum. Dicta- 
tors were only appointed so long as the Ro- 
mans had to carry on wars in Italy. A soli- 
tary instance of the nomination of a dictator 
for the purpose of carrying on war out of 
Italy has been already mentioned. The last 
dictator rei gerundae causa was M. Junius 
Pera, in B.C. 216. From that time dicta- 
tors were frequently appointed for holding 
the elections down to B.C. 202, but after that 
year the dictatorship disappears altogether. 
After a lapse of 120 years, Sulla caused him- 
self to be appointed dictator in B.C. 82, reipub- 
licae constituendae causa, but neither his dicta- 
torship nor that of Caesar is to be compared 
with the genuine office. Soon after Caesar's 
death the dictatorship was abolished for ever 
by a lex proposed by the consul Antonius. 
During the time, however, that the dictator- 
ship was in abeyance, a substitute was in- 
vented for it, whenever the circumstances of 
the republic required the adoption of extra- 
ordinary measures, by the senate investing 

the consuls with dictatorial power. This 
was done by the well-known formula, Videant 
or dent operam consults, ne quid respublica 
detrimcnti capiat. 

DICTYNNIA (&KTWia), a festival with 
sacrifices, celebrated at Cydonia in Crete, in 
honour of Artemis, surnamed ^.(.KTUVVO. or 
AiKTtWaia, from &IKTVOV, a hunter's net. 

DIES (li^epa), a day. The name dies was 
applied, like our word day, to the time during 
which, according to the notions of the an- 
cients, the sun performed his course around 
the earth, and this time they called the civil 
day (dies civilis, in Greek vv\6rnj.epov, because 
it included both night and day). The natural 
day (dies naturalis], or the time from the 
rising, to the setting of the sun, was likewise 
designated by the name dies. The civil day 
began with the Greeks at the setting of the 
sun, and with the Romans at midnight. At 
the time of the Homeric poems the natural 
day was divided into three parts. The first, 
called ^ios, began with sunrise, and compre- 
hended the whole space of time during which 
light seemed to be increasing, i. e. till mid- 
day. The second part was called /J-ca-ov ^/uap 
or mid-day, during which the sun was 
thought to stand still. The third part bore 
the name of 6ei'A>| or fieieAor ^MP, which de- 
rived its name from the increased warmth of 
the atmosphere. Among the Athenians the 
first and last of the divisions made at the 
time of Homer were afterwards subdivided 
into two parts. The earlier part of the 
morning was termed irpioi or T?P<? T^S i^epas : 
the latter, n-Ai)0ov<jTjs TJJS ayopas, or irfpi 
TT\ridovcrav ayopav- The He<rov fiftap of Homer 
was afterwards expressed by ^emj/i^pia, /ueVoi' 
i^e'pa<r, or F") we'p a , and comprehended, as 
before, the middle of the day, when the sun 
seemed neither to rise nor to decline. The 
two parts of the afternoon were called SeiAr) 
irpu>ir) or Trpiofa, and Sei'Arj 6<|(ir) or b\l/ia. This 
division continued to be observed down to 
the latest period of Grecian history, though 
another more accurate division was intro- 
duced at an early period ; for Anaximander, 
or, according to others, his disciple Anaxi- 
menes, is said to have made the Greeks 
acquainted with the use of the Babylonian 
chronometer or sun-dial (called n-oAos, or 
iIjpoAoytoi/), by means of which the natural 
day was divided into twelve equrtl spaces of 
time. The division of the day most gene- 
rally observed by the Romans, was that into 
tempus antemeridianum and pomeridianum, 
the meridies itself being only considered as a 
point at which the one ended and the other 
commenced. But as it was of importance 
that this moment should be known, an espe- 
cial officer [ACCENSUS] was appointed, who 




proclaimed the time of mid-day. The divi- 
sion of the day into twelve equal spaces, 
Which were shorter in winter than in summer, 
was first adopted when artificial means of 
measuring time were introduced among the 
Romans from Greece. This was about the 
years, c. 291, when L. Papirius Cursor, after 
the war with Pyrrhus in southern Italy, 
brought to Rome an instrument called sola- 
rium horologium, or simply solarium. But 
as the solarium had been made for a different 
latitude, it showed the time at Rome very 
incorrectly. Scipio Nasica, therefore, erected 
in B. c. 159 a public clepsydra, which indi- 
cated the hours of the night as well as of the 
day. Even after the erection of this clep- 
sydra it was customary for one of the subor- 
dinate officers of the praetor to proclaim the 
third, sixth, and ninth hours ; which shows 
that the day was, like the night, divided into 
four parts, each consisting of three hours. 
All the days of the year were, according to 
different points' of view, divided by the Ro- 
mans into different classes. For the purpose 
of the administration of justice all days were 
divided into dies fasti and dies nefasti. DIES 
FASTI were the days on which the praetor 
was allowed to administer justice in the pub- 
lic courts ; they derived their name from 
fari (fari tria verba; do, dico, addico). On 
some of the dies fasti comitia could be held, 
but not on all. The regular dies fasti were 
marked in the Roman calendar by the letter 
F, and their number in the course of the year 
was 38. Besides these there were certain 
days called dies intercisi, on which the prae- 
tor might hold his courts, but not at all 
hours, so that sometimes one half of such a 
day was fastus, while the other half was ne- 
fastus. Their number was 65 in the year. 
DIES NEFASTI were days on which neither 
courts of justice nor comitia were allowed to 
be held, and which were dedicated to other 
purposes. The term dies nefasti, which 
originally had nothing to do with religion, 
but simply indicated days on which no courts 
were to be held, was in subsequent times 
applied to religious days in general, as dies 
nefasti were mostly dedicated to the worship 
of the gods. In a religious point of view all 
days of the year were either dies festi, or 
dies prof esti, or dies intercisi. According to 
the definition given by Macrobius, dies festi 
were dedicated to the gods, and spent with 
sacrifices, repasts, games, and other solemni- 
ties ; dies profesti belonged to men for the 
administration of their private and public 
affairs. Dies intercisi were common between 
gods and men, that is, partly devoted to the 
worship of the gods, partly to the transaction 
of ordinary business. Dies profesti were 

either dies fasti, or dies comitiales, that is, 
days on which comitia were held, or dies 
comperendini, that is, days to which any ac- 
tion was allowed to be transferred ; or dies 
stati, that is, days set apart for causes 
between Roman citizens and foreigners ; or 
dies proeliales, that is, all days on which re- 
ligion did not forbid the commencement of a 

DIIPOLEIA (SuiroAeia), also called AMTO- 
Aeia or AijrdAia, a very ancient festival cele- 
brated every year on the acropolis of Athens 
in honour of Zeus, surnamed IIoAievs. 

DEVIACHAE (Si/ouixai), Macedonian horse- 
soldiers, who also fought on foot when occa- 
sion _required, like our dragoons. 
D1OCLEIA (SidicAeia), a festival celebrated 
by the Megarians in honour of an ancient 
Athenian hero, Diodes, around whose grave 
young men assembled on the occasion, and 
amused themselves with gymnastic and other 
contests. We read that he who gave the 
sweetest kiss obtained the prize, consisting 
of a garland of flowers. 

DIONtSIA (SionJcna), festivals celebrated 
in various parts of Greece in honour of Dio- 
nysus, and characterised by extravagant 
merriment and enthusiastic joy. Drunken- 
ness, and the boisterous music of flutes, cym- 
bals, and drums, were likewise common to 
all Dionysiac festivals. In the processions 
called OiWoi (from Ociagw), -with which they 
were celebrated, women also took part in the 
disguise of Bacchae, Lenae, Thyades, Naiades, 
Nymphs, &c., adorned with garlands of ivy, 
and bearing the thyrsus in their hands, so 
that the whole train represented a population 
inspired, and actuated by the powerful pre- 
sence of the god. The choruses sung on the 
occasion were called dithyrambs, and were 
hymns addressed to the god in the freest 
metres and with the boldest imagery, fin 
which his exploits and achievements were 
extolled. [CHOHUS.] The phallus, the sym- 
bol of the fertility of nature, was also carried 
in these processions. The indulgence in 
drinking was considered by the Greeks as a 
duty of gratitude which they owed to the 
giver of the vine ; hence in some places it 
was thought a crime to remain sober at the 
Dionysia. The Attic festivals of Dionysus 
were four in number : the Rural or Lesser 
Dionysia (Aioruo-ia KO.T dypotis, or ju.iicpa), the 
Lenaea (A^i/aia), the Anthcsteria ('A-vBt- 
a-nfipia), and the City or Great Dionysia 
(AioMOTta tv atrrei, aoruca, or /tiryaAa). The 
season of the year sacred to Dionysus was 
during the months nearest to the shortest 
day ; and the Attic festivals were accord- 




ingly celebrated in Poseideon, Gamelion, An- 
thcsterion, and Elaphebolion. The Rural or 
Lesser Dionysia, a vintage festival, were cele- 
brated in the various deraes of Attica in the 
month of Poseideon, and were under the su- 
perintendence of the several local magistrates, 
the demarchs. This was doubtless the most 
ancient of all, and was held with the highest 
degree of merriment and freedom ; even 
slaves enjoyed full freedom during its cele- 
bration, and their boisterous shouts on the 
occasion were almost intolerable. It is here 
that we have to seek for the origin of comedy, 
in the j ests and the scurrilous abuse with which 
the peasants assailed the bystanders from a 
waggon in which they rode about. The Dio- 
nysia in the Peiraeeus, as well as those of 
the other denies of Attica, belonged to the 
lesser Dionysia. The second festival, the 
Lenaea (from A.T;OS, the wine-press, from 
which also the month of Gamelion was called 
by the lonians Lenaeon), was celebrated in 
the month of Gamelion ; the place of its ce- 
lebration was the ancient temple of Dionysus 
Limnaeus (from At'/xn;, as the district was 
originally a swamp). This temple was called 
the Lenaeon. The Lenaea were celebrated 
with a procession and scenic contests in tra- 
gedy and comedy. The procession probably 
went to the Lenaeon, where a goat (rpdyo?, 
whence the chorus and tragedy which arose 
out of it were called rpoyiicbs xopoy, and 
rpaywSia.) was sacrificed, and a chorus stand- 
ing around the altar sang the dithyrambic 
ode to the god. As the dithyramb was the 
element out of which, by the introduction of 
an actor, tragedy arose [CHORUS], it is natural 
that, in the scenic contests of this festival, 
tragedy should have preceded comedy. The 
poet who wished his play to be brought out 
at the Lenaea applied to the second archon, 
who had the superintendence of this festival, 
and who gave him a chorus if the piece was 
thought to deserve it. The third festival, 
the Anthesteria, was celebrated on the llth, 
12th, and 13th days of the month of Anthe- 
sterion. The second archon likewise super- 
intended the celebration of the Anthesteria, 
and distributed the prizes among the victors 
in the various games which were carried on 
during the season. The first day was called 
ri0oiyia : the second, xs ' and the third, 
Xvrpoi, The first day derived its name from 
the opening of the casks to taste the wine of 
the preceding year ; the second from \oC9, 
the cup, and seems to have been the day 
devoted to drinking. The third day had its 
name from X^TPOS, a pot, as on this day per- 
sons offered pots with flowers, seeds, or cooked 
vegetables, as a sacrifice to Dionysus and 
Hermes Chthonius. It is uncertain whether 

dramas were performed at the Anthesteria ; 
but it is supposed that comedies were repre- 
sented, and that tragedies which were to be 
brought out at the great Dionysia were per- 
haps rehearsed at the Anthesteria. The mys- 
teries connected with the celebration of the 
Anthesteria were held at night. The fourth 
festival, the City or Great Dionysia, was 
celebrated about the 12th of the month of 
Elaphebolion ; but we do not know whethei 
they lasted more than one day or not. The 
order in which the solemnities took place was 
as follows : the great public procession, the 
chorus of boys, the comus [CHORUS], comedy, 
and, lastly, tragedy. Of the dramas which 
were performed at the great Dionysia, the 
tragedies at least were generally new pieces ; 
repetitions do not, however, seem to have 
been excluded from any Dionysiac festival. 
The first archon had the superintendence, 
and gave the chorus to the dramatic poet who 
wished to bring out his piece at this festival. 
The prize awarded to the dramatist for the 
best play consisted of a crown, and his name 
was proclaimed in the theatre of Dionysus. 
As the great Dionysia were celebrated at the 
beginning of spring, when the navigation was 
re-opened, Athens was not only visited by 
numbers of country people, but also by 
strangers from other parts of Greece, and the 
various amusements and exhibitions on this 
occasion were not unlike those of a modern 
fair. The worship of Dionysus, whom the 
Romans called Bacchus, or rather the Bac- 
chic mysteries and orgies (Bacchanalia], are 
said to have been introduced from southern 
Italy into Etruria, and from thence to Rome, 
where for a time they were carried on in 
secret, and, during the latter period of their 
existence, at night. The initiated, according 
to Livy, not only indulged in feasting and 
drinking at their meetings, but when their 
minds were heated with wine they indulged in 
the coarsest excesses and the most unnatural 
vices. The time of initiation lasted ten days ; 
on the tenth, the person who was to be ini- 
tiated took a solemn meal, underwent a puri- 
fication by water, and was led into the sanc- 
tuary (Bacchanal). At first only women 
were initiated, and the orgies were celebrated 
every year during three days. But Pacula 
Annia, a Campanian matron, pretending to 
act under the direct influence of Bacchus, 
changed the whole method of celebration : 
she admitted men to the initiation, and trans- 
ferred the solemnisation, which had hitherto 
taken place during the daytime, to the night. 
Instead of three days in the year, she ordered 
that the Bacchanalia should be held during 
five days in every month. It was from that 
time that these orgies were carried on with 




frightful licentiousness and excesses of every 
kind. The evil at length became so alarming, 
that, in B. c. 186, the consuls, by the com- 
mand of the senate, instituted an investiga- 
tion into the nature and object of these new 
rites. The result was that numerous persons 
were arrested, and some put to death ; and 
that a decree of the senate was issued, com- 
manding that no Bacchanalia should be held 
either in Rome or Italy ; that if any one 
should think such ceremonies necessary, or if 
he could not neglect them without scruples 
or making atonements, he should apply to 
the praetor urbanus, who might then consult 
the senate. If the permission should be 
granted to him in an assembly of the senate, 
consisting of not less than one hundred mem- 
bers, he might solemnise the Bacchic sacra ; 
but no more than five persons were to be 
present at the celebration ; there should be 
no common fund, and no master of the sacra 
or priest. A brazen table containing this 
important document was discovered near 
Bari, in southern Italy, in the year 1640, 
and is at present in the imperial Museum of 
Vienna. While the Bacchanalia were thus 
suppressed, another more simple and innocent 
festival of Bacchus, the Liberal/a (from Liber, 
or Liber Pater, a name of Bacchus), continued 
to be celebrated at Rome every year on the 
16th of March. Priests and aged priestesses, 
adorned with garlands of ivy, carried through 
the city wine, honey, cakes, and sweetmeat's, 
together with an altar with a handle *((insata 
ara), in the middle of which there was a 
small fire-pan (foculus), in which from time 
to time sacrifices were burnt. On this day 
Roman youths who had attained their six- 
teenth year received the toga tirilit. 

DIOSCURIA (Sioo-KovpwO, festivals cele- 
brated in various parts of Greece in honour 
of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux). Their 
worship was very generally adopted in Greece, 
especially in the Doric and Achaean states ; 
but little is known of the manner in which 
their festivals were celebrated. At Athens 
the festival was called Anaceia. 

DIOTA, a vessel having two ears (Jara) or 
handles, used for holding wine. It appears 
to have been much the same as the amphora. 

DIPIITHERA (oK^/pa), a kind of cloak 
made of the skins of animals, and worn by 
herdsmen and country people. It had a 
covering for the head (tmKpdvov), in which 
respect it would correspond to the Roman 

DIPLOMA, a writ or public document, 
which conferred upon a person any right 
or privilege. During the republic, it was 
granted by the consuls and senate ; and under 

the empire, by the emperor and the magis- 
trates whom he authorised to do so. It con- 
sisted of two leaves, whence it derived its 

DIPTYCHA (Siirrvxa), two writing tablets, 
which could be folded together. They were 
commonly made of wood and covered over 
with wax. 


DISCUS (Sio-icos), a circular plate of stone, 
or metal, made for throwing to a distance as 
an exercise of strength and dexterity. It 
was one of the principal gymnastic exercises 
of the ancients, being included in the Pen- 

Discobolus. (Ostcrlejr, Dcnk. der alt Kunst, vol. i. No. 139 




DIVIXATIO GWHTUCT)), a power in man 
which foresees future things by means of those 
signs which the gods throw in his way. 
Among the Greeks the manteis Giafreis), or 
seers, who announced the future, were sup- 
posed to be under the direct influence of the 
gods, chiefly that of Apollo. In many fami- 
lies of seers the inspired knowledge of the 
future was considered to be hereditary, and 
to be transmitted from father to son. To 
these families belonged the lamids, who from 
Olympia spread over a considerable part of 
Greece ; the Branchidae, near Miletus ; the 
Eumolpids, at Athens and Kleusis; the Tel- 




liads, the Acamanian seers, and others. Along 
with the seers we may also mention the Ba- 
cides and the Sibyllae. Both existed from a 
very remote time, and were distinct from the 
manteis so far as they pretended to derive 
their knowledge of the future from sacred 
books (xpj<r|Koi) which they consulted, and 
which were in some places, as at Athens and 
Home, kept by the government or some es- 
pecial officers, in the acropolis and in the 
most revered sanctuary. The Bacides are 
said to have been descended from one or 
more prophetic nymphs of the name of Bacis. 
The Sibyllae were prophetic women, probably 
of Asiatic origin, whose peculiar custom 
seems to have been to wander with their 
sacred books from place to place. The Si- 
bylla, whose books gained so great an im- 
portance at Rome, is reported to have been 
the Erythraean : the books which she was 
said to have sold to one of the Tarquins were 
carefully concealed from the public, and only 
accessible to the duumvirs. Besides these 
more respectable prophets and prophetesses, 
there were numbers of diviners of an inferior 
order (xpi<r/uo\6yoi), who made it their busi- 
ness to explain all sorts of signs, and to tell 
fortunes. They were, however, more parti- 
cularly popular with the lower orders, who 
are everywhere most ready to believe what 
is most marvellous and least entitled to credit. 
No public undertaking of any consequence 
was ever entered upon by the Greeks and 
Romans without consulting the will of the 
gods, by observing the signs which they 
sent, especially those in the sacrifices offered 
for the purpose, and by which they were 
thought to indicate the success or the failure of 
the undertaking. For this kind of divination 
no divine inspiration was thought necessary, 
but merely experience and a certain know- 
ledge acquired by routine ; and although in 
some cases priests were appointed for the 
purpose of observing and explaining signs 
[AUGUR ; HARUSPEX], yet on any sudden 
emergency, especially in private affairs, any 
one who met with something extraordinary, 
might act as his own interpreter. The prin- 
cipal signs by which the gods were thought 
to declare their will, were things connected 
with the offering of sacrifices, the flight and 
voice of birds, all kinds of natural pheno- 
mena, ordinary as well as extraordinary, and 
dreams. The interpretation of signs of the 
first class (ifponavTeia or iepocncoTu'a, harvupi- 
cium or ars haruspicina) was, according to 
Aeschylus, the invention of Prometheus. It 
seems to have been most cultivated by the 
Etruscans, among whom it was raised into a 
complete science, and from whom it passed 
to the Romans. Sacrifices were either offered 

for the special purpose of consulting the gods, 
or in the ordinary way ; but in both cases 
the signs were observed, and when they were 
propitious, the sacrifice was said KoAAiepeti/. 
The principal points that were generally ob- 
served were, 1. The manner in which the 
victim approached the altar. 2. The nature 
of the intestines with respect to their colour 
and smoothness ; the liver and bile were of 
particular importance. 3. The nature of the 
name which consumed the sacrifice. Especial 
care was also taken during a sacrifice, that 
no inauspicious or frivolous words were ut- 
tered by any of the bystanders : hence the 
admonitions of the priests, ev</>r)/u.etTe and 
eiK^Tj/ai'a, or triyare, <n<o7raTe, favete linguis, 
and others ; for improper expressions were 
not only thought to pollute and profane the 
sacred act, but to be unlucky omens. The 
art of interpreting signs of the second class 
was called oicoKKmioj, augurium, or iiuspiciitm. 
It was, like the former, common to Greeks 
and Romans, but never attained the same 
degree of importance in Greece as it did in 
Home. [AusnciuM.] The Greeks, when 
observing the flight of birds, turned their 
face toward the north, and then a bird ap- 
pearing to the right (east), especially an 
eagle, a heron, or a falcon, was a favourable 
sign ; while birds appearing to the left (west) 
were considered as unlucky signs. Of greater 
importance than the appearance of animals, 
at least to the Greeks, were the phenomena 
in the heavens, particularly during any public 
transaction. Among the unlucky phenomena 
in the heavens (Stooij/oieta, sitjna, or portenta) 
were thunder and lightning, an eclipse of the 
sun or moon, earthquakes, rain of blood, 
stones, milk, &c. Any one of these signs 
was sufficient at Athens to break up the as- 
sembly of the people. In common life, things 
apparently of no importance, when occurring 
at a critical moment, were thought by the 
ancients to be signs sent by tho gods, from 
which conclusions might be drawn respecting 
the future. Among these common occur- 
rences we may mention sneezing, twinkling 
of the eyes, tinkling of the ears, &c. The 
art of interpreting dreams (weipoTroAi'a), which 
had probably been introduced into Europe 
from Asia, where it is still a universal prac- 
tice, seems in the Homeric age to have been 
held in high esteem, for dreams were said to 
be sent by Zeus. In subsequent times, that 
class of diviners who occupied themselves 
with the interpretation of dreams, seems to 
have been very numerous and popular ; but 
they never enjoyed any protection from the 
state, and were chiefly resorted to by private 
individuals. The subject of oracles is treated 
in a separate article. [ORACULVM.] The 




word divinatio was ijsed in a particular man- 
; ner by the Romans as a law term. If in any 
l case two or more accusers came forward 
against one and the same individual, it was, 
as the phrase ran, decided by divination, who 
should be the chief or real accuser, whom the 
others then joined as subscriptores ; i. e. by 
putting their names to the charge brought 
against the offender. This transaction, by 
which one of several accusers was selected to 
conduct the accusation, was called divinatio, 
as the question here was not about facts, but 
about something which was to be done, and 
j which could not be found out by witnesses or 
i written documents ; so that the judices had, 
! as it were, to divine the course which they 
had to take. Hence the oration of Cicero, in 
which he tries to show that he, and not 
Q. Caecilius Niger, ought to conduct the ac- 
cusation against Verres, is called Divinatio in 


DIVORTIUM (dTrdAen/rtS, awomn^if), fli- 
vorce. ( 1 ) GREEK. The laws of Athens per- 
mitted either the husband or the wife to call 
for and effect a divorce. If it originated with 
the wife, she was said to leave her husband's 
house (dn-oXeiVetv) ; if otherwise, to be dis- 
missed from it (a.7ro7refi7re'cr0a<.). After divorce, 
the wife resorted to her male relations, with 
whom she would have remained if she had 
never quitted her maiden state ; and it then 
became their duty to receive or recover from 
her late husband all the property that she 
had brought to him in acknowledged dowry 
upon their marriage. If, upon this, both 
parties were satisfied, the divorce was final 
and complete : if otherwise, an action airoAei- 
i//ea>s, or a7ro7reV>/'e(os, would be instituted, as 
the case might be, by the party opposed to 
the separation. A separation, however, whe- 
ther it originated from the husband or the 
wife, was considered to reflect discredit on the 
latter. (2) ROMAN. Divorce always existed 
in the Roman polity. As one essential part 
of a marriage was the consent and con- 
jugal affection of the parties, it was consi- 
dered that this affection was necessary to its 
continuance, and accordingly either party 
might declare his or her intention to dissolve 
the connection. No judicial decree, and no 
interference of any public authority, was 
requisite to dissolve a marriage. The first 
instance of divorce at Rome is said to have 
occurred about B. c. 234, when Sp. Carvilius 
Ruga put away his wife, on the ground of 
barrenness : it is added, that his conduct was 
generally condemned. Towards the latter 
part of the republic, and under the empire, 
divorces became very common. Pompey di- 
vorced his wife Mucia for alleged adultery ; 

and Cicero divorced his wife Terentia, after 
living with her thirty years, and married a 
young woman. Cato the younger divorced 
his wife Marcia, that his friend Hortensius 
might marry her, and have children by her ; 
for this is the true meaning of the story 
that he lent his wife to Hortensius. If a 
husband divorced his wife, the wife's dowry, 
as a general rule, was restored ; and the 
same was the case when the divorce took 
place by mutual consent. Corresponding to 
the forms of marriage by confarreatio and 
cocmtio, there were the forms of divorce by 
dijjfarreatio and remancipatio. In course of 
time, less ceremony was used ; but etill some 
distinct notice or declaration of intention was 
necessary to constitute a divorce. The term 
repudium, it is said, properly applies to a 
marriage only contracted, and divortium to an 
actual marriage ; but sometimes divortium 
and repudium appear to be used indifferently. 
The phrases to express a divorce are, ntai- 
tium remittere, divortium facerc ; and the 
form of words might be as follows Tuas res 
tibi liabcto, tuas res tibi agito. The phrases 
used to express the. renunciation of a mar- 
riage contract were, renuntiare repudium, re- 
pudium remittere, dicere, and repudiare ; and 
the form of words might be, Conditione tua 
non titor. 

DOCANA (TO. Soxava, from Soicds, a beam) 
was an ancient symbolical representation of 
the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), at Sparta. 
It consisted of two upright beams with others 
laid across them transversely. 

DOCIMASIA (fioKtjxao-i'a). When any citi- 
zen of Athens was either appointed by lot, 
or chosen by suffrage, to hold a public office, 
he was obliged, before entering on its duties, 
to submit to a docimasia, or scrutiny into his 
previous life and conduct, in which any per- 
son could object to him as unfit. The doci- 
masia, however, was not confined to persons 
appointed to public offices ; for we read of 
the denouncement of a scrutiny against ora- 
tors who spoke in the assembly while leading 
profligate lives, or after having committed 
flagitious crimes. 


DOLABRA, dim. DOLABELLA (cf-^n, 
dim. o-fuA.i'oi'), a chisel, a celt, was used for a 
variety of purposes in ancient as in modern 
times. Oeltes is an old Latin word for a 
chisel, probably derived from coelo, to en- 
grave. Celts, or chisels, were frequently 
employed in making entrenchments and in 
destroying fortifications ; and hence they are 
often found in ancient earth-works and en- 
campments. They are for the most part of 
bronze, more rarely of hard stone. The sizes 
and forms which they present, are as various 




as the uses to which they were applied. The 
annexed woodcut is designed to show a few 
of the most remarkable varieties. 

DOLlUM, a cylindrical vessel, somewhat 
resembling our tubs or casks, into which new 
wine was put to let it ferment. 

Dolabrae, Celts. (From different CoUectK 

l Great Britain.) 

DOLO (SoAMv). (1) A secret poniard or 
dagger contained in a case, used by the 
Italians. It was inserted in the handles of 
whips, and also in walking sticks, thus cor- 
responding to our sword-stick. (2) A small 

DOMINIUM signifies quiritarian owner- 
ship, or property in a thing ; and domlnus, 
or dominiis Icgitimus, is the owner. The 
dominus has the power of dealing with a 
thing as he pleases, and differs from the bare 
possessor, who has only the right of posses- 
sion, and has not the absolute ownership of 
the thing. 

DOMUS (otKos), a house. (1) GREEK. A 
Greek house was always divided into two 
distinct portions, the Andronitis, or men's 
apartments (foipmAnt), and the Gynacconitis, 
or women's apartments (ywaiKiaviTis'). In 
the earliest times, as in the houses referred 
to b}' Homer, and in some houses at a later 
period, the women's apartments were in the 
upper story (vn-epwoi'), but usually at a later 
time the gynaeconitis was on the same story 
with the andronitis, and behind it. The front 
of the house towards the street was not large, 
as the apartments extended rather in the 
direction of its depth than of its width. In 
towns the houses were often built side by 
side, with party-walls between. The exterior 
wall was plain, being composed generally of 
stone, brick, and timber, and often covered 
with stucco. There was no open space be- 
tween the street and the house-door, like the 
lloman vestibulum. The vpoBvpa, which is 
sometimes mentioned, seems to be merely 
the space in front of the house, where there 
was generally an altar of Apollo Agyieus, 
or a rude obelisk emblematical of the 
god. Sometimes there was a laurel tree in 
the same position, and sometimes a head of 
the god Hermes. A few steps 

led up to the house-door, which generally 
bore some inscription, for the sake of a good 
omen, or as a charm. The door sometimes 
opened outwards ; but this seems to have 
been an exception to the general rule, as is 
proved by the expressions used for opening, 
evSovvai, and shutting it, em<rtrd<ra.(r9ai and 
e<j>e\Kv<racrdai. The handles were called emtr- 
7ra<rn}p6s. The house-door was called ai/Aeios 
or avAeia Ovpa, because it led to the avATj. 
It gave admittance to a narrow passage 
(9vf>iopeiov, 7rvA<oi>, Ovpiav), on one side of 
which, in a large house, were the stables, on 
the other the porter's lodge. The duty of 
the porter (flupwpos) was to admit visitors 
and to prevent anything improper from being 
carried into or out of the house. The porter 
was attended by a dog. Hence the phrase 
evAajSeio-Scu TTJV Kvva, corresponding to the 
Latin Cave canem. From the Qvpiapelov we 
pass into the peristyle or court (irpi<jniAioi>, 
avA>j) of the andronitis, which was a space 
open to the sky in the centre (vwaiffpov), and 
surrounded on all four sides by porticoes 
(<7Toai), of which one, probably that nearest the 
entrance, was called irpoo-roov. These por- 
ticoes were used for exercise, and sometimes 
for dining in. Here was commonly the altar 
on which sacrifices were offered to the house- 
hold gods. In building the porticoes the 
object sought was to obtain as much sun in 
winter, and as much shade and air in sum- 
mer as possible. Round the peristyle were 
arranged the chambers used by the men, such 
as banqueting rooms (olxot, ayfipwi/es), which 
were large enough to contain several sets of 
couches (rpiKAiroi, eirTcueAu'Oi, TpiaKOi/Ta/cAii/oi), 
and at the same time to allow abundant room 
for attendants, musicians, and performers of 
games ; parlours or sitting rooms (e|'5poi), 
and smaller chambers and sleeping rooms 
(Swjucma, Komoyej, oiKij/aara) ; picture - gal- 





leries and libraries, and sometimes store- 
rooms ; and in the arrangement of these 
apartments attention was paid to their aspect. 
The peristyle of the andronitis was connected 
with that of the gynaeconitis by a door called 
fte'rauAos, (xe'oauAos, or fieo-ai'Aios, which was 
in the middle of the portico of the peristyle 
opposite to the entrance. By means of this 
door all communication between the andro- 
nitis and gynaeconitis could be shut off. 
Accordingly Xenophon calls it Ovpa paKavtaras. 
Its name iJ.eo-av\os is evidently derived from 
/^e'o-os, and means the door between the two 
auAai or peristyles. This door gave admit- 
tance to the peristyle of the gynaeconitis, 
which differed from that of the andronitis in 
having porticoes round only three of its sides. 
On the fourth side were placed two antae 
[ANTAE], at a considerable distance from each 
other. A third of the distance between these 
antae was set off inwards, thus forming a 
chamber or vestibule, which was called n-poo-- 
ras, irapao-Tas, and Trpdopo/nos. On the right 






Ground-plan of a Greek House. 

L, House-door, avAetos Ovpa : Ovp, passage, Ovpta- 
pflov or Ovpiav : A, peristyle, or <xvAj of the andro- 
nitis; o, tin- hulls and chambers of the andronitis ; fJ., 
(ie'rauAos or fxeVauAos Ovpa : T, peristyle of the 
gynaeconitis ; y, chambers of the gynaeconitis ; T, 
Trpoaras or wapacrTas : 0, OaAafios and anfyiOa.- 
AO./AOS : I, rooms for working in wool (iorwi'es) j K, 
garden-door, KT)7rou'a Ovpa. 

and left of this irpoards were two bed cham- 
bers, the SdAa/uos and an<t>iOd\aij.os, of which 
the former was the principal bed-chamber of 
the house, and here also seem to have been 
kept the vases, and other valuable articles of 
ornament. Beyond these rooms were large 
apartments (Jorives) used for working in 
wool. Round the peristyle were the eating- 
rooms, bed-chambers, store-rooms, and other 
apartments in common use. Besides the 
auAeios Ovpa and the jue'o-avAos Ovpa, there was 
a third door (mjirota Ovpa) leading to the 
garden. The preceding is a conjectural plan 
of the ground-floor of a Greek house of the 
larger size. There was usually, though not 
always, an upper story (uirep^ov, Siijpes), 
which seldom extended over the whole space 
occupied by the lowei story. The principal 
use of the upper story was for the lodging 
of the slaves. The access to the upper 
floor seems to have been sometimes by stairs 
on the outside of the house, leading up from 
the street. Guests were also lodged in the 
upper story. But in some large houses 
there were rooms set apart for their recep- 
tion (f evwves) on the ground-floor. The roofs 
were generally flat, and it was customary to 
walk about upon them. In the interior of 
the house the place of doors was sometimes 
supplied by curtains (iropaweTaff/iara), which 
were either plain, or dyed, or embroidered. 
The principal openings for the admission of 
light and air were in the roofs of the peri- 
styles ; but it is incorrect to suppose that the 
houses had no windows (Svpt'Ses), or at least 
none overlooking the street. They were not 
at all uncommon. Artificial warmth was 
procured partly by means of fire-places. It 
is supposed that chimneys were altogether 
unknown, and that the smoke escaped through 
an opening in the roof (/cairroooicT)), but it is 
not easy to understand how this could be 
the case when there was an upper story. 
Little portable stoves (t<r\apai, evxapi.&es') or 
chafing-dishes (avflpojcta) were frequently 
used. The houses of the wealthy in the 
country, at least in Attica, were much larger 
and more magnificent than those in the towns. 
The latter seem to have been generally small 
and plain, especially in earlier times, when 
the Greeks preferred expending the resources 
of art and wealth on their temples and public 
buildings ; but the private houses became 
more magnificent as the public buildings be- 
gan to be neglected. The decorations of the 
interior were very plain at the period to 
which our description refers. The floors 
were of stone. At a late period coloured 
stones were used. Mosaics are first men- 
tioned under the kings of Pergamus. The 
walls, up to the 4th century B. c., seem to 




have been only waited. The first instance of 
painting them is that of Alcibiaclcs. This 
innovation met with considerable opposition. 
We have also mention of painted ceilings at 
the same period. At a later period this mode 
of decoration became general. (2) ROMAN. 
The houses of the Romans were poor and mean 
for many centuries after the foundation of the 
city. Till the war with Pyrrhus the houses 
were covered only with thatch or shingles, 
and were usually built of wood or unbaked 
bricks. It was not till the latter times of the 
republic, when wealth had been acquired by 
conquests in the East, that houses of any 
splendour began to be built ; but it then be- 
came the fashion not only to build houses of 
an immense size, but also to adorn them with 
columns, paintings, statues, and costly works 
of art. Some idea may be formed of the size 
and magnificence of the houses of the Roman 
nobles during the later times of the republic 
by the price which they fetched. The consul 
Messalla bought the house of Autronius for 
3700 sestertia (nearly 33,0007.), and Cicero 
the house of Crassus, on the Palatine, for 
3500 sestertia (nearly 31,000/.). The house 
of Publius Clodius, whom Milo killed, cost 
14,800 sestertia (about 131, OOO/.) ; and the 
Tusculan villa of Scaurus was fitted up with 
such magnificence, that when it was burnt by 
his slaves, he lost 100,000 sestertia, upwards 
of 885, 0001. Houses were originally only 
one story high ; but as the value of ground 
increased in the city they were built several 
stories in height, and the highest floors were 
usually inhabited by the poor. Till the time 
of Nero, the streets in Rome were narrow 
and irregular, and bore traces of the haste 
and confusion with which the city was built 
after it had been burnt by the Gauls ; but 
after the great fire in the time of that empe- 
ror, by which two-thirds of Rome was burnt 
to the ground, the city was built with great 
regularity. The streets were made straight 
and broad ; the height of the houses was re- 
stricted, and a certain part of each was re- 
quired to be built of Gabian or Alban stone, 
which was proof against fire. The principal 
parts of a Roman house were the, 1. Vestibu- 
lum, 2. Ostium, 3. Atrium or Cavum Aedium, 
4. Alae, 5. Tablinum, 6. Fauces, 7. Peristy- 
lium. The parts of a house which were con- 
sidered of less importance, and of which the 
arrangement differed in different houses, 
were the, 1. Cubicula, 2. Triclinia, 3. Oeci, 
4. Exedrae, 5. Pinacotheca, 6. Sibliotheca, 
7. Balitieum, 8. CulltM, 9. Coenacula, 10. Di- 
aeta, 11. Solaria. We shall speak of each in 
order. 1. VESTIBULUM did not properly form 
part of the house, but was a vacant space he- 
fore the door, forming a court, which was 

surrounded on three sides by the house, and 
was open on the fourth to the street. 2. OS- 
TIUM, which is also called janua and fores, 
was the entrance to the house. The street- 
door admitted into a hall, to which the name 
of ostium was also given, and in which there 
was frequently a small room (cello) for the 
porter (janitor or ostiariin), and also for a dog, 
which was usually kept in the hall to guard 
the house. Another door (janua interior) 
opposite the street-door led into the atrium. 
3. ATRIUM or CAVUM AEDIUM, also written 
Cavaediutn, are probably only different names 
of the same room. The Atrium or Cavum 
Aedium was a large apartment roofed over 
with the exception of an opening in the 
centre, called compluviiim, towards which the 
roof sloped so as to throw the rain-water into 
a cistern in the floor, termed impluvitim, 
which was frequently ornamented with sta- 
tues, columns, and other works of art. The 
word impluvinm, however, is also employed 
to denote the aperture in the roof. The 
atrium was the most important room in the 
house, and among the wealthy was usually 
fitted up with much splendour and magnifi- 
cence. Originally it was the only sitting- 
room in the house ; but in the houses of the 
wealthy it was distinct from the private 
apartments, and was used as a reception- 
room, where the patron received his clients, 
and the great and noble the numerous visi- 
tors who were accustomed to call every morn- 
ing to pay their respects or solicit favours. 
But though the atrium was not used by the 
wealthy as a sitting-room for the family, it 
still continued to be employed for many pur- 
poses which it had originally served. Thus 
the nuptial couch was placed in the atrium 
opposite the door, and also the instruments 
and materials for spinning and weaving, 
which were formerly carried on by the wo- 
men of the family in this room. Here also 
the images of their ancestors were placed, 
and the focus or fire-place, which possessed 
a sacred character, being dedicated to the 
Lares of each family. 4. ALAE, wings, were 
small apartments or recesses on the left and 
right sides of the atrium. 5. TABLIXUM wr.s 
in all probability a recess or room at the fur- 
ther end of the atrium opposite the door 
leading into the hall, and was regarded as 
part of the atrium. It contained the family 
records and archives. With the tablinum 
the Roman house appears to have originally 
ceased ; and the sleeping-rooms were proba- 
bly arranged on each side of the atrium. But 
when the atrium and its surrounding rooms 
were used for the reception of clients and 
other public visitors, it became necessary to 
increase the size of the house ; and the fol- 




lowing rooms were accordingly added : 
6. FAUCES appear to have been passages, 
which passed from the atrium to the peri- 
stylium or interior of the house. 7. PERI- 
STYLIU.M was in its general form like the 
atrium, but it was one-third greater in 
breadth, measured transversely, than in 
length. It was a court open to the sky in the 
middle ; the open part, which was surrounded 
by columns, was larger than the impluvium 
in the atrium, and was frequently decorated 
with flowers and shrubs. The arrangement 
of the rooms, which are next to be noticed, 
varied according to the taste and circum- 
stances of the owner. It is therefore im- 
possible to assign to them any regular place 
in the house. 1. CUBICULA, bed-chambers, 
appear to have been usually small. There 
were separate cubicula for the day and night ; 
the latter were also called dormitoria. 2. TRI- 
CLINIA are treated of in a separate article. 
| TRICLINIUM.] 3. OECI, from the Greek 
onto?, were spacious halls or saloons borrowed 
from the Greeks, and were frequently used as 
triclinia. They were to have the same pro- 
portions as triclinia, but were to be more 
spacious on account of having columns, which 
triclinia had not. 4. EXEDRAE were rooms 
for conversation and the other purposes of 
aociety. 5. PINACOTHECA, a picture-gallery. 
6, 7. BIBHOTHKCA and BALINEUM are treated 
of in separate articles. 8 . CULIN A, the kitchen. 
The food was originally cooked in the atrium : 
but the progress of refinement afterwards led 
to the use of another part of the house for 

this purpose. In the kitchen of Pansa's 
house at Pompeii, a stove for stews and simi- 

Kitchen of the House of Pi 

.t Pompeii. 

lar preparations was found, very much like 
the charcoal stoves used in the present day. 
Before it lie a knife, a strainer, and a kind 
of frying-pan with four spherical cavities, as 
if it were meant to cook eggs. 9. COENA- 
CULA, properly signified rooms to dine in ; 
but after it became the fashion to dine in the 
upper part of the house, the whole of the 
rooms above the ground-floor were called 
coenacula. 10. DIAETA, an apartment used 
for dining in, and for the other purposes of 
life. It appears to have been smaller than 
the triclinium. Diaeta is also the name given 
by Pliny to rooms containing three or four 
bed-chambers (cubicula). Pleasure-houses 
or summer-houses are also called dtaetae. 

11. SOLARIA, properly places for basking in 
the sun, were terraces on the tops of houses. 
The preceding cut represents the atrium of a 
house at Pompeii. In the centre is the im- 

ceding account of the different rooms, and 
especially of the arrangement of the atrium, 
tablinum, peristyle, &c., is best illustrated 
bv the houses which have been disinterred at 

pltivium, and the passage at the further end I Pompeii. The ground-plan of one is accord- 
is the ostium or entrance hall. The pro- i iugly subjoined. Like most of the other 




houses at Pompeii, it had no vestibulum 
according to the meaning given above. 1. 
The ostium or entrance-hall, which is six 

Ground-plan of a II 

,t Pompeii. 

feet wide and nearly thirty long. Near the 
street-door there is a figure of a large fierce 
dog worked in mosaic on the pavement, and 
beneath it is written Cave Canem. The two 
large rooms on each side of the vestibule ap- 
pear from the large openings in front of them 
to have been shops ; they communicate with 
the entrance-hall, and were therefore proba- 
bly occupied by the master of the house. 
2. The atrium, which is about twenty-eight 
feet in length and twenty in breadth ; its 
impluvium is near the centre of the room, 
and its floor is paved with white tesserae, 
spotted with black. 3. Chambers for the use 
of the family, or intended for the reception of 
guests, who were entitled to claim hospitali- 
ty. 4. A small room with a staircase lead- 
ing up to the upper rooms. 5. Alae. 6. The 
tnblinum. 1. The fauces. 8. Peristyle, 
with Doric columns and garden in the centre. 
The large room on the right of the peristyle 
is the triclinium ; beside it is the kitchen ; 
and the smaller apartments are cubicula and 
other rooms for the use of the family. Hav- 
ing given a general description of the rooms 
of a Roman house, it remains to speak of the 
(1) floors, (2) iralls, (3) ceilings, (4) win- 

dows, and (5) the mode of warming the rooms. 
For the doors, see JANUA. (1.) The floor 
(solum] of a room was seldom boarded : it 
was generally covered with stone or marble, 
or mosaics. The common floors were paved 
with pieces of bricks, tiles, stones, &c., form- 
ing a kind of composition called ruderatic. 
Sometimes pieces of marble were imbedded 
in a composition ground, and these probably 
gave the idea of mosaics. As these floors 
were beaten down (panto) with rammers 
(Jistiicae), the word parimetitum became the 
general name for a floor. Mosaics, called by 
Pliny lithostrota (AtflooTpcora), though this 
word has a more extensive meaning, first 
came into use in Sulla's time, who made one 
in the temple of Fortune at Praeneste. Mo- 
saic work was afterwards called Ifusivum 
opus, and was most extensively employed. 
(2.) The inner walls (parietes) of private 
rooms were frequently lined with slabs of 
marble, but were more usually covered by 
paintings, which in the time of Augustus 
were made upon the walls themselves. This 
practice was so common that we find even 
the small houses in Pompeii have paintings 
upon their walls. (3.) The ceilings seem 
originally to have been left uncovered, the 
beams which supported the roof or the upper 
story being visible. Afterwards planks were 
placed across these beams at certain intervals, 
leaving hollow spaces, called lacwiaria or la- 
qvcaria, which were frequently covered with 
gold and ivory, and sometimes with paint- 
ings. There was an arched ceiling in com- 
mon use, called CAMARA. (4.) The Roman 
houses had few windows (fenestrae). The 
principal apartments, the atrium, peristyle, 
&c., were lighted from above, and the cubi- 
cula and other small rooms generally derived 
their light from them, and not from windows 
looking into the street. The rooms only 
on the upper story seem to have been usually 
lighted by windows. The windows appear 
originally to have been merely openings in 
the wall, closed by means of shutters, which 
frequently had two leaves (biforcs fenestrae}. 
Windows were also sometimes covered by a 
kind of lattice or trellis work (clathri), and 
sometimes by net-work, to prevent serpents 
and other noxious reptiles from getting in. 
Afterwards, however, windows were made of 
a transparent stone, called lapis spcculari.t 
(mica) ; such windows were called tpecula- 
ria. Windows made of glass (vitttim) are 
first mentioned by Lactantius, who lived in 
the fourth century of the Christian era ; but 
the discoveries at Pompeii prove that glass 
was used for windows under the early empe- 
rors. (5.) The rooms were heated in winter 
in different ways ; but the Romans had no 




stoves like ours. The cubicula, triclinia, and 
other rooms, which were intended for winter 
use, were built in that part of the house upon 
which the sun shone most ; and in the mild 
climate of Italy this frequently enabled them 
to dispense with any artificial mode of wann- 
ing the rooms. Rooms exposed to the sun 
in this way were sometimes called Jteliocamini. 
The rooms were sometimes heated by hot air, 
which was introduced by means of pipes from 
a furnace below, but more frequently by 
portable furnaces or braziers (foculi), in 
which coal or charcoal was burnt. The ea- 
rn inus was also a kind of stove, in which 
wood appears to have been usually burnt, and 
probably only differed from the focitlus in be- 
ing larger and fixed to one place. The rooms 
usually had no chimneys for carrying oif the 
smoke, which escaped through the windows, 
doors, and openings in the roof; still chim- 
neys do not appear to have been entirely un- 
known to the ancients, as some are said to 
have been found in the ruins of ancient 

DONAR1A (avaflTJ^KXTa or a.vaKe(fifva) t pre- 
sents made to the gods, either by individuals 
or communities. Sometimes they are also 
called dona or Stapa. The belief that the gods 
were pleased with costly presents was as 
natural to the ancients as the belief that they 
could be influenced in their conduct towards 
men by the offering of sacrifices ; and, in- 
deed, both sprang from the same feeling. 
Presents were mostly given as tokens of grati- 
tude for some favour which a god had be- 
stowed on man ; as, for instance, by persons 
who had recovered from illness or escaped 
from shipwreck ; but some are also men- 
tioned, which were intended to induce the 
deity to grant some especial favour. Almost 
all presents were dedicated in temples, to 
which in some places an especial building was 
added, in which these treasures were pre- 
served. Such buildings were called Orjcravpoi 
(treasuries) ; and in the most frequented 
temples of Greece many states had their 
separate treasuries. The act of dedication 
was called iva-nOiva*., donare, dedicare, or 



DOS (fapvy, Tpotf), dowry. (1) GREEK. 
In the Homeric times it was customary for 
the husband to purchase his wife from her 
relations, by gifts called t&va or ee&va. But 
at Athens, during the historical period, the 
contrary was the case ; for every woman had 
to bring her husband some dowry, and so 
universal was the practice, that one of the 
chief distinctions between a wife and a iroA- 
AoxTJ, or concubine, consisted in the former 

having a portion, whereas the latter had not < 
hence, persons who married wives without 
portions appear to have given them or their 
guardians an acknowledgment in writing 
by which the receipt of a portion was admit- 
ted. Moreover, poor heiresses were either 
married or portioned by their next of kin, 
according to a law, which fixed the amount 
of portion to be given at five minae by a Pen- 
tacosiomedimnus, three by a Horseman, and 
one and a half by a Zeugites. The husband 
had to give to the relatives or guardians of 
the wife security (diroriVwi) for the dowry, 
which was not considered the property of the 
husband himself, but rather of his wife and 
children. The portion was returned to the 
wife in case of a divorce. ( 2 ) ROMAN. The 
dos among the Romans was every thing 
which on the occasion of a woman's marriage 
was transferred by her, ot by another person, 
to the husband. All the property of the wife 
which was not made dos continued to be her 
own, and was comprised under the name of 
parapherna. The dos upon its delivery be- 
came the husband's property, and continued 
to be his so long as the marriage relation 
existed. In the case of divorce, the woman, 
or her relations, could bring an action for 
the restitution of the dos ; and, accordingly, 
a woman whose dos was large (dotata uxor) 
had some influence over her husband, inas- 
much as she had the power of divorcing her- 
self, and thus of depriving him of the enjoy- 
ment of her property. 

DRACHMA (Spaxfiij), the principal silver 
coin among the Greeks. The two chief 
standards in the currencies of the Greek 
states were the Attic and Aeginetan. The 
average value of the Attic drachma was 9|d. 
of our money. It contained six obols (o/SoAm) ; 
and the Athenians had separate silver coins, 
from four drachmae to a quarter of an obol. 
There were also silver pieces of two drachmae 
and four drachmae. (See tables.) The tetra- 
orachm in later times was called stater. The 
latter word also signifies a gold coin, equal 
in value to twenty drachmae [STATER]. The 
obolos, in later times, was of bronze : but in 
the best times of Athens we only read of 
silver obols. The x ^* "* was a copper coin, 
and the eighth part of an obol. The Attic 




standard prevailed most in the maritime and 
commercial states. It was the standard of 
Philip's gold, and was introduced by Alex- 
ander for silver also. The Aeginetan standard 
appears to have been the prevalent one in 
early times : we are told that money was 
first coined at Aegina by order of Pheidon at 
Argos. In later times the Aeginetan standard 
was used in almost all the states of the Pelo- 
ponnesus, except Corinth. The average value 
of the Aeginetan drachma was Is. l%d. in our 
money ; and the values of the different coins 
of this standard are as follows : 

jj Obol - - - - 

Diobolus - - - 
Triobolus - - - 
Drachma - - - 
Didrachm - - - 

Aeginetan Drachma. (.British Mu 

As the Romans reckoned in sesterces, so the 
Greeks generally reckoned by drachmae ; and 
when a sum is mentioned in the Attic writers, 
without any specification of the unit, drach- 
mae are usually meant. 


DUCENARIL (1) The name given to the 
Roman procuratores, who received a salary 
of 200 sestertia. The procuratores first re- 
ceived a salary in the time of Augustus. ( 2 ) 
A class or decuria of judices, first established 
by Augustus. They were so called because 
their property, as valued in the census, 
amounted only to 200 sestertia. They appear 
to have tried causes of small importance. 
DUPLARII or DUPLICARII, were soldiers 
who received on account of their good con- 
duct double allowance (duplicia cibaria}, and 
perhaps in some cases double pay likewise. 
DUSSIS._ [As.] 

DUUMVIRI, or the two men, the name of 
various magistrates and functionaries at 
Rome, and in the coloniae and municipia. 
( 1 ) DUUMVIRI JURI DICUNDO were the highest 
magistrates in the municipal towns. [Co- 
LOXIA.] (2) DUUMVIRI NAVALES, extraordi- 

nary magistrates, who were created, when- 
ever occasion required, for the purpose of 
equipping and repairing the fleet. They 
appear to have been originally appointed by 
the consuls and dictators, ' but were first 
elected by the people, B.C. 311. (3) DUUM- 
UMVIRI QUINSUENNALES, were the censors in 
the municipal towns, and must not be con- 
founded with ihe duumviri juri dicundo. [Co- 
had the charge of the Sibylline books. Their 
duties were afterwards discharged by the 
decemviri sacrisfaciundis, [DECEMVIRI.] (6) 
DUUMVIRI were also appointed for the pur- 
pose of building or dedicating a temple. 

ECCLESIA (c<cA)<na), the name of the 
general assembly of the citizens at Athens, 
in which they met to discuss and determine 
upon matters of public interest, and which 
was therefore the sovereign power in the 
state. These assemblies were either ordinary 
(cdfufiot or Kvpiai), and held four times in 
each prytany, or extraordinary, that is, spe- 
cially convened, upon any sudden emergency, 
and therefore called ovyicAijToc. The place in 
which they were anciently held was the 
agora. Afterwards they were transferred to 
the Pnyx, and at last to the great theatre of 
Dionysus, and other places. The most usual 
place, however, was the Pnyx, which was 
situated to the west of the Areiopagus, on n 
slope connected with Mount Lycabettus, and 
partly at least within the walls of the city. 
It was semicircular in form, with a boundary 
wall part rock and part masonry, and an area 
of about 12,000 square yards. On the north 
the ground was filled up and paved with 
large stones, so as to get a level surface on 
the slope. Towards this side, and close to 
the wall, was the bema (/3rjn.a), a stone plat- 
form or hustings ten or eleven feet high, 
with an ascent of steps. The position of the 
bema was such as to command a view of the 
sea from behind, and of the Propylaea and 
Parthenon in front, and we may be sure that 
the Athenian orators would often rouse the 
national feelings of their hearers by pointing 
to the assemblage of magnificent edifices, 
" monuments of Athenian gratitude and 
glory," which they had in view from the 
Pnyx. The right of convening the people 
was generally vested in the prytanes or pre- 
sidents of the council of Five Hundred [see 
BOUI.E], but in cases of sudden emergency, 
and especially during wars, the strategi alsu 
had the power of calling extraordinary 
meetings, for which, however, the consent of 
the senate appears to have been necessary. 




The prytanes not only gave a previous notice 
of the day of assembly, and published a pro- 
gramme of the subjects to be discussed, but 
also, it appears, sent a crier round to collect 
the citizens. All persons who did not obey 
the call were subject to a fine, and six ma- 
gistrates called lexiarchs were appointed, 
whose duty it was to take care that the 
people attended the meetings, and to levy 
fines on those who refused to do so. With a 
view to this, whenever an assembly was to 
be held, certain public slaves (Sjcuflai or 
TooTai) were sent round to sweep the agora, 
and other places of public resort, with a rope 
coloured with vermilion. The different per- 
sons whom these ropemen met, were driven 
by them towards the ecclesia, and those who 
refused to go were marked by the rope and 
fined. An additional inducement to attend, 
with the poorer classes, was the nurQos 
cKicAijinaaTiKos, or pay which they received 
for it. The payment was originally an obo- 
lus, but was afterwards raised to three. . The 
right of attending was enjoyed by all legiti- 
mate citizens who were of the proper age 
(generally supposed to be twenty, certainly 
not less than eighteen), and not labouring 
under any atimia, or loss of civil rights. In 
the article BOULB it is explained who the 
prytanes and the pro'edri were ; and we may 
here remark, that it was the duty of the 
proedri of the same tribe, under the presi- 
dency of their chairman (o eTriora-njs), to lay 
before the people the subjects to be discussed ; 
to read, or cause to be read, the previous bill 
(TO 7rpo/3oiiA.evma) of the senate, without which 
no measure could be brought before the 
ecclesia, and to give permission to the 
speakers to address the people. The officers 
who acted under them, were the crier 
(6 (ojpvf), and the Scythian bowmen. Pre- 
vious, however, to the commencement of any 
business, the place was purified by the offer- 
ing of sacrifices, and then the gods were 
implored in a prayer to bless the proceedings 
of the meeting. The privilege of addressing 
the assembly was not confined to any class or 
age among those who had the right to be 
present : all, without any distinction, were 
invited to do so by the proclamation, Ti's 
ayopeveiv /SouAerai, which was made by the 
crier after the proedri had gone through the 
necessary preliminaries, and laid the subject 
of discussion before the meeting ; for though, 
according to the institutions of Solon, those 
persons who were above fifty years of age 
ought to have been called upon to speak first, 
this regulation had in later times become 
quite obsolete. The speakers are sometimes 
simply called ot iropi'opTes, and appear to have 
worn a crown of myrtle on their hezuls while 

addressing the assembly. The most influ- 
ential and practised speakers of the assembly 
were generally distinguished by the name of 
pijropes. After the speakers had concluded, 
any one was at liberty to propose a decree, 
whether, drawn up beforehand or framed in 
the meeting, which, however, it was neces- 
sary to present to the proedri, that they 
might see, in conjunction with the nomo- 
phylaces, whether there was contained in it 
anything injurious to the state, or contrary 
to the existing laws. If not, it was read by 
the crier ; though, even after the reading, 
the chairman could prevent it being put to 
the vote, unless his opposition was overborne 
by threats and clamours. Private individuals 
also could do the same, by engaging upon 
oath (ymafjiotria) to bring against the author 
of any measure they might objecv to, an ac- 
cusation called a ypi^ij Trapavi^inav. If, how- 
ever, the chairman refused to submit any 
question to the decision of the people, he 
might be proceeded against by endcixis ; and 
if he allowed the people to vote upon a pro- 
posal which was contrary to existing consti- 
tutional laws, he was in some cases liable to 
atimia. If, on the contrary, no opposition 
of this sort was offered to a proposed decree, 
the votes of the people were taken, by the 
permission of the chairman and with the 
consent of the rest of the proedri. The 
decision of the people was given either by 
show of hands, or by ballot, '. e. by casting 
pebbles into urns ((coitVicoi) ; the former was 
expressed by the word x et P TOl ' "', the latter 
by fyi<t>Cf<rO<u, although the two terms are 
frequently confounded. The more usual me- 
thod of voting was by show of hands, as being 
more expeditious and convenient (xeiporowa). 
Vote by ballot, on the other hand, was only 
used in a few special cases determined by 
law ; as, for instance, when a proposition 
was made for allowing those who had suf- 
fered atimid to appeal to the people for resti- 
tution of their former rights ; or for inflict- 
ing extraordinary punishments on atrocious 
offenders, and generally, upon any matter 
which affected private persons. In cases of 
this sort it was settled by law, that a decree 
should not be valid unless six thousand 
citizens at least voted in favour of it. This 
was by far the majority of those citizens who 
were in the habit of attending ; for, in time 
of war, the number never amounted to five 
thousand, and in time of peace seldom to ten 
thousand. The determination or decree of 
the people was called a <Joj<t>io>ji.a, which pro- 
perly signifies a law proposed to an assem- 
bly, and approved of by the people. "Re- 
specting the form for drawing up a ^nj^urfia, 
see BOULE. When the business was over. 
L 2 




the order for the dismissal of the assembly 
was given by the prytanes, through the pro- 
clamation of the crier ; and as it was not cus- 
tomary to continue meetings, which usually 
began early in the morning, till after sunset, 
if one day were not sufficient for the com- 
pletion of any business, it was adjourned to 
the next. But an assembly was sometimes 
broken up, if any one, whether a magistrate 
or private individual, declared that he saw 
an unfavourabje omen, or perceived thunder 
and lightning. The sudden appearance of 
rain also, or the shock of an earthquake, or 
any natural phenomenon of the kind called 
6to<7T)/iu, was a sufficient reason for the 
hasty adjournment of an assembly. 


ECDICUS (IfcSiKo?), the name of an officer 
in many of the towns of Asia Minor during 
the Roman dominion, whose principal duty 
was the care of the public money, and the 
prosecution of all parties who owed money 
to the state. 

ECMARTYRIA (uopTvpta), signifies the 
deposition of a witness at Athens, who, by 
reason of absence abroad, or illness, was 
unable to attend in court. His statement 
was taken down in writing, in the presence 
of persons expressly appointed to receive it, 
and afterwards, upon their swearing to its 
identity, was read as evidence in the cause. 

EDICTUM. The Jus Edicendi, or power of 
making edicts, belonged to the higher magis- 
tratus populi Romani, but it was principally 
exercised by the two praetors, the praetor 
urbanus, and the praetor peregrinus, whose 
jurisdiction was exercised in the provinces 
by the praescs. The curule aediles likewise 
made many edicts ; and tribunes, censors, 
and pontifices also promulgated edicts relating 
to the matters of their respective jurisdic- 
tions. The edicta were among the sources 
of Roman law. The edictum may be de- 
scribed generally as a rule promulgated by a 
magistratus on entering on his office, which 
was done by writing it on an album and 
exhibiting it in a conspicuous place. As the 
office of a magistratus was annual, the rules 
promulgated by a predecessor were not bind- 
ing on a successor, but he might confirm or 
adopt the rules of his predecessor, and intro- 
duce them into his own edict, and hence 
such adopted rules were called edictum rala- 
titium, or vetus, as opposed to edictum nocnm. 
A repentinum edictum was that rule which 
was made (prout res incidit) for the occasion. 
A perpetuum edictum was that rule which 
was made by the magistratus on entering 
upon office, and which was intended to apply 
to all cases to which it was applicable during 
the year of his office : hence it was sometimes 

called also annua lex. Until it became the 
practice for magistratus to adopt the edicta 
of their predecessors, the edicta could not 
form a body of permanent binding rules ; 
but when this practice became common, the 
edicta (edictum tralatitium] soon constituted 
a large body of law, which was practically of as 
much impc rtance as any other part of the law. 

EICOSTE (el/coo-nj), a tax or duty of one- 
twentieth (five per cent.) upon all commo- 
dities exported or imported by sea in the 
states of the allies subject to Athens. This 
tax was first imposed B. c. 413, in the place 
of the direct tribute which had up to this 
time been paid by the subject allies ; and the 
change was made with the hope of raising a 
greater revenue. This tax, like all others, 
was farmed, and the farmers of it were 
called ei(cocrroAdyoi. 

EIREN or IREN (eiprji/ or ip^y), the name 
given to the Spartan youth when he attained 
the age of twenty. At the age of eighteen 
he emerged from childhood, and was called 
fteAAfi'pT)!/. When he had attained his twen- 
tieth year, he began to exercise a direct in- 
fluence over his juniors, and was entrusted 
with the command of troops in battle. The 
word appears to have originally signified a 
commander. The ipeVe? mentioned in Hero- 
dotus, in connection with the battle of Pla- 
taeae, were certainly not youths, but com- 

EISANGELIA (el<rayyeA.ia), signifies, in its 
primary and most general sense, a denuncia- 
tion of any kind, but, much more usually, an 
information laid before the council or the 
assembly of the people, and the consequent 
impeachment and trial of state criminals at 
Athens under novel or extraordinary circum- 
stances. Among these were the occasions 
upon which manifest crimes were alleged to 
have been committed, and yet of such a 
nature as the existing laws had failed to 
anticipate, or at least describe specifically 
(aypaxt>a. afitK^/aara), the result of which omis- 
sion would have been, but for the enactment 
by which the accusations in question might 
be preferred (vo/aos eitrayyeAriKos), that a pro- 
secutor would not have known to what ma- 
gistrate to apply; that a magistrate, if 
applied to, could not with safety have ac- 
cepted the indictment or brought it into 
court ; and that, in short, there would have 
been a total failure of justice. 

EISITERIA (eio-mjpta, sell, iepd), sacrifices 
offered at Athens by the senate before the 
session began, in honour of the eol BovAcuoi, 
i. e. Zeus and Athena. 

EISPHORA (ei<r<#>opa), an extraordinary 
tax on property, raised at Athens, whenever 
the means of the state were not sufficient to 




carry on a -war. It is not quite certain when 
this property-tax was introduced ; but it 
seems to have come first into general use 
about B.C. 428. It could never be raised 
without a decree of the people, who also 
assigned the amount required ; and the stra- 
teyi, or generals, superintended its collection, 
and presided in the courts where disputes 
connected with, or arising from, the levying 
of the tax were settled. The usual expres- 
sions for paying this property-tax are : 
eia^e'petp ei? rov noffjiov, 

pfiv, and those who paid it were called 
oi eicn/xi'porres. The census of Solon was at 
first the standard according to which the 
eisphora was raised, until in B. c. 377 a new 
census was instituted, in which the people, 
for the purpose of fixing the rates of the pro- 
perty-tax, were divided into a number of 
symmoriae (<rvmj.opiai) or classes, similar to 
those which were afterwards made for the 
trierarchy. Each of the ten tribes or phylae, 
appointed 120 of its wealthier citizens ; and 
the whole number of persons included in the 
symmoriae was thus 1200, who were con- 
sidered as the representatives of the whole 
republic. This body of 1200 was divided 
into four classes, each consisting of 300. The 
first class, or the richest, were the leaders of 
the symmoriae (^-yemdves tnifji^opuav), and are 
often called the three hundred. They pro- 
bably conducted the proceedings of the sym- 
moriae, and they, or, which is more likely, 
the demarchs, had to value the taxable pro- 
perty. Other officers were appointed to make 
out the lists of the rates, and were called 
eTTfypou^et?, Staypaufrels or exAoyets. When the 
wants of the state were pressing 1 , the 300 
leaders advanced the money to the others, 
who paid it back to the 300 at the regular 
time. The first class probably consisted of 
persons who possessed property from 12 
talents upwards ; the second class, of persons 
who possessed property from 6 talents and 
upwards, but under 12 ; the third class, of 
persons who possessed property from 2 
talents upwards, but under 6 ; the fourth class, 
of persons who possessed property from 25 
minae upwards, but under 2 talents. The 
rate of taxation was higher or lower accord- 
ing to the wants of the republic at the tune ; 
we have accounts of rates of a 12th, a 50th, 
a 100th, and a 500th part of the taxable pro- 
perty. If any one thought that his property 
was taxed higher than that of another man 
on whom juster claims could be made, he had 
the right to call upon this person to take the 
office in his stead, or to submit to a complete 
exchange of property. [ANTIDOSIS.] No 
Athenian, on the other hand, if belonging to 

the tax-paying classes, could be exempt frcai 
the eisphora, not even the descendants of 
Harmodius and Aristogeiton. 

ELECTRUM (^Aeicrpo? and ^Aexxpov), is 
used by the ancient writers in two different 
senses, either for amber or for a mixture of 
metals composed of gold and silver, In Ho- 
mer and Hesiod, it has, in all probability, the 
former meaning. The earliest passage of any 
Greek writer, in which the word is certainly 
used for the metal, is in the Antigone of 
Sophocles (1038). This alludes to native 
electrum ; but the compound was also made 
artificially. Pliny states that when gold 
contains a fifth part of silver, it is called 
electrum ; that it is found in veins of gold ; 
and that it is also made by art : if, he adds, 
it contains more than a fifth of silver, it be- 
comes too brittle to be malleable. But Isi- 
dorus mentions electrum composed of three 
parts gold, and one of silver. Electrum was 
used for plate, and the other similar pur- 
poses for which gold and silver were employed. 
It was also used as a material for money. 
Lampridius tells us, that Alexander Severus 
struck coins of it ; and coins are in existence, 
of this metal, struck by the kings of Bosporus, 
by Syracuse, and by other Greek states. % 

ELEUSINIA (eAevaiW), a festival and 
mysteries, originally celebrated only at Eleusis 
in Attica, in honour of Demeter and Perse- 
phone. The Eleusinian mysteries, or the 
mysteries, as they were sometimes called, 
were the holiest and most venerable of all 
that were celebrated in Greece. Various 
traditions were current among the Greeks 
respecting the author of these mysteries : 
for, while some considered Eumolpus or 
Musaeus to be their founder, others stated 
that they had been introduced from Egypt 
by Erechtheus, who at a time of scarcity pro- 
vided his country with corn from Egypt, and 
imported from the same quarter the sacred 
rites and mysteries of Eleusis. A third tra- 
dition attributed the institution to Demeter 
herself, who, when wandering about in search 
of her daughter, Persephone, was believed to 
have come to Attica, in the reign of Erech- 
theus, to have supplied its inhabitants with 
corn, and to have instituted the mysteries at 
Eleusis. This last opinion seems to have 
been the most common among the ancients, 
and in subsequent times a stone was shown 
near the well Callichoros at Eleusis, on which 
the goddess, overwhelmed with grief and 
fatigue, was believed to have rested on her 
arrival in Attica. All the accounts and allu- 
sions in ancient writers seem to warrant the 
conclusion, that the legends concerning the 
introduction of the Eleusinia are descriptions 
of a period when the inhabitants of Attica 




were becoming acquainted with the benefits 
of agriculture, and of a regularly constituted 
form of society. In the reign of Erechtheus 
a war is said to have broken out between the 
Athenians and Eleur-inians ; and when the 
latter were defeated, they acknowledged the 
supremacy of Athens in everything except 
the mysteries, which they wished to conduct 
and regulate for themselves. Thus the su- 
perintendence remained with the descendants 
of Eumolpus [EUMOLHDAE], the daughters of 
the Eleusinian king Celeus, and a third class 
of priests, the Ceryccs, who seem likewise to 
have been connected with the family of Eu- 
rnolpus, though they themselves traced their 
origin to Hermes and Aglauros. At the 
time when the local governments of the 
several townships of Attica were concentrated 
at Athens, the capital became also the centre 
of religion, and several deities who had 
hitherto only enjoyed a local worship, were 
now raised to the rank of national gods. This 
seems also to have been the case with the 
Eleusinian goddess, for in the reign of The- 
seus we find mention of a temple at Athens, 
called Eleusinion, probably the new and na- 
tional sanctuary of Demeter. Her priests 
and priestessos now became naturally at- 
tached to the national temple of the capital, 
though her original place of worship at Eleu- 
sis, with which so many sacred associations 
were connected, still retained its importance 
and its special share in the celebration of the 
national solemnities. We must distinguish 
between the greater Eleusinia, which were 
celebrated at Athens and Eleusis, and the 
lesser, which were held at Agrae on the 
Ilissus. The lesser Eleusinia were only a 
preparation (jrpoKaSoptris or Trpoavvevcris) for 
the real mysteries. They were held every 
year in the month of Anthesterion, and, ac- 
cording to some accounts, in honour of Per- 
sephone alone. Those who were initiated 
in them bore the name of Mystae (iuvarou), 
and had to wait. at least another year before 
they could be admitted to the great myste- 
ries. The principal rites of this first stage 
of initiation consisted in the sacrifice of a 
sow, which the mystae seem to have first 
washed in the Cantharus, and in the purifi- 
cation by a priest, who bore the name of 
Hydranos ('Y6paf6;). The mystae had also 
to take an oath of secrcsy, which was admi- 
nistered to them by the Mystagogus (JLV<TTO- 
yuxyos, also called iepo^ai/Tijs or 7rpo<rjn}?), and 
they received some kind of preparatory in- 
struction, which enabled them afterwards to 
understand the mysteries which were revealed 
to them in the great Eleusinia. The great 
mysteries were celebrated every year in the 
month of Boedromlon, during nine days, 

fmrn the loth to the 23rd, both at Athens 
and Eleusis. The initiated were called 
eTTOTrrat or e^iipot. On the first day, those 
who had been initiated in the lesser Eleu- 
sinia, assembled at Athens. On the second 
day the mystae went in solemn procession 
to the sea-coast, where they underwent a 
purification. Of the third day scarcely any- 
thing is known with certainty ; we are only 
told that it was a day of fasting, and that in 
the evening a frugal meal was taken, which 
consisted of cakes made of sesame and honey. 
On the fourth day the KoAdflos xafloSos seems 
to have taken place. This was a procession 
with a basket containing pomegranates and 
poppy-seeds ; it was carried on a waggon 
drawn by oxen, and women followed with 
small mystic cases in their hands. On the 
fifth day, which appears to have been called 
the torch day (19 TU> kafjurdStav rnj.epa), the 
mystae, led by the Sa&ovxos, went in the even 
ing with torches to the temple of Demeter at 
Eleusis, where they seem to have remained 
during the following night. This rite was 
probably a symbolical representation of De- 
meter wandering about in search of Perse- 
phoTie. The sixth day, called lacehos, was 
the most solemn of all. The statue of lacchos, 
son of Demeter, adorned with a garland of 
myi tie and bearing a torch in his hand, was 
can ked along the sacred road amidst joyous 
shouts and songs, from the Cerameicus to 
Eleusis. This solemn procession was accom- 
panied by great numbers of followers and 
spectators. During the night from the sixth 
to the seventh day the mystae remained at 
Eleusis, and were initiated into the last mys- 
teries (en-on-reia). Those who were neither 
eiroTjrai. nor fiiiarac. were sent away by a 
he) aid. The mystae now repeated the oath 
of secresy which had been administered to 
them at the lesser Eleusinia, underwent a 
new purification, and then they were led by 
the mystagogus in the darkness of night into 
the lighted interior of the sanctuary (4" ara - 
yiayia"), and were allowed to see (auroi/d'o) 
what none except the epoptae ever beheld. 
The awful and horrible manner in which the 
initiation is described by later, especially 
Christian writers, seems partly to proceed 
from their ignorance of its real character, 
partly from their horror of and aversion to 
these pagan rites. The more ancient writers 
always abstained from entering upon any 
description of the subject. Each individual, 
after his initiation, is said to have been dis- 
missed by the words *6yf, O/J.TTO^, in order to 
make room for other mystae. On the se- 
venth day the initiated returned to Athens 
amid various kinds of raillery and jests, es- 
pecially at the bridge over the Cepbisus, 




where they sat down to rest, and poured 
forth their ridicule on those who passed by. 
Hence the words ye<j>vpieiv and yffrvpionos. 
These cncoin/u.aTa seem, like the procession 
with torches to Eleusis, to have been dra- 
matical and symbolical representations of the 
jests by which, according to the ancient 
legend, lambe or Baubo had dispelled the 
grief of the goddess and made her smile. We 
may here observe, that probably the whole 
history of Demeter and Persephone was in 
some way or other symbolically represented 
at the Eleusinia. The eighth day, called 
Epidauria ('ETuSaupta), was a kind of addi- 
tional day for those who by some accident 
had come too late, or had been prevented 
from being initiated on the sixth day. It 
was said to have been added to the original 
number of days, when Asclepius, coming over 
from Epidaurus to be initiated, arrived too 
late, and the Athenians, not to disappoint 
the god, added an eighth day. The ninth 
and last day bore the name of n&pioxoo^ 
from a peculiar kind of vessel called irAij- 
/oK>xorj, which is described as a small kind of 
KoTvA.05. Two of these vessels were on this 
day filled with water or wine, and the con- 
tents of the one thrown to the east, and those 
of the other to the west, while those who 
performed this rite uttered some mystical 
words. The Eleusinian mysteries long sur- 
vived the independence of Greece. Attempts 
to suppress them were made by the emperor 
Valentinian, but he met with strong opposi- 
tion, and they seem to have continued down 
to the time of the elder Theodosius. Respect- 
ing the secret doctrines which were revealed 
in them to the initiated, nothing certain is 
known. The general belief of the ancients 
was, that they opened to man a comforting 
prospect of a future state. But this feature 
does not seem to have been originally con- 
nected with these mysteries, and was pro- 
bably added to them at the period which fol- 
lowed the opening of a regular intercourse 
between Greece and Egypt, when some of 
the speculative doctrines of the latter country, 
and of the East, may have been introduced 
into the mysteries, and hallowed by the 
names of the venerahle bards of the mythical 
age. This supposition would also account, in 
some measure, for the legend of their intro- 
duction from Egypt. In modern times many 
attempts have been made to discover the 
nature of the mysteries revealed to the ini- 
tiated, but the results have heen as various 
and as fanciful as might be expected. The 
most sober and probable view is that, accord- 
ing to which, " they were the remains of a 
worship which preceded the rise of the Hel- 
lenic mythology and Us attendant liles, 

grounded on a view of nature, less fanciful, 
more earnest, and better fitted to awaken 
both philosophical thought and religious 

ELEUTHERIA (etevOepia), the feast of 
liberty, a festival which the Greeks, after the 
battle of Plataeae (479 B. c.}, instituted in 
honour of Zeus Eleutherios (the deliverer). 
It was intended not merely to be a token of 
their gratitude to the god to whom they be- 
lieved themselves to be indebted for their 
victory over the barbarians, but also as a 
bond of union among themselves ; for, in an 
assembly of all the Greeks, Aristeides carried 
ii decree that delegates (Trpo/SouAot KO.L SeiapoC) 
from all the Greek states should assemble 
every year at Plataeae for the celebration of 
the Eleutheria. The town itself was at the 
same time declared sacred and inviolable, as 
long as its citizens offered the annual sacri- 
fices which were then instituted on behalf of 
Greece. Every fifth year these solemnities 
were celebrated with contests, in which the 
victors were rewarded with chaplets. 

eAAama), a festival with a torch race cele- 
brated at Corinth in honour of Athena as a 
goddess of fire. 

EMANCIPATIO, was an act by which the 
patria potestas was dissolved in the lifetime 
of the parent, and it was so called because it 
was in the form of a sale (mancipatio}. By 
the laws of the Twelve Tables it was neces- 
sary that a son should be sold three times in 
order to be released from the paternal power, 
or to be sui juris. In the case of daughters 
and grandchildren, one sale was sufficient. 
The father transferred the son by the form 
of a sale to another person, who manumitted 
him, upon which he returned into the power 
of the father. This was repeated, and with 
the like result. After a third sale, the pa- 
ternal power was extinguished, but the son 
was re-sold to the parent, who then manu- 
mitted him, and so acquired the rights of a 
patron over his emancipated son, which would 
otherwise have belonged to the purchaser 
who gave him his final manumission. 

EMBAS (eV/3as), a shoe worn by men, and 
which appears to have been the most common 
kind of shoe worn at Athens. Pollux says 
that it was invented by the Thracians, and 
that it was like the low cothurnus. The em- 
bas was also worn by the Boeotians, and pro- 
bably in other parts of Greece. 

EMBATEIA (e^jSaTeia). In Attic law this 
word (like the corresponding English one, 
entry), was used to denote a formal taking 
possession of real property. Thus, when a 
son entered upon the land left him by his 
father, he was said f^arevetv 




ro irorpwa, and thereupon he became seised, 
or possessed of his inheritance. If any one 
disturbed him in the enjoyment of this pro- 
perty, with an intention to dispute the title, 
he might maintain an action of ejectment, 
eovAr;s 8uo). Before entry he could not 
maintain such action. 

EMBLEMA (e/ii/SAjj/na, ep-Traio-jJUi), an inlaid 
ornament. The art of inlaying was em- 
ployed in producing beautiful works of two 
descriptions, viz. ; 1st, those which resem- 
bled our marquetry, buhl, and Florentine 
mosaics ; and 2dly, those in which crusts 
(cmstae], exquisitely wrought in bas-relief 
and of precious materials, were fastened upon 
the surface of vessels or other pieces of fur- 
niture. To the latter class of productions 
belonged the cups and plates which Verres 
obtained by violence from the Sicilians, and 
from which he removed the emblems for the 
purpose of having them set in gold instead 
of silver.^ 

EMERITI, the name given to those Roman 
soldiers who had served out their time, and 
had exemption (vacatio] from military ser- 
vice. The usual time of service was twenty 
years for the legionary soldiers, and sixteen 
for the praetorians. At the end of their 
period of service they received a bounty or 
reward (emeritum), either in lands or money, 
or in both. 

EMISSARIUM (vTrot'ojios), a channel, 
natural or artificial, by which an outlet is 
formed to carry off any stagnant body of 
water. Such channels may be either open or 
underground ; but the most remarkable works 
of the kind are of the latter description, as 
they carry off the waters of lakes surround- 
ed by hills. In Greece, the most striking 
example is presented by the subterraneous 
channels which carry off the waters of the 
lake Copais in Boeotia, which were partly 
natural and partly artificial. Some works of 
this kind are among the most remarkable 
efforts of Roman ingenuity. Remains still 
exist to show that the lakes Trasimene, Al- 
bano, Nemi, and Fucino, were all drained by 
means of cmissaria, the last of which is still 
nearly perfect, and open to inspection, having 
been partially cleared by the present king of 
Naples. Julius Caesar is said to have first 
conceived the idea of this stupendous under- 
taking, which was carried into effect by the 
Emperor Claudius. 

EMMENI DIKAE (Wijvoi SiW), suits in 
the Athenian courts, which were not allowed 
to be pending above a month. TMs regula- 
tion was confined to those subjects which re- 
quired a speedy decision ; and of these the 
most important were disputes respecting 
commerce (qun-opiicai SUai). All causes re- 

lating to mines GieroAAtKal fiucai) were also 
cju/u.i)i/ot SIKHI, as well as those relating to 
epavot. _ [ERANI.] 

EMPORIUM (TO ejuiroptof), a place for 
wholesale trade in commodities carried by 
sea. The name is sometimes applied to a 
sea-port town, but it properly signifies only 
a particular place in such a town. The word 
is derived from e>i7ropo?, which signifies m 
Homer a person who sails as a passenger in 
a ship belonging to another person ; but in 
later writers it signifies the merchant or 
wholesale dealer, and differs from KomjAov, 
the retail dealer. The emporium at Athens 
was under the inspection of certain officers, 
who were elected annually (en-ifieAr)rai rov 



ENCTESIS (fyKTvjcns), the right of possess- 
ing landed property and houses (eyKnjo-is yi?s 
Kal oJia'as) in a foreign country, which was 
frequently granted by one Greek state to 
another, or to separate individuals of another 
state. 'EyKTTjuaTa were such possessions in 
a foreign country, or in a different Srjjuos from 
that to which an Athenian belonged by birth. 

ENDEIXIS (eVSeifis), properly denotes a 
prosecution instituted against such persons 
as were alleged to have exercised rights or 
held offices while labouring under a peculiar 
disqualification. The same form of action 
was available against the chairman of the 
proedri (e7rt<rraT>)s), who wrongly refused to 
take the votes of the people in the assembly ; 
against malefactors, especially murderers ; 
traitors, ambassadors accused of malversa- 
tion, and persons who furnished supplies to 
the enemy during war. The first step taken 
by the prosecutor was to lay his infoi-mation 
in writing, also called eniicixis, before the 
proper magistrate, who then arrested, or held 
to bail, the person criminated, and took the 
usual steps for bringing him to trial. There 
is great obscurity with respect to the punish- 
ment which followed condemnation. The 
accuser, if unsuccessful, was responsible for 
bringing a malicious charge (i//ev6oi M*tM 

ENDROMIS (ei/Spojuw), a thick, coarse 
blanket, manufactured in Gaul, and called 
" endromis " because those who had been 
exercising in the stadium (ev Spo^ta") threw it 
over them to obviate the effects of sudden 
exposure when they were heated. Notwith- 
standing its coarse and shaggy appearance, 
it was worn on other occasions as a protec- 
tion from the cold by rich and fashionable 
persons at Rome. 

ENSIS. [GLADitis.] 

ENTASIS (eVrao-t?). The most ancient 
columns now existing, diminish immediately 




and regularly from the base to the neck, so 
that the edge forms a straight line a mode 
of construction which is wanting in grace 
and apparent solidity. To correct this, a 
swelling outline, called entasis, was given to 
the shaft, which seems to have been the first 
step towards combining grace and grandeur 
in the Doric column. 

EPANGELIA (en-ayyeAia). If a citizen of 
Athens had incurred atimia, the privilege of 
taking part or speaking in the public assem- 
bly was forfeited. But as it sometimes might 
happen that a person, though not formally 
declared atinuis, had committed such crimes 
as would, on accusation, draw upon him this 
punishment, it was of course desirable that 
such individuals, like real atimi, should be 
excluded from the exercise of the rights of 
citizens. Whenever, therefore, such a per- 
son ventured to speak in the assembly, any 
Athenian citizen had the right to come for- 
ward in the assembly itself and demand of 
him to establish his right to speak by a trial 
or examination of his conduct (So/ci^ao-ia TOV 
/3i'ov), and this demand, denouncement, or 
threat, was called epangelia, or epangelia 
docimasias (en-ayyeA.i'a Soxijaacrtas). The im- 
peached individual was then compelled to 
desist from speaking, and to submit to a 
scrutiny into his conduct, and, if he was 
convicted, a formal declaration of atimia fol- 

EPARITI (eiropiToc), the name of the 
standing army in Arcadia, which was formed 
to preserve the independence of the Arcadian 
towns, when they became united as one state 
after the defeat of the Spartans at Leuclra. 
They were 5000 in number, and were paid 
by the state. 

EPHEBUS 0"<Mos), the name of Athe- 
nian youths after they had attained the age 
of 18. The state of cphebeia (e^rj/Sei'a) lasted 
for two years, till the youths had attained the 
age of 20, when they became men, and were 
admitted to share all the rights and duties of 
citizens, for which the law did not prescribe 
a more advanced age. Before a youth was 
enrolled among the ephebi, he had to under- 
go a docimasia (Soxi/nao-ia), the object of which 
was partly to ascertain whether he was the 
son of Athenian citizens, or adopted by a 
citizen, and partly whether his body was 
sufficiently developed and strong to under- 
take the duties which now devolved upon 
him. After the docimasia the young men 
received in the assembly a shield and a lance ; 
but those whose fathers had fallen in the 
defence of their country received a complete 
suit of armour in the theatre. It seems to 
have been on this occasion that the ephebi 
took ac oath in the temple of Artemis Ag- 

lauros, by which they pledged themselves 
never to disgrace their arms or to desert 
their comrades ; to fight to the last in the 
defence of their country, its altars and hea rths ; 
to leave their country not in a worse but in 
a better state than they found it; to obey 
the magistrates and the laws ; to resist all 
attempts to subvert the institutions of At- 
tica ; and finally, to respect the religion of 
their forefathers. This solemnity took place 
towards the close of the year, and the festive 
season bore the name of ephebia (e^^ia). 
The external distinction of the ephebi con- 
sisted in the chlamys and the petasus. Du- 
ring the two years of the ephebeia, which 
may be considered as- a kind of apprentice- 
ship in arms, and in which the young men 
prepared themselves for the higher duties of 
full citizens, they were generally sent into 
the country, under the name of peripoli 
(n-fpuroAot), to keep watch in the towns and 
fortresses, on the coast and frontier, and to 
perform other duties which might be neces- 
sary for_the protection of Attica. 

EPHEGESIS (e(f>Tjyrjo-is), denotes the me- 
thod of proceeding against such criminals as 
were liable to be summarily arrested by a 
private citizen [APAGOGE] when the prose- 
cutor was unwilling to expose himself to 
personal risk in apprehending the offender. 
Under these circumstances he made an appli- 
cation to the proper magistrate, and con- 
ducted him and his officers to the spot where 
the capture was to be effected. 

EPHETAE (e<fcYat), the name of certain 
judges at Athens, who tried cases of homi- 
cide. They were fifty-one in number, se- 
lected from noble families, and more than 
fifty years of age. They formed a tribunal 
of great antiquity, and were in existence 
before the legislation of Solon, but, as the 
state became more and more demccratical, 
their duties became unimportant and almost 
antiquated.' The Ephetae once sat in one 01 
other of the five courts, according to the 
nature of the causes they had to try. In 
historical times, however, they sat in four 
only, called respectively the court by the 
Palladium (TO iirl IlaAAaSi'oi), by the Delphi- 
nium (TO eiri AcActivtw), by the Prytaneium 
(TO eir't TIpvTa.veiia), and the court at Phreatto 
or Zen (TO iv *peaTrot). At the first of these 
courts they tried cases of unintentional, at 
the second, of intentional but justifiable ho- 
micide. At the Prytaneium, by a strange 
custom, somewhat analogous to the imposi- 
tion of a deodand, they passed sentence upon 
the instrument of murder when the perpe- 
trator of the act was not known. In the 
court at Phreatto, on the sea shore at the 
Peiraeeur, they tried such persons as were 




tLarged with wilful murder during a tem- 
porary exile for unintentional homicide. 

EPHIPPIUM (ao-Tpaj3Tj,e<i7rjrioi', tyCmreiov'), 
8 saddle. Although the Greeks occasionally 
rode without any saddle, yet they commonly 
used one, and from them the name, together 
with the thing, was borrowed hy the Romans. 
The ancient saddles appear, indeed, to hare 
been thus far different from ours, that the 
cover stretched upon the hard frame' was 
probably of stuffed or padded cloth rather 
than leather, and that the saddle was, as it 
were, a cushion fitted to the horse's back. 
Pendent cloths (orpwjiomx, strata] were always 
attached to it so as to cover the sides of the 
animal ; but it was not provided with stir- 
rups. The saddle with the pendent cloths is 
exhibited in the annexed coin. The term 

Epnippium, Saddle. (Com of Labienus.) 

" Ephippium " was in later times in part 
supplanted by the word " sella," and the 
more specific expression " sella equestris." 

EPHORI (e>opoi). Magistrates called 
Ephori or overseers were common to many 
Dorian constitutions in times of remote anti- 
quity ; but the Ephori of Sparta are the most 
celebrated of them all. The origin of the 
Spartan ephori is quite uncertain, but their 
office in the historical times was a kind of 
counterpoise to the kings and council, and in 
that respect peculiar to Sparta alone of the 
Dorian states. Their number, five, appears 
to have been always the same, and was pro- 
bably connected with the five divisions of the 
town of Sparta, namely, the four KUJUOI, Lim- 
nae, Mesoa, Pitana, Cynosura, and the ndAis 
or city properly so called, around which the 
KW/U.CU lay. They were elected from and by 
the people, without any qualification of age 
or property, and without undergoing any 
scrutiny ; so that the people enjoyed through 
them a participation in the highest magis- 
tracy of the state. They entered upon office 
at the autumnal solstice, and the first in rank 
of the five gave his name to the year, which 
was called after him in all civil transactions. 
They possessed judicial authority in civil 
suits, and also a general superintendence 
over the morals and domestic economy of the 
nation, which in the hands of able men would 
soon prove an instrument of unlimited power. 
Their jurisdiction and power were still fur- 

ther increased by the privilege of Instituting 
scrutinies (evflvi/ai) into the conduct of all the 
magistrates. Even the kings themselves 
could be brought before their tribunal (as 
Cleomenes was for bribery). In extreme 
cases, the ephors were also competent to lay 
an accusation against the kings as well as the 
other magistrates, and bring them to a capi- 
tal trial before the great court of justice. In 
later times the power of the ephors was 
greatly increased ; and this increase appears 
to have been principally owing to the fact, 
that they put themselves in connection with 
the assembly of the people, convened its 
meetings, laid measures before it, and were 
constituted its agents and representatives. 
When this connection arose is matter of con- 
jecture. The power which such a connection 
gave would, more than anything else, enable 
them to encroach on the royal authority, and 
make themselves virtually supreme in the 
state. Accordingly, we find that they trans- 
acted business with foreign ambassadors ; 
dismissed them from the state ; decided upon 
the government of dependent cities; sub- 
scribed in the presence of other persons to 
treaties of peace ; and in time of war sent 
out troops when they thought necessary. In 
all these capacities the ephors acted as the 
representatives of the nation, and the agenis 
of the public assembly, being in fact the ex- 
ecutive of the state. In course of time the 
kings became completely under their control. 
For example, they fined Agesilaus on the 
vague charge of trying to make himself popu- 
lar, and interfered even with the domestic 
arrangements of other kings. In the field 
the kings were followed by two ephors, who 
belonged to the council of war ; the three 
who remained at home received the -booty in 
charge, and paid it into the treasury, which 
was under the superintendence of the whole 
College of Five. But the ephors had still 
another prerogative, based on a religious 
foundation, which enabled them to effect a 
temporary deposition of the kings. Once in 
eight years, as we are told, they chose a calm 
and cloudless night to observe the heavens, 
and if there was any appearance of a falling 
meteor, it was believed to be a sign that the 
gods were displeased with the kings, who 
were accordingly suspended from their func- 
tions until an oracle allowed of their restora- 
tion. The outward symbols of supreme 
authority also were assumed by the ephors ; 
and they alone kept their seats while the 
kings passed ; whereas it was not considered 
below the dignity of the kings to rise in 
honour of the ephors. When Agis and Cleo- 
menes undertook to restore the old constitu- 
tion, it was necessary for them to overthrow 




the ephoralty, and accordingly Cleomenes 
murdered the ephors for the time being, and 
abolished the office (B. c. 225) ; it was, how- 
ever, restored under the Romans. 

EPIBATAE (en-i/Sarai), were soldiers or 
marines appointed to defend the vessels in 
the Athenian navy, and were entirely distinct 
from the rowers, and also from the land sol- 
diers, such as hoplitae, peltasts, and cavalry. 
It appears that the ordinary number of epi- 
batae on board a trireme was ten. The epi- 
batae were usually taken from the thetes, or 
fourth class of Athenian citizens. The term 
is sometimes also applied by the Roman 
writers to the marines, but they are more 
usually called classiarii milites. The latter 
term, however, is also applied to the rowers 
or sailors as well as the marines. 

EPIBOLE (en-i/SoAr)), a fine imposed by a 
magistrate, or other official person or body, 
for a misdemeanour. The various magistrates 
at Athens had (each in his own department) 
a summary penal jurisdiction ; i. e. for certain 
offences they might inflict a pecuniary mulct 
or fine, not exceeding a fixed amount ; if the 
offender deserved further punishment, it was 
their duty to bring him before a judicial tri- 
bunal. These epibolae are to be distinguished 
from the penalties awarded by a jury or 
court of law (Tiju-ij/iora.) upon a formal prose- 

EPICLERL'S (eTrixXjjpos, heiress), the name 
given to the daughter of an Athenian citizen, 
who had no son to inherit his estate. It was 
deemed an object of importance at Athens to 
preserve the family name and property of 
every citizen. This was effected, where a 
man had no child, by adoption (eicnroojaTs) ; 
if he had a daughter, the inheritance was 
transmitted through her to a grandson, who 
would take the name of the maternal ances- 
tor. If the father died intestate, the heiress 
had not the choice of a husband, but was 
bound to marry her nearest relation, not in 
the ascending line. When there was but one 
daughter, she was called ejri'icAijpos CTTI iravri 
r<f OIK&>. If there were more, they inherited 
equally, like our co-parceners ; and were se- 
verally married to relatives, the nearest hav- 
ing the first choice. 

EPIDOSEIS (en-iSdo-cit), voluntary contri- 
butions, either in money, arms, or ships, 
which were made by the Athenian citizens in 
order to meet the extraordinary demands of 
the state. When the expenses of the state 
were greater than its revenue, it was usual 
for the prytaneis to summon an assembly of 
the people, and after explaining the neces- 
sities of the state, to call upon the citizens to 
contribute according to their means. Those 
who were willing to contiibute then rose and 

mentioned what they would give; while 
those who were unwilling to give any thing 
remained silent, or retired privately from the 

EPIMELETAE (eirijieAijrai'), the names of 
various magistrates and functionaries at 
Athens. ( 1 ) 'En-i/xeAiyrijs TTJS KOI^S Trpo<ro$ov, 
more usually called ro/ttas, the treasurer or 
manager of the public revenue. [TAMIAS.] 
( 2 ) 'ETrifieAijTol TWV fiopuav 'BAaia)?, were per- 
sons chosen from among the Areopagites to 
take care of the sacred olive trees. (3) 'ETTI- 
jieArp-ai ToG 'E/oijropiotJ, were the overseers of 
the emporium. [EMPORIUM.] They were ten 
in number, and were elected yearly by lot. 
They had the entire management of the em- 
porium, and had jurisdiction in all breaches 
of the commercial laws. (4 ) 'En-tjueAijTai rlav 
Mixmjpuo*', were, in connection with the king 
archon, the managers of the Eleusinian mys- 
teries. They were elected by open vote, and 
were four in number. (5) 'En-tneAivTat T> 
veupuuv, the inspectors of the dockyards, 
were ten in number. (6) 'Em/ueArTTa.! ruv 
^uAan/, the inspectors of the <vAai or tribes. 

EPISCOPI (eiriVicoTroi), inspectors, who 
were sometimes sent by the Athenians to 
subject states. They were also called 
<u'AoK5. It appears that these Episcopi re- 
ceived a salary at the cost of the cities over 
which they presided. 

EPISTATES (ejriCTTanjj). ( 1 ) The chair- 
man of the senate and assembly of the peoplt, 
respecting whose duties see BOCLB and 
ECCLESIA. ( 2 ) The name of the directors of 
the public works. ('EjuoraTai r<av Sij/iocriW 

epyajj/) . 

EPISTOLEUS (eTTiaroAevs), the officer se- 
cond in rank in the Spartan fleet, who suc- 
ceeded to the command if any thing happened 
to the navarchus (ravopxos) or admiral. 
When the Chians and the other allies of Sparta 
on the Asiatic coast sent to Sparta to request 
that Lysander might be again appointed to 
the command of the navy, he was sent with 
the title of epistoleus, because the laws of 
Sparta did not permit the same person to hold 
the office of navarchus twice. 

EPISTYLIUM (CTTIO-TV'AIOI/), properly, as the 
name implies, the architrave, or lower mem- 
ber of an entablature, which lies immediately 
over the columns. The word is sometimes 
also used for the whole of the entablature. 

EPITROPUS (eTriYpojros), the name at 
Athens of a guardian of orphan children. Of 
such guardians there were at Athens three 
kinds : first, those appointed in the will of 
the deceased father ; secondly, the next of 
kin, whom the law designated as tutores le- 
gitimi in default of such appointment, and 




who required the authorization of the archon 
to enable them to act ; and lastly, such per- 
sons as the archon selected if there were no 
next of kin living to undertake the office. 
The duties of the guardian comprehended the 
education, maintenance, and protection of 
the ward, the assertion of his rights, and 
the safe custody and profitable disposition 
of his inheritance during his minority, be- 
sides making a proper provision for the wi- 
dow if she remained in the house of her late 

EPOBELIA (emo/SeAi'a), as its etymology 
implies, at the rate of one obolus for a drach- 
ma, or one in six, was payable on the assess- 
ment (rifwj/ta) of several private causes, and 
sometimes in a case of phasis, by the litigant 
that failed to obtain the votes of one-fifth of 
the dicasts. 

EPOPTAE (ordirrai). [ELEUSINIA.] 
EPULONES, who were originally three in 
number (triumviri epulones), were first cre- 
ated in B. c. 196, to attend to the Epulum 
Jovis, and the banquets given in honour of 
the other gods ; which" duty had originally 
belonged to the pontifices. Their number 
was afterwards increased to seven, and they 
were called septemviri epulones or septemviri 
epulonum. The epulones formed a collegium, 
and were one of the four great religious cor- 
porations at Rome ; the other three were 
those of the Pontifices, Augures, and Quinde- 

EQUIRIA, horse-races, which are said 
t have been instituted by Romulus in ho- 
nour of Mars, and were celebrated in the 
Campus Martius. There were two festivals 
of this name ; of which one was celebrated 
A. D. III. Cal. Mart., and the other prid. Id. 

EQUITES, horsemen. Romulus is said to 
have formed three centuries of equitcs ; and 
these were the same as the 300 Celeres, whom 
he kept about his person in peace and war. 
A century was taken from each of the three 
tribes, the Ramnes, Titienses, and Lticeres. 
Tarquinius Priscus added three more, under 
the title of Ramnes, Titienses, and Luceres 
postcriores. These were the six patrician 
centuries of equites, often referred to under 
the name of the sex sujfragla. To these Ser- 
vius Tullius added twelve more centuries, for 
admission into which, property and not birth 
was the qualification. These twelve cen- 
turies might therefore contain plebeians, but 
they do not appear to have been restricted to 
plebeians, since we have no reason for be- 
lieving that the six old centuries contained 
the whole body of patricians. A property 

qualification was apparently also necessary 
by the Servian constitution for admission into 
the six centuries. We may therefore sup- 
pose that those patricians who were included 
in the six old centuries were allowed by the 
Servian constitution to continue in them, it 
they possessed the requisite property ; and 
that all other persons in the state, whether 
patricians or plebeians, who possessed the 
requisite property, were admitted into the 
twelve new centuries. We are not told the 
amount of property necessary to entitle a 
person to a place among the equites, but it 
was probably the same as in the latter times 
of the republic, that is, four times that of 
the first class. [COMITIA, p. 105.] Property, 
however, was not the only qualification ; for 
in the ancient times of the republic no one 
was admitted among the equestrian centuries 
unless his character was unblemished, and 
his father and grandfather had been born 
freemen. Each of the cqnitcs received a 
horse from the state (eqwis pulliatg), or 
money to purchase one, as well as a sum of 
money for its annual support ; the expense 
of its support was defrayed by the orphans 
and unmarried females ; since, in a military 
state, it could not be esteemed unjust, that the 
women and the children were to contribute 
largely for those who fought in behalf of 
them and of the commonwealth. The pur- 
chase-money for a knight's horse was called 
aes equestre, and its annual provision ae-s 
hordearium. The former amounted, accord- 
ing to Livy, to 10,000 asses, and the latter 
to 2000. All the equites, of whom we have 
been speaking, received a horse from the 
state, and were included in the 18 equestrian 
centuries of the Servian constitution ; but iu 
course of time, we read of another class of 
equites in Roman history, who did not re- 
ceive a horse from the state, and who were 
not included in the 18 centuries. This latter 
class is first mentioned by Livy, in his ac- 
count of the siege of Veil, B. c. 403. He says 
that during the siege, when the Romans had 
at one time suffered great disasters, all those 
citizens who had an equestrian fortune, and 
no horse allotted to them, volunteered to 
serve with their own horses ; and he adds, 
that from this time equites first began to 
serve with their own horses. The state paid 
them, as a kind of compensation for serving 
with their own horses. The foot soldiers 
had received pay a few years before ; and 
two years afterwards, B. c. 401, the pay of 
the equites was made three-fold that of the 
infantry. From the year B. c. 403, there 
were therefore two classes of Roman knights : 
one who received horses from the state, and 
are therefore frequently called equitts equa 




pufilico, and sometimes Flexitmines or Tros- 
suli, and another class, who served, when 
they were required, with their own horses, 
but were not classed among the 1 8 centuries. 
As they served on horseback they were called 
equites ; and when spoken of in opposition 
to cavalry, which did not consist of Roman 
citizens, they were also called equites Ro- 
mani ; but they had no legal claim to the 
name of equites, since in ancient times this 
title was strictly confined to those who re- 
ceived horses from the state. The reason of 
this distinction of two classes arose from the 
fact, that the number of equites in the 18 
centuries was fixed from the time of Servius 
Tullius. As vacancies occurred in them, the 
descendants of those who were originally en- 
rolled succeeded to their places, provided 
they had not dissipated their property. But 
in course of time, as' population and wealth 
increased, the number of persons who pos- 
sessed an equestrian fortune, also increased 
greatly ; and as the ancestors of these per- 
sons had not been enrolled in the 18 centu- 
ries, they could not receive horses from the 
state, and were therefore allowed the privi- 
lege of serving with their own horses among 
the cavalry, instead of the infantry, as they 
would otherwise have been obliged to have 
done.. The inspection of the equites who 
received horses from the state belonged to 
the censors, who had the power of depriving 
an cqaes of his horse, and reducing him to 
the condition of an aerarian, and also of 
giving the vacant horse to the most distin- 
guished of the equites who had previously 
served at their own expense. For these 
purposes they made during their censorship 
a public inspection, in the forum, of all the 
knights who possessed public horses (equita- 
tuin recognoscere] . The tribes were taken in 
order, and each knight was summoned by 
name. Every one, as his name was called, 
walked past the censors, leading his horse. 
If the censors had no fault to find cither with 
the character of the knight or the equipments 
of his horse, they ordered him to pass on 
(traduc equum) ; but if on the contrary they 
considered him unworthy of his rank, they 
struck him out of the list of knights, and 
deprived him of his horse, or ordered him to 
sell it, with the intention no doubt that the 
person thus degraded should refund to the 
state the money which had been advanced to 
him for its purchase. This review of the 
equites by the censors must not be confounded 
with the Equitum Transvectio, which was a 
solemn procession of the body every year on 
the Ides of Quintilis (July). The procession 
started from the temple of Mars outside the 
city, and passed through the city over the 

forum, and by the temple of the Dioscuri. 
On this occasion the equites were always 
crowned with olive chaplets, and wore their 
state dress, the trabca, with all the honour- 
able distinctions which they had gained in 
battle. AQCording to Livy, this annual pro- 
cession was first established by the censors 
Q. Fabius and P. Decius, B.C. 304 ; but ac- 
cording to Dionysius it was instituted after 
the defeat of the Latins near the lake Re- 
gillus, of which an account was brought to 
Rome by the Dioscuri. It may be asked how 
long did the knight retain his public horse, 
and a vote in the equestrian century to which 
he belonged? On this subject we have no 
positive information ; but as those equitos, 
who served with their own horses, were only 
obliged to serve for ten years (stipendia) 
under the age of 46, we may presume that 
the same rule extended to those who served 
with the public horses, provided they wished 
to give up the service. For it is certain that 
in the ancient times of the republic a knight 
might retain his horse as long as he pleased, 
even after he had entered the senate, provided 
he continued able to discharge the duties of 
a knight. Thus the two censors, M. Livius 
Salinator and C. Claudius Nero, in B. c. 204, 
were also equites, and L. Scipio Asiaticus, who 
was deprived of his horse by the censors in 
B.C. 185, had himself been censor in B.C. 191. 
But during the later times of the republic the 
knights were obliged to give up their horses 
on entering the senate, and consequently 
ceased to belong to the equestrian centuries. 
It thus naturally came to pass, that the 
greater number of the equites equo publico, 
after the exclusion of senators from the 
equestrian centuries, were young men. The 
equestrian centuries, of which we have 
hitherto been treating, were only regarded 
as a division of the army : they did not form 
a distinct class or ordo in the constitution. 
The community, in a political point of view, 
was divided only into patricians and plebeians ; 
and the equestrian centuries were composed 
of both. But in the year B.C. 123, a new 
class, called the Ordo Equestris, was formed 
in the state by the Lex Sempronia, which was 
introduced by C. Gracchus. By this law, or 
one passed a few years afterwards, every person 
who was to be chosen judex was required to be 
above 30 and under 60 years of age, to have 
either an equus publicus, or to be qualified 
by his fortune to possess one, and not to be 
a senator. The number of judices, who were 
required yearly, was chosen from this class 
by the praetor urbanus. As the name of 
equites had been originally extended from 
those who possessed the public horses to those 
who served with their own horses, it now 




curae to be applied to all those persons who 
were qualified by their fortune to act as 
judiees, in which sense the word is usually 
used by Cicero. After the reform of Sulla, 
which entirely deprived the equestrian order 
of the right of being chosen as judiees, and 
the passing of the Lex Aurelia (B.C. 70), 
which ordained that the judiees should be 
chosen from the senators, equites, and tribuni 
aerarii, the influence of the order, says Pliny, 
was still maintained by the publicani, or 
farmers of the public taxes. We find that the 
publicani were almost always called equites, 
not because any particular rank was necessary 
in order to obtain from the state the farming 
of the taxes, but because the state was not 
accustomed to let them to any one who did 
not possess a considerable fortune. Thus the 
publicani are frequently spoken of by Cicero 
as identical with the equestrian order. The 
consulship of Cicero, and the active part which 
the knights then took in suppressing the con- 
spiracy of Catiline, tended still further to 
increase the power and influence of the 
equestrian order ; and " from that time," 
says Pliny, " it became a third body (corpus) 
in the state, and, to the title of Senatus Po- 
pulusque Romanus, there began to be added 
Et JSquestris Ordo." In B. c. 63, a distinc- 
tion was conferred upon them, which tended 
to separate them still further from the plebs. 
By the Lex Roscia Othonis, passed in that 
year, the first fourteen seats in the theatre 
behind the orchestra were given to the 
equites. They also possessed the right of 
wearing the Clavus Angustus [CLAVUS], and 
subsequently obtained the privilege of wear- 
ing a gold ring, which was originally con- 
fined to the equites equo publico. The num- 
ber of equites increased greatly under the 
early emperors, and all persons were admitted 
into the order, provided they possessed the 
requisite property, without any inquiry into 
their character, or into the free birth of their 
father and grandfather. The order in con- 
sequence gradually began to lose all the con- 
sideration which it had acquired during the 
later times of the republic. Augustus formed 
a select class of equites, consisting of those 
equites who possessed the property of a 
senator, and the old requirement of free 
birth up to the grandfather. He permitted 
this class to wear the latm clavus ; and also 
allowed the tribunes of the plebs to be chosen 
from them, as well as the senators, and gave 
them the option, at the termination of their 
office, to remain in the senate or return to 
the equestrian order. This class of knights 
was distinguished by the special title illustres 
(sometimes insignes and splendidi) equites 
Komani. The formation of this distinct class 

tended to lower the others still more in public 
estimation. In the ninth year of the reign 
of Tiberius, an attempt was made to improve 
the order by requiring the old qualifications 
of free birth up to the grandfather, and by 
strictly forbidding any one to wear the gold 
ring unless he possessed this qualification. 
This regulation, however, was of little avail, 
as the emperors frequently admitted freed- 
men into the equestrian order. When pri- 
vate persons were no longer appointed judiees, 
the necessity for a distinct class in the com- 
munity, like the equestrian order, ceased 
entirely ; and the gold ring came at length 
to be worn by all free citizens. Even slaves, 
after their manumission, were allowed to 
wear it by special permission from the em- 
peror, which appears to have been usually 
granted provided the patronus consented. 
Having thus traced the history of the eques- 
trian order to its final extinction as a distinct 
class in the community, we must now return 
to the equites equo publico, who formed the 
18 equestrian centuries. This class still 
existed during the latter years of the republic, 
but had entirely ceased to serve as horse- 
soldiers in the army. The cavalry of the 
Roman legions no longer consisted, as in the 
time of Polybius, of Roman equites, but their 
place was supplied by the cavalry of the 
allied states. It is evident that Caesar in his 
Gallic wars possessed no Roman cavalry. 
When he went to an interview with Ario- 
vistus, and was obliged to take cavalry with 
him, we are told that he did not dare to trust 
his safety to the Gallic cavalry, and there- 
fore mounted his legionary soldiers upon their 
horses. The Roman equites are, however, 
frequently mentioned in the Gallic and civil 
wars, but never as common soldiers ; they 
were officers attached to the staff of the 
general, or commanded the cavalry of the 
allies, or sometimes the legions. After the 
year B. c. 50, there were no censors in the 
state, and it would therefore follow that for 
some years no review of the body took place, 
and that the vacancies were not filled up. 
When Augustus, however, took upon him- 
self, in B. c. 29, the praefcctura morum, he 
frequently reviewed the troops of eqiutes, 
and restored the long neglected custom of 
the solemn procession (transvectio). From this 
time these equites formed an honourable corps, 
from which all the higher officers in the army 
and the chief magistrates in the state were 
chosen. Admission into this body was equi- 
valent to an introduction into public life, and 
was therefore esteemed a great privilege. 11 
a young man was not admitted into this 
body, he was excluded from all civil offices of 
any importance, except in municipal towns; 




and also from all rank in the army, with the 
exception of centurion. All those equites, 
who were not employed in actual service, 
were obliged to reside at Rome, where they 
were allowed to fill the lower magistracies, 
Which entitled a person to admission into the 
senate. They were divided into six turmae, 
each of which was commanded by an officer, 
who is frequently mentioned in inscriptions 
as Serir equltum Rom. turmae i. n., &c., or 
commonly Secir turmae or Secir turmarum 
equitum Romanorum. From the time that 
the equites bestowed the title of principes 
jucentutis upon Caius and Lucius Caesar, the 
grandsons of Augustus, it became the cus- 
tom to confer this title, as well as that of 
sevir, upon the probable successor to the 
throne, when he first entered into public 
life, and was presented with an equus pub- 
licus. The practice of filling all the higher 
offices in the state from these equites appears 
to have continued as long as Rome was the 
centre of the government and the residence 
of the emperor. After the time of Diocle- 
tian, the equites became only a city guard, 
under the command of the praefectus vigi- 
lura ; but they still retained, in the time of 
Valentinianus and Valens, A. D. 364, the se- 
cond rank in the city, and were not subject 
to corporal punishment. Respecting the 
Magister Equitum, see DICTATOR. 

EQUULEUS or ECULEUS, an instrument 
of torture, which is supposed to have been 
so called because it was in the form of a 

ERANI (epavoi), were clubs or societies, 
established for charitable, convivial, com- 
mercial, or political purposes. Unions of 
this kind were called by the general name 
of fTaipiai, and were often converted to mis- 
chievous ends, such as briber}', overawing 
the public assembly, or influencing courts of 
justice. In the days of the Roman empire 
friendly societies, under the name of erani, 
were frequent among the Greek cities, but 
were looked on with suspicion by the empe- 
rors, as leading to political combinations. 
The gilds, or fraternities for mutual aid, 
among the ancient Saxons, resembled the 
erani of the Greeks. 

ERGASTULUM, a private prison attached 
to most Roman farms, where the slaves were 
made to work in chains. The slaves confined 
in an ergastulum were also employed to cul- 
tivate the fields in chains. Slaves who had 
displeased their masters were punished by 
imprisonment in the ergastulum ; and in the 
same place all slaves, who could not be de- 
pended upon or were barbarous in their 
habits, were regularly kept. 

B1CIUS, a military engine full of sharp 

spikes, which was placed by the gate of the 
camp to prevent the approach of the enemy. 

EROTIA or EROTlDIA (epwria or epam- 
Sia), the 'most solemn of all the festivals 
celebrated in the Boeotian town of Thespiae. 
It took place every fifth year, and in honour 
of Eros, the pruicipal divinity of the Thes- 
pians. Respecting the particulars nothing is 
known, except that it was solemnised with 
contests in music and gymnastics. 


ESSEDA, or ESSEDUM (from the Celtic 
Ess, a carriage), the name of a chariot used, 
especially in war, by the Britons, the Gauls, 
and the Germans. It was built very strongly, 
was open before instead of behind, like the 
Greek war-chariot, and had a wide pole, so 
that the owner was able, whenever he pleased, 
to run along the pole, and even to raise him- 
self upon the yoke, and then to retreat with 
the greatest speed into the body of the car, 
which he drove with extraordinary swiftness 
and skill. It appears also that these cars 
were purposely made as noisy as possible, 
probably by the creaking and clanging of the 
wheels ; and that this was done in order to 
strike dismay into the enemy. The warriors 
who drove these chariots were called essedarii. 
Having been captured, they were sometimes 
exhibited in the gladiatorial shows at Rome, 
and seem to have been great favourites with 
the people. The essedum was adopted for 
purposes of convenience and luxury among 
the Romans. As used by the Romans, the 
essedum may have differed from the cisium 
in this ; that the cisium was drawn by one 
horse (see cut, p. 90), the essedum always by 
a pair. 

EUMOLPIDAE (ev/ou5\7r^<u), the most dis- 
tinguished and venerable among the priestly 
families in Attica. They were devoted to the 
service of Demeter at Athens and Eleusis, 
and were said to be the descendants of the 
Thracian bard Eumolpus, who, according to 
some legends, had introduced the Eleusinian 
mysteries into Attica. The high priest of the 
Eleusinian goddess (Upo^ai/njs or nvarayuyos), 
who conducted the celebration of her mys- 
teries and the initiation of the mystae, was 
always a member of the family of the Eumol- 
pidae, as Eumolpus himself was believed to 
have been the first hierophant. The hiero- 
phant was attended by four epimeletae (emue- 
Aijrai), one of whom likewise belonged to the 
family of the Eumolpidae. The Eumolpidae 
had on certain occasions to offer up prayers 
for the welfare of the state. They had like- 
wise judicial power in cases where religion 
was violated. The law according to which 
they pronounced their sentence, and of which 
they had the exclusive possession, was not 




written, but handed down by tradition ; and 
the Eumolpidae alone had the right to inter- 
pret it, -whence they are sometimes called 
Exegctae (efnyrjTtu). In cases for which the 
law had made no provisions, they acted ac- 
cording to their own discretion. In some 
cases, when a person -was convicted of gross 
violation of the public institutions of his 
country, the people, besides sending the 
offender into exile, added a clause in their 
verdict that a curse should be pronounced 
upon him by the Eumolpidae. But the Eu- 
molpidae could pronounce such a curse only 
at the command of the people, and might 
afterwards be compelled by the people to 
revoke it, and purify the person whom they 
had cursed before. 

EUPATRIDAE (eun-arpi'Sai), descended 
from noble ancestors, is the name by which 
in early times the nobility of Attica was de- 
signated. In the division of the inhabitants 
of Attica into three classes, which is ascribed 
to Theseus, the Eupatridae -were the first 
class, and thus formed a compact order of 
nobles, united by their interests, rights, and 
privileges. They were in the exclusive pos- 
session of all the civil and religious offices in 
the state, ordered the affairs of religion, and 
interpreted the laws human and divine. The 
king was thus onlj 1 the first among his equals, 
and only distinguished from them by the du- 
ration of his office. By the legislation of 
Solon, the political power and influence of 
the Eupatridae as an order -was broken, and 
property instead of birth was made the 
standard of political rights. But as Solon, 
like all ancient legislators, abstained from 
abolishing any of the religious institutions, 
those families of the Eupatridae, in which 
certain priestly offices and functions were 
hereditary, retained these distinctions down 
to a very late period of Grecian history. 
EUTHYNE (evflwr)). All public officers at 
Athens were accountable for their conduct 
and the manner in which they acquitted 
themselves of their official duties. The 
judges in the popular court seem to have 
been the only authorities who were not re- 
sponsible, for they were themselves the 
representatives of the people, and would 
therefore, in theory, have been responsible 
to themselves. This account, which officers 
had to give after the time of their office was 
over, was called fv9vvy, and the officers sub- 
ject to it, vmvBvvoi, and after they had gone 
through the euthyne, they became aveuOvvoi.. 
Every public officer had to render his account 
within thirty days after the expiration of his 
office, and at the time when he submitted to 
Hie euthyne any citizen had the right to come 

forward and impeach him. The officers 
before whom the accounts were given were 
at Athens ten in number, called tvBvvoi or 
Aoyiorai, in Other places eferaorai or (ruirrj- 



EXAUGURATIO, the act of changing a 
sacred thing into a profane one, or of taking 
away from it the sacred character which it 
had received by inauguratio, consecratio, or 
dedicatio. Such an act was performed by 
the augurs, and never without consulting the 
pleasure of the gods, by augurium. 


EXCUBITORES, which properly means 
watchmen or sentinels of any kind, was tht 
name more particularly given to the soldiers 
of the cohort who guarded the palace of the 
Roman emperor. 

EXEDRA (eft'Spa), which properly signifies 
a seat out of doors, came to be used for a cham- 
ber furnished with seats, and opening into a 
portico, where people met to enjoy conversa- 
tion ; such as the rooms attached to a gym- 
nasium, which were used for the lectures 
and disputations of the rhetoricians and phi- 
losophers. In old Greek the word AeVx>) 
appears to have had a similar meaning ; but 
the ordinary use of the word is for a larger 
arid more public place of resort than the 
efe'Spa. [LESCHE.] Among the Romans the 
word had a wider meaning, answering to 
both the Greek terms, efe'Spa and AeVxi)- 

EXEGETAE (efjn") T< ", interpreters) is the 
name of the Eumolpidae, by which they were 
designated as the interpreters of the laws 
relating to religion and of the sacred rites. 
[EUMOLPIDAE.] The name efjryjTTJs was also 
applied to those persons who served as guides 
(ciceroni) to the visitors in the most remark- 
able towns and places of Greece. 

EXERCITORIA ACTIO, an action granted 
by the edict against the exereitor navis. By 
the term navis was understood any vessel, 
whether used for the navigation of rivers, 
lakes, or the sea. The exereitor navis is the 
person to whom all the ship's gains and earn- 
ings (pbventitmts et reditus) belong, whether 
he is the owner, or has hired the ship (per 
aversionem) from the owner for a time defi- 
nite or indefinite. 

EXERCITUS (orpaTos), army. ( 1 ) GREEK. 

1. Spartan Army. In all the states of 
Greece, in the earliest as in later times, the 
general type of their military organisation 
was the phalanx, a body of troops in close 
array with a long spear as their principal 
weapon. It was among the Dorians, and 
especially among the Spartans, that this type 
was most rigidly adhered to. The strength 




of their military array consisted in the heavy- 
armed infantry (oTrAtrat). They attached 
comparatively small importance to their 
cavalry, which was always inferior. Indeed, 
the Thessalians and Boeotians were the only 
Greek people who distinguished themselves 
much for their cavalry ; scarcely any other 
states had territories adapted for the evolu- 
tions of cavalry. The whole life of a Spartan 
was little else than either the preparation for 
or the practice o* var. The result was, that 
in the strictness of their discipline, the pre- 
cision and facility with which they performed 
their military evolutions, and the skill and 
power with which they used their weapons, 
the Spartans were unrivalled among the 
Greeks. The heavy-armed infantry of the 
Spartan armies was composed pr.rtly of 
genuine Spartan citizens, partly of Perioeci. 
Every Spartan citizen was liable to military 
service (e^poupos) from the age of twenty 
to the age of sixty years. They were divided 
into six divisions called AW>P<, under the 
command or superintendence of a polemarch, 
each mora being subdivided into four Ad^ot 
(commanded by Aoxayoi), each Ao^os into two 
irei/T>)<cooTve (headed by Treyrq/cooTTJpes), each 
TrevTijKotmjs into two evia/j-oriat (headed by 
enomotarchs). The twoftoruu were so called 
from the men composing them being bound 
together by a common oath. These were not 
merely divisions of troops engaged in actual 
military expeditions. The whole body of 
citizens at all times formed an army, whether 
they were congregated at head-quarters in 
Sparta, or a portion of them were detached 
on foreign service. The strength of a mora 
on actual service, of course, varied, according 
to circumstances. To judge by the name 
pentecostys, the normal number of a mora 
would have been 400 ; but 500; 600, and 
9,00 are mentioned as the number of men in a 
mora on different occasions. When in the 
field, each mora of infantry was attended by 
a mora of cavalry, consisting at the most of 
100 men, and commanded by an hipparmost 
(>7r3rapfio<TTrjs). Plutarch mentions squadrons 
(ovAofioi) of fifty, which may possibly be the 
same divisions. The cavalry seems merely 
to have been employed to protect the flanks, 
and but little regard was paid to it. The 
corps of 300 turrets formed a sort of body- 
guard for the king, and consisted of the flower 
of the young soldiers. Though called horse- 
men, they fought on foot. A Spartan army, 
divided as above described, was drawn up in 
the dense array of the phalanx, the depth of 
which depended upon circumstances. An 
ivuifioTia. sometimes made but a single file, 
sometimes was drawn up in three or six files 
(fwviO. The enomotarch stood at the head of 

his file (TrpwTooTaTTjs), or at the head of the 
right-hand file, if the enomotia was broken 
up into more than one. The last man was 
called ovpayos. It was a matter of great 
importance that he, like the enomotarch, 
should be a man of strength and skill, as in 
certain evolutions he would have to lead the 
movements. The commander-in-chief, who 
was usually the king, had his station some- 
times in the centre, more commonly on the 
right wing. The commands of the general 
were issued in the first place to the pole- 
marchs, by these to the lochagi, by these 
again to the pentecosteres, by the latter to 
the enomotarchr, and by these last to their 
respective divisions. From the orderly man- 
ner in which this was done, commands were 
transmitted with great rapidity : every sol- 
dier, in fact, regulating the movements of the 
man behind him, every two being connected 
together as 7rp<oTo<7ran)s and eiriordTijs. In 
later times the king was usually accompanied 
by two ephors, as controllers and advisers. 
These, with the polemarchs, the four Pythii, 
three peers (oiuotoi), who had to provide for 
the necessities of the king in war, the laphy- 
ropolae and some other otficers, constituted 
what was called the damosia of the king. 
The Spartan hoplites were accompanied in 
the field by helots, partly in the capacity of 
attendants, partly to serve as light-armed 
troops. The number attached to an army 
was probably not uniform. At Plataeae each 
Spartan was accompanied by seven helots ; 
but that was probably an extraordinary case. 
One helot in particular of those attached to 
each Spartan was called his Oepa-mav, and 
performed the functions of an armourer or 
shieldbearer. Xenophon calls them viratr- 
Trurrat. In extraordinary cases, helots served 
as hoplites, and in that ease it was usual to 
give them their liberty. A separate troop in 
the Lacedaemonian army was formed by the 
Sciritae (SicipiTai), originally, no doubt, in- 
habitants of the district Sciritis. The arms 
of the phalanx consisted of the long spear 
and a short sword (finjAij). The chief part 
of the defensive armour was the large brazen 
shield, which covered the body from the 
shoulder to the knee, suspended, as in 
ancient times, by a thong round the neck, 
and managed by a simple handle or ring 
(7Top7ro). Besides this, they had the ordi- 
nary armour of the hoplite [ARMA.] The 
heavy-armed soldiers wore a scarlet uniform. 
The Spartan encampments were circular. 
Only the heavy-armed were stationed within 
them, the cavalry being placed to look out, and 
the helots being kept as much as possible out- 
side. Preparatory to a battle the Spartan 
soldier dressed his hair and crowned himseU 




as others would do for a feast. The signal 
for attack was given not by the trumpet, but 
by the music of flutes, and sometimes also of 
the lyre and cithara, to which the men sang 
the battle song (TrcueU/ ejujSaTT/ptos). The object 
of the music was not so much to inspirit the 
men, as simply to regulate the march of the 
phalanx. This rhythmical regularity of move- 
ment was a point to which the Spartans 
attached great importance. 

2. Athenian Army. In Athens, the mili- 
tary system was in its leading principles the 
same as among the Spartans, though differing 
in detail, and carried out with less exactness ; 
inasmuch as when Athens became powerful, 
greater attention was paid to the navy. Of 
the four classes into which the citizens were 
arranged by the constitution of Solon, the 
citizens of the first and second served as ca- 
va.lry, or as commanders of the infantry (still 
it need not be assumed that the imrets never 
served as heavy-armed infantry), those of 
the third class (feu-yiTai) formed the heavy- 
armed infantry. The Thetes served either 
as light-armed troops on land, or on board 
the ships. The same general principles re- 
mained when the constitution was remodelled 
by Cleisthenes. The cavalry service con- 
tinued to be compulsory on the wealthier 
class. Every citizen was liable to service 
from his eighteenth to his sixtieth year. On 
reaching their eighteenth year, the young 
citizens were formally enrolled eis riji' Aijftap- 
\IKOV ypofi/ittTt-tOf, and received a shield and 
spear in a public assembly of the people, 
binding themselves by oath to perform rightly 
the duties of a citizen and a soldier. During 
the first two years, they were only liable to 
service in Attica itself, chiefly as garrison 
soldiers in the different fortresses in the 
country. During this period, they were 
called TrepiVoAoi. Members of the senate 
during the period of their office, farmers of 
the revenue, choreutae at the Dionysia during 
the festival, in later times, traders by sea 
also, were exempted from military service. 
Any one bound to serve who attempted to 
avoid doing so, was liable to a sentence of 
ariWa, The resident aliens commonly served 
as heavy-armed soldiers, especially for the 
purpose of garrisoning the city. They were 
prohibited from serving as cavalry. Slaves 
were only employed as soldiers in cases of 
great necessity. Of the details of the Athe- 
nian military organisation, ittf have no dis- 
tinct accounts as we have of those of Sparta. 
The heavy-armed troops, as was the universal 
practice in Greece, fought in phalanx order. 
They were arranged in bodies in a manner 
dependent on the political divisions of the 
citizens. The soldiers of each tribe (tf>uA>j) 

formed a separate body in the army, also 
called a tribe, and these bodies stood in some 
preconcerted order. It seems that the name 
of one division was rafts, and of another 
Aoxos, but in what relations these stood to 
the <#>vArj, and to each other, we do not learn. 
Every hoplite was accompanied by an at- 
tendant (umjpenjs) to take charge of his bag- 
gage, and carry his shield on a march. 
Each horseman also had a servant, called 
i7r7roicop.os, to attend to his horse. For the 
command of the army, there were chosen 
every year ten generals [STOATEGI], and ten 
taxiarchs [TAXIARCHI], and for the cavalry, 
two hipparchs (imrapxoi) and ten phylarchs 
(<uAapxoi). Respecting the military func- 
tions of the Zpx<av jroAeju-ttpx *, see the article 
ARCHON. The number of strategi sent with 
an army was not uniform. Three was a 
common number. Sometimes one was in- 
vested with the supreme command ; at other 
times, they either took the command in turn 
(as at Marathon), or conducted their opera- 
tions by common consent (as in the Sicilian 
expedition). The practice of paying the 
troops when upon service was first intro- 
duced by I>ericles. The pay consisted partly 
of wages (/ouerflos), partly of provisions, or, 
more commonly, provision-money ((rmipecrioi'). 
The ordinary fuotfos of a hoplite was two 
obols a day- The mmipeiriov amounted to two 
obols more. Hence, the life of a soldier was 
called, proverbially, rerpHSoAov /Si'os. Officers 
received twice as much ; horsemen, three 
times ; generals, four times as much. The 
horsemen received pay even in time of peace, 
that they might always be in readiness, and 
also a sum of money for their outfit (<cara- 
oracns). As regards the military strength of 
the Athenians, we find 10,000 heavy-armed 
soldiers at Marathon, 8,000 heavy armed, and 
as many light armed at Plataeae ; and at the 
beginning of the Peloponnesian war there were 
18,000 heavy armed ready for foreign service, 
and 16,000 consisting of those beyond the 
limits of the ordinary military age and of 
the metoeci, for garrison service. It was the 
natural result of the national character of 
the Athenians and their democratical consti- 
tution, that military discipline was much less 
stringent among them than among the Spar- 
tans, and after defeat especially it was often 
found extremely difficult to maintain it. The 
generals had some power of punishing mili- 
tary offences on tlie spot, but for the greater 
number of such offences a species of court- 
martial was held, consisting of persons wh' 
had served in the army to which the offender 
belonged, and presided over by the strategi. 
Various rewards also were held out for those 
who especially distinguished themseives for 




their courage or conduct, in the shape of 
chaplets, statues, &c. The Peltastae (m-A- 
morai), so called from the kind of shield 
which they wore [PELTA], were a class of 
troops of which we hear very little hefore the 
end of the Peloponnesian war. The Athe- 
nian general Iphicrates introduced some im- 
portant improvements in the mode of arming 
them, combining as far as possible the pecu- 
liar advantages of heavy (on-AiTai) and light 
armed (i/oAoi) troops. He substituted a linen 
corslet for the coat of mail worn by the hop- 
lites, and lessened the shield, while he doubled 
the length of the spear and sword. He even 
took the pains to introduce for them an im- 
proved sort of shoe, called after him 'l<f>iKpa- 
ri'Ses. This equipment proved very effective. 
The almost total destruction of a mora of 
Lacedaemonian heavy-armed troops by a body 
of peltastae under the command of Iphicrates 
was an exploit that became very famous. 
When the use of mercenary troops became 
general, Athenian citizens seldom served ex- 
cept as volunteers, and then in but small 
numbers. The employment of mercenaries 
led to considerable alterations in the military 
system of Greece. War came to be studied 
as an art, and Greek generals, rising above 
the old simple rules of warfare, became tac- 
ticians. Epaminondas was the first who 
adopted the method of charging in column, 
concentrating his attack upon one point of 
the hostile line, so as to throw the whole into 
confusion by breaking through it. 

3. Macedonian Army. Philip, king of 
Macedonia, made several improvements in 
the arms and arrangement of the phalanx. 
The spear (aupurcra or <rap7a), with which 
the soldiers of the Macedonian phalanx were 
armed, was 24 feet long ; but the ordinary 
length was 21 feet, and the lines were ar- 
ranged at such distances that the spears of 
the fifth rank projected three feet beyond the 
first, so that every man in the front rank was 
protected by five spears. Besides the spear 
they carried a short sword. The shield was 
very large and covered nearly the whole body, 
so that on favourable ground an impenetrable 
frpnt was presented to the enemy. The sol- 
diers were also defended by helmets, coats of 
mail, and greaves ; so that any thing like 
rapid movement was impossible. The ordi- 
nary depth of the phalanx was sixteen files, 
though depths of eight and of thirty-two are 
also mentioned. Each file of sixteen was 
called Aoxos. Two lochi made a dilochia ; 
two dilochiae made a TCTpapx'a, consisting of 
sixty-four men ; two tetrarchies made a rafis ; 
two T<ieis a o-vvTayna. or ferayi'a, to which 
were attached five supernumeraries, a herald, 
an ensign, a trumpeter, a servant, and an 

officer to bring up the rear (ovpayos) ; two 
syntagmata formed a pentacosiarchia, two of 
which made a ^'"PX" 1 , containing 1024 
men ; two chiliarchies made a re'Aos, and two 
T'ATJ made a phalangarchia or phalanx in the 
narrower sense of the word, the normal num- 
ber of which would therefore be 4096. It 
was commanded by a polemarch or strategus ; 
four such bodies formed the larger phalanx, 
the normal number of which would be 16,384. 
When drawn up, the two middle sections 
constituted what was termed the o^<^aAos, the 
others being called Kepara or wings. The 
phalanx soldiers in the army of Alexander 
amounted to 18,000, and were divided not 
into four, but into six divisions, each named 
after a Macedonian province, from which it 
was to derive its recruits. These bodies are 
oftener called rafeis than ^oAayyes by the 
historians, and their leaders taxiarchs or 
strategi. The phalanx of Antiochus consisted 
of 16,000 men, and was formed into ten divi- 
sions 0*e'p>)) of 1600 each, arranged 50 broad 
and 32 deep. The phalanx, of course, be- 
came all but useless, if its ranks were broken. 
It required, therefore, level and open ground, 
so that its operations were restricted to very 
narrow limits ; and being incapable of rapid 
movement, it became almost helpless in the 
face of an active enemy, unless accompanied 
by a sufficient number of cavalry and light 
troops. The light armed troops were arranged 
in files (Aoxoi) eight deep. Four lochi formed a 
<n!ora(ns, and then larger divisions were suc- 
cessively formed, each being the double of 
the one below it ; the largest (called eiriVay/tia), 
consisting of 8192 men. The cavalry (ac- 
cording to Aelianus), were arranged in an 
analogous manner, the lowest division or 
squadron (1^1), containing 64 men, and the 
successive larger divisions being each the 
double of that below it ; the highest (eTriTayjua) 
containing 4096. Both Philip and Alexan- 
der attached great importance to the cavalry, 
which, in their armies, consisted partly of 
Macedonians, and partly of Thessalians. The 
Macedonian horsemen were the flower of the 
young nobles. They amounted to about 1200 
in number, forming eight squadrons, and. 
under the name enupoi, formed a sort of 
body-guard for the king. The Thessalian 
cavalry consisted chiefly of the elite of the 
wealthier class of the Thessalians, but inclu- 
ded also a number of Grecian youth from 
other states. There was also a guard of foot 
soldiers (vvtunria-rai), whom we find greatly 
distinguishing themselves in the campaigns 
of Alexander. They seem to be identical with 
the jrefrratpoi, of whom we find mention. 
They amounted to about 3000 men, arranged 
in six battalions (roleis). There was also a 
x 2 




troop called Argyraspids, from the silver with 
which their shields were ornamented. They 
seem to have been a species of peltastae. 
Alexander also organised a kind of troops 
called Sijiaxoi, who were something inter- 
mediate between cavalry and infantry, being 
designed to fight on horseback or on foot, as 
circumstances required. It is in the time of 
Alexander the Great, that we first meet with 
artillery in the train of a Grecian army. His 
balistae and catapeltae were frequently em- 
ployed with great effect, as, for instance, at 
the passage of the Jaxartes. 

(2) ROMAN. General Remarks on the 
Legion. The name -Legio is coeval with the 
foundation of Rome, and denoted a body of 
troops, which, although subdivided into seve- 
ral smaller bodies, was regarded as forming 
an organised whole. It was not equivalent to 
what we call a regiment, inasmuch as it con- 
tained troops of all arms, infantry, cavalry, 
and, when military engines were extensively 
employed, artillery also ; it might thus, so 
far, be regarded as a complete army, but on 
the other hand the number of soldiers in a 
legion was fixed within certain limits, never 
much exceeding 6000, and hence when war 
was carried on upon a large scale, a single 
army, under the command of one general, 
frequently contained two, three, or more 
legions, besides a large number of auxiliaries 
of various denominations. The legion for 
many centuries was composed exclusively of 
Roman citizens. By the ordinances of Ser- 
vius Tullius those alone who were enrolled in 
the five classes were eligible, and one of the 
greatest changes introduced by Marius (B. c. 
107) was the admission of all orders of citi- 
zens, including the lowest, into the ranks. 
Up to the year B.C. 107, no one was permit- 
ted to serve among the regular troops of the 
state, except those who were regarded as 
possessing a strong personal interest in the 
stability of the commonwealth ; but the prin- 
ciple having been at this period abandoned, 
the privilege was extended after the close of 
the Social War (B.C. 87) to nearly the whole 
of the free population of Italy, and by the 
famous edict of Caracalla (or perhaps of M. 
Aurelius), to the whole Roman world. Long 
before this, however, the legions were raised 
chiefly in the provinces ; but it docs not 
appear that the admission of foreigners not 
subjects was ever practised upon a large 
scale until the reign of the second Claudius 
(A. D. 268 270), who incorporated a large 
body of vanquished Goths, and of Probus 
(A.D. 276282), who distributed 16,000 
Germans among legionary and frontier bat- 
talions. From this time forward what had 
originally been the leading characteristic of 

the legion was rapidly obliterated, so that 
under Diocletian, Constantino, and their suc- 
cessors, the best soldiers in the Roman ar- 
mies were barbarians. The practice of 
granting pensions for long service in the 
shape of donations of land was first intro- 
duced upon a large scale after the Mithri- 
datic wars. Hence, when Augustus, in 
compliance with the advice of Maecenas, 
determined to provide for the security of the 
distant provinces, and for tranquil submis- 
sion at home by the establishment of a pow- 
erful standing army, he found the public 
mind in a great degree prepared for such a 
measure, and the distinction between soldier 
and civilian unknown, or at least not recog- 
nised before, became from this time forward 
as broadly marked as in tho most pure mili- 
tary despotisms of ancient or modern times. 
The legions were originally numbered ac- 
cording to the order in which they were 
raised. As they became permanent, the 
same numbers remained attached to the same 
corps, which were moreover distinguished by 
various epithets of which we have early 
examples in the Legio Martia, and the Legio 
Quinta Alauda. [ALAUDA.] Several legions 
bore the same number : thus there were four 
Firsts, five Seconds, and five Thirds. The 
total number of legions under Augustus was 
twenty-five, under Alexander Severus thirty- 
two, but during the civil wars the number 
was far greater. The number of soldiers 
who, at different periods, were contained in a 
legion, does not appear to have been abso- 
lutely fixed, but to have varied within mo- 
derate limits. Under Romulus the legion 
contained 3000 foot soldiers. It is highly 
probable that some change may have been 
introduced by Servius Tullius, but, in so far 
as numbers are concerned, we have no evi- 
dence. From the expulsion of the Kings 
until the second year of the second Punic 
War, the regular number may be fixed at 
4000 or 4200 infantry. From the latter 
period until the consulship of Marius the 
ordinary number may be fixed at from 5000 
to 5200. For some centuries after Marius 
the numbers varied from 5000 to 6200, gene- 
rally approaching to the higher limit. Amid 
all the variations with regard to the infantry, 
300 horsemen formed the regular comple- 
ment (Justus equitatus] of the legion. When 
troops were raised for a service which re- 
quired special arrangements, the number of 
horsemen was sometimes increased beyond 
300. It must be observed, however, that 
these remarks with regard to the cavalry 
apply only to the period before Marius. We 
now proceed to consider the organisation ol 
the legion at five different periods. 




First Period. Servi'.ts Tullius. The legion 
of Servius is so closely connected with the 
Comitia Centuriata that it has already heen 
discussed in a former article [COMITIA], and it 
is only necessary to repeat here that it was a 
phalanx equipped in the Greek fashion, the 
front ranks being furnished with a complete 
suit of armour, their weapons heing long 
gpears, and their chief defence the round 
Argolic shield (clipeus). 

Second Period. The Great Latin War, 
B.C. 340. Our authority for this period is 
Livy (viii. 8). The legion in B.C. 340 had 
almost entirely discarded the tactics of the 
phalanx. It was now drawn up in three, or 
perhaps we ought to say, in five lines. The 
soldiers of the first line, called Hastati, con- 
sisted of youths in the first hloom of manhood 
distributed into 15 companies or maniples 
(manipuli), a moderate space being left 
between each. The maniple contained 60 
privates, 2 centurions (centuriones), and a 

standard bearer (vexillarius) ; two thirds 
were heavily armed and bore the scutum or 
large oblong shield, the remainder carried 
only a spear (hasta) and light javelins (gaesa), 
The second line, the Principes, was composed 
of men in the full vigour of life, divided in 
like manner into 15 maniples, all heavily 
armed (scutati omnes}. The two lines of 
the Hastati and Principes taken together 
amounted to 30 maniples, and formed the 
Antepilani. The third line, the Triarii, com- 
posed of tried veterans, was also in 15 divi- 
sions, but each of these was triple, containing 
3 manipuli, 180 privates, 6 centurions, and 3 
vexillarii. In these triple manipuli the vete- 
rans or triarii proper formed the front ranks ; 
immediately behind them stood the Rorarii, 
inferior in age and prowess, while the Ac- 
censi or supernumeraries, less trustworthy 
than either, were posted in the extreme rear. 
The battle array may be thus represented. 
The fight Was commenced by the Rorarii, so 

called because the light missiles which they 
sprinkled among the foe were like the drops 
which are the forerunners of the thunder 
shower, who, running forwards between the 
ranks of the antepilani, acted as tirailleurs ; 
when they were driven in they returned to 
their station behind the triarii, and the battle 
began in earnest by the onset of the hastati ; 
if they were unable to make any impression 
they retired between the ranks of the prin- 
cipes, who now advanced and bore the brunt 
of the combat, supported by the hastati, who 
I) ad rallied in their rear. If the principes 
also failed to make an impression, they re- 
tired through the openings between the 
maniples of the triarii, who up to this time 
had been crouched on the ground (toence 
called subsidiarii), but now arose to make 
the last effort (whence the phrase rem ad 
triarios redisse}. No longer retaining the 
open order of the two first lines, they closed 
up their ranks so as to present an unbroken 
liue of heavy-armed veterans in front, while 

the rorarii and accensi, pressing up from 
behind, gave weight and consistency to the 
mass, an arrangement bearing evidence to 
a lingering predilection for the principle of 
the phalanx, and exhibiting, just as we might 
expect at that period, the Roman tactics in 
their transition states It must be observed 
that the words ordo, manipulus, vexillum, 
although generally kept distinct, are through- 
out the chapter used as synonymous. Livy 
concludes by saying, that four legions were 
commonly levied, each consisting of 5000 in- 
fantry and 300 horse. We must suppose that 
he speaks in round numbers in so far as the in- 
fantry are concerned, for according to his own 
calculations the numbers will stand thus : 
Kastati - - 15X60 =900 

1'rincipes- - 15X60 = 900 

Triarii, &c. - 15X3X60 =2700 
Centuriones -- - - =150 
Vexillarii - - - - = 75 

\ 4725 




Third Period. During the wars of the 
younger Scipio. Polybius describes minutely 
the method pursued in raising the four 
legions during this period. Under ordinary 
circumstances they were levied yearly, two 
being assigned to each consul. It must be 
observed that a regular consular army (Justus 
consularis exercitus) no longer consisted of 
lloman legions only, but as Italy became 
gradually subjugated, the various states under 
the dominion of Rome were bound to furnish 
a contingent, and the number of allies (socii) 
usually exceeded that of citizens. They were, 
however, kept perfectly distinct, both in the 
camp and in the battle field. After the elec- 
tion of consuls was concluded, the first step 
was to choose the 24 chief officers of the 
legions, named tribuni militum. The consuls 
then summoned to the Capitol all citizens 
eligible for military service. They first 
divided the 24 tribunes into 4 parties of 6, 
and the tribes were next summoned in suc- 
cession by lot. The tribe whose lot came out 
first being called up, they picked out from it 
four youths, as nearly matched as possible in 
age and form ; out of these four, the tribunes 
of the first legion chose one, the tribunes of 
the second legion one of the remaining three ; 
the tribunes of the third legion, one of the 
remaining two, and the last fell to the fourth 
legion. Upon the next tribe being called up, 
the first choice was given to the tribunes of 
the second legion, the second choice to those 
of the third, and the last man fell to the first 
legion. On the next tribe being called up, 
the tribunes of the third legion had the first 
choice, and so on in succession, the object in 
view being that the four legions should be as 
nearly alike as possible, not in the number 
only, but in the quality of the soldiers. This 
process was continued until the ranks were 
complete. In ancient times, the cavalry 
were not chosen until after the infantry levy 
was concluded, but when Polybius wrote, the 
cavalry were picked in the first place from 
the list on which they were enrolled by the 
censor according to their fortune, and 300 
were apportioned to each legion. The levy 
being completed, the tribunes collected the 
men belonging to their respective legions, 
and making one individual stand out from 
the rest administered to him an oath 
" that he would obey orders and execute to 
the best of his ability the command of his 
officers." (Sacramento milites adigere a. ro- 
gare, sacramentum s. sacramento dicere.) The 
rest of the soldiers then came forward one by 
one, and swore to do what the first had 
bound himself to perform. At the same time 
the consuls gave notice to the magistrates of 
those towns in Italy '.a alliance with Rome, 

from whom they desired to receive a contin- 
gent, of the number which each would be 
required to furnish, and of the day and place 
of gathering. The allied cities levied their 
troops and administered the oath much in 
the same manner as the Romans, and then 
sent them forth after appointing a commander 
and a paymaster. The soldiers having again 
assembled, the men belonging to each legion 
were separated into four divisions. 1. 1000 
of the youngest and poorest were set apart 
to form the Velites, the light-armed troops, 
or skirmishers of the legion. 2. 1200 who 
came next in age (or who were of the same 
age with the preceding but more wealthy), 
formed the Hastati. 3. 1200, consisting of 
those in the full vigour of manhood, formed 
the Principes. 4. 600, consisting of the 
oldest and most experienced, formed the 
Triarii. "When the number of soldiers in 
the legion exceeded 4000, the first three 
divisions were increased proportionally, but 
the number of the Triarii remained always 
the same. The Ilastati, Principes, and Triarii 
were each divided into ten companies, called 
Manipuli. The Velites were not divided 
into companies, but were distributed equally 
among the Hastati, Principes, and Triarii. 
Before the division of the three classes into 
maniples, officers were appointed inferior to 
the tribunes. 30 men were chosen by merit, 
10 from the Hastati, 10 from the Principes, 
and 10 from the Triarii ; and this first choice 
being completed, 30 more in like manner. 
These 60 officers, of whom 20 were assigned 
to each of the three classes, and distributer! 
equally among the maniples, were named 
centitriones, or ordinum ductores, and each of 
the 60 chose for himself a Lieutenant (optio], 
who, being posted in the rear of the company 
while the centurion was at the head, was 
named oupuyos (i. e. Tergiductor) by the 
Greeks, so that in each maniple there were 
two centurions and two optiones. Further, 
the centurions selected out of each maniple 
two of the bravest and most vigorous men as 
standard bearers (vexillarii, signiferi). The 
first elected centurion of the whole had a 
seat in the military council, and in each 
maniple the first chosen commanded the 
right division of the maniple, and the other 
the left. Each of these subdivisions of the 
maniple was called centuria. The cavalry 
were divided into 10 troops (turmae), and 
out df each of these 3 officers were chosen, 
named deeuriones, who named 3 lieutenants 
(optiones). In each troop the decurio first 
chosen commanded the whole troop, and 
failing, him, the second. The infantry fur- 
nished by the socii was for the most part 
equal in number to the Roman legions, the 




cavalry twice or thrice as numerous, and the 
whole were divided equally between the two 
consular armies. Each consul named twelve 
superior officers, who were termed Praefecti 
Sociorum, and corresponded to the legionary 
tribunes. A selection was then made of the 
best men, to the extent of one-fifth of the 
infantry and one-third of the cavalry ; these 
were formed into a separate corps under the 
name of extraordinarii, and on the march 
and in the camp were always near the person 
of the consul. The remainder were divided 
into two equal portions, and were styled 
respectively the Dextera Ala and the Sinjstra 
Ala [ALA]. Agmen or Line of March. The 
Extraordinarii Pedites led the van followed 
by the right wing of the infantry of the allies 
and the bag-gage of these two divisions ; next 
came one of the Roman legions with its bag- 
gage following ; next the other Roman legion 
with its own baggage, and that of the left 
wing of the allies, who brought up the rear. 
The different corps of cavalry sometimes fol- 
lowed immediately behind the infantry to 
which they were attached, sometimes rode on 
the flanks of the beasts of burden, at once 
protecting them and preventing them from 
straggling. Generally, when advancing 
through a country in which it was necessary 
to guard against a sudden onset, the troops, 
instead of proceeding in a loose straggling 
column, were kept together in close compact 
bodies ready to act in any direction at a 
moment's warning, and hence an army under 
these circumstances was said agmine quad- 
rato incedere. Some doubt exists with re- 
gard to the force of the term Agmen Pilatwn 
as distinguished from Agmen Quadratum. 
Varro defines the agmen pilatum as a com- 
pact body m archir g without beasts of bur- 
then. Where the phrase occurs in poetry, it 
probably denotes merely " columns bristling 
with spears." To the preceding particulars 
from Polybius, the following may be added. 

1. The levy (delectus.) According to the 
principles of the constitution, none were 
enrolled in the legion, except freeborn citi- 
zens (ingenui) above the age of 17, and 
under the age of 60, possessing not less than 
4000 asses : but in times of peculiar diffi- 
culty, these conditions were not insisted 
upon. In such times all formalities were 
dispensed with, and every man capable of 
bearing arms was summoned to join in ward- 
ing off the threatened danger, a force raised 
under such circumstances being termed subi- 
tartus s. tumultuarius exercitits. If citizens 
between the ages of 17 and 46 did not appear 
and answer to their names, they might be 
punished in various ways, by fine, by im- 
prisonment, by stripes, by confiscation of 

their property, and even, in extreme cases, 
by being sold as slaves. At the same time, 
causes might be alleged which were recog 
nised as forming a legitimate ground for ex- 
emption (vacatio justa militiae). Thus, all 
who had served for the full peiiod of 20 
years were relieved from further service, 
although they might still be within the regu- 
lar age ; and so, in like manner, when they 
were afflicted by any grievous malady, or 
disabled by any personal defect, or engaged 
in any sacred or civil offices which required 
their constant attendance ; bat these and 
similar pleas, although sustained under ordi- 
nary circumstances, might be rendered void 
by a decree of the senate " ne vacationes 
valerent." "While those who had served for 
the stipulated period were entitled to immu- 
nity for the future, even although within the 
legal age, and were styled Emeriti, so on the 
other hand, it appears from some passages in 
the classics, that persons who had not com- 
pleted their regular term within the usual 
limits, might be forced, if required, to serve 
between the ages of 45 and 50. Towards 
the close of the republic, and under the em- 
pire, when the legions became permanent, 
the soldier who had served his full time re- 
ceived a regular discharge (missio), together 
with a bounty (praemium) in money or an 
allotment of land. The jurists distinguish 
three kinds of discharge : 1. Missio honesta, 
granted for length of service. 2. Missio 
causaria, in consequence of bad health. 3. 
Missio ignominiosa, when a man was drum- 
med out for bad conduct. It frequently 
happened that emeriti were induced to con- 
tinue in the ranks, either from attachment to 
the person of the general, or from hopes of 
profit or promotion, and were then called 
veterani, or when they joined an army, in 
consequence of a special invitation, evocati. 

2. The division of -the legion into Cohortes, 
Manipuli, Centiiriae, Signa, Or dines, Contubei-- 
nia. (i.) Cohortes. Polybius takes no notice 
of the Cohort, a division of the legion often 
mentioned in the Roman writers. When the 
soldiers of the legion were classified as Ve- 
lites, Hastati, Principes and Triarii, the co- 
hort contained one maniple of each of the 
three latter denominations, together with 
their complement of Velites, so that when 
the legion contained 4000, each cohort would 
consist of 60 Triarii, 120 Principes, 120 
Hastati, and 100 Velites, in all 400 men. 
The number of cohorts in a legion being 
always 10, and the cohorts, during the 
republic, being all equal to each other, the 
strength of the cohort varied from time to 
time with the strength of the legion, and 
thus at different periods ranged between the 




limits of 300 and 600. They were regularly 
numbered from 1 to 10, the centurion of the first 
century of the first maniple of the first cohort 
was the guardian of the eagle, and hence the 
first cohort seems always to have been re- 
garded as superior in dignity to the rest. Late 
writers, instead of cohortes, prefer the some- 
what vague term ntimeri, which appears in 
Tacitus and Suetonius, and perhaps even in 
Cicero. Numeri seems to have signified 
strictly the muster roll, whence the phrases 
referre in numeros, distribuere in numeros, 
and thus ferved to denote any body of 
legionaries. Whenever Cohors occurs in 
the Latin classics in connection with the 
legion, it always signifies a specific division 
of the legion ; but it is very frequently found, 
in the general sense of battalion, to denote 
troops altogether distinct from the legion. 
(ii.) Manipulus. The original meaning of 
this word, which is derived from manus, was 
a handful or wisp of hay, straw, fern, or the 
like, and this, according to Roman tradition, 
affixed to the end of a pole, formed the pri- 
mitive military standard in the days of Ro- 
mulus. Hence it was applied to a body of 
soldiers serving under the same ensign. When 
the phalanx was resolved into small com- 
panies marshalled in open order, these were 
termed manipuli, and down to a very late 
period the common soldiers of the legion 
were designated as manipulares or mani- 
pularii, terms equivalent to gregarii mi- 
lites. When the phalanx was first broken 
up, it appears that each of the three classes 
of Hastati, Prineipes, and Triarii, con- 
tained 15 maniples ; but before the second 
Punic war the number of maniples in 
each of these classes was reduced to 10. 
Hence it is easy to calculate the number 
of soldiers in each maniple, according 
to the varying numbers in the legion, it 
being always borne in mind that the Triarii 
never exceeded 600, and that the Velites 
were not divided into maniples, but distri- 
buted equally among the heavy-armed compa- 
nies. (iii.) Centuriae. The distribution of 
soldiers into centuriae must be regarded as co- 
eval with the origin of Rome. Plutarch speaks 
of the force led by Romulus against Amulius 
as formed of centuries ; and from the close 
connections between the centuries of Servius 
Tullius, and the organization of the military 
force, we cannot hesitate to believe that the 
term was communicated to the ranks of the 
phalanx. For a long period after the estab- 
lishment of the manipular constitution, the 
legion contained 60 centuries. (iv.) Signvm. 
This word is used to denote a division of the 
legion, but it is doubtful whether it signifies a 
maniple or a century. (v.) Ordo generally j 

signifies a century, and ordinum ductor is syno- 
nymous with centurio, and ducere honestum 
ordinem means to be one of the principal 
centurions in a legion. (vi.) Contuberniiim. 
This was the name given under the empire 
to the body of soldiers who were quartered 
together in the same tent. 

3. Hastati, Principes, Triarii, Pilani, 
Antepilani, Antesignani, Principia. The 
Hastati were so called, from having been 
armed with a hasta, the Principes from hav- 
ing occupied the front line, the Triarii, 
otherwise named Pilani, from having been 
ranged behind the first two lines as a body 
of reserve and armed with the pilum, while 
the first two lines were termed collectively 
Antepilani, from standing in front of the 
Pilani. In process of time, it came to pass, 
that these designations no longer expressed 
the actual condition of the troops to which 
they were attached. When Polybius wrote, 
and long before that period, the Hastati were 
not armed with hastae, but in common with 
the Principes bore the heavy pilum : on the 
other hand, the pilani carried hastae and not 
pila, while the Principes were not drawn up 
in the front, but formed the second line. 
Antesignani. While the Hastati and Prin- 
cipes, taken together, were sometimes termed 
Antepilani, in contradistinction to the Triarii, 
so the Hastati alone were sometimes termed 
Antesignani, in contradistinction to the Prin- 
cipes and Triarii taken together. The term 
Antesignani having become established as 
denoting the front ranks in a line of battle, 
was retained in this general sense long after 
the Hastati, Principes, and Triarii had dis- 
appeared. Another term employed to denote 
the front ranks of an army in battle array is 
Principia, and in this sense must be care- 
fully distinguished from the Principia or 
chief street in the camp, and from Prin- 
cipia, which in the later writers, such as 
Ammianus and Vegetius, is equivalent to 
principals milites. Postsignani does not 
occur in any author earlier than Ammianus 
Marcellinus, and therefore need not be illus- 
trated here ; the Subsignamis miles of Tacitus 
seems to be the same with the Vexillarii. 

4. Rorarii, Accensi, Ferentarii, Velites, 
Procitbitores. When the Ilastati had, in a 
great measure, ceased to act as tirailleurs, 
their place was supplied by the Rorarii, 
whose method of fighting has been described 
above (p. 165). The Accensi, as described by 
Livy, were inferior in equipment to the ro- 
rarii, although employed in a similar manner, 
and seem to have been camp-followers or 
servants, and hence the name is given to 
those also who attended upon magistrates or 
other officials. At a later period the accensi 




were supernumeraries, -who served to fill up 
any vacancies which occurred in the course 
of a campaign. Another ancient term for 
light-armed soldiers was Ferentarii. The 
Telites, caHed also Procubitores, because they 
were employed on outpost duty when the 
Romans were encamped before an enemy, 
were first formed into a corps at the siege of 
Capua, B.C. 211. 

5. Officers of the Legion. Tribuni ifilitum 
were the chief officers of the legion. Their 
number (six) did not vary for many centuries. 
They were originally chosen by the com- 
manders-in-chief, that is, by the kings in the 
first instance, and afterwards by the consuls, 
or a dictator, as the case might be. In B. c. 
361 the people assumed to themselves the 
right of electing either the whole or a cer- 
tain number ; and in B. c. 3 1 1 it was ordained 
that they should choose sixteen for the four 
legions. In subsequent times the choice of 
the tribunes was divided between the consuls 
and the people ; but the proportion chosen 
by each differed at various periods. No one 
was eligible to the office of tribune who had 
not served for ten years in the infantry or 
five in the cavalry ; but this rule admitted 
of exceptions. Augustus introduced certain 
regulations altogether new. He permitted 
the sons of senators to wear the tunica lati- 
claria as soon as they assumed the manly 
gown, and to commence their military career 
as tribunes, or as commanders (praefecti) of 
cavalry. Such persons "were the Tribuni 
Laticlarii. Centuriones. Next in rank to 
the Tribunus was the Centurio, who, as the 
name implies, commanded a century ; and 
the century, being termed also ordo, the cen- 
turions were frequently designated ordinum 
ductores (hence, adimere ordines, offerre or- 
dines, ordines impetrare, ducere honestum 
ordinem, to be one of the principal cen- 
turions, &c.). The chief ordinary duties of 
the centurions were to drill the soldiers, to 
inspect their arms, clothing, and food, to 
watch the execution of the toils imposed, to 
visit the centinels, and to regulate the con- 
duct of their men, both in the camp and in the 
field. They also sat as judges in minor of- 
fences, and had the power of inflicting cor- 
poral punishment, whence their badge of office 
was a vine sapling, and thus fitis is fre- 
quently used to denote the office itself. 
Of the two centurions in each maniple the 
one first chosen took the command of the 
right division, the other of the left. The 
century to the right was considered as the 
first century of the maniple, and its com- 
mander took precedence probably with the title 
Prior, his companion to the left being called 
Posterior, the priores in each of the three 

divisions of Triarii, Principes, ind Hastati 
being he ten centurions first chosen. So 
long as these divisions were recognised, all 
the centurions of the Triarii appear to have 
ranked before those of the Principes, and all 
the centurions of the Principes before those 
of the Hastati. Moreover, since the mani- 
ples were numbered in each division from 1 
to 10, there was probably a regular progres- 
sion from the first centurion of the first 
maniple down to the second centurion of the 
tenth maniple. The first centurion of the 
first maniple of the Triarii, originally named 
Centurio Primus, and afterwards Centurio 
Primipili, or simply Primipilus, occupied a 
very conspicuous position. He stood next 
in rank to the Tribuni militum ; he had a 
seat in the military council ; to his charge 
was committed the eagle of the legion, whence 
he is sometimes styled Aquilifer, and, under 
the empire at least, his office was very lucra- 
tive. A series of terms connected with these 
arrangements are furnished by the narrative 
which Sp. Ligustinus gives of his own career 
(Liv. xlii. 34). He thus enumerates the 
various steps of his promotion : " Mihi T. 
Quinctius Flamininus deeumvm ordinem has- 
tatum adsignavit . . . me iinperator diguum 
judicavit cui primum hastatum prioris centu- 
riae adsignaret ... a M'. Acilio mihi primus 
princcps prioris centuriae est adsignatus . . . 
quater intra paucos annos primum pilum 
duxi." The gradual ascent from the ranks 
I being to the post of centurion: 1. In the 
| tenth maniple of the Hastati. 2. In the first 
century of the first maniple of the Hastati. 
3. In the first century of the first maniple of 
the Principes. 4. In the first century of the 
first maniple of the Triarii. But even after 
the distinction between Hastati, Principes, 
and Triarii was altogether abolished, and 
they were all blended together in the cohorts, 
the same nomenclature with regard to the 
centuries and their commanders was retained, 
although it is by no means easy to perceive 
how it was applied. That great differences 
of rank existed among the centurions is evi- 
dent from the phrases primores centurionum, 
primi ordines (i. e. chief centurions), as op- 
posed to inferior ex ordines, and itifimi ordines, 
and that promotion from a lower to a higher 
grade frequently took place, is evident from 
many passages in ancient authors. The 
election of optionee, or lieutenants, by the 
centurions, has been already described. 

Fourth Period. From the times of the Grac- 
chi until the downfall of the Republic. After 
the times of the Gracchi the following changes 
in military affairs may be noticed : In the 
first consulship of Marius the legions were 
thrown open to citizens of all grades, without 




distinction of fortune. The whole of the 
legionaries were armed and equipped in the 
same manner, all being now furnished with 
the pilum ; and hence we see in Tacitus the 
pila and gladii of the legionaries, opposed to 
the hastae and spathae of the auxiliaries. 
The legionaries when in battle order were no 
longer arranged in three lines, each consist- 
ing of ten maniples, with an open space be- 
tween each maniple, but in two lines, each 
consisting of five cohorts, with a space be- 
tween each cohort. The younger soldiers 
were no longer placed in the front, but in 
reserve, the van being composed of veterans, 
as may be seen from various passages in 
Caesar. As a necessary result of the above 
arrangements, the distinction between Has- 
tati, Principes, and Triarii ceased to exist. 
These names, as applied to particular classes 
of soldiers, are not found in Caesar, in Taci- 
tus, nor in any writer upon military affairs 
after the time of Marius. The Velites dis- 
appeared. The skirmishers, included under 
the general term levis armatura, consisted 
for the most part of foreign mercenaries pos- 
sessing peculiar skill in the use of some na- 
tional weapon, such as the Balearic slingers, 
(funditores), the Cretan archers (sagittarii], 
and the Moorish dartmen (jaculatores}. 
Troops of this description had, it is true, 
been employed by the Romans even before 
the second Punic war, and were denominated 
ievium armatorum (s. armorum] auxilia ; but 
now the levis armatura consisted exclusively 
of foreigners, were formed into a regular 
corps under their own officers, and no longer 
entered into the constitution of the legion. 
When operations requiring great activity 
were undertaken, such as could not be per- 
formed by mere skirmishers, detachments of 
legionaries were lightly equipped, and inarched 
without baggage, for these special services ; 
and hence the frequent occurrence of such 
phrases as expediti, expediti milites, expeditae 
cohortes, and even expeditae legiones. The 
cavalry of the legion underwent a change in 
every respect analogous to that which took 
place in regard of the light armed troops. It 
is evident, from the history of Caesar's cam- 
paigns in Gaul, that the number of Roman 
equites attached to his army was very small, 
and that they were chiefly employed as aides- 
de-camp, and on confidential missions. The 
bulk of Caesar's cavalry consisted of foreign- 
ers, a fact which becomes strikingly apparent 
when we read that Ariovistus having stipu- 
late 1 that the Roman general should come 
to their conference attended by cavalry alone, 
Caesar, feeling no confidence in his Gaulish 
horse, dismounted them, and supplied their 
place by soldiers of the tenth legion. In 

like manner they ceased to form part of the 
legion, and from this time forward we find 
the legions and the cavalry spoken of as 
completely distinct from each other. After 
the termination of the Social War, when 
most of the inhabitants of Italy became 
Roman citizens, the ancient distinction be- 
tween the Legiones and the Socii disappeared, 
and all who had served as Socii became in- 
corporated with the legiones. An army 
during the last years of the republic and 
under the earlier emperors consisted of Ro- 
manae Legiones et Auxilia s. Auxiliares, the 
latter term comprehending troops of all 
kinds, except the legions. Whenever the 
word socii is applied to troops after the date 
of the Social War, it is generally to be re- 
garded as equivalent to auxiliares. But the 
most important change of all was the esta- 
blishment of the military profession, and the 
distinction now first introduced between the 
civilian and the soldier. 

fifth Period, from the establishment of 
the empire until the age of the Antonines, B. c. 
31 A. D. 150. Under the empire a regular 
army consisted of a certain number of Le- 
giones and of Supplementa, the Supplementa 
being again divided into the imperial guards, 
which appear under several different forms, 
distinguished by different names ; and the 
Auxilia, which were subdivided into Sociae 
Cohortes and Nationes, the latter being for 
the most part barbarians. The Legiones, as 
already remarked, although still composed of 
persons who enjoyed the privileges of Roman 
citizens, were now raised almost exclusively 
in the provinces. The legion was divided 
into 10 cohorts, and each cohort into 6 cen- 
turies ; the first cohort, which had the cus- 
tody of the eagle, was double the size of the 
others, and contained 960 men, the remain- 
ing cohorts contained each 480 men ; and 
consequently each ordinary century 80 men, 
the total strength of the legion being thus 
5280 men. It is during this period that we 
first meet with the term Vexillarii or Tex- 
illa, which occurs repeatedly in Tacitus. The 
vexillarii, or vexilla legionmn, were those 
soldiers who, after having served in the 
legion for sixteen years, became exauctorati, 
but continued to serve in company with that 
legion, under a vexillum of their own, untl' 
they received their full discharge. The 
number attached to each legion was usually 
about five or six hundred. The term exaue- 
torare also meant to discharge from military 
service, but does not appear to have been in 
use before the Augustan period. It signified 
both a simple discharge, and a cashiering on 
account of some crime. During the later 
period of the empire the latter signification 




began almost exclusively to prevail. As 
to the Praetorian troops, see PRAETORIAJJI. 
From the time when the cavalry were sepa- 
rated from the legion they were formed into 
bodies called alae, which varied in number 
according to circumstances. The Alae were 
raised in the Roman provinces and consisted, 
probably, for the most part, of citizens, or at 
least subjects. But in addition to these every 
army at this period was attended by squad- 
rons of light horse composed entirely of bar- 
barians ; and the chief duty performed by 
those named above was guiding the pioneers 
as they performed their labours in advance 
of the army. Cohortes peditatae, were bat- 
talions raised chiefly in the provinces, com- 
posed of Roman citizens, of subjects and 
allies, or of citizens, allies, and subjects 
indiscriminately. To this class of troops 
belonged the cohortes auziliares, the auxilia 
cohortium, and the sociorum cohortes, of whom 
we read in Tacitus, together with a multitude 
of others recorded in inscriptions and named 
for the most part from the nations of which 
they were composed. These cohorts were 
numbered regularly like the legions. Co- 
hortes Equitatae differed from the Peditatae 
in this only, that they were made up of in- 
fantry combined with cavalry. Classici, 
which we may fairly render Marines, were 
employed, according to Hyginus, as pioneers. 
They corresponded to the Navales Socii, un- 
der the republic, who were always regarded 
as inferior to regular soldiers. After the 
establishment by Augustus of regular perma- 
nent fleets at Misenum, Ravenna, and on the 
coast of Gaul, a large body of men must have 
been required to man them, who were sometimes 
called upon to serve as ordinary soldiers. 
Kationes were battalions composed entirely 
of barbarians, or of the most uncivilised 
among the subjects of Rome, and were pro- 
ba'bly chiefly employed upon outpost duties. 
Urbanae Cohortes. Augustus, in addition 
to the praetorian cohorts, instituted a force 
of city guards, amounting tc 6000 men di- 
vided into four battalions. They are usually 
distinguished as Cohortes Urbanae or Urbana 
militia, their quarters, which were within 
the city, being the Urbana Castra. Cohortes 
Vigilum. Augustus also organised a large 
body of night-watchers, whose chief duty was 
to act as firemen. They were divided into 
seven cohorts, in the proportion of one co- 
hort to each two Regiones, were stationed in 
fourteen guardhouses (excubitoria), and called 
Cohortes Vigilum. They were commanded 
by a Praefeetus, who was of equestrian 

EXILIUM. [ExsiLira.] 

EXODIA (eoSia, from ef and 6Ws) were 

old-fashioned and laughable interludes in 
verse, inserted in other plays, but chiefly ii 
the Atellanae. The exodium seems to have 
been introduced among the Romans from 
Italian Greece ; but after its introduction it 
became very popular among the Romans, and 
continued to be played down to a very late 

EXOMIS (e<ofuY), a dress which had only 
a sleeve for the left arm, leaving the right 
with the shoulder and a part of the breast 
free, and was for this reason called exomis. 
The exomis was usually worn by slaves and 
working people. 

ait (Bi 

British Museum). 

EXOMOSIA (efw/u.o<7M). Any Athenian 
citizen when called upon to appear as a wit- 
ness in a court of justice ((cArp-even- or K\J>- 
raJeuO. was obliged by law to obey the sum- 
mons, unless he could establish by oath that 
he was unacquainted with the case in ques- 
tion. This oath was called tfcofioo-i'a, and the 
act of taking it was expressed by e^ofiwo^ai. 
A person appointed to a public office was at 
liberty to decline it, if he could take an oath 
that the state of his health or other circum- 
stances rendered it impossible for him to 
fulfil the duties connected with it (efofurjoflai 
TTJV apx7)"> or T *l 1 ' X el P OTOI " aj ') an( ^ this oath 
was likewise called ifrnovia, or sometimes 


EXOSTRA (efcoSrpa, from cfwfle'u), a thea- 
trical machine, by means of -which things 
which had been concealed behind the curtain 
on the stage were pushed or rolled forward 
from behind it, and thus became visible to the 

EXPEDITUS is opposed to impedittis, and 
signifies unincumbered with armour or with 



baggage (impedimenta}. Hence the epithet 
was often applied to any portion of the Ro- 
man army, when the necessity for haste, or 
the desire to conduct it with the greatest fa- 
cility from place to place, made it desirable 
to leave behind every weight that could be 



EXSILIUM (<J>vyij), banishment. (1) GREEK. 
Banishment among the Greek states sel- 
dom, if ever, appears as a punishment ap- 
pointed by law for particular offences. We 
might, indeed, expect this, for the division of 
Greece into a number of independent states 
would neither admit of the establishment of 
penal colonies, as among us, nor of the va- 
rious kinds of exile which we read of under 
the Roman emperors. The general term 
<i>yij (flight) was for the most part applied 
in the case of those who, in order to avoid 
some punishment or danger, removed from 
their own country to another. At Athens it 
took place chiefly in cases of homicide, or 
murder. An action for wilful murder was 
brought before the Areiopagus, and for man- 
slaughter before the court of the Ephetae. 
The accused might, in either case, withdraw 
himself ($euyeii') before sentence was passed ; 
but when a criminal evaded the punishment 
to which an act of murder would have ex- 
posed him had he remained in his own 
land, he was then banished for ever (<j>evyei 
afi.(jivyia.v), and not allowed to return home 
even when other exiles were restored upon a 
general amnesty. Demosthenes says, that 
the word <f> e ^yeiv was properly applied to the 
exile of those who committed murder with 
malice aforethought, whereas the term jteCi- 
oratrftu was used where the act was not in- 
tentional. The property also was confiscated 
in the former case, but not in the latter. 
"When a verdict of manslaughter was re- 
turned, it was usual for the convicted party 
to leave his country by a certain road, and 
to remain in exile till he induced some one 
of the relatives of the slain man to take com- 
passion on him. We are not informed what 
were the consequences if the relatives of the 
slain man refused to make a reconciliation ; 
supposing that there was no compulsion, it 
is reasonable to conclude that the exile was 
allowed to return after a fixed time. Plato, 
who is believed to have copied many of his 
laws from the constitution of Athens, fixes 
the period of banishment for manslaughter at 
one year. Under <t>vyy t or banishment, as a 
general term, is comprehended Ostracism (otr- 
Tpa<cr(u.<5s). Those that were ostracised did 
not lose their property, and the time, as well 
08 place of their banishment, was fixed. 

This ostracism is supposed by some to have 
been instituted by Cleisthenes, after the ex- 
pulsion of the Peisistratidae ; its nature and 
object are thus explained by Aristotle : 
" Democratical states (he observes) used to 
ostracise, and remove from the city for a do- 
finite time, those who appeared to be pre- 
eminent above their fellow-citizens, by rea- 
son of their wealth, the number of their 
friends, or any other means of influence." 
Ostracism, therefore, was not a punishment 
for any crime, but rather a precautionary re- 
moval of those who possessed sufficient power 
in the state to excite either envy or fear. 
Thus Plutarch says, it was a good-natured 
way of allaying envy by the humiliation of 
superior dignity and power. The manner of 
effecting it at Athens was as follows : A 
space in the agora was enclosed by barriers, 
with ten entrances for the ten tribes. By 
these the tribesmen entered, each with his 
ostracon (OO-TPOKOI/), or piece of tile (whence 
the name ostracism), on which was written 
the name of the individual whom he wished 
to be ostracised. The nine archons and the 
senate, i. e. the presidents of that body, su- 
perintended the proceedings, and the party 
who had the greatest number of votes against 
him, supposing that this number amounted 
to 6000, was obliged to withdraw (mera- 
(TTriva.i) from the city within ten days ; if the 
number of votes did not amount to 6000, no- 
thing was done. Some of the most distin- 
guished men at Athens were removed by 
ostracism, but recalled when the city found 
their services indispensable. Among these 
were Themistocles, Aristeides, and Cimon, son 
of Miltiades. The last person against whom it 
was used at Athens was Hyperbolus, a dema- 
gogue of low birth and character ; but the 
Athenians thought their own dignity com- 
promised, and ostracism degraded by such an 
application of it, and accordingly discontinued 
the practice. -From the ostracism of Athens 
was copied the Petalism (7reToA.icrju.6s) of the 
Syracusans, so called from the TreVoAov, or 
leaf of the olive, on which was written the 
name of the person whom they wished to re- 
move from the city. The removal, however, 
was only. for five years; a sufficient time, as 
they thought, to humble the pride and hopes 
of the exile. In connection with petalism it 
may be remarked, that if any one were 
falsely registered in a demus, or ward, at 
Athens, his expulsion was called eic</>uAAo- 
<j>opia, from the votes being given by leaves. 
Besides those exiled by law, or ostracised, 
there was frequently a great number of po- 
litical exiles in Greece ; men who, having 
distinguished themselves as the leaders of 
one party, were expelled, or obliged to re- 




move from their native city, when the oppo- 
site faction became predominant. They are 
spoken of as oi <j>evyovrfs or oi eKTreeroVre?, and 
as oi KaTeA06VT5 after their return (i KaOoSos) 
the word Kara-yew being applied to those who 
were instrumental in effecting it. (2) RO- 
MAN. Banishment as a punishment did not 
exist in the old Roman state. The aquae et 
ignis interdict io, which we so frequently read 
of in the republican period, was in reality 
not banishment, for it was only a ban, pro- 
nounced by the people (by a lex), or by a 
magistrate in a criminal court, by which a 
person was deprived of water and of fire ; 
that is, of the first necessaries of life ; and 
its effect was to incapacitate a person from 
exercising the rights of a citizen ; in other 
words, to deprive him of his citizenship. 
Such a person might, if he chose, remain at 
Rome, and submit to the penalty of being an 
outcast, incapacitated from doing any legal 
act, and liable to be killed by any one with 
impunity. To avoid these dangers, a person 
suffering under such an interdict would na- 
turally withdraw from Rome, and in the 
earlier republican period, if he withdrew to 
a state between which and Rome isopolitical 
relations existed, he would become a citizen 
of that state. This right was called jus 
exsulandi with reference to the state to which 
the person came ; with respect to his own 
state, which he left, he was exsul, and his 
condition was exsilium ; and with respect to 
the state which he entered, he was inquili- 
nus.* In the same way a citizen of such a 
state had a right of going into exsilium at 
Rome ; and at Rome he might attach himself 
(applicare se) to a quasi-patronus. Exsilium, 
instead of being a punishment, would thus 
rather be a mode of evading punishment ; 
but towards the end of the republic the 
aquae et ignis interdictio became a regular 
banishment, since the sentence usually speci- 
fied certain limits, within which a person was 
interdicted from fire and water. Thus Ci- 
cero was interdicted from fire and water 
within 400 miles from the city. The pun- 
ishment was inflicted for various crimes, as 
vis publica, peculatus, veneficium, &c. Under 
the empire there were two kinds of exsi- 
lium ; exsilium properly so called, and rele- 
gatio ; the great distinction between the two 
was, that the former deprived a person of his 
citizenship, while the latter did not. The 
distinction between exsilium and relegatio 
existed . under the republic. Ovid also de- 
scribes himself, not as exsul, which he con- 



Tliis word appears, by its termination mu.r, to denote 
class, like the word libertinus 

siders a term of reproach, but as relegatus. 
The chief species of exsilium was the depor- 
tatio in insulam or deportatio simply, which 
was introduced under the emperors in place 
of the aquae et ignis interdictio. The rele- 
gatio merely confined the person within, or 
excluded him from particular places. In the 
latter case it was called fuga lata, fuga li- 
bera, or liberum exsilium. The relegatus 
went into banishment ; the deportatus was 
conducted to his place of banishment, some- 
times in chains. 



FABRI are workmen who make anything 
out of hard materials, as fabri tignarii, 
carpenters, fabri aerarii, smiths, &c. The dif- 
ferent trades were divided by Numa into nine 
collegia, which correspond to our companies 
or guilds. In the constitution of Servius 
Tullius, the fabri tignarii and the fabri 
aerarii or ferrarii were formed into two cen- 
turies, which were called the centuriae fa- 
brilm (notfabrorum). They did not belong 
to any of the five classes into which Servius 
divided the people ; but the fabri tign. pro- 
bably voted with the first class, and the fabri 
aer. with the second. The fabri in the army 
were under the command of an officer called 
praefectus fabrum. 



FALSUM. The oldest legislative provision 
at Rome against Falsum was that of the 
Twelve Tables against false testimony. The 
next legislation on Falsum, so far as we 
know, was a Lex Cornelia, passed in the time 
of the Dictator Sulla against forging, con- 
cealing, destroying, or committing any other 
fraudulent act respecting a will or other 
instrument. The offence was a Crimen 
Publicum, and, under the emperors, the pun- 
ishment was deportatio in insulam for the 
" honestiores ;" and the mines or crucifixion 
for the " humiliores." 

FALX, dim. FALCULA (5pm), Sp&ravov, 
poet, open-cur;, dim. Speiranov), a sickle ; a 
scythe ; a pruning-knife ; a falchion, &c. 
As Oulter denoted a knife with one straight 
edge, falx signified any similar instrument, 
the single edge of which was curved. Some 
of its forms are given in the annexed cut. 
One represents Perseus with the falchion in 
his right hand, and the head of Medusa in 
his left. The two smaller figures are heads 




of Saturn with the falx in its original form ; FAMILIA. The word familia contains 
and the fourth represents the same divinity the same element as the word famulus, a 
a: full length. i slave, and the verb famulari. In its widest 

Falx. (Fl 

sense it signifies the totality of that which be- 
longs to a Roman citizen who is sui juris, 
and therefore a paterfamilias. Thus, in cer- 
tain cases of testamentary disposition, the 
word familia is explained by the equivalent 
patrimonium ; and the person who received 
the familia from the testator was called fa- 
miliae emptor. But the word familia is 
sometimes limited to signify " persons," that 
is, all those who are in the power of a pater- 
familias, such as his sons (JUii-familias}, 
daughters, grand-children, and slaves. Some- 
times familia is used to signify the slaves be- 
longing to a person, or to a body of persons 


FARTOR, a slave who fattened poultry. 

FASCES, rods bound in the form of a 
bundle, and containing an axe (securis) in 
the middle, the iron of which projected from 
them. They were usually made of birch, 
hut sometimes also of the twigs of the elm. 
They arc said to have been derived from Ve- 
tulonia, a city of Etruria. Twelve were car- 
ried before each of the kings by twelve lie- 
tors ; and on the expulsion of the Tarquins, 
one of the consuls was preceded by twelve 
lictors with the fasces and secures, and the 
other by the same number of lictors with the 
fasces only, or, according to some accounts, 
with crowns around them. But P. Valerius 

Publicola, who gave to the people the right 
of provocatio, ordained that the secures 
should be removed from the fasces, and al- 
lowed only one of the consuls to be preceded 
by the lictors while they were at Rome. 
The other consul was attended only by a sin- 
gle accensus [ACCENSUS]. When they were 
out of Rome, and at the head of the army, each 
of the consuls retained the axe in the fasces, 
and was preceded by his own lictors, as be- 
fore the time of Valerius. The fasces and 
secures were, however, carried before the 
dictator even in the city, and he was also 
preceded by twenty-four lictors, and the ma- 
gister equitum by six. The praetors were 
preceded in the city by two lictors with the 
fasces ; but out of Rome and at the head of 
an army by six, with the fasces and secures. 
The tribunes of the plebs, the and 
quaestors, had no lictors in the city, but in 
the provinces the quaestors were permitted to 
have the fasces. The lictors carried the 
fasces on their shoulders ; and when an in- 
ferior magistrate met one who was higher in 
rank, the lictors lowered their fasces to him. 
This was done by Valerius Publicola, when 
he addressed the people, and hence came 
the expression submitters fasces in the sense 
of to yield, to confess one's self inferior to 
another. When a general had gained a vic- 
tory, and had been saluted as Imperator by 




his soldiers, he usually crowned his fasces 
with laurel. 


(From the original in the Capitol at Rome.) 

FASCIA, a band or fillet of cloth, worn, 
(1) round the head as an ensign of royalty ; 
( 2 ) by women over the breast ; ( 3 ) round 
the legs and feet, especially by women. 
When the toga had fallen into disuse, and 
the shorter pallium was worn in its stead, so 
that the legs were naked and exposed, fasciae 
crurales became common even with the male 

FASCINUM (p<uricavia\ fascination, en- 
chantment. The belief that some persons had 
the power of injurirg others by their looks, 
was prevalent among the Greeks and Ro- 
mans. The evil eye was supposed to injure 
children particularly, but sometimes cattle 
also; whence Virgil (Eel. iii. 103) says, 

" Nc.'scio quis teneroe oculos mihi fascinat agnum." 

Various amulets were used to avert its influ- 

FASTI. Fas signifies divine law: the epi- 
thet fast-us is properly applied to anything 
in accordance with divine law ; and hence 
tho?e days upon which legal business might, 
without impiety (sine piaculo], be transacted 
before the praetor, were technically denomi- 
nated fasti dies, i. e. lawful days. The sa- 
cred books in which the fasti dies of the year 
were marked were themselves denominated 

'asti ; the term, however, was employed to 
denote registers of various descriptions. Of 
these the two principal are the Fasti Sacri or 
Fasti Kalendares, and Fasti Annales or Fasti 
For nearly four centuries and a half after the 
foundation of the city a knowledge of the 
calendar was possessed exclusively by the 
priests. One of the pontifices regularly pro- 
claimed the appearance of the new moon, 
and at the same time announced the period 
which would intervene between the Kalends 
and the Nones. On the Nones the country 
people assembled for the purpose of learning 
from the rex sacrorum the various festivals 
to be celebrated during the month, and the 
days on which they would fall. In like 
manner all who wished to go to law were 
obliged to inquire of the privileged few on 
what day they might bring their suit, and 
received the reply as if from the lips of an 
astrologer. The whole of this lore, so long 
a source of power and profit, and therefore 
jealously enveloped in mystery, was at length 
made public by a certain Cn. Flavius, scribe 
to App. Claudius ; who, having gained access 
to the pontifical books, copied out all the 
requisite information, and exhibited it in the 
forum for the use of the people at large. 
From, this time forward such tables became 
common, and were known by the name of 
Fasti. They usually contained an enumera- 
tion of the months and days of the year ; the 
Nones, Ides, Nundinae, Dies Fasti, Nefasti, 
Comitiales, Atri, &c., together with the differ- 
ent festivals, were marked in their proper 
places : astronomical observations on the 
risings and settings of the fixed stars, and the 
commencement of the seasons were frequently 
ANNALES or HISTORICI. Chronicles such as 
the Annales Maximi, containing the names of 
the chief magistrates for each year, and a 
short account of the most remarkable events 
noted down opposite to the days on which 
they occurred, were, from the resemblance 
which they bore in arrangement to the 
sacred calendars, denominated fasti; and 
hence this word is used, especially by the 
poets, in the general sense of historical re- 
cords. In prose writers fasti is commonly 
employed as the technical term for the regis- 
ters of consuls, dictators, censors, and other 
magistrates, which formed part of the public 
archives. Some most important fasti belong- 
ing to this class, executed probably at the 
beginning of the reign of Tiberius, have been 
partially preserved, and are deposited in the 
Capitol in Rome, where they are known by 
the name of the Fasti Capitolini. 

FAST1GIUM. An ancient Greek or Ko- 




man temple, of rectangular construction, is 
terminated at its upper extremity by a tri- 
angular figure, both in front and rear, which 
rests upon the cornice of the entablature as 
a base, and has its sides formed by the cor- 
nices which terminate the roof. The whole 
of this triangle above the trabeation is im- 
plied in the term fastigium, called aeVw^xa 
by the Greeks, pediment by our architects. 

Fastigium. (From a Coin.) 

The dwelling-houses of the Romans had no 
gable ends ; consequently when the word is 
applied to them, it is not in its strictly tech- 
nical sense, but designates the roof simply, 
and is to be understood of one which rises 
to an apex, as distinguished from a flat one. 
The fastigium, properly so called, was appro- 
priated to the temples of the gods ; there- 
fore, when the Romans began to bestow di- 
vine honours upon Julius Caesar, amongst 
other privileges which they decreed to him, 
was the liberty of erecting a fastigium to his 
house, that is, a portico and pediment towards 
the street, like that of a temple. 

FAX (^ai/os), a torch. As the principal 
use of torches was to give light to those who 
went abroad after sunset, the portion of the 
Roman day immediately succeeding sun-set 
was called fax or prima fax. The use of 
torches after sun-set, and the practice of cele- 
brating marriages at that time, probably led 
to the consideration of the torch as one of 
the necessary accompaniments and symbols 
of marriage. Among the Romans the fax 
nuptialis having been lighted at the parental 
hearth, was carried before the bride by a boy 
whose parents were alive. The torch was also 
carried at funerals (fax sepulchralis], both be- 
cause these were often nocturnal ceremonies, 
and because it was used to set ftre to the pile. 


FEMINALIA, worn in winter by Augustus 
Caesar, who was very susceptible of cold. It 
seems probable that they were breeches re- 
sembling ours. 


FENUS or FOENUS (TOKOS), interest of I 

money. (1) GREEK. At Athens there was 
no restriction upon the rate of interest. A 
rate might be expressed or represented in 
two different ways: (1.) by the number of 
oboli or drachmae paid by the month for every 
mhia ; (2) by the part of the principal (TO 
apxaiov or Ke<t>a.\aiov) paid as interest either 
annually or for the whole period of the loan. 
According to the former method, which was 
generally used when money was lent upon 
real security (TOKOI eyyvot or eyyetoi), differ- 
ent rates were expressed as follows : 10 
per cent, by en-l TreVre 6oAois, . e. 5 oboli per 
month for every mina, or 60 oboli a year = 
10 drachmae = ^j of a mina. Similarly, 
12 per cent, by em. Spaxurj per month. 

16 per cent. r' OKTU> 6oAots 

18 per cent. r' cvvea. o/SoAots 

24 per cent. ,, e-n-1 6WI Spa^ois ,, 

36 per cent. eni rpurl Spax/acus ,, 

5 per cent. ,, eirl TpiVu i7juio/3oAi>, probably. 

Another method was generally adopted in 
cases of bottomry (TO ravTucv, TOKOI vavrucot, 
or eic6o<ns), where money was lent upon 
the ship's cargo or freightage jeni T<U ixxuAu), 
or the ship itself, for a specified time, com- 
monly that of the voyage. By this method 
the following rates were thus represented : 
10 per cent, by TOKOI en-ioVKaToi, i. e. inte- 
rest at the rate of a tenth ; 12|, 16, 20, 33j, 
by Toicot enoy&ooL, C^CKTOI, fcrfaqpMrTM, and 
eimpiToi, respectively. The usual rates of 
interest at Athens about the time of Demos- 
thenes varied from 12 to 18 per cent. (2) 
ROMAN. Towards the close of the republic, 
and also under the emperors, 12 per cent, 
was the legal rate of interest. The interest 
became due on the first of every month : 
hence the phrases tristes or celeres calendae 
and calendarium, the latter meaning a debt- 
book or book of accounts. The rate of inte- 
rest was expressed in the time of Cicero, and 
afterwards, by means of the as and its divi- 
sions, according to the following table : 
Asses usurae, or one as per 
month for the use of one 

hundred ==12 percent. 

Bounces usurae . . . . 11 ,, 

Dextantes , 10 ,, 

Dodrantes 9 ,, 

Besses 8 ,, 

Septunces , 7 

Semisses ,, 6 

Quincunces ,, 5 ,, 

Trientes 4 ,, 

Quadrantes 3 ,, 

Sextantes , 2 ,, 

TJnciae 1 ,, 

Instead of the phrase asses usurae, a syno- 
nyme was used, viz. centesimae uaurae, in 




asmuch as at this rate of interest there was 
piid in a hundred months a sum equal to the 
whole principal. Hence binae centesimae = 
24 per cent., and quaternae centesimae = 
48 per cent. The monthly rate of the cen- 
tesimae was of foreign origin, and first 
adopted at Rome in the time of Sulla. The 
old yearly rate established by the Twelve 
Tables (B. c. 450) was the undarium fenus. 
The vncia was the twelfth part of the as, 
and since the full (12 oz.) copper coinage was 
still in use at Rome when the Twelve Tables 
became law, the phrase undarium fenus 
would be a natural expression for interest of 
one ounce in the pound ; i. e. a twelfth part 
of the sum borrowed, or 8^ per cent., not per 
month, but per year. This rate, if calculated 
for the old Roman year of ten months, would 
give 10 per cent, for the civil year of twelve 
months, which was in common use in the 
time of the decemvirs. If a debtor could 
not pay the principal and interest at the end 
of the year, he used to borrow money from a 
fresh creditor, to pay off his old debt. This 
proceeding was very frequent, and called a 
versura. It amounted to little short of pay- 
ing compound interest, or an anatocismus 
anniversarius, another phrase for which was 
nsurae renovatae ; e. g. centesimae rcnovatae 
is 12 per cent, compound interest, to which 
Cicero opposes centesimae perpetuo fenore = 
12 per cent, simple interest. The following 
phrases are of common occurrence in con- 
nection with borrowing and lending money 
at interest :Pecuniam apud aliquem collo- 
care, to lend money at interest ; relegere, to 
call it in again ; cavere, to give security for 
it ; opponere or opponere pignori, to give as a 
pledge or mortgage. The word nomen is 
also of extensive use in money transactions. 
Troperly it denoted the name of a debtor, 
registered in a banker's or any other account- 
book : hence it came to signify the articles of 
an account, a debtor, or a debt itself. Thus 
we have bonum nomen, a good debt ; nomina 
facere, to lend monies, and also to borrow 

FERALIA. [FUNUS, p. 191, a.] 
FERCULUM (from fer-o) is applied to any 
kind of tray or platform used for carrying 
anything. Thus it is used to signify the 
tray or frame on which several dishes were 
brought in at once at dinner ; and hence 
fercula came to mean the number of courses 
i'.t dinner, and even the dishes themselves. 
The ferculum was also used for carrying the 
images of the gods in the procession of the 
circus, the ashes of the dead in a funeral, 
and the spoils in a triumph; in all which 
cases it appears to have been carried on the 
shoulders or in the hands of men. 

FERETRUM. [FuNtrs.] 

FERIAE, holidays, were, generally speak- 
ing, days or seasons during which fre!-born 
Romans suspended their political transactions 
and their law-suits, and during which #!aves 
enjoyed a cessation from labour. All fcriae 
were thus dies nefasti. The feriae included 
all days consecrated to any deity ; conse- 
quently all days on which public festivals 
were celebrated were feriae or dies feriati. 
But some of them, such as the feria vinde- 
mialis, and the feriae aestivae, seem to have 
had no direct connection with the worship 
of the gods. The nundinae, however, during 
the time of the kings and the early period of 
the republic, were feriae only for the popu- 
lus, and days of business for the plebeians, 
until, by the Hortensian law, they became 
fasti or days of business for both orders. All 
feriae publicae, i. e. those which were ob- 
served by the whole nation, were divided 
into feriae stativae, feriae conceptivae, and 
feriae imperativae. Feriae stativae or statae 
were those which were held regularly, and 
on certain days marked in the calendar. To 
these belonged some of the great festivals, 
such as the Agonalia, Carmentalia, Luper- 
calia, &c. Feriae conceptivae or conceptae 
were held every year, but not on certain or 
fixed days, the time being every year ap- 
pointed by the magistrates or priests. Among 
these we may mention the feriae Latinae, 
feriae Sementivae, Paganalia, and Compi- 
talia. Feriae imperativae were those which 
were held on certain emergencies at the 
command of the consuls, praetors, or of a 
dictator. The manner in which all public 
feriae were kept bears great analogy to the 
observance of our Sunday. The people visited 
the temples of the gods, and offered up their 
prayers and sacrifices. The most serious and 
solemn seem to have been the feriae impera- 
tivae, but all the others were generally at- 
tended with rejoicings and feasting. All 
kinds of business, especially law-suits, were 
suspended during the "public feriae, as they 
were considered to pollute the sacred season. 
The most important of the holidays designated 
by the name of feriae, are the Feriae Latinae, 
or simply Latinae (the original name was 
Latiar], which were said to have been insti- 
tuted by the last Tarquin in commemoration 
of the alliance between the Romans and La- 
tins. This festival, however, was of much 
higher antiquity ; it was a panegyris, or a 
festival, of the whole Latin nation, celebrated 
on the Alban mount ; and all that the last 
Tarquin did was to convert the original La- 
tin festival into a Roman one, and to make 
it the nieaci of hallowing and cementing the 
alliance between the two nations. Before 




the union, the chief magistrate of the Latins 
had presided at the festival ; but Tarquin 
now assumed this distinction, which subse- 
quently, after the destruction of the Latin 
commonwealth, remained with the chief 
magistrates of Rome. The object of this 
panegyris on the Alban mount was the wor- 
ship of Jupiter Latiaris, and, at least as long 
as the Latin republic existed, to deliberate 
and decide on matters of the confederacy, 
and to settle any disputes which might have 
arisen among its members. As the feriae 
Latinae belonged to the conceptivae, the 
time of their celebration greatly depended on 
the state of affairs at Home, since the consuls 
were never allowed to take the field until 
they had held the Latinae. This festival 
was a great engine in the hands of the magis- 
trates, who had to appoint the time of its 
celebration (concipere, edicere, or indicere 
Latinos) ; as it might often suit their purpose 
either to hold the festival at a particular 
time or to delay it, in order to prevent or 
delay such public proceedings as seemed 
injurious and pernicious, and to promote 
others to which they were favourably dis- 
posed. The festival lasted six days. 

FESCENNINA, soil, carmina, one of the 
earliest kinds of Italian poetry, which con- 
sisted of rude and jocose verses, or rather 
dialogues of extempore verses, in which the 
merry country folks assailed and ridiculed 
one another. This amusement scorns ori- 
ginally to have been peculiar to country peo- 
ple, but it was also introduced into the towns 
of Italy and at Rome, where we find it men- 
tioned as one of those in which young people 
indulged at weddings. 

FETIALES or FECIALES, a college of 
Roman priests, who acted as the guardians 
of the public faith. It was their province, 
when any dispute arose with a foreign state, 
to demand satisfaction, to determine the cir- 
cumstances under which hostilities might be 
commenced, to perform the various religious 
rites attendant on the solemn declaration of 
war, and to preside at the formal ratification 
of peace. When an injury had been received 
from a foreign state, four fetiales were de- 
puted to seek redress, who again elected one 
of their number to act as their representative. 
This individual was styled the pater patratits 
populi Roinani. A fillet of white wool was 
boiind round his head, together with a wreath 
of sacred herbs gathered within the inclosure 
of the Capitoline hill (Verbenae ; Sagmina), 
whence he was sometimes named Verbenarius. 
Thus equipped, he proceeded to the confines 
of the offending tribe, where he halted, and 
addressed a prayer to Jupiter, calling the 
god to witness, with heavy imprecations, that 

his complaints were well founded and his 
demands reasonable. He then crossed the 
border, and the same form was repeated in 
nearly the same words to the first native of 
the soil whom he might chance to meet ; 
again a third time to the sentinel or any 
citizen whom he encountered at the gate of 
the chief town ; and a fourth time to the 
magistrates in the forum in presence of the 
people. If a satisfactory answer was not 
returned within thirty days, after publicly 
delivering a solemn denunciation of what 
might be expected to follow, he returned to 
Rome, and, accompanied by the rest of the 
fetiales, made a report of his mission to the 
senate. If the people, as well as the senate, 
decided for war, the pater patratus again set 
forth to the border of the hostile territory, 
and launched a spear tipped with iron, or 
charred at the extremity and smeared with 
blood (emblematic doubtless of fire and 
slaughter), across the boundary, pronouncing 
at the same time a solemn declaration of war. 
The demand for redress, and the proclama- 
tion of hostilities, were alike termed clari- 
gatio. The whole system is said to have 
been borrowed from the Aequicolae or the 
Ardeates, and similar usages undoubtedly 
prevailed among the Latin states. The num- 
ber of the fetiales cannot be ascertained with 
certainty, but they were probably twenty. 
They were originally selected from the most 
noble families, and their office lasted for life. 
FIBULA (Treponj, TropTnj), a brooch or 
buckle, consisting of a pin (aciis), and of a 
curved portion furnished with a hook (xAeis). 

Fibulae, brooches or buckles, (British M 

FICTILE (icepofAos, K6po|U.ioi', ocnpaicov, oar 
pdicivov'), earthenware, a vessel or other ar- 
ticle made of baked clay. The instruments 
used in pottery (ars figuUna) were the fol- 
lowing : 1. The wheel (rpoxos, orbis, rota, 
rotafigularis). 2. Pieces of wood or bone, 
which the potter (<cepafievs, figulus) held in 
his right hand, and applied occasionally to 
the surface of the clay during its revolution. 
3. Moulds (formae, TVTTOI), used either to 
decorate with figures in relief vessels which 




had been thrown on the -wheel, or to produce 
foliage, animals, or any other appearances, 
on Antefixa, on cornices of terra cotta, and 
imitative or ornamental pottery of all other 
kinds, in which the wheel was not adapted 
to give the first shape. 4. Gravers or scal- 
pels, used by skilful modellers in giving to 
figures of all kinds a more perfect finish and 
a higher relief than could be produced by the 
use of moulds. The earth used for making 
pottery ((cepaniKTjYij), was commonly red, and 
often of so lively a colour as to resemble 
coral. Other pottery is brown or cream- 
coloured, and sometimes white. Some of the 
ancient earthenware is throughout its sub- 
stance black, an effect produced by mixing the 
earth with comminuted asphaltum (gagates), 
or with some other bituminous or oleaginous 
substance. It appears also tyiat asphaltum, 
with pitch and tar, both mineral and vege- 
table, was used to cover the surface like a 
varnish. The best pottery was manufactured 
at Athens, .in the island of Samos, and in 
Etruria. A quarter of Athens was called 
Cerameicus, because it was inhabited by 
potters. Vessels, before being sent for the 
last time to the furnace, were sometimes im- 
mersed in that finely prepared mud, now 
technically called " slip," by which the sur- 
face is both smoothed and glazed, and at the 
same time receives a fresh colour. Rxiddle, 
or red ochre ((xiAro?, rubrica), was princi- 
pally employed for this purpose. To produce 
a further variety in the paintings upon vases 
the artists employed a few brightly coloured 
earths and metallic ores. [PICTTJKA.] 

FIDEICOMMISSUM may be defined to be 
a testamentary disposition, by which a person 
who gives a thing to another imposes on him 
the obligation of transferring it to a third 
person. The obligation was not created by 
words of legal binding force (civilia verba), 
but by words of request (precativZ), such as 
fideicommitto, peto, volo dari, and the like ; 
which were the operative words (verba utilia}. 

FIDUCIA. If a man transferred his pro- 
perty to another, on condition that it should 
be restored to him, this contract was called 
Fiducia, and the person to whom the pro- 
perty was so transferred was said fiduciam 
accijiere. The trustee was bound to discharge 
his trust by restoring the thing : if he did 
not, he was liable to an actio fiduciae or fldu- 
ciaria, which was an actio bonae fidei. If 
the trustee was condemned in the action, the 
consequence was infamia. 

FISCUS, the imperial treasury. Under 
the republic the public treasury was called 
Aeiarium. [AERARIUM.] On the establish- 
ment of the imperial power, there was a 
division of the provinces between the senate, 

as the representative of the old republic, and 
the Caesar or emperor ; and there was con- 
sequently a division of the most important 
branches of public income and expenditure. 
The property of the senate retained the name 
of Aerarium, and that of the Caesar, as such, 
received the name of Fiscus. The private 
property of the Caesar (res privata principis, 
ratio Caesaris] was quite distinct from that 
of the fiscus. The word fiscus signified a 
wicker-basket, or pannier, in which the Ro- 
mans were accustomed to keep and carry 
about large sums of money ; and hence fiscus 
came to signify any person's treasure or 
money chest. The importance of the impe- 
rial fiscus soon led to the practice of appro- 
priating the name to that property which the 
Caesar claimed as Caesar, and the word fis- 
cus, without any adjunct, was used in this 
sense. Ultimately the word came to signify 
generally the property of the state, the Caesar 
having concentrated in himself all the sove- 
reign power, and thus the word fiscus finally 
had the same signification as aerarium in the 
republican period. Various officers, as Procu- 
ratores, Advocati, Patroni, and Praefecti, 
were employed in the administration of the 

(PITTI'S), a fan. Fans were of elegant forms, 
of delicate colours, and sometimes of costly 
and splendid materials, such as peacock's 
feathers ; but they were stiff and of a fixed 
shape, and were held by female slaves (fla- 
belliferae], by beautiful boys, or by eunuchs, 
whose duty it was to wave them so as to 
produce a cooling breeze. Besides separate 
feathers the ancient fan was sometimes made 
of linen, extended upon a light frame. 

a whip, a scourge, to the handle of which 
was fixed a lash made of cords (funibus], or 
thongs of leather (loris), especially thongs 
made from the ox's hide (bubulis exuviis), 
The flagellum properly so called was a dread- 

Flagcllum, Scouige. (From a Bas-reliel at Home, and 
from a Coin.) 





ful instrument, and is thus put in opposition 
to the scutica, which was a simple whip. 
(Hor. Sat. i. 3. 119.) Cicero in like manner 
contrasts the severe flagella with the virgae. 
The flagellum was chiefly used in the punish- 
ment of slaves. It was knotted with bones 
or heavy indented circles of bronze or termi- 
nated by hooks, in which case it was aptly 
denominated a scorpion. We likewise find 
that some gladiators fought with the flagella, 
as in the coin here introduced. 

FLAMEN, the name for any Roman priest 
who was devoted to the service of one parti- 
cular god, and who received a distinguishing 
epithet from the deity to whom he ministered. 
The most dignified were those attached to 
Dijovis, Mars, and Quirinus, the Flamen Di- 
alis, Flamen Martialis, and Flamen Quiri- 
nalis. They are said to have been established 
by Numa. The number was eventually in- 
creased to fifteen : the three original flamens 
were always chosen from among the patri- 
cians, and styled Majores ; the rest from the 
plebeians, with the epithet Minorca. Among 
the minores, we read of the Flamen Floralis, 
the Flamen Carmentalis, &c. The flamens 
were elected originally at the Comitia Curiata, 
but it is conjectured that subsequently to the 
passing of the Lex Domitia (B. c. 104) they 
were chosen in the Comitia Tributa. After 
being nominated by the people, they were 
received (capti] and installed (inauguraban- 
tur) by the pontifex maximus, to whose 
authority they were at all times subject. 
The office was understood to last for life ; 
but a flamen might be compelled to resign 
(flaminio abire] for a breach of duty, or even 
on account of the occurrence of an ill- 
omened accident while discharging his func- 
tions. Their characteristic dress was the 
apex [APEX], the laena [LAENA], and a laurel 
wreath. The most distinguished of all the 
flamens was the Dialis ; the lowest in rank 
the Pomonalis. The former enjoyed many 
peculiar honours. When a vacancy occurred, 
three persons of patrician descent, whose 
parents had been married according to the 
ceremonies of confarreatio, were nominated 
by the Comitia, one of whom was selected 
(captus), and consecrated (inaugwabatur) by 
the pontifex maximus. From that time 
forward he was emancipated from the con- 
trol of his father, and became sui juris. He 
alone of all priests wore the albogalerus ; he 
had a right to a lictor, to the toga praetexta, 
the sella curulis, and to a seat in the senate 
in virtue of his office. If one in bonds took 
refuge in his house, his chains were imme- 
diately struck off. To counterbalance these 
high honours, the dialis was subjected to a 
multitude of restrictions. It was unlawful 

for him to be out of the city for a single 
night ; and he was forbidden to sleep out of 
his own bed for three nights consecutively. 
He might not mount upon horseback, nor 
even touch a horse, nor look upon an army 
marshalled without the pomoerium, and 
hence was seldom elected to the consulship. 
The object of the above rules was manifestly 
to make him literally Jovi adsiduum sacer- 
dotem ; to compel constant attention to the 
duties of the priesthood. Flaminica was 
the name given to the wife of the dialis. He 
was required to wed a virgin according to 
the ceremonies of confarreatio, which regu- 
lation also applied to the two other flamines 
majores ; and he could not marry a second 
time. Hence, since her assistance was essen- 
tial in the performance of certain ordinances, 
a divorce was not permitted, and if she died, 
the dialis was obliged to resign. The muni- 
cipal towns also had their flamens. Thus 
the celebrated affray between Milo and Clo- 
dius took place while the former was on his 
way to Lanuvium, of which he was then 
dictator, to declare the election of a flamen 
(adflaminem prodendum), 


FLORALIA, or Florales Ludi, a festival 
which was celebrated at Home in honour of 
Flora or Chloris, during five days, beginning 
on the 28th of April and ending on the 2nd 
of May. It was said to have been instituted 
at Rome in 238 B. c., at the command of an 
oracle in the Sibylline books, for the purpose 
of obtaining from the goddess the protection 
of the blossoms. The celebration was, as 
usual, conducted by the aediles, and was car- 
ried on with excessive merriment, drinking, 
and lascivious games. 

FOCALE, a covering for the ears and 
neck, made of wool, and worn by infirm and 
delicate persons. 

FOCUS, dim. FOCULUS (ttma . e<rxapa, eo- 
xopi's), a fire-place ; a hearth ; a brazier. The 
fire-place possessed a sacred character, and was 
dedicated among the Romans to the Lares of 
each family. Moveable hearths, or braziers, 
properly called foculi, were frequently used. 

J-oculus, Morcuble Hearth. (Snub M 




RATI, SOCII. In the seventh century of 
Rome these names expressed those Italian 
states which -were connected with Rome by 
a treaty (foedus). These names did not 
include Roman colonies or Latin colonies, or 
any place which had obtained the Roman 
eivitas or citizenship. Among the foederati 
were the Latini, who were the most nearly 
related to the Romans, and were designated 
by this distinctive name ; the rest of the 
foederati were comprised under the col- 
lective name of Socii or Foederati. They 
were independent states, yet under a general 
liability to furnish a contingent to the Roman 
army. Thus they contributed to increase 
the power of Rome, but they had not the 
privileges of Roman citizens. The discon- 

tent among the foederati, and their claims to 
be admitted to the privileges of Roman citi- 
zens, led to the Social War. The Julia Lex 
(B. c. 90) gave the civitas to the Socii and 
Latini ; and a lex of the following year con- 
tained, among other provisions, one for the 
admission to the Roman civitas of those 
peregrin! who were entered on the lists of 
the citizens of federate states, and who com- 
plied with the provisions of the lex. [CI- 

FOENUS. [FEiros.] 

FOLLIS (1) An inflated ball of leather, 
which boys and old men among the Romans 
threw from one to another as a gentle exer- 
cise of the body. (2) A leather purse or 
bag. (3) A pair of bellows, consisting of 
two inflated skins, and having valves ad- 

Folles, Bellows. (From 


justed to the natural apertures at one part 
for admitting the air, and a pipe inserted 
into another part for its emission. 

FONS (icpjji^i), a spring of water, and also 
an artificial fountain, made either by covering 
and decorating a spring with buildings and 
sculpture, or by making a jet or stream of 
water, supplied by an elevated cistern, play 
into an artificial basin. Such fountains 

served the double purpose of use and orna- 
ment. They were covered to keep them pure 
and cool, and the covering was frequently in 
the form of a monopteral temple : there were 
also statues, the subjects of which were sug- 
gested by the circumstance that every foun- 
tain was sacred to some divinity, or they 
were taken from the whole range of mytho- 
logical legends. A very large proportion of 

Fountain of Peirene at Corinth. 




the immense supply of water brought to 
Rome by the aqueducts was devoted to the 
public fountains, which were divided into 
two classes ; namely, lacus, ponds or reser- 
voirs, and salientes, jets of water, besides 
which many of the castella were so con- 
structed as to be also fountains. There were 
also many small private fountains in the 
houses and villas of the wealthy. 

Fountain. (From a Painting at Pompeii.) 


FORNACALIA, a festival in honour of 
Fornax, the goddess of furnaces, in order 
that the corn might be properly baked. 
This ancient festival is said to have been 
instituted by Numa. The time for its cele- 
bration was proclaimed every year by the 
curio maximus, who announced in tablets, 
which were placed in the forum, the differ- 
ent part which each curia had to take in the 
celebration of the festival. Those persons 
who did not know to what curia they be- 
longed performed the sacred rites on the 
Quirinalia, called from this circumstance the 
Stultorum feriae, which fell on the last day 
of the Fornacalia. 

FORNIX, in its primary sense, is syno- 
nymous with ARCUS, but more commonly 
implies an arched vault, constituting both 
roof and ceiling to the apartment which it 





FRENUM (xoXu/ds;, a bridle. That Belle- 
rophon might be enabled to perform the ex- 
ploits required of him by the king of Lycia, 
he was presented by Athena with a bridle as 
the means of subduing the winged horse Pe- 
gasus, who submitted to receive it whilst he 
was slaking his thirst at the fountain Pei- 
rene. Such was the Grecian account of the 
invention of the bridle, and in reference to it 

Athena was worshipped at Corinth under the 
titles 'IirTria and XoAii'mf . The bit (area, 


Pegasus receiving the Bridle. 

pa, OTOJUOV), was commonly made of several 
pieces, and flexible, so as not to hurt the 
horse's mouth ; although there was likewise 
a bit which was armed with protuberances 
resembling wolves' teeth, and therefore called 


FRITILLUS (^Mw), a dice-box of a cylin- 
drical form, and therefore called also turri- 
cula, or pyrgus, and formed with parallel 
indentations (gradus) on the inside, so as to 
make a rattling noise when the dice were 
shaken in it. 

of corn at Rome was considered one of the 
duties of the government. The superintend- 
ence of the corn-market belonged in ordinary 
times to the aediles, but when great scarcity 
prevailed, an extraordinary officer was ap- 
pointed for the purpose under the title of 
Praefectus Annonae. Even in early times it 
had been usual for the state on certain occa- 
sions, and for wealthy individuals, to make 
occasional donations of corn to the people 
(donatio, largitio, divisio ; subsequently called 
frumentatio). But such donations were only 
casual ; and it was not till B. c. 123, that the 
first legal provision was made for supplying the 
poor at Rome with corn at a price much below 
its market value. In that year C. Sempronius 
Gracchus brought forward the first Lex Fru- 
mentaria, by which each citizen was entitled 
to receive every month a certain quantity of 
wheat (triticum) at the price of 6J asses for 
the modius, which was equal to 1 gallon and 
nearly 8 pints English. This was only 6. 
trifle more than half the market price. Each 
person probably received five modii monthly, 
as in later times. About B. c. 91, the tribune 
M. Octavius brought forward the Lex Octavia, 




which modified the law of Gracchus to some 
extent, so that the public treasury did not 
suffer so much. Sulla went still further, and 
by his Lex Cornelia, B. c. 82, did away alto- 
gether with these distributions of corn ; but 
in B. c. 73, the Lex Sempronia was renewed 
by the Lex Terentia Cassia, which enacted 
that each Reman citizen should receive 5 
modii a month at the price of 6^ asses for 
each modius. The Leges Frumentariae had 
sold corn to the people ; but by the Lex 
Clodia of the tribune Clodius, B. c. 58, the 
corn was distributed without any payment ; 
the abolition of the payment cost the state a 
fifth part of its revenues. When Caesar be- 
came master of the Roman world, he re- 
solved to remedy the evils attending the 
system, so far as he was able. He did not 
venture to abolish altogether these disti'ibu- 
tions of corn, but he did the next best thing 
in his power, which was reducing the num- 
ber of the recipients. During the civil wars 
numbers of persons, who had no claim to the 
Roman franchise, had settled at Rome in 
order to obtain a share in the distributions. 
Caesar excluded from this privilege every 
person who could not prove that he was a 
Roman citizen ; and thus the 320,000 per- 
sons, who had previously received the corn, 
were at once reduced to 150,000. The use- 
ful regulations of Caesar fell into neglect 
after his death ; and in B. c. 5, the number 
of recipients had amounted to 320,000. But 
in B. c. 2, Augustus reduced the number of 
recipients to 200,000, and renewed many of 
Caesar's regulations. The chief of them 
seem to have been: 1. That every citizen 
should receive monthly a certain quantity of 
corn (probably 5 modii) on the payment of a 
certain small sum. Occasionally, in seasons of 
scarcity, or in order to confer a particular 
favour, Augustus made these distributions 
quite gratuitous ; they then became congi- 
aria. [CONGIARIUM.] 2. That those who 
were completely indigent should receive the 
corn gratuitously, and should be furnished 
for the purpose with tesserae nummariae or 
frumentariae, which entitled them to the corn 
without payment. The system which had 
been established by Augustus, was followed 
by his successors ; but as it was always one 
of the first maxims of the state policy of the 
Roman emperors to prevent any disturbance 
in the capital, they frequently lowered the 
price of the public corn, and also distributed it 
gratuitously as a congiarium. Hence, the cry 
of the populace panem et circenses. In course 
of time, the sale of the corn by the state 
seems to have ceased altogether, and the dis- 
tribution became altogether gratuitous. Every 
coni-receiver was therefore now provided 

with a tessera, and this tessera, when once 
granted to him, became his property. Hence 
it came to pass, that he was not only allowed 
to keep the tessera for life, but even to dis- 
pose of it by sale, and bequeath it by will. 
Every citizen was competent to hold a tes- 
sera, with the exception of senators. Fur- 
ther, as the corn had been originally distri- 
buted to the people according to the thirty- 
five tribes into which they were divided, the 
corn-receivers in each tribe formed a kind of 
corporation, which came eventually to be 
looked upon as the tribe, when the tribes had 
lost all political significance. Hence, the 
purchase of a tessera became equivalent to 
the purchase of a place in a tribe ; and, ac- 
cordingly, we find in the Digest the expres- 
sions emere tribum and emere tesseram used 
as synonymous. Another change was also in- 
troduced at a later period, which rendered the 
bounty still more acceptable to the people. 
Instead of distributing the corn every month, 
wheaten bread, called annona clvica, was 
given to the people. It is uncertain at what 
time this change was introduced, but it seems 
to have been the custom before the reign of 
Aurelian (A. D. 270-275). 

FRUMENTARII, officers under the Ro- 
man empire, who acted as spies in the pro- 
vinces, and reported to the emperors any- 
thing which they considered of importance. 
They appear to have been called Fntmentarii 
because it was their duty to collect information 
in the same way as it was the duty of other 
officers, called by the same name, to collect corn. 

FtJCUS (<f>Cco), the paint which the Greek 
and Roman ladies employed in painting their 
cheeks, eye-brows, and other parts of their 
faces. The practice of painting the face was 
very general among the Greek ladies, and 
probably came into fashion in consequence of 
their sedentary mode of life, which robbed 
their complexions of their natural freshness, 
and induced them to have recourse to arti- 
ficial means for restoring the red and white 
of nature. The eye-brows and eye-lids were 
stained black with oriVfu or cnV/MS. a sul- 
phuret of antimony, which is still employed 
by the Turkish ladies for the same purpose. 
The eye-brows were likewise stained with 
ao-jSoAos, a preparation of soot. Among the 
Romans the art of painting the complexion 
was carried to a still greater extent than 
among the Greeks, and even Ovid did not 
disdain to write a poem on the subject, which 
he calls (de Art, Am, iii. 206) "parvus, sed 
cura grande, libellus, opus;" though the 
genuineness of the fragment of the Medica- 
mina faciei, ascribed to this poet, is doubtful. 
The Roman ladies even went so far as to 
paint with blue tLe veins on the temples. 




The ridiculous use of patches (splenia}> which 
were common among the English ladies in 
the reign of Queen Anne and the first 
Georges, was not unknown to the Roman 
ladies. The more effeminate of the male sex 
at Rome, and likewise in Greece, also em- 
ployed paint. 

Girl painting hirself. (Fi 





FULLO (Kvcu^evs, yvo^evs), also called 
NACCA, a fuller, a washer or scourer of 
cloth and linen. The fullones not only re- 
ceived the cloth as it came from the loom in 
order to scour and smooth it, but also washed 
and cleansed garments which had been al- 
ready worn. The clothes were first washed, 
which was done in tubs or vats, where they 
were trodden upon and stamped by the feet of 
the fullones, whence Seneca speaks of saltvs 
fullonieus. The ancients were not acquainted 
with soap, but they used in its stead different 
kinds of alkali, by which the dirt was more 
easily separated from the clothes. Of these, by 
far the most common was the urine of men and 
animals, which was mixed with the water in 
which the clothes were washed. When the 
clothes were dry, the wool was brushed and 
carded to raise the nap, sometimes with the 
skin of a hedgehog, and sometimes with some 
plants of the thistle kind. The clothes were 
then hung on a vessel of basket-work (vimi- 
nea cavea], under which sulphur was placed 
in order to whiten the cloth. A fine white 
earth, called Cimolian by Pliny, was often 
rubbed into the cloth to increase its white- 
ness. The establishment or workshop of the 
fullers was called Fullonica, Fullonicum, or 
Fullonium. The Greeks were also accus- 
tomed to send their garments to fullers to be 
washed and scoured. The word ir\vvtw 

denoted the washing of linen, and Kvarjieveiv 
or yra^eueiv the washing of woollen clothes. 

FUNAMBULUS (icaAo/3aTr) axoii/ojSarrjs), 
a rope-dancer. The art of dancing on the 
tight rope was carried to as great perfection 
among the Romans as it is with us. The 
performers placed themselves in an endless 
variety of graceful and sportive attitudes, 
and represented the characters of bacchanals, 
satyrs, and other imaginary beings. One of 
the most difficult exploits was running down 
the rope at the conclusion of the performance. 
It was a strange attempt of Germanicus and 
of the emperor Galba to exhibit elephants 
walking on the rope. 

FUNDA (o-^evSonj), a sling. Slingers are 
not mentioned in the Iliad ; hut the light 
troops of the Greek and Roman armies con- 
sisted in great part of slingers (funditores, 
o-^epSovTJTcu). The most celebrated slingers 
were the inhabitants of the Balearic islands. 
Besides stones, plummets, called glandes(i>.oXvp- 
5i'5es), of a form between acorns and almonds, 
were cast in moulds to be thrown with slings. 
The manner in which the sling was wielded 
may be seen in the annexed figure of a sol- 
dier with a provision of stones in the sinus 
of his pallium, and with his arm extended in 
order to whirl the sling about his head. 

Funda, Sling. (Column of Trajan.) 


FUNUS, a funeral. (1) GREEK. The 
Greeks attached great importance to the bu- 
rial of the dead. They believed that souls 
could not enter the Elysian fields till their 
bodies had been buried ; and so strong was this 
feeling among the Greeks, that it was consi- 
dered a religious duty to throw earth upon a 
dead body, which a person might happen to 



find unburied ; and among the Athenians, 
those children who were released from all 
other obligations to unworthy parents, were 
nevertheless bound to bury them by one of 
Solon's laws. The neglect of burying one's 
relatives is frequently mentioned by the 
orators as a grave charge against the moral 
character of a man ; in fact, the burial of the 
body by the relations of the dead was consi- 
dered one of the most sacred duties by the 
universal law of the Greeks. Sophocles re- 
presents Antigone as disregarding all conse- 
quences in order to bury the dead body of 
her brother Polyneices, which Creon, the 
king of Thebes, had commanded to be left 
unburied. The common expressions for the 
funeral rites, TO. fucaia, vdfit/ia or votu.6iitva., 
irpoo^Kon-a, show that the dead had, as it 
were, a legal and moral claim to burial. After 
a person was dead, it was the custom first to 
place in his mouth an obolus, called danace 
(Sorajoj), with which he might pay the ferry- 
man in Hades. The body was then washed 
and anointed with perfumed oil, the head 
was crowned with the flowers which hap- 
pened to be in season, and the body dressed 
in as handsome a robe as the family could 
afford. These duties were not performed by 
hired persons, like the pollinctores among the 
Romans, but by the women of the family, 
upon whom the care of the corpse always de- 
volved. The corpse was then laid out (jrpofle- 
<ris, irporifleaOat) on a bed, which appears to 
have been of the ordinary kind, with a pil- 
low for supporting the head and back. By 
the side of the bed there were placed 
painted earthen vessels, called Ajjcv<Joi, which 
were also buried with the corpse. Great 
numbers of these painted vases have been 
found in modern times ; and they have been 
of great use in explaining many matters con- 
nected with antiquity. A honey-cake, called 
jieAiTTOuTa, which appears to have been in- 
tended for Cerberus, was also placed by the 
side of the corpse. Before the door a vessel 
of water was placed, called oorpcococ, ap&<i\t.ov 
or apSavtov, in order that persons who had 
been in the house might purify themselves by 
sprinkling water on their persons. The re- 
latives stood around the bed, the -women 
uttering great lamentations, rending their 
garments, and tearing their hair. On the 
day after the irpoOeo-is, or the third day after 
death, the corpse was carried out (e<c<op<i, 

j) for burial, early in the morning and 
before sunrise. A burial soon after death 
was supposed to be pleasing to the dead. In 
some places it appears to have been usual to 
bury the dead on the day following death. 
The men walked before the corpse, and the 
women behind. The funeral procession was 
preceded or followed by hired mourners 
(fl/w/vyfioi), who appear to have been usually 
Carian women, playing mournful tunes on 
the flute. The body was either buried or 
burnt. The word Od-mfiv is used in connec- 
tion with either mode ; it is applied to the 
collection of the ashes after burning, and 
accordingly we find the words KaUiv and 
OaTTTfiv used together. The proper expres- 
sion for interment in the earth is Karopvr- 
reii>. In Homer the bodies of the dead are 
burnt ; but interment was also used in very 
ancient times. Cicero says that the dead were 
buried at Athens in the time of Cecrops ; and 
we also read of the bones of Orestes being 
found in a coffin at Tegea. The dead were 
commonly buried among the Spartans and 
the Sicyonians, and the prevalence of this 
practice is proved by the great number of 
skeletons found in coffins in modern times, 
which have evidently not been exposed to 
the action of fire. Both burning and bury- 
ing appear to have been always used to a 
greater or less extent at different periods ; 
till the spread of Christianity at length put 
an end to the former practice. The dead 
bodies were usually burnt on piles of wood, 
called pyres (m/pai). The body was placed 
on the top ; and in the heroic times it was 
customary to burn with the corpse animals 
and even captives or slaves. Oils and per- 
fumes were also thrown into the flames. 
When the pyre was burnt down, the remains 
of the fire were quenched with wine, and the 
relatives and friends collected the bones. 
The bones were then washed with wine and 
oil, and placed in urns, which were some- 
times made of gold. The corpses which were 
not burnt were buried in coffins, which were 
called by various names, as vopoi, TrveAoi, 
ArjiW, Aopvoxes, jpoiTcu, though some of these 
names are also applied to the urns in which 
the bones were collected. They were made 
of various materials, but were usually of 
baked clay or earthenware. The following 
woodcut contains two of the most ancient 
kind ; the figure in the middle is the section 

(Slackelberg, Die Crib.*- tier llcllaoro.' pi. 7. 8.) 




of one. The dead were usually buried out- 
side the town, as it was thought that their 
presence in the city brought pollution to the 
living. At Athens none were allowed to be 
buried within the city ; but Lycurgus, in 
order to remove all superstition respecting 
the presence of the dead, allowed of burial in 
Sparta. Persons who possessed lands in At- 
tica were frequently buried in them, and we 
therefore read of tombs in the fields. Tombs, 
however, were most frequently built by thn 
side of roads, and near the gates of the city. 

Tomb in Lycia. 

At Athens, the most common place of burial 
was outside of the Itonian gate, near the 
road leading to the Peiraeeus, which gate 
was for that reason called the burial gate. 
Those who had fallen in battle were buried 
at the public expense in the outer Ceramei- 
cus, on the road leading to the Academia. 
Tombs were called WJKCU, Ta.<j>oi, fn"MiaTa, 
nvrjlj-eia, (njfiara. Many of these were only 
mounds of earth or stones (x^M-am, KoAwoai, 
TvjujSoi). Others were built of stone, and 
frequently ornamented with great taste. 
Some Greek tombs were built under ground, 
and called hypogea (yiroyaia. or vn-o-yeia). 
They correspond to the Roman conditoria, 
The monuments erected over the graves of 
persons were usually of four kinds : 1. 
o-TT/Aeu, pillars or upright stone tablets; 2. 
iciove<;, columns ; 3. vatSia or ^p<j>a, small 
ouildings in the form of temples ; and 4. rpa- 

irefri, flat square stones, called by Cicero 
mensae. The term erri) is sometimes ap- 
plied to all kinds of funeral monuments, but 
properly designates upright stone tablets, which 
were usually terminated with an oval head- 
ing, called ejri'ffyma. The epithema was fre- 

Epithcma or Heading of Tombstone. (Stackelberg, pi. 8 

quently ornamented with a kind of arabesque 
work, as in the preceding specimen. The 
Kt'oves, or columns, were of various forms, as it 
shown by the two specimens in the annexed cut. 

Sepulchral Columns. (Paintings on Vases.) 

The inscriptions upon these funeral monu- 
ments usually contain the name of the deceased 
person, and that of the demus to which he 
belonged, as well as frequently some account 
of his life. The following example of an 
fipwov will give a general idea of monuments 
of this kind. Orations in praise of the dead 
were sometimes pronounced ; but Solon or- 
dained that such orations should be confined 
to persons who were honoured with a public 
funeial. In the heroic ages games were 



celebrated at the funeral of a great man, as 
in the case of Patroclus ; but this practice 


Sepulchral He: 

(Painting on Vase.) 

does not seem to have been usual in the his- 
torical times. All persons -who had been en- 
gaged in funerals were considered polluted, 
and could not enter the temples of the gods 
till they had been purified. After the fune- 
ral was over, the relatives partook of a 
feast, which was called mpiStiirvov or vexpo. 
Seirrvov. This feast was always given at the 
house of the nearest relative of the deceased. 
Thus the relatives of those who had fallen 
at the battle of Chaeroneia partook of the 
irfpi&tiirvov at the house of Demosthenes, as 
if he were the nearest relative to them all. 
On the second day after the funeral a sa- 
crifice to the dead was offered, called 
rpira. ; but the principal sacrifice to the dead 
was on the ninth day, called fwara. or The mourning for the dead appears 
to have lasted till the thirtieth day after the 
funeral, on which day sacrifices were again 
offered. At Sparta the time of mourning was 
limited to eleven days. During the time of 
mourning it was considered indecorous for 
the relatives of the deceased to appear in 
public ; they were accustomed to wear a 
black dress, and in ancient times they cut off 
their hair as a sign of grief. The tombs were 
preserved by the family to which they be- 
longed with the greatest care, and were 
regarded as among the strongest ties which 

attached a man to his native land. In the 
Docimasia of the Athenian archons it was 
always a subject of inquiry whether they had 
kept in proper repair the tombs of their 
ancestors. On certain days the tombs were 
crowned with flowers, and offerings were 
made to the dead, consisting of garlands of 
flowers and various other things. The act 
of offering these presents was called cvayigeiv, 
and the offerings themselves iva.yurna.Ta., or 
more commonly x *"'- The yeve'aia mentioned 
by Herodotus appear to have consisted in 
offerings of the same kind, which were pre- 
sented on the anniversary of the birth-day of 
the deceased. The vexwrta. were probably 
offerings on the anniversary of the day of 
the death ; though, according to some writers, 
the vficva-M were the same as the yevea-ia.. 
Certain criminals, who were put to death by 
the state, were also deprived of the rights of 
burial, which was considered as an additional 
punishment. There were certain places, both 
at Athens and Sparta, where the dead bodies 
of such criminals were cast. A person who had 
committed suicide was not deprived of burial, 
but the hand with which he had killed himself 
was cut off and buried by itself. (2) ROMAN. 
When a Roman was at the point of death, his 
nearest relation present endeavoured to catch 
the last breath with his mouth. The ring was 
taken off the finger of the dying person ; and 
as soon as he was dead his eyes and mouth 
were closed by the nearest relation, who called 
upon the deceased by name, exclaiming have 
or vale. The corpse was then washed, and 
anointed with oil and perfumes, by slaves, 
called pollinctores, who belonged to the libi- 
tinarii, or undertakers. The libitinarii 
appear to have been so called because they 
dwelt near the temple of Venus Libitina, 
where all things requisite for funerals were 
sold. Hence we find the expressions vitare 
Libitinam and eradere Libitinam used in the 
sense of escaping death. At this temple an 
account (ratio, ephemeris) was kept of those 
who died, and a small sum was paid for the 
registration of their names. A small coin 
was then placed in the mouth of the corpse, 
in order to pay the ferryman in Hades, and 
the body was laid out on a couch in the 
vestibule of the house, with its feet towards 
the door, and dressed in the best robe whicn 
the deceased had worn when alive. Ordinary 
citizens were dressed in a white toga, and 
magistrates in their official robes. If the 
deceased had received a crown while alive ag 
a reward for his bravery, it was now placed 
on his head ; and the couch on which he wag 
laid was sometimes covered with leaves and 
flowers. A branch of cypress was also usually 
placed !\t the door of the house, if he was a 




person of consequence. Funerals were usually 
called funera jttsta or exsequiae ; the latter 
term was generally applied to the funeral 
procession (pompa funebris}. There were 
two kinds of funerals, public and private ; 
of which the former was called funus publicum 
or indictivmn, because the people were in- 
vited to it by a herald ; the latter funus taci- 
turn, translatitium, or plebeium. A person 
appears to have usually left a certain sum of 
money in his will to pay the expenses of his 
funeral ; but if he did not do so, nor appoint 
any one to bury him, this duty devolved upon 
the persons to whom the property was left, 
and if he died without a will, upon his rela- 
tions, according to their order of succession 
to the property. The expenses of the funeral 
were in such cases decided by an arbiter, 
according to the property and rank of the 
deceased, whence arbitria is used to signify 
the funeral expenses. The following descrip- 
tion of the mode in which a funeral was con- 
ducted only applies strictly to the funerals of 
the great; the same pomp and ceremony 
could not of course be observed in the case of 
persons in ordinary circumstances. All 
funerals in ancient times were performed at 
night, but afterwards the poor only were 
buried at night, because they could not afford 
to have any funeral procession. The corpse 
was usually carried out of the house (effere- 
batur] on the eighth day after the death. 
The order of the funeral procession was regu- 
lated by a person called designator or dominus 
funeris, who was attended by lictors dressed 
in black. It was headed by musicians of 
various kinds (cornicines, siticines), who 
played mournful strains, and next came 
mourning women, called praeficae, who were 
hired to lament and sing the funeral song 
(naenia or lessus) in praise of the deceased. 
These were sometimes followed by players 
and buffoons (scurrae, histriones], of whom 
one, called archimimus, represented the cha- 
racter of the deceased, and imitated his words 
and actions. Then came the slaves whom 
the deceased had liberated, wearing the cap 
of liberty (pileati) ; the number of whom was 
occasionally very great, since a master some- 
times liberated all his slaves, in his will, in 
order to add to the pomp of his funeral. Be- 
fore the corpse the images of the deceased 
and of his ancestors were carried, and also 
the crowns or military rewards which he had 
gained. The corpse was carried on a couch 
(lectica), to which the name of feretrum or 
capulum was usually given ; but the bodies 
of poor citizens and of slaves were carried on 
a common kind of bier or coffin, called sanda- 
pila. The sandapila was carried by bearers, 
called vespae or vespillones, because they 

carried out the corpses in the evening (ve- 
pertino tempore). The couches on which the 
corpses of the rich were carried were some- 
times made of ivory, and covered with gold 
and purple. They were often carried on the 
shoulders of the nearest relations of the 
deceased, and sometimes on those of his 
freed-men. Julius Caesar was. carried by the 
magistrates, and Augustus by the senators. 
The relations of the deceased walked behind 
the corpse in mourning ; his sons with their 
heads veiled, and his daughters with their 
heads bare and their hair dishevelled, con- 
trary to the ordinary practice of both. They 
often uttered loud lamentations, and the wo- 
men beat their breasts and tore their cheek, 
though this was forbidden by the Twelve 
Tables. If the deceased was of illustrious 
rank, the funeral procession went through 
the forum, and stopped before the rostra, 
where a funeral oration (latidatio) in praise 
of the deceased was delivered. This practice 
was of great antiquity among the Romans, 
and is said by some writers to have been first 
introduced by Publicola, who pronounced a 
funeral oration in honour of his colleague 
Brutus. Women also were honoured by 
funeral orations. From the Forum the corpse 
was carried to the place of burning or burial, 
which, according to a law of the Twelve 
Tables, was obliged to be outside the city. 
The Romans in the most ancient times buried 
their dead, though they also early adopted, 
to some extent, the custom of burning, which 
is mentioned in the Twelve Tables. Burn- 
ing, however, does not appear to have become 
general till the later times of the republic. 
Marius was buried, and Sulla was the first of 
the Cornelian gens whose body was burned. 
Under the empire burning was almost uni- 
versally practised, but was gradually discon- 
tinued as Christianity spread, so that it had 
fallen into disuse in the fourth century. Per- 
sons struck by lightning were not burnt, but 
buried on the spot, which was called Siden- 
tal, and was considered sacred. [BIDENTAL.] 
Children also, who had not cut their teeth, 
were not burnt, but buried in a place called 
Suggrundarium. Those who were buried were 
placed in a coffin (area or loculus), which 
was frequently made of stone, and sometimes 
of the Assian stone, which came from Assos 
in Troas, and which consumed all the body, 
with the exception of the teeth, in 40 days, 
whence it was called sarcophagus. This name 
was in course of time applied to any kind of 
coffin or tomb. The corpse was burnt on a 
pile of wood (pyra or rogui). This pile was 
built in the form of an altar, with four equal 
sides, whence we find it called ara scpulcri 
and funeris ara. The sides of the pile were, 




according to the Twelve Tables, to be left 
rough and unpolished, but were frequently 
covered with dark leaves. Cypress trees 
were sometimes placed before the pile. On 
the top of the pile the corpse was placed, 
with the couch on which it had been carried, 
and the nearest relation then set fire to the 
pile with his face turned away. When the 
flames began to rise, various perfumes were 
thrown into the fire, though this practice 
was forbidden by the Twelve Tables ; cups 
of oil, ornaments, clothes, dishes of food, and 
other things, which were supposed to be 
agreeable to the deceased, were also thrown 
upon the flames. The place where a person 
was burnt was called bustum, if he was after- 
wards buried on the same spot, and ustrina 
or ustrinwn if he was buried at a different 
place. Sometimes animals were slaughtered 
at the pile, and in ancient times captives and 
slaves, since the manes were supposed to be 
fond of blood ; but afterwards gladiators, 
called bustuarii, were hired to fight round 
the burning pile. When the pile was burnt 
down, the embers were soaked with wine, 
and the bones and ashes of the deceased 
were gathered by the nearest relatives, 
who sprinkled them with perfumes, and 
placed them in a vessel called urna, which 
was made of various materials, accord- 
ing to the circumstances of individuals. 
The urnae were also of various shapes, 
but most commonly square or round ; 
and upon them there was usually an 
inscription or epitaph (titulus or epi- 
taphium), beginning with the letters 
D. M. S., or only D. M., that is, Dis 
MANIBUS SACRUM, followed by the name 
of the deceased, with the length of his 
life, &c. The woodcut opposite is a 
representation of a sepulchral urn in 
the British Museum. It is of an up- 
right rectangular form, richly orna- 
mented with foliage, and supported at 
the sides with pilasters. It is to the 
memory of Cossutia Prima. Its height 
is 21 inches, and its width at the base 
14 inches 6-8ths. Below the inscrip- 
tion an infant genius is represented 
driving a car drawn by four horses. 
After the bones and ashes of the de- 
ceased had been placed in the urn, the 
persons present were thrice sprinkled 
by a priest with pure water from a 
branch of olive or laurel for the pur- 
pose of purification ; after which they 
were dismissed by the praefica, or some 
other person, by the solemn word Ilicet, 
that is, ire licet. At their departure they 
were accustomed to bid farewell to the 
deceased by pronouncing the word Vale. \ 

The urns were placed in sepulchres, which, 
as already stated, were outside the city, 
though in a few cases we read of the dead 
being buried within the city. Thus Valerius 
Publicola, Tubertus, and Fabricius, were 
buried in the city ; which right their de- 
scendants also possessed, but did not use. 
The vestal virgins and the emperors were 
buried in the city. The verb sepelirc, like 
the Greek OaTrreiv, was applied to every mode 
of disposing of the dead ; and sepulcrum sig- 
nified any kind of tomb in which the body or 
bones of a man were placed. The term 
humare was originally used for burial in the 
eaith, but was afterwards applied like sepe- 
lire to any mode of disposing of the dead : 
since it appears to have been the custom, 
after the body was burnt, to throw some 
earth upon the hones. The places for burial 
were either public or private. The public 
places of burial were of two kinds ; one for 
illustrious citizens, who were buried at the 
public expense, and the other for poor citizens, 
who could not afford to purchase ground for 
the purpose. The former was in the Campus 
Martius, which was ornamented with the 
tombs of the illustrious dead, and in the 
Campus Esquilinus ; the latter was also in 
the Campus Esquilinus, and consisted of small 
pits or caverns, called puticuli or puticulae ; 

Sepulchral U 




but as this place rendered the neighbourhood 
unhealthy, it was given to Maecenas, who 
converted it into gardens, and built a magni- 
ficent house upon it. Private places for 
burial were usually by the sides of the roads 
leading to Home ; and on some of these 
roads, such as the Via Appia, the tombs 
formed an almost uninterrupted street for 
many miles from the gates of the city. They 
were frequently built by individuals during 
their lifetime ; thus Augustus, in his sixth 
consulship, built the Mausoleum for his se- 
pulchre between the Via Flaminia and the 
Tiber, and planted round it woods and walks 
for public use. The heirs were often ordered 
by the will of the deceased to build a tomb 
for him ; and they sometimes did it at their 
own expense. Sepulchres were originally 
called biista, but this word was afterwards 
employed in the manner mentioned under 
BUSTUM. Sepulchres were also frequently 
called monumenta, but this term was also 
applied to a monument erected to the memory 
of a person in a different place from that where 
he was buried. Conditoria or conditiva were 
sepulchres under ground, in which dead 
bodies were placed entire, in contradistinc- 
tion to those sepulchres which contained the 
bones and ashes only. The tombs of the rich 
were commonly built of marble, and the 
ground enclosed with an iron railing or wall, 
and planted round with trees. The extent 
of the burying ground was marked by cippi 
[Cippus]. The name of mausoleum, which 
was originally the name of the magnificent 
sepulchre erected by Artemisia to the me- 
mory of Mausolus, king of Caria, was some- 
times given to any splendid tomb. The open 
space before a sepulchre was called forum, 
and neither this space nor the sepul- 
chre itself could become the property of a 
person by usucapion. Private tombs were 
either built by an individual for himself and 
the members of his family (sepulcra fami- 
liaria), or for himself and his heirs (sepulcra 
hereditaria). A tomb, which was fitted up 
with niches to receive the funeral urns, was 
called columbarium, on account of the resem- 
blanoe of these niches to the holes of a 
pigeon-house. In these tombs the ashes of 

the freedmen and slaves of great families 
were frequently placed in vessels made of 
baked clay, called ollae, which were let into 
the thickness of the wall within these niches, 
the lids only being seen, and the inscriptions 
placed in front. Tombs were of various sizes 
and forms, according to the wealth and taste 
of the owner. A sepulchre, or any place in 
which a person was buried, was religiosus ; 
all things which were left or belonged to the 
Dii Manes were religiosae ; those consecrated 
to the Dii Superi were called sacrae. Even 
the place in which a slave was buried was 
considered religiosus. Whoever violated a 
sepulchre was subject to an action termed 
sepulcri violati actio. After the bones had 
been placed in the urn at the funeral, the 
friends returned home. They then underwent 
a further purification, called suffitio, which 
consisted in being sprinkled with water and 
stepping over a fire. The house itself was 
also swept with a certain kind of broom ; 
which sweeping or purification was called 
exverrae, and the person who did it evcrriator. 
The Denicales Feriae were also days set apart 
for the purification of the family. The mourn- 
ing and solemnities connected with the dead 
lasted for nine days after the funeral, at the 
end of which time a sacrifice was performed, 
called novendiale. A feast was given in 
honour of the dead, but it is uncertain on 
what day ; it sometimes appears to have been 
given at the time of the funeral, sometimes 
on the novendiale, and sometimes later. The 
name of silicernium was given to this feast. 
Among the tombs at Pompeii there is a fu- 
neral triclinium for the celebration of these 
feasts, which is represented in the annexed 
woodcut. It is open to the sky, and the walls 
are ornamented by paintings of animals in the 
centre of compartments, which have borders of 
flowers. The triclinium is made of stone, with 
a pedestal in the centre to receive the table. 
After the funeral of great men, there was, in 
addition to the feast for the friends of the 
deceased, a distribution of raw meat to the 
people, called visceratio, and sometimes a 
public banquet. Combats of gladiators and 
other games were also frequently exhibited 
in honour of the deceased. Thus at the 

Funeral Triclinium at Pompeii. (Mazois, Pomp., 1, pi. xx.) 




funeral of P. Licinius Crassus, who had been 
Pontifex Maximus, raw meat was distributed 
to the people, 120 gladiators fought, and 
funeral games were celebrated for three 
days, at the end of which a public banquet 
was given in the forum. Public feasts 
and funeral games were sometimes given on 
the anniversary of funerals. At all banquets 
in honour of the dead, the guests were 
dressed in white. The Romans, like the 
Greeks, were accustomed to visit the tombs 
of their relatives at certain periods, and to 
offer to them sacrifices and various gifts, 
which were called inferiae and parentalla. 
The Romans appear to have regarded the 
manes or departed souls of their ancestors as 
gods ; whence arose the practice of present- 
ing to them oblations, which consisted of 
victims, wine, milk, garlands of flowers, and 
other things. The tombs were sometimes 
illuminated on these occasions with lamps. 
In the latter end of the month of February 
there was a festival, called feralia, in which 
the Romans were accustomed to carry food 
to the sepulchres for the use of the dead. 
The Romans were accustomed to wear mourn- 
ing for their deceased friends, which appears 
to have been black under the republic for 
both sexes. Under the empire the men con- 
tinued to wear black in mourning, but the 
women wore white. They laid aside all kinds 
of ornaments, and did not cut either their 
hair or beard. Men appear to have usually 
worn their mourning for only a few days, 
but women for a year when they lost a hus- 
band or parent. In a public mourning on 
account of gome signal calamity, as, for in- 
stance, the loss of a battle, or the death of an 
emperor, there was a total cessation from 
business, called justitium, which was usually 
ordained by public appointment. During 
this period the courts of justice did not sit, 
the shops were shut, and the soldiers freed 
from military duties. In a public mourning 
the senators did not wear the latus clavus 
and their rings, nor the magistrates their 
badges of office. 

FURCA, which properly means a fork, 
was also the name of an instrument of pun- 
ishment. It was a piece of wood in the 
form of the letter A, which was placed upon 
the shoulders of the offender, whose hands 
were tied to it. Slaves were frequently 
punished in this way, and were obliged to 
carry about the furca wherever they went ; 
whence the appellation of furcifei- was ap- 
plied to a man as a term of reproach. The 
furca was used in the ancient mode of 
capital punishment among the Romans ; the 
criminal was tied to it, and then scourged to 
death. The patibulum was also an instru- 

ment of punishment, resembling the furca ; 
it appears to have been in the form of the 
letter n. Both the furca and patibulum 
were also employed as crosses, to which cri- 
minals appear to have been nailed. 


FUSCINA (Tpuura), a trident, more com- 
monly called tridcns, meaning iridens stimu- 
lus, because it was originally a three-pronged 
goad, used to incite horses to greater swift- 
ness. Neptune was supposed to be armed 
with it when he drove his chariot, and it 
thus became his usual attribute, perhaps 
with an allusion also to the use of the same 
instrument in harpooning fish. It is repre- 
sented in the cut on p. 84. In the contests of 
gladiators, the retiaritis was armed with a 
trident. [GLADIATORES.] 

FUSTfJARIUM (fuAoKOJua), was a capital 
punishment inflicted upon Roman soldiers 
for desertion, theft, and similar crimes. It 
was administered in the following manner : 
When a soldier was condemned, the tri- 
bune touched him slightly with a stick, upon 
which all the soldiers of the legion fell upon 
him with sticks and stones, and generally 
killed him upon the spot. If, however, he 
escaped, for he was allowed to fly, he could 
not return to his native country, nor did any 
of his relatives dare to receive him into their 

FUSUS (arpaxTos), the spindle, was always, 
when in use, accompanied by the distaff 
(coins, ^Acocan)), as an indispensable part of 
the same apparatus. The wool, flax, or other 
material, having been prepared for spinning, 
was rolled into a ball (roAvmj, glomus), 
which was, however, sufficiently loose to 
allow the fibres to be easily drawn out by 
the hand of the spinner. The upper part of 
the distaff was then inserted into this mass 
of flax or wool, and the lower part was held 
under the left arm in such a position as was 
most convenient for conducting the opera- 
tion. The fibres were drawn out, and at the 
same time spirally twisted, chiefly by the use 
of the fore-finger and thumb of the right 
hand ; and the thread (filum, stamen, iiJF a ) 
so produced was wound upon the spindle 
until the quantity was as great as it would 
carry. The spindle was a stick, 10 or 12 
inches long, having at the top a slit or catch 
(dens, 5.yKt<TTpov) in which the thread was 
fixed, so that the weight of the spindle 
might continually carry down the thread as 
it was formed. Its lower extremity was 
inserted into a small wheel, called the whorl 
(vorticellum), made of wood, stone, or metal 
(see woodcut), the use of which was to keep 
the spindle more steady, and to promote its 
rotation. The accompanying woodcut shows 


the operation of spinning, at the moment 
when the woman has drawn out a sufficient 
length of yarn to twist it by whirling the 
spindle with her right thumb and fore-finger, 
and previously to the act of taking it out of 
the slit to wind it upon the bobbin (irqi'ioi/) 
already formed. It was usual to have a 
basket to hold the distaff and spindle, with 
the balls of wool prepared for spinning, and 
the bobbins already spun. [CALATHUS.] The 
distaff and spindle, with the wool and thread 
upon them, were carried in bridal proces- 
sions ; and, without the wool and thread, 
they were often suspended by females as 
offerings of religious gratitude, especially in 
oid age, or on relinquishing the constant use 

Fusus, spindle. 

of them. They were most frequently dedi- 
cated to Pallas, the patroness of spinning, 
and of the arts connected with it. They 
were exhibited in the representations of the 
three Fates, who were conceived, by their 
spinning, to determine the life of every 
in an. 

GAESUM (yaio-<k), a term probably of 
Celtic origin, denoting a kind of javelin 
which was used by the Gauls wherever their 
ramifications extended. It was a heavy 
weapon, the shaft being as thick as a man 
could grasp, and the iron head barbed, and 
of an extraordinary length compared with 
the sjiaft. 

GALEA (icpavos, poet. <c<5pvs, irijAijf), a 
helmet ; a casque. The helmet was origi- 
nally made of skin or leather, whence is sup- 
posed to have arisen its appellation, KU^CIJ, 
meaning properly a helmet of dog-skin, but 
applied to caps or helmets made of the hide 
of other animals, and even to those which 
were entirely of bronze or iron. The leathern 
basis of the helmet was also very commonly 
strengthened and adorned by the addition of 
either bronze or gold. Helmets which had a 
metallic basis were in Latin properly called 
cassides, although the terms galea and cassis 
are often confounded. The additions by 
which the external appearance of the helmet 
was varied, and which served both for orna- 
ment and protection, were the following : 
1. Bosses or plates (<dAos), proceeding either 
from the top or the sides, and varying in 
number from one to four (ajouJu'^oAos, Ttrpa.- 
</>oA.os). The <J><iAo? was often an emblemati- 
cal figure, referring to the character of the 
wearer. Thus in the colossal statue of A- 
thena in the Parthenon at Athens, she bore 
a sphinx on the top of her helmet, and a 
griffin on each side. 2. The helmet thus 
adorned was very commonly surmounted by 
the crest (crista, A6<os), which was often of 
horse-hair. 3. The two cheek-pieces (buccti- 
lae, TTopayraSi'Ses), which were attached to 
the helmet by hinges, so as to he lifted up 
and down. They had buttons or ties at 
their extremities, for fastening the helmet 
on the head. 4. The beaver, or visor, a 

Oiileae, helmets 

;ze of originals.) 




peculiar form of which is supposed to have 
been the avAin-is rpv<>aAcia, i. e. the perfo- 
rated beaver. The gladiators wore helmets 
of this kind. 

GALERUS or GALERUM, originally a 
covering for the head worn by priests, espe- 
cially by the flamen dialis. It appears to 
have been a round cap made of leather, with 
its top ending in an apex or point. [APEX.] 
In course of time the name was applied to 
any kind of cap fitting close to the head like 
a helmet. Golems and its diminutive Gale- 
riculum are also used to signify a covering 
for the head made of hair, and hence a wig. 

GALLI, the priests of Cybel, whose wor- 
ship was introduced at Rome from Phrygia. 
The Galli were, according to an ancient cus- 
tom, always castrated, and it would seem 
that, impelled by religious fanaticism, they 
performed this operation on themselves. In 
their wild, enthusiastic, and boisterous rites 
they resembled the Corybantes. They seem 
to have been always chosen from a poor and 
despised class of people, for, while no other 
priests were allowed to beg, the Galli were 
permitted to do so on certain days. The chief 
priest among them was called archigallus. 

GAMELIA (yaf)Ai'a). The demes and 
phratries of Attica possessed various means 
to prevent intruders from assuming the 
rights of citizens. Among other regulations, 
it was ordained that every bride, previous to 
her marriage, should be introduced by her 
parents or guardians to the phratria of her 
husband. This introduction of the young 
women was accompanied by presents to their 
new phratorcs, which were called gamelia. 
The women were enrolled in the lists of the 
phratries, and this enrolment was also called 

a kind of thick cloth, which was on one side 
very woolly, and was used to cover tables and 
beds, and by persons to wrap themselves up 
after taking a bath, or in general to protect 
themselves against rain and cold. It was 
worn by men as well as women. The word 
gausapa is also sometimes used to designate 
a thick wig, such as was made of the hair of 
Germans, and worn by the fashionable people 
at Rome at the time of the emperors. 

GEXESIA. [FvN-us.] 


GENS. According to the traditional ac- 
counts of the old Roman constitution, the 
Gentes were subdivisions of the curiae, just 
as the curiae were subdivisions of the three 
ancient tribes, the Ramnes, Titienses, and 
Luceres. There were ten gentes in each 
curia, and consequently one hundred gentes 
in each tribe, and three hundred in the three 

tribes. Now if there is any truth in the 
tradition of this original distribution of the 
population into tribes, curiae, and gentes, it 
follows that there was no necessary kinship 
among those families which belonged to a 
gens, any more than among those families 
which belonged to one curia. The name of 
the gens was always characterised by the 
termination ia, as Julia, Cornelia, Valeria ; 
and the gentiles, or members of a gens, all 
bore the name of the gens to which they 
belonged. As the gentes were subdivisions 
of the three ancient tribes, the populus (in 
the ancient sense) alone had gentes, so that to 
be a patrician and to have a gens were 
synonymous ; and thus we find the expres- 
sions gens and patricii constantly united. 
Yet it appears that some gentes contained 
plebeian familiae, which it is conjectured had 
their origin in marriages between patricians 
and plebeians before there was connubium 
between them. A hundred new members 
were added to the senate by the first Tarquin. 
These were the representatives of the Luceres, 
the third and inferior tribe ; wliich is indi- 
cated by the gentes of this tribe being called 
minor es, by way of being distinguished from 
the older gentes, majores, of the Ramnes and 
Titles, a distinction which appears to have 
been more than nominal. [SEXATUS.] There 
were certain sacred rites (sacra gentilitia) 
which belonged to a gens, to which all the 
members of a gens, as such, were bound. It 
was the duty of the pontifices to look after 
the due observance of these gentile sacra, and 
to see that they were not lost. Each gens 
seems to have had its peculiar place (sacel- 
lum] for the celebration of these sacra, which 
were performed at stated times. By the law 
of the Twelve Tables the property of a person 
who died intestate devolved upon the gens to 
wliich he Jjelonged. 


GEROUSIA (yepovcria), or assembly of 
elders, was the aristocratic element of the 
Spartan polity. It was not peculiar to Sparta 
only, but found in other Dorian states, just 
as a Boitle (jSovA^) or democratical council 
was an element of most Ionian constitutions. 
The Gerousia at Sparta, including the two 
kings, its presidents, consisted of thirty 
members (veporres) : a number which seems 
connected with the divisions of the Spartan 
people. Every Dorian state, in fact, was 
divided into three tribes : the Hylleis, the 
Dymanes, and the Pamphyli. The tribes at 
Sparta were again subdivided into obae (u>0ot), 
which were, like the Gerontes, thirty in 
number, so that each oba was represented by 
its councillor : an inference which leads to 
the conclusion that two obae at least of the 




Hyllean tribe, must have belonged to the 
royal house of the Hcracleids. No one was 
eligible to the council till he -was sixty years 
of age, and the additional qualifications were 
strictly of an aristocratic nature. We are 
told, for instance, that the office of a coun- 
cillor was the reward and prize of virtue, and 
that it was confined to men of distinguished 
character and station. The election was de- 
termined by vote, and the mode of conducting 
it was remarkable for its old-fashioned sim- 
plicity. The competitors presented them- 
selves one after another to the assembly of 
electors ; the latter testified their esteem by 
acclamations, which varied in intensity ac- 
cording to the popularity of the candidates 
for whom they were given. These manifes- 
tations of esteem were noted by persons in 
an adjoining building, who could judge of 
the shouting, but could not tell in whose 
favour it was given. The person whom 
these judges thought to have been most ap- 
plauded was declared the successful candi- 
date. The office lasted for life. The functions 
of the councillors were partly deliberative, 
partly judicial, and partly executive. In the 
discharge of the first, they prepared measures 
and passed preliminary decrees, which were 
to be laid before the popular assembly, so 
that the important privilege of initiating all 
changes in the government or laws was vested 
in them. As a criminal court, they could 
punish with death and civil degradation 
(drijiua). They also appear to have exercised, 
like the Areiopagus at Athens, a general su- 
perintendence and inspection over the lives 
and manners of the citizens, and probably 
were allowed a kind of patriarchal authority, 
to enforce the observance of ancient usage 
and discipline. It is not, however, easy to 
define with exactness the original extent of 
their functions, especially as respects the last- 
mentioned duty, since the ephors not only 
encroached upon the prerogatives of the king 
and council, but also possessed, in very early 
times, a censorial power, and were not likely 
to permit any diminution of its extent. 

GEERHA (yeppa), in Latin, Gerrae, pro- 
peily signified any thing made of wicker- 
work, and was especially used as the name of 
the Persian shields, which were made of 
wicker-work, and were smaller and shorter 
than the Greek shields. 

GLADIATORES (moi>o/u.axoc) were men who 
fought with swords in the amphitheatre and 
other places, for the amusement of the Ro- 
man people. They are said to have been first 
exhibited by the Etrurians, and to have had 
their origin from the custom of killing slaves 
and captives at the funeral pyres of the 
deceased. [BUSTUM ; FUNUS.] A show of 

gladiators was called miimis, and the person 
who exhibited (edelat] it, editor, numerator, 
or dominus, who was honoured during the 
day of exhibition, if a private person, with 
the official signs of a magistrate. Gladiators 
were first exhibited at Rome in B.C. 264, in 
the Forum Boarium, by Marcus and Decimus 
Brutus, at the funeral of their father. They 
were at first confined to public funerals, but 
afterwards fought at the funerals of most 
persons of consequence, and even at those of 
women. Combats of gladiators were also 
exhibited at entertainments, and especially at 
public festivals by the aediles and other ma- 
gistrates, who sometimes exhibited immense 
numbers, with the view of [pleasing the 
people. Under the empire the passion of the 
Romans for this amusement rose to its great- 
est height, and the number of gladiators who 
fought on some occasions appears almost in- 
credible. After Trajan's triumph over the 
Dacians, there were more than 10,000 exhi- 
bited. Gladiators consisted either of captives, 
slaves, and condemned malefactors, or of 
freeborn citizens who fought voluntarily. 
Freemen, who became gladiators for hire, 
were called auctorctti, and their hire auctora- 
mentum or gladiatorium. Even under the 
republic, free-born citizens fought as gladia- 
tors, but they appear to have belonged only 
to the lower orders. Under the empire, 
however, both knights and senators fought in 
the arena, and even women. Gladiators were 
kept in schools (ludi), where they were trained 
by persons called lanistae. The whole body 
of gladiators under one lanista was fre- 
quently called familia. They sometimes 
were the property of the lanistae, who let 
them out to persons who wished to exhibit a 
show of gladiators ; but at other times they 
belonged to citizens, who kept them for the 
purpose of exhibition, and engaged lanistae 
to instruct them. Thus we read of the ludus 
Aemilius at Rome, and of Caesar's ludus at 
Capua. The gladiators fought in these ludi 
with wooden swords, called rudes. Great 
attention was paid to their diet, in order to 
increase the strength of their bodies. Gladia- 
tors were sometimes exhibited at the funeral 
pyre, and sometimes in the forum, but more 
frequently in the amphitheatre. [AMPHI- 
THEATSXJM.] The person who was to exhibit 
a show of gladiators, published some days 
before the exhibition bills (libelli), containing 
the number and frequently the names of 
those who were to fight. "When the day 
came, they were led along the arena in pro- 
cession, and matched by pairs ; and their 
swords were examined by the editor to see if 
they were sufficiently sharp. At first there 
was a kind of sham battle, called praelusio t 




in which they fought with wooden swords, or 
the like, and afterwards at the sound of the 
trumpet the real battle began. When a gla- 
diator was wounded, the people called out 
Itabct or hoc habet ; and the one who was 
vanquished lowered his arms in token of sub- 
mission. His fate, however, depended upon 
the people, who pressed down their thumbs if 
they wished him to be saved, but turned them 
up if they wished him to be killed, and or- 
dered him to receive the sword (ferntm re- 
eipere], which gladiators usually did with 
the greatest firmness. If the life of a van- 
quished gladiator was spared, he obtained his 
discharge for that day, which was called 
misslo ; and hence in an exhibition of gladia- 
tors sine missione, the lives of the conquered 
were never spared. This kind of exhibition, 
however, was forbidden by Augustus. Palms 
were usually given to the victorious gladia- 
tors. Old gladiators, and sometimes those 
who had only fought for a short time, were 
discharged from the service by the editor, at 
the request of the people, who presented each 
of them with a rudis or wooden sword ; 
whence those who were discharged were 
called Rudiarii. Gladiators were divided 
into different classes, according to their arms 
and different mode of fighting, or other cir- 
cumstances. The names of the most impor- 
tant of these classes arc given in alphabetical 
order : Andcbatae'Vforc helmets without any 
aperture for the eyes, so that they were 
obliged to fight blindfold, and thus excited 
tUe mirth of the spectators. Catervarii was 

the name given to gladiators when they did 
not fight in pairs, but when several fought 
together. Esscdarii fought from chariots, 
like the Gauls and Britons. [ESSEDA.] Hop- 
lomachi appear to have been those who fought 
in a complete suit of armour.' Laqweatorcs 
were those who used a noose to catch their 
adversaries. Mcridiani were those who 
fought in the middle of the day, after com- 
bats with wild teasts had taken place in the 
morning. These gladiators were very slightly 
armed. Mirmilloncs are said to have been so 
called from their having the image of a fish 
(mormyr, ftop/iupos) on their helmets. Their 
arms were like those of the Gauls, whence we 
find that they were also called Galli. They 
were usually matched with the Retiarii or 
Thracians. Provocatores fought with the 
Samnites, but we do not know any thing 
respecting them except their name. Retiarii 
carried only a three-pointed lance, called 
tridcns or fuscina [FUSCINA], and a net (rete], 
which they endeavoured to throw over their 
adversaries, and they then attacked them 
with the fuscina while they were entangled. 
The retiarius was dressed in a short tunic, 
and wore nothing on his head. If he missed 
his aim in throwing the net, he betook him- 
self to flight, and endeavoured to prepare his 
net for a second cast, while his adversary 
followed him round the arena in order to kill 
him before he could make a second attempt. 
His adversary was usually a secutor or a 
mlrmillo. In the following woodcut a com- 
bat is represented between a retiarius and a 

A Mil 

i Retiarius. (Winckcl 

. Ined.,' pi. 197.) 

mirmillo ; the former has thrown his net over 
the head of the latter, and is proceeding to 
attack him with the fuscina. The lanista 
elands behind the retiarius. Samnites were 
so called, because they were armed in the 
same way as that people, and were particu- 
larly distinguished by the oblong scutum. 
Secutores are supposed by some writers to be 

so called because the secutor 'in his combat 
with the retiarius pursued the latter when 
he failed in securing him by his net. Other 
writers think that they were the same as the 
supposititii, who were gladiators substituted 
in the place of those who were wearied or 
were killed. Thraces or Threees were armed, 
like the Thracians, with a round shield or 



buckler, and a short sword or dagger 
(sica). They were usually matched, as al- 
ready stated, with the minnillones. The 

following woodcut represents a combat be- 
tween two Thracians. A lanista stands be- 
hind each. 

Thracuuu. (Winckclm;inn, 1. c.) 

GLADIUS (f'$os, poet. Hop, Qa.crya.vov'), a 
sword or glaive, hy the Latin poets called 
ensis. The ancient sword had generally a 
straight two-edged hlade, rather broad, and 
nearly of equal width from hilt to point. 
The Greeks and Romans wore them on the 
left side, so as to draw them out of the sheath 
(vagina, xoAco?) by passing the right hand 
in front of the body to take hold of the 
hilt with the thumb next to the blade. 
The early Greeks used a very short sword. 
Iphicrates, who made various improvements 
in armour about 400 B. c., doubled its length. 
The Roman sword was larger, heavier, and 
more formidable than the Greek. 


GRAECOSTASIS, a place in the Roman 
forum, on the right of the Comitium, so 
called because the Greek ambassadors, and 
perhaps also deputies from other foreign or 
allied states, were allowed to stand there to 
hear the debates. When the sun was seen 
from the Curia coming out between the Ros- 
tra and the Graccostasis, it was mid-day ; 
and an accensus of the consul announced the 
time with a clear loud voice. 

GRAMMATEUS (vpa^arev's), a clerk or 
scribe. Among the great number of scribes 
employed by the magistrates and govern- 
ment of Athens, there were three of a higher 
rank, who were real state-officers. One of 
them was appointed by lot, by the senate, to 
serve the time of the administration of each 
prytany, though he always belonged to a 
different prytany from that which was in 
power. lie was, therefore, called ypcwiaT-eiis 
Kara irpvTaveiav. His province was to keep 
the public records, and the decrees of the 
people which were made during the time of 

his office, and to deliver to the thesmothetae 
the decrees of the senate. The second gram- 
mateus was elected by the senate, by X 1 P" 
rovia, and was entrusted with the custody of 
the laws. His usual name was ypum/no/revs 
Tjs /3ovA.7Js. A third grammatcus was called 
ypo/n^iaTeu? T^S TrdAeios, or ypajUjuaTtu? TT}S /3ov- 
A>js Kai roO STJ;U.OV. He was appointed by the 
people, by xeiporovia, and the principal part 
of his office was to read any laws or documents 
which were required to be read in the assem- 
bly or in the senate. 

GRAPHS Cxpo-M). [DICE.] 




GUBERNACULUM (irr)5<&iov~). [NAVIS.] 


GUTTUS, a vessel with a narrow mouth 
or neck, from which the liquid was poured in 
drops, whence its name. It was especially 
used in sacrifices, and hence we find it re- 
presented on the Roman coins struck by per- 
sons who held any of the priestly offices. 
The guttus was also used for keeping the 
oil, with which persons were anointed in the 
baths. [See p. 50.] 

Guttus on Coin of L. 1'lan 




GYMNASIUM (yvnvdviov'). The whole 
education of a Greek youth was divided into 
three parts, grammar, music, and gymnas- 
tics (, fj.ovtri.Krj, yvju.i/aemioj), to which 
Aristotle adds a fourth, the art of drawing 
or painting. Gymnastics, however, were 
thought by the ancients a matter of such im- 
portance, that this part of education alone 
occupied as much time and attention as all 
the others put together ; and while the latter 
necessarily ceased at a certain period of life, 
gymnastics continued to be cultivated by per- 
sons of all ages, though those of an advanced 
age naturally took lighter and less fatiguing 
exercises than boys and youths. The an- 
cients, and more especially the Greeks, seem 
to have been thoroughly convinced that the 
mind could not possibly be in a healthy state, 
unless the body was likewise in perfect 
health, and no means were thought, either 
by philosophers or physicians, to be more 
conducive to preserve or restore bodily health 
than well-regulated exercise. The word 
gymnastics is derived from yu/ui/os (naked), 
because the persons who performed their ex- 
ercises in public or private gymnasia were 
either entirely naked, or merely covered by 
the short chiton. Gymnastic exercises among 
the Greeks seem to have been as old as 
the Greek nation itself; but they were, as 
might be supposed, of a rude and mostly of a 


the description of Vitruvius. 

warlike character. They were generally held 
in the open air, and in plains near a river, 
which afforded an opportunity for swimming 
and bathing. It was about the time of Solon 
that the Greek towns began to build their 
regular gymnasia as places of exercise for 
the young, with baths, and other conve- 
niences for philosophers and all persons who 
sought intellectual amusements. There 
was probably no Greek town of any im- 
portance which did not possess its gym- 
nasium. Athens possessed three great 
gymnasia, the Lyceum (Avjcetop), Cyno- 
sarges (Kwdo-ap-yes), and the Academia ('Axa- 
Srjui'a) ; to which, in later times, several 
smaller ones were added. Respecting the 
superintendence and administration of the 
gymnasia at Athens, we know that Solon in 
his legislation thought them worthy of great 
attention ; and the transgression of some of 
his laws relating to the gymnasia was pun- 
ished with death. His laws mention a ma- 
gistrate, called the gymnasiarch (yuni>ao-"xpxo 
or yv/xt/acriapxT)s), who was entrusted with 
the whole management of the gymnasia, and 
with everything connected therewith. His 
office was one of the regular liturgies like the 
choregia and hierarchy, and was attended 
with considerable expense. He had to main- 
tain and pay the persons who were preparing 
themselves for the games and contests in the 
public festivals, to provide them with oil, 
and perhaps with the wrestlers' dust. It aiso 
devolved upon him to adorn the gymnasium, 
or the place where the agones were held. 
The gymnasiarch was a real magistrate, and 
invested with a kind of jurisdiction over all 
those who frequented or were connected with 
the gymnasia. Another part of his duties 
was to conduct the solemn games at certain 
great festivals, especially the torch-race 
(Aap.7rar)</>opt'a), for which he selected the 
most distinguished among the ephebi of the 
gymnasia. The number of gymnasiarchs was 
ten, one from every tribe. An office of very 
great importance, in an educational point of 
view, was that of the Sophronistae (<r<a<j>po- 
i/icrrai). Their province was to inspire the 
youths with a love of <rta(j>po<nivi), and to pro- 
tect this virtue against all injurious influ- 
ences. In early times their number at Athens 
was ten, one from every tribe, with a salary 
of one drachma per day. Their duty not 
only required them to be present at all the 
games of the ephebi, but to watch and correct 
their conduct wherever they might _meet 
them, both within and without the gymna- 
sium. The instructions in the gymnasia 
were given by the Gymnastae (yviucaoTai) 
and the Paedotrilae (TraiSorpi/Jai) ; at a later 
period Hypopaedotribae were added. The 




Paedotribae wove required to possess a know- 
ledge of all the various exercises which were 
performed in the gymnasia ; the Gymnastes 
was the practical teacher, and was expected 
to know the physiological effects and influ- 
ences on the constitution of the youths, and 
therefore assigned to each of them those 
exercises which he thought most suitable. 
The anointing of the bodies of the youths 
and strewing them with dust, before they 
commenced their exercises, as well as the 
regulation of their diet, was the duty of the 
aliptae. [ALIPTAE.] Among all the differ- 
ent tribes of the Greeks the exercises which 
were carried on in a Greek gymnasium were 
either mere games, or the more important 
exercises which the gymnasia had in com- 
mon with the public contests in the great 
festivals. Among the former we may men- 
tion, 1. The game at ball (<r<f>aiprnK7i), which 
was in universal favour with the Greeks. 
[PiLA.] Every gymnasium contained one 
large room for the purpose of playing at ball 
in it (<r<J>oupioT>jpiov). 2. Tlcufeiv eAjcvoriVSa, 
SieAjcuoru'Sa, or SLO. ypafi^Tjs, was a game in 
which one boy, holding one end of a rope, 
tried to pull the boy who held its other end, 
across a line marked between them on the 
ground. 3. The top (/Se^f, /Se>/3if, pd/i/3o9, 
arpdjSiAos), which was as common an amuse- 
ment with Greek boys as it is with ours. 
4. The ireiraAiSoj, which was a game with 
flve stones, which were thrown up from the 
upper part of the hand and caught in the 
palm. 5. Sxan-epSa, which was a game in 
which a rope was drawn through the upper 
part of a tree or a post. Two boys, one on 
each side of the post, turning their backs 
towards one another, took hold of the ends 
of the rope and tried to pull each other up. 
This sport was also one of the amusements at 
the Attic Dionysia. The more important 
games, such as running (6po/ios), throwing of 
the SIO-KOS and the axtav, jumping and leap- 
ing (oAfta, with and without oAi-qpe;), wrest- 
ling (TroAi)), boxing Oruyn>i), the pancratium 
(TrayKparioi'), ireVraSAos, A.ajxn-aSjj^opi'a, danc- 
ing (op,\7J<ns), &c., are described in separate 
articles. A gymnasium was not a Roman 
institution. The regular training of boys in 
the Greek gymnastics was foreign to Roman 
manners, and even held in contempt. To- 
wards the end of the republic, many wealthy 
Romans who had acquired a taste for Greek 
manners, used to attach to their villas small 
places for bodily exercise, sometimes called 
gymnasia, sometimes palaestrae, and to adorn 
them with beautiful works of art. The em- 
peror Nero was the first who built a public 
gymnasium at Rome. 

GYMXESII or GYMNETES (yvui^o-toi, or 

), a class of bond-slaves at Argos, 
who may be compared with the Helots at 
Sparta. Their name shows that they attended 
their masters on military service in the capa- 
city of light-armed troops. 

GYMXOPAEDIA (y^on-atita), the fes- 
tival of " naked youths," was celebrated at 
Sparta every year in honour of Apollo Py- 
thaeus, Artemis, and Leto. The statues of 
these deities stood in a part of the agora 
called xP5, and it was around these statues 
that, at the gymnopaedia, Spartan youths 
performed their choruses and dances in honour 
of Apollo. The festival lasted for several, 
perhaps for ten, days, and on the last day 
men also performed choruses and dances in 
the theatre ; and during these gymnastic 
exhibitions they sang the songs of Thaletas 
and Alcman, and the paeans of Dionysodotus. 
The leader of the chorus (irpoa-Tanjs or xP- 
TTOIOS) wore a kind of chaplet in commemora- 
tion of the victory of the Spartans at Thyrea. 
This event seems to have been closely con- 
nected with the gymnopaedia, for those Spar- 
tans who had fallen on that occasion were 
always praised in songs at this festival. 
The boys in their dances performed such 
rhythmical movements as resembled the exer- 
cises of the palaestra and the pancration, and 
also imitated the wild gestures of the worship 
of Dionysus. The whole season of the gym- 
nopaedia, during which Sparta was visited 
by great numbers of strangers, was one of 
great merriment and rejoicings, and old 
bachelors alone seem to have been excluded 
from the festivities. The introduction of the 
gymnopaedia is generally assigned to the year 
665 B. c. 

(yvpoueoi'ojuot or yvraiKoicdcrjuoi), magistrates 
at Athens, originally appointed to superintend 
the conduct of Athenian women. Their 
power was afterwards extended in such a 
manner that they became a kind of police for 
the purpose of preventing any excesses or 
indecencies, whether committed by men or 
by women. Hence they superintended the 
meetings of friends even in private houses, 
for instance, at weddings and on other festive 

HALTERES (oA.Tr}pes) -svere certain masses 
of stone or metal, which were used in 
the gymnastic exercises of the Greeks and 
Romans. Persons who practised leaping fre- 
quently performed their exercises with hal- 
teres in both hands ; but they were also 
frequently used merely to exercise the body 




in somewhat the same manner as our dumb- 

HARilAMAXA (ap/iajxaa), a carriage for 
persons, covered overhead and inclosed with 
curtains. It was in general large, often 
drawn by four horses, and attired with 
splendid ornaments. It occupied among the 
Persians the same place which the carpentum 
did among the Romans, being used, espe- 
cially upon state occasions, for the convey- 
ance of women and children, of eunuchs, and 
of the sons of the king with their tutors. 

HARMOSTAE (apf>oW, from appofr, to 
fit or join together), the name of the governors 
whom the Lacedaemonians, after the Pelo- 
ponnesian war, sent into their subject or 
conquered towns, partly to keep them in sub- 
mission, and partly to abolish the demo- 
cratical form of government, and establish in 
its stead one similar to their own. Although 
in many cases they were ostensibly sent for 
the purpose of abolishing the tyrannical 
government of a town, and to restore the 
people to freedom, yet they themselves acted 
like kings or tyrants. 

HARPAGO (opnuyTj : AV'KOS : Kpeaypa), a 
grappling-iron, a drag, a flesh-hook. In 
war the grappling-iron, thrown at an enemy's 
ship, seized the rigging, and was then used 
to drag the ship within reach, so that it 
might be easily boarded or destroyed. These 
instruments appear to have been much the 

Flesh-book. (British Museum.) 

same as the manus fcrreae. The flesh -hoofc 
(icpeaypa) was an instrument used in cookery, 
resembling a hand with the fingers bent in- 
wards, used to take boiled meat out of the 


KOTTOI), soothsayers or diviners, who inter- 
preted the will of the gods. They originally 
came to Kome from Etruria, whence harus- 
pices were often sent for by the Romans on 
important occasions. The art of the harus- 
pices resembled in many respects that of the 
augurs; but they never acquired that po- 
litical importance which the latter possessed, 
and were regarded rather as means for 
ascertaining the will of the gods than as pos- 
sessing any religious authority. They did 
not in fact form any part of the ecclesiastical 
polity of the Roman state during the republic ; 
they are never called sacerdotes, they did 
not form a collegium, and had no magister 
at their head. The art of the haruspices, 
which was called hamspicina, consisted in 
explaining and interpreting the will of the 
gods from the appearance of the entrails 
(exta) of animals offered in sacrifice, whence 
they are sometimes called cxtispices, and their 
art extispicium ; and also from lightning, 
earthquakes, and all extraordinary pheno- 
mena in nature, to which the general name 
of portenta was given. Their art is said to 
have been invented by the Etruscan Tages, 
and was contained in certain books called 
libri hariispicini, fulgurates, and tonitruales. 
This art was considered by the Romans so 
important at one time, that the senate de- 
creed that a certain number of young Etrus- 
cans, belonging to the principal families in 
the state, should always be instructed in it. 
In later tunes, however, their art fell into 
disrepute among well-educated Romans ; and 
Cicero relates a saying of Cato, that he won- 
dered that one haruspex did not laugh when 
he saw another. The name of haruspex is 
sometimes applied to any kind of soothsayer 
or prophet. 

HASTA (eyx), a spear. The spear is 
defined by Homer, Sdpv x^K>)p, " a pole 
fitted with bronze," and $6pv x^A^o/Sopes, " a 
pole heavy with bronze." The bronze, for 
which iron was afterwards substituted^was 
indispensable to form the point (<x/"!> <woiejj, 
Homer ; ^oyxt> Xenophon ; acics, cuspis, 
spiculwn) of the spear. Each of these two 
essential parts is often put for the whole, so 
that a spear is called Mpv and Sopa.Ti.ov, 
alxpt], and Aoyx 1 ?- Even the more especial 
term /neXt'a, meaning an ash-tree, is used in 
the same manner, because the pole of the 
spear was often the stem of a young ash, 




stripped of its bark and polished. The bottom 
of the spear was often inclosed in a pointed 
cap of bronze, called by the Ionic writers 
o-aupw-njp and ovpi'axw, and in Attic or com- 
mon Greek orvpof . By forcing this into the 
ground the spear was fixed erect. Many 
of the lancers who accompanied the king of 
Persia, had, instead of this spike at the bottom 
of their spears, an apple or a pomegranate, 
cither gilt or silvered. Fig. 1. in the an- 
nexed woodcut shows the top and bottom of 
a spear, which is held by one of the king's 
guards in the sculptures at Persepolis. The 
spear was used as a weapon of attack in three 
different ways: 1. It was thrown from 
catapults and other engines [TORMEXTUM]. 
2. It was thrust forward as a pike. 3. It 

n i 

Hastae, spears. 

was commonly thrown by the hand. The 
spear frequently had a leathern thong tied 
to the middle of the shaft, which was called 
oyjcuAij by the Greeks, and amentum by the 
Romans, and which was of assistance in 
throwing the spear. The annexed figure 
represents the amentum attached to the spear 
at the centre of gravity, a little above the 
middle. Under the general terms hasta and 
YXs were included various kinds of missiles, of 
which the principal were as follow : Lancea 
(AxJyxi), the lance, a comparatively slender 
spear commonly used by the Greek horsemen, 
The appendage shown in woodcut, Fig. 2, 
enabled them to mount their horses with 
greater facility. Pilitm (uo-cros), the javelin, 
much thicker and stronger than the Grecian 
lance. Its shaft, often made of cornel, was 
4 1 feet (three cubits) long, and the barbed 
iron head was of the same length, but this 
extended half way down the shaft, to which 

it was attached with extreme care, so thai 
the whole length of the weapon wos about 

6 feet 9 inches. It was used either to throw 
or to thrust with ; it was peculiar to the 
Romans, and gave the name of pilani to the 
division of the army by which it was adopted. 
\Vhilst the heavy-armed Roman soldiers bore 
the long lance and the thick and ponderous 
javelin, the light-armed used smaller missiles, 
which, though of different kinds, were in- 
cluded under the general term hastae velitares 
(ypotr^oi). The ypdcr^os was a dart, with a 
shaft about three feet long and an inch in 
thickness : the iron head was a span long, 
and so thin and acuminated as to be bent by 
striking against anything, and thus rendered 
unfit to be sent back against the enemy. 
Fig. 3, in the preceding woodcut, shows one 
which was found in a Roman entrenchment 
in Gloucestershire. The light infantry of the 
Roman army used a similar weapon, called 
a spit (vent, rerutnm ; travviov'). It was 
adopted by them from the Samnites and the 
Volsci. Its shaft was 3| feet long, its point 
5 inches. Fig. 4, in the preceding woodcut, 
represents the head of a dart in the Royal 
Collection at Naples ; it may be taken as a 
specimen of the tenitum, and may be con- 
trasted with fig. 5, which is the head of a 
lance in the same collection. The Romans 
adopted in like manner the gaestim, which 
was properly a Celtic weapon ; it was given 
as a reward to any soldier who wounded an 
enemy. [GAESUM.] Spai us is evidently the 
same word with the English spar and spear, 
It was the rudest missile of the whole class. 
Besides the terms jatulum and spiculum 
(axiav, cucdi'Tioc), which probably denoted 




darts, resembling in form the lance and 
javelin, but much smaller, adapted conse- 
quently to the light-armed (jaculatores), and 
used in hunting as well as in battle, we find 
in classical authors the names of various 
other spears, which were characteristic of 
particular nations. Thus, the sarissa was 
the spear peculiar to the Macedonians. This 
was used both to throw and as a pike. It 
exceeded in length all other missiles. The 
Thracian romphea, which had a very long 
point, like the blade of a sword, was pro- 
bably not unlike the sarissa. With these 
weapons we may also class the Ulyrian sibina, 
which resembled a hunting-pole. The iron 
head of the German spear, called framea, was 
short and narrow, but very sharp. The 
Germans used it with great effect either as a 
lance or a pike : they gave to each youth a 
framea and a shield on coming of age. The 
Falarica or Phalarica was the spear of the 
Saguntines, and was impelled by the aid of 
twisted ropes ; it was large and ponderous, 
having a beid of iron a cubit in length, and 
a ball of lead at its other end ; it sometimes 
carried flaming pitch and tow. The mattira 
and tragula were chiefly used in Gaul and 
Spain : the tragula was probably barbed, as 
it required to be cut out of the wound. The 
Aclis and Catcia were much smaller missiles. 
Among the decorations which the Roman 
generals bestowed on their soldiers, more 
especially for saving the life of a fellow- 
citizen, was a spear without a head, called 
hasta para. The celibaris hasta, having 
been fixed into the body of a gladiator lying 
dead on the arena, was used at marriages to 
part the hair of the bride. A spear was 
erected at auctions [Aucrio], and when ten- 
ders were received for public offices (loca- 
tiones). It served both to announce, by a 
conventional sign conspicuous at a distance, 
that a sale was going on, and to show that it 
was conducted under the authority of the 
public functionaries. Hence an auction was 
called hasta, and an auction-room hastanum. 
It was also the practice to set up a spear in 
the court of the CKXTUJTVIW. 

HASTATI. [ExiHClTi-s, p. 168, b.] 


HECTE or HECTEUS (TT;, Tev'), and 
its half, Hemiecton or Hemiecteon (rnj-UicTov, 
qjjueKTe'oi'). In dry measures, the hecteus was 
the sixth part of the medimnus, and the 
hemiecteon, of course, the twelfth part. The 
hecteus was equal to the Roman modius, as 
each contained 16 fe'orcu or sextfcrii. The 
Hecte or Hecteus and Hemiecton were also 
the names of coins, but the accounts we have 
of their value are very various. The only 
consistent explanation is, that there were 

different hectae, derived from different units ; 
in fact, that these coins were not properly 
denominations of money, but subdivisions oi 
the recognised denominations. 

HELEPOLIS (eAeiroXt9), " the taker of 
cities," a machine constructed by Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, when he besieged the city of 
Salamis in Cyprus. Its form was that of 
a square tower, each side being 90 cubits 
high and 45 wide. It rested on four 
wheels, each eight cubits high. It was 
divided into nine stories, the lower of which 
contained machines for throwing great 
stones, the middle large catapults for throw- 
ing spears, and the highest other machines 
for throwing smaller stones, together with 
smaller catapults. It was manned with 200 
soldiers, besides those who moved it by push- 
ing the parallel beams at the bottom. At 
the siege of Rhodes, B. c. 306, Demetrius 
employed an helepolis of still greater dimen- 
sions and more complicated construction. 
In subsequent ages we find the name of 
" helepolis " applied to moving towers which 
carried battering rams, as well as machines 
for throwing spears and stones. 

HELLANODICAE (eAAai/oiixai), the judges 
in the Olympic games, of whom an account 
is given under OLYMriA. The same name 
was also given to the judges or court-martial 
in the Lacedaemonian army, and they were 
probably first called by this name when Sparta 
was at the head of the Greek confederacy. 

HELLENOTAMIAE (iXXrivoratiUu'), or 
treasurers of the Greeks, were magistrates 
appointed by the Athenians to receive the 
contributions of the allied states. They 
were first appointed B. c. 477, when Athens, 
in consequence of the conduct of Pausanias, 
had obtained the command of the allied 
states. The money paid by the different 
states, which was originally fixed at 460 
talents, was deposited in Delos, which was 
the place of meeting for the discussion of all 
common interests ; and there can be no doubt 
that the hellenotamiae not only received, but 
were also the guardians of, these monies. 
The office was retained after the treasury 
was transferred to Athens on the proposal of 
the Samians, but was of course abolished on 
the conquest of Athens by the Lacedaemonians. 

HELOTES (eiAiores), a class of bondsmen 
peculiar to Sparta. They were Achaeans, 
who had resisted the Dorian invaders to the 
last, and had been reduced to slavery as the 
punishment of their obstinacy. The Helots 
were regarded as the property of the state, 
which, while it gave their services to indi- 
viduals, reserved to itself the power of eman- 
cipating them. They were attached to the 
land, and could not be sold away from it. 




They cultivated the land, and paid to their 
masters as rent a certain measure of corn, the 
exact amount of which had been fixed at a 
very early period, the raising of that amount 
being forbidden under heavy imprecations. 
Besides being engaged in the cultivation of 
the land, the Helots attended on their mas- 
ters at the public meal, and many of them 
were no doubt employed by the state in pub- 
lic works. In war the Helots served as 
light-armed troops W^oi), a certain number 
of them attending every heavy-armed Spartan 
to the field ; at the battle of Plataeae there 
were seven Helots to each Spartan. These 
attendants were probably called a/nn-tVi-apes 
(i. e. a/u^iVraiTes), and one of them in par- 
ticular, the depajnav, or servant. The Helots 
only served as hoplitcs in particular emer- 
gencies ; and on such occasions they were 
generally emancipated. The first instance 
of this kind was in the expedition of Bra- 
sidas, B. c. 424. The treatment to which 
the Helots were subjected was marked by the 
most wanton cruelty ; and they were regarded 
by the Spartans with the greatest suspicion. 
Occasionally the ephors selected young Spar- 
tans for the secret service ((cpum-eta) of wan- 
dering over the country, in order to kill the 
Helots. .The Helots might be emancipated, 
but there were several steps between them 
and the free citizens, and it is doubtful 
whether they were ever admitted to all the 
privileges of citizenship. The following 
classes of emancipated Helots are enume- 
rated : iujterai, afieorroToc, epv/cr^pey, Secnro- 
a-Lovavrai, and veoSa/xiiSets, Of these the 
afaraC were probably released from all ser- 
vice ; the epvK-rijpej were those employed in 
war ; the Se<nro<n.ova.vTai served on board the 
fleet ; and the veoSaptaSeis were those who 
had been possessed of freedom for some time. 
Besides these, there were the /xoflwi/es or 
uoOaxes, who were domestic slaves, brought 
up with the young Spartans, and then eman- 
cipated. Upon being emancipated they 
received permission to dwell where they 

HEMERODROMI ttjuepSp<V0> couriers 
in the Greek states, who could keep on run- 
ning all day, and were often employed to 
carry news of important events. They were 
trained for the purpose, and could perform 
the longest journeys in an almost incredibly 
short space of time. Such couriers were in 
times of danger stationed on some eminence 
in order to observe anything of importance 
that might happen, and carry the intelligence 
with speed to the proper quarter. Hence we 
frequently find them called Hemerescopi 

a semicir- 


cular seat, for the accommodation of persons 
engaged in conversation; also the semicir- 
cular seat round the tribunal in a basilica. 

HEMINA Oi/xiVa), the name of a Greek 
and Roman measure, seems to be nothing 
more than the dialectic form used by the 
Sicilian and Italian Greeks for ^;urv. It 
was therefore applied to the half of the 
standard fluid measure, the f eVrr)s, which the 
other Greeks called KoruAij, and the word 
passed into the Roman metrical system, 
where it is used with exactly the same force, 
namely for a measure which is half of the 
sextarius,jLHd. equal to the Greek cotylc. 

HENDECA (oi eVSefta), the Eleven, were 
magistrates at Athens of considerable import- 
ance. They were annually chosen by lot, 
one from each of the ten tribes, and a secre- 
tary (ypofiftaTeus), who must properly be re- 
garded as their servant (uTnjpe'njs), though he 
formed one of their number. The principal 
duty of the Eleven was the care and manage- 
ment of the public prison (Seo-jiuonjpioi'), 
which was entirely under their jurisdiction. 
The prison, however, was seldom used by the 
Athenians as a mere place of confinement, 
serving generally for punishments and ex- 
ecutions. "When a person was condemned to 
death he was immediately given into the 
custody of the Eleven, who were then bound 
to carry the sentence into execution according 
to the laws. The most common mode of 
execution was by hemlock juice (KWVCIOV), 
which was drunk after sunset. The Eleven 
had under them gaolers, executioners, and 
torturers. When torture was inflicted in 
causes affecting the state, it was either done 
in the immediate presence of the Eleven, or 
by their servant (6 Sijjiuos). The Eleven 
usually had only to carry into execution the 
sentence passed in the courts of law and tte 
public assemblies ; but in some cases they 
possessed jurisdiction. This was the case in 
those summary proceedings called apagoge, 
ephegesis and endcixis, in which the penalty 
was fixed by law, and might be inflicted by 
the court on the confession or conviction of 
the accused, without appealing to any of the 
jury courts. 


HERAEA (ipoua), the name of festivals 
celebrated in honour of Hera in all the towns 
of Greece where the worship of this divinity 
was introduced. The original seat of her 
worship was Argos ; whence her festivals in 
other places were, more or less, imitations of 
those which were celebrated at Argos. Her 
service was performed by the most distin- 
guished priestesses of the place ; one of them 
was the high-priestess, and the Argives 
counted their years by the date of her office. 




The Ileraca of Argos were celebrated every 
fifth year. One of the great solemnities 
which took place on the occasion, was a mag- 
nificent procession to the great temple of 
Hera, between Argos and Mycenae. A vast 
number of young men assembled at Argos, 
and marched in armour to the temple of the 
goddess. They were preceded by one hun- 
dred oxen (eKardjii/jTj, whence the festival is 
also called e<caTo/x/3aia). The high-priestess 
accompanied this procession, riding in a cha- 
riot drawn by two white oxen. The 100 
oxen were sacrificed, and their flesh distri- 
buted among all the citizens; after which 
games and contests took place. Of the He- 
raea celebrated in other countries, those of 
Samos, which island derived the worship of 
Hera from Argos, were perhaps the most 
brilliant of all the festivals of this divinity. 
The Heraea of Elis, which were celebrated 
in the fourth year of every Olympiad, were 
also conducted with considerable splendour. 

HERES. (1) GREEK. To obtain the right 
of inheritance as- well as citizenship at Athens 
(dyX'OTei'a and rroAtreia), legitimacy was a 
necessary qualification. When an Athenian 
died leaving legitimate sons, they shared the 
inheritance, like our heirs in gavelkind ; the 
only advantage possessed by the eldest son 
being the first choice in the division. Every 
man of full age and sound mind, not under 
durance or improper influence, was compe- 
tent to make a will ; but if he had a son he 
could not disinherit him, although his will 
might take effect in case the son did not 
complete his seventeenth year. If there was 
but one son, he took the whole estate ; but 
if he had sisters, it was incumbent on him to 
provide for them, and give them suitable 
marriage portions ; they were then called 
en-urpoucoi. On failure of sons and their issue, 
daughters and daughters' children succeeded, 
and there seems to have been no limit to the 
succession in the descending line. It will 
assist the student to be informed, that apei/ads 
signifies a first cousin. '\jiiaov$ is a first 
cousin's son ; formed in the same manner as 
a&e\<j>iSovs from aSeA<J)os, and BvyarpiSovf from 
Ovya-r^p. KAijpoj is the subject-matter of 
inheritance, or (in one sense of the word) 
the inheritance ; KArjporo/ios the heir. 'Ay- 
Xiorei'a, proximity of blood in reference to 
succession, and sometimes right of succes- 
ion. SvyyeVeia, natural consanguinity. 2vy- 
yevcts, collateral relations, are opposed to 
cicyovoi, lineal descendants.' (2) ROMAN. 
A person might become an heres by being 
named as such (institutus, scriptus, factus) 
in a will executed by a competent person, 
according to the forms required by law [Tss- 
TArKKTTTji]. The testator might either name 

one person as heres, or he might name 
several heredes (coheredes), and he might 
divide the hereditas among them as he 
pleased. The shares of the heredes were 
generally expressed by reference to the divi- 
sions of the As: thus, "heres exasse" is 
heres to the whole property ; " heres ex 
dodrante," heres to three-fourths ; " heres 
ex semuncia," heir to one twenty-fourth. 
If there were several heredes named, without 
any definite shares being given to them, the 
property belonged to them in equal shares. 
As a general rule, only Roman citizens could 
be named as heredes in the will of a Roman 
citizen ; but a slave could also be named 
heres, though he had no power to make a 
will, and a filius-familias could also be named 
hcres, though he was nnder the same inca- 
pacity. Persons, not Roman citizens, who 
had received the commercium, could take 
hereditates, legata and fideicommissa by tes- 
tament. Heredes were either Necessarii, Sui 
et Xecessarii, or Extranci. The heres neces- 
sarius was a slave of the testator, who was 
made an heres and liber at the same time ; 
and he was called neeessarius, because of the 
necessity that he was under of accepting the 
hereditas. The heredes sui et necessarii 
were sons and daughters, and the sons and 
daughters of a son, who were in the power 
of a testator. These heredes sui were called 
necessarii, because of the necessity that they 
were under, according to the civil law, of 
taking the hereditas with its incumbrances. 
But the praetor permitted such persons to 
refuse the hereditas (abstinere se ab heredi- 
tate), and to allow the property to be sold 
to pay the testator's debts ; and he gave 
the same privilege to a mancipated son 
(qui in causa mancipii est}. All other 
heredes are called extranei, and compre- 
hend all persons who are not in the 'power 
of a testator, such as emancipated chil- 
dren. A certain time was allowed to ex- 
tranei for the cretio hercditatis, that is, for 
them to determine whether they would take 
the hereditas or not : hence the phrase, 
"cernere hereditatem." If a man died 
intestate, the hereditas came to the heredes 
sui, and was then called Icgitima hereditas. 
If an intestate had no sui heredes, the Twelve 
Tables gave the hereditas to the agnati [Coo- 
NATI], and if there were no agnati, to the 
gentiles. If a man had a son in his power, 
he was bound either to make him heres, or 
to exheredate (exheredare) him expressly 
(nominatim). If he passed him over in 
silence (silentio praetericrit), the will was 
altogether void (inutile, non jure factum). 
Other liberi could be passed over, and the 
will would still be a valid will; but the 




liberi so passed over took a certain portion 
of the hereditas adcrescendo, as it was 
termed, or jure adcrescendi. It was necessary 
either to institute as heredcs, or to exhere- 
date posthumous children nominatim, other- 
wise the will, which was originally valid, 
bocame invalid (ruptum) ; and the will be- 
cnme invalid by the birth either of a posthu- 
mous son or daughter, or, as the phrase was, 
algnaacendo rwnpitur testamentum. The 
heres represented the testator and intestate, 
and had not only a claim to all his property 
and all that was due to him, but was bound 
by all his obligations. He succeeded to the 
e.icra privata, and was bound to maintain 
them, but only in respect of the property, for 
the obligation of the sacra privata was 
attached to property and to the heres only 
ts the owner of it. Hence the expression 
" sine sacris hereditas " meant an hereditas 
unencumbered with sacra. 

HERMAE (ep/, and the diminutive 
tlermuli (epfu'Sia), statues composed of a 
head, usually that of the god Hermes, placed 
on a quadrangular pil lar, the height of which 
corresponds to the stature of the human 
body. Such statues were very numerous 
at Athens. So great was the demand 
for these works that the words ep/noy- 
At/'$os, pnoyAv</>iio) T\IO), and ep^oy\v<f>elov, 
were used as the generic terms for a sculp- 
tor, his art, and his studio. Houses in 
Athens had one of these statues placed at 
the door, called ep/urjs OTPO<<UOS or (rrpo^eus ; 

and sometimes also in the peristyle. The 
great reverence attached to them is shown 
by the alarm and indignation which were 
felt at Athens in consequence of the mutila- 
tion of the whole number in a single night, 
just before the sailing of the Sicilian expe- 
dition. They were likewise placed in front 
of temples, near to tombs, in the gymnasia, 
palaestrae, libraries, porticoes, and public 
places, at the corners of streets, on high 
roads as sign-posts, with distances inscribed 
upon them, and on the boundaries of lands 
and states, and at the gates of cities. Small 
Hermae were also used as pilasters, and as 
supports for furniture and utensils. Many 
statues existed of other deities, of the same 
form as the Hermae; which no doubt ori- 
ginated in the same manner ; and which 
were still called by the generic name of 
Hermae; even though the bust upon them 
was that of another deity. Some statues of 
this kind are described by a name compounded 
of that of Hermes and another divinity : 
thus we have Hermanubis, Hermares, Hcr- 
mathena, Ilcrmeracles, Hermcros, Hcrmopan. 
There is another class of these works, in 
which the bust represented no deity at all, 
but was simply the portrait of a man. Even 
these statues, however, retained the names 
of Hermae and Termini. The Hermae were 
used by the wealthy Romans for the decoration 
of their houses. The following engraving ex- 
hibits a Hermes decorated with garlands and 
surrounded with the implements of his worship. 

HERMAEA (epfioua), festivals of Hermes, 
celebrated in various parts of Greece. As 
Hermes was the tutelary deity of the gym- 
nasia and palaestrae, the boys at Athens cele- 
brated the Hermaea in the gymnasia. 

HESTIASIS (eoTtao-w), was a sprcies of 
liturgy, and consisted in giving a feast to 

one of the tribes at Athens (TTIV <f>uA5)i' tima.v')- 
It was provided for each tribe at the expense 
of a person belonging to that tribe, who was 
called ecmoTwp. 

HIERODtjLI (ZepdSouAoi), persons of both 
sexes, who were devoted like slaves to the 
worship of the gods. They were of Eastern 




origin, and are most frequently met with in 
connection with the worship of the deities of 
Syria, Phoenicia, and Asia Minor. They 
consisted of two classes ; one composed of 
slaves, properly so called, who attended to 
all the lower duties connected with the wor- 
ship of the gods, cultivated the sacred lands, 
&c., and whose descendants continued in the 
same servile condition ; and the other com- 
prising persons who were personally free, 
but had dedicated themselves as slaves to the 
gods, and who were either attached to the 
temples, or were dispersed throughout the 
country and brought to the gods the money 
they had gained. To the latter class belonged 
the women, who prostituted their persons, 
and presented to the gods the money they 
had obtained by this means. This class was 
only found in Greece, in connection with the 
worship of those divinities who were of 
Eastern origin, or whose religious rites were 
borrowed from the East. This was the case 
with Aphrodite (Venus), who was originally 
an Oriental goddess. 

HIEROMNEMOXES (Upojxi^/xoi'es), the 
more honourable of the two classes of repre- 
sentatives who composed the Amphictyonic 
council. An account of them is given under 
AMPHICTTOSES. We also read of hieromne- 
mones in Grecian states, distinct from the 
Amphictyonic representatives of this name. 
Thus the priests of Poseidon, at Megara, were 
called hieromnemones, and at Byzantium, 
which was a colony of Megara, the chief 
magistrate in the state appears to have been 
called by this name. 


HlEROPOII (iepoiroioi), sacrificers at 
Athens, of whom ten were appointed every 
year, and conducted all the usual sacrifices, 
as well as those belonging to the quinquen- 
nial festivals, with the exception of those 
of the Panathenaea. 

H1LARIA (Uopio), a Roman festival, cele- 
brated on the 25th of March, in honour of 
Cybele', the mother of the gods. 

HIPPOBOTAE (tmro/SoTot), the feeders of 
horses, the name of the nobility of Chalcis in 
Euboea, corresponding to the imrcis in other 
Greek states. _ 

HIPPODROMUS (iTnroSpo/ios), the name 
by which the Greeks designated the place ap- 
propriated to the horse-races, both of chariots 
and of single horses, which formed a part of 
their games. The word was also applied to 
the races themselves. In Homer's vivid de- 
scription (II. xxiii., 262 650) the nature of 
the contest and the arrangements for it are 
very clearly indicated. There is no artificially 
constructed hippodrome ; but an existing 
land-mark or monument (cnj/^a) is chosen &s 

the goal (reppa), round which the chariots 
had to pass, leaving it on the left hand, and 
so returning to the Greek ships on the sea- 
shore, from which they had started. The 
chariots were five in number, each with two 
horses and a single driver, who stood upright 
in his chariot. The critical point of the race 
was to turn the goal as sharp as possible, 
with the nave of the near wheel almost 
grazing it, and to do this safely : very often 
the driver was here thrown out, and the 
chariot broken in pieces. The account in 
Homer will give us an equally good idea of a 
chariot-race at Olympia, or in any other of the 
Greek games of later times. The general form 
of the hippodrome was an oblong, with a 
semicircular end. For an account of the 
chariot races at Rome see CIRCUS. 

HISTRIO (uiroicpmjs), an actor. (1) 
GREEK. It is shown in the articles CHORUS 
and DIONYSIA that the Greek drama origi- 
nated in the chorus which at the festivals of 
Dionysus danced around his altar, and that 
at first one person detached himself from the 
chorus, and, with mimic gesticulation, re- 
lated his story either to the chorus or in con- 
versation with it. If the story thus acted 
required more than one person, they were all 
represented in succession by the same actor, 
and there was never more than one person on 
the stage at a time. This custom was re- 
tained by Thespis and Phrynichus. Aeschy- 
lus introduced a second and a third actor ; 
and the number of three actors was but sel- 
dom exceeded in any Greek drama. The 
three regular actors were distinguished by 
the technical names of irpwTerywwoTTJs.SevTepa- 
ywi/ionjs, and Tptraywi'ioTT/s, which indicated 
the more or less prominent part which an 
actor had to perform in the drama. The female . 
characters of a play were always performed 
by young men. A distinct class of persons, 
who made acting on the stage their profes- 
sion, was unknown to the Greeks during the 
period of their great dramatists. The earliest 
and greatest dramatic poets, Thespis, Sopho- 
cles, and probably Aeschylus also, acted in 
their own plays, and in all probability as 
protagonistae. It was not thought degra- 
ding in Greece to perform on the stage. At 
a later period persons began to devote them- 
selves exclusively to the profession of actors, 
and distinguished individuals received even 
as early as the time of Demosthenes exorbi- 
tant sums for their performances. (2) 
ROMAN. The word histrio, by which the 
Roman actor was called, is said to have been 
formed from the Etruscan hister, which sig- 
nified a ludio or dancer. In the year 364 
B. c. Rome was visited by a plague, and as no 
human means could stop it, the Romans are 




said to have tried to avert the anger of the 
gods by scenic plays (ludi sccnici), which, 
until then, had been unknown to them ; and 
as there were no persons at Rome prepared 
for such performances, the Romans sent to 
Etruria for them. The first histriones, who 
were thus introduced from Etruria, were 
dancers, and performed their movements to 
the accompaniment of a flute. Roman youths 
afterwards not only imitated these dancers, 
but also recited rude and jocose verses, 
adapted to the movements of the dance and 
the melody of the flute. This kind of amuse- 
ment, which was the basis of the Roman 
drama, remained unaltered until the time of 
Livius Andronicus, who introduced a slave 
upon the stage for the purpose of singing or 
reciting the recitative, while he himself per- 
formed the appropriate dance and gesticula- 
tion. A further step in the development of 
the drama, which is likewise ascribed to 
Livius, was, that the dancer and reciter 
carried on a dialogue, and acted a story with 
the accompaniment of the flute. The name 
histrio, which originally signified a dancer, 
was now applied to the actors in the drama. 
The atellanae were played by frecborn Ro- 
mans, while the regular drama was left to 
the histriones, who formed a distinct class of 
persons. The histriones were not citizens ; 
they were not contained in the tribes, nor 
allowed to be enlisted as soldiers in the 
Roman legions ; and if any citizen entered 
the profession of an histrio, he, on this ac- 
count, was excluded from his tribe. The 
histriones were therefore always either frecd- 
nien, strangers, or slaves, and many passages 
of Roman writers show that they were gene- 
rally held in great contempt. Towards the 
close of the republic it was only such men as 
Cicero, who, by their Greek education, raised 
themselves above the prejudices of their 
countrymen, and valued the person no less 
than the talents of an Aesopus and a Ros- 
cius. But notwithstanding this low estima- 
tion in which actors were generally held, 
distinguished individuals among them at- 
tracted immense crowds to the theatres, and 
were exorbitantly paid. Roscius alone re- 
ceived every day that he performed one 
thousand denarii, and Aesopus left his son a 
fortune of 200,000 sesterces, which he had 
acquired solely by his profession. The pay 
of the actors was called Iticar, which word 
was perhaps confined originally to the pay- 
ment made to those who took part in the 
religious services celebrated in groves. 

HOMOEI (O/AOIOI), the Equals, were those 
Spartans who possessed the full rights of 
citizenship, and are opposed to the un-o/ueioj'es, 
or those who had undergone some kind of 

civil degradation. This distinction between 
the citi/ens was no part of the ancient Spar- 
tan constitution. In the institution ascribed 
to Lycurgus, every citi/.en had a certain por- 
tion of land ; bnt as in course of time many 
citizens lost their lands through, various 
causes, they were unable to contribute to the 
expenses of the syssitia, and therefore ceased 
to possess the full rights of Spartan citizens. 
Hence the distinction appears to have arisen 
between the Voiot and uironet'oi'e?, the former 
being those who were in the possession of 
their laud, and consequently able to contri- 
bute to the syssitia, the latter those who 
through having no land were unable to do so. 
The Homoei were the ruling class in the 
state. They filled all the public offices with 
the exception of the Ephoralty, and they pro- 
bably met together to determine upon public 
affairs under the name of e<Ar)Toi in an as- 
sembly of their own, which is called 17 nucpa 
fKK\T]<ria. t to distinguish it from the assembly 
of the whole body of Spartan citizens. 

HONORES, the high oftices of the state to 
which qualified individuals were called by the 
votes of the Roman citizens. The words 
" magistratus" and " honores" are sometimes 
coupled together. The capacity of enjoying 
the honores was one of the distinguishing 
marks of citizenship. [CIVITAS.] Honor was 
distinguished from miintts. The latter was 
an office connected with the administration of 
the state, and was attended with cost (sump- 
tus) but not with rank (dlgnltas]. Honor 
was properly said deferri, duri ; munus was 
said imponi. A person who held a magis- 
tratus might be said to discharge mimera, 
but only as incident to the office, for the 
office itself was the honor. Such munera as 
these were public games and other things of 
the kind. 



IIOROLOGIUM (wpoAoyiov), the name of 
the various instruments by means of which 
the ancients measured the time of the day 
and night. The earliest and simplest horo- 
logia of which mention is made, were called 
polos (71-0X05) and gnomon (yva>ij.<av). Both 
divided the day into twelve equal parts, and 
were a kind of sun-dial. The gnomon, which 
was also called stoichcion (orotxetoi'), was the 
more simple of the two, and probably the 
more ancient. It consisted of a staff or pillar 
standing perpendicular, in a place exposed to 
the sun (o-icia^poi'), so that the length of its 
shadow might be easily ascertained. The 
shadow of the gnomon was measured by feet, 
which were probably marked on the place 
where the shadow fell. In later times the 
name gnomon was applied to any kind of 




sun-dial, especially to its finger which thiew 
the shadow, and thus pointed to the hour. 
The polos or hcliotropion (^Aiorpon-ioi'), on the 
other hand, seems to. have been a more per- 
fect kind of sun-dial ; but it appears, never- 
theless, not to have been much used. It 
consisted of a basin (>iY), in the middle 
of which the perpendicular staff or finger 
(/rwjucoi/) Tvas erected, and in it the twelve 
parts of the day were marked by lines. 
Another kind of horologium was the clep- 
sydra (KAei//v'Spa). It derived its name from 
KkevTeiv and v'&op, as in its original and 
simple form it consisted of a vessel with 
several little openings (rpumj/xcrra) at the 
bottom, through which the water contained 
in it escaped, as it were by stealth. This in- 
strument seems at first to have been used 
only for the purpose of measuring the time 
during which persons were allowed to speak 
in the courts of justice at Athens. It was a 
hollow globe, probably somewhat flat at the 
top-part, where it had a short neck (avAd?), 
like that of a bottle, through which the water 
was poured into it. This opening might be 
closed by a lid or stopper (voifj.a), to prevent 
the water running out at the bottom. As 
the time for speaking in the Athenian courts 
was thus measured by water, the orators fre- 
quently use the term v&<ap instead of the time 
allowed to them. An especial officer (6 e<j>' 
i/Swp) was appointed in the courts for the 
purpose of watching the clepsydra, and stop- 
ping it when any documents were read, 
whereby the speaker was interrupted. The 
time, and consequently the quantity of water 
allowed to a speaker, depended upon the im- 
portance of the case. The clepsydra used in 
the courts of justice was, properly speaking, 
no horologium ; but smaller ones, made of 
glass, and of the same simple structure, were 
undoubtedly used very early in families for 
the purposes of ordinary life, and for dividing 
the day into twelve equal parts. In these 
glass-clepsydrae the division into twelve 
parts must have been visible, either on the 
glass globe itself, or in the basin into which 
the water .flowed. The first horologium with 
which the Romans became acquainted was a 
sun-dial (solarium or horologium sciotheri- 
cmn], and was said to have been brought to 
Rome by Papirius Cursor twelve years before 
the war with Pyrrhus. But as sun-dials 
were useless when the sky was cloudy, P. 
Scipio Nasica, in his censorship, 159 B.C., 
established a public clepsydra, which indi- 
cated the hours both of day and night. This 
clepsydra was in aftertimes generally called 
solarium. After the time of Scipio Nasica 
several horologia, chiefly solaria, seem to 
have been erected in various public places at 

Rome. Clepsydrae were used by the Romans 
in their camps, chiefly for the purpose of 
measuring accurately the four vigiliae into 
which the night was divided. The custom 
of using clepsydrae as a check upon the 
speakers in the courts of justice at Rome, 
was introduced by a law of Cn. Pompeius, in 
his third consulship. Before that time the 
speakers had been under no restrictions, but 
spoke as long as they deemed proper. At 
Rome, as at Athens, the time allowed to the 
speakers depended upon the importance of 
the case. 

HJOPiREUM (wpetoi', <riTO<]>v\aKeiov, airo- 
flrJKi)) was, according to its etymological signi- 
fication, a place in which ripe fruits, and 
especially corn, were kept, and thus an- 
swered to our granary. During the empire 
the name horreum was given to any place 
destined for the safe preservation of things o' 
any kind. Thus we find it applied to a place 
in which beautiful works of art were kept, 
to cellars (horrea fiibtcrranea, horrea vinaria), 
to depots for merchandise, and all sorts of 
provisions (horreum penarium}. Seneca even 
calls his library a horreum. But the more 
general application of the word horreum was 
to places for keeping fruit and corn ; and as 
some kinds of fruit required to be kept more 
dry than others, the ancients had besides the 
horrea subterranea, or cellars, two other 
kinds, one of which was built like every other 
house upon the ground ; but others (horrea 
pensilia or siiblimia) were erected above the 
ground, and rested upon posts or stone 
pillars, that the fruits kept in them might 
remain dry. From about the year 140 after 
Christ, Rome possessed two kinds of public 
horrea. The one class consisted of buildings 
in which the Romans might deposit their 
goods, and even their money, securities, and 
other valuables. The second and more im- 
portant class of horrea, which may be termed 
public granaries, were buildings in which a 
plentiful supply of corn was constantly kept 
at the expense of the state, and from which, 
in seasons of scarcity, the corn was distri- 
buted among the poor, or sold at a moderate 

HORTUS (KTJTTOS), garden. Our knowledge 
of the horticulture of the Greeks is very 
limited. In fact the Greeks seem to have 
had no great taste for landscape beauties, and 
the small number of flowers with which they 
were acquainted afforded but little induce- 
ment to ornamental horticulture. At Athens 
the flowers most cultivated were probably 
those used for making garlands, such as vio- 
lets and roses. In the time of the Ptolemies 
the art of gardening seems to have advanced 
in the favourable climate of Egypt so far, 




that a succession of flowers was obtained all 
the year round. TLe Romans, like the 
Greeks, laboured under the disadvantage of a 
very limited flora. This disadvantage they 
endeavoured to overcome, by arranging the 
materials they did possess in such a way as 
to produce a striking effect. We have a very 
full description of a Roman garden in a 
letter of the younger Pliny, in which he de- 
scribes his Tuscan villa. In front of the 
portions there was generally a xystus, or flat 
piece of ground, divided into flower-beds of 
different shapes by borders of box. There 
were also such flower-beds in other parts of 
the garden. Sometimes they were raised so 
us to form terraces, and their sloping sides 
planted with evergreens or creepers. The 
most striking features of a Roman garden 
were lines of large trees, among which the 
plane appears to have been a great favourite, 
planted in regular order ; alleys or walks (am- 
bulationes] formed by closely clipped hedges 

of box, yew, cypress, and other evergreens ; 
beds of acanthus, rows of fruit-trees, espe- 
cially of vines, with statues, pyramids, foun- 
tains, and summer-houses (diaetac}. The 
trunks of the trees and the parts of the house 
or any other buildings which were visible 
from the garden, were often covered with 
ivy. In one respect the Roman taste differed 
most materially from that of the present day, 
namely, in their fondness for the ars topi- 
aria, which consisted in tying, twisting, or 
cutting trees and shrubs (especially the box) 
into the figures of animals, ships, letters, &e. 
) Their principal garden-flowers seem to have 
been violets and roses, and they also had the 
crocus, narcissus, lily, gladiolus, iris, poppy, 
amaranth, and others. Conservatories and 
hot-houses are frequently mentioned by Mar- 
tial. Flowers and plants were also kept in 
the central place of the peristyle [ DOMES], 
on the roofs and in the windows of houses. 
An ornamental garden was also called tirida- 

Ilortue, Garden. (From a Painting at Herculancum.) 

rium, and the gardener topiarius or viridaritts. 
The common name for a gardener is villicus 
or cultor hortorum. 

HOSPITIUM (&via, rrpo^vCcC), hospitality, 
was in Greece, as well as at Rome, of a two- 
fold nature, either private or public, in so 
far as it was either established between in- 
dividuals, or between two states. (Hospitium 
pricatum and hospitlum publicwn, f evict and 
npofcpia.) In ancient Greece the stranger, 
as such (feVos and hostis], was looked upon 
as an enemy ; but whenever he appeared 
among another tribe or nation without any 
sign of hostile intentions, he was considered 
not only as one who required aid, but as a 
suppliant, and Zeus was the protecting deity 
of strangers and suppliants (Zevs feVios). On 
his arrival, therefore, the stranger was kindly 
received, and provided with every thing ne- 
cessary to make him comfortable. It seems 
to have been customary for the host, on the 
departure of the stranger, to break a die 
(aoroayoAos) in two, one half of which he 
himself retained, while the other half was 
given to the stranger ; and when at any 
future time they or their descendants met, 

they had a means of recognising each other, 
and the hospitable connection was renewed. 
Hospitality thus not only existed between the 
persons who had originally formed it, but 
was transferred as an inheritance from father 
to son. What has been said hitherto, only 
refers to hospitium pricatum ; but of far 
greater importance was the hospitium publi- 
cum (irpofevia, sometimes simply fevi'a) or 
public hospitality, which existed between two 
states, or between an individual or a family 
on the one hand, and a whole state on the 
other. Of the latter kind of public hospitality 
many instances are recorded, such as that 
between the Peisistratids and Sparta, in 
which the people of Athens had no share. 
The hospitium publicum among the Greeks 
arose undoubtedly from the hospitium priva- 
tum, and it may have originated in two ways. 
When the Greek tribes were governed by 
chieftains or kings, the private hospitality 
existing between the ruling families of two 
tribes may have produced similar relations 
between their subjects, which, after the abo- 
lition of the kingly power, continued to exist 
between the new republics as a kind of politi- 




rtl inheritance of former times. Or a person 
belonging to one state might have either 
extensive connections with the citizens of 
another state, or entertain great partiality 
for the other state itself, and thus offer to 
receive all those who came from that state 
either on private or puhlic business, and to 
act as their patron in his own city. This he 
at first did merely as a private individual, 
but the state to which he offered this kind 
service would naturally soon recognise and 
reward him for it. "When two states estab- 
lished public hospitality, and no individuals 
came forward to act as the representatives of 
their state, it was necessary that in each 
state persons should be appointed to show 
hospitality to, and watch over the interests 
of, all persons who came from the state con- 
nected by hospitality. The persons who were 
appointed to this office as the recognised 
agents of the state for which they acted were 
called proxeni (jrpofevoi), but those who un- 
dertook it voluntarily etheloproxcni (efleAoTrpo- 
levoi)- The office of proxenus, which bears 
: great resemblance to that of a modern consul 
I or minister-resident, was in some cases here- 
' ditary in a particular family. "When a state 
appointed a proxenus, it either sent out one 
of its own citizens to reside in the other 
state, or it selected one of the citizens of this 
state, and conferred upon him the honour of 
proxenus. The former was, in early times, 
| the custom of Sparta, where the kings had 
i the right of selecting from among the Spar- 
tan citizens those whom they wished to send 
out as proxeni to other states. But in sub- 
sequent times this custom seems to have been 
given up, for we find that at Athens the 
family of Callias were the proxeni of Sparta, 
and at Argos, the Argive Alciphron. The 
principal duties of a proxenus were to receive 
those persons, especially ambassadors, who 
came from the state which he represented ; to 
procure for them admission to the assembly, 
and seats in the theatre ; to act as the patron 
of the strangers, and to mediate between the 
two states if any disputes arose. If a stranger 
died in the state, the proxenus of his country 
had to take care of the property of the de- 
ceased. The hospitality of the Romans was, 
as in Greece, either hospitium privatum or 
publicum. Private hospitality with the Ro- 
mans, however, seems to have been more 
accurately and legally defined than in Greece. 
The character of a hospes, i. e. a person con- 
nected with a Roman by ties of hospitality, 
was deemed even more sacred, and to have 
greater claims upon the host, than that of a 
person connected by blood or affinity. The 
relation of a hospes to his Roman friend was 
vext in importance to that of a cliens. The 

obligations which the connection of hospi- 
tality with a foreigner imposed upon a Ro- 
man, were to receive in his house his hospes 
when travelling ; and to protect, and, in case 
of need, to represent him as his patron in the 
courts of justice. Private hospitality thus 
gave to the hospes the claims upon his host 
which the client had on his patron, but with- 
out any degree of the dependence implied in 
the clientela. Private hospitality was estab- 
lished between individuals by mutual pre- 
sents, or by the mediation of a third person, 
and hallowed by religion ; for Jupiter hospi- 
talis was thought to watch over the jus hos- 
pitii, as Zeus xenios did with the Greeks, and 
the violation of it was as great a crime and 
impiety at Rome as in Greece. "When hospi- 
tality was formed, the two friends used to 
divide between themselves a tessera hospi- 
talis, by which, afterwards, they themselves 
or their descendants for the connection was 
hereditary as in Greece might recognise one 
another. Hospitality, when thus once estab- 
lished, could not be dissolved except by a 
formal declaration (renuntiatio), and in this 
case the tessera hospitalis was broken to 
pieces. Public hospitality seems likewise to 
have existed at a very early period among 
the nations of Italy ; but the first direct men- 
tion of public hospitality being established 
between Rome and another city, is after the 
Gauls had departed from Rome, when it was 
decreed that Caere should be rewarded for 
its good services by the establishment of 
public hospitality between the two cities. 
The public hospitality after the war with the 
Gauls gave to the Caerites the right of 
isopolity with Rome, that is, the civitas 
without the suffragium and the honores. 
[CoLoxiA.] In the later times of the republic 
we no longer find public hospitality estab- 
lished between Rome and a foreign state ; 
but a relation which amounted to the same 
thing was introduced in its stead, that is, 
towns were raised to the rank of municipia, 
and thus obtained the civitas without the 
suffragium and the honores; and when a 
town was desirous of forming a similar rela- 
tion with Rome, it entered into clientela to 
some distinguished Roman, who then acted 
as patron of the client-town. But the cus- 
tom of granting the honour of hospes publi- 
cus to a distinguished foreigner by a decree 
of the senate, seems to have existed down to 
the end of the republic. His privileges were 
the same as those of a municeps, that is, he 
had the civitas, but not the suffragium or the 
honores. Public hospitality was, like the hos- 
pitium privatum, hereditary in the family of 
the person to whom it had been granted. 
HYACINTUIA CwoKi'i^ia), a great nations' 




festival, celebrated every year at Amyclae by 
the Amyclaeans and Spartans, probably in 
nonour of the Amyclaean Apollo and Hyacin- 
tlius together. This Amyclaean Apollo, how- 
ever, with whom Hyacinthus was assimilated 
in later times, must not be confounded with 
Apollo, the national divinity of the Dorians. 
The festival was called after the youthful 
hero Hyacinthus, who evidently derived his 
name from the flower hyacinth (the emblem 
of death among the ancient Greeks), and 
whom Apollo accidentally struck dead with a 
quoit. The Hyacinthia lasted for three days, 
and began on the longest day of the Spartan 
month Hecatombeus, at the time when the 
tender flowers, oppressed by the heat of 
the sun, drooped their languid heads. On 
the first and last day of the Hyacinthia 
sacrifices were offered to the dead, and 
the death of Hyacinthus was lamented. 
During these two days, nobody wore any 
garlands at the repasts, nor took bread, but 
only cakes and similar things, and when the 
solemn repasts were over, everybody went 
home in the greatest quiet and order. The 
second day, however, was wholly spent in 
public rejoicings and amusements, such as 
horse-races, dances, processions, &c. The 
great importance attached to this festival by 
the Amyclaeans and Lacedaemonians is seen 
from the fact, that the Amyclaeans, even 
when they had taken the field against an 
enemy, always returned home on the ap- 
proach of the season of the Hyacinthia, that 
they might not be obliged to neglect its cele- 
bration ; and that in a treaty with Sparta, 
B.C. 421, the Athenians, in order to show 
their good-will towards Sparta, promised 
every year to attend the celebration of this 

HYBREOS GRAPHE (v(3pe<os yp<4rj), 
action prescribed by the Attic law for wan- 
ton and contumelious injury to the person, 
whether in the nature of indecent (6V alcr- 
Xpoupyia?) or other assaults (6"ia Tr\yyu>v'). The 
severity of the sentence extended to confisca- 
tion or death. 

HYDRAULIS (vSpavXis), an hydraulic or- 
gan, invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria, who 
lived about B. c. 200. Its pipes were partly 
of bronze, and partly of reed. The number 
of its stops, and consequently of its rows of 
pipes, varied from one to eight. It continued 
in use so late as the ninth century of our 
era. The organ was well adapted to gratify 
the Roman people in the splendid entertain- 
ments provided for them by the emperors 
and other opulent persons. Nero was very 
curious about organs, both in regard to their 
musical effect and their mechanism. A con- 
torniate coin of this emperor, in the Bri- 

tish Museum, shows an organ with a sprig of 
laurel on one side, and a man standing on 
the other. 

Hydraulis, water-organ. (Coin of Nero in British Museum. 1 

HYDRIAPHORIA (uSpia^opia), -was the 
carrying of a vessel with water (vSpi'a), which 
service the married alien (jieroutoi) women 
had to perform to the married part of the 
female citizens of Athens, when they walked 
to the temple of Athena in the great proces- 
sion at the Panathenaea. 

HYPORCHEMA (\nr6pxrnj.a\ a lively kind 
of mimic dance which accompanied the songs 
used in the worship of Apollo, especially 
among the Dorians. A chorus of singers at 
the festivals of Apollo usually danced around 
the altar, while several other persons were 
appointed to accompany the action of the 
song with an appropriate mimic performance 
(vTropxeto'CaO. The hyporchema was thus a 
lyric dance, and often passed into the playful 
and comic. 



IMAGO, a representation or likeness, an 
image or figure of a person. Among the 
Romans those persons, who had filled any oi 
the higher or curule magistracies of the state, 
had the right of having images of themselves. 
Respecting this.; MS imaginum see NOBILES. 

IMMUNITAS (from in and mumis), sig- 
nifies, (1) A freedom from taxes. (2) A 
freedom from services which other citizens 
had to discharge. "With respect to the first 
kind of iminunitas we find that the emperors 
frequently granted it to separate persons, or 
to certain classes of persons, or to whols 
states. The second kind of immunitas was 
granted to all persons who had a valid excuse 




(cxcvsatio) to be released from such services, 
and also to other persons as a special favour. 
The immunitas might be either general, from 
all services which a citizen owed to the state, 
or special, such as from military service, from 
taking the office of tutor or guardian, and 
the like. 


IMPERIUM, was under the republic a 
power, without which no military operation 
could be carried on as in the name and on 
the behalf of the state. It was not incident 
to any office, and was always specially con- 
ferred by a lex curiata, that is, a lex passed 
in the comitia curiata. Consequently, not 
even a consul could act as commander of an 
army, unless he were empowered by a lex 
curiata. It could not be held or exercised 
within the city in the republican period ; 
but it was sometimes conferred specially upon 
an individual for the day of his triumph 
within the city, and at least, in some cases, 
by a plebiscitum. As opposed to potestas, 
imperium is the power which was conferred 
by the stat upon an individual who was 
appointed to command an army. The phrases 
consularis potestas and consulare imperium 
might both be properly used ; but the ex- 
pression tribunltia potestas only could be 
used, as the tribuni never received the im- 
perium. In respect of his imperium, he who 
received it was styled imperator. After a 
victory it was usual for the soldiers to salute 
their commander as imperator, but this salu- 
tation neither gave nor confirmed the title, 
since the title as a matter of course was 
given with the imperium. Under the re- 
public the title came properly after the name ; 
thus Cicero, when he was proconsul in Ci- 
licia, could properly style himself M. Tullius 
Cicero Imperator, for the term merely ex- 
pressed that he had the imperium. The 
emperors Tiberius and Claudius refused to 
assume the praenomen of imperator, but the 
use of it as a praenomen became established 
among their successors. The term imperium 
was applied in the republican period to 
express the sovereignty of the Roman state. 
Thus Gaul is said by Cicero to have come 
under the imperium and ditio of the populus