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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 



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MUSEUM OP COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 












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CONTENTS. 



Advertiflement vii. 

ARTICLE I. Thb Mollusks op Wbstbbn North Ambbica. By 
Phiup p. Carpbntbb, B.A., Ph.D. Embracing the 
Second Report made to the British Association on 
this snbject, with other papers ; reprinted hj per- 
mission, with a General Index. December, 1872. 
Pp.446. 

ARTICLE II. Abbavobxbkt op thb Familibs op Mollusks. Pre- 
pared for the Smithsonian Institution by Thbodorb 
Gill, M.D., Ph.D. February, 1871. Pp. 65. 

ARTICLE III. IvsTBucTiovs pob Obsbbvations op Thundbb Stobxb. 
By Prof. JosBPH Hbhbt. P. 1. 

ARTICLE rV. CiBOTLAB bblativb to Hbiobts. By Prof. Josbph 
Hbkbt. Pp. 2. 

ARTICLE V. DiBBcrioNS pob coNSTBUcnva Liohtbing-Rods. By 
Prof. Josbph Hbstbt. Pp. 3. 

ARTICLE VI. Qubbibs bblativb to Tobnadobs. By Prof. Joseph 
Hbkbt. Pp. 4. 

ARTICLE VII. QuBsnoNS bblativb to thb Food Fishbs op thb Uni- 
TBD Statbs. By Prof. S. F. Baibd. Pp. 7. 

ARTICLE VIII. Mbxobavda op Inquibt bblativb to thb Food Fishbs 
OP THB Uhitbd Statbs. By Prof. S. F. Baibd. 
Pp. 6. 

ARTICLE IX. List op thb iNSTiTUTioirs, Libbabibs, Collbobs, abd 

OTHBB EbTABUSHMBMTS IB THB UviTBD StATBS IN 
OOBBBSPOBDBNCB with THB SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

July, 1872. Pp.266. 

ARTICLE X. List op Fobbign Cobbbspondbnts op thb Smithsonian 
Institution. Corrected to January, 1872. [Fourth 
EdiUon.] April, 1872. Pp.96. 

ARTICLE XI. Chbck List op Publications op thb Smithsonian In- 
stitution, July, 1872. Pp. 22. 



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ADVERTISEMENT. 



The prefiCDt series, entitled ** SmithsoDian Miscellaneons Col- 
lections," i|iQteDded to embrace all the poblications issued directly 
bj the Smithsonian Institution in octavo form ; those in qaarto con- 
Btitnting the " Smithsonian Contribntions to Knowledge." The 
qoarto series includes memoirs embracing the records of extended 
original investigations and researches resulting in what are be- 
lieved to be new truths, and constituting positive additions to the 
snm of human knowledge. The octavo series is designed to con- 
tain reports on the present state of our knowledge of particular 
branches of science : instructions for collecting and digesting facts 
and materials for research : lists and synopses of species of the 
organic and inorganic world : museum catalogues : reports of ex- 
plorations: aids to bibliographical investigations, etc., generally 
prepared at the express request of the Institution, and at its 
expense. 

The position of a work in one or the other of the two series will 
sometimes depend upon whether the required illustrations can be 
presented more conveniently in the quarto or the octavo form. 

In the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, as well as in the 
present series, each article is separately paged and indexed, and 
the actual date of its publication is that given on its special title- 
page, and not that of the volume in which it is placed. In many 
cases, works have been published, and largely distributed, years 
before their combination into volumes. 

While due care is taken on the part of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tation to insure a proper standard of excellence in its publications, 
it will be readily understood that it cannot hold itself responsible 
for the facts and conclusions of the authors, as it is impossible in 
most cases to verify their statements. 

JOSEPH HENRY, 

Secretary S, I. 

( Tii ) 



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t 

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS. 

252 



THK 



MOLLUSKS 



WESTERN NORTH AMERICA. 



BY 

PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A^ PblD, 
XMBBAcnra tbs second bepobt m adb to the bhitish association 

ON THIS subject, WITH OTHEB PAPEBS ; BEPBUTTED BT 
PEBMISSION. WITH ▲ OBMSBAL UTDEX. 



WASHINGTON: 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

DBCBMBBB, 1872. 



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ADVERTISEMENT. 



Thb opportunity afforded by Mr. Carpenter's visit in 1859-60 
to the United States, was embraced to secure his services in 
naming and arranging the shells collected by the United States 
Exploring Expedition and other parties on the Pacific Coast of 
North America. Mr. Carpenter, having previously presented to 
the British Association a report on the state of knowledge in 
regard to the mollusks of the west coast of North America, 
embodied the additional information which he obtained, chiefly 
through the Smithsonian Institution, in a second report to the 
same Association ; and now, in order to facilitate the study of 
this class of animals by the American student) this work is r^ 
published with supplementary papers, from stereotype copies of 
the original pages. 

JOSEPH HENRY, 

Secretary S. J. 

SMITHBOVTAir Iir8TIT0TIOV, 

WA8BiiroT05, November, 1872. 



PRTLADBLnnA: 

eoLLiirt, pBiirTBm. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



AdTertisemeot 
Introdnction « 



List of papkbs bephisted in this yoLux b 

« " HOT BBPBIKTBD W THIS YOIMUX 

AlFEABSTICAL niDBZ OP 8PBCIB8 • 



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INTRODUCTION. 



After the publication of my first "Report on the present state 
of onr knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the West Coast 
of North America,'' undertaken at the request of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, and printed in their 
Report for 1856, I visited America in order to arrange the first 
duplicate series of the great Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Shells 
which I had presented to the New York State Museum at 
Albany. It was one of the special objects of my visit to ex- 
amine the types of previously described species in the United 
States, that I might compare them with those known in England. 
Having visited Washington to examine the types of the United 
States Exploring Expedition (Wilkes'), I was requested to spend 
the winter of 1859-60 in unpacking and arranging the shells 
belonging to the National Museum under its charge ; and after 
my return to England I received from time to time the various 
collections sent to the Institution from the West Coast as they 
arrived ; all of these were duly compared with the types in the 
Cumingian and other British collections. 

Being thus in a position to correct a large number of unavoid- 
able errors in my first Report, and to add a great deal of fresh 
information from American sources (chiefly pbtained through the 
Smithsonian Institution), I was requested by the British Asso- 
ciation to embody the material in a " Supplementary Report" on 
the same subject as the first. Knowing how difficult it is for 
American students to obtain access to serial publications, I ob- 
tained permission, in behalf of the Institution, to stereotype this 
second report, and the papers connected with it, which appeared 
in the " Proceedings of the Zoological Society," the " Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History," and the "Journal de Conchy- 
liologie." 

(O 



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Ti INTRODUCTION. 

The present volume consists, therefore, of a reprint from these 
stereotype plates, with the original paging at the top, and the 
Smithsonian paging at the bottom ; and of a general index of 
species. 

The index was prepared (at the expense of the Smithsonian 
Institution) by Mr. E. Taylor, Student at McGill College. It 
includes not only the present volume but all my previous English 
publications on the subject, of which the principal are the First 
British Association Report and the British Museum Mazatlan 
Catalogue. All references to these works not reprinted have 
the page-number prefixed by a Roman Capital (0 to X), by 
which they can be at once distinguished from the simple num- 
bers which refer to the foot-page in this volume. Students who 
want an index to the First Report will fix the eye on the initial 
O ; to the Mazatlan Catalogue on P. 

In an accompanying list will be found an enumeration of all 
my papers published in European journals relative to American 
conchology, and for the most part reprinted in the present col- 
lection. In this, however, is not included any of the contribu- 
tions to American serials, as the Journal of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Proceedings of the Cali- 
fornia Academy, or the American Journal of Conchology. 

My principal object in the preparation of these works has been 
to make out and compare the writings of previous naturalists, so 
that it might be possible for succeeding students to begin where 
I left off, without being obliged to waste so large an amount of 
time as I have been compelled to do in analyzing the (often inac- 
curate) work of their predecessors. 

As the work of previous writers, whether satisfactory or other- 
wise, is duly tabulated in my Reports, so that others may judge 
of its value as well as I, it is not fair (as is often done) to quote 
from these Reports as on my authority. I was simply the his- 
torian, not the original writer. In the First Report I was a 
novice in the scientific world, and rarely ventured on criticisms ; 
in the second, I allowed myself with more confidence to state 
my own conclusions, because I found that others had not enjoyed 
the remarkable facilities of comparing types which fell to my lot, 
and which (in many instances) cannot be renewed. Since that 
time, Nuttall, Gould, Rich, Judge Cooper, and especially Hugh 
Cuming, have been called to another world ; their collections 



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INTRODUCTION. Vll 

have changed hands, and fresh causes of error have crept in. The 
present condition of the Oumingian Collection has been faithfully 
described by Dr. Gray in the Proceedings of the Zoological So- 
ciety ; and those who will take the trouble to compare his review 
of the Calyptrseidm, after the destruction of original labels conse- 
quent on Reeve's Monograph, with that which I gave in the 
Mazatlan Catalogue, while these labels were still fixed to the 
shells, will appreciate the advantages which I formerly enjoyed. 

Headers who may discover any uncorrected errors in this 
volume, or in any of my other works, are urgently requested 
to apprise me of them (Box 193^ P. 0., Montreal, C. E.), in 
order that they may be corrected in the Report of the Mollusca 
which Prof. Whitney has requested me to prepare for the Cali- 
fornia Geological Survey. 

PHILIP P. CARPENTER. 

MoKTBKAL, July 17, 1872. 



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LIST OF PAPERS 

OH 

AMERICAN MOLLTJSCA 

PUBLISHED IN BUBOPBAN W0BK8 BT 

P. P. CARPENTER. 



RBPRINTED. 

A. 

Sapplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge 
with Regard to the MoUasca of the West Coast of North 
America. Page 1.* 

From thd Report of the British Association for the Adyancement of 
Science, for 1863, pp. 617—686. Pablished in Augnst, 1864. 
Extra copieSi with title>page, dated 1864. 

B. 

Reriew of Prof. C. B. Adams' "Catalogae of the Shells of Pan- 
ama/' from the Type Specimens. Page 178. 

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Societj of London, Jane 23, 
1863, pp. 339—369. 

c. 

Diagnoses of New Forms of MoDniks collected at Cape St Lucas, 
Lower California. By Mr. J. Xantns. Page 207. 

From the Annals and Magasine of Natural History. Third Series, 
Vol. XIII., pp. 311—316, April, 1864. Ibid. (Noe. 15—36) pp. 
474-479, June, 1864. Ibid. Vol. XIV. (Noe. 87—62), pp. 45— 
49, Julj, 1864. 

D. 

Contributions towards a Monograph of the Pandoridse. Page 223. 
From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 696— 
603, November 22, 1864. 

I The references are to the bottom paging. 



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X UST OF PAPERS. 

E. 

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca from the Yanconver Dis- 
trict. Page 233. 

From the Annals and Magaxine of Natural History. Third Series, 
Vol. XIV. (Nos. 5—37), pp. 423—429, December, 1864. Ibid. 
Vol. XV. (Nos. 37— -56), pp. 28—32, January, 1865. 

P. 

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollasca from the Yancoaver Dis- 
trict. Page 247. 

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 201 — 
204, February 14, 1865. 

G 

Diagnoses of New Species and a New Oenus of Mollasks, from 
the Reigen Mazatlan Collection ; with an Account of Addi- 
tional Specimens presented to the British Maseom. Page 253. 

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 
268—273, March 14, 1865. 

H. 

Descriptions of New Species and Varieties of Chitonidse and 
Acmseidse, from the Panama Collection of the late Prof. C. B. 
Adams. Page 263. 

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 
274—277, March 14, 1865 



Diagnoses of New Species of Mollusks, from the West Tropical 
Region of North America, principally collected by the Rev. J. 
Rowell, of San Francisco. Page 269 

From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp.* 
278—282, March 14, 1865. 

K. 

Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollasca, from the West coast of 
North America, first collected by Col. E. Jewett. Page 211. 
From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, 
VoL XV., pp. 177—182 (Nos. 373—386), March, 1865. Ibid, 
pp. 394—399 iMangelia variegata to end). May, 1865. 



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LIST OF PAPERS. 



Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca, collected by Col. E. Jewett, 
on the West Tropical shores of North America. Page 291. 

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series 
Vol. XV., pp. 399—400, May, 1865. 

M. 

Diagnoses des Mollasqaes nonveaax provenant de Californie et 
faisant partie da Mus^e de I'lnstitadon Smithsonienne. Page 
297. 

From the Journal de Conchyliologie, Vol. XII. (Third Series, Vol. 
V.) pp. 129—149, April, 1865. 

On the Pleistocene Fossils collected by Col. E. Jewett, at Santa 
Barbara, California; with Descriptions of New Species. Page 
319. 

From the Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Third Series, 
Vol. XVU., pp. 274—278, April, 1866. 



. NOT REPRINTID. 

o. 

Keport ou the Present State of onr Knowledge with Regard to 
the MoUasca of the West Coast of North America. 

From the Keport of the Briti8h Association for the Advancement 6t 
Science, for 1856, pp. 159—368. Pnblished in 1857. Extra copies 
with title-page, list of plates with references to figures (4 pages)* 
dated 1857. Not reprinted, but referred to under *'0" in the 
general index. 

p. 

Catalogue of the Beigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca in the 
British Museum. 

Bach sheet dated : July, 1855 — June, 1857. The Bryozoa, by Q. 
Busk, Esq. Printed by order of the Trustees at the Oberlin 
Press, Warrington. 552 pp. First Edition, with Preface as 
arranged by Dr. J. B. Gtray, on sale at the British Museum, price 
8«. Second Edition, with Author's Preface, accompanying dupli- 
cate collections of the shells, published simultaneously. 



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ZU LIBT OF PAPEB8. 

NOT BEPBINTED (continued). 

Q. 

BescrlptioDS of (supposed) New Species and Varieties of Shells, 
from the Californian and West Mexican Coasts, principally in 
the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. 

ProoeedingB Zoological Society, Part zxiii, 1855, pp. 228—235. 

R. 

Notes on the Species of Hipponyx inhabiting the American 
Coasts, with Descriptions of New Species. 
Ditto, Part xxIf, 1856, pp. 3—5. 

S. 

Description of New Species of Shells collected by Mr. T. 
Bridges in the Bay of Panama and its vicinity, in the Collec- 
tion of Hngh Cuming, Esq. 
Ditto, pp. 159— 166* 

T. 

Description of New Species and Varieties of Ccdyptr<eid4B^ Tro* 
chida and Pf/ramtdeUtd€B, principally in the Collection of Hngh 
, Cuming, Esq. [From American and other seas.] 
Ditto, pp. 166—171. 

u. 

Descriptions of Shells from the Gulf of California, and the Pa- 
cific Coasts of Mexico and California. Part II. By A. A* 
Gould, M.D., and Philip P. Carpenter. 
Ditto, pp. 198—208. 

V. 

Monograph of the Shells collected by T. Nattall, Esq., on the 
Californian Coast, in the years 1834-5. 
Ditto, pp. 209—229. 

w. 

First Steps towards a Monograph of the Recent Species of PHalo^ 
conclius, a genus of Vermettda, 

Ditto, pp. 313—317. (With woodKJots.) 

X. 

First Steps towards a Monograph of the Cfecwte, a Family of the 
Bostrlferons Gasteropoda.'' [Chiefly from the American seas.] 
Ditto, Part xxvi, 1858, pp. 413—444. 



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A. 



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT 



PRESENT STATE OF OUR KNOWLEDGE 



WITH BSOABB TO 



THE MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 

BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



From the Report of the Britiah AsBociation for the Adyancement of Science, 
for 1863, pp. 517— 6S6. Published in Aagost, 1864 Extra copies, with 
title-page, dated 1864. 



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Supplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with 
regard to the Mollusoa of the West CkKui of North America. By 
Phiup p. Carpenteh, B.A., PA.Z).* 

The object of the present Report is (1) to correct the errors which have been 
observed in the first Report (" Report &c." 1856, pp. 159-368) ; and (2) to 
point out the fresh sources of information which have been rendered avail- 
able since that period. For convenience of comparison, the paragraph num- 
bers refer to those of the first Report in the corrections, and are continued 
from them in the addenda. In the bibliographical portion, the criticisms by 
the writer of this Report are inserted in [ ] ; a distinction not always attended 
to in the former volume, in consequence of which erroneous names and local- 
ities have been attributed to the reviewer, instead of to the authors quoted. 

22. Introduction. — (Line 4 from bottom.) The river Willamette flows 
northwards (Gld.). 

23. Early Writers, — ^The only Califomian shell described by Linnseus is 
Twrbo sanguinem,= T. coccineus, Desh. ; v. Hani. Ips. Linn. Conch, p. 334. 
The types are too much worn to decide whether they came from the North 
Pacific or (as is more probable) from the Mediterranean. In Gmelin's edition 
of LinnsBus, L^sise, 1788-1790, — ^which is, in great measure, a translation 
from a Grerman work published a few years in advance [teste Hanley], — the 
following species are assigned to the " West Coast of America,'' probably on 
the authority of Martyn : — page 3529, Murex foliatus : 3702, PateUa pecten : 
3712, PateUa calyptra. The last two seem exotic. 

Many West-coast species had found their way into English collections 
during the last century, at a much earlier date than was expected at the time 
of the first Report. They were mainly derived from the voyages of Capt. 
Cook and other circumnavigators. Capt. Cook was accompanied by Solander, 
as naturalist, at the instance of Sir Joseph Banks. His shells passed into 
the hands of Mr. Humphrey, the dealer, at whose death the remainder, a 
thousand boxes, became the property of the elder Sowerby, and (in part) of 
Mawe [teste Hanley]. They took their chance of being figured or described 
by the early conchologists. The localities are (as might be expected) often 
interchanged, but have been quoted by later authors, who have not thought 
fit to avau themselves of more correct sources of information. 

The first accurate delineations are by Thomas Martyn, in his ' Universal 
Conchologist,' London, 1784. Those who only know this book from Chenu's 
reprint, Paris, 1845, cdn form but a poor idea of the exquisite beauty of the 
original work. Of this, very few copies are accessible ; but it may be consulted 
at the British Museum, the Royal Society, and the Royal College of Surgeons. 

No. Plate. Fig. 

16 6 8. PoUdla immMmca, Mart. N. W. C. America, very rare. [N. Zealand.] 
18 6 1. Patella calyptra, Mart. N.W. Coast of America, very rare. [Not 
identifi^: resembles Orep, adunca. without deck, Hani, con- 
siders it a Htpponyx, like austraUs,] 

81 8 4. Trochus incpquahs, Mart. Friendly Isles, common. [Does not 

closely resemble the Japan and Vancouver specie8,=Pac^^oma 
ffibberosumf Chemn.] 

82 10 1. Trochus canalicvlatun. Mart. N. Zealand, rare. 
88 10 2. Trochm annxdcUus, Mart. N. Zealand, very rare. 

84 10 8. j?VocAt£« costo^tM, Mart. St. George's Sound, rare. [=^Calliosioma 
filosum^ castaneum, ligatum, and modestum.] 
* In consequence of the expected arrival or fresh materials, this report has been 
oorrected ana continued up to the period of going to press. 
WwrringUm Free Museum and Library, Aug. IH^ 1864« 

3 



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518 REPORT — 1863. 

Ka PlAto. Pig. 

43 13,14 1. Buccinum Uratinn, Mart St Oeorge^s Sound, most rare. \_^F, de^ 

eemcostatus (Say), Midd^ ^MiddendorfiU, Cooper.] 

44 13 2, Buccinum plicatumj MBXi,[nonLmn.'] St. George^s Sound, common. 

[^sscrispattimf + cotnpomumj Chenm., ^stactucoy &c., ERch.] 

46 15 L Buccinum lima, Mart St Geoi^'s Sound, rare. [Probably P, decern" 

cottata, Midd. ; the variety with numerous ribs and flattened spire.] 

47 15 2. Buccmum saturum, Mart St George's Sound, most rare. [Like 

Chr, UraUtMy with keels evaneecentj 
62 20 % Haiioti$pukherrim€iyllL$si. St Geoige*8 Sound, most rare. [Pacific 

Is.] 
66 24 1. i^nT^ra /o/iafa. Mart North-west Coast of N. America, rare. 
76 26 4. Trochw jmUigo, Mart St. Geoive's Sound, common. 
80 28 % Bectunculus corljis,yL9xt, Pulo-Condore, most rare. [ = Oxr<2ttim JVt</« 

ialUi, Conr., teste Deeh. Cum. The figure is not so accurate as most 

of thie others : but the colouring is characteristic] 
153 53 1. Pise^fn rti5u/ti«. Mart, [non Hds.] Newfoimdland, rare. {^F.Lian* 

dum, MiiU.] 

Many of the figures of Martyn were reproduced by Chemnits, in his eom- 
prehensive continuation of Martini's * Conohylien Cabinet,' 1780-1795. Un- 
happily, though often quoted for generic and specific names, he did not adopt 
the binonual nomenclature (except in rol. zi.), but described each shell in 
two or more words, at it happened. For this reason he appears to have had 
no scruple in altering previous designations, as follows : — 



1538^5 



1539. Murex Purpura alata, " Mart Conch. Un. voL ii. £ 66, Leaved Purpura 

foUaUi m>m N.W. coast of America." 
1634 • • Murex Glomus cereus, seu Cereus conglomeratus, " Mart vol. ii. £ 43, 

Kidffed Buccinum liratum from Kinfi^ George's Sound/' 
Vign. 21, £ A, B. iuccinum compotHum, " Mart. ifn. Couch, vol. ii. £ 44 ; Plaited 

Buccinum from King George's Sound." 
Vign. 23, £ A, B. Trw^us pibberosus Nova Zelanduic "Forster's Cat. no. 1374; La 

Habotense de la nouvelle Z^lande. — ^Mart Un. Conch, vol. i. £ 31 ', 

Rugged Trockus inaqualis from Friendly Is." 
1570, 1580. Trochus doliariue, " Mart vol i. £ 32, Fluted Trochus canalieuUUus from 

N. Zealand." 
1581, 1582. Trochus virgineui, " Favanne, Conch, pi. 79. £ 1. vol. iL p. 342 ; id. Cat 

Rais. no. 1352, p. 269; Le Sabot Magellauiaue. — Mart. Un. Conch. 

vol. i. £ 33; Ringed Trockus annuUdus from N. Zealand. — Cab. Mus. 

Portl. no. 1240; the Purpled-edged Trochus; item, no. 1970, a large 

and fine specimen of the Furple-edged Trochus from the N.W. coast 

of America : rare." [= T. calatus, var. jS. Gmd., teste Dillw. vol. iL 

p. 800.] 
1802,1803. Buccinum crispatum, ''The furbelowed Whelk." [s^B. plicatum^ 

Mart, non Ln.] 
1841, 1842* Murex amplustre, N.W. coast of America. [This erroneous locality 

is copied from the Portland Cat. The species is quoted from Buc^ 

cinum (Latirus) apfustre. Mart., no. 3. pi. 1. £ 3, where it is rightly 

assignea to the Friendly Ja* ssM. argus, var. y, Gmel., teste l>illw. 

voL iL p. 735. j 

The assignment of West AraericAn q>ecies to New Zealand, begun by 
Hartyn, has continued a source of error to the present time. It occurs ip 
Dr. Gould's * Exploring Expeditbn Mollusca,' in the Cumingian Collection, 
and in the British Museum. 

In the * Travels in New Zealand,' by Ernest Dieffenbach, M.D., Tendon, 
1843, vol. L pp. 228-264, is given a " Catalogue of the Species of Mollusca 
and their Shells, which have hitherto been recorded as fonnd at New Zealand,*^ 
&Cy by J. E. Gray. The author premises that some of the t^pecied [marked *j 



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Oy MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NOHTH AMERICA. 6 19 

assigned by the older writers may be found erroneously placed. The foUow- 
iag are probably from the West coast of North America, with the synonymy 
fts understood by Dr. Gray : — 

Pr^ffe. No. 

2JU a Mwrex foUatuSy Gmel. 3329. = M, purpura dUtta, Chomn. x. pi. 160. f. lo38- 

9; Wood's Cat 1 13. Purpwa foUata, Mart U. C. ii. 66.— //«6. N. 

2iealand, Humnhreys. King Greorge's Sound, Martyn. ["» Jf. triptertts. 

Kien. : non M. tripterus^ Bom et anct ^trialatmy Kien." teste Hani. J 
229 9. Mwrex lyratm, Gjiel. 8631.s=Af. glomm eeretu, Chem. x. pi. 169. f. 1^34, 

— Bueeinum lyratumy Martyn^ U. 0. ii. f. 43. — Hub, N. Zealand, King 

George's Bay, Martyn, 
233 43. Furpwra lameUo9a,^Buceinwn /., Gmel, Wood's Cat t &d.x^BHc, pH- 

cafutUy Martyn, U. C. ii. f. 41. ^Buc. emnpantum, Chemn. x. 179, vign. 

21. 1 AyB.zs Bue. erispatum, Chemn. xi. 84, pi. 187. f. 1802-3. Mw*ex 

er.y Lam. 174 — Hab, N. 2^ealand^ King George's Sound, Chemn, y Mar- 

tyn. Coast of Columbia. 
237 •TL ZKuphinus canaUadatm. Troehm c. Martm, U. C. pi. 32,s TV. doHariua, 

Chenm. x. f. 1579-80; Wood's Cat 1 90.— JTo*. N. Zeaknd, Marfyn. 

California, Cmrf. Belcher, UN. • 

*72. Zmphmua annulatus. Trochus a,, Martyn, XJ. C. pi. 33. s T. tirginetis, 

Chemn. 1. 1 1681-2 ; Wood's Cat f. 98. « TV. calaiuSy /3., Gmel.— Jfo*. 

N. Zealand, Martyn. California, Capt. Belcher. 
243 113. Bulla Quoyu, Gray, n. 9.»B. driata, Q. k G., Voy. Astr. ii 35^ pi. 2a 

£ 8, 9, non Lam. — Hab. N. Zealand, Quoy, Stanger. 

But the first authentic information on the molluscs of the North-western 
coast is given in the * Voyage Bound the World, but more particularly to the 
K.W. Coast of America,' by Capt. George Dixon, London, 1789: to which is 
added a Natural History Appendix. 
Page 355, fig. 3. Soten paUdus^. Cook's Ittiver. [=iMach(era NuUaUiy Conr.] 

In the * Conchology, or Natural History of Shells,' by George Perry, Lon- 
don, 1811, a work of no little pretension, yet singularly inaccurate, are figured 
the following species, but witiiout authorities for the assigned loc^ties : — 

* As this extarmot ii probably the first description on record of moUasos from the Pacific 
shores of X. America, by the origmal collector, and as the book is rarely to be met with, 
it may be interesting to quote the passage : — 

"At the mouth of Cook's River [bt. 59^-61°] are many species of shell-flsh, most of 
them, I presume, nondescript ; and of all which T should have endeavoured to have got 
speciinens, had business permitted. Among the biralres we noticed some of a large spe- 
ctes, of the Cardium or cockle-genus ICardium corbUy Mart.], half-a-dozen of which would 
hare afforded a good supper for one person $ but, for a repast of that kind, our men pre- 
ferred a Urge species of the Solen genus, which they got in quantity, and were easily dis- 
oorered by their spouting up the water as the men wnlked over the sands where they in- 
habited : as 1 suppose it to be a new kind, I hare giren a figure of it in the annexed plate 
[Sole* palulut ; accurate external and internal views, size of life]. 'Tis a thin brittle shell, 
smooth within and without : one valre is furnished with two front and two lateral teeth 
[the ^laterals' are the nymphs for the ligament] ; the other has one fiH>nt and one side 
tooth, which slip in between the others in the opposite valve : from the teeth, in each valve, 
proceeds a strong rib, idiich extends to above halfway across the shell, and gradually loses 
Itself towards the edge, which is smooth and sharp. The colour of the outside is whitCj^ 
circularly, bat faintlj, zoned with violet, and is covered with a smooth yellowish-brown 
epidermis, idudi ^pears darkest where the zones are : the inside is white, slightly zoned, 
and tinted with violet and pink. The animal, as in all species of this genus, protrudes 
bejond the ends of the sheU very much, and is exoeedinff good food. — A fine specimen of 
this kind is in the Collection of tfohn Swainson, Esq., of the Custom House, London. — We 
saw also, on this coast, a kind of muscle, in colour and shape much like the common eat^ 
able muscle of Europe, but di^ered in being circularly wrinkled, and a great deal larger 
[HytUus CaUformanmty Conr.]. One valve I saw at Queen Charlotte's Islands measu^ 
above nine inches and a half in length. — With pieces of these muscles, sharpened to an ez- 
euisite edge and point, the Indians head their harpoons and other instruments for fislnng 
Xhey &sten them on with a kind of resinous substance." — DUom't * Voyage* 

6 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



620 aEPORT— 1863, 

7L Fig. 
9 4. Pohpler gracilis [rsTrophon muUicostatus, Escli.]. N. ZealancL 
S9 5. Mdania striata. New California. [All the figures of ' il/e^iia ' on this plate 

represent large j&tt/tW. perhaps m)m S. America.] 
35 4 Cerithium retictdatum. New California. 
44 2. HauatrtmipictMm\^ Purpura plano9pira\ East Indies. 
44 8. JSaustrum dentex t^P^ cdUtmellarisy Nootka Sound : only 2 sp. known* 
44 A. Hau9trumUd)erculatutn[^^P.patuJk^ f — 

41 8. OUva Leveriana [^ O, porphyria'], P — 

47 2. Ti'oehus decarirudm [ = CaUiodoma canaltculatutn], N. Zealand. 
58 2. Venus radiata 1 = Cailista lupinaria], N.Zealand. 

The common Califomian Halioiis was, it seems, first described in the 
•Zoological Miscellany/ by Dr. W. E. Leach, vol. i. 1814*. 
Page 181; pL 58. HaUotis Cracherodii, Leach. California. 

Sdander made use of the materials he had collected in Cook's Voyage, in 
compiling a work on Conchology of considerable merit. DiUwyn made a copy 
/)f it, and nsed it in preparing his own, allowing priority to its specific names ; 
but it was never published. The types were lately parted- with by the Lin- 
nean Society, who had determined not to keep any collections except those of 
Linnaeus. The * Descriptive Catalogue of Becent SheUs,' &c., by L. W. DiU- 
wyn : London, 1817, is considered by Dr. Gray to be the best conchological 
fwork arranged according to the old system. The following are quoted from 
the West Coast:— 

Vol. Pa«>. 

i. 801. Mytihtsfi^tmSy'Lmn.ssOstrea/ronSfSoL Callone. Acapvlco, I£umpkrej/$i 

West Indies, auct, 
L 409. Cypr<Ba pustulixta, SoL Acaputeo. 
iL ^17 , Btuxinum ptumheum, Ghemxi, California. [JIfonocero*, PS. America.] 

Following DiUwyn, and nearly eclipsing his fame through the originality 
and exceUence of his classification, appeared Lamarck's * Animaux sans Ver- 
tebres,' 1818-1822. Coordinate with or preceding this work are his Articles 
in the * Annales du Mus^am ' and the * Encyclopedic.' The fresh sources of 
his information are quoted in the first Report, p. 169. 

In Delesserf s * RecueU,' 1841, are figured 

PI. 2, fig. 1. 6i)fc«<im%ut«,Lam. [siRrttrfts, C.B.Ad.] " Les mers d'Am(5riqiio." 
PL 19, fig. 2. Ctftherea semHamellosa, Gaudichaud [= C h^nnaria'], China Seas. 

In Deshayes' invaluable edition of the *An. s. Vert.,' Paris, 1835-45, are 
quoted a variety of West Coast species which have already appeared under 
their original authorities. The foUowing may be added : — 

Tol. P«fe. 

viii. 232. BuUmus MexicanuSy 'L&m.=iH(dix vittaia, F^r. Mexico. 

ix. SS. HaUotis CalifomiensiSf Swains. =s H, glabra, Desh. California. 

ix. 857. Pleurotoma tuberculifera. Br. & Shy. California. 

ix. 584. Murex radix, Gmel.= ill. melanomathos (pars), DiUw. Acapulco. 

ix. e05, Mt^exfoliatus,GmeLssM.iripterus,'^ejL N.W. America. "? India.** 

The last of the early writers whose works should here be quoted, and whoso 
ideas on the relations of genera were considerably in advance of the age, though 
itomewhat fanciM, is Swainson, in his * Zoological lUustrations,' 1820-1883 ; 
* Appendix to the Sale Catalogue of Mrs. BUgh's SheUs,' 1822 ; and < Exotic 
Conchology,* 1§21-1836, reissued by Hanley, 1841. These works contain 
the foUowing West Coast species : — 

* This work has been translated into French, and republished, by Chenu ; where tba 
same spccUt is found on page 8, pL 8. f. 2. 

6 



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ON M0LLU8CA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 621 

BKckCbLPaM. 

2. JSahoUs m/escenSf Swains. (Ditto in Exot Conch. e<L iL p. 84.) Galapagos [.^J 
and California. 

4. Cams [Malea] ringens, Swains. ? — 

5. CasM eorrugata, Swains. Native of the Galapagos, 

6. Harpa erenatOf Swaina. ? — 

8u tSinmUnts fframUaius, Swains. P — 

XxoLCondL Plate. 

86. Conu$ princepe, Ln.s C, regiw, Martini, Lam. (C. P. var. ^., Ln.ss C drmn,) 

Asiatic Ocean. 
97 (middle figure). 3faryme22ammtmt, Gmel., Mar^ 

Africa. [The pinched W. Indian form. J 
182. Cwr€ea tpatUcea, Swains., Tilloch's PhiL Mag. voL bd. p. S76. South Seas 

{Mawe). 
80. HtdiaUs CaUfomientis, Swains. [Figured with 9 small holes.] 1821. 
^. Scien ambigutis, Lam. N. America, 1820. [This shell is conspecific with the 

" & memusy Alashka.*' of the R M. Coll. ; difierixig somewhat from the S. 

ambiffum as figured by Delessert The B. M. locality is perhaps erroneous.] 

24. Valenctennet^ Memoir on Humb, and BonpL, 1833. — The following 
notes are from a study of the complete copy in the libr. Boy. Coll. Surgeons. 

221. Dtmax radxata [syar. of D. pundatogtriatus, Hani. 1843]. 
219. Vemu tneeincta [a Chime Califormmm, firod. 1835]. 
246. BuUmm undatm. [The Caribbean, not the Mexican, Irpe is here figured.] 
267. Haliotis CaUformana [ssH, rt^escens, Swains., not If. t'altfamietmSf Swains.]. 
267. (Add) HaUotU interrtaiajYsi, Tropical America. [The description accords 
with the young of A Cracherodii^LesichA 

277. Cenihkim musica, [pescription accords witii C tnacuhsHm, Kien.] 

278. Cerithium ^OTKWwm [= Centhidea vartco9a\, 

279. C&rithmmJ^agana[^Iihinoclavi8gemfnaUiylIdA.\ 
282. CerUhtum varieoeum [s Centhidea varicoaa, Shy.]. 

d06. Strombus caneeXkUm, Closely resembles ^osteUaria JiteureUa, from Grignon. 

[Probably E. Indian.] 
S88. Cdmu eealaris [= C. gradaius (Mawe), Wood^s Suppl.]. 
270. Solarium bicarudicultium. Small species, like S. Herhertif Desh. Enc. 

265. Naliea BonpUmdL [The figure exactly represents Neverita pattda, Shy.] 

266. (Add) NaUca uber, YaL Cumana. 

317. Fwrpura semi-imbricataf Lam. [An. s. Vert yoL x. p. 84, no. 39 ; not since 
identified from the brief descnption. Perhaps = Cuma coetata, Blainv.] 

287. Fusm iurris [ssF. DupetOhouarni, Kien.]. 

290. Jkmis Mag^lamcm '' ^Bue, Chversumum, Pallas, stMnrex I^ruvianus, Enc 
M^th." 

295. FieuiaJUioidee [P ^decuasata'], 

296. I)fnda9p^ata[f ssBapOyiujL], 

25. CoquUle, — ^AU the limpets quoted are South American. 

26; EtchschoUz, — ^The following observations may be useful to the student : 

Fkga. 

10. Mwrex ferrttginem\^ Purp. crispataj Chemn.. var. ; varices few, scarcely frilled]. 

IL Mvrex lacktca {^^t^irpura crispata, Chemn.]. 

IL Murex muUicotiatus [is not Trophon dathratuSf as supposed by Midd. ; but pro- 
bably &s7*. Ounnen, It resembles T, ^mto^m, Mart (Falkland Is.) on • 
small scale ; varices coronated, without spiral sculpture]. 

16. Aetnaa. [Gtenus described in the Appendix to Kotzebue's Second Vojrage, 183Q 
p. 350; somewhat before Tecturay teste Woodward.] 

18. Acnuea mamiUata. [The ^crowded tubercles ' were perhaps due to nullipore.] 

19. AcnuBo caseisljd a northern sheU, is perhaps the stronj^ly ribbed var. of p^'^ 

but the figure accords best with the Cape Horn species, P. «n«i. Mart.]. 
^. AenuM digitalie [is perhaps distinct from the variable />er5ona ; but passes into 
it by easy transitions]. 



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63S EBPOBT— 1863. 

Page. 

21. FitsunMa atptara ^jaiGl^vihu Unccinif OnjfSseratitia, Old. But Gl densida- 
thratOj Rye, is probably distinct; Sta Barbara, JetoeU, Cooper], 

27. TankervtlU Cat,, 1826. — ^The following species are also from the West 
Coast. The prices are added from the British Museum copy, as a record of 
their former rarity : — 

No. A|>p. page. Price. 
70 lOt. Scien ainAvpyut, 

101 158. Telltna qperculata. 

1G2 5f. TeUmaptmicea, 

, 206 £10 10s. Xf«rmaCA»/(fr«mTde8cribedbyGra7inAnn.Pbil.l824;Y.a]80 

ZooL Joum. Yol. L 1825y pp. 221-2. There is no aathority 
for the statement that it came from Brazil. The Br. Mus. 
specimens are from " Mus. Cracherode," and are probaUj 
West Coast The only known locality is Cape St. Luc«b.J 

1293 SOs. Trochus anmtiatui. 

1294 20». Trockus doUariui. 
1090 * 10». Murex cr%9pa(M$. 
1842 158. Purpura patuda, 
1855 20«. Pwrpwra pUauMpirtk 
1896 45«. Harpa crenata, 
2240 15*. CyprtBa madieea, 
2251 2s. amr€M oBmainoBO. 

2330 zxxii 15s. O&va splencUdula. Sdb.f^ 

2332 zxxiii 2s. 6d OUm hipUeata, West Coast North Ameiica. 

2333 xzxiT ' 2«. OUva cohtmeOaris. ?— 
2347 £5 5s. Qmus regiua. 

The „ in Rep., p. 174^ should have been omitted, excent at no. 808, p. yi. No. 
1401 IB described, on p. xii, as from Newfoundland. No. 1786 should have uo 
page-reference. 

In the 'ZoologicalJoumal,' London^ 1824r-1829, appear descrii^ions of the 
following species : — 

Paiv 

Vol i. March 1824^ 60. NiOica pahda, Sbv. " Brouj;ht from S. America by 

M. de Humboldt 2 specimens only known."* 
„ Oct 1824^ 369. Cypr^ea mbrostrat^ Gray. Nehoue (Mus. Sby.). 

L* Probably fossil * {Gray) : a white, smooth spe- 
cies, not to be confounded with Trivia subro strata. ] 
„ Jan. 1825, 510. Cworeca a^at»iosfl,Mawe, pi. 7. f. 2; pi. 12. f. 2. Cali- 

fornia. Named, without description, in Mawe*s 
Cat (= C. poraria, var., DucL : Z. J. iv. p. 68.) 
513. Ci/prcea ptutmata, Sol. S. Coast of Mexico. China. 
Vol. iiL Jan. 1827, 70. Ainnites gigantew (Sby.). P— [5=^. Potdsoni, Conr. 

Calif.] =i?tnmto giganiea, Gray, Ann. Phil. Aug. 
1826. asXt'yiui gigantea, Id. in loc. cit. [non J. Sby.] 
„ Sept 1827, 863. Cyprtsa wbrostrata, Gray [bis^ Trivial. P— 

864. (^ljpr<Ba radianSf Lam. = C omscusj Dillw. = C. pedi" 
cuius, fi., GmeL+ C. costaia, Dillw. W. Coast of 
Mexico. P Adriatic 
866, C^pnea CaU/ormanoy Gray [ Trivia]. Califomia. 
Vol iv. Jan. 1828, 145-162. Monograph of Ovukim, by G. R Sowerby. containing 

the species afrerwai^ figured in the Spec Conch. 

28. B€€chey*9 Voyage, — ^Xncreased study has supplied the following cor- 
rections : — 

* At p. 611, note \ Dr. Oray states that the Natica patnla, Barnes, Ann. Lye. Nat 
Hist N. y ., Sept 1824, L 188, is ** the shell deecrtbed under that name by Sby. As thei^ 
is another N.paUtla [? ubi], must be called bj Mr. Barnes's MS. name of 2f, heUcoidet* 
Also that DoUum deiUatum, Samei| loc dt =i>. rin^ent^ Sby. 

8 



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ON MOLLU8CA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 623 



Z. J. 372. ITaUea paUida [^Limatia caminay Old. f^-sokda, Old.]. 
872. Jfatica oiu, [Vat.^ Polmices fuscay Cpr.J 
372. Natica dausa [vxN. Beverlii, Leach, Ms. in B. M.l 
d78w Hmu lapiUm^Bue. subrostraiutn, Gray. [Resembles the smooth, 

stumpy form of I^irpura pUcata, Mart : *^ perfectly dUtinct/' 

testeUanL] 
870. Comu areuatus [as figured in Z. B. V., is a very difierent sheU from 

that in Mua Cum. and the monographs ; the latter is allied to C, 

tomatus], 
879. C<mm interrufius [resembles tlte broad form of C. mdhogoM], 
Z. Bw V, 180. (Add) OUtfaaemistriaia, Gray, pi. 36. f. 10. Hob. ?— [Panama, &cj 
1 10. C(mu8 Ximettm [scarcely differs from C mahofftmiy yar. in Mus. Cum. J 
182. [Should be] Agarcnia [et passiml 

147. (Add^ Mouretia Ptnmana, Shy. (P. Z. S. 1886, p. C) pi. 39. f. 6, 6'. 

[Also liargarita Bay, teste Ptate,'] 

148. Patella MazcOiandica, tjhis is the Sandwich Islands species, s=P. 

exarata, Nutt, teste HanL The laffs specimens quoted are pro- 
bably i>. ioXtxwo, Gld.] 

150. Chama eehmata, [Further acnes of specimens maloB it doubtful 
whetber this be not a distinct species from Cfrondosa, yar. The 
original sculpture has not yet been detected.] 

15L [Should be] CX/th^rta Im-adiata. 

152. (Add) Cardita borealisy Conr. (xz**Arelmnu ntdUy Humphr.'') pL 44. 
£ L [ProbaUy from near Icy Cape. Mus. Belcher.] 

Thf types of the ^Mcies described from this important Toyage have been 
scattered. Some have been identified frxnn Admiral Sir £. Belcher's CoUec- 
tioiiy which he kindly allowed me to examine for that purpose ; others are 
in the possession of Mr. Hanley ; bnt many appear hopelessly lost. 

29. Wood^s Ind, Test. — In Hanley's Revised Edition of this important 
work (London, 1856), seyeral new localities are added from the writer's 
Taried experiaice, and the synonymy is most carefully elaborated. No other 
book contains sndi a mass of trustworthy information on the old species in so 
small a compass. The following are quoted, either as original authorities, or 
for locality or synonymy : — 

2 W. (Mon tumcatmy Wood, Gen. Conch. 1815, pL 2. £ 1 {^Katherina 

Doufflasia, Gray]. Sitka. 

3 la ChUan UMohm, Wood, Gen. Conch. 1815, pi. 2. f. 4, 5. Sitcha, 

North Calif. [Mr. Hanley believes that Sitka is the island in 
lat 58°, and that Sitcha is in the district now known as Wash- 
ington TerritOTV, olim Oreffon.l 
S 20. CfUton sukatuB, Wood, Gen. Conch. 1815, pi. 3. f. 1. Galapagos. 
19 16. Solm maximuBy Wood, Gen. Conch. 1815, pL 81. £ 3 [siS. peOulus, 

Dixon. N.W. America]. Sandw. Is. 
21 8. TeOina rugosa, Bom. Is. of Opara, New California. [Pacific Is.] 
27 73. TdUna muriaxtay Chenm.=Zf«?ma scabroy Rve. Mexico. 
82 97. Qmus ptmlku, Wood : non Chemn. nee Lam. [nee Gld.] = C. pwic^ 

tirutatus, yar., Lam. (^uasi Brug.) Mexico. 
88 SI. Cjwraa onyXy Gray (^uasi Lin.) sb C.adugtay Chemn. [Pacific Is. llie 
San Diegan shell is closely allied, sZt^poMia apadicea,'] ' Cali£' 
99 85. Vduta mcro^Mto, Dillw. ; posterior to O. angtdata,lMm, Centr. Am. 
183 14. EaUotis Cracherodii, Leach=if. gUdpra, Schub. 1629, non Chemn. 
et auct Ca]i£ 
SunpL 201 8. leOina hdea. Grays T. edtermdentatay Br. & Sby. s= T. Guiifordia^ 
Gray, m Griff Cuv. pi. 19. £ 2. Icy Cape. 
202 L Donax BodpeUumy Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825, ix. IG65 aD. dongat^ 
Mawe; Conch, pi 9. £ 6, 1823. Cali£ 
9 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



624 tePORT— 1868. 

Page. Ffg. * 

Suppl. 202 2. Donax sttdtorumf Mawe, L c. pi. 9. f. 7 ; = TV^ona d., Gmy, Analyst 
1838. P S. America f « ^. era»8ateamde$yj un. Calif.]. 

204 5b Crania erassicostata^ Venericardia c, Sby., I^k. Cat. p. 4. = Csrr- 

Ate Oirtm, BiwL, P. Z. S. 1832. » C. MtcheUni, VaL Acapulco. 

205 11. ^rcaj9ec^vM/ormu,Gra7(P4P(;teitcu^),nonLam.s 

208 6. OmiM gradatusj Mawe. Calif! [s C. sealaria, VaL] Pan. 

211 25. Valuta lens, ^Hwe. Pan. 

211 26. Fo/tito harpa, Mawe, Conch. Front £ 2. 1823; a T. fiuc/etM^ Lam* 
8. Pacific 

211 33. roluianux,BM.BOlivabitUeata,8i>j,,TaiiL Cat Calif: 

212 Sa Fo^tite teiuhroaa, Mawes O. umUttella, DucL (Lam.) Pan. 
212 4. Buceinum temtSy Maweai Cam$ Massena, Eien. Galapagos. 

212 7. J9iMynmim<lMter^t<my Swains., B%h'8 Cats Cb&im6ei^^ 

DucL [Oarefla]. W. Colum^a. 

213 10. Bucemum Irevidentatum^ Mawe &s iVi^. eomigera, Blainv. » P. om^ 

jotoy Kien. W. Columbia. 
213 11. Buceinum denticulafum, Mawe I stMonoeeros hgubrsj Sbj. Gexu 
213 12. Bucdnum armatumy Mawe f Call£ 

213 13. Buceinum tectum, MawesiVr7>. eaUosa, Sbj. Gen., non Lam.sP. 

anguUfera, Kien. (pucl.)«3 C^ma sulcatUf Swains. MaL Pan. 
' 213 15. Buceinum jianaxi$2 mawessPL plantcosta, Sby.sP eanaUculatit, 

Duval, Rev. ZooL 1840, p. 107. Pan. [Furp, canaliculata,J)\xch, 
is <}uite distinct] 

214 25. Bucanum eiongatum^ Mawes Ter^a striffota, Sby., Tank. Catia 

T. zelfra, Eien. Pan. 

215 15. Strombui hituberculatus, B.M., non auct s/Si^. Pentvianus, Swains., 

PhiLMajp.62. W. Columb. 

216 8. Murex rigidus, RM.ssPuc. nodatum, MartjnasJftirer n., Gmel., 

DiUw.»2WrW»e«ari^uia,Gray. Pan. [Probably the Pacific sp. J 

217 10. JbTtirer sangtuneut, Mawes Turhindh varicota, Rve. Galapagos. 

217 14 Mtu^ex salmOf ^awe ^F(uciolariagr€mo8a,KiesL, AS o{'Brod,,F.Z,S. 

1832. Panama. 

218 1. Drockua undosus, Wood =7. undaiua, Mawe, Conch, no. 146 (not 

described) ; s T. ^oZtsminim, Val. Cali£ 

219 4 2h)cAi«^M-wfp«i/M,Mawe==rcytife«fe^aiM,Les8.,IU.ZooL 

=:2V. strigiiatus, Phil, (quasi Anton) Abbild. pi. 2. f. 9. Fan. 
225 45. Ikirbo aaxotus, MAWfi'^Marmarodama widukOa, Swains., 2^ol. lit 

8. 2. Pan. 
233 6. JJa^b^corrt^o^ Mawe, Conch, no. 181. P=:i7.9}/)<2oMi,PhiLAbl)it 

pi. 2. Cali£ 
233 3. PateUa peztza. Gray «2)t^po/«pa ByronevmSjQrKjy Enc. Metr. Molt 

pt 4 f. 4 =[P OrudMum gpmomm, var.J. Chill. 

31. Toy. BeagU, — ^The Triton seaber is rightly assigned to S. America: 
there is no satisfactory evidence for its appearance on the N.W. coast. The 
shells so quoted are probably either imported from the Magellan district, or 
are Friene Oregonensis, jun., or Ocinebra^ var. aspera. 

36. Dudos, — ^The original article is in the < Annalee Nat Sc.,* May 1832, 
and contains the following species : — 

Pftfe. PIftke. Fig. 

104 1 1* I^rwo'^ canaUadatOypucL, resembles P. suceincta on a small scale. 

CaL; very rare. [Figured with 10 principal and a few intercalary 
ribs, s P. deeemcosUdUf MiddJ 

105 1 2. Purpura meUmeSy Duel. P— fPanama.] 

1Q9 2 8. Purpura centiquadroy Val. MS. [DucL states that Val. altered hif 
own name to spedoaa while tne sheet was passing through the 
press. The latter, however, bears date 1833. J 

111 2 10. Purpttra mhteridia, Duct Cat [A well-known SiOrum from the 
Pacific Is.] 



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ON M0LLU8CA OP THB WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 525 

The species quoted in the text from Gu^rin, which appear in the Mag. 
Zool. for 1844, also appear here with the early date. Oliva polpaster, a south- 
ern form, from Guayaquil, iS^., is distinct from all varieties of the Gulf species, 
0. Cuminjii; it hears date 1839. In the same vol. are described and figured— 

PUle. 

2. Calyphraa (Cafypeopsis) rugoia. Less. Payta, Peru. [^Cmc. imbricatum^ 

without pit8.T 
23. Omus hieroglyphuSf DucL Prohably CaL ^[A Pacific form; like C, ahbre^ 

tiattts,'] 
27. Cyprtea eglanUnOy DucL Cal. [A starved var. of Aricia arabtcOf Pacific Is.] 

38. Lady Douglas (afterwards known as Lady Wigram). — Placunanomia 
§epio, [The type is an old shell, with faint ribs.] 

Plamnanomia alope. [The type is a young shell, with small scars and 
&int ribs. The large series of specimens examined in the Smithsonian col- 
lections proves that these forms are among the many varieties of P. macro- 
iehUma, The Indians have a superstitious dread of handling it. Many more 
species have since been detected in the Brit. Mus., from the late Lady 
Wigram's valuable donations, including Afacoma inquinata, Desh., described 
from her specimens ; but, as they are evidently from mixed localities, it has 
not been thought necessary to catalogue them.] 

*^. NuUdll. — ^The verification of Conrad's species being of considerable 
importance, I made diligent search for the original types during a recent 
tour in the United States. The supposed collection at Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., has not been discovered by Professor Agassiz. Th« 
ioqdries which Professor Longfellow kindly made at my request residted in 
information that it was ** in Dr. Wyman's Mus. Nat. Hist., in the granite 
building on Howard Street ; " but no opportunity has been afforded of col- 
iadng it, or even of verifying its existence. Dr. Jay rendered me every 
assistance in studying the types which he has catalogued in his collection, 
now rearranging in his residence at Memironeck, near New York, and gave 
such duplicates as could be spared for the Smithsonian Museum. Several 
species, however, were not to be found, ani some were clearly erroneous, as 
e. g. Chama " exogyra, Conr.," which proved to be C lobata, Brod. ; W. I., 
teste Cuming; China, Brit. Mus. The most satisfactory information was 
derived from an interview with Mr. Conrad himself at the Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Philadelphia, where the honorary curator, Mr. W. G. Binney, afforde^l us 
all possible aid in eliminating types from the collections of the Academy and 
of private conchologists in the city. Mr. Nuttall's death (the news of which 
was received soon after) prevented his revising the corrections thus obtained. 
As he had previously presented a duplicate series of his shells to the Brit, 
Mus., which had been incorporated with the general collection, and had sig- 
nified to me his intention to leave the unique specimens to the nation, I at 
once communicated with the survivors and with Dr. Gray, who was fortunate 
enough to stop the intended sale, and to secure the shells, which were kindlv 
presented by the executors. They are now mounted, and kept in drawei-s 
adjoining the Reigen collection, the Vancouver collection, and the Stimp' 
fionian typical collection of East Coast N. American shells. The following 
i» a resunU of corrections obtained from these different sources, numbered to 
correspond with the list, Eep. pp. 194-201 : — 

2. " Paraphoku*' perdta [}B a Photadidea'}. 

8. Platyodon canceOatusiMs Cryjatodonta myoideSf Nutt MS.]. 

i Cryptodon NutUdUiy Cora, [The author, finding the generic name preoccupied 
changed it to SchizothtBrus K : 1862, teste Bin. Bibl. ; 1854, .Journ. A. N. tf 
PhiL p. l^,^lMtraria capaz, Gld.=i. maxima, Midd.,sa2>wM# maximus, 

11 



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526 REPOBT-^1863. 

Gray, Mr. Nuttftll only brought borne youDjip speciineits of this elJctraordinaiT' 
sbefl. In its adult state it assumes either a transverse form (^capax) or 
the elongated condition, redescribed in a fossil state as new. Between 
these there is every gradation, as can be traced in the magnificent series in 
the Smiths. Mus. ; and a caskiul of the animals in spirits, of various ages, 
has affiliated the laige shells to the original Nuttallian specimens.] 

10. Pandora punctata [is a CUdiophora, The series so named in the Nuttallian 

collection belongs, however, to the Atlantic CI. trilineatn]. 

11. Solecurtus hundus [is almost certainly the youn? of no. 12. The amount of 

obliquity in the mtemal rib is extremely variable in the adult specimens]. 

12. Solecurtus NuttalUi IssMachara patula, DixOTiy±iAultts ffrandiSy (imel., teste 

Hds. in Mus. Cum. Mr. C.*8 **grandisy var.," from Monterey, suits in its 
proportions for the adult of 8, htddus. The shell has been widely distri- 
buted by conmierce, and i^fyears to extend far in a northerly direction. The 
animal is veir beautifully fringed]. 
14 Solecurius Cdli/omianus [=& Domheyi^ teste Mus. Cuming : non HanL MS.]. 

16. Psammobia Pacifica [is a Heterodcnax^ probably identical with the W. Indian 

JET. bimaculaia, which is found abundantly in its many varieties at Aca- 
pulco ;s 7W2ma vicina, C. B. Ad.]. 

17. Sanffumolaria Caiifomiana [^stMacoma incoMpicua, ]%od. & Sby., and is a 

northern species]. 

18. Sanffuinolaria rubroradiata [is the voung of a large species of i^ommodui]. 

22. TMna aka [=:(from types) ?Scrolneularia bian^daiaj Cpr.]. 

23. \^^MacoTna edtuU, Nutt. ; a northern variety of M, secta, no. 25, and quite 

distinct from M. edentula,'] 

26. The locality is not confirmed, and is probably erroneous. 

27. [Dr. G^ould considers his i>. obesus a distinct species j from a large series, it 

appears identical] 

28. 29. fThese species of StanddUiy described from young specimens, were tound 

of very large size by Dr. Cooper, with what may prove a third species, 
perhaps S, nasuta, Gld., o/tm.] 
306. Pdricota cardttoides [with P, arcuata+cyUndraceay Desh., are varieties of P. 
Calif cmica. The series preserved in the Smithsonian Museum connects all 
the extreme forms]. 

82. Mysia tumtday Conr. MS. [ss Diplodnnta orbeUa, Gld., and belongs to the section 

SphareUaf Conr. The label cad been assigned by accident to a young valve 
of a ChMnCf probably from the Sandwich Is.]. 

83. Tapes ataminea, [This is the extreme southern form of a widely diffiised and 

very variable species, of which the normal condition is Saxidomus PetitUy 
De8h.,=s VenuM rigida^ Gld. para. The principal varieties have been named 
Tapes diversa, Sby.= Venus mundulus, Kve., and Venus ruderata, Desh.] 

C4. [The Cal'fomian Saxidomi divide themselves into three groups: the large, 
southern, oval, grooved shells =»& araius, Gld. ; the subquadrate, compara'- 
tively smooth, northern shells «iSi squaUdHS'^giganteus,l}Qsh.; and an 
intermediate form, which is the t^e S, NuttaUHj Conr. Some of Mr. Nut- 
tail's specimens were, however, the young of & aratm, of which tiie adult 
was not known till very recently.] 

SS. [The young of this Pachydesma is " Trigona stuUorum, Gray," Desh. MS. in 
British Museum.] 

36. Cytherea caUosa [|= C nMUsy II ve. It is not a jDosinia, but the type of a new 
subgenus, Amianiis, differing fix)m CaUista as Mercenaria does m)m Venus']. 

87. Plate 19, fig 16 (not 14 nor 16). [The true Veims NuttalUi of Conr. (teste 

Conr. ips. and types in Mus. Phil. Ac. and Jay) is not the shell here cata- 
logued, which generally goes by that name, but is a synonym for the V. 
Califomiensisy Brod., =«/cci?M?<a, Val. The error was corrected in the Mus. 
Cum. in time for the right shell to be figured by Reeve in his recent mono- 
graph. It is doubtful what name Conr^ intended for the shell here cata- 
logued, which belongs to the group of Stutchhuryiyjluctifragay &c. If really 
distinct fit)m the latter, it may stand as Chione callosa, Sby. jun. (non Conr. ) ] 

88. Venus Caiifomiana [(teste Conr. ips.) was intended for P'. Calif omiensts. 

Brod. Not having access to ihe type, it could hardly be recognized by the 

12 



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ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST OOAST OP NOBTH AMERICA. 627 

brief diagnosis. The name should therefore be dropped. The shell, pi. 19, 
fig. 16 (not 16)s=<7Aibfie rnnilUmaj Sby., no. 89 ; a good Lower Californian 
species. It seems that the error was not in numbering of the figures, as 
Mr. Nuttall supposed, but in Conrad's identification of Broderip's species]. 

4f>.Chimeaccavata [is closely related to Ch. mccincta ; the unique type, however, 
in Brit. Mus. displays characteristic diflTerences of sculpture. It is singu- 
larly like the W. Indian Clu canceUata, and may prove exoticl. 

iLQfpneardia CaU/bmica [= C. Guiniaca, Lam.,= C. Vuperryiy Desn. Almost 
certainly from the Saudwich Is. J. 

45, 45ft. Cardtum Calif ormanum \= C, NfittaUii, var. The species is named " C 
earbis, Mart," by Desh. MS. in Mus. Brit, and OumingJ. 

48, Cardium quadragenat turn [=C. luteolabrum, Old.]. 

51. V. cateii, no. 32. 

6ft. Modiola recta. [Described from very young specimens. TTie broad form h 
MjiabeUata, Gld.] 

(9. M}ftiH$ bifurcatus, [The type is lost ; the figure and description would .^uit 
manv species. It is allocated, in Mus. Cum., to the Calirornian Septifer f 
but Dy Pease to a Sandwich Island Mvtihu,'] 

CO. [None of Conrad's species of 7«o^n mow have Been confirmed as from Califor- 
nia. They are known to inhabit the Pacific Islftiids.] 

636. [Mr. Nutt&Q also brought an oyster, which he named m MS. O. latecmtdata, 
sO. kirida, var. ; and Hinniie* ^ganteuSy Qravyssff. PauUoni^ Conr.1 . 

64 [Dr. Gould states that J7. NickUfffona, Lea,s J^ Californienns, Pfr., Cnemn.^ 
Rve. ; but that JI. CaUfomiensL, Lea, is distinct] 

69. Hdix Twenaendiana [s=jy. aruginota, Gld. MS.].^ 

74. Chiton NuttaOU [is an l9chnoch%t<m\. 

75. Chiton aeutus [is an aberrant form of MapdUa. ** Chiton eonsimtlis^^^ Nntt. ^13. 

in Brit. Mus.y appears to be Mopalia Hindm, var. *' Chiton Cali/vmicttx " 

Nutt ^S.,=" AcarUhopleura'' scabra, Rve.]. 
77. Patella mantiUata, Nutt [(non Esch.) is now assigned in Mus. Cuming to 

Acm€ea $eabra, Nutt., var. Hmaiula'}. 
68. Finut'ella omata, Nutt'r=-^' rolcano, Rve.l. 

(4. Glyphii dmndathrata, Kve. [ V. anted, p. 522. The shell has been lost] 
B6i H, CaU/omientis, Swains, [(not CaUfomiana, Val.,Brt{/e9(?«nx), isan ''xtrenne 

var. of H. CracherodH. The series in the Smithsonian Mus. have 5, 6, 7, 

8, and 9 holes ; as soon as it has 10 and II, it passes into CalifomiefmSf 

which was figured in 1821 with 9 holes. When these are numerous, they 

are generally small in proportion], 

91. CallioSoma doHarium [ssC canaltculaium, Mart This and C anmdatumf 

Mart, are quite distinct from CjHoeunty which =r C, eodatum, Mart.]. 

92. Omj^uiliuB ater[\s the S. American species. The common Californian shell is] 
Oi 0. marginatusy Nutt MS. [aafunebralis, A. Ad.1. 

976. The cmlection contains one specimen of Crepiavla dorsata, 

108. ris a Serpulorbis, without operc., te^te Cooper.] 

100. LUorina lenehrata [should he oatula, Gld. (non Jeffir.). Nuttall's MS. name 

was published by Phil, in 1845]. 
107. Katica fmaroceana, var. CaUformea, [The varietal name must be dropped. 

The shell certainly came from the Sandwich Islands.] 
106. [The shell is VittdaJ-ia 8alebro$a, jun., and not] Ranella triquetra, 

109. Mitra maura [Swain%, teste Rve. (?VLbi)siM. orientaHa, Gray, vAf. <'C9^ 

fowM," Kien.]. 

no. OUveOa glandinaria, Nutt [=:0. bwlieataf Sby.]. 

112, 113. ISirpura aperta and P. harfM fare certainly from the Sandwich Islands]. 

114. Purpura emarqinata [was described by Desh. from an immature specimen hi 
which a haif-formed knob caused an 'demarcation." The adult is one 
very extreme form; P. ostrina^ Gld., is another ; P. fmtata, Fbs., is a third. 
The normal condition is P. lapiUuiy Cooper (non Linn.), K«(mco^, Val. 
Mr. Nuttall's collection also contains] P. crispaia, var. 

lift. Monoeeros brevidenslis an accidentally short-toothed form of Jlf. lapiUoides], 

118. Cerostoma NuttalUi [with C.foUaium and, C.monoceroe, Sby., belongs to Pitt» 



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528 KEPORT— 1863. 

The specimens numbered 2, 6, 8, 0, 19, 21, 28-51, 36, 44, 46, 49, 60, 52-64, 60, 
69, 64-67, 70-72, 76, 84, 86-88, 98, 101, 103, 104> and 109 do not appear in th« 
Brit Mus. Nuttallian collection. 

41. Voy. Venus, — Rev. Zool. and Gu^r. l£ag. 
Area trapezia [ssA. tuberculosa'], 

Saxicava leyumen [^ S, pholadis \ Pfrom hole of IMophagus], 
Petricola arcuata [=the normal state of P. eardUoideSy Conr. J. 
Petrtcola cylindracea [=a short form of the same sp., developing ridges of growth, 

like Tapes ruderata^ Desh.]. 
Venefypis^gantea[ssSaj:id(mius sgualiduSfBesli], 
Cynricardut Duperreyi [= C. Chdnaiacay Lam.,ss ft Calif omiea, Conr. A Sandwich 

Island species, twice quoted, but not confirmed, from Cal.]. 
Cardiwn LaperoussU [is an Aphrodite^ like Grcmlandicum, but more transverse, and 

with lateral teeth less developed. This very rare and probably boreal shell haa 

just been identified from A dm. Sir E. Belcher's coHl 
Cardium Califomiense, Desh. [is not C. CaKfomianum (^NtdtaUit), Conr. ; but= C, 

pseudofossiie, Rve., 1844. The name of I)esh. is unfortunate, as his shell is the 

Kamtschatkan form with strong ribs. The Califomian form is smaller, with 

fainter ribs,=C blofuktmy Gld.]. 
Purpura Freycinetii [is figured from a very extreme form of the Japanese speciea. 

P. ostrina passes into similar varieties]. 
Vdutina Mimeri [probably = V, lavigata, which reaches Vancouver! 
Lueina eristata [= TelUdora lunulataf Holmes ; described from the Fleistocene of S. 

Carolina, antf lately dred|^ alive by Dr. Stimpson ; not T, Burnet*]. 

TKe following may be added to Deshayes' list : — 
PL 8l. TelUna ligamentina, Desh., 1843.. Eab. P— [^Maeoma secta, Conr.] 

Tdlina Japonicoy Deah., in Mus. Cum. [also appears to be Jf. secta, jun.]. 

In Valenciennee' plates to the Voy. Ven. have been recognized the follow- 
ing West Coast species and synonyms, in addition to those quoted in Hep. 
pp. 203-204:— 

Piute. Pig. 

3 2. Trochus diadematuSy Val. [resembles Pomtndax undostts, jun., but the sur>- 

face is faintly wrinkled aD over; umbilical region not chiseled; and 
operc not ridged. It is probably intended for Pachypoma giiberosum]. 

4 1. Trochus rubiginosuSf Val. [probably =71 annulatuSj Mart.]. 

2. Trochus peiiuciduSf VaL [resembles T.lima, Panama]. 
6 8. Puecinum PrevostH, Val. [prohMy^ Pisania payodus], 

8 1. Purpura bufonides, VaL [appears one of the many vara, of P. UseriaUs']. 

9 1. Purpura rupestris, Val. [probably =JfomM?fros lugubre, \\m.]. 

10 1. Murex adtkdigery Val. [is represented with labrtd tootn and closed canal ; 
but resembles C.festtvus, Hds.]. 
8. Murex tortuus rBrod.), Val. [resembles Ph, prinoeps, with a very poor 
operc., badly drawn j. 

16 1. Venus Thouarsii, VaL \?^muUicostataf Sby. ; figured with yety broady 

smooth, close ribs, scarcely indented, except in the middle]. 

3. Venus pectuncuioides, Val. [is probably T, grata, not histriomca], 

17 2. Cardium subehngaium (Rve.), Val. [appears^ C, procerum, jun.]. 

18 2. Pecten comatus, Val. (may he^hastalm, j^un. ; bu^ although figured with 

out the red spot, it most resembles Htn. giganleusy jun.]. 

19 1. Pecten exeavatusy VaL [ssjanira dentata^ Sby.]. 

8. „ pomatioy Val. [may bessP. venincosusy jun.]. 

4. „ rastelUnum, Val. [as P. hastatuSy \\m,]. 

21 Ostrea gallus, Val. [" Acapulco," with We plates, «= O, megcdon, Hanl.l. 

22 1. CarditaarcelhyVti,l?^ren.radiatayShj.]. 

2. „ modulosa (Lam.), Val. [ = Lazaria qjjinis]. 

3. „ turpida (Lam.), Val. [= Ven. laticostata]. 



5. „ MteheUni, Val. 

23 2. Nuada divaricatoy Val. (prohMy ^ N! eastrensis'], 

24 1. PeniUUa ContadU, VaL [may het^Phoiadidea ovoided}. 



= V. Cuviert], 
- )lv = 
esi 
14 



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ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OV NORTH AMERICA. 629 

Pig; 

2. PauteBa xihphaga, Val. [may be the adult of fig. 4]. 

5. FmUd a tuhigeroy Val. [may possibly be intend^ for Pk.nemta]. 
4. Fhokts rodratOy VaL [is probably ssJv«to«^oma Dartoinii, Sby. jun.l 

6. UnffuUna hOteolayVtil. [may be an extremely bad Petricola rolnuta\, 

6. Ccrbmla htUocia, Val. [is probably si^s^ma/ra^iZw]. 

7. Borma luUcolOf VaL [^Kellia Ze^perouMtt]. 

8. Saxicava i^ava, VaL i^S. kffumen, Desli.jX S,phoiadi8f var.]. 

The identification of these species is attended with great uncertainty, as 
the types have not been seen, and the artist appears to have studied ^ect 
rather than accuracy. 

42. Voyage of Sulphur. — ^The types of these species appear to have been 
scattered. Only a part are now to be fonnd in the very valuable collection 
ef Admiral Sir E. Belcher, in which most of the shells are, unfortunately, 
destitute both of names and of locality-marks. 

Murex Beleheri [belongs to Furpuridae, and may be considered the type of • 
the genus Ckorus]. 

Eandla Calif omica. [After comparing a series with the Cumingian speci- 
mens of B. vcntrieosa, it appears that the diagnostic characters are not con- 
stant] 

MargineUa sapotUla. [The type in lius. Cuming is much smaller than 
the ordinary condition of M, prunum=ccerui€$cen8f Lam., to which species 
the common Panama shells were referred by Mr. Cuming. In his collection, 
however, they stand thus : — Ordinary Panamic type " sapotilla, Hds. : 6-13 
fins., sandy mud, Panama, H,C?^ Another tablet of the true Panama shells 
" Margindlay n. sp., Panama,*' — " San Domingo " having been crossed out. 
The small West Indian form, analogous to the typical sapotilla, is given as 
**glansy Mke." The large West Indian shells, with violet tinge behind the 
labmm, are " ccerulescens^ Lam., Panama," without authority. Another series 
of the W. Indian type is given as " cceruUscens, var.. Lam., 10 fms., sandy 
mod, Panama," without authority. Either habitat-errors have crept into the 
Cumingian labels, or else Mr. Eedpath's observation will not hold, viz. that 
the Atlantic shells have a posteri< r pinch on the labrum, which is not seen 
in the Pacific. All the authentic series examined from the two coasts bear 
out his view. There will be two opinions as to whether this be more than 
a mere local distinction.] 

Solarium quadrkeps, [On comparing suites of S, granulomm from the 
Texan coast with series from the Gulf of Califomia, it appeared that on each 
side of the Peninsula the sheUs went through similar changes in strength of 
sculpture, size of umbilicus, number of spiral . granules, &c. ; nor could any 
clue be obtained by which the coasts could be separated in a mixed collection. 
Hinds's shell stands at the furthest extreme of removal from S. granvHatumJ] 

43. U. S, Exploring Expedition. — ^The shells of this collection were depo- 
nted in the Patent Office in Washington, D.C., where, notwithstanding the 
great care of Mr. Varden, the curator, they were not a littie tampered-with. 
Dr. Gould laboured under great difficulties in his work of description ; he 
had access only to that part of the collection which happened to be unpacked 
and exposed to view during the brief period that his professional engagements 
allowed of his visiting the capital ; and his request to be allowed to take 
doubtful sheUs to Europe for identification was refused. The materials also 
were of an unsatisfactory kind, a large proportion of the specimens being 
much weathered, and many of the locality-marks being manifestly erroneous. 
If occanonal errors have been detected in his great work, they may fairly be 
set down to causes over which the author had no control. Many of these 

1863. 16 



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630 BSPOKT — ^1863. 

have been corrected by Dr. Qovld himself, in his 'Otia Conchologica,* 
Boston, 1862, which contains the yarions papers in the 'Proceedings of the 
Boston Soc. of Nat. Hist.,' with an appendix. After the organization of the 
Smithsonian Institution, all the natural-history collections belonging to the 
Federal GoTomment were transferred to its keeping, with liberty to exchange 
duplicates. The shells remained unopened, and the types not accessible, till, 
at the request of Professor Henry, I undertook the arrangement of the col- 
lections. Fortunatdy, a considerable part of the shells professing to be 
the figured types of the new species were found together, with the artisfa 
marks corresponding with the plates and figures. The result of the exami- 
nation, so far as the general coUection is concerned, wiU shortly be prepared 
for the press ; it is sufficient here to tabulate the obsarrations on the N.W. 
American species, which were, as it happened, the most satisfactorily pre-* 
served in the whole series. The following additional particulars include the 
** Bectifioations " in the * Otia,' the paging of which is continued from the 
** Expedition Shells " quoted in Bep. p. 209. The quarto rolume quoted in 
p. 210 is distinguished as << E. £. Mollusca." The folio atlas of plates bears 
date on tide 1856, but was not poblished till 1861, teste Binn. Bibl. vol. i. 
p. 504. The comparisons of types were made in 1860, from a proof copy. 

0&U,Page. 

a Chiton lignofus^lMopaUd] Merchii, Midd., test Gld. R R MolL [from 
worn specimens : 3= C%. ifontereyensUy Cpr., from perfect shells.! 
280. Chiton (Ch€Btopleura) vesperthtuB. Perhaps as C9i. hgnoauSf yax. [ A Jfo« 
paliuy differing slifi^htly in the amount of posterior ware. The fig. in 
C). R Moll. IB maae-up from broken specimens.] 

6, 242. Chiton (Onithochiton) dentiens. [The shell sent as tyye of this species, 

and all the others seen from the coast, agree in belongmff to Ischmehiton, 
and are not dentate, as would be ]^resumed frx)m the figures and diag- 
nosis. As Dr. Gould's toothed Omthochiton may hereafter be found, the 
Smithsonian shells have been named Isch. pseudodentienaJ] 
tf ^4St, Chiton (Chatopleura) mtucosus, l^Acanthqpleura museosa, H. & A. Ad. 
Gen.,= C%. ornatus, Nutt P. ZTS. 1856, p. 2S2,-\- MopaUa eoruimilis, 
Nutt MS. in B. M. This beautiful species is a true MopaUa.'] 
230. Chit<m (Lejjtochiton) interatineUu, Resembles C./Slf^cA^fuw, Midd. [sCo^ 
lochiton if H. & A. Ad., Gen. It is a true I^chnochiton, The genera of 
Chitonidffi cannot always be ascertained by external characters alone^ as 
indicated in Messrs. Adamses genera. All the species in the Smithsonian 
Museum have been dissectedj 

7, 242. PnteUa (Tedura) Jtmbriata^ P. dnis, Rve. l^Aemaapdta, Esch.]. 
0, 242. PateUa {NaeeUa) instabilis, [Varies greatly in proportions.! 

9, 242. Zottia (Teetura) pintatUna, [The types represent tne normal condition of 
Aemaa patina. One variety is A, crArariaf Gld. MS. The speci- 
mens of A, mesolevca intermixed by Dr. G. in the Mexican War collec- 
tions were, no doubt, afiiliated by an oversight] 

10, 243. PateUa (Teetura) textilia is a var. of T, persona, Esch. [A well-marked 
form of delicate growth, passing from A. persona into A, pdtOj var. ; 
from the youn^ of which some specimens can hardly be distinguished, 
except by the fretted pattern.] 

10, 243. PatiUa ( Teetura) acabra ^spectrum (Nutt), Hve., not scabra (Nutt.), Hve. 
[The ^pe-specimens belong to two species, f. 456, 4560, being A, spec* 
trum, Nutt, while 4566 represents the flattened variety of A. persona, 
Esch. (approaching the form digitalis, Each.). As the diagnosis best 
accords with the latter shell, P, scabra, Gld., may stand as a synonym of 
persona, var. ; the intermixed specimen, accidentally figured as belonging 
to the species, being removed to spectrum, Nutt Thus the name scabra, 
not bein$r needed as first described, will remain for Nuttall*s species^ 
described by Rve., but first named in print by Jay.] 
16 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 531 

Jtlm, Fk«tt. 

lo. Crepidula Ungulaia, [Described from a worn specimen. Perfect shells 

cannot be separated from C bihhatay Rve.,s C. P dorsatay var. btlobaia, 
Maz. Cat., nor from the supposed C. darsata in Mus. Cum.] 

15. Crepidula nummaria, [Described from an aberrant, worn, and rounded 

specimen. The normal state is C, navicelhideSy Nutt When grown 
in hoUow bivalves^ it becomes nummaria : the contrary extreme, grown 
in crypts of borers, with another shell or crab over it, is exptanatay 
GW., = eartwiote, Nutt,ssjwr/bron», Val. The Lessonoid form is C. 
fimbriatOy Rve. The young appears to be C minnUiy Midd. But the 
"C. nummariay Old.," of Mus. CunL, is quite a distinct species, not known 
from the American coast.] 

50, 244. Natica (Lunatia) caunna+ 1 r_ r ^m-j^ -d, c. qu^ t 

50, 244 Xatica (lAmatia) algida ; « R. N^ro," R R Shells ; « Oreffon," E. R Mo'L 

[verfe : =young of X. Lewim, Old., July 1847, =X. hercidceay Midd., 1849], 
62. Laama earinata, Gld., Nov. 1848 [X. solidulay Lov., 1846. Finmarkl 

62,245. Litmna paiula, Gld. [non Jeflfr.], Mar. 1848,«=X.p^amm» [Nutt], Phil., 

1847. 
62, 53. IMorina Upida, gcuhdatOy et plena [ore shown by large series to be varieties 

of one species]. 
09. lAtorina cincta, Gld., Auff. 1847, Puget Sd. [=i. SitchanOy Phil., 1845. 

This species appears to nave been overlooked in the £. E. Moll. J 
61. Ceriihium irrara^im, Gld. [= C. obemniy Shy. sen., teste H. Cuming. The 

type proves this to be an E. I. species, and not the Panamic C stercut' 

muscarumy Val., as supposed by Dr. Gld. : v. C. B. Ad. in loco], 
C2. Ceriihium JUommy Gld., May 1849 l^Turritella Eschrichtiiy Midd., 1849, 

(BiUium). Comp. CJUomm, Phil., Z, £ M. 1848, p. 84. California]. 
C>4, 245. Fu9us (Btla) fidicula. 

ei, 245. Fu9UB (Trophon) Orpheus [(non Baird.) = T, Fahriciiy Moll., in Br. Mus.] 
67, 245. Buccinum (Nassa, s. g. TriUa) fosmtum. Cmsia in Ind. p. 253. [ssiNT. 

degansy Rve., 1842, non Duiardin : ^Zaphon e., Add.]. 
70,245. Nassa (Tritia) mendica^N. Woodwardi, Fbs., 1850 [from types t+iV. 

GibbesOy Coop.]. 
71, 245. ColumbeUa {Aha) gausapata, [Belongs to the Nassoid group, Amycla.'] 

75, Mya pracisa [^M, truncata, Scaromy even a variety j but approaches 

the form Aklrovandi.'} 

76, 245. Lutraria (Tresus) capax. [Dr. G. revives his excellent name ; X. maximoy 

Jonas, 1844, being anterior to Midd. Conrad's name, Schizotharus 
NuUaUiif is, however, very much earlier.^ 

77, 246. Osteodesma {Lyonsia) bracteatum [+ O. nitidumy Gld., in different states 

of preservation, =X. CaUfomicay Conr. The " golden nacre " of O. brac^ 
teatum is due to incipient decay, as generally happens in Anomiads]. 

S3, 246, Cardita (Acttnobohts) ventricosa, [Appears to be a local variety of the 
ancient Miocene species, Venericarauiboreahs'y+C. occidenialis, Conr., 
+ C, mbtentay Conr. (fossil) probably.] 

83. Cardium blandum, 1850. [A finely grown Pvar. of C. CaHfomiense, Desh., 

1839, Midd. (non C Califomianuniy Conr., 1837, = corbis, var^ = C.pseudc^ 
foesHey Rve., 1844 The name is so like the preoccupied Cali/omianum 
that it may advantageouslv be dropped.] 

85. Venus rtgidoy 1850 [non Dillw. 1817. It is fortunate that the name is 

not needed, as the author has joined two very different species, both 
of which have other names. The original Latin diagnosis applies to the 
Tou|^h northern form of Tapes siaminea, Conr., whicn is the Saxidomifs 
PetttU of Desh., and includes V, ruderata, Desh. But the '^ specimen, 
Sf in. lonff." which modified the description in the E. R Moll., and is 
figured at f. 538, proves to be the adult form of Tapes tenerrimay Cpr., 
P. Z. S. July 1856, which is a Califomian and not a Panamic species, 
as had been supposed from CoL Jewett's label]. 
8T, 246. Anodonta cognata-^A. Oregonensisy Lea (probably). . 
87. Anodonta feminalis [as JL. angulata, var., teste Lea]. 

2 17 



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5S2 BvpoRT — 1863. 

Otift, Page. 

©3. MytHus (Modtola)JiaheUaiw. [The northern form of Modtofa rtdn, Pfmr. 

The " specimens from the Gulf of California " must have been M. Bra" 

uUensiSf intermixed by accident] 

94. Mytilus tro88ultu [is scarcely a variety of 3f. edult's, which is very abiindnnt 

along the coas^ mider its usual modifications of form and colour: but 
generally of small sizel 

95. Peden henceuSf Gld. r=P» hastatuSy Shy. sen.]. 
07,246. Ter^atula (Waldheimia) pulvinata. 
97,246. TerehraUda {TerebraUUa) caurina. 

S. B. MoU. 
Page. 

113. HanorhiB eorptdentus is of Say* 

14*^. Melania plicifera is of Lea. 

486. Anodonla angulaia is of Lea. 

206. Scalaria faustralts [is abundantly confirmed from the Vancouver district 

It should be called OpaUa horedisy Old.]. 
244. Purpura oetrina, Old., * Otis-' p. 225 [is an aberrant smooth var. of P. 

laptUus, Coop., non Ln. ; tne normal state being P. aaxtcoIOf Val.]. 

The following species, described in the * Otia ' and ' E. E. MoU.' as from * N. 
Zealand ' and an unknown locality, are really from Puget Sound. 

OtUK Pftge. 

66, 24o. Trochus pupiUus, Old., March 1849: N. Zealand (Ziziphtnus in Index) :» 
Margarita calostmnoj A. Ad., 1851. Conip. T, modesfus, Midd. [which 
is, however, =3 %a^tM, G]d.f=scostaiu8, Mai-t. This species is nnmed in 
the B. M. Col. " M, costeilata, Shy.," but is distinct, teste A. Ad. & 
Mus. Cum.]. 
64,245. Fum$ {NeptujMBo) ineumSj Gld., May 1849. Hab.P— [^Tiitomum 

{Fu$u9) Siicherue, Midd., 1849,=Pttccinum dirum, Rve., 1846.] 
B. A. Bep. 
Pflffe. 

210. Venus eaJcarea [is correctly described by Dr. G. as fit)m N. Zealand j 

although quoted by him as the Oregon analogue of V, mercenaria], 

211. TeUina Calif omicay Conr. [^ssMacoma ineonspicua], 

211. Triton twrinum [is from Central America, not] Puget Sd. 
211. Pecten FabricOy rhil. [is the youngof Islandicus : Dr. G.'s shells are the 
young of P. (" rubidusy Pvar.") Hindsit]. 

211. iMuscancelUnus, [Dr. G.*s shells are Ocinehra^ var. aspera,'} 

212. Purpura lagenay Gld. [MS., is probably saxicohy var.]. 

213. Pecten Townsendi [has not been identified]. 

213. Venus ampUata [is oelieved by Dr. G. to have been first designated by him 
as a species, afterwards proved «r^5r/«to (Petitii), var.]. 

44. Middend<yrff, — ^The sjmonymy given in Rep. pp. 214-222 is that of 
the author, not of the writer of the Report, who is by no means prepared to 
accept the learned doctor's identification of species. The three Chitons quoted 
with doubt from Tilesius have not been confirmed, as from Kamtschatka, by 
any other writer. The Ch. giganteus has the aspect of the large Ischnochitati 
Magdalensis ; the Ch, muricatus belongs to the Lophyrus group, which is not 
known so far north ; and the Ch. setosus has also a S. American aspect. The 
treatise *' De Chitone Giganteo Camtschatico addrtamentum ad Zoographiam 
Rosso- Asia ticum, auctore Tilesio," was read March 19, 1823, and published 
in 1824. It contains a very valuable and (for that period) remarkable account 
of the anatomy of Chitons, but it does not profess to name and describe species 
in the modern sense. The names, therefore, had better be dropped. Midden- 
dorflTs new species were first described in the * Bulletin de la Classe Physico- 
Mathematique de TAcademie Imperiale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg,' a 
work of which few complete copies are known in England, under the folio w« 
ing dates. 

April 20, 1847: vol. vi. Na 8 (total number 123). 

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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 533 

116. CkiUm SteUeri, n. s.^s C. amwukUuSf Shj., Rve., non Palla«. 

117. CkUonPaOasii, J1.S. 

117. Chiton Brandtil, n. s. 

118. CkUan Mertenmij n. s. [I9chnoekiton\. 
lia CkiUmE9di9ckoUsiiyTi,B, 

119. Chiton Womtesaemkiif n. 8. [A typical MopaHa : mantle indented behind.] 

120. Chiton MerekUj n.8. [sC^ Uffndsm, Gld.^ July IS^i^Mopalia MontereyeU" 

««,Cpr.l 

120. Chiton Uvtdu$yn.%. 

121. Chiton terobiculatus, n. 8., California. 
121. Chiton SUchensis, n.8. 

Nov. 1847 (read April 28) : toL tL No. 20 rtotal number 140). 

317. PateBa (?Acmaa) ancyioidesy n. 8. [Probabl v a delicately grown vounff patina : 

the diagnosis, however, suits textilis. Kame afterwards aiterea to per- 
mmoides, to distinguish from Propilidium anrt/hide, Fbs.] 

318. PMeOa (?Acnuea) aruffino8a.n. s, [Viohhhlj s^textiUs, Old., 1846; but the 

figure is more like scabraf NuttJ 

318. Patella (P Acm^&a) pileoluSf n. s. [Probably the young of A.pelta ; but assigned 

in Mus. Gum. to a very different shelly = A rosacea, Cpr.J 
818. PateBa (?Acm€Ba) Atmi, n. s. [A specimen of A, pelta, in Dr. Cooper's col- 
lection, began ufe as A, Asnu,'] 

319. Patella (?Aenued) etBca; genuina, vertice erecto, Atlantic. 

319. Patella (?Acm€Bd) eaca, var. eoncentrica ; vertice subinflexo ; with crowded 

lameUce of growth. 

1849 ; read Oct 6, 1848 : voL vii. No. 160. *' Vorlaufige Anzeige einicrer neuei 

Konchylien aus den Oeschlechtem : Litonna, ftc^von Dr. A. Th. v. Midoendorff/* 

241na*L Litorina grandiB. [The specimens in b. M. and Mus. Cum. appear to 

represent a large var. of L, litorea.'] 
242 2. Litorina Kurila (like tenebrosa). 

242 3. Litorina mbtenehrosa, [Probably an extreme var. of X. SitchanaJ] 

243 4. Tritonium (Fums) antiquum^ Ln., var. Behringiana, 
243 5. Tritomnm (ISism) Behrinffii, 

243 6. Tritonium (Ikmis) Baerii, 

244 7. Tritonium (I\iws) Sitchense [probably =s Chr. dints, Rve., var. ; but stated 

to be ** e livido viridescente ; columella siepius umbilicata"]. 
244 8. TMtonium (Fusus) ktridum fs Viitdaria aspera, Baird, smooth form]. 
244 9. Tritonium (BuccinwnS simplex, 

244 10. T^ritoniwn (Buccinurn) Ochotense, 

245 11. Tritonium {Buccinum) undaium, Linn., var. Schantariea, 
245 12. Tritonium {Buccinum) ooides, 

245 13. BulUa ampuOacea [xb the genus Vobdharpa of Fischer], 

246 15. Natica hercukea. North California [ =X. Leicisii, Old., July 1847]. 
246 16. Margarita arctica, Leach, var. major. 

In the text of the 4to volumes, the following corrections are suggested, the 
numbers referring to the page in the B. A. Report which contains the abstract. 

Report, 215. Acmaa scutum, D*Orb. [is quite distinct from A, persona, Esch. The 
latter, as figured by Midd., is a very young sheU, not certainly be- 
longing to the species]. 

216. Turritella Eschrichtiu X^Bittium ,filosum, Gld., May 1849. There 
being no month -date to Midd.^s species, the excellent name of Gld., 
whicn may also be of Phil. 1848, should be retained.] 

216. Trodws ater and moestus [are well-marked South American species. 
Probably the shells intended are Chlorostoma funebrale, A. Ad., 
and its congeners.] 

216. Trochtts euryomphalus \^Phorcus mdligo, Mart, teste Dohml. 

216. Trochus modestus, Md. [ =s/?fo.««, Wd., = CaUiostoma costaium, Martyn]. 

216. Trochus {Turbo) Fokkesit [is from the peninsula of I^wer Cal.]. 

216. Natica /lava, Gld. f" is entirely different from any of the synonyms 
under it," teste Gld.], 

19 



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534 BEPORT — 1863. 

K^pcit^ 216. Sedlaria Oehotensis [appears an aberrant Opaha; but is the genus 
Adrsa of Morch, closely allied to MesaUa, teste A. Ad.1. 

210. Crepidula SUchana [is iigured like the younf of grandts; bat the 
specimens in Mus. Cum., when comj}ai«d with the similar stage of 
C. excavata, display no difierences either inside, outside, or in the 
nuclear whorls J. 

216. Crepidula minuta [appears the young of C, nadceUoideSf Nutt] 

216. Crepidula grandis [fossil at Sta. Barbara, ss C. j9rtnc«ip«, Conr. Can 

hardly be distinguished from very fine specimens of C. famicatcif 
sent from Halifax, Nova Scotia, by Mr. Willes]. 

217. Trichotropis canceUatOy Hds. [is ouite distinct from T. horeaUs], 

217. Purpura decemcostaUty Midd-ls^P. canaUcukUa, DucL Var. «P. at* 

tenuata, Rve. Var.sP. analoga, Fbs.] 
217. Tritonium (^Trophm) elaihratum, Ln. [is distinct from the shouldered 

Jf. nmtUcostatuSy E8ch.,s6rt«nitm\ JLov.].^ 

217. Tritonium {Fusm) decemcostatum [s Chr, Middemhrffii, Cooperaa 

Chr, UratuSy Martyn.] 

218. Tritonium (Buecimmi) canceUatum [Midd., non] Lam. [^^Priene 

Oregonensisy Red£ P. cancellata is the Cape Horn species. Some 
specimens in alcohol in Sir £. Belcher's collection, however, said 
to be from I^ Cape, greatly resemble the southern shell]. 

218. Tritonium (PoUia) scabrum [is exclusively a S. American snell. Dr. 

M.'s shell may nave been Ocinebra, var. oMj^ral. 
2ia Pectenrubiduiy Hds, [noil Utatyjiy^PIslandicmyUuYL Midd.'8pl.l3. 
f. 1-3 are marked m expl. of plates " Idandicus, var. Behringiana ; " 
they are probably (" rubidm, ?var.") Hindsii, But the tigs. 4-6 
are certainly the young of Hinnites giganteus], 

219. Venerupis gigantea. [Decorticated specimens oi^S^jriiomiM «9ua/i<fti«.] 
219. Petricola gifia. [Elongated form ofcytindraceaj Desh., s carditoide8,Y&s J 

219. MacJuBra costata. [The figures represent M. pattda, Dixon.] 

220. dngula minuta [" is quite distinct from Hydrobia tdvtej^ teste Gld.]. 
220. Vehdina crgptoepira, [Probably a Lamellaria.] 

220. Purpura Freycinettii, Desh. [is quite distinct from aUenuatay Rve. It 

is doubtful whether Middi's snells belong to De8h.*s species]. 

221. Terebratuia frontahSf Midd. 1851, named in 1849, [may be the young 

of Wtddheimia Coreanica, Ad. & Rve., 1850, ^ TerebratMt miniaia, 
Gld., 1860, teste A. Ad., Rve.]. 
221. Astarte lactea, Gld. [is distinct from A, Scotica, teste Gld.]. 

221. TdUnafusca, Sav [is distinct from T. solidulay though it mays T. 5a/- 

tkica ; teste Gld. Macoma niconepicua, Br. & Sby., is distinct from 
both]. 

222. Lyoima hyalina [is distinct from X. Norvegical. 

222. Machara costaiay Say. [Dr. Gould does not befieve that any of Midd.*8 
synonyms belong to this species. Solen mediuSy in Br. Mus^ appears 
=s iS. ambiguus, Lam., as figured by Swains. It is not a macJiiera.] 

45. Samarang. — Litorina castanea. Ad. <fe Rve., 1850. " Eastern Seas," 
p. 49, pi. 11. f. 8 [appears identical with L, Sitchana, Phil.]. 

46. E, B, Philippi. — Columbella tasniata, Phil., 1846 [is probably identical 
with Anachis Gaskoinei, Cpr. But C, tcmiata, Ad. &> Rve., 1850, is perhaps 
a Nttidella]. 

47. The " Mexican War Naturalists,^^ — ^These were Major Rich and Lier.t. 
Green. Col. E. Jewett was not connected with the war, as would be supposed 
from the introduction to Dr. Gould's pamphlet. The following coirections 
apply to the new species tabulated in Rep., pp. 226-228. The species of Gould 
bear date April 1852 (teste Otia, p. 184) and Nov. 1851 (Otia, p. 210); the 
others, July 1856. 

No. 

3. Corhda polychronia [= C Uradiata, varj. 
7. TeUina tersa [^Macoma tiasutaf jun. Col., not Pan.]* 

20 



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ON MOLLUSCA OP THB WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 635 

Ka 
8. Tdlmapura [sAf. Maxatkuneaf jun. Desh., Mus. Gum.]* 
IL DonaxJUxuotm fsi). Lamarckitf Desh., in B. M.J. 
13. Gnaihodm mendtcus [s G, trigotiunij Pet, May 1863]. 
15. BaMa wMkdakt fis distinct from HarveUa degarui], 

20. Cardium Udeolabrum [^C, quadragenarmmy ConrJ. 

21. Cardium eruentaimn issLiocardium gubetriatum, Conr.]. 

27. Modiola mten$ [s Jf. mdtpurpureusy Mus. Cum.^ and is not from Cal.]. 

2d. Adtda faleata, [The locality of Mr. Cuming^ s specimens has not been con- 
firmed. For "species," in note, read " specimens."] 

3L Lima tetrica, [Tne specimens from the Mediterranean, W. Indies, Qnlf Cal., 
and Pacific Islands were fdl named X. squamosa by Mr. Cuming.] 

33. BuUmus vesiodis (nom. preoc.)=P. st^fflatus, * Otia,* 5. 184. 

40. KmceOapaleacea, [CoL Jewett's specimens appear distmct from N, denictay Hds.] 

4L Tfockus marddw, [This shell was called OmphaUus Pfet^eri by Mr. Cuming, 
from the resemblance of the figure, in which the umbilicus appears keeled ; 
but the shell marked ' t^pe,' answering to the diagnosis, along with * Chloro^ 
stoma ' maculosumy A. Ao. , are scarcely varieties of Phoreus puUigo, Martyn. 
The finest series is in the d, M.] 

43. Litona pieoides [has been heard 0^ but not seen since the explorations of Col. J. 
Dr. Gld. still considers the species distinct : among the yery dissimilar, varieties 
from the W. Indies ^viile suite in R M.) it would probably not have been 
singled out as a species, but for the theory of the authpr]. 

45. Cntetbulum Jetcettit [should be corrugaium, P. Z. S.]. 

47. Modidus dorsuosus. [CoL J. now thinks that the supposed Acapuico specimens 
are W. Indiajif^lentieulans, Chem. When deaa, the forms from the two 
oceans can hardly be distinguished ; but the aspect of his shells is Caribbsean.] 

54. Qmus racus [sC Ccdifomicus, Hds.]. 

56. Crmtts jmsilluSf Gld. [non Chem. snux, small var., teste Cuming]. 

57. ObeUscus achates [ » O. clartdus, A. Ad., 1854]. 

65. Columbella Sta,'2iarbarensis [so named to correct the statement that California 

was above the limit of the genus, proves to be a Mexican shell, and was 
probably obtained at Acapuico. Having been redescribed by Reeve from 
perfect specimens, it may stand as C Heevet], 

66. Kttideila Gouldii, [Not to be confounded with Col, Gduldiana, Agnss., which 

is probably Amtfoa,] 
€7. F\isus ambustm [is a Califomian species. The type stands in Mus. Cum. as 
F.fragotuSj Rve., but does not answer to the diagnosis. The typical fragoms 
is marked framsus^ var. F, ambustus appears absolutely identical with F, 
davatusy Brocchi, Mediterranean. Some of the diagnostic marks are not con- 
stant in the specimens]. 

Col. Jewett went to Panama, as a private collector, in January 1849, 
spending ten weeks in that region, including Taboga. This was two years 
before Prof. Adams's explorations. Thence he sailed to San Francisco, 
where he spent four months in exploring the shore for about 50 miles 
from the head of the bay. After labouring for a week at Monterey, he 
spent ten weeks at Sta. Barbara and the neighbourhood, thoroughly exploring 
the coast for fifteen miles as far as Sta. Bonadventura. It was here, at the 
** Eincon," after a violent southern storm, that he obtained the specimens of 
lAwma pieoides, aa well as many other rare species that have not been obtained 
by any other explorer. " The storm tore up the kelp to such a degree that 
it formed a bank for many miles on the beach, from 10 to 20 feet broad, and 
at least 4 feet deep. Many of the plants were more than 60 feet long and 5 
inches in diameter, having the appearance of vast cables." Before his return 
to the east, he also collected at Mazatlan (where he obtained some species 
not included in the B. M. Catalogue) and at Acapuico. There can be no 
doubt of the accuracy of the Colonel's observa^ons at the time they were 
made. UusuiT^assed in America as a field-paltcoatolo^t, possessed of accurate 

21 



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636 KEPOBT— 1863. 

discrimination, abundant carefulness, and unwearied diligence and patience, 
no one was better fitted to collect materials for a scientific survey of the coast. 
But, unfortunately for his (as for the NuttalHan) shells, he did not describe them 
at the time himself. They were subjected to all the derangements caused by 
fi'equent changes of residence, and transmission to various naturalists for 
identification. As we know what errors creep into the collections of the 
most learned under such circumstances, it is not surprising that they should 
now have lost much of their geographical value. After several days spent 
in a very, searching elimination of the west-coast shells from his general col- 
lection, I was driven to the conclusion that several labels had become mis- 
placed. This was so clearly the case as to certain N. England and W. Indian 
species interchanged with Pacific specimens, that it might also affect (e. g.) 
8ta. Baiiiata and Panama specimens as compared with each other. The kelp 
driven up by the great storm may have travelled from remote localities ; which 
will account for tropical shells having been found at Sta. Barbara, as W. 
Indians occasionally are even on our own shores. It is possible also, as the 
Califpmian seas have as yet been but little dredged, that deep-water species 
live there which as yet are known only in the tropical province. Already 
some Gulf species have been thus obtained at San Diego and Catalina Island 
by Dr. Cooper, just us Mr. M*Andrew dredged Mediterranean species on the 
coast of Norway. But fects of such importance should rest on better evidence 
than chance shells picked on a beach, and subjected to dangers of altered 
labels afterwards. What was regarded by Dr. Gould as of authority is cata- 
logued, according to his determinations of species, on pp. 226-231 of the first 
Report. The following is a list of the species which I found in the collection*, 
divided simply into the temperate and the tropical faunas. 

Species of the Temperate Fauna, collected hy Col. Jewett J. 

Tapes staminea, tenerrima*. 
Saxidomus saualidiis. 
Petricola carditoides. 
Bupellaria lamellifera. 
Lazaria subquadrata *t* 
Chama pellucida. 
Lucina Ualifomica. 
Diplodonta orbella. 
My til us Californianus, edulis. 
Modiola modiolus^ recta, fomicata^f. 
Leda caelala. 

Pecten hastatus, latiauritus, (Pventrico- 
sus, var.) 8equi8ulcatu8*t> squaixo- 
8U8*t, paucico9tatus*t. 
Amusium caurinum, jun. 
Hinnites giganteus. 
Bulla nebulosa. 



Pholadidea penif a, ovoidea. 

Saxicava pholadis. 

Schizotheinis Nuttallii. 

Cryptomya Califomica. 

Lyonsia Califoraica. 

Solen Psicarias, var. rosaceus^t. 

Machsara patula. 

Solecurtus CalifomianuS; subteres. 

Macoma nasuta, secta. 

Lutricola alta. 

Semele decisa, rubrolineata. 

Donax Califomicus, fiexuosus*. 

Standella PCalifomica. 

Trigona crassatelloides. 

Psephis tantilla*. 

Amiantis callosa. 

Chione succincta, fluctifraga, simillima. 

• This collection belongs to his daughter, Mrs. Boyce, of Utica, N.Y. The- Colonprs 
invaluable collection of U. S. Palieozoic fossils (probably the largest made by any indiTi- 
dual's own hand) may be consulted at the State Museum in Albany, and will probably 
find its ultimate destination at one of the principal colleges. A large number of the 
fossils described by Prof. Hall wei^ from this collection, though often without acknow- 
ledgment. Only a small proportion of the types of the celebrated * Paleeontology ' are 
to be found in the State Collection, which was subjected to disastrous and very extensiye 
curtailment before Col. J. entered on his present duties as curator. 

* These species and marked yarieties were first found by Col. J. 

t Of these. forms, either not seen or not distmguished by Dr. Gould, the diagnoses are 
written, and will probably be found in one of the scientific periodicals for 1864. 

X Unless otherwise stated in the Hat, Report, pp. 228-231, it may be presumed that 
these species were from the neighbourhood ot Sta. i^arbara. 

22 



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ON UOLLUSCA OF THK WEST COAST OF KORTH AMERICA. 



537 



TonnfttiBa cerealis*, culcitelln*. 

Cjlichna (Pcylindracea, var.) attonsa^t* 

Volvula cylindrica*t. 

Cryptochfton StellerL 

Mopalia mu^cosa. 

Nacella incessa, paleacea*. 

Acnuea patina, pelta, peisoxu^ seabra, 

sjtectrum, Asmi. 
Scurria mitra. 
Fiasurella volcano. 
Glyphis denaidatbrata. 
Haliotia Cracherodii, mfescenSySplendens. 
Pha8ianeUa( PcomptayTar8.)punctulata* f; 

pulloides^t, elatior*t. 
Pomaulax undosus. 
Trochiscos Norrisii, convexus^f. 
CallioBtoma canaliculatum, coatatuoL 
LiTona picoides *. 
Homalopoma sanmiineum. 
Chlorostoma funebrale, PfeifferL 
Crucibulum spinosum. 
Crepidula adunca, donata, rugosa. 
Hipponjx tumens *f, 
Serpolorbis squamigenis. 
Bittium esuriena^t, fastigiatum^t* 
Cerithidea eacrata. 
litorina planaxis, scutellata. 
Amphitbalamus inclu8ii8*t* 
Lacuna onifasciata*. 
Radius Tariabilis. 

Luponia spadicea : Trivia Califomica. 
Erato columbella, vitellina. 



Drillia inermis, moesta^t. 

Daphnella filosa*t. 

Mangelia varieprata*t, angulata*t. 

Myurella simplex ^t* 

Conua Califoraicus. 

Odostomia gravida*, inflata*t. 

Chemnitzia tenuicula*, torquata* (et 
Pvar. stvlina *!), virgo ^t, aurantia *\, 
crebrifilata •f, tridentata *j. 

Dunkeria laminata *t* 

Eulima Thersites *f. 

Opalia bullata 't. 

Lunatia Lewisii. 

Cerithiopsis ? tuberculata, fortior ^t, 
purpurea *t. 

Marginella Jewettii •, Ppolita, regula- 
ris •!, 8ubtri^na*t. 

(Volvarina vana, serrata ; perhaps im- 
ported, or label changed.) 

Olivella biplicata, baeticaf [=pet'olita, 
Gldy+cmazora, Old., MS. (uon Duel.) 
snd&fasciata, teste Cum., bj eii'or]. 

Purpura crispata, saxicola. 

NitWella Gouldii •. 

Ocinebra Poulsoni. 

Pteronotus festivug. 

Columbella carinata, Hindsii. 

Amycla PCalifomiana, gausapata, tube- 
rosa •f. 

Nassa perpin^is, mendica. 

PAnachis peniciUata ♦t. 

Siphonalia fiiscotincta *t. 



Spedes of the Tropical Fauna, collected by Col. Jewett K 



Pholas crucigera [slanceolata]. 

Dactylina laqueata. 

Corbula bicarinata, biradiata, nasuta, 
tenuis, ovulata §, nuciformis §. 

Sanguinolaria miniata *$. 

Psammobia casta. 

Tellina felix. puella*. punicea, ''ru- 
bella." 

Heterodonax bimaculatus et vars. §. 

Strigilla camaria (white and red vars.)§ 
pisiformis§, sincera. 

Semele pulchra $, venusta §. 

Iphigema altior. 

Bonax transveieus, navicula, gracilis, 
carinatus, rostratus §, punctatostria- 
^is 5, V. cselatus $. assimilis. 

Mulinia angulata. 

Harvella elegans. 

Trigona planulata ||, PGndsii §. 

Bofiima DonkerL 



Callista aurantia, chionsea, circinafa$, 
tortuosa, lupinaria||, ro.sea||, v. puella§. 

Chione amathusia, sugillata, ne^ecta. 

AQomalocardia subimbricuta, subrugo.('a. 

Tapes grata, + vars. discors, fuecolinettta. 

Petricola pholadiformis, var. 

Crassatella gibbosa. 

Venericardia laticostata^ radiata. 

Lazaria affinis. 

Ohama ^ndosa, spinosa. 

Cardium consors§, senticosum, proce* 
rum, obovale. 

Hemicardiumbiangulatum §, graniferum. 

IJocardium apicinum J. 

Codakia tigerrina ||^. 

Lucina ebumea $, excavata §, pectinata. 

Felania tellinoides §, var. 

Modiola Brasiliensis, capax. 

Lithophagus aristatus. 

Area grandis, tuberculosa. 



* Unless otherwise specified, either by §, ||, or loc^ty-marks in Rep. pp. 228-231, 
these species may be presumed to have come from the Panama district. 
§ These species were probably from Aoapuloo. 
I Probably from Masatlan. 
% Another specimen^ 8*78 in. across, is marked " Sta. Barbara ** on the shell. 

23 



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588 



REPOET 1863. 



Scapharca bifrona *, emarginata, labiata^ 
nux. , 

Noetia reversa. 

Byssoarca Pacifica, mutabilis. 

Barbatia alternata, aviculpides, gradata, 
illota, solida. 

Pectunculus insequalis, maculatua^ par- 
cipictus §, Pjpectinoides §. 

Leda Eleuensis, polita. 

Pinna maura, tuberculosa. 

Avicula sterna. 

Bryophila setosa ♦. 

isognomon Chemnitzianum. 

Pecten yentricosus, subnodosus {• 

Lima angulata $. 

Spondylus calcifer. 

Ostrea palmula. 

Anomia lampe. 

Bulla Adamsi^ Quoji §. 

Siphonaria gigas, lecanium$ et yais. 
maura, palmata $. 

Patella Mexicana. 

Acmsea mesoleuca, mitolla, Temioosa. 

Fissurella rugosa^ nigropunctatOy Pma^ 
crotrema §. 

Glyphis imequalis, alta. 

Phasianella perforata. 

Callopoma saxosum. 

Senectus squamigerus f. 

Uvanilla inermis. 

Calliostoma lima, Leanum f • 

Tegula pellis-serpentis. 

Ompbalms Panamensis, coronulatus *,. 
ligulntus ]|, viridulus. 

Nerita Bembardi, scabricosta. 

Neritina picta, Guavaquilensis, interme- 
dia [" =globosa, Brod:'], 

Crucibulum inibricatum, spinosum, um- 
brella, radiatum, pectinatum*, corru«^ 
eatum*. 

G^erus conicus, mamillaris. 

Crepidula aculeata §, excavata, incurva. 

Hipponyx barbatus, Grayanus. 

Aletes centiquadrus. 

Vermetus ebumeus. 

Bivonia contorta, albida. 

Petaloconchus niacrophragma. 

Turritella goniostoma. 

Ceritbium maculosum, uncinatum, me- 
diolsBve, interruptum, alboliratum. 

Rhinoclavis ^mmata. 

Ceritbidea Montagnei, yaricosa. 

Litorina aspera, conspersa, Philippii 

Modulus catenulatus, Pdisculus. 

Kissoina firmata*, fortis*, expansa^fH, 
stricta S, Janu« ♦, Woodwardii !|. 

Planaxia nigritella, planicostata. 

Kadius ayena §. similis. 

Carinea emar^rinata, jun. 

Aricia punctulata. 

Trivia pustulato, pullai PacificaJ, 



Erato scabriuscula $, Maugerin. 

Strombus ealeatus, gracilior; granulatua^ 

Terebra robusta. 

Euryta fulgurata, aciculata {. 

Pleurotoma funiculata. 

Drillia alboyallosa, atenima, Pexarata f, 

incrassata, nigerrima, rudisi bexagona, 

PgraciUima, var. 
Mangelia subdiapbana §, hamata *!» 

cerea^t, Ppulcbella. 
Cithaiu stromboide6§ [P « triticea,Kien.]. 
Daphnella casta §. 
Conus gladiator, mahogani, nux^ purpu* 

rascens, regularis. 
Solariimi granulatum, 
Torinia yariegata. 
Obeliscus achates *||. 
Cbemnitzia caalata *t. 
Scalaria Hindsii ♦. 
Alora Gouldii ♦. 
Cancellaria bulbulusi clayatula, decus- 

sata, goniostoma, tessellata, mitrifor- 

mis. 
Natica maroccana et yars., Souleyetianay 

zonaria §, catenata $• 
Polinices otis, uber. 
Neverita patma $. 
Plcula yentricosa. 
Malea ringens. 
Bezoardica abbreyiata. 
Levonia coarctata. 
Persona ridens [?=] oonstrictus. 
Triton lignarius, tigrinus, Ppileare, jun. 
Priene nodosa. 
Ranella cselata, nitida, triquetra, pyra- 

midalis [like anceps and producta, 

Rye.]. 
Fasciolaria granosa, tulipa, jun. [Pirn- 
ported]. 
Latirus castaneus, ceratus, rudis^ tuber- 

culatus. 
Leucozonia cin^lata. 
Mitra lens, funiculata, nucleola. 
Stri^tella tristis. 
Lynaharpa. 

Marginella cserulescens, polita (P§). 
Persicula imbricata J. 
Volvarina triticea §, yaria§, 8errata§, fu«j- 

ca § [some of these are assigned to Sta. 

Barbara. West Indian specimens may 

baye been intermixed : vide Cape St 

Lucas list, infra], 
Oliva angulata,' porphyria. 
Oliyella anazora, gracilis §, inconspicua, 

semistriata, tergina, yolutella, zonaaa^ 

Zanoeti. 
Agaronia testacea. 
Harpa crenata. 
Purpura biserialia, melo, patula, trianga* 

laris, triserialit. 
Cuma tecta, kiosquiformlB. 
24 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



639 



P jrula patula. 

Engina Reeviana, crocostoma. 

Anacbis Californica*§, coronata, costel- 

lata, fluctuata, lyrata, nigiicans, ftaiyti, 

pygmsea, diminuta ♦, rugosa, varia. 
Stsrombina bicanalifera, gibberula, re* 

canra. 
Pisania gemmata, insignis, pagodus, 

ringens, sanguinolenta. 
Nortbia pristis. 
Clavella distorta. 
Murex recurvirostris, [?=] nigrescena 

(Ckim.). 
Muricidea alTeata§y dubia, Tibez, " pin* 

niger, BroeL*' 



HhizQcheiluB nox. 

Vitulaiia salebroea. 

Ocmebra erinaceoides. 

Honoceros brevidentatum. 

Sutrum carbonarium §. 

Nitidella cribraria. 

Columbella feBtiya, fuscata, labiosa, 

major, Reevei *§, uncinata §, P mille- 

punctata, txir.§ 
Conella coniformis. 
Tnmcaria modesta. 
^'a8sa coUaria*, corpulenta, crebristri^ 

ata, lateoetoma, pagodus, scabrius- 

Cttla, tegula, yersicolor, complanata^ 

Stimpsoiiiaiia *, nodicincta. 
^06 gaudena. 

This list, ol about 133 species from the northern and 328 from the 
southern fauna (nearly twice as largo as that sent by Dr. Gould and printed 
in the first Keport, and yet not containing several species there quoted), is an 
instnictive instance of what may be accomplished in about three-quarters of 
a jear, simply by picking up shore-shells. It contains about 48 species in 
the northern and 22 in the southern faunas not previously described. 

Besides the recent shells, Col. Jewett brought home a very interesting 
series of Pliocene fossils from the neighbourhood of Sta. Barbara. Almost aU 
of them are species known to inhabit neighbouring seas, and are chiefly 
nor^em forms. Of some no recent specimens have yet been found in such 
perfect condition. The following is a list of the species, which is of the more 
value as they have not been intermixed with those of any other locality, and 
the spot does not seem to have been discovered by any succeeding geological 
explorer. It was two miles from the coast, and 150 feet high. 



Schizotheirus NuttalliL 

Mactra planolata. 

Chione succincta ♦. 

Pachydesma crassatelloides. 

Psephis tantilla, Psalmonea. 

Rupellana lamellifera. 

Caniiam graniferum *, 

Venericardia v. ventricosa t* 

Locina Califomica. 

Pecten floridus ♦. 

Hinnites giganteus. 

Planorfois, sp. 

Calliostoma costatimi* 

Maiffarita pupilla f. 

Ompnalius aureotinctus. 

Galerus fastigiatus t* 

Ciepidula grandisf [itfuiSdl^ssprincepSi 

C(mr,f 3*5 inches long]. 
Crepidida adunca. 

,9 navicelloides. 
Tumtella Jewettii, n. s. 
Bittimn rugatum, n. s. 

,f armillatum^ n. 8. 

„ filosum t. 
Lscuna solidula t- 



Chrysallida, sp.* 

Opalia (Pcrenatoidesy var.) insculpta*^ 

n. 8. 
Lmiatia LewisiL 
Natica clausa f. 
Priene Oregonensist, 
Olivella biplicata. 
Columbella carinata. 
Amycla gausapata. 

„ tuberosa, n. s* 
PTruncaria comigata. 
Nassa fossata. 

„ mendica. 
Purpura crispata. 
Ocinebra lund^. 
Trophon tenuisculptus t, Pn. s. [may 

prove identical with T. ^tnbtnaiula, 

A. Ad., Japan]. 
Trophon Orpneus f. 
Fusus ambustus. 
Pisania fortis *, n. s, 
Chrysodomus carinatusf, Brit. Mus. 

["pvohahly ^despectfiSf var.]. 
Chiysodomus tabulatus, jun.t» n. s^ 
^ dirusf. 



• These ipecies are of a Bouthem type. 

t Thete (brms rank with the nortliern series. The rest bebng to the present Califomian 

26 



Digitized by KjOOQlC 



640 



KEPUBT — 1868- 



The following fossils were also col- 
JectJed by Col. Jewett : — 
Purpura crispata I San Francisco, 160 ft. 
„ ostrina | above the Bay. 



Tellina congesia, Conr, Monterey. 
Scalaria: can scarcely be distin^ished 

from planicostatay Kien., in Bnt. Mua* 

(fsaUrcelandica): Panama. 



The collections of Major Eich, having been tabulated by Dr. Gould simply 
AS from Upper or Lower California, I had expected to find of but little geo- 
graphical value. They proved, however, to be of peculiar interest. Major 
Hich had been one of the naturalists in the U. S. Expl. Exp., and his warlika 
occupations did not prevent his remaining long enough at particular stations 
to pay close attention to the Molluscs. His forte lay in procuring shells in 
the best possible condition ; and a study of them was very serviceable in. 
explaining the dead shore-sheUs usually obtained from other sources. For- 
tunately, he was quite aware of the importance of geographical accuracy, and 
arranged those obtained at different places in separate drawers. The " Upper 
Califomian " collections were made at Monterey, San Francisco, San Diego, 
and San Pedro ; the '< Lower Califomian," in the Gulf, principally at La 
Paz, partly at San Jose and Mazatlan. At the latter place he met M. 
Beigen, who had filled his house with decomposing molluscs to such an ex- 
tent as to induce the neighbours to have recourse to the police. From him he 
obtained many species not in the Brit. Mus. Cat., and probably sent to Europe 
in the Havre collection. Major Rich's beautiful series may be consulted at 
his residence, opposite the British Legation, Washington, D. C. ; and are 
designed ultimately for one of the public museums in the neighbourhood. 
The following is a list of the species : — 

Shells collected by Major Mich, from the Califomian Fauna, 



Pholadidea ovoidea * \ 

Parapholas Californica ^ (The young is 

very acuminate, with imbricated cups, 

as in P. calva.) 
Netastoma Darwinii K 
Saxicava pholadis ^ '. 
Platyodon cancellatus^ 
Schizotheirus Nuttalli^ 
Cryptoij^ya Califcmica K 
Thracia curta ^ 
Lyonsia Californica K 
Mytilimeria Nuttalli \ (Very fine, with 

ossicle.) 
Solen sicarius ^ 
Machsera patula \ 
Solecurtus Califomianus •• 
Sanguinolaria Nuttalli *. 
Psammobia rubroradiata \ 
Macoma nasuta ^, secta ^\ 
Scrobicularia alta \ 
Semele decisa*. 
Cumingia Californica \ 
Donax Califomicus K 
Mactra Californica K 
Pachydesma crassatelloidet ^ K 
Amiantis calloea \ 



Tapes staminea et vars.^**, lacini- 
ata^*. 

Petricola carditoides *. 

Kupellaria lamellifera^ 

Chama Buddiana\ 

Cardium Nuttalli *. 

Lucina Californica K 

Diplodonta orbella ^ 

Kellia Laperousii ^ 

Mytilus Califomianus^, edulis^, v. glome« 
ratus**. 

Septifer bifiircatus *♦. 

Modiola modiolus K 

Lithophagus attenuatus \ 

Adulafalcata^*. 

Pecten v, sequisulcatus *, monotiraeris *. 

Hinnites giganteus ^ 

Placunanomia macroschisma \ 

Bulla nebulosa \ 

Katherina tunicata ^ 

Mopalia muscosa \ Hindsii K 

Nacella incessa \ 

Acmsea persona ', pelta ^, spectrum^ sea- 
bra *, et var. liniatula f. 

Lottiagigantea*. 

Scurriamitra*. 

Fissurella omata * '. 



Chione succincta ^ 

* Monterey. Fre«h specimens of seven species from the southern fiiuna were also 
obtain^ at Monterey, probably from commerce. 

. * San Diego. • San Francisco. * IJear San Pedro. 

* These species were first found by Major Rich. 

26 



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ON HOLLUSCA OF THE VfEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



641 



Oljphis densiclathrata'. 

Lucapina crenulata ^ (one spec. Catalina 

Haliotis rafescens * *, Cracherodii ^ *, 

Kamtschatkana ^ *, 
Pomaulax iindosus \ 
Trochiscus Norrwii * (and Catalina Is.). 
Calliostoma canaliculatum \ annula- 

tum *, costatum ^ 
Omphalius fuscescens K 
Chlorostoma fimebrale K brunneum \ 

Pfeijfferi K 
Onicibulum spinosum ^ 



Crepidula rugosa', adnnca', explanata\ 

Hipponyx Pantiquatus^^ Ptumena K 

Serpulorbis sq uamigerus \ 

Spiro^lyphus lituelLa * *. 

Litonna planaxis K 

Trivia Cfuifomica K 

Conus Califomicus *. 

Ranella CalifomicaS 

Oiivella biplicata \ baetica \ 

Purpura, yars. ostrina ^j emarginata K 

Cerostoma Nuttalli^ 

Nassa mendica *, perpingius *, fossata*. 

Helix^ three sp. 

Shells collected by Major Eieh, near La Paz (west shore of the Gulf of Cal.)^ 



jThracia) Cyathodonta plicata. 

oan^inolana miniata. 

Tellina Cumin^L 

StrigiUa camana. 

Heterodouax bimaculatus. 

Ipbigenia altior. 

Bonaz navicula, punctato-str., rostratua. 

Standella fragilis (common). 

Mulinia angmata. 

Trigona aigentina, radiata, planulata. 

Dodinia ponderosa. 

Callista concinna, chionsBa. 

Cbione succincta, amatbusiay gnidia, 

pulicaria, var. 
Anomalocardia sabimbricata. 
Tapes grata, histrionica. 
Lazaria Califomica. 
Chama spinosa, producta, corrugata. 
Cardium consors, biangulatum. 
liocardium elatum. 

Codakia tigernna (two fine specimens). 
Cyrena olivacea, Mexicf4ia. 
Aoodonta glauca. 
Mjtilus mmtiformia. 
Modiola capax. 
Area multicostata. 
Barbada Keeyiana, solida. 
Pectunculus giganteus. 
Pinna rugosa. 
Maigaritophora iimbriata. 
Isognomon Chemnitzianum. 
Pecten ventricosuS; subnodosns. 
Lima tetrica *. 
Janira dentata. 
Ostrea amara (Maz. Cat. 215. Is. Cres- 

ionOf entrance of Gulf), Virginica 

(more pearly than the Adantic shells, 

teste Rich). 
Aiiomia lanvpe. 

Bulimus sufflatus *, excelsus *, pallidior. 
Physa elata *, aurantia. 
PateUa Mexicana. 
Acmaea atrata, meeoleuca. 
FiEAurella rugosa, viresceDa. 
Gh-phifi alta, imequalia. 



27 



Haliotis splendens (three fresh specimens 
from a resident at San Jose). 

Callopoma fluctuosum. 

CJ vanilla olivacea. 

Omphalius rugosus, coronulatus. 

Nenta scabricoeta, Bemhardi. 

Neritina picta. 

Crucibulum spinosum, imbricatum, pec- 
tinatum, umbrella. 

Galerus mamillaris, conicus. 

Crepidula aculeata, onyx, nivea, ungui- 
formis, arenata. 

Hipponyx Grayanus, serratus^ and- 
quatus. 

Aletes centiquadnts. 

Spiroglyphus lituella (on Or. umbrdla), 

Turritella goniostoma, tigrina. 

Cerithiummaculosum,stercus muscarum. 

Cerithidea MontagneL 

Litorina fasciata, conspersa. 

Modulus catenulatus, aisculua. 

Cyprsea exanthema. 

Ajicia arabicula. 

Luponia Sowerbii, albuginosa. * 

Trivia sa^uinea, radians, Solandri; pus- 
tulata, Pacifica. 

Strombus granulatus, gracilior. 

Euiyta fiilgurata. 

Pleurotoma fimiculata, maculosa. 

Drillia Pinermis. 

Conns puncdculatus, gladiator, purpu-* 

rascens, regularis, arcuatus, nux. 
Solarium granulatum, v. (quadriceps. 
Cancellaria obesa, cassidiformiS; solida, 

goniostoma, Pcandida. 
Natica maroccana, zonaria. 
Polinices Recluziana, bifasciata; cds. 
Neverita patula. 
Sigaretus debilis. 
Oniscia tuberculosa* 
Levenia coarctata. 
Bezoardica abbreviata. 
Priene nodosa. 
Turbinella cssstus. 
Fasciolaria princepa* 



Digitized by 



Google 



643 



KEPoax— 1863. 



Leucosonut cingulata. 

Mitra lens. 

Oliva porphyria, Melchersi, Cumingii, 

subaugiuata. 
Olivella tergina, graciliB; Tolatella (sere* 

ral taken alive). 
Agaronia testacea. 
Purpura patula, biflerialis, triang^oltfi^ 

muricata, planoapira |* 
Nitidella crioraria. 
Columbella fuscata, var. 
OoDella cedo-nullL 



Nassa luteostoma, scabriuscula, corpus 

lenta. 
Pyrula patula. 
Fusus DupetithouarsiL 
Siphonalia pallida. 
Strombina (Pnew, deep water^ San 

Jose). 
Pisania sanguinolentay insignia. 
Murex plicatus, recurvirostris. 
PhjUonotus nigritosy biasslcay princepfl^ 

bicolor. 
Muricidea dubia. 



Lieut. Green having been obliged to pock up his coUection and leave home 
on professional duty, I was not able to make any critical examination of it« 
Capt. Dupont also, of Delaware, was one of the ** Mexican-war naturalists," 
and made a large collection of La Paz sheUs during his campaign ; but I had 
no opportunity of seeing them. 

Dr. Gould notes the following corrections in Lieut Green's list, pp. 231— 
234:— 
Semtieflamcafu should y^eflaveteens, \ Donax abruptm should be obesut, 

50. Kellett and Wood. — ^The locality-marks, on further study, display still 
greater inaccuracies. 

^assa Woodwardii, Fbs., Sandwich Islands [is the adolescent state of a very abun- 
dant Vancouver and Califomian shell, sJv. mendica, Old.]. 

yasia Cocmeri, Fbs., Sandwich Islands. J^The type is immature and in poor con* 
dition ; out it is a rare Califomian species, since found by Dr. CoopNer.J 

Trochita $pirata [has not been confirmed from Gulf Cal., but appears in Brit Mus. 
from St Vincent, Cape Verdls., on the excellent authority ot Macgillivray, who 
did not visit the West Coast The Cumin§nan specimens were from K. and W. | 
but Uie '' spiratOj var./' from Magellan and Peru, are simply turrited forms of 7\ 
radians], 

CfUorostoma aureottncta [as C. nigerrima (Gmel.), Mus. Cum. ; but it is unlikely 
that Gmelin knew the species. It is not quoted by Desh. (Lam. ix. 157) : but 
the Trochua infauee nifferrimui, Chemn. £1526, s T. meUmostomus, Gmel.^ is a 
Hiaella,'] 

Margarita purpurata et HUUi [are South American shells]. 

Purpura analoga \JA the rough irregular form of P. canaliculata^decemcostata], 
„ fuacatOf Fbs. [of which one brown and one whitish specimen (immature) 
are preserved in the Brit Mus. as types> is the large, smooth, rather elevated var. 
of saxicola. It belongs to the Vancouver district]. 

Pu'purOf like decem-costaius and F)reyrtneUi [is the normal state of gojricola. The 
banded smooth var. is named in Brit Mus. **?Buc, diiatum, Martyn, Un. 
Conch, no. 7,*' but does not apw with the figure]. 

/f/w« SjMettU, [This Siphonalia^ after lona: remaining unique in the Brit. Mus. 
Col., has been twice confirmed from the San Diegan district by the Smithsonian 
collectors. Dr. Cooper's living specimen is 6*25 in. long ; and one specimen 
was dredged by A. Ad. in the seas of South Japan.] 

51. Reigm. — ^The type collection, presented to the Brit. Mus., contains 
about 8900 specimens. The first duplicate series, containing about 6000 
shells, was presented to the State of New York at the urgent request of 
Dr. Newcomb (weU known for his researches in AcTiatinella, made during his 
professional residence in the Sandwich Islands), and is arranged in the Albany 
Museum. Three other typical series were prepared for Uie Museums of 
Paris, Berlin, and St. Petersburg, and offered on the same terms, viz. that 
they should be arranged by the author, and preserved intact for the free use 

X Dead t\\o\U jX La Paz ; two frcah specimens in deep water from San J one-, ditto, 
Lieut. Qreen. 

2» 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WIST COAST O? NORTH AMERICA. 543 

of Btndents ; but the donations were severally declined by the respectiye 
goremments. They have since been offered to the Museums of Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. ; M'Gill University, Montreal, C. E. ; and the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. ; and accepted on the same con- 
didoDs *. The writer of the Brit. Mus. Catalogue spared no pains in his 
endeavours to verify the previously described species of Prof. C. B. Adams ; 
yet a subsequent comparison of types has developed very unexpected coinci- 
dences. Those who will take the trouble to compare the two diagnoses in the 
synonyms now given will add one to the many prooft of the uncertainty of 
the senses in observation, and the inaccuracy of language in description. The 
following corrections and additions should be made to the list in the Britibh 
Association Report, pp. 243-264. 

18. Parapholtu acuminata is imited to P. ealva by Tryon, Mon. Phol. 

23. The specimens obta'ned from Madflgascar by Sir E. Belcher in the Voy. Sa- 

marong appear ab^olutelv identical. 

24. Pelricola robusta. The West Indian form of this species is the Choristodon 

typicum of Jonas ; Mus. Cum. 
35. SphiBma fragUU is perhaps S, hxUcola, VaL 
38. Solecwrtm polittu ? = S, Carpenteri, Dkr. 

40. Should be Semelejfaveseeru, Gld. 

41. Semde ?venuUa should be S, bicolor, C. B. Ad. Panama. C. S. Lucas. 
46. Should be Santfuinolaria miniata, Old., as in first Report. 

4^ Should be Teliina purpurea, Brod. & Sby., teste U^pe in Mus. Hani. 

49. = T. puroy Gld., nom. prior. 

54. Quite distinct from TetUna altemataf Say. 

66. TeiUna febumea proves to be the type of a new generic form, probably 

belonging to KeuiadcB, viz. CycladeUa papyracea, A peiiect specimen, since 

found, is in Mr. Hanley*s collection. 

65. TdUdora Burnett is not Z. eristata : r. anteh, p. 528. 

66. ssStriytHa fitcata, Gld. (not mtniata). Specimens received from different 

stations on the Pacific Coast vary very greatly in colour and markings. 

68. The fragment of " ffPsammobia " is perhaps part of a Z^paa-Tslve. 

71 and 72. The names of thQ^e shells have been altered and re-altered in Mus. 
Cuming, as will be seen by comparing Brit. Mus. Maz. Cat., p. 43, with the 
note, p. 648, and with the present arrangement Mr. Hanley states that 
no. 72, D. eulmtnatuSf Cpr., is his true carinatua ; therefore 71, 1), carinaius, 
Cpr., and of most collections, must stand as 2). rostratus, C. B. Ad., te^ type- 
valve in Mus. Amherst. The two species uniformly retain their ois- 
tinctive characters. 

78. Should be MactreUa exdleta^Lutraria ventricosa, Gld., from type. 

81. Should be Gnathodon mendicus, Gld. 

83. T, Hindm is distmct, teste Hfwl. 

85. T. argeniata, Sby., 1836,= 7. aquOatera, Desh., 1839. 

02-99. The generic name should be CaUista. 

* A few of the duplicate sets having been sent in exchange to one of the principal 
Maeotific dealers, he advertises a list of epecies in which he not merely alters the nomen* 
dalure, giving " Monoeeroi" eingulatmm, " PolUa" insignU (with " Pisania " gemmata)^ 
" IVocAm " oUvaceus (with " Imperator" unguis), •* CeritMum ** montagui (for Cerithidea 
Moutagnei)^ Cgtherea " rfion*" (for IHone lupinaria), " AMarte " Dunkeri, «* Cgiherea " 
CoUmbientis, &c, but inserts Califomian species (" ZiMpMnms JUosus" ** Cardium 
NtUaii ") as though from the Ghilf, and adds others not knovm at aU in the West Coast 
teiM, as « Colmmbella Unigata," ''Patella plumbea;* and " Chiton reticulata:* All 
thMc, with such shells as Oliea Cumingii^ which belong to other resions on the Mexi* 
can coast, would be accredited by tbe reader on the supposed authontj of ** Carpenter's 
Oittalogae." In these times it appears that naturalists must be content to resemble the 
dealers in patent medicines, and guard tlie accuracy of their works ! With re^rd to the 
Mszatlan collections (now scarce), none can be trusted unless they present an umlrolta 
im/, with the iuituds of the author 

29 



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644 BEPOET— 1863. 

08. CdUUta aUemata Las a very different aspect from the ordi9aiT C. drcinata ; but 
several of the Pacific shells affiliate more naturally to the West Indian fonii. 
99. C. aMms, C, tortuosa, and C. concinna appear to be one species. 

100. Sir E. Belcher is confident that he dredged C. petechiaUs, in deep water, off S. 
Bias. He has the same confidence m regard to some of the East Indian 
Circes. At this distance of time, a written locality-ticket would have had 
more authority. 

105. The hinge proves that this sjjecies is distinct from the true V. cremfera, Sby. 
It has been named V. maiUata by Rve., Conch. Ic. sp. 43. It was also 
brought bv Kellett and Wood, and is allied to V, puUcaria, 

110. Among the Panama varieties of this very variable species is Venus fitacolmeata, 
T, grata takes the place of the Califomian T, staminea, which is sometimea 
erroneously given as a svnonym, and is not draminea, as often quoted. 

116. It appears that Gouldia (Hetia, C. B. Ad., olim, non Sby. nee H. & A Ad.) is 

congeneric with " Circe" minima, not with the Astartids. Prof. Adams's 
fresh specimens of his O, Pacifica prove to have the Crassatelloid internal 
ligament, and represent one of the many remarkable forms of that' group. 

117. Fresh specimens of G. varians, horn. Cape St. Lucas, have also the internal 

ligament, and must rank under CrassateUa until that genus has been naturally 
divided. 

118. Lasaria Calif omica, A well-marked group of species from the West Coast. 
121. The purple and orange specimens, here treated as the adolescent state of Chama 

Mexican€h are certainly the C^, echinata of collections, and may possibly 
prove a distinct species. A large series sent from Socoro Is. bv Mr. Xantus 
confirms this view ; but all the specimens seen are decorticatea or incrusted* 
1216. This is the Chama BudcUana of Cf. B. Ad., and probably distinct 
L34. The specimens of Cardium graniferum in Mus. Cum., from St Thomas, W. I., 
appear exactly identical. 

136. The specimens from the Pacific const, some of which are of very lar^e size, 

have generally a red tinge round the inner margin ; as have also the Fiji 
specimens brought by the U. S. Expl. Exp. In other respects they exactfy 
accord with the W. Indian. The Pacific shells are generally called v. 
exasperata, Rve., a name first given to the rough Caribbean variety from 
Honduras, &c 

137. Codakia punctata. This shell also, brought by the U. S. Expl. Exp. from the 

Fiii Is., is found sparingly along the American shores, and has the same 
coloured margin. 

142. May possibly prove identical with L, heUa, Conr., S. Dieffo. 

150. The iMcina orbeUa of Qo\Adi,:=Sph<BreUa tumida, Conr., MS., is the northern 
form; uniformly larger and smoother than Diplodmvta semiaspera. This 
last is fully conhrmed from both oceans. 

152. " Felania " serricata appears congeneric with MUtha, H. & A. Ad., ssMittreaf 
Gray, the type of which* (3f. Childreni) is a Gulf species. 

164. Lasea rubra, Mr. J. G. Jeffi-eys does not consider tne Brit Mus. specimen 
identical with the British. The Mediterranean specimens are much more 
unlike. A colony of fresh shells from a burrow at Cape St Lucas, when 
examined, under the microscope, side by side with Ilfracombe specimens, did 
not present even varietal differences. The species also appears on the Cali- 
fomian and Japan coasts. Similar and perhaps conspecitic forms are 
found on most coasts : among them is Porania Petitiana, Chen. Conch. IlL 
p. 2, pi. 1. f. 2 ; Callao, not rare, Petit. 

156. For this species, corbuhides, and other angular forms, the name Bomia may 
be revived in a restricted sense. (A. Ad.) 

157, 158. Mr. A. Adams, who is about to make the Eelliads a special studv, thinks 
that these intermediate forms would rank better with Montacuta or Tellimya 

166. This is almost certainly =^o(fonte glauca, Val. 

168. Dr. Dunker renamed this shell M. Adamnanm, P. Z. S. Nov. 1856. 

177. The subgenus Adula may be enlarged to include this and other nestling 

?LUhophagi, which often adhere by ovssus, like Modiola. 

178. Liosolenm is quite distinct ft^m Mytilimeria, which appears simply an aber- 

rant form otLgontia, Other " Ltthopkagi" probably rank with it 

30 



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ON MOttTTSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 543 

185. Area sentUi is from W. Africa /not ^'E. Indies ") : one of the many repre^entotivd 
species between the two West Coasts. 

185. NoHia reversa^ Gray. 

7% Ar^ma hrevifrona, oby. 

188. This is the young of Barhatia aHemata, 

191-195 belong to the group Barhatia, 

193. ^^Barhatia TabogensU, from type. 

2i)3. The young of this shell is Avtcula UheUOf Hve. Dr. Gould protests against 
some of we inteipretations here given to his views. 

204. The W. American pearl-oyster should stand as M, Jimhriatay Dkr. It i has 
been redescribed as M, harhatOj Rve. 

212. Br. Grould protests against the Pacific shells bein^ recfarded as O. Virginictu 
Mr. Hanley adheres to his original opinion, lossiis sent from the Sand- 
wich Is. by Mr. Pease (0. Sandwichensisj Pse.) appear scarcely to differ. 

214^. The 0. palmuia appears a distinct species. 

215. This species is identical with 0. no. 384 of C. B. Ad. It may take the name 
of O. amara from its " bitter flavour." 

224. BuUa AdamsissB. pundulata, C. B. Ad., non A. Ad. 

229. Haminea cymbifonnis is dosely allied to H. virescens, Shy. 

239. ^phonaria lecamum. S, mauraj Shy., is one of the varieties of this species. 
The & paknata may prove distinct. 8, f&nrugineay Kve., is probably de- 
scribed from the intermediate form. 

242. latUhina itriulata. Name given in ignorance of striolata, Ad. and Hve. ; and 
not needed, teste Rve. 

245. The Denialmm hyaUnum of Phil, is probably the young of 2>. aemipolitum : 
this species is distinct 

247. The Dent, pretiomm of Nutt is a northen species ; this is most likely 2>. £nc- 
iettmy PhiL 

248-250. This typical group of Chitonids retains the Linnean name in Dr. Graves 
arrangement ; and as he first pointed out the generic distinctions in tbe 
familv, his judgment is to be preferred. 

2-52-254, 25o. These species belong to Ischnochiton, Gray. 

255. LepidofHewrusy Risso, has sculptured valves and scaly margin, and is probably 
svnonFmous with LophyruSy H. and A. Ad. The name may be retained fcr 
tne " Lophyroid " l9chnochiton here described, the peculiarities of which have 
been confirmed by adult specimens in Mus. Ouming, and by other species. 

257. Chiton, H. and A. Ad.,ssAcanthopleura (QuMd,), Gray. 

202. ^NacellapeltoideSy n. s. (describea from Cape St. Lucas specimens). 

263. The true LoUia pintacUna of Gld. (teste figured types) consistB entirely of 
varieties of A. patina, 

265. The " large flat shell " referred-to is TectureUa grandis, Grav, Brit. Assoc Rep. 
1861, p. 137. TectureUa is preoccupied by Stimps. Gr. Manan Invert. It 
being needful to divide the old genus Acm€Ba, IjoUia may be used for this 
section. By reviving synonyms as sectional names, when a genus is divided, 
gpod names may be retained in a restricted sense, and the burden of a spu- 
rious nomenclature lessened. The species is Lottia gigantea (Sby. Gen.). 

269. SciUeUina navicelloideSt CipT.ySs Crepidtda osculans, C. B. Ad. 

280. This should stand as Gadinia steUata, Sby., that name having been given to 
the normal form. Rep. pi. 7. f. 3a, of which penteganiagtoma, f. Sf, is only 
an accidental variety. 

282. CaHopoma Fokke8{i=tes8eUatum, Rve., is the Lower Califomian form, and 
probably distinct. 

^^b. = Turbo phasitmella, C. B. Ad., non Melaraphe phasianella^ Phil. 

289. The first name is T eximtusy Rve., P. Z. S. 1842. p. 185 ; Mke.'s shell bearing 
date 1850. It appears identical with "Javanicus, Lam.," in Mus. Cum., and 
is extremely like "speeiosus, Japan.*' Trochus being now generally retained 
for the NUoticm group, which contains the largest forms, it is best to revive 
Swainson's excellent name CaUiostoma for the " Ziziphinua "group. A specific 
name should not be used for a genus, where a distinctive name has already 
been accurately described. 
1863. 3^ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



546 KEPORT— 1863. 

200. CalUo^toma W Andrea is the normal state, of whicli C Leanum is the pal* 

variety. 
202. Mr. Pease considers that T, Byroiwmus represents a Boiydonta from the Pacific 

Islands. 
313-316. The non-pearly Liotia are Gonradia, A. Ad. 
322, 323. Mr. A. Adams thinks that the ** Ethatia'' amplectam is probahly the 

young of " Teinosioma^* a., as suggested in Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 2o3. 
338. Crepidtda adunca, Cpr. (non Shy., =«o/u20, Hds., Mrosfn/brmw, Old.). The 

tropical shell is C. uncata, Mke.,=C. rostrata, C. B. Ad*., Rve. 
841. Should stand as C. squama : v. note on C. B. Ad. no. 361. 
354. VennetHS ehumem, Kve.,= V. ffflomeratftSj C. B. Ad., non Lam. The note to 

Cigcum, Brit. Mus. Cat. p. 314, should read: — " Of a fourth groun, Mmfceras, 

three species are known from the Caribbean Sea, one of which is fossil at 

Grignon. The earliest Crecid is the Eocene genus Streblcceras,*' Vide 

Mon. Csecidae in P. Z. S. 1858, pp. 413-444. 

387. CeriUmmi irrortrium, Gld. (teste type sp. in Mus. Smiths.), is a very distinct 

East Indian species, = C, oibesum, Shy. sen. 

388. This is not the C interruptum of C. B. Ad., Sby., and Mus. Cum. (hodie), 

whicli latter is the roughened form of C. stercua tmtscarum, Val. C GaUu" 

pagmis is the rough form of C. interruptum^ Mke. 
380. Vertaaus sl^ould be changed into Wiineclatns, Swains. ; v. note to 280. 
301-303. Ihe genus Triforis should be removed to Ceritkiopsida. The true 

*< 7W/bm '* infrequene of C. B. Ad. is a dextral shell, = Cerithiopsis tubers 

cuhidea, no. 5^7. The shell here doubtfully affiliated is probably a variety 

of T, iiuionmieuus, 
308. LUvrina Philippiis=L. fparvtda, C. B. Ad., non Phil.,=:Z. duhiosa, C. B. Ad., 

nom. prov. 
300. szLitortnapuIlatay Cpr. ; described from Gape St. Lucas specimens. 
400. 'Prohnhljssltissoinajirmalaj C. B. Ad.,+JR.«co/«rt/5»iww, C. B. Ad. 

411. " Not K Barleeia,^* teste Jeffr. MS. It seems, however, too ch^y allied tc 

B. rubra to create a fresh genus for it, unless the animal should display differ* 
ences. 

412, 413. Belong. to Fenetta, A. Ad.* JP. exeurvata^? Riseoa iftconspicua, C. B. Ad., 

non Alder. 

417. Fresh specimens prove this to be not a dead Hydrobia ulva, but a Barkcia. 

It appears on the Califomian coast, as B. subtenuis, 

418, 421. Are very similar, and possibly conspecihc forms of O/thnay A. Ad. 
422. Is a GemeUa, teste A. Ad. 

426, 427. Belong to Sh/U/erina, A. Ad. 

430 et s^. Some of these forms may rank with Gottoina, A. Ad., and thus approach 
JrasearuB, 

437. Luponia epurca. This shell is auite distinct from X. albitginosaj to which it 
was supposed to belongby Dr. Newcomb. It is probably a ballast specimen. 

4%. Quite distinct fix>m the JPanamic A. pundulata, 

445, 446. Cancellariada should be removed to Proboscidiferay teste A. Ad. 

450-452. Mr. Reeve unites all these species, with several others, to M. variegata} 
which is certainly the easiest way of meeting the difficulty. 

463. Myurdla rufocinerea^ T, rudisj Gray, teste Rve. 

477. Corms regaUtatis^ CpurpurascenSf var. Most Cones vary in the same manner. 

484. Torinia variegata, Mr. Hanlev restores to this shell the uncomfortable name 
of Chemn. (perspectiviuncula)^ and unites to it areola^ Desh. A carefril com- 
parison with shells from the Pacific Islands (teste Pease's specimens) proves 
them to be completely identical. The ** specific " names of Chemn., when 
simply the second word of the diagnosis, can hardlv claim precedence. 

486. The genera in this family have lately been revised by Mr. A. Adams. A 
large number of his Japanese groups are here represented. This species 

• The generic names here given were assigned by Mr. A. Adams, who kindly examined 
the figures of the minute Mazallan shells, aU of which have been drawn under the micro- 
scope. 

32 



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OK MOLLUSCA O? THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 547 

ncrees with Pyranadelln, gp. ind.^ C. B. Ad.^ no. 2d8 (not 294), and may b^ 

o'dcted as Ohelucm Adamm, 
4S7, 4as. Belong to LtaUaj A. Ad. 
4>9 Ii a Si/rnola^ A. Ad. 
i^2. The peculiar appearance of the apex is due to decollation, as proved bv the 

di5<covery of an adolescent and several adult specimens. It rrobably belongs 

to DiaUif A. Ad., and= Cingtdu pauperciday C. B. Ad., no. ao.3. 
408-^00. Belong to Miralda, A. Ad. Parthema quinquecincta^? Cingtda tutTiUiy 

C. B. Ad.,+ J?tMoa notabilisy C. B. Ad. 
601, 502. Belong to OsciUa, A. Ad. Parihenia exarata^? dnpula terebellum^ C. B. Ad. 
608-506. The " Odostomoid Chrt/8alUd<g '* probably rank best with MumUa, A. Ad. 
612. CkrtfftaUidAottdum^fCingijda incontpicua, C. R Ad. ; non flUaaoa incompicua, 

C. B. Ad. nee Alder. 
613-515. Are PyrffuUna^ teste A. Ad. The Japanese species, however, seem more 

like Par&emaf no. 497. 
617. Is a StyloptygmCj A. Ad. 
630. This is not the Chemnitsda similis of C. B. Ad. ; and is probably a variety of 

Ch, Panamenns, 
l'^, = Chenwitiia t^ffmiSf C. B. Ad., pars : paras Ch, undata, no. 631. 
6-V>. Is perhaps a Mormtda, A. Ad. 
546. The vanous shells grouped under AcUs require revision. Comp. Onoba^ A. Ad., 

and Ebola, Gray, which is figured as Aclis in Add. Gen. 

649. Ranks best with "EuUmella, 

650. This is not Leiostraca recta^ C. B. Ad., and may be called MuconaHa intoUda, 

651. This b not L. soiitaria, C. B. Ad., and may be called L, prodtictti* 

652. ^MucronaHa soUtaria^ C. B. Ad. 
6.i3. Kanks best with Etdimaj teste A. Ad. 

655. L.retexa ; distinct firom X. tote, C. B. Ad. 

656. Should be EuUma, teste A. Ad. 

657. FtVfe note to 393. 

663. Belongs to the subgenus Seila, A. Ad. « 

668. Scalaria raricosta is perhaps the young of 8. Elenensts, 

669. 8.Juniculata and S, dtademaf with their congeners, should be removed from 

Vinotrefna to OpaUa, 

670l Dr. Gould dissents from the affiliation of this shell to the West African species 
on the ground that ''he can separate the African from the Pacific shells as fast 
as we can hand them to him. So easily can any ordinary naturalist separate 
conspecific British and Mediterranean specimens, or Mazatlan and Panama 
specimens. It is not found in the West Temperate fauna ; the '* var. Ca<Y- 
fomiea *' being the ordinary type from the Pacific Islands, which is much 
more entitled to be regarded as distinct than are the West American forms. 

672. Is shown by perfect Cape St Lucas specimens to belong to a natural f|roup 
of species, resembling flattened, penorated PhasianelltBy to which the name 
Bucosmia may be given. 

690. Appears under genus " Lagena, Klein," ♦ in Mus. Cuming ; the Arffobitca'na 
caneeUatum, OregonenMy &c., having received a new name, iVw?ne, H. & A. Ad. 

680. This belongs to CUmaj Gray, = Volutella, Swains., non I)*Orb. 

• The names of Klein in his *Tentamen* and * Lucubratiunculs,' 1773, are not entitled 
to precedence (according to the Brit. Assoc, rules), because he evidently did not adopt the 
Linnean mode of binomial nomenclature. What he calls a '* genus " answers more to the 
modem idea of copter or section. By chance, some of his names are allovrable ; but, if 
tued, the genus must be regarded as that of Adams, C^rav, Mdrch, or other writer who 
defines it. The following wUl serve as illustrations of Klein's ** genera " — " Sol, Luna, 
SleUa, Ac; Amriit Ana$, Tigris, Pes-aiuerinus, Tuha-phonurgrca, Cochlea-lunar in, 
CoehUa-ciBlatay &c; Buecitrnm-laeertun^ Buccinum-muricatum, Tkema-musicum, &c.; 
Ottreum-imhricaium, Oitreum-^uricatunif Ac. ; Mutcnlms-latus, MiuculuM-mammariu*, 
kc.i Tellina-areimUa, TelUna-virgata, Ac.j Concha-longa-UJoris, Concha-longa-uniforiai 
Concha-rpiXo^ ; " and, in p. 167, " Mu$eulus-polglepto-ginglwmt," under which re- 
itttrkible generic name is given as the first specie* *' Area-Noa, According to the now 
£i«hionabl6 transformation of mslscological nomenclature into a branch of areheologioal 
rc«etrch, under pretence of justice to ancient writers, the hitlieilo uuirei-imlly understood 

3 33 



Digitized by KjOOOXQ. 



548 EEPORT— 1863. 

C02. OUva tnteriincta \b very close to the vou^ig of 0. suhanfpda% but diflfers in ihi 

chestnut stain on the columella. 1 have not been able to compare ii wit!i 

the young of O. Cuming 
604. Is an abundant species in the Eastern Islands, occasionally seen in West 

Coast collections. 
595. Belongs to Anazoia, Gbay. The remaining Mazatlan species of OUvella are 

now called OUvina, Gray. 
608. Ohvella aureoemcta^ OUva peOuciday C. B. Ad., non Rve. 
599. Olivella inconapicua, C. B. Ad., is probably the young of the colourless var. of 

0. graciUSf which must be excluded from the synonymy of O, dama, no. 600. 
006. The figure of Purpura biserialis, hm., Brit Mus.' tablet 2232, is stated by Mr. 

A. Ad. to re]f resent the genus imusiffera, D^Oxh, f^ChelilropiSf Fbs. ; jiistai 

MacgiUivrayta is the young of DoUum. 

611. Bhizocheilm nux-^R, c^gtanSf Cpr. 

612. The vounsp of Vitularia salebroaa is named F\tmis lamefloststf Hds., in Brit Mus., 

and is also the '' Hanella triquetra " of Nuttall's collection. 
618. Is probably C. haccaUtj Gask., in Mus. Cum., though Mr. Gaskoin regarded it 

as new. The var. obsoletaf 6186, is probably C, gakuias, Rve. 
619-622. These shells mav perhaps be better studied under DaphneUa, 
631. CertamlysiV: femnmlosa, C. R Ad. 
633. Xassa crebristriata may rank as a yar. under proximoj C. R Ad., which is pro« 

bably itself a var. of versicolor, 
C39. This aberrant group of forms is now transferred to Corn^AoriM in Mus. Cuming. 

Perhaps they rant better with Siphonaliay A. Ad. 
663. Afmchis rttfoimcta (" new,*' teste Gaskoin) is probably «■ Col. dvminxda, C. R 

Ad., in Mus. Cum., but scarcely agrees with the diagnosis, nor was the ac- 

cordance noticed in the Amherst types. 
659. =P. degoMy Gray, in Griff Cuv. pi. 25. t 2. (1834.) 

The following species, since found, must be added to the catalogue of tho 
Reigen Collection. The specimens are deposited in the British Museum; 
The descriptions of nos. 693-695 appear in the appendix to the Brit. Mus. 
Cat. ; the remaiivier are ready for the press. 

704. CeUepora areolata, Busk. On Omphalius Ugtdatm, 

705. Memhranipora ?Flermngtiy Busk. „ „ 

707. DactyUna^C, B. Ad., Pan. no. 516. Obtained from M. Reigen, at Mazatlan, 

by Major Rich. 

693. Lt/onstay sp. ind., 1 sp. 

694. ?Montacuta chakedomeay 1 sp. 

706. fMorUacuta obttutL, n. s., 2 sp. Congeneric with 157^ 158. 

695. Crenella, sp. ind., 1 sp. 
693. PectunctdWf sp. ind., 1 sp. 

697. CyUchna Carpenteriy Hani., P. Z. S. 1858, p. 548, 1 sp. P« C. luticola, jnn. 

698. Scisaurdla rimuloides, n. s., 1 sp. 
099. Vitrittella omata, n. s., 1 sp. 

700. VitrineUa tenuiacu^ta, n. s., 1 sp. 

701. ?VUrinellay sp. ind., fragment 

702. MangeUa sulcata, n. s., 1 sp. 

703. ??Torin{a, sp. ind., 2 sp. 

708. Malea ringens. Obtained from M. Reigen, at Mazatlan, by Major Rich. 

53. Jay's Catalogue, — ^Mr. Hanley states that after the return of Prof. 
Nnttall, his duplicates were bought by the elder Sowerby, who sold part to 

designations of Lamarck, &c., must ^ve way to such names as the aboye ; and if some 
other * Attempt * or * Little Lucubration ' of a year's earUer date should be disinterred 

' from now-fortunate concealment, the most modem 'Guides* and *Books of Genera' will hare 
to be re-written. Klein's idea of ArffObmccimum appears to liave been that of a " Spotted 
"Whelk," probably HaneUa argus, Argobueoinum, H. and A. Ad., may stand as defin#*H in 
their * Genera* for the thin yentricose Tiitonib Tliey have, however, divided the species 

. between PritnM and Lagena, 

34 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 849 

Dr. Jay, and part to Mr. Stainforth. The specimens in lliis. Cum. were re- 
ceived from Dr. Jay ; those in Mus. Hanley from Mr. Stainforth. In the 
third edition of Dr. Jay's Catalogue, 1839, appear the following species whicl 
have not been identified, and localities not confirmed. 

14. TeUina rosea. Lam. California. [Pephaps Satigxdnolaria miniataJl 

33. Peeien tumidm, Brod. Upper California. 

37. ChiUm incamatuSj Nutt. f^ 
„ Chiton textilis, Conr. „ 

38. PitteUa pUcata, Nutt. „ 

40. /VMiii^/Mca, Nutt ^, 

41. CrepieUda squamosa, Brod. „ 
„ BtiUa CaUfirmcOy Nutt. ;, 

68. NaUca varioiaris. Califomia. 

70. Trochrn CaUfomicus, Nutt. Upper Califomii. 

72. Monodontafiuca, Nutt y, 

73. Marmorostoma planospirOy Nutt ,, 
„ LUorina iosioma, Nutt „ 
„ ZUorma maadatay Nutt ;, 

79. Mdongena ocddentaUs, Nutt ,, 

80. Murex sexcostatuSf Bru^. y, 

86. MoHoeeros plttmbeumy Kien, ^^ 

87. Buecmum Boymy Nutt ip 

54. C. B. Adams, — ^After arranging the duplicate Reigen Collection in the 
Etate Museum at Albany, New York, I proceeded to Amherst, Mass., to 
btudy the type-collection from which Prof. Adams's book was written. The 
result is embodied in a '' Review of Prof. C. B. Adams's ' Catalogue of the 
Shells of Panama,' from the Type Specimens," written for the Zool. Soe. in 
Jan., and published in the Proceedings for July 1863, pp. 339-369. In this 
paper the synonymy between the Mazatlan and Panama Catalogues is pointed 
out, and the species assigned to the modem genera. The following are the 
principal corrections needed in the list. Rep. pp. 267-280. The results in 
the succeeding paragraphs, pp. 280, 281, should be altered accordingly, 
(M.=Brit. Mus. Maz. Cat) 

3. (htUa fieffledassavena, var. 

8. Cypr€ea punebdata ; quite distinct from C arahicuku 
IL Cypraa rubescens, C. B. Ad.,=s 21 sanauinea, dead. 

15. MargineUa sapottUa^ C. B. Ad., is perhaps a large form of sapotHlay Hds. It 
is destitute of the sharp posterior labral angle seen in the West Indian 
specimens of cttrulescens, 
83. OUva araneosoy C. R Ad.,5=0. Mdchersi, M. 591. 
35. OUva peOucidOy C. K Ad.^s 0. aureocmcta, M. 598, dead. 
40. OUca venulaia, C. R Ad., s 0. angtdata, jun. 
43. Xassa caneseens^dead sp. of N.pagodus. 

50. Ka^sa pagodus, C. B. A(Ly^defMssatay Kien. [ ? non. Lam.]s=fl«i<a, M. 625. 
5L Kassa Panamensis has the operculum of I^u>s and Northiay^exUis, Pws. 

52. N<usa prartf/k7-f 54 N. striatOy C. R Ad. [non Mub. Cum. = KpauperOy Gld.], 

+3r. erebridriatay M. 633, are probablv vars. of JV. versicolor, 

53. Kassa scdbriusctdoy C. B. Ad., +56 N. WUsoni^N, comdanatOy Pws. 
70. Purpura foveolatay probably sworn sp. of Cuma cosUttOyM. 610. 

74 Purpura oseukms-^Bh, Cati/omicus+Bh, disUms, are probably vars. of Bhizo* 

cheiiusmtx, 
8L CohtmbeUa cosUOatay C. B. Ad,y^ Anachts scalarina, Shy. 
98. CoUmbeOa parvay C. B. Ad., = dead sp. of Anaehis pygnusa, 
103. CohmbeUa teuellatay C. B. Ad. (non Gask.),^^. GuaiernalensiSy Rve. 
110. Cassis ahbreviata can scarcely be distinguished, in some of its many varieties 

from the Texan BesoarcUca inflata, 
15L CaneeUaria affirm scarcely differs from C. urceoiata, M. 445, 

36 



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530 wspoRT— 1863. 

100. Cfvccllaria f^jgrnt^a^ C. ffontosfoma, jun., no. 157, sM. 4401 
1(>4. PkHin-toma atfiorssJDnUta v. Melchersi, M.4C1. 

IGD. Phitrotofiia discors, C. B. Ad., is probably a finely developed var. of Dm 

aterrima. 
1S2. Pleurotoma rustica, C. B. Ad., = worn specimens of 2). Melchersi, no. 164. 

101. Mangelia neglecta, probably s=ibf. acidicostata, M. 473. 
VM, 195, 201 belong to Cerithtopsis, 

190. Cerithium famelicum must stand for the West Coast Uncinoids, M. 883 ; the 
Cumingian shell, and two out of ten in the type-series, belong to C, me- 
dioUBve, M. 882. 

198, 199, 200 are various forms of C stercus mwcarumfYaL i quite distinct from 
C interruptuniy Mke., and C. irroratumy Gld. 

203. Doos not correspond with the diagnosis, and must stand as Chry$aUida pau^ 

percuUif a very distinct species. 

208. Is scarcely a variety of Tnforis aUematus, no. 207. 

209. Both the specimens are ^QxtnXf^Cetithwpm tuberctdoides^ M. 557. 

210. Turritella Bankm, C. B. Ad. (non Itve,)= T. ffotiiosfoma, jun., M. 379. 
217. A dead, stunted specimen of Cacum undatumy M. 371. 

220. Chemnitsia acuminata is a veiy broad but typical species ; not Chrysallida, 

221. Ckemnitzia aJjiniSf Mus. Cum. and M. 523, has sufficient correspondence with 

the dia^osis ; but the type» Ch* undata, M. 531. 

222. Chomnttzta clathrahda, . The type-series contains ChrysaUida dathrattda, 

M. 513 and Mus. Cum., -fC^r. commimis-^'Chr, effiua, M. blOf-^- Dtmkeria 
mban^lata, M. 537. 

223. Channttzia commtmis, the type of ChrysaUida, M. 507, Cpr. (vix A. Ad.). 

The type-series also contains C7ir. effu8a+ Chr, teleacoptum, M. 508,+Dkii- 

kerta 'stibanfftdalaf -^-fdo, var. 
225. Chemnitzia major ranks with Dunkeria, 
227. Chemnitzia Panameims contains also Ch, Adamsii, M. 519,+ C^ fgracillima, 

M. 530. 
223. Chemnitzia simHiSf like aculeiu ; differs from Ch. fgimUis, M. 520, which per* 

hKp6:= PanamenaiSf var. 

230. aienmitzia turrita^25l, '' Itissoa, sp. ind." 

231, 235, 237, 238. These species of " ?jLitorina " belong to Fossarus. 

233. Litoritia atrata-^- (adult) 257, fAdeoi'bis ahjeda, are the same (variable) spedea 
of Fossarina, A. Ad. 

239. Zitonna parvuia, C. B. Ad. (non Phil.),=X. Philippii, M. 398. 
244. RissoaJirmata+(2\^^ 250, R, scali/ormisss Eissoinay sp. M. 409. 

240. ?Rissoa incoiupicua, C. B. Ad. (non Aid.), does not accord with the diagnosis, 

but is identical with Alvania tumida, M. 414. 
249. Ritsoa notabiUs-^-Cinaula fturrita belongs (with 252 and 254) to another 

BwhordeTn^Parthema quinquecinctaf M. 498. 
252. fCingula incoftspicuasz Chrysallida omdum, M. 512. 
2C3. Cii%gula paupercula s P Ododomia mamiUata, M. 492, ss Didla, 

204. Cingtda ierebellum^Parthenia exarata, M. 501. 

2(31. VitrineUa minuta. The original type accords better with JEthalia* 
26C. Vitrinella regularis is also an Ethalta, 
1.69. VitrineUa vaivataides. Probably an JEthalia, 
270, 271. Are apparently vars. of Sofarium granulatxtm, 

272. May be distinguished as Iwinia rotundata, from its great superficial resem- 
bfance to Helix rotundata, 

275. Trochus Leanm is a pale var. of CalUostoma M' Andrea, 

276. Trochus lima can scarcely be distinguished from C, Antonii, Mus. Cum., 

dredged in the Japan seas by Mr. A. Adams. 

277. Trochus lividus, C. fe. Ad,, :=z Modulus dtsculus, M. 403. 

280. Trochus reiiculatus^ Omphalius viridtdus, M. 292. 

281. Turbo BuscUi, C. B. Ad., = UvaniUa ifiermisf M. 287, = T. variegahts, Gray, MS. 

in Brit. Mus. The true U, Buschii is coloured outside like U. olimcea, but 
with a white base like U. inermis. St Elena, Hds. in Brit. Mus. 

282. Turbo phasianella, C. B. Ad., is probably the perfect form of Piiasianella,»?\ut. 

36 



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ON M0LLX7SC.\ OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. B51 

tlrMita, M. 2836. Its operculum proTes it to be a true PhasianeUa, and 

not Mehraphe phasianeUa, Phil., of Add. Gen. 
283. Turbo ruUluSj the worn remains ol what perhaps was once Pomaulax widostta, 

brought in ballast from Lower California. 
2">9 Scalana^ sp. Cf^Ofudia funictdata^ ^\\n.y M. 6d9. 
290. Rditna [Leumtracd] iota appears distinct from L. retexta, M. 5o5. 
292. EuUn%a \Macroncdid]9oUaria^Leio9tracaj sp. a, M. 552. 
29^i Piframiaella, aia.,^ Obelisetts Adamni, M. 48d. 
2,^ NtUica ktrida, u. B. Ad.,=spale var. of N, maroccana, 
297. NaUca otis, C. R Ad. (non Br. and Shy.); = Polices " Salanffonemis," C. B. Ad., 

no. 298. 

299. ydtica Souleyetiana, C. R Ad., closelj resembles N, inaroccana, with larger 

umbilicus. 

300. Xatica virgtnea, C. B. Ad.,+302, K, sp. ind. h,ssPolinice8 vber, M. 576. 

301. Nafica, sp. a, = maroccana^ var. tmifixsciata, 
318. ?? TruncateQa duhiosa is probably a PaludindUu 

321. Bulla punciulata=sB. Adamaii, M. 224. 

322. BuUa, s^.^Tomatina carinata^ M. 223. 

323. Vermetus ?glomeratwi, C. B. Ad.,s V, ebumewi. Rye., M. 854 

324. Vermetus Punamends, C. B. AA,,^Aletea cenUquadi^us, AL 352. 

325. SiomateUa mflata is a LameUaria, 

326. Hipponyx ?8ubrufay C. B. Ad.jssj?*. (rrayonu^, jun., Bf. 350,4-?6ar5a^t», inn. 

327. Hipponyx ^harbata, C. B. Ad. The type-series contains H. barbatus, M. 349, 

4-i7. Grayanu8-\- Discina Cuftiingu, M. 14 (valye). 
330. Calyptraa wferrans is a yalye of Anomia, 
33L Caiyptraa aspersasz Galerus cmicust broken, worn, and young; one sp. may be 

tnamillarii, 
333. Calypiresa cornea. Most of the specimens are G, mam{llari8,:siM0, O, regt^ 

laris ; but a few may be the true O. comcus, worn, M. 332. 
338u CalyptrtM plamdata is a young flat C. cejjacea, 

342. CiMfyptraa ??ungtu8, C. B. Ad.,s Crucibtdum sptnoeunij jun. 

343. Crejndula ceritMcolass C, onyx, jun., M. 340. + C. ificurva, jun., M. 339. 

349. Cr^dula squama. Some of the young shells belong to C, onyx ; one perhaps 

to C, mcurva, 
850. Crepidula unguiformis. Some of the specimens belong to this species ; othei-s 

to'C nivea, 
85L Crepidula nitea. The type-specimens are small, poor, and rough, of the yar. 

striokUay passing into Lesaonii, Perhaps, therefore, the first name squama 

should be retained for the species (nos. 348, 349, 350, part, and 351), leaving 

striolata and Lessnmi for the vars. 
852. Crepidula osctdans belongs to another order, ssScutelUna naviceUoides, M. 269. 
353. Cr^idula rodrata, C. B. Ad., Rye., = C, uncata, Mke., M. 338 ; anii is perhaps 

distinct from C. adunca, Sby.,s=«o&Wa, HdB.,=ro8irifonnis, Old. 
357. Fissurella mierotrema. Dead shells, of which part =sF. rugoaa, yar. M. 273. 
858. Fissurella mus. Intermediate between Glyphis inaquaUs, M. 279, and var. 

pica, 
d6L Fissurella virescens. Intermediate between F, v., M. 271, and F. niyropunctata, 

no. 359. 
806. Sii^umaria ?pica, C. B. Ad. Young dead limpets [?Acm€Ba']. 
367. I0ottia ?patina, C. B. Ad. [non Eech.], may stand, until more specimens haye 

been collated, as Aemaa {?/loceata, vBJt,)Jilosa. 
868. LaUui, sp. ind. a, may be Quoted as Acnuea (?floceaia, yar.) subrotundata. 
360. LotUa, sp. ind. 5, may rank, for the present, as Acmssa (jfvespertina, var.) 

temicosa. 
37L fPMeUa, sp. ind., resembles P. tndgata, but may be an Aemtea. 
372-376. There was no opportunity of mssecting the Amherst Chitons ; but amone 

the remaining duplicates ot the collection (all of which were obtained ana 

brought to England) were the following : — 
373. fildlon difpar, C. B. Ad. (•' non Sby.), including Ltpidoplewus Adamsii and 

yar. and X. teiuiisculjjtus. 

37 



Digitized by KjOOOXQ. 



652 »EPORT— 1863. 

«375. CTtiton jnMellugy Along with laehnochiUm Elenmsis, and Pvar. ex p re suu. 
37G. Chiton Stokesii. Sent as C. patuhu by Mr. Cuming. 
877-379. Probably vars. of Anomta tenuis (nou lampe), 

8dO, 381. OstreOf sp. ind. a and 6, a peculiar corrugated species, which may stand 
as O. Panamensis. 

882. O^rM, sp. ind. c, resembles O. ru/o. Old., MS. (not Lam. in Deless.), not 

Columbtensis. 

883. Odrea, sp. ind. d, more like the Gulf Mex. shells than O. Virginicaj M. 212. 
384. Os^^ sp. ind. «, may stand as O. amara. The ''small var.*' is O. concha^ 

phUa, M. 214. 
386. ^Mmdylm, «^.,=^Plicatula peniciOata, M. 210. 
893. 894. Perruiy sp. a, 5^= /. Chemnitxianufn. The Jamaica conspecific shells ai« 

labelled **6u»for, Ad." 
896. ISrma tuberculosa, C. B. Ad., probablysP. maura, jun. 

898. Lithodomus, sp., includes X. aristatusy M. 176, X. atiemuUus, M. 178, and 

Z. ?plumula^ jun., M. 175. 

899. ModioUi semifusca, C. B. Ad.,=:3f.^ra8tZ^^ym«, M. 171. More like the Atlantic 

shells than are those from Gulf Cal. A specimen, undoubtedly firom N. 
Zealand, is pronounced conspecific by Mr. Cumins. 
400-404. Modiola, sp. ind , contains M, capax, M. 170, MyL multiformis [^Adam^ 
sianusy Dkr.1, M. 168, several vars., and Adula cttmamomea, var. M. 177. 

405. Ckama Budaiana (in poor condition) ssC%. (f/rondosOf var.) fomicatOf 

M. 121 b. 

406. Chama ?corrugata, small valve; lai>^ one ?= C%. Mexicana, reversed. 

407. Chama echinata, C. B. Ad., ?^Mexicana, }mLf'\-Buddiana, jun. 
4 14. Area favicuhides, C. B. Ad., appears a young Scopharca, 

419. Area pholadiformis = Barbatia gradata, var. 
422. Area similis, scarcely a variety of A. tubereulosa, no. 425. 
432. Cardium planicostatum, C. B. Ad., may be a worn valve of Hemicardia bian" 
gulatat but more resemble<) a ballast specimen of the W. Indian H, media. 

435. T^emts ?amathusia, 0. B. \d.,^Anofnaloeardia subimhricata, M. 118 

436. Venus discors^^ Tapes grata, M. 110, var..+ T. histrioniea, M. 109. 
442. VenuSf sp. b,^Chione sugiUata, Rve. {^Ycreniferaf M. 106). 

450. Gouldia Pacifiea, M. 116, does not belong to the Professor's genus, but is a 

form of Crassfdeila, 
45L Cyrena maritima, " The discovery of Cyrena in brackish water is a fact of 

some importance to geologists, which was duly appreciated Inr D*Orb." (T. 

Prime, in Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1861, p. 814.) 
457. Donax rostratus, C. R Ad. (non Gld, MS., and from it Cpr. in M. Appendix, 

p. 549), teste type-valve=2>. carinatus, Mus. Cum. oUm, and from it M. 71 j 

non D. carinatusy Mus. Cum. hodicy and type, teste Hanl.,s2>. culminaius, 

M. 72. 
459. TelUna cognata^Psammohia casta, Rve., teste Cuming. 
465. TeiUnafelix, The affiliation of thia shell to J^rimlla fucata, Old,, MS., was 

doubtless due to an accidental error in labelling. No. 476 is the same 

snecies dead. 
468. xMia pueOa, Resembles T, feUx, not ??pudlay M. 59. 
471. TeUina simulans. The type-valve exactly accords with the Professors W. 

Indian specimens. 
473. Tellma vidna, C. B. Ad,y ^versicohry C. R Ad., MS. on label. Larger than 

most W. Indian specimens, which exactly accord with the Acapulcans, and 

are varieties of Heierodonax bimaeulatus. The Panamic shells resemble 

the Lower Califomian, which are PsammMa Pacifieay Conr. 

477. Pctricola cognata. Perfect specimens are P. phoiadtformisy teste Cum. 

478. Saxicava tenuis, Sby., C. B. Ad., R and A. Kd,y^ Petricola tenuisy H. and A. 

Ad. Gen. pp. 349-441, and better accords with the latter genus. 
479,482. Cumingui coarctatasslamdlosay var. M. 42. 
480, 481. Cumingia irigonularisy M. 43. 

483. Cummgia, sp. c,sM. 45, and, if not described, may stand as C AdamsO^ 

484. Cumingia, sp. i^=M. tablet 107, p. 3L 

38 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON MOT.LUSCA OT THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 553 

485. Amphidetna hicohr^Semde frenusta, M. 41 (non A. Ad.). 

467. Amphidesma proximum, probably =486, ell^ticum, var. : not SemeU^ proxtma, 
M. 4!d,=Sflace9ceMj Gld., M. p. 648. 

489. AtnpMdemia striosum, res-embles Semele ptdchra^ no. 488. 

491. Amphidesma ventricosum. Scarcely peifect enough to distinguish the genus. 
Tne Talve outside resembles Macoma solidula. 

497. Anaiina aUa, A valve of Pen'ploma ; probably one of the Gulf species. 

496. Pandora earnatOj named and clesciibea from a fractured growth -, resembles 
CUdiophora dariculata, 

4S9f 500 are varieties of the same spedea of Azara, of which perhaps no. 501 is an 
extreme form. 

506u Corbida rubrass C biraduUa, jun., no. 503, M. 31. No. 509 are dead valves 
of the same^ss C. pohjchroma, Cpr. 

506. Carhula, sp. a, resembles C. pmttdo$a^ M. 32. 

510. Soiecurtua qfinis, probably = 5. Caribbaus ^ Siliqtfaria gtbhuy Spengl., S. I. 
Check-List, no. 222. The W. African specimens are aMliated to the same 
species by Mr. Cuming. The Mazatlan shells, M. 37, have a difll-rent 
aspect, but closely resemble the Ariqnibo spNecimens in Mus. Amherst. 

51L Sokn rudis is named Solena obUqtMy spengl., in Mus. Cum. It appears iden- 
tical with JBnscttella ambiaua, Lam., as figured by Deless. ; but S. amliyua 
(Lam.), Swains., is slightly different, and better agrees with the dead va.ves 
of *' S. mediuSf Alatska," in Brit Mus. These may, however, be only ballast- 
Talves. As <SL amhigua, Lam., was described from America, and the form 
is not known elsewhere, it probably represents the Panamic shelL 

515. Fholas, sp. Oj^laqueatOy teste Cudl 

516. I^talas, sp. b, cloeely resembles Daetylina dactylus; also La Paz, teste Kich. 

The following species were collected by Prof. Adams, but do not apperr 
in his Catalogue ; they were found either mixed with others in the Amhuidt 
Uasemn or in the shell- washings of his duplicates*. 



528. Csecum clathrattim. 

529. Lepidopleurus tenuiscnlptuau 

530. lecnnochiton Eleneusis. 

531. Cerithiopsis, n. s. 

532. Lucinacapax. 

533. Kellia suborbicularifl. 

534. SphsBnia fragilis. 

535. Tellina laminata. 

536. CreneUa inflata. 



518. Mumiola ovata. 

519. Chrysallida effusa. 

520. ChrysaUida telescopium. 

521. Chiysallida &8ciata. 

522. Chrysallida, n. s. 

523. Leiostraca retexta. 

524. Eulima yod. 

525. Volutella margaiitula. 

526. CSdcum semil»ve. 

527. Caecum subquadratum. 

55. British Museum Catalogues, — ^To the list of Deshayes, Cat. Venertda, 
iLxy be added — 

7. Donma ponderoaa^ Qnj,ssCyth, gigontea, Sby.,aF<»t«« cgckndes, D'Orb. 

[Gulf] California. 
135. C%¥me callosa [Besh, et auct Bnt,ssCk,Jluciifraga, var., quite distinct from 

CaiHsta (Amtantis) caHosa'jf Conr. 
147. CWofie flwter<okfc». Beck, Greenland. [1849. ^ Tapes ^uctuosa, Gld., 1841; 

teste Gld., Otia, p. 181. Midd.'s figures more resemble V. liennerieyi, jun.] 

The authorities are rarely given for localities quoted in this elaborate 
"Work. The same species often occur under different names. The Vtneridcs 

* With regard to the species which have received different desiffnations in the Keigen 
and Adsmt i sn catalogues, whether those names be retained of which the specimens exist, 
and have been widely distributed, in accordance with the diagnoses, or whether the prior 
ones be adopted of which the unique types do not represent the deseriptions, is a matter 
of Httle moment to the writer of the Brit. Mus. Cat. He spared no pains in making-ont 
his predecessor's species before describing his own, and has offered the best attainable 
list of Uie parallel forms in the review here quoted. 

39 



Digitized by KjOOQlQ. 



C54 EEPORT— 18G3. 

in tho Bi-it. Mus. Coll. have received Deahayes' autograpli names^ in accord« 
ance with this Catalogue, generally on the back of the tablets. 

In the Brit. Mus. Catalogue of FoIuticUE ♦, 1855, Dr. Gray arranges th« 
W. Coast species thus : — 

Page. No. 

17 7. Lyna (Enata) Hitrpa, Adama, 167 ; Gray, P. Z. S. 1865, p. 61 ; Hub. Peru, 

=5 Voluta Hat-pa^ Barnes, Sby., Conch. Thes. [as Vduta jBame^u, Gray, 
ZooL Joiim. vol. i. p. 511, note.] 

18 10. Lyna (Etiiela) Cutmn^ii, Brod. (lac. cit). Central America^ S. Salvador, 

Gull Fonseca. 

56. Sailor's Coll. — Pecten ?8enatoriu8 may be a form of sericetis, Hds. 

57. Gould's Collections, — ** Planorhis ammon^^Traslcei, Lea. P, graci" 
lentus ?=Z^6manni, Dkr., or HaMemanm,^ teste Gld. MS. The collec- 
tions of Mr. Blake and others will be found under the '' Pacific Bailway 
Explorations," v. posted, par. 98. 

58. Bridges, — Some of the species described as new on Mr. Cuming's 
authority appear, on further comparison, to be identical with those before 
known. 

?ScrobiculanaproductasLtdricolaf Domhept, Lam. 

StrigiUa diiffuncta appears to, the author identical with S, sineerOf HanL ['' Quite 
distinct," H. Cuming.t 

Lyonsia diaphana=iL. inflata, Conr. 

Calliostoma M^ Andrea ^normel state of C Lecmum, C. B. Ad. 

Natica exeavata+y. Haneti, Reel., appear varieties of N. Elena, Reel., the 
analogue of lineata^ ( hemn. 

Add Alora (" TtickUropis'') Gouldii, H. andA. Ad., P. Z. S. 1866, p. 869; 1861, 
p. 272. 

59. Proc. Zool, Soc, — The following additional synonyms have been ob- 
served in the list. Rep. pp. 285-288 : — 

Pace. 

1836 &. Venus letwodon-^ CaUfomiensis [es Chione succincta, Val. 1833], 
„ 110. Pecten circtdaris [P = ventricostis, i un.]. 

1850 24. PL 8. f. 4. (Add) Cumingia simuis, A. Ad. N.W. coast of America. 

„ 37. Gena vartOy A. Ad. Mindoro, 9 fims., Cuming; Australia; Acapulco, 
on the sands, Moffat. [Clearly imported.] 

1851 163. Infundibulum Cahfomicum [is a Pacific shells J. chloromj^alus, var.]. 
„ 168. Ziziphinus Calif omicus [ss Calliostoma eximiumy Rve.]. 

„ 190. Margarita calostoma [ = lf. pupiBa, Old., sscoUeUata, Brit. Mus. Col.^ 
non Sby.]. 

1863 186. Pseudoliva KeUettii, A. Ad. \^ Macron (Zemira) K^lettiiy Mus. Cum. : 

^Pusio trochlea^ Gray, Mb. in Brit Mus. Cerros Is., Ayres]. 

1864 316. Chloro8tomafimebr<de [ = 2V. marginatus, Nutt (non Rve.) ; = T. meestus, 

auct nonnul. ; non Jonas]. 
„ 369. TeUina Mazatlanica [= T. pttra, Gld., 18611. 

1865 231. Chiton Montereyensis [ = MopaUa Ugnosa, Gld., 1846 z^MerckH, Midd., 

18471. 
„ 231, 232. Ck. Harttoegii and regtdaris belong to Isehnochiton, 

• In DonoTan*§ 'Naturalist's Bepository,' vol. ii. 1834, p. 61, appears (without 
authority) " Voluta Dufresnu^ Don., California, 8. America." 

t This belongs to a group of species in which the cartilage is semi-internal, intermediate 
between Scrobicxdaria (^Luiricola) and Mocotml They are arranged under the former 
group in Add. Qen. ii. 409, as ** subgen. G^>sa, Boec." That Lamarckian name being in 
common use for Iphigenia, Schum., and bemg also employed for AsapAis and Gaatrana, it 
adds to the confusion to use it for a fourth group. The bulk of Blainrille's old genua 
haring mifirated to Lutraria and ScrobicvJaria, his name may be rcTived for this group 
not otherwise provided-for. The species was redescribed in con8e<^ueuce of DvmUtfi h^\ iu^ 
been left among the true TcUens in Mus. Cum. 

40 



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ON MOLLirSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 55J? 

Page. 
1856 2;j4. CaUopama depressum 1=: Senedus ftmiculatWf Kien.: not AmencanJ# 

The following species appear in later numbers of the Proceedings : — 

1866 360. Mytilwi Adamsianus, Dkr. [=3f. muUiformts]. Panama, Cuming* 
„ 865. Volsella spletidida, Dkv. California. 

Dr. Gray, in his elaborate article on the OUvidce, 1858, pp. 38 et seq., 
gives 0. jidieta. Duel., 0. araneosa, Lam., and 0. venulata, lAm., as syno- 
nyms of Strepkona reticularis. Lam. ; and quotes as " species (?) more or less 
allied to it," 0. polpasta. Duel., O.spU^ididida, Duel., " O.^asptd^^^a, Ducl.,= 
0, DudosU, Rve." [?], 0. kaleontina, Duel. (Gallapagos), 0. Cumingii, Rve., 
and Oliva Schumacheriana, Beck, " California : front of pillar-lip brown '* 
P=0. Qamingiiy var.]. 

For 0, voluteUa, Lam. (including 0. razamola, Duel.), he constitutes the 
genus Ramola, 

For 0. undatelhiy Lam. (including 0. '^hieroglypTuca, Rve., 0. nodulina, 
Duel, and 0. ozodina, Dud.), and similar species, he forms the genus 
Anazola. 

The restricted genus OliveUa is altered to Olivina, and includes (from the 
West Coast) 0. gracilis, Sby., 0. anazora, Duel., 0. tergina. Duel., 0, lineolata 
rzdama, GoodaU* ; and, in a section, 0. eolumellaris, Sby., 0, semisulcata, 
Gray, and 0. zonalis, Lam. 

The Califomian species, 0. hiplieata, Sby.,=0. nux, Goodall, in Wood, is 
placed in the genus Scaphtda, This is constituted for an animal, ** Olivancilld 
aurieidaria," D'Orb., on which, in his work on S. America, he figures the 
shell of 0, biplicata (teste Gray). The shell might in some way have become 
mixed with S. American specimens ; but as D*Orb. could not possibly have 
there observed the living animal, the genus should be restricted to the latter. 
The shell of 0. bipUcata is very peculiar, and has not been found south of 
San Di^o. D'Orbign/s genus is Olivancillaria, 

1859 23). Terehra strigaia, Sby;, Tank. Cat. Panama, Real Lejos. ^Bwnnurn 

eloTigatum, Gray, vlood, ^Terebra zebra, Elen.,^ Terebra Jiammea^ 

IjOSS. 

„ 287. r«frc6ra SalleanOy Desh. Mexico [Pubi], SaiU, 

„ 302. Terebra Pdiveriana, Desh. (Pet. Gaz. pi. 76. f. 6). Panama. Mu^. Cum. 

ff 303. Terebra tpecUlata, Hds. '^Probably two species here figured.'' San 

Bias, Mexico. 
„ 803. Terebra tarviformis, Hds. " Probably two species here figured." SU 

Elena, Monte Christi. 
„ 307. Terebra formosa, Desh. Panama. Mus. Cum. 
„ 307. Tert^a incomparabiligy Desh. F = 7*. Jlammea, Lam., teste Rve., P. Z. S. 

1860, p. 460J. Panama. Mus. Cum. 
„ 308. Terebra insigniSf Desh. Panama. Mus. Cum. 

^ 428. ^ondylm Victoria, Sby., pi. 49. fig. 8. Gulf of California. Mus. Cum. 
„ 428. murex Ueniatus, Sby., pL 4h. fiff. 3. Gulf of California. Mus. Cum. 

1860 370. Leda Taylori, Hani. Guatemala. Mus. Gum., Taylor. 

„ 440. Leda Hindsii, Hani. P Gulf of Nicoya. Mus. Cum., Hani., Mete. 
„ 440450 i I^®view of Deshayes' ' Monograph of the TerebiHda,^ 1859, by Mr. 
^^"^' I Reeve. His synonyms ai-e (juoted under par. 62, * Conch! Ic* 
1862 239 5 Bursa fusco-costata, Dkr. California, Mus. Cum. [No autho* 
rity.] Like B, bituberculari9, Lam. 

♦ Many of the names given to the sheila in Wood's Suppl. were arbitrarily altered by 
I>r. Goodall, as the work passed through the press (teste Gra^j* However, ii' the first 
fakUthedf they will be allovied the right of precedeucu, 

41 



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55fl KEPOET — 18C3. 

In the P. Z. S. 1861, pp. 145^181, is the first part of the ]ong-expect<H| 
" Review of the Vermetidce,*^ by Otto A. L. Morch. The Bpeeies of the 
West Coast are amuiged as follows : — 

Page. 8pk 

ioi 4. Stephopoma pemiatum, Morch, j|l. 25. f. 3-8. I Reftlrjo, on CaUojr^ma 
l-'2 .. St^hopomapennatumy?v»T.bi8pmo8afp].25J'.9ylO.\ tmd Ci'ucibulum. 
Ia3 6. Siphcnium (Dendnpoma) megamasium, Morch, pi. 25. f. 12, 13. *' PCaH- 

fomia; burrowing in Haliotis nodosuSf Rve." [Kot a Califomian 

species.] 

• • Siphonium (Dendropoma) megamattumy var. centiquadra^ Morch. 

" ssAletes centiquadruSy var. imh-icatus, Maz. Cat. p. 3U2,'' Morch fnan 
Cpr.]. California, burrowing in Haliotis splendens [a strictly Callfor- 
nian species, not found on the Mexican coast], 
l&i 6b Siphonium (^Dendropoma) lihtella, Morch. California ; deeply imbedded 
in Haliotis 9plenden»\ Mus. Cum. 

f^Stoa ammomtiformiSf M. de Serres, 

tsSniroglyphuSj sp., Cpr., B. A. Report, p. 824. [Found on shells from 
Washington Ter. to Cape St. Lucas (also Socoro Is., Xantus) ; but it 
has not been observed on the Mexican or Central Amer'can coast.] 
164 20. Siphonium margaritarum, Val. Panama, Vol. ; Mazatlan, Beigen. 

** ^Aletes margaritarmn, Maz. Cat. p. 303," [teste Morch, non Cpr.**}. 

177 86. rmnt<;ii^p«flwritft«,Brod. andSby., pi. 25. f. 17-^^ 

Var. a. pumorhoidea = Serpula regulans, Chenu. Hab, ? — , on fMargarh" 
tifera, Mus. Cum. 

• • Var. aa. laquearis, W. Columbia, Cuming. 

178 • • Var. /3. cinnamomina. W. Columbia, Cuming. 

. , , , Var. y. rolubilis, Morch, pi. 25. f. 18, 19. = Vermetus ebumeua, Rve., at 
F. btmhricalia, Kniffht. Hah, P— . Mus. Cum. 

, , . . Var. d. volubiUs (adu&a) jnctOy M(3rch, = Verm. ebumeuSy Maz. Cat. 
p. 304 W. Columbia, Cuming) Puntarenas, Oersted^ Jouni. 
Conch, viii. n. 30. 

. , • • Var. c. cr assay Alorch, =s Serp. PanamemiSy Chen. HI. pi. 10. fig. 5 = 
Vermiculus ebumeuSy Morch, Joum. Conch, viii. 30. Puntaieuajy 
Oersted. "Fossil at Newbum, N.C.," NuUall [teste Morch]. 

179 . • Var. f. tigrina, Morch. W. Columbia, Cuming. 

, , , . Var. rj. castaneoy Morch. On Murex mekmoieucus, M5rch. 
. , . . Operculum t W. Columbia, Cuming, 

var. 1, from var. d.= Vermeius Hindsii, Gray, Add. Gen. fig. ?8, a, &, 
Puntarenas, Oersted. 

180 • • Var. 2, discifer, from var. i. Puntarenas, Oersted, 
. . . . Var. 3, from var. c. PI. 25. f. 17. 

Var. 4, subgranosa. from var. 17. Puntarenas, Oersted. 

181 88. Vermiculus effusuSy Val., = « Vermel c, Val." Chen. 111. pl. 6. fijr. 4, 

a-c. ^Siphonium «•., Chen. Man. fig. 2301. "Fig. 4 of Chen. f is 
from specimen figured in Voy. Ven. as V, ceniiqutMf^us,^* 
In the second part of Morch's "Review of the Vfrmetida;,^* 1861, pp. 
326-365, occur the following. A portion of the genus Bivonia is united to 
Spiroglyphus. PetaheonchuSy Aletes, and part of Bivonia are united to Fe-r- 
metusj Morch (non auct.). The name Aletes appears to be used in a varietal 
sense, in no respect according with the subgenus as described by the author. 

* I was perhaps wrong iu referring the Mazatlan sheUs to Yal.*8 species ; bat if 'Sir, 
Mdrch is right in his own determination, the Mazatlan synonjroy and locality must be 
expunged. There was no evidence of a typical Siphonium when the Reigen Catalogue was 
published, nor have I seen such from the whole coast, unless ih^ minute operculum A, 
Brit. Mus. Col., tablet 2537, be supposed the young. MOrch says, ** the lid is unknown." 
The operculum of the similar Mazatlan species, on which the subgenus Aletes was 
founded, is described in Maz. Cat. p. 302. 

t " Cpr.*8 observations respecting Chenu's plates (Maz. Cat. p. 306, lin. 18) are in part 
erroneous, it being overlooked that Clienu has two plates marked * Y.' :" note *, p. C^. . 

42 



Digitized by KjOOOXQ. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NOKTH AMERICA. 557. 

CtS ^ J^'ryljfphus atbtdus, ?Cpr. Mazatlan, B^gm. Operculum g et ?/ Maz. 
Cat p. ^W.zsBivoma atbiduy Cpp., Maz. Cat p. 307. Operc. g is with- 
out doubt of S/nroglgpkuSy and not of Bivonia, var. tndentata, Operc. / 
is trulv conjreueric, and perhaps conspecific. 

544 4 rertnHuslThglacodui)corUortti8fCipT* Gulf Calif. Mus. Cum. 

, , . . Var. a. rq)eni (Tni/kicodus). Gulf Ca-if., on Margaritifera, Mus. Cum, 
" This species is perhaps a state of V. (JPvUdoconcmui) macrophrag^ 
maJ*^ [Morch : non Cpp.] t 

545 •• \tLr. a. favosa {l%yfacodus), CtMt, <m Ovcibulum, Mus. Cum. 
., ., \tiT. y. eontortula (Thglacodus), Gulf of California. 

,, ., Formal. ?Thylacodus contartua, var. indentata, Cpr. '* Corre- 

sponds to forma 1, electrina, of Vermetus tarianSf P'Orb." 
,, •. Var. «. tVid!e»to/a (r^rm^^iw), [Morch, non Cpr.]. Sonsonate, on i^n- 

dghiB Umhatust Rve., non Shy. Oergted. 
346 . . Var. c. conodens ( Vermetus), Is. Sibo (PQuibo), Spefnglerj on Puf 

para lineata. 
S59 20. Vermetuf (?? Strehhceras) aneUamy M5rch. California, on HdUcHs tuber^ 
culatus, Rve. [Not a Califomian Jfalwtis, The diagnosis, howeve'*, 
exactly accords with a Califomian shell, which is nerhaps the younff of 
S. squamigerus. It has no resemblance to StrehUcetcbt, Cpr., P. Z. S. 
1858, p. 440, which is a genuine Csecid.] 
800 21. Vermetus {Macr(mhragrna)maeropkragma. Mazatlan, &c.=i%te/ocowcAt^a 

m., Cpr. Kealejo, Oersted . 

362 24. Vermetm (Aletes) centiquadrus, VaL Puntarenas, Oersted -^V ejtisus, 

YaL (the same specimen). 
, , , . Var. a. maxima ss V, Panamensis, Chen. pL5. £ 1. Pan'amA, C, B. Ad. ; 

Mazatlan, Mdchers, 
.. .. Var. fi. Punctis i?npressis 4estUuta,^V, Ph'<mn,Y6l.X 
8G3 . . Var. v. siphanata. Puntarenas, Oersted^ V. Pi^onw, Rouais. 
. . . . Var. 8. tufipa. Gulf of California, on piece of black HmM, Mus. Cum. 

[The Pinna mgrina is from the R I.]=s V^tuUpa, Rouss. 
•• . . Var. c. Bridgesii. Panama, on Margarttifera, Mus. Cum. 

The conclusion of the paper is in P. Z. 8. 1862, pp. 64-83. 

68 4 Bivonia sutiUs, Morch. Central America, on Anamalocardia sMmbricata^ 

Mus. Cum.. 
,, . . Var. «. hnajor. On Pinna, probably Central America, Mus. Dunker. 
Var. /3. triquetra. Mazatlan, on vafre of Placunanomiay Mus. Semper. 

Like B. tritfuetruy " var. typica.^* 
70 S. Thylacodes cruciformis, Morch. California, on Crucibulum ? umbrella, 

Desh., var. Mus. Cum. Analogue of 7, T. Biisei, Morch, from the 

east coast. 
,, .. Var. «. lumbriceUa. Voy. Ven. pL 11. f. 2. California, crowded on 

Margtuitifera, Mus. Cum. 
•• ,, Var. /3. en/thosclera, Cal., on young Margaritifera, Mus. Cum. 

Very like Biv. Quayi, var. vartegata. [This species is on shells from 

the Mexican, not the *' Califomian'' fauna.] 
76 la Thylacodes squamigera, C^r.,^ Aletes sq., Cpr., P.Z.S. 1866, p. 226. Sta. 

Barbara, Nutt. [SerpuloHns, not Aleies, teste Cooperl, 

* Mr. MOroh has not seen any lamine inside, but, from the 3-5 spiral lir» on the 
coInmeUa, beUeres they will be found. The operoula supposed to belong to this specit s 
(Has. Oat. p. 311) Mr. M. thinks more probably those of Spiroglyphus albidw. He 
tUces (erroneously) that the shell was not opened by the desoriber. 

t MOroh supposes that Bivonia eontorta, Cpr., may be the adult of Petaloconchvs 
wuerophragma, and that both may be forms of Aletes ceiUiquadnu. The nuoloar por- 
tions are, however, quite distinct, and the three shells appear, from beginning to end, as 
lar removed as anv ordinary Yemietids can be from each other. 

t The writer doubts respecting this species, and thinks the shell on which it is para- 
sitical to be a Melo, and not Stiombut galea, simply because named after l^eron, who 
did not visit this dbtrict. 

43 



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558 BSPOET— 1863. 

Page. Sp. 

7tf 10 Var. a. pennata,^ V, margaritarum, Val. Ven. pi. 11. f. 2. Cfij?. min."), 
Cal. Mus. Cum. [AlHliated to the Califoniian hpedes on supp«'si- 
titioiu evidence^ and probably distinct. These appear to be from tUa 
tropical fauna.] Analogue of the W. Indian T, aecussatus^ (Jnitl. 
73 21. ?Thylacod€B oryzata^ Morch. Probably W. Central America, from ths 
adhesions; but *' China: " Mus. Cum. 

• • • • Var. m. annulata. Panama. Mus. Cum.* 

In P.Z.S. 1861, pp. 229-233, is given a "Catalogueof a Collection of Terres- 
trial and Fiuviatile Molluscs, made by 0. Salvin, Esq., M.A., in Guatemala: 
"zj the Eev. H. B. Tristram." But few of the 49 species occur in Mexican 
collections ; none are identical with W. Indian species, except such as 
are of nniyersal occurrence in tropical America ; and the 16 new species 
show close generic affinities with the shells of the northern regions of S« 
America. The shells have been identified from the Cumingian cellectioiA. 
The now species are described, and some of them figured. 

Page. No. PL Tip 

230 1 .• .. Helix OhieshreqhttylSjtL The largest ITeftj: in the New World* 

2 • • • • Helix eximiOf Pfr. 

• • 3 , . , , Helix Lalliana, Pfr., var. 

• • 4 •• •• Helix euryoniphala, Pfr. Closely allied to the S. American 

H laxata. 

• • • • Helix coactiUatcL, F^r. 

• • • • Bulimtu PazianuSf D'Orb. 
. . , • Btdimus Moriamdi, Pfr. 
, , . . BuUmwt Hotidurettianus, Pfr. 

. . Btdimus Ih/soni, Pfr. 

26 8. Bulimus semipellucidus, n. s. Allied to B, discrepans, Sbj. 

. . . , Sticcinea fputris, Ln. 

. . , . GlamKna Ghictbreghtiy Pfr. 

. • • . Glandina Carminensis, Morelet Described from Costa Rica. 

• • • • Achatinay sp. ind. 

• • . . Achatina ocfonaj Lam. 
, , . , Smraxia Lattreif Pfr. 

• • • • iS>nraxt« ShuUletooiihUf Pfr. 

• • . . Spiraxis Cobanensis, n. s. 
. • . • Spiraxisy sp. ind. 
. • • . Leptinaria Emmelitug, n. •• 

• • • . Leptinaria EUstSj n. s. 
. • • • Cylindrella Ghieshreghtij Pfr 
• . • • CyhndreUa Salpinx, n. s. 
. . , • Physa Sowerbyana, D'Orb. 

• • • . Physa purpurostama, n. s. Lake of Duefias. 

• • • . Planonns eorpulentuB, Say. 
. • . . Fianorbia tuniidusj Pfr. fComp. P. tumens, Maz. Cat 238.] 

• • • • Planorhis Wyldij n. sp. Lake of Duefias. 

• • • • Planorhis Duenasianus. n. s. Lake of Duenas. 

• • • • PianorbiSy sp. nov., in Mus. Cuul 
• , • • SegmenUna Donbilli, n. s. Lake of Duefias. 

• • • • Mehmptu /asciatu9, Chem. Salt-nuirshes on coast 
. • • • AdanmeUa OsberU, n. s. 

* The present posture of binomial nomeoolatuTe is well illustrmted in this most elabo* 
rate paper, which few naturalists have professed to understand. The shell of which the 
operculum-spine is figured in plate 25. f. 16, is quoted as ^ Siphotmim (Stoa) subcre* 
natum, v. tpinosa" The shell described in Max. Cat p. 807 is quoted as ** VermHu9 
(Thylacodut) contortus^ var. y. coniortula (Thylacodms), forma 1, Thylocodm (?) com 
tortuSf var. indentaiaf Cpr.'* Perhaps the tentence* of Klein and the early writers are 
more easy to understand and remember* The ChUouida of Middeudoifl' (v. first Beport^ 
p. 214} are simple in comparison* 

44 





5 




6 




7 




8 




9 




10 




11 




12 




13 




14 




15 




16 




17 


2*a 


18 




19 




20 




21 




22 




23 




24 




25 




26 


232 


27 




28 




29 




30 




31 




32 




33 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 559 

Fkfe. Ka FL Fig. 



34 

3o 
37 
38 



CUhda trocMew'tB^ Pfr. 



Chmidrapoma ruhficundum, Morelet. 

Megalomastoma simulacrum^ Morelet. Described from CostaKica* 

Cychphorus ponderoattSj Pfr. 

Cydophorus translucidus, Sbj. ' 

233 39 26 11. Maeroeeramus pofy$trept9is. n. b, 

. . 40 26 9; 10. Helicina Saleinif n. a. Like J7. twbmata, Wiegm. Mexico. 
, . 41 . . . . HeUcina amosna, Pfr. 
, . 42 . . . . Helicma Otceniana, Pfr. 

.. 43 . . • • HeUcina merdigera^ Sall^. Described from Nicaiagutt. 
•• 44 . • . • HeUcina Lindem, Pfr. 
• . 45 . . • • HeUcina chryseis, n. s. Mountain forests of Vera Paz. 

• .46^47,48. • • • Pahtdinella, 8 species apparently undescribed. 

• • 49 •• •• PaehycheihiB carviuus, Morelet. Larger than in previouslj 

noted habitats. 

The vol. for 1863 contains Dr. Baird's descriptions of new species from 
the Vancouver collections of Lord and Lyall, which will be tabulated, tnp-d, 
par. 103 ; and the Beview of Prof. Adams's Panama shells, which has already 
been quoted. 

60. Sowerhf, ' ConeMogieal Illustrations^ 1841. — The following ore addi« 
tional localities or synonyms :-^ 

Ko. FIc. 

2 46. Cardium Indicum [is exotic ; closely allied to C co8tatu7n\ 

66 18. Cardium maculatum, Sby. Cal., &c. = C. mactdosum, Sbv. (preoc ). 

90 . . Murex imperiaUs, Swains. Cal. ^M.pomttmj var. Gmel. ][Perliaps dis- 

tinct ; may be the W. I. an^ogue oi hicolor,'] 

91 88. Murex erythrostoma, Swains. Acapuloo. [?ssbicokn', Tar.] 

45 102. CSmrtNi aHmginosOf Gray. Mexico, Ceylon. [The Ceylon shell is pro- 
bably )M>rari(i, sp. 44.] 
1 45. Brato seahriuscula, Gray. Acapulco. ^Marginella eyprtPoUiy Sby. 

02 40. FisswreUa lAncolnif Gra^, MS. [An extremely fine s]jecimen ( supposed 
" unique ") of G'/y^w aspera, Escb. Mr. Liincoln is also quoted for 
the " finest of the four known specimens '' of Lucapina crenuhta, sp. 19, 
f.Sl,38: "Monteiev."] 

64 [Erase this line in the former Report, and substitute as follows : — ] 

65 BuUmua wnfasciatus, Sby. Galapagos. 

* Thesaurus Conchyliorum/ G. B. Sowerby, &c. To the list in Rep. pp. 
^", 289, may be added: — 

PL Pig. 

13 28. Peden circularis, Sby. Cal., St. Vincents. JThe name may 

stand for the W. Indian shell, the Califomian being P. te/t- 
iriccsusy jun.] 
67 12 550, 21. Peeten UOiauritus, Conr. Cal. +" P. mesoUmeris, Conr.** 
281 69 lU. TelUnasinceray Haul N.W. Coast America. [= Panama.] 
769 165 36-38. Venerupiscylindracea, Beah, Ctii.y^PetricolaCaUJWnica,C(x:r.f 

+P. arcuataf Desh»+P, mbglobosay Sby. 
866 179 59-77. Cerithium oceOatum, Brug. Gulf Cal., &c. = C. irroratum [C. 
B. Ad. (Gld. MS.) ; non] Gld. K. R,= C. interruptum [C. B. 
Ad. : non Mke, nee] Gld. 

47 4^144 Conus* interruptus, Mawe, Wood. [Slender, coronated «p.] non 
Br. and Sby. Hab.?^ 

* Mr. Sowerby remarks, " As the collector's great object is to know the shells, I have 
prefimned, in most cases, ^ving the species as tl^ stand, stating the alleged difierenoes, 
and lea?ing the final decision to individual taste." He further states, with regard to some 
fronps, that " the characters of the shells are very uncertain, and the intentions of the 
sothors still more so." The names, references, and locaUties are given on lists to face the 
plates, and the diagnoses separately, with a copious index. An attempt also is made to 

45 



'2r 



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SCO EBPOET— 1863, 

8p. Ffg. 

04 80. ConuB tianUuSf Brod. Galapa(ro8. 

79 128^ 129. Conus puncticukUus, Brag. Salango, St Elena, W. Col., Cumiri^ 

• • 130. Conm puncUcfdatuSy vKe.^^panilloimyl^ei^ 

• • 391. Conus puncliadalus, [Mazatfan.] 

392. Conus punciiculatuif yai.j^pusUihmu, Kien. : f-^MauriUanus, Lam. 
^33 190. Conus virgatus, Rve.,a206ra, Sbj., non Lam. [Resembles regulot-u 

var.] Salango, W. CoL, Cuming, 
• . Ckmus virgatus, ym.,^ LorewsUmuSj Rve., non Chem. 
193. CoftusvirgaiuSfyat,,ssCumingiu 
106 192. Conus scalarisf VaL, ^gradatus. Rye. Salango, W. Col., Cuming. 

127 194. Cofuif mcttiTtM, Brod. [Resembles specimens from La Paz.] Monto 

Christ!, W. Col., Cwning. 
180 285,402. Coma Ximenes, Gray, stn^fiTMp^ Brod., non Mawe. [LakepuncU* 

cuiatus, Tar.] Mazatlan, W. Columbia, Cuming. 
167 324 Conus perplexus, Sby. Gulf Cal., W. Col., Cuming, 

84 384 Conus areuatus, Br. and Sby. Mazatlan, Pacific [?]. 

15 26-28. FissureUa Mexicana, Sby. Real liejos, Mexico. ( ru^*!. i ^v*^^ 
78. lUsureilaMexieamlshY. Porto Pikyl ( L^*^ localities 

are probai>ly incorrect ; it belonfln^ to tne Chilian fauna.] 

41 46, 47. FismreOa rugosa, Sby. W. Indies [ a W. Mexico]. 

32 88, 89. Fissurdla alba, Cpr. [Gulf of] California. 

55 64^ 65. FissureUa nigrocincta, Cpr. [Gulf of] California. 

56 67. FissureUa ienebrosa, Sby» jun. [PGulf of] California. Like the last 
54 80. FissureUa obscura, Sby. Real Liejos, Cum. [" GaL" in P.Z.S. 1834] 
68 154-156. FissureUa excelsa, Rye.,+/*. aUa, C. B. Ad. 

86 123. FissureUa Panamensis, Sb^. "Jn Conch. 111., this yery distinct 

shell is united to that smce named F. excelsa, Rve.'' 
115 187-189. FissureUa caneeUata, Soland. St Vincent's, Honduras Bay, Guada- 
loup, California. [No authority for the latter.] 

7 12,13. HiarpaMivoliana,Ijeas.,^H.crenatajSwB,in6. Acapulco. 
1860. 

2 57. DentaUum pretioeum, Nutt " ^strioiatum, Stn. Massachusetts. 

Less curyed and tapering near apex than 2>. entale, more cylin* 
drical throughout, out a doubtful species." [The type-speci- 
mens are not striatedj California. 
43 10. DentaUum hexagonum, Gld. N. America : China. Singapore. 

42 34. DentaUum psemlosexagonum, Desh. Masbate, Philippines: W« 

Columbia. 

8 41. DentaUum splendidum, Sby. Xipixapi, W. Col. 

29 32. DentaUum £^atum, Cpr. « Malgattem." [Maz. Cat 244] 

48 31. DentaUum quadrangulare, Sby. Xipixapi, W. Col. [Like tctra* 

gonum, but striated, and much smaller^ 
40 21, 22. DentaUum tetragonum, Sby. W. CoL [Young shell square, adult 

round.] 

In the very elaborate monograph of the NucuUdoi, by S. Hanl^y, Esq., thd 
following species, quoted as from the W. Coast, are minatcly described : — 

2 33. Zeda Sowerliana, D'Orb. XipixapL 

BiV. elongata, VaL 

ssN. laneeoUUa, G. Sby., non J. Sby., nee Lam. 
7 85. Leda Tayloru Hani., s a. lancedata, Lam., non G. nee 3. Sby« 

Guatemala. a>. Z. S. 1860, p. 370.) 
29 70-72. Leda Elenensis,Shj. Panama. 

33 W. Zeda ebumea, ohj.fSilgrata, Hds. Panama : Bay of Caraceas. 

elassify the forms acoording to their natural affinities. It is rarely that monographers 
and artists take todi laudaUe pains to supply the wants of students. In the monograph 
of ChUeomma and SeimtiUa, howerer, the loeality-inarin haye not been obsenred to a 
tingle species, except the " British Q. Tmiom " and its ** Philippine analogue, O, macro- 
schtJima, Desh.** This is the more reifiarkable, as most of the species were described by 
Desh., with localities, in P. Z. S. 1855, pp. 167-18L 

46 



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ON MOLLTTSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 5(>I 

In the ' Malacological and Conchological Magazine/ by G. B. Sow'^rhy, 
London, 1838, is a monograph of Leach's genus Margarita, The folio wiug 
probably belong to the N. W. Coast, and are figured in the Conch. 111. : — 

p«r. 

So. Margarita ttriata, Brod. and Sby. Boreal Ocean. 

£6. Margarita undulata, Sby. Arctic Ocean. 

2a Margarita coeteUatay Sby. [Non Brit. Mus. Col. = M. puptUa, Old. ; differs in 

haying the interspaces of the spiral ribs decussated. Arctic Ocean.] 
26. MargarSa acwninatay Sby. Arctic Ocean. 
SO. JphrtHJUte cohtmba, Liea,= Cardium Grwnlandicutu, 

Several West Coast species were named and figured in the elder Sowerby's 
'Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells,' London, 1820-1824 ; a work of singular 
merit for its time, but left unfinisheid*. The stock was purchased by a dealer, 
with a view to completion ; but newer works have occupied its place, and 
the valuable plates and text remain useless in his hands. As no dates appear 
io the bound copy of the work, it cannot be stated whether the species here 
named by Mr. Sowerby had been before published. The loss of the original 
work has been in some respects supplied by the completion of the extremely, 
similar * Conchologia Systematica,' by L. Reeve, vol. L 1841, vol, ii. 1S42. 
It might almost be considered a second edition of the * Genera,' of which 
some of the plates occur in the quarto form. References are here given to 
the species reproduced firom Sowerby 's unfinished work, which is often quctcd 
by Mr. Reeve according to the " Numbers " in which it appeared :— 

B*e. I Sbf. 

Fig. Pig. Sowerbj'sOenefn. 

2. 2. Cumingia trig<mulari9k 

3. 3. Cujnmgia lamellosa, 

4. t 4. Cummgia coardata, 
1. T^ma operctdaris [^"sa T.nper^uhta, Gmel.,= T. r«/csc«w,Chem.," live."]. 

1. Lucina punctata [Lmu., **siLentilaria p., Schum." Rve. 0. S.]. 
2,5. Venus mbrugata, 

7. Venus gnidia, 

2. Cytherea planulata. 

3. Cytherea aurantiaca, * 
4 [non 3]. Lithodomus caudigerus [Lam.,=:am^u9, Dillw.]. ^ 

8. [Appears to represent attenuaius, Desh.] 
6. Jlomala semi/usca [inside view ; exactly accords with Brazilienm, Mai* 

Cat, but is not Lamarck's species, teste Hani.]. 
2. Lima squamosa [Lam.]. 

2. Ostrea Virgmica [Lam.J. 
L Fiacunanomia Cumingh, "Brought by Mr. Henry Cuming fi^m the 

Uulf of Ihil6e, in Costa Rico." 
L Lottia gigemiea, Gray. Genus named in PhiL Tmns, ssPatelioideSy Quoy 
and Gaim. ? South America. [The U. S. E. E. specimens were la- 
belled " Valparaiso." It comes to us from many parts of the world, 
but is onlv known to live in Middle and Lower Cahfomia. = TectureUa 
grandtsy dpr., B. A. Rep. 1861, p. 187. 

3. Siphonaria Tristensis. [The figure is singularly like the Vancouver 
species, S. ihersUes,] 

2. Crepidula onyx. 

4. Crepidula aeuleata : "=sP. auricula^ Gmel." 
8. Calyptnea ? eztinet<mu7n. [Sby., non Lam. The non-pitted form of 

! imhricata.'] 

i 4. Calyptrtta spinasa, 

• The last Part (no. 34) appeared " March 31, 1831," many yean after the previous 
hum; t€^teIUnl. 
1863. 47 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



5B2 REPORT— 1883. 

Btc. I Sbf. 

^ig. ^8* Sowf rbjr't Oeoerm. 

6. Calt/ptreea imhricata. [The pitted form. Appears in C. S., £ 1, us ^* C 

rugosa, Less."] 

7. Calyptraa ?spmo8a, var. [The flat, smooth form of sptnosa. Appears in 

C. S., ^f^. 4, as " a einerea, Rve., P. Z. S. 1842," p. 50. On a log of 

wood floating oflT Cape Horn.] 
2. Bulla virescens, 
4. 1. Nerita omata [ssseabncoday Lam.]. 
2^. 2, 3. Litorina ptuchra,^ Turbo p,, Swains. 

4. 4. LUarina varict, Panama. 

5. 5. Ceriihium vancosum. 

9. 0. CeritMum Pacificum, [Closely resembles Potamis eheninm^ 
L 1. FoKwlaria aurantuica [with opei*c (non Lam.) = i^. prmrf/;jf.Lam.,Ilve.T. 
5. Murex phyUoptertu and operc. FAppeai^ =s Cero^ma Jvliatunu The 
operc seems to have been rubbed outside.] 

1. 1. Columbella stromhifomiisy Lam. 

2. 2. Columbella labiosa, " California " [t. c, Panama, &c.]. 

1. 1. Purpura patula [Linn. "= Perdicea nodosa, Petiver, » Q^mibium tuber owm 

fHittdum, Martini.'* Rve. C. S.]. 
A 6. Purpura planospirata, 
0.* 9. PUfpura calloaa [^Cuma tecturni 
H, 3. Monoceroe lupubre [=scyma^m, Tank. Cat]. 
4. 4. Monoceros cinyulatum [Lam. : Leucozonia'], 
L 1. Trichotropis btcarinata, and [Nassoid] operculum. 

L 1. OUva porphyria [Linn., "= Culinder parphyreticus, D'Arg.,s« Cadra Tur^ 
cica, Martini.'*" Rve. C. S.'j. 
5. CyprcM putUdata [Lam.]. 

The following additional "West Coast species, figured in the * Conch. Syst.,' 
nny be quoted for their synonymy. The authorities for all the species are 
given, but no localities : — 

PL Fiff. 

20 1. Soiecurtus Dombeyi^ Lam. [appears intermediate between 8, Domheyi, 

Mus. Cum., and S. amhiguusj Lam.]. 
£20 7. Turbo squamiger, Rve. P. Z. S. 1842, p. 180 [without locality. 'Gala- 
pagos, Cuming^^ in Conch. Ic. Also Acapulco, Jexoeft^ &c.]. 
220 2. Turbxnellm acuminattt8f Wood, Kien. [closely resembles Latirus castamws], 
20S 3. Buccinum elegansy Rve., P. Z. S. 1842, from 'Hinds's Col. [is the southern, 
highly developed form of -fi. /owa^ww, Old. The name is preoccupi«d 
• ^ . -..-.. ^ ^ . . ^ . . - t. X. p. 21 



by a Touraine fo«*sil, B. elegafiSj Duj., in Desh. An. s. Vert. x. n. 219, 
no. 22. As Rve.'s species is a Xassa^ a.nd there is another Buv. (iegat:\ 
Kien., Co^. Viv. p. 60, pi. 24. f. 97,=Aa««i e., Rve. Conch. Ic, it will 
save confusion to allow Gld.'s later name to stand]. 
£*58 C,C. Bwjcinum serratutn, Bufr.^sAoMa Norihia, Gray [^^Northia p-isiiSf 
])esh.]. 

62. Reeve, 'Conchologia IconlcaJ — ^The following corrections should bo 
made in the abstract, Rep. pp. 289-293. 

20. [Semele /lavicans should he /laveacenSf etpowim.] 

33. Siphomtria amara [is a Sandwich Is. species, quite distinct from C. leeanium'], 

38. Patella dypeaster lis a S. American species, having no connexion with A, 

patinay or with Monterey], 
00. Patella cinis (^-4. pelta, not vatinay varj. 

67. PateUa vesperttna. ''^ --•-•— '-^ ii*<'i- 

C9 Pa'ella toreuma f 

shell of this C 

American collectors]. 

• Sowerby's (corr^ot^ name appears on Reeve's pl«te; but in the text of C. S., f . 9 ii 
oall«d 'a species of TatliHellus iiiserled inadvertent ly." 

48 




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ON M0LLU8CA OF THB WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 5C3 

PL JPateUa NuttaUiana, [Mus. Cum.,s^.^/Sto; typicaL The iigure looks more 

liJie patina.'] 
l40. Patella mamimtOj Nutt [non Each., is an elevatedj^ stunted form of the black 

P var. of scabra, Nutt The name being preoccupied, this distinct form maj 

stand as Umatula']. 
64. Fismrella dermclathrata [is distinct from G. aspera, Sta. Barbara, Jetaett]. 
67. Turbo marginatua [Rve,, non] " Nutt," [is a Pacific species, quoted by Messrs. 

Adams as the CoUonia margtnata of CFray ; but that is a Grifrnon fossil, olim 

De^thinula (testa type in Brit Mus.). The Nuttallian shell, published in 

Jay*s Cat, was descnbed by A. Ad. as Chloro8toma funehrcde^ ChL moMtum. 

auct ^on Jonas, the true T, moestus being S. American, tes.e A. Ad. ana 

Mus. Cum.)]. 
89l Cyprtea onyx [is the E. Indian, C, spadicea the similar S. Diegan species]. 

The following species, either quoted from the W. Coast, or known to in- 
habit it, or connected with it by synonymy, have been observed in Reeve's 
'Conch. Ic' since the date of the last Report. The number of the species also 
refers to the figure. For the remarks enclosed in [ ] the writer of this Re- 
port, here as elsewhere, is alone responsible. 

6a Ikfus turhmeUMes, Rve., Jan. 1848. ? Africa, Mus. Cum. [^SiphmdHa 

pallida, Br. and Shy. j spines somewhat angular]. 
62. FU8U8 cancdlatusy Lam. '' Unalaska, Kamtschatka, Mus. Cum.*' [Doubtless 

the origin of the prevalent localitv-error]. 
70. Fitsus Nova-ffolUmdia, Rve.. Jan.'l848. N. Hot, Metcalfe. [As Mr. Met- 
calfe gave numerous West Coast shells to Brit. Mus. under locality " N.H.,*' 

this shell also was probably from W. Mexico, »sJP. Dupefiihmfarm, Kien.] 
91. I\au8 Gunneri, Lov., (2W^omt/m), Ind. Suec. p. 12. Greenland. [=7Vo- 

pkon rmtUico9tatu8y Esch. The fig. should be 90, 5 ; f. 9\^ Bamjfiut.] 
62. Cardiumpseudo/omle, Rve. '* P. Z. S. 1844." Hab. ?— [Not found in 

P. Z. S.,=s C. Califomienee, Desh., 1839, non C. Califomiatmmf Conn. 

1837. This is the lEastem form; the OaMfornian Pvar.^ C. bland ff my Old. j 
67. Baccimtm nukkficuUiniy Rve., Dec 184^J. Hab. ? — [Agrees sufficiently we!l 

with worn specimens from La Paz, Mus. Smiths., =:^t)>Ao;i(i/ta, closeiy 

alhed to/ioAida.] 
62, Buccitmm dirum, Rve., Dec 1846. Hab. ? — Mu«. Cum. [Worn specimen 

of Chrysodoniw SUchensi^y Midd., 1849,s=F. incisuSy Gld., May 1849.] 
HO. Bwxinum corrugatumy Rve., Feb. 1847. Hab. ? — [" Ituftcariay" Cuming, 

MS. " Pisaniay^ IL Adams. Vancouver, most abundant] 
SL Sangmnolaria ovaUsy Rve., March 1837. Cent Am. [P=& winfata, jus. 

3. 8, teUinoideSy A. Ad., is the same, adolescent; 6. S. purputea^ Desh., adult.] 
4 PiBammobia maxinuiy Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 317. Panama. [Closely resenif- 

bling JV. rubroradiatay Nutt Puget Sound.] 
19. Mfftiku pallicpunctatusy Dkr. Cal. and Mazatlan. [No authority for Oal.} 
41. AfytUui bifwcatm, Conr., J. A. N. S. Phil. Hab. ? [Conr. assigns his Nuttallian 

species to California ; but it is the common Sandw. Is. species, teste Pse. 

The Califomian shell, with the same sculpture, is a Septifer, and is the 

S. bifureattu of Mus. Cum.] 
44. MytiluB Sallei (Drei$sina)y Reel. Central America. [P On which slo|M.] 
62. yUfUlue Cumvugianmy Red. Panama. \_Sentifer,'] 
60. BfyiUm glomeratusy Old. Hah. ? — * [Gould's species is from California, but 

the name is attached to a very different shell in Mus. Cum.} 

* Sereral species occur in the recent monographs without localj^y, which are well 
known to inhabit the W. Coast. This is partly due to the writer not thinking it nece»« 
MIT to reier to published books for information, and partiy to the chances which have of 
l*te yevB been made in Uie principal authority, viz. the dumingian collection. By the 
r«<iistribution of species into the modem genera, the student is greatly aided in his search 
^ fpeeial forms ; but, for the sake of uniformity, the autograph labeb of collectors or 
<Wriben of species are generally rejected, the names being either in the handwriting of 
the elerk or from the pointed index in the monograph, and representing only the judg* 
tent of the latest worker, which may or may not be correct Synonyms, whether real 

4 • 49 



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564 KEPORT— 1863. 

11. Modiola capax, Coxa, Galapagos, Cuming. [Lower] California, NtdialL 

Mazatlan, Carpenter. [^Reigen is the authority for the shells described 
in the Maz. Cat, not Cpr.] 
17. MocUoia BrastUenm, Chem. '' BraziL" [At f. 31, which appears the tme 
Brazilian shell, we aie informed that this specimen is a '' variety irom 
GuayaquiL**] 

• • Modiola nitens, " Cpr. Cat Reigen Col. Brit Mas. California." [The shell 

was erroneouj^ described as &om ** California " in P. Z. S., and does not 
appear in the Keigen Mazatlan Cat : = Jf. subpwpureuSy Mus. Cum.] 

5. LithoaomuscinnafnominuSj Chem. Philippine Is. and St Thomas, W. L i^L. 
cinnamomeus, Maz. Cat 177. Probably an Adufa,'} 

8. Lithodomus CumingianuSy Dkr., MS. " Nortn Australia and Mazatlan.'* [The 
species is figured from the Mazatlan specimen, which may probably be 
the adult form of L. ealgculaiu^ Cpr.* The cup is not distinct, but 
shows a tendency to the peculiar formation described in Maz. Cat no. 174. 
Rye.'s diagnosis, however, appears written from Dkr.'s Australian speci- 
mens, so labellea in Mus. Cum. — a very distinct species, without incrus- 
tations. The name was given by Mr. Cuming to a large Chilian species 
brought by the U. S. Expl Exp.J 

12. IModomus Gruneri, Phil. MS. in Mus. Cum. "N. Zealand." [The species 

ssZ. faicatuSf Old., and is certainly from California, where it is found in 
the rocks with Phoiadidea pemtaJ] 

13. LOhodonim teres, Phil. ''Mazatlan.^ [The specimens in Mus. Cum. are 

labelled « Cagayan, PAt/."] 

14. Lithodomuscoarctataf Dkr. Qalh^p^oSf Cuming, [s 0'«fi«/&v c, Maz. Cat 17L*.] 
16. Lithodomus caudigerm, Lam. ** West Indies " [without authority]. " The 

calcareous incrustation produced beyond the ant. extremity is no specific 
characteristic" [ Vide reasons for contrary opinion, Maz. Cat no. 176 : 
bX. aristatm. Dr. Stimpson has seen Lithophagus arranging its peculiar 
incrustation with its foot] 

24. Lithodomus pes9ulatus, Rve. (Oct. 1857). Hob. ? — [The unique sp. figured is 
labelled '' Mazatlan " in Mus. Cum. It resembles plumula, with ventral 
transverse rugsd.] 

28. Lithodomus subula^ Rve. Hob. ? — [=^' piumula, var.j 

6. Avicuia Cttmingit, Rve., March 1867. "Ld. Hooas Is., Pacific Ocean, 

attached to rocks, 10 fins., Cuming.^* [f^Margarittphora fimbrxalOf 
Dkr., var.] 
0. Avicuia harhata, Rve. Panama, under stones at low water, Cuming. [=3fl 
fimbriatOy Dkr.y^M. Mazaikmieay Hani.] '^Differs from Cumingii ia 
regular sequence of scales, developed only at maiigin, and yellowish tone 
of colour. 
67. Avicuia hetercptera. Lam. N. Holland. " ssA, sterna^ Gld." [Gould's species 
is from Gulf Cal. ; but in Mus. Cum. it is marked inside '* semisagtUa.'*'] 
4. Placunanomia foUata, Brod. Is. Muerte, Bay GuayaquiL " "HAy^echinata, . 
W. I., but has verv much larger orifice." 

7. Tlacuuanomia macroschismoy Desn. ^' Onalaska, Cuming " [who never was 

there]. Kamtschatka, Desk. [Vancouver district, abundant] 
7. Thracia piicata. Desh. " Mr. Cuming has specimens from California and St. 
Thomas, W. L" [Cape St Lucas, Xanttts.'] 
Melama. [Various species are described from '^ Central America," &c., which 

or supposed, are rejected altogether. Thus shells sent to Mr. Cuming, with authentic 
name and locality attached, may appear soon a1\er without any, or with erroneous, 
quotation. The error is rendered graver by appearing with the weighty authority of 
"MuB. Cum." 

* The species described in the Brit Mus. Cat. seldom appear in the monographs, 
unless there happen to be a specimen in Mus. Cum. Some of the monographers often 
ooatent themsefves with figuring the shells that come most easily to hand ; and do not 
seem to connder it a part of their work to pass judipnent on previously described 
species, or to concern themsehes srith what are small or di£ScuIt« 

50 



Digitized by KjOOOXQ. 



ON H0LLT7SCA OF THB WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 565 

may or may not belong to the Pacific slope. They should be studied 
in connexion with U. o. forms, but are not here tabulated.] 

60l MeHama BuscMana, Rve. " California." [No authority. Very like the 
yonn^ of M, $cynOf Gld.] 

967. Mekmm mgrina^ Lea, MS. in Mus. Cum. '' Shasta, California.'* 

68. CanedUariafimieulatay Hd8.,= C hfrata, Ad. and Rye. Gulf Magdalena. 

66. Litorina irrorata, Say. " Sitcha.'*^ [The " Sitcha" sheU is L. modesta, PhiL 

Say's species is the well-known form from the Gulf of Mexico. J 
6. r«ra6ro «<rt^«ite, Shy., +«^owrf«; Wood., ==/^ "Pa- 

nama, Galapagos, and Philippioes, Omrdng; Moluccas, &c. [Painting 
in stripes.] 

10. Terebra roiusta, Hda. Panama, &c. [ = T. Loroisi, Gn^r., teste Rve. P. Z. S. 
1860, p. 450. Paintinff snla8hed.J 

12. Ttrdra tfanegata, Qraj. '^ Mouth of the Gambia, Senegal, Mazatlan, Co- 
lumbia. It is well known to those who have studied the geographical 
distribution of animal life, that the fauna of the West African sens, 
north of Sierra Leone, is in part identical with the feiuna of the seas of 
California and the W. Indies ; and geologists, among whom was the late 
Pro£ E. Forbes, haye laboured, not unsuccessfully, to account for this 
phenomenon.'' [ Vide Maz. Cat. p. 157, B. A. Rep. p. 365. In the pre- 
sent instance, howeyer, there will be more than one opinion as to the 
identity of the species here quoted.] 4- 21 a/rtamn, Gray, + T. Hupetj Lorois, 
-f T, %taerbinct€ty Hds.,+ T, margmtdOy Desh., + T, cdboeinctay Cpr., -f T. 
Hindsiiy Cpr.,+ T. mbnodosOj Cpr. 

72. Terebra anmSata, Hds. '' Panama, Galapagos. Somewhat doubtful whether 
this is not a yar. of T, variegata." [If the others are, probably this is. 
Those species of Hinds, which Mr. Iteeye has not altei^d, are not here 
repeated!] « 

82l Terelfra didocata [as Cerithkmi], Say. " Southern U. S. and CaHfomia." [No 
authority giyen for Cal.] 

ZL Ter^ra rudts, Gray, " = Af. rufocinereaj Cpr, S. Carolina, Jay, Somewhat 
doubtful whethOT this is not a yar. of didocata.** [The T. rufocinerea is 
one of the difficult Mazatlan shells, and should share the fate of T. Hindm 
and T. suhnodoM.'] 

86. Tertbra cmerea. Bom. " W. Afirica, Hennah ; Japan, Ild$, j Philippines, 
Cuming] W. I., C. B, Adams; Mazatlan, Qw." [i. e. Beipen. The same 
remark apply to this group as to rariegaia, &c.]4- 21 castaneaj Kien., non 
Hds.^+ T. lauriruif Hds.,+ T. &icft<o»a,Hds.,+ T. stylata, Hd8.,+ T, Jamai- 
eenstSf C. B. Ad. 

40. Terdra aspera, Hds.,+ T, Petiveriana, Desh. Panama, S. A., Cuming, Bi'idges* 
2. Ctdyptraa torUUs, Rye. Galapagos, Cuming. 

; 8. CaSgptrifa aheolatOj A. Ad., MB. Galapagos, Cumtng, 
4. Crepidula excavata, Brod. Chili [P], Cuming. 
6. Crepidula nautiloides*, Less., MS. in Mus. Cum. "New York." [sG 

dHatata.'] 
8. Crepidula marginaUB.'BTod. Panama. Cuming. [V. Maz. Cat. p. 292, note.] 

10. Crepidula rugosa, Nutt Upper Cat [An accidentally ribbed specimen, 
figured m>m Mus. Taylor, j 

IL Crepimda Jimhriata, Rye. (June 1869). Vancouyer's Straits. [This is to 
naviceUoideSj Nutt., no. 97, as Zessonii is to squama ; simply an accidentally 
frilled yar. j 

12. Crepidula aduncOj Sby. [Not] Panama. =C. soUdOy Hds.f^rostnformis, 

Gld. [This IS the northern species firom Vancouyer ai}d CaL, and is not] 
^uncata, Mke. 

13. Crepidula arenaia, Brod. St Elena (not Helena, Desh.Y Cuming. 

22. Crepidula aculeata, GmeL Lobos Is., Peru, Cuming ; California, Nutt.y Cjw. 
[t.e. Mazatlan, Betgen"]; Honduras, Dyson; Sandw. Is., Austr., Eur- 

• Serend S. American forms are here quoted for the synonymy ; because in Calyptrctidm 
file species often hare a wide range, and should be studiedi in connexion with their 
vighooon. 

51 



Digitized by (jOOQIC 



666 BiPOBT— 1863. 

rachee, mouth of Indos. + C. hystryx, Brod.9+ ^* echimu, Br(id.,+ C. CM» 
fomicaf Nutt. 
34 Crepiduln rostrata, C. B. Ad. Panama, [s C. mteaia, Mke.^ nom. prior. Thii 
tropical form presents distinctive marksj 

28. Crepidma exteviataf VutL Monterey, [au «a»2<mafa, Gld.,sC. ^Mrforanf, 

Val. An abnormal form of C. naviceUaideSy Nutt : C mtmmaniij Uld., is 
the opposite extreme.! 

29. CrepidtUa oUobaUif Gray [a. e. Cpr.], MS. in Mus. Cum. l^C, darsatUf Brod. 

Vide Maz. Cat. no. 3^^ where the origin of the MS. name would have 
been found explained. It appears to be principally a northern species 

80. Crepidula Uratay Kto. [Gkdf ofj California. [Intennediate form between 

C, ineurva and C ofwxy described in Maz. Cat p. 277.] 
2. Cntcibulum seutdUdum, Uray. ''= C, rugosa, Leas., as C imbrtcata, Shj., non 
Brod.'* Payta, Less. ; Punta St Elena, Qimtnff. J] Vide Maz. Cat no. 348.] 
4 Cntcibulum rugosum, "Desh., non Less.,sB C Uanana, Brod., Pvar. = C,gem'» 

maceOf YaL'' Island of Chiloe, Cuming. [Vide Maz. Cat p. 290.] 
6. Crucibulum ferrugineum, Rto. Bay of donception, Chili, Cuming. [ = C 
quinquina^ iJeas.. D*Orb., s C. JSgronensis, Gray, in Brit Mus. Like a 
rouffh degraded form of C. tpinomm.'} 

6. Cntcibmum umbrdUiy Desh.s C. rudis, Brod. Panama and Real Llejos. 

8. „ comycrfiim, Cpr. "Cal." [Mazatlan,/<?ttv«,P.Z.S.1866,p.204.] 

9. „ imbncatumf Brod. Paniuna. [sC imbricatum, Sby.,sC acm- 
idlatum, Gray, no. 2, var J 

10. Crucibulum spinontm. Shy. ^eas of Central America. [Extends northwards 

to California J southwards it degenerates into C. quiriguina.']= C. peziza, 
Gray,-!- C. htspida, Brod.,+ C. maculaUi, Brod.,-!- C. tuoifera, Less.,+ C. 
einerea, Rve. 

11. Crucibulum pectinatHm, Cpr., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 16a Peru. FPanama, Jewett.l 
17.- fy otfTtifufn, Rve.,sC«^ruito, BrocL, nonSay. Valparaiso, Oumiri^. 

[Passes into Galerus.'] 

21. Crucibulum serratumy Brod. Heal Llejos and Muerte, Cuming. [Like 

young of C. pedinatum ; nearly transparent ; white, with purple rayj . 

22. Crucibulum wrdtdumy Brod.,+ C. unguis f Brod. Valparaiso and Panama,' dum» 

ing. [as Galents; v. Maz. Cat p. 292, note. The author distributes thd 
species of this genus between lyochita and Crucibulum.'] 
4 Trochita aspera [Rve. as of] C. B. Ad. Panama. [The small var. of Galerug 
comcus. Probably = C. aspersuy C. B. Ad., no. 831 J 

7. Trochita subreflexoy Cpr., MS. in Mus. Cum. Gulf of Califomia. [ =x Galerut 

subreflexus, Cpr. in P. Z. S. 1856, p. 238.] 
9. Trochita corrugcUa\?c\xyxR. Comp. Co/^r^ea corrt^oto, Brod J. Callao, CVmzm^. 

8. Trochita spirata,'E\iA. "?^P.trochi/omUs,Chem." Gulf Califomia. [Vide 

awteh, p. 542.1 

10. Trochita solida fPKve.]. Conchaffua, Mus. Cum. \?^GaJerus mamillaris.'] 

11. Pema anomioideSf Rve. March 1858. California, Mus. Cum. [No autho- 

rity ; appears sap. costellatay Conr., Sandwich Islands.] 

18. Pema CaUfomica [Rve., non] Conr. California, Conr. [i. e. Nutt."] Honduras, 

Dyson. " Distinguishea by the Peu^i-like form and clouded, livid 

purple colouring. [This is the well-known large tiat West Indian species ; 

not Known in California.] 
8. Umbrella ovalis, Cpr. Mouth of Chiriqui River, Bay of Panama, [not] Cuming 

[but Bndges. The species was also founa at Cape St Lucas by 

Xantus.'] 
6. lanihina fragilisy Lam., =7. striulata^ Cpr. West Indies, Mazatlan, California. 

r Vide AIrz. Cat no. 242 : non /. striolata, Ad. and Rve.] 

19. lanthina decollata, Cpr. Probably =i. globosuj var. [Maz. Cat no. 243. Of 

the two Maz. forms, provisionally named, this appears the least entitled 

to specific rank.] 
40. ColumbeUa Bri-fgesit, Rve. April 1858. Panama, Bridges. [Appears the 

small var. of C. mofor.'] 
43. Columbella Boicini l=Boivum, Kien.]. Gulf Nicoyia, Hindi, 

52 



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ON M0LLU8CA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 567 

40. CoUtnibdla adcuhf Kve. California. [No authority.! 
56. CoktmbtUa eneaudiccL, Rve. Gulf CaliK>niiay Lieut. Shipley ^ Mus. Cum* 
bl. CobmhdlaveaiUum,Ri^ Oulf California. [No au hority.] 
62. Cblumbella eribrariay Quoy and Gaim. fi. e. Lam.] = C.^^^a/fi, Sby. Panamr^ 
common under stones, Cuming. [No other localities given* V. Niti- 
deila eribraria^^BZ. Cat no. 613.1 
72. Columbelia electroides, Rve. Bay of Uuayaquil. 
74 CohtmbeUa Pacificuy Gask. Galapagos. 
109. CokmbeOa pmtUa, Sby. Island of St Vincent, W. I. **t^mideUa Gouldiif 

Cpr." [The Nitiddla is a distinct Upper Califomian species.] 
120. CoUmheUa tacUa, Rve. Gulf Calif., Mr, Bahh, ILN. [A AitideUa, so tran- 
sparent that the axis can be seen throughout.] 

122. Columbelia ^a-BarbarensiSf Cpr. Sta. Barbara. ** Not merely faintly striated, 

teste Cpr., but unusually grooved." [Described from a worn specimen 
in Jewett's CoL, and named to mark a more northern limit to the genua 
than had been assigned by Forbes. The label wasprobably incorrect, as the 
shell lives in the tropical fauna, C. S. Lucas, Xantusi Acapulco, iVetr- 
berry ; Guacomayo, Mus. Smiths. The name (as expressing error) should 
therefore be altered to C. Reevei, Cpr.] 

123. Cclwnbella madiceaf Phil, MS. in Mus. Cum. Mazatlan. [Described by 

PhiL in Zeit f. Mai. 1846 : B. A. Rep. p. 226.1 
130. Columbelia venmta, Rve. [Mazatlan, R PhiUpm,] = C, Umttata, Phil, [in 

Zeit f. Mai. 1846], not Ad. and Rve., [Voy. Samar. 1860 ; therefore PhiL 

has precedence. ?sAnachis Gashoineij lilaz. Cat no. 662. The Sama- 

rang shell is probably a NittdeUa,'} 
132. CoUitnbeUa sulcosa^ Sby. Annaa and Ld. Hood*s Islands *. Cuming. 
W). ColufnbeUa GouldUj Agass., MS. in Mus. Cum., Nov. 1858. l^Amycla GauU 

diana, Agass., Atlantic : non NitideUa Gmddii^ ^P*"*] 
142. ColufnbeUa tmcinata, Sby. Is. Muerte, Bay GuaraquU. [Acapulco, Jewett.'] 
ltJ5. Columbelia Califomicay Rve. April 1850. Cafifomia. [^o authority. 

Like Anachis lirata,'] 
176. ColumbeOa roridOf Rve. Lord Hood*s Island*, Cuming. [Transparent, 

glossy, with necklace of opake white dots.] 
Genus Mela [ = Conella, Swains, eliminated by Rve. from Columbeila; but Anachis, 

Strombina, Amycla (pars), and Niiidella, which do not even belong to 

the same family, if the opercula are to be trusted, are left in the old place. 

Of the six species, the author only knew the locality for one], M. Ihwontia, 

Kien. — ^Ichaboe, South Africa ; [but that of] M. ovtdoidesj " C. B. Ad., 

MS." [is shown by his published works to be Jamaica; and the following 

are from the West Coast], 
d. Mela cedonulU, Rve. [La Paz, Mus. Smiths. ; C. S. Lucas, 2^aniut ; Panama, 

Jeweit.] 
4 Mela coni/ormitf Sby. [P Panama, Jetoett."] 

24. iis^himu luriduSf Nutt, MS. in Mus. Cuul California. [Is not known from, 

the American coast; comp. Sandwich Islands.] 

25. jSis^hinus eximiua, Ryj&., P. Z. S. 1842. Panama, sandy mud, 10 frns. < 

r = r. versicolor, Mke., 1850, =xZ Calif omicusj A. Ad., 185L Scarcely 

oiffers from **JavamcuSf Lam.," in Mus. Cum. The form was dredged by 

Mr. A. Adams in the eastern seas.1 
31. Zix^itkmuB Antoniif Koch, in Phil. Abbild. pi. 1. £ 4 Australia. [Scarcely 

differs from the shouldered var. of CaUiottoma Uma (PhU.) U. B. Ad.| 

which is called eximiu^f Rve., in Brit Mus. Col.] 
|23. JVodtut JaponicuSf Dkr., [represents PomauUtx undoius on the east side]. 
24 Trochm diailatu9j Desh. Distinct from unguis, with base like gibbeioms. 

Central America. [Mr. Reeve^s distinct shell is perhaps not that of D^'sh., 

and not from the West Coast] 

26. Trochm undoms, Wood.s 7. gigas^ Anton. California f. 

* Vide Beport, 1856, p. 168, note {§. 

t M*-. IWre itates that, nlthough this species U most Xxkegihherosus^ "Mef srs. Grar iin3 
idtuMomtrive to place tlum iu diHaeut ^enenu** \\ \» •LiiL luoi'e remarkable that, HiUe 

• 63 



Digitized by KjOOOXQ. 



568 BEPORT— 1863. 

89. Jrochus aurtpigmentum, Jonas. Panama. [Probably not from W. America.] 
VJ , Fhaaianella perforataj Vhil, Mazatlan^Panama+i'A. com/)to, Gld.* Rather 
out of place f y has neither form nor texture of JPhasianeUa, [The aberrant 
form is due to the figured specimen being quite joung; the adults in 
Brit. Mus. CoL prove the texture, colouring, and operc to be normal.] 
Qenus Simpulopsia, This group, intermediate between Vitrina and Succinea, is 
stated to be pecufiar to Brazil and Mexico, wheft Vitrina is not known. 

In the Monograph of TerehratulicUB, which is prepared with nnusual care, 
and the general introduction to which is well worth attentive perusal by all 
students, occur the following species which bear upon the West Coast fuuna 
or synonymy : — 

2. Terehratula (Waldheimia) <?iZflrfate, Lam.,= 2'. Gatidichaudi, Bkmv. «Str. 
Magellan,*' teste Gray, in Brit Mus. Cat, without authority. [The E. E. 
specimens varied considerably in outline ; and according to Darwin, and 
what we know of the variations of fossil species, it is ^uite possible to 
believe that this and the next species had a common origin. The great 
development of this most interesting form in the cold regions of South 
America is extraordinary.] 

8. Ter^atula ( Waldheimia) gfoSoia (VaL), Lam., from type, s T. Cal^ormeOf 
Koch. '^California, Coquimbo. Califomian form well known; small 
specimen in Mus. Taylor, marked * de Coquimbo.' " [There appears no 
authority for the general belief that this fine species is Califomian. It was 
taken in abundance by the naturalists of the U . S. E. E. at Orange Bay, 
Magellan. The C^ifomian shell, which is probably the original Cati» 
fomica, Eoch. (not of authors) is a distinct species^ teste Hve. from Dr. 
Cooper's specimens.] 

7. Terebrattda (terebratulma) radiatd^ Rve., Mus. Cum. P Straits of Coiea, 

BMker. [Very like the adult of T, caurina, Old.] 
11. Terebratula uva, Brod. Bay of Tehuantepec, Guatemala ; 10-12 fms. sandy 
mud, on dead bivalve, Cant, Dare, • Mus. Cum. and De Burgh. [The 
analogue of T, vitrea, Med.J 
16. Terebratwa {Terehrattdina) Japamca, Shy., b T, angustay Ad. and Kve. Corea, 

Japan. '* Represents T, caput'Serfeniia, and probably the same." 
23. Terebratula physema, Yal., MS. (unique), Coquimbo. Gaudichaud, 1833. 
May be a colossal, broadly inflated var. of ghbosa, 

6. Orbieula Cumingii, Brod. [Besides information in Rep. pp. 183, 244, is pven] 

Is. Cana, Guatemala ; sometimes 6-16 fms., Cuming, O, «^rt^a/a, Brod., 

^ is a less- worn state of this species. ^The type-specimens of Discina stri- 

gala in Brit Mus., on Pecten venirtconu, appear very distinct, and are 

unusually shelly for the genus.] 

excluding Zisnphiimt (= CallioHoma)^ Mr. Beere '* oontriTes to place " in Trochus animals 
shown by the opercula to belong to different Bubfamihes, as though we knew no more than 
in Lamarck's days ; hu motley group containing Imperator { — SteUa, H. and A. Ad.)4- 
JMhopoma + Ouildfordia+ ChrywHoma -|- Bolma + ModeUa -|- Polgdonta + Tectw-i- 
pQmauUgX'\-AHraUum-\'Packgpoma-)r Vvanilla, Also in a family the genera and species 
of which are mainly recognized by the base and mouth, most of the shell* are only fifUred 
on the back. Very often the cht^racters of the aperture are not even stated. Bemanuble 
liberties are, moreover, sometimes taken with geograpliioal facts, to the great astonishment 
of Americans, who eznect even their schoolboys to avoid such statements as at sp. 57, TV. 
diminutimiff I^ye., " Oahu Islands ; " and at sp. 1, Lingula ovalit^ Rye., " from W. H. 
Pease, Esq., residing at Honolulu, one of the Sandwich Islands." 

* P. compta is a distinct Califomiau species ; its Pvarieties pass into pulla. If Mr. 
Beere can be followed in uniting Uypulla^ pulohella^ Bed. \-\'affini9-\'tetteU<Ua-\'pulch€lla 
'\-concifma, C. B. Ad. ;4-^«m«w, Phil, i^intermediat^ Scaoohi ;-|-Cai>enm, Dkr. ;+0^- 
gata^ Strauss, Gould's species should join this goodly company, ratner than perforata. 
The same standard of union followed among the large shells would greatly lessen the sijte 
of this oost^ work. 

t So in Phaeianella rubra, Pease MS.^ sp. 18^ which belongs to Jl<yra, A. Ad. ; allied 
to £uchelu9. 

54 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 569 

7. Orbieula ostreoides, Lam.,= O, Norveffica, Sby. (non Lam.) + O. driatd, Sbv. + 

Crania radiota, Gld. + O. [Dismui] Evanm, Dav. ? N. W. Africa, "llie 

localit^y * Bodegas, Cal.,' mvenby Mr. D. wilii O. Evansii, on Mr. Cumiug's 

authority, must, I think, oe a mistake." [The genus has not been found 

on the Californian coast by any American collector.] 

8 Venus* ffratOy Shj.f+ tricolor, Sby. Gulf of Mexico, Mus. Cum. [^^T(^m 

^joto, Say, Panama. The loeality-labela hare probably been misplaced. 

These specimens are undoubtedly from the West Coast, nor has any 

authority f«p|>eared for the species in the Atlantic. The Gulf of Mexican 

'' analogue ' is T. granuiata. The forms are intermediate between Chioae 

and Tapes.'] 

SL Venus muUicosiata, Sbj. Bay of Panama, in coarse sand at low water, Cuming. 

" Probably = F.iwtertjvar.jwith ribs more tumidly thickened and rounded.*' 

[The West Coast shells are distinguished by the Very slight crenulation 

. of the ribs at the sides.] 

19. V^nus asperrimaf Sby. Guacomayo, Centr. Am., sandy mud, 13 fins., Cuming, 
** A form ofpectorina ; shell of lighter substance, broader and more de- 
pressed ; sculpture more elevately and definitely latticed." [This is th9 
shell named oy Mr. Cuming V. cardioides, Lam., and should take that 
name, as prior to Sby.'s, if really distinct from pectorina. Also from 
Panama. Afus. Smiths.] 

22. Venus discors, Sby., jim. St. Elena and Guacomayo, Centr. Am., sandy mud, 
6-9 fin&, Cuming, " Concentric decussating ridges cease abruptly at the 
posterior third." [Character very yariable, even in the type-specimens j 
= T. grata. Say, var.] 

2S. Vemns pectorina, Lam., p. 344,+ V, cardioides. Lam. Centr. Am., Mus. Cum. 
[Probably Atlantic ; much heavier and stumpy ; sculpture coarser ; teeth 
more like carina, whereas cardioides, no. 19, has a long anterior tooth 
hke sugillataf.J 

28. Venus eingukUa, Lam., ssfm/tooria, Brod. W. Columbia, Cuming. [=V. 
Pinacatensis, Sloat, MS. in Mus. Smiths. Guaymas. The peculiar 
smoothing-off of the central sculpture in the adult may be varietal. It 
is improbable that Lam. was acquainted with the speoies.] 

88. Venus crenulata, Chem., s^crenata, Gmel. W. L = F. «rtmwi,'Phil.,H- K cre^ 
nifera, Sby.,H- V. PortesiannC, D'Orb. [Not to be confounded with the 
V, crenifera, Maz. Cat. : has a small Cyprinoid lateral tooth, but no 
radiating ribs near lunule, nor long anterior tooth t.] 

35. Venus CaUfomiensis, Brod.,=: V. leucodon, Sby. Guaymas, Gulf CaL, sandy 
mud, low water, [teste] Cuming. Mus. Cum. [= K. crassa, Sloat, MS. in 
Mus. Smiths. Not F. Co/t/omtiBna, Conr.,s3 F. simillima, Sby. This 

ries, with V. negleda, compta, &c., having the mantle-bend neaily 
lete, approach Anomalocardia subimbrictUa, and with that species 
form a natural group, differing frt)m the typical Venus as Lioconcka does 
frt>m CaUigia:^ V. succincta, Val.] 

41. Venus Kennerieyi, Cpr., MS. X in Mus. Cum, Mab. — P [Puget Sound^ 
Kennerleg.'] 

43. Venus suaiUata, Kve. California, Mus. Cum. Characterized by the shining 
purple umbos, finely latticed sculpture, dark-stained lunule and ligo- 
mentary area. [='* F. cremfera, Sby., teste Rve.," Maz. Cat no. 106, 
in all essential characters. Xnfiers in the long anterior tooth being still 

• Through the kindness of Mr. Heeve, with a view to the completion of this BepoH;, 
1 was enabled to compare the figured specimens in this genus with the text, and with 
the shells of the Smithsonian collection, before they were distributed. The bracketed notes 
in the text are based on this examination. They are given with unusual detail, because 
of the unioue opportunity of throwing some light on a confessedly difficult family. 

t The characters of tlie teeth and paUiol line frequently afford satisfactory diagnostic 
iuAb between critical species, which are often overlooked by monographers. 

X The descriptions of Dr. Kennerley's shells had long been written, and would have 
heen published but for the American war. The localities of all the West Coast shells sent 
from the Smiths. Col. to Mr. Coming were duly marked in the accompanying catalogues, 

65 



Digitized by KjOOQlC 



570 REPOKT— 1863. 

longer, and in the purple colour. This, however, in the figured speci- 
men, has been brougnt-out by the firee use of acid, and the markings have 
been considerably obliterated by the '^ beautifying *' process.] 

Ml Venus simiUimaf Shy. San Diego, CaL '^ Resembles V, compta in detail of 
sculpture" [but perfectly &tinct, belonging to the amathusia group. 
It shows the evil of the very brief diaenosee of the earlier conchologists 
that so discriminating an author as Mr, Conrad should have taken this 
shell for the V, CfUifomiensii, Brod. ; and, quoting it (lapsu) as V, Cali^ 
fonuanUf redescribed the true V. Califormensis as V, NtdtaUiL It is 
Known by the great closeness of the fine sharp ribs.] 

46L Venu8=erenulaiaf no. 3d, very distinct var. Gulf Cal. ; more globose, interior 
purple rose. [This was sent as ** Cape St Lucas, Xantus." It appears 
truly distinct from the W. L crenuUxta, and to be the normal form 
of which puiica)^ no. 26, is an extreme var. Inside, and outside iu 
the adolescent state, they agree exactly; difiering outside, in the Adult, 
in smoothed-oft'ribs and more distinct V -markings. Mr. Reeve, however, 
still thinks it more like eremfera. It may stand as << ? var. UUtdnay^ 

47. Venus gibbosulu, Desh?, MS. in Mus. Cum. Mab. ? — [Guaymas : = V. Cttriesi^ 

Sloat. This is the more rounded and porcellanous form of V,iUuiifragaj 
= F. NuUaUi of Brit. Assoc. Report, and Nuttallian paper m P. Z. S. 
1866, p. 21 ; but not the true V. NuUaUi, Conr., v. infr^ no. 49. Interior 
margin very finely crenated on both sides of the hinge.] 

48. Venus compta^ Brod« Bay of Sechura, Peru, coarse sand and mud, 7 fins., 

Cuming, [This rare species seems to represent V. Califomtensis in the 
South American fauna. It is well distinguished by its shouldered form, 
produced ventraUy, and by the Circoid pallial line, far removed from the 
margin. Guacomayo, Mus. Smiths.] 

4Sk Venus NuUallit Conr. California. [Named from type, teste Conr. ips.. v. 
antea, p. 626. This is the dull northern form of V. succinctOy as flucft" 
fraga is of gibbostila, the species appearing nearlv in the same parallels in 
the Gulf and on the Pacific coast, but not found in the Liverpool Reijren 
Col. ; nor at Cape St Lucas. In all essential characteis, NuUalli (thou fi^h 
pointed) and Califomtensis (though rounded) appear the same ; but Mr. 
Reeve still thinks otherwise. The figured specimen has been altered with 
acid. The V. excatata is not noticed by Mr. R.] 

6L Venus mundulusy Rve. Hah, ? — [This shell was obtained by Dr. Stimpson 
in the N. P. Expl. Exp., and bears the Smiths. Cat number " 1845. San 
Francisco, very common at low water," = Tape* dirersa, Shy. jun. This 
is the highly painted, finely sculptured state of T. staminetif Conr. (not 
*' T. stramineaf Conr." Sby.,= T, gratUt var.) The abnormally ridged form 
is F. ruderata, Desh. Conch. Ic. sp. 130, By its large pallial sinus and 
bifid teeth it is a true T(^)€s,'] 

62. Venus tnterseda, Sby. Puerto Puero [PPortrero], Centr. Am., Cuming, 

SThe shell :& exactly identical with no. 19, aspierrima^cardioides ) but the 
igure might mi^leaid, the colour-lines appearing as ribs.] 

M. Venus subrostrata, Lam. * vi. p. 343, = V, neglecUiy [6rav] Sby. Hob. Mazatlan 
and West Indies. '* Lam. having cited a figure of the China species, V. La-- 
marckii, the species was lost sight of till Sby. renamed it" [The Lamarck' 
tan species was probably West Indian. V, neglecta closely resembles 
the young of F. CaUforniensiSf but has the ligamental area smooth avlj 
on one valve, insteaa of both.] 

(S9. Venus Stutchbun/i (Gray), Wood^ Sandwich Is. Comes very near to the 
Califomian V. callosOf [Sby., non] Conr., of which specimens have been 
found also at the Sandwich Is. [F. StutMuryi is the New Zealand 
species, which may easily be confounded with the Califomian. Although 
both may be obtained at the Sandwich Is., there is no evidence that either 

* In critical species, when it ii impoieible to be poeitlTe which of two or more was 
intended by an old author, it appears best to retain the nitme of the first discriminator. 
The old naine belongs to the general form : the discriminator ought to retain il lor a 
part} but if that has not been done, it avoids confusion i$ drop it, 

56 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OK MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 571 

lives there. The shell here figured is beaked like NuUaUi, no. 49 ; lii- 
nule veiy fiednt ; concentric ria^es very faint, but sharp; radiating ribs 
Tery coarse. Inside deeply stained : margin not donated on the sharp 
anterior edge, though faintly on the lunule ; hinge-teeth stumpy.] 

60. Venut muscaria^ Rve. Hah, ? — "[Has the aspect of a West Coast species, 
between carcUMes and fine yar. of stammea ; sinus large ; teeth strong, 
not bifi(l ; lunule with radiating ribs.] 

68. Venus undatella, Shy. Gulf Calif. [Not a satis&ctoiy species, the type 
having the aspect of a poor specimen altered for cabinet. The '' sculpture 
much chan^ng in its aevelopment towards the margin " is an accident 
often seen in the cancellatea species. Similar specimens of V, neglectuj 
no. 54, collected at Cape St. Lucas by Mr. Xantus, agree with utuUiteUa 
in all respects, except that this is violet within, neglecta being white. 
Ligament-area (as in neglecta) smooth in one valve omjj]^ 

77, Venus AdamsU, Kve. Japan. [Closely related to Tapes lacimata, San Diego, 
in si2e, aspect, hinge, &c. Differs in mantle-bend being not so long or 

goint^, and the radiating sculpture much finer :;= V, rigida, Qld,, MS., in 
timpsou^s list: non Glo. in * Otia.*] 

80l Ve$ms omaUssima, Brod. Panama, sandy mud, 10 fms., Cummg. Still unique. 
[Like V, gnidia, jun., but radiating ribs coarser and more distant; con- 
centric firills not palmated ; lunule pale, laminated.] 

87. Venus cailosa [Shy., non] Conr. Sandwich Is. and Calif. [ Vide note to no. 
59. This IS the V. NuttaUU of the Brit Assoc. Report Those who regard 
it as distinct from fUuHfraga^ of which gibboeulOf no. 47, is the extreme 
form, may retain tne name cailosa of Sbv., but not of Conr. Conrad's 
species =sC nobUiSy Rve.; differing from the true CaUisUe, as Mercenaria 
does from Venus^ in having the ligament-plate rugose.] =s V.fiwiifraga^ 
Shy., teste Rve. m errata. 

105i Venus' hiUneata^ Rve. Gulf Calif. Partakes of the characters of compta 
and subimbrieata: all three may indeed be different states of one and the 
same species. [The shell figured at 105& has all the peculiar features of 
compUiy which are clearly marked within ; only the concentric waves are 
closer than usual. The shell figured at 105a appears to be the trueVi«« 
dateUa, only in tine condition, the type being ruDoed^ It has exactly the 
same internal characters, including colour; only the colour-lines outside 
are arranged in rays instead of V s* Mr. Reeve, however, retains his differ- 
ent opinionj 
Ua Venus Cyprian Sby., P. Z. S. 1852. la Plata, West Columbia. [From same 
district, teste Schott in Mus. Smiths.] Has all the appearance of being 
an attenuately produced form of the West Indian V. paphia [which is 
also horn Cape Verd Is., teste Mac^Uivrayin Brit Mus.]. 

IL Dione * maculatOf List West Indies ; Brazil ; Pacific Ocean. Widely distri- 
buted in both hemispheres. [No authority for the Old World ; the Pacific 
shells are Callista cnionaa, var.] 

15. Dione nobilis, Rve., 1849. Cal. [=C. caUosa, Conr., 1837. The original 
name, fitim type, had been communicated to Mr. R., but is not quoted.] 

^, Dione semilameliosa'ff Qa,\id,t Si C. lupanariOf Less. Centr. Am. [=zmpinartaf 
Maz. Cat, no. 95. Vide Deless. Rec. Coq. pi. 19. f. 2 : " China Seas," no 
authority.] 

21. Dione brevispmaia, 'Rve.f^hrevispina, Sby. [Gulf of] California. [Scarcely 

differs from C, rosea, jun.] 

22. Dione nrnUispinosay Sby. Peru. Concentric ridges thinly laminated ; spines 
slender and numerous. [An extreme form of the Pacific C. Dione ^este 



HanL) ; distinct from semUameliosa.'] 
21 Dione Veneris, D'Arg. Conch, pi. 21. f. 1,= 



V, Dione, Ln. West Ind. and 

* The figured types of this genus had been accidentally mislaid ; and mighfc alter the 
jodgmentg given in the text 

t *• For obriout reasons, I think it best to abandon the foul name given to this lovely 
•peciei by Le^on," Rve. (Vide Maz. Cat. p. 70, note.) ? Wculd not tlie same reasons 
l^to the alteration of meretrixy iuipudica, &o. 

67 



Digitized by KjOOOXQ. 



672 BEPOET— 1863. 

Centr. Am. [The Pacific shells should rank with species 22, if sup- 
posed distinct The fig. is 24, not 23.] 

24. Dione extpmatay Rve. Centr. Am. Distinct, if the others are ; like semUa^ 

melloia, without spines. [App€||ar8 to be C rosea, '^un. The fig. is 23, 
not 24.] 

25. i Dione cireinataf Bom. Mazatlan, Mus. Cum. [without authority.] = Fl 
28, a, b. I rubra, GmeL,-|- V. Ghwieensisj Gmel.,+ C aUemata, Brod. [f. 2S repre- 
sents aUemata-y the other figures appear to be from West Indian spe- 
cimens, though that ancient locality is not mentioned. Several of the 
reputed West Coast shells are, however, of the typical form and colour.] 

83. Dione unieolor, Sby., = Chione badia, Gray, = Oy<A. liffula, Anton. W. Columbia. 
88. Dione prora, Conr. "Cape St. Lucas, S^antus, California; Carpenter.*' 

[A very distinct form among the thin inflated species ; only yet found at 

the Sandwich Is., v. no. 45.] 

45. ''(Mus. Smithsonian Institute of N. America.) This shell, from Cape St. 

Lucas. Xantus, California, proves to be the Dione prora (Cytherea prora, 
Conr.) of our preceding plate." [Mr. Sowerby's figure well represents 
the unique specimen from Cape St. Lucas, which was taken alive by Mr. 
Xantus. The quotations in Conch. Ic would lead to the inference that 
" Xantus ** was regarded as that part of " California " in which Cape St. 
Lucas is situated. Both the external and internal characters require 
that a separate name be given to the shell, which stands as CaUisiapol' 
Hearts, Ajinals Nat. Hist vol. xiii. p. 312.] 

46. Cytherea consanguinea, C. B. Ad. Mus. Cum. Apparentlv a small spe- 

cimen of a variety of C. keia, [Panama. Differs from C, lata in inter- 
nal characters.] 

62. Dione pannosa, Shy ,,ss Cytherea lutea, Koch,+ CaBista pueUa, Cpr. Chili, 
Peru, Mazatlan. [No authority for Mazatlan. The name puella givba 
to the Cape St Lucas specimens was intended as varietal ; although 
Mr. Cuming regards the Peruvian and Peninsular forms as d stinct. It 
is not known along the Central American coast] 

25. Circe nummulinaj Lam. "Central America." [Probably not from the 
American seas. Admiral Sir £. Belcher is, however, confident that he 
dredged many well-known E. Indian forms in deep water, oft* San B'.as.] 

27. Cytherea. In this genus are grouped the Triyona ', besides the typical specie^, 
ssMeretrix, Gray. 

8. Cytherea crassatelloides, Conr. " Bay of California." [Not known geop^ra- 

phically. The shell is not found in the Gul^ being a most characteristic 

Califomian species. San Francisco, S. Diego, &c.] 
27. Cytherea radiata, Sbv., + C. yracUtor, Sby.,= V. Salanaensis, D'Orb. = T, By^ 

ronensis, Gray. Salan^o and Xipixapi, 9 fms. sandy mud, Cumitig. 
45. Cytherea nUidula, Lam. Mediterranean. [The figures and descriptions of 

Sby. and Rve. well represent specimens from Cape St. Lucas, Xauius. 

Perhaps not identical with Lani.'s species.] 

9. Tapes grata, Desb. Philippines. [May stand as T. Deshayem, if it be con- 

ceded that Say*s F. grata ranks best with Tapes,"] 

7. Solarium granulatumy Lam. Mexico. 

8. Solarium verrucosum, Phil. W. Indies. ?is8, gramdatum, var. 

13. Solarium placenttda, [Rve. :=placentate,'] Hds. Bay Magdalena, 7 fms., Belcher, 

19. Solarium quadriceps, 11^%. Panama. Young state of same tjpe as sp. 7 and $, 

" from same locality (Pan., Mex., W. I.)," but grows mucn larger. [Tlie 

Texan shells in Mus. Smiths, are as large as those from Cape St Lucas : 

the variations on each coast are coordinate.] 

63. Kiener, — The following species may be added to the list quoted from 
« Coquilles Vivantes," in Rep. pp. 293, 294:— 
P^ PL in, 
15. ] 21* V > Conus regius, Chem.,3= C. prineeps, Ln., W. Mexico. 

^^' llW \\* \ ^^^'^^^^ff^^^^^^f^^^ Mexico. [Coast not stated.] 

58 



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ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 673f 

Pan. PL Fig. 

213. 98. 2. Ctmus FhUippii, Kien. Mexico. JTCoast not stated.] 

66. 27. 3. Pieurotoma triticea, Kien. Indian Ocean. [Probably CUkara 
stromboideSf Val. ; Cape St Lucas.] 

45. 9. 2. Columbelia gtUuralisy Gray (Qriff. pi. 41. fl 2)= C. costatay DucL 

Mon. pi. 12. f. 1, 2. Pacific, Coasts of Peru [^AnackUfluc 
tuata, Sby.]. 

46. le. 4. Columbellabicolorf Kien. Sab.?— [s^A. ru^ota.'] 

64, 65. (German AtUhors.) Ff offer, — Everything relating to the land- 
shells of North America will be found so thoroughly collated in the works 
of Mr. Binney (v. infra), that it is only judged needful to present here the 
most important references to the writings of the great authority on the 
FuhnoncUa. The student must necessarily consult the ' SymbolsB ad Histo- 
riam Heliceorum, Cassel, 1841 ' et seq., which contains the following ori- 
ginal authorities : — 

184a p. 89. Achatina CaJifomica, Pfr. Monterey, Cal: 

91. AchaHna ( Glandiiid) turria, Pfr. Hah, ? — [G^enus altered to Oleaema, 
Mon. Hel. iv. p. 640. Maz. Cat 231.] 

In the same author's great work, * Monographia Heliceonan YiTentium/ 
L^ksiae, 1847-8, occur — 

Page. 

VgL L 1847. 324. Helix Sagraiaiia, D'Orb. Cuba, California. [Sowerby's 
error, copied oy succeeding writers. The specits is ex- 
clusively Cuban.] 
838. Helix Jid^'Us, Gray. Oregon. = H NuUalliana, Lea. 
339. Helix Californiensis, Lea. California. + H. NicUiniana^ 
Lea. [Quoted as a distinct species in VoL IV. p. 209.] 
(Vol.3. 229. ^H.arhoretorumy\2l.) 

341. Helix Toicneendiana^ Lea. California. • 

(VoL 3. 229. = H pedestris, Gld.,+rfmia, Gld.) 

428. HeUx Oregonensis, Lea. Oregon. 
(VoL 4 227. ^HDupetithouarsii, teste Pfr.) 
VoL IL 1848. 101. BuUmw Mexicanus, Lam. Tabasco, Mexico. = JT. ( Cochlo- 
gena) vittatay F^r. 
(VoL 4 4'>2. mxO,ihalicusM.,0^T.) 

143. Bulimm zebra, Miill.* Mexico, kccz Zebra MuUerij Chera. 
= Bulimm undatw, Brug. • = Orthalicus livefUf Beck *, 
+ B. princeps, Brod.+-B. metunocheiltutf Val. 
231. Bulimtts (Cochlogena) melama, F^r. California. a=if<^/iti0 
gfriata. Perry k^. borittm, Brug. 
VoL m. 1853. 127. Helix Pandora^ Fbs. St Juan del Fuaco. 
(VoL 4. 847. =//. Damascenus,0\d.) 

416. Btdimus Hitmboldti, Kve.=sA MexictmuSy Val. [? non Lam.] 

Mexico. 
422. BuJimus Calif ornicus, Rve. California. 
VoL IV. 1859. 89. Helix Mazatlamca, Pfr., n. s. (Mai. Blatt, Apr. 1860, p. 43.) 
Mazatlan. 
268. Helix exarata, Pfr., n. s. California. 
270. Helix reticulata, Pfr. (MaL Blatt. May 1867, p. 87). Cal. 
276. Helix Mormonumj Pfr. Mormon Island, Califomia. 
847. Ht4ix oiUdlatay Thomson. Contra Costa Co., California. 
860. i/e/iz- arrow, Gld. JTaft. P— (Califomia.]4-<fr>//jnwwff,(41d. 
420. BuUrmts chardatmy Pfr. (MaL Blatt, April 1856, p. 46.) 

Mazatlan. 
472. BulimuB Hegleri, Pfr. (MaL Blatt, Dec. 1866, p. 232.) 
Mexico, s OrihaUcHB Z,, Cpr. 

^ These appear as three di«Hiict species in VoL IV. p. 588<-9, with the addition of B^ 
b^M, Pfr. (- Orthalicm U, AlaL Blatt, Oct 1856, p. 187.) 

59 



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674 REPORT — 1863. 

In tbe *Monographia Pneumonopomorum Viventium, «fec.. Cnssellis, 1852/ 
\jj the same learned author, the following is the only species which occun ;•— > 
SuppL 1858, VoL it, p. 7. Tnmcateila CaU/omica, Pfr. San J)iego. 

In Wiegmann's * Archives fiir Nat./ 1837, voL L p. 285, occurs the fol« 
lowing species, also without authority : — 

Fema quadrata, Anton. California. 

In TroschePs * Archives fur Natur' are quoted the following: — 

1843. VoL n. p. 140. Fasciolaria sulcata^ Less. Acapulco. 
1849. „ p. 99, Terebratula CaUformcaj Linsley. 

In the 'Ahhildungon und Beschreihungen neuer oder wenig gekannter 
Conchylien, herausgegeben von Dr. R. A. Philippi/ Cassel, 1845-51, are 
figured the following, which must be quoted as being original descriptions, or 
for the synonymy: — 

Page. PL Fif . 
Feb. 1846. 4. L 9. Cyrena soUda, PhiL California, &c 
Aug. 1846. 24. 4 7. TelUna pisiformiSflAi. Uaz&tlan, &c.^ L. pulcheUa, Ad* 

? = CarJium discors, Mont 
Oct. 1844. 4. .... Cyther€aDtinkeri,Vh\\. W. C. Mexico. = 0. Pocj^Seo, 

Mus. Berol., non Dillw. 
Apr. 1847. 83.7. 1. Ct/therea (Artemis) t;igant€a,Sbj. Califomia. P=-4r- 

iemis ponderosa. Gray. 
Jan. 1845. L 1. 1. Murex nigritus, Phil. P W. C. Mexico. 
April 1847. 1\. 7,8. 1. HaUotis fuimns, PhiL P California. = H. splendens, Rve. 
Oct 1846. 5. 2. 1,10. Turbo Pokkesiiy JoriBA. Oulf of Califomia. 

8. 2. 9. Trochus strigUatua, Ant, Califomia. s T. pe/ZM-^eroen^ 

Wood. 
July 1844. 7. 2. 5. FaUMa (AcnuBo) discors, PhiL Mexico. 
April'1860. 9. 2. 8. Lucina obliqua, ThU P W.C.America. 

9. 2. 9. Lucina pumnifFhih Mazatlan. 

2. 1. a F^fcten tunica, Phil. "Sandwich Islands*. E, B. 
FhHippL'' Jan. 1844. [=P. Udiauritm, Conr., teste 
Hani. S. Diego, &c] 

6. 1. 6. Fecten Fabricii, Phil. Greenland. J[=P. likmdicus, 
jun. Non P. JF<i6ru?ti, Gld., = P. -Htwfoa, jun.] 

11. 6. 9. Lttorina aberrant, Phil., P. Z. S. 1846, p. 142. Pa- 
nama, on rocks. [=Tall var. of X. conspersa.^ 

In Dr. L. Pfeiffer's ' Novitates ConchologicflB,' Series II., Marine Shells, by 
Dr. W. Dunker, Cassel, 1858, occur the following species from Sitka : — 

ir 1. 8, 4. Tritonittm carinaiumy Dkr. Sitka. [Should be pi. 2. t 3, 4.] 

[s 7\ anguUmmtf Morch, on plate.] 
2. 1. 1,2. Tritmium MorchianHmyD\a, Sitka. fShould be pL 2. f. 1, S. 
8. 2. 5, 6. Tritonium rutUum, Morch. „ Should be pi. 1. f 6, 6, 



4. 1. 5, 6. Tritomum Bomhergi, Dkr. 



Bhould be pi. 2. f. 6, 6. 



2. 2. 3, 4. Neptunea harpa, Morch. ,, [Should be pi. 1. f. 3, 4.' 

7. 2. 1, 2. Nepttmea cagtanea, Morch. ,, [Should be pL 1. f. 1, 2.] 

fasN, badia, on plate.] 
86. 10. 6, 7. Murex (Hemi/usus) P*icWi,Hd8., var. P— [= Charu$ B., L. Cal.] 
39. 12. 7-9. Cytherea (Tima) arguta, Rom. Isthmus of Panama. Resembles 
C. (Trigone) madroidcSf Bom. [Probably Caribbean.] * 
66. British Museum CoUeciion, — ^* Lunatia ravida, Souleyet, Panama,** 

* A large number of OiUfomian thells hare been assigned to the Sandwich Is., in oon* 
aeqaenoe of the abundant trade between the two looalitiee. They may often hare beer 
obtained at Honolulu by naturalists, who had no rea<*on to doubt their having lir.*d thera 
All that is known of the genuin** Hawaian iiiuna will flliortl; be pul/liaUed by Mr. Sow- 
«rby, for W.fl. Pease, Es^., of a«w>i«^«* ^ 

60 



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ON IfOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 575 

h given without authority; and the locality is probahly erroneous, VarioTi« 
other shells are scattered in the national collection, assigned either generally 
to the West Coast or to special localities, which it has not been considered 
needfdl to tabulate without confirmation. 

68. Various sources, — Under this head may be arranged gleanings from 
European authors not consulted in preparing tiie first Eeport 

In the ' Histoire Naturelle des Coquilles,* by L. A. G. Bosc, Paris, 1830, 
the following species, not previously quoted, are assigned to the West Coaet, 
hut without authority : — 

VoL PkM- 

IIL 44. Venus pnphia, W. America. 

280. NerUafulgurans, Bosc W. C. America. 

290. Natiea rugosa^ Chem. y, 

IV. 60. Hdix peregrina. Island on „ 

152. Trochus Solaris, „ kc 

156. Trochus radiatus. „ &c. 

219. Murex lima, W. C. N. America. 

Li Lesson's * Illustrations de Zoologie,* Paris, 1831-2, appear — 

Fhto. 
2. Calyp€eopsi$ tubifera, Less. [= Crucibulum sptnosttTn], 

41.(1832.) Truiiotropus Sowerbiensisj Lesson. Seas of New World. = Trichotrofit$ 

bicarinata, Br. & Shj,^ Turbo bicarinaius, Sby. 
48. TerebraJUtmmeOf Less. [?= T. strigosajt Antilles j Isth. Panama. 

5L Tegula elegans. Less. [=: jT. peUis'sefperUis], Isth. Panama. 

The following West Coast sheUs are named and figured by Dr. Gray in 
'Griffith's Edition of Cuvier^s Animal Kingdom,' London, 1834. In some 
instances there are also a few words of description : — 

Plate. Fig. 

1. 3. LHorina pulehxi, 
41. 6. TurbeneUa eeratus ff TurbineUus'], 

4]. 6. Columbdla suturahs [Kiener figures this shell for Anachisjlucluata, Sbv^ 
1832. The original might stand for many species]. 

36. 2. Nassa Northia {^^Northia serratOy Kien.]. 

3a 3. TurbintMa tuherctdaris [s^Latirus tuberculatus {^eeratus, C. K Ad.)]. 
23. 5. TerthraAfricana. [The Gulf Cal. 8hdl,=»/irA?^a<a.] 
25. 2. Triton (Pusio) elegans [«iYwmfVi insignis, Rve., 1846]. 

37. 2. ColumMla harpa/ormis [^harpi/armiSf Sby.]. 

37. 6. CUwaiula GriMlhii. [Probably » PI. funic filata. The shells in this plato 

are reversed, but are repeated correctly in pi. 37 *.] 
19. L Cytkerea Dronea, var. [= C semilamellosa, Gaud. ; perhaps intended frr 

C. dione, var.]. 
In Woodward's most valuable ' Manual of the Mollusca,' London, 1851-6, 
the following species are quoted as from *^ California " : — 

f^t. PL Ffff. 

108. 5. 6. Cancelkma reticulata, jyiUw. [?W. Indies.] 
171. I^yaa Maugera, [P Ecuador.] 

329. 23. 22. Paraoholas bisulcata, Conr. [v. Rep. p. 265. Not known from the 
Oaiifomian or W. Mexican coasts. Resembles P. calva"]. 

In the very valuable handbook of bivalves, * Recent Shells, by S. Hanley, 
London, 1842-56,' will be found either quoted or original diagnoses of all 
West Coast species known to the learned, patient, and minutely exact com- 
piler. As the locality-marks are simply transcripts, they are not here repeated, 
especially as << California" is used for both the temperate and the tropical 
faunas. The following synonyms will be serviceable to the student : — 



'ir 



Solen iftbteres, Conr., ?m8, Dombei, ? + Cahfomianus, Upper Cal. 
28. iMta-aria lineata, S^y^^ (jCrgptodon) NuUaUii [teste Hani., non] Conr. 

61 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



No. 1. 
4. 


Feb. 1850. 5T" 
Dec 1860. 410. 


PL 

8. 


Vol. 8. 
4. 
4. 


1852. 57. 

1853. 58. 
1853. 84,166 


2. 
2. 
6. 


4 


1858. 119. 


6. 


4. 


1858. 154 


5. 


Series II. 
VoL2. 


Oct 1857. 171. 
285. 
292. 


6. 



o76 MPOBT— 186.^. 

Page. 

72. Tellina incanspicua, Br. aod Sby., fssSdn^inoiana ICedtfomianaj Conr., nonl 
fusca, Conr. [sthe Eastern species]. 

In the Appendix are the following species, of which small figures are ^yen. 
to correspond with those in Wood's Ind. Test :^- 

Pago. PL Tie. 

389. 13. 50. Fler^thma oUusa, HanL W. America. 

«^41. 12. 6> Amphidesma praximum, C.B, Ad.,^ A, eorrugatumj Ad, Mexico. 

373. 18. 51. Area Beevetma, D'Orb. "W. America, s^. squamosOj var., B'Orb. 

^A, Helbuufiiy Kye. 
388. 24. 40. Jfcfea^'iw 3faaa/lflii*crt, HanL Mazatlan [=3f.>w6riato, Dkr.]. 
The following are extracted itom the * Journal de Conchyliologie/ Paris, 
1850:— 

Fig. 

4. CokimbeUa HaneU, Petit. PMazatlan. 

Observations on Neriia scabricoaia, Lam., hj 
Petit. West Coast of N. America, 

11. Miira Haneti^ Petit. Mazadan. 
11,12. Natica TasUi, Reel. Mazatlao. 
13-15. Gnathodon trigonum, Petit. Mazatlan [^M. 

mendica, Gld., 1851]. 

12. Beduzia SoUandtana, RecL [G^us dd- 
scribedj Mazatlan. 

9,10. yatica Moqtdniana, RecL PWest Coast of 
America. 

Adeorbis Verrauxti. Plscher. I n^vt «-«^ 
SkeneaVerrauxii, Flecker. \ ^^^omiA. 
Review of the Brit. Assoc. Report and Brit. 
Mus. Reigen Catalogue, by Fischer. 
Vol. 9. 209. Review of the Smithsonian Check Lists, by 

Fischer. 
The following species are figured in Chan's * XHustrations Conchyliolo- 
giques ' ; but no authority is g^ven for the localities^ nor etymology for the 
remarkable names : — 

Page. PL Pig. 

8. 2. 19, 20. Oltm sekuia^ Burl. Acapulco. 

13. 7. 3, 4, 21, 22. OUva ctUdama, DucL California. 

13. 7. 5,9,23,24 OUva rasamoloy Bud, California. 

^^' 1 15 1* 2 10 11 ( ^^^ axermda, BucL California. 

19. la 7', 8! ' OUvammtichoraf'Dxxcl, California. 

19. IJ7 7%^^*[ OUvapmdarinajJhicl California. 

28. 27. 9,' lb. OUva todoaina, Duel, California. 

An excellent commentary on the above species, and on the difficult gennfl 
to which they belong, is supplied in the * Revue Critique du genre Oliva,' by 
M. Bucros de St. Germain, Clermont, 1857. It was written, not from the 
well-known London collections, but from a very large series containing all 
the types figured by Buclos. The following is the author's arrangement of 
the West Coast forms, excluding citations of well-known species. 

No. Pa«e. 

35. 49. OUva angtdaia does not include asemuUtj BucL, as Rve. says ; that being 

a var. oi pondtro9a-\-erythrottoma, 
tiQ, 50. OUva Maria, n.s., pL 2. 1 26, a, 6 ; intermediate between Jtdietta and an^ 

gulata, California, teste Bucloa [Appears to be one of the vars. of 

Cnmingii.'] 
28. 52. OUca retictttaris. To the typical W. Indian shells are united those from 

California^ Panama, Madagascar, Japan, N. Holland, N. Zealand, &c. 

62 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Olf MOLLU8CA OF THl WEST COA*f OP NORTH AMERICA. 577 

The synonymy includes ventdata-\-aranenm-^€tt7mngii-\'*niola (Duel. 

non LaoL.) + pindarma + fimformii -|- timoria + obesina + tisiphona -{^ 

menmoma'\-alMma'\'<mMka'\-caldania'i'harjMUt^ 
63w 83. OUva SUeruB,'Rve. Mazatlan, ^. Verreaux,ss{teitaceaf var.] 
6r. 86. Ob'oa Deshayegiana, n. s. AtlaSy pi. 3. £ 67, a, o : intermediate between 

Bra&lietms and aunculana. California^ teste Duclos. [Certainly not 

from the West Coast] 
(R 87. Oliva vohUetta, Lam. +ra3amo£tiy Duel. 
71. 89. OUva untUUeUa, Jjun^-^-neduUna, DucL ; but not ozodana, DvlcL, as Rye. 

says. 
73. 88. Oliva Uneolaki, Ghray in Wood's lnd.TesL^purptwatay SvreAn6,ssdama, 

Dud. [L e. dama, Goodall in Wood, a Uneolataj Gray MS. in B. M., 

Zool. Beech. Voy.] 
75. 91. Oliva tdasia, DucL Acapulco j teste DucL " We know nothing of this 

remarkable shell but the specimen figured by the author.'' 
85. 96. OUtM muticay SRy'\-rufif€uciatay Rve. [assigned by error to the Coliforniaa 

O. baHeOf yar.]+./im6rui&i, Rve. 

In the most recent and among the most valuable of the contributions to 
oir knowledge of local faunas, * Mollusques de Tile de la Reunion, par M. 
G. P. Deshayes/ Paris, 1863, occur very unexpectedly the following species 
connected with the West Coast, either by name or by identity. The Hst of 
560 species from this little island, whidi the researches of M. MaiUard has 
brought to light, contains several West Indian forms and a large number 
known in the Central Pacific and even the Sandwich Islands. 

Now Fan. 

38. 16. Chama imbricata, Biod. 

47. 19. Luctna UgermOj Ln. ^' Common on sands, with Cap9a de/lorata, as at 

the Antilles." 
65. 38. Modiola cinnamomea^ Chem. [Botula, Morch, teste A. Ad.] 
110. 40. Chiton Bongmrmu, Desh. pi. d f. 4-7. [Non C%. sanauineuSy Rve. As 

the West Coast %\isXi^ IschnochiUm timaciformiSf Shy., the Bourbon 

species may retain its name, especially if, as is probable^ it belongs to 

another genu8.J 
197. 68. Sohrimn [Tonnia'] variegatum^- Lam. 
316. 74 Turbo phasianeliuSf Desh. Minute edition of T, petholatm ; nacreous. 

[Not congeneric with T. phananeUa (Phil.), C. B. Ad., Panama shells, 

no. 282.] 
23a. 79. Kaliea Marocchiensis, Lam., Q. and G. Astr. pi. 66. f. 16-19. [f^ma- 

roccana^ Chem.] 
807. 95. Cerithium unctnatum, GmeL Thes. Conch. pL 180. f. 78, 79. [.»= C. ten- 

cinatum (GmeL), Shy.] 
39^. 114. Purpura patulay Lam. JJ^mn.]. 
403. 116. Plavurafochrottoma (Bl), Rve. ISigtnmX 
405. 115. Purpura (Coralliophila) madreporarumf Soj, {? HhtzocheHui. ^LepUn 

conchus monodoHta, Quoy, teste Gld. Otia, p. 215.] 
44eu 132. Ter^aluctuosa, Hda. 
660. 140. Cerithium GaUapaginis (A. Ad.), Sbv. Thes. [Sbv-'s species a mfer- 

ruptumy Mke., non C. B. Ad., no. l98, rough var.j * 

93. Smithsonian Institution. — At the time of the first Report, the tempe- 
rate fauna of the West Coast was only known through sources liable to error, 
the collectors having visited other regions besides Oregon and California, and 
the species described by American authors being but imperfectly understood 
in this country. The large accession to the number of authentic species, the 
important elimination of synonyms, and the assignment of ascertained loca- 

• The reriew of the remainder of the firet Report, nos. 69-92, will be postponed till after 
Uie production of the new materials, which are almost entirely from American sources. 

'•^- 63 



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578 MWET — 1863. 

litiesy wbicli are placed. on record in ibis Keport, are due almost entirely to 
the stimulus afforded to science in general, and to this branch especially, by 
the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, D. C. The fund bequeathed by 
Hr. Smithson, '' for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men,' 
having been declined by the Universities to which it was offered in the Old 
World, is held (in trust only) by the U. S. Government *. It is administered 
by a permanent body of Regents, according to a constitution drawn-out at 
their instance by the Secretary, Prof. J. Henry, LL.D. It may be safely 
stated that to his unswerving consistency, cautious judgment, and catholic 
impartiality it is mainly owing that, during various political and social 
changes, the Institution 'has not only steered dear of aU party bias in the 
United States, but has distributed its advantages with equal hand on both 
sides of the Atlantic. The Natural History department is under the special 
superintendence of the Assistant-Secretary, Prof. Spencer Baird, M.D., whose 
indefatigable zeal, fertility of resource, and thorough knowledge of the re- 
quirements of the science have enabled the Institution, by a comparatively 
small outlay, not only to amass in a few years an enormous store of accurate 
materials, but also to eliminatefrom them a series of publications on various 
important branches of American zoology. The contributions of the Smith- 
sonian Institution to our knowle^ige of the West Coast fauna may be consi- 
dered under [A] its collections and [B] its publications. 

[A] Smithsonian Collections. — ^According to the present law, all collections 
made in expeditions fitted out by the Government become the property of the 
Smiths. Inst., with liberty to exchange duplicates. Its museum, therefore, 
is rich in types ; and its liberal policy allows of all duplicates being trans- 
mitted to public collections, to schools of science, or to individuals engaged 
in special departments of study. Not being forced into an unalterable plan 
of operations, like many leading museums of the Old World, permission was 
given to send nearly fiie whole of the molluscs to this country, that they 
might be compared with the Cumingian, the Brit. Mus., and other leading 
collections f. The importance of thus establishing a harmony of nomencla- 
ture for species on both sides of the Atlantic can scarcely be over-estimated. 
The previous want of it can be abundantly seen by comparing paragraphs 
39, 43, 64, &c., in the first and in this Keport. The West Coast collections 
belonging to the Smiths. Inst, are mainly from the following sources : 
a. The United States Exploring Expedition, under Capt. (afterwards Admiral) 

Wilkes, 1837-1840, v. par. 43. 
h. The Nortii Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Capt. Rogers, 1853-1855. 

Collector, Dr. Stimpson. 
ۥ The Pacific Railroad Expedition, 49th parallel, under Governor J. J. 

Stevens, 1853-54. Collections made in Puget Sound by Dr. Suckley, 

and at Columbia River by Dr. J. G. Cooper. Dr. Suckley also collected 

at Panama. 

* The war has but to a limited extent curtailed Uie funds and interfered with the 
operations of the Institution. 

t The Cunard Steamship Com]MmT have most liberally conveyed these stores across 
the Atlantic, free of cost. The British and American Governments have allowed special 
facilities for passing the Custom Houses without derangement Similar acts of liberality 
»nd courtesy are continually afforded to the Smiths. Inst — The materials for this Report 
have been placed unreservedly in the hands of the writer, although he went to Washing- 
ton as a complete stranger, and with no other introduction than his publislied writiiigiw 

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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 579 

<{. The Pacific Bailroad Survey, under lieutenant B. 8. Williamson, 1853. 

Collector, Dr. A. L. Heennann. 
(L The Pacific Railroad Survey, under lieutenant B. S. Williamson, 1855. 

CoDector, Dr. J. S. NewbOTiy. 
/. United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, under Major W. H. Emory, 

1852. Collector, Arthur Schott. 
g. Colorado Expedition^ luider lieutenant J. C. Ives. Collector, Dr. J. S. 

Newberry. 
A. The United States North- West Boundary Survey, under Com. A. Camp- 
bell Collectors, Dr. Kennerley and Mr. George Gibbs. 
Besides the above official explorations on the American side, during a 
period in which the British Government only fitted out a single expedition 
coordinate with h, the Smiths. Inst has received a large number of pri- 
vate collections fix>m their correspondents, of which the following are the 
principal: — 
f. Mr. Jas. G. Swan, from Port Townsend, Cape Flattery, Neeah Bay, and the 

neighbouring shores of Vancouver ; at intervals, during many years. 
j. Dr. J. G. Cooper, early private collections from Shoal water Bay and various 

stations in California and from Panama; and lately the dredged collections 

of the California State Geological Survey, of wMoh a portion were sent 

in advance by Dr. Palmer. 
h California Academy of Natural Sciences, duplicates of their collection, 

with the privilege of inspecting unique specimens. 
I Dr. E. VoUum, U.S.A., from Fort Umpqua. 

m. lieutenant W. P. Trowbridge, from coast of Oregon and California, 
n. Br. J. A. Yeatch, from the peninsula of Lower California, and especially 

from Cerros Island. 
«. Mr. A. 8. Taylor, from Monterey. 
p. Mr. Andrew Cassidy, from S. Di^;o. 
q. Rev. J. Bowell, now of San Francisco, from various stations in both faunas^ 

and especially from Sta. Crux, and the Farallones Is. 
r. Mr. John Xantus, of the U. S. Coast Survey, from Cape St. Lucas. Speci- 
mens were received through him from Socorro Island (one of the BeviUa- 

gigedo group), Tres Marias and Margarita Island. 
I. Captain C. P. Stone, from Guaymas and the northern part of the Gulf of 

California, 
t Captain C. M. Dow, from the coast of Central America. 
u Dr. J. H. Sternberg, from Panama. 

p. Dr. J, H. Frick, Mr. James Hepburn, and others, from San Francisco. 
w Mr. C. N. Biotte, U. S. Minister to Costa Bica, from Puntas Arenas. 
X, Mr. W. H. Pease, of Honolulu, collections made by his agents at various 

stations on the coast, particidarly at Maigarita Bay. 
Collections have also been received frx)m various expeditions already tabu- 
lated in the first Beport ; and from stray quarters not here included because 
their accuracy may admit of doubt. The species received from the most im- 
portant of these sources will be enumerated in their order ; of the remainder, 
exact lists may be consulted by the student in the Smithsonian Catalogues, 
and the combined results will be found tabulated as * Pacific Bailroad Expe- 
ditions ' or * Smithsonian Collections.' 

[B] Smithsonian Publications. — These may be classed under three heads. 
(1.) Works published by the U. 8. Government, with more or less of assist- 
ance derived from and through the Smiths. Inst. (2.) The 'Smithsonian 
Contributions to Knowledge,' printed in 4to, and answering to the ' Trans- 
5 66 



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/80 MPOET— 1863. 

actions* of English learned societies; and (3.) The 'Miscellaneons Colleo* 
lions/ in 8vo, answering to the * Proceedings ' of the societies : — 

(1.) The series of ten 4to Yolumes, called ' Pacific Railroad Reports,* con- 
tains a complete risumi of the natural history of the western slope of North 
America. The Recent and Tertiary Fossil Mollusca will be analyzed in the 
following pages. Accounts have aJso been published of the natural history 
of other expeditions. — The annual volumes of ' Reports of the Regents of the 
Smithsonian Institution/ published by the U. 8. Government, contain exact 
accounts of the assistance rendered to the expeditions by the Smiths. Inst., 
as well as lectures and articles on special subjects. In these will be found 
fuU particulars of the principles which regulate the natural-history workings 
of the Institution*. 

(2.) The only paper bearing on our present inquiry as yet published in 
the * Contributions ' is on the " Invertebrata of the Grand Manan," by Dr. W. 
Stimpson, which should be consulted by all who desire to institute a compa- 
rison between the sub-boreal faunas on the two sides of the Atlantic. 

(3.) The * Miscellaneous Collections ' are all stereotyped, and very freely 
circulated. Among them will be found " Directions " for collecting specimens 
of natural history, with special instructions concerning the desiderata on the 
Pacific coasts. These have been widely distributed among the various go- 
vernment officials, the employes of the U, 8. Coast Survey, and the variously 
ramified circulating media at the command of the Smiths. Inst. ; and have 
already borne a fair share of important results, although the war has 
greatly impeded the expected prosecution of natural -history labours. " Check 
Lists '* have been published " of the Shells of North America, by I. Lea, 
P. P. Carpenter, W. Stimpson, W. G. Bmney, and T. Prime,** June 1860. No. 
1 contains the Marine Shells of the << Oregonian and Califomian Province,** 
and No. 2 of the ** Mexican and Panamic Province." They are chiefly com- 
piled from the first British Association Report, with such elimination of sy- 
nonyms and doubtful species, and addition of fresh materials, as had become 
available up to the date of publication. They were not intended to be quoted 
as authorities ; and so rapid has been the accumulation of fresh information 
that no. 1 is already out of date. In the " Terrestrial Gasteropoda," by W. 
G. Binney, list no. 1 contains the '' species of the Pacific coast, from the ex- 
treme north to Mazatlan,'* to which many additions have since been made. 
In the list of " Fluviatile Gasteropoda,** also by W. G. Binney, " the letter W 
distinguishes those confined to tiie Pacific coast, WE is affixed to those 
found in both sections of the continent, and M designates the Mexican 
species. From the starting-point of this list considerable progress has 
already been made. In the brief list of " Cyclades, by Temple Prime,** the 
Mexican and Central American species are similarly designated; but the 
western species and those common to the Pacific and Atlantic United States 
are not distinguished. In the list of " Unionidae," by Dr. I. Lea, whose life- 
long devotion to the elucidation of that family is everywhere gratefully 
acknowledged, the Pacific species are designated by a P. The large series 

* The * Lectures on MoUosca,* in the Vol for 1860, pn. 151-283, wiU perhaps be fotuid 
useful as a digest of classical forms. It was to liare been illustrated with copies of woodcut«, 
kindly promised by Dr. Gray, and since placed at the disposal of the Smiths. Inst, by the 
courtesy of the Trustees of the British Museum ; but, unfortunately, the blocks vrere not 
to be found at the time. They will appear, howerer, in forthcoming Smithsonian publi- 
cations. The * Lecture on the Shells of the Gulf of California,' in the Yol. for 1859, 
pp. 195-219, contains in a popular form much of the information distributed through iba 
Brit. Mus. Max. Cat. 

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ON HOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 581 

of specimens, representing varieties and ages, in Br. Lea's private collection 
are well deserving of close study. Their owner shares the liberality of Mr. 
Coming in making them available for all purposes of scientific inquiry. 

The Smiths. Inst, has just issued from the press the first part of the 
'Bibhography of North American Conchology, previous to the year I860,* by 
W. G. Binney, containing references to all printed information on North 
American sheUs by native writers. It is divided into " § A. American descrip- 
tions of North American molluscs; §B. American descriptions of foreign 
molluscs ; § C. Descriptions of foreign species by American authors in foreign 
works.^ The work is prepared with unusual care and completeness, and 
with the accurate, judgment which characterizes all Mr. Binney's writings. 
It contains, under every separate work or paper, '* a list of species therein 
deflcribed or in any importmt manner referred-to, together with their syno- 
nymy, locality, and the volume, page, plate, and figure relating to them." 
The second part, containing similar references to American species described 
by European writers, is now passing through the press. Mr. Binney has 
most kindly sent the proofs to the writer (as far as p. 287), which have been 
freely used in preparing this Beport, and have supplied various important 
Boorces of information. It undertakes to provide for the whole North American 
continent what has been here attempteid for the West Coast ; and in much 
greater detail, as not only the first description, but all subsequent quotations 
are duly catalogued. It may be regarded as a complpte index of references 
to all works on North American malacology. The student, in making use 
of it, will remember that it is only with the Pulmonates that Mr. Binney 
profbses an intimate acquaintance. For these the work may be regarded as 
complete. But, in other departments of the science, only those shells which 
are assigned by the authors to North America are quoted ; consequently a 
large numher of species are passed-over which are truly American, but are 
assigned to other places, or described without locality. Also, species really 
belonging to other faunas, but falsely attributed to North America, duly 
appear as though genuine ; and the additional localities frequently assigned 
by the authors (which are often the real habitats) are seldom quoted. More- 
over Uie citations stop at Mazatlan ; consequently, the tropical fauna of the 
West Coast is but imperfectly represented. Lastly, the authors are not pre- 
sented in chronological or indeed in any other ostensible order ; but it is pro- 
mised that the necessary information will be given in the index on the com- 
pletion of the work. The student will further bear in mind that for many 
reasons no second-hand reference can serve the same purpose as a consultation 
of the original book. With these cautions the work will be found invaluable 
by all who are engaged in working-out American species ; and great thanks 
are due to Mr. Binney for undertaking the extreme labour of its compilation, 
and to the Smiths. Inst, for suppl3ring the expense of its publication. Probably 
no such work has yet been printed on the malacology of any other country. 

Lastly, there is now in preparation a complete series of hand-books on 
North American malacology, copiously illustrated with wood engravings, and 
eontaining a digest of all that is known in each department The marine 
ihells of &e Atlantic are being described by Dr. Stimpson, who is now also 
engaged in the dissection of the Freshwater Rostrifers ; the marine shells of 
the Pacific are placed in the hands of the writer ; the Pulmonates will be 
thoroughly worked-out by Mr.* Binney, the MelaniadBe by Mr. Tryon, and 

67 



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682 MPOET— 1863. 

the Cycladidae by Mr. Prime. Thus it appears that the malacologists have 
been unusuallj zealous in advancing their before somewhat slumbering studj ; 
and that the Smiths. Inst, has displayed unexpected liberality in preparing 
and issuing from the press works of a comprehensive character^ for the ** in- 
crease and diffusion of what will hereafter be regarded as m important 
branch of ''knowledge among men.'^ 

94. North Pacific Exploring Expedition. — In the year 1853, Dr. W. 
Stimpson, well known in very early life for his dredging-researcbes and ob- 
servations on the marine animals of the Atlantic coaat, accompanied Captain 
Bingold as naturalist to the U. 8. " North Pacific Exploring Expedition." Ita 
principal object was to obtain more correct information with regard to the 
Japan seas and the extreme north of the Pacific, und it wa3 only incidentally 
that it visited the Califomian province. However, Dr. Stimpson*s extensive 
d]*edgings in the fiords of Japan developed the interesting fapt, that while tka 
southern shores presented a fanna essentially Indo-Paofic in its character, 
and abounding in the nsual Cones, Cowries, Olives, (fee., the northern slopes 
of the same i^ands presented an assemblage of forms far more analogous to 
the fanna of the 8i&a and Yanconver region, and containing many species 
common to the American coast. During the course of the voyage dredging- 
ooUections t were made by Dr. Stimpson at Madeira, Capeof Good Hope, Sydney 
Harbour, Coral Seas, Port Jackson, Hong Kong (also by Mr. Wri^t; New Ire- 
land, Lieut. YanWycke; Gasper Straits, Squires ; vicinity of Canton, presented 
by Mr. Bowring; interior of Hong Kong, Wri^t); Chana Sea; Whampoa ; 
Benin Island; Loo Choo Island; Ousima; Katonasima Straits; Kikaia; 
Kikaisima ; Kagosima [alas !] ; Hakodadi ; Taniogesima ^alao Wright, Kent, 
Kern, Boggs, Carter); Simoda; Niphon (also Brook); Arvatska Bay, Kamt- 
Bchatka; Amincheche Island, Avikamcheche Island, Behring Straits; Senia- 
vine Straits, Arctic Ocean (also Captain lU^rs) ; San Francisco; (Puget Sound 
and Shoalwater Bay, Dr. Cooper, Cat no. 1849-1856); Tahiti (also Captain 
Stephens, Kern), Hawaii (also Garrett ; Sea of Ochotsk, Captain Stevens). AU 
these were duly catalogued, with stations, depths, and other partaciQars^ and 
living animals preserved in spirits after being drawn. The expedition appears 
to have returned in 1856. Although Dr. Stimpson devoted hw chief attention 
to articulate animals, and molluscs occupied but a subordinate share of Iub 
attention, it is safe to say that in this short period he collected more trust- 
worthy species of shells, with localities, than were received at the Smiths, 
Inst, from the united labours of the naturalists of Captain Wilkes's celebrated 
expedition. Through some imaocountable cause, certain of the most valuable 
boxes were " lost " between New York and Washington ; the remainder were 
placed in the hands of Dr. Grould for description, with the MS. catalogue, a 
copy of which forms the " MoUusca, Yol. I.," nos. 1-2003, of the Smiths. 
Mus. Fortunately, Dr. Gh)nld embraced the opportunity to bring the un- 
certain shells to London, and compare them with the Cumingian Collection. 

t A fuller account of this expedition is here given thra it justified from its oontributions 
to the W. American fnuns, because no other information respecting it is as yet availably 
to the molacological student. 

68 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THB WEST COAST 6f NORTH AMERICA. S8S 

. thus a large body of Bpeciea, named from types, was prepared for the New 
Wodd ; but^ imfortimately, through imperfect packing and the practice of 
marking by numbers only, much of the value of this identification was lost, 
the new species were described by Dr. Gould in the ' Boston Proc. Soc. Nat. 
IGst/ 185&-1861; and on completion of the series, the author collected 
tbe papers embodying the new species of the two great scientific expeditions, 
as well as his other scattered publications, and issued them in a most valuable ' 
book, entitled ' Otia Conchologica: Descriptions of Shells and Molluscs, from 
18^-1862/ Boston, 1862 ; with ''Bectifications," embodying such changes of 
nomenclature and synonyms as he desired to represent his matured views. 
In quoting Dr. Gould's writings, therefore, this table should always be con* 
raited. A considerahle portion of the spedmens have been returned to the 
Smiths. Inst., of which the larger species are mounted in the collection, and 
die smaller ones have been sent to the writer to compare with those collected 
by Hr. A. Adams, which were unfortunately being described in the London 
journals almost simultaneously. The war has uiHiappily postponed the in** 
tention of publishing the complete lists of species collected and identified with 
10 much accurate care. The following, however, have already been deter- 
mined by Dr. Gould from the r^on in which American species occur. The 
list is given entire (so far as identified), because species as yet known only 
on one coast of the North Pacific may hereafter be found on the other. It 
contains (as in the comparison of the Caribbean and West Mexican fauna) 
(a) species certainly identical, (6) probably identical, (c) '* interesting ana- 
goes," and (d) representative forms. 



1S63. Cr^aiMa hystryx, vsr. Eagosima Bay, Japan. Dead on shore. {^taaeuleatOj 

Maz. Cat no. 834.] 
1319. I^frcma mbra, Mmit. Sjigosima Bay, Japan. [ Vide Maz. Cat no. 154.] 

Among sea-weeds and bamades in 2iid and Srd levels ; rocky shore. 
1339. Natica marodiieneie \^maroecana\ v, Maz. Cat. no. 670]. Kagosima Bay, 

Japan. Dead on shore. 
1344. Aem^ta fSieboldi; very neta patina, Eagosima Bav, Japan. Rocks at L w. 
1361. Tarima vanegata, Lam. Eagosima Bay, Japan. ^Vide Maz. Cat no. 484.] 

Dead on shore. 
1414 Na$»a gemmulatay Lam. [non C. B. Ad.] Eagosima Bay, Japan. 6 fin. sd. 
1476u Aear \Barhat%a'\ aradata, Brod. and Shy. Taniogesima, Eagosima Bay, 

Japan. [ Fide Maz. Cat no. 194.] DetA in ten un. ; sand and shells. 
407,476. Aear [Barhatia'] gradata, Brod. and Shy. Port Jackson. 
1602. Lima equamosa, Lam. Taniogesima, Japan. [asX. tetricay GId., teste Cum,"] 

The remaining species from these localities are either local or belong to the 
Philippine and Polynesian fauna. At Simoda and Hakodadi we enter on a 
mixed fauna. 
1674. SaUotie dieeua, Bve. Simoda and Hakodadi. Bocks at low water, four 

fin. ** KanUschaikana seems to be the small growth of the same.'' [It is 

locally abundant, however, on the West Coast ; while diseue has never 

been found there, and is mudi flatter.] 
1677. Luiraria \^8€hizotha!rw KuUaUii, Conr J Hakodadi Bay. Eight fin. sand. 
\b7^. CyVureapeteekiidiSyljem, Hakodadi Bay. Sand, 4th level. 
1682. iiritomum[C!hrysodomu$'] antiqvmm,\jCL. Hakodadi Bay (also Okhotsk and 

Arctic Oc, 1779). Low-watermark and laminarian zone, on weedy rocks. 
1686. Tritomwn {Priene] Oregonenae, Redf. Hakodadi B^. Dead on shore, 

and in twenty fin. Also no. 1965. 
1688. TMm BodegensUj Hds. Hakodadi Bay. Dead on shore. 
16^ Mya arenaria, Ln. Hakodadi Bay. 
1692. Mereeiutria onerdoHe, Gld. [A West Atlantic type, probably « if. SSn^ 

soni, Otia, p. 169.] Hakodadi Bay. Six fin. sand. 

69 



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584 REPORT— 1863. 

SXCatiMK 

1696. Vema rigida, Gld. [MS. non Old., Otis, p. 85,= 7V^m», var. PetM, Th* 
Japanese shell ia AdamsUf Rye., from type]. Hakodadi Bay. Four to 
ten fm. sand. 

The above occur in connexion with local and with diffdsed tropical spedea. 

1601. Euthriaferrea, Rye. Simoda. Among stones and pebbles, 3rd leTeL [Al- 
most identical with the Cape Horn species. E, plumbea^ Phil.] 

1630. Tritonium [C^fysodomui] cassidariaformis, Kve. East Coast of Japan, lat. 
37^, and Hakodadi. Twenty fm., black coarse sand. 

1632. Chiton 'largest" l?Crwtochttm Stellert]. HakodadL On large stonea 
and mider shelving rocks, low-water mark. 

1634 Pecten, like [a] laUmdicus, HakodadL Ten fin. shell-sand. 

1635. SangwnolanalfuUaUiiyCoTa.ftsdecorajKdiA. HakodadL '^ Possibly = iSoZs- 
tellina obscwata, Desh.'' Sand, low-water mark. 

1637. Macoma lata, ''Gmel. in Mus. Cixm..^ ealcareay Chem.,=proirima, Brown, a 
sordida, Conih.,^SueMoni, Morch." Hakodadi. ^h level, sandy mud. 

1639. LUarina OrcenUmdicaj Chem. Hakodadi. Rocks, 1st level. 

164S. Cardktm pseudofossile, 'RYe.,ssbktndum, Old., perhaps s Califamiensis, Desh* 
Hakodadi. Twenly fm. sand. 

1651. TerebrattdalWaldheimia] Grayi^Desh. Hakodadi. Shelly gravel, 8-15 fin. 

1665. Leda arcttca. Brod. [s=y. lanceoiata, J. Shy.]. Hakodadi. Sandy mud, 4-12 
fin. Semavine Str., 10-30 fion. 

1674 DriUia inermu, Hds. Hakodadi. Shelly sand, 4-10 fin. 

1700. Peden YessoengiSf Jay. [Probably a var. of Amusmm caunmt$n,'] HakodadL 
Weedy mud, 4 fin. 

1702. Cardmm (Serripes) QrcenUmdicum, Awatska Bay, Eamtschatka. Mud^ 

12 fin. Also Avikamcheche Is.. Behring Str., and Arctic Ocean. 

1703. Yoldia thradaformisy Storer. Hakodadi. Mud, 12 fin. 

1704 Mytilus edtdis, HakodadL Also Avikamcheche Is., Behring Str., and 
Arctic Ocean. Low-water mark, and in 3rd and 4th leveL 

1705. Cardiuni CaUfomiense, Desh. Hakodadi. Mud, 12 fin. [s no. 1648.] 

1706. Mya truncata. Hakodadi ; also Avikamcheche Is. Mud, 6-15 fm. Also 

Arctic Ocean, in mud. 30 fin. 
1706. Buceiftum glaciale, Hakodadi, and Straits of Seniavine, at Aminchecho 
Is., Behring Str. 

1710. Tritonium [Chrvsodomus] antiquum'\-deformi8, Rve., and vars. Hakodadi 

and Avikamcheche Is. Gravel, 4 fin. 

1711. Buceinum tortuosumy Rve., s^caZart/brm^-l- vars. Straits of Seniavina. 
1714 Mf/a ? armaria, Hakodadi and Ainkamcheche Is. 

1715. BuUia [Volutharpa'lampuUacea, Midd. HakodadL Gravel, 5-6 fin. 

1716. Lanistes kevigata. Gray {^dUeors, Ln., teste Dkr. in Mus. Cum.). Mud^ 

20 fm. Hakodadi and Arctic Ocean \ common, in nests, 30 fin. ; no. 1739. 

1717. Trichotropis muUicaudata [?=!>. coronata,OdA, p. 121: related to msignitp 

Midd., teste A. Ad.]. Hakodadi. Gravelly mud, 15 fm. 

1718. [Xepeta'} ct^ca, var. concenU^ica, Midd. Hakodladi and Arctic Ocean. 

1719. Trtchotropis bicarinata, Sby. Hakodadi. Not uncommon in laminarian zone. 

Arctic Ocean ; common. 

1720. Macoma proxima, Brown. Hakodadi; mud, 5-25 fin. Awatska Bay. 

Arctic Ocean ; common, no. 1727. 

1721. Macoma edenttdOf Brod. and Sby. Hakodadi. Avikamcheche Is. 

1722. Crepidula grandis, Midd. Hakodadi. Okhotsk, 15 fin. : no. 2002. 

1723. Venus JtuctuoM,Q\d,ylMh ?-astarloide8y Beck, IS^. Hakodadi and Arctic 

Ocean ; not uncommon. Mud, 5-10 fin. 

1725. Cardita (Actinobolua) borealis, Conr, Avikamcheche Is., Behring Straits; 

mud, 5-30 fin. Awatska Bay ; 10 fin. mud. Arctic Ocean ; common. 

1726. Saxtcava pholadis, h.^ssrugoaa-^-distorta, Avikamcheche Is., Arctic Ocean. 

Awatska Bay ; on shells, &c. I^m. zone ; no. 1729. 
1728. Margarita obscura, Couth, Awatska Bay, Eamtaohatka. Mud, 10 fin. 
1732. Bela turrictda,, Mont Awataka Bay : niud, 6-15 fin. Also Seniavine Str«; 

110.1782. 

70 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 585 

BXCttBO. 

1733. YokUa Umatula, Say. Awatska Bay and Arctic Oc. Mud, common, 5-20 ^ 

1734. Naiica dausa, Brod. Awatska Bay. Mud, 5-15 fm. 

1735. Yoldia myaUs (or hyperhorea), Awatska Bay. Mud, 10 fm. 

1736. Leda minuta, Seniavine Str. ; Arctic Oc, near Behr. Str. Mud and pebbly 

sand, 15-dO fm., coarse stri». 

1737. Leda tmnutii, var. Ditto. Mud and pebbly sand, 5-20 fioL, fine strise. 
1740. Modiolaria corrugfxta. Ditto. Mud, m nests, 80 fin. 

174L BhynchoneUa fsiUaeea. Ditto. Gravel and sponges, 20-30 fin. 

1742. Margarita Unata, Leach. Ditto. Shelly grave^ common, 15-^ fnu 

1744 AdtneU ardiea, Midd. Ditto. Mud, 30 fin. 

1745. AdmeU viridula, Couth. Ditto. Gravel, 4 fin. ; mud, 10-80 fin. 

1747. VeUdma haUotoidea. Ditto. Gravel, 10-25 fm. 

1748. Margarita argetUaia [Gld. Inv. Mass.]. Ditto. Mud, 80 fin. ; shelly, 15- 

25 fin. 
174a TwrriteOa (sp.), Migh. Ditto. Mud, 80 fin. ; clean gravel, 4-20 fin. 

1750. Triehotropis biearinata. Ditto. Pebbly mud^ 5-6 fin. 

1751. LmtatiapaUida, Brod. Ditto. Mud, 10-80 fin. 

1752. CyHchui U-iticeay Conth. Ditto. Mud, 15-80 fin. 

1753. Veluiina [MorviUa] sonata [Gld. Inv. Mass.]. Ditto. On stones, 5 fin. 

1754. Nuctda tenuis, Mont Ditto. Mud, common, 20-80 fm. ; pebbly mud, 5-20 

fin. Also Hakodadi ; sandy mud, 10 fin. ; no. 1687. 

1756. Traphon clathratus, Linn. Ditto. Mud, 20-80 fin.; gravel, 4 fin. 

1757. lamatia BeptentruMuUisj Beck. Ditto. Gravelly mud, common, 20 fin.; 

gravel, 4 fioa. 

1758. Amieula vegtitaj Shy. Ditto. Gravel, common, 10-40 fin. 
1750. Scalaria Granlandicaj Chemn. Ditto. Mud, 80 fin. 

1760. Ltmatia palUdoides. Ditto. Mud, 80 fin. 

1761. ChryBodonwB Iskmdicus, Chemn. Ditto. Mud, 80 fin. 

1762. Ptitella [Lepeta] Candida, Couth. Ditto. Mud, 80 fin. 

1763. Chiton albui, Lmn, Ditto. On shells in mud, 80 fin. 
1765. Ckrgsodomus SchantaricHS, Midd. Ditto. Mud, 20-80 fin. 

1770. A$tarte lactea, Br. and Sby. Arctic Oc. Mud, 80 f m. 

1771. Pecten IslandicuSf Chemn., var. Arctic Oc. Mud, 80 fin. 

1773. Buceinum fundatmn (probably bicarinate var. of glaciate), Arctic Ocean. 
1774 Bucdnum fundatum, var. velagica. Arctic Ocean. 

1775. Buceinum ?0choten8e, Miad. Arctic Ocean. 

1776. Buceinum angutosum^ Gray (ss glaciate, var.). Arctic Ocean. 

1777. Buceinum ? tenue. Gray. Arctic Ocean. 

1778. MangeUa, like simplex, Midd. Arctic Ocean. 

1781. Beta rufa, Mont. Seniavine Str. Pebbly mud, common, 5 fin. 

1783. Turritettn erosa. Seniavine Str. Mud, 10-20 fin. 

1784. Lgonsia Norvegica, Chem. Seniavine Str. Pebbly mud, ^5 fin. 

1785. lYichotropis ineignis, Midd. Seniavine Str. Ghravel, 10 fin. 

1789. BeladecusaatayCoa^. Seniavine Str. Sandy mud, 10-20 fm. Also Awatska 

Bay ; no. 1730. 

1790. Yoldia myalis. Couth. Seniavine Str. Mud, 10-20 fin. ; pebbly mud, 5 fin. 

1791. Beta harputaria, Couth. Pebbly mud, 5 fin. 

1793. Margarita helicina, Fabr. Behring Str. Clean gravel and algse, 5 fin. 

1796. TurUmia [? minuta, Fabr.]. Behring Str. Common on sponges, 20-40 fin. 

1798. Lunatia [Acnfbial aperta, Lov. Kamtschatka. 

1799. Modiolaria mgra, Qnj. Arctic Ocean. 

1821. Chama lobata [^exogyra. Jay, non Conr.]. China Sea, west of Formosa. 
Shell-gravel, 80 fin. 

1836. Pwrpura emarginata, Desh. San Francisco. On rocks in 4th level. 

1837. Idtorina plena, Gld. San Francisco. On rocks in 8rd and 4Ui levels. 

1838. Acmaa textUis, Gld. San Francisco. On piles and rocks between tides. 
1838&. Acmaa patina, Each. San Francisco. On piles and rocks between tides. 
18%. Cryptomya Cali/omica, Conr. San Francisco. On sandv beaches. 

1840. Macoma nasuta, Conr. finn Francisco. Conmion in sandy mud, 1. w. 10 fin. 
184L CardiumliutUUUi, Com. San Francisco. Common in sandy mud, Lw. 10 fin. 

71 



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666 REPOKT— 1863. 

B.LCatii(K 

1848. Mytikut tduiU, yar. Saik Fnmcisco. On rocks and grayel, 4fh lereL 
1844 MytUuB Caltfomianus, Conr. Near entrance to San Francisco. On rocla 
and gravel, 4th level. 

1845. Tapes ahersa, Sby. San Fnu^?s6o Bay. Very common, low-water mark 

t= V. staminea, Oonr., var.,= V. munihtkiBj Rve. ; v. antedy p. 670]. 

1846. Cha&n IMopalia] muscosuSf Old. Entrance of San Francisco Baj. Noit 

uncommon on rocks at low-lrater mark. 
lS^7.CryptodmlSehizath4m'H8\NttttaJUiyCoTa^^ San Francisco. One sp. 

1S48, Macfusra lucida, Ccmr. Ban Francisco. Common. [=s M, p€Uuia, FortV] 

The shells brought back by the Expedition from Puget Sound and Shoal- 
water Bay were collected by Dr. Cooper, whom Dr. Stimpson met at San 
Francisco, and are not here catalogued, as they appear again in his own 
coUectionB, v. infra, par. 101. 

1860. JMhopihagus cinnamomeuM. China coast, lat 23^^. Dead, 25 fm., sand. 
1924. Hdie tudiculata, Bin. Petaluma, Cal.; under stems in open grove of scruboak. 

1956. Mytika tplendms, Gld. Hakodadi Bay. Rocks below ^de-marks, com. 

1957. Anomia oUvaeea^ Gld. Hakodadi Bay. On shells or gravelly sand, 10 fin. 

1958. Cerasloma foUatutn, var. BitmettH, Ad. and Rve. Hakodadi Bay and N. £L 

part of Niphon. Low- water mark, on rocks and boulders. 

1959. Hmotis KamUchatkana, Jonas. N. E. shore of Niphon. See no. 1574. 

1960. Purpura FreyctnettUj Desh. N. E. sb6re of Niphon. Common on rocks. 

1961. Purpura Freycin^ttUf var. with muriciform lamellee. N. R shore of Niphon. 

1967. Placwumotnia macroschisma, Desh. West Coast of Jesso. Graveli 80 fm. 

1968. Terebraiuia puhituOa, Gld. Arctic Ocean. Gravel, 30 fm. 

2000. PunctureOa nooMtui, Linn. Sea of Okhotsk. Gravel, 20 fm. 

2001. AstarU lactea, Brod. and Shy. Sea of Okhotsk. Gravel, 20 fin. 

200S. TerebratulafflobosafLam. Sea of Okhotsk. Gravel, 36 fm. [Perhaps Ca&« 
fomica, ioch.] 
The following, from among the new species described by Dr. Gould in his 
< Otia Conch.,' belong to the same province, and to forms which may be ex- 
pected to appear on the northern shores of "West America. They were first 
published in the Proc. Bost Soc. Nat Hist, under the dates quoted : — 

Otia. p. Bost Proc.8.K.H. 

109. 1859. June. Natiea severa, Gld., like heros/but with imibilicus resembling 
umfasciata, Hakodadi, W. S. 
Natiea rmsa, Gld., like clausa. Arctic Ocean, W. S. 
Patella pallida, Gld. Hakodadi. On stones and gravel, 10 fiau 
Patella grata, Gld. N. E. shore of Niphon. 
Acnuea dorsuosa, Gld., like paHna, var. monticttla [mont%cf>la\ 
Nutt Hakodfuli, on rocks of 2nd and 3Td lamin. tone. W. S. 
Chiton {Leptodiiton) eoncinmUj Gld., like albusy but with lines of 

punctures. Hakodadi, W. S. 
Chiton (Acanthoehates) achates, Gld. Eikaia, Hakodadi, W. S. 
Chiton {Molpalia) Stimpsoni, Gld., like BlainviUei, without an-^ 
terior radiating lines. ['' On stones, clean bottom, 25 fm.| 
and under stones and rocks, low-watermark." — Smiths. Cat. 
no. 1646. Not to be confounded with 3f. Simpsoni. Gray.l 
Hakodadi, W. S. 
120. 1860. Sept Terehratula [? JFaldheimia'] transversa, Gld., like Orayi, with 
shorter internal supports : [^Orayi, teste A. Ad.] Hakodadii 
W.S. 
120i n tf TerehrateOa miniata, Gld., like Zelandiea. Apophvses united 
to central crest [« JFaldheimia Koreanica, Ad. and Rve^ 
teste Rve. fixim tvpe. " On pebbles, clean bottom, 80 fm.** 
Smiths. Cat ISO?.! Hakodadi, W. S. 
220. „ ., Mvnchonella ht/nda, Gld.; in aspect like T, vitrea, jur. 
13li n n Triehotropis {Iphinoi) eoronata, Gld. ; like T. ciliata, Kmger. 
Straits of Semiavine, Arctic Ocean^ 20 fin. mud. W. S. 
72 



109. 
115. 
115. 
116. 


„ Dec. 

ff V 


117. 


f» w 


iia 

118. 


1&9. dSc 



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125. 


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1S4. 


n 


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153. 


1861. 


Mfir. 


154 


97 


n 


15i 


n 


ff 


159. 


n 


ff 


162. 


n 


ff 


m 


n 


ff 


182. 


n 


ff 


m 


n 


ff 


163. 


» 


ff 


164. 


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99 


165. 


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ff 


165. 


n 


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165. 


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ff 


165. 


ft 


ff 


167. 


M 


n 



ON MOLLTJSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 687 

CHb.pw Boat. Proa S.N.H. 

122. 1860. Sept. Buecinym Stimpstmi, Gld.j like tmdatum, but quite dietinct. 
Avikamcheche Is., Behnng Star., W. S. Arctic Ocean, Hod- 
pen. llii<^B.8tifmf»oynafmfnyC.B,Ad^.'] 
Neptttrtea (Sipho) terebraiis, Old. ; like Icelandtca, Arctic Oc* 
Trophon incompbiBj GkL ; nke ertusw. HakodlMli, W. S. 
Bela turpida, Gld. Kamtschstka, W. S^ 
Marffortta ianthina, Gld. ; like SeharUarica, Atctvc Ocean. 
Margarita aOmla, Gld.; like an overgrown areUca, Ai€tic 

Ocean., W. S. 
Margarita rmuteUrMu Gld. Hakodadi ; lot^ water, W. S. 
Gibhula redimita, Gld. ; like nivosoy A. Ad^ Hakodadi, W^ S. 
Ly&Mia ventricosOf Gld.; shorter than Ktnrvegica, Hakodadi, 
2-6 £m^ sandy mud, W. S. [«f «»kirK?M/o, jun." A. Ad.] • 
Lyontia (Pandarina) Jiabellata, Gld. ; like arenosa, Arctic 

Ocean, W. S. 
Theora lubrica, Gld. Hakodadi ; common in mud, 6 fm., ^. S. 
FarMpaafragtUSf Gld. Hakodadi, W. S. 
Poftopaa fgenerosaj yar. sagrinaia. Awatsf[a Bay, K!amt«- 
chatka, W. S. f" Epidermis projects ^ in., as in Glycimerii. 
Mud, 12 fim." Smiths. Cat. 1701.] 
Carbula vemuta, Gld. Hakodadi, 5-^ fin., shelly sand, W. 3. 
Solm strictusj Gld. ,* like cameua, Hakodadi, W. S. 
Solm gracilis, Old. fnonPhil.] Hakodadi, sandy beaches, W. SL* 
Mach€Bra sodalisy Gld. ; like cogtata. Hakodadi^ W. S. 
SoletngapudUa, Gld.; like velum, Hakodadi, 6 nn., mud^ W.S. 
TdUna lubrica, Gld. ; like felix uid/ahageUa, Hakodadi, 6 fin., 
sandy mud, W. S. 

16^ „ „ Saxidoimu aratuij Gld. ; Hke V. maxima, Phil. San Francilba 
[ Described as 4*5 in. long, yet] smaller than NuttaUU, \ ** Oum 
bays at Sir F. Drake's ; 1. w., sand." Smiths. Oat. 1842/] 
1^ ff ff Venm (Mercenaria) Stimpsonu Gld. : like the Atlantic forms* 

Hakodadi, 6 fin., W. S. 
170. „ „ Mysia (Felania)uda, Gld. ; like an Astarie, Hakodadi, 8 fin., 

sandy mud, W. S. 

178. „ Apr. Montacata divaricata, Gld. Hakodadi, on Spatt^xgtfs^tfpmeBiW. S. 

17dL ,, J. Nucula (Acila) ifisignis, Gld. ; like mirahilis : [identical, tf st6 

A. Ad.] K Japan, lat. 87^ and Hakodadi, W. S. [" 30 fin. 

black coarse sand."— Smiths. Gat. 1628.] 

177. „ „ Mgtilua cm-uBcus, Gld.* Hakodadi ; common on rocks between 

tide-marks, W. S. [P=ilf. eplendena., no. 1956.] 
^^* ff n Pecten Uetus, Gld.; resembles generally P. eenatoniM, is still more 
like P. [Afnueiumi caurimte. Hakodadi, shelly mud, 10 fin., 
W. S. [Non Rtptu8y Gld., in U. S. Expl. Exped. Shells, 
Otia, p. 05,= P. DfMffbnbachii, Gray, teste Cuming.] 
95. The Fnited States Expedition to Japan, under Commodore M. C. Perry, 
1852-4, was not undertaken for scientific purposes ; and no special proyision 
was made either fi>r collecting or describing objects of natural history. A 
large number of shells, howeyer, were obtained, and identified by Dr. Jay of 
Kew York. In VoL II. of the 'Narratiye of the Expedition, <jkc.' (Washing- 
ton^ 1856, pp. 289-297) is giyen a Hat of Japanese shells, with descriptions and 
figures of ihe (supposed) new species. The following are related to the mol- 
luscs of the West Coast t. Specimetis of the most important may be seen 
m the Cnmingian Collection. 

* The Jtf. mutahitU, described on the same page fifom Kagosima, is a SepHfer; it is pre- 
•smed that the learned author did not open a speoimen. 

t The student should also consult, for related forms, the ' MoUusea Japonica ' by Dr* 
W. Danker, Stuttgart, 1861 ; — like all the other works of the same author, moft yaliiablf^ 
lor the patient oare, accurate judgment, and enlarged experience displayed j but relating 
chiefly to the lubtropical portion of the iaima. 

73 



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293. 

295. 
296. 


3. 
6. 
5. 


1^. 

3,4. 
16,17. 
13^6. 


296. 
296. 
296. 






296. 
296. 
296. 






96 


. At the tb 



588 KEPORT— 1863. 

Page. PL Pig. 

29^. L 7,10. Mya Japonicay n. 8. Volcano Bay, Is. Yedo. Closely related 

to M. arenaria : [identical, teste A. Ad.]. 
292. L 8;9. JPigammobia oUvaceOj n. a. Bay of Yedo. [Nearly allied to 
Miatuh NuUalU.] 
Pecten Yessoensisj n. i. HakodadL [Resembles Amusium 

caurinum, Gld.J 
Purpura aeptentrtonaUst Rve. [ = P. crispata. var.] ? Japac 
fJBullia Perryiy n. s. Bay of Yedo, one sp. oredged. [= Volut' 
harpa ampullacea, Midd.] 
.X • - r. (& 



Venerupis NutUdli, Conr. iSaxidomtis]. Japan. 

TelUna secta, Conr. Japan. 

Tapes decu89ata, Ln. [Probably T. PetitUf yar. or Adanmu 

Japan.] 
Ostrea boreaUSf Ln. Japan. 
lanthina commtmis, LaoL Japan. 
lanthina proUmgata^ Blainy. Japan. 

At the time that Dr. Gould was describing Dr. Stimpson's Japanese 
shells in the Boston Proc. Ac. N. S., Mr. A. Adams, R.N., one of the leained 
authors of the * Genera of Becent Mollusca/ was making extensive and accu- 
rate dredgings in the same seas. The new genera and species have been and 
are being published, in a series of papers, in the Ann. h Mag. Nat. Hist and 
in the Proc. ZooL Soc., preparatory to an intended complete work on the 
mollusc-fauna of the Eastern NortJi Padilc. The collections of Mr. Adams 
have already displayed the Japanese existence of several species, as Siphonalia 
KdUttii, Solen sicaritis, Homalopoma sangmneum, &c., before supposed to be 
petuliar to the West coast. Unfortunately for our present purpose, while 
the comparison of specimens was going on, Mr. Adams was unexpectedly 
called to service on board H.M.S. * Majestic,' and was obliged to pack up hia 
collections. Enough has been ascertained, however, to prove that it will be 
unsafe henceforth to describe species from either coast without companson 
with those of the opposite shores. 

97. Pacific Bailroad Reports. — As it is necessary, in studying any fauna, 
to make comparisons far round in space, so it is essential to travel far back 
in time. The fullest account of the fossils of the West Coast of America is 
to be found in the ' Explorations and Surveys for a Bailroad Boute from the 
Mississippi Biver to the Pacific Ocean,' which form ten thick quarto volumes, 
copiously illustrated with plates, and published by the U.S. Senate, Wash- 
ington, 1856 *. The natural-history department was conducted under the 
superintendence and with the aid of the Smithsonian Institution ; and science 
is under special obligations to Prof. Spencer 8. Baird, the Assistant Secre- 
tary, for his Beports on the Vertebrate Animals. It would hardly be ex- 
pected in Europe that the best resunU of the zoology, the botany, and the 
geology of the vast region between the Great American desert and the Pacific 
should be found in a railroad survey. Unfortunately, it has not been the 
custom to advertize and sell the valuable documents printed at the expense 
of the U. S. Government, in the ordinary channels of trade. They often become 
the perquisites of the members of Congress, and through them of the various 
employis, by whom they are transferred to the booksellers' shelves. The 
fifth volume of the series is devoted to the explorations of Lieut. Williamson ; 
the second Part contains the Beport by W. P. Blake, geologist and miuero- 
logist of the expedition. In the Appendix, Art. IL, are found ** Descrip- 
tions of the EossQ Shells," by T. A. Conrad. They were first published in the 

^ This extreTDely costly and valuable assemblage of documents was soling in Waihing* 
^ in 1860, at £o sterling the set. 



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15. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OT NORTH AMERICA. 689 

'Appendix to the Preliminary Geological Report/ 8vo, Washington, 1855. 
Thev are divided into, L " Eocene," and IL " Miocene and Eecent Forma- 
tionk" 

I. Eocene (aU from Canada de las Uyas *). 

Cardium linteum, Conr., n.a. Allied to C. NicoUeU, Conr. 

Dosinia allOy Conr., n.8. 

Meretrxx Uoasanay Conr., n.8. 

Meretiix Califomianay Conr., n.8. Allied to M. Pouhani, Conr. 

Crassatella Uoasana, Conr., n.8. 

Crasmtella altuy Conr., n.8. In small fragments, but abundant, 
as at Claiborne, Al 

MylihM humertiSy Conr., n.8. 

Cardiia planicosta, Lam., = Venericardia aseia, Bogers. Tint 
discovered in Maryland in 1829, by Conr. ; occurs abundantly 
in Md., Vs., AL, and is quite as characteristic of the Ameri- 
can as Qf the European Eocene period. 

Natica ? ostites, Conr., 1833. 

NaHca fffibbosa, Lea, 1833; or N, iemHunata^ Lea ; also found at 
Claiborne, Al. 

Natica akeata, Conr., n.s. 

Turt'iielia Ucamna, Conr., n. s. Allied to T. obruta, Conr.,= T. 
Hfieata, Lea, from Claiborne, Al. 

VdutatUKes [? VolutiiUhes] CaUfamianaf Conr., n.8. Besembles 
F, SayanOy Conr. 

? Busj/con B^alceij Conr., n.s. 

Clavatula Cedi^omica, Conr., n.s. Allied to C pronda, Conr., of 
Claiborne Eocene. 

n. Miocene and Recent Formations (from various localities). 

in. 15. la Cardium moJestum, Conr., n.8. San Diego. [May be Hemicar" 

dium hiangulatum, jun. J 
jy 19. 17. Nucula decim^ Conr., n.8. Resembles N. divaricata of the Ore- 
gon Miocene. [Closely allied to N. castrentU, &c., but too im- 
perfect to determine. J San Diego, 
in. 16. 18. Corbula Diego<ma, Conr., n.s. San Diego. 
„ 20. 19. Meretrix tmiomeriSf Conr., n.s. Monterey Co. 
„ 27. 20. Meretrix decisa^ Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. 
„ 22. 2 L Meretrix Tida-ena, Conr., n.s., [in list, "Ttdarana^* in text]. 
From a boulder in Tulare Valley. [Comp. Tapes gracilis^ Gld. J 
„ 2a 22. TeUma Diepoana, Conr., n.8., San Diego. 
14 18 J I '^^^^ congesta. Conr., n.8. [Appears a Heterodonax, allied to 

& 21 [ ^' 1 ^ff^^'<^^*^^^f Lam.] Abundant at Monterey, Carmello, and San 
• ' ( Diego. 

„ 17. 24 Tellina Pedroana, Conr., n.8. [P= T. gemma, Gld.] Recent 

formation. San Pedn). 
„ 29. 25. Area microdontaf Conr., n.s. Resembles A. arata, Say, of the 
Maryland Miocene. Miocene, P Tulare Valley. 

* The existence of Eocene strata on the Pacific slope is ascertained by a single boulder 
ef very hard sandstone, which, though very small, nimished fifteen species. Of these, 
three correspond with forms from Claiborne, Alabama ; and the '* finger-post of the 
Eocene'* appears in its usual abundance. Mr. Conrad characterizes the specimens as 
" beautifully perfect ;'* which would not hare been supposed from hb descriptions and 
figures. They " seem to indicate a connexion of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during 
yte Eocene period ;" and the autlior expects that " when the rock shall have been diftoo- 
Tered and mvestigated in Jtitu, tresh forms will be obtained, with which we are already 
^miliar in eastern localities." 

75 

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590 EKPOET— 1863. 

rV. 31. 26. Tapes diversuniy Sbv. [^ Tapes stammeaf Conr., Tar. Petitu, 
Cntintext). Desh.] Recent formation. San Pedro. 

HL 26. 27. Saxicava abrupta, Conr^n.s. [Probably the shortened form of 
Petricola cardUoideSy Gonr.] Recent formation. San Pedro. 
iy 24. 2a PHrkala Pedroana, Com'., n.8. [Allied to P. ventrieosa, Deah.] 
Recent formation San Pedro. 
IV. 8a. 29. &A£w«Adiiw^tt«aZfc;Conr./'n.8."=2V«««cai>aar,Gld. Recent 

formation. San Pedro, 
ni. 23. 80. ?Lutrana Traskei, Conr., n.8. [Not improbably « Saxidomus 

NuUalliif Conr., jun.j PMiocene. Carmello. 
v. 45. 31. Mactra Diegoana, Conr., n.8. Like JIf. aibaria, of the Oregon 
Miocene. [Resembles MuUnia angtdata, Gray.] P Miocene. 
San Diego. 
P 35. 32. Modiola contraeta, Conr., n.8. [Very like M. recta, Conr.] PMio- 
cene. Monterey Co. Recent formation, 
ly 40. 83. MytUus Pedroamu, Conr., n.8. [Probably osJif. edtdis, jun.] 

Recent formation. San Pedro. 
^ 41. 34 Pecten Desetii, Conr., n.8. [Resen^bles P. dreulansJ] Mio- 
cene. Carrizo Creek, Colorado Desert. 
I, 34. 85. Anomia subcostata J Conr. fn,s, If^PUictmanonUamacroschisma,'] 
Miocene. Colorado Desert Allied to A. Pt^nL 
Ostrea vespertifuty Conr., n.8. [Resembles O. luruUiy yat.] Mio- 
cene. Colorado Desert Like O. subfaleataf Conr. 
Ostrea Heermarmif Conr., n.8. Colorado Desert 
Pemtella speUeOy Conr., n.a* Recent formation. San Pedro. 
Fisswdla crenulataf Sby. [^ssLucapma c] Recent formatioiL 
San Pedro. 



«(M8.38. 


43. 

44. 


37. 

3a 

39. 


62. 


40. 


39. 
42. 


41. 
42. 


46. 
49. 


43. 
44. 



YL 62. 40. Creoidula princeps, Conr.. n.s. [s C grandis, Midd.] Recent 
tormation. Santa Baroara. 
Nartca Diegoana, Conr., n.8. P Miocene. San Diego. 
Trochita JOtegoana, Conr., n.8. [Like T ventrieosa } but may be 
Galerus contoHus,'] PMiocene. San Diego. 
,, -*^, -jtv, Cruetbukim spmosumy Conr., n.s.t Recent formation. San Diego. 
\L 49. 44. Kassa interstriata, Conr., n.s. [siV. mendica, Gld.]. Recent 
formation. S<ui Pedro, 
n 4a 45. Nassa Pedroami, Conr., n.8. [Comp. Amyda gausapata and ita 

congeners.1 % Recent formation. San Pedro. 
I, 51. 46. Strephona Pearoanaj Conr., n.8. [Comp. OliveUa heetica,'] Recent 

formation. San Pedro. 
p 50. 47. lAtorina Pedroana^Coja.yiLA. [BX./ifeiia,Gld.] Recent forma- 
tion. San Pedro. 
P 47. 4a Stramamta petrosa, Conr., n.8. [Is perhaps Monoeeros lugvhreA 
P— . Tulare VaUey. 

* Mr. Conrad regards the " ooriaeeons eup as characteristic of the gfn^^** It appears 
a subgenus of Pholadidea^ differing m the form of the plate. Mr. Tryon, *' Mon. Fho- 
lad./' p. 66, restricts it to the Penitella petUta^ which (aooordinff to his diagnosis) has 
one central and two anterior dorsal plates. The closely related P, ovoidea he leaves in 
the original genus, as harinff " two dorsal aooessory Talyes,** although he allows that " ita 
position cannot be aoouratdy determined on account of the loss of its dorsal yalyes." 
Conrad's fossil has the shape of P. ovoidea ; but although he says that it is ** widely dis- 
tinct" from F^penitOf I am unable to separate it from the o?oid form of that speciesy 
which will be found in the Smithsonian series. 

t This is certainly Sowerby's species, to which Conrad gires a doubting ref^wnce. la 
ihe text he gives it as ^'spinoskm^ Conr.," in his table marking it as <* nov. sp." 

♦ Conrad compares N. mteretriata to N, trimttatay Say, and N,Pedromna to^. ImnOtM, 
Say, and states that the two Atlantic species are *' associated with each other both in the se« 
and in the Miocene deposits of Virginia and Maryland." As the two correlative speoiea 
ate foond together, living and fossil, on the Pacific side^ there is presumptive evidence for 
th^ having descended from a common 6U>ck. 

76 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



VI 


Jt 


49. 


n 


5& 


50. 


_ft 


63. 


51. 


vfl 


57. 


52. 


» 


er. 


58. 


ff 


62. 


54. 


n 


68. 


55, 

5a 


fy 


72. 


57. 


ml 


73. 


66. 


n 


7a 


5^. 


tf 


75. 


60. 


» 


77. 


6L 



ON M0LLU8CA OF THB WSST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 591 

fOratehtpia madropeiSf Cora., jl8. JfsaDonax punctatostriakuJ] 

P Miocene. iBthmus of Darien. KeseiabLes O, Hydeama, CoL&r, 

Booene. 
Meretrix Dariena, Coot., ils. [Comp. Cydma mdtquadrata.'^ 

P3£iocene. Xstluxius of Darien. 
Tdlina Dariena, Conr.; n.8. PMioceue. Isthmus of Darien. 
Natica Ocayatia, Gour., n.s. [Marked 51 on plate ; err.] Ocoja 

or Pos^ Creek. 
NaU$a yemeulaia^ Conr., n.8. Ocoja Creek. Reeemldes iVl 

alve4iia. 
Bulla Juytdarii, Conr., n.8, Ocoya Creek 
PUwotoma tiranenumtana, Conr., n.s. [Marked 60 on plate : err. 

Closely resembles Chrysodomm dims, Rye.] Ocoya Creek. 
FlewoUmia Ocoyana, Conr., n.s. [Omitted in the text.] Ocoja Cr. 
Syctofu$ [Picula.] Ocoyanus, Conr., n.8. Ocoya Creek. 
Tumtdia Ocoyana, Conr., ma, Ocoya Creek. 
Cokt8 arctatuSf Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. 
TMna Ocoyana, Conr., n.s. Ocoya Creek. 
Peden Nev€idanu8, Conr., n.s. Very like N, Humphreysii, MiLry- 

laod, Miocene. Ocoya Creek. 
IZ. £3. 62. Peden caMiformia, Conr., n.s. Very like P. Madisonnts, Say, 

Virginia, Miocene. Ocoya Creek. 

The foUowiiii^ sp^es Are not described in the text, but quoted in the list 
Firf«p.320:— 

VOL P78. 6S. CarHum, sp. ind. Ocova Creek. 
64. Area, sp. ind. Ocoya Oreek. 
,. f80L 65. Soien, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek, 
n f8L 66. Doeinia, sp. ind. Oicoya Creek. 
Venus, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek. 
Cytherea ?decisa, Conr. Ocoya Creek. 
dkrea, sp. ind. San Fernando. 
Peeten, sp. ind. San Fernando. 
I X. TwriteUa biseriatajConr., Pn.8. San Fernando. 
TIL P58. 72. TVocAia, sp. ind. Benicia. 
Turritella, sp. ind. Benioia. 
Bvcdnum ?tntergtriatHm, San PedrO: 
Anodonia CaUfomiensiSf Lea. Colorado Desert 

Mr. Conrad, than whom there is no higher authority for American Tertiary 
fossils, considers the age of the Eocene boulder ascertained ; and that '^ the 
deposits of Santa Barbara and San Pedro represent a recent formation, in 
which (teste Blake) ihe remains of the Mammoth occur : and the shells indi- 
eate little, if any, change of temperature since their deposition." But he 
acknowledges that tiie intermediate beds are of uncertain age. Those on 
Carrizo Creek be refers to the Miocene, some characteristic species being 
either identical with the Eastern Miocene or of closely related forms. In 
ad^don to the species tabulated in this Report, he quotes, as haying been 
eoUected in California by 3>r. Heermann, " Mereenaria perlaminosa, Conr., 
scarcely difflering from M, DucaUUi, Conr. ; and a Cemoria^ Pandora, and 
Cardka €fi extinct species, dosely analogous to Miocene forms." The casts 
from Ocoya Creek w^re too fHable to be preserved, and are figured and de- 
Bcribed from Ifr. Blake'^ drawings ; these also are regarded 9s Hiocepoe. The 
San Di^an specimens are too imperfect for identification ; they ^e referred 
to the Mioo^ie by C<mrad, but may perhaps be found to belong to a laW 

* Seyeial fossfls we figond in plates ylL and riiL, tp whioli no reference is made in the 
tnLt It is unsafe to coigectqre the genus to which many of them belong, but it is pie- 
saraed that they relate to the indeterminate epeoios here quoted. 

77 



P7& 


68. 




64. 


fsa 


65. 


f8L 


66. 


P79. 


67. 




6a 




69. 




70. 




7L 


P58. 


72. 


P59. 


73. 


P7L 


74. 


• 


75. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



692 EEPORT— 1863. 

a^. The types of these species in the Smithsonian Mnsetun a^ ^ «*a« xx>o im* 
perfect to determine specifically with any confidence ; and by no moan^ ij« « 
suitable condition to allow of important conclusions being drawn from them. 
98. The third article in the Appendix to the same Tolume of Beports 
contains a <' Catalogue of the Becent Shells, with Descriptions of the New 
Species," by Dr. A. A. Gould. The specimens were (apparently) in the hands 
of Dr. Grould for examination when he prepared the MS. for the first Beport; 
and some of them were included in the " Mexican War Collections," B. A. 
Report, pp. 227, 228. " The freshwater shells were collected in the Colorado 
desert and other localities ; the land and marine shells between San Francisco 
and San Diego." The following is the list of species as determined by Dr. 
Gould, pp. 330-336. The specimens belong to the Sfnithsonian Institution, 
where a large portion of tiiem were fortunately discorered and Terifiedi 
They were collected by W. P. Blake, Esq., and Dr. T. H, Webb. 

Plato. Fif. Na 

1. Ostrta, sp. ind. Parasitic on twigs ; thin, radiatel^ lineated with 
brown, [s O. eonchanhUay Cpr.] Another species, elongated, 
solid, allied to Vuwniea [yar. rufaidei], San Diego. 

3. PeeUn monotimerisj Conr. San Diego. 

8. Peeten ventricoms, Sby.,4*<>fmu?t», Sby. [Dead yalves, of the 
form iBqmsuleatus,! San Diego. 

4. Mytiku ?eduUi r=^- tro^mhu, Gld., antedL\. San Francisca 

5. Modiola capax, Conr. San Diego. 

6. Venm NtOtaUiij Conr. [» V. succtncta, Val.] San Pedro. 

7. Venus Jluctifragay S^. San Diego. 

8. Tapes grata, Say,= T, discors, Sby., ^'sxstrammea, Conr."* Saa 

Pedro. 

XL 19,20. 9. Tapes graciUsy Old,, ms. PreL Bep. 1855. [Quite distinct from 
every other Tapes known from the coast It is supposed by 
Dr. Cooper to be the young of Saxidomtts aratu^, which in 
shape and pattern exactly accord with the figure and diagnosis. 
But the '^ Tapes^^ is figured without sculpture. The shell was 
not found at the Smitns. Inst] San Pedro, Blake. 
10. Cydas, sp. ind. Colorado Desert 

XT: 21,22. 11. Car^um cruentatum, Gld., n.s. PreL Rep. 1855. [P. Z. S. 1866, 
p. 201, = C substriaium, Conr.] San Diego. [San Pediv, 
Blake, in text] 

12. Lucma orbeUa, Gld. [ s "Mi/sia {SphardUt) twnida,'' Conr.] 8u2 

Pedro. 

13. Lucina NuttaUUy Conr. San Pedro. 

14. Mesodesma ^rttbrotincta, Sby.f San Pedro. 

15. Tellina vicma, C. B. Ad. [Dead specimens of ^Heterodomax 

(** Psammohiay^ yar.) Pocijica, Conr.] San Diego. 

16. TdlmasectayCom. San Pedro. 

17. Sfthania [Cryptofnya'] CaU/omiea, Conr. San Di^. 

18. Peiricoh cardiUndeSf{^m,fSicylis%dracea,I>eah, Monterey; San 

Pedro. 

19. Solecurtus CaUformensts, Conr. San Diego. ^ 

20. Onaihodan Lee<nUiifConr.y=0,trig<mumfFeiit Colorado Desert 

[Lecontei is probably the large Texan species : triyomtsat iucm- 
dicus is a yeiy distinct shell from Mazatlan.] 

* Neither Dr. Gk>uld, nor Conrad himself in his later ^logical writings, appears to 
baye called to mind the true T. staminea^ to which the Smithsonian shells belong. It ia 
the northern representative of T, grata^ but quite distinct : o. synonymy under Vemu 
PetUU^rigida^ pars. 

f No *' Mesodesma** was foand among the shells returned to the Smithsonian Institn- 
tlon, nor has any been heard-ot from the coast Dr. Gould's shell may ha?e been SemeU 
pulchra^ which was in the collection. 

78 



Digitized by KjOOQlC 



ON M0LLU8CA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 533 

flm. f^ No. 

2L laOia teabra, Old. [non Nutt ; Rve. : k spectrum, Nutt; Eve.] San 
Francisco. 

22. ZoUiapatmajEaeh. San Pedro. 

23. Sewria palkda, Qmyf^LoUia mitra, Brod. [= Scurria mitra, 

£8ch.;sX. conica,Qld,f anted.'} San Pedro. 

24. CahptrtBa hiajpidoy Brod. 1= CrucibtUum spinosmnf Sby.] San 

Pedro; San Diego. 

25. Crmdula ineurvajBroA,* San Pedro. 
2a BuOa nebuloM, Gld. San Diego. 

27. BuHa {Haminea) vireseens, Sby. San Diego. 
XL 29. 28. Bulla (Haminea) veiicula, Gld., n.8. Prel. Rep. 1866. [P. Z. 8. 

1866, p. 203.1 San Diego. Blake. 
XL 27,2a 29. Bulla (famatma) mcMfta, Gld., n.8. PreL Rep. 1866. S. Diego. 
[P. Z. S. 1866; p. 203. Appears to be a Utriculus,] 
SO. Troehus fMutus, Jonas l^ CMorostama funebrale, A. Ad.,smiir- 
ffinatum, Nutt Jonas's species is S. American.] San Diego. 
XL 26,26. 81. Fhasianella ewnpta, Gld., n.8. Prel. Rep. 1865. \2.Z. S. 1856, 
p. 204.] San Diego, Wehh^ Blake, 

82. latorma, sp. ind. [yar. plena, Gld.] San Diego, 

83. MelampuSf sp. inol [oUvaceu», Cpr. j San Diego. 

84. Olkabi^icata,^\ij. San Pedro. 

XL 23,24. 86. i\)tomwoNAi^,Gld.,n.8. Piel. Rep. 1866. [^ Centhidea fw- 
eata, Gld., n.8. P. Z. S. 1866, p^206. = C. saerata, var., teste 
Nuttall, Cooper.] San Diego, Webb, Blake. 

XL 6-9. 36. Ammcolaprotea, Gld., n.8. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., March 1866. 
Coloraoo Desert (Gran Jornada), Webb, Blake. 

XL 10, IL 37. Anmieola longmmta. Old., n.8. Proc Bost. Soc. N. H., March 
1866. Colorado Desert (Cienaga Grande), Blake. 

XL 12-ia 3a PUmorbis ammm, Gld., n.8. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Feb. [Otia, 
Mar. in tezfj 1866. A yery^ yariable species. Colorado Desert 

^ and Ocoya Creek, Webb, Blake. 

XL 1-5. 39. Fhyaa humeroaa, Gld., n.s. Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Feb. 1866. 
Colorado Desert, Blake ; Pecos Riyer, Webb. 

40. Sucemea, sp. ind. Ocoya Creek. 

41. Selix Vancauverensia, Lea. San Francisco. 

42. Hielix San-ZHeffoensis, Lea. Point Rejes. [No such species, 

teste Binney.] 
48. miix Mumata, Gld. [Otia, p. 216J Point Reyes. 
44. Helix OreyonentU, Lea. Cypress Point 

99. The fossils of the various Western expeditions were being arranged in 
I860 in the Smithsonian Museum by Prof. J. 8. Newberry, M.D., a natu- 
rsHst of rare experience and accomplishments, and author of '' Reports on 
tiie Geology, Botany, and Zoology of Northern California and Oregon." Wash- 
ington, 1857. They are emb^ed in vol. vi. of the ' Pacific Railroad Re- 
ports.' The following is a list of the fossils, which were described by 
Mr. Conrad in pp. 69-73, having first appeared in the Proceedings of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Dec. 1856, to which page-refer- 
ences are added. 

Dr. Newberry^ Califomian Fossils. 
hse. Pbfte. Kg. 
09. IL L Sehixopyaa CaUfomiana, Conr., Phil. Proc. Dec. 1856, p. 815. 

[Paitaking of the characters of CanceUaria and PyramideUa,\ 

Santa Clara, CaL 
V n 2. Cryptomya waUs, Conr., p. 314. [Closely approaching the recent 

species, C. CaUfomica.'] Monterey Co. 
s ,, 3. Th-acia maetropsis, Cora., p. 313. Monterey Co. 

* The Crtpidmla retnrnad in this collection were admnca and tmyoea, var* 

79 



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59* EEPOftT— 18C3. 

Page. Pkte. Fif. 

70. IL 4. My a M<mUreyana, Coia,,^, 813. [Figare jesembles PerijH<mM 

argentaria,'] Monterey Co. 
jy I, 6. ?Mya subsinuaUiyCanr. [Comp. Jl/ocoma ftrt^nmo^l Monterey Co. 

„ ^ 6, Arcopagia mediaUs, Conr., p. 314. Like A, bipkcatOy Com*., of 

the Maryland Miocene. [Closely reaembles Lumoola aUa, Conr.] 

Monterey Co. 
„ ff 7. Tapes Unteaiuniy Conr., p. 314. Cfljifomia. 
;; ff 6. Area eanaUiy Conr., p. 814. Santa Barbara. 
„ „ ^, Area trUineata, Conr., p. 314 Santa Barbaia. 

„ ^y 10. Area eongntaj Conr., n. 314. California. 

71. m. 11. AxifuBaJBarharetuUyCoxa, [Closely reaemUejB P^^. ^f^crvTvcyfrtM.l 
,f „ 12. Mulmia denuUa, Conr., p. 313. P'Santa Barbara and shores of 

Pablo Bay. 
y, I>osinial(mgula,Conr.yja.9X^. Monterey. 

„ „ 13. Dasmia aUay Conr., p. 315. Monterey. 
M ^ 14 PecteH PabhensU, Conr. San Pablo fiaji 
„ „ 16. PoOtim -Brfrefitmuin, Conr., B. 313. EstreDa Vrfley, 
„ „ Id. Janira beUa, Conr., p. 312. panta Barbara. 

^^ y. 17a. } ^^•^'^ ^*^' ^®°'-' ^^ ^^'^' ^^^ ^"* ^'^ Obispo. 

73. y. 25. JREmdbra hUiratay Coim, p. 267. [Closely resembles .Emn^rlki 

hioarinataJ] Santa Baroaitu 
„ „ 24 Card^occfaen<aiM,Conr.,1856,p.2e7. [?■= C. twf^ricow, Old.} 

Santa Barbara. 
„ ,, 23. Diadora cn4cilniUfarmiSy Conr., 1856, p. 267. {f^ISmetw-^lm 
eueuBata, Old.] Santa Barbara. 

Fossils of Qatun^ Isthmus of Darien* 

72. y. 22. Malea ringens, Swains. Oatun. 

19. Tttrritella aUtUrOf Conr. Gatun. 

20. TurriteUa Gatunensisj Comr. Gatiuu 
20. Triton, sp. ind. Qatun. 
2L ?Ciftherea Darienaj Conr. [The figure does not appear conspe* 

cific with that in the Blake collection, no. 50.] Galun. 

The northern fossils are supposed by Mr. Conrad to be of the Miocene period, 
anH not to be referable to existing species. Those from Sta. Barbara, however, 
are clearly of a very recent age, and probably belong to the beds searched by 
Col. Jewett. But by fax the most interesting result of Dr. Newberry's ex- 
plorations was the discovery of the very typical Pacific shell, Malea ringens^ 
m the Tertiary strata on the Atlantic slope of the Isthmus of Daijlen, not 
many miles from the Caribbean Sea. The characters of this shell beiug such 
as to be easily recognized, and not even the genus appearing in the Atlantic, 
it is Mr to conclude that it had migrated from its head waters ip the Pacific 
during a period when the oceans were connected. We have a right, there- 
fore, to infer that during the lifetime of existing spedcs there va9 a period 
when the present separation between the two oceans did not exist. We 
mav conclude that species as old in creation as Malta ringens may be found 
still living in each ocean ; and there is, therefore, no necessity for creating 
" representative species," simply because, according to the present configu- 
ration of our oceans, we do not see how the molluscs could have travelled to 
unexpected grounds. 

100. In voL vii. of the Pacific Bailroad Reports, part 2, is the Geological 
Beport, presented to the Hon. Jefferson Davis, then Secretary of War, by 
Thos. Antisell, M.D. He states reasons for beUeving that during the Eocene 
period the Sierra Nevada only existed as a group of islands ; that ita final 
upHfting was after the Miocene joeriod ; and that during the wh<de of that 

80 



ff 


99 


ff 


99 


99 


99 


99 


99 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON MOLLUSCA 07 THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 59^ 

period the coast-range was entirelj under water. The Miocene beds an 
aboTe 2000 feet in thickness, and abound in fossils generally distinct from 
those of the eastern strata. There is nothing in Calilbmia answering to the 
Northern Drift of the countries bordering on the Atlantic. The molluscs of 
Dr. Antisell's Survey were described by Mr. Conrad, pp. 189-196. He 
remarics that ** the fossils of the Estrella Valley and Sta. Hes Mountains are 
qmte distinct from those of the Sta. Barbara beds, and bear a strong resem- 
blance to the existing Pacific fauna. The Miocene period is noted, both in 
tue eastern and western beds, for the extraordinary development of Pectin 
nidm, both in number, in size, and in the exemplification of typical ideas.'' 
It also appears to be peculiarly rich in Arcadas, which are now almost 
banished from that region, while they flourish farther south. The large 
Amusiwn eaurinum and the delicate Pecten hastahts of the Vancouver district, 
as well as tiie remarkable Janira dentata of the Gulf, may be regarded as a 
legacy to existing seas from the Miocene idea; otiierwise the very few 
Pectinids which occur in collections along the whole West Coast of North 
Ainerica is a fact worthy of note. Mr. Conrad has '* no doubt but that the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans were connected at the Eocene period;" and the 
fossils here described afford strong evidence that the connexion existed during 
the Miocene epoch. All the species here enumerated (except Pecten deserti 
and " Anomia subcostata '') were believed to be distinct irom those collected 
by the preceding naturalists. 

Dr. AntiselTs Califomian Fossils. 

MumUes erassa, Conr. \?^H, giganUOj Gray.] Sta. Mar-, 

garita. 
Pecten Meekn, Conr. San Raphael Hills. 
Pecten desertiy Conr. Blake*8 Col., p. 15. Corrizo Creek. 
Pecten dieeus, Conr. Near Sta. Inez. 

Pecten magnoUa, Conr. [Probably » P. JeffersoniuSf Say, Vir- 
ginia.] Near Sta. Inez. 
Pecten altipiicatuSf Conr. San Raphael Hills. 
Pallium EstreUanumf Conr. [Jamra.'] Estrella. 
SpondyUu EdrellanuSj Conr. i? Janira,'} Estrella. 
Tapes montana, Conr. San Bnenaventura. 
T(^9es InesensiSf Conr. Sta. Inez. 
Vettus Piffaroana, Conr. Pajaro River. 
Arcopagia unda, Conr. Shore of Sta. Barbara and Estrella, 

[Closely resembles A, hipUcata ; P s Lutricola alta,] 
Cydas permacra, Conr. Sierra Monica. Resembles C pan^ 

duta, Com. fSaLucina compre sa, Lea. 
tyeku EstreUimay Conr. Estrella. 
Area ObispoanOf Conr. San Luis Obispo. 
Pa^hf/ff^^^ma Inezana, Conr. [Like P, erassateUoides,'] Sta» 

liiezMts. 
Craesateiui coHinay Conr. Sta. I&ez Mts. 
Ostrea subfecta, Conr. '' May be the young of O. Pamana,** 

Sierra Monica. 
Osirea Panzana, Conr. Panza, Estrella, and Gaviote Pass. 
Dasmia alta, Conr. Salinas River. 
Dosinia Umgtda, Conr. Salinas River. 
Dosinia montana^ Conr. Salinas River. 
Dosinia suboblimta, Conr. Salinas River. Also a small VenttSf 

a Natica, and a Pecten, 
Mytilus InezauiSf Conr. Sta. Inez. 
Lutraria transmontana, Conr. Allied to X. pnpyria, Conr. 

Los Angeles j also San Luis. 
81 



^. 


Pbte. 
n. 


FSf. 




[Lerr.typ.] 


n 


L 


L 


n 

n 


m. 


1. 


19L 


L 


2. 


9 


m. 


2. 


n 


in. 


3,4. 


ik 


L 
V. 


3. 
8,6. 


JV 


VH. 


1. 


n 


IV. 


1,2. 


n 


IV. 


3,4. 


V 


VIL 


4 


n 


VL 


6. 


n 


V. 


1. 


M 


V. 


2,4. 


n 


VL 


1,2. 


n 


n. 


3. 


t» 


n. 


4 




VIL 


2. 


lUi 


VI. 


4 


» 


VL 


6. 


H 


vm. 


2,3. 


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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



6SG EKPORT— 1863. 

Pf^e. Plate. Fif. 

l&li VI. 3. Axinea BarbarensUf Com, Los Angeles. [?=itntei'mediti*.l 
ff VIL 3. P Mactra Gabiotewfis, Conr. Gaviote Pass. May be a Sch^ 
zodesma. Associated with Mytilus sp. and InfundibuiuK 
OahiotensiB, 
„ Vn. 6. Glycitnei^ Estrellanus, Conr. Panza and Estrella Valleys 

Allied to Panopaa re/lexa, Say. {? = P. j/enerosa, Gld. j 
105. Pemamontanaj Com, 8. Buenaventura. Allied to P. i/ia^t/2ato 

„ vn. 8. Trochita costellata, Conr. Gaviote Pass. 
„ VIII. 4. TurriteUa Inezanaj Conr. Sta. Inez Mts. 
„ VIIL 6. TurriteUa vanata, Conr. Sta. Inez Mts. 
,. X. 6, 6. Natica Inezanay Conr. \?Lunatia Leioisii,'] Sta. Inez Mts. 

AS before, the fossils appear to be in very bad condition. The succeeding 
palaeontologists who have to identify from them are not to be envied. Theii 
principal value is to show what remains in store for future explorers. The 
extreme beauty of preservation in the fossils collected by CoL Jewett, rivalling 
those of the Paris Basin, and sometimes surpassing the conspeoiiic living 
sheUs, makes us astonished that so large a staff of eminent men, employed 
by the Government, made such poor instalments of contribution to malacolo- 
gical science. The plan, too often followed, of remunerating naturalists, not 
according to the skilled labour they bestow, but according to the number ot 
" new species " they describe, b greatly to be deprecated. Further knowledge 
concerning the old species may be more important in scientific inquiries than 
the saere naming of new forms. It is generally a much harder task to per- 
form, and, therefore, more deserving of substantial as well as of honourable 
acknowledgment. 

101. The shells collected on the North Pacific Raiboad Survey were in- 
trusted to W. Cooper, Esq., of Hoboken, New Jersey, for description : Br. 
Gould being occupied with preparing the diagnoses of the N. Pacific E. E. 
species. Judge Cooper was at that time the only naturalist in America known 
to be actively c :igaged in studying the marine shells of the West Coast, of 
which he has a remarkably valuable collection. He had rendered very valu- 
able service to the Smithsonian Institution by naming their specimens. Un- 
fortunately, there is such great difficulty even in New York city (of which 
Hoboken is a suburb) in obtaining access to typically named shells, as well as 
to many necessary books *, that, notwithstanding the greatest care, errors of 
determination are almost sure to arise. 

The " Beport upon the Mollusca collected on the Survey, by Wm. Cooper,'* 
forms No. 6 of the Appendix, pp. 369-386, and errata, (Unfortunately the 

* Both Jadge Cooper and Dr. Lea informed me (1860) that they had not been able 
even to see a copy of the plates to the U. S. £xpl. Lxped. Mollusca. Through special 
favour, I was enabled to obtain a series of the proofs to work by. The Smithsonian 
iDstitutioD, though intrusted with the keeping of the collectioos, was not favoured 
with a copy until after the war began, when the whole series was granted by Cougresa. 
Judge Cooper had derived great assistance from the British Association Report^ and 
has communicated many corrections iu it. In the alterations of synonymy, and in 
defining the limits of specific variation, I have had the benefit of his counsel and ex- 
perience; and have rarely felt compelled to differ from him. £aving himself collected 
extensively in the West Indies, he had excellent opportunities of comparing fresh 
specimens from the now separated oceans. I was fortunate enough to meet his sod. 
Dr. J. G. Cooper, at the Smithsonian Institution, and to examine the types of the 
species he collected (which are here enumerated) with the. advantage of his memory 
and knowledge. His later contributions to the malacology of W. America will be 
afterwards enumerated : his valuable Treatise on the Forests and Trees of North 
America will be found in the Smithsonian R^orts, 1858, pp. 246-280. 

82 



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ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. '597 

work had been carelessly printed.) It contains the following species, the 
localities quoted in the text from other sources being here omitted : — 

3$. Mwrtx foUatuSy GmeL^silf. monodon, Each. (Cerostoma). San Diego, ? fossil, 



^ Mwex festtvuSf Hds. Dead. San DiegO; Camdy, 

„ Triton Oregonensis, Redfield (non Jay, nee Say) ae T. cancellatitmj Midd., 

Rto., non Lam. Straits of De Fuca, Sttckley, Gibhs, J. G. Cooper. 
STQl ChvBodomus antiquus, var. Beknngianay Midd., one specunen. Straits of De 
Fuca, Suekley. [Comp. Chr, uAulatus,] 

f, Ckry$odomu8 MiMendorMi, Coon., n. B,f^Tritonivm decemcostatum, Midd« 
Oiie specimen on the shore of Whidbjj's Island. Straits of De Fuca, /. O. 
Cocper, [s^iie. Urcdlum, Mart This being a remarkable instance of a 
"representative species," it requires to be minutely criticized. Judge 
Cooper compared nis specimen with 130 eastern shells, and noted the differ- 
ences with great fulness and accuracy. A series of MiddendorlT s Pacific 
dieUs having been brought to England 1)y Mr. Damon, and sold at high 
prices, I made a searchmg comparison of one of them with the eastern 
specimens furnished me by Judge Cooper and other most trusty naturalists. 
According to the diagnosis of middendorffiiy it should be referred to C. de- 
cemcostatu8y Say, and not to the De Fuca* species, as it agrees in all respects 
with the eastern peculiarities quoted, except that the riblets near the canal 
are rather more numerous and defined. As it might be suspected that 
Mr. Damon's shells were mixed, I have made a similar comparison with a 
shell from theN. W. coast, sent to the Smiths. Inst, by Mr. Pease, and with 
the same resuh. On examining the specimens in the Cimiingian Collection, 
in company with A. Adams, Esq., we were both convinced that the eastern 
and western forms could not be separated. In the similar shells collected 
by Mr. Adams in the Japan seas there are remarkable variations in the de- 
tails of sculpture.] 
WL C%n/9odotntu Sitck^gisy Midd. [=tnct«», Gld.,=<;Kn«, Rve.]. Str. De Fuca, 
Suckiey, Qibbs. 

„ Nana mendica, Gld. Puget Sound, Suekley, 

If Nana OMm, Coop., n. s. " Resembles N. trimttata more than N, mendicaJ'* 
Port Townsend, Puget Sound. [In a large series, neither Dr. Stimpson nor 
I were able to separate t'^is species from iV. mefidica. Similar variations 
are common in British Nass€B, Picked individuals from the Neeah Bay 
series would probably be named triviitata. if mixed with eastern shells.] 

9 Purpura laetucay Esch.,+ '^•/mi^,$^t>i«u«,Escn., s P. septentrionaUs^ Eve. Puget 
Sound, Suektey, GMs; Shoalwater Bay, Str. de Fuca, /. G. Cooper, 
''Abounds on rocks and oyster-beds in Shoalwater Bay, the form and 
amount of rugosity depending on station. The oyster-eaters are smooth 
even when young. — J,G. C, 
372. Purpura ostrma, Gld.,=P. Freycinetiiy Midd., non Desh. -fP. deceincostata 
[Coop., non] Midd. Rocks above low-watw mark ; from mouth of Hood's 
Canal to Str. Fuca ; Puget Sound, common, J. G, Cooper, 

n Pwrpwra kqnUus [Cooia-y non] linn. [=P. »aictco/o, Val.] Str. De Fuca, 
Puget Sound, •TTG'. Vooper, "Found with P. ostnnay and eq^ually common." 
[Some varieties run into the New England form of P. lapiUuSf sulHcientlv 
nearly to justify the identification ; but the bulk of the specimens are easily 
diidnguisned by the excavated columella. They pass by insensible grada- 
tions to P. osirtna, Gld-, which is a rare and extreme vanety. Many of the 
shells caDed P. Freyemetii by Midd. are certainly referable to this species. 
Some forms pass towards the true P. Freycinetli^ Desh., while others are 
equally dose to the very difterent P. emarginatay Desh.] 

9 Punwra emaramatay Desh., = P. Conradi, Nutt MS. "Upper California,'* 
Tratk-y San Diego, Trowbridge. [This appears to be exclusively a southern 
form s taxieolay var.] 

M Monoeeros engonatumy C(mr,y^M, wiiearinatwny Shy. San Pedro, Dr. Dank. 
S78. Monoceros U^iUoides, Caja,,mM, pwictatum, Gray. * San Pcdio, Dr, Troth. 

83 



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598 • KEPORT— 18C3. 

PNre. 

3/3. ColumheUa gausapata, Old. Str. de Fuca, Suckley, 
„ ColumbeUa valga [Cooper, non] Gld. [^^Buccmum corrugatum. Rye.] 8t?. 

de Fuca, Suckley, 
n Natica Lewmi, Q\d.,^N, heretdea, Midd. Puget Sound, J. O, Cooper ^ Such' 
ley, '^ Shell sometimes remarkably globose, nometimes with spire much 

I produced." W, C, ''Abundant throughout the N.W. sounds, and col- 
ected in great numbers by the Indians for food. In summer it cray^ls 

above high-water mark to deposit its eggs " in the well-known sand-coils, 

which are '' beautifully synmietrical, smooth, and perfect on both sides."— 

J. G, C. 
„ PotamU jmUatuSy Gld. A Tariable species. U. Cal., Troik, 
874. Melania plicifera, Lea. Very common in rivers, W. T., J, O, Cooptr, 
„ MeUtnia gilicuki, Gld. [as one of the many vars. of M. pUcifera, teste Lea]. 

In rivers, W. T., Nisqually and Oregon, /. O, Cooper. 
„ Mefama Shortaensis, Lea, MS. [sMo^to^yMM, Lea]. Willopah River, J, O. 

Cooper. 
„ Amnicola NuUalliana, Lea, PhiL Trans, pi. 26. f. 89. Columbia River, /. O. 

Cooper, 
f, Amnicola $emmalUy Hds. U. CaL, Trask, [Belongs to Dr. StimpsOn's new 

genus, Flumtnicola.'] 
yj Turritella EaehrichUi, Midd. [taBittium JUosum, Old.]. Puget Sound, Suck^ 

letfyGMa. 
„ '^Lttorina rudii, Gld., Stn." [Cooper, non Monti. Shoalwater Bay, De 

Fuca, J. O, Cooper, Suckley, GMb. " Very abundant on the N.W. coast, 

where it presents the same varied appearances as our eastern shell" — W. C, 

[To an English eye, it appears quite distinct L. rudie, Coop., with ni6- 

tenebrosa, Midd., and moaesia, Phil., are probably vara, of L, SUkana, PhiL, 

=X. wlcata, Gld.l 
„ LUorina tcutuUOa, Gld. On rocks, from the head of Puget Sound to De Fuca, 

J. G, Cooper, 
„ lAtorina pUmaxiSy Nutt [ssZ. paiula, Gld.]. San Luis Obispo, Dr. AntisdL 
375. 2Vochu8 JUosus, Wood,= T. Ugatus, Gld.,= r. modestus, Midd. Str. de Fuca, 

/. G, Cooper; U. Cal., Trask. [^T. costatus, Mart.] 
„ Irochus Schantaricus [Coop., nonj Midd. [ssMarg. puptUa^ Gld.,s:itfl eo/o- 

gtoma, A. Ad.l Str. de Fuca, J. G. Co€per, abundant. 
„ Hdiotis Kamtschatkanay Jonas. Nootka Sound, CapL Busaell, teste Trask; 
„ HaKoUs corrugata, San Diego, Cassidy. 
„ Haliotis splendens, San Diego, Castidy, 
„ Haliotis rufeiceru, San Diego, Camdy, 

„ Haliotis CracherodU. (None of the rare var. CaHfomientu.) S. Diego, Cassidy. 
„ FisstireVu nigropunctataf Sby. Two specimens sent by Dr. Trask as coming 

from Catauna Is., U. CaL [Pimportedl 
„ Fimtrelia aspera, Esch.,?=crerttYfa, Gla., ? ^densiclathrata^ Rve. [^^Lincolm^ 

Gray. This is certainly Gould's species from type ; but Reeve's shell is 

southern, and appears distinct] U. Cal., Lieut, Trowbridge, 
S7^. Nacella instabUis, ' 
„ Aenu9a peUa. 
„ Acmtea persona, 
„ AcftKea spec^rttnu 
„ Acmtea seabra. 
„ Acmesa teruginosa, 
„ Settrria mitra, 

„ CTiiton muscosus, J Still fewer materials, among which the quoted species 
„ Chiton submarmoreus. I were identified. [The *^ submartnoreusy^ both of 
„ Oiiton tunicatus, f Midd. and Coop., may prove to be Tonicia lineata, 
„ Chiton ligwmts. ) yar.] Chiefly from Oreffon. 

„ HeUx metis, Qn,j,^NuUalliana, Lea. Forests W. of Cascade Moontaiii. 

W. T., J. G, Cooper. ^ 

I, MeUx lonmsendiana^ Lea. " Common in open prairies near the aea, but not 

near Puget Sound," W. T., J. G, Cooper. 

84 



The few shdls collected of this family are mostly imper- 
fect, but appear to belong to the species quoted : for 
the synonjrm^ of which, reference is made to the Bri- 
tish Association Report. 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THB WEST COAST 4>F NORTH AMERICA. 599 

S7a ITtUx Cobtmbutna, Lea, as Jo^'osa, GlcL ^ In wet meadows from VancouTer 

to the coast, not near Pufl[et Sound," W. T., J. G, Cooper. 
S77. HtUx Vaneowerensis, LeaT-f wor^, Gld., teste Bland], "West of Cas- 
cade Mountain: most abunaant under alder-groves: also on Whidby's 
Idand," W. T., J, G, Cooper. 

„ HeUr devia. Old. ^ssBa^kervUlei, Pfir. Two sp. in damp woods, near Van- 
couver, W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

n Eeliz twHailaia, Binn. Bare, with the last, Vancouver j also Washington 
Tenitorv, /. G. Cooper. 

„ Suecmea JiuUalUtma, Lea. Rare and dead, at Vancouver, J. G. Cooper. 

jf Umax ColunddanuSf Gld. " Abundant in dense, damp spruce-forests, near 
Pacific coast; grows to 6 inches, and is smooth, not rugose, when living," 
/. G. Cooper. 
878. lAmntea umhroea, Gld. Lake Oyosa, Okanagan River, J. G. Cooper, 

jy Limruea emargnudaj Say. Lake' Oyosa, Okanagan River. J. G. Cooper. 

„ Limnaajuffularts, Say. Lake Oyosa, Okanagan River, J. G. Cooper, 

Physa eUmgaiay Say. Near Puget Sound, /. G. Cooper. 

ff JPhysa hel&roetrophMy Say. Ponds in W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

„ Fkysa huOatay Gld- MS. Lake Ovosa, W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

„ Anictflm eaurinfie, Coop., ?n.s. KP=^. NuUaUi, Hald.,^' Coop. MS.] Black 
River, near Puget Sound, /. &. Cooper, 

f, Flanorbis eorpulerUuSy Say. Lake Ovosa, W. T., J. G. Cooper. 

f, IHanorbii trtvohis, Say. Exceedingly abundant in shallow lakes near Van- 
couver, W-T., J. G. Cooper. 

„ Flanorbis planmatuSf Coop., n. s. "A small carinated species, found only in 

lakes on Whidby's Island,*' /. G. Cooper. [Comp. P. opercularis, Gld.J 
379. Bulla nehulosa, Gld. Bav of S. Pedro, IVask. 

„ Bulla teneUa, A. Ad., in Shy. Thes. pi. 134. 1 104 [P]. Puget Sound, one sp., 
Suckley. [? s Haminea hydatie.'] 

ff Ostrea edulis, Coop, [non Linn. :sO. ktriday Cpr.]. De Fuca and Puget 
Sound, Gibbe ; Shoalwater Bay, Cooper, ** Small in Puget Sound ; finer in 
Shoalwater Bay, which supplies S. Francisco market; large at Vancouver's 
Island ; yexy large near mouth of Hood's Canal." 

9 [Hacunlanomia macroachisma, Desh. De Fuca, GMs; Nootka Sound, Capi. 
BusadL 

ff Beden eawmue, Gld. De Fuca, Suckley. One of the specimens measures 

23 inches in circumference and 8 in. across. 
830. Peden verUricoeuSf Sby.,+^f<mu/tM, Sby. [=5 ?var. aquisulcatus, Cpr.], Upper 
Cal., Trask; San Diego, Cassidy, 

ff MyUhis edulisy Ln. Shoalwater Bay, Coof)er. '^ As abundant as in Europe 
and N. England, with the same variations, and when eaten occasionaUy 
causing urticaria." — J. G, Cooper. 

jy MytUus CaltfomtanuSf Conr. Puget Sound, Port Townsend, Suckley, CHhhs ; 
Upper Cal., Trask. One specimen is 9\ inches long. 

9 Moaiola eapax rCooper,non] Conr. \_s^M, modiohts, Ln.]. Not common. Str. 
de Fuca, Gtobs, Cooper, 

„ ModiolaflabeUata, Gld. Puget S. and Str. de Fuca, Gitibs. [silf. recea, var.] 

ff LithnphaguSj sp. ind., like /o/co^. [Probablv Adula stylma, Cpr.] Rocks 

near mouth of Umpqua River, Oregon, Dr. voUum, 
88L Area yrandis, Coop, [non Brod. and Sby.,s A. mtdUcostata, Sby.]. One sp. 
living. San Diego, Cassidy. 

9 Margaritana nutrgaHtiJeraj hesiy^ Alasmodonta falc€ftay Gld. River Chehalis, 
Ac, W. T., Cooper; Shasta River, Or., Trask. After careful comparison 
with eastern U. S. specimens, and those from Newfoundland and Europe, 
Judge Cooper agrees with Dr. Lea that the N.W. shells are at most a slight 
variety. '* The most abundant of the freshwater bivalves, and the only one 
vet found in the Chehalis, the streams running into Puget Sound, and most 
Wnches of the Columbia. No species is found in the streams running into 
Shoalwater Bay. Eaten by the Indians E. of the Cascade Mountains," 
J. O. C. 

85 



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600 EEPOET— 1863. 

Ij^, Anodonta angtdataj Lea^-}-^. feminaUs, Gld. Plentiful in Yaldma Hirer, 
W. T., Cooper. A series of specimens of various ages leads Judge Cooper 
to endorse Dr. Lea*s opinion of the identity of the two species. 
„ Anodonta Oregonensisy Lea. Rivers of W. T., Cooper, 
„ Anodonta Wahlamatensis, Lea. Lagoons in Sacramento River, Dr. Traak. 

882. Cardittm Nattaliiy Conr. Shoalwater Bay and Puget Sound, Cooper; Saa 

Franc, Dr, Bigelowy Trask. " The most abundant clam of Shoalwater Bay, 
inhabiting san^y mud, a few inches below the surfiftce. The Indians feel 
for them with a' knife or shaip stick with great expertnesa. Li July many 
come to the surface and die, r from the sutf s heat. 
„ Cardium qtrndragenariumy Conr. One valve. San Luia Obispo, Dr, AnttuSL 
„ Ludna Califomicay Conr. San Biego, Cassidy, 
„ CgclaSf sp. ind. Whidby's Island ; pools near Steilacoom, Cooper, 
„ Venu^ staminea, Conr.,+ Venerupts J^etUiif Desh.,+ Venus rigidoj Gld. [pars], 
+ Tt;^)e$ diversGy Sby. Shoalwater Bay and Puget Sound, Cooper, Suek^ 
leg; San Francisco, Trask; San Biego, Lieut. Trowbridge. [To the 
above synonymy, by Judge Cooper, the large series of specimens in the 
Smithsonian Mus. compel an assent. He considers Tapes strammeay of 
Sby. Thes., to be a variety of V, histrianicOf but it more probably = T. 
gratOj as Br. Gould appears to have considered it, having copied Sowerby's 
error. Conrad namea it, not from the colour, as was supposed when quoting 
it as " stramineaf* but fi^m the thread-like sculpture (teste Conr. ips.). 
Whatever be the form, colour, or sculpture of the shell, Judge Cooper 
remarks in all the same characters of teeth and hinge ; we may add also, of 
the pallial sinus.] 

883. Saxidomus NtittaHn [Coop., non] Conr.,+ Venertmis aiganteay Besh.,-f Vemm 

maxima, Phil. [?]. Near Copalux River, soutn of Shoalwater Bay, com- 
mon at Puget Soimd, Cooper ; Bodegas, Cal., Trask. " Much superior to 
the Atlantic quahog as food, but called by the same name. Its station is in 
somewhat hard sand, near L-w. mark,"/ G. C, [Judge Cooper regards all 
the Saxidomi of the coast, except S, aratus, aa one species. The southern 
form, " with rough concentric striae and brown disc, is Conrad's species ; 
*' others from Oregon are much smoother, without regular striae." Thede are 
8. sqtioUdus, Besh. Br. Cooper found " a fossil variety, in coast-banks 10 
feet above sea-level, which is well figured in Midd. and (leas distinctly) by 
Besh. A Califomian specimen measures 4*8 in. across. " The fossils, through 
disintegration, often assume the aspect of Vemis Kennerleyi, the former 
margins remaining as varical ridges, while the softer interstices have 



- Venus lameUi/eray Conr.,= Venert^ Cordieri, Besh. San Biego, Cassidy, 

884. Lutraria maximay Midd., =X. capax, Gld. [^ Schizotharus NuUaUi, Conr.] 

Shoalwater Bay, Cooper. San Francisco, Trask. " Lives buried nearly 2 feet 
in hard sand, near 1. w. mark, its long siphons reaching the surface; also in 
many parts of Puget Sound up to near Olympia. It is excellent food, and 
a chief article of winter stores to the Indians, who string and smoke them 
in their lodges. Length, 7f in. The burrows are found in Uie cliffs, 10 feet 
above high water, with all the other Mollusca now living ; and two, not 
now found, were then common [viz. P. . .]. The Indians have no tradition 
as to the elevation, and the ancient trees show no signs of the irregular 
upheavings which raised the former levels of low water, by successive 
stages, to a height now nearly 100 feet," /. G, C 

^ TeUina nasuta, Conr. Common, from L. CaL to the Arctic Seas. Shoal- 
water Bay, Co&per; Puget Sound, Suckiev: San Francisco, Trask. 

„ TeUina edentula [(^r.. Coop., not Brod. and Sby.,=3facom« sedoy var. eduUSf 
Nutt.]. Puget Soimd, Gihbs. 

„ TeUina jBodegensis, Hds. Shoalwater Bay, rare. Cooper; mouth of Umpqua 
River, VoUum. 

885. Sanguinolaria Califomiana. Conr. " Common at the mouth of the Columbia 

and other rivers, and high up salt-water creeks," Cooper. [^tiMaconus 
inconspicua, Brod. and Sby.] 

86 



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ON HOLLVSCA 07 THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 6C1 

88u. Solen necarim, Old. One dead shell, neai Steilacoom, Puget Sound, Ox^per. 
*^ Probably abundant on the mud-flats near the mouth of the Nisqually 
River," J, O. C. 

P Maehara patulOf Portl. and Dix. (Coop, errata; NuUaUi in text), ^Solm 
maximusj Wood, non Ch^mxLf^SolecurtuB NidtaUiij Govx.y^ Machasra coe-' 
tata, Midd,, non Say. Washington Ter., Cooper, ^ " Burrows a few inches 
from the surface, at the edge of the usual low tide ; is justly considered 
(except the oyster) the best of the many fine eatable molluscs of the coast. 
It is tne only truly marine mollusc found near the Columbia Riyer ; extends 
northwards wherever the beach is sandy, but not known in the Straits of 
de Fuca/' /. G. C, 

ff Mya eaneeikUa, (IHatt/odm), C<mr. Dead valves, St Luis Obispo, Dr, 
ArUuelL 

„ l^fugma Califomica, (Cryptomya), Conr. San Francisco, Trask. 
886. Mytilimeiia Nuttalliy Conr. A group, nestling in a white, ^able, arenaceous 
substance, was obtained at San Diego by Lieui. Trowbridge. 

9 Fholae \Pholadided] penita^ Conr., =P. concameratay Desh. From worn rook 
which drifted into Shoalwater Bay, attached to the roots of Macrocystis^ 
the giant seaweed. Cooper; De Fuca, Suckky; mouth of Umpqua River, 
Oregon, Dr. VoUum, 

The above list must be considered as a rSsumi, not merely of the shells of the 
K. P. Railroad Survey, but also of all those examined by Judge Cooper, from 
the Smithsonian Museum and from his own private collection. It is pecu- 
liarly valuable as preserving the notes concerning station, &c., of the original 
explorers, and has therefore required a more lengthened analysis. 

The land-shells collected by Dr. Newberry in the Pacific Railroad Survey were 
described by W. G. Binney, Esq., with his accustomed accuracy. His pa])er 
will be found in the Reports, vol. vi. pp. 111-114. The following are the 
only species enumerated : — 

1. HeUx fidtlisj Gray, Chem., Pfr., Rve.,^-^ KuttaBiana, Lea, Binney, sen., De 

Kay. Portland, Oregon, Netoberry, Local. 

2. HeUx Mumatay Gld., Proc Bost N. H. S., Feb. 1855, p. 127. Hills near 

San Irancisco, Neurberry. Extremely rare. 
S. HeUx antginosa, Gld., var. jS. loc, cU. North of San Francisco, Newberry. 

Rare. 
1 HeHx Dupetithouarsiy jun., Desh., Chem., Pfr., Rve.,^-^. OregonensUj Lea, 

Pfr. San Francisco, Benicia, Cal. j E^amath Lake, Oregon; Newberry, " One 

of the conmionest and most widely distributed species of the Pacific region." 
102. The U. S. Government also sent out a " North-west Boundary Com- 
mission," in charge of Archibald Campbell, Esq. The natural-history 
arrangements were superintended by the Smithsonian Inst., and Dr. C. B. R. 
Kennerly was appointed naturalist to the Expedition. At his request, I 
undertook to prepare a Report of the Mollusca, to be published and illustrated 
in a form corresponding to the Pacific Railroad Reports; Dr. Alcock kindly 
undertaking to dissect the animals, and Mr. Busk to examine the Polyzoa. 
Dr. Kennerly died on his return from a three years' exploration ; and the 
civil war has thus far delayed any further publication. The materials have, 
however, been thoroughly investigated. They consist principally of dredg- 
ings in Puget Sound. On reference to tl^e maps published by the U. S. 
Coast Survey, it will be seen that this inland sea consists of a remarkable 
labyrinth of waters, fiord within fiord, and only indirectly connected with 
^6 currents of the Pacific Ocean. It might therefore be expected to furnish 
US with the species of quiet migration, and perhaps with those still living 
from a period of previous altered conditions. No doubt it will furnish new 
nateriab to reward the labours of many successsive naturalists. The pre- 

87 



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602 REPORT— 1863. 

maturely closed inyestigations of Pr. Eennerlej are only the beginning of s 
rich harvest. Dr. George Suckley, late assistant-surgeon of the U. S. army, 
was appointed to complete the natural-history work, after his lamented 
death. A complete list of the species collected will be found in the fifth column 
of the YancouYer and Califomian table, v, infrd, par. 112. The particulars 
of station, &c., and all the knowledg^e which the laborious explorer had col- 
lected, are lost to science. It is quite possible that some of the species here 
accredited to Puget Sound were obtained in neighbouring localities in tho 
Straits of De Fuca. The specimens are in beautifully fresh condition, and 
of most of them the animals were preserved in alcohol. The following are the 
shells first brought from the Vancouver district by the American N. W. 
Boundary Commission, the diagnoses of new species being (according to 
custom) first published in the Proceedings of the Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia. 

1. Zirphaa crigpata. Two living specimens of this veiy characteristic Atlantic spb 

2. Saxicaca phoiadU. Several living specimens. 

3. Spihcmia avoidea^ n. s. One sp. living. 

4. Cryptomya CaUfomica. Several livmg sp. 
6. Thracia curta. One specimen. 

6. MytUimeria NuttaUii. Three sp. living at base of test of Aseidian. [The animal 

appeared too peculiar to venture on a dissection. It has been entrusted to 
I/r. Alcock, of the Manchester Museum.} 

7. Netera pectinata, n. s. One sp. living. 

8. Kennerlia^filoaa, n. s. and n. subg. Several living specimens. 

9. I^mmolna rubroradiata. One fresh specimen of uniform tint 

10. Macoma (? v.) expansa. Adult broken ; young living. Belongs to a group of 

forms classed together by some writers under lata or proximay but the cna- 
racters of the hinge and mantle-bend have not yet been sufficiently studied. 

11. Macoma yMiformiSy n. s. One valve. 

12. Angtdus modestus, n. s.^ but closely allied to the eastern A. tener, Say. Two 

sp. living. 
126. Angulus (fmodesiuSy var.) dUvms, Several fresh snecimens. 

13. Clementia aubdtaphanay n. s. Very rare, living, intermediate between C2a- 

mentia proper and the prora croup of thin CaiUsta. 

14. PiMpki» Lordly Baird. Several living sp. from which the subg. was eliminated. 

15. VenuM Kermerlyiy Rve. Very rare. One sp. living. Some of the shells called 

V. agtartoides by Midd. may be the youi^ of this. 

16. PetiHcola cardUoides. Several fresh specimens. 

17. Astarte (P var.) compacta. One sp. living ; may hereafter be connected with A. 

eompres9a, 

18. Serripes Grcenlandicus, Several young living specimens. 

19. Lucina teftuiscu^itay n. s. Two living specimens^ of which one had the sur&ce 

disintegrated. 

20. Oiyntodon serricaiui, JL B, One living sp. 

21. KelUa Lapet'omii. A few living specimens. 

22. Kellia mtborhicularia, A few living specimens. 

23. Latea rubra. One sp. living. 

24. Pythina rugifera, n. s. Two living sp. Intermediate between Pyikina and 

KMa. 

25. Teliimya (umida, n. s. One sp. living. 

26. Modiolaria Utmgata. Two living sp. 

27. Modiolaria marmorata. One sp.' fiving. fA shell in the U. S. R E. Col., 

though marked " Plji" in Dr. Gould^s MS. list, probably came from Puget 
Sound, being thus confirmed.) 

28. Nucula tenuis. Two sp. living*. 

29. Acila eastrensis. One sp. living. 

30. LedafotMy Baird. One normal sp. livmg. 

* These species were lindlr determined by Mr. Hanlej* 

88 



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ON MOLLUSCA 07 THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 603 

Ko. 

8L Leda minuta, Linn. One sp. living*. 

82. Yoldia lanceohUa, J. Sby. Two sp. living*. 

33. Yvldia amygdala. One sp. living*. 

84 Uaminea hydatu. Two sp. living. 

85, 36. Two species of Tectibranchiates, not yet worked-ont by Dr. Alcock* 

87. Tomatina exirmaf Baird. Abundant, living; 

88. Cylkhna (?YBr.) aUontta, One living sp. Probably a variety of cylindracuu 

89. IktUaUutn rtcUu$, n. s. Veiy rare, dead. 

10. Aeanthopfeura scahra. One voung living sp. 

41. Mcpaiia Grayii, n. s. One living sp. 

42. Mopalia Htndm. One living sp. 

43. Wu, ,m«flte n. s. Two sp. living. ) ^ ^U-marked group in the genua. 

44. Mopaka tmporcata, n. s. Two sp. living. ( iiwuitc^ ^sxvu^r u* m*« i^^um 

45. hthnoeJiUton ( Trachydermon) tt'ifidm^ n. s* One living sp. 

46. IschnochitoH (Trachydermon) JlecterUf n. s. One living sp. 

47. hchnoehiUm iTrachyderman) retiparoeua, n. ft. One living sp. 

48. Itchnockiton (LeptdopUttrus) Mertermi. Rare, living. 

49. Lepeta cacmdes, n. s. Three sn. living. 

60. CaUiotAoma vartegatumy n. s. One living sp. 

61. Margarita ? VahiiL Three sp. living, « M, pusiHa, Jeflr., teste A. Ad. 

61& Margarita (? v.) iemdseuipta. Perhaps a var. of Vahlii, but sculptured. Seyeral 
living specimens. 

62. Margarita lirulata, n. s. Several living specimens, forming a Darwinian group, 

of which var. ». gubeleoata, var. j3. obsoieta, and Pvar. y. conica might pass 
for species from single specimens. 

63. Margarita inflatay n. s. Two sp. living. 

64. Me^aUa lacteola, Pn. s. Two sp. living, but eroded. May prove a var. of 

lactea, but with di^rent sculpture. 
546. Mesalia (?lacteolay var.) mbphnata. Two sp. living, but eroded. 

65. Lacuna vinda. One fresh specimen. 

66. ^9»na camoacUiy n. s. Not uncommon, living. 

67. DrUlia ittcisa, n. s. Two fresh specimens. 

«?. DrUfia canceUata, n. s. One adolescent specimen. 

69. MangeUa levidensis, n. s. One fresh specimen. 

60. MangeUa €mguiata\. One fresh specimeii. 

6L Bda excurvatay n. s. (Like Trevelyana.) One fresh specimen* 

62. Chemnitzia (? v.) attrantiaf. One fresh specimen. 

68. Ckemmtsia torauataj; Two fresh specimens. 

64. Cheftmitzia triderUatoif. Two fresh specimens. 

65. 3dima micam, n. s. One fresh specimen. 

66. Vdtdma krvigaia. Several fine hving specimens. 

67. Ocinebra interfossa. Rare, dead. 

C8. NitidtMa Ooiudiii, Two living specimens, proving the genua. 

69. Trophan muUicostalus. Two fr^sh specimens. 

70. Ckrytodamtt* ftabtdaius, jun. One young sp. • 
n. Ckrmodomtts rectirostris, n. s. One living sp. 

72, 73. Two species of Cephalopods, not yet affiliated. 

Besides adding more than 70 marine species to the Vanconver branch of the 
Califomian fauna, from specimens in good condition, without a single bal- 
last or exotic admixture, the confirmation of many species, which before 
rested only on the uncertain testimony of the U. S. E. E. labels, and the 
affiliation of others which, on the same testimony, had been wrongly assigned 
to distant and erroneous localities, was no slight benefit to science. The 
land and freshwater species of the Expedition will be found tabulated, with 
others, in the separate lists ; par. 115. 

103. While the American naturalists were thus actively engaged in ex- 

t These species were first found by CoL Jewett at Sta. Barbara. Vide p. 537. 

89 



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604 luspORT — 18C3. 

ploring the regions south of the political boondarj, similar explorations, on 
a less extensive scale, were being made under the direction of the British 
Government. The naturalist to the British North American Boundary Com- 
mission, during the years 1858-1862, was J. K. Lord, Esq., r.Z.S. He made a 
very valuable collection of shells in Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 
the first series of which was presented to the British Museum. The new 
species were described by W. Baird*, Esq., M.D., F.L.S., in a paper com- 
municated to the Zool. Soc., and published in its ' Proceedings,' Feb. lOth, 
1863, pp. 66-70. — Another series of shells, from the same district, was pre- 
sented to the Brit. Mus. by the Lords of the Admiralty, collected by Dr. Lyall, 
of H. M. Ship * Plumper.' Two new species from this collection were describe d 
by Dr. Baird, in a separate paper, P. Z. 8., Feb. 10th, 1863, p. 71. The new 
species from Mr. Lord's collections have been drawn on stone by Sowerby, 
The figure-numbers here quoted correspond with the proof-copy kindly fur- 
nished by Dr. Baird. — A third series was collected by Dr. Forbes, R.N., in the 
same Expedition. After Mr. Cuming had made his own selections, this passed 
into the ordinary London market. It contained several species of peculiar 
interest. The following are the (supposed) new species of the Survey: — 

P.Z.S; Plate L 
Page: Na Fig. 

66 1 1. Chrysodomus iabulatu8,B9iTd. One broken specimen, EsquimaltHarb^ 

Vancouver Island, Lard, [One perfect shell, Neeah Bay, Swan,'] 
;• 2 2. VUularia aspera, Bd. Several living specimens, Esquimalt Harb., 
Vane. Island, Lord. [Belongs to a group of erooved muricoid Pur- 
purids, intermediate between BhizocheUus and Cerostomay for which 
the subgenus Ocinehra may be reconstituted. These shells are the 
rough form of Ocinehra lurida, Midd.] 

67 8 8. Chemnitzia VancouverendSj Bd. [=s torquatay Gld.]. Esouimalt Harb., 

Vane. Island, Lord. From the crop of a pintail Duck. [The 
artist has failed to represent the peculiar character of the species, 
which is, that the ribs end above the periphery, so that a smooth 
belt appears round the spire above the sutures.] 
«, 4 4. Amnicota Hindsii, Bd. Seven sp., Kiver Kootanie East; nine sp.. 
Wigwam River, west slope of Kock^ Mts., 4626 ft. high, Br. Col., 
Lord, Besembles Palttdina \^Fhmnnicoh'\8eminalUy Hds. 

• • 6 6. BvJUna {Tomatina) eximioy Bd. EsauimaltHarb., V. L, Lord. Alive 

in 12 fm. ; dead in Duck's stomach. [Not BuUma, Add. Qen.'] 

68 6. Sttccinea ffawkirmiy Bd. Six sp. Lake Osoyoos, Brit. CoL, Lord, 

7 7, lAmaMea Sumassiify Bd. Like X. elodesy Say. PlentifuL Sumass 
Prairie, Eraser R., Brit. CoL, Lard, [Extremely like L, oalustris.'] 

• • 8 . 8. Physa Lardiy Bd. Plentiful. Lake Osoyoos, British Columoia, Loi'a. 

[Larger than Ph. humeroMy Gld., and with strong columellar fold.] 

69 9*9. AnofluB Kootaniensisy Bd. Six sp., River Kootame East; five sp.. 

River Spokane, British Columbia, Lard, 

* It 18 due to the memory of Dr. Kennerlej, as well as to the other natnrah'sts con- 

nected with the yarious American surveys, and the officers of the Smiths. Inst., who so 

generously entrusted to the writer their unique specimens for comparison with the 

Xiondon museums, to state, that (with two exceptions) the new marine species of the 

British Survey would have been published long before the appearance of Dr. Baird's 

paper, but for the derangement of the IT. S. natural-history publications, consequent on 

the secession movement. Although the Smithsonian Inst bad offered to present to 

the Brit. Mus. their first series of duplicate specimens from these expeditions, which 

was exhibited at the Manchester Meeting of the Brit Assoc., where this Ueport whs 

called for, no notice was given to the writer of the valuable results of the British 

survey; and it was only through the private kindness of Drs. Sclater aod Baird that 

he was prevented fh)m adding to the list of synouyms, already, alas ! so numerous 

and perplexing. 

f These species are named after places, not after persons, as would be supposed 
by the termiaations. gQ 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST C0A9T OF NORTH AMERICA. 606 

T^S. PlOe IL 
Fife. No. Fig. 

69 10 10. Chime Lordi, Bd. From a Duck's gtomacli. Plentiful. Esquimalt 

Harb., V. I., Lord, 

t» 11 11. Spiarium (Cycku) tumtdum,'Bd, PlentifiiL SumaAs Prairie^ Fraser 
River, British Columbia, Lord. 

.. 12 12, 13. Spharium (Cydas) Spokanx\, Bd. Two ap., Hirer Spokane; two 
young sp., Kootanie Riyer, British Columbia, Lord. [Closely re- 
lated to twnidum, but more delicate.] 

70 13 14. Lymsia $axicolaf Bd. Holes in rocks in Esquimalt Harb., V. I., Lord, 

Japan, teste A, Ad. Closely resembles jL. navicular Ad. and Rve. 
[Abundant, and yery yariable in outline, sometimes like Saxicava 
phohdis, sometimes Uke MytUimeria. Neeah Bay, Swan.'\ 
• • 14 15. Crassatella Esqu%maU%\, Bd. One sp. Esquimidt Harb., V. I., Lord, 
[A true Astai'tey with external ligament, with one ant. lat. tooth in 
one yalve, and one post lat. tooth in the opposite, well deyeloped. 
This character was noticed by J. Sby. in constituting the genus, 
but becomes obsolete in the typical species. The same peculiarity 
of margin is seen in Crassateua, The external rugs are singularly 
irregular, and not always continuous.] 

71 16 LedafossOf Bd. 10-16 fm. ; one sp. Esquimalt Harb., V. L, Zya/7. 

1= L. foveata^ Baird, MS., on tablet.] 
71 16 Nuctda LyaUitf Bd. 8-10 fei. ; one sp. Esquimalt Harb., V. I.^ Li/aU, 

Resembles N. divaricata, Hds., N. castrmm, Hds., N. mtrahiltSf 
Ad. and Rye., and especially N, Cobboldta from the Crag, fin the 
early stage, the sculpture has several angles, afterwards only one. 
Both Dr. Kennerley s and Dr. Lyall's specimens appear to bes 
Aci a castrennSf Hds.] 

The Vanconyer Collections haying been deposited in separate drawers, 
except the series mounted for the table-cases, permission has been given 
(with the kind assistance of Dr. Baird) to examine them minutely, and pre- 
pare a revised list of the species. The marine shells will be found in the 
sixth column of the general Yancouver and Califomian Table. The fol- 
lowing require special mention. 

17. " Teredo Jimbiiata'' teste Jeflfr. : out of block of wood from Nai-ni-mo Harb., 

V. I., Lord. 
Teredo. Shelly tube of lar^ sp. Esquimalt Harb., Lord. 

18. NeUutoma Lktrtmnii. Esquimalt Harb., Lord, One adult but injured speci- 

men. [For this singular Pholad, with duck-bill prolongations of the valves, 
a subgenus of Pholadidea is proposed, as its characters do not accord with 
JouanettiUf under which it is placed in the Cumingian Collection/] 

19. " Saxicava rugosa.^^ Several typical specimens ; Esquimalt Harb., Lot'd, taken 

out of interior of hard stone, mto which they anpear to have bored. 

20. ^* Calligta fpenmosti." Esquimalt Harb.^ Xord One young sp. IssSaxidomtis 

9qualiduSy iun.] 
2L " Tapes rifftaa.'^ Esquimalt Harb., Lord^ common. [An instructive seriesi, 
some with very close and fine, others with distant, strong ribs. Some have 
ribs large and rounded, approaching the sculpture of Cardia. Some change 
suddenly from one form to another. = T. staminea, var. Petiiii.'] 

22. ** Cardiitm Calif omiense, Desh." 8-15 fin. Vancouver Is., Lt/au. [s=vap- 

hUmdum. Tablet contains also young sp. of C corhis.'] 

23. ^Cardita ventrieosaf Gld." 8-16 fin. Vane Is., LyaU. pjot ventricose, 

exactly resembles the East Coast specimens of Ven. horeahs dredged by Dr. 
Stiilipson.] 

24. ^Anodonta cognata^ Gld." [ssA. Oregonenns. Lea.] Lake Osoyoos,Br. Col. 

Lord. Twosp. Also Freshwater Lake. Nootka Sound, Lyatl. 
„ Anodonia ?Oretfonenns, jun. PVesh water Lake, Nootka, V. I., Lord; one sp. 
85. Anodonia ? Ntdtalliima. Freshwater Lake; Nootka, Vane. Is., Lord ; one sp. 
2S0. AjMdonta WahlamuUnsis. Fieshwater Lake, Nootka, Vane. Is.,X.raf^ four pp^ 

91 



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606 MPOET— 1863. 

Ko 

26. Anodonta fWaTdamaUnsiSy jun. Sumass Prame^ Fraser Hiver, Brit C<iL« 

Lord] one specimen. 

27. Anodonta angtttata. Fort Colville, Columbia R.,iorrf; one specimen [irregu- 

lar and much eroded. The hii^-line is ^aved and a false "tooth " pro- 
duced, in consequence of which it has been named] " Akwnodon.^* 

28. " Pecten rubidus, Hds." Vane Is., LyaU. [Hinds's type in Br. Mus. appearn the 

ordinary form, of which P. hastatussshenceus is the highly sculptured var. 
This shell, which is more allied to Islandicus, may stand as P. Jai/MiwV.] 

29. Hinmte$ ffiganteus. Island 3 miles above Cane Muage, Lt/aU. 

SO, Ostrea kirtda, Esquimalt Harb., Lord Dreaged-up Dy Indians in small h^d- 

nets with long handles, in 2-3 fm., on mud-flats. 
81. '* JPiacunanomia cepio, Otny.*^ Esquimalt Harb., Lord On island rock, 

between tide-marks. [=P. macroschwnoy smooth, hollow form.] 
32. '^ Chiton (Ptaty$emu$) JFossnesaenskity Midd.,= C. Hindgiu Rve." Esquimalt 

Harb., Lord One very fine specimen. [Quite distinct from Mopalia MvuUii 

(Gray) ; differs but slightly from M. muscoMf Gld.] 

83. ** Chiton ?Usvigatus" E^uimalt Harb.^ Lord, One specimen. [ssJjcAno- 

chitonJUctens,'] 

84. " Chiton elentienSf Old., fssmarffinatus.** Esonimalt Harb., Lord Two spe- 

cimens. l^Iscknochiton pseudodentiens. Not congeneric with the Briti^ 
Leptochiton cinereus^ marginattts.'] 

85. Acnuea ^^mitella, Mice." Esquimau Harb., Lord, [Probably A, peUa^ jun* 

Not sculptured, as is the tropical speciesj 
2&, "Acm€Ba ? testudmcUiSf jun.*' Esquimalt Harb., Xorc^. One young sp. [with 
extremely close fine strisB ; colour in festoons of orange-brown pencilling on 
white ground. Might stand well for A, testudinalis, but probably a=^. 
patina, yar. pintadina.] 

37. Margarita " costellata, Sby." Esquimalt Harb., Lord [ * 3f. pupilla, Gld. j 

38. Crepidtda Ungulataj Gld. Esquimalt Harb., Lord, Three young sp. [Apex 

smooth, imbedded, passing mto the aculeata type. The species probably a 
C. dormta, Brod.1 
89. " Mekmia ttUcida, Gld., fssrudens. Rye." Attached to weeds and float'ng 
sticks in swift stream on prairie, at Nisqually, W. T., Lord, [sspUdfa'a, 
small yar.] 

40. Priene Oregonensis, Port Neyille, 6 fin., LyaU, [Very fine ; but opercula 

probably misplaced.] 

41. *' ititidella gausapata, Gld. Esquimalt Harb., Lord, [A beautiful series of 

highly painted specimens. Operculum Nassoid, not Purpuroid; therefore 
ranks under Amyda,'] 

42. " Vitularia lactuca.** Vancouyer's Island, LyaU, [A fine series of Purpura 

crispata and yars., among which is a lilac-tinted specimen.] 

43. Ptrpura decemcostata, Vane. Is., LyaU, l^canaUculata, Operc as in Ocinebra 

liiruia.'l 

44. ^'Fusus Orpheus" [Bd., not] Gld. Esauimalt Harb., Lord. Rye sp., with 

crabs. [ = Ocinebra inter/ossay very nne.1 

45. Tro^hon Orpheus, Gld. Esquimalt Harb., Lord, One fireHh specimen. 

46. Hehx Toionsendiana, yery fine. Sumass Prairie, Fraser Riyer, Lord, 

466. " HeUx TownsendianUy small yar." Fort Colyille, Columbia R. ; also sum- 
mit of Rocky Mts.^ Lord 

47. Helix Jldelisj typical, jun. and adult Vane Is., Lord, 

47b, Helix Jidelis, Large but very pale yar. Sumass Prairie, Fraser R., Lardi 

48. " Helix Thouarsii,\un,'' Sumass Prairie, Fraser R., Lord. 

49. " Helix labiatas: Columbiana, yar." Vancouyer Is., Lord, [closely lesembliisg 

H rtifesoens'], 

50. " HeUx vellicata, Fbs." Sumass Prairie, Fraser R., Lord. [=s Vancoucerensis,'] 

51. Helix [like rotimdatal. Fort Colyille, Columbia R., Lord. Two specimens. 

52. Zonites [like excavataX Fort Colville, Columbia R., Lord One specimen. 
5.S. Zonites [like electritMj, Fort Colyille, Columbia R., Lord, Seven specimens. 
64. Pupa, sp. ind. jun. Lake Osoyoos, British Columbia, Lord, One specimen. 

[Genus not ibund before^ north of Callibruia.] 

92 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. C07 

65. " SiKcinea rutticanay Gld." Sumass Prairie^ Fraaer R., Lord. [Scarcely to be 

distinguished from the European S, pidtts.'] 
56. "Planorlu cornulentus, Say." Lake Osoyoos; Syniakwateen ; Marshy Koo- 
tanie East, Brit. Col., Lord, 

67. Phncrbis ? subcrenatus, var. Snmass Prairie. Brit. Col., Lord. 

68. " Limnaa atoj/naUs" typical, fine^ and abunaant. Lake Osoyoos, Fn^r K.^ 

Lord. 
68. LitmuM ttagnaUiy long narrow spire, mouth swollen, closely fenestrated. 
Marshy stream, Syniakwateei^ Lord. 

66. ^^Umntea fdesidiosa, Say.'' Lake Osoyoos; three sp.. Lord. [Exactly re- 

sembles a Tar. of the widely distributed X. cataracta, which was found in 
profusion in the Madison Lakes. Wise.] 
60L **LirmuBa fdesidiosa, Sav." Syniatwateen, Brit. Col., Lord. One sj). [Very 
turrited, whirls swollen ; epidermis finely striated. The same species occurs 
as " X. tnegasoma, Say. Lake Osoyoos."] 

61. ^^i%y«i heUrosirophOf Say." Sumass Ihrairie, Eraser R. A variety from Lake 

Oioyoos, LoreL 

62. PAyM [probably young of Lordi, but with orange band inside labrum.] Eoo- 

tanie R. East, Brit. Col., Lord. One sp. 

Besides the shells preserved in the National Collection, the following 
^ecies were also brought by the Expedition : — 

63. Terehratula tmguiculus^ n. s. Vane. Is., Forbes. One adult specimen, Mus. 

Cum. [Extremely interesting as bein^ the only sculptured specits known 
recent The young shells from California were naturally affiliated to 
Terfhratdla caput'$erpenH$ by Messrs. Reeve and Hanley ; but the adult hat 
the loop similarly incomplete.] 

64 Bhynconeua psittacea. Vane. Is., Forbes. One specimen, Mus. Cum. 

66. Dcarma dechvis, n. s. Vane. lB.fForbes. One specimen. [The only other 
species of I)arma is from the West Coast of S. America.] 

66. dementia mbdutphana. Vane. Is., Forbes. One broken sp. 

67. Saxidomus brevisiphonattts, n. s. This uni(}ue shell is marked "Vancouver 

Island " in Mr. Cuming's Collection, and is believed by him to have formed 
a part of Dr. Forbes's series. The shape resembles Callista, without lunule. 
The mantle-bend is remarkably small for the genus. 

68. MdamOf n. a., teste Cuming. Vane. Is., Forbes. [Two specimens, with very 

fine spiral stri», sent to PhOadelphia for identification.] 
09. MesaUa lacUola. Vane Is., Forbes. One sp., Mus. Cum. 
70. Pteropodoy several species, of which two are new, teste Cuming ; but they may 

have been collected on the voyage. Forbes. 

The ooUections made on the British Survey are peculiarly valuable to the 
itadsnt in consequence of the great perfection of the specimens. They have 
generally been obtained alive, and are often the finest known of their kinds. 
The occturence, however, of a specimen of the tropical Orthalicus zehra^ 
marked " Vancouver's Island,^ in Mr. Lord's collection*, is a useful lesson. 
When such reliable data are thus found possessed of adventitious materials, 
it will not be regarded as a slight on the collections of the most careful 
naturalists when specimens are regarded as of doubtful geographical accuracy. 
In Br. Lyall's collections there also occur specimens of the well-known PateUa 
MageUaniea and Trophon MageUanicus, chily marked " Vancouver's Island," 
though no doubt collected in ^e passage round Cape Horn. The naturalists 
of the American Expl. Expeditions generally travelled across the continent. 

104. The latest exploration undertaken for State purposes is abo for our 
present object by far the most important, both as relates to the number of 

* Mr. Lord writes, *'The fact of my haying found this shelU alive, on Vanoouver 
Iiland is beyond question. How it got then I do not pretend to ii^ i it was very po§« 
iib^ broQglit by some ship*** 

93 



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608 REPORT— 18C3. 

species authentically collected and the thoroughly competent and accurate 
manner in which the necessary information is being recorded. It is no lon*cer 
left to the great nations bordering on the Atlantic to send exploring expe- 
ditions to tiie Pacific. The State of California^ only bom in 1850, has so 
rapidly attained maturity that when she was barely ten years old she con- 
siderad science a necessary part of her political constitution, ctiid organized a 
** State Geological Survey," under the direction of Prof. Whitney. To this 
survey Dr. J. G. Cooper (whose collections for the Pacific Railway Explora- 
tions have abeady been reported, vide pp. 697-601) was appointed zoologist, 
and Mr. W. M. Gabb (formerly of Philadelphia) palaeontologist. The friendly 
relations established with both these gentlemen at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion not only put them in possession of the special desiderata on the present 
branch of inquiry, but have resulted in nnreserved interchange of facts and 
opinions, by means of which a large instalment of the malacological results 
of the Survey can be embodied in this Report. Dr. Cooper has not only ex- 
plored the whole coast and the neighbouring islands from Monterey to San 
Diego, but has dredged extensively from shoal- water to 120 fathoms, keeping 
accurate lists of all acquisitions from each locality. Having an artist's 
pencil as well as a naturalist's eye, he has drawn the animals from life, and 
already subjected many of them to dissection. The war has to some extent 
suspended the operations of the survey ; but it is confidently expected that 
the State will do justice to herself by issuing, with suitable illustrations, 
the full results of her officers' labours. The first public notice of the mol- 
luscs appears in the Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S , Nov. 3rd, 1862, pp. 202-207. 
Here Dr. Cooper, speaking of the new species, writes ^ith a modesty which 
is not always credited to American naturalists by Europeans, — ''As they 
may have been collected either by the N.W. Boundary burvey or at Cape 
St. Lucas, it has been considered safest, in order to avoid confusion, to send 
specimens or drawings of them to [the writer], that he may compare 
them with the above collections, and decide whether they are really new." 
He gives valid reasons, however, for describing the following soft Mollusca. 
Unfortunately for French and German naturalists, the diagnoses are in 
English only. 

page. 

2u2. StraUgus (n. g.) inermis, n. s. More highly organized than any other genus 
of OpisthcSranchiata : creeps slowly among tne grasses in the muddy parts 
of San Diego Bav, looking like a large caterpillar. Not uncommon. 

203. JPieurophylUdia CeUiformcaf n. e. Closely resembles P. Imeata of S. Europe. 

"From tiie distance of locality there can, however, be no iaentity of 
apecies." [P] Numerous in Dec., crawling and burrowing on sandy 'flats 
in San Diego Bay; none in Jan., after the floods. [Dr. Cooper writes that 
the body of fresh water was so great in some places as to kill the marine 
molluscs for a considerable distance beyond the estuaries, and thus mate- 
rially fldter the pre-existent fiuma.] 

204. Doris montereyenstSy n. s., 6-10 fin., adhering to sandstone. Monterey Bay, 

very rare. Small specimens in San Francisco Bay, Fnck, 
bO^. Doris (Asteronotus) sanguinea^ n. s. Under stones in San Diego Bay ; rare. 
204. Doris (? Asteronotus) (dahastrtna, n. s. Under stones in S. Diego Bay. One en, 

204. Dmis {? Acttnocychu) StmdiegensiSf n. s. Very active among grass on mucL-> 

filats near low- water mark, San Diego Bay ; common before the flood. 

206. .^olis (?FlabeUina) opalescens, n. s. Common among grass in San Diego Bay. 

205. jEoUs (fPhidiana) todkiea, n. a Among algffi on rocks outside San Diego 

Bay. 

207. TrUxmia Palmeri, n. s. San Diego, common '^in same localities as the Di^ 

pkyUidia. Named after Mr. Edward Palmer, a zealous naturalist^ who 
assisted me while at San Di^go." 

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ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. TOO 

Dr. Cooper's second paper " On New or Rare MoUusca inhabiting the Coast 
of Cdifomia," in the Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S., Aug. 17, 1863, contains (English) 
descriptions of the following species. He observes that *' Santa Barbara and 
Santa Barbara Island are very different in the groups of animals inhabiting 
Ihem, although the island is only thirty-five miles from the mainland. 
Vatdina hla-nd is twenty-four miles from the mainland, and the molluscs 
are very different from both the mainland and the other islands, being the 
richest locality on our shores." 

67. Jffysia Calif ormca^ Op. ; for which is constitated a subgenus, Keaplysia ; 16 

inches by 6*. Three specimens \ San Pedro beach^ afcer storm \ stomach fuU 

of algffi. fig. 14. 
6a Xacarchus, Op. Pr. OaL Ac, Apr. 1863. 
ff Navarckus tnermiSf Cp.,= Strategus %., Op., anied. Oatalina Island, 10 fms., 

in seaweed. 1 specimen. 
p Dorii alboptmctata, Op. Santa Barbara, 20 fm., rocky bottom. Oatalina 

Island, rocks, 1. w. 
ff Doris MontereyensiSy Op. Santa Barbara Island, rocks, 1. w. 
ff Doris sangumeayC^, 4 sp. with the last. " Stellate structure not discovered." 
p Doris SimdiegensiSf Op. 2 sp., with the last. " All these species belong to 

DoriSf typical" 
69. Triopa CattUiruB^j Op. 4 sp., on algSB among rocks, 1. w. Oatalina Island. 
n Dendronotus iriSf Op. Several sp. thrown on beach by storm, Santa Barbara; 

1 sp. dredged on seaweed, 28 rai. Very variable in colour. ?=**J9«icf/'oiJo- 

et«,8p^,"Gld., KKMolL 
„ jEoUs Barbarensisy Op. 1 sp^l6fm., rocky bottom, Santa Barbara. 
w. FlabdUna opalescens, Op.,=.<£b/w o.. Op., cuded. With the last : also shore 

of Santa Barbara Island, rare. 
„ Fhidania iodinea, Op.,sy£b^ i., Op., anted. Santa Barbara, beach, 1 sp. 
„ CtnoriBra leomna. Old. 1 sp., in 20 nn. Santa Barbai*a. 

Sept 7th, 1863. Dr. Cooper described a veiy interesting new genus of 
Puliiionates, only found at the head of one ravine in Santa Barbara Ittlaud, 
with ** myriads of Helix KeUettii [ssff. Tryoni, v. note ♦, p. 116J, and two 
other species, probably new." Full particulars of its habits are given. It 
his the mantle of Limaa:, dentition of Belicidce, and shell resembling Daude^ 
bardia and Homahnyx [ssOmalonyXy D'Orb.]. 
62,63. Birmeya natahiUs, Op. 3 living and 18 dead shells. Fig. 15 (five views). 

Jan. 18th, 1864. The remaining land-shells of the Survey were described 
(with Latin diagnoses) by Dr. Newcomb, in a paper communicated to tho 
Academy by Dr. Cooper. Specimens of many of them will* be found in the 
Camingian Collection. 

116. HeUx Tryoni, Newc Santa Barbara and S. Nicholas Islands, abundant j 

living. "= jy. KeUettii, Op., p. 63." 
„ Edix crebristriata,'Sewc. San Olemente Island ; abundant. '' Closely allied 
to H. nUercisOf and very variable.'' 

117. Hdix rufodncta, Newc. Oatalina Island, sestivating under stones; rare. 

S. Diego ; 1 dead sp. Outline like JET. Pytyonesica : umbilicus open or 
nearly closed. 
„ Edix Gabhii, Newc. San Olemente IsL 1 sp., like E, facta. 

118. Eelix facta, Newc Santa Barbara Isl., very common j San Nicholas lel., 

rare. Somewhat like E. RothL 
„ Eclix Whitneui, Newc. Near Lake Taho, Sierra Nevada, 6100 feet hiprh. 
3 sp. under bark, near stream, with E. Breweri and E. chersina. Kesembles 
EUriatella. 

* Mollaics, as well as trees, assume giant proportions in California : e. g. Schizot^uerus 
(wi^ siphons) 16 in., Amusium 8 in., Lunatia (craivliug) 16 in., MytUus 9 in., &c 

♦ Vifie note t, p. 604. 

^"^ 95 



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610 EEPORT— 1863. 

iS. HeUx Breweri, Newc. Near Lake Taho ; 8 sp. (Also 1 sp. from moimtainfl ia 
Northern California, Ptof, Brewer.) Like H, arborea, 
„ Helix DurofUi, Newc Santa Barbara laL " Like PUmorbU albw^ hirsutus. 
GlcL" ' 

Dr. Newcomb also identified the following species in the State Collection :— 
119. Heiix arroMy Gld. Common near mouth of S. Francisco Baj. 

„ Helix arroM, yellow Ytue. Santa Cruz^ J2otre0. 

„ Helix fCaUfomieMis, Lea, or fNiMintana, Lea ; Var., Cooper, 

„ Helix Carpenteri, Newc. Broken dead shell, head of S. Joaquin Valley, Gabh, 

„ HeUx Columbiana, Lea. Near S. Francisco. 

„ Helix chersina, Say. Very large, near Lake Taho, Co<^>er. 

„ Heke Thouarsii, Desh. Pt Cypress, Monterey, Cooper, 

„ HeUx exarata^Vh, Mt Diablo, Brewer ; Santa Cruz, BowefL 

„ H(^ fid€U$j Qmj. Humboldt Bay and mountains, lat 42^, Brewer. Black 
Tar., JFheX^ 

„ Helix mfumata, Gld. Near Ballenas Bay, BoweH 

„ Helix KelietUi, Fbs. S. Diego, Catalina IsL, fine Tar., Cooper. 

„ Hdix loricata, Gld. Near Oakland, Newcomb, 

„ Helix NewbarryoMt, Bin. Temescal Mountains, near Los Angeles, Bretoer. 

„ HeKx Niekliniana, Lea. Common near S. Francisco Bay, Cooper. 

>, Heiix wortella, Gld. Near S. Francisco Bay, CoMer. 

„ Helix Mormomim, Pfr. San Joaquin Valley, Gabb; north to Mt Shasta, 
Brewer. 

II Helix Tra^i, 'Sewc Mountains near Santa Barbara, ^reirer. MaybesiZl 
TTumarsii, Tar. 

n HeUx tudieidata, Bin. Near S. Diego and S. Pedro, Cooper. 

„ Helix Vaneouverenm, Lea. De Fuca, Gabb : perhaps extends south to Hum- 
boldt Bay. ^ 

Dr. Palmer sent a yalaable consignment cf shells collected by him between 
San Diego and S. Pedro to the Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Cooper obtained 
permission to send the first series of duplicates, duly numbered, for identi- 
fication, to the Smithsonian Institution. This inyaluable scries was lost in 
the ''Golden Gate.'' The gold was recovered, and much of it stolen ; the far 
more precious shells remain, unnaturally located, in their native element — 
a puzzle, perhaps, to palaeontologists in some coming age. Other series, though 
not BO complete, have since been received in safety; and through the libe- 
rality of the Califomian Survey and of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as 
throagh the energy and kindness of Dr. Cooper, they are already being dis- 
tributed to the Gumingian Collection, the British Museum, the museums at 
Cambridge, Mass., Philadelphia, Albany, Montreal, &c., as well as to the col- 
lections of. working naturalists. The stations being now discoveied, it is to be 
hoped that in a few years Califomian shells will cease to be objects of great 
rarity in this country. At the request of Dr. Cooper, in order that he might 
proceed with other departments of his labours, all the new species which have 
been seen in England have been described in conjunction with those from 
other sources. On those which are only known here by the beautiful drawings 
sent by the collector, it would be unsafe and premature to impose a name. 
The duignoses are being published in the Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S., and should be 
accredited to the zealous zoologist of the Survey, rather than to the mere 
artist-in- words who endeaTours to represent their forms to the reader. It 
will be understood that the lists now to be presented, though corrected to the 
date of going to presS| are still incomplete; and that the information has been 

96 



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ON MOLLU8CA OF THB WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 611 

eomp3cd from Dr. Cooper's letters received at different times, without oppor- 
tunity for his revision. Should errors, however, have escaped detection, they 
will, no doubt, be corrected, and omissions supplied, in the forthcoming Re- 
ports of the Survey. The species either new to science, or now first found in 
the Galifomian branch of the fauna, are as follows : — 
i& 

1. Ikfrancia wJbricata, S. Diego, on PhaaianeUa compia, &c. Maz. Cat., no. IH, 

2. Ter^aiula tmffuicuhu, Monterey to S. Diego : young shells in 6-20 fin. ; 

not rare. 

8. TerebrateOa ?cmtnna, Catalina Is., 80 frn. ; living ; rare. 

4. Widdheimia Orayi. Catalina Is., 120 frn. 

5. Zirphtea critpata. Fragments from S. Diego appear (very unexpectedly) to 

belong to this northern species. 
S. Corbula kUeota, n.s. S. Pedro — S. Diego ; common near shore. 
7. Netera vectmata, Santa Barb., Cat. Is., 40-60 fm. (Paget Sd., Kemterley). 
S. Ketmeriia bicarmataf n.s. Cat Is., 40-60 fm. ; rare. 

9. Entod^ma mfiata, Conr,,ss dtaphanOf Cpr. Near S. Diego; I valve (Palmer)* 
10. Ptedodan $(xd>er, n.g. and n.8. Cat Is. ; 2 similar valves, 40-60 frn. 

IL Macoma inmtmata, S. Francisco ; rare. 

12. Macoma jfotdiformis. S. Die^o. (Puget Sound, Ketmerley,) 

13. Macoma mtientata, n.8. S. Dtego. 

14 AnguUu variegatun^ n.& Mont, Cat Is., 20-60 frn. ; rare. (Neeah Bay, Swan,) 

15. Arcopagia lamellaia, S. Dieffo. ssMaz. Cat., no. 58. 

IS. (EdaUa {Cooperella) scirUiUafinmSf n. subg., n.s. S. Diego. Santa Barbara Itt 

17. Semele mpimn, Catalina Is.; not rare. (Also Qalapagos.) 

1& Scmde pulchra, S. Diego. (Also Cape St Lucas, Acapulco.) 

19. Semde tnconffrua, tls, Catalma Is., ^)-60 fm. ; common. 

20. PaephU $almonea, n.s. S. Diego, Cat Is., 30-40 fm. ; rare. 

2L Ptq>hi$ LordL Cat Is., 20-40 fm. ; common. (Puget Sound, KewnerUy^ 
22: fAdarUJIuctuata, n.s. Cat Is. ; 2 similar valves ; 40 fm. (Very like the Crag 

fossil, A, omariOf jun. ; but Dr. Cooper considers it a CrassateUa) 
2a Venericardia borealts. Cat Is., 120 fm. The typical, flat New England form. 

The small swollen var.;aB V, verUncoM, Old., is also found at (3at Is., in 

80-40fin. 
24 Miodcn proUmaatm, (Neeah Bay, Stoan.) Identified from tracing only. 
25. Trapezium, One extremely young sp.sMaz. Cat, no. 120 (not like T, Dt$» 

perryi). S. Diego. 
28. (Jhama ftpinosa, S. Diego. (One young valve sent.) 

27. CanUwn (fmodutwn, var.) cetUifilomm, Cat Is., 30-40 fm. [The difiterences 

between this and the Eastern Pacific shell are probablv only varietal] 

28. Hemicardium hianguiaUmu Cat Is., living in 10-20 ha, (Also Acapidco, 

Panama.) 
• 29. liocardium daium, S. Diego ; very large (Maz. Cat, no. 124). 
SO. Lncina temdsculpta, S. Dieffo, living in 4 fm. (Also Puget Sound, Kemterley,) 

Var., dead in 120 tuLj Cat Is. (approaching L, MazaUamca, Maz. Cat, 

no. 144). 
dL Lucim boreaUs, Cat Island, 120 frn. << bX. acuteUrata, Conr., foss. £. E,** 

[Exactly agrees with British examples.] 
32. Cn/ptodonJUxuostts, Cat Is., 120 fm. Ditto. 
Sa £^ suborbiculans, S.. Diego ; Cat Is., 30^40 fm. Ditto. 
Si. Keilia (var.) Chiromi, S. Diego. (Also Neeah Bay, Swan,) 
S5. Laaea rubra. Cat Is., shore (typical). 
^. Leplon meroeutny n.s. S. Diego. 

S7. TdHmya iumida, S. Diego. (Also Puget Sound, Ketmerley,) 
od. Prides obhnguSf n.g., n.s. S. Diego. 

39. Crtnetta decusmta. Cat Is., 10-& fm. ; not rare. (The ordinary British, not 

the New England form.) 

40. BarhdUa gradata. S. Diego ; Mas. Gat, na 104 

iL Axinaa intermedia, Monterey — S. Die^, Oat I&. 40-00 fm. [Scarcely dlffert 
from the South American shell* It is the A, BarharmsiSf Cbnr., of Pac IL 
IL foBsilBi teste Cooper.'} 
7 97 



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Google 



612 KEPORT — 18C3. 

42. AcUa eaiirenns. Cat Is., 40-60 fin. (Also Paget Sound, Kennerley,) 

48. Leda cuneata, teste Hani. Mont— S. Diego ; Cat Is., 10-GO fm. 

44. Leda hatnaia, n.s. Santa Barbara ; Cat Is., 20-60 fin. ; common. 

45. Verticordia omata, D'Orb. Santa Barbara ; Cat Is., 20-40 fin. [Exactly ae- 

cords with the Japanese species, navemcostataj teste A. Adams.] 

46. BryophUa setosa, (Cape St. Lucas, XmUus.) Identified fix)m tracing, no. 960. 

47. lAma orie/itaUa (in Mus. Cum.,» dehiscensj Conr., teste Cooper). Mont — San 

Diego ; Cat Is., beach to 20 fin. ; common. 
4B. Litnattda subauriculata, 40-120 fin., Cat Is. ; not rare : 1 valve in 4 fioi., San 
Diego. [Exactly agrees with British specimens.] 

49. Janira derUatd, Monterey, S. Diego, beach to 20 fin. (Also Cape St. Lucas, 

Xanius,) 

50. CavoUna telemus. Cat. Is. ; dead in 30-60 fin. (Also Vancouver, LyalL) 

51. Tomatina carinata, S. Diego. (Also Mazatlan, Reigen,) 

52. Pedipes Uratus, S. Diego. (Also Cape St Lucas, Xantus.) 

53. DentaUum (var.) Indianorunu Mont — Cat. Is., 20 fin. ; common. JTProbaWy 

a striated var. of pretioeum, which Sowerby doubtfiilly, and Dr. Baird con- 
fidently, aflSliate to 2>. entale,'] 

54. DentaUum semipolitum, S. Diego. (Also La Paz.^ 

55. DentaUum hexagonum, S. Diego. (Also W. Mexica) 

56. Acanihockites amcula, n.8. Cat Is., 8-20 fin. ; rare. 

57. Acantkftpleurafluxay n.s. Cat Is. 

58. IschnockUon vtredefiienBf n.s. Cat Is., 10-20 fm. 

59. Ischnochiton (Lepidopleurw) pectinatuSy n.s. Cat. Is., beach. 

60. lachnochiton (Lepidopleurus) scabncostiUtUy n.s. Cat Is., 8-20 fm. 

61. Iscknochiton (Trachgdermon) pseudodenliens, S. Diego. (Also Puget Sound, 

Kennerley,) 

62. Iscknochiton {Trcu:hyderm(m) gothicusy n.8. Cat Is., 8-20 fin. 

63. LeptocMton nertM, n.8. Cat. Is., 20-80 fm. 

64. Nacella (^paleacea^ var.) triangularis, Monterey. 

65. ? Nacella subspiraUs, Cat Is., 10-20 fm. [May be the young of the long-lost 

Patella calgptra. Mart ; unless that be a oroken Creptdula aduncaJ] 

66. Seurria (P var.) fumculata, Monterey ; rare. 

67. Puneturella cucuUata, Monterey. (Also Puget Sound, U. S. E. K) 
6!?. Puneturella Cooperi, n.s. Cat Is., 30-120 fin. ; not rare. 

69. ?Ifnperator BerratuSy ?Pn.s. Monterey ; Cat. Is., 10-20 fioi. [Dr. Cooper thinks 

this shell probably the young of Pomaulax.^ 

70. fLef^angx bacula, n.s. Cfat Is., beach, dead. 

71. Gibbula optabilis, n.s. S. Diego. 

72. CaUiostoma mpragranosum, n.s. S. Diego. 

73. Calliostoina gemmtdatum, n.s. S. Diego. 

74 CaUiostoma spUndenSy n.s. Mont ; Cat Is., 6-40 fin. 

75. Margarita (rvar.) salmonea. Mont j Cat Is., 6-40 fin. [Intermediate bo-' 

tween undulata and pupiUa."] 

76. Margarita acuticostata, Mont ; Cat Is., 8-20 fin. [Fossil, Santa Barbara, 

Jeivett.l 

77. Solariella peramabUiSf Pn.8. Cat Is., 40-120 fin. ; living. [Differs but slightly 

fi'om S. aspectaj Japan, A, Ad."] 
73. Ethtdia supravallata, n.s., and Pvar. invaUata, S. Diego. 

79. Liotiafenestratay n.s. Cat Is., beach to 40 fm. ; dead. 

80. JJotia actdicostata, n.s. Mont : Cat. Is., 10-20 fin. 

81. Crepidula excavatUf Tax, \\m. Santa Barbara Island. 

82. Galerfts contortus, n.s. Mont-^. Diego, 20-40 fin. 

8-'). hipponyx serratus, Santa Barbara Island ; 1 sp. Maz. Cat, no. 846w 

84. Ct£cum crehricinetumy n.8. Mont — S. Diego ; Cat Is., 8-20 fin. 

85. Cacum Cooperi, n.B. S. Diego. [IVo fine species of the AnMtm 

group/) 

86. TurriteUa Cooperi, Pn.8. S. Diego ; Cat Is. : common. [May prove identical 

with one of Conrad's imperfectly described fossils in P. R. £.£.] 

87. Mesalia tenmsaulpta, n.a. S. Diego ; shoal water. 



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OH MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 618 

ea BkUmn anmOatwn, S. Diego. [Fossil, Santa Barbara, JetoeU,'] 

8a Bittimn aspentm. S. Diego ; Cat la., beach to 40 fin. [Fossil; Saota Barbara^ 

JewetL] 
90. IrnxfuftntOratOy ILS. S. Diego. (Also Neeab Bav, Bioan,) 
9L Imxfu obittsa, n.s. Mont — S. Diego ; Cat Is., 1(^20 fm. 
93. Jtumma mierfosM, n.8. Mont ; Cat Is., 8-10 fioi. 
9S. £moa oeuidirata, n.8. S. Diego *. 
9i FentOa pupoidea, n.8. Mont, 20 fin. ; rare. 

95. fAnwkUhaUifMu laetmatuSj n.s. 8. Diego. 1 inunature 8peci!it3ii« 

96. Diah acuta, n.8. Mont ; Cat Is., beach to 10 fin. 

97. Diah martnarea, n.8. Monterey, S. Diego ; yery rare. 
96. SfyUfarma turritOj n.8. 8. Diego. 

99. Jdfrey$ia trmubtoens, n.8. 8. Diego. 
100. Qi^ albida, n.8. 8. Diego. 

lOL TVtna Solandri, 8anta Barbara and 8t Nicholas la, ; common. 
102. Obeli$ctu ?variegatu8. 8. Diego. (Also La Paz, Cape 8t Lucas.) 
lOa Chrywmda pmmia, n.8. 8. Diego ; Cat Is. 
lOi QtrytalUda cindMy n.8. Sta. Barbara Is.; yeiy rare. 

106. Chemmisia ehoeolata, n.8. 8. Diego. 

100. Ckemmtzia (ftenuieula, yar.) subcuspidata. 8. Diego. 

107. JEiJima micaiu, n.8. 8. Diega Cat Is.; 80-40 fin. (Also Puget Somidy 

Kamerley.) 

108. EuUma eonwaeta, Pn.8. 8. Diego. ) (Dr. Cooner has not decided whether 
\(J0. Enlima ruiuay?jLB, Monterey. ) ( these oe distinct species. 

110. Scalaria hdUutriata, n.8. Monterey. 

UL Seaiaria whcoranata, n.a Monterey. 

112. Scalaria erebricotUjUa, n.s. Monterey, 8. Diego. 

lia Scalaria fCwnmgiL 8. Diego. 

114. Scalaria flndian&rumj yar. 8. Diego. [Probably conspedfic with the Van- 

couyer shells.] 
l\^ OpaHaboreaiiB, Farallonee Is. (Also Neeah Bay, iS^tron.) 
110. Opalia tpomffio$a, n.s. Monterey. 

117. ^falia retiporoiaf n.8. Cat Is.,' rare and dead in 40 fin. 

118. CerHkiopns oohtmnay JLB, Monterey. 

119. CerUkiopm amnuUOa. Cat Is. s Aaz. Cat; no. 563. 

120. Trifarit ?adver$a. Cat Is., 10-40 fin., yery rare. [The specimens sent caih- 

not be distinguished from the Herm shells.] 
12L Prime Oregonensis. " Comes south to Monterey." 
122. Nas$a inscidpta, n.8. Cat. Is., liying in 40 fin., rare. 
128. Amyela imdata, n.s. Cat Is., not rare in 40 fin. 
124. An^fcla ehrytaUoidta, n.s. 8. Diego, shoal water. 
12o. Anaehi$ tubturrita, n.s. 8. Diego. 

126. Troohm triangukthUj Pn.s. Cat Is.; 60 fiin. [Resembles the yomig dt 

Murex centrifiiffus*] 

127. Argonauta argo, ** Hundreds on beach at 8ta. Cruz Is." 

128. Octopus ptmcintus, Gabb. San Clemente Is. 

129. Onyekoteuthis funfomii$y Gabb. San Clemente Is. 

130. Ommattrtphe$ gigatUeu$, D'Orb. San Clemente Is. 

13L Ommadr^hes Ayrem, Gabb. San Clemente Is. '' Hundreds on the beach."* 

Besides the aboye, seyeral species are now satisfactorily assigned to the fitunay 
the eyidence fi>r which was Wore considered doubtful. Such are — 

131 WaUheimia Califomica, Koch [non auct;K^/o6oia; Patagonia]. 120 fin. 

Catalinals. 
133. CUdiopharapunetaia, 8. Diego to Sta. Cruz ; yalyes common, but rare liying. 
134; 135. §UmdeUa CaHfomicay planulatay et fnaeuia, Conrad's types beinff lost, 

and his species imperfectly described from yery young specimens, a difficulty 

* Host of the minute shelh from S. Diego, quoted without Rtafion, were found in the 
iheU.wuhings of the consignmentc from Dr. Cooper and Dr. Palmer. 



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614 REFOBT— 1863^ 

Vow 

attends tbeir identificatioiL Dr. Cooper found yery large valres (reflembfinff 
Schizotharus) in abundance, but mucb deformed by the entrance of sand, and 
apparently killed by the iceah waters of the great flood. The large snelis 
belong to two very distinct species, which aro, iwobably those of Conrad ; 
among the small shells is perhaps a third, which may be Dr. Gould's sup- 
pressed fuisuta, 

136. Haeta undtdata. This remarkable reverse of the Atlantic J2. catudicukUa is 

also confirmed by rare yalves from the S. Diegan dislaict. It is not con- 
generic with HarveUa dedans, to which it bears bat a slight eictemal resem- 
blance. 

137. lapes tenerrima. Large dead valves of this very distinct species were found 

with the StandeUa, and confirm CoL Jewett's young shells described as from 
Panama. 

138. Pecten paucicosUOus. Sta. Barbara Is. [Desoibed from Col. Jewett's valves.] 

139. Bulla Quoyii. S. Diego. Max. Cat no. 226. 

140. Truncatella Califomica. S. Diego. 

141. Acmtea rosacea. Monterey to S. Diego. This shell is named pikohmy Midd., 

in Mus. Cuming, but does not agree with the diagnosis. It* can hardly be 
distinguished from Herm specimens of A. virgima. It was first brought bj 
Col. Jewett, but referred to Panama. 
I^. Amphithalamus mohims. S. Diega [Several specimens of th^s minute but 
remarkable new genus confirm a solitary shell in CoL Jewett*s mixed 
collections.] 

143. Myurella simplex. Veiy variable in sculpture, as befits l^e species which 

forms the northern hmit of a ffxoup common between the tropics. CoL 
Jewett^s shell was in poor concutisn, and supposed to be the young of s 
Gulf species. 

144. Volvarina varia. S. Diego, Cat Is. [Sta. Barbara, J^tvetl; also C. S. Lucas-"] 

145. Nassa Cooperi, Fbs. S. Diego, Cat Is. [This Kellettian shell has a doublo 

right to its name, now that Dr. Cooper has ascertained its habitat] 

The information on station, &c., which Dr. Cooper has sent with regard to 
previously known species, will be found incorporated in the general table of 
the fauna. The following notes, extracted from his letters, are too valuable 
to be omitted : — 

Haliotis CahfomieTms, '^ This form is so rare that I think it only a var. of 
Crach^^Uy 

HalioHs, Several specimens fit>m the Farallones present characters inter- 
mediate between corrttgata, mfescensj and Kamtschatkana. It is not jet 
ascertained whether they aie hybrids or a distinct species. 

'' Livona ptcoides I have not found, though I have seen fresh ones from Pt 
Conception." 

^fSerptuorbis squamigems, Conunon south of Pt. Conception; has no 
operculum.'* [The young begins like V. aneUum, Moreh.] 

Macron lividus. Point Loma, S. Pedro, conunon ; extends northwards to the 
Farallones. [^sPiamuns nigritdla, Newcomb, MS.; non auct] 

" OUvdla semistriata, Gray^ fide Newc^ ie a species found N. of Monterey only." 
[As Dr. Gray's species is from Panama, that of Newcomb is probably 
O. hoEiica,'] 

^ Nassa intersiriata, Conr., foss. (Pw N. ptttmerOf Gld.) j resembles JV. fassata, 
Gld (=5-8. degansy Rve.*), but distinct Common south from Sta. Bai'bara." 
[Probably = N. perpingmsy Hds. K pauper a is quite distinct, =J\r. striata^ 
C. R Ad., teste Cuming.] 

^ lUsureUa vtdacea I have seen from Catalina Is.*' [Esch.'s shell is generallj 
considered S. American. P May Dr. Cooper's be a form of volcano.] 

Acm€B€B. With regard to limpets and other variable shells. Dr. C. writes :«-• 
** From my examination of large numbers of specimens, I am more and 
more compelled to believe that hybrids are very frequent between allied 

* Nassa elegan* was first published^ by J. Sowerby, in the Min. Conch. 1824^ 

100 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF TH^B WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 615 

qpecies, and that the comparatively few links that are met-with in large 

feriee of two forma should not he allowed to imite them^ but he considered 

•a hvhrida." 
Lmatta Lewim. Abundant on beach. [One sp. measures 5f in., and the 

animal of a much smaller one (4 in.) is ll inches long.] 
Odrea, ** The same species throughout to S. Franc. : S.Ihego," Cooper, [Be- 

fiides the t^rnical noithem shell, O. lurida, are well-marked Pyars. UUicattdata, 

rirfoides, ana ejcpansa,] 

There are also several species which are quoted in Dr. Cooper's letters^ or 
appear from his fetches to be quite distinct, or at least new to the fauna : 
Lat they have not yet been sent for identification. Among these the following 
are the most important. The MS. numbers refer to the tracings which Dr. 
Cooper kindly copied from his original drawings. Where a " — " appears, 
the information is derived from his letters only. 

Ha No. 
402. Allied to PT^rodb. 

— ChfoihodotUaf probably pUcaia, Desh. (Cape St Lucas, Xantw), 

620a. Figure accoras exactly with Venus toreuma, Gld. Catalina Is., beach. 
1058. Figure accords with Lioconcha hierbglyphica, Catalina Is., 120 fin. 
lOeo. Heaombles Sunapia. Catalina Is., 40 fin. 

676. Resembles CraswieUa Pacifioa, 

874. lAtciruL 

963. Xucukiy with concentric sculpture. Sta. Barbara, 16 fixL 

— Toldui. One firesh valve of a large and remarkable species, 2*6 by 1*2 m,, 

with fine concentric sculpture, very inequilateral. Sta. Cruz ; on beach. 
751a. flatUAina, 
1077, 1078. ChkoimUs, Two higldy sculptured species. Sta. Barbara, 12 fin. 

— fOadinia, Cat Is., Cooper ; Farallone, lB,jIloiceU. " The animal differs in 

having pectLoated flattened tentacles. It may be the tyi^ of a new genus 

406. Emarginukt, [The first appearance of the genus on the W. American coast.] 

4150. Gkpkis, 

354a. Like ffaplocochleas, Sta. Barbara, 15 fin. 

564 Like r^gola, 40 fin. 

— Trivia sanffumea. Dredged dead in Cat. Is. 

— Trivia. '' Thinner and larger than tfait^wmea. Common in Lower CaL" [?a 

— " TereSra speciUaia.^^ One sjj. near S. Pedro. 

— Pleitrotomiaa. Several species are represented only by single spedmenji. 

Among them are 

688. DriUia. 

1021. DrUlia, 2 in. long, abaiped like Mitra. One worn sp. Catalina Is., IfiO fia^ 
1020. DHUioj reversed. Catalina Is.. 60 fin., living. ^ 

47Ba. CUdhureJla (large). Sta. Barb., 20 fin. 

663. OathureOa, 15 fin., Sta. Barb. 
13ri2. ?Claihwellay 40 fin. 
10l>3. fBaphneUa, 60 fin. 

419, 426. Two species of shells resembling Daphndta, 
1055. ?B^, 80 fm. 

42ria. MangMi, 15 fm., Sta. Barb. 

3976. Shape of Cithara, without ribs. Catalina Is., beach. 
102a " fAcUs,"" reversed. One sp., Cat Is., 120 fin. [The figure more resembles 
a yotmg Vermetid.^ 

463. ** CamxBaria ?TriionuSy Shy. Agrees with Dr. Newcomb's spedmen.'* S. 
Bie^o, one dead on beach, 2} in. long. 

817. Omcffltfrto. Fragment of a second species equally large. 
lOQS. Si^ar^ut, 40 fin., dead, Cat. Is. 
laiO. LanuHat^a, 10 fin., Sta. Barbara. 
(385a, 464, 818.) Katicidm, 8 sp. 

101 



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616 EEPORT— 1863. 

676. Possibly a scaly rar. of Monoceros engontUum ; like the I^trfwrOf Tar. tmSrN 
catay of Europe, but of different colour and texture : ?^$piratmnj Blainr. 
1001. figure resembles VexiUafttscolmeaUi, Pse. Sandwicn Is. 

— << AosM, smooth, with thick lip." Cat Is., 80 &:i. [Comp. ttftseti^] 

— fMacron KeOettu. Cat. Is., dead, in 60 fin. 

— Chrysodomus ftalmUdM, Cat Is., 120 fin., young, dead. 

— FuttiSy " like geniculus, Conr." Farallones fc. 
411. TrophoHy like muUtcodatus. 

5156. Muricidea. Cat Is., 40 fin. [The ^roun^ shells called TVopAon, Typhu^ 
kcj by Dr. Cooper can scarcely be identified without a aenes, and fiom 
tracings only.] 

616<^. ? Typhis, Sta. Barb., 15 fin. 
' 520. Pteranotiis eentrifugusy jun. S. Pedro ; rare on beaclu 

8846. Mwicideay like alveata, Mont. — S. DieffO. 

956. ?8iphonalia, Monterey, Sta. Barb., beacn. 

In Prof. Whitney's Preliminary Report on the Survey, Proc. Cal. Ac. p. 27, 
May 4th, 1863, he states approximately as the result of Dr. Cooper's mala- 
cological labours^ up to the close of 1862 : — 

No. of species in the collection 335 

Of which are new to California, and belieyed to be undescribed .... 123 
Other supposed Califomian species not yet collected 65 

In a SurVey conducted with such care, even negative evidence is of some 
importance, though not conclusive. Dr. Cooper has not been able to obtain 
the following species : — 

Digcma Evatmi, 

StrigiUa oamaria, [Mr. Nuttall's specimens were probably Atlantic] 
Venus dispar. 

Trapezium Califomicum, [^Jhiperryif^Guiniacum,'] 
Zttcma bella, [Perhaps ^pectinataj Cpr. ; but the type seems lost] 
Modiola nitens. [ProDably an error in the Cumingian labeLI 
' MytUm ghmeratusy ''=m&/m, var.'* [Perhaps an accidental var. firom being 

crowded on a floating stick.] 
Barhatiapemoides. [Very probably an error in Dr. Gould's label.] 
Area muUi'cosUUa, "Must nave been brought to S. Diego.'' 
IWien purpwratus, [Ascribed to the &una from abimdant valves marked 

" CaL" m the U. S. E. E. collections, but certainly fix)m S. America. Dr. 

Cooper has unfortunately not been able to discover any of the speciea 

described by Hds.] 
Jtadius variabilis, "Doubtless exotic" 
Fblinices perspicua, " Probablv Mexican." 
Banelia triquetra, " Probably Mexican." [Ghiaymas.] 

105. Having now presented to the student an analysis of all that is yet 
known of the results of public surveys, it remains that we tabulate what Ilbs 
been accomplished by private enterprise. Mr. J. Xantus, a Hungarian gen- 
tleman in the employ of the United States Coast Survey under the able 
direction of Professor Bache, was stationed for eighteen months, ending July 
1861, at Cape St. Lucas, the southern point of the peninsula of California. 
It is a source of great benefit to natural science that the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution is also one of the acting members of the Coast Survey 
Board ; and that a harmony of operations has always existed between the 
directors of these two scientific agencies in Washington. The publications 
of the Coast Survey have earned for themselves a reputation not surpassed by 
those of the oldest and wealthiest maritime nations. For obtaining data on 
geographical distribution, Cape St. Lucas was a peculiarly valuable station, 
beinar situated near the supposed meeting-point of the two faunas (v. B.A. 

102 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 617 

Bep.p.350); and also, not being a place of trade, or even an inhabited district, 
likelj to be free from human importations, although we should be prepared 
to find dead exotics thrown on its shores both by northern and by tropical 
currents. In his solitary and what would otherwise have been monotonou<« 
life, Mr. Xantus found full amployment in assiduously collecting specimens 
in all available departments of natural history ; having received ample in- } 
(tractions, and the needful apparatus, from the Smithsonian Institution, I' 
The bulk of the sheUs at first received from him were worn beach npeci- 
mens ; but afterwards several species were preserved, with the animals, in 
slcohoL Mr. Xantus generously presented the first series of the molluscs to the 
Smithsonian Museum, reserving the second for his native land. The first 
tvailable duplicates of the shells not occurring in the Eeigen collection will 
be found in tiie British Museum or in the Cumingian cabinets*. Although the 
▼hole series would have found little favour in the eyes of a London dealer or 
a drawing-room collector, it proved a very interesting commentary on the 
Eeigen and Adams Catalogues : it added about sixty new forms to the accu- 
rately located species of the marine fauna, besides confirming many others, 
whidi rested previously on doubtful evidence ; and disproved the intermixture 
of northern species, which, from the map alone, had before been considered 
probable. 

The collection is not only essentially tropical, but contains a larger propor- 
tion of Central American and Panania species than are found in the Beige u 
Catalogue. This may partly be due to the accidents of station, and partly to 
this projecting southern peninsula striking the equatorial currents. It naust 
also be remembered that the Reigen Catalogue embraces only the liverpooL 
dirifiion of his collection ; and that many more species may have existed in 
that portion of the Havre series which did not find its way to the London 
markets. Mr. Xantus also obtained individuals of identical 8]>ecies from 
Maigarita Island, and a series containing living specimens of Purpura plano^ 
tpira (only thrown up dead on the promontory), from Socorro Island, one of 
tiie Revilla-gigedo group. A very few specimens of Haliotis and of Pacific 
shells may have been given to him by sailors or residents : they were not 
distinguished from his own series in opening the packages. The collection in 
not yet complete. In consequence of the Prench occupation of Mexico, it 
was with difficulty that Mr. Xantus himself '< ran the blockade'' at Manza- 
nello ; and he was compelled to leave there thirty-one boxes of shells, alco- 
holics, &o., subject to the risks of war. 

The Polyzoa were placed in- the hands of Mr. G. Busk for examination, 
and the alcoholics were intrusted to Dr. Alcock, the Curator of the Manches- 
ter Natural History Society. Neither of these gentlemen have as yet been 

* Daring the period that Mr. Xantus was out df employmtmt, owing to the derange- 
iDents of tM war, a portion of the duphcates were offered for mle, and will be found in 
tome of the jprinoipal ooUections. 

103 



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819 KfiPORT— 18C3. 

able to report concerning: them. The first notice of the shells appean in tiie 
Proc. Ac. Nat Sc. Philadelphia, Bee. 1869, pp. 331, 332. The new ^eciea 
are described in the ' Annals and Magazine of Nat. ffist.,' 1864, vols. ziii. and 
adv., as follows : — 



Agthenotharm vShsior, n.g. 1 liTing ts^, and fragm. 

SoUmya valvuhu, 1 living sp. 

TeOina (Peronaoderma) ochraoea, 1 sp. 

Psammobia (?Amphtc?uerM) regularis. Valves. 

CaUista poUicaris, 1 sp., bving (= C prora, var., teste Rve., C. I. £. 45). 

Callida (fpannoMj var.> pitetia. Extremely abundant, living. Also 

Acapiilco, JeicHt. (Very variable, yet always difiering from the 

typical South American shells.) 
lAo&nrdwm apicmwn. Extremely abundant, living. Also La Pas; Aca- 

pulco, Jewett. 
iMcina lingtialis. Extremely abundant, valves. 
? CreneUa tnfiata. Valves ; very rare. (An aberrant fonn.) Also Panama, 

c.b.aI 

Bryophtla tetosa^ n.g. Abundant ; living among sea-weed, on Purpura 

planospira. Also California, Cooper, 
?Ati/8 casta. Rare : allied to CyUchna, 
Ischnochiton paraUdm. Rare; living. 
IschnochiUm (.^var.) prasmattu, *1 living sp. Possibly a form oipartd* 

lehu. 
Ischnochiton serratus. 1 living sp., like Elenenns, 
Nacttta peUoides,^ NaceUa, sp. ind., Maz. Cat., no. 262. 
Acnusa (.^var.) atrata. Intermediate between P. discors, PhiL, and P. 

Jloccata, Rve. Also La Paz, Margarita Bay. 
Acnuea drigiUata. Intermediate in characters and station between 

A. patina tLTid A. mesoleuca. Also Margarita Bay. 
GlyphtB saiitmaiis. Not uncommon ; living. 

EttcomUa variegaita. (Probably a subgenus of PhasianeUa.) Rare, dead. 
Etwomtia (?varieffakt,yftT.) subkriata. Very rare. 
Eitcosmxa punctata, 1 sp. 
Eitco&mia q/clostoma. 1 sp. 

Haplocochlias ct/clophoreusy n. g. (PRelated to JSthalia.) Very rare, dead. 
Nartca apetia, 1 sp. ^ 
Fossarus pardpictus. 8 'sp. 
Fo$saru8 purus. 1 sp. 

lAtorina puUatay= Ldorina, sp. ind., Maz. Cat, no. 309. Abundant. 
LUorina {PhUippii^ var. ) pemciUata, Like the W. Indian L, (zicsac, var.) 

Uneata. Abundant. 
Itisgoa albolirata. 1 sp. 
Feneila crifBtattma. 1 sp. 

?Hydrobia cofnpacta. May be a Barkeia, 1 sp. 
Hyala rotundata, 1 sp. 
fDiala electrina, 1 sp. 
Acirsa [teste A. Ad.] menesthoules, 1 sp. 

Cffthna aderiaphUa, Imbedded in a star-fish, like StyUna, 1 living sp. 
Bittium nitens, 1 sp. 

Mangelia subdiaphana, 1 sp. 

DriUia appressa, 1 sp. 

Citharafusconotata. Very rare. 

Obeliscus variegatm, 2 worn sp. Described fix>m a fresh Guajmaa 

shell, Mus. Col Ac. 
(Odostomta) Evaha atpnsculpia. 1 sp. 
(Odostomia) Evalea delicattda. 1 sp. 
ChrysalUda angxuAa, 1 sp. 

104 



t 


Ti. 


2. 


99 


8. 


»» 


4. 


812. 


6. 


f9 


a 


w 


7. 


813. 


8. 


ff 


9. 


99 


10. 


814. 


IL 


99 


12. 


99 


13. 


99 


14 


816. 


lo. 


474 


16. 


99 


IT. 


99 


18. 


476. 


19. 


99 


20. 


9t 


21. 


ft 


22. 


476. 


23. 


» 


24. 


9f 


25. 


• , 


^'k 


477. 


27. 


>» 


28. 


99 


29. 


ft 


80. 


»t 


81. 


478. 


82. 


99 


88. 


99 


84. 


jf 


86. 


99 


86. 


•« 


Vol. XIV. 


^7 


46 


rtrt. 


46 


5W>. 


♦• 


40. 


99 


4L 


99 


42. 


47. 


48. 


n 



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Google 



ON UOLLUSCA OT TKX WB8T COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



61» 



A.ir. H. VoL XIV. 
Sp. Page. 



41 
45. 



47. 



4a 



4a 

49. 
60. 
61. 



49. 



BtUimafiucogtrigata. 1 sp. 

Opalia crtnatoides. 1 perfect and a few robbed specimens. Tliis, and 
tbe Santa Barbara fossil, O. Pvar. inscuipta, are so close to the Por- 
tuguese O. crmata, that additional specimens may connect them. 

Trtmcaria eurytotdea. Common^ ruobed. Also Guacomayo, in the 
Smithsonian Museum. 
47. 48. Sidrum (fochrostomOf var.) rufonotatum ; connected with type by a few 
intermediate specimens. Kare ; dead. 

?yi*ideila miUeptmctata. AlsoGuacomayO|Mus. Smiths. Veryrare,dead. 

NittdeUa densUineata. Very rare ; dead. 

TAtmchis tinda, 1 sp. 

AnachU fu9C09trigaia, 1 sp. 

FUama tlaia. A few worn specimens; like Paristerma, wi^out plait. 

The following table contains the species preyiously described, with the ad- 
dition of the other localities in which they are known to occur. The nombers 
b the first column are those in Prof. C. B. Adams's Panama Catalogue : a 
P in the same column signifies that the species has been found at Panama 
by other collectors. The second column contains the shells ai La Paz, col- 
lected by Major Bich and others, and are marked by an italic P. In the 
third column, A shows that the shell has been found at Acapulco, on good 
anthority ; and G, that it is known at other stations on the Central American 
coast The fourth column exhibits the corresponding numbers of the species 
in the B. M. Beigen Catalogue; and G shows that the shell has been found 
in tiie Gulf district by other collectors. In the fifth column, Cal. stands 
for Upper, and L for Lower CaHfomia ; Marg. for Margarita Bay, Gal. for 
the GalapagoB, E for Ecuador and the tropical shores of S. America, and WI 
for tiie West Indies. The sixth column continues the numbering of the 
^ttdes irom the list in the ' Annals.' 



Pn. 
Cat. 




Mas. 

CmL 


Other 
habitata. 


Ko. 


Liat of Cape St Looaa Sheila. 


517 




A 


14 


E 


53 


Diacina Cumingn, On MargaritipJwra, 


P 






22 


E 


54 


Gastrocfuena ovaUu In Spondyhts, 






A 


23 


Maig. 


55 
56 


Saxicava pholadis. In Spondylus, 
Eucharis, sp. ind. 1 dead yalve, resembling W. 
Indian speaea 


P 






35 




57 


Thracia squamosa, 1 broken pair. 








G 




58 




P 






L 


59 


Thracia (Cyathodonia) pUcata {^*?mtnmcaM, 
Mi^h."). lsp.,jun. 


P 






G 




60 


LyonsM inAata, 1 sp. 

MfOHstamota. 1 valve. 

TeUma Cummgii, 1 pair. 

TelUna rubescens [ s Aanleyi]. Smashed valve. 








36 


£ 


61 


m 

460 


P 


C 
A 


65 


£ 


62 
63 


472 










64 


StrigHia smcera, 1 valve. 


1 




A 


67 




65 


P 










66 


lAttrioola viridotincta, 2 valves. 


485 






41 




67 


Semeie Inoolor, Valves. 


1 






G 


Marg. 


68 


Semele Calif ormoa, var. Valves. i 


1 






40 


L 


69 


Semde flavescens. Rare. 


•48') 




A 


43 


E 


70 


Cumingia triyonularisy jun. In Spatidyifts, 


473 


P 


A 




WI 


71 


ffeterodanax biniaculatus. Abundant ; nonual, andi 


_ 










numerous vars. 1 



106 



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620 



BEPOBT — 1863. 



Cat 


UlAca- 
Pax.lpaL 


HUB. 

Cat. 


Other 
habitata. 


No. 


Lilt of Cape St Loou Shdlv. 






A 


756 
76 


(Mar.) 


72 
73 


Donax, var. calatus. Valves. 


456 




C 


77 


L 


74 


Dotmx ?ntmcula, jun. 


193 


P 


c 


80 




76 






P 




79 


WI 


76 


atandeOa fragUk. 1 ap. Hying, and tnmtsmB 
adult TalYea. 


446 


P 


c 


83 


E 


77 
78 


Tri^ona radiataj jun. 

Trtgona nttiMa, Sby. Several living §p. agree 

exactly with Sby.*8 fiyire. [Perhaps Lam-'s 

Mediterranean shell is different J 














448 







90 


E 


79 


Dosmia Dunkeri, Rare. 




P 




88 


KMar. 


80 


Dosmia ponderoaa. Several pairs [jun. wmditUm8\, 


444 




A 


92 




81 


Callista aurantia. 


447 


P 


A 


93 


E.Mar. 


82 








C 


96 


Marg. 


83 


CaUista mtlnerata. Living, and dead valves. 








98 


E 
L 


84 
85 


Callista (Pvar.) aUemata, 1 living. 

Amiantis cattosa. Rare, living [ « C nolnlis, Rve.]. 




P 




G 


L.Mar. 


86 


Chione mfcdncta, Veiy rare. 




P 


C 




E 


87 




P 


A 


106 


E 


88 
886 


Chmie neglecta, 'Living and valves, 
rare. [Probablvssn^ijrfecte, var.] 


435 


P 





113 
111 


E 


89 
90 


Afwmalocardia suttmbrtccUa, Valves. 
Tapes squamosa, 1 sp. 


P 




A 


24 
27 


E 


91 
92 


Petricoh robfista. In Spondylus, 
Pupeliaria Imguafdis. 








117 


E 


93 


CrassateUa varians. Living. Large and abundant 


492 




C 




E 


94: 


Crassatella gibbosa. Valves. 




P 


C 


118 




95 
96 


Lnzaria CdUfomiea. Very rare. 
Venericardia crassa, 1 valve. 


405 




C 


1216 




97 


Chama Buddiana, jun. On syenitic rock. 


407 




A 


121 


E 


98 


Chama echmata, Brod. Living, from Socorro Is. 


P 




C 


121 


Marg. 


986 


Chama frondosa, var. 








123 


L 


99 


Chama fexogyra. Worn valves. 




P 


A 


122 


Gal. 


100 


Chama spmosa. 1 sn. 

Cardivm consors. Valves. (Very fine at Acapulco.) 




P 


A 




E 


101 


433 




C 


125 


E.Mar. 


102 


Cardium procerum. Valves. 


434 






126 


E 


las 


Ca7'dittm smtiomm. Valves. 


P 


P 


A 




L 


104 


Hemicardhtm }na$igulatum. Valves. 




P 





136 


WI 


105 


valves. [Of the Pacific Is. tj^pe.] 


P 






137 


Pads. 


106 


Codakia fpunetata, jun. 


P 


P 


A 


147 


E 


107 


Lucma ebumea. Living, rai«. 


P 




A 


140 
145 
143 




108 
109 
110 


lAtcma excavata. 1 valve. 
Lucma proUmgata. Valves, 
Lucma oanceUaris. Valve. 






C 


O 




111 
112 
113 


Mtltha ChUdrem, [A few fresh specimens correct 
the habitat " Brazil," previously assigned to thi-i 
extremelv rare and remarkable shell, which ap- 
pears to De a gigantic Felania,] 

KeUia subwhicwaris. In Spondgbu, 


P 




A 


153 




114 






A 


154 




115 


Lasea rubra, 6 sp. living. 
AMilus mtdtiformis. Abundant 


? 




C 


167 




116 


P 


P 


A 


168 




117 


P 






169 j 


118 Sejttifer Cwminyianus, Common. 



106 



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ON MOLLtrSCA OY IHE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



621 



Pm.1 La 


Aea- 
puL 


Mm. 

Oat. 


Other 
habitat*. 


Na LiK of G^eSt Loom Sheila. 




P 


A 


170 


L.Mar. 


119 Modiola capax. A few living sp. " GaL" [P]. 

120 CrmeUa coaretata, hi Spondylus. 






A 


172 


Gal. 


P 




A 


176 




P 




A 


175 








P 


C 


181 




123 Area muUicotiata, Adult yalyes; and jun. liying. 


P 




c 


189 


£ 


124 Byssoarca Ptieifica. Rare. 


418 




A iUOl 


E 


125 Byssoaroa mutabiHs. Valye. 


420 


P 




192 


£ 


126 Barhatia Rmfiana. Valyes. 

127 Barbatia vetperiflio, Valvea. 


424 




c 


193 




128 Barbara iUota. Valye. 


423 


P 




195 


E 


129 Barbada mdida. Rare. 


416 




A 


194 


KMar. 


130 Barbatia yradata. Valye. 




P 




G 
($96 




132 AxuuMf sp. ind. 








201 


E 


133 Pinna UmceoUxta, FrajBfment. 


S95 






200 




134 Pirma maura, 1 sp., jun. 


P 


P 


A 


202 




135 Pinna rugosa. 1 sp., jun. 


391 


P 


C 


204 


£ 


137 Avicula Peruviana. Valyes. 


m 


P 


A 


205 












206 














liffament-pits, passing into eodeUatus, just as no. 
lS8, yar. passes into mcism.'] 




P 


A 


G 


E 


[P. intermedia is only a yar. of tlus species.] 
141 Pecten ventrieomu. Valyes. [The young is P. 


887 


P 


A 


207 


E.Mar. 




P 




G 




circularis, Sby., pars.] 
142 Janira detOata. Very plentiful. 




P 








143 Lima tetrica, 1 liying, and yalyes [^L,MHar^ie8a, 
teste Cuminy. W. L, Mediter., Pac. Is. J. 












390 








Gal. 


144 Lima arcuata, 1 fresh pair. [Can hardly be separa- 
ted from L.frayili9, Gal., Pac Is., in Mus. Cum.] 


385 






208 




145 Spondylue ealoifer. Valves. Red yar., and speci- 


3o6 




C 


210 




men changing into purple. 
146 PUcatula pemciUata, 1 sp. on Faecioktria, 


381 




A 


211 






383 


P 




212 


Mapg. 


148 OitreafVu-ytmoafixm. 








213 


E 




384 


P 




216 


Marg. 
Cal. 


150 Ostrea amara. On P&maukuc, 

151 CavoUnaftekmua. Fragment. (Pelagic.) 




i 






156 [ [^u<^^''i'<^<^ ^^ Aplyeia, Not yet determined.] 


321 


P 


A 


224 


E 


157 BttUa Adameij and yar. Common. 








225 


L 


158 BMinebuloaa. Rare. 






A 


226 


L.Gal. 
L 


169 Bulla Quoyi, Very rare. 

160 Haminea vesietda. Plentiful, Hying. 








229 


PL 


161 Haminea cymbiformu. 1 sp. [Closely related to 
jy. vireeoens.'\ 








240 


Mapg. 


162 Siphonaria aqmUrata. Dead. [ftiK 


P 




A 


239 




163 Siphonarialeoanium, with TBI, palmaUt,&c Plenti- 

164 Onehidmm Carpenteri. Very rare. 








235 


L.Oal. 


165 Melampue M)aceH$, Rare. 

166- ( [The rest of the Puhnonates will he tahulated 

172 f afterwards, vide n. 630.] 


















243 






_ 






L 


174 Iscknochiton Maydalensie. Large and highly sculp- 
tured. Very rare. 



107 



Digitized by 



Google 



67? 



REPOET— 1863. 



Pan. 
Cat 


LajAca- 
Pa..pul. 


Mas. 
Cat 


Other 
habitats. 


Na 


Lilt of Cape St Looaa Sheila. 






c 


252 

256 
258 


£ 


175 
176 
177 


Inchnochilan limacifoitnis, 2 specimens. 

IsdmocJtiton BeamL 1 sp. 

AcmUhochites atraganites, A few living sp. 






c 


261 




178 


PateUa dutcors. Dead. 






A 


260 




179 


Patella pedtcidus. Dead. 








264 


MarfT. 


180 


AcTMea foBcicitlaris. Abundant, living. 








268 




181 






P 


A 


273 


GaL 


182 


FiasureUa ruffom^ jun. [A var. is first black, witL 
two white rays : afterwards changes to whitish. 


367 




C 






183 


FimtreUa tmcrotrema. Common. [Passes into 
Fisnarella mgrocinda, 1 yonng sp. 








274 




184 


* 


P 


A 


279 
281 


E 

UCal. 
L. Cal. 


185 
186 
187 
188 


Ohfphis ina^juaUs, Rare. 

Mtmula Maxatlamca, 2 sp. 

HaliotM Cf^htrodU, (Turtle Bay.) 

HaUotU fpUndens. (Margarita Island, with 4,6, 

and6hole8.3* 
Calhpoma Fokkmi, Dead. 










L 


lf9 










L.C»L 


100 


PimuMlax undosuB. Fresh, with Gulf Polyzoa. 




P 


C 


286 




191 


UfsamUa oUvaoea. Dead. 






A 


288 




192 










289 


Marg. 


193 




274 


P 








194 


OmphaUui ooronulaius. Dead; not uncommon. 


263 






296 




196 


VUrinella Panamensis. 1 sp. off Spmtdylus. 


304 


P 


A 


326 


Marg. 


196 


Nerita Bcabricotia, Abundant. 


306 


P 


C 


327 


E.Mar. 


197 


Nerita Bernhardt, Abundant 


336 


P 


A 


343 


E.Mar. 


198 


Vmcibulum imbricatunu Dead. 


337 


P 


A 


344 


E.Mar. 


199 




344 


P 


A 


334 


E. Cal. 


200 


Cre/ndtda aeuleata. Dead. West and East Indies. 




P 


A 




E.Mar. 


201 


Crepidula exoavata, jun. et vaar.* 


346 




A 


337 


C.Mar. 


202 


346 


P 




340 


EMar. 


203 


CrepkUda onyx. Dead. 


328 


P 


A 


347 


E 


204 


Hippmyx antifwOus, Dead. 


327 




A 


349 




206 


Hipponyx harbatut. Pacific Is. Fresh sp. 
Hipponyx Orayanus, Rare. 


329 


P 


A 


360 


GaL 


206 


323 


P 


A 


362 
366 




207 

208 


Bimmia oontorta. Frequent, on shells. 






A 


369 




209 






P 




367 


L 


210 
211 


Spiroglpphus Utuella, On Purpwa planoBpira and 

murtcata, from Socorro Is. 
C<Bcum subimpresBum, Very rare. 




P 


A 


380 


2121 


Turritdla tigrina et var. Cummyii 




P 








213 


TurrMia sanffutnea, ( W hirls not shouldered.) 


193 


P 


A 


381 


GaL 


214 


lam. Abundant. 


196 


P 


A 


383 




216 


Ceriihium uncinatum. Common; dead. 


200 


P 


A 


887 


G.Mar. 


216 


Oerithmm &Ureu8 mtisoarum. Rare; dead. 




P 


A 


388 


GaL 


217 




197 


P 


A 


389 


Marg. 
Marg. 

PE.Ik&. 


218 
219 


Minodavis gemmata. Rare. 
PyraxMt incinu. Rare. 


?206 






396 


220 


CeriUndea Masatlamoa, Dead. 



* A difficulty attends the identification of young specimens of these rare species, no 
series having yet been obtained. ** C exeavata^ var.," in Mus. Cum. is exactly interme* 
diate between the two. The young otexcavata has a large swelling umbo projecting beyond 
the margin ; the umbo ixi**f var." has the margin spreading round it, as in oiiyx, jun., 
and in consequence appears turned in the contrary direction. The umbilicus above the 
deck exists in both loTms{ but ^ is not an absolute^ constant cbaractSTi eyen in adunc^ 

108 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON M0LLV8CA 07 THE WEST COAdV OF NORTH AMERICA. 



623 



jPu. 


La Ac»> 


M»..| 


other 


No. 


k 


?«.,»IU.| 


^1 


habitata. 




232 




c 


397 


Marg. 


221 


234 


P 


c 


396 




222 


P 






398 




286 


273 


P 




401 


E 


223 


244 










224 


245 










225 






A 


406 




226 


243 










227 


247 










228 


246 






414 




229 






C 


417 
411 
422 


L 


230 
231 
232 








420 


L 


233 








419 




234 








425 




235 








427 




236 






A 


424 




237 


42 










2376 


4 






435 


PL 


238 


6 


P 


A 


438 


E 


239 


8 


P 
P 
P 


C 




E 


240 
241 
242 


9 


P 


A 


439 




243 


10 


P 


A 


440 


GaLE. 


244 


p 


P 


A 


441 




245 




P 


A 




Gal. 


246 


12 


P 


A 
A 


442 


E 


247 
248 


13 




A 




GulfE 


249 


122 




C 


447 




250 


124 


P 


A 


448 


Gal.E 


251 


123 


P 




449 


E 


252 


P 




C 






253 






C 


454 


E 


254 




P 


A 


465 




255 






A 


456 


E 


256 






C 






257 




P 




G 
450 
452 




258 
259 
260 




P 


C 


457 




261 


163 






461 
465 


E 


262 
263 








467 


E 


264 




P 








265 


1 




A 
A 






266 
267 



LisI ot Cape Sk tooaa Shellt. 



LUorina aspera. Very rare. 

LUarma cotuperm. Common. A distorted specimen 

has a Lacunoid chink ; another a Nasaoia shape. 
Litorma PkUtppU. Rare : v. a»iUd, yvx. penkiUata 
ModtUus caUmUatmy jun. 
Rinoinajirmata, Rare. 
Rig8oinaforti$. Very rare. 
Ris9oina dricta. Rare. 
Rinoma ckmdedina. Dead. 
Bisioina infremiens. Dead, worn. 
Alvania tumida, 1 sp.^ ofi SpottdyluM. 
Barleeia subtenm$, I ap. 
Barleeia lirata, 1 sp. 
GemdUt, ap. 1 sp. 
Jeffr^na Alderi, 1 sp. 
Jeffreysia bifaaciata. Very rare. 
Alaba supriiltrata. Not uncommon. 
Aiaba terebraks. 1 dead, hroken specimen. 
Planaxis mgriteUa, Dead ; some of the specimen; 

may be a dwarf form of 
PtanaxU ? pltmieostata. 
BadUu variabilU. 1 sp. 
Aricia arMcula, Very rare. 
Aricia puncttdata. Very rare. 
Lxtpoma Sowerbyi. 1 liying and several worn. 
Luponia albuffinosa. Dead ; plentiful. 
[Cypraa iigris and Pteroceras lambis; doubtless 

received through traders.] 
Trivia piutttlata. Dead. 
Trivia radians ; intermediate specimens towards 
Trivia Sokmdri Dead. 
Trivia Pacifica. 1 sp. 
Trivia sanguinea. Dead. 
JSrato Mangeri<fi, [Exactly like the W. Indian 

specimens : also Crag Ibssi!, teste S. Wood.] 
Erato 9cabriu9cula. Rare. 
Stromhus ffaleatui, jun. 1 sp. 
Stramlms granulahts. Abundant; dead. 
Stromhus ffraoiUor, 1 dead specimen. 
StUnda striyata, 2 dead specimens. 
Skdfula ? bictuosoy jun. 
Euryta fulgurata. Dead. 
Euryta aciculata. Dead. 
Terebra UnyuaUs. 1 sp. 
Myurella variegata. Very rare. 
Hfyurelia albooificta, 1 dead specimen. 
Myttr^Ua mdmodoea, 1 dead specimen. 
Pleurotomaftmiculata, Rare; dead. 
DrUUa aterrima. Rare ; and var. Melcher$L 
DrUUa albovaUosa, 1 sp., dead. 
DrUUa Ittotuoaa, 1 sp., dead. 
DriiUa maura^ Val. Fragment. 
Daphnella casta, 1 sp. [Coarser stria than W. L 

species, but scarcely dilfen from erebriplicata^ 

Kve., "Philippines.^ 
Cithora dromwHdts 1 sp. 

Eien.] 



[Probablya^rtMcsa, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



C24. 



REPORT — 1863. 



Pan. 
Cat 



La 
Pas. 



117 
113 
118 
114 
116 

118 

p 

270 



254 
227 



194 
207 
208 

P 
295 

P 



302 



146 

66 

112 
111 
110 



131 
132 



151 
18 
19 



P 
14 



Aoa- Mai. 
puL Cat. 



476 
480 
481 



489 
501 
507 
518 
519 
524 
532 
563 
557 
391 

570 



576 



G 
G 
G 

577 
679 



682 

584 



686 
G 
589 

587 



Other 



E 

GaLE 



GaL 



E 



L 
L 



GaL 



E 



Gal. 

Marg. 

£ 



E.Mar. 

GaL 
GaL 



Gal. 
E 



Gal.E 
E 



Wa 



268 
269 
270 
271 
272 

273 
274 
275 

276 
277 
278 
279 
280 
281 
282 
283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 



290 
291 



292 
293 
294 
295 
296 

297 

298 
299 
300 



301 
302 
303 

304 
305 
306 

307 
308 
309 
310 
311 



LiBt of Cape St Looas Shells. 



Conus pirincep$. Bead. 

Comtsbnmneus, Dead. 

ConuB purpura9oens and var. regalUaUB. Dead. 

Cfmm gladiator. Dead. 

Comu nux et Tar. pusUlui [Gld, non Chem.]. 
LdTing; plentiful. 

Coims tadai'is, 1 gp., dead. 

Conu8 iomatus. Rare, dead. 

Solariwn granulatum, and ? var. quadriceps. Com- 
mon. 

Odostomia fttraminea, 1 sp. 

Syrnola lamellata. 1 sp., oti SpmdyJm. 

Oscilla exarata^Bcterebellum, 1 sp. 

ChrysalUdacammunii, Isp.^off iSpondgkii, 

Chemnibda Panamentis, Very rare. 

Chemniteia AdamsL 1 sp., off Spandylua, 

Chemmtzia proUmgata, 1 sp., off Spondglm, 

ChenmittiaJhveMens. 1 sp., off Spondyha, 

CerOkiopm* ammUata, 1 8p.,off Spondglus, 

Certthioptk tubercuhides, I sp. 

Trifori$ altematm, 1 sp., off Spondglus, 

Scalaria ? tiara, 1 sp. 

Natica maroccana. Com. Vf, Afir. ; P Pacific la. 

Natica xonaria. Common. Operc. grooved as in 
canrena [^alapapHioinsj var.^ teste Rve.: nou 
ChenL]. 

NiUica catenata. Common. 

Polinices uber. Common. [The young shells go 
through all shapes, from globose to pointed. 
Operc thin, light green, homy.] 

Poknioes otis et var. ftiMo, Rare ; dead* 

Polinices hifasciata. Living; rare. 

Neverita glauca, 1 sp. 

Lamellaria, sp. ind 1 sp. 

Fictda ventricosa. Not uncommon. Animal pre- 
served of both sexes, and of surpassing beauty. 

Malea ringens, 1 dead sp. [Fossil^ Atlantic shores, 
Newheri'y,'] 

Omscia tuberculosa. Very rare. 

Levenia coarctata. Very rare. 

Bezoardica abbreviata, 1 living, with very small 
normal operculum. Common ; dead. [Varies 
greatly in form and sculpture, like the Texan 
** analogue,'' which may be conspecitic] 

Triton vestitus, Isp. [Scarcely differs from /i&arw.] 

Panella calata. 1 sp., dead. 

BaneUa CaUforwica, Very rare. Grows 4 inches 



Latirtis ceratus, 2 dead sp. 

Famnolaria prmoeps, 2 dead sp. 

Mitra crenata, Rve., teste Dohm. 1 sp. [Fsmc. 

cleola,'] 
Mitra soUtariay C. B. Ad. 1 sp. * 

Strigatella tristis. Rare. 
jEtteta harpa, 1 sp. 

VoluteUa marparittda. Off Spondylus ; conmion. 
MargineUa mtHor. Off Spondylus; me. 



110 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



623 



La;i 



CO. 



Other 
h*bitati 



5o. 



list ct Cape St Loom Sheila. 



39 



34 



76 



74 
107 
f% 
94 

86 

90 



PWI 



G 

601 

IP6Q2 



000 
596 
605 
601 
508 
507 



Marg. 
Marg. 



?WI 
E 



G 

606 
607 
606 
603 
605 



611 

618 
615 
617 



624 



E.Mar. 

GaL 

GMar. 

£ 

GaL 



Gal. 
WI 

E 

E 

GaL 
E 
E 
E 

L.Mar. 



812 
313 
814 



315 
816 
817 



818 
810 
820 
821 
822 
828 
824 



825 
826 
827 
828 
820 
880 

881 

882 

a%3 

834 
885 
836 
887 
838 
9S^ 
840 
841 
842 
848 
844 
845 



Volvarma varia. Rare. [Cannot be distinguished 
from some W. I. specimenaj 

Penicula imbricatn. 1 tp. [Cfan scarcely be sepa- 
rated from inierrttptaj jun. Also Guacomayo.] 

P^iicuia phrygia, Kare. [Closely allied to fru- 
mmtunu Differs from tbe W. 1. sagittata by 
haying tbe painting in loops instead of zigzag, 
and an orange callosity oyer the sunken spire, 
bordered hj a spotted sutural line.] 

OUva porphyruL 1 sp. 

OUva Metckersi, var. Rare. 

OUva mbangulata. Yeij common, dead. [This 
species, Tery rare elsewhere, Is known by the 
snouldered shape, toothed paries, and yioltjt- 
stained mouth and columellaTI 

OUveOa dama. Rare ; dead. 

Olivdla UrgiiMU Rare ; dead. 

OliveUa mdateUa, 8 sp. ; dead. 

OUveUa xonaUa. Rare; dead. 

OliveUa v, aweocmcla, 8 sp. ; dead. 

OliveUa amuora. Very rare; dead. Perhaps a yar. of 

OliveUa gracilis. Extremely abundant. [With 
many yarieties : among wnich is one with dark 
median and sutural bends and light spire ; an- 
other with dark spire ; another pure white, of 
which the young is incanepicua, Cf. B. Ad. The 
Acapulcan yarieties are somewhat different.} 

Harpa crenata. Dead. 

Purpura himri^u. Abundant. 

Purpura trieertaUs. Common. 

Ihajntra triangularis. Not uncommon. 

Pwpura patma. Common. Also West Indies. 

Ikapura muncata. Rare ; dead at C. S. L. ; Hying 
at Socorro Island. 

Purpura planospira. Dead shells at C. S. L. and 
La Paz ; abundant and fine at Socorro Island. 

JihiwcheUus imr+tall yar. [s Califomicus,] 

Sistrum carbonarium, Liymg ; plentifuL 

NiUdeUa cribraria. Abundant. 

Columbella major. Rare. 

Columbella/uscata, Abundant. 

Columbella /estiva. Not rare. 

Columbella hamastoma. Not rara, 

Columbella soUdula, Abundant *. 

Columella Reevei [ss 8ta, Barbarensis, Cpr. (error)]. 

Columella baccata. Rare. 

Conella oedonuUi, 1 sp. 

Nassa tegula. Rare ; pale yar. 

Nassa versicolor. Rare ; dead. 

Nassa corpulenta. Very rare. 



* Tbe young shell is thin, semitransparent, with Alaboid tuberoui yertex. The nuclear 
pftrt is r^her more tumid than the next whirl, and aet slantiDg as in some Chrysodomi, 
Adolescent, whirls imooth, except a sutural line. Sculpture of adult mdually dereloped, 
w*'ih spiral lines, sometimes all over, sometimes only anteriorly and posteriorly. Last 
whirl sometimes with blunt radiating riblets, but generally smooth. Siphonal notch deeply 
eut back, as iu Strombina, to whieh the species may belong. 

1863. jjj 



Digitized by KjOOOXQ. 



626 



BBPOKT — 1863. 



Pan. 
Cat 


Lft 
Pas. 


Aoa- Mm.! Other 

1 i 


No. 


— 1 

liik or Cap« St Loom aiieUs. 




P 






GaL 


346 


FusHi Thouarm [+JV<ww-J5ro«oiklk», Rve.]. Rare ; 
dead. 

Mtgma Peeviana. 1 sp. 


109 


P 




639 


E 
GaL 


347 
348 


P 




A 




Gal. 


349 




P 







647 




860 


Anachis oortmaia. Very itere. 








662 


£ 


351 


Anachis t^gmaia [s Oa^Mnei], Verj raxa 


99 










352 


Anachis ptdekrior. Very rare. 

Anachi8?nMda,Thil Very rare. 

Anachii Yparvm, yar. Dead shells : may be py^ 








G 




363 


98 








E 


354 














m€Ba, var. 








650 




356 


Anachis mrrata, A few perfect specimens. 


(100 


)^ 


A 


(661 


)(fi) 


366 


Anaehis pffffmtBa (var. auriflud). Rare. 




P 


C 


667 




357 




87 








E 


358 




64 


P 


A 


662 




369 


PiBania Mngwnokmla, Dwarf yar. j eommoB. 


eo 




A 






360 


Pisama hsptbrii. Bare; dead. 
Murex pUoatus, Bare; dead. 




P 


C 


664 




361 


140 


P 


A 


665 




362 


Mfirex reeurvirodria. 1 sp., dead. 




P 


A 


669 




363 






P 


A 


671 




364 


Mwicidea dnbia. Rare; dead. 


136 


P 


A 


673 




366 












366 


Pelagic 












367 


OdojMSf sp. Pelagic. 



As would be expected, the bulk of these species (203 out of 367) are the 
same as have been abready enumerated in the Reigen Catalogue. Of those 
which do not appear in the Mazatlan lists, no fewer than 37 appear in tho 
Panama collections (beside 10 others, known to inhabit the equatorial region).* 
Of those not quoted from Mazatlan, 34 are also found in the Acnpulco 
region, and 30 at La Pas. Of the whole number, 79 have also been found 
in South America, and 28 in the Galapagos. 38 have also been found in 
Margarita Bay, of which Pyrazus incistis and Siphonaria cequiUrata are Lower 
Calif omian rather than Gulf species ; but only 13 belong to that portion of 
the Lower Califomian fauna which is known to reach S. Diego, exclusive of 
the same number of Gulf species, which also stray into the 8. Diegan district. 
There are also 10 species, which (with more or less distinctness) represent 
West Indian forms. Of these, five, vii. UeUrodonax bimaciilatus, Erato 
MaugeriaSf Volvarina varia, Persicula imbricata and phrygiti, are new to tho 
Gulf fauna : the other five appear in the Reigen Catalogue. 

106. The most extensive collections in tho Vancouver district, both as far 
as the number of species and of specimens is concerned, have been made for 
the Smithsonian Institution by Mr. J. G. Swan, teacher at the Indian Reserve, 
Neeah Bay, W. T. For several years • valuable consignments have been 
received from him of shells collected at Cape Flattery, Port Townsend, and 
other stations. Latterly he has trained the native children to pick up shore- 
shells in large quantities. The labour of sorting and arranging these has 
been enormous; it has, however, been repaid not only by observing the 

* In eonsequence of boxes having been reoeired at diflTerent times, through the aocidentv 
of transit, it has not always been possible to ascertain with oortainty to whom, among 
■imultaneuus collectors, should be allowed priority in the discoveiy of new specie*. 

112 



Digitized by KjOOOXQ. 



OS BffOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 627 

Tariations of form in large numbers of individnals, but bj the discovery of 
seTenl new species and the addition to the district-fauna of many others. 
The duplicates are made-up in series for distribution by the Smithsonian 
Institution ; and, though of the worst quality from a " collector's " point of 
new, they will be found very serviceable by real students, being carefully 
named in accordance with this Beport. He has now received a dredge, con- 
structed for him by Dr. Stimpson; and if he succeeds in training the young 
Indiana to use it, there is little doubt that a rich harvest of freah materials 
will shortly be obtained. Some of the collections were made on the neigh- 
bouring shores of Vancouver's Island, among which Fas a large series of 
Piiehypoma gibherosum, Chem., with attached Bivo'^ia, t>oth of an essentially 
Eastern Pacific type, the former having been brought from Japan by Mr. A. 
Adams. The Indians have taken a fancy to the opercula of this shell for the 
purpose of ornamenting their cadoes. As it is an article of trade among 
themselves, it is remarkable that so large a shell should have so long escaped 
the notice of collectors. Dead specimens have been washed-up in California ; 
but it is not known even to enter the Straits of De Fuca alive. The shore- 
pickings of the Indian children, which have already added 25 species to 
Bcience, are singularly frge from ballast-importations, although they present 
a few (supposed) extra- limital shells, probably washed-up by the ocean 
currents. The following are the species new to the Vancouver fauna ; the 
remainder will be found tabulated in the 7th column of the general Table, 
par. 112, infrd. 

ifa 

1. Waldhehnia Coreantca, valves. 

2. Xylntrya petmatifera, teste Jeffir. 

8. CUdiophora punctata, one worn valve. 

4. Macoma ^edenttda. Two living shells may be the yoimg of this spedes, or an 

extreme var. of inqutnata. 

5. Mara aalmonea. Plentiful. 

6. AngtiluB variegatus. Rare. 

7. Setnele rttbrolineata. One large valve may belong to this species, or (more 

probably) be distinct and new. 

8. Standella ? CaUfomica, One young valve. 

9. Miodon prolongatus, n. subg., n. a. Several valves of this curious shell, inter- 

mediate between Lucina and Venericardia, accord with forms not before 
eliminated, from the Coralline Crag and Inferior Oolite. 
1(X Lazarta mtbqvadrata. One valve. 

11. Diphdonia orbeUa, Very large valves. 

12. Kellia (var.) Ckiromi. A few valves. 

13. Adida gtyUna, Plentiful. 

U. Axifuea (? septentrioitaliSj var.) subob$okta. Numerous valves. 

15. Siphmaria Thersites, n. s. Rare, dead. Like tristensis and other Cape Horn and 

N. Zealand types. The genus was not known north of Margarita Bay. 

16. MopaUa (Kennerieyi, var.) Swarmii, One sp. and valves. 

17. IsiAnochiion {Trachydermon) NuUaUh. One sp. 

18. ffaliotis Kamischatkana, Rare. 

19. Pachypoma gibberomm, Chem. Living ; plentifuL 

90. Leptonyx sangumeuSf Linn. Very plentiful. (Japan, A, Ad.i^ITonudopfnnn 

sangmneimif antea p. 588 (nom. preoc.) ; Mediterranean, FhUippi.) 
21. Chhrodomafimebrale (et var. mbapertum. One sp.). 
21 CaOioHoma canaUculatum. Living ; abundant. 
2^. Margarita ddaris, n. s. One fresh specimen, with aspect of Turcica. 
34 Margarita heUcina, Very rare. 
25. GthbuUi parcipida. One sp. 
2»l Glhbula auccincta, n. s. Rare. 
27. Gihhula lacmuxta^ n. s. One sp^ 

8 113 



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628 KEPOBT— 1863. 

28. GibbtthfumculatOy n. s. Very rare. 

29. Hipponyx cranioiaeSf n. s. PlentifuL 

80. JBkonia compacta^ u. s. Frequent on Pcushypoma ; externally resembles lVte« 

hconchw macrophragma, 

81. BitUum (Pyar.) esurieru. Common, dead. 

82. Lacuna porrtcttt, n. s. Plentiful, -with intermediate Pyara. exaqwda wad 

effiua. 

83. Lacuna (?sol(dula, yar.) compacta. Rare. 

84. Lacuna variegata, n. a. Not common ; resembles the Japanese X. decorata, 
35. I$ap%8 fenegtratay n. s. Very rare. 

86. Alcama rettcuiata, n. s. Very rare. 

87. AltaniafUoMj n. s. One speciinen. 

88. ?Amininea mbrotundata, n. s. One specimen. 

89. fPaUtdineUay sp. One specimen. 

40. Mangelia crebncodatay n. s. Very rare. * 

41. Mangelia interfotsa, n. s. Seyeral dead specimens. 

42. ManatUa tabtuaia, n. s. Seyeral dead specimens. 

43. Daphnella efusa, n. s. One broken specimen. 

44. Oaostomia MturOj n. s. and Pyar. Oouldii. Very rare. 

45. Odostomia nuciformUy n. s. and Pyar. aveUana. Very rare. 

46. Odostomia m/lata. Very rare. 

47. Odostomia tmmscuipta, n. s. Very rare. 

48. Scalaria Indianorum, n. s. Rare. 

49. Opalia boreaUs. Very common. This fine species, indicated by Dr. Gld. fEt 

E. Mol., p. 307) under Scalaria australis, closely resembles O. Ochotengitf 
Midd. It is not referred to in the ' Oti%' and the locality was naturally 
suspected. 

60. Cerithiopsis munitay n. s. Rare. 

51. Cerithiopsis columna. Very rare. 

62. Cerithiopsis tuherculata. \ Rare. No di£ferences haye been detected on comparing 

63. Triforis adversa, \ the Herm and Neeah Bay specimens. 

64 Trichotropis inermis, A few specimens differ from the decorticated T, cat^^ 

lata^ and agree with Hinds's diagnosis. 
65. Cancellaria modesta, n. s. One sp. and fragment 
60. Vehitina prolongaia. n. s. Very rare. 
57. Olivella biplicata. Very fine and abundant. 

68. Purpura (yax.)fuscata. Forbes's species, the locality of which was before un- 

certain, is here connected by easy transitions with the normal saxicola, 

69. Columbella (yar.) ?Hmdsii. May lie a stunted form of A. gausapata, 

60. Amycla tuberosa. Rare. 

61. Chrysodomus tabuUOus, One beautifrdly perfect specimen; described and 

figured from Mr. Lord's broken shell, sent simultaneously. 

The following appear to be due to currents : — 

62. Pachydesma crassateUoides. Fragment 

63. Fissurella volcano. One broken specimen. 

107. A collection of sheila receiyed from the Farallones Islands by Mr. B. 
D. Darbishire, of Manchester, soon after the publication of the first Report, 
contained seyeral species at that time new to science, but in too imperfect a 
condition for description. Among them were — 

Martesia intercalata, Max. Cat, no. id. Burrowing in HaUotis rufesoeiu, 
Odostomia inflataj n. s. Young shells, abundant, in HaUotis rufescens, 
Ocinehra lurtda, 
Ocinehra innUrfossa^ n. a. 

Collections from the same locality were afterwards sent by the Rev. J. 
Rowell, and are tabulated with the rest of th^ Smithsonian series in the 4tb 
column of the general Table, par. 112. 

114 



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ON M0LLU8CA OF THE WEST COAST OF NOKTH AMERICA. 629 

108. In 1860, previously to the commencement of the Californian Geo- 
logical Survey, Dr. J. G.(>ooper joined a military expedition across the Rocls*y 
Mountains, under the command of Major Blake, U.S.A. Having forwarded 
his notes and specimens to Judge Cooper, they were placed in the hands of 
Mr. Thomas Bland, of New York. He prepared a ** Notice of Land and 
Freshwater Shells, collected hy Dr. J. G. Cooper in the Rocky Mountains, &c.," 
which appears in the 'Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. York,' 18(51, pp. 362 et seq. 
We have here the judgment of one of the most distinguished students of 
American land-shells, whose labours on the tropical forms have accumulated 
facts so important in their bearing on the Darwinian controversy •. The fol- 
lowing is an outline of the Report, which is peculiarly valuable for the copious 
notes on the station and distribution of species : — 

Yo.. 

L Hdix TowMendianay Lea. ** Both slones of the Bitter Root Mountains, from 
2300-5000 ft. hi^h. Large var. at the base of the range to 4800 ft. Small 
var. in dry praine at junction of Hell-Gate and Bitter Koot Rivers; also in 
Wash. Ter., west of the Coast Mountains. The most wide-spread of the 
species,'' /. G, C, ; Pu^et Sound, Cape Disappointment, teste BUmd, 

2. Httix MuUaniy n.s., BlancL '^ Under logs and m dry pine-woods : dead, Coeur 
d'Alene Mission : living, west side of Bitter Root Mountains," J, G. C. ; 
St Joseph's River, Ist Camp, Oregon, teste Binney, Closely allied to H. Od- 
htmbianaf Lea,=s/a6to«a, Gld. A beauti^ hyaline var. was found under a 
stone, by the Bitter Root River, 4000 ft. high. 

& Bdix polygyrtUoy n.s.. Bland. '^ Moss and dead wood in dampest parts of 

roe-foreets ; conunon on the Coeur d'Alene Mountains, especially eastern 
^ 3," J. G, C. Entirelv unlike any other N. A. species, and having affi- 
nity with ff, potygyrata nrom Brazil. 

4 RtUx Vancouverensis, Lea,=^. concavay Bin. sen. olim, non postea, nee Say; 
=J5r. veiiicatOf Fbs.,^ certainly ; =J5r. sporUUa, Gld., probably. " West sille 
of Coeur d'Alene Mountains, W. T., in forests of Coniferae, such as it in- 
habits west of the Cascade Range. Between these two ranges, for 200 miles, 
is a wide plain, quite uninhabitable for snails, on account of drought. Th s 
sp. and it, Townsendiana probably travel round it through the northern 
forests in lat 49°," J, G. C. Also Crescent City, Cal., Kewcomh ; Oregon 
City, Whidby's Is., W. T. ; Mus. Bland. Found on the Pacific slope, liom 
Puget Sound to San Diego. 

& Ht&x strifosa, Gld. " iEstivating under pine-logs, on steep slope of shale, 
containing veins of lime, 4000 ft high, near Bitter Root River, Rocky Moun- 
tains," ^G, C; Big Horn Mountains, Nebraska; Rio Piedra, W. New 
Mexico : teste Bland. One sp. reached N. York alive, and deposited six 
young sneUs. [PMay not these have been abnormally hatched in the body 
of the parent, from the unnatural confinement.] 

8. jHlcfij Cooperi, Binn., jun. " East side of Mullan's Pa^, Rockv Mountains, 
W. T., at an elevation of 5500 ft," J. G, C. ; Black Hills of ifebraska, D>-. 
V. Haydm ; Big Horn Mountains, Nebraska j west side of Wind River 
Mountains ; Rio Piedra, W. N. Mexico, teste Bland. Passes by vaiieties 
towards H, ghngota, GldL Hayden's shell from Bridger's Pa88,Nebr., referred 
to by Binn., jun., Joum. A. N\ S. PhiL 1858, p. 115, as H, solUariay var., is 
the young of this species. 

1. EeUx BoUtaria, Say. Both slopes of Coeur d'AlSne Mts., 2500 feet high, J, G. C. 
Also Prairie States, teste Bland. 

& Helix arborea, Say. " Damp bottom lands, along the lower valley of Hell-Gate 
River. 4500 ft. hiffh," J, G, C, Found from Labrador to Texas, and from 
Florida to Nebraska; also on the River Chama, N. Mex. ; also Guadaloupe, 
teste Beau and FirusMC, letter to Say^ 1820; teste Bland, 

* rt<2e ** Geographioal Distribation of the Oenera and Species of Land Shells of the 
^tat Indies, &c," oj Thomas Bland. Beprinted from Ann. Lvc. !Nat. Hist, toL m ^ew 
York 186i, 

116 

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630 REPORT— 1863. 

0. Helir sfnaUyia, Anth. With H. arhwea^ J. G. C. From Cauftda R to Kansas, 

and |jx>in Pembina CKed River N.) to Virprinia ; teste Bland, 

10. Succinea rusticana, Gld. " Rocky Mountains of Bitter Root Valley, 2500- 

4500 ft," J. o. a 

The freshwater shells collected on the Rocky Mountains by Dr. Cooper 
were determined, with the assistance of Dr. Lea and of Messrs. Binney and 
Prime, as follows : — 

11. Limnaa fragUU [as of] linn. [Binney]. Hell-Gate River; Missouri River, 

above the Falls. [bZ. palttstris, auct.] 

12. LitmuM humilis, Say. Hell-Gate River. 

13. LimtuBa bulimoideSf linn. fBinne^l. Missouri River, above the FaUs. 

14. Limtuea desidiosOf Say. Missouri River, above the FaUs. 

15. P/iysa kypnorum, liiin. Hell-Gate River. 

1(3. Phi/sa hettrostrophaf Say. Hell-Gate River ; Missouri River, above the Fallii 

17. Planarbis triwdvis, Say. Hell-Gate River. 

18. Planorln8?pwnm$,Seij. Hell-Gate River. 
10. AiwyhUf sp. ind. 

20. MelamapUcifera,LeaL. Hell-Gate River. 

21. ZeptoxiSf sp. ind. 

22. Afrmicohf sp. ind. 

23. Sph<erittm [CycUu] occidetUak, Prime. Hell-Gate River. 

24. ^harium [ Cyckuij striatimtm, Lam. Missouri River, above the Falls. 

25. Umo bdeoUtSf Lam. 

28. Mar^aritana margarWtraj linn. Missouri River, above the Falls ; also Spokan 
River, below Lake Coeur d'Alene,s^./a/<yi^, Gld. ; the purple var. hitherto 
only found on the Pacific slope. 

109. The land-shells of the peninsula of California present points of great 
interest to the student of geographical distribution. While those of the 
eastern shore of the Gulf belong exclusively to the Mexican or Central Ame- 
rican fauna, those of the western present in their general features that form 
of the South American type which belongs to the region of the Andes. The 
contrast between the Glandinse and painted Buliroids of Mazatlan, and the 
small dull forms, or solid white shells of the peninsula, is evident even to the 
superficial observer. They are catalogued by Mr. Binney in the * Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sc. Philadelphia,' 1861, pp. 331-333, and are as follows, outline-figures 
being given of the new species : — 

Wo. 

1. Htlix artdata^ Shv. Cerros Is., Br, VeaUih. 

2. HfiUx Pandora, Fos. Margarita Is. {Bmney), 

8. Bulimm excelsuSf Gld. La Pae. (Mus. Cal. Acad. N. S.) 
4. Bulimus vesicalis, Gld. Lower California. [Altered in ' Otia,' p. 184, to B* 
9wflatu9 ; nom. preoc] 

6. BuUmuspaUidior,l^hy,fSsvegekt$, Gld. With B. incendens, v.inM. (S. Ame- 

rica, Cuming,) [Cape St Lucas list, no. 166.] 
0. Btdtmus proteusj Brod. One large and manv young specimens ; Cape St. Lucas, 
XantM, (MountMUs of Peru, teste J^eijet-.) [C. S. L., no. 167.] 

7. Btdimus Xantusi^ iLB, Promontory of St. Lucas. 4 8p. Xantus, [No. 168.1 

8. Bulimus artemista, n.8. Promontory of St. Lucas. 1 sp., on small species dt 

Artemisia; Xantus. [C. S. L., no. 160.] 
0. Bulimus pU/ida, n.8. Todos Santos Mission and Maivarita Is., in rocky spots 

under mosses, not uncommon, Xantus. Resembles S, sufflaius,\vai. [No. 170.] 
10. Bulimus incmdensy n.s. In great numbers with B. pamdioTf Shv., climbing 

high « copal " or copaiva trees, on dry hills 800-1000 ft. high ; Cape St. 

Lucas, Margarita Bay, Xantus, Resembles B. excelsus, Gld. TNo. 171.] 
IL P^ipes lirata, Binn. Cape St Lucas, 2[antus, [C. S. L., no. 1/2.] 

116 



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ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 631 

110. At the time of the preparation of the first Report, not a single 
naturalist was known in Europe to be resident on the western slope of North 
America, to whom communications could be addressed on the subject of it. 
There was, however, even at that time, a '< Califomian Academy of Natural 
Sdences," which met at S. Francisco, and published its ' Proceedings.' This 
Academy is now in a flourishing condition, under the presidency of Col. L. 
Baosom. The general zoological department is under the care of Dr. J. G. 
Cooper; the shells under that of Dr. J. B. Trask, Vice-President of the Academy, 
whose name has already appeared in Judge Cooper's Report, anted, p. 597 ; 
and the fossils under that of Mr. W. M. Gabb. The corresponding secretary 
is Dr. W. 0. Ayres ; and the librarian Prof. J. D. Whitney, the director of 
the State Geological Survey. Already the nucleus has been formed of a very 
valuable collection, many of the critical species in which have been sent to 
England for identification. The coasting-trade between S. Francisco and 
many stations in L. California, the Gulf, and the Mexican coast, ofiers pecu- 
liar facilities for obtaining valuable information. Two of the contributors to 
the Califomian Academy require special and grateful mention. Dr. Wesley 
Newcomb (whose labours had greatly enriched the State Collection at his 
native city, Albany, New York, and whose researches among the AchatinellcB 
in the Sandwich Islands are well known) is stationed at Oakland, near Eran- 
dflco, and has already furnished valuable papers, an abstract of which is heie 
given, as well as emendations and additions to the British Association Report, 
which are included in their appropriate places*. The Rev. J. Rowell has long 
been a r^^ar correfipondent of the Smithsonian Institution, and has sub- 
mitted Uie whole of his West-coast collections for analysis. He has dis- 
played pecuhar industry in searching for small species on the backs of the 
larger shells, especially the Haliotids of the Califomian coast, and the Ostrea 
iridescms, which is imported in large quantities from Acapulco for the San 
Francisco market f. 

In the ' Proc. California Ac. Nat. Sc.,' vol. i. pp. 28-30, Feb. 1855, Dr. 
J. B. Trask published descriptions of Anodonta bandalli, Trask, Upper San 
Joaquin ; Anodonta trtangidaris, Trask, Sacramento River; Anodonta rotund- 
ovo/a, Trask, Sacramento Valley ; Alasmodonta Yvhaensis, Trask, Yuba River. 

In the ' Ann. Lye. N. H. New York,' vol. vii. 1860, p. 146, Dr. Newcomb 
describes the first Pupa found on the Pacific slope, viz. Pupa HoweUii, Newc. 
Kear Oakland, Cal. " Approaches nearest to P. ovata, Say." 

• The *' Chifon amieulafus,'' Newc., MS., - CrtmtochUon SteJUri. " Rare near 8. Fran- 
ciioo ; loniewhat more abundant in the Bay of Monterey." His ** Fanopma generoaa^** in 
the Albany Mueeum, was found to be Schizotharus NuttalUu 

t Af an instance of the way in which mistakes arise, may be placed on record a aeries 
of shells sent to Mr. Bousseau. of Troy, New York, by Mr. Hilman, formerly of that 
dtj, now a resident at San Francisco. They were sent as Califomian ; yet^ of the thirty- 
ibor species which it contained, only one could be called a native of tJiat province. AH 
the rest were tropical, and of that peculiar character which belongs to Acapulco. No 
doaht, the gentleman had obtained tnem from a trader to that dty. If only a few species 
hsd been sent, mixed with Califomian shells, they might have puzzled the learned ; for they 
were obtained, on the spot, by a gentleman of known integrity. As it was, the roaniitude of 
the error led to its dinoovery : but in how many similar cases such error is thought impos- 
able ! — SMgiUa camaria ; Donax carinatus^ puncio-stnatwt ; Ueterod, bimactuatus; CaU 
tufa aurofUia^ ekianaa ; Petr. robutta ; Cord, censors, biangulatum ; Liocard. apicinum ; 
Trigona raduUa, Hmdsii; Anom, suhimhricata ; Lima ietrica ; Siphonaria gigas, tecanium ; 
^eUa discors, pedieulus; Fiss, rvgosa; Cruc. imbricafvm^ svinosum, umbrella; Crep. 
^eu/eata; Hipp. antimta^uSj barbatus; Ceritk uncinafvm; Modulus disculus; Naftca 
mtroeeana, eatenata; l^ottnices uber; Leuc. cingulata; JEneta karpa; I'urp, triangularis. 
The single shell from the temperate fkuna it Qlyphis aspera, 

117 



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632 KEPORT— 1863. 

In the 'Ann. Lye. N. H. New York,' 1861, p. 287, the Rev. J. RoweH, of 
6an Francisco, describes the second species of Pupa * discovered on the 
western slope, viz. " P, Calif omica, Row., San Francisco : plentiful." 

On February 4th, 1861, Dr. Wesley Newcomb published (Latin) dia- 
gnoses of the foUowing Califomian Pulmonates in the * Proceedings of the 
Cal. Ac. Nat Sc./ vol. ii. pp. 91-94. A second Part bears date Mait^h 18th, 
pp. 103, 104. 

Page. 

9L Helix Bridgemy'^ewc. San Pablo, Cal. Isp. Distinct from all described fomm. 
„ iLelix TnukHy Newc Los Angelos, CaL *' DLstiDguished from H, Thouarm 

at a glance.'' 
92. VUrttM Pfeijferif Newc Carson Valley. More rounded than diap?uma, Diap. 
94. Pisidium occtdeniakf Newc. Ocean House, S. Francisco, Hoicell. 

103. Helix CarpetUerif Newc. Tulare Valley, Mus. CaL Ac. Belongs to the Cy- 

clostomoid group, and has the aspect of a desert species. [Quite distiiict 
from H. Carpenteriana, Bland, Florida.] 
„ Helix Ayresuma, Newc. Northern Oregon ; Mus. Cal. Ac. Resembles H, 
reticulata, Pfr., a Califoruian species not identified by the author. 

104. Phyta costaia, Newcomb. Clear JLake, CaL; Veatch, Mus. CaL Ac 

In the ' Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia, 1861,' pp. 367-372, Mr. W. M. 
Gabb published " Descriptions of New Species of American Tertiary Fossils," 
in which occur several Califomian shells. The authoiitieB for the localities 
are not given, and the diagnoses are in English only. Considerable confusion 
often arises from the study of tertiary fossils wiUiout knbwledge of recent 
shells, and vice versd, Mr. Gabb's writings on the Cretaceous fossils of Ame- 
rica display an ability with which this paper is perhaps not commensurate. 
Some errors which had been found very difficult to understand are here cor- 
rected by the author himself, who regrets the incompleteness of bis earlier 
work. 

868. TurboniSa aspera, Gabb. Sta. Barbara; Miocene. IstBittium, sp., teste Gabb, 

MS.] 
„ ModeRa striata, Gabb. Sta. Barbara, P Miocene, [k^ Lacuna cnrinata, Gld. 
teste Oabb MS. and specimens. Mr. Gabb considers that Litorina Pedroana 
Conr., b the same species, which is probably not correct] 

869. Sphenia bHirata, Gabb. Sta. Barbara. [Description accords with SaxicavM 

arctica, jun., var. ; but Mr. Gabb considers it a good species.] 
„ Venus rkysomiay Gabb. P Miocene, Sta. Barbara. {^^Psephis tantUla, Gld., 
teste Gabb MS. and specimens.] 
871. Cfodiia moniiicosta. r Miocene, Sta. Barbara. [Description accords with 
Venericardia vetUricosay Gld. jun. ; but Mr. Gabb considers it a pood species.] 
„ Morrisia Homii. P Miocene. Sta. Barbara. " First pointed out Dy Dr. 
Horn in a rich fossUiferous marl, and not imcommon.'' 

In the * Proceedings of the Calif. Ac. Nat. Sc' for April 7th, 1862, pp. 170- 
172, Mr. W. M. Gabb publiahed detailed English " Descriptions of two Species 
of Cephalopoda in the Museum of the Academy," of which one, Onychoteuihis 
fusifarmis, is said to be from Cape Horn, the other from California. 

170. Octopus punctatus, Gabb. Common near San Francisco. Also abundant in 
Scammon's Lagoon, Lower California, Capt, C M, Scammon. Arms more 
than seven feet long, Dr. W. O. Ayres, " Differs from O. meyalocyafhftSy 

* That the race of tmall Pup€8 is yery ancient on the North American oontinent, aa in 
Europe, it evident from the very interenting discovery, by Prof. Dawson, of a fossil Pupa, 
in sifu^ nestling in an upright tree, fossilized in the Nova Scotian coal>beds; which can 
scarcely be distinguished, even specifically, from some living forms. 

118 



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ON BffOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 633 

Couth., R E. MoH. p. 471, in absence of lateral membrane^ size of mouth and 
cupulas, and general coloration." 
171. Onyehateuthu fusifornm, Qabb. ^* Cape Horn," Mus. Ac [San Clemente 
Is,, Cal., Cooper y MS.] 

From the * Proc. Cal. Ac. N. S.,' 1863, p. 11, it appears that at least one 
mollusc, a Teredo or Xi/Iotrt/Uf has already established for itself an economic 
celebrity. Files have been entirely destroyed in six months from the time 
they were placed in the water. 

On March 2, 1863, Mr. Auguste Remond published, in the same Journal, 
English " Descriptions of two new Species of Bivalves from the Tertiaries of 
Contra Costa County : " — 

13. Cardium Gabbii, Rem. Late tert deposit near Eirker*s Pass, in shelly sand, 
with Tapet reffularia, Gabb, and Murex ponderostu, Gabo, both extinct. 
*^ Easilv reco^ized by heavy hinge and enormous laterals ; lunule caii- 
nated- [? Jbiocardtum.'] 

p Odrea Bourgeoim, Rem. Same locality. 

On April 20, 1863, Dr. Cooper described (in English) the following mol- 
lusc, of which the only species previously known is from Cuba : — 

21. GtmHttchia CaHforftica, Rowell. Pie. 6 (three views). Fifty epecimens on 
water-plants in clear, stagnant ponds, at Marysville, Feather River, HoiceU. 

On January 8, 1864, Dr. Newcomb described (in Latin) the following, 
with other Puimonates from the State Survey, already tabulated in p. 609 : — 

116. HeUx JBiUehrandi, Newc. Tuolumne Co., Cal. One recent and several fossi 
shells, M, Voy, Like H. Thouarmj but depressed and hirsute. 

The latest contribution to the malacology of California is one of the most 
interesting. It is described (in Latin) by Dr. Newcomb, Feb. 1, 1864 : — 

12L FitdicuJaria Cali/omicaf Newc. One specimen from coral growing on a mon- 
ster Echiibtocents, very deep water, Farallones Is., D. N. Mobmson. " As 
beautiful as P. ekganiusttna, Desh., from Is. Bourbon.'' [Mr. Pease also ob- 
tained a deep-water Pedtculana from coral in the Pacific Is., which Mr. 
Cuming affiliated to the Mediterranean P. Sicula, Dr. Gould (Otia. p. 215) 
also describes P. decussata, coast of Georgia, 400 frn., U. S. Coast Survey.] 

111. The following descriptions of species, and notes on habitats and 
synonymy, have been collated from various American scientific periodicals, 
<^efly by the assistance of Mr. Binney's < Bibliography.' 

In the * American Journal of Science and Art,' 0. S., vol. xxxviii. p. 396, 
April 1840, Dr. A. A. Gould records the following species, said to be from 
"California." His Trochus vittatus is not known : — 

Murex tricolor et bicolor. I Trochus vittatus. 

Cardium Califomianum. | Bulimus undatus. 

In the * Annals of the New York Lyceum of Natural History,' vol. iv 
1846, No. 5, p. 165, Mr. John H. Redfield first described Triton Oregonense, 
Straits of San Juan de Euca : plate 11. fig. 2. 

In the * Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,' 
1848, vol. iv. p. 121, Mr. T. A. Conrad described new genera, and gave notes on 
Parapholds Califomica, Cryptomya Califomica, and Psammohia Califomicaf 
altering OsUodesma hyalina (nom. preoc.) into Lyonsia Floridana. In the 
same work, March 1854, vol. vii., Mr. Conrad described Cyathodonta undvlota. 
He also states that Qnaihodon trigonum. Petit, is probably identical with O, 
Ucontei, Conr. [?] (nom. prior), and alters genus Trigonella to Pachydesma, 

119 



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634 EEFOET— 1863. 

In the 'Proc. Boston Ac. Nat Hist./ July 1851, vol. iv. p. 27, Dr. A. A. 
Gould published ** Notes on Califomian Shells," and, in vol. vi. p. 11, described 
Helix ramentosa, California, and Helix damascenus, from the desert east of 
California. 

In the 'Proceedings Ac. Nat. So. Phil.,' April 1856, vol. viii. pp. 80, 81, 
Dr. Isaac Lea described the following species of new freshwater shells from 
California : — 

Pompholyx effum, Sacramento Hiver. 
Melania Shastdenm. Shasta and Scott River& 
Melania nigrina. Clear Creek^ Shasta Co. 
Fkysa triticea, Shasta Co. 
FUmarbis Traskii. Kern Lake, Tulan Ca 
Lymnaa proximo, Arroya, St. Antonio. 
Ancylus pateUoide$, Sacramento River. 

and offered notes on 

MargariUma margaritiferaj IjetL,^ AkumodorUa fcdcata, Gld., mAlasmodonta 

Yubaensis, Trask. £iamath and Yuba. 
Anodonta Wahlamatensis, lje&,^A, tri€mgulata, Ttsj^,'\'A. rotimdovata, Trask. 

Sacramento River. 
Anodonta an^tdatOy Lea,-{-.^. ftminaUs, Gld.;-{-.^. JRandaUi, Trask. Upper 

San Joaqum. 
Helix Oregonensisj Lea. Point Cypress, Monterey Co. 
HeUx NiciUinianaj Lea. Tomales Bay and Dead Man's Island. 
HeUx CaUfomiensis, Lea. Point Cypress. 
Lymnaa exigua, Lea. San Antonio Arroya. 
Lymnaa pcdlida. Ad. San Antonio Arroya. 
Physa heterostrophay Say. Los Angeles. 
Melania occata, Hds. Sacramento River. 
Melania {PaUtdina) eeminaUsj Hds. Sacramento River. 
Planorbis tricolvis, Sav. Horn Lake. 
PUmorbis amtnon, GlcL Lagoons, Sacramento Valley. 

In the New Series of the 'Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia' occur descriptions 
and notes on species, as under : — 

Pace. 

1857. Feb. 18. HeUx intercisa, W. G. Bin.,» J?. JNioklimana, Bin. sen., var. 

Oregon. 
1857. „ 19. 8uccinealineaia,'W,Q. Bin. Nebraska. 

1857. June. 165. Mr. T. A. Conrad described the genus Oomdea for A. angH~ 

latOf Lea ; and for Gonidea PandaUi, Trask, and Gotndea 
feminali8, Gld. : regarding the three species as probably 
distinct [Dr. Lea, however, considers them varietal.] 

1858. March. 41. Dr. L Lea described Planorbis Newberryi, Klamath Lake 

and Canoe Creek, California. 
1860. March. 23. Melania Netoberryi, hotL, Upper Des Chutes River^ Oregon, 
Newberry. 

In the " Notes on Shells, with Descriptions of New Genera and Species," by 
T. A. Conrad, reprinted from the * Joum. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil.,* Aug. 1849, are 
given the following synonyms, pp. 213, 214 : — 

Petricda Calif omica, Qoxa.,^ Saxicava C, Conr.,= P. arcuatay Desh. 
Petricola caraitoideSf Com. ,= Saxicava c, Conr.,=P. eylindraceay Desh. 
SHiotM NuUallit, Coar.yss Solecurttu N., Coia.,szSolecitrtu8 maximue, Gld., non 

Wood, ^Solen splendens^ Chenu. 
SUiqua Utcidoj Coia.,ssiSolecurlus L, Com. f=:Solecurtus radiatus, Gld.^ noa 

Lmji, 120 



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ON BffOLLUSCA OF TH« WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 635 

In bis " Synopsis of the Genera Parapholas and Fmiitella,** £rom tlie same 
■ource, p. 335, are given as synonyms — 

Parapholas CaUfonncaf Conr., siPholas C, Oonr., x^PhoUu JaneUty Desh. 
Pemidia Conradif Val., ^^Phdas pemta^ Conr., ssPhoku concamerata, Desh. 
PeniUUa melanuraf Shy., =iPenitella Wilsonij Conr. (not Paraphofas bisulcaia). 

In the elaborate but somewhat intricate " Monograph of the Order Phola" 
daua,*' ifec., by G. W. Tryon, jun., Philadelphia, 1862, the following species 
are quoted from the West Coast, and form the conclusion of the marine shelb 
hitherto described, so far as known to the writer :— 

40. BoceUaria [Gasirochana] ovata, Sby. Panama, W. L, and Charleston, Sttmp* 
aon, ** Not the slightest difference between the Pacific and Atlantic speci- 
mens." . 

74 Pholas (Cyriopleura) tnmcata, Say. Massachusetts ; S. Carolina ; Payta., Peru, 
Ptt$cMnherger \ Cfhili. 

77. Dactylma (GitocerUntm) ChUo'enm, Kin^, 1832, «Pi^. laoueatOy Sby., 1849. 
Peru, Chili [Panama, Jewetf], Scarcely differs from 2). Campechefms,s* 
Ph. obionaata. Say, =P*. Candeana, D*Orb. ; Southern U. S., W. I. 

82. Navea whgkhosay Gfrav, Ann. N. H. 1851, vol. viii. p. 886. California, f" In 
a hole in a shelL Cabinet Ghray." Neither shell nor authority stated.] 

85. Phdadidea (Hdtasia) meUmura, Sby. Lower Califomia,=:P«/tii;e2^ Wikonit, 
Conr., J. A. N. Sc Ph., fig. 4 (non 5). "This error in figuring led Dr. 
Gray to misunderstand both the species and Conrad's idea of die genus 
PhiiteUa." [ Vide Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1866, p. 266.] 

87. IhdteUa prnUa, [Mr. Tryon erroneously quotes (Netastoma) Darwinii, as 

well as PA. cornea, as synonyms.] 

88. Jowmnetia (^Pholadopsis) ^ectinata, Conr.,=: Triomphalia pulcherrima, Sby, 

" California " [no authority], W. Columbia. 
127. «Pfcofa« re<t/<pr, Morch, Mai Blatt. vii. 177, Dec. 1860. One broken right 
Tslye. Hab. Keal Llejos." b DactyUna ( G^ocentrum) Chiloensis, King [teste 
Tiyon]. 

112. The following Table contains a complete list of all the MoDuscs which 
have been identified, from Vancouver Island to S. Diego, arranged so as to 
show at the same time their habitat, and the principal collectors who have 
obtained them. The species in the first column were obtained by Prof. 
Nuttall; in the second, by Col. Jewett. The third column (marked B.A.) 
oontains the species tabulated from other sources in the Eirst Keport. Those 
to the right of the double column are the fresh explorations recorded in this 
Supplementary Report. The fourth column contains the shells brought by 
the Pacific Bailroad Expeditions, as weU as the species^sent to the officers ot 
the Smithsonian Institution by the Kev. J. Kowell and their various corre* 
spondents. The fifth column (< Ken.') contains the species of the American, 
and the sixth (' Lord *) of the British Nortxi Pacific Boundary Survey. The 
8e\'enth records the collections of Mr. Swan and his Indian children ; the 
last, those of Dr. Cooper in the Califomian Geological Survey. As a largo 
proportion of the species are as yet unknown, and the diagnoses will be found 
scattered in various periodicals, some of which are rarely accessible in this 
country, it has been judged needful to add a few words of description, with 
references to well-known books. By this means the student will have before 
him a compact handbook of the fauna, and will distinguish at a glance tho 
range of localities, and the amount of authority for each. Eor the full 
ijfnonymy, the previous pages of the two Eeports must be consulted. 

121 



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638 



BEPORT — 1863. 



Itesults of the Rvplovations in the Vancouver and CaVJomxan Province. 1864. 
{Omitting tJu doubtfully locaUd and undetermined species.) 

The letters stand for the localities in which the shells were collected, as 
follows : — 



V. Vancouver Island, Straits of S. 
Jiian de Fiica^ and adjoining 
shores of Washington Territory, 
ibrmerly known as * Oregon.' 

P. Puget's l^und and the neighbour- 
hood. 

O. Oreffon ; and the redon on each side 
of the Columbia Kiver. 

G. California ; or the district north of 
the peninsula, generally. 

L. Peninsula of Lower California. 

F. Neighbourhood of S. Francisco. 



M. Neighbourhood of Monterey. 
B. p Sta. Barbara. 

D. The region between S. Diego and 

S.Pedro. 
I. The islands: in the 4th column, 

generally the Farallones ; in the 

mst, the Sta. Barbara group. 
£L Species obtained from the backs of 

Haliotids ; locality unknown ; 

probably Lower Caiifomia. 
fr. Fragments only. 
JOB. Only found fossiL 





irutt 


Jew. 


B.A. 


'Smitfaiuliia. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


Swan. 


Cooper. 


Defranda intricata 


— 


— 


D 

p 

C 


F 


P 
P 


V 
V 

V 
V 


V 

V 
V 
V 


D 
BD 
MT> 

T 

I 

PI 


1. Lingula albida 

2. Rhynconella psittacea . . . . 

3. Terebratula unguiculus. . . . 

5. Califormca 

6. Grayi 

7. Terebratella Coreanica 


9. Xylotrya pennatifera . . . . 
10. fimbriata 



Ouide to the Diagnosis of the Vancouver and Califomian Shells. 
Class PoLTZOA. Family Discoporid€S. 
Defranda irdricata, Busk. Maz. Cat. no. 13. From Southern fauna The re- 
maining species in this class haye not yet been determined. 

Class Palliobbanchiata. Family LtnguUda. 
L Lingula albida, Hds. Voy. Sulph. ; Rye., Hani., Dayidson et auct 20 frn. c. Qn 

Family JRhmconeliidaf. 
% Bhyneondla psittaceay Linn, auct K & W. Atlantic : drcumpolar. 

Fanuly Terebraiulida. 
8. Terebratula unauiculus, n. s. Like Terebratella caput serpentis in size, shape, and 
• sculpture j but loop incomplete in adult, as in T. vkrea. 6-20 fin. not r. Cp. 
4. Waldheimia pulvinatafGi^ £.£. Smooth, subglobular, ashy. 80 fhi., living, 

Cp.y CI. 
6. P Waldheimia CaUfomica, Koch, non auct Colour ashy. Intermediate between 
Coreanica and globosa, Lam., Rye. (which is Califormca, auct non Koch). 

6. Waldheimia Orayi, Davidson. Very transverse, reddish, deeply ribbed. 

7. Terebratella Coreanica, Ad. & Rve. V<y. Samarang. Siie ofgloboea; i-eddish. 

s=miniat€^ Gld« Jun. f^frontaUsj Midd., Asia. 

8. Terebratella caurina, Gld. £.£. Like dorsata-y subtriangular, ashy, with strong 

or faint ribs. 

Class Lamellibbanchiata. Family Teredidm. 

9. Xylotrya pennatifera, Blainv. Ann. Nat Hist 1860, p. 126. 

10. Xylotryajimbriata, Jefir. in Ann. Nat Hist 1860, p. I26',sspalmulata, Fbs. & 
Hani., non Lam. PhiL 

122 



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ON UOLLUSCA OF TBI WEST COAST OF NORTH AMEBICA. 



637 





Natt. 


J«w. 


B.A. 


Smiiha.1111. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


Swan. 


Cooper. 


IL Srphfea crispata 

13. Pholadidea penita 

13. ovoidea 

R Netastoma Darwinii .... 

15. Biartesia intercalata 

16. Parapholas Califbrnica 

17. Saxicava pholadis 

18. Glycimeris generosa 

19. M?a truncata 


B 

B 

B 
B 


B 
D 

M 

B 
B 


C^ 
D 
M 

CL 
P 
P 
C 
C 
C 


VOMB 
H 

I 

MCH 
PF 

FD 

F 

OFM 


P 
P 

¥ 

F 

p 
p 


V 
V 

V 


PV 
V 

V 

V 
V 


MD 

M 

c 

D 
D 
D 

FDI 
D 
D 

D 

ii 


20. Platyodon cancellatus 

•21. Crvptomya Califomica . . 

22. Sctuothaerus NuttalU .... 

23. Darina declivis 


24. Corbula luteola 

25. Sphania ovoidea 

26. Keera pectinata 



Family Pholadida, 

11. Zirphaa crispata, Linn, auct E. k W. Atlantic and circumpolar. 

12. Pholadidea penita, Com*. Hani, wxct-^eoncamerata, Desh. Shape from elongate 

to ovoid ; umbonal reflexion closely adherent. 

13. Pholadidea ovoidea. Old. Otia. Uml)onal reflexion with anterior opening. 

14. Netastoma Dancimi. Sbv. New subgenus : valves prolonged, like duck s biU 

instead of cups. Surtace with concentric firiUs. Quoted from " S. A." 

15. Marteiia intercalata, Cpr. Maz. Cat no. 19. From Southern fauna. 

16. Parapholas Califomica, Conr. HanL auctaP. JaneUO, Desh. Very large; 

with layers of thin, short cups. 

Family Saxicavida, 

17. Saxicava pholadis, Linn, auct+var. arctica, Linn, auct Maz. Cat. no. 23-|-var. 

ffostrochanoidea, ovoid and gaping like Maz. Cat. no. 21+var. legumen, Desh., 
elongate, cylindrical, scarcely gaping. 



18. Glycimeris generosa, Gld. KE. 
MolL : ppes like Saxicava. 



*erhap8=s Ponopcea FwgasH, S. Wood, Crag 



Family Myada. 

19. Mm inmeata, Linn. anct.s 3f. preecisa, Gld. Atlantic : circumpolar. 

20. PUstyodon cancellatus, Conr. Hani. Pipe*endB 4-valved. Low water : common. 

Sold in S. Francisco market, Cp. 

21. Crypiomya Cali/oimica, Conr. Outside like young 3£ya; niantle-bend nearly 

obsolete. 

Subfamily ZuirarnuB, 

82, SchizoUuBTUs NuttaUi, Conr.-|-7Vtf«» nwximus, Midd. Gray=X. capax, Gld. 
Shape from ovoid to elongate ; very large and tumid ; beaks swollen ; hinge- 
sides channeled ; mantle^bend joined to ventral line. 

23. Barina decUvis, n. s. Outside like Machaera. Cartilage-pits produced, gaping. 

Family Corhtdida. 

S4. Corbula luteola, n. s. Shape of young biradiata ; small, ashy yellow. Com. Qp. 
^> Sphania ovoidea, n. s. Sipnonal area small ; firont excurved ; mantle-bend large. 
26. Keara pectinata, n. s. principal ribs about 12 ; beak smooth. Like sulcata, 
40^60fm. Cp, 

123 



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638 



REPOET— 18C3. 





Natt. 


^Jew. 


B.A. 


SmithB. Ins. 


Ken. 


Lon3. 


Swan. 


Cooper. 


27. Clidiophora punctata .... 

28. Kennerlia tilosa 

29. bicaiinata 

•30. Periploma argentaria .... 
SI, Tliracia curta 


B 

D 
B 
B 

c" 

B 
B 
OB 
D 
C 


B 

B 
B 
B 
F 


PC 
L 

P 
C 

c 
oc 

c 1 


I 

D 
P 

VOF 
L 


P 

IF 
p 

p 
p 


V 


V 

V 
V 
V 

V 

V 

V 
V 


D 

T 

D 

MT) 

D 

T 

D 

D 

D 

D 

DI 

D 


32. Lyonsia Califonuca 

33. Entodesma saxicola. . 

34. intlata 

35. Mytilimeria Nuttalli .... 

36. Plectodon scaber 

37. Solen sicarius 

37 6. V. rosaceus 

38. Solecurtiis Califomianus . . 

39. subteres 


40. Machsera patula 

41. Sanguinolaria Nuttalli .... 

42. Psammobia rubroradiata . . 



Family Pandorida, 

27. Clidiophora ptmctatay n. g. (Type of ^nws^ Pandora davictdaia, P. Z. S. 1855, 

p. 228.) Teeth ^, posterior long, with osaicle. Conr. sp. ; like CI. trilineata, 
but teeth more diverjrent ; inside stronsrly punctate. 

28. KemierUaJUom, n. s. New subgenus of Panaora with ossicle : outer layer ra- 

diately grooved. Shell beaked. 

29. Kennerlia bicarindta, n. s. Not beaked ; 2 post keels in convex valve. 40-00 

fjBL r. Cp. May provessP. bHirata, Conr. 

Family Anatmida, 
Periploma argentaria, Conr. Hani. Large, subquadrate. 
Tnracia eurta^ Conr. Hani. Strong, suMvate. 
Lyoiisia C(diforaica, Conr. l^viL'\'hracteata'\-nitida^(j[\^, Outline variable : often 

close to Atlantic L. Floridana : striated external layer fugacious. 
Entodesma saxicola, Baird. Subgenus of Lyonsia : animal nestling, irregular. 
Close to E, cuneata. Ad. & Rve. Form protean : brittle, thick, lurid, with 
enormous ossicle. Var. cylindracea has tne form of Saxicava pholadis, 
84. Entodesma injlata, Com.= diaphana, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 228. From Southern 

fauna. Like picta, but pale, without pinch. 
35. Mytilimeria NtfUaUij Conr. Hani. P Subgenus of lAfonsia : rounded, with spiral 

umbos. 
^. Plectodon scaher, n. g., n. s. Shape of Theora : dorsal margins twisted-in spirally 
inside umbos. Lateral teeth laminated, with intenm cartilage hidden, ap- 
2 r. valves, 40-60 im. Cp. 



30. 
31. 
32, 

33. 



Family Solenida, 

37. Solen sicariM, Gld. Olia. Nearly straight, rather short, truncated. 

376. Solen ? var. rosaceus. Straight, narrower, longer, smaller ; glossy, rosy. 

Family Solecurtida. 

38. Solscurtus Califomiamis, Conr. HanL May be a var. of the Peruvian ?Domheyi 

Yellowish ash, with ventral parallel grooves. A Pvar. without grooves closely 
resembles yibbtu. 
.^. Solectirtus sttbteres, Conr. Hani. Small, compact, with violet rays. 

40. Ma/dhara pattda, Dixon ai^. maximuSy Wood^ yrandis, QmeLsaSiliqua NuttaHU 

P -^htcidaj Conr. (var. jun.) Asia. 

Family TeUimda. 

41. SftnytUnoiktria NuttaUt, Conr. HiKvil.ss Psammobia decora, Hds. Flat, rounded. 

42. PMiwnobia rubro-radiataf Nutt. Large : shapa of ceipertiia : rayed with lilac. 

124 



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ON MOIXrSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMEUICA. 



609 





Nutt. 


Jew. 


B.A.! 


SmiUu-IiM. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


Swan. 


Cooper. 


48. Macoma sectft 


D 


OD 
0^ 

B 


D 
D 

B 




oc 


OF 


MIL 
PO 

VPOF 


OF 

D 

DL 
F 


D 


P 

P 
P 
P 

7 
p 
p 
p 


V 

V 


. V 
V 
V 
V 

V 

V 
V 

V 
V 


D 

D 
D 

MD 
F 

FM 

D 
MI 
D 
M 
D 
D 

DI 
DI 




44. indentata 


45. yoldiformis 

46. nasuta 




476. ? edentula 

48. V, expanaa 

50. Angulus modestufl 

606. -obtusuB 

52. Gouldii 


58. Mffira salmonea 

54. Tellina Bodegensis 

55. ' Arcopaffia lamellata .. 

56. (Edalia subdiaphana 

57. Cooperella acintiltefonnia . 

58. Lutricola alba 





43. Macoma secta, Conr. Hani. Large,flat, rounded , glossy ; winged behind ligament. 
436. Macoma yar. eduUs^ Nutt. Northern form, less transverse ; textiu'e dull. 

44. Macoma mderUaiay n. s. Like secta, jun.^ but beaked, indented, and VKntrally 

produced. 

45. Macoma yoldiformis^ n. a. SmaU, white, glossy, very transverse ; ligament-area 

8cooped-out. 

46. Macoma nasuta, Conr. auct.+^«x, Old. Large, beaked, twisted ; mantle- 

bend touching opposite scar in one valve. From Kamtschatka to S. Diego. 
Cape Lady Franklin, 76°, Belcher, 1826. 8 ft, mud, between tide-marks, 
Lcrd, 

47. Macoma in^ptinata, Desh. P. Z. S. 1854, p. 857. like degraded nawta ) mantle- 

bend a little separated from scar in both valves. 
476. Macoma ?edcnhua, Brod. & Sbv. jun. ; or an abnormal var. of inqumata. 

48. Macoma Pvar. expansa. Scars uke lata and calcarea in Mus. Cum., but teeth 

not bifid, veiy thin, gloq^. Scarcely difiers from lata, Desh. in B. M. 

Greenland. 
^. Macoma incoMficwu Br. & Sby. s= Scmg, CaUfomiana, Conr. Probably = " Fa* 

briciisfragtUs, Fabr.'' in Mus. Cum. Like thin, flat solidula : pink ; var. 

larffe, white. 8-15 fin. Lyall, 
CO. AnmMu modethu, n. s. (Su%. of TeUina.) Like tener, Say ; but with callus 

between mantle-bend and scar. White. 
506. Angulm Pvar. obtums* Inside like modestus ; but beaks obtuse. 
5L Angulus variegatus, n. s. Shape of obUiSus : no callus ; rayed with pink aiid 

yellow. 26-60fin. r. Q>. 

52. .ij4ri«^G^oti/</n,Hanl.MS.inMus. Cum. Small, white; ant. ventr. side swollen. 

53. Mara salmoneaj n. s. (Scarcely differs from Angulus,) Small, subquadrate, 

glossy, salmon-linted. Beach-20fm. Cp, 
51 TeSma Bodegensis, Hinds, Voy. Sulph. Large, strong, transverse, with con* 
centric grooves. 

55. ArcopagialameUata, Mas. Cat. no. 58. One fine pair in shell washings. 

56. (Edalia subdiaphanoj n. g., n. s. Thin, swollen, shape of KeUiay Ugament sur- 

rounding beakss hinge with 5 bifid teeth (3-2) ; no laterals ; li^ge mantle- 
bend. 

57. Cooper^la scirUiUaformis, n. a. New subgenus of (EdaUa, Cartilage semi- 

internal : only 1 tooth bifid. 
68. Lutricola nfta, Uonr. {Tdlina), For this ffroup (s Capsa, ^^Bosc," Add. non 
Lam.), scarcely agreeing with either Macoma or Sa-obiculai^, Blainville's 

125 



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640 



RSPORT — 1863. 





Natt. 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Smiths. Ins. Ken. Lord. Swan. 


Cocper. 


59. Semele decisa 


D 


D 


c 


— 


— 


— 


— 


D 

I 


60.. rupium 

01. rubrolineata 


D 


D 


..^ 


.. 


_ 


... 


V 


..« 


(52. pukHra 


— 


— 


— 


D 


— 


— 


— 


D 


<>8. mcongrua 

<»4. Cumingia Califomica .... 


— > 


««> 


— » 


— 


^— 


-^ 


.— 


I 


B 





— 














DI 


() ». Donaz Califomicus 


B 


D 


c 


DL 


... 


.. 





D 




D 


B 


= 


D 
L 


= 


= 


= 


D 

D 


tJ7. navicula 


68. Heterodonax bimaculatus 


(50. Standella Californica .... 


B 


B 


_ 


F 


.. 





\fr. 


D 


096. nasuta 








c 


... 


_ 


.. 




?D 




B 


— 


T 


— 


P 


— 


V 


D 


71. lalcata 


72. Raeta undulata 








L 


._ 










D 


73. Clementia eubdiaphana . . 








— 





T 


V 








74. Amiantifl callosa 


B 


B 


C 


L 


.. 


... 





D 


75. Pachydesma crassatelloides 
70. Psepnis tantilla 


BD 


B 


c 


FM 








T 


D 


— R 1 


— 





P 


V 


I 






1 



synonymic name may be reyiyed in restricted sense. Spedessfrtoiimf/a&i. 
P. Z. 8.1855, p. 230. 

69. Semele decisa, Conr. auct. Large, rough, like Peruvian cori'Uffota, but truncated. 
00. Semele rupium, Sby. Smaller, rough, swollen j with suialler mantle-bend. 

Galapagos. Not r. Cp, 
61. Semele rubrolineata^ (P Conr.). Flattened, some shape, with faint sculpture each 

way, and pink rays. [Conrad's lost shell may be young decisa,'^ 
02. Semde pulchray Sby. Transverse, crowded concentric sculpture, with radiating 

lines at sides. Southern fauna. 

63. Semele incofigrua, n. s. Like pulchrOj with concentric sculpture differing in r. 

and 1. valves: fine radiating striae all over. 40-60 &L c Cp, 

64. Cumkigia CaUfomicaf Conr. auct. Maz. Cat. no. 44. 

65. Bonax CaUfomicuBj Conr. (non De8h.)=so6e««, Gld. (non Desh.). Smooth^ 

stumpy : outline and colour variable. 

66. Donax JlexuosuSf Gld. Like punctostriata jun. with stronger keel, and no 

punctures. 

67. Donor navioulay Sby. Maz. Cat. no. 77. From Southern faima. 

68. Heterodonax bimaeulatua. Broad var., generally violet, =sPMmmo5ta Paeificaf 

Conr.= Tellina vicina, C. B. Ad. Cape St Lucas, Acapulco, W. Lidies. 

Family Mactrida. 
60. SUmdeUa CaU/omica, Conr. (non Desh.), Large, shaped like Schtz, Nuttalli, but 

beaks narrow. Mantle-bend separate from ventral line. 
69 b, Standdla ? var. namda, Gld. (suppressed^ Revived for young shells between 

Califomica and planuiata, till more is Known. 

70. StandeBa plamdatay Conr. Nearly as large ; shape approaching Mactretta exoUta, 

71. StandeUafalcata, Gld. Otia. Shape like pianulatay but flatter. 

72. Baeta undulata, Gld. Otia. Like the Atlantic R, canaliculata, but reversed* 

Bare at S. Pedro, Cp. 

Family Venerida. 

73. P Clementia suhdiaphana, n. s. Hinge normal, veiy thin, ashy. 

74. Amiantis callaea, Conr. (not auct.). Subgenus of CaUitta : hinge-plate rough- 

ened as in Mercenaria : mantle-bend as in Doeima. L. w. com. Cp. 
76. Pacht/deema crasBcOdUndes, Conr. auct Subgenus of Trigona, with fewer teeth : 

ym,^8tuUorum, Gray. 
76. Psephis tantilla, Gld. Otia. Subgenus of Venus : animal ovoviviparous. Teeth 

elongate, approaching l^M^^diMimi. Small, with purple spot 12-20 fin. c. Qn. 

126 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON MOtLITSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



C41 





Nntt 


Jew. 


B.A- 


Smithclna. 


Ken. 


Lord. 8w»n. 


Cooper. 


77. Psephis Lordi 


_ 


^^ 


._ 


_ 


P 


V 


V 


I 


78. aalmonea 


^ 


.. 





— 


— 


"^^ 


— 


DI 


79. teUimyalia 


^ 


— 


— 


H 


— 




— 


— 


80. Venus Kennerleyi 


— 





— 





P 


— 


V 


— 


81. Chione succincta 


BD 


D 


c 


— 


— 


— 


— 


D 




D 
D 
D 


D 
D 
B 


c 

F 


T 

D 
F 


— 


— 


V 


D 
D 

D 


83. simillima 


U. fluctifiraga 


85. TapeR t^ezrima 







_ 


M 


D 


— 


— 


T— 


D 


87. staminea ..... ^ ... . 


DC 


F 


F 
C 


FD 
VPOM 


P 


V 


V 


FD 
FM 


87 i. var, Petitii 


87 c. var, raderata 


... 


.. 


.... 





.. 





V 





88. Saxidomus aratuB 


_« 


_« 





F 


_ 


_ 





FD 


89. Nuttallii 


D 


D 
F 


c 




VPOF 


P 


V 

V 


V 


FD 




9L brevisiphonatus .... 


92. Rupellaria lamellifera .... 


D 


M 


c 


D 


— 


~~. 


— 


M 


93. Petricola carditoides .... 


BD 


MB 


c 


F 


P 


— 


V 


M 


94. Ghama ezocrra. ......... 


BD 
B 


B 


c 
c 


LH 
MD 


— 


""^ 


— 


D 
FMD 


96. pelluada 





77. P^is Lordi, Baird, P. Z. S. 1863. Teeth nonnal : pure white. 20-40 fin. c. Cp. 

78. 2V4>Am salmonea, n. s. Veiy small, rounded| teeth elongate': salmon-coloureiL 

80-40 fin. r. Cp, 

79. Ptephis teUimyakSf n.8. Shape of TeUimyai central tooth minute; outside 

teeth long. 

80. VenM Kennerleyi, Eve. Large, transverse, flattened, ashy : strong cone. ribs. 

Young like astartea, Midd. (notjhciuata, Gld.). 

81 . Chione succincta, VaL = CaUfomiensis, Brod. = KuUaUiy Conr. Cone ribs smooth. 

82. CJtione excavata, Cpr. P.ZTS. 1866, p. 216. Scarcely diflers from aatceUata. 

Possibly exotic. 

83. Chione simiUima, Shy. Rnely sculptured each way. 

St ChioneJlitcti/raffa,Soy,'\-callo8afShj, lAke Stutcnburyi: swollen, irregular. 

85. Tapes tmerrima, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 200, (jun.)= V. rigida, Gld. pars, f. 538. 

Very lar^, thin, flat ; long pointed sinus. 

86. Tape* iacimata, n. s. Large, swollen, brittle, ashen ; sculptui-e pectinated. 

87. Ttmes staminea, Conr. Strong, shape of decussatu ; sculpture close; yellowish. 

Var. diversaj Shy. ssmundttmSf Rve. More swollen, clouded with chocolate. 
Var. Petitii, Desh. ssr^Twfc, Gld. pars. Dead white, sculpture stronger faint, 
open or close. 2 ft. deep in mud, between tides, Lord. Var. tumida, Shy. 
Very swollen. Var. orbella, rounded, globose. Var. ruderata, Desh. Con- 
centric sculpture laminated. 

Saxtdonms aratw, Gld. Otia. Very large, oval, with regular concentric ridges. 

Saxidomus NuttaUiiy Conr. auct Transverse, sulxjuadrate, irregularly grooved, 

Saxidomus squalidus, Desh. Large, variable outlme, broader, scarcely sculp- 
tured. 

91. Saxidomus hrevisiphonatus, n. s. Smaller, d^tisto-shaped ; close, faint concen- 
tric lines over distant waves ; mantle-bend very small 
Family Petricolid€e. 

SimeUaHa lameUifera, Conr. =Corc?tm, Desh. "With large concentric lamines. 
No radiations. 

Petricola carditotdes, Conr. -{- Calif omiea, Conr, -{-eylindracea, Desh.+^<?f«rfff, 
Desh.-h^^^ Midd. Of various aspects, like Saxicava, Normally shaped 
like Cypricardia, with fine sculpture like Naranio, 

Family Chamida, 
04. Chama exogyra, Conr. Reversed ; texture opaque ; rudely frilled. 
95. Chama peikuada, Shy. Dextral, texture porcellanouS; rosy ; closely frilled. S.A« 
1863. 127 



90. 



92. 
03. 



Digitized by Vj.OOQ IC 



642 



mxFOKT — 186S. 





Nntt 


Jew. 


B.A. 


8initha.lDa. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


Swan. 


Cooper t 


W. t'homa spinoea 

Ur, Cardium corbis i . 


OB 
B 

D 

D 
D 
D 


B 


6c 
7 


VPOF 
J) 

H 
D 


F 
F 
F 

F 

p 


V 
V 

V 

V 


V 
V 

V 
V 


PD 
F 
B 

I 
I 

F 

D 

T 

PC 

I 
I 

MDI 
I 

I 

DI 


1®. quadragenarium .... 

^>9. var. blandum 

100. var. centifilosum .... 

101. Hemicardium bian^atum 

102. aerripee Groenlandicus. . . . 

103. Liocaxdium elatum 

104. — substriatum 

106. Astarte compacta 

106. Esquimalti 

107. fluctuate 

1C8. Miodon prolongatus 

109. Venericardia borealis .... 
109 b, var. ventricosa 

110. Lazaria subquadrate 

111. Lucina Nuttallii 

112. Califomica 

113. bella 


114. tenuisculpta 



96. 



97. 



98. 

99. 



Ouima 8pino9a, Shy. Hidges broken into close short spines. Maz. Cat. no. 122. 

Family Cardiadte, 
Cardium carbis, Mart ^=iNuttaUi'\- Calif ormamtm. Conr. Large, eartben, rather 

nodulous ; posterior margin strongly indented by 2 first ribs. Asia. 8-15 fm, 

LyaU. Jun. in stomach of starfish, 12 fm. Lord, 
Cardium quadragenarium ^ Conr. szUtteolabrum (^ssxanthocheHum), Gld. Very 

large ; 40 ribs, with aculeate spines. 
Cardium Tar. Uandumj Gld. Otia. Delicate form of the Asiatic psettdofoasHe, 

B.ve.=sCalifornien8e, Desh. Transverse; close, flat ribs: margin regular. 

8-15 fin. LyaU. 

100. Cardium var. centifilosum. Probably=mod!Mfum, Ad. & Rve. ; but rounder, 

ribs sharper and more distant Belongs to subg. Fulvioy Gray. 30-40 fm. Cp. 

101. Hemicardtum bianffulatum, Sby. Southern fi&una. 10-20 fm. living. Q>. 

102. Serripes GrcsnlantUcus, Chem. auct Boreal. Rounder than S. LaperousiL 

103. lAocardium flatumj Sby. Maz. Cat no. 124. Gulf fauna. Very large, Cp. 

104. Liocardium substriatum, Coju.^^cruentatumj Gld. Almost identical with the 

Peruvian Elenense, 

Family Astartida. 

105. Astarte compacta, n. 8. like compressa, but doeer; dorsal margins straight, 

at right angles. 

106. Astarte EsquitnaUi, Baird, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 70. Subtrigonal ; ribs irre^lar. 

107. ? Astarte fluctuata, n. s. Very close to Omaiii, jun. of Coralline Crag. 2 right y. 

30-40fen. Cp. 
106. Miodon prolongatus, n. g., n. s. Outside Lucinoid ; hinge and scars nearer to 
Venericardia. Congeneric with A <tarte orbicularis, J. Sby. Min. Conch, pi . 444. 
f. 2, 3 (non ejusdem, pi. 520. f. 2). G. Oolite ; and with the Crag Cardita corbis. 

109. Venericardia borealis, Conr. N. Atlantic, from Miocene. 120 fin. Cat Is. Cp, 
109 b. Venericardia var. ventricosa, Gld. Small, swollen. 30-40 fin. Cp. 

110. Lazaria subquadrtUa, n. s. Hinge of Lazaria: outside like Cardita varieffata,^vau 

Family Lucinida. 

111. Lucina NuttaUUj Conr. Hani. Like myricata, with more delicate pculpture. 

112. Lucina Califormca, Conr. Dosinoid, with waved lunule. Jun. P = X. Artemidis, 

P.Z.S. 1856,p.201. 

113. Lucina belfa, Conr. Shell not known ; maybe sspectinata, Maz. Cat. no. 142. 
114 Lucina tenuisctdjita. n. s. Like Mazatianicaf Cat. no. 144, more convex, with 

finer sculpture. 4 fin. living, Q». The island var. is intermediate. 120 fin. 
dead, Cp. jgs 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON MOLLTTSCA OT TH* WEST COAST OP NORTH AMUBTCA. 



643 





Kott 


Jew. 


B.A. 


1 

SButh«.Iiia. 


Ken. 


LoiO. 


Swan. 


Cooper. 


115. Luciiia borealifl 

116. Cryptodon flexooBiu . . . . 

117. uemcatos 

lia Diplodonta orbella 

119. KdliA Laperousii 

Il9b. var. Chironii . . . . 

190. rotundata 

121. suboibicularifl 

122. Lasea rubra 

128. Pnhma rugifera 

124 Lepton meroeum 

126. TeUimya tumida 

12a Pristes oblonpu 

127. Mytilus Caliromianua. . . . 
12a ' edulis 


B 

MD 
C 

PC 
B 

B 


B 



c 

M 

B 
B 


c 

C 
C 

c 

F 
F 
C 
P 


D 
M 

M 
H 

PFC 
PC 

FH 

VH 
M 


P 

¥ 

p 
p 

T 
P 

P 


V 

V 
V 

V 


V 
V 
V 

V 

V 
V 

V 


I 
I 
IP 

D 
D 

DI 

I 

D 
D 
D 
FBI 
F 

ra 

D 
M 

D 


1286. rar, glomeratus . . 

129. Septifer Iriftircatus 

190. Modiola capaz 


132. f omicata 







115. Lucma horeaUt, Linn, auct -^acutHineaiaf Conr. Widely diffused, from Coral- 

line Crag. Philippines, teste Cuming. 30-120 fin. Cp. 

116. Grypiodon /lexuowBf Mont auct Atlantic, circumpolar. Cat Is. 120 fin. Qi. 

117. Cryptodmi ierricaiui, n. s. Small, circular, flat ; epidermis silken. P Cat Is. 

Cp. 120 fin. 

Family BipHodonHda, 
lia Liplodmda orbeOoy Gld. Otia.B(Jfy9ta) Spharella Umida, Conr. 

Family KeiUad<B, 

119. EeBia LaperomH, Deah. Woodw. Typically large, strong, transverse. 
119 &. KdUa Tar. Chironii, Thinner, less transverse, margins rounded. 

120. SeQia rottmdatOj n. s. Larger, flatter, and less pearly than suborbicuiarig. 

Margin circtdar. 

121. KeOia subarbiculari9j Mont auct Maz. Cat no. 153. N. Atlantic : W. Mexico. 

Exactly accords with British sp. 80-40 fin. Q>. 

122. ZoMS riiSra, Mont auct Maz. Cat no. 164. N. Atlantic: W.Mexica Exactly 

acoords with British sp. 
123w Pytkin % rugifeira^ n. s. Large, thin, slightly indented ; teeth minute ; epidermis 

shaggy. 
124^ Lepion menkhtm, n. s. Small, shaped like Stmapta, 

125. TeUimya tumida, n. s. Between hidentata and twbdriata : o<^icle minute. 

126. Pristes oblonffuSf n. g., n. s. Ldke TeUimya, with long marginal teeth, serrated 

near hinge. 

Family MytHuke, 

127. Mytilus CaHfamianim, Conr. 9 in. long : stained with sienna : obsoletely ribbed. 
12a Mytibts edmis, Linn. SMct^trosBulnB, Gld. Abundant on whole coast, with the 

usual Atlantic vars. Between tide-marks, Lord : also brown var. on float- 
ing stick. 

1285. Mytilus f var. glomeratns, Gld. Otia. Short, stumpy, solid, crowded. 

129. Saitifer bi/ureatus, Kve. Outside like Mytilus b. Conr. horn Sandw. Is. 

110. Mo(uola capax, Conr. Maz. Cat no. 170. From Southern fiiuna. 

l-^L Modiola modiolus, Linn, auct CircumboreaL 8-15 fin. jun. LyaU. 

132. Modiola formeatOy n. s. Short, swollen, like large M, marmorata ; but smooth, 
not crenated. 

I3il Modiola recta, Conr. in. long, thin, nanow, rhomboidal. Chaff-like haiit 
over glossy epidcniuSi 

9 129 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



644 



REPORT 18G3. 





Natt 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Souths. In'. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


7^ 


Cooper. 


133 b, Modiola yar. flabellata. . 


«.„ 





V 


VP 


P 





V 





134. Adula falcata 


— 


M 


M 


FM 
OEM 


— 


— 


V 


D 


135. stylina 

136. Lithophagus plumula. . . . 


— 


— 


— 


M 


— 


— 


— 


D 


187. attenuatus 


~- 


^- 


L 


H 


— 


— 


— 


— 


138. Modiolaria Iseyigata .... 


— 


— 


— 


— 


P 


V 


V 


— 


139. marmorata 


— 


^- 


P 


— 


P 


— 


— 


— 


140. Crenella decussata 














— 


— 


— 


I 


141. Area multicostata 


— 


— 


— 


D 


— 




— 


— 


142. Barbatiagradata 


«. 





_ 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


D 


143. Axinsea intermedia . . . . 


_ 


— 








— 


— 


— 


MDl 


144 v<ir, subobsoleta . . . . 


^ 





— 


ODI 


— 


— 


V 


— 


145. Nucula tenuis 


_ 











P 


— 


— 


— 


146. Acila castrensia 


.... 


_ 


_ 


.» 


P 


V 


— 


I 


147. Leda c»lflta 


— 


B 


F 


— 


z 


___ 


— 


MD 
MDI 


148. cuneata 


149. minuta 


— 




— 


— 


p 


— 


— 


— 


150. fossa 


= 


~ 


= 


= 


p 


V 


— 


BI 





133 6. Modiola vBT.JUtbeUatOf Gld. Northern form, somewhat broader. 

134 Adtda falcfjta^ Gld. Otia. Subgenus enlarged to include species intermediate 

between Modiola and Lithophagus : shape of latter, byssiferous like former^ 
nestling in crypts. Sp.ss(?rt«rim| PhiL MS. Shape not always fedcate: 
chestnut, rugose. • 

135. Adula stylina, n. s. Shorter^ broader ; epidermis brown, glossy. 

136. Lithophofftu plumula, Hani. Maz. Cat no. 175. From Southern fauna. 

137. Lithophagus attenuatus, Desh. Maz. Cat no. 173. From Southern fauna. 

138. Modiolana ktvigata. Gray. Exactly accords with Atlantic specimens. Cir^ 

cumboreaL 

139. Modiolaria marmorata, Fbs. & HanL Exactly accords with Atlantic speci- 

mens. Circumboreal. 

140. Crenella decussata, Mont Exactly accords with Atlantic specimens. Ciicum* 

boreaL 10-40 fin. not r. Cp. 

Family Arcad€B. 

141. Area mMcostata, Sby. Maz. Cat no. 181. [ t;. ^ g^„*i,.«« *.„«. 

142. Barbatia pradata, Sby. Maz. Cat no. 194 f *^™ Southern feuna. 

143. Axinaa trUermedia, Brod. as Barharensis, Com*. fosoL Closely accords with 

the Peruvian specimens. 40-60 fm. Cp, 

144. Axinaa (? septentrionalis, Midd. Tar.) subobsoleta. Sculpture much fainter than 

in MiddL's fig. 

Fanalj Nuctdid^B* 

145. Nucula tenuis, Mont auct Agrees with var. hwida, Gld. Circimiboreal. 

146. Acila castrensis, Hds. Sulph.-f l^^oi/t, Baird. Subg. of Nitctda with divari* 

cate sculpture ; only known in Crag and N. Pacific 40-60 fm. Cp, 

147. Leda ctdata, Hds. Sulph. Swollen^ strongly sculptured : teeth very numerona. 

10-60 fisL Cp, 

148. Leda cuneata, Sby. D*Orb. teste Hani. (Scarcely difiers from commutata, Phil. 

in Mus. Cum.) = tViomato, A. Ad. Chili. 0-w)fiaL Cp. 

149. Leda minuta, O. Fabr. teste Hani. Circumboreal. Agrees with Norwegian 

specimens of " cattdata, Don." teste M* Andr. , 

150. L^ fossa, Baird, P. Z. 8. 1863, p. 71. Between minuta and permda. Sculp- 

ture nearly obsolete. 
I6L Leda hamata, n. s. Like Steenstrupi and pemuloides, but yery hooked, sculp* 
ture strong. 20-60 fm. c Cp, 

130 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON UOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NOBTH AMERICA. 



645 





Natt. 


Jew. 


B.A. 


ISmitba. Int. 


Ken. 


Lord.|8irw).| Cooper. 


162. Yoldia lanceolata 

153. amvjfdala 

154. Verticoraia oniata 

156. Bryopbila aetosa 

156. lima orientalifl 

157. Limatula subauriculata . . 

15a Pecten hastatus 

159. fvar. Hindaii 

160. var. aequisulcatus . . 

ICl. paucicostatus 

162. Yvar. latiauritus .... 

1626. monotiineiu 

163. Amosiiim caurinum .... 

164. Jamra dentata 


BD 
BD 


B 

B 
B 
D 

D 
Cjn. 


P 
P 

c" 
c 



c 


H 

D 

D 
DL 
VO 

PM 
VPO 


P 
P 

¥ 
p 

p 

p 
p 


V 
V 

V 
V 




V 
V 

V 

V 
V 


BI 

PC 

MDI 

DI 

. M 

BD 

I 
D 
D 

MD 
D 


166. Hinnitee ffiffanteus 

166. (ktiea luncb 





152. Toldia lanceohta, J. Sby. HanL s ardica, BrodL & Shy. (Not Adrana I, Lam. 

6. Sby.) With ant diagonal lines. 

153. Toldia amygdakij Tar. teste HanL like lanceoUda, without posterior wing, 

and anterior sculpture. 

Family fTngonuuUB, 

154. F^r^tcorc^t^ orniito, D'Orb.smn'fmcotftoto, Ad.&RTe. Samarang. Ezactlj 

accords with Chinese types. S. A. 20-40 fm. Cp, 

Family Amctdid<B. 

155. Bryophila setoea, n. g.y n. 8., Ann. N. H. 1864, p. 10. like minute, broad Pinna. 

Anmud ovoviTiparous. Sta Barbara, 20 fin. Cp. 

Family Ftctmida. 

156. Lhna ortmtali$, Ad. & Rve.^ Samarang, in Mus. Cum.s dehiscenSy Conr. fossil, 

teste Cp. Very close to younffof L. hians, var. tenera. Bench to 20 fm. c. Cp, 

157. Limatula whattriculata, Mont. Fbs. & Hani. CircumboreaL Fossil in Crag. 

Islands, 40-120 fin. not r. ; S. Biego, 1 valve, 4 fin. Cp. 

158. iVeim hastatus, Sby. = hericeu9^ Old. Elongated ; a few principal ribs serrated ; 

ears unequaL £a var. rtdndus, Hds. (non Mart), the rilis are equal, not 
serrated. 

159. Pecten (Pvar.) Htndsii. Broader; ribs close, small, smooth, bifiircating. 

Passes firom hastatw towards Iskmdictts. 

160. Pecten €equindcatus, P n. s. Thinner and flatter than veniricosus, with narrower 

ribs. 

161. Pecten paucicostatus, Pn.8. Somewhat resembling very yoimg caterimis; but 

ribs fewer, stronger. 

162. Pecten latiauritus. Conr. (pars). Ribs sharply defined, with sharp concentric 

laminse. Possioly an extreme form of 
lG2b.Pecten monotimeris, Conr. ^tunica, PlLil.-\'latiauritus, Conr. pars. Passes into 
Aimtmtm. Very slanting, thin, with feint ribs. 

163. Ammium caurinum, Gld. E.R Large, flat, thin, veiy inequivalve. Var.e: 

Ye$8oensi8, Jay. Japan. 

164. Janira dentata, Shj.^excavatafYaLYen. Like media. From the Gulf fauna. 

Beach-20 fin. Q>. 

Family Spcndylida. 
.66. Jffinnite$ giganteu$y Onj, Analvst = PouJIsoniy Conr. Very large, Spondyloid : 
ligament as in Pedum, strongly adherent along the ears. 

Family Ostreida. 
06. Ottrea hirida, n. s. Shape of edulis : texture dull, lurid, olivaceous, with purple 
stains. 2-^ fin. on mud flats, Lord, 

131 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



646 



BEPORT — 1863. 



|Natt. 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Smiths, ins. 


Ken. 


ix>rcL 


Hwan. 


Cooper. 


1665. Ostrea var. laticauda 

lH6c. wir. nifoides . 

I66rf. var. expansa . 

167. conchaphila . 

168. Placunanomiamacrof 

169. Anomia lampe . . , - - 


kta .. 

[ma 
jchifl- 


D 
B 


D 
PB 

B 


C 

oc 
c 

I 

c 


D 

L 

VF 
L 

DL 

L 

PP 

J) 
T 


P 

p 
p 


V 
V 

V 


V 


F 
D 
D 
D 
F 
D 
I 

DI 
D 

D 
BD 

B 
MI 


170. Cavolina telemus 






171. Bulla nebuloaa 






172. Quoyi 






178. Haminea hydatis 
174. vesicula .. 







— Philinid 

— P 

176. Tomatella puncto 

177. Tornatina culcitel 


la 


ata!! 



166ft. O^^rea yar. ItOtcaudata^ Nutt MS. Pmple, winged, waved: denticles near 

hinge. Passee towards 0a/mtf/0, Maz. Cat. no. 214, 6. 
W^cOdrea P tat. rufoidetw^rvfaj Old. (non Lam.). Passing towards F«r^m«ca, jun. 

Thin, with umbos hollowed ; reddish in scar-iegion. Also fossil. 
166dO«^r«a Pvar. exptmsa. Flat, affixed to whole surface, like CobtmbiensU, 

Hound, or winged to left, or right, or both, like MaUem. Also passes into 

167. Oitrea conchaphSoj Cpr. ^5m. Cat. no. 214 From Southern fauna. 

Family .^inomuM^. 

168. Itacmumomia maaroBckUmaj Desh. Eamtschatka. Vtm.mahpe+eemo^ Qrar. 

Shape most yariable, according to station. Sculpture often obsolete. On 
rock, between tides, Lord. 

169. Anomia lampe, Gray, Maz. Cat. no. 219. From Southern fauna. 

Class PTEROPODA. Family HyaUeidtB, 

170. Caw)linateUmu»,lAxai,^HyaUBatridentaUi,Tor^n^^ Pelagic 30-60 

im. dead, Cp. 
[Other Pteropods were brought by the Brit N. P. Boundary Survey, but may 
have been collected on the voyage : v. p. 607.] 

Class GASTEROPODA. 

Subclass Opisthobbanchiata. Order Tbctibiianchiata. 

Family BuUida. 

171. BvMa ndndoMy Gld. Otia. Large, globular, thin. Maz. Cat no. 2254-Ta£> 

ftdminosa, Cp. 

172. Bulla Quoyif Gi*ay. Small : angular at umbilicus. Maz. Cat. no. 226. Pacific 

173. Haminea h^/datisj Linn, auct Exactly accords with European specimens. 
174 Haminea vesicula, Gld. Otia. Smaller, paler, and thinner. 

175. Haminea virescens, Sby. Gen. Vnx.^cymbi/onms, Maz. Cat. no. 229. 

Family ^PkUinida. 
Two species not yet dissected : one with internal dieU like FhanerophthahnMS, 

Family TomateUiim. 

176. TomateUa nwuAocalataj n. s. Small : grooved with rows of dots : pillar twisted 

as in BuUma, Add. non Gray. 

Family CylichmdeB, 

177. Tamaiinactdcitella, Old. OUa. Large, brownish, with ftint strisB." Fdddose 

to paries. 

132 



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647 





Nutt 


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B.A. 


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Ken. 


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Cooper. 


1776.Toniatma cerealifl 

178. ezimia 

179. cannatfr 

180. Cylidma Pcylindracea . . 

1806. var. attonsa 

18L planata 

182. mcuhB 

183. VohTila cylindrica 

184 Ne&pljsia Califomica .... 

185. Nayarchus inennis 

186. PleurophvUideaCalifoHiic. 

187. Doris sanguiDea 

188. akbastrina 

180. albopunetata 

190. — Sanaiegenaia 

101. Montereyensis 

192. Triopa Cataliiwo 

193. Tritonia Palmeri 

194. Dendionotus irb 

195. Moiw Barbaremds 

196. Phidiana lodinea 

197. Flabellina opalesoens .... 

198. Chionm leonina 

199. Melampua olivaoeus .... 

300. Pedipee liratus 

201. Siphonaria Thersites .... 


— 


B 
B 

B 


D 

^ 

P 
C 


D 
D 

DL 
L 


P 
P 


V 


V 


M 
D 

MM 
D 

m 

D 
DI 

B 

BI 

DI 

Fill 

I 

D 

B 

B 
BD 
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B 
DI 

D 



177 bSormOma eertaUs, Gld. Ot^ Small, white, smooth: hut prohahly sworn 

yowag culciieUa, 
17a Tomatina eximia, Baixd, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 67. Size moderate : fold appreseed : 

rahrectangular. 

179. Tomatma carmatOy Mas. Cat. no. 223. 

180. CyUckna ?cylmdraoea, Linn, anct Intennediate specimens, passing into 
\^h,CyUckna var. aUoMa, rounded off at apex. 

M. CyUehnaplanata,TL,%. Like mamtZI^, with iqpexflattened-off, and fold distinct. 

182. Cjficfma inculiOy Gld. Otia. 

1^ Vcimda cylindrica, n. s. Like grain of rice, pointed at one end. 

Family Apiydada. 
18i Keafiyna Calif ormcOy Op. Proe. OaL Ac. 16 inches long. 

185. NwoarckM inemUs, Op. Proc. Gal. Ac. Grasses, on shore, Cjx 

Family Pleurophyllidiada, 

186. BeurophyHidea Cali/omica, Cp. Proc. CaL Ac Sandy flats, Cjx 

Order Nubibeianchiata. 
187-19a An the newNiKlihranchs are described in the Proc. OaL Ae. Vuk mtU^ 
p. 609. Vide also Gld.'s Otia, and Eseh. Zool. Atlas. 

Subclass PULMONATA. 

For land and freshwater species, both of Pulmonates, Bostrifers, and BiTaifti^ 
mkpoetedf paragraphs il5-119. 

Family Amiotdida. 
1^. Mdampua olhaceusy Opr. Maz. Oat no. 235. 

200. A^ to-«/ui,Binn. Rroc An. N.S. Phil. 1B61, p. 33a 

Family Siphmariadt^. 

201. Siphmaria Ther9iU$i n. a. Like laiaalu: with strong lung-xib and obsolete 

acujptttin* 

133 



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— 


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206. Cryptochiton Stelleri .... 

207. Katlierina tunicate 


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c 


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210. Mopalia muscosa 


M 


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Subclass Pbosobbanchiata. Order Latbbibiunchiata. 

Family Denialiad€8. 

202. Dentalium (fpretiomm, Nutt. Sby. var.) Indianorum, Like enUUia, with Teij 

fine posterior strire. 20 fin. c. Cp, 

203. Dentalium rectius, n. s. Long, thin, slightly curred : like etmmemn, Singapore. 

204. Dentalium semipolitum^ Br.& Sby. ?s=hi/alinum, PhiL not Maz. Cat no. 246. 

From Southern fiiuna. 

205. Dentalium hexagonum, Sby. From Southern fauna. 

Order Scvtibbanchiata. Family Chitonida, 

206. Cryptochiton StellerifMidd, Very large: valves hidden. Reaches Ste Cruz, rjp. 

207. Kamerina tunuHxta, Shy. ssDoufflasicBy Gray. Mantle smooth, black: valves 

partly concealed. Between tide-marks, jLord, Reaches Farallone Is. C]p. 

208. Tonicia Uneata, Wood, Closely resembling /ftneo^o^ Peru. Painting vaiiaole. 

209. Tonicia submarmorea, Midd. Perhap8=s Itneata, var. without lines. 

210. Mopalia muscosa, Gla. R £.s C omatus, Nutt (^armatus, Ja^)-|-ooft«tmiZM, 

Nutt Highly sculptured: mantle crowded with strong hairs. Between 
tide-marks, Juord, 

211. Mopalia Wosnessenskii, Midd. Mantle slit behind, with few hairs. Sculp- 

ture like muscosa. 

212. Mopalia Kennerleyi^ n. s. s Orayij ante&, p. 603, nom. preoc. Sculpture fainter : 

ouve with red : ndge angular ; post valve waved. 
212b,Mopalia Kennerleyi^ var. Stoanii: red, ridge arched ; less sculptured. 

213. Mopalia Hindsii, Omy, Olive : distinctly shagreened : flat : post valve waved. 
214 Mopaiia Simpsonii, Gray, in B.M. Col. Like Hindsii, with valves beaked. 

215. Mopalia vespertina, Gld. E. £. Shape of Htndsii, with very faint sculpture and 

shght wave. OUve clouded with orown. 

216. Mopalia liynosa, Gld. £. R a Merckii, Midd. » Montereyensis, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, 

p. 231. Like vespertina, without wave : brown in streaks. 

217. Mopalia actda, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1855, p. 232. Subgeneric, aberrant form ; with 

small blunt plate, instead of post, sinus, between the two principal lobes. 

218. P Mopalia smuiata, n. s. Small, raised sharp back, red and blue, engine-turned ; 

post valve deeply notched. 

219. ? Mopalia imporcata, n.s. Pale: central areas ribbed: post, valve slightlv 

notched. Indications of sutural pores in these two species, if confirmed, will 
require a new genua. 

Xo4 



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Ci9 





Nut*. 


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224. Lepidopleurus repularis . . 


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225. scabricostatus 


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226. pectinatus 

227. Mertensii 


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229. interstinctua 


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231 h. pseudodendens . . 











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220. Acatit^iopieiira acalrraj Rve. = Californicus, Nutt. Insertion-plates resemble 
Katherina. Valves with coarse V-8baped ribs, and projecting beaks. 

£21. Acanthoj^itrajlttjca, n. s. Green, mottled with orang^red ; not beaked ; with 
only marginal and diagonal ribs. 

222. Ischnoehiton Magdalensis. Hds. Large, strong- valved, typical. Sculpture much 

&inter than in southern tibells. Mantle-margin with striated scales likj 
flattened bristles. Side plates 2- or 3-lobed. Beach-20 fm. Cp. 

223. Lchnochiton veredentiens, n. s. Margin similar. Small, arched, sculptured 

like Meriensiif but with 2 rows of bosses, one of which dentates the sulm-es. 
10-20 fm. Cp. 

224. LepidopleuntJt regtdwiSf Cpr. P. Z. S. 1865, p. 232. Subgenus oi IschtiochHon : 

mant e-scales Lophyroid, generally striated. Sp. arched, green, shagreened. 
Sitle lobes 2-4 : eaves spongy, not projecting. 

225. Ltpidoplcurus acahncosUitm^ n. s. Small, arched, orange : rows of prominent 

granules over shagreened surface. Looes blunt, slightly rugulose, cloise to 
eave*. 8-20 fm. C)f>. 
S26. LepidftpUurus neciinatii^y n. 8. Olive: strong sculpture over shagreened surface: 
side areas riobod : outer margin and inner sutures pectinated. Bch. Cp. 

227. Lepidopleurus Mtrtensiiy Midd. Red : highly sculptured over smooth surface : 

side areas with rows of bosses. Mantle-scales smooth, rounded. 

228. Trachydermon retiporosus, n. s. Subgenus of Ischnoehiton : mantle-scales very 

small, close, smooth. Sp. like scrwncuUUuSf central pattern in network, 3-6 
side ribs. 

229. Trachydermon interstincius, Gld. E.E. Centre minutely punctured : 6-8 blunt 

side ribs. 

230. Trachydermon trifidus, n. s. Centre-punctures few, deep : 2-4 blunt ribe : side 

plates with 2 slits. 

231. [Trachydermon detitiens, Gld. E.E. No shell known answering to diagnosis and 

figure.] The 4 following species have incisors blunt, eaves not projecting. 
231 6. Trachydermon pseudodetdiens=ity^ specimen of dentiens. False appearance of 
teeth due to colour or ridges of growth. Closely granular : areas indistinct 
Sinus broad, squared : eaves spongy. 

232. Trachydermon Uothicus, n. s. Blunt parallel riblets along verv arched back. 

Sutural lobes united at sinus : eaves not spongy. 8-20 nn. C^, 
2Jtt. Trachydermon HarttceyU, Cpr. P. Z. S. 185o, p. 231. Large, arched. Inside 

callous, without rows of punctures to slita : eaves spongy. 
231 rrocAyierwum JVM«fl/^*, Cpr. P. Z.S. 1856, p. 23L Large, plain, flat. Incisors 

alightly rugulose : eaves sponffy. 
235. Trachydermon fleetenSj n. s. Mantle-mar^n scarcely granular. Rosy, veiy 

tmaU, scavcely sculptured : valves beaked and waved as in Jlf. Simpsotiii i 

eaves and inci'bors normaL 

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B.A. 


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286. Leptochiton nexus 

237. Acanthochites avicttla .. 

238. Nacellainstabilis 


C 


D 
D 

M 


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B 

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C 
B 
C 
C 
C 
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D 
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C 
C 
C 

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VFM 

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VF 
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P 
P 

P 
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V 

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V 

V 
V 


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MD 

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M 

F3IBI 
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M 
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MBD 

MD 
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240. subspiralis 

241. depicta 

242. paieacea 

24fi6. var, triangularis . . 

243. Acm»a patina 


244 pelta 


2446. var. Asmi 


246. seabra 




24a rosacea 


249. Lottia gigantea 

260. Scurria mitoa 

2506, four, fiiniculata . . 



236. Leptochiton nexus, n. s. Like aaeUw : scarcely sculptured : mant1e-ma:*gin with 

striated chafiy scales^ like Blagdalensia, interspersed with transparent needles. 
20-80 fin. Cp, 

237. Acanthodiiiee aviada, n. s. Like arragonUeSy but valres sculptured in large 

snake-skin pattern. 8-20 fin. r. Cp» 

Twau^j PatMda. 

238. NaceUa inttahiUs, Gld. £ £. Lai-ge : shape of compressor 

239. NaceUa incessa, Hds. Sulphur. Small : Ancyloid. 

240. ? NaceUa subspiraUs, n. s. Shaped like Emar'</inula rosea, and may be a Sciftei» 

Una. 10-20 fin. C>. 

241. NaceUa depicta, Hds. Sulphur. Small, long, flat, smooth : colour in rajs. 

242. NaceUa paieacea, Gld. Otia. Narrower, brown, striated at each end. 

242 6. NaceUa Pyar. triangularis. Shorter : apex raised : scarcely striated : whitis^i 
with brown spots. 

Family Acmmdc^ (For synonyms, t?. Reports in locit^) 

243. Acm€sa patina, Each, Large, blacldsh or tessellated: with yery fine distant 

striiB. Between tides, ZordL 

244 Acmaapeita, Each. Move conical; border narrow; smooth, with blunt riba 
often obsolete. Between tides, Lord. 

244 b, Acmaa ?yar. Asmt, Midd. Stout, small, black, conicaL Probably an ab- 
normal growth of peUa, jun. (1 sp. beginning on peUa) Q>. 

245. AciMBa persona^ "Each. Smaller : apex posterior : colour olotched or treckled : 

sculpture in irregular ribs. Maz. Cat. no. 206. Var. umbonata, arched, with 
narrow distant nbs. Var. digitalis, apex near margin. Var. textilis, apex fiur 
firom margin, approaching pelta, 

246. Acmaa sctiSira, Nutt. Rye. Outside with close rows of fine gnranules : orange- 

red tint, glossy. Var. HnuUula, sculpture stronger, border olack : perhapsa 
Maz. Cat no. 265. 

247. Acnuea spectrum, Nutt. Rye. Flattened, with yery strong ribs, irregular. 

248. Acmaa (?pileolus, Midd. yar.) rosacea. Pink, smaJI : like llerm specimens of 

vir^nea. 

249. Lottta gigantea, Gray. Genus reconstituted : mantle with papillse interrupted 

in fiont. Shell large, flat, dark, lustrous (s Tedurella grandis. Smiths. Inst. 
Check List). ^ , 

250. Scurria nUtra, Esch. PapiUe all round the mantle. White, conical : young 

sometimes faintly sculptured. In dead clam, 12 fin. Lord. 
250 6. Scurria ? var, f,^niculata. With rouT>ded riblets^ aomeivhat noduloua. 

136 



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651 



25L Le[ eU c»coides ..... 
252. Gadinia (Rowellia) . . 
'253. flssurella volcano .... 

254. Qlyphis aspeia 

255. densiclathrata . . 

25^ Lucapina crenuJata. . . . 
257. PunctureUa cucuUata . . 

25a galeata 

2rj8. Coopeii 

260. Haliotis Ciacherodii . . 

26L splendens 

2^;2. comigata 

3ft3. nifeecens 

201. Kamtschatkana . . 

265. Phaaianella oompta. . . . 
266i Pomaulax undosus .... 
287. Pach jpoma ^bberoeum 



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253. 
254. 

255. 
256. 



258. 



260. 
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264 



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Lepeta eacoides, Pn. a. Like oBoa, but apex turned back. Farallone L^ 
teste R. D. Darbiahire. 

Family Oadiniada, 
RowdHay sp. Gkfnus proposed by Cooper : tentacles flattened; pectinated. Cat 
Is. Cp. Far. Is. Bow. 

Family FissureOida, 
lUtureUa volcano, Bve. s omata, Nutt. Approaches Peruviana : hole yariabla. 
GlyphU aspera, f^h.^Xmco^'^ Oraysscro^i^ta^ Gld. Large, coarsely sculp* 

tured, with colour-rays. 
Ghfphis dentidathratt, Kve. Smaller : with closer, finer sculpture. 
Lucapina cremdata, Sby. Tank. Very large : internal. 
PknetureQa cucuUata, Gld. RR Liurge, with strong, yariable ribs, 15-40. 

Hole simple. 
PandureUa galeata, Gld. £.£. Scarcely differs firom noachifia, but tripartita 

process more strongly marked. 
hmetureUa Cooperi, n.8. Outside like galeata, but without props to th« 

lamina. 30-120 fin. not r. Q». 

Family HaliotwUB. 
HaUoHa CracherodH, Leach, auct; The trade spedea, smooth, dark oHve : holet 

5-0. Var. CaUfomienmy holes 9, 10, 11. 
SaUatis qtlendens. Bye. flatter, grooyed, lustrous. Holes 4-7. Below tide t 

on rocks, Q». 
EalioUs carntaaia^ Gray. Large, arched, yery rough. Holes 3-4. Below 

tide : on rocks, Cp, 
HaUotis rufe9cen8, Swains. Large, flatter, wayed, rich orange-red. Holes 

3-^. Below tide : on rocks, Q». 
HaUoUs Kamt9chatkana, Jonas. Small, thin, arched, wayed. Holes 4, 6w 

Below tide : on rocks, Far. Is. Qi* 

Family TroelmU^ 
I^asiattdla comptOy Gld. Otia. Bias. Cat no. 284. like jw/7ii«, a little lon^ 
and tiatter \ but operc. beyelled and striated. P Var. puUuidr^y exactly like 
Herm shells : P yar. ekUioKy dwarfed, longer and flatter : yar. puuctuiaiai with 
close rows of dots ; pillar chinked. 8-20 fm. Q>. 
Ihmaulax undo$u$y Wood, Very large : operculum with 2 ridge^a. 
Bathypoma gibberomnif Chem. ?3Btitu^uale, Mart Large, rough: opera 
swollen, simple. (Dead.) 

137 



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SEPOBT— 1863. 





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273. Ethalia supravallata .... 


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275. Trochiscus Norrisii 


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2776. var. subapertum . . • . 


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278. gallina 

279. bruimeum 


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M 


280. Pfeifferi 


'c 


M 


C 
C 


T 


— 


— 


— 


I) 

I 


281. aureotinctum 


282. Omphaliua fuscescens .... 

283. Calliostoma canaliculatum 


B 


M 


c 


D 





_ 


^^ 


DI 


M 


C 


c 


M 


— 


... 


V 


M 


284. costatum 


M 
M 


c 


c 
c 


VFMI 
M 


P 


V 
V 


V 
V 


z 


285. annulatum 


286. variegatum 


— 


— 


— 


— 


7 


— 


— 


— 



268. PJm» 



trtttor aerratuSy n. s. Small, finely sculptured, base stellate, nucleus Plau- 
orboid : operc. flat, with moi-e whirls. 10-20 fm. =266 or 267 jun. teste Cp. 

269. Leptonyx stmguineiUy Linn. n. g. Like CoUonia, not imibiUcate. Operc -^ith 

homy and shelly layers, many whirls, outside flattish, not ribbed, margm 
broad. Species red or purple,* Urate. Bch.-20 fin. Cp, 

270. Leptonyx hacuUij n. s. Small, ashy, Helicina-shaped, nearly smooth. Bch. 

d. Cp. Genus= Homahpoma^ p. 537 : nom. preoc 
21\.IAoiiafenestratajn,%. Small. Strongly ribbed each way. Bch.-40 fin. d. Q?. 

272. Liotia ticidicodata, n. 8. Small. Sharply keeled, without radiating sculpiu2V!« 

10-20 fin. Cp. 

273. Ethalia mpravalkttaf n. a. Minute : with keel and fiirrow near suture. 
2736. Mhalia Pvar. invallata. Without keeL 

274. Livona pieoideSf Gld. Otia. Probably the remnant of an ancient colony of pica, 

275. Trochiscus Norrisii, Sby. Tank. Nucleus as in Solarium : perhaps a Probosci- 

difer^ though pearly. 

276. Trochtscus convexusy n. s. Small, subturrited, whirls swollen : umbilicus with 

2 ribs, the outer crenated. 

277. Chlorostoma funebrale, A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1854, p. ZXQ^marginatumj Nutt. non 

Rye. Blackish, often puckered near suture. 
277 6. Chlorostoma funebrale^ var. st^Htpertum, with umbilical pit 

278. Chlorostoma gaUina, Fbe. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 271. Oliye, dashed with purple. 

Var. pyriformisj Gld., umbilicus partly or wholly open. 

279. Chlorostoma brumieumf Phil. Auburn : finely striate : Gibbuloid aspect. The 

young (teste Cp.) has a basal rib. 

280. dhlorostoma Pfeiferi, Phil. Like hrutmemn : outside Ziziphinoid : umbilicus 

keeled. 

281. Chlorostoma aureotinctum^ Fbe. P. Z. 8. 1850, p. 271 Ksmfferrifnum, Gmel. ? Mus. 

Cum. Gibbuloid : with distant grooyes and fine sculpture ; mouth oiauge- 
spotted. 

282. OmphaUus fuscescens, Phil. Almost identical with ligtdatus. Max. Cat. no. 203. 

283. CdUiostoma canaliculatum, Mart.a=</o/*artum. Large, with strong jnooves. 

284. Calliostotna costatum, Mart. s/S/oMim, &c Smaller, swollen, reddish ; finely 

ribbed. 8-16 fin, Lyall. 
2^. Calliostoma annulatum, Mart.aErtn7mMmt. Large, granular, stained with violet 
286. Calliostoma variegatum, n. 8. Small, more conical, nodides more distant, white 

on rosy ground'. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON HOLLUSCA Ot THS WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



653 





VntL 


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Smiths. Ini. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


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Cooper. » 


287. Calliostoma supragranosuir 


I ... 


» 


.. 


— . 


— . 


— 


— 


D 


288. gemmulatuin 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


D 


280. splendens 


_ 


_ 





^^ 











MI 


290. Phorcus puliigo 


— 


— 


M 


— 


— 


V 


V 


M 


291. GibbnU parcipicta 


— 


— 


— 


FI 


— 


— 


V 


I 


292. optabilis 


. — 


— 


— . 


.-* 


^- 


— 


— 


D 


293. funiculata 


.. 


.i.. 


^ 





.. 


— 


V 


.. 


294. succincta 


__ 


.» 


^ 


FIH 


.. 


— 


V 


1 


295. lacunata 


._ 


«^ 


_ 


.... 


_ 





V 


^ 


296. Solaiiella peraraabilis. . . 


. — 


.. 


— 





— 


— 


— 


I 


297. Margarita cidaris 


. — 


— 


— 





— 


— 


V 


-* 


298. punilla 


. — 


— 


P 


vol 


P 


V 


V 


MI 


2986. t*r. lialmonea . • . 


299. acuticoatata 





B/$. 


.. 


-. 


— 


— 


— 


MI 


300. inflata 


. — 


Z 


— 


— 


P 
P 


V 


V 
V 


z 


30L linilata 


302. ?Vahlii 


^- 


... 


.. 


— . 


P 


— 


— 





803. tenuisculpta 


. — 





— 


— . 


P 


— V 


— 


304. helicina 


. — 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— V 


— 



287. CalUodoma supra^ano9mn, n. B. Swollen, with shaxp ribs^ posterior 1-4 

granular. 

288. Cailiost^ma gemmtdatum, n. s. Very swollen : painted like eximmm : with 2 

principal and 2 smaller rows of granules. 
SSOl CaUiostoma splendens, n. s. Orange-chestnut, with fleshy nacre ; small; rather 

flattened, base fflossj. 6-40 fin. Op. 
S90. Phorcus puUiyOy ^9Jt.-\'maculo9us, A. A/Lmateuryomphalus, Jon^-\-marcidust 

Gld. Subgenus of Gibbuls, with expanded; rounded umbilicus, and flat 

whirls ; sometimes obsoletely ribbed. 

291. Gibhida parcipicta, n. s. Like strong growth of Marg. Undata, yar. 

292. Oibbida optabilis, n. s. Wider: decussated between ribs : 2 spiral lines inside 

umbilicus. ^ • 

293. Gibbidaftmiculata, n. s. Shaped like Maniaam: with rounded spiral riblets. 
294 Gibbida sucdndOf n. s. Small; scarcely sculptured; with spiral brown pen«* 

cillings. 

295. Gibbida lacumUa, n. s. Very small; nearly smooth ', umbilicus hemmed-in b^ 

swelling of columella. 

296. Solarieila peramabilis, n. s. Subgenus of Margarita, with open, crenated urn* 

biHcus. Species most omatO; with delicate sculpture. Umoilicus with % 
internal spiral lines, crossed by lirulse : operculum sculptured. Like MinolU 
aspecta, A. Ad. 40-120 fin. living, Co. 
S97. Margarita cidaris, A. Ad. n. s. LaigO; knobby; like thin Turcica, with simple 

J miliar and small umbilicus. 
argarita papilla. Old. 'KK^calostoma, A. Ad. Strong; with sharp ribs; d^ 
cussated oetween, and fleshy nacre. 8-15 fin. iMaU. 

296 (. Margarit^i P yar. salmonea. Between pupUla and widtdata : salmon-tinted, 
sculpture fine, not decussated : sutures not waved. 6-40 fin. Cp. 

290. Margarita acuticostata, n. s. Small; painting clouded : 8 sharp nbs on ppire. 
8-20 fin. C>. 

800. Margarita in/lata, n. s. Thin, whirls very swollen ; sculpture yeiy fine ; sp'ial 
hoUow inside keeled umbilicus. 

SOL Margarita Undata, n. s. Small : operc smooth : 2 sharp principal riblets on 
spire: outline variable. Var. suoelevata, raised, livid: var. omoleta, sculp- 
ture evanescent : ? var. eotdca, very tall; wit)i intercalary ribs, like G. pard* 
nieta. 

902. Margarita Vahlii, MolL Raised, smooth : opero. with spiral rib. 

303. Margarita tenuisculpfn, P n. s. I^ke obsoleta, but operc. ribbed. 

801 Mmxaiita helicLiu^ MonU like the Finmark shells. CiicumborcaL 

139 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



eR4 



REPORT — 18C3. 





ifntt. 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Simt]it.Iii«. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


Swan. 


CoOptT. 


806. Crucibulum spmomim. . . . 

806. Crepidula aculeata 

807. dorsata 


M 
B 
C 

B 
M 

B 

D 
B 


B 

¥ 

B 

PB 

B 
B 


C 

¥ 

oc 
c 
c 
p 

M 
P 

¥ 


DIL 

¥ 
C 
01 

D 
¥ 


¥ 
¥ 

¥ 


V 

V 

V 

V 
V 


V 

V 

V 
V 
V 
V 

V 
V 


PI 

MP 

I 
MPT 

PI 

1 

»n)i 

PMI 

I 

MPT 
D 


808. excavata, var, 

SOa. adanca 


810. rago8a 


31L nayicelloides 

311 b. var, nummaria 

311 e, var, explanata 

312. Galerus fastigiatus 

818. — - contortus 

314 Hipponyx cranioides 

316. antiquatus 

316. serratus 


317. tumens 


318. Serpulorbis squamigeras. . 

319. Bivonia compacta ..[gma 

320. PetalocouchuB macrophra- 

321. Spiroglyphus lituella 



806. 
806. 

807. 

808. 



Order PBcmiiBBAircHiATA. Suborder Rostbifeba. 
Family CafyptraidtB, 

Chseibulum spmomim^ Sby. Max. Cat no. 844 From Southern &una. 
Crepidula acuUaia, GmeL Max. Cat no. 884 From Southern fauna. Rooni 

the world. 
Crepidula fdorsata, Brod., Tar. Ungtdata^ Old. E.R=yar. hilobaia, Maz. Oat 

no. 8d6asC. bUobatOf Rve. Appears identical with the S. American abells. 
Crepidtda excavata, Brod. Maz. Cat no. 887. S. American. 

809. Crepidtda admea, Sb^r* Tank.«M/tifti, Hds. »r<M«n/ormM, Old. KR Park 

liver, rough epidermis, solid deck with produced sides. JNot uncatay Mke.:» 
* rostrattty C. B. Ad., ^y^t^adimca, Maz. Cat no. 336.] iietween tides, Lord] 
10 fin. Cp, 

810. Crepidula rupom, Nutt P. Z. 3. 1866, n. 224 Probably northern yut. oi om^ 

Sby. Maz. Cat. 840, with epidermis less shaggy. 
81L Crepidula navioellmdee, Nutt Shape of eqmma, with nucleus of frnguiform'^ 

(Maz. Cat no. 842). Rounded rar. in hollow bivalYei^mcimii<irta, Old. 

Var. drawn out in layers like Leaeomiss/hnbriata, Rye. Var. elonga^id im 

crypts, scooped by crab or hvfalvetasexplanataf Gld.ssednit7tato, Nuttssj»er- 

foram, Val. 
812. Oalerus faetigiatus, 61d. E.K Like momtTZtim, nucleus large, immersed. 

Large, in 8-16 fin. ZyoA 
818. Galenis contortus, n. s. Whirls twisted : nucleus minutCi promin^it. 2(M0 

fin. Qf, 

Family CapuUda. 

814 Hiffpon^eramioideSjiLB, Lam, rough, flat, intermediate between fifaiMP^iis and 

816. Hwponyx antiquatue, Linn. ]£ix. Cf£. no. 347. From Southern fituna. 

816. Hipponyx serratuSf Cpr. Maz. Cat no. 346. From Southern fauna. 

817. Hipponyx htmens, n. 8. Qiowth like Helcioni sculpture more open tbaik 

barbatuB, 

Family Vermeiida, 

818. Serpulorbis squamweru», Cor* ^^^ S. 1866, n. 226 (not Alete$). Large, scaly. 

Verm, aneUumf Morch, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 869, is perhaps the young. 

819. Bieonia eompaeta, n. s. Entirely open within : but colour and growth lika 
8tA). l\flaloconchus macrophraqma, Cwr. Mnz. Cat no. 369. From Southern £etunai 
821. S/ii:oglyjfhus lituella, Mikch, P. Z. a 1861; p. 164 

140 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 



b^b 



Nutt 



Jew. B.A. 



SmithaiTnaL Ken. 



Lord. Swan. Cooper. 



I 



323. CflBcum crebricinctum 

828. Cooperi 

824 Turritella Cooperi . . 

325. Jewettii 

326. Meaalia lacteola .... 

326 i. var. subplaoata 

327. tenuisculpta . . 

328u Cerithidea sacmta . . 
329. Bittium filoeum .... 

3296. frar, esuriena 

330. ftttenuatum .... 

83L quadrifilatum . . 

332. a^>erum 

333. annillatuiD .... 

334 fasti^atum .... 

335. Litorina plaoaxis .... 
33a Sitchana 



MB 



Bfs. 
B 



B/«. 
B/5r. 

C 



DP/of. 



CF 
P 

M 

D 



MDI 
DI 
DI 



D 
FD 

MD 

D 
DI 
D 



FDI 
PO 



MDI 



Family CtgeuUs, 

322. Ccfcmn er^nemdum, n. s. Large, with aspect oiEUmhantulumj but veiy fine 

dose annular sculpture ; plug suoungulate. 8-20 fm. Cp, 

323. Caecum Cooperi^ n. s. Small^ with 3(V-40 sharp narrow rin^*.v 

Family TkurUdHduB, 
824 Twrriuma Cooperi^ n. s. Extremely slender^ with many narrow whirls, c. (^», 
325. Turrildla JeweUiij n. s. Like sangumeay with yery faint sculptore. 
32(ji Mesalia ladeokif P n. s. May be a local Tar. of the circumpolar iactea, with 

altered sculpture : distinct, teste Cuming. 
326 &. Mesalia Pyar. subplanata. Sculpture famter: whirls flattened. 
327. Mesalia tenuiseulfia, n. s. Very small^ slender; whirls rounded, lip wayed. 

Shoal-water, Up. 

Family Cerithtada, 
32a Cerithidea saercfta, Old. RE.sCo/i/ormca, Nutt.+pM/2a^ Gld. Variable in 

shape and sculpture : passes into Mazatlameaf Maz. Cat. no. 395. 

329. *BUttumJUo$funy Gld. K.E.ssiE8chrichtiif Midd. Strong, broad, prooyed. 
3296. BiUiwn Pyar. esuriens. Like stanred ,/S/(Mttmy yery narrow, adult scarcely 

sculptured. 

330. BiUimn attemuOum, n. s. Like piUcatum, A. Ad., or drawn-out mmtmh^ with 

threads instead of grooyes. 
83L ^Bittium quadrifiiatum, n. s. Broad : 4 threads, equal firom beginning, coiling 

oyer strong radiating ribs. 
832. ^BitUum asperumj n. s. Same aspect : upper whirls with 2 strong and 2 ftdnt 

keels oyer less prominent ribs. Bch.-40 fm. Q>. 
813. * 3itUum anmUatum^ n. s. Same aspect : 3 nearly equal rows of knobs. 
834 Bittium fastigiatumy n. s. Small, slender : apex normal : sutures indented, 

anterior rib strong. 

Family Litorimda, 
M. Idtorina pfanaxii, Nutt PhiLai^ki^ti/a, Gld. E.E. Outside plain; columella 

scoopecL 
336. Litorina Sitchana, 'PhU.ssmdcata, Gld.srtMfi«, Coop. Rovnded, flat, with spiral 

ribs. Var. modedaj PhiL (pars) has soulptiire fibint : suUenebroaaf Midd.. is 

perhi^ a degraded yar. Kocks between tides, Lord; 8-10 fin. Lyall [P]l 

* These species haye so peculiar a nucleus that they can scaioely rank near Cert* 
^hmm or Itusoa: perhaps they are related tD Aiaba. Tie nucleus oietmiem and 
«tt«R«atfim has not been seen. 

141 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



656 



BEFORT — 1863. 





Nutt 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Smiths. Ids. 


1 • 

Ken. 1 Loru. Swan. 1 Coooer. 1 

1 1 ; : 


a37. Litorina scutulata 

338. P Asfliminea subrotundata 

339. P Paludinella 


— 


B 

« 
B 


PF 
P 


POFMI 

10 
T 

DI 
D 
H 


p 
p 

p 


V 
V 


V 
V 
V 
V 
V 
V 
V 
V 

V 

V 

V 
V 


MDI 

DI 

DI 

MBDI 

MI 

D 

M 

DI 
D 

D 


340. Lacuna vincta 

841. porrecta 

342. solidula 


342 6. var, compacta .... 

343. yariegata 

344. unifesciata 

345. Isapis fenestrata 

846. obtusa 

347. Rissoina interfossa 

348. Rissoa compacta 

849. acutelirata 

360. Alyania reticulata 

351. filosa 

362. Fenella pupoidea 

363. Barleda subtenuis 

353 b. ?mr, rimata 

364. haliotiphila 

365. Amphithalamus inclusus 



837. Litorina scutulata. Old. KK-^-leptda, Old. Var.=p/«i«, Gld. Small, solid, 

pointed, flattened, smoothieh. Rocks between tide*?, Lord, 

838. P Amminea mbrotundata, n. s. Like a yery thin Litorina : ashen, plain. 

339. P FaludineUa, sp. Maj be an aberrant Asiiminea, 

340. ZacM/Miriw(rfa, Mont auct Circumboreal. 

341. Lacuna porrecta^ n. s. Upper whirls flattened, efiuse anteriorly ; chink larg^. 
341 b. Lacuna Pyar. effusa. Larger, taller, more swollen. 

841 c. Lacuna Pvar. exaquata, same shape but flattened. 

842. Lacuna solidula^ L^\,^scwinata, Old., not A. K^.^=i\foddia striata, Gabb. 

Solid, yariable, chink small ; sometimes keeled or angular. 

842 b. Lacuna Pyar. compacta. Very small, narrow, orange, scarcely chinked. 

843. Lacuna variegata^ n. s. Very tall, effuse, irreo^ular with wide chink : clouded 

or with zigzag stripes : like decorata, A. Ad. 
844 Lacuna uni/asctdta, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 205. Small, glossy, generally with 
a coloured keel, sometimes broken into dots. Var. aurantiacoy keel ol>solete, 
resembling the chinked Phasianella. 8-10 fin. Cp, 

845. Isapis fenettrata, n. s. Like oroidca, with sharp distant ribs. 

846. Isapis obfttsa, n. 8. Whirls flattened behind : ribs swollen, uneven. 10-20 

fin. Q>. 

Family BissoidcB, 

847. jRisBoina interfossa, n. s. With 6 shaip keels crossing 14 strong ribs. 8-10 fm. 

848. Rissoa compacta, n. s. Sculptured like BeanO, with short broad whirls. 

849. lUssoa acutelirata, n. 8. Alyanoid : 16 sharp, distant, spiral riblets, trayelling 

oyer 18 sharp distant ribs, obsolete in fix)nt. 
860. Alvania reticulata, n. s. Open network : radiating threads trayelling orer 13 
stronger distant spiral threads. 

851. AhaniaJUosa, n.8. Turrited: pillar purple-stained: 18 dose spiral ttiUBy 

passing oyer yeiy faint wayed riblets. 

852. Fenella pupoidea, n. s. Vari^ated, truncatelloid shape. 20 fin. rare, Cp, 

853. Barleeia subtenuis, n. ^^Hydrchia ?ulv€e, Maz. Cat no. 417 ; but with nomuil 

Barleeoid operculum. On ^rass, Qi. 
353 b, Barleeia Pyar. rimata. Whirls more swollen : base chinked. 
864. Barleeia haliotiphila, n. a. Longer, narrower, much smaller. On JT*. splendens. 
855. An^hithalamus inchmts, n. g.. n. s. Habit of minute Nematura ; labrum not 

contracted, but labium in adult travels forward to meet it^ leaving a chamber 

behind. Nucleus cancellated : base bluntly ribbed. 

142 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ON MOLLDSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMFRICA. 



657 





Vvu) Jew. 

1 


B.A. 


Smiths. Int. 


Ken. 


Lord. Swan. 

1 


Cooper. 


356. f AmphithalamuB lacunatus 







... 













D 


:i57. Tnmciitella Califoniica . . 


— 


_ 


— 


— . 





— 


— 


D 


358. Jelfreysia Alderi 





.. 


.. 


D 








— 


_ 


.359. transluceiw 


_ 


.. 


.. 














D 


3d0. Cithnaalbida 


— 


— 


— 


H 


— 


— 


— 


D 
MD 


361. Diala marmorea • 


m. acuta 


__ 


^^ 


_ 














MI 


:3a:3. Styliferina tumta 


.. 

















— 


D 


; 3^. Radius yariabilia 


... 


PB 


._ 


.^ 





_ 








305. Luponia spadicea 

m. Trivia Califomica 


— . 


C 


c 





— 


— 


— 


DI 


-. 


B 


c 


L 


— 


— 


_ 


DI 


3 :7. Solandri 


— 


B 
B 


c 


L 
L 


= 


= 


= 


I 

DI 
MDI 


'¥^. Erato yitellina 


389. columbeDa 


370. Myurella simplex 


— 


B 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


D 


371. Dnllia inermis 


— 


B 


c 


— 


¥ 


— 


V 


BDI 


372. incisa 


373. moesta 


— 


•B 


— 


M 


— 


— 


— 


D 
M 


374. torosa 




— 


— 


— 


D 


— 


— 


— 


D 



v56i ? Anwhithahmus lacunaUUf ilb. Same nucleus; base clunked^ not keeled« 
(Aault not found.) 

Family TnmcateUida, 
S57. ThmeateOa Calif omiea, Pfr. Pneum. Viv. SuppL voL iL p. 7. 

Family J(ffrey9iad€B, 

858, Jtfreynia Alderi, Cpr. Maz. Cat. no. 420. 

859. J^reysia translucens, n. s. Possibly a Barleeia : pillar thickened, base rounded. 
8^). Vitkna albida, n. s. Very close to C. tumens, Maz. Cat no. 421, but imibilicua 

angled, not keeled. 

Family PUmaxida, 
301. Dieda marmorea, n. s. Solid, glossy, clouded witb red : base femtlv angled. 
3^2. IHah acuta, n. s. Base flattened, snarply angled : turrited. Bch.-l0 fm. Cp. 
36:i. Styliferina iurriia, n. s. Minute, slender, baM rounded. 

Family OouHdm, 
304 Badiw variabiUSf C. B. Ad. Maz. Cat no. 485. Probably exotic 

Family Ct/nr{sid€B, 
STw. Luponia spadicea. Gray. Like onyx^ out light-coloured. 
3tJ j. Trivia CaUforniea, Gray. Small : ribs sharp, distant • 
8a7. T, ivia Solandri, Gray. Maz. Cat no. 441. From Southern fauna. Sta. Barb. 

and St Nich. Is. common, Cp. 
308. Erato vitelUna, Hds. Sulph. Large, wide-mouthed : paries callous. 
369. Erato colutnbeUa, ^lke,=^leueophfea, Gld. Maz. Cat. p. 537. Perhaps a Tar. of 

MaugertBy from the tropics. 20-40 fm. c Cp, 

Suborder Toxifera. Family Terebridte. 

370 MyitreSa simplex, n. s. Sculpture very faint and variable : shape of alboeincta. 
c Qi. 

Family HeurotomuUe. 
S71, DrUUa inermis, Hds. Sulph. Early whirls close sculptured. Beach-16 fin. 

living. Qf. 
372. DriUia inetsa, n. s. Like mermis : spiral sculpture grooved, not raised. 
37:i Driflia manta, n. s. Like large luctuosa : middle whirls with long transverse 

ribs and posterior knobs ; adult obsolete. 
874. DrilHd torosa, n. s. Whirls rounder, olivaceous : with one row of strong bosses 

throughout : no posterior knobs. 
874 &. Dinlha P var. awantia. Orange, with sutural riblet and faint spiral sculpture. 
1863, 143 



Digitized by 



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C58 



B7P0RT 



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r- 


Kutt 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Smiths. Idb. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


Swan. 


Cooper. 


375. Drillia penicillata 


. — 


.» 


~- 


L 





... 








37e. cancellata 


, — 


— 


— 


'— 


P 


— 


— 


.— 


377. Mangelia levidensiB ... 


. — 


— 


— 


— 


P 


_ 


V 


... 


378. tabulata 


. — 


~- 


-^ 


-i^ 


..^ 





V 





379. interfoBsa 


. — 


— 


..^ 


.— 








V 


.. 


380. crebricosUta 


. .. 


— 


— 


— 


.... 


.. 


V 


.. 


881. yariegata 


. — 


B 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


381 6. Prar. nitens ..... 


. — 


B 


— 


— 


— 


-^ 


— 


— 


382. — angulata 


. — 


B 


p 


— 


P 
P 


V 


— 


M 


883. Belafidicula 


884. ezcuirata 


. — 


^~~ 


— 


— 


P 





.. 


... 


385. ? Daphnella aspera 


. — 


— 


— 


M 


— 


— 


— 


— 


386. P filo8a 


; Z 


B 


^" 


z 


— 


— 


V 


z 


387. P effiisa 


888. ConiM Califomicus 


— 


B 


c 


D 


_ 


.^ 





DI 


889. ObeUscus Pyariegatus . . . 

890. Odostomia nuci&nnis. . . 


. — 


— 


— 


L 








— 


D 


""* 


..— 


.— 


^^m 





... 


V 





8906. ?var, aTellana . . . 




— 


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.— 


— 


*^ 


V 


— 


891. satura 


. — 


.*- 


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... 








V 


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891 6. Pwir. Gouldii . . . 


^- 


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.—. 


... 


.. 


... 


V 


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892. gravida 


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B 


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„^^ 


.^.^ 


D 


393. mflata 


. — 




— 


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375. DriUia pemeiHataf n. a. Like inermit, witli delicate brownish pencilling 

876. DriUia* cancellaia, ? n. 8. Like the yonng of ineisoy but nodoseiy cancellated. 

877. Mangeiia leviderms, n. a. Stumpy, purplish brown, with rough sculpture. 

378. Mangeiia tabulata^ n. a. Stout, strongly shouldered, eoaarsely cancellated. Pillar 

abnormally twisted. 

379. Mangeiia ifUerfossOf n. 8. Like attenuaU^ delicatel;^ cancellated. 

380. Mangeiia erebricostata, n. a. Like teptanguiaris, with closely set ribs. 

881. Mangeiia variegata, n. s. SmaU, alender, thin, zoned with brown : 9 narrow 

ribs, and strong spiral striae. 
381 b, Mangeiia Pvar. nitens. Glossy : spiral lines almost obsolete. 

382. Mangdia angulata, n. s. Shape of variegata, but brown, whirls broad, angulai; 

383. Bdajidictda, Old. E.E. Very close to twricula, var. 8-10 fin. Xyofl. 

384. Beta excurvata, n. s. Like IVeveOiana : stimipy, Chrysalloid. 

385. f Daphnella^ atpera, n. s. Elongated, with coarse fenestration. 

386. ?Daphnellai jScsa, n.8. Small, diamond-shaped, but rounded periphery! 

spurally threaded. * 

387. fDaphnala^ effuaa, nom. proy. Thin, extremely drawn-out, sculpture faint. 

Family Conida, 

888. Comu CaUfcirmaUf Hda. Sulph.mmotM, Gld. Chestnut, plain. 

Suboider Pboboscibifbra, Family PyramideOida, 

889. OoeUscus fvariegatus^ n. s. From Gulf fauna. Periphery with spiral grooTa 

Colour-pattern clouded. 

890. Odostomia nueiformis, n. a. Very luve, solid, Tomatelloid. 
3906. Odogtomia Pvar. av^kma. Shape of conoidtdis. 

891. Odostomia satura, n. a. Large, with swollen whirls like Bithinia similis. 
•^)91 6. Odostomia Pyar. GoMU, Taller, base gently rounded. 

892. Odostomia gravida, Gld. Oda. I^ike eonotdatis, but nucleus minute. 

893. Odostomia inflata, n. a Like large dolioliformis : with most minute spiral 

atriulation. Farallcme la. On HaL rufeseens, teste Darbiahire. 

• A peculiar ^poup <^ species, resembling CfioneUa (marine, teate Stimpson.) 
t Generic position of all these doubtful : perhaps they belong to genera not yet 
aliminated : jUosa resembling the Eocene forma beiweea Cosms and rSewntomiu 

144 



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Jew. B.A. Smiths. Ins. Ken. Lord. Swan. Cooper. 



'^i. Odofitomia straininea . 

'^>. tenuisculpta . . . 

396. Chiysallida cincta . . . 

397. pumila 

8$^. Dunkeria laminata . . . 
399. Chenmitzia tridentata 

400. chocolata. ...... 

4'X)6. var. aurantia . . , 

40i. tenuicula 

4016. ?var. subcuspidata 

402. — .- crebrifilata . . . 

403. toiquata 

4036. ?var, stylina . 

404. virgo 

4r%, Eulima micans , , . 

406. compacta 

4')?. rutila 

408. thersites 



B 



B 



H 



I 

DI 

D 

MD 

D 

D 
D 



M 

DI 
D 
M 



894. Odostomia straminea, n. a. Like tall yar. of inflataj with straw-coloured epi- 
dermis, not striulate. 

805. Odostamia temMculpUifTL. s. Like subUrulata, Maz. Cat no. 487, with obsolete 
sculpture throughout, 

396. Chn/MlUda cmcta, n. s. Passing towards Mumiola, Badlating sculpture very 
faint 

897. CkrysaUida pumUaj n. a Like ovulumj Maz. Cat. no. 512, but slender ; spiral 
lines delicate. 

398. Dunkeria laminata, n. s. Subgenus of Chemmtzia, with rounded whirls : typical 

species. Aspect of FentUa, finely cancellated. 

399. Chemnitzia tndentata, n. s. Large, chestnut : 19-24 ribs, evanescent at peri- 

phery : waved interspaces with 8-10 spiral grooves : labrum with 3 teeth, 
bidden as in Obdiacus : base round. 

400. Chemmtzia chocolatay n. s. Same size and colour : not toothed : base prolonged : 

crowded ribs minutely striulate between. 
^h.ChemnHzia Prar. aurantia. Intermediate between the above: orange, base 
round ; 26 ribs, striulate between. 

401. Chemnitzia temncula^ Gld. Otia. Shape of tridentata dwarfed : whirls flatter, 

base prolonged, spiral groovingstrong. 
i'^l b.CTiemnitzia Pvar. stwcuspidata. Ribs more distant, muricated at sutures. 

402. Chemnitzia crebri/Uatq, n. s. Slender, whitish : with 8 spiral threads passing 

over 24 ribs, evanescent round base. 

403. Chemmtzia torquata, Gld. C)tia= Vancouverensisj Gld. Ribs truncated before 

periphery, leaving plain band above sutures. 

^O^h.CJkemnitzia Pvar. ityhna. Like torquata, tapering, less swollen in front, with 
more ribs, band less marked. 

40i, Chemnitzia virgo, n. s. Very slender, with short, smooth base : 18 ribs, evanes- 
cent at periphery, and 8 spiral grooves. 

Family EiMmddm, 

405. Efflima mieans, P n. s. Perhaps a small var. of the European polita, 30-40 fin. 

living. Cp, 
40^ Eulima compacta, Pn. 8. Small, with blunt spire and elongated base. 
407. Eulima nUtla, P n. 8. Leiostracoid, rosy, base lengthened. Like producta, 

Mas. Cat no. 561. 
108. Eulima thersites, n. s. Veiy broad, short, twisted. 

10 145 



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REPORT — 1863. 





Nutt 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Smitha. Ina. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


■Swan. 


Cooper. 1 


400. Scalaiia Indianorom . . . . 

4096. ?var, tincta 

410. PCumingii 

410ft. Pgracilis 


•— 


Bfs. 

B 
B 

B 


7 


L 
D 


— 


— 


V 

V 

V 
V 
V 

V 
V 


D 
D 

M 
MD 
M 

- 1 

M 

I 

MD 
M 

MD 

I 
I 


411. ' subcoronata ...... 

412. crebricostata 

418. bellastrlata 

414. Opalia boiealis 

415. ?var. insculpta . . . . 

416. spongiosa 

417. retiporosa 

418. bullata 


419. Cerithiopsis tuberculata. . 

420. colunina 

421. munita 


423. fortior 


424. assimilata 

425. Triforis Padversa 

426. Cancellaria modesta 



Family Sctdariada. 

409. ScalatHa Indianorumj P n. s. Between Ttirtonis and communis : like " Geor» 

getiinay Kien. Mus. Cum. no. 34, Brazil.'* 
^(^h. ScalaiHa Pvar. tincUi, Purple-brown behind: like regularise without spiral 
sculpture. 

410. Scalaria ?Cumingiiy Cpr. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 165. 
4\Qh,Scalana ? gracilis, Sby. in Mus. Cum. 

411. Scalaria subcoronata, n. s. Like young commtmitf, with more and sharper ribs, 

faintly coronated when adolescent. 

412. Scalaiia crebricostata, n. s.=sMu8. Cum. no. 32: 15 sharp reflexed ribs, coro- 

nated agsdnst the sutures. 

413. Scalarit bellastriata, n. s. Shape like pretiosa, jun. : ribs veiy close, spinous 

at shoulder, crossed by spiral riblets. 

414. Opalia bvealis, Gld. E.E. Very close to australisi obsolete forms like Ocho^ 

ftnsis, Midd. 

415. Opalia (?crenatoides, yar.) insculpta. Like the C. S. L. form and crenata, but 

ribs closer, without spiral sculpture, sutural holes behind the basal rib. 

416. Opalia spongiosa, n. s. Like small, very slender granuJata: surface riddled 

with deep punctures in spiral rows. 

417. Opalia retiporosa, n. s. Sculpture in network, with deep holes. 40 fm. d. r. Cp% 

418. Opalia buUata, n. s. Shape of Hissoina : with sutural Dosses : no basal rib. 

Family Cerithiopsida. 

419. Cerithiopsis tubercxdata, Mont. Fbs. & Hani. Agrees with the British ratlier 

than with the Mazatlan form. Cat. no. 557. 

420. Cerithiopsis eolumna, n. s. Very tall : nodules close, like strung figs. 

421. Cerithiopsis nwnita, n.a Stout : strongly sculptured : base evenly ribbed. 

422. Cerithiopsis purpurea, n. s. Stained with purple : nodules fine : base fii.ely 

lirate. 

423. Cerithiofms fortior, n. s. Sculpture open : strong basal rib. 

424. Cerithiopsis assimilata, C. B. Ad. Maz. Cat. no. 563. With spiral keels. Fxom 

Southern fauna. 

425. Triforis fadversa, Mont. Fbs. & HanL Agrees with British specimens. iO- 

40 fin. V. r. Cp. 

Family Cancellariada, 

426. Cancellaria modesta, n. s. Like Trichotropis boreaUs, with two slantinc r ^\$ 

and spiral ribs tmvelKng up the paiies. See aho p. 015, nos. 463, 8177 

146 



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Nutt 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Smiths. Im.: Ken. ' Lord.'Siran. 

■ . , , ' ' 1 


Cooper. 


427. Trichotropis cancellata . 

42S. inermis 

429. Velutina IsBTigata 

iW. prolongata 

48L Xatica dausa 


. — 


B 
B 
B 

B 
C 
B 


P 

P 
P 
P 

P 

oc 


P 

D 

VP 

L 

I 

F 

D 
M 


P 

P 

P 
P 
P 

¥ 
p- 


V 
V 


V 
V 
V 
V 
V 
V 
V 

V 

V 
V 


D 

D 
M 
BD 

m 

MI 

MDI 
D 

m 

MDI 
D 


432. Lunatia Lewisii 

438. nallida 

434. Neventa Reduziana . . . 

435. Priene Oreffonensis 

438. Ranella CaJiformca 

437. Mitra maora , • • . 




438. Marginella Jewettii ... 

439. subtrigona 

440. leffulariB 


441. VolutelLa pyrifonnis ... 

442. Volvarina yaria ....... 

443. OlireUabiplicato 

444 bwlica 





427. Trichotropts canceUatajH^ Sulph. Sculpture strong, open. Epidennis bristly. 

428. Trichotropis inermia, Hds. Sulpn. Sculpture faint : not bristly. 

Family Vdutinida. 

429. Vdutina Iterigata, Linn. Fbs. & HanL Exactly accords with Britisli speci* 

mens. ? ^^KamtschatkaTuiy Desh. 

430. VdMUna proiongata, n. & Spire veiy small. Labrum produced in front 

Family Natidda, 

431. Xatica datisa, Brod. & Sby. Umbilicus closed. Operc sbelly. CireumboreaL 

432. Lunatia Lewim^ Gld. E. £. = hercuUea, Midd. Whurls flattened behind. Abun- 

dant on beachy Qi. 

433. Lunatia pallida, Br. & Sby. = caurina-\'8oluiaf Gld. Globular, compact, whitish* 

BoreaL 

434. Neverita Beckaiana, Petit, Rve. Large, solid, raised, with brown grooved 

lump on pillar. Also Guaymas. 

Family Tritonidce. 

435. Prime OregonenmSy Iled£ Like cancellata, but coarser sculpture. 6ijn. Li/aU, 
438. RaneUa Calif omica^ Hds. Sulph. Scarcely differs from fine specimens of i2. 

ventricosa, in Mus. Cunu 

Family Fasciolarida, 

437. Mitra maurOy Swains. Niitt=ori«»/a/M,Grav='C%tZ«i«j>, Gray,' Kien. Very 

dark and plain. Peru. Sand between rocks, 1. w. Cum, Peru. 

Family MarffineUida. 

438. MargineUa Jewettii, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 207. Like the Mogador specieo, 

somewhat shorter and broader. 10-20 fm. Q'* 

439. Margindla tubtriffona, n. a. Shape of JErato eohimheUa, 

440. MargineUa regularis, n. s. Between Jewettii and minor, C. B. Ad. Maz. Cat 

no. 587. Beach-20 fm. Q>. 
44L VoUdella pyri/armia, n.8. Genua of Swainson (not D*Orb.)= dona, Gray. 

IJke V. margaritula, Maz. Cat no. 589, but produced in front 
4 42. Volvarma varia, Sby. C. S. Lucas^ W. Indies. 

Family OUvid^e, 
443. OUcflla hipUcata, Sby. Tank.«sjFfawrfmarui, Nutt Nut-shaped. 
414. (Hivelia bceUca, n. a. Narrow, dull, thin : has been erroneously called anazorttp 
tergina, petioHta, and ru/i/asciata. 

147 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



60? 



BEPORT 1SC3. 





Nuf. 


Jew.|RA. 


Smiths. Ins. 


Ken. 


Lord. 


Swan. 


Cooper. 


445. Nassa fossata 


1b 


B 
B 

B 
BA 

B 
B 
F 

'c 

B 
F 


PC 
C 

¥ 

? 

LC 
P 
C 

'o 

C 
D 
C 

C 

P 

c 
c 


(?P)L 
PDF 

T 

VD 

VPFMI 

VPOF 

VF 

VPF 

D 
POC 


P 
P 
P 

IF 

¥ 
¥ 

p 


V 

V 
V 
V 

V 


V 

V 

V 
V 

V 

V 
V 
V 
V 
V 

V 


D 
BDI , 

I 

MD 

DI 

D 

M 

MDI 
D 

I 

DI 
MDI 
MD 

I 
FI 

D 
FD 


446. perpingiiis 

447. insculpta 

448. mendica* 


449. Cooperi 

4oO. tegiUa 

451. Amycla gausapata ...;.. 

452. PCaliforniana 

453. tuberosa 


454 ? chrysalloidea .... 

456. ? undata 

456. ? Truncaria coimgata .... 

457. Columbella carinata .... 
4576. ?var, Hindaii 

458. Purpura crispata 

459. canaliculata 


4606. var, fuacata 

460c;. var. oatrina , 



Family BuccinidcB. 

445. N<i8$afo88(Ua, Gld. E. E. = ehganSy Rve. non Desh. Larfi^, broad, flattened spire, 

446. Nassa perfnnguisy Hda. Sulph. Same t)rpe, smaller, rounder, nan*ower. 

447. Nassa itisculptay n. s. Zeuxis^ with varix and non-reflexed callus. Spirally 

grooved. 40 fin. living, r. Cp. 

448. Nassa mendica^ Gld. E. K + QxbhesU, Coop. « Woodwardii, Fbs. Very variable : 

some forms approach triviUata. 

449. Nassa CooperifFha. P. Z. S. 1850, p. J73. Like mendica, with 7 distant ribs, 

and fine spiral sculpture. 

450. Nassa tegtdaj Rve. Maz. Cat. no. 624. From Southern fauna. 

451. Am^cla gausapatay Gld. E. E. (Genus rearranged for Columbellids with Nas- 

sold opercula, probably including Alia and Astyris.) Strong, solid, varie- 
gated, smooth. 

452. Amycla ? Calif amianoy Gask. P. Z. S. 1851, p. 12. Whirls more swollen. 

453. Amycla tttherosay n. s. Very close to minor , Scacchi, but with different nu- 

cleus. 8-10 fin. c. Cp, 

454. ? Amycla chrysaUoideay n. s. Shape of Trtmcaria eurytoides, but mouth not 

effuse : spirally fiiiTowed. Shoal-water, Cp. 

455. ? Amycla unda'a, n. s. Like stumpy, small corrugatay with waved sculpture. 

40 fin. not r. Cp, 

466. ? Trtmcaria corrvgaia, Rve. Conch. Ic (" Buccinum:^^ " Pisania,^* Add. Mav 

be an Amycla.) Large, with waved ribs and spiral striee. Dwarfed at 4b 
fm. Cp. 

467. " Columbella " carinata, Hds. Sulph. Small, turrited, smooth, with stout pos- 

terior keel. (Perhaps AmyclaT) Beach, Cp. 
4576. ColuinbeUa ?var. Hinasii, Rve. Keel shorter, till it ceases, as in gamapata. 

Family Purptirid<9, 

458. Purpura crispatOy Chem.=splicafa, Mart. =s ^/c/fiort, Esch.=sep(entjionaliSj Rve. 

-f &c. Large, strong, canal distinct, smooth or foliated. 

459. Pitrpura canaliculata, IhLcl.^decemcos*a(ay Midd.-|-a//emmto, Rve.+o/io^o^, 

Fbs. With elegant spiral grooves. Chiysodomoid. 

460. Pujpura saricolay\a\. = lapillf(Sy Coop. Like the Atlantic specie^, rough, piUax 

scooped, with brown spiral lines. 
4606. Pitrpura vax./uscatay Fbs. Raised thin form, dull, with faint sculpture. 
460c. Purpura var. emarginatay Desh. Short, swollen, with scaly sculpture. 
400 rf. Purpura var. ostrina, Gld. E. E. Short, swollen, ueaily smooth. 

148 



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663 





yQtt.| Jew. 


B.A. 


Rmitha.lB8. Ken. 

1 


Lord. 


Swan. 


Cooper. 


461. Monoceros enjjonatum . . 

m. lapilloides 

468. Odnebxu liirida and vars. 
464. interfossa 


B 
B 


B> 
?B 
B 

B 

C 

B 
Bfs. 


C 
C 



c 
c 

D 

LC 
P 

P 

A 


D 

n 

FI 
MI 
L 

PODI/«. 

L 

I 
M 

1 

D 

V 


P 
P 

P 

¥ 
p 

PPjn 


V 
V 

V 

V 
V 

V 


V 
V 

V 
V 

V 


DI 

I 
I 

M iun.l 
Mjun. 

-DI 

?D 

D 

MD 

D 
MBDI 

T 
BD 

PI 


465. ? Pouleoni 

466. Cerostoma foliatum .... 

467. Nuttallii 


468. monoceros ........ 

469. Chorua Belcheri 

470. NitideUaGouldii 

47L Pedicularia Califomica . . 

472. Pteronotus festivog 

473. Mmicidea Califomica. . . . 
474 Trophon multicootatiis . . 


476. triangulatus 

477. SiphonaKa Kellettii .... 

478. fiiacotincta 

479. CliTTSodomus tabulatus . . 
480. liiatus 



46L Monoceros en^onatum, Conr^^wUcannatum, Sby. Brown-dotted, with sharp 
posterior keel, smoothish. Beach, Cp. * 

461 h. Monoceros ? var. spiraium (Blainv.). Light colour ; scaly ; horn not developed. 

402. Monoceros lapilloides, Coux.s= puncUUutn,Qr8i.Y'\-brecidetts, Conr. Not should- 
ered : shape of laptllus. 

463. Oeinebra Iteridaj Mjidd. (Genus reconstituted for Miiricoid Purpurids with 

irregular varices. ) Like canaliculaiay brown, with swelling ribs. Beach on 

Cat Is. living. Cp. 
4^h.0cmebt'a var. aspera, Baird. Sculpture rough. 
4^e.0cinehra var. mttnda. Tall, with feint sculpture. 

464. Ocineh a xnlerfossa, n. s. Purple- brown, with latticed sculpture. 

465. ? Oeinebra Poulsoni, Nutt Shape like M. monoceroSy with brown spiral lines, 

466. Cerosioma foUaJtumy GmeLsmonoc^oit, Esch. Large, with winged vances. 

467. Cerostoma NttUaUii, Conr. Smaller, pear-shaped : interstices scarcely sculptured. 

468. Cerostoma monoceros, Sby. Spire raised : whirls rough, rounded. 

469. Chorus Belcheri, Hds. Smph. Very large, with irregular varices like Trophon, 

L. w. com. Cp, 

470. Nitidelta Gouldii, Cpr. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 208. Slender : like thin A, gausapata, 

with Purpuroid operc 
47L Pedicularia Califomica, Newc. Small, purple, highly sculptured. 

Family Mwricida, 

472. Pleronf4us festivus, Hds. Sulph. Form irregular ; frills reflexed. 

478. Muriddea Califomica, Hds. Sulph. Varices taintly developed. L.W.-20 fin. Cp, 

474. Trophon muUteostattts, Esch.as Gurmeri, Lov. Kve. Frills spiny behind : not 

soilptared spirally. Circumpolar. 

475. Trojan OipKeus, Gld. £. K Like the last, with distant spiral riblets. 

476. Trophon trianff*fla^us,n. 8, Typhoid shape : fiills triangular, white. OOfin. CJ». 

477. SiphonaUa Kellettiu Fbs. P. Z. S. 1850, p. 274. Very large, turrited, with 

swollen whirls. Also Japan. 1 living 6| in. long. 

478. Siphonalia fuscolinctOn n. s. Like the same in extreme miniature. 

479. Chrifso'lomits tabidaius, Baird, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 66. Large, with posterior keel, 

and delicate sculpture. 120 fm. dead, Cat Is. Cp, 

480. Chry^iodomm liratus. Mart =»decemcostatus, Midd. (P Say) = Middendorffii, Coop. 

Swollen, with distant keels. Whidby*8 is. 

149 



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BEPORT — 1863. 





Nutt 


Jew. 


B.A. 


Smiihi. Ins. 


KenTfLord, 


Swan, 


Coooer. 


481. Chrysodomus dims 

482. rectirostris 

483. Fu8U8 ambustus 

484. Macron Kellettii 

485. lividufl 

486. Anachls subturrita 

487. ? penicillata 

488. Argonauta Argo 

489. Octopus punctatuB 

490. Ommastrephes giganteus 

491. Ayresii 

492. Onychoteuthis fuBiformis 


— 


b7«. 

B 


F 
L 


VI 

L 
L 

(FL) 
PM 


P 

P 

PP 
PP 


V 


V 

PV 


BDI 
PI 
D 
D 
DI 



481. Chrysodomus dims, Rye,wsincisu8f Q\d.ssSitcherms, Midd. Dark llyer^ with 

spiral grooves. 

482. Chiyaodomus rtcbirostrisy n. 8. Small, white, smooth, with straight canaL 

483. Fusm ambustus, Gld. Otia. Close to ciavaia, Brocchi, j&om Mediterranean. 

Farallone Is. teste Barbishire; 16 fin. c. Cp. 

484. Jfcfacrofj jre«c«ti, A. Ad. P. Z.S. 1863, p. 186. Large, with blunt keels. Dead, 

00 fin. Cat Is. Cp, 

485. Macron UviduSy A. Ad. Small, smooth. 

486. Anachis subtut^-ita, n. s. Aspect of small Hissoina, 20 f«dnt ribs : no spiral 

sculpture. 

487. ? Anachis pemciUata, n. s. Small, with Metuloid sculpture. Beach-lOfiu. Cp, 

Class CEPHALOPODA. Family Argonautida. 

488. Argonauta Argo, Linn. auct. like the Mediterranean form. Hundreds on Sta 

Cruz Is. Cp. 

Family Octopida. 

489. Octopus pwMtatuSj Gabb, Proc. Cal. Ac. 1862, p. 170. S. Clemente Is. Cp. 

Family LoUgida. 

490. Ommastrephes giganteus, D*C^b. Peru. Common at S. Clemente Is. Co. 

491. Ommastrephes Agi-esii, Grabb^ProcCaLAc; Hundreds on S. Clemente Is. Qi. 

492. OnychoteuthU fusjformis, Gabb, Proc CaL Ac 1862, p. 17L " Cape Horn, 

Mus. Ac" S. Clemente Is. Cp. 

113. It remains to tabulate the shells which have been received from 
special localities, south of the State of California, either by the writer or by 
the Smithsonian Institution ; vide Br. Assoc. Eep., par. 77. 

The promontory of Lower California has been so little explored, that the 
existence of a large inland fiord, in lat. 28^, was not known to the autho- 
rities. It appears that the whales have long delighted in its quiet waters; 
and those whalers who were in the secret carefuUy preserved the exclusive 
knowledge of so profitable a hunting-ground. All that we know at present 
of the molluscs of that region is from collections made at Cerros Island, by 
Dr. Ayres and Dr. Veitsch. They are mostly shore shells, and are sadly 
intermixed with an abundance of cowries, cones, strombs, and other clearly 
Pacific species, which throw great doubt upon those which may be truly 
from the coast. As it is manifestly a << hotbed of spurious species," nothing 
can safely be built upon the data, which present a singular intermixture of 
northern and southern forms. Excluding the Central Pacific importations, 
the lists stand as follows, the temperate species Jbeing distinguished (as in the 
first Report) by a ♦, the tropical by a t ; — 

150 



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ON M0LLU8CA OV THE IITEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



665 



*Sanguinolaria NuttallL 
*MiiCQma secta. 

AnguliLS Gouldii. 
•tHeterodonax bimaculataa. 
^Donax Califomicus. 
tDonaz punctatostriatus. 
•Standella PCalifomica. 
'Pachydesma crassatelloideiL 
^tAmiantis callosa. 
*Chione siiniliima. 
tChione neglecta. 
'Tapes staminea, Canr, 
tTapee grata and Tars. 
*Liiciua Califomlca. 
Lucina bella. 
*Mytilit3 edulls. (One roimg specimen; 

perhaps from San fVancisco.) 
•Septifer bifurcatus. 
fPecten subnodosus, yenti-icosus. 
*Pecten monotiineris and yars. 
*Humites giganteus. 
•fOstiea conchapbila. 
•fAnomia Plampe. 

Siphonaria eequilirata. 
^tMelampus olivaceus. 

Helix arrosa. 
•fBuila nebnlosa. 
^Ischnocbiton Magdalensis. 
*Acmffia psrsona, var. textilis. 
'Acmsea scabra, vor. limatula. 
*AcmiBa Pspectrum, jun, 
*Lottia gigantea. 
*Lucapina crenulata. 
*fissurella Tolcano. 
*Haliotis splendens. ^ 
*HaIiotis CracherodiL 
^Pomaulax usidoaus. 



•Trochiscus Norrisii. 
*Omphalius rfuscescens. 
*0mphaliu8 aureotinctus. 
tCrucibulum imbricatum. 
*tCnicibulum spinosum. 
tCrepidula arenata and yar. 
tCenthium uncinatum. 
*Cerithidea pullata. 
tCerithidea MontagneL 
*Litorina planaxis. 

Luponia sp. ind., jun. 
tTrivia Solandii. 
•Trivia Califomica. 

Drillia penicillata. 

Myurella, sp. 
•fNeverita Recluziana. 
tNatica Maroccana. 
*Scalaria (Ind. var.) tincta. 
tBezoardica abbreyiata. 
fLeucozonia cin^ulata. 
tStrigatella tristis. 
•Oliyella biplicata. 
•Purpura ostiina, yaw. 
tPurpura biserialis. 

Monoceros lu^bre. 
tVitularia saleorosa. 

Cerostoma monoceroa. 

■Ocinebra Poulsoni. 

Chorus BelcherL 
tColumbella fuscata. 
•Columbella carinata. 
tStrombina gibberula. 
tAnachis coronata. 
•fNassa tegula. 
tNassa complanata. 

Macron Kellettii. 
•Macron liyidus. 



Oallopoma tessellatumiBFokkesii. 

The shells of Margarita Bay, on the Pacific coast of Lower California, in 
lat 24**, have become known through W. Harper Pease, Esq., of Honolulu, 
Sandwich Islands. Through his labours we are likely soon to be favoured 
with accurate accounts of the distribution of species in the various parts of 
the Pacific Ocean. Already his researches have greatly enriched our know- 
ledge of the quaint fauna of the Sandwich Islands, from which he has elimi- 
nated the spurious species, and added those erroneously ascribed to California 
by previous naturalists. The principal trade from these islands is with San 
Prandsco ; and ** the coast," in Mr. Pease's writings, signifies the coast of 
GaUfomia or (generally) of Western America. Many of our best specimens 
of rare West-coast shells have been received firom him, and in remarkably 
fresh preservation. The Margarita Bay species were obtained by one of his 
trained collectors, and are as follows : — 



Martesia intercalata. 
Saxicava pholadis 
Solecurtus violascens. 
Hiatula compacta. 
•Tellina secta. 
Strigilla camaria (pink). 
Seiuele Califomica. 



151 



Donax punctatostriatus. 

Dosinia ponderoea. 

Callista chionsea. 

Callista vulnerata (Pss tricolor; iVe.). 

Chione succincta 

Chione gnidia. 

Tapes grata. 



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EEPORT — 1308. 



*Tape^ staminea. 

Ohama frondosa. 

Cardium procerum. 

Liocardium elatunu 

Modiola capax. 

Modiola Brasiliensis. 

Lithophagus attenuatus. 

Barbatia gradata. 

Pecten ventricoeus. 

Ostrea Vimnica (Maz. Cat.). 
•Ostrea lurida, var, 

Ostrea conchaphila. 

Oatrea amara. 

^iphonaria semiilirata (sleTiuscula^ 
Sby.f teste Cuming), 

Siphonaria gigas. 
•Helix areolata, Fbs, CThe only land- 
shell received from tne Bay.) 

Dentalium tetragoniim, Sbf/. 

Dentalium semipolitum. 

Dentalium lacteum, I hil, 

Acmiea strigatella. 

Acmaea atrata. 

Gadinia reticulata. 

Calliostoma versicolor. 
*Chlorostoma g^Uina. 
*Chloro8toma aureotinctum. 

Nerita scabricosta. 

Nerita Bemhardi. 

Crucibulum spinosum. 

Crudbulum imbricatum. 

In the above list, the only strictly 
with a *. 



Crepidula onyx. 

Crepidula excavata. 

Galerus conicus. 

Ceiithium stercus muscarum. 

Pvrazus incisus and var. 

Rkinoclavis ffemmata. 

Cerithidea Alazatlanica. 

litorina fasciata. 

Litorina aspera, var. 

Conus " reticulatus " (Pease), Dead. 

Conus ** emarginatus '' (Bsase), Dead. 

Conus interruptus. 

Neverita Reciuziana. 

Polinices bifaseiata. 

Cancellaria urceolata. 

Cancellaria ^oniostoma. 

*' Cypraecassis testiculus " [perhaps 

tenuis], 
Malea rmgens. 
Priene nodosa. 
Oliva subangulata. 
Oliva porphyria. 
Purpura patuia. 
Purpura biserialis. 

•Purpui-a ostrina. [Normal, living.] 
Vituiaria salebrosa. 
Monoceros lugubre, var. 
Cerostoma monoceros. 
Nassa te^ula. 
Siphonaha anomala. 
Phyllonotus nigritub. 

Califomian species are those marked 



The following species have been received from La Paz, besides those tabu- 
lated in Major Rich's list, p. 541, in the C. S. L. list, p. 619, and the B. A. 
B«p. p. 352. It is clear that the fauna of the district is essentially tropical, 
and remarkably free from Califomian species. 

DetUaUmn semipolitum, 

TurriteOa punctata. 

Modulus cerodes. 

Olivella fulMa, Lieut Trowbridge [teste W. Cooper j but probably added by 

him accidentally from his W. African collections. It has not been received 

from any other West-coast source]. 
Siphonalia modificaia. Dead. 

A very interesting series of shells were collected at Guaymas and Pinacati 
Bay, by Capt. Stone and Mr. Sloat. The latter gentleman affixed MS. names 
to tiiose which he regarded as new. They were in rema!tkably beautiful 
condition, the bivalves having an unusually porcellanous aspect, and many 
K}li the species presenting local peculiarities. 

Mulinia carinulatay De8h.,s Madra modesta, Sloat MS. 

Zhsinia ponderosa. Very large. 

Chione fluctifraga, Sby.,= V, Cortezi, Sloat MS. [^gibbosula (Desh.), Rve,,a 

caUosay Sby., non Conr.l 
Cliione succtncta, Val.,= Valifoniiensis, Brod.,ss V, crassa, Sloat MS. [Very 

variable in sculpture ; also, with the last, varies greatly in shape^ some of the 

specimens being much produced, others rounded.] 
Chwne gtndia, Brod. Passing into amathusia. 

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ON MOLLTTSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF XORTH AMERICA. 667. 

Ckione pulicaina, Sby., var.,= V. Pinac.4tensi$, Sloat MS. Sculpture prereed 

smooth in the middle. 
Cardium elaitim. Fine. 
Cardtum procerunu Fine. 
Modi ia capax. ** Choro8." Also Sta. Inez Bay. 
Modiola Brasiliensis. (Typical.) 
Byssoarca Pacificcu 

Ostrea conchaphUa et amara, Maz. Cat. 215. 
Chiton (Lophyfvs) Utokesii. Also San Salvador^ CapL Dow. 
CaUopomajUictuattan. 
Bironia contorta, 
TwniteUa goniostoma, 

TurriteUa tiffrifia (light var."),= leucostomay Val. 
CerUhidea cdbonodosa. Common. [Probably a var. of Masatkmiea.'] 
Strombus graciUor, Also Mulege Bay. 
Ketei-ita Becbtzimta, [Operc. strong, homy.] 
BaneUa triquetra, [Operc. sub-Buccinoid, oval ; nucleus internal, near middle 

of labrum ; scar with few ridges, as in Puerpura,'] 
OUm anffttkUa. Not rare. 
OUva Cumingiiy very callous Tar. 
Agaroma Ustacea. 
MoRoceros ktgubre. Very tall Tar. 
PhyUonatus nigritus. Very large, of form described by Philippi, with Pholads 

tn gOu, A^obampo Bay. 
FhyUontntus bicolor. [Operc. thin, without frills or raised layers ; of uniform 

colour.] Also Angeles Bay. 

To these may be added, from a second Toyage by Capt. Stone to the 
northern part of the Gulf of California, and in equally good condition — 

Arcagrcmdis. A^obampo Bay. 

Caliista semilamemm, Agiobarapo BaT. 

Laxatia pectunculus (teste Cuming). St Luis Bay. 

Cardium consors, St. Luis Bay. 

Avicttla Peruviana. Mulege Bay. 

Lucina tigerrina. Very fine. San Marcos Island. 

Margaritiphorafimbriata. " Topo." 

Janira deniata Issexcavataf Val. J. " Caballito del mar," St Luis Bay. 

Btdia nd}ulo8a, " Huevitos." 

Ghfphii inteqtialis, St. Luis Bay. 

Cnicibuitim imbricatum. St. Luis Bay. 

Cgpraa eranihema. (Large.) Cape de Haro. 

Myurella variegata. Muk'ge Bay. 

Solarium granulatwn et vai-. quadriceps, Agiobampo Bay. 

Polinices bifasciata. Angeles Biy. 

Cyprttcassu ienmal^ MarsenfB, Kien.]. Carmen Island. 

Harpa crendta. Very fine. Mulege Bay. 

Bexoardica abbreviata, Mulege Bay. 

Ficvia decussata, Angeles Bay. 

Pyrtila patula, Agiobiampo Bay. 

Malea ringens. Lobos Island. 

Argonauta hian$. 1 fine sp. Upper part of Gulf of California. 

To the Gnaymas fauna must be added, from Dr. Gould's portion of the 
lame collection, " Petten pyxidatus** [y^subcrencttu^, jnn.). Also from the 
collection of the Calif. Ac. Nat. Sc., Kassa nodocincta, A. Ad. [Galapagos, 
Cuming], On comparing these lists with the shells given in B. A. Ilep. 
p. 352 (in which the Venus quoted is not *' staminea, Conr.," but a southern 
•pecies), it will be seen that tlie fauna of the upper part of the Gulf, as fjir 
Bortii as it has been explored, is essentially tropical The Chione Jtitcti/rat/Li 

163 



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REPORT 18C3. 



and O, sucetn*(a, however, and the Polinicis Efcluziana indicate a connexMO 
with California which may have been, at a previous age, more direct than at 
present. 

114. (See first Keport, pars. 79-83.) Acapulco being notorious for the 
exotic species quoted in its fauna, it is desirable to examine all authentic 
collections from that prolific locality. The Smithsonian series were ob- 
tained by Dr. Newberry * (N,), after his Pacific R. R. Explorations (vids 
p. 593) ; by Mr. Belcher (5.) ; and by the Rev. J. Rowell (i?.), who obtained 
them principally from the valves of the large oysters. The private collec- 
tions of Judge Cooper, Col. Jewett (•/.), and other American naturalists have 
also afforded valuable information. The species from these various sources, 
which were also found by Mr. Xantus, are tabulated with his Cape St. Lucas 
series, anted, pp. 619-626. The following have not been obtained from the 
northern localities : — 



Corbula nuciformis, J, 
Oorbula ovidata, and smooth var., B,, J, 
Hachstra patula, var., N. [Surely im- 
ported.] 
San^inolaria miniata, J*., N., B, 
Tellma princeps, B.) pmiicea, JV., B,) 

ojperciuaris, iV. 
8truplla caroaria, pale and crimson vars., 

Semele proxima, Jl ; pulchra, J., N. ; 

venusta, Jl 
Donax carinatus, J., Nr, rostratus, J.; 

transversus, N, 
Trigona Hindsii, J, 
Hactrellacarinata,Zam.,aB alata, SpengLy 

JV. [Perhaps imported.] 
Dosinia Annse, N, 
Callista circinata, «71 ; semilamellosa, JVl, 

B, ; spinosiflsima, B, 
Chione amathusia, N, 
RupeUaria foliacea, R. 
Petricola ventricosa, iJ. 
Ohama corrugata, R. 
C:irdium Paculeatum, jun., N. [proba- 
bly from ballast] j graniferum, N, 
Ludna Ppectinata, var., J. [More like 

imbrieattda, W. I. ; perhaps Jamaican.] 
Diplodonta semiaspera, JR, 
Feiania tellinoides, var., J. [More like 

avhgloho&a, W. L ; perhaps Jamaican.] 
Corbicula Pconvexa, 1 worn valve, N, 
Scapharca bifrons, N, ] labiata, B. 
Noetia reversa, J"., B, 
Ar^^ina brevifrons, N, 
ATmsea parcipieta [aemulticostata], 

J,, N. ; pectenoides, J. ) inteqiialis, J, 
Lima angmata, J, 

Ostrea megodon [P.Z. S. 1845,p. 106], N. 
Anomia lampe, J. 



Toraatina infrequens, B, 

Dentalium Phexagonum, var., B, 

FissuTella nigropunctata, J. ; Pmacro- 
trema, J, ; alba, jun., B, (1 wcmti sp.) 

Calliostoma lima, var. ssquisculpta, N. \ 
Leanum, J, 

Senectus squamigems, J, 

Galerus conicus, N. ; mamillaris, iV. 

Crepidula nivea, R, ; incurva, N, 

Turritella Banksii, N, ; leucostoma, B, 

Ampullaria Columbiensis, B. [West 
Mexico ; locality uncertain.] 

Truncatella Bairdiana, B, 

Radius avena, J, 

Cyprsea exanUiema, N, 

Luponia fimbriolata, Beck^ N. [Pro- 
bably imported, and perhaps an im- 
perfectly developed form of aemijiO' 
Jita, Migh.] 

Terebra tuberculosa, N, 

Drillia incrassata, B. ; ebumea, n. s., 
B. r W.Mexico; locality uncertain.] 

Mangeiia subdiaphana, J. 

Conus intemiptus, Br, Hf Shy., B. j ma- 
hogani, N, ; puncticulatus, N. 

Eulima hastata, R. 

Eulima, Uke yod, R 

Eulimella^ sp. (worn), B, 

Chemnitzia tenuiUrata, B. 

Fasciolaria, sp. [size of tuUpa, but with 
row of knoDs and serrated lip], JV. 

Latirus castaneus, N, 

Volvarina Pfusca, J, [More regjularly 
cylindrical than the W . I. spedmens, 
broader in proportion near suture 
and at base, spire much shorter ; but 
locality uncertain.] 

Oliva Jmietta, B, 1 worn sp. [proba* 
bly imported]; Pkaleontina, dead. A*. 



* The oollMtious of Dr. Newberrf pasted principally into the hsndi of Dr. £. Fore* 
snao, Ute of Washington, who kinmy presented a Bcries to the Mus. Smiths. 

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ON MOLIXSCA OF THE WEST COAST OT XORTfl AMERICA. 



A^rtronia testacea, N. 

Khizocheilus Diadi*epo7arum. S living 

sp. on f-oral, J, 
Coluinbella unciuala^. ; humerosa, n. s., 

R.: rarians, var., N, ['"Imported from 

Sandw. Is,] 



Nassa coUaria^ iV. ; ambigua, Mont,, teste 
HatU^ N. [Probably imported from 
W.Lj 

Anachis coronata, N, j Califomica, J, 

Muricidea alveata, J. 

PhylloDotus brassica; N, 



The following species are part of a collection received at the SmithsoTiinn 
Inst, from Real Llejos, and fill up gaps which existed in the Central Ameii* 
con iaona at the time of the iirst Keport : — 

Caecum liratocinctum. 
Caecum l»ve. 



Di^cina Cumingii. 
Trigona Hindsii. 
Hemicardium obovale. 
Crassatella ^bbosa. 
Kel'ia suborDicularis. 
Barbatia mutabilis. 
Noetia reversa. 
Axinjea Pmuldcostata. 
Fissurella nigosa. 
Phaaianella ^rforata. 
Oniphalius viridulus. 
Hipponyx barbatus. 



Ceiithium interruptum, var. 
Barleeia subtenuis. 
Aricia punctulata. 
Terebra strigata. 
Cerithiopsis assimilata. 
Triforis altemata. 
Olivella gracilis. 
PNitidella millepunctata. 
No.thia piistis. 
Pisania sanguinolenta. 



The collections received at the Smithsonian Inst. fit)m Panama consist, in the 
main, of species already tabulated from that region. The following, however, 
are new to that well-searched portion of the fauna ; — 

TeBiita gtriata (teste Cuming), Rowell, Pease. 

TeUina (An^dus) ampkctanSy n. s., Rowell, Pease. 

Advla stylina, t Califomian species : either ballast or error in num* 

Pecten €equisttlcatuSy }\m, \ bering: 2wweli, 

Zitorma. Small spotted species, n. s., teste Cummff, but appears identical 

with the W. Indian : probably impoi-ted: RoweU. 
Itttmimcola, sp., Kowell. 
DriUia ^Ubolaqueaiaf n. s.^ RowelL 
Natica ctUenala, Rowell. 
Cwna eogtata, Rowell. 

115. The Puhnonates of the Pacific slope hf.ve not formed a special study 
with the writer of this Report, as they were «lready in the abler hands of 
Messrs. Binney, Bland, and other eminent Tiansatlantic naturalists. The 
qnnions of Mr. Binney as to synonymy, &c., with descriptions of new 
species and details of those previously known, were given in papers pub- 
lished in the • Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil.' as follows: — " Descriptions of American 
Land SheUs," Feb. 1857; ** Notes on American Land Shells," Oct. 1857, 
May 1858, Nov. 1858, July 1859 : and also in the * Proc. Best. N. H. S.,* 
•* Description of two supposed new species of American Land Shells," Apr. 
1857. These are embodied in * The Terrestrial Air- Breathing Molluscs of the 
United States and the adjacent Territories of North America,' vol. iv., by 
W. G. Binney, Boston, 1859. It was first printed in the 'Boston Journal 
of Natural History,' vol. vii., and is intended as a Supplement to the great 
treatise by his father, vols, i.-iii., on the same subject. It is impossible to 
speak in too high terms of commendation of the manner in which this work 
has been prepared and executed, and of the beautiful figures drawn by Otto 
• Kohler. The more matured views of the author were embodied in X\i*\ 
* Check-list of the Terrestrial Gasteropoda of North America,' published by 
the Smithsonian Inst., June 1860, of which a second edition was soon issucu. 
The species were di\idcd into thiee seiies, — (1^ tho^ of the Pacific cca^t. 

]55 



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670 KEPORT— 1863. 

from the extreme north to Mazatlan ; (2) those of eastern N. A., from the 
boreal regions to the Rio Grande ; (3) those found in Mexico, to which sixteen 
from the first series are added. The freshwater Puhnonates are catalogued 
by the same most industrious author, in the ' Check-List of the Fluviatile 
Gasteropoda of N. America,' which contains the MelaniadcBy Paludinidir, 
AmpullariadcBy Valvatidof^ and LimnmdcB ; the West Coast species being dis- 
tinguished by the letter W, and the Mexican by H. Mr. Binney next under- 
took a monograph of the Paltultnidcej &c., the proofs of which were widely 
distributed in 1862. Afterwards, assisted by the extensive series of speci- 
mens received from the Smithsonian Museum, and ^lith access to those of 
the principal public and private collections in the U. 8., and with the benefit 
of Say's types preserved in the Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., he prepared a preliminary 
synopsis of the Limnmda;, with full sjmonjrmy, proofs of which were issued by 
the Smithsonian Inst., May 4th, 1863. Last of all, under date Dec. 9, 1863, 
the Smithsonian Inst, has distributed proof copies of a complete * Synopsis 
of the Species of Air-Breathing Mollusc^ of N. A., aa eliminated from their 
synonyms by Mr. Binney'*. Of all these works the author not only sent the 
earliest slip-proofs to assist in the preparation of this Report, but in several 
instances took the pains to write separately what related to the W. eoast^ 
and even sent the manifold -duplicate of part of the printer's copy. It is not 
considered necessary to tabulate each of these publications separately, as 
they can easily be obtained by post, on application to Professor Henry, 
Washington, D.C. The following liBt embodies— (1) the classification and 
nomenclature of Dec. 9th, 1863; (2) the synonymy as given in previous 
synopses ; and (3^ the localities and authorities supplied by Mr. Binney in 
MS. The following reservation requires attention :— " As a mere proof, 
irhich will undoubtedly receive many corrections, this list should not be 
quoted as authority, or referred-to as a published work." 

Mr. Binney^s Arrangement of the West Coast Pulmonates. 
f The species thus marked have not been seen by Mr. Binney. 

PHANEROPNEUMONA. 

EcTOPHTHALHA. (Noue kuown in the region.) 

Opisthophtealma. Fam. TruncateUida. 

1. TrftncaUUa Calif omica, Pfr.,+ T, gracilenia, Gld. S. Diego, Cooper. [Comp. 
Maz. Cat no. 423.] 

PUI.MONATA. 

Geophila. S 1- Vermivora, Fam. OUacinida. 

t2. Oldndina {Ghndiftii) turris, Pfr. (M^Achatina^ (Xeacina, Pfr.) W. Mexico. 

Maz. Cat no. 231. ^ ^ „ . 

8. Olandina ( Glandma)AIbersi, Pfir. (^Achatina, Pfr.).,+ G. Albern, var. turrtta, 
Cpr. W.Mexico. Maz. Cat no. 230. 

• The first TransaUaatic attempt to rerise the genera of N. A. Selicida was made by 
Mr. Bland, in his " Bemarks on Classifications of N. A. SeUce* by European authors, 
and especially H. and A. Adams and Albers," printed in the • Annals of the Lyceum of 
Nat. Hist N. York,* Oct 1863. In an addendum, he gives a list of the Pacific species, 
with an account of two " genera", not represented in the eastern dirision. Mr. Binney, 
continuing Mr. Bland's labours, issues the species for the most part in the trinomial 
nomenclature, which now appears to be taking the pUoe of the Linnean binomW system. 
Ko attempt is here made to review the work, as the writer felt justified m doing with " 
reference to marine shells ; the only alterations made consisting of oorrecUons in some of 
the citations with which he happened to be more &miliar* 

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ON MOLLUSCA OP THE T7E3T COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. C7l 

§ 3. Fhjflhvora. Fam. Selicida, 
Sabfam. Vitrinina. 
t4. Vitrinn Pfeiferij Newc. Carson Valley, Cal., Newoomb* 

5. Bitmeya noUibilis, Cp. Catalina Island, Cal., Cooper. 

6. MaerocycUs Ke^cherryanay Bin. S. Diego, common, Neioherry. 

7. Macrocyc4i$ Vanamverensis, Lea, -ffe/ir K, Lea, Trosch., Pfr., Gld., Rve.,Bi 

Ji. veUicata, Fbs., Rve., Plr.,-i--fir. concava, Binn. Vancouver to Cali- 
fornia :— Columbia R., NuUaUy U. S, E. E, ; Puget Sound, U^ S, E. E. ; 
Vancouver, B. N. P. B, S. ; Or^g^ City, dewberry ; Califomia; Trowbridge ; 
St. Joseph *8 K., 2nd Camp. 
7b. MacrocycUs [Fvar.] sporteUa*, Gld. PuoRT Sd. TO S. Diseo :— Puget Sd., 
U. S. E. E. ; Fort Umpqua, Oregon ; S. Diego, IveSy Nexcbetry ; S. Fi-ancisco, 
Mus. Cal. Ac. J Contra Costa Co., Thomsotu " Animal solitary." 

Subfam. Ileltcina. 
K HtUx (Pattila) drigosa, Gld. Interior Basin ; N. Mrxico to Brit. Av. : 
— Int. of Oregon, U. S. E. E.; Canon Largo, Rio Pedro, N. M., KewbeiTy^ 
9. Helix (Patula) Cooperiy Bin. California. 

10. Heir (Patula) Mazatlunicay Pfr. Mazatlan. 

11. Helix (Polygyra) acutedentata, Bin.,+^* Zoisa, Bin. Guaynias. Mazatlan, 

G'mbel. 

12. Helix (Polygyra) ventromda, Pfr. [No locality given : not " W." in Check- 

Lists."! 

13. Helix (Fdygyra) pohjgyreUa, Bland. <' W." [teste Check-List, not in MS.] 
14 Helix (Stenotrema) germojMj Gld. Oregon, U. S. E, E. 

15. Helix (Triodon^s) MuUani, Bland. Washington Territory and Oregon : 

—St Josepn's River, 1st Camp. 

16. Hdix (Triodopeis) l-jricata, Gld., Pfr., s JET. Leconteiy Lea. Sacramento River, 

U. S. E. E. 

17. Hdix (Mesodon) Columbiana, Lea, Trosch., Rve., Pfr.,H-/r. labiosa.Gld,^ Pfr, 

Vancouver TO Oregon : — Ft. Vancouver, iVf/<^/?// ; Ft. George, U.S.EE.; 
Kootka Sound, Hituls ; Astoria, Drayton ; Oregon Citv, Newberry. 

18. J7«Ax (Mewdon) devia, Gld., Pfr., =ir. Baekercillei, Pfr.,' Rve. Puget Sound, 

U. S. E. E. ; Oregon. 

19. JSTefix (A^laia) fideVu, Gray, Miill., Rve., Pfr.,= ^. NuttaUiana, Rve., Trosch., 

Gld. Vancouver to Oregon : — Puget Sound, Columbia River, V. S. E. E.; 
Esquimault Harb., liord ; Umpqua Valley, Or., and San Francisco, AVtr- 
beny ; De Fuca, Otbbe ; Oregon Citv, Skumard ; Ft. Steilacoom, Sttckley. 

20. HeUx (Aglaia) infumatay Gld. San p'rancisco, Bigelow. 

2L Hdix (Arianta) arroea^ Gld., =ir. aruginosaj Gld. (nom. preoc.). Oregon, 
California : — San Francisco, Bigehwy SamucU; Petaluma and Columbia 
River, Netoberry, 

22. Hdix (Arianta) 'Towneendiana^ Lea, Trosch., Rve., Pfr., (Mdi.,-fH.p€de8tri$ 

-^ruida, Gld. Oregon and California : — Wahlamat River, NtUtaU^ 
Townsend, U. S. E. E. ; Nisquallv, Dyes. ; Puget Sound, Kermerley. 

23. Hdix (Arianta) tudicidata, Binn. Washington Territory to California: 

— San Diego, Newberry. 

2i. HeUx (Arianta) NickUniana, Lea,=s^. CaUforniensiSy Rve., Pfr. (non Lea), 
ssH. arboretorum-^-nemorivaga, Val. — ^Var. =sH. anachoretajBimi, "Widely 
distributed, but solitary," Thompson. California : — Sacramento River, 
U, S. E E.; San Francisco, Bigelow ; Tomales, Newberry. 

25. HeUx (AriofUa) redinUta, Binn. (jun.),sjr. Nicklimana, var. Binn. (sen.). 
California. 

* In the Check-Ii^t of Deo. 9th, eporteUa does not appear. It is generaUy treated by 
Kr. Bmney as a small variety of Vancouverenmy with stronger radiating and spiral lines ; 
but in the MSS. sent for publication in Ihis Report it takes rank as a species. Mr. Bland 
'■wwiders the two identioid j yet in Add. Gen. the form is thus divided : — ^^Iherus (Cam' 
fjflaa) tportella, in lam. MeUcidoB" and " Discus VancQuverensis, in fam. Stenopida." 
In Albcrs it is divided as ^ MacrocyoUs vellicata** " M, rancouverensis" and '* Helkg 
(Patula) sportella:* 

157 



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era REPORT— 1863. 

26. Belix (Aiiantd) intercisa, Binn. (jim.),sJEr. yiekUniima, yar. Burn. (8eii.]i 
Oregon. 
t27. JSWij: (Arianta) exarata, Pfr. Oftlitbmia. 
t28. HeUx {^Arianta) reticulata, Pfr. California. 
t29. HeUx {Arianta) rammtosa, Gld. California, Newcomb. 
t*30. J74?/tr f ^rurnto) Ayresiana, Newc. Northern Oregon. 
t31. Helix {Arianta) Bridgesiiy Newc. San Pablo, California, Neiccamb. 
i'i2. Helix (Arianta) CarperUeri, Newc. Tulare Valley, California. [Not Carpen- 
teriana. Bland ; Florida.] 
33. HeUx {Arianta) Cali/amiensis, Lea, Trosch.. Dekay (non auct.),=ir. mnctOf 
Val., Rve., Pfr. Califobnia :— Interior or Cal, U, & E. E.) Monterey, ioe*. 
t34. HeUx (Arianta) Mormonum, Pfr. Mormon Is., California. 
36, Helix (Arianta) DupetithouareiyDeeitk.f Rve., Pfr., + H. Or^^on^n^, Trosch., 
Dekay, Pfr. Washington Ti?hritory to California. Interior of Cal., 
U, S. E E, ; Paget Sound, Dyes, ; Klamath Lake and Benicia, Newberry ; 
Tulan Lake, Cal. ; Monterey, Trowbridge : San Diego, Ives, 
t36. HeUx (Arianta) Traskii, Newc. Loe Angelos, California, Netocomb. 
S7. Helix (Arianta) KeUettU, Fba., Rve., Pfr. Sta. Barbwa, KelleU and Wood] 

San Diego, teste Gould. 
38. Hdix (Arianta) Pandora, Fbs., Rve., Pfr.,=si5r. damofcemM, Gld. Sta. Bar- 
bara, KeUett and Wood ; Desert East of California, Mus. Newcomb. 
89. Helix (Arianta) levis, Pfr.,-|-var. /3. Columbia River. 
40. HeUx (Euparypha) areoUka, Sby., Pfr., Phil., Rve., -|- vara. /3.y. Peninsula 

OP Lower California. [Margarita Bav, Pease,*] 
t4I. Columna (Mhodea) Californica, Pfr. [Achaiina, Pfr., Rve.] 

Subfam. OrthaliciMP, 

42. BtdimuUis (Liostraeus [not Leiostraca, Add.l) Ziegleri, Pfr. Mazatlan, Eeiyeiu 
[t43. Btdimxdus MexicanusX, Lara., Deless., PFr., Rve. (non Val.),= CocWo^wmi 

vittata, F^r. Mazatlan, Eeiyen,'] 
44. Bulimtdus (Mesembrinus) pallidior, Sbv.,=-B. vegetus, Gld., teste Cimi., Binn. 

San DiEQO to Cape St. Lucas : — 6. S. Lucas, Xantus, 
46. Bfdimtdus (Mesembrinus) excelsuSj Gld, (text),^ B. elatus, Gld. (fig.). Sah 

Diego to Cape St. Lucas :— C. S. Lucas, Xantus. 
46. Btdinudus (Mesembrimis) inscendens, Binn. Lower California : — ^Margarita 

Bay, ana C. S. Lucas, Xantus. 
t47. Bidimukis (Thaumastus) CaUfornicus, Rve. 

t48. Bulimulus (? Mormus) 8t£fflati(Sy(3\d.,s^B, vesicaUsyG\d, (no^ Lower 

California. 

49. Bulimulus {?Mormns) pt/vZa, Binn. Lower California: — Todos Santos 

Mission, Margarita Is., Xantus. 

50. Bulimulus (Scutalus^ proteus^ Brod. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus, 
61. BuUmtdus (Scidalus) Xantusi, Binn. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus. 

52. Bulirmdus (Perommts [non PeroMea, Poli j) artemisia, Binn. Cape St. Lucas, 

Xantus, 

53. Orthalicus (OHhalicus) zebra, Miill., Pfr. Mazatlan, Beigen. \Aho Easteni 
536. Orthalicus (OrthaUcus) undatus, F^r., Pfr. $ '< Mazatlan.*' J slope. 

Subfam. Pupuue. 

t54. Pupa (PupUla^ BoweUU, Newc. San Francisco, RotoeU. 
155. Pupa (Pupilla) Calif omica, Row. San Fiuncisco, BowelL 
56. liipa {Leucocnila) chordata, Pfr. Cinaloa, Mexico. 

* See also Dr. Newoomb*8 new species, tabulated in pp. 609, 633. 

X Included among the doubtM specias bj Mr. Binnej ; but the shell so named in |Jie 
Maz. Cat., no. 234 (perhaps erroneously), was certainly found on opening the Mazatlaa 
boxes by Mr. Archer. 

§ Mr. Binney follows Pfr., in his later works, in separating these ? varieties. The ahelli 
in the Beigen Collection were clearly couspecific Vtde Maz. Cat., no. 232. 

158 



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ON MOLLI78CA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 673 

SubfieuxL Stsccinuue. 

t67. &Kci>ua^ (Sueemea) Sawkinsi, Baird. Britiflh Columbia, Lord, 
to8. Sueemea (Shtocwea) cmgulata, Fbs. Mazatlan, KeUett and Wood. 
69. Sueemea (Sueemea) rugttetma, Gld. Orkoon and California : — Oregon, 

U. S, E, JB.; Ocoffo Creek, California, WilHanison, 
(C Sitcemea (i^iccmea) I^uUaUianaj Lea. "Scarcely differs from S. ovalisy Hudson 
River," Old, Oregon and California : — Lewis's River, Or., NvttaU ; Li- 
teriorof Orep., U. 8. E, E,; Wright's Lake, RhelFs Lake, Cal., Newberry. 
(0. Sueemea (Sueemea) OregonermSj Lea. " Resembles S. aurea,^' Gld. Oregon 
AND California :— Oregon, NuUaU, San Fi-anciscO; Howell, 

Subfam. Limaeina, 

G2, Umax % (AmaUa) Co^umftumtM, Gld. Puget Sound to San Francisco : — 
Puget Sound, U, 8, E. E, Dyes; Oregon City and Cape Flattery, Wtl' 
Uamson i San Francisco and Port Oxford, Tromridge : Nisqually, Owe. 

FauL Ariomda, ' • 

Sub&m. Arionifus, 

63. Arum (Zoched) foUdatua, Gld. Puget Sound, U, 8, E, E, JHckermg. 

Subfam. ZomUiue. 

64. ZomUf § (.^opis) euUeUata, Thoms. " Closely resembles the Dalmatian R, 

albamea and aeies," Conbra Costa Co., Cal., common, Thomson, 

Fam. Onchidiada, 

65. Onehidium CarperUert, Binn. Cape St. Lucas, Xantus, 

LiMNOPHELA. Fam. AuricuUda. 
Subfam. Melampitue, 
€6. MeUmpus divaceuSf Cpr. San Diego to Mazatlan :— Mazatlan, Eeiyen ; 



San Diego, JBlake, Cooper, 

67. Pedipes lirata, Binn. Lower California : — C. S. Lucas, Xantus j San Diego, 

Coi^er. 

Fam. Ltmfusida, 

Sub£Etm. LirmueinxB, 

68. Liimuga (Lmmaa) siaffnalis, hum, ,-{-£. Jugularts, Say, Hald., De Kay, Kiist., 

Knn. (1st list),-fX. appressa^ Say, Ilald., De Kay, Kiist., C. B. Ad..4-X. spe- 
ciosa, Zie^l. Europe, Asia, America : — RhettLake, California, Newberry ; 
Ruby Valley and S. Utah, Captain Sttnpson. Fort Simpson and Hudson's 
Bay, common ; throughout British America and northern tier of IT. S., 
from Vermont to Pacific, teste Binn. [Var.sss-ff. fragilts, Linn., teste 
HanL, Ids, Linn. Conch, p. 385 ; non Rve., Binn. (Ist list)/| 

69. Litmuea (lAmruea) lepida, Grid. Lake Vancouver, U, S. E, E, 

70. Limnaa (Idmnophysa) re/lexa jShyy Hald., De Kay, Kiist, +i. elonoata, Say, 

L, umbrosa, Say, Hald., De Kay, Kiist,-!- Z. exiiis-k-L, Haydetu^ Lea. San 
Francisco, Howell, Also through British America and northern tier of 
States from New York to Pacific ; teste Binn. 
171. Limnaa {Limnophysa) Sumassii, Baird ||. 

* So great is the difficulty of ascertaining (even approximately) the specific relations of 
^uemea without a comparison at least of single specimeDs, that Mr. Binney considers it 
■sfest, until series have been examined, simply to quote the species which have been de- 
scribed bj other authors. He has followed the same course with Ancylus, and for the 
nme reason. 

I ** Has a pore. Why not Arion ? " — Binney ^ in MS. list 

§ This appears among " doubtful species " in the MS., but is printed in the text of 
theCheck-tit » ^ 

U Probably a variety of palu9tris^Nut(alfiana, Lea. British authors have as yet had 
Iwt poor opportunities of studying typtcallj -named American Ireshwater Pulmonatv?, 

^^^- 159 



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C74 REPORT— 1863. 

72. lAmntta (Limnoph/sa) palustrisy Miill. et auct.,=Z. frafjilis (as of Liun.), TTali,, 
De Kay, Binn. (Ist listy, Rve. (hodie). [ Non Linn., teste HanL in Ip8. Linn. 
Conch., p. 885]. +X. elodea, Sav, Old., C. B. Ad., Kust,-|-Z. Nvttal" 
Uana^ Lea, Kiist., ?+i. plebeia, Gld.,+X. expumsa^ Hald., De Kay, Kiist-. 
KoRTHERN Europe, Asia, and America : — Columbia River, NidtaU ; 
Puget Sound, Kermerley ; Klamath Lake and Summer Lake, Or. ; Khett 
Lake and Wright's Lake, Cfid., Newberry: Clear Lake, C«l., Veatchi San 
Francisco, RwoeU\ Monterey, Canfield; I^orcupine and Yuckron Rivers, Rus. 
America, KenmcoU. Also from Pennsylvania westward to Pacific, and from 
this line northwards, wherever searched, even to interior of Riissian Ame- 
rica ; teste Binn. 

78. Idmnaa (Linmophysa) proxima, Lea. San Francisco, Cooper. Arroya San 
Antonio, Tra$k. 

74. lATnn€Ba(Linmopht/9a)emarffinatay Say, Hald., De Kay, Kiist, =Z. Outofiensis, 
Muhl£, Kii8t,-f Z. serraia, Hald. 'New England to Washington Ter- 
ritory. 

76. LimruBa (Linmopkysd) cata^copiumy Say, Hald., Old., De Kay, Mrs. Gray Pot. 
& Mich., K.Vi9lt,j-^L.pmgidSy Say (non Dohm), ==X. Virmmana, Lam., Desh., 
Deless., = L. cornea^ VaL, = Z. sericatay Ziegl. New £n6La:;i> to 
Lewis River, and through British America ; teste Binn. 

76. lAnmcML {LimnophyM,) Adelina, Tryon. San Francisco. 

77. Limnaa (Limnophysa) IVasArtV, Tryon. Mountain Lake, Califomia. 

78. Limnaa {Limnophysa) paUiday C. B. Ad., Hald., De Kay. San Francisco, 

BoweU'y San Antonio Airoya, teste Lea. 

79. Ltmnaa (Limnophysa) bulimoideSy Lea, Hald., De Kay. Fort Vancouver. 

San Francisco, Rowell, Also Eastern States. (Check-List.) 

80. Limnaa {Limnophyaa) noUday Lea, Hald., De Kay,-hZ. apicina, Lea, Kiirt. 

Oregon. Also Eastern States. (Check-List) 

81. Limnaa (Lirmiophysa) femtyineay Hald., De Kay. Oregon. 

82. Pompholyx effusa. Lea, Add. Pitt River, dewberry; Sacramento River, 

teste Lea. 

83. Pht/sa (Physa) Lordt, Baird. British Columbia, Lord 5 east of Fort Colville, 

W. T., Am. K P. B, Surv, 

84. Physa (Physa) gyrinay Sav, De Kay, Kiist, C. B. Ad., Hald.,=i?A. eUiniiea^ 

Lea, De Kay, -|- PA. cylindricay I)e Kay, -h PA. Hidreihianay Lea, Wash- 
ington Territorv, Catrtain Simpson ; San Francisco, RowelL 

85. Physa (Physa) ampidlaceay Gld.,=PA. buUafay Old. (non Pot & Mich.). 

Oregon, Cooper ; Lakes Rhett and Upper Klamath, Newbetry. 

86. Physa (Physa) Gabbii, Tryon. Sta. Ana Riv., Angelos Co. Also Mountain 

Lake, California. 

87. Physa (Physa) heterostrophay Say, Gould, C. B. Ad., Desh., Kiist., De Kay, 

Mrs. Grav, Pot & Mich., Eaton,-|-PA. fontanay Hald.,-f PA. cylindricay 
Newc.,-f 1%. aureay Lea, De KB,jy-\~Ph, plicata, -fPA. glabra, De Kay, -f PA. 
oscufans, Hald. (part'),H-Pft. strtaUi,-^li, mbaratay Mke.,-f PA. Charpentieriy 
-f PA. PhUUpHy Kiist, -f Ph. eUipkicay + PA. infliday he&y^Ptdla crassuloy 
Dill w. , = J9. foniinaUsy Chemn. , Schr6ter,= Cochlea neritoideSy List North 
America, passim : — Chiloncynck, Kermerley ; Hell Gate River, Newberry ; 
San Francisco and Washington Territory, Cooper ; Los Angeles, teste Lea. 
Also from Texas to Britiah America and Arctic regions, and frx>m Atlantic 
to Pacific, teste Binn. 
t88. Physa (Physa) costatOy Newc Clear Lake, Cal., Veatch, 

89. PAv^a (Physa) virginea, Gld. San Francisco, PoweU. 

90. Physa (Physa) humerosay Gld. Rio Colorado, Willamson ; San Diego, P.P.7i.E, 

91. Physa (Physa) virgaia, (51d. San Diego, Webb ; Los Ajigelos j Cal. Avv \. S. 



■ereral of which are perhaps but modifications of circmnboreal species which have been 
already traced to Eastern Asia. Even the series in Mus. Cum. are far from being accurate 
or complete. The inflexible rules of the British Museum have not jet allowed a single 
specimen of Dr. Baird't species to be transmitted to America, eren for comparison. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ox MOLLUSCA OP THE WKST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. f)75 

92. 7%yM (Physd) iniiceoj Lea, Binn. MSS/ dalifornia, Cooper, 
t^. Phym (Physa) concolor, Ilald. Oregon. 
94. BtdmusX {Bvlinus) awantim^ Cpr, y^sAplexaj auct. : t^.Maz. Cat p. ir9],^ 

Ph. Ptt-uvtemaf Mke. [non D'Orb.]! Mazatlan, Beigen, 
ftS. Bitlmus (Bvlimts) elahts^ Old. Mazatlan. Beigen, 

96. BuU/ius (Btdinus) hi/pnontnif Linn., Hald., C. B. Ad., Chen, et auct., = Pi. 

MoNffoia, Say, Gld., De Kav,=PA. elongatifui, Lewis. Northkbn Eubopk, 
Asia, Amebica. Puget ^ound, Co(m>er; common at junction of Yukion 
and Porcupine Rivera, Russ. Amer., KermicoU, Through Brit, and Kusd» 
Amencay'and from Kansas to Washington, D. C; teste Binn. 

Subfam. Ptanorbina, 

97. Ptanorhis (PtanoHns) ntbcrenatw^, Cpr. Oregon, NtdtciU, [PPuget Sound; 

Keimerley,'] 

98. PUtnorbis (P/anorbis) tuntenSf Cpp.,«P. tenagophila, Mke. (non D'Orb.),=P. 

^nis, Cpr. [Cat. Prov., non Cf. B. Ad-l Mazatlan, Meichers, Beigen, Saa 
Francisco, Cooper; Petaluma, teste Gld. 

99. Pianorbis (Hanorbis) vermicularis, Gld. 

100. Pianorbis {HeUsoma) amnion^ Gld., =P. lyaskei, Lea. Klamath Lake, Or. 

and Rhett Lake, Cal., XetvbeiTV, Ocogo Creek, Cal., Williamson; Kern 
liake, Cal., Cooper ; Monterey Co., TrMk ; Lagoons, Sacramento Valley, 
teste Lea. 

101. Pianorbis (Helisoma) cormdentits, Say, Hald., De Kay, Gld., Chenu, =sP. 6t- 

volvis (pars), C. B. Aa. Columbia River, abun<uuit, U, S. E, E, Also 
Eastern States. 

102. Pianorbis (Helisoma) tHvolxis, Say, De Kay, Gld., Hald., C. B. Ad., Kiist, Pot. 

& Mich., Batons Bulla fiuviatdiSf Say,4-P?. regtUariSyhetLy-^ PL mei/aitoma 
-|- Physa planoi-bida, De Kay, -f PI, macrostomuS'\-H, corpuleiUuSf W hiteave«, 
+ Pt leniusy Gld.,+P?. trtvohis, Ydx.faUax, Hald.,= CochUat rittm-orbivm, 
Lister, Petiver. Puget Sd., Campbell \ Wright's Lake, Cal., Neivben-y ; Ft^ 
Vancouver, Coopei^^\ San Francisco, BotceU; S. Diego ; Mus. Smiths. ; Horn 
Lake, teste Lea. Probably extends over whole continent, teste Binn. 

103. Pianorbis (Menettts) opercularts^ Gld.,= P. platiukftus, Coop. S. Francisco, U. S, 

Ecffl. Exp. ; Whidby's Is., Cal., Cooper, 
lOi Carimfex || Wewberrgi, Lea. Klamath Lake and Canoe Creek, CaL, Newberry; 
Clear Lake, Cal., Veatch, 

Sub£Eun. AncylnuB, 
105. AMcyhts Newberryij Lea. Klamath Lake, Newberry, 
\m. Ancylus crasmSyJiM, «W." [Check-List.] 

107. Ancylus oaurinusj Coop. California, Cooper, 

108. Ancylus patelloides, Lea. S. Francisco, Co(^)er ; Airoya, San Antonio, Ccl., 

Mus. smith. 
tl09. Ancylus KooUmiewsisy Baird. Brit. Columbia, Lord, 
110. Ancylus fragiUs, Tryon. " W." [Check- List] ' 

lU. Acroloxm NuttafU, RfM. [ Fe/^tr^ta iV:, Binn. in list, May 4th.] Oregon, JVm^ 
112. Oundlachia Calif omicay Rowell. 

* So in first printed list and in two MSS. ; but in Check-List of Dec. 9, Ph. Troos^ 
^oMd, Lea, is assigned to the West, instead of this species. The MSS. are probably 
correct 

^ } Non Bmlinus, Shy., olim,rsBuUmuSy auct However clearly BuUnuSy Binn., may be 
right according to the antiquaries, it is far too like BuUmuSf which has taken complete 
po^seMion of the entire malacolog^cal world, to be allowed a resurrection in the name 
ordo*. Surely burial for a given number of years ought to be aUowed as evidence of 
doth, especiiQly if the infant-name scarcely even breamed the air of use, and its reeur- 
reetion would breed malaria among terms thriving in the vigorous manhood of universal 
sooepUnoe. 

§ It is quite possible that this may prove a very finely grown specimen of P. lenUts, Dr. 
K«m«rleys shells are intermediate. 

I Thus in Check.Li«t, Dec. 9th* In that of May 4th, it appears as Pianorbis K; in tht 
MS. Hst as Carini'i^a. 

11 161 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



676 REPOET— 18G3. 

Suborder Thalasbophuju 
Fam. Siphananad^B, 

tllS. Siphonaria lecanium, PhiL : fVar.sA' tnaura, Bhy, Var. paimata, Cw., ii 
possibly distinct Mazatlan^ K B. FMUppiy ieigm'f AcapulcO; Jewett', 
Cape St. LucaS; Xantus,] 

tll4. Sivhonaria <BqtdUi'ataj Cpr.,[s 8, tgquihrata, Rye. Mazatlan, Iitigm\ G. S* 
Lucas, Xantus ) Margarita Bay. yery fine, teste Feaae,'] 

tll5. \^Sipkonaria therdUSf Cpr. Neean Baj; Swan."] 

Doubtful, spurious, and extralimital species : — 

Helix aspersa, MulL '< Sta. Barbara," Kellett and Wood. [Imported.] 

Helix arbustottnn, Linn. 

Helijc Sagraiana, D'Orb. [Certainly Cuban.] 

Helix " Sandiegoensisy Lea.^ Old., P. R. R., yoL T. p. SSL « No such sp. da- 
scribed," teste Binney. 

Helix peregrina, Bosc. 

Bulimus Hpmholdti, Rye. P' Mazatlan." 

£ulimus Lawentii, Shj. /< Sitka:" probably Sitcba in San Salyador, teite 
Binney. 

Melama [Btdimut] gtriata, Venj, [ Vide anted, p. 620.] 

Succinea aperta. Lea,=5 <$. rotundata^ Old. Sandwich Is., U. 8, Expi, Exp, 
fPhysa MaugeruBf Gray, teste Woodward, Manual, p. 171 ', but probably equa- 
torial S. America. 
^Siphonaria amara, [N^utt. Admitted into the list by Mr. Binney, on the autho- 
rity of Rye., as of Nutt ; but it liyes on the Sandwich Is. ; teste Peaetj Kex^ 
comb, U. 8. E. -E]. 

116. The Smithsonian Institution has lately issned a " Descriptiye Cata- 
logue of the species of Amnicola^ Vivipara, Bithynia, Valvata, and AmpuL- 
laria" by Mr. W. (x. Binney. It is abundantly illustrated with outfinc- 
woodcuts, and contains the synonymy corrected from all the accessible types. 
Dr. Stimpson is at present engaged in dissecting the molluscs ; but none of 
his inyestigations haye yet been published. The following is a rSsunU of the 
West Coast species, from a proof kindly furnished by the author. 

Page. Fig. 
4. AmniccHa hnginqua, Old., Bost Proc y. ISO. Colorado Desert, Blake. 

6. 6. Amnicda protea,G\A.y BostProc. y. 129. Colorado Deaerty Blake, WM. 

12. 45. Vivipara, luom.,^ Paludina, Lam. [This genus, so fine and plentiful east 
of the Rocky Mountains, does not appear on the west.] 

44. ^ Paltidina NfdUdliana, Lea,' Trans. Am. Thil. Soc. yi. p. 101, pi. 23. f. 1C9. 
[In text. In later manuscript Hst, this name appears as a synonym of] 
Tluminicola (Stimps., MS.) NuttalUij Lea, » Ammcola NvttkUiana, Cp, 
Minn. Rep. p. 374, = Zeptoxis KuttaOUy Hald., s Anculows NuttalUiy Rve. 
?-\'Palud%na seminalia, Hds. (p. 46, f. 81), [P+P. Hindsiiy Baird.l Co- 
lumbia Riyer, Kidtall, Cooper ; Upper des Chutes Riy. and Klamath 
Lake, Or., JV«r6frry ; Roques R, Or. ; Sacramento R., Hindt] Brit, 
Columbia, Lord ; Canoe Creek and Pitt Riyer, Cal., Nervberry. 

46. 80. Bithinia nuclea, Lea, = Paludina n.. Trans. Aul Phil. Soc. yi. p. 91, pi. 23. 
£. 103 [in text. In later MS. list, a{)pear8 as synonym of] Flttmmicalit 
virenSyLetk (Paludina v.y Lea; Lepioxisv.,IlM.)y-^Ptiludina nvc/lso, Lea. 
Wahlamat Riyer, Oregon, A\tUall [Willamette, MS. list]. 

The following are added by Mr. Binney in his later MS. Hst : — 

Valvata virenSy Tryon. Clear Lake, Calif. [The Smithsonian duplicates haye 
been unfortunately distributed under the name " V. gincera, Say," which had 
been preyiously giyen to the specimens, and under l^hich they are quoted in 
the Check-List of 1860, no. 456. According to Mr. B., V. nncera is '* like 

162 



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ON MOLLI78CA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



677 



•cariiuite fonns of V, trioannaia, Say^'' to which the Clear Lake specuu^it 

bear but slight refiemblance.] 
FomaUopm Btnneyi, Tryon. 
FbimiMcola fuBca, Hald. (LeptoxiB f.). Shores of Lake Utah^ Capl, BttrtoH, 

117. Of the West Coast species of Melaniadse we are unable to offer any 
Hst embracing the synonymy, as the materials are at present in the hands of 
Mr. Tryon for elimination, and his labours are not yet sufficiently advanced 
to fnmish a report. His Manual of the North American MelaniadsB will be 
pablished by the Smithsonian Institution. The animals of many species have 
aheady been dissected by Dr. Stimpson*. It is unfortunate that in the two 
most important branches of North Americcm freshwater molluscs, the Me- 
laniadffi and ihe Unionidae, there exists a radical difference of opinion between 
the leading writers, which has sometimes assumed the appearance of per- 
Bonal animosity. Malacologists east of the Atlantic, unwilling to become 
partisans when the leading nomendators of the rival schools are equally 
bonooredf have to a great extent declined to pay attention to the unexhausted 
liches of the American waters, regarding any settlement of the disputed 
points as hopeless. Dr. Isaac Lea, who has spared no expense in illustrating 
his publications of the results of a life-long study, follows the restrictlon8 
on Uie priority-rule allowed by the British Association Committee. Other 
"Writers, however, claim a certainty in identifying the supposed species of 
lUfinesque and other similarly inaccurate authors, which would be considered 
by most English naturalists as not warranted by the few loose words of de- 
scription given. It would be well if the student were permitted to start from 
the first carefully ascertained landmark, raUier than f^om the defaced tracks 
of the first hunter. 

In the Check-list of North- American Fluviatile Gasteropods, published by 
the Smithsonian Institution, June 1860, which contains the names of 405 
(supposed) species oiMelania,Liihasia, Qyrotoma,Leptoxis^ and /o, Mr.Binney 
assigns the following eleven to the West Coast. None of them are accredited 
to the eastern division. 



43. Melania bulbosa. Old. 
104. Mdania exigua, Conr. 
168. Melania Menkeana, Lea. 
174 Melania Netcherryi, Lea. 
177. Melania nigrina, Lea. Clear Creek^ 

Shasta Co. 
21L Melania pUcifera, Lea. 



242. Melania ShadaenM, Lea. Shasta 

and Scott Rivers. 
248. Melania nUculay Gld. [=M. pUci- 

ferOf small var., teste Lea.] 

296. Melania Wahlamatensis, Lea. 

297. Melania Warderianaf Lea. 
360. Melania fusca, Raid. 



118. Dr. Lea's Check-list of the Unionidae (June 1860), after eliminating 
synonyms, assigns to America, north of Mexico, no fewer than 552 species 
of Unto, Margaritana, and Anodonta, The type-specimens of the species 
described by Dr. Gould from the United States Exploring Expedition were 
submitted to Dr. Lea's inspection, and confirmed his previous opinion that 
they were varieties of those before known. The U, famdictu, Old., he pro- 
nounced to be a South- American shell ; but it appears, without note, in the 
Check List, no. 133, probably by oversight. The only widely diffused species 
is the long-famed " pearl-mussel" of Uie Conway and other British streams. 
The following seven are accredited to the Pacific coast : — 

• See his very intereating and important paper " On the structural Characters of the so- 
cdW Melanians of North America," in the * American Journal of Science,' vol xzrriii., 
Jaljr 1864, pp. 41-^. It appears that the sexual system is quite distinct from that of the 
ordinaij Ctenobranchiate Qasteropods, and approaches the (^olobranchiotes. 

163 



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C78 REPORT— 1863. 



409. Anodonta CoHfomtensiSy Jjtg, 
631. Anodonta NuttaUianaf Lea. 
534. Anodonta OregonenWy Lea. 
551. Anodonta WaJdamatennSy Lea. 



Si81. rmbOr«^oii«fw,Lea [Cc)mp.534.] 
484. Margai'itana margwitiftraj Lea. 

[Linn.] 
494. Anodonta angxdata, Lea. 

Besides these, 36 species of Unto and Anodonta are assigned to Mexico 
and Central America in a separate list ; but no distinction is indicated be- 
tween the Pacific and the Atlantic slope of the mountain-range. 

119. At the request of the^Smithsonian Institution, Mr. Temple Prime, ol 
New York, well known for his special devotion to this department, has con- 
sented to prepare a Manual of the CyrenidsB inhabiting American waters. 
All the accessible materials from the West Coast are in his hands for exami- 
nation. The first part of his *' Monograph of the Species of Sphanrium of 
North and South America" is printed in the * Proc. Ac N. Sc. Phil.' 1861, 
pp. 402 et seq.t and contains quotations of five species, nos. 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 
with synonymy, from Washington Ter., Oregon, and California. He haa 
kindly (in advance of his intended publications) furnished to Mr. W. G. Bin- 
ney the following MS. ** Synopsis of the Corbiculida of the West Coast of 
North America," with liberty to publish in this Bcport. It is here condensedi 
with synonyms and references, in the nomenclature of the writer. 

Mr, Prime's List of West North-American Corbiculidfle* [Cyrenidae]. 

1. Co;•6t«#/ac<mw^ra,Desh.,P.Z.S.1854,p.342,= C.1?ew^rtoo#a,Pr.MS. Mazatkn. 

2. Cyrena radiata, Hani., R Z. S. 1844, p. 159. Realejo. 

8. Cyrena soKda, Phil., Abbild. 1846, p. 78, pi. 16. f.9. Nicaragua; Belize. 

4. Cyrena triangtda, V. de Busch, P. Z. S. 1849, p. 78, pL 2. f. 3,= C, aUUiSy Gld., 
Bost Pr. i8o2, p. 400, ^ 16. f. 6 Wt,=s C. Mexicana, pars, Maz. Cat,, no. 165 
(= C varianSf cat. prov^. Mazatlan. 

6. Cyrena insignisj Deeh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 20; II. Conch. 1861, p. 39, pi. 2. f. 2. 
California. 

6. Cyrena oUvacea, Cpr.fMaz. Cat, no. 164, s C. Fontainei, Desh., MS. (non D'Orb., 

B. M. Cat no. 253). Mazatlan. 

7. Cyrena acuta, Pr., Ill Conch. 1862, p. 387, pi. 14. f. 1. Centr. America. 

a Cymia Mexicana, Shy., Zool. D. 1829, p. 364 [Maz. Cat, no. J65= IC. vartane, 
cat prov. pars, -f C. fragiUs, Desh. MS. -f C. aquilateralis, Desn., P. Z. S. 
, 1854, p. 20. Mazatlan. 

9. Cyrena CaUfomica, Pr., Proc. A. N. S. PhiL 1860, p. 276,= C. stdtquadratOj 

Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, p. 21 (nom. preoc). CaHfomia. 

10. Cyrena Panamensis, Pr., Proc A. N. S. Phil. 1860, p. 283, = C, injlata, DesL, 

P. Z. S. 1854, p. 23 (nom. preoc). Panama. 

11. Cyrena Recktm, Pr.,= C, cordi/ormis, Reel, IL Conch. 1853, p. 261, pL 7. 1 9 

(nom. preoc). C)entr. America. 

12. Q/rena (Mmingu, Desh., P. Z. S. 1854, b. 22. Centr. America. 

13. Cyrena tumida, Pr.,se C angtdata, Desk, P. Z. S. 1854, p. 22 (nom. preoc.)* 

Centr. America. 

14. Cyrena puOadra, Morch, MaL Bl. 1860, p. 194. Healejo. 
16. Cyrena marttinuij C. B. Ad., Pan. Sh., no. 451. Panama. 

16. Cyrena sordida, Hani., P. Z. S. 1844, p. 159. Central America. 

17. SjAarium triangulare, Say ( Cydas t), New Harm. Diflsem. 1829, p. 366. Mexico. 

18. J^hetriwnstriatmum, Lam. {Cydas s.), An. s. Vert vol. v. p. 660, 1818,= C.eden- 

tula, Say, locciLja. 2,= C. cornea (Lam.). C. B. Ad., Cat, 1847,= C. aJhtda, 
Pr., Bost Proc. 1851, p. 155, + C. tenuuKt-iata, Pr., p. 156, + C. acuminata, 
Pr., p. 158, -hC. inomata, Pr.,-|- C. simplex, Pr.,-|- C. modesta.Vr., p. 159. Hob. 
N. York to Alabama, Connecticut to Illinois ; Hell-gate River, n'. T. 

19. S^riumdentatum,Hald.(Cyclasd,)yFioc.A.N.S.FlnLl&il,]^AOO. Oregon. 

• The name Corhicu% htring been first given to a species, and being itself a cJiminu- 
tiTe. is scarcely fitted to displace long-uted generic appeiiaiions in marking the lamily- 
group. 

164 



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ON MOLLUSCA. OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AJIERICA. 679 

30. %fh(gnum oocidentaUy Pr., Proc. A. N. S. Phil. 186p, p. 295, s= C. ovaliiy Pr., 
Bo8t Proc. 1852, p. 276 (nom. j)reoc.),=' Sph, ovale, Stn.,' Add. Gen. vc»l. ii. 
p. 450. Hab. New York to Georgia j Vermont to Wisconsin ; Il^ill-gate 
River, W. T. 

21. Sphmrium nobiU, Gld. {Cydas n.), B^et Proc 4865, p. 229 [Otia, p. 218], San 

Pedro, Webb. 

22. SpharMfn patella, Gld. (Cycles pX Bost. Proc. 1850, p. 292 [Otia, p. 80 ; E. E. 

Moll. f. 527, type not returned to S. I.] Oregon. 
2a l^<Brwm Spokani, Baird [P. Z. S. 1863, p. 6€t f. 12, 13 : <mteh, p. 605]. B. Col. 
24 Splugrutm turmdum, Baird [J. Z. S. 1863, p. 69, f. 11 : anUci, p. 605]. B. Col. 

25. Spharium meridionale, Pr., TrocAc N. S. JPhii 1861, p. 414. Panama ; Mus. 

Prime. 

26. Sjfharwm Imticulay Gld. (Lucina * I), Bost Proc. 1850, p. 256. California. 

27. §iA<mttm wbtramvermm. Pr., P. Z. S. 1860, p. 322. Mexico. 

28. FLadmrn abditum, Hald. [Pubi]= Cyclas minor, C. B. Ad. Bost Proc. 1841, p. 48, 

e= P. obscurum, Pr., Bost Proc. 1851, p. 161,+P. Kuriziiy Pr., p. 162, -h P. 
wnaUtm, Pr., p. 162,+P. regtdare, Pr., Bost II. yi. 363, pi. 12. f. 11-13, 1852, 
-h P. noUxtum, Pr., Bost II. vi. 365, pi. 12. f. 20-22, 1852,+P. amnlum + P. 
reuirtum, Ingalls, MS.,+P* rubrum-^'P, plenum, Lewis, MS., -^P. retmavHy 
Pr.,P.Z.s7l869,p.322. 
Sa Pisidmm oecidenUde, Newc [Proc OaL Ac Nat Sc 1861, p. 94]. San Fran- 
cisco, BoweU. 

120. Of the tertiary fossils throwing light on existing species no addi- 
tional information has yet been published. We cannot but hope that tho 
researches of Mr. Gabb, on the fossils collected by the Califomian Geoloi^ical 
Sorvej, will develope relations of great interest between the existing and 
former conditions of the continent. The Astorian fossils described by Mr. 
Conrad ttom the U. S. Exploring Expedition (vol. x., Geology, Philadelphia, 
1849), and tabulated in the first Report, p. 367, belong to the Smithsonian 
Institation, but were not discovered there in 1860. All of them, however (in- 
duding the indeterminate species), are figured in the atlas of plates. They 
resemble the fossils of the Pacific Eailroad Expeditions in being very imper- 
fect, for which reason the following criticisms may prove erroneous. The 
general aspect of the collection betokens the Miocene period. 

Mya abrupUtf Conr., may be the young of Olycimeris generosa, Gld, 

Thracia trapewndes, Conr., may l)e curta, Conr. 

Sciemya verUricosa, Conr., has the aspect of a large Lazaria. 

TdHna arctata, Conr., closely resembles Macoma, var. expanaa, 

Tellma emacerata, Conr., is perhaps Bodegemis, Hds. 

Lucina actdiUneata,, Conr., appears to be boreaUs, Linn. 

Cardita subtenia, Conr.,s Venericardia borealis, Conr. 

Kucula divarteata, Coni.,ssActla cadrensis, Hds. 

Pedtmcukts paltdtis, Conr., may be setftentrionalis, Midd. 

Pedunculua niteru, Conr., resembles Psephis tanttUa, Gld. 

Platen propatukis, Conr. A very fine specimen, enclosed in a large nodule 
from Oi^^n, was presented to uie Brit Aius. by Mr. C. Pace. If not identical 
witiii Amumim eaurwumy Gld., it is most closely allied, especially to the 
Japanese form. 

* Mr. Prime aarips no reason for changing Dr. Gk>uld'8 Lucina into a Cvcfwi, nor any 
•Qthority for " Caliromia." He was, perhaps, misled by the artisf a engravea references to 
the fignrea 528, a, h, where he has drawn a rule, referring to the Cycladea aboTe, instead of 
vriting Lucina, It is assigned to " ?Coa8t of Patagonia " in ' Otia,' p. 63, and to '' ?R. 
Janeiro" in ' E. E. MolL,' p. 414. In each place the shell is compared to an Asfarfe cr 
Cyprina^ with lateral teeth. The type was not returned to the Smithsonian Institution ; 
bot the diagnosis statea that it is " chalky, thickened within the deep and jagged pallial 
hne, scolpture faint but decussated, and margin finely crenulated,"--ohapacter8 more con- 
■•tmt with Lucina, s. g. Myrtmay tiian with Cvelas* If the type cannot be reooTered, per^ 
h^M the speciea may be dropped, aa it is not the Lucina {Myrtaa) lentioula, Bato. 

166 



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680 BEPORT— 1863. 

Terehrathia mfetis, Conr., is very probably Waldhetmia pifln'nafa, GIdL 
JSulla petrosuj Cour., has the shape of Tomaiifia eximiaj B<L 
Crf^dula pt'ontptCf Conr., is certainly onwc^, MidcL 
Tin-riteUa^ sp. ind., resembles Meaalia tacteola. 

?Dolivm petrosunif Conr., resembles the young of iVien* nodosa, Chemn. 
Fusvs gemctduBy Conr. A similar shell has just been taken at the FaralloiiM 
by Dr. Cooper. 

121. To correct the general table of "MoUusca of the West Coast of K. 
America" (First Report, pp. 298-345), and the deductions founded upon it 
(pp. 346-367), would involve the necessity of , reprinting a considerable por- 
tion. The student, being now in possession of all the known sources of 
fi-esh information, can with his own pen strike out the spurious species, alter 
the synonyms, insert the newly discovered forms, and make the requisite 
corrections in the classified results. 

122. With regard to the tropical fauna, the researches at Cape St. Lucaa 
and in the interior of the Gulf of California, though leaving much to he 
desired, bear-out the general conclusions arrived-at in paragraphs 78-87. 
The evidence for the identity of specific forms on the Atlantic and Pacific sides 
of Central America has been greatly confirmed. Dr. Gt)uld writes, "The 
doctrine of local limitations meets with so few apparent exceptions that we 
admit it as an axiom in zoology that species strongly resembling each other, 
derived from widely diverse localities, especially if a continent intervenes, 
and if no known or plausible means of communication can be assigned, 
should be assumed as different until their identity can be proved (vide E. E. 
Moll. Intr. p. xi). Much study of living specimens must be made before 
the apparent exceptions can be brought under the rule." It has, however, 
to be borne in mind that the researches of modem geology clearly point to 
considerable alterations in the existing configuration of continents, and iii 
the consequent direction of ocean- currents, during the ascertained period of 
many species now living. Nor are we warranted in the belief that the 
existing fauna in any locality has been created at any one time, or has 
radiated from any single spot. To study the relations of living shells simply 
in connexion with the existing map of the world must lead but to partial 
results. The facts accumulating with regard to the British species, by 
tracing them through the northern drift (now found ^ven on the Snowdonian 
range), to the oldest crag deposits when Europe was contained in far difierent 
boundaries, show how altered may have been the configuration of the new 
world when the oldest of its molluscs were first created. Coordinately with 
the glacial period. Central America may have been a group of islands ; co- 
ordinately with the creation of Saancava pholadu and Chrysodomus antiquus, 
the gulf-weed may have floated between the Rocky Mountains in the 
archipelago of West America, and Japanese molluscs may have known how 
to migrate to the Mediterranean shores. Dr. Gould's position may there- 
fore be accepted in theory ; yet, in practice, the " imperfection of the geological 
record"*, and even of our knowledge of existing species and their variations, 
demands that the greatest caution be exercised in building results on deduo- 
tions from our ignorance. Already the fossil Malea ringens of the Atlantic 
has proved a " Rosetta Stone " to interpret the Cyprcea exanthema, Purpura 
patulaj and other Caribbean shells of the Pacific ; and as the geology of the 
West Coast advances, so may we expect to find traces of previous denizens of 

♦ No student of geogmphical distribution should omit to weigh carefully the chapter 
on this subject in Darwin's ' Origin of Species,' and the information given in Lyell't 
* Antiquity of Man.* 

166 



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ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 081 

AmericaD waters, which have bequeathed some species now flourishing, and 
olbers dying-out, to the existing seas. The present faunas of West America 
bfe perhaps the most isolated on the surface of the globe ; yet, if we knew 
the ancestry of each specific form, we might find some first appearing with man 
en this planet, others first living even in historic times, others tracing their 
descent from remote periods, and it may be very distant localities, in the ages 
of the Miocene, possibly even of the Eocene oceans. These suppositions are 
not set forth as theories, but simply to guard against interpretations of facts 
based on conclusions which may be only the results of our necessarily 
imperfect information. 

123. With regard to forms offering local peculiarities sufficient to dis- 
tinguish them from correlative forms offering equal peculiarities in some other 
fauna, we are by no means warranted in assuming that these have spmng 
from different creations. If a race of men, migrating to a new continent, in 
a Tery few generations, or even in the next, develope an essentially different 
phjfsique, it is fair to conclude that molluscs, borne by a change of currents to 
a distant region, or steadily migrating to the extreme limit of their con- 
ditions of life, will abo change their appearance. If the publication of the 
** Darwinian Theory " has had no other effect, it has at least checked the pro- 
pensity to announce "new species" for differences which maj^ fairly be re- 
garded as varietal. It must also be borne in mind, that if the views of Mr. 
Darwin be only a theory, such also is the name required for the prevalent 
opinion of separate creations for all diverse forms. What indeed can we 
possibly know of the mode of original creation of a single species ? We can 
only prove that one or the other supposition best explains a certain class of 
facts. It is not necessary for a working naturalist to commit himself to a^i 
exclusive belief in either of these theories. He may perhaps best explain 
some facts by the dcJctrine of separate creation, others by that of natural 
selection. In either case it is his duty to trace- out, as far as possible, the 
limits as well as the powers of variation in every living form, and to guard 
against seeing that only which accords with his prevailing belief. 

124. The study of European shells, as they exist in Norway, in Britain, in 
the Mediterranean, at the Canaries, or as they appear at different depths 
and stations in our own seas, still more as they occur in the widely separated 
periods of the later and middle tertiary ages, is an excellent preparation for 
the examination of either recent or fossil faunas in districts where our know- 
ledge is fragmentary and unconfirmed. It may be safely stated that there are, 
in the American waters, many tropical forms from the West Indies and the 
Pacific shores, some temperate forms from California and the Atlantic, and 
many sub-boreal species in the Vancouver district and the European seas, 
not differing from each other more or even so much as forms universally 
allowed by malacologists to have had a common origin from Britain and the 
Mediterranean, from the Red and the Coralline Crag. 

125. It is interesting to observe that, notwithstanding the probable con- 
nexion of the oceans through the Hocky Mountains during the Miocene age, 
there is extremely little similarity between the special temperate faunas of 
East and West America. Not a single species has yet been proved identical, 
and the allied forms are but few in number. They appear as follows : — 

Califarruan specUsm U, S. Atlantic species. 



Clidiophora punctata. 
Lvonsia Caliiomica. 
Macoma inconspicuft. 
An^^us modestos. 
Baeta undolata. 



167 



C. trilineata (P =nasuta), 

L. (hyalina=)Floridana. 

M. lusca. 

A. tener. 

R. canaliculata. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



682 



IlEPORT — 18C3. 



CiiUfomian species, 

Liocardium substriatum. 
Luuatia Ijewisii. 
Nassa mendica. 
Amy da (species). 



U. 8. Atlantic specis9, 

L. Mortoni. 
L. heros. 
N. trivittata. 
Axujcla (species). 



126. When, however, we approach the region in which boreal and sub- 
boreal forms occur, many species are found in common, and between others 
there is but slight difference. Yet even here there are more British than 
Isew England species in the West-coast fauna. As might be expected, the 
British species are for the most part those which are also found fossil, and 
therefore have had time to diffuse themselves widely over the hemisphere. 
It ia, however, remarkable that many Crag species have reached Eastern 
Asia and West America which are not found in Grand Manan and New 
England. It is also extraordinary that certain special generic forms of the 
Crag, as Acila, Miodon, Verticordia, and Solariellay reappear in the North 
Pacific*. When seeking for an explanation of so remarkable a connexion 
between faunas widely removed in space and time, the correlative feu^t must 
be borne in mind, that the northern drift t, so widely diffused over Europe 
and Eastern America, has not yet been traced in the western region. The 
following Taole exhibits, not only the identical but the similar species be- 
longing to the northern faunas of the Atlantic and Pacific. In the Asiatic 
column, K denotes that the species occurs in the Kamtschatka region, J in 
Japan. In the second column, V signifies the Vancouver district, C the Cali- 
fomian, and I the Sta. Barbara group of islands. The species marked F 
are also fossil. In the third column, C denotes the Coralline, R tbe Red, and 
H the Mammaliferous Crag. The fourth contains the species living in the 
British seas ; the fifth, on the American side of the Atlantic, Gr, standing 
for Greenland. 



East Asia. 


West America. 


Crag. 


British. 


E. AmericaJ 


K 


V Rhynconella psittacea .. 

V C Xy lotrya )ennatifera .... 

V Xvlotrya iimbriata 


(Pleistocene) 


psittacea 


psittacea 


— 


— 


pennatifera 


— 


.. 


— 


iimbriata 


— 


iw 


VC Zirphaea cnspata 


CRM 


crisnata 
pho ad is 


cnspata 
pholadis 


K 


y C Saxicava pholadis 


CRM 


J 


VC Glvcimeris generosa .... 

V Sphsenia ovalis 

V Mya truncata 


Faujasii, C R 


— 


— 


— 


*?Binghami't 


Binghami 


— 


JK 


CRM 


truncata 


truncata 


J K, lata 


V Macoma inquinata 


lata,RM 


proxima 


proxima,&c 
Groenland. 


K 


V Serripes Groenlandicus . . 


RM 


— 


K 


VI Venericardia borealis 


— 


— 


borealis 


— 


V Astarte (compacta) .... 


compre8sa,RM 


compressa 


compressa 


.i— 


V Miodon prolongatus .... 


corbis, C R 


— 


— 


^ 


I F Lucina borealis ........ 


CRM 


borealis 


— 


_„ 


I Cryptodon fiexuosus .... 


C 


fiexuosus 


.^ 


Chma 


I Verticordia O-costata 


cardiiformis, C 


— 


— 


1 


V C Kellia suborbicularis .... 


CR 


suborbicul. 


— 



* Whether there be any similar correspondenoe in the Polysoa it not yet known, Mr. 
Busk not having had time to complete his examination. 

t See, in this connexion, a Tery accurate Table of the species which travel round 
Cape Cod, with their distribution in existing seas and over diflerent provinces of the 
various drift-formations in the Old and New World, by Sanderson Smith, in Aun. Lye. 
Kftt. Hist. N. York, vol. vii. 1860, p. 166. 

I From the Coralline Crag. Looks more like avaUs, 

168 



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ON UOLLUSCA 07 THE WBST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 



G83 



, EistAtis. 


We$t America. 


Crag. 1 Britiflli. 


v., America.] 


J 


VC Lasea rubra 


C 
RM 


rubra 
edulis 


edulis 


JK 


VC Mvtilus edulis 


— 


VC Modlola modiolus 


.PCRM 


modiolus 


modiolus 


— 


V Modiolarlft marmorata . . 


CR 


marmorata 


marmorata 


JK 


V Modiolaria lavigata .... 


— 


nigra 


laBv^ta 





I CreuelLi decussata 


— 


decussata 


glandui* 


JK 

in%ni8,&c 


V NucuIa tenuis 


CRM 

Cobboldiae.RM 


tenuis 


tenuis 


V C I F Acila ca-^trensis .... 


JK 


V Yoldia lanceolata 


RM 


— 


lanceolata 


1 


V Leda mlnuta 


RM 



caudata 
subauricul. 


minuta 


I Limaea subauriculata 




V C Hinnites gij^anteus .... 


Cortesyi, C 





.^ 


; (Asia) 


V Liinnaea palustris ...... 


palustris 


palustrlfl 


1 


V C Cvlichna attonsa 


cvlindracea,CR 


attonsa 


— 


i — 


V Haminea hvdatis 


M 


hydatis 





— 


VC Dentalium Indianorum. . 


entale, M 


entale 


striolatum 


JK,c»ca 


V Lepeta caecoides 


— 


(caeca, iVbr.) 


ca^ca, Gr. 


— 


V Margarita helicina 


— 


helicina 


helicina 


— 


V Margarita PVahlii 





— 


Vahlii, Or. 


— 


V Mesalia lacteola r 


— 


— 


lactea, Gr. 


— 


V Lacuna vincta 


M 


vincta 


vincta 


^(tamcuk 


)V Belafidicula 


turricula, R 
Trevelliana, R 


turricula 
Trevelliana 


turricula 




V Bela excurvata 


— 


V C Scalaria Indianorum .... 





commums 





K 


V Velutina lasN-igata 


M 


laevigata 


laevitrata 


K 


V Natica clausa 


R 


(Norway) 




-^ 


V C I Eulima micans 


polita,CR 


micans 




_ 


V Cerithiopsis tubercularis 


C 


tubercularis 





-^ 


V I Trif oris ad versus 


C 


adversus 





— 


C I Erato columbella 


MaugerisB, C R 


— 


(W.I.) 


- 


V C Purpura saxicola 


— 


lapiUus 


lapillus 


- 


V Chrvsodomus liratus. . . . 


— 


— 


10-costatu8 




V Trophon miilticostatus . . 


— 


(Norway) 


Qunneri 



127. The following species (besides others dredged by Mr. A. Adams, but not 
yet determined) have been found on both the Asiatic and American shores of 
the X. Pacific, in addition to those recorded by Middendorff, v. Brit. Assoe. 
Reportt p. 223. 



Terebratella Coreanica. 
Waldheimia Califomica. 
Waldheiniia pulvinata. 
Waldheimia Urayi. 
Glvcimeris genero«a. 
Sciiizothaerus Nuttallii. 
Solen sicarius. 
San^nolaria Nuttallii. 
Telhna Bodegensis. 



Cardium modestum. 
Amusium caurinum. 
Placunanomia macroschisma. 
Crepidula grandis. 
Drillia inermis. 
Limatia pallida. 
Priene Oregonensis. 
Cerostoma foliatum. 
Siphonalia Kellettii. 



128. The Vancouver and Califomian districts have so many characteristic 
species in common (111 ont of 492), that they must be regarded as con- 
stituting one fauna, differing as do the British and Mediterranean regions. 
Fall particulars as to the range of the different species may be expected in 
Dr. Cooper's Report to the Califomian Geological Survey. One fact must, 
lujwever, be here specially noted, viz. the great peculiarity of the island-fauna. 
Although the Sta, Barbara group are so near the mainland, the dredge has 
not only produced many species not known on the continent, but also many 

1C9 



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C84 BEPORT — 1863. 

before considered as essentially tropical. Along with tliese are not only some 
species of types hitherto regarded as almost exclusively Asiatic, as Verticordia^ 
SolarieUa, and FtUvia modesta, but also some which belong to the sub-boreal 
district, as Luciiia horecdis, Venericardia horealU, and Crendla deeussata, Tho 
latter belongs to the British, and not to the N. England form. 

129. Of the blendingof the temperate and tropical faunas on the peninsula of 
L. California we are still in ignorance. All we know is, that at Margarita Bay 
the shells are still tropical, and Uiat at Cerros Island they are strangely inter- 
mixed. There is peculiar evidence of connexion between the faunas of the penin- 
sula and of S. America, not only in the land- shells (v. anted, p. 630), but in 
some of the marine forms. Beside identical species with wide range, as many Oa- 
lyptraeids, the following are coordinate between the North and South Pacific;— 

SotUh America. 



Upper and Lower California. 
x> etastoma DarwiniL 
Solecurtus Caliiomianus. 
Semele rupium. 
Callista var, puella. 
Chaina pellucida. 
Liocardium substriatum* 
AxinfiBa (Barbarensis.) 
Verticordia novemcostatat 
I'ecten sequisulcatus. 
Siphonaria thersites. 
Tonicia lineata. 
Acmsea patina. 
Acmaea persona. 
Scurria mitra. 
Chlorostoma funebrala. 
Mitra maura. 
Hanella Califomica. 
Priene Oreg^nensis. 
Trophon multioostatus. 



N. Darwinii. 

S. Dombeyi. 

(Ditto, Galapagos.) 

0. pannosa. 

C. pellucida. 

L. Elenense. 

A. intermedia. 

V. omata. 

P. ventricosus. 

S. lateralis, &c 

T. lineolata. 

A. scutum, nOrh, 

A.«Oregona," J5r.a 

S. scurra. 

C. moestum. 

M maura. 

R. ventricosa. 

P. cancellata. 

T. Magellanicus. 



Time and space do not avail for pointing out further relations with exotic 
faunas ; which indeed will be performed with greater correctness after l)r. 
Cooper shall have published his complete lists. 

130. For the sake of avoiding the inconvenience of trinomial nomenclature, 
the subgeneric and varietal names have often been cited in this Report instead 
of the generic and specific, in order that the exact form of the shell quoted 
might be more quickly determined. The diagnoses of all the new species 
here tabulated are written for the press, and will shortly appear in the dif- 
ferent scientific journals. Additional specimens will probably prove several 
forms to be conspecific which are here treated as distinct. In the present 
state of the science, absolute certainty is not to be attained. The object of 
the writer* has been principally to bring together the works of his prede- 
cessors, and so to arrange and describe the new materials that those who 
continue his labours may be able to draw their own conclusions irom existing 
data. In order to facUitate reference, a brief index is here given of the 
subject-matter of the former and of the present Reports. 

* The best thanks of the writer are due to Hugh Crnning, Esq., for the free use of hit 
collection ; to Messrs. H. & A. Adams, Hanley, R^e, and S^werby, for aid in identifying 
specimens; to the officers and naturalists connected with the Smithsonian Institution; 
to Dr. A. A. Gould, for very valuable corrections ; and generally to authors and friendi, 
who have kindly rendered him all the assistance in their power. He earnestly inrit€9 
criticisms on the subject-matter of the two Reports ; in order that they may be embodied, 
and errors corrected, m the Manuals of the West-Coast Mollusca which he has uudertaken 
to prepiire for the Smithsonian Institution. 

Warrington, Aug, 22nd, 1864. ^ 



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ON MOLLX7SCA OF THE WEST COAST OT NORTH AMERICA. 



685 



TABLE OP (X>NTENTS. 
Fvamph. 

1-6. Physical Condition of West America ••• ••• 

6-12. Errors respectinf^ Habitat 

13-21. Errors of Nomenclature 

22. Table of Localities 

23. Table of ooUeotors. Earlj Writers. Linnaeus, Solander, 

Martyn, Chemnitz, IHzon, Dombey, Perry, Leach, 
Dillwyn, Lamarck, Swainson 

34. Humboldt and Bonpland (Valenciennes) 

25. Voyage of * Coquille :* Lesson 

26. Eschscholti 

27. Tankerville Catalogue : Zoological Journal 

28u Voyace of ' Blossom ' : Beecbey, Belcher 

29. Wood's * Index Testaceologicus ' and Supplement 

30. Voyage of ' Astrolabe ' : Quoy and Gbimturd 

31. Voyage of * Adventure ' and * Beagle ' : King 

32. Hugh Cuming's Besearohes 

83. D'Orbigny's 8. America 

04. jsotta ... .•• ••» ••• ••• ••• •.• 

35. Blainville's Purpune 

36. Guru's Magasin : Dudoe 

87. Voyage of * Beagle' : Darwin (see also j). 359) 

38. Lady Eatherine Douglas (afterwards Wigram) 

89. If uttall ; Conrad ... ••• •.. ... ••• ••• 

40. Voyage of * Bjnite' : Eydoux and Souleyet 

41. M * Venus ': Deshayes, Valenciennes 

42. „ 'Sulphur': Hinds 

43. U. S. Exploring Expedition ; Gk>uld 

44. Middendorff 

45. Voyage of *Samarang' : Adams and Beeve 

46. E. B. Philippi ... 

47. Mexican- War Naturalists, Bioh and Qreen ; also Jewett 
48,49. Melcfaers; Menke 

da Eellete and Wood ; Forbes 

61. Beigen ; Br. Mus. Mazatlan Catalogue 

tti 110. Conrad on Wilson's shells 

63. Jay's Catalogue 

54. C. B. Adams ; Panama Catalogue 

85. Br. Mus. Catalogues; Vencrida 

56. Sailor's Collection 

87, 98. Gould's Collection ... ••• 

58. Bridges 

59. Proceedings of the Zooloffical Society 

60. Sowerby; * Conchologicu Illustrations ' 

61. „ * Thesaurus Conchyliorum ' and 'Malacological 
Macaxine' 

f, Sowerby's * Genera ' ; Beere's ' Conchologia Systematica ' 

62. Beere's * Concholoeia Iconica ' 

63. Eiener, ' Coquillee ViTantes ' 

64,65. C^erman authors; Pfeiffer, Menke, Philippi, Euster, 

Dunker 

66. British Museum Collection 

67. Cumingian Collection 

68. Various European sources : Boso, Lesson, Ghray, Wood- 

ward, Hanley, Joum. de Conch., Chenu, Duclos, 

Deshayes 

69, 121. General Table of the Western Faunas 

70, 71. Isolatioiv from other Provinces ... 

72, 7S. Boreal and Sitcha District 

74-76. Fauna of Oregon and Upper California 

77, 76. „ Lower California ; S. Diego, S. Pedro, S. Juan, 

La Pas, Ghiaymas 

79-83. Tropical Fauna ; GalapMos 

8^-87, 122. Companaon with other Faunas ... ••• • 

171 



Page in 
Beport L Bepoii IL 



169 


... 


162 


... 


164 


... 


167 


... 617 


168 


... 617 


169 


... 521 


172 


... 521 


172 


... 521 


174 


... 522 


175 


... 522 


178 


... 523 


179 


... 


179 


... 624 


179 


... 


189 


... 


191 


... 


191 


... 


191 


... 624 


192 


, 


193 


... 525 


192 


... 525 


201 


... 


202 


... 628 


204 


... 529 


208 


... 529 


214 


... 632 


224 


... 5t4 


224 


... 534 


225 


... 534 


2;i5 




239 


Z 542 


241 


... 542 


264 


... 634 


265 


... 648 


265 


... 549 


281 


... 653 


281 


... 654 


2S3 


... 654 


284 


... *64 


285 


... 554 


288 


... 659 


288 


... 661 


. 


... 661 


289 


... 662 


293 


... 663 


204 


... 573 


296 


... 674 


297 


... 


297 


... 675 


297 




346 


... 


347 




ai8 


Z 635 


a50 




353 


... 



680 



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C36 EEPORT— 1863. 

Paragraph. Report I. Beport IL 

88. Land and Freshwater Shells «^'>6 ... 

89. Polyioa 367 ... 

91, 120. FowilSpeciei; XT. 8. ExpLEip 367 ... 679 

90,92. Conclusion of First Report 367 ... 

93. Smithsonian Institution ; Collections and Pablications 577 

94. N. Pacific Exploring £]^)edition ; Stimpson, Qould 582 

95. XT. S. Japan Expedition ; Jay 5*^ 

96. A. Adams ; Japan 5^ 

97. Pacific RaUroad Reports; Blake's Fossils 58H 

98. „ „ Gould's ShelU 283 ... 592 

99. M . » Newberry's Fossils 693 

100. „ „ Antisell's Fossils .'»94 

101. „ „ W.Cooper's Shells (Coop.)... . 596 

102. IT. S. N. Pacific Rotmdary Surrey ; Kennerley 601 

103. Brit. „ „ ; Lord, Lyall, Forbes 603 

104. Califomian State Cfeological Survey ; J. G. Cooper (Cp.) 607 

105. Cape St Lucas Shells ; Xantus 616 

106. Neeah Bay, YancouTer, &c. ; Swan 626 

107. Farallone Islands 628 

106. J. G. Cooper's Land Shells ; BUnd 629 

109. Land Shells of Lower California 630 

110. Califomian Naturalists: Traak, Newcomb,Rowell, Chibb, 

Remond 631 

111. Various Amerioau publications «.. 633 

112. €(eneral Table of the Vancouver and Califomian Fauna 635 

113. Additional Shells from Lower California and the Gulf; 

Cerros Island, Margarite Bay, La Paz, Guaymas 664 

114. Additional Shells of Tropical Fauna; Acapuloo, Real 

liejos, Panama 668 

115. General list of Land, Freshwater, and Marine Pulmo- 

nates; Binney 669 

116. Paludinid^e, &c ; Binney 676 

117. Melaniadae; Binney 677 

118. Unionidse; Lea 677 

119. Cyrenidae; Prime 678 

91. 120. Tertiary Fossils 367 ... 679 

69. 121. Corrections of General Table 297 ... 680 

84. 122. Comparison with other Faunas 362 ... 680 

123. Local peculiarities 681 

124. Comparative study of European Fauna 681 

125. Comparison with Eastern American Fauna 681 

126. Comparison with the Crag Fossils - 682 

127. Comparison with Asiatic Shells 683 

128. Peculiarities of the Ishind Fauna 684. 

129. Comparison of the West Coast of N. and S. America 684 

130i Explanation of Nomenclature mm m* 684 



172 



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B. 



HEVIEW 



PROF. C. B. ADAMS'S CATALOGUE 



0F1 



SHELLS OF PANAMA, FROM THE TYPE SPECIMENS. 



BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B. A., Ph.D. 



i^m the Plrooeedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 839-869, 
June 23, 1863. 



(173) 



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Review op Prof. C. B. Adams*s * Catalogue of the Shells 
OF Panama'*, from the Type Specimens. By Philip P. 
Carpenter, B.A., Ph.D. 

A r^sam^ of this important contribul ion to onr knowledge of local 
faunas, and a comparison with the British Museum * Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca,' is given 
in the 'Report of the British Association* for 1856, pp. 265-281. 
Full series of the old species, and the first specimens of the new, 
were deposited by Prof. Adams in the Museum of Amherst College, 
which also contains similar series of the Professor's Caribbean coU 
lections. The second specimens of new species were sent to Mr. 
Cuming, and through his kindness were freely .used in preparing 
the Mazatlan Catalogue, thus avoiding the necessity of many syno- 
nyms. An instructive lesson in candour and forbearance* may be 
learnt by comparing together the works of any two naturalists of 
equal celebrity, or by comparing either of them with the types. 
With the best desires for accuracy, and the greatest care, it is hardly 
possible for an author to describe so that his readers shall ^ee. shells 
as he sees them. If this be true of such full and precise diagnoses 
•8 those of Adams and Gould, how much greater must be the diffi- 
culty to foreigners of recognizing shells from the biief descriptions 
of Broderip, Lamarck, and the older writers generally. The careful 

* Catalogue of Shells collected at Panama; with Notes on their Ssmonymy, 
Station, and Geographical Distribution * hy C. B. Ad4m8, Professor of ZooioTv. 
&c, in Amherst Collf>ge, Mass. Reprinted from the * Anuals of L} ccum of Nat. 
Hist N. Y.,' voL V. New York, 1852. 

175 



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2 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

preservation of types therefore, and the interchange of specimens 
named from types, is of the first importance to save the time and 
ensure the accuracy of succeeding writers. The Smithsonian Insti- 
tution has fully recognized this principle by directing that the first 
available duplicate of all type species described from its collections 
shall be deposited in some museum open to students on the other 
side of the Atlantic. 

As the authorities of Amherst College had not taken any steps 
to figure their unique specimens, and as Prof. Adams's determina- 
tions of old species had not been verified, I made it my business 
(^when visiting America to deposit the first duplicate series of the 
Mazatlan Shells in the New York State Museum at Albany) to com- 
pare Prof. Adams's collection, on the spot, with his published book, 
in my copy of which I made my notes and sketches at the time. 
Every facility was afforded me by the Curator. I was allowed freely 
to handle the specimens in the presence of his assistant, and to draw 
the minute species under my microscope. I took with me for com- 
parison the drawings of the minute Mazatlan shells in the British 
Museum. The species being numbered in both the Panama and the 
Mazatlan lists, it is easy now to institute a comparison between them. 
They are here distinguished by the initials P. and M. 

P. I. Ovula avena. May be distinct from Radius variafjifU^ 
M.. 435, being much more stumpy, with a thicker lip ; but the few 
specimens are in poor condition, and the differences may be accidents 
of station. 

2. Ovula emarginata^Carinea e. Quite distinct from its Carib- 
bean analogue C. gibbosa, 

3. Ovula neglecta, C. B. Ad., is probably a small variety of /2a- 
dius variabilis. 

4. Ovula variabilis, C. B. Ad,^= Radius v., M. 435. 

5. Ovula, sp. ind., probably = rarta^t/tf, jun. 

6. Cypraa arabicula=i Jricia a., M. 438. 

7. Cyprcsa cervinetta^C, exanthema, M. 436. Having now 
examined a multitude of specimens from different stations on the 
west coast, which differ from each other quite as much as they do 
from the typical Caribbean forms, I am confirmed in the belief of 
tiieir identity. 

8. CyprcBa punctulata^ Aricia p. Erroneously given, in M. 
p. 374, as a probable synonym of A, arabieula. It is less thickened 
at the sides, with smaller spots. Although specimens of arabieula 
graduate into it at the back, it may always be known by the moutb, 
which has its teeth much further apart. 

9. Cypraa pustulata^Trivia p., M. 439. 
I 176 



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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 3 

JO. Cypraa radians^s^Tritia r., M. 440. 

11. Cypraa n<66«cen«= dead sp. of Trivia savguineOy M. 442» 

12. CyprtBa Mngvinea= Trivia «,, M. 442, 

13. Erato scahriuacula, Stet. 

14. Marginella minor, Stet, M. 587. 

1 5. Marginella sapotilla. The Panama specimens collected by- 
Prof. Adams, and abundantly by others, more closely resemble M. 
pnmum than the tyfie M, sapoti/la of liinds, which is a much smaller 
shell. The Caribbean shells (which are found across the Isthmus 
at Aspinwall) differ only in having a sharper angle in the labrum at 
the posterior notch. Adanson's habitat, doubted by Prof. Adams 
(note, p. 41), is confirmed by specimens in the Bristol Institution 
brought from Sierra Leone by Chief Justice Kankine. The Pacific 
sheUs are probably conspecific, sufficient evidence being now in our 
possession that the two oceans were united at least as late as the 
JVliocene epoch*. 

16. Mitra funiculata, Stet. 

17. Mitra lens, M. 585. 

18. Mifra nueleola. Closely resembling young specimens of the 
Caribbean M. granulosa, 

19. Mitra solitaria, C. B. Ad. s^Zier liana s. Other specimens 
have since been found of this characteristic species. The " trans- 
verse ribs " can scarcely be said to be " obsolete anteriorly." 

20. Mitra tristis^Strigatella t., M. 586. 

21. Terehra elata^MyureUa e, 

22. Terebra larv€efi}rmis=Myurella L 

23. 24. Stent. 

25. Terebra tuberculosa^ Mynrella t, 

26. Terebra varicosa. This may possibly be a very young speci- 
men of Subula V, ; but I think it distinct. 

27-^1. Sp. ind. A specimen of Eurytafulgurata, M. 455, is in 
the museum, as from Panama, but not of Prof. Adams's collecting. 

32. Oliva angulata, M. h90. 

• The specimens in the Cumingian Masenm« named M, eartUetcefu at the time 
of the British Asscxration Report, are now labelled *' MapoiiUa^ Hds., 5-13 fathoms 
sandy mud, Panama, H. C." Another set of Pacific shells f notch-an^le rounded) 
are guen as *• Marginella n. s., Panama,** ** San Domingo having been erased. 
The large West Indian form (notch-angle sharp) is given as ** caruie»ceru, var., 
Lam., 10 fathoms sandy mud, Panama *' Another set of large shells, vnth sharp 
affgle, and labrum tinted behind, is given as *' ctfruiescenM^ Lam., Panama," but 
w.thoiit authority. The small West- Indian form (like the typical tapoiiUa) H 
given as *'fffaru, Mke.*' Either in this, as in other instances, error has crept into 
the lorality.marks, or else even the distinction pointed out by Mr. RedfieM (vrho 
h^ givrn peniliar stadj to this geuus) camiu( be rt:iieu ou Iw «ep<u-uung the spe* 

12 177 



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4 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

33. Oliva araneosa=^ O, melchersi, M. 59 1 . Prof. Adams's shanty 
specimen can scarcely be distiugubhed from that which he marked 
" O. literata, Alabama." But the ordinary aspect of the shells O. 
reticularis from the Caribbean Islands, O. literata from the coast of 
the Southern States, and O. melchern from 'the Pacific, is sufficiently 
distinct (for the genus). 

34. Oliva inconapicua, C. B. Ad.^ Olivella t., M. 599. Some of 
the shells referred to this species from Panama, Mazatlan, and Cape 
St. Lucas graduate into the Caribbean O. oryza ; otlleri^into dwarf 
forms of O. gracilis. The species either needs revision from fresh 
specimens, or should be merged into O, gracilis, 

35. Oliva pellucida, C. B. Ad. Dead specimen ; differs from , 
Olivellap., Rve. 

36. Oliva porphyria, Stet. 

37. Oliva semistriata^Olivella s. Closely resembles O. co/tf- 
mellaris, 

38. Oliva testacea=Jgaronia t,, M. 602. 

39. Oliva undatella^ Olivella m., M. 595. 

40. Oliva venulata. This shanty specimen is O, angulata, jun. 
The O. venulata, M. 593, is named by Prof. Adams juliettay as 
also by Mke. (non Duel.). The true O.julietta (Guacomayo, Mus. 
Smiths.) is the Pacific "analogue" of O.fusiformis, 

4 1 . Oliva volutella=iOlivella v. It is surprising that this species, 
so immensely common at Panama and up the coast, should not reach 
the Gulf, and that the equally common O, tergina of Mazatlan and 
O. gracilis of Cape St. Lucas and Acapulco should be rare elsewhere, 
while the larger Olives are found from Guaymas to the equator. 
O. dama (=^lineolata. Gray, C. B. Ad.), abundant at Mazatlan, was 
bought, not collected, by the Professor at Panama. 

42 Planaxis planicostata. Stet. Also immensely common at 
Panama, though absent from Mazatlan. 

43. Nassa canescens^ C. B. Ad. Having compared this unique 
specimen with P. 50, q. v., I can speak to their complete identity. 
The "pale grey" of the "interspaces" is due to the shell being 
dead. 

44, 45. Stent. 

46. Nassa gemmulosa^^'M, 631, exactly. 

47. Stet. 

48. Nassa luteostoma=^M, 623. 

49. Nassa nodifera. Also found at Guaymas. 

50. Nassa pagodus, C. B. Ad. ( + AT. caneseens, P. 45) »« y. 
(? pagodus, var.) acuta, M. 625. It is certainly the N, decussate 
ol Kien., but probably not of Lam. Whether it is the Triton pago^ 
dus cf Rve. I am still unable to say, the type being apparently lost. 
We are bound to suppose that Mr. Reeve could not mistake so de- 

178 



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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. O 

cided a Nassa for a Triton ; so that if Lamarck's is a similar Easie lA 
species, the West American may stand as N, acuta. 

51. Nassa panamensis, C. B. Ad, The Professor rightly marked 
his duplicates " exilis, Pws." This abundant shell, having a Pisa- 
Doid, not a Nassoid operculum, probably belongs to Phos, Northia, 
or some genus not yet eliminated. N, obsoleta. Say, has a similar 
operculum, and appears nearly related. 

52. Nassa proxima. The unique specimen appears to be an ex- 
treme form of N, versicolor, P. 55. 

53. Nassa 1 scabriuscula, C. B. Ad. (non Pws.)=i\r. complanata, 
Pws. : V. P. 56. 

54. Nassa striata, C. B. Ad. The two type specimens, one young, 
the other adult, both belong to a variety of versicolor. The phrase, 
"kst whorl spirally canaliculate on the left side,'* simply expresses 
the ordinary character of Nassa, The specimens in Mus. Cuming., 
however, from another source, differ somewhat in the nucleus from 
the small form of N. versicolor. These = N, paupera, Gld., teste 
Gaming, and should take that name. 

55. Nassa versicolor, C. B. Ad., M. 632. The revolving striae 
vary so greatly in this species, as well as the size, obesity, and colour, 
that it is hard to assign its limits. The specimens marked versicolor 
by the Professor vary much more among themselves than the ex- 
treme ones do from his proxima and striata. The apex and early 
whorls of each are exactly the same under the microscope. It is pos- 
sible that the unique crebristriata, M. 633, is also an extreme variety. 

56. Nassa vnlsoni appears to be only a dwarf form of P. 53, 
N, complanata, 

57. Buccinum crassum=iPhos c, 

58. Buccinum distortum=^Clavella d, 

59. Buccinum insigne= Pisania i,, M. 659. 

60. Buccinum luffubre, C. B. Ad. The Professor marked this shell 
on his card ''MurexlV ; then '' FususV*; then " Fusus nodu- 
losus. Ad., n. B."; then " Buccinum (?) lugubre. Ad., n. s."; so that 
the old genera were sometimes as badly dedned as the new ones. It 
may rank with Pisania. 

6 1 . Buccinum pagodus = Pisania p. 

62. Buccinum pristis^^Northia serrata. 

63. Buccinum ringens^^ Pisania r., M. 663. 

64. Buccinum sanguinolentum= Pisania s., M. 662. 

65. Buccinum stimpsonianum= Nassa st* 

66. Bolium ringevis^^Malea r. 

67. Monoceros brevidentatum. This species, very common at 
Panama, has been transported over (not throagh) the Pacific, to San 
Francisco and Monterey . v. P page 75, 

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BR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

68. Monoceros civguIattim^Levcozonia c, M. 583. 

69. Purpura caroIensis=P, triavgularisy M. 608. 

70. Purpura f areola tas^Cutna eoatata, M. 610, probuLly; but the 
markings have been too much obliterated to decide with confidence. 

71. Purpura kiosquiformU^Cuma k., M. 609. There arc in 
the collection three shells, labelled by the Professor "P. purpuroitfes 
(Fusus)^ Orb., Panama" = Pisania d^orbignyi, Rve. Mo authority 
is given, and they probably came from Peru. 

72. Purpura^ sp. ind. This shell is not to be found. It has 
probably been put with the last, of which it is no doubt a variety : 
▼. M. p. 482. 

73. Purpura melo. Stet. 

74. Purpura osculans appears to be the young of Bhizocheilu9 
nux, M. 611 ; of which R. distans, Cpr., and probably R. calt/oT' 
nicus, A. Ad., are only varieties. 

75. Purpura tecta^^Cuma t, 

76. Purpura undata^P, biserialis, M. 606. 

77. ColumbeUa atramentaria^^AnathiB a. 

78. ColumbeUa bicanalifera=sStrombxna b. 

79. ColumbeUa boivinii. This species must rank with (Anachis 
or) Engina*, the operculum being Pisanoid. 

80. ColumbeUa conspicua^ Anachis c. 

81. ColumbeUa costellata, C. B. Ad^szAneekis sealartna, Sby., 
M. 645 ; not A. costellata, Shy., M. 646. 

82. ColumbeUa diminuta^^AnachU d, 

83. ColumbeUa dorsata^=Strombina d* 

84. ColumbeUa fluctuata^=AnachUJl. 

85. ColumbeUa Julva^Anachis/., M. 648. 

86. ColumbeUa fugcata, M. 617. The small var. is C. /estiva, 
Kien. 

87 . ColumbeUa gibberula = Strombina g, 

88. ColumbeUa gracilis ^=^Anach{8 g, 

89. ColumbeUa guttata^Nitidella cribraria, M. 613. 

90. 91, 92. Stent 

93. ColumbeUa lyrata^^ Anachia I 

94. ColumbeUa major, M. 615. 

95. ColumbeUa modesta^^Trvncaria m. It might be convenient 
to leave this genus as arranged by Messrs. H. and A. Ad, Mr. 
Henry Adams desires to restrict it to the type species, in which 

• Of the shells called by French authors Sffni-Picinvta, these "with a Purpnroid 
operculum may be retainpd as SU/rum, ^hile those with Pisanoid operculum 
should be removed as Engina, ivilb Jnachitf to the Hiuricit/te, 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 7 

case this and similar species must be moved to Nitidella, if the oper- 
culum be (as is presumed) Purpuroid ; or to Ami/da, if Nassoid. 

96. ColumbeVa mcesta^Jnachis m. 

97 CohmbeUa nigricans =Jnachis n, 

98. Columhella pnrva. This appears to be only a dead specimen 
of C, pygmaa, P. 100. 

99. Cofumbeila pulchrioris probably a Nitidella. 

100. Columbella pygmaa = Anachis p., M. 651. 

lUK Cofumbeila rvgosassAnachia r. This appears to be the 
commonest and most Variable species of the genus. The typical 
specimens are somewhat stumpy, with stout knobs. Then the knobs 
pass into long, compressed ridges, and finally change into narrow 
bars. These are wide apart, or close, or nearly evanescent ou the 
back. The shape passes from the stumpy to an acuminate form 
like casieilata. Some adults are more than twice the size of others; 
but the same variations are found in both extremes. The colours 
are generally laid on in patches on the knobby specimens ; in fine 
flames, <a the smoother ones. In all varieties, it is known from 
JUetuattt by the spiral striae over the whole surface ; and from varia 
by the shoulder, more or less developed mto a keel, ou the whorls of 
the spire. 

102. Columbella strombiformis, M. 616. 

103. Columbella teMellaia, C. B. Ad. (non Gzsk,)=Anachisgua'' 
tewtalensis, Rve. 

104. Columbella turrita^Strombina t. 

105. Columbella varia ^Anachis v. 

106. Columbella sp. ind. is the young of a species in Mus. 
Cuming., resembling harpa/ormis, 

107 Rieinula carbonaria^Engina c. 

108. Rieinula jugosa may be an Engina, but has more the aspect 
of the Pacific group Peristemia. 

109. Rieinula reeviana^Engina pulchra, Rve. 

110. Cassis abbreviata^s^Bezoardica a. On comparing a large 
series of specimens from Cape St. Lucas with a similar series of C, 
inflata from Texas, I was unable to discover any specific differences. 
It varies greatly, from each ocean, in painting, sculpture, height of 
spire, &ۥ 

111. Cassis eoarctatassLevenia e 

112,113, 114(=M. 480), 115, 116(=M. 481), 117, 118»(=M. 
476), 119* ( = M. 477), 120 ( = M. 475), 121, 122 ( = M. 381, 
galeaius), 123 (=M. 449), 124 (=M. 448), 125. Stent. 

* Having now examined a large number of specimens of these two forms, I 
kafe no hesitation whatever in regarding Contu regalitatu as simply a vsjriety of 
C. pftTpwmteew, Similar differences may be observed in comparing large series 
of almost all Conea. ^ ^^ 



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9 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

126. Triton chemnitzitss Arffcbucce ft am noflosum, M. 5S0. These 
shells are small and turreted. Those Prof. Adams marked " T, cin- 
gulatum. Lam., E. Indies," are much more like the Mazatian shells. 

127. Triton constrictiis= Distorfio e. The specimens of this 
group from the Pacific Coast, from the Gulf of Mexico, and from 
the China Seas are very difficult to discriminate. 

128. Triton Jusoides, This unique and very elegant shell can 
scarcely be called a Triton^ even of the Epidromus type. It may 
perhaps rank milu Euthria, but is peculiar in possessing a distinct 
anterior sinus, near the canal, like Rostellaria, 

129. 130, 131, 132*, 133. 134*, 135. Stent. 

136. Murex dubius^=Muricidea dubia, M. 673. 

137. Murex erosus^^ Muricidea e, 

138. Murex radix =PhyUonotu9 r. The Professor's specimens 
of this species are remarkably fine, more nearly resembling the Gulf 
nigritua than the heavy stumpy shells usuaHy seen. His youn^ 
specimens are heavier, but more turreted, than the young nigritut. 
The opercula appear to have fewer frills ; but such differences may 
be due only to station. The specimens he marked ambiguus (with- 
out locality) belong to the typical nirritus. Phyllonotua radix and 
nigritus graduate into each other almost as freely as the latter does 
into ambiguus: v. M. 666, 

13^. Murex rectirostris. . This and kindred species run into each 
other too closely, when adult, to speak with any confidence on so 
young a specimen in bad condition. 

140. Murex recurviroatris. This specimen is also far too imper- 
fect to affiliate : v* M. 665. 

141. Murex regiu8^=Phyllonotu» r., M. 670. 

142. Murex salebrosug^ Vitularia «., M. 612. The curious group 
of Muricoid Purpurids culminates on the West American shores. U 
is represented in the north temperate regions by Cerastoma, on. the 
warmer shores by Chorus, and in the tropical regions by Vitularia, 
The Lower Californian Murex belcheri, Hds., belongs to the group. 
Dr. Alcock (who has succeeded the late Capt. Brown as Curator of 
the Manchester Natural History Museum) has pointed out very well- 
marked physiological distinctions between the two families, which 
are coordinate with the differences in the opercula. 

* Dr. Gray (Guide to MoUusca, pp. 39» 42) leaves the round-variced Ranellids, 
AS Apolion, in the Tritonidtf^ '*operc annular, nucleus subapical, within the 
apex ;*' but removes the sharp-variced species, as Ranetla, to the CtusidieUB, and 
figures the operculum like Bezoardicot " half-ovate, nucleus central, lateral, in. 
ternal." The operculum of R. catala. No. 132, is almost identical with Mwrex, 
and the shell accords with ApoUon; but R. nitida. No. 134, ^hich has very sharp 
varices, has its operculum vridely removed from Bezoardica, It is closely related 
to that of Cerasloma^ Rhizocheihu^ and some of the Ocinebra; nucleus near the 
anterior end of the lahrum ; labral portions of the annular layers eroded ; scar as 
in Tarpurids, with about thiee roughly angular ridges of growth. 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. ^ 

143. Murex vibex. This Peruvian species also probably belongs 
to the Purpurid group. 

144- Murex vittaius^Muricidea v, 

145. (=M. 638), 146 ( = M. 579). Stent. 

147. Fujws bellus, C. B. Ad, This is a pretty little shell, resem- 
bling a young Metu/a, and is probably one of the species assigned 
with doubt to that genus, M. 619-622, or to Fusus, M. 642. I should 
erase the words, "some of which are varicoid*' (referring to the ra- 
diating ribs), as my glass did not enable me to detect a single one. 

148. Faseiolaria g^'anosa, A minute specimen is of the size and 
general appearance of the ^y of Chrysodomus antiquus, with one and 
a half irregular nuclear whorls. An adult has its operculum broken 
and mended from a subcentral nucleus — a mode of proceeding which 
I have now observed in such a multitude of species belonging to dif- 
ferent families of Proboscidifers and Toxifers that I venture to assign 
it as the original type of their opercula, from which the special 
family forms are modifications of high development. Of the spiral 
Rostrifers there is not yet sufficient evidence to speak*. 

149. Turbinella castas, M. 581. 

150. Turbinella castanea^Latirus c, 

151. Turbinella cerata= Latirus c, M. 582. 

152. Turbinella rudis^Latirus r. 

153. Turbinella spadicea=Latirus s* 

154. Cancellaria affinis. Very closely allied to C, urceolata^ 
M. 445. 

155. 156, 157 (=M. 446), 158, 159. Stent. 

160. Cancellaria pygnuza is simply a young specimen of C. gc^ 
tnastoma, no. 157. 

161, 162. Stent. 

163. Pleurotoma^aterrima:=Drillia a. 

164. Pleurototna atrior. This is a fine specimen, not quite ma- 
ture in the lip, of Drillia aterrima, var. melchersi, M. 461. 

165. Pleurototna bicanali/era = Clathurella b, 

166. Pleurototna collaris=^J)tnllia c. 
167> Pleurototna concinna= Cithara e, 

168. Pleurototna cortniyata= Drillia c, 

1 69. Pleurototna diseors^ Drillia d. Probably a finely developed 
▼ariety of aterrima, 

♦ When at Charleston, S, C, I had an opportunity of examining many very fine 
specimens of the giant Fageiolarta^ so seldom seen in this country, of which a 
broken specimen in my doUeciion measures 20 in. In sculpture', colour, and 
general appearance some were so very like F. princeps^ M. 584, that I w«is tempted 
to consider the latter a degraded locni varKrvy, u\\ i found the operculum, fvhich 
if destitute of the singular grooving of the Gulf species. 

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10 DR. P. P. CARPEN'J ER ON THE SHELLS OP PANAMA. 

irO. Pleurotoma dupHcata^siJjnllta d, 

171. Pleurotoma excentnca=sJ)riUia e, I cannot endorse this 
and some other determiuations of critical species of Pieurotomids, 
not heing ahle to remove the specimens for comparison with ty|>e8. 
Even the types in Mus. Cuming, do not always present satisfactory 
diagnostic characters. 

1 72. Pleurotoma exigua^Mangelia e, I could not discover "tho 
rest in pairs." 

173. Pleurotoma gemmu1o9a^=^Mangelia g, 

174. Pleurotoma grandimaculata^Drillia g, 

175. Pleurotoma incrassata^Drillia t., M. 459. The collection 
contains D. luctuota, M. 467> as from Panama, but not of the Pro- 
fessor's collecting. 

\76» Pleurotoma nigerrima=Drillia n. 

177. Pleurotoma obeliscus^szDrillia o. Very worn and doubtful. 

178. Pleurotoma oltvacea. Closely resembles P. JuniculatOp 
M. 457. 

179. Pleurotoma pallida = Drillia p . 

180. Pleurotoma rigida^Clathurella r. 

181. Pleurotoma rudis. It is probable that this is not the true 
Drillia rudis, being distinguished by white spots on the knobs: 
T. M. 460. 

182. Pleurotoma rustica^ Drillia aterrima, var. melchersi, M. 
461. These specimens being very worn, their specific identity with 
P. 164 was not recognized by the Professor. One shell, marked 
"rustiea, var.," may be the true rustica — a species by no means 
satisfactorily distinguished. 

183. Pleurotoma striosa=i Drillia $. 

184. Pleurotoma zonulata=i Drillia z., M. 463. 

185. Pleurotoma, sp. a. A small, dark, purple-brown Mangelia^ 
of the leufroyi type. 

186. Pleurotoma, sp. 6. A slender, pure-white, ribbed shell; 
probably a Cithara, ' 

187. Mangelia, sp. c, A young Daphnella. 

188. Mangelia, sp. J. A very worn, black shell; with white, 
knobby ribs. 

189. Mangelia, sp. e. A very small, white shell; resembling a 
young Bela turricula. 

190. Mangelia, sp./. A verv small, white Drillia, with distinct 
posterior notch ; spirally striate^, with rather sharp ribs. 

191. Mangelia neglecta. Of the "elevated spiral line on the 
middle of the whorls *' I could discover no trace, except of colour. 
It is therefore probable that it=Af. acuticostata, M. 4/3. 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OP PANAMA, 11 

192. Mangdia suleasa is the true Golumbella $ of Sbv, 

193. Cent Mum adustum=C, maculosum, M. 381. 

194. Cerithium assimilatum=»Cerithtopsis a,, M. 563. . 

195. Cerithium bimarffinatum^Cerithiopais b, A good species; 
but I coald not detect the "intermediate raised line." The apical 
whorls are almost snraoth. The "prominent spiral fold" on the 
columella is simply that which bounds the recurved caual. 

196. Cerithium famelieum. Confusion has arisen from the Pro- 
fessor having sent to Mr. Cuming as his type a shell Vhich does not 
answer to the diagnosis, and which is described as (? var.) mediolceoe, 
M. 382. Ten specimens are retained in the Amherst Museum, of 
which eight are of the uncinatum type, = M. 383, and two of the 
Cumingian. C. uncinatum, being an old species, is probably from 
the Atlantic or E. Indies : if this should prove identical, the name 
famelicum must be dropped ; if distinct, retained for the west coast 
nncinoids, according to the diagnosis. After an examination of a 
large series of specimens collected by Mr. Xantus at Cape St. Lucas, 
I am confirmed in the belief that the Cumingian shell is a dbtinct 
species, which must stand as C. mediolave, 

197. Cerithium gemmatum^sRhinoelavis ffcmmatus^M, ^9. So 
mach confusion has arisen from raising specific names to the generic 
peerage, that whenever a good distinct name has been given, it ap- 
pears best to retain it — the uubending rule of mere priority for work 
which is sometimes slovenly, and therefore best forgotten, notwith- 
standing. 

198. Cerithium ?interruptum, C. B. Ad. (non Mke. = M. 388). 
Great confusion has arisen from this erroneous determination, as 
may be seen by comparing the Maz. Cat. in loco with the mono- 
graph of Sowerby, jun., who has redescribed the southern, highly 
sculptured forms of the true interruptum as C. galapaginia. 

198 and 199 are regarded by Messrs. Cuming and Sowerbj as 
varieties of 

200. Cerithium irroratum, C. B. Ad. (Gld. ipse et MSS., non 
Gld. in Expl. Exp.) = C. stercusmuscarum, M. 387. The aspect of 
the Panama shells is so different from that of the Mazatlan speci- 
mens that I did not wonder at Dr. Gould's opinion that they were 
distinct. He was, however, misled in affiliating the former to his 
C. irroratum, of which I fortunately discovered the figured type in 
the Smithsonian Institution, and which proves to be (according to 
Mr. Cuming) the C, obetum of Shy. sen., from the Philippines. It 
is fortunate therefore that the name may be entirely dropped. Some 
of the specimens of no. 198 graduate sufficiently closely to the Ma- 
xatlan form ; those of no. 1 99 are intermediate ; while those of 
no. 200 present a stronger but smaller shell, well armed with small 
nodules, which are not to be seen in the fine Gulf specimens. 

201. Cerithium neglectum^Cerithiopais n. 

202. Cerithium pacijicum. Stet. 

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1? DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

20?. Cerithium pauperculum is a good, new species of Chri/salHrfa. 
The Professor probably did not recognize the Chemnitzoid apex and 
the Odostomoid plait. The following alterations may be made in 
the diagnosis : — Shell pale orange [not horn], with six [not five] 
keels on the spire ; spiral ridges anteriorly fainter [not obsolete] ; 
apex sinistral [not acute], of three Paludinoid whorls, the last large 
in proportion; columella efifuse [not canaliculated], with a long, 
slender, slanting plait. 

204. Ceritfiium pulchrum=^Cerithidea p. A distinct and truly 
beautiful specieS, seldom obtained by collectors. 

205. Cerithium reevianum=Cerithidea montagnei, M. 394. 

206. Cerithium validum^Cerithidea varicoga, M. 395. The 
Southern shells, in all their changes, present such a different aspect 
from the Gulf specimens, that I am inclined to regard the form Ma^ 
gatlanica as distinct, of which C. albonodosa may prove a variety. 

207. TripJioris altematus, M. 391. 

208. Triphoris inconspicuus is scarcely even a variety of the last ; 
and does not differ so much as the specimens described under the 
same name, M. 392. 

209. Triphoris infrequent is not the shell described, under the 
same name, M. 393, but is the Cerithiopsis tuberculoid es, M. 557. 
It would have been strange if I had recognized the shell from the 
diagnosis ; for both of the specimens are dextral. The apex is nearly 
smooth. I forbear to redescribe nos. 392, 393 of the Maz. Cat., 
as they were separated principally in deference to Prof, Adams's 
authority, until more numerous specimens should have been examined. 

210. Turritella banksii=T. ffoniostoma, jun., M. 379. 

211. Ccecum diminutum^Cacum frmatum, jun., with numerous 
close rings. All the Professor's specimens of this genus were dead ; 
most of them pierced by Proboscidifers. They fully confirmed the 
judgments I ventured to form of them in the Maz. Cat. and in the 
•' Monograph of the Csecidse," P. Z. S. 1858, p. 413 e/ seq. 

212. Ccecum eburneum = C, frmatum. The rings vary from 
twenty-six to thirty-three. 

213. Ctecum frmatum, M. 368. Add to the diagnosis in Maz. 
Cat. p. 320, last Une, ** operculo vix concavo, suturis minus defnitis,'* 

214. Cacum lave. The two specimens are too worn for identifi- 
cation, but will pass sufficiently for the species described under the 
same name, M. 372. 

215. Ccecum laqueatum. A good species of the Elephantuium 
group : V. Maz. Cat. p. 315, and P. Z. S. loe. cit. p. 420. 

216. Cacum monstrosum = C.frmatum in the adolescent stage. 

217. Cacum parvum turns out, as was expected, to bes=C undo* 
turn, M. 371. The unique specimen is stunted and dead. 

218. Cacum pygmaum is a small but nearly adult C.frmatum. 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THK SHELLS OF PANAMA* 13 

' 219. Chemnitzia aculeu9, M. 521. 

220. Chemnitzia acuminata is a true Chemnitzia^ and not a Ch-y- 
salfifia, as supposed in the Br. Assoc. Report, p. 334. The name 
misleads, as it is a peculiarly hroad species. The vertex consists of 
three Paludinoid whorls, of which the apex is visible, projecting a 
little beyond the spire. The ribs, instead of " terminating abruptly 
on the periphery of the last whorl," become gradually evanescent 
rounii the base ♦. 

221. Chemnitzia ajinis, Comp. M. .523, which was identified 
from Mr. Cuming's specimen. The diagnosis needs the following 
corrections from the type. The "ribs terminate *' not very " abruptly 
at the periphery." Anteriorly very finely striated [not ** smooth "]. 
"Last whorl" not "angular at the periphery." Base prolonged. 
It is probably the adult form of my Chemnitzia undata, M. 531, the 
characteristic fine, waved, spiral striae having escaped the Professor's 
notice. The only difi'erence is that the ribs evanesce more suddenly 
in the Panama than in the Mazatlan shell, which may be due simply 
to age. 

222. Chemnitzia clathratulay part. ^ Chrysallida clathratula, M. 
513, which was identified from the Cumingian specimen. The spe- 
cimens preserved as types contain, along with this species, one of 
Chrysallida communis, one (almost certainly) of Chrysallida effuBa, 
M. 510, and one of Dunkeria subanffufata, M. 537. Some parts of 
the description appear taken from the latter species : e. g. the " five 
or six " spiral lines, of which there are only four in the Chrysallida ; 
and the angle on the " upper part " of the whorls, which in the 
latter are well rounded. 

223. Chemnitzia communis, M. 507. This is the type of the 
genus Chrysallida: v. M. pp. 416, 420. Prof. Adams's tray con- 
tains also one specimen of Chrysallida effusa, M. 5 10 ; one of Chrys. 
ielescopiumy M. 508 ; one of Dunkeria subanyulata, M. 537 ; and 
one which may be a variety of the latter, or a distinct species. 

224. Chemnitzia gracilior. The "well-impressed spiral line" is 
only seen in some of the whorls. 

225 Chemnitzia major belongs to the section Dunkeria, I counted 
eighteen (not twenty-four) ribs. 

226. Chemnitzia marginata is a good species of Chrysallida ; but 
I could not find the " spiral, compressed ridge." 

227 Chemnitzia panamensis, M. 518. I counted twepty-four 
(not twenty-seven) ribs. The tray also contains one specimen of 

* As several errors are here pointed out in the diagnoses of small shells, it is 
right to state that Prof. Adams bad not the advantage of a microscope during a 
considerable portion of the work ; nor was the instrument a good one when ob- 
taiued. Moreover the incessant demands on his attention as Professor of Astro • 
Domy and Mathematics, as well as of Natural History, and his duties as State 
Geologist of Vermont, did not leave him much time for original research. What 
he accomplished during his short life is marvellous. Had that life been spared to 
revise bia works, the ueccj^sit)' foi tais friendly criticism would not hu\e ari»(uu 

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14 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

Ch, C-B-Adamsii, M. 51i), with straight ribs; and one with spiral 
sculpture, which may belong to Ch* gracillima, M. 530, but wants 
the produced apex. 

228. Chemnifzia itimifin. This species most nearly resembles 
aruleus, but is broader, larger, aud wiiU more ribs, of which I counted 
from twenty to twenty-two (not twenty-six). I should not call the 
whorls ** convex." They are, however, more rounded, and the base 
is more produced, than in the shell called ** ?*i»ii7i>,'* M. 520, which 
is perhaps a variety o( panamensis, 

229. Chemnifzia striosa. The early whorls are very slender. 
The spiral stnse are on the tops of the ribs, of which I counted from 
twenty-four to thirty-two (instead of "about forty "). 

230. Chemnitzia turrita. This species includes the *' Rissoa, 
sp. ind." no. 251. 

231. ? Littorina angiostoma is a Fossarus. 

232. Littorina aspera, M. 397. The Mazatlan periwinkles, being 
in good condition, divide themselves very naturally into three 
species. The Panama specimens, being generally eroded, are not so 
easily dealt with. Of Prof. Adams*s specimens here retained, the 
majority belong to aspera, although several of the smaller ones are 
philippiiy M. 39 S. The young appear to be of both species mixed. 
The ** variety ** consists of the abnormal tall specimens of conspersa^ 
M. 396, with a few very large philippU intermixed. 

233. Littorina atrata. This abundant little shell is a Fossarus, 
of which the Professor's lAdeorbis abjeeta, no. 25 7> is a more ad- 
vanced form. It is possible that one of the FoMori described in 
Maz. Cat., nos. 404, 405, may be conspecific ; but among the mul- 
titude of specimens I could not find one with the nuclear whorls 
sufficiently perfect to decide. The shells vary extremely in shape 
and sculpture. 

234. Littorina conspersa, M. 396. Smaller and generally more 
stumpy than the Mazatlan shells, but containing a few specimens of 
the same extreme forms. 

235. ? Littorina exeavata^tFossarus e. 

236. Littorina fasciata, M. 400. The specimens of this species 
and of L. varia gnuluate rather closely towards each other. 

237. 1 Littorina foveata. A good species of FosBama. Read, 
^Jjast whorl angular" at the umbilicus [not " below the middle"]. 

238. T Littorina megasoma. This is also a good species of Fob* 
sarus. The Professor was doubtful whether to refer these forms to 
Littorina or to Nariea* 

239. Littorina t parvulc^ C. B. Ad. This is not Phihppi'B X. 
parvula^ but is a dwarf form of the L. philippii, M. 398. The Pro- 
fessor suggests the name L, duhiosa for this sufficiently well-marked 
species ; but as he catalogued and distributed his specimens under 
Iparcula, and kept others under aspera^ it may be best to retain 

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DIU P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA* 15 

the name philippH under which it has heen verj exteasivelv cin^ 
lated. 

240. Littorina pulchra. A very rare species, belonging (witH 
faseiata and varia) to the Melaraphe group. 

241 . Littorina punctieulata. This is the normal state of i. co»- 
9per9ai v. M. 396. 

242. Littorina varia : ▼. note on P. 236, 

243. Rissoa clandestina. Three specimens' appear of this spedti! 
of Bissoina, closely resembling R. woodwardii, M. 410, but with 
more ribs, and not displaying the intercostal striulee. 

244. Rissoa Jlrmata, Another species of RtMoina, resembling 
R. stricta, M. 408, but smaller. The Professor did not observe 
the fine spiral sculpture, as described in no. 250 ; q. v. 

245. Rissoa fortis. A good species of Rissoina, differing from 
R.janus in the absence of spiral punctures. 

246. ? Rissoa ineonspicua, C. B. Ad., non Alder. The name 
being preoccupied, it b fortunate that the unique shell proves iden- 
tical with Alvania tumida, M. 414. I found twenty (not "twelve 
or fourteen '*) ridges, which are not " obsolete," but become fainter 
anteriorly. The two upper whorls are very finely cancellated. 

247. Rissoa injrequens. The unique specimen of this Rissoina 
is too much worn for description. It has more than the sixteen ribs ; 
and the diagnostic marks must be received with caution. 

248. Rissoa janus. The description of this Rissoina is drawn 
from a very small, dead, broken specimen, from which the sculpture 
is almost entirely worn away. The " var. a " should be considered 
as the type, being in perfect condition, and the diagnosis be altered 
as follows : — The " fine crowded spiral striae " are seen all over, as 
are also the " ribs," which on each whorl " appear as striae," and 
are not ** obsolete near the periphery." The diagnostic character is 
that the spiral striae are composed of rows of minute dots. 

249. Rissoa notabilis. After drawing this unique shell carefully 
under the microscope, and making copious notes on the diagnosis 
from the specimen, an untoward cough lodged it among the meshes 
of the Curator's carpet, whence I endeavoured in vain to extricate it. 
Thb unfortunate accident is, however, the less to be regretted, as I 
caa state with perfect confidence that it was exactly identical with 
another shell in the collection, P. 255, q. v. ; and with M. 498, 
Parthenia quinquecincta. The " concave summits " of the ribs imply 
that the ribs are sharp, with concave interstices ; and the " upper 
keel " is simply due to the angulation of the whorls. Though the 
hp was broken, the columellar plait, as well as the sinistral apeXi 
escaped the Professor's notice. 

250. Rissoa scalariformts. This unique specimen is simply the 
young of Rissoina firmata^ P. 244 ) and probably = Rissoina sp. 
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IS DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA* 

251. Rissoa, sp. ind. This b a broken specimen of Chemnitsta 
turrita, P. 230. 

252. ? Cingula inconspiciia. This unfortunate name, liable to be 
confounded with Rissoa inconspicuay Alder, and IRissoa inconspicua^ 
C. B. Ad., will not be needed, as the type belongs to another sub- 
order, and = Chrysallida ovulum, M. 512. The Professor did not 
observe its close relationship with his Chemnitzia communis. 

253. Cingula paupercula, C. B. Ad. A good species. 

254. lOingula terebeilumssParthenia exarata, M. 501. Although 
I took every pains, in preparing the Maz. Cat., to identify Prof. 
Adams's species, I was not prepared, in the writings of so careful a 
naturalist who had devoted special attention to the minute species, 
to find a Pyramidellid under Trochidse, especially with the mark 
*' apex subacute." The finding of a more perfect Mazatlan specimen 
enables me to add to the diagnosis : — " vertice nucleoso parvo, satis 
extante, declimter sito ; interstitiis carinarum transversim rugulosis; 
labro solidiore. Long. '087, long. spir. '057, lat. '038." 

255. 1 Cingula turrita ( + P. 249, Rissoa notabUis)=^Parthenia 
quinquecinctOf M. 498. When a shell is described under two genera 
in the same sheet, the advocates of unbending priority will find it 
difficult to decide. As each name belongs to a widely removed 
family, that last given is at least the most correct and distinctive. 

256. ILitiopa saxicola. The Professor states that this "shell 
has the appearance of a Litiopa ;" but it wants both the peculiar 
nucleus and the semitruncated columella ; also that the " labium 
has a distinct deposit," of which I could not see any trace in either 
of the specimens. It is probably a Cingula, 

257. lAdeorhis abject a. This is the adult form of the shell, of 
which P. 233, Littorina atrata, is the young. The striae are seen on 
the lower as well as the " upper part of the whorls." The umbili- 
cus, though " small " for an Adeorbis, is rather large for a Fossarus, 
to which genus the species undoubtedly belongs. 

258. Fitrinella concinna, I could not find the " more or less 
distinct ridge between the first two keels." 

259. Fitrinella eangua=:M. 305. The omissions in the Pro- 
fessor's diagnoses of this and other species, being supplied in the 
Maz. Cat., need not be repeated here : v. M. pp. 236-247. 

260. Fitrinella j anus. The Professor does not mention the fifth 
keel, which bounds the umbilicus, and within which are the " minute 
spiral striflB." The "transverse striae" are strong between keels 
2, 3, and 4 ; faint between 4 and 5, and between 1 and 2 ; and eva- 
nescent near the suture. 

261. Yitrinella minuta. The original type of this species accords 
better with Ethalia than with Teinostoma, to which I had referred 
the Cumingian type. 

262. Fitrinella modesta. The " modesty " of this unique shell is 

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DR. P.P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 



17 



coordiDate with considerable attrition, and an umbilicus tilled with 
dirt. It appeared to me regularly rounded, without any keel. The 
" few spiral strise " are probably the remains of what once covered 
the whole surface. 

263. FiMnella panamensis=iM. 295. 

264. Fitrinella parva=M. 296. 

265. Fitrinella perparva^M. 304. The coronation of the upper 
keel is seen (though not described) in the type specimen. 

266. Fitrinella regularis. The unigue shell can hardly be called 
*' subdiscoidal/' since the " spire is convex, moderately elevated." 
I could not find the ''impressed spiral line." It belongs to Ethalia, 

267. Fitrinella seminuda. The unique type of this species also 
is much worn. I could not discover the " minute striae of growth." 
Beneath, there are five spiral lirse, and a few spiral strise near the 
mouth. The umbilical region and the base have fine radiating distant 
striae. It comes nearest to F. carinulata, M. 309, but is distiuct. 

268. Fitrinella tricarinata. This unique type is also worn. 
The spiral keels are scarcely " prominent," that on the periphery 
being decidedly faint. The " transverse striae " are between the 
suture and the nearest rib. The umbiUcal striae are very faint. 

269. Fitrinella valvatoides. This species probably belongs to 
Ethalia. Beside the keels, there are three obsolete spiral lirae — two 
ou the base, and one above the periphery. The umbilicus is bounded 
by a long, thin callosity, which gives a character to the shell inter- 
mediate between the two genera. 

270. Solarium, sp. ind.a. Of the form represented by this 
species and the next I have been able to examine a large number of 
specimens collected at Cape St. Lucas by Mr. Xantus, and in the 
Gulf of Mexico. I know of no mark by which to distinguish the 
shells from the two oceaps. From each locality they vary greatly 
in the size of the umbilicus, and in the strength of sculpture, number 
of knobs, &c. I should consider them all as varieties of S, granu- 
latum. Lam. S, quadriceps, Hds., appears distinct, though it may 
only be an extreme variety. 

271. Solarium, sp. ind. b. This contains the specimens with 
coarser sculpture than the last. 

272. Solarium, sp. ind. c. This is a distinct species of Torinia, 
having the size and general aspect of Helix rotundata. 

273. Trochu eatenulatu9=z Modulus c., M. 401. 

274. Trochus coronulatus=^Omphaliu8 e. This species reappears 
at Cape St. Lucas, and is closely allied to O. ligulatus, M. 293. 

27.'>. Trochu9 leanus= Calliostoma L This distinctive generic 
name is strongly to be preferred to the specific Ziziphinus, 

276. T^ochus lima. This shell exactly accoras with Calltostoma 
antonii, Koch, in Mus. Cumin^:. 

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18 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA* 

277. Troehua limdus= Modulus diseulus, M. 403. 

278. Trochui panamensia:^ Omphatiua p. A good species, thongli 
upparently very rare ; for I had the pleasure of adding it to the 
Cumingian collection. 

2 79. Trochua pellia-aerpentia^ Tegula p. 

280. Trochua reticulatua= Omphaliua viridulua, M. 292. This 
is the common Trochid of the Panama region, as is Ugulatua of the 
Mazatlan. 

281. Turbo 6uaehu=Uvanilla inermia, M. 287. This shell ap 
pears to replace U. olivacea in the southern fauna. Besides the dif- 
ferences indicated in Maz. Cat. p. 229, the operculum b quite 
distinct. 

282. 1 Turbo phaaianeUa=Collonia ph.: not (Melaraphe) phth 
sianella, Phil. 

283. Tvrbo rutilua. The unique type is in miserahle condition, 
to, which the "bright red with pale streaks" is owing. The shell 
may possibly have been originally a Pomaulax undoaua, which is 
truly a Lower Californian species. It appears, however, to be a 
favourite with sailors, as specimens are continually appearing, not 
only high and low on the West Coast, but also from the Pacific 
Islands. The specimens brought by Comm. Wilkes's U.S. Expl. Exp. 
were obtained in N. S. Wales I Prof. Adams's fragments were pro- 
bably due to ballasc 

284. Turbo aaxoatta^= Callopoma aaxoaum. This replaces the C, 
flnctuoaum of the Gulf, M. 282, and the C. teaaellatum of Lower 
California. The "var. depreaaum'* of P. Z. S., 1855, I believe to 
be really a Senectua from the Pacific Islands. 

285. Scalaria hexagona, C. B. Ad.: non Sbv., M. 564. The 
Professor's shell is (I think) one of the species I described in P. Z. S. 
from Mr. Bridges's collection ; but the distinctions in this genus are 
too critical to decide without comparison of types. Tins shell is 
broad ; whorls very separate ; varices long and sharp ; epirally 
finely striated. 

286. Scalaria obtuaa, C. B. Ad. ; ? non Shy. This also appeared 
to me one of Mr. Bridges's species. It is a very pretty shell, with 
close, sharp, coronated varices. 

287. Scalaria, sp. ind. a. Like the next, but larger, and with 
spiral striae between the extremely crowded, sharp varices. 

288. Scalaria, sp. ind. b. Of the Clathratula type, without spiral 
sculpture. 

289. Scalaria, sp. ind. c, is probably the young of Ciraotrema 
funiculatum, M. 569, which, with its congeners, may be removed to 
Opalia, 

290. Eiilima iota. This shell, which is a Leioatraea (not **^, Sty^ 
lifer'*), is probably distinct from the Mazatlan form, M. 555, which 
siiould stand as L. retfxta* 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTSR ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 19 

291. EuHma recta. The type is a yery good species of Leio- 
Mtraca ; but I doubt its identity with the Cumingian specimen, with 
which the Mazatlan shell, M. 550, was compared. It most resembles 
the L. linearis^ M. 554, with which it agrees in divergence and 
general shape ; but that is very much smaller, with the upper whorls 
more tumid. In the Professor's type of i. recta, I searched in vain 
for traces of the " two brown spots. They were probably thrown 
by defective light. The " two opaque spiral bands are simply the 
effect of the suture^ and the previous whorl showing through. For 
the Mazatlan shell, M. 550, 1 propose the name of L, involuta, 

292. Eulima eolitaria. This also is a Leiostraca, not "ISty* 
lifer,'* and accords exactly with the Leiostraca, sp. ind. a, M. 552, 
but not with the supposed L. eolitaria, M. 551. The latter agrees 
is shape with the unique Panama shell, whorl for whorl ; but its 
base and labrum are much more produced anteriorly. For this rea- 
son, it may be known as L. producta, 

293. Pyramtdella, sp. ind. This is probably the OheUscus de- 
scribed in Maz. Cat. no. 486. 

294. Pyramidella conica = Ohelucus eonicM, G. B. Ad., not 
M. 486. 

295. Naiiea ehemniteii=N, maroccana, M. 570. The Professor 
first labelled these shells ** N. ? maroccana, Chem.,'* but crossed it off 
in pencil. Another tray appeared (without number) labelled '* luui- 
fasciata. Lam." They all belong to the large West Coast form of 
maroccana, [N.B. The shells described in P. Z. S. as ** var. cali- 
/omica,*' on the authority of the late Mr. Nuttall, are (with others 
from the same source) undoubtedly from the Sandwich Islands. 
The Pacific specimens (of which I have examined many thousands, 
brought by Comm. Wilkes's E. E.) present a very different type from 
thoae of the west coasts of Africa and America ; but are regarded 
by Mr. Cuming as only a local variety.] 

296. Natiea f Urida, These shells are simply a pale variety of 
N. maroccana, 

297. NaHca otut, C. B. Ad. (not Brod. & Shy.). These shells 
appear to be the young of Polinices " salangonensii,** P. 298. 

298. Natiea 1 salanffonensis. I had no opportunity of comparing 
this Polinicei with the species of Recluz. 

299. Natiea souleyetiana. The shells closely resemble N ma* 
roceana, but with a larger umbilicus. 

300. Natiea tvirginea, C. B. Ad. (not R^l.) = Polinices u6er, 
H. 576. 

301. Natiea, sp. ind. a. There is no ticket answering to this 
Dumber, which was probably intended for the N» maroccana, var. 
** uni/u4ciata.'* 

302. Natiea, sp. ind. b. The shells are marked e, and are the 
young of Polinicu uber, P. 300, M. 576. 

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^f^ DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

303. Nattea, sp. ind. e. The shell is marked/, and is probably 
=N. haneti 

304. Nerita scabricosta=^M. 326. After examining a multitude 
of specimens from different parts of the coast, I have not the slightest 
doubt of the identity of the forms called omata and deshayeni. 

305. Nerila, sp. ind. a=^N. bernhardi, M. 327- 

306. Neritina guayaquilentU, Stet, +N. intermedia, Shy. 

307. Neritina pic ta=^M. 329. 

308-316. Stent. The shells described as "Auricula " belong to 
Melampus. 

317. TruncateUa bairdiana. A good species. 

318. ?T Truncatella dubiosa. This belongs to Hydrobia or some 
similar Rissoid. 

319. Bulla {Tomatina) in/requen8=Tomatina t., M. 222. 

320. Bulla (Cylickna) lutieola=Cylichna /., M. 221. The Ma- 
zatlan shell is much mure constricted than most of Prof. Adams's 
specimens. 

321. Bulla punctulata^B. adamsi, M. 224. The B. punctata, 
A. Ad.=jB. punctulata, A. Ad., but is not the B, punctulata, 
C. B. Ad.=^. puncticulata, C. B. Ad., MS. on ticket. 

322. Bulla, sp. ind, = Tomatina cannata, M. 223. 

323. Vermetus 1 ylomeratw, C. B. Ad. (not Bivonia glomerata, 
Lam.)= V, ebumeus, M. 354. The shells sometimes assume a ru- 
fous tint in the later whorls, in which state (if the Turritelloid apex 
be concealed) it is liable to be confounded with Aletes centiquadnu» 
Some of the Professor's shells belong to the latter species. 

324. Fermetus panamensis, C. B. Ad. (? Bouss.^^Aletee eenti^ 
quadrus, M. 352. 

325. Stomatella inflata is a LameUaria with broken lip and very 
much curved columella : v. M. 577* [A Sigaretue, with somewhat 
sharper columella than the ordinary W. Indian form, was found 
among the Professor's duplicate Panama shells ; but as it does not 
occur either in the catalogue or the collection, it was probably dropped 
in from the Jamaica series.] 

326. Hipponyx, sp. ind. Of the Professor's "two small speci- 
mens " marked "eubru/a, jun.," one is H, gray anus, jun., M. 350. 
The other may be the same, but is probably the young of H, bar- 
batue. Neither are sufficiently perfect to determine with confidence. 

327. Hipponyx 1 barbata. Part of these specimens belong to J7. 
barbatus, M. 349; part to H. gray anus; part are too much worn 
to determine ; and one is a valve of Diseina cumingii. 

328. Hipponyx panamensis=H.antiquatus,M. 347, The species 
is very widely diffused, and varies greatly in each locality. 

329. Hipponyx radiata^ H. grayanus, M. 350. The collection 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 21 

also contains a tray labelled " Panama : C. B. Ad. don./' in which 
are Hipponyx serratus, M. 346, H. barbatus, and Gadinia pentagtt^ 
niostoma, M. 270. This last name should he dropped, except as a 
rarietj of G. stellata, Shy,, which is the normal state : y. B. A. Rep. 
1857, pi. 7. f. 3, o-^. 

330. Calyptraa aberratu. The Professor candidly allows that 
*'iD texture this shell much resembles a valve of an Jnomia,*' which 
it undoubtedly is, the supposed "probably imperfect cup" being 
the ligamental pit. The laree muscular scar is very clearly de- 
veloped ; but the others are faint, as is customary in young shells, 
and might stand for either Anomia or Placunanomia, The valve is 
thin and glossy inside. The outside is smooth, excepting the lines 
of growth, and is encrusted with beautiful zoophytes. A tiny Ser- 
puUi, which has coiled itself close to the umbo, carries out the idea 
of a Caly ptrseid spiral apex ; but a careful microscopic examination 
displayed the true Anomoid nucleus, at a little distance from the 
margin, as is common in the Mazatlan specimens of A, lampe, 
M. 219. 

331. Calyptraa (Syphopatella) (upersa=:Galerus eonicus, very 
worn and young, with the lamina broken away. One of the speci- 
mens may perhaps be mamiUarU. 

332. Calyptrtea eepaeea^^'M., 345. 

333. Calyptrtea conica. These are dead specimens, of which a 
few may be the true Galerus eonicus, M. 332. But most of them 
belong to the brown-tinted variety of (the Professor's G. regularu^ 
wunmliaris : v. no. 340. 

334. Caiyptraa dentata^ Crucibutum imbricatum, M. 343. 

335. Caiyptraa hispida=^Crucibulum spinosum, M. 344. 

336. Caiyptraa imbrieata. The two specimens are too much 
worn to affiliate with confidence, the cups being broken out. The 
outside is ribbed, with arrow<headed strife between the ribs. They 
probably = Crucibulum u, var. 

337. Caiyptraa maeulata= Crucibulum spinosum, M. 344. See 
the attempt to unravel the confusion in the synonymy of this family 
in Maz. Cat. pp. 264-295. Three specimens marked by the Pro- 
fessor ** C. maculata, var.," are young, dead radiata, no. 339. 

338. Caiyptraa planulata. This unique shell is simply a young, 
flat C. cepaeea, with the cup prominent, and the outside sculpture 
faintly developed, from living in a hollow place. The striae are not 
''obsolete around the apex." 

339. Caiyptraa radiata^ Crucibulum r. This rare and beautiful 
species is quite distinct, even in the early stages, from all varieties 
of (7. spinosum. 

340. Caiyptraa {Syphopatella) regularise Galerus mamillaris, 
M. 333. 

341. Caiyptraa umbrella=^ Crucibulum u. (=C rudis, Brod.). 

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22 DR. p. p. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA, 

342. Calyptraa Ttunguis, C. B. Ad, ^Crucibulum 9piii08um^ jrau 
(not Galerus unffuis, Brod.). 

343. Crepidula ceritkiicola. Most of the specimeos are the joung 
of C. onyx, M. 340 ; but a few are of C, incurva, M. 339. 

344. Crepidula echinus =^0. aculeata^ M. 334. 

345. Crepidula eseavata, M. 337. 

346. Crepidula t hepatiea=C. onyx, M. 340. 

347. Crepidula incurva, M. 339. A very interesting series of 
specimens ; of which two or three are probably the tvi^sted form of 
C. onyx. One tray contains specimens adhering to other shells. 
One, fixed diagonally on a Calliostoma, takes exactly the arrow- 
headed sculpture of the var. CaL imbricata, Brod. Another, grown 
diagonally on Pisania gemmata^ has the general aspect of a Chiton. 
One, fixed on the back of its neighbour which has grown on a CaU 
liostoma, has the granular interruptions of the ribs transmitted 
through the first specimen. The same is true of one which has 
growu on another which was planted on a Pisania, One specimen, 
which had established itself on a Calliostoma, and began with normal 
ribs, is losing these at the margin, adopting the sculpture of the 
Trochid. An extremely twisted specimen in the tray of separate 
shells has a bifid deck. A young one had edged itself into the apical 
part of the deck, as into a maternal pouch ; so the old one made a 
fresh deck oyer it. 

348. Crepidula lessonii. Most of the specimens are of C. nivea^ 
var., M. 341. Two shelb, which have the apex perfect, display the 
characteristic nuclear riblets. One dark-coloured specimen may be 
a hybrid, and another (though too much worn for confident affilia- 
tion) appears to be (7. ungui/ormis. Among the duplicates, all the 
specimens which were perfect at the apex presented the niveoid 
nucleus, though white ; but generally the riblets were more or leas 
worn off. 

349. Crepidula squama. These are the flat form (mostly dead 
and worn) of C. nivea, M. 341. Some of them pass into lessonii. 
Some are highly coloured, and may be the young of C. onyx ; one 
even of C. incurva. One of the young shells in phial appears to be 
C. onyx ; but whenever the apex is perfect, it presents the typical 
riblets : v. Maz. Cat. in loco. 

350. Crepidula ungui/ormis. The apex being hidden in dead 
shells, which I was not at liberty to break away, 1 could only exa- 
mine one specimen, which appeared to be a C nivea, var., as sup- 
posed in Maz. Cat. p. 285. Of the loose specimens, scarcely any 
are sufiiciently perfect at the apex to speak with confidence. Most 
of them, however, have the characteristic painting of the variety 
squama ; and all may belong to the common species (C nivea), ex- 
cept one which is a true C. ungui/ormis, M. 342, on the back of 
another shell, and a few which are probably C onyx, var. Of the 
duplicates, which 1 was at liberty to extract from the dead shells^ 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PAN A Ad A. 23 

80iP^ ^^ undoubtedly C nivea ; others trnly C, unguiformis ; and 
others probably C niveau but with the riblets worn away by the 
crabs. 

351. Crepidula nivea, M. 341. The specimens are small and 
poor ; mostly rough, of the variety striolata passing into lessonii. 
Wherever the apex is perfect, it presents the characteristic riblets, 
bat is generally white, not brown as in most of the finely grown 
Mazatlan shells. 

552. Crepidula onculans. This is a pe-fect and extremely beau- 
tiful specimen of Scutellina navicelloif/es, M. 269. The Professor 
did not observe the non- spiral patelloid apex, and regarded the 
" navicelloid '* columella as an extremely narrow deck. To the diag-* 
nosis in the Maz. Cat. may now be added *' apice obtuso, sublceci ; 
vertice haud spiralis vix conspicuo.*' 

353. Crepidula ro9trata=C. ndunca, M. 338, ?non Sby. The 
examination of a large series of specimens from the temperate fauna 
has led me unexpectedly to confirm Mr. Reeve's opinion that they 
are distinct. The northern shell is C. adunca, Sby. {^Oamotia 
[Gray] 9olida, Hds.= C rostriformisy GId.) ; and the tropical shell 
must take the prior name, C. uncata, Mke. (= C. rostrata, C. B. Ad.» 
IlYe.=C adunca, Maz. Cat., non Sby.). 

354. Fi^surella aqualis=Fissurellidijea a, 

355. Fiwurella alta=Glt/phis alia, M. 280. 

356. Fissurella macrotrema, Stet. 

357. Fissurella microtrema. These are dead specimens, of which 
some are F, rugasa, var., M. 273. 

358. Fissurella mu9=0lyphi9 inaqualis, var., M. 279. These 
shells are intermediate between the typical form and pica, 

359. 360. Stent. 

361. Fissurella vireacens. It is doubtful whether any of the spe* 
cimens are of the true virescens, M. 271, as they run into nigro- 
punctata by insensible gradations. Perhaps both species may prove 
idenUcal. 

362. Siphonaria characteristica^S, gigas, var. 

363. 364, 365. Stent. 

366. Siphonaria Ipica, These are young dead limpets (not 
Siphonaria), 

367. Lottia 1 patina, C. B. Ad. (non Esch.). These shells differ 
from Acmaa mesoleuca, M. 263, in being black instead of green, and 
are prettily striped. 

368. 369, 370. Lottia, sp. ind. There may be two or even more 
species of Acmsea, but it is not impossible that there is only one 
among the professor's Lottise, some of the specimens being the 
young of ? Patella^ no. 371. ^ qi^ 



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24 DR. p. p. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

."^n. T Patella, sp. ind. This has the general appearance of P. 
vutyata, but may be an Acmcta, 

372. Chiton clathratus. (Genus indet.) 

373. Chiton ditpar, C. B. Ad. ; not Lophyrus dispar. Shy. I 
doubt whether any of the Professor^s specimens belong to Sowerby's 
species, which is black mixed with grey ; area-sculpture Tcry faint ; 
and sides imbricated, not rugulose. Among the duplicates were two 
( if not three) species : — the principal one with side sculpture in lobated 
knobs, which may be named Lophyrus adamsii; a ?Tariety with 
simple knobs ; and a well-marked species without distinct side areaa^ 
which may be called Lophyrus tenuisculptus. 

374. Chiton Uuridus. Probably correct. 

375. Chiton pulchellus^ Callochiton p. + C. eleneniis. 

376. Chiton stokesii^Lophyrus «. 

377. Anomia lampe, C. B. Ad. It is doubtful whether this is 
identical with the northern species, M. 219. 

378. Anomia tenuig. This is probably the young of the last 
species, and may give it a name, if new. It is doubtful how the 
diagnosis of the scars was made out ; as they were not visible iu 
either of the specimens retained, being encrusted with dead animal 
matter. They were not distinct even after its removal. 

379. Anomia, sp. ind. a. Probably the same species as the two 
last, although far too dead, worn, and young to decide. See notes 
on the variations of A. lampe, Maz. Cat. p. 1 68. 

380. Oitrea, sp. ind. a. The hinge notches of the upper valve 
fit between corresponding teeth in the lower. Inside rather flesh- 
coloured ; white, round margin. Scar kidney-shaped, dark in one 
valve, light in the other. A young valve is white, and as pearly as 
O. iridescens, M. 21 1. The species is best known by its tendency 
to make a very broad limb in the exterior coloured part, spreading 
out into palmations. A very voung specimen, though covered above 
with Membranipora, shows tlie characteristic corrugations through. 
It may stand provisionally as O. panamensis, 

381. Ostrea, sp. ind. b. This is probably a variety of O, pana^ 
mensii, but more coarsely grown, so that there is a smaller limb, 
without palmations. Wherever the sculpture appears, there are evi- 
dent traces of the peculiar corrugations. The inside has the same 
characters, both of hinge, colour, iridescence, and scar. 

382. Ostrea, sp. ind. e. Rather square hin^e, without plications ; 
one shell with an umbonal cavity. Pearly white. One specimen is 
tinted on the scar, which may become coloured in the adult. It is 
by no means "pentangular," and is more probably = 0. ru/a, Gld.» 
than O. columbiensis, M. 213. 

383. Ostrea, sp. ind . d. The shells are broader than the Mazatlan 
specimens of O. virginica, M. 212, probably from not growing on 
twigs. The younger shells are very like O. edulis ; the older ones 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 25 

have hollow umbos. One long shell, first marked e, but altered to d, 
is the adult form ; several of the younger shells are doubtful. 

384. Ostrea, sp.ind. e.^Ostrea, M. 215. Being a good species, 
I propose the name of O. amara. The Professor's " small var." is 
not plicated, and appears to belong to O. conchaphila, M. 214. 
[N.B. Additional specimens confirm me in the belief that O. pal* 
wmla, M. 214 6, is a distinct species.] 

385. SpondyluB lamarckii, 0. B. Ad. =5. calcifer, M. 208. 

386. Spondylua, sp. ind. a=Plicatula penicillata, M. 210. 

387. Pecten inea^^P, ventricosus, Sby., as in errata. 

388. Pecten tumhezenM—P, aspersus, Sby., Hani. (?Lam.). 

389. Lima angulata. Shells inflated, not gaping. 

390. Lima pacifica (=X. arcuata, Sby., Haul.). Young shells^ 
species uncertain. 

391. Avicula Imargaritifera^^Margaritiphora Jimbriata, Dkr., 
M. 204 = M. mazailanica, Hanl.ssJ/. barbata, Rve. 

392. Avicula aiema, M. 203. A. libella, Rve., appears to me 
the young of this species. 

393. Pema, sp. ind. a^Iiognomon chemnitziana, M. 205. 

394. Pema, sp. ind. b^I. chemnitziana, var. Rather more 
finely grown, and with less colour, but certainly the same species. 
The Professor's Jamaica specimens are labelled " bicolor. Ad. ' 

395. Pinna maura, M. 200. 

396. r'nna tuberculosa. Three of the specimens appear to me 
■bP. maura, jun. The other may be the same, but is worn nearly 
smooth. 

397. Mytilue, sp. ind. a. Resembles the young of Modiola bra- 
tiliensie, but with a few hinge- teeth, as in Af. edulis, 

398. Lithodomue, sp. ind. a. Most of these specimens are of 
lAthophagus aristatue, M. 1 76 ; one (perhaps twol are L. attenua- 
tus, M. 173 (which is found from Lower California to Chili) ; and 
one appears to be X. plumula, M. 1 75 ; but they are too young to 
decide with confidence. 

399. Modiola ? eemi/veea. These specimens all l>elong to the M, 
braeiliensis, M. 171, but are much more Hke the ordinary Brazilian 
specimens than are those from Mazatlan. As compared with the 
latter, the Panama shells are more rounded, with stronger posterior 
grooving, and with the angular ridge less marked. A similar shell, 
undoubtedly from New Zealand, is considered by Mr. Cuming con- 
specific. 

400-404. Modiola, sp. ind. a, b, c, d, e, I could find no a or « 
in the collection ; but there were two trays marked/. Tray bssM, 
capax, M. 170. c contains several specimens of Mytilus multiformis, 
M. 168, strongly ribbed variety, perhaps intended for 6, no. 401. 

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26 DR. p. p. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

d contains parts of six specimens, and perhaps should be a, no. 400. 
They appear to be a variety oi LithophagMS cinnamomeus, M. 177, 
but with broken shells, &c., agglutiuized on the posterior side. /(I) 
contains four specimens of M, multiformis, the semigreenish variety 
(Maz. Cat. p. 1 1 9), and are probably intended for c. f (2) contains 
two specimens of the same variety of M. multiJormUt in the burrow 
of a LithophaguM^ and may stand for d or e, 

405 . Chama buddiana = C, (l/rondosa, var. )fornicatat M. 121,^. 
Additional specimens confirm me in regarding this species as distinct 
from all varieties of frondosa. The Professor's shells not being very 
characteristic, the diagnoses do not exactly accord. The shell stands 
as C, buddiana. 

406. Chama ? corrugata. The large valve appears a dead reversed 
C, (frondosa) mexicana, M. 121, with the teeth perforated by Li* 
thophagi. The other may be corrugata, very dead, of sienna-tint, 
yery pointed dorsally. 

407. Chama echinata. These appear to me to be the young, partly 
of C. buddiana, but principally of C. mexicana. 

408. Nucula elenensis^ Leda e., M. 199. 

409. Nucula exigua, M. 198. 

410. Nucula polita==Leda p. With semidiagonal lines. 

411. Pectunculus asHmHis-^-P. inaquatis, M. 196. 

412. Pectunculus Jmaculatus. Stet. 

413. Jrca altemata=^ Barbatia a., M. 188. 

414. Area lavieuloidcs appears a young Scapharca. 

415. Area tmarginata^Scapharca e., M. 187. 

416. Area gradata==Barbatiag.,M. 194. 

417. Arcagrandis,M. 180. 

418. Area mutabilis=^Bgssoarca m., M. 190. 

419. Area (Bgssoarca) pholadifbrmis. This is simpler an elon- 
gated form of Barbatia gradata, probably from growing m the hole 
of a Lithophagus. The umbos are " flattened " by erosion ; teeth 
not " obsolete " under the glass ; " ligament concealed '^ simply by 
the compressed and elongated growth. 

420. Area reevianasz Barbatia r. 

421. Area reversal Noetia r., M. 185. 

422. Area similis. This is scarcely a variety of A. tuberculosa, 
M. 184. The specimens are dead and oiled, with most of the epi- 
dermis abraded. 

423. Area aolida^ Barbatia 9., M. 195. 

424. Area (Bgssoarca) tobagensis= Barbatia illota, M. 193. 

425. Area tuberculosa^ M. 184. 

426. Area, sp. ind. a. These little shells approach the Noefia 

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DR. P. P. CARPXNTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 27 

type. Ribs fine, tuberculoiifl» coarse on the angular side. Ligament 
reiy narrow, truncated. 

427. Cardita affinis, (Lazaria.) 

428. Cardita laticostata^Fenerieardia L 

429. Cardita radiata, (Lataria*) 

430. Cardium grani/erumt M. 134. 

431. Cardium obovaU^Hemicardia o. 

432. Cardium planicostatum, C. B. Ad., not Sbj. This looks like 
a dead ballast-yalye of Hemicardia media ; but it may be H, bian* 
pUata, 

433. Cardium procerum^ M. 125. 

434. Cardium senticosum, M., 126. 

435. Feniu'iamathusia^siAnomalocardia eubimbricatayM. 113. 

436. Fenus discar8= Tapes gratus. Say, M. 1 1 0. The Professor's 
specimens of this species and T, histrionicus are somewhat inter- 
mixed. 

437. Fenus fftiidia, M. 101. Dead specimens; of which one may 
possibly be Ckione amalhusia, M. 102. 

438. Fenus multicostata. Closely resembling the West Indian 
form. 

439. Fenus pee tunculaides=i Tapes histrionicus, M.. 109. 

440. Fenus subrugosa^-Anomalocardia s,, M. 112. 

441. Fenus, sp. ind. a. A small species .with concentric laminse, 
armed with one posterior row of blont spines. Interstices with mi- 
nute concentric strise. 

442. Fenus, sp. ind. b=Chione creni/era, M. 105=F. sugillata. 
Rye. C. I. no. 43. 

443. Cytkerea affinis. Probably= Callista eoneinna, var., M. 99. 

444. Cytkerea aurantiaea— Callista aurantia, M. 92. 

445. Cytkerea eonsanguinea^=- Callista e, Messrs. H. and A. 
Adams have not made a subgenus to include this group of thin, in- 
flated, almost colourless species. 

446. Cytkerea radial a =Tngona r., M. 83. 

447. Cytkerea squalida= Callista ckionaa, M. 93. 

448. Artemis dunkeri^= Dosinia d,, M. 90. 

449. Artemis saccata^^Cyclina subquadrata, M. 9h 

450. Gauldia pacifica, M. 116. 

451. Cyrena maritima, Stet. The collection also contains two 
tubes, containing a very young " ? Cyclas " and another " Cyrena, 
jun.," marked '•Panama,'^C. B. Ad.*' 

452. Lucina tellinoides^ Felania t. Differs from F, sericata, 

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?*) IIR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA* 

M. 152, in having a yellow, not silkj, epidermis. The specitneni 
vary considerably in thickness. The genus scarcely differs from 
Mihha. 

453. Capsa aliior^Iphigenia a,, M. 69* 

454. Dcnax assimilis, M. 74. 

455. Donax gracilis. Stet 

456. Donas navieula, M. ??• 

45 ?• Donax roitratuM, This single valve proves to be the tme 
D. carinatutf M. 71, and not the shell which I called D. eulminaiut, 
M. 72 {^earinatus, var., Hani, in Mus. Cum.), which I subse- 
quently affiliated to the supposed rostratus, Maz. Cat. p. 548, on the 
authority of Dr. Gould's specimen. We were probably both misled 
by the ** very sharp angle," which (as compared with the other form) 
J should call rounded^ and the "concave" surface, which I should 
translate into flat. The names have been altered in the Cumingian 
collection since the Mazatlan shells were identified ; but Mr. Hanley 
informs me that they are now correct ; that the D, eufminatus, M. 
72, is his own original carinatys; and that the D. eartnatus, M. 71 
(olim Mus. Cum.), which is certainly D. rottratus, P. 45 7> must 
stand under Prof. Adams's name. 

458. Tellina aurora. Stet. 

459. Tellina cognata^ C. B. Ad.ssP#amiito6ui easta^ Rve.» teste 
Cuming. The sculpture consists of semidiagonal striae passing over 
the lines of growth. In other specimens examined from Panama 
tiiese are sometimes crowded, sometimes distant, occasionally flex- 
uous, sometimes almost evanescent. 

460. Tellina eolumbiensis, (Peronaa.) 

461. Tellina coneinna=^Macoma e. The "slight tinge of pink" 
I could not discover. 

462. Tellina erystallina=Tellidora e. 

463. Tellina eumingii, M. 55. 

464. Tellina domlfeyi=Maeoma </., M. 50. 

465. Tellina felix, M. 51. (Angulus.) 

466. Tellina laceridens. (Peronaoderma.) 

467. Tellina prora. (Peronteoderma.) 

468. Tellina puella. Not unlike T./e/ur, and distinct from M. 59. 

469. Tellina rubescens. (Peronaoderma.) 

470. Tellina siliqua. The two odd valves belong probably to a 
Maeomat in shape resembling Thracia phaseolina. 

471. Tellina 9imylans=T. (Peromgoderma) punicea, M., 54. The 
species was described, for geographical reasons, from a young, pale, 
and undeveloped valve. On comparing it with the Professor* t own 
"West Indian specimens, I could detect no difference. 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 29 

472. Tellina nncera-^Strigilla #. 

473. Tellina vicina= Heterodonax vicinui. The shells are la- 
belled T. versicolor by the Professor. They are larger than the ge- 
neral ran of West Indian specimens; but the form is probably a 
local variety of the old Heterodonax bimaculatus. 

474. Tellina, sp. ind. a. The doubt concerning ''concave" and 
^convex" probably arises from an error in description. 

4/5. Tellina, sp. ind. b. Looks exactly like the young of No. 4 74, 
but with lateral teeth. 

476. Tellina, sp. ind. e. Dead valves of T./elix, No. 465. 

477. Petricola cognata. More characteristic specimens from the 
same coast are affiliated by Mr. Cuming to P. pholadi/ormis, from 
which this would probably not have been separated had it appeared 
on the Atlantic coast. 

478. Saxicana Uenuis. The Panama shell is more like Petricola 
than Saxicava, having two teeth in each valve, one of which is bifid. 
Sowerby's species is called by Messrs. H. & A. Adams " Saxicava 
tenuis*' (ii. p. 349) and " Petricola tenuis'' (ii. p. 44 1). Shell with 
very fine radiating striae, crossed by irregular striae of growth. 

479. Cumingia coarctata=i C. lamellosa, var., M. 42. 

480. Cumingia trigonularis, M. 43. 

481. Cumingia, sp. ind. a=iC. trigonularis. No. 480. 

482. Cumingia, sp. ind. 5=(7. var. coarctata. No. 479. 

483. Cumingia, sp. ind. c=M. 45. This appears a distinct spe- 
cies, and may be quoted as C adamsii, in remembrance of the labours 
<^ Messrs. U., A. and C. B. Adams. 

484. Cumingia, sp. ind. J=Maz. Cat. tablet 107, p. 31 ; well 
rounded, with close striae. Probably distinct. 

485. Amphidesma bicolor^ Semele tvenusta, M. 41 (non A. Ad.). 
The "species" in this genus are often separated by very variable 
characters. 

486. Amphidesma lellipticum^Semele e. 

487. Amphidesma proximum. The type is not quite so elliptical 
as the last species ; but as this is a very variable character (v, Maz. 
Cat. p. 28), I should regard it as the same. It is not the Semele 
proxima, M. 40 (=S,Jlavescens, v. Maz. Cat. p. 548). 

488. Amphidesma pulchrum=i Semele p» 

489. Amphidesma striosum=: Semele s, I should describe the 
shell as smooth, with very fine diagonal striae crossing the lines of 
growth. It has the general aspect of S, pulchra. The teeth in one 
valve are long and sharp. 

490. Amphidesma tortuosum^ Semele t. Teeth short and faint. 

491. Amphidesma ventricosum=: Semele v. The "zones" are very 

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30 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON TUB SHELLS OF PANAMA. 

"ill-defined." Teeth scarcely visible. It looks outside like a dead 
valve of Maeoma solidula. 

492. Crauatella gibboaa. Also found at Cape St. Lucas. 

493. Mulinia donaci/ortnir=:M. anffulata, M. 80. 

494. Mulinia ventricosa= Mactrella exoleta, M. 78. 

495. Lutraria elegan^= Harvella elegans; ascribed by Messrs. 
H. & A. Adams to Florida (ii. p. 378), from which I have never 
seen it. It is a rare, but (under different names) somewhat widely 
diffused west- tropical shell. Its '' analogue" from Florida and Ca- 
rolina is Ra'ita canaliculata, 

496. Mactra velata= Standella v. Fide M. 79. The "small 
variety" is conspecific. 

497. Anatina alia. This valve of Periploma may prove identical 
with one of the four Gulf species. The spoon is supported under- 
neath by a linear plate. 

498. Pandora comuta. It is singular that neither Prof. Adams 
nor Dr. Gould observed that the peculiar characters of this species 
are due to a fracture, producing a beak and sinus which are not seen 
on the lines of growth. The sentences about the " rostriform pro- 
jection," the " sinus," and the •* prominent angle," should therefore 
be erased from the diagnosis. The hinge-teeth consist of a long 
sharp tooth, very pointed, in one valve, fitting against a less prominent 
one in the other ; a slight ligamental tooth in the first valve only ; 
and a very long, sharp, clavicular tooth in each valve, running near 
the posterior margin, against the inside umbonal portion of which 
the ligament is attached. Should it prove identical with P. clamcu' 
lata, the earliest name (as being given in error) may advantageously 
be dropped. It is surprising that Messrs. H. & A. Adams have not 
divided the old Lamarckian genus even into subgenera. 

499. Fotamamya eequalis, 500. P, injlata, 501. P. trigonalis* 
These three forms of Azara differ in outline, but not more than do 
some other species of Corbulids and such shells as Trigona radiata. 
The teeth, pallial lines, and general characters are the same in each. 
The first two I should consider certainly identical ; and a large series 
of specimens would probably graduate to the third. 

502. Corhula bicarinata, M. 30. 

503. Corbula biradiata^ M. 31. 

.504. Corbula obesa, Stet. 

505. Corbula ovulaia, H' 33. 

606. Corbula rubra, A young orange-tinted specimen of C. bi- 
radiata. No. 503. The "broad flexure" is an accidental growth, 
not shown in the lines of growth of an earlier stage. 

507. Corbula tenuis. Stet. 

508. Corbula, sp. ind. a. A very small angular valve, with sharp 
conceiktric ridges. It may belong to C, pustulosa, M. 32. 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON THE SHELLS OF PANAMA. 31 

509. Corhula^ sp. ind. b. Dead valves of C, biradiata. No. 503. 
To the same species may be referred C. polychroma. We were mis- 
led bj tbe different appearance of the dead shell, and by the locality- 
mark in Col. Jewett*s collection. His specimens were probably from 
Panama or Acapulco. 

510. Solecurtus affinia^ M. 37. It is probable that this species 
IB identical with S. (^ Novaculina) caribbteus. The Ariquibo speci- 
mens of the latter in Mus. Amherst are more like the Mazatlan shells 
than those are to the Panama type. Shells from Cape Palmas were 
affiliated to the Caribbsean species by Mr. Cuming. 

511. Solen rudi9=-EnsateUa r. This interesting form passes 
towards Pkarella. It is called " Solena obliqua, Spengl., var.*' in 
Mas. Cuming. 

5 1 2. Pholas crucigera. With the general aspect ofBamea Candida. 

513. Pholas tubt/era== P/ioladidea t. Of the melanura type, with 
a solid tnbe fitting on to the ends of the cups. 

514. Pholas xylophaga. Of the Martesia type, without cups. 
Dorsal and ventral plates long ; umbonal plates moderate ; wave of 
the adolescent gape rather suddenly arched. 

515. Pholas , sp. ind. a. Col. Jewett's specimens of the 

same shell are named laqueata by Mr. Cuming. It is of the non- 
waved, concameroid type; without radiating sculpture; concentric 
lamellae beautifully frilled. 

516. Pholasy sp. ind. b. So like P. dactvlus that it might be 
taken for a worn valve from ballast. The sculpture-ridges are, how- 
ever, further apart ; hinge-chambers larger and more numerous, with 
a little twisted lamina beyond ; gape less conspicuous. 

517. Orbicula^cutningii=Diseina c, M. 14. 

The shells unfortunately are all loose, in trays, with the autograph 
names on tickets. Prof. Adams's West Indian collections are m the 
same condition ; and both series are arranged together, in zoological 
order, in the midst of the general collection. There is no evidence, 
however, that they have been handled since the Professor left them, 
none of the leading conchological writers in the New World having 
thought it needful to go out of their way to complete a review of the 
Professor's work. Amherst is situated on a branch railway, and is 
within an easy walk of Northampton, Mount Holyoak, and the deli- 
cioos scenery of the Connecticut River. In the Colleee buildings 
are also deposited the most complete series of the Fossil Footprints 
of the Connecticut River, and the mineralogical collection (including 
the meteoroiit«s) belonging to Prut. Shepherd. 

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c. 



DIAGNOSES 



ov 



NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSKS COLLECTED AT CAPE 
ST. LUCAS BY MR. J. XANTUS. 



BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B. A., Ph. D. 



From the Annals and Magazine of Katnral Sstorj. Third Series, Vol. 
XUL, pp. 811-316, April, 1864. Ibid. (Nos. 15^6) pp. 474-479, June^ 
1864. Ibid, Vol XIV. (Noe. 87-62), pp. 46-49, July, 1864. 



( 207 ) 



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DIAGNOSES 

OF 

NEW rORMS OP MOLLUSKS 

COLLECTED AT CAPE St. LUCAS BY Mr. J. XANTUft 

BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



The specimens here described belong to the Museum of the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. The first ^vailnble 
duplicates will be found in the British Museum or in the 
Cumingian Collection. An account of the labours of Mr. Xantus 
will appear in the forthcoming volume of British Association 
Reports ; and detailed notes on the species may be consulted in 
the American scientific periodicals for the current year. 

Genus Asthenoth^rus*. 

Testa extus "Thracia*' similis: intus cardine edentulo, baud 
•pathulato ; cartilagine infra umbones sita. 

1. Asthenoihterus villosior. 

A. testa inspquivalvi, insequilaterali, umbonibus ad trientem lon- 
gitudinis sitis ; tenuissima, alba, (sub lente) omnino minutissime 
et creberrime pustulosa ; rugis incrementi obtusissimis, irregulari- 
bus, maxime t. juniore, ornata ; epidermide tenui, pallide olivacea 
induta ; parte postica truncata, parum hiante ; antica valde rotun- 
data; marginibus dorsalibus et ventrali parum excurvatis; um- 
bonibus angustissimis ; regionibus lunulari et nymphali subcari- 
natis : intus, mareine caroinali utriusque valvse acute ; ligamento 
inconspicuo ; cartilagine subspongiosa, satis elongata, postice de- 
jecta; fovea baud indentata; cicatricibus adductorum parvis, 
subrotundatis ; siuu pallii majore, ovaH, ad dimidium interspatii 
porrecto. Long. '38, lat. '26, alt. *14 poll.f 

* *A<r^€i^r, weak ; 0aio6s, hinge. 

t The measures of length are taken from the anterior to the posterior 
margins. The " detailed notes " are still in MSS. 
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2 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollush 

2. Solemya valvulus. 

S, testa minore, tenuissima, diaphana, vix testacea, cornea, pal]idior\ 
lineis tenuibus, distantibu9, fuscis, radiatim ornata; posticetenui- 
ter radiatim striata ; tumente, satis elongata, marginibus antic-o el 
postico regulariter excurvatis; umbonibus vix conspicuis; linen 
anticis divaricantibus, extus parentibus, intus lacunam cartila- 
gineam definientibus ; cardine edentnlo; ligamento postiee elon- 
gatOy antice curto, latiore, bifurcato; cicatricibuf adductonim 
aubrotundatis. Long. *85, lat. *25, alt. *14 poll. 

8. Tellina (Peronaoderma) ochracea. 

T. testa majore, parum insequilaterali, tenui, satis planata ; cameo- 
ochracea, intus intensiore; Isevi, nitida, marginem versus striii 
incrementi; postiee vix radiatim striatula; ventraliter antice 
Talde excurvata, postiee vix angulata ; marginibus dorsalibus ob« 
tuse angulatis, umbonibus conspicuis ; ligamento tenui et cartila- 
gine subinternis ; nymphis intortis : dent. card, utriusque valvse ii., 
quarum i. bifidus ; dent. lat. valvee dextrse ii. ; sinu pallii irregula* 
riter ovali, per duos trientes interstitii porrecto ; cicatr. adduct. 
aubovatis, nitidissimia. Long. 1*9, lat. 1*4, alt. *44 poll. 
• 

4. Psammobia {JAmphicfuena) regulari$. 

J^, testa minore, regulariter ovali, subeequilaterali ; violacea, plos 
minusve radiata seu maculata ; laevi, striolis incrementi omata ; 
epidermide tenui, flavido-olivacea induta, postiee rugulosa ; mar- 
ginibus undique regulariter excurvatis ; umbonibus vix projectis ; 
lieamento conspicuo : intus dent. card, ii.-i., baud bifidis ; cicatr. 
adduct. postica rotundata, antica ovali ; sinu pallii elongato, baud 
incurvato, per duos trientes interstitii porrecto. Long. 1 '05, lat. '5p 
alt. '26 polL 

5. CalUsta polUcaris. 

C testa magna, ventricosa, solidiore ; epidermide tenuissima induta } 
aordide albida, umbonibus rufo-fuscis ; (t. adolescente) punctulis 
crebris rufo-fViscis, et taeniis paucis circa njmphas ornata ; Isevl, 
Btriis incrementi exceptis ; postiee, et paululum antice, quasi poi* 
lice impresso notata ; latiore, antice producta, sed baud angulata ; 
postiee unda depressa, supra nymphas radiante, inter costas duaa 
obsoletas sinuante, margine subtruncato ; marginibus ventraH 
regulariter exeurvato, dorsali rectiore ; lunula elongata, linea iiu- 
pressa definita, medio tumente, postiee flaecida : intus Candida ; 
dent. card, normalibns ; dente laterali valvse dextrse postico, valvA 
ainistm antico, usque ad extremitatem lunulse porrecto; cicatr. 
adduct. subrotundatis ; sinu pallii magno, rotundato, usque ad 
madium interstitii porrecto. Long. 2*58, lat. 2**25, att. 1*43 poll. 

Figured by Mr. Reeve (Conch, f. 45) as " THone prora, var." 
rhe above diagnosis proves it to be a distinct and (considering 
the general similarity of the thin^ colourless, inflated group) a 
well-marked species. 

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collected at Cape St. Lucoi. 8 

6. (jallista {^pannosa, var.) puella. 

C tc«ta *'C pannoace " simili, sed tnulto minore, tenuiore, pleram* 
que latiore ; sinu pallii majore, eleganter incurvato ; dent, card 
multo tenuioribus, lat. ant. magis elongato ; lamina cardinal! urn- 
bones versus sinuata: colore maxime Tariante; nonnunquam nt 
in C, pannoaa triangulariter maculata ; plerumque ut in Tapete 
virginea notata ; interdum albida, seu aurantia, seu fusca, baud 
maculata ; rarius ut in Tapete fuscolineata penicillata ; rarissinie 
paucistrigata, seu maculis paucissimis. Long. *66, lat. *5, alt. '62 
poll. 

Yanat t. transversa. Variat quoque t. subtrigona, et formis inter* 
mediis. 

Quoted by Mr. Reeve, under Dtone pannosa, as ** D, ptiella, 
Cpr/'j but the name was only given in MS. in accordance with 
Mr. Cuming's assertion that it was distinct. The colourless sub- 
trigonal shells were regarded by Mr. Reeve as a separate species ; 
but he did not allude to them in his monograph. 

7. Levicardium apicinum. 

X. testa inbtrigona, parva, tenuissima, nitidissima, subcompressa, 
epidenude tenui induta ; radiis seu striis radiantibus nullis ; stnis 
concentricis satis regularibus, subobsoletis, t. jun. magis extant;^ 
bus ; umbonibus angustis, parum incurvatis ; mp*gine ventrali 
satis excurvato, antico parum producto, postico subtruncato, 
dorsalibus obtuse angulatis: colore valde variante; plerumque 
pallide viridi-cinereo, rufo-fusco seu angulatim teeniato seu macn* 
lato seu punctato ; regione umbonali plerumque pallida, interdum 
mfo-fusca seu aurantiaca; parte postica baud intensiore: intus 
plerumque citrina, hepatico varie penicillata : dent. card, et lat. 
acutis, tenuibus; margine miuutissime subobsoletim crenulato. 
Long. -55, lat. "5, alt. *3 poll. 

Variat t. latiore. Variat quoque colore fere omnino hepatico, seu 
cameo, seu pallide aurantiaco, seu pallide cinereo, seu albido i 
larissime nt in Tapete /uscolineata omata. 

8. Lucina linguaUi. 

L. testa solida, linguiformi, valde prolongata ; plerumque aurantiaoo- 
camea, intus intensiore ; lirulis concentricis obtusis crebre omata ; 
marginibus undique excurvatis ; lunula minima, altissime excavata; 
parte postica obscure biangulata, seu subrotundata ; umbonibus 
anticis, incurvatis ; ligamento subinteroo, lamina valida ; dent, 
card, et lat. normalibus, validis ; cicatr. adduct. posticis subovali- 
bus, anticis satis elongatis ; linea pallii lata, raeosa ; margine in- 
terao crenulato. Long. *8d, lat. *92, alt. *4 poll. 

Variat t. minus prolongata. Variat quoque t. pallide viridi, seu pal'^ 
Hde camea, seu alba. 

9. ^Crenella inflata. 

tC. testa valde inflata, minnta» albida, subrhomboideo- orbicular! ; 



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4 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusks 

«Yiap:ona1iter parum producta ; marginibus subquadrangulatirn itv 
tundatis ; umbonibus prominentibus, Talde antice intortis ; tota 
Buperficie ut in C decnssata sculpta, costulis crebris radiantibus 
sequidistantibus, hie et illic aliis intercalatis ; lirulis concen* 
tricis decussantibus : intus margine dorsali brevissimo, arcuato, 
dentate ; ligamento curtissimo, in fossa omnino interna, celata, la- 
mina definiente, sito ; lamina cardinali sub ambonibus intus por- 
recta, dentibas validis instructa ; marginibus internis omnino cre- 
natis ; cicatr. adduct. subeequalibus, ventraliter sitis. Long. 'I, 
kt. -12, alt. -09 poll. 

Located provisionally in CreneUa from its likeness to C, de* 
cussata, but with peculiarities of hinge and adductors which 
approach Nuculina on one side and Cardilia on another. 

Genus Bryophila*. 

Animal Aviculidseum, Tiviparum : inter algas, etc., habitans. 
Testa Pinnseformis, extus prismatica, intus subnacrea : ligamentam 
•ohdum : umbones extantes, terminales, intus coucavi. 

10. Bryophila setosa. 

B, testa parva, regulari ; cinerea, salmoneo sen chocolateo, intus sub- 
uacreo, exquisite tincta : t. juniore planata, semirotundata, dor« 
saliter recta, tequilaterali, conspicue punctata : t. adolescente sub- 
diaphana: t. adulta solidiore; umbonibus rectis, terminalibus, 
intus alte excavatis ; marg. dorsali breviore, recto ; antico recto ; 
ventrali et postico late rotundatis : extus epidermide subspongiosa 
r^stita, radiis setarum subdistantibus, marginibus elegant«r pecti- 
natis : intus ligamento solido dorsali ter producto ; limbo pallii 
aequaliter prope marginem decurrente ; cicatr. adduct. submediana, 
inconspicua ; postice hiante ; antice propter bjssum tenuem si- 
nuata. Long. '13, lat. '2, alt. '1 poll. 

Like a minute Pinna, or a transverse Margaritiphora without 
cars, or an Isognomon without pits. Differs from the other 
Aviculids in being viviparous^ like some other minute bivalves. 

11. ^Atys casta. 

tA. testa elongata, tenui, subdiaphana, albida ; antrorsum paulnm 
tumidiore ; spira celata, lacunata, (t. adults) baud umbilicata ; 
columella paulum intorta, eff'usa ; umbilico antico minimo ; labro 
postice producto, obtuse angulato ; tota superficie subtiliter spira- 
liter striatula. Long. *4, lat. *18 poll. 

On the confines of the genus^ related to Cylichna. 

12. Ischnochiton parallelug. 

I. testa ovata, subelevata (ad angulum 120^); rufo-fusca, olivaceo 
tincta ; valvis latis, marginibus parum rotundatis, interstitiis par- 

^ Bpvov, sea-moM ; ^iXori loving* 

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collected at Cape St. LucaSm 5 

Yis ; Talvia intermediis Talde insculptis ; areis lateralibus seriebus 
granuloram a jugo radiantibus circiter vi.; interdum irregularibus* 
granis rotandatis, separatis, extantibus ; areis centralibus clathrii 
creberrimis, jugvi parallelis, horridis, extantibus, interdum granu- 
losis, ornatis ; vaWis terminalibus seriebus granulorum, circ. xx., 
interduni bifurcantibus, ut in areis lateralibus, ornatis ; mucrone 
▼ix conspicuo ; limbo pallii angusto, pilulis furvicaceis creberrimis 
minutis conferto; lobis valvarum bifidis, terminalibus fiss»'*is 
circ. xi. a parte externa simplici disjuncds. Long. '7, lat. '4Sf 
alt. -\6 poll. 

Belongs to the group with minute setose scales. 

13. Ischnochiton (? var.) prasinatus, 

L testa J. parallelo forma et indole simili, sed yivide viridi; an 
diag. seriebus bullularum irregulariter ornatis ; ar. centr. clathria 
Talde extantibus, acutis, jugo obtuso parallelis, utroque latere 
circ. xri.; valv. term, seriebus bullularum circ. xviii. ; mucrone 
submediano, inconspicuo ; umbonibus hand prominentibus ; tota 
auperficie minutissime granulosa : intus yalvarum lobis mediarum 
i.- term, circiter x.-fissis; sinu lato, planato; suturis plauatis; 
limbo pallii angusto, minutissime squamulis furvicaceis creberrime 
instructo ; interdum pilulis intercalatis. Long. *8, lat. '4 poll., 
div. 125^ 

14. Ischnochiton serraius. 

L testa parva, cinerea, olivaceo hie et illic, prseciptie ad suturas, 
punctata, interdum sanguineo maculata ; ovali, subdepressa, suturis 
indistinctis ; tota superficie miuutissime granulata ; ar. diag. valde 
distinctis, costis latissimis obtusis ii.-v. munitis, interstitiis nuUis; 
marginibus posticis eleganter serratis ; ar. centr. costis acutis, 
parfdlelis, utroque latere circ. xii. ; Jugo obtuso, hand umboiiato \ 
costis transTcrsis, subradiantibus, fenestrantibus, interstitiis im- 
pressis : mucrone mediano, obtuso ; Talv. term, costis obtusis, ut 
in ar. diag., circ. xx. : intus Tal varum mediarum lobis bifissis, 
terminalium circ. ix.-fissis ; lobis suturalibus magnis : Tmbo pallii 
squamis majoribus, imbricatis, vix striatulis. Long. *34, lat. *2 poIL, 
div. 115^ 

Differs from Elenensis in the sculpture of the terminal valves. 

15. Nacella peltoides, 

AT. testa parva, leevi, cornea, subdiaphana, ancyliformi, apice elevato, 
valde insequilaterali, strigis pallide castaneis radiata ; intus ujti- 
dissima, subaurantia. Long. *14, lat. *11, alt. *05 poll. 

= Nacella, sp. ind., Maz. Cat. no. 262, p. 202. 

16. Acnuea (? var.) atraia. 

A. testa solida, rugosa, conica, apice paulum antrorsiim sito ; extiipi 
costis crebris rotundatis irregularibus, hie et illic majoribus 
sculpta, baud apicem versus discordanter corrugatis; interstitiis 

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6 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms cf MoUush 

minimis ; intus alba, castaneo et nigro varie maculata ; margina 
latiore, nigro tessellato. Long. 1 '3, lat. 1 '0, alt. '5 polL 
Variat margine nigro-punctato, punctis plerumqae bifidia. Variat 
quoque costis parvis, creberrimis ; margine nigro. 

Intermediate between " P. discors/' Phil., and '' P. floccaia/^ 
Eeeve. 

17. Acmaa strigatella. 

A' testa A, mesoleuca simili, sed minore^ baud Tiridi ; atriolis mini- 
mis, confertissimis, plerumque erosis tenuissime scnlpta ; albida, 
Btrigis oliTaceo-fuscis, plerumque radiantibus, interdum confluen- 
tibus picta ; apice ssepius nigro ; intus albida, margiue satis lato^ 
strigis tessellato. Long. *9, lat. '74, alt. '3 poll. 

Variat colore bio et illic aurantiaco tincto : strigis omnino tessellatis. 

According to Darwin, this might be regarded as a cross be- 
tween the northern forms A.pelta and A. patina, about to change 
into the Gulf species, A, mesoleuea. The dark variety resembles 
A, cantharuSf but the very delicate crowded striae well distin- 
guish it when not abraded. 

18. Glyphis satumalis. 

G, testa G. inaquali simili, sed minore, latiore, altiore, tenuissime 
cancellata; striis radiantibus plus minusve propinquis, plus mi- 
nusve nodulosis ; dssura prope trientem longitudinis sita, minima* 
lineari, medio lobata ; intus callositate albida, truncata. Long. '38, 
lat. -24, alt. -18 poll. 

The minute hole resembles the telescopic appearance of Satora 
when the riucrs are reduced to a line. 



ufyfj 



Subgenus Eucosmia*. 

Testa solida, nitida, variegata, baud nacrea : apertura et anfractus 
rotundati : conspicuc umbiiicata : pericrema vix continuum, baud 
eallosum. 

The shells here grouped are like small, round-mouthed, per- 
forated Phasianella. The animal and operculum of the Cape 
St. Lucas species are unknown. The Phasianella strixdata, Max* 
Cat. no. 283 b (=Turbo phasianella, C. B. Ad. Pan. Sh. no. 282), 
and even the Lunatia ienuilirata, Maz. Cat. no. 572, are perhaps 
congeneric. 

1 9. Eucoftmia variegata. 

E, testa parra, Isevi, turbinoidea, nitente, marginibus spirse valde 
excurvatis ; rosaceo et rufo-fusco varie maculata ; anfr. nucleosis 
regularibus, vertice mamillato ; normalibus iv., valde tumentibus, 
rapide augentibus, suturi? imprcssis ; anfr. ultimo antice producte ; 
oasi rotuudata ; umbilico carinato ; apertura vix a pariete indeu* 

* Th. c^, well ; Koafiia, adorned. 
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collected at Cape SU Lucas. . 7 

lata; peritremate pene condnno, acuto. Long. *1, long. spir. *0J, 
lat. -07 poll., div. 70^ 
Tariat interdum rugulis incrementi ornata. 

20. Eucosmia (Ivariegata, var.) substriata. 

B. testa E, varicffata simillima, sed anfr. circa basin et supra spiram 
(nisi in anfr. nucl. Isevibus), interdum tota superficie tenuiter et 
crebre striatis ; striis anfr. penult, circ. x. 

21. Eucosmia punctata. 

E. testa E, variegata simili, sed multo majore, multo magis elon- 
gata, angustiore, Phasianelloidea ; plerumque fusco creberrime 
punctata ; umbilico parvo. Long. '22, long. spir. '11, lat. *15 poll., 
div. SO**. 

22. Eucosmia cyclostoma. 

B. testa parva, Talde obtusa, lata, regular!, ralvatoidea ; marginibus 
spirse vix excurvatis ; pallide cinerea, fusco-olivaceo dense punc- 
tata seu maculata ; anfr. nucleosis pallidis, mamillatis ; normali- 
bus iii., valde tumentibus, suturis Talde impressis ; apertura vix a 
pariete indentata ; umbilico magno, subspirali. Long. '05, long, 
spir. -025, lat. -05 poll., div. 90^ 

Cnriously like a amall depressed Valvata obtusa, but with the 
texture of Phasianella. 

Oenus Haplocochlias*. 

Testa CoUoniam simulans, sed baud margaritacea : apertura circa- 
laris, varicosa : columella baud callosa. 

The animal and operculum are unknown. Its affinities may 
be with Ethalia. 

23. Haplocochlias ct/clophoreus. 

H. testa compacta, parva, solidiore ; albida, seu pallide aurantiaca ; 
anfr. v., rapide augentibus, suturis impressis ; tota superficie mi- 
nutissime spiraliter striolata, nitida ; apertura rotundata ; peri- 
tremate continuo, incrassato, extus varicoso ; labio distincto ; axi 
t. jun. umbilicata, adultse lacunata. Long. *19, long. spir. *06, 
lat. -2 poll., div. 100**. 

When laid on its base, this shell resembles Helidna ; but the 
mouth is more like Cyclophoms. Tbe young shell is semi- 
transparent, and resembles a Vitrinella with thickened lip. 

24. Narica aperta. 

N. testa parva, in€ata, tenui, alba ; anfr. nud. 7. . . . ; norm, rapide 
augentibus, lirulis crebris spiralibus, in spira hie et illio majori- 
tus, a striolis creberrirais radiantibus minutissime deeussatis *, 
auiuris valde impressis ; apertura subcirculari ; umbilico inaximo» 

^ Tk, inikovs, unadorned ; Koxklai, snail. 

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6 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollush 

carinato, anfractns intas monstrante. Long. *28« long. spir. *08^ 
lat. -SpoU., div. 110^ 

25. Fossarus parcipictus. 

F. testa parva, solidiore, spira plus minusve elevata; albida, mfo- 
fusco varie maeulata ; carinulis spiralibus acutioribus, quarum 
circ. vi. majores, striolisque crebris cincta ; anfr. ultimo tumidiore ; 
labro acuto, baud intus merassato ; umbilico satis magno, ad mar- 
ginem carinato : operculo normali. Long. *24, long. spir. *06« 
fat. -2 poll., div. 90°. 

The few specimens found are very variable in outline. 

26. Fossarus purus. 

F, testa F, anguJato simili, sed alba, subdiaphana ; anfr. nucl. ii.» 
fuscis, ut in F. tuberose cancellatis ; norm. ii. et dimidio, altis, 
valde tumentibus, carinatis ; carinis iv., validissimis, acutissimis, 
quarum ii. in spira monstrantur ; carinulis aliis antice et postice 
plus minusve expressis ; tota superficie minute spiraliter striata ; 
carinularum basalium interstitiis subobsolete decussatis ; apertura 
late semilunata ; labro a carinis valde indentato ; labio recto, an- 
gusto ; umbilico magno, carinato ; operculo fusco, valde paud- 
spirali, minutissime ruguloso, nucleo antico. Long. '08, long, 
spir. -03, lat. -08 poll., div. 90^ 

27. Litorina pullata. 

L. testa parva, solidiore, luctuosa ; spira satis exserta ; nigrescente, 
sen livido-fusco tincta, lineis spiralibus exilissimis pallidioribus x>r- 
nata ; interdum obscure tessellata ; anfr. v., subplanatis, suturis 
parum impressis ; subleevi, striolis spiralibus tenuiter insculpta ; co- 
lumella intus incrassata ; pariete baud excavato. Long. '4, long, 
spir. -18, lat. -29 poll., div. GO*'. 

s= Litorina, sp. ind.^ Maz. Cat. no. 399^ p. 350. 

28. Litorina {Philippii, var.) penicillata. 

£. Ph. testa parva, lineis radiantibus, variantibus, delicatulis, rarius 
ziczacformibus, et cingulis duobus spiralibus, quorum unum in 
spira monstratur, elegantissime penicillata. Long. '33, long, 
spir. -14, lat. -2 poll., div. 50°. 

Closely resembling the West-Indian L, ziczac, var. Uneata, 
D'Orb. Intermediate specimens, however, clearly connect it 
with the common Mazatlan form. 

29. Rissoa albolirata. 

R, testa parva, alba, crystallina, normali ; marginibus spirse nndatis; 
anfr. nucl. iii., Iflevibus, mamillatis ; norm, iv., medio subconvexis, 
postice supra suturas planatis ; basi subplanata, effusa, baud um- 
bilicata ; lirulis spiralibus crebris, obtusis, quarum circ. x. in spira 
monstrantur ; apertura subovata, peritremate coutinuo ; labro 

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Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusks, 9 

trcnatOy tix antice et postice sinuato, calloso; labio valido. 
Long. *1» long. spir. *08, lat. *04 poll., div. 25°. 

80. Fenella crystaltina. 

F. testa alba» rabdiaphana, turrita, rudiore ; marginibus spirse rectis, 
parum divergentibus ; anfr. nucl. ?.. . (decoUatis) ; norm, v., valde 
rotundatis, suturis impressis ; costis radiantibus circ. xvi.. vtlde 
rotundatisy baud extantibus, interstitiis latis ; striis spiralibus 
regnlaribus, in anfr. penult, xvi. ; apertura rotnndata ; basi ro- 
tundata ; peritremate continuo ; labro extus varicoso ; labio cal* 
loso. Long. *14, long. spir. *11> lat. *05 poll., div. 20°. 

81. IHydrobia compacta, 

\H. testa Ueviy carta, compacta, latiore ; marginibus spirse vix ex- 
carvatis ; anfr. nucl. normalibus, apice mamillato ; norm. iv,. ta- 
midis, suturis distinctis ; spira curtiore ; basi rotundata ; apertura 
Bubovata ; peritremate continuo ; labio definito. Long. *04, long, 
spir. -02, lat. 03 poll., div. 70°. 

This unique shell may be a Barleeia. 

82. Hyala rotundata, 

XT. testa (quoad genus) magna, tenui, alba, diaphana ; anfr. nucl. 
normalibus, apice mamillato ; norm, iv., globosis, rapide augeuti- 
bus, suturis valde impressis ; basi rotundata ; apertura subrotun- 
data, ad suturam subangulata ; peritremate continuo ; labio a 
pariete separate, rimulam umbilicalem formante ; columella valde 
arcuata. Long. *18, long. spir. *09, lat. '1 poll., div. 40°. 

A unique shell, resembling a marine Bithinia. 

83. ^Diala elecirina. 

19. testa subdiapbana, rufo-comea, nitida ; marginibus spirse parum 
exciu'vatis ; vertice nucleoso, helicoideo ; anfr. iii., tumidis, suturis 
baud impressis, apice magno mamillato ; anfr. norm, iii^ subplanatis, 
suturis distinctis; sculptura baud expressa; tota superficie cos- 
tulis obscuris, latis, spiralibus, quarum ri.-viii. in spira monstran* 
tur, et iii.>v. circa basim rotundatam, interdum obsoletis, cincta ; 
costulis radiantibus circ. xviii., subobsoletis ; apertura regulariter 
ovata, ad suturam angulata, peritremate continuo ; basi baud urn- 
bilicata ; columella regulariter arcuata. Long. 09, long. spir. *07, 
lat. 03 poll., div. 30°. 

34. Acirsa Menesthoides. 

J. testa nitida, turrita, majore, solidiore, pallide fusca ; anfr. nncL 
leeribns ; norm, vi., subplanatis, suturis distinctis ; lineis crebris 
spiralibus insculpta, quarum circ. viii. in spira monstrantur ; testa 
adolescente lirulis radiantibus obsoletis decussata ; apertura sub- 
ovali; columella solida, imperforata. Long. *42, long. spir. ''4^ 
lat. -16 poll., div. 25*'. 

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85. Cythnia asteriaphila. 

C. testa C, tumenti simillima. Bed umbilico minore, baud carinato , 
tenuissima, diaphana ; anfr. iv., tumidis ; vert. nucl. normali, baud 
Btylineo, apice mamillato : operculo tenuissimo, eleraentis concen- 
tricis, nucleo submediano sinistroraum sito. Long. 'OS, long, 
spir. -015, lat. -025 poU., div. 60°. 

A solitary specimen was found by Dr. Stimpson, imbedded in 
a star-fish, like Stylina ; from which genus the vertex and oper- 
culum distinguish it. 

36. Bittium nitens* 

B. testa regular!, rufo-fnsca, hie et illiq pallida, maxime nitente; 
anfr. nucl. iii., lievibus, tumidis, apice submamillato, subdeclivi ; 
norm, vi., tumidis, suturb impressis ; oostis radiaotibus circ. xiv., 
baud contiguis, angustis, interstitiis undatis ; costulis rotuudatis, 
spiralibus, in spira iv., quarum postica multo minor, supercur- 
rentibus, ad intersectiones subnodosis ; costulis circa basim sub- 
rotundatam iv., baud decussatis ; apertura subquadrata ; columella 
baud truncata, obtuse angulata; labro acuto, a costulis indentato; 
labio iaconspicuo. Long. *21, long. spir. *16, lat. *0() poU., div. 20°* 

37. Mangelia subdiaphana. 

If. testa parva, subdiaphana, albida, interdum rufo-fusco .pallida 
tmcta; satis turrita, marginibus spirse parum excurvatis; anfr. 
nucleosis iii., laevibus, diaphanis, apice mamillato ; norm, iv., satis 
excurvatis, baud angulatis, suturis impressis ; fascia super spiram 
pallide fusca, alteraque Candida contigua; costulis radiantibus 
xiv.-xviii., acutis, subrectis, distantibus, interstitiis undatis ; tota 
Buperficie minute et creberrime spiraliter striata ; basi producta, 
striis magis expressis; apertura subelongata; labro ad dorsum 
incrassato, posdce distincte emarginato, intus baud dentato ; labio 
tenuissimo; columella recta, antice late canaliculata. Long, 'l!^, 
long. spir. 1, lat -06 poll., div. 30^ 

38. Drillia appressa, 

2). testa parva, compacta ; rufo-fusca, interdum supra costas palH- 
diore; marginibus spirse excurvatis; anfr. norm, vi., planatis, 
suturis indisdnctis ; costis tuberculosis radiantibus circ. xiv., antice 
et postice obsoletis; striolis spiralibus creberrimis; costa spirali 
irregulari postica, tuberculosa, super suturas appressa : area sinus 
parvi vix definita ; basi satis prolongata ; apertura subquadrata ; 
labio disdncto. Long. *d, long. spir. '17, lat. *12 poU., div. 40°. 

39. Cithara fusconotata* 

C, testa parva, sads turrita, tenui, albida ; postice linea, sen serie 
macularum, rufo-fusca, interdum altera peripheriali omata ; mar- 
ginibus spirse recdoribus; anfr. nucl. ii., rotundads, apice mamil- 
lato ; norm, vi., in spira rotundatis, suturis impressis ; basi satis 
rolundata; costis radiandbus circ. ix., acutis, distantibus, andce 

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eolkcted at Cape St. Lucas. 11 

it postioe snbobsoletis ; tota superficie apiraliter sulcata, snlculu 
tubdistantibosy undatis, costas superantibus ; apertura suboTali, 
satis elongata» postice valde sinuata ; labro acuto, dorsaliter costa- 
lato^ intus hand dentato ; labto tenui. Long. *36, loDg. spir. *18» 
lat. -16 poU., div. 40^ 

40. Obelisous tariegaim. 

0. testa O. kastato simili ; Bitidissima, striolis incrementi exilissimis ; 
lirido et castaneo varie nebulosa; prope sutoram eanaliculatam 
Ibeis albidis picta ; hk et illic callontate alba interna ; peripheria 
drca basin insculptay unicolore; columella truncata, triplicata; 
plica superiore acuta^ exstante, circa basim continua ; plicis anticis 
pairifliy spindibus. Long. *44» long. spir. *3» lat. *15 poll.» dir. 23^. 

41. Odostomia {Evalea) aqmscui^ta. 

0. testa parra, ovoidea, alba, subdiapbana | marginibus spira sub- 
rectis ; Tert. nud. ?..••, normaliter truncato ; anfr. norm, iv,^ 

Cm arcuatis, sutoris impressis ; tota superficie costulis spirali- 
drc. xiy., quarum vi. in spira monstrantur, latis, planatis, 
sequidistantibus ; interstitiis parris ; basi rotundata ; apertura 
oyata; peritremate band continue ; labro acuto ; labio subobsoleto ; 
plica juxta parietem conspicua, acuta, transrersa ; columella arcuata, 
limulam umbilicalem formante. Long. '07, long. spir. '04, lat, 
•OSpoU., diT.40^. 

42. Odostomia {Evaka) deUcatula' 

0, testa tenuissima, alba, diaphana, nitente, elongata; margini- 
bus spirse el^anter excurratis ; vert. nucl. leevi, globoso, decli- 
Titer immerso ; anfr. norm, iii., subplanatis, suturis impressis ; 
liris subacutis, spindibus, quarum t. in spira monstrantur ; inter- 
stitiis latis, undatis, creberrime decnssatis ; basi elongata ; aper- 
tura oblonga, peritremate baud continuo ; labro tenui ; labio yix 
conspicuo; plica juxta parietem exstante, dedivi. Long. '07^, 
long. spir. '04, lat. '03 poll., div. 30^ 

43. Chrysdlida angusta. 

C. testa parva, satis elongata, nitida, alba, sculpture minus expressa; 
marginibus spirse parum excurvatis; vert. nucl. parvo, subito 
immerso^ dimidium truncationis tegente ; anfr. norm, v., planatis, 
doDgads, suturis minus impressis ; eostis rediantibus circ. xiii., 
plerumque lineis continuis marginibus utrinque parallelis, circa 
basim productam obsoletis; liruiis spiralibus angustis, in spira 
drc. v., interstitiis decussantibus, supra costas baud nodulosis ; 
apertura ovali ; peritremate parum continuo ; labro tenui, trans- 
hddo ; labio tenui ; plica juxta parietem parva, obtusa. Long. 
•095, long. spir. -065, lat. 028 poll., div. 20^ 

44. Eulima fuscostrigata. 

S. testa minore^ gradllima, albida, striga latiore rufo-fusca supra 

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12 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Molbish 

peripheriam omata; basi quoque rufo-fusca, valde prolongata^ 
regulariter excurvata; anfr. nucl. ii., tumidioribus ; norm, nii., 
planatis, suturis (laud conspicuis ; yaricibus nullis ; apertura Talde 
elongate; labro viz sinoato; labio yiz calloso. Long. '17, long, 
spir. -12, lat. -05 poll, div. 20^ 

45. Opalia crenaioides. 

P. teste turrita, alba, marginibus spirse reeds ; anfr. nueL ?. • • • t 
norm, yi., compactis, attingentibus ; costis radiantibus circ. x., in 
spira plerumque obsoletis, ultimo anfractu validioribas latis, baud 
exstentibus, attingentibus, spiram lineis fere rectis ascendentibus ; 
suturis inter costaa altissime indentetis ; carina obtusa basali, su- 
turse continua ; inter costaa radiantes undique, ut in suturis, in- 
dentete ; costis interdum, propter lirulas spirales subobsoletes, sub- 
nodosis ; columella hand umbilicate ; basi antice Isevi. Long. *54, 
long. spir. -38, lat. -23 poll., div. 30^ 

Additional specimens may connect this with the Portuguese 
0. crenata. 

46. Truncarxa eurytoides, 

T. teste parra, tnrrita, gracili ; albida, seepius fascia circa peripheriam 
maculis fusco-aurantiacis picte ; anfr. nucl. mamiilatis, Isevibus ; 
norm. ▼., effusis, subplanatis, ultimo paulum constricto ; costulis 
radiantibus circ. xx., aperturam versus evanidis; apertura sub- 
quadrate ; labro baud incrassato, interdum intus subtiliter striato, 
baud denteto; labio appresso; columella abrupte truncate. 
Long. '3, long. spir. % lat. •!! poll., div. 23**. 

Variat basi fusco tincta, sen tota superficie ut in Nitidella cribraria 
picta. 

47. Sistrum (? ockrostoma, var.) rufonotatum. 

8. teste 8. ochrostomati simili, sed minore, angustiore, vix tebulate ; 
alba, linea punctorum rufo-fuscorum subperipheriali, interdum 
lineis spiralibus, interdum ejusdem coloris maculis, ornata ; vert, 
nucl. mamillato, anfr. iii., Isevibus, vix tumidis; norm, v., plus 
minusve elongatis, in medio nodoso-angulatis, postice planatis, 
suturis ad angulum valde obtusum conspicuis ; seriebus nodulorum 
spiralibus iii., quarum postica major, secundum costas radiantes 
obsoletas circ. vi.-viii. ordinatis ; seriebus anticis inconspicuis ii. ; 
interdum costulis spiralibus intercalatis ; canali brevi, rectiore, 
aperto, angusto ; apertura subovali, vix subquadrata, intus pallide 
aurantiaca; labro acutiore, dorsaliter subvaricoso, postice ssepe 
sinuato, intus obscure vi.-denteto ; labio consf)icuo, interdum ex- 
stente. Long. '5, long. spir. *23, lat. '32 poll., div. GO^. 

Vanat teste obesa, nodulis validis. Variat quoque testa acuminata, 
nodulis subobsoletis. Long. *52, long. spir. *23, lat. *25 poll., 
div. 42^. 

48. ^Nitidella millepunctata. 

tN, teste parva, nitida, livida; spira exstante, anfractibus snbpla-. 
natis, suturis distinctis ; anfr. nucl. Isevibus, adolesceutibus obso- 

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collected at Cape St. Lucas. 13 

kte radintiin lirulatis, adultis Isevibus; zona alba postica, suturara 
attingente, aurantiaco niaculata -, tola praeter zonam superficie au- 
rantiaco puncticulata, punctis minimis, creberrimis, in quincunces 
dispositis ; apertura subquadrata ; labro incrassato, intus vi.-den- 
tato; labio exstante, a lirulis circa basim spiralibus indentato. 
Long. "3, long. spir. '17, lat. '15 poll., div. 40**. 

Differs from Columbella albuffinosa, Bve.^ in its peculiar and 
constant painting. 

49. JNitidella densilineata. 

TiV. testa IN, millepunctatam forma et indole simulante, sed omnino 
nitida, anfractibus planatis, suturis indistincds, striolis circa basim 
minimis ; livida, lineolis aurantiaco-fuscis divaricatis, ssepe ziczac- 
formibus, densissime signata. Long. *25, long. spir. *15, lat. *1 
poll., div. 35°. 

The opercula of these two species being unknown^ their 
generic position remains doubtful. The same is true of the two 
following. 

50. JAnachis tincta. 

tJ, testa panra, tnrrita, albida, rufo- aurantiaco supra costas tincta ; 
anfr. nucl. laevibus; norm, iv.-v., subplanatis, suturis \alde im- 
pressis; costulis x. radiaatibus, et liris spiralibus transeuntibns, 
in spira iii. supra costas conspicuis, unaque in sutura, dense in- 
sculpta; inters! itiis alte caelatis; apertura subquadrata ; labro in 
medio incrassato. Long. *19, long. spir. '12, lat. *08 poll., 
diT. 30°. 

51. ^ Anachis fuscostrigata, 

1A, testa parra, turrita, livida, nitida ; zonis rufo-fuscis, subspiralibus, 
in spira drc. iii., interdum, mixime ad basim, confluentibus, con- 
spicue dncta ; lirulis radiantibus subobsoletis, circ. x., prope su« 
turam se monstrantibiis ; apertura subquadrata. Long. '13, long, 
spir. '095, lat. -045 poll., div. 20°. 

52. Pisania elata. 

f, testa minore, valde turrita, Latiroidea ; alba, rufo-fusco antice et 
postice varie maculata sen strigata; anfr. nucl. ?....; norm, vi., 
convexis, suturis impressis; costis radiantibus vi.-viii., obtusis, 
interstitiis undatis ; lirulis spiralibus distantibus, in spira plerum* 
que iii., aliis minoribus intercalantibus ; canali angusto, sub- 
recurvato ; apertura subovata ; pariete postice dentata ; columellf 
parum coutorta. Long. "68, long. spir. '37, lat. '29 poll., div. 38°, 

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D. 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



T0WABD6 A 



MONOGRAPH OF THE PANDORlDiE. 



BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B. A., Ph. D. 



From the ProceediDgs of the Zoological Sodetj of London, pp. 59^-608, 
November 22, 1864. 



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CONTRIBIJTIONS lOWARDS A Af 0NO6R4PB OF THB PaNDORIDJB. 

By Philip P. Carpk^vter, B.A., Ph.D. 

It IB remarkable that, notwithstanding the zeal with which most of 
the old genera have been divided, to meet the wants of modern n;ala« 
cology, the genus Pandi^a^ Lam., has been left untouched by Dr. 
Graj, Messrs. Adams, and their follower, Chenu. Yet the species 
known to the elder Sowerby present three distinct types of hinge, 
which were well figured by him in his * Conchologicaf Illustrations.* 
Specimens and even species of Pandora (except of the well-known 
N. Atlantic forms) being very rarely seen in collections, it is pre- 
sumed that naturalists have had but few opportunities of studying 
them. Mr. Cuming having most kindly allowed me to examine the 
hinge of all the species in his collection, it has appeared desirable to 
propose two new genera, and also to group part of the typical species 
under a subgenus. 

It was at one time thought that the presence of an ossicle in the 
cartilage was a family mark of /inatinida, to which Myadora from 
Pandorida, and Tellimya from Kelliada, were consequently removed. 
One of the new genera of Pandorids, however, possesses a well-deve- 
loped ossicle ; and a small one is seen even in some species of the 
normal genus. 

The most highly organized structure in the family is found in the 
North American genus Clidiophora, which has both clavicle* and 
ossicle ; the next is the East- Indian group Coelodon, which wants 
both clavicle and ossicle, but possesses a tent-shaped dentition in the 
left valve. The simplest form is the well-known Pandora, which 
has neither clavicle, tent, nor ossicle ; but in the subgenus Kennerlia 
the ossicle is present. The genus Myodora is quite distinct, but 
connected with Pandora through Kennerlia. 

Genus CLiDioPHORAf. 

Tetta Pandori/ormtSfVentraliter expansa; valva dextra tridental a, 
dente postico elongato ; valva smistra scepius bidentata, dente 
anttco nmplici; cartilagine omculo firmata ; sinupallii nullo. 

). Type, Clidiophora claviculata, Cpr. (Pandora cL) P.Z.S. 
1855, p. 228. 

* The word '' clavicle " it used (in default of a better) to denote a linear dental 
proceu runninfc into the body of the shell, often serving as a support to the car- 
dinal plate, as in Jnatina and some species of Piaeunomia, 

t Th. K\€ifiov, a clavicle ; fipm. 

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In the dentition of the right v«lve this ^cmis resemhles CceJodon^ 
except that the posterior lamina is greatly developed, resembling a 
clavicle. The left valve wants the central tooth and chamber of that 

§enus. This structural deficiency, however, is compensated by the 
evelopment of an ossicle in the long cartilage. As far as is known, 
all the species are from North and Central America, and are swollen 
▼entrally. 

2. ClIDIOPHORA CRI8TATA. 

C. t. securiformi, minus transversa, tenui, suhplanata ; umboni* 
bus ad \ longitudinis sitis; ventral iter maxime excurvata; 
marginibus dorsalibus, post, maxime incurvatOy ant. hie et ilUe 
aluUs triangularibus cristato : intus marginibus posticis utra^ 
que in valva ereetis : v. dextr. dente postico satis longo, ciea- 
trice adductoris tenus haud porrecto ; dente eentrali extante; 
dente antico a margine separator usgu^ad cic. antieam porrecto, 
haud extante : r. sinistr, dente post, bifidoy haud extante, al* 
terum recipiente, fossa cartilaginea contigua ; d. centr. nuUo; 
d. ant. satis extante, tuque ad cicatr. antieam porrecto ; tinea 
palUari a margine valde remota, regufariter in puncta divisa ; 
radiis ab umbonibus usque ad puncta conspicuis, aqualiduss 
ossiculo tenui, elongato. 
Long. 1-0, lat. 6, alt. -1 poU. 

Hab, in sinu Califomiensi ; legit Conway Shipley diligentissimttS| 
sp. un. in Museo Cumingiano. 

This species is known from C. claviculata by the much greater 
posterior curvature of the beaks, and anteriorly by the beautiful tri- 
angular wing- like serrations of the margin, in which it resembles 
I'ellidora bumeti. The inside has elegant rays from the umbo to 
the dotted pallial line. 

3. Clidiophora TABACisA, Mcusch. (Mus. Gron.). 

Specimens under this specific name are preserved in the Cnmingian 
collection. 

3 a. Clidiophora trilineata. Say {Pandora tr.), Hani. Bee 
Shells, p. 49. 

3 b. Clidiophora nasuta. Shy. (Pandora ft.), Sp. Conch. £ 
18,19. 

It is probable that these are simply yarietal forms of the well-known 
New England species. Say's name and Sowerby's excellent figure 
prove tluit the peculiar hinge of the genus was observed by both 
authors. Mr. Cuming gives '* Philippines " as the habitat of his 
specimens of C nasuta, probably in error. Mr. Hanley quotes it as a 
synonym of C. trilineata. An examination of a large series from Staten 
Island proves that the outline varies considerably. The tablet in 
the Nuttallian collection at the British Museum, marked Pandora 
punctata, belongs to this species. Young shells, when quite perfect, 

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display faint radiating grooves on the prismatic layer of the flat valve, 
is in Kennerlia. 

4. CliI)>iophora punctata, Conr. 

This very rare species was only known in England bv worn left 
^ves in the British Mnseum, and in Mr. Cuming's and Wfr. Hanley's 
collections. The first perfect specimens were dredged by Dr. J. 6. 
Cooper (Zoologist to tne Californian State Survey) at San Pedro. 
A yoang shell, sent by him to the Smithsonian Institution, displays 
a dentition agreeing in the main with C. irilineata. In the flat 
valve, the central and anterior teeth are close together and nearly 
parallel ; the anterior short, nearly obsolete ; the middle long and 
sharp, corresponding with the long, sharp tooth in the convex valve, 
which points to the outside of the anterior scar, instead of to the 
middle, as in C. trilineata. The (posterior) clavicle-tooth in the fiat 
valve b longer than in the Eastern species, with the cartilage on it 
for two-fiflhs of the length. In C. trilineata it lies by the side, nearly 
the whole way. The posterior margin of the convex valve fits between 
the clavicle and the margin of the flat valve. The ossicle is remark- 
ably long and thin. The panctures are extremely conspicuous even 
in this young, transparent, and papyraceous specimen ; and, what is 
more peculiar, the dried remains of the animal are covered with 
minute pearl-shaped grains of shelly matter corresponding with them. 

A a. Clidiophora dbpressa, Shy., ss Pandora </., Sp. Conch, f. 
11, 12 ; Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49. 

The "posterior" dilated side of Sowerby is the "anterior" of 
Hanley. The species was constituted from a " very few specimens, 
all of them much worn down, as if they had been used as ornaments." 
The hinge therefore may not have been accurately observed. They 
were part of the Humphrey collection, and perhaps from the Califor- 
nian region. Judging from the shape (for no type has been disco- 
vered), it may be identical with C. punctata^ Conr. 

6. Clidiophora acutbdentata (vice C. B. Ad.). 

C. t, parum ** ehngata, ovata; parte pastica'* hand rostrata, 
lMtior€,obtMsa; "marffinedorsali^* postico'*subrecio; margine 
vaUrali rotwutato,** hand twaente; parte antica curtiore; 
**umh(mihi8 subtequaltter subconvexis, vmbone dextro postice 
anffulato'': inttts, v, eonvexa dente antico magna, acutissimo, 
medio parvo, pottico validOf maxime elongate ; v. planata den- 
tibus antieo etpostico acuti* ; ligamentojuxta dentemposticum 
eito. 
••Lon^. -7, lat -42, alt. ;11 poll." 

Bab, m Panama : sp. unicum, postice fractum, legit C. B. Adams 
deploratus : Museo Coll. Amherstianse := Pandora eomuta (Old.), 
C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. 498, P.Z.S. 1863, p. 368. 

Prof. Adams's " appropriate name suggested by Dr. Gould " being 
calcaiated to mislead^ I have thought it necessary to change it. 

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Most of the original diagnosis must also be dropped, the parts ahore 
quoted being all that it is desirable to retain. The present descrip- 
tion is written from notes and drawings made on a careful examina- 
tion of the broken type. The lines of growth show that, so far from 
being " comute," the species is remarkable for the absence of beak» 
—the margins being more equally rounded even than in P. obtvsa, 
which in shape it somewhat resembles. The hinge is almost exactly 
like that of C. claviculata, jun., but differs in the somewhat greater 
proportionate length of the clavicle, and in the unwonted size and 
sharp pointing of the anterior tooth. The new name has been chosen 
to record this peculiarity, rather than follow the modern custom of 
naming from the author of the mistake. The best naturalists occa- 
sionally err ; but corrections can be made without affixing a false com* 
pliment in perpetuity. 

6. ?Clidiophora DI8COR8, Shy. (Pandora d,), P. Z. S. 1835, 
p. 99 ; Sp. Conch, f. 29, 30. 

The type has not been discovered ; the figure and diagnosis only 
relate to the outside ; and the habitat b not stated. The genus is 
therefore doubtful ; but in shape it resembles the young of C. clavi' 
culata. 

7. t Clidiophora arcuata, Sby. {Pandora «.), Sp. Conch, f. 27f 
28 ; P. Z. S. 1835, p. 93 ; Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49. 

The worn valves in the Cumingian collection do not allow of a 
confident determination of the genus. 

Genus C<elodon*. 

Testa Pandoriformis : valva sinistra dentibus duohus^ eieatrieem 
adductoris anticam versus radiantibus, lamina infra cavemmtn 
Junctis : ossiculo nuUo : sinu pallii nullo. 

The shells of this group vary considerably in shape and dentition 
in the different species ; but agree in this, that in the left valve there 
is a kind of tent, formed by a thin laminated roof lying on the top of 
two diverging teeth. It is hard even to guess what is the use of this 
(perhaps unique) structure ; especially as its opening is not towards 
the body of the shell, but directly facing the anterior adductor. It 
is seen at once on opening the typical species, which was well figured 
by Sowerbv, Sp. Conch, f. 22. In the aberrant forms it might easily 
be overlooked, and a glass is needed to detect it in small specimens ; 
but if it exists, the shell can be supported on a pin thrust into the 
** hollow tooth." "When more species are known, the group may 
require subdivision, the C.Jlexuosus especially presenting a marked 
transition to Clidiophora. In that genus the posterior part exceb 
in development ; in Calodon, the anterior. All the known species 
are from the Eastern seas, but are very seldom seen in coliectiona* 
An enlarged diagnosis of the type species is offered* 

* Th. Koi\o%y hollow ; 6Mp, tooth* 

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1. CCELODON CEYLANICUS. 

Pandora ceylanica, bby. P. Z. S. 18.35, p. 94 ; Sp. Conch, f. 20, 
21, 22,=P. ceytonica, Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 50,=P. indica, Cheiiu, 
Man. Conch, ii. p. 54. f. 214. 

C. t. planata, rostra ta, seeuri/ormi; ventraliter tnaxime, aniica 

satis excurvata ; margins posttco doraali valtie inctirvato : 

intuSf valva dextra, margine postieo rectangulaiim fiuperstante, 

dentibus anticis ii, prcelongis^ satis extantibus^ usque ad cicn- 

tricem adductoris continuia^ dentem cavemosum vaivce alterius 

amplectantibus ; dente postico curtiore, extante, fossam carti^ 

lagineam per totam longitudinem gerente : vatoa sinistra, mar' 

gine postico subrectangulatim superstante ; sulco postico 

dentem v. alt. recipiente ; dentibus anticis usque ad cicatricem 

adductoris continuis, centrali longiore, plus quam dimidio inters 

stitii lamina tenui tectOy ventraliter arcuato. 

Under this species, of which the correct locality appears in the 

name, Mr. Sowerby quotes "a single specimen obtained at Island 

Muerte, W. Columbia, 1 1 fm., by Mr. Cuming." The hinge may 

not have been examined. The shell quoted does not now appear in 

the Cumingian collection, and probably belonged to Clidiophora 

davieulata, which in shape resembles the typical Coslodon. 

1 a. CcBLODON cuMiNGii, Haul. (Pandora c.)> P. Z. S. ISGl, 
p. 272. 

This agrees with the last species in shape and dentition, and is 
probably only a variety. 

Hab. Philippines (Cuming), 

2. CiBLODON DELICATULU89 A. Ad. (Pandora d.) P. Z. S. (diagn. 
M0t.). 

• . . marginibus darsalibus ad angulum circ, 160^ divergentibus : 

cardine v. dextr. dente postico satis elongato ; centrali curto, 

ad umbonem valde calloso ; antico longissimo, cicatricem ant, 

superante, margini contiguo : v. sinistr, dente centrali curto, 

supra cavemam evecto, in anticum pralongum continuo. 

In this species, the shape of which is not unlike P. obtusa, though 

less transverse, the anterior teeth are enormously developed at the 

expense of the central. These are short, but prominent ; in the left 

Talve bent over, along the whole length, to form the roof of the 

chamber, and then drawn on into the anterior tooth. 

3. C<BLODON ELONGATUS, n. S. 

C. t. parva, tenuissima^ maxime planata ; parte antica minore, 
excurvata ; ventraliter valde excurvata, postice maxime elan- 
gatOf rostro angustiore ; dorsaliter valde incurvata : intus, v, 
dextr, dente post, satis longo ; d. centrali prtslongo, postice 
/leeto, cicatricem adductoris parum superante ; d, antico mi^ 
nore : v, sinistr, cartilagine valde elongata, postice sita ; d. 
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eentrali pralongo, posHce Jtecto ; d, antico minore a marptM 
remoto^ lamina totiuM longitudinU ad eentralem juneto. 

Long. -65, lat. -3, alt. 05 poll. 

Hub, in China et Borneo (Mu9, Cuming,), 

This species is the Eastern representative of P. rostrata, as is C. 
delicatulus of P. obtusa. It has the reverse dentition, the central 
tooth being very long, and the anterior short, bridged over to meet 
it at the whole leneth. In the Borneo shell, which is larger, the 
anterior tooth is rather longer, with the front margin of the ceilins 
more incurved ; but the differences are probably due to increased 
age only. 

4. CcELODON FLBXU0917S, Shy. (Pandora/.), Sp. Conch, f. 13^ 
14, 15 ; Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49 (diagn. auct.), 

• • . cardine v. dexira dente portico pralongo, a margine separata^ 
usque ad cicalr, adduct. porrecto ; fossa cartilaginea eurta, 
inter denies post, et centr, sita / d, eentr. eurtissimo, maxiwu 
extant e^ retrorsum deflecto ; d. ant. minimo, pene obsoleto : v. 
sinistr. sulco pralongo postico; fossa cartilaginea separata, 
eurtiore; d. centr. extante^ curtissimo, supra cavemam pyr%* 
formem^ in dentem anticum usque ad cicatr, adduct, prolonga* 
tunit porrecto. 

This long-known but rare Red Sea species is to Pandora what 
Tnsis (Gray) is to Area. It is swollen and twisted, and, by its 
long clavicle, forms an interesting transition to Clidiophora. 

4 a, 1 CcELODON UNGUicuLus, Sby. {Pandora «.), Sp. Conch*' 
f. 16, 17; Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49. 

The type has not been found of this species, which was described 
from a convex valve only. It clearly belongs to the same section as 
C.flexuosus, and, though the shape is somewhat different, perhaps 
it is only a variety. 

Genus Pandora, Lam. 

It is proposed to limit thb genus according to the diaspiosis of Sow- 
erby, founded on Lamarck's. Succeeding naturalists have adopted 
the diagnosis, while they have included in it species to which it did 
not applv^. It presents a very simple type of hinge, as though the 
Fandori^ idea were gradually fading away towards jdyodora. The 
P. wardiana is the finest species in the group ; but it is scarcely 
typical, having the radiating grooves of the section KennerUa, The 
Lamarckian type is the Tellina intequalis of Linnaeus. 

1. Pandora rostrata. Lam., Forbes & Hani, et auct. plor.s 
P. inmqualist Linn., Gray, Add. 

* Chenii, however (Man. Conch, ii. p. 51), gifet in criipnal and extended 
diagnosis, in which he accredits to the whole genus ** une dent trian^Iaire, 
aplaiie, biforqu^e. dont la portion ant^rienre, pins longne, se prolonge josqu'iL 
rimpression nusculaire ant^rieure "—a character which only belonp to the seo- 
tioQ CmUtdm^ 

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2. Pandora -obtusa. Lam., auct* 

3. Pandora breyifrons, Sby., Sp. Conch, f. 25, 26; P.Z.S. 
1835, p. 93. 

4. Pandora cistula, Gld. Otia, p. 77. 

This species is not quoted in the index to the £. E. Moll., but 
appears in the text (p. 396) and in the Atlas (f. 500). In shape, 
but not in texture, it resembles P. obtonga, 

5. Pandora OBLON6A,Sb7., Sp. Conch, f. 10; Hani. Rec. Shells, 
p. 49. 

The anique type of thb species, from Humphrey's collection, has 
not been found ; it was not described in the P. Z. S., and \ety closely 
lesembles P. rastrata. 

6. Pandora radiata. Shy., P. Z. S. 1835, p. 24 ; Sp. Conclu 
f. 23, 24. 

7. Pandora wardiana, A. Ad. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 487. 

No ossicle has been observed in any of the above species. If it be 
found hereafter in living specimens of the grooved P. radiata and 
P. wardiana, they should be removed to the subgenus. The group 
il not local, as appears to be the case with Coslodon and ClidiapAora, 
being found in both hemispheres and on both sides of the equator. 

Subgenus Kennkrlia*. 

Pandora cartilagine ossieulo tenuiare inttructa; lamina exte* 
riore prumatica vidvpt planat^t radiU plerumque insculpia. 

The typical species have radiating grooves in the exterior prismatic 
layer of the right valve. These have not been observed in K. gla- 
euilii, but perhaps the specimens are somewhat decorticated. The 
essential character is the possession of an ossicle. This is well deve^ 
loped in K, glacialU, but so thin in the other species that it is often 
hidden in dried shells by the contraction of the cartilage. The first 
species in which it was observed (Dr. Kennerley having sent several 
fresh specimens, preserved in alcohol, to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion) was 

1. ELsNNERLIA FIL08A, U. S. 

K. t. tenui, planoconvexa, maxime rostrata ; tnarginihu dorMa^ 
Ubu9 rectis, ad angulum circ, 160^; ventrali regulariter et 
modice escurvato, postice vix sinvato i epidermule olivacea, 
plerumque erosa, posiice corrugata j lamina externa prisma tica 
spongiosa ; valva planata radiatim sulcata (quasi JSlosaJ , sulcis 
distantibus; valva eanvexa, cost a obtusissima postice decurrente; 

* Ntmed in grateful remembrance of the services rendered to science by the 
late Dr. Kennerley, the naturalist to the American N. Pacific Boundary Survey ; 
whose premature death has interrupted, ahnost at the onset, our kauwled^ of 
the dredging-fauna of Fuget Sound 

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lineis sen undis incrementi conspicuis .* intus dente cardinali 
uno, parvo, ex t ante ; eallontate elavieuloidea antica^ tnaryini 
contigua ; foMa eariilayinea postice sita ; dcatricibuB a4due^ 
torum rotundatis, tnaryini dorsali eontiguis ; linea paUii nm- 
plici. 

Long. -8, lat. '4, alt. -12 poll. 

Hab. in sinu Pugetiano {Kennerley). 

NERLIA BICARINATA9 n. 8. 

K. filosse" 9imili, sed hand roatrata; poatice latioref 
8 in valva convexa duabus, in valva planata una, ex umbo* 
postice decurrentibus ; lamina prismatica radiatim nU^ 
hand spongioaa : valva eonvexa tenuiter indentata; liga» 
elongate, tenuisnmo. 
, lat. -25, alt. -06 poll. 

insula Catalina, Californise ; 40-60 uln., rara {Dr. J. G. 
tate Geological Surrej Coll. no. 1063 ; Miis. Smithsonian 

36 and keels at once distinguish this beautiful little species 
orthern ally, with which, in the hinge and threading of 
lyer, it exactly agrees. The ligament in both species is 
;hin, holding thryalyes together from the umbo to the 
id. The fossil Pandora bilirata, Conr., may prove iden- 
his recent species; but the diagnosis, figure, and type 
re so imperfect that it would be too hazardous to affiliate 

>7ERLiA GLACTALis, Lcach (PandoragL), Shy. Sp. Conch. 
Hani. Rec. Shells, p. 49 (diagn. auct.). 

[ dextra eallo eonapicuo foasam eartilagineam Jlrmante i 

tiore. 

vrn species of Kennerlia are thus confined to the North 

the Arctic seas. The diagnosis of No. 1 belongs to a 
'. Kennerley's new species in the Joum. Ac. N. S. Philad. ; 

No. 2 to a series of papers on Dr. Cooper's new species 
. Calif. Ac. N. S. They are inserted here to complete 
raph, as far as known to the writer. The ** Pandoya 
loy" (Add. Gen. ii. p. 371), is a Myodora. The I&tter 
well defined that no alteration is proposed in k. 
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E. 



DIAGNOSES 



NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA 



FBOX 



THE VANCOUVER DISTRICT. 



BY 

PHILIP p. CARPENTER, B. A., Ph.D. 



from the Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol 
XIV. (Noe. 6—37), pp. 423--429, December, 1864. Ibid. Vol. XV 
(Noe. 37—66), pp. 28—32, January, 1866. 



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DIAGNOSES 
KET7 FORMS OF MOLLUSOA 

FROM 

THE VANCOUVER DISTRICT. 

BY 

PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



The shells here described were mostly collected by Indian chil- 
dren for their excellent teacher Mr. J. 6. Swan, in the neighbour- 
hood of Neeah Bay, W. T. They were presented by him to the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. ; and, in accordance 
with their liberal policy, the first available duplicates will be 
found in the British Museum or in Mr. Cuming^s Collection. 
The species are numbered to correspond with the list in the 
British Association Report for 1863, pp. 626-628; see .also 
pp. 636-664». 

5. Mara salmonea, 

M, testa parva, solida, compacta, subquadrata ; laeyiy nitente, epi- 
dermide tenui cinerea induta ; extus pallida, intus vivide salmoneo 
tincta; margiiiibus dorsalibus rectis, ad aogulum 120° separatis, 
umbonibus baud extantibus ; marginibus antico et ventrali regu- 
lariter late excurvatis ; parte postica brevissima, hrud angulata : 
intus, dent. card, utraque valva ii., quorum uuus'bifidus ; kterali- 
bus y. dextr. sequidistantibus, ant. extante, post, parvo ; nymphis 
rectis, baud conspicuis ; cicatr. add. post, subrotundata, ant. sub- 
rhomboidea; sinu pallii satis regulariter ovali, per iv. inter v. 
partes interstitii porrecto. Long. *57, lat. *45, alt. *ll poll. 

Variat testa aurantiaca, rarius albida, rosaceo tincta. 

Hab. San Francisco {Pac. Rail. E. E.) ; Neeah Bay {Swan)^ 
plentiful; Monterey, 20 fathoms [Cooper), 

In shape almost close to Macoma crasmla, Desh. (Arctic) ; 
but that species is thinner, not glossy or salmon-coloured^ and 
has no lateral teeth. 

6. Angvlus variegatus. 

A* testa forma A. ohtuso simili, sed costa interna omnino carent» 
?alde insequilateiaii, bulidion;^ uitente, rosaceo et fla?ido subrai" 

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2 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusea 

tim eleganter variegata ; striis incrementi concentricis, postice ex- 
tantioribus ; umbonibus postice flectentibus, obtusis : parte aotica 
prolongata, regulariter excurvata ; marginibus dorsali et Tentrali 
subparallelis, subrectis ; parte postica curtiore, subangulata : intus, 
dent. card, utraque valva ii. miniitis, quorum alter bifidus ; v. 
dext. dent, lat., ant. curto, satis extante, post, nullo ; njmphis 
Curtis, latis, parum concavis, subito sectis, valvis postea subalatis ; 
sinu pallii fere cicatr. aut. tenus porrecto. Long. *72, lat. '42, 
alt. -15. 

Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan); Monterey and Catalina Island^ 
20-60 fathoms, rare {Cooper). 

Subgenus Miodon*. , 

Testa Lucinoidea, dentibus cardinalibus, ut in Cardiia, elongatis ; 
laterali antico parvo instructiat. 

This little group of species is intermediate in character be- 
tween Astarte, Venericardia, and Lucina, It first appears in 
the Great Oolite, where it is represented by Astarte (Miodon) 
orbicularis, J. Sby. Min. Conch, pi. 444. f. 2, 3. This must not 
be confounded with a second and true Astarte orbicularis^ by the 
same author, pi. 520. f. 2. It appears in Mr. Searles Wood^s 
Crag-series as Astarte corbis. The following is the only recent 
species at present known. 

9. Miodon prolongatus. 

M. testa parva, solida, tumida, compacta, albida ; ventraliter antice 
yalde prolongata, excurvata ; lunula longa, rectiore, baud impressa; 
umbonibus antice infiectis, obtusis, valde prominentibus ; margine 
dorsali postico parum excurvato; costis radiantibus x.-xii. latis» 
obtusis, marginem attingentibus, parum expressis, dorsaliter obso- 
letis, a liris incrementi concentricis, plus minusve distantibus, ex- 
pressis, hie et illic interruptis : intus, margine a costis plus minusve 
obsoletim crenulato ; cardine dentibus v. dextr., uno postico, inter 
duas fossas elongatu, et lat. ant. lunulari; y.sinistr., dent. ant. trian- 
gular], post, yalde elongato, lat. ant. minimo, obsoleto ; cicatr. add. 
subrotundatis, yentraliter sitis. Long. *23, lat. *24, alt. -16. 

Subgenus Adula, Add. (diagn. auct.). 

Testa inter Modiolam et Lithopkagum intermedia, cylindracea ; 
umbonibus obtusis; parte antica longiore; ligamento subintemoy 
yalde elongato ; epidermide hand testacea. 

Animal byssiferum, in cryptis affixum; musculis adductoribus 
xnajoribus, antico ovato. 

Constituted by Messrs. Adams for A. soleniformis, D'Orb., 
which very closely resembles the young of the Vancouver species : 
enlarged to receive the shells of Lithophagoid shape which are 

* 7%. fiiUav, smaller ; odovs, tooth. 
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from the Vancouver DistricU 8 

moored by byssus, like Modiola. The largest known species ;a 
A.falcata, Gld., which is uormally straight^ but often grows in 
a twisted burrow. A. parasitica, Desh.^ and the long-known 
A. dnnamomea appear congeneric. 

13. Adula stylina. 

A. testa cylindracea, lithophagoidea, Isevi, tenuissima, parum ar« 
caata» subnacrea, albida, postice interdum livido tincta ; epider- 
mide nitente, Icevi, solidiore> nigro-fusca : testa jun. typice medio- 
Isformi, umbonibus subanticis, obtusissimis ; margine dorsali 
antice (rarissime paululum, testa minima, postice) tenuiter crena^ 
hto : testa adulta marginibus dors, et ventr. fere parallelis, ant. 
et post, rotundatis ; umbonibus detritis, haud conspicuis, cireiter 
sextantim antice sitis ; incrustatione haud solida, densissime spon- 
giosa, aream postieara diagonalem tegente, supra valvas prolongata, 
appressa ; ligamento intemo, postice valde prolongato ; pagina 
interna pallida ; cicatr. add. postica tumida, pyriformi, antica 
(quoad familiam) maxima, haud impressa, oblonga ; cicatr. pedali 
antica magna, circulari, impressa ; callositate subumbonali (testa 
jun.) cicatr. pedalem versus conspicua. Long. '155, lat. '4, alt. '5. 

Tariat t. magis arcuata ; ut in A, falcata, autice tumidiore, sub« 
angulata. 

Tariat quoque testa attenuata. 

Tariat interdum ventraliter late hiante. 
Hab. Neeah Bay, abundant [Swan) ; Monterey {Taylor). 

On smashing a large lump of hard clay, bored by Pholads, 
Petricolids, &c., large numbers of this species, with a few of A» 
falcata f of all ages from '06 od wards, were found in situ. Several 
struggled for room in a single crypt. The umbos are abraded 
by the wide opening of the valves. 

14. Aainaa {heptentrionalis, var.) subobsoleta. 

j£ testa A. septentrionali simili, parum ineequilaterali, haud tumida; 
umbonibus obtusis, latis, satis prominentibus ; cinerea, rufo-cas* 
taneo varie picta ; epidermide copiosa, sublaminata ; marginibuv 
ventrali et postico valde rotundatis, antico parum producto, doi- 
sali recto ; sulcis radiantibus subobsoletis sculpta, dorsali ter ssepe 
evanidis : intus, marginibus ventrali valde, ant. et post, parum cre- 
natis ; lamina cardinis subangulata ; dentibus paucicribus, validis, 
angustatis ; cicatr. add. antica castanea, callosa ; ligamento su\- 
cato. Long. -13, lat. -12, alt. 7. 
Hab, Neeah Bay (Swan) ; Shoal water Bay {Cooper). 

MiddendorfiPs shell is figured with much stronger ribs, but 
may have been described from decorticated specimens. 

15. Siphonaria Ther sites, 

8, testa parva, tenui, haud elevata, valde inaequilaterali, dense nigro- 
castanea, Isevi, sen interdum costulis paucis, obtusis, obsoletis, 

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4 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of MoUusea 

radiatim vix ornata ; epidermide laevi, tenui, fugaci ; costa pnlmo- 
nali intus et extus valde conspicua, tumente; yertice obtuso, 
plerumque ad quadrantem, interdam ad trientem totius longitu- 
dinis sito ; intus intense nigro-fusco, margine acuto. Long. *46, 
lat. -33, alt. -1/. 

Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 

This genus^ which culminates in western tropical America and 
at Cape Horn, is not known in California. The Vancouver spe- 
cies resembles S. lateralis and its congeners, but differs m having 
an enormous lung-rib and no colour-rays. 

16. Mopalia {Kennerleyi, var.) Swanniu 

M. testa 3f. Kennerleyi typicce simili, sed jugo fomicato, haud cari- 
nato ; omnino nibida, sculptura multo minus expressa ; areis late* 
ralibus vix definitis ; latera versus subgranulata ; dorsum versus 
lineis jugum versus procedentibus, interstitiis punctatis; sinu 
postico latiore ; limbo pallii lato, coriaceo, vix piluloso. Long. 
2-4, lat. 1-, div. 120°. 

Hab. Tatooche Island {Swan). 

23. Margarita Cidaris, A. Ad. 

M. testa magna, conica, Turcicoidea, tenui ; albido-cinerea, nacreo- 
argentato; anfr. nuc1eosis?...(decollatis), norm, vii., subplanatis; 
suturis alte insculptis; superficie spirse tota valide tuberculosa, 
seriebus tribus, alteris postea intercalantibus ; peripberia et bad 
rotundatis, carinatis ; carinis circ. viii., haud acutis, irregularibus, 
scabris, haud tuberculosis ; lacuna umbilicali vix conspicua ; aper- 
ture subrotundata ; labro tenuissimo ; labio obsoleto ; columella 
arcuata. Long. 1*1, long. spir. '65, lat. '75, div. 60^. 

Hab. Neeah Bay {Swan). 

Mr. A. Adams suggested the above expressive name for this 
very remarkable and unique shell. 

25. Gibbtda parcipicta. 

G, testa solidiore, parva, conica, pallida, purpnreo-fusco varie nebu- 
losa et maculata ; anfir. v.» rotunda tb ; carinis ii. valid is in spira 
ae monstrantibus, minore intercalante ; interstitiis subsuturalibus, 
subleevibus, inter carinas obtuse decussatis; lire peripherica de- 
finita, scepe in spire se monstrante ; basi valde rotundata ; lirulis 
basalibus circ. v. rotundatis, subdistantibus ; aperture subcirculari; 
columella arcuata ; umbilico majore, iufundibuliformi, haud angu- 
lato. Long. -14, long. spir. '07, lat -13, div. 70®. 

Hab. Neeah Bay {Swan) ; Santa Crux {Rowelt). 

26. Gibbula succinct a. 

G. testa parva, subelevata, solidiore; livida, testa jun. strigis angustis, 
creberrimis, fusco-purpureis pentdllata, testa adulu maeulis quo- 
qae magnis nebulosa ; anfi-. v., subquadretis; liris obtusis mediaoia 

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fram the Vancouver District. 5 

et striis subobsoletis cincta, suturis valde impressis ; basi rotun* 
data, obtuse angulata, striis saepe evanidis spiralibus ornata, testA 
adolta circa umbilicum magnum, infundibuliformem, vix angu- 
latum, ssepe tumidiore, medio obtuse impressa; apertura sub- 
quadrata, parom declivi; columella subarcuata. Long. *I6, loug. 
spir. -07, lafie, div. 70^ 

Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan); Lower California, on Halions 
[Rowell). 

27. Gibbula lacunata. 

G* testa parva, fusco-purpurea, solid lore ; marginibus spirse talde 
excnrvatis; anfractibus nucleosis normalibus, postea iv. subpla- 
natisy suturis distinctis, apice mamillato; sublaevi, circa basin 
Tix aogulatam striolata, striolis spiralibus distantibus; apertura 
Buborbiculari, parum declivi ; labio juxta umbilicum constrictum, 
quasi lacunatum, lobato; columella callositate parva umbilicum 
constringente. Long. '11, long. spir. *05, lat. '11, div. 80^. 

Hab. Neeab Bay {Swan). 

28. Cribbula funiculata. 

G. testa parra, elerata, compacta, fusca; marginibus spirse excnr- 
▼atis ; anfr. vi., baud tumidis, suturis parum impressis ; lirulia 
crebris rotundatis undique cincta, quarum v. in spira monstrantur; 
interstitiis panris ; basi rotundata, baud angulata ; umbilico parvo, 
baud carinato ; apertura suborbiculari, parum declivi ; columella 
▼ix arcuata. Long. '24, long. spir. *11, lat. '2, div. 70^. 

Hab. Neeah Bay {Swan), specimen unicum. 

29. Hipponyx cranioides. 

E, testa ralde .planata, majore, albida; vertice nncleoso? ... ; testa 
adulta apice interdum subcentrali, ssepius plus minusve postico ; 
laminis incrementi confertis, undique rapide augentibus ; strii^ 
radiantibus fortioribus, confertissimis, laminarum margines ssepe 
crenulantibus ; margine acuto^ cicatr. muse, angusta, margini 
fontigua, regione capitis minore, ssepe dextrorsum torsa; epi- 
dermide ?. . . Long. -85, lat. '75, alt. '3. 

Hab, Neeah Bay {Swan), 

30. Bivonia compacta. 

B, testa satis magna, saepe solitaria, purpureo-fusca, spiraliter ple- 
rumque satis regulariter contorta, obsoletim canceilata seu sculp- 
tura fere evanida ; testis tenacissime adbserente. Long, (plerum- 
qae) '7, lat. '3, diam. apert. •!. 

Hab. Barclay Sound; abundant on Pachypoma gibberosum 
(SwmC). 

Belongs to Bivonia, Gray (not Morcb). Has the aspect of 
Peialoconckus macrophragma on a large scale, but is entirely 
destitute of internal lauuiii^e. One specimen had a faint cola« 

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6 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Molhsea 

mellar thread for two whirls only. Operculum normal^ with 
thin edge^ dark red. 

32. Lacuna porrecta, 

L. testa L, puteolo simili, sed multo majore, spira magis exserta ; 
seu omnino fusca, seu zona pallidiore, seu pallida lineolis fusces- 
ceotibus tenuissime spiraliter ornata ; epidermide tenuiter striata 
olivacea seu Tiridescente induta; tenuiore, spiraliter tenuiter striata; 
anfr. t., vix planatis, rapide augentibus, suturis impressis, vertice 
mamillato ; apertura tumente ; labio tenui, vix parietem attingente» 
intus subrecto ; lacuna maxima, elongata, ad basin arcuata ; peri- 
pheria expansa. Long. '52, long. spir. -2, lat. '4, div. 80°. 
TVar. efusa : testa L.porrectte simili, sed multo majore ; spira elevata, 
satis effusa ; anfr. tumidioribus, suturis valde impressis ; aperturam 
versus magis expausa. Long. '65, long. spir. '25, lat. *5, div. 60°. 
TVar. exaquata : testa L. effect simili, sed anfr. planatis, suturis 
parum impressis. Long. *5, long. spir. '2, lat. '42, div. 80°. 
Hah. Neeah Bay (SwarC). 

The form L. exaquata is inteimediate. between the very dif- 
ferent L, porrecta and L, effusa. The Lacuna vary so much 
(vide Forbes & Hanley in loco) that^ even with a large multitude 
of specimens, it is not easy to state what constitutes a species. 

83. Lacuna (? solidula, var.) compacta, 
L, testa Z. solidula, var., simili ; parva, solida, compacta, angusta, 

subturrita, marginibus spiree excurvatis : aurantiaca, interdum pal- 

lidiore zonata ; anfr. subplanatis, suturis distinctis ; tota superficie 

confertissime spiraliter striolata ; basi valde augulata, subplanata ; 

apertura subquadrata ; columella vix lacunata. Long. *23, long. 

spir. -1, lat. -17, div. 60°. 
Variat testa elongata : variat quoque columella normkliter lacuuata. 

Hab. Neeah Bay (Swan). 

Possibly an extreme form of the very variable L, solidula, Lov, 
(= i. carinata, Gld., non A. Ad., = Modelia striata, Gabb), yet 
distinct in all ages. The young shells resemble small Litorina. 

34. Lacuna variegata. 

X. testa tenui, plus minusve elevata, soluta, irregular! ; adolescente 
fusco-purpureo ; adulta livida, radiatim seu diagonaJiter varie ir- 
regulariter strigata, strigis fusco-aurantiacis, ssepe ziczacformibus ; 
anfr. vi., quorum primi compacti, apice submamillato ; dem solutis, 
postice planatis, antice expaosis ; basi rotundata seu angulata ; 
apertura subovata ; labro postice porrecto ; labio ssepe parietem vix 
attingente; columella intus recta, extus valde lacunata. Loug. '6^ 
long. spir. '16, lat. '17, div. 50°. 
Hab. Neeah Bay (Stvan). 
Painted like L. decorata, A. Ad., which differs in having a 

normal growth, with very slight chink. 

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85. Isapis fenestrata. 

I. testa J. ovoidea forma et indole simili ; carinis ix. acutis (quarum 
IT. in spira monstrantur) cincta ; interstitiis duplo latiorihMS, con- 
cinne quadratini decussatis, limlis radiantibus acutisslmis; anfr. 

Eostice tumentibus, suturis valde excavatis ; peritremate continuo ; 
ibro a carinis peatinato ; labio parietein parum attingente, medio 
calloso; ambilico angusto. Long. '18, long. spir. '13, lat. *19» 
div. 70"". 

Hab. Neeah Bay {Swan) ; S. Diego and Sta. Barbara Island 
(Cooper), 

Dr. Cooper's shells are niueh smaller than those from the 
Yancoaver district^ which are white and eroded, varying much 
in the size of the umbilicus. 

36. Alvania reticulata. 

A. testa parva, subtnrrita, rufo-fuscn, marginibus spirse rectis ; anfr. 
nucleosis ii. et dimidio, naticoideis, Isevibus, tumentibus, apice 
mamillato ; norm, iii., tumidis, suturis impressis ; liris angustis, 
distantibus, spiralibus circ. xii. (quarum iv.-yi. in spira mon- 
strantur), et lirulis radiantibus, supra transeuntibus, baud nodulosis, 
secundum interstitia incurvatis, eleganter exsculpta ; interstitiis 
altis, quadratis ; peritremate continuo, subrotundato, acutiore. 
Long. -085, long. spir. '05, lat. '04, div. 30°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay; two specimens in shell- washings [Swari). 

37. Alvania filosa. 

A. testa A. reticulata indole et colore, baud sculptura, simili ; multo 
majore, elongata; anfr.nucl. ?... (detritis), norm. iv. ; striis parum 
separatis circ. xviii. (quarum circ. xii. in spira monstrantur) cincta ; 
rugulis radiantibus posticis creberrimis, baud expressis, circa peri- 
pberiam evanidis ; peritremate continuo ; columella rufo-purpureo 
tincta. Long. -13, long. spir. '09, lat. -OG. div. 20*^. 

Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen in shell- washings {Swan). 

38. lAssiminea subrotundata. 

\A. testa baud parva, Isevi, tenui, fusco-olivacea ; anfr. nucl. ?...(de- 
collatis) ; norm, v., rapide augentibus, subrotundatis ; marginibus 
spiree rectis, suturis valde impressis ; basi rotundata, baud umbili- 
cata; apertura rotundato-ovali, intus fuscescente; peritremate 
continuo ; labro acuto ; labio parum calloso ; columella arcrjita* 
Long. -28, long. spir. '13, lat. '2, div. 65°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay ; one specimen among Lacuna [Swan). 

May prove to be a large Hydrobia. 

89. Waludinella castanea. 
!P. testa compacta, solidiore, fusco-castauea, mareinibuB (pirae reo* 

1/? Oy41 



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8 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Farms of Molhsca 

tioribus ; rugulosa, lineis distantibus spiralibus irregulariter in* 
Bculpta; aQfr.fDucIeosis?. . . . (detritis), yertice late mamillatoi 
norm. It., rapidius augentibus, tumidioribus, guturis satis im- 
prefwis ; baai regulariter excurvata, vix rixnata ; apertura saborbi- 
ciilari, baud continua ; labro acuto; labio supra parieteni obsoleto, 
supra columellam arcuatam intiMf csUoho : operculo, anfr. iv. kvid 
rapide augeotibus. Long. *22, long. spir. -09, lat. *17> diF. ^^f. 

Hob. Neeah Bay ; one specimen among Lacuna {Swan). 

May be an aberrant Assiminea. 

40. Mangelia crebricostata. 

M, testa tereti, rufo-fucica, albo zonata ; anfr. nuel. f . . . (decollatis); 
norm. t. elongatis, subrotundatis, suturis impressis ; costis radi- 
an tibus, obtusis, subrectis, circ. xv., spiram ascendentibus ; scalp- 
tura spirali ? . . . (detrita) ; apertura pyriformi, antrorsum in ca- 
nalem brevem attenuata ; labro postice parum sinuato ; labio con- 
spicuo. Long. *54, long. spir. *3, lat. *2, div. 28^. 

Hob. Neeah Bay; 1 specimen {Swan). 

41. Mangelia interfossa* 

M, testa panra, yalde attenuata, rufo-fusca, marginibus spirse parnm 
excurvatis ; anfr. nuel. ii., ut in Chryaodomo irregularibus, apice 
mamillato ; norm. Ti., parum excurvatis, hand tabulatis, suturis 
distinctis ; costis radiantibus circ. xv.^ angustis, extantibus ; cos« 
tulis spiralibus circ. xy.,quarum circ. t. seu vi. in spira monstrantur, 
angustis, supra costas trahseuntibus, ad iutersectiones parum uo- 
dulosis ; interstitiis altis, quadratis ; basi effusa ; apertura sub- 
pvriformi; labro acuto, postice vix emarginato; labio teaui. 
Long. -38, long. spir. -22, lat. -13, div. 25^ 

Hah. Neeah Bay; very rare {Swan). 

42. 1 Mangelia tabulaia. 

TAT. testa parva, solidissima, luride rufo-fusca, mai^nibus spirse ex- 
curvatis ; vertice nucleoso chalcedonico (eroso) ; anfr. norm. ▼., 
postice rectangulatim tabulatis, suturis impressis ; costis radianti- 
bus circ xvi., validis, obtusis, circiter basim attenuatam obsoletis ; 
costis spiralibus in spira iii.-iv. angustis, extantibus, supra cost, 
rad. nodosis ; interstitiis alte insculptis, subquadratis ; costis circa 
basim circiter vii., quadratim extantibus, interstitiis a lineis incre- 
menti vix decussatis ; canali curta, aperta ; labro acutiore, ad an- 
giilum posticum vix sinuato ; labio tenui ; columella obsolete uni- 
plicata. Long. '45, long. spir. '26, lat. '2, div. 35^. 

Hab. Neeah Bay; several worn specimens {Swan). 

The distinct fold near the base of the pillar may require the 
fcffmation of a new genus. 

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• from the Vancouver District. '9 1 

\ 

43. JDapknella effusa. 

!D. testa gracillima, maxime effusa, rufo-fusca ; antr. angustis, elon* 
gads, snturis impressis ; striis spiralibus crebris a lineis incre- 
menti decnssatis ornata; labro tenuiore, postice yix sinuato. 
Long. -65, long. spir. -45, lat. -22, div. 30^. 

Hab, Neeah Bay; one broken specimen {Swan). 

44. Odosiomia satura. 

0. testa magna, alba, Isevi, solidiore, satis elevata ; anfr. nncl. ii., 
aagnstis, subplanorboideis, valde decliviter sitis, dextrorsum im- 
mersis, sinistrorsum extantibus; norm, t., tumidioribus, regula* 
riter conyexis, suturis impressis ; basi rotundata, tumente, quasi 
nmbilicata; apertura ovata; labro vix sinuato; labio tenui, ap- 
presso ; plica columellari valida, subantica, parieti baud contigua, 
transrersa. Long. '26, long. spir. *14, lat. *13, div. 40°. 
Hab. Neeah Bay; rare {Swan). 

Tar. pupi/ormis : anfr. primis Talde depressis, planatis ; vertice 
mamillato ; anfr. alt. normali. Specimen unicum, quasi monstru- 
osum. Long. '19, long. spir. '1, lat. '12, div. 45°. 

44 i. Odostomia (?var.) Gxmldiu 

0, testa solida, alba, ovoidea, marginibus spirse valde excurvatis ; 
vert. nucl. decliviter immerso ; anfr. norm, v., subplanatis, suturis 
valde impressis ; peripheria baud angulata ; basi excurvata, baud 
tumida ; apertura ovata, postice parum constricta ; labro solido ; 
labio conspicuo, rimam umbilicalem form ante ; plica subroediana, 
solida, extante, baud declivi. Long. '23, long. spir. '13, lat. '1, 
div. 30°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay ; very rare (Swan). 

Agrees in some respects better with the diagnosis of 0. ffra* 
vida, Gould, than do Col. Jewett^s shells, from which it is pre- 
sumed the species was described. These large forms appear 
Tery variable. 

45. Odostomia nuciformis. 

0. testa magna, compacta, Isevi, solida, alba ; anfr. nucl. ? . . . (erosis), 
vertice submamillato ; anfr. norm, v., subplanatis, subelougatis ; 
spira brevi, marginibus valde excurvatis ; basi elongata, baud um- 
bilicata ; apertura subovali, postice angusta ; labro solido ; labio 
tenui ; plica antica, solida, obtusa, transversa, parietem baud attin- 
gente. Long. '3, long. spir. '14, lat. '18, div. 70°. 

Hab. Neeah Bay; extremely rare {Swan). 

45 b. Odostomia (? var.) avdlana. 

0. testa O. nuei/ormi indole simili, sed spira valde prolongata. 
Long. -32, long. spir. '16. lat '16, div. 50°. 
Hab. Neeah Bay ; one specimen {Swan). 
Like a gigantic form of O. conoidalis. 

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10 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 

47. Odostomia ienuisculpia. ^ 

O. test a ovoidea, subelevata, albida, tenui, diaphana ; anfr. nnd. 
subverticaliter immersis, angustis ; norm, iii., parum tuinidis, su- 
turis impressis, sulculis spiralibus latioribus baud impressis, dis- 
tantibus, in spira iii., circa basim rotundatam circ. vi. subobso- 
letis ; apertura ovaia ; plica acuta, declivi, parva, parieti conti^ua; 
labro acuto ; labio indistincto ; columella antice parum effusa. 
Long./l, long. spir. '04, lat. '06, div. 60®. 

Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen {Swan). 

48. Scalaria Indianorunu 

S, testa ffracili, turrita, alba ; anfr. circ. x., rotundatis, parum sepa- 
ratis, Isevibus ; basi simplici, baud umbilicata ; costis viii.-xv. 
(plerumquexii.),acutioribu8, subreflexis, interdum latis, plerumque 
lineis irregularibus margini spirse recto parallelis ascenderitibus, 
rarius juxta suturam subnodosis; apertura ovata. Long. 1*05, 
long. spir. -8, lat. -36, div. 28^ 

Hab. Neeah Bay {Swan). 

Strung as ornaments by the Indian children. Intermediate 
between S, communis and S, Turtonis, and scarcely differa from 
** S. Georgettina, Kien./^ Mus. Cum. no. 34, Brazil. 

48 b. Scalaria {? IndiaTiorum, var.) tincia. 

S. Ilndianorum costis acutis, baud reflexis ; anfractibus postice fosco- 
purpureo tinctis. 

Hab. Cerros Island {Ayres) ; S. Pedro {Cooper). 

The Lower-Californian shell may prove distinct. It is like 
S. regularisy Cpr., but without the spiral sculpture. 

Subgenus Ofalia, H. & A. Ad. (diagn. auct.). 

Scalaria varicibus obtusis, irregularibus, parum definitis : sculp* 
tura basim versus interrupta. 

Ex. in Mus. Cum. : — O. crassicostafa, 0. crassilabrum, 0, dia- 
dema, 0. funiculata, 0, crenata, O. granulosa, 0, australis, O, bi- 
carinaia, O. attenuata, Pse., O. M' Andrea, Fbs., sp. ined. (West 
Indies). Other West-coast species are 0. crenatoides and var. 
insculpta, O. spongiosa, and 0, retiporosa. 

The species of this very natural group were arranged by Messrs. 
Adams partly under Opalia and partly under Cirsotrema. 

49. Opalia borealis, Gld. 

O. testa 0. australi simillima, valde elongata ; anfr. xii., planatis, suturis 
parum impressis ; testa jun. costis validissimis viii. latis, rotundatis, 
peripheriam attingentibus,iuterdum interruptis; testa adulta isaepiua 

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from the Vancouver District. TX 

olisoletis, ad peripheriam evanidis; circa basim totam usque ad 
peripheriam angulatam lamina spirali, planata; apertura ovali; 
iota superficie miuutissime spiraliter striolata : operculo pauci- 
fipirali, nucleo ad trientem longitudinis sito, lineis increm^nii ta- 
lidis. Long. V7, long. spir. 1-3, lat. '53, div. 20°. 

Hab. Paget Sound {U. S. ExpL Exp.); Neeah Bay and Ta- 
tooche Island {Swan). 

This species was doubtfully indicated, not described, by Dr. 
Gould, in the ' E. E. Moll.^ p. 207. It appears to be exactly iden- 
tical with " crassicostata, Australia/' in Brit. Mus., and is nearly 
related to Ochoiensis, Midd. It must not be confounded with 
Acirsa borealis, Beck. One young specimen has the ten ribs of 
0. australis. 

50. Cerithiopsis munita 

C. testa C. purpurea simili, sed angustiore, marginibus spirse fere 
rectis ; costis spiralibus magis expressis, testa adulta minus nodu- 
losis; basi sequaliter lirulata. Long. '34, long. spir. *24, lat. '11^ 
div. 20°. 
Hab, Neeah Bay; common {Swan). 

51. Cerithiopsis columna. 

C, testa majore, valde elongata, purpureo-fusca ; anfr. norm, ix., 
planatis, suturis distinctis ; seriebus iii. nodulorum spiralibus 
Talde appressorum, creberrimorum, interstitiis parvis, altis ; aliis 
interdum intercalantibus ; lira quarta supra suturam baud yalde 
nodulosa, liris duabus baud expressis aream suturalem cir- 
eumeuDtibus ; basi planata, baud sculpta, ad peripheriam obtuse 
angulata; apertura quadrata. Long. *38, long. spir. 32, lat. *1, 
div. 10°. 
Hab. Neeah Bay ; several worn specimens {Sivan) : Monterey; 

rolled fragment of larger shell {Cooper), 
Easily recognized, even in portions, by the ''strung-fig" 

pattern. 

55. Cancellaria modesia, 

C testa elata, subrufa, trichotropiformi, marginibus spirse rectis; 
anfr. norm, v., rotuodatis, postice subtabulatis, suturis impressis ; 
costis spiralibus obtusis, distantibus, in spira circ. iv., circa basim 
proloDgatam circ. vii., aliis minoribus interdum intercalantibus; 
interstitiis secundum incrementa, decussatis; apertura sub- 
quadrata; columella plicis duabus declivibus anticis et costulis 
basalibus omata; labio nullo. Long. -68, long. spir. '34, lat. 34, 
div. 50^. 

Hab. Neeah Bay; one specimen and fragment {Swan). 

56. Velutina prolongata. 

V, testa majore, subplanata, teuuiore, caruea, spira minima ; anfr. iii* 

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12 Dr. P. P. Carpenter an new Forms of Mollusca. 

et dimidio, rapidissime augentibus; yertice vix conspicuo; anfr. 
ult. antice valde porrecto; regione columellari incurrata; kbio 
valido ; axi baud rimata ; epidermide tenui, rugis incrementi or- 
nata, spiraliter baud striata. Long. *1, loDg. spir. *15« lat. *d5» 
div. 140^ 

Uab. Neeah Bay ; rare {Sumn). 

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F. 



DIAGNOSES 



NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA 



FBOX 



THE VANCOUVER DISTRICT. 



BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 201-20^ 
February 14, 1866. 



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Diagnoses of New Forms of Mollusca from the Van- 
couver District. By Philip P. Carpenter, B.A., Ph.D. 

Tebebbatula unguicula, n. s. 

T. t. juniore " Terebratulinse capiti-serpentis" simillima, sed la- 
tiore, suhtmangulata ; punciis valde conspicuis ; costia con- 
spicuis, interdum obiusioribus, aliis intercalantibiu ; intus, 
amento subocii/ormi, postice ap&rto, cruris diaffona/ibus cardini 
qffixis : testa adulta valva inferiore subrotundata, marginem 
versus hand planata ; umbone valde tumente, latiore; striis 
radiantihus, ut in ** T. capite-serpentis " conspicuis ; marginibus 
crenulatis, haud undatis ; intus amento major e, bisinuato, dor- 
saliter haud continuo, calcaribus duobus munito. 
Long. '6, lat. '5, alt. '3 poll. 

Hab, San Diego, 6 fm. ; Monterey, not rare in 20 fm., (in Cali- 
fornia State Geological Survey) Cooper, Neeah Bay (valve), Su}an, 
Vancouver, Forbes. 

The specimens sent by Dr. Cooper were all of small size, and, from 
the intercalation of riblets near the margin, clearly immature. They 
presented the incomplete loop of the restricted genus to which Dr. 
Cooper affiliated them. Notwithstanding, as both Davidson and Wood- 
ward state that the young of the British species has the loop similarly 
open, it remained doubtful whether this might not prove conspecific. 
Messrs. Reeve and Hanley unhesitatingly pronounced them to be 
" eaput-serpentis, jun.," the latter gentleman stating that they pre- 
sented the peculiar form of that species which belongs to the Medi- 
terranean examples. Dr. Forbes, however, was fortunate enough to 
• 249 



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2 DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW MOLLUSCA. 

obtain an adult shell, which passed into the Cumingian Collection- 
Having removed the animal matter with great care, the loop wa» 
found to retain the form seen in the young shell, only perhaps stil* 
more open. This is the first recent species of the genus which has 
been discovered with a sculptured surface, and a£forai an instructive 
lesson not to rely ou external characters. 




Terebrahda unffuieula: 1, 2, outside views of Mr. Coming's adult specimen, 
natural size : 3, 4, inside views of the upper valve, slight! j magnified. 

The outline of the adult is much rounder, and the margin blunter, 
than in T. caput "Serpentis, Inside, the noncompletion of the some- 
what w-shaped loop is a very obvious character. This is large ir 
proportion, extending to about two-fifths of the length and one- 
third of the greatest breadth of the shell. It is bent upwards in the 
middle, as seen from the partly opened valves ; with a double wave at 
the sides, as seen from the direction of the opposite valve. Two spurs 
ascend from the crests of the side waves, as though preparing tc 
complete the loop. The similar Terebratella angu9tata from Japan, 
when of the same size as Dr. Cooper's specimens, has the loop quite 
continuous *. 

Subgenus NBTTASrOMELLAf. 

Pholadidea : valtfis postice in ealycem testaeeum planatum pr^ 
hngatis ; calyce eoriaceo nulla, 

NettastOmblla darwinii. Shy. (diag. auct.). 

N. t. minore, elongata, tenuissima ; parte postica co9tis radian- 
tibus acutioribuB circ, vii. et laminis concentricis acutissimisj 
distantibut, antice continuit, elegantissime omatai rostrispla* 

* Dr. Cooper having forwarded for my inspection t large aud beautifully per 
feet specimen of the true WaldhHmia eal\fomiea^ I have compared it with the 
leries of the very variable W, globota in the Smithsonian Museum, undoubtedly 
ttom Orange Harbour. The California shell, however, has a strong brownish* 
red tinge, and does not display the beautiful veining of the Maghellan species. 

t Th. VTiTTat a duck, 9r6iia, mouth. The name NetoMtoma, given in tbc 
' Brit Assoc. Report/ 1863, being preoccupied in another subkiiigdom, accordinf 
to Dr. Cooper, it is thought necessary to vary the termination. 

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J>R. P. P. CARPENTER ON NEW MOLLU8CA* 6 

natis, ftostice diver gentibus^ striis incrementi crtbru mcutis, 
aliter haud sculpta ; parte antica t. jun. aperta, fidultm elauta ; 
clcnuU ienuissimiSf eecundum incrementa undulaHs, 9uper ttm- 
hones prolongatis, umbiticos po9tice formantibus ; epidermide 
fugacit tenui, pallide virxdi, 
Hab. Monterey, Rich, ; Vaucoayer, Lord ; S. Diego, Cooper. 
= Pholas darmnii, Sby. 
B Jouanetiia darwinii, Mas. Cuming, 
as Parapholas penita, Trvon, Mon. Phol. 
This remarkable shell differs from Jouanetiia in haTin^* both 
Tslves equal; from Pkoladidea proper in having no conaceous 
cap, its place being supplied by a flattened prolongation from 
etch Talve, like a duck's bill in miniature. In Mr. Lord's specimen 
(preserved in the British Museum), though the valves are closed, the 
prolongations are widely divergent, as when the bird utters its cheer- 
ful ** quack." The loose, thin epidermis appears to have covered the 
biU as well as the valves. Mr. Tryon had probably not seen a speci- 
men, else he could hardly have affiliated so veij aifferent a shell to 
PhokuUdea penita. The original specimen is said to have come from 
ChiU. 

Darina declivis. 

D. t, tenuissima, planata, elliptical MaeluBTarformi^ utroque latere 
hiante : cinerea, epidermide fortiore indut a ; marginibue regu" 
lariter exeurvatie; umbonibus haud eonspicuie, ad duae inter 
quinque partes longitudinie poetice eitie : intue cartilagine 
epathula elongatOy dorsum versus utraque valva deeliviter sita, 
a Ugamento lamina extante tenuissima separata; dente car- 
dinali laminato^ extante^ curtiore; lateralibus vis eonspicuis; 
sinu pallii ovaU, fere ad medium porrecto* 
Long. 1-77, hit. -85, alt. -34 poll. 
ffab. Vancouver's Island (Forbes), 

The only other species of Darina known is from the Straits of 
Maghellan. The northern shell may have been passed over as the 
yoanff of Maeheera patula, to which it bears a strong external re- 
sembumce. 

Saxioomus brbvisiphonatus. 

8. t, subovali, tenuiore, subplanata, albida^ epidermide pallide 
oUvacea induta ; tota superjicie rugis concentricis, crebris, 
valde obtusis, et undis incrementi interdum majoribus, omata ; 
marginibus subtequaliter excurvatis, maxime ventrali: intus 
cardine tenuiore, dente antico elongato ; sinu pallii parvo, ad 
trientem interstitii porrecto, latiore. 

Long. 2-65, lat. 2*05, alt. 115 poll. 

Hab. TVancouver, ?Japan {Mus. Cuming). 

A very distinct species, in shape and hinge not unlike Callista, but 
without lunule. It is more rounded and flatter than the three ty- 

dCalifomian species, and known at once by the very small mantle- 
• From four to six blunt riblets are seen on each of the very 
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204 DR. p. p. CARPENTER ON NEW MOLLt78CA. 

blunt waves of growth. The shell was sent me as from Dr. Forbes's 
Vancouver collections, and is so quoted in the Br. Assoc. Rep. 1863, 
p. 607 ; but Mr. Cuming subseouently stated his belief that it came 
from Japan. It may be allowable to state that many of the species 
iucluded in Saxidomus by authors are more correctly rough forms of 
Tapes, of the decussata-type ; the true Saxidomi differing from that 
genus (as Callista does from Fenus) in having an additional pseudo- 
kteral anterior tooth. This is very evident in the young shell, which 
has a much rounder outline than tlie adult, and can scarcely be 
distinguished from Calliata, except by the absence of lunule. 

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G. 



DIAGNOSES 



New Species and a New Genus of Mollusks, 



THE REIGEN MAZATLAN COLLECTION; 

WITH AN ACCOUNT OP ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS PRESENTED TO 
THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 



BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER. B.A.. Pa.D. 



From the Proceedingi of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 268-273, 
March 11 1865. 



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Diagnoses of New Species and a New Genus of Moh* 

LU8K8 from the ReIOEN MaZATLAN COLLECTION : WITH 

an account of additional Specimens presented to 
THE British Museum. By Philip P. Carpenter, B.A., 
Ph.D. 

After the publication of the British Musenm Mazatlan Cntaloeue, 
the backs of several fresh Spondylus-Telves were examined by Mr. 
R. D. Darbishire and mjself. Among the specimens were several 
fchich were deemed worthy of being added to the national collection; 
they were deposited there, with a MS. appendix to the Catalogue, 
in 1858. As it is not judged necessary to print this separately, I 
hsTe (mth the permission of Dr. Gray) transcribed what should be 
placed on record, in hopes that it may not be judged out of place 
in the * Proceedings.' Those who use the Mazatlan Catalogue are 
requested to observe not only the corrections in the Appendix, 
pp. 547-552, but also those made in the Review of Professor C. B. 
Adams's Panama CaUlogue, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 339 ; and in the 
Kritiflh Association Beports, 1863, pp. 543 et seq. The numbers, 
both of species and of tablets, are continued from the Mazatlaa 
Catalogue, and correspond with those in the Report. The student 
•f the Gulf fauna should also consult the account of Mr. Xantus's 

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2C<^ OR. p. p. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 

Tape St. Lucas shells in the •Annals Nat. Hist*' 1864, and in the 
iiuport, pp. 616-626*. 

704. Cellepora areolata, Buskf . 

Tablet 2540 contidns a specimen on Omphalitis ligulatu9% 

705. Membranipora ^flemingii, Buskf. 
Tablet 2541 contains a group on O. ligulatut^ 

* The following additional speciment from the Beigen Collection hare hom. 
presented to the Britiflh MuBeum : — 

Tablet 

12*. A group on Omphalius ligulatus, 
13*. Lepralia adpressa and Membranipora^ sp. ind., on ditto. 
42. Young opposite valve of ?Solecurttis , perhaps conspecific 
201*. Four young valves (sraallest 05 by •034) probably of this species. 
206*. Minute transparent valve, '028 across, teeth imformod; perhaps of 

this species. 
358*. Two specimens ; margin irregular. 
.594*. Several specimens in llvanilla unguis ; one, not having room within, has 

made a case for itaelf outside the Uvanilla. 
642*. A pair, '3 by '15 ; probably an older state of the same species, Barbaiia 

altemafa, 
60*. A minute, transparent valve, -045 by '024, without teeth ; resembling 

*'? Sajncamfragi/ia, Nyst," JeflFr., in • Ann. Nat. Hist.,' Aug. 1858. 
486*. A young shell, 06 across, laid open ; crowded inside, especially near tho 

um bones, with a pinkish mass oi young ones, about "001 8 in length. 
500. A younger pair, much more transverse, transparent, without concentric 
ridges, the lateral teeth in one valve being simply the raising of the 
dorsal margins. 
833*. Two young specimens, nestling among Nullipore on Fissurella alba. 
869*. Two specimens, with egg-cases arranged in pattern like OrbitoliUs, 
876*. One specimen, curiously mended after fracture. 
877*. One specimen, with columella curiously contorted. 
1023*. One specimen, with ribs rounded and aspect of Siphonaria lecanium ; 

probably a distinct species. 
1058*. One young specimen, {)robably conspeoific, though only 07 by 047; 

there is no trace of spire. 
1059*. Three specimens ; broad form. 
1468*. Fragment of Spondylua caldfer, with basal supports of Hipponyx tmr* 

ratus, in bwrrow of LUhophagus plumula, 
1795*. Two specimens with five mtercalary teeth. 
18'i4*. One specimen with the canal bent back, as in Cassidaricu 
2221*. One specimen, mended after severe fractilre. 
2223*. One specimen ; oolumellar fold bifid. 
2224*. Two specimens ; columella bent and straight. 
2225*. One specimen ; labrum thin. 
2226*. One specimen ; ribs clase. 

2376*. One specimen, dwarf form ; nodulous, as in N. noduJifera, Phil. 
2516. An opposite larger valve, since found, in which there is only one distinct 

posterior tooth, and the anterior hooked tooth is separating into two. 
[2534. One specimen of Vitrinella 1 tricarinata, \\m.^ of which the ribs aro 
nodulous in the young state. If rightly determined, this adds no. 710 
to the list of species.] 
2536. A nuclear shell, 046 across, of Naticoid shape, very finely striated in eadli 
direction. It is probably a young Hipinrngx 

t Both of these species were kindl/ identified by Mr. GK Buak, 

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OF MOLLUSKS FROM MAZATLAN* 279 

Genus Cycladei la« 

Testa htvalvis, tenuis, aquilateralist, aquivalvis, hauff hians, trm- 
bonibus planatis. Liyamentum tenuissimum, externum, Cardo 
linea curvata, dent, lat. distaniibus, card, transversis, haud 
radiantibus, 

56. Ctclabella papyracea, n. ep« 

C. t, tenuissima, subdiaphana, epidermide tenui induta, planata, 
suborbteulari ; eoncentnce for titer lirata, liria rotundatis, intus 
excavatts; tot a superjicie hneis granulosis radiantibus creber~ 
rimis minutissime calata; dent, card, i.-ii. transversis, maf^ 
gini dorsali subparallelis ; dent, lat, validis, 

^*'Tellina lebumea, Ilanl." (Tragraents only), Maz. Cat. no 56. 

Mr. Hanlej kindly sent for my inspection a perfect pair (as 
^'Lepion*^), which he had found nestling in a burrow in Spondylua. 
The hinge more resembles Cyclas (Lam.) than any other known 
genus. Its great peculiarity is, that the cardinal teeth, instead of 
radiating from the umbo, fall in the curve of the hinge-line, as 
though uniting the lateral teeth. The shell is too thin (being deeply 
indented within by the concentric waves) to make out the pallial 
line ; but no trace of sinus is visible. It may therefore rank, provi- 
sionally, under Kelliadte, although in other respects its affinities 
appear to be with (Edalia and Cooperella. The ligament appears 
little more than a prolongation of the epidermis. Beside the trans- 
verse cardinal teeth, there is in each valve a curved line, sHghtly 
raised Hke the end of a finger-nail, which bounds what would be the 
lunale in other shells. 

Long. • 1 , lat. • 1 23, alt. 045. 

Bab, Mazatlan ; one perfect specimen from Harre CoUectioa 
(Mus, Hani,) ; fragments, Liverpool Collection. 

706. ?MoNTACUTA OBTUSA, n.Sp. 

f M. t. planata, valde irusquilaterali, subrhomboidea ; subdia* 
phana seu chalcedonica, haud punctata, Ujevi; maryinibus ple^ 
rumque reyulariter excurvatis, dorsali recto, umbonibus haud 
prominentibus ; cardine, vtraque in valva^ dente uno cardinuli 
et fossa ligament a/i ; dent lat. altera valva elongatia, rectis, 
altera vix conspicuis. 

Differs from ?M. dionaa \n the elongation of the lateral teeth, 
and in the possession of a distinct cardinal tooth in each valve. 

Long. 047, lat. 06, alt. -01. 

Hab, Mazatlan ; two fresh specimens, Liverpool Collection. 

Tablet 2530 contains the larger specimen; the other is trans 
parent. 

696, Pectunculus, sp. ind. 

Tablet 253 1 contains a minute valve, '033 across ; outside yn^h 
Close, prominent concentric ridges, fohated by about twenty-fmtf 
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271 DR. p. p. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 

rounded ribs, which are eTanescent near the umbo. Inside with % 
very few strong teeth, developed in a curved line. 

698. SCISSURELLA RIMULOIDES, n. Sp. 

S. t. rapide auffente, albidoy tenuissima; apice celnto; anfr, 

iii., radiatim liratis, liris subdistantibtis, acutis, obliquU ; um' 

bilico magna ; labro dp/ilivi, haud fisso^ sed apertura postica^ 

ut in " Rimula " /ormata, oubquadrata, elongata ; liris trans^ 

versis gradus testa increscentis definientibus i peritremate con^ 

tinuo, obliquo. 

Only one specimen was found of this beautiful little species, the 

first known from America. It looks like a Velutina crossed by 

<)harp ribs in the direction of the slanting mouth. In the first whorl 

^e ribs are very close. It then assumes its normal sculpture, but 

there is nearly a whorl before there is any trace of incision. This 

appears to have begun as a slit, which was afterwards closed up. A 

band, marked off by ten transverse ribs showing stages of growth, 

encircles the shell as far as the hole, which is long find somewhat 

«**ctangular; but there is no band between the hole and the outer 

lip. The shell furnishes a complete transition to Rimula, It is 

pieserved on tablet 2532. 

Long. -023, long.spir. -003, lat. -03; div. 140^ 

Hab, Mazatlan ; off Spondylus calcifer ; Liverpool Collection. 

.^99. VlTRINELLA ORNATA, n, Sp. 

V. t, subdiscoidea, diaphana, tenuissima ; anjr. iv., quorum iii, 
primi nucleosi, insculpti ; ultimo carina maxima circa pertphe* 
riam ; postice subangulata, rugis radiantibus et striolis spi' 
ralibus omata; antice carinata, carina nodosa; basi carina 
altera et rugis radiantibus omata; umbilico angulato, satis 
magno; labro a carina indent ato. 

Long. 015, lat. •028--035 ; div. (circ.) 17.5^ 

Hab, Mazatlan ; one specimen off Spondylus, on tablet 2533 ; 
Liverpool Collection. 

700. VlTRINELLA TENUISCULPTA, D. Sp. 

V. t, planatat diaphana, tenuissima; an/, iii. et dimidto, quorum 

iii. nucleosi; striis elevatis, spiralibus, quorum una magna, 

quasi carina prope suturam sculpta; peripheria haud angu' 

lata : basi bis angulata, interdum rugis radiantibus distantibus 

omata / umbilico satis magno, carinato ; apertura undata, sub' 

quadra ta. 

The sculpture is not uniform over the last whorl. The principal 

diagnostic features are the biangulated base, the infrasutural keel» 

and the rounded periphery. 

Long. 016, long. spir. 0, lat. -023-03 ; div. 180°. 
Hab. Mazatlan; one specimen off Spondylus, on tablet 2534 1 
Liverpool Collection. 

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or MOLLTJSK!? rnOM MAZATW.M. 97^ 

701. ? YlTRINELLA, Sp. icd. 

Tablet 2535 contain!* » tragment, '085 across, of wliat wa^ pro- 
l»ablj a gigantic species of this genus or of Cyclotrema^ strong)j 
keeled. 

492, DiALA PAtJPBRCtJLA, C. B. Ad. 

^Cingula paupercula^ C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. : dia^fwm 

mutata. 

^Wdostamia mamillata, Maz. Cat. no. 492 : diagnosi autta. 

D. t. nitida, solida; vert. nucL anfr, iv., lirulis spiralibus ei 
radiantibus tenuiter decussato ; t, adxUta decoUata, ve/tice 
mamillato ; anfr. norm. iv. ; peritremate continuo ; bast obtuse 
angulata, lacuna umbilieali a labia eeparato formata. 

Long. -085, long, spirse -055, lat. 05 ; div. 34°. 

The fortunate discovery of a perfect young specimeiAuid some 
adult shells in the shell-washings of Professor Adams's collection 
enables us to explain the anomalies described in the Mazatlan Cata- 
logue, where the solitary dead shell was referred, with doubt, to 
Odostomia, in consequence of its truncated apex. It was not pos- 
mble to recognize in it Professor Adams's " Cingula/* since that was 
described as haying the apex " subacute," and the angular base anc* 
continuous peritreme were not mentioned. The nuclear whorls are 
sculptured as in Alaba supralirata ; but the vertex, instead of being 
persistent as in that genus, appears to be always decollated in the 
adult. The shell has the peculiar glossy texture of Diala, 

702. Mangelia sulcata, n. sp. 

H. t. sub turrit a, albida, apiee obtueo; anfr. vii., tumidioribus p 
liris vii., obtusis, rectie, vix angulatie ; eulcie spiralibie ereber^ 
rimie, circa baeim eontinuis; labrol . . . \Jracto'\» 

Long. -2, long. sp. -12, lat. -07 ; div. 35°. 

Hab. Mazatlan ; one specimen off Spondt/lus, on tablet 2538 1 
Liverpool Collection, 

703. 1 ToRiNiA, sp. in. 

Tablet 2539 contains a small shell, '035 across, consisting of 3^1 
smooth, flattened, sinistral whorls ; with a distinct suture, but not 
umbilicated. In a larger specimen (unfortunately lost^, under the 
microscope this sinistral vertex appeared turned completely upside 
down, with more than half a whorl of an orbicular shell, vhite^ 
sculptured like Fitrinella, with a very strong peripherical keel, and 
other smaller keels, decussated by radiating nigse. This mode of 
growth is exactly as in the young 'Tonnza ; but the adult must have 
been very distinct from any known species, and perhaps did not 
belong to any described genus. 

550. MUCRONAUA INVOLTJTA, n. Sp. 

M. t. parva, tenui, albida, irregidari, marginibus spine valdi 
mecnrvatis: vertice derliv* : an/, norm. vi. -f. . . . satis excur-* 
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273 DR. p. p. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIE8 

vatis, suturis valde impressis ; ban prolangata, obtusa ; aper^ 
tura ovaliy postice anguata ; labro acuto ; iabio tenuUumo. 

Long. -105, long, spir 068, lat. -033 ; div. 20°. 

=iLeio»traca Irecta^ Maz. Cat. in loco : non C. B. Ad. 

551. Leiostraca prooucta, n. sp. 

L. t, parva, albida, €ub/usi/ormi, marginibua spira reetU; vertice 
acutiore, recto ; anfr, norm, ix., planatis, suturis vix conspi- 
cuts ; peripherta satis rotundata ; basi rapide angustata, postea 
producta; apertura subrhomboidea, axi antice acuta, angulata; 
labro acuto ; Iabio tenuis 

Long -123, long, spir -08, lat -046 ; div. 23^ 

= Leiostraca 1 soli t aria, Maz Cat., in loco : non C. B. Ad. 

This species is easily recognized by its very peculiar sharply- 
pointed bbak ; in shape like a young Hostellaria, without the caDfd. 

652. AnACHIS TiBNIATA, PhU. 

Columbella taniata, Phil, in Zeit.. j. Mai. I84«, no. 26 (non Ad. 
ft Rve. in Voy Samarang). 

sstAnachis Gaskoini, Cpr. in Maz. Cat p. 510. no. 652. 

Yariat lineis spiralibus fuscts viii., quarum iii. in spira mon^ 
strantur ; maculis alternatis inter secundam et tertiam sitis. 
Variat quoque maculis evanescenttbus. 

Hab. Callao (teste Gaskoin) ; Mazatlan {E. B. Philippi, Reigen); 
Cape St. Lucas (Xantus) . 

It appears that Mr. Gaskoin was not acquainted with Phi« 
lippi's species, which had not then reached the Cumingian Collec- 
tion; as he pronounced M. Reigen's specimen to be new, and sug- 
gested the specific name in the Mazatlan Catalogue. It would have 
avoided a double synonymy, could the name taniata have been re- 
tained for the Samarang shell, and Mr. Gaskoin* s for this. The 
Cape St. Lucas shells vary as above inlicated. 

650. TAnachis serrata, Cpr. 

Maz. Cat. no. 650, p. 509. Perfect specimens of this singular 
species having been found at Cape St. Lucas by Mr. Xantus, the 
diagnosis may be thus completed '■ — 

Epidermide fimbnatay lirulas 9pirales eleganter decussante ; labri 
denticulis variantibus, interdum subobso/efis. 

Long. -28 long. spir. 15. lat -13 ; div. 40^ 

With the sculpture and general aspect of a small Cantharus, it has 
the mouth of an Anachis. The operculum, and therefore the generic 
relations, are not yet known ♦. 

* The following additiontf and corrections may bo useitil to the students of 
the British Museum Catalogue: — 

Species 181 Ana hiulticosfnfa further differs from d,grandis in the epi- 
dermis being soft and very Unely iiairy. 

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OF M0LLU9KS FROM MAZATLAN* 27^ 

223. The lengtli should be M. 
319. For " labio nulio " read " ienuimmo " 
830 The nuclear shell has two whorls, ^m;m//iarf a-shaped. 
867. Add to diagnofds, *' opcrculo cancavo, linea elevata suturam definiente,^ 
368. Add to dia^osis, "operculo vix concavo, auturis minus defitiifis." 
373. Add to diagnosis, *'operculo concavoy sufuris distinctis, peripherian 
femu Unea elevafa insirucHs" The species was found living among the smal 

376. Add to diagnosis, **operc%Uo concavo^ mturis vix definttis," Living 
among OUvella. 

501 Instead of the specimen from which the description in the text wa 
written, tablet 1966 contains a much liner shell, since found, which allows of th 
following additions to the diagnosis : — " vert nucl. parvo, satis extante^ declt 
mter dto ; anfr. norm, t ; interstifiis carinarum tranaversim ruffulosis ; labr- 
mlidiore. Long. 087, long, spir 057, lat -038." 

510. A very beautiful shell, found in the refuse of Professor Adams's Panam 
eoUection, is probably of this species, though the sutural cancellations are close 
It has one more whorl * vertex Chemmtzoid, of three Helicoid whorls, scarcely 
projecting ; apex hidden 

^50. ^m perfect Cape St Lucas specimens, add the following to diagnosif 
^** epidermide fimbriatOf lirulas apirales eleganter decttssante" 

Pace 3J2. Add to the diagnoses of opercula of Vermettdm : — 

"(i) Operculum comeum^ tntus convexttm, nitidum, umbone maano extanU 
tgtus amcavum, pauciaptrale, lamina extante suiuras definiente. Diam. *045. ' 
Tablet 2537 contains the only specimen .found, resembling Siphoniumy fron 
the i$pofuiy/t»-wash. gs. 

Tablet AAl is lAoctmUum apieinum^ which should stand as speciet 700* 

Page 314, note * (et seq.\ for " Inflatulum** read " Miocera$J* 

Page 359, line 18, /or "regular" read "irregular.** 

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H. 



DESCRIPTIONS 

OF 

/ 

New Species and Varieties of Chitonid^ and Acmid^e, 



The Panama Collection of the late Prof, C. B. Adams. 



BY 

PHILIP p. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph. D. 



From the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 274-277, 
March 14, 1865. 



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Descriptions or new species and Varieties op Chitonida 

AND AcMiBIDiB, FROM THE pANAMA COLLECTION OF THE 

LATE Prop. C. B. Adams. By Philip P. Carpenter, B.A., 
Ph.D. 

LePIDOPLBTTRUS ADAMSII. 

L. t, "L. dispari" simili; pallide rufo-fusca^ colore intenaiore 
irregulariter atrigata seu maculata ; sapius maeulis albidis 
regione diagonali omata ; jugo vix acuto ; areis centraHbua 
et valvis terminalibtts conspieue granulosis ; areis lateralibus 
irregulariter verrucosis, verrucis plerumque lobatis ; tnucrone 
antico, vix conspicuo : intus, valvis centralibus uni-^ termina- 
libus ^x.-x.'fissis ; subgrundis parvis, dentibus acutis ; sutu" 
ris medianis poslice rectis, antice laminas haud attingentibus, 
sinu planatOy latissimo : limbo pallii imbricatim squamoso. 
Long. -6, lat. -3 poll. ; div. 1 10**. 
Variat verrucis minus expressis, simplicioribus, 
^Chiton dispar, C. B. Ad. no. 373, par. 
^Lophyrus adamsii, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 24. 
Unfortunately for those who do not like to remoTC the non-teB- 
taceous portion from their Chitons, as they do from their other shells, 
the mantle-margin by no means affords a safe clue to the structure 
of the valves. Among the species of the genus Isehnochilon, Gray» 

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2/5 DR. p. p. CARPENTER ON NEW SPECIES 

{ = Lepi(lnpJevru8i Add.,) known by the sharp incisor-teeth lying 
within a projecting lip, there are three types of mantle-margin, 
which may be conveniently separated as subgenera, to aid in the 
difficult task of describing; and identifying species. The typical 
forms, for which the name Ischnochiton should be retained, have the 
scales somewhat chaffy, and very finely striated. I. magdaletuU 
and /. sanguineus well represent the group. But another series have 
the mantle-scales imbricate and strong, as in Chiton^ Gray, (=Lo- 
phyrua. Add.,) from which they cannot be distinguished without 
dissection. For this Messrs. Adams's name Lepidopleurus may be 
retained in a restricted sense. It is uncertain what Hisso*s original 
genus was meant to include: his diagnosis applies to all Chitons 
with distinct side-areas and scaly margins. 

A third group, separated by Dr. Gray in his * Guide,' p. 182, as 
having the ** mantle-scales minute, granular," has been named 2ra- 
chydermon : it abounds in the Californian region. 

The specimens of L, adamsii were found among the duplicates 
named Chiton dispar by the Professor ; one was attached to Viacina 
cumingii. 

Lepidopleurus tenuisculptus. 

L. t, " L. adamsii " simili ; olivacea, colore pallido sen intenaiorf 
minute variegata ; tota auperficie minute granuioaa ; areu 
lateralibua vix dejinitia ; auturia plerumque albido maculatia; 
mucrone antico, aatia conapicuo, parte poatica concava : intua, 
ut in **L. adamsii " ybrwd/a. 

Variat : t, pallidore, adjugum ru/o-tincta. 

z=.Chiton diapar, C. B. Ad. no. 373, pars. 

The outside of this shell so much resembles the young of Chitor, 
(Lophyrua) atokeaii, that specimens may have been distributed undei 
that name. Very few individuals were found. 

ISCHNOCHITON ELENENSIS (diagU. aUCt.). 

Extua areia centralibua clathria parallelia cire, xx. deeuaaatia , 
ar, lat, coatia ii., validioribua, tumidia, tuberculoaia : intua 
marginibua auturalibua poaticia refiexiay tuberculatia, ainu ad 
jugum parvo; laminia inaertionia unifiaaiay ad laminaa autu-^ 
ralea anticaa junctia, ainu latiaaimo, Valva antica extua coatia 
xii., haud validia; intua faauria x., dentibua acutia, aubgrunda 
parva. Valva poatica mucrone aubpoatico, depreaao ; parte 
poatica expanaa, concava, coatia circ. xi. aubobaoletia ; intua 
lamina inaertionia circ. ix.-Jiaaa, dentibua curtia, aubgrunda 
parva, intua calloaa. 

The central valves in this species are normal ; but the posterior 
valve offers a transition towards Callochiton, the outside being con- 
cave posteriorly, the insertion-teeth short and the eaves callous. 

ISCHNOCHITON (? var.) EXPRE8SU8. 

I. t. "I. elenensi" aimili^ aed cornea; areia centr, clathria x., 

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AND YARIETIK8 OF CHITONIDiB AND ACM^IDJB. 276 

distantibus, crebre decussatis, jugo acuto ; ar. lat, costisW.^ 

validissimis, amgudtisy tuberculis angustis : intus marginibuM 

tuturalibus posticis planatis, haud tuberculosis, haud ainuatis; 

lam, insert, ut antea, sinu angusto, adjugum angulato. Valna 

antica costis x., validis, angustis: intus ut antea, sed Jissuris 

viii. Valva postica mucrone postico, planato ; joarte postica 

expansa, haud concava, costis cire, Tii. validissimis : intus 

lamina circ, y'li, -Jlssa, subgrunda pktnata. 

With a strong general resemblance to I, elenensis, the differences 

in detail in the only two specimens examined, as above stated, ap- 

pear of specific importance. If only varietal, it is equally important 

to notice how much change is tolerated by the habits of the animal. 

It may be the shell called Chiton clathratushj Prof. Adams, of which 

there were no duplicates to compare. It offers a still more marked 

transition to Callochiton, the margin of the posterior valve being 

•omewhat pectinated by the great projection of the ribs. 

" Callochiton " PULCHELLUS : diagu. auct. 

Extus areis centr. lineis interdum parallelis, interdum radian^ 

tibus, rugose scrobiculatis ; ar, lat, costis ii., validissimis, im- 

bricato-nodosis : valva antica costis similibus circ, ix. .* v. 

post, area centrali lata ; mucrone subpostico, planato ; parte 

postica costis vii. similibus, medianis curtissimis, excurvatis : 

pallia squamulis minutis imbricatis, Intus v. ant. subgrunda 

(ut in Ischnochitone^ munita, sed a costis pectinata ; dentibus 

acutis, intus linea undulata secundum costas instructa, extus 

concavist parte convtxa costarum incieis : v, medianis similiter 

pectinatts, laminis secundum costas diag, uniscissis : laminis 

suturalibus medio continuis, late sinuatis; suturis posticis a 

sculptura externa granulatis : v, post, \i\,'lobata, marginibus 

planatis, laminis dense compressis incrassatis ; dentibus obtU" 

sissimis, appressis, haud extantibus, subobsoletis, exirorsum 

planatis, ut in r. ant, fissis; interdum Jissuris quoque in par^ 

tibus eoncavis. 

As I have seen no published diagnosis of the very peculiar type of 

insertion-plates observed in this species, which has hitherto been too 

rare to allow working naturalists an opportunity of dissection, I have 

given a minute description. The plates of insertion, as well as the 

exterior eaves, are scalloped by the strong ribs, and alternate with 

them. In the posterior valve the eaves are flattened outwards, in 

closely appressed layers, the blunt, ill-developed insertion-teeth 

lying flat upon them. The valves easily separate from the mantle, 

when immersed in water. Outside, the species is easily recognized 

by the two strong ribs of the diagonal areas, the central pitted in 

somewhat branching rows, and the ribs on the curiously flattened 

posterior valve resembling a clenched fist. 

ACUAA (? FLOCCATA, var.) FILOSA. 

A. t, "A. mesoleucse "/orma et indole simili; sed sculptura multo 

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DR. P. P. CARPENTER ON CHITONfDiB A^ 

tenuiore; I, jun. l€Bvi; dein liridis delic 
granulosis^ valde distantibus, interdum obs 
stitils latist l<evibu9 ; tenuis planata, ovali, i 
fiiBCOy corneo radiatim striffata, Seu vari 
livida seu albida, coloribus extemis transet 

CLCUtO. 

Long. 7, lat. -56, alt. -12. 

^Lottia 1 patina, C. B. Ad. Pan. Shells, no. 

Hab. Panama (C. B, Adams). 

There is no described west-tropical species t( 
can be affiliated, unless they prove to be a vei 
A, Jloccata, Rve. Unfortunately the Panama 
been collected in sufficient numbers to make out 
satisfactorily. The names here given may star 
rieties, according to future elucidation. In sha 
not in colour or sculpture, these shells resemble 
the latter respects. A, strigaiella. They were nj 
by Dr. Dohrn, but are sufficiently distinct fro 
species. 

ACMiEA (T FLOCCATA, Var.) SUBROTUNDATA. 

A. t, "A. var, filosse" *imi7t, sed subrotuni 
vertice subcentrali ; colore intensiore, lineis 
angustis ; t. jun, sape pallidiore, radiis d 
gulata : intus callo livido, tenuiore. 

Long. '53, lat. *45, alt. '15. 

= Lottia, sp. ind. a, C. B. Ad. Pan. SK0lla.xic 

llab. Panama ( (7. B, Adams j^ 

AcMiEA (? yar.) yernicosa. 

A. t, parva, subrotundata, depresso-conica, a 
partes si to ; albido-viridi, strigis paucis n 
ornata, s/epius radiis duobus candidis, % 
extus lineis acutis radiantibus, valde distan 
vix sculpt a : intus livida, callosa, sapius ^ 
nata ; basi subplanata. Umbo angusto. 
Long. '3, lat. '24, alt. -1. 
Hab. Panama (Jewett, C. B. Adams), 
=:Lottia, sp. ind. 5> C B. Ad. Pan. Shells, n 
Had this form been brought from the China 
been taken for the young of A, biradiata, Rve. 
bowerer, its rough exterioiP, and its callous in 
be adult. It is barely possible that it may devc 
tina. It differs from the young of A. subrotun 
thicker and less spotted with the green tint. 

268 



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I. 



DIAGNOSES 



NEW SPECIES OF MOLLUSKS. 



THE WEST TROPICAL REGION OF NORTH AMERICA, 

PRDfCIPALLT COLLECTED BT THE EEV. J. EOWELL, OF SAN FRANCISCO 

BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



From the Proceedings of tlie Zoological Society of London, pp. 278-282, 
March 14, 1865. 



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Diagnoses op new Species op Molltjsks, from the Wesi 
Tropical Region of North America, principally col 
lected by the Rev. J. Rowell, of San Francisco. Bt 
Philip P. Carpenter, B.A., Ph.D. 

Of the new species quoted in the " Supplementary Report on the 
Present State of our Knowledge of the Mollusca of the West Coas* 
of North America," pahlished in the Transactions of the British As 
sociation, 1863, pp. 517-686, the principal portion (namely, thos< 
dredged by Dr. J. G. Cooper, Zoologist to the Californian State 
Geological Survey) are described in the * Proceedings of the California 
Acad. Nat. Sciences,' for 1864-65; those dredged in Puget Sound, 
during the U. S. North Pacific Boundary Survey, by the late Dr. 
Kennerley, are described in the ' Journal of the Philadelphia Acad. 
Nat. Sc' for the present year. The species obtained by the natu- 
ralists of the British Survey are described in three papers by Dr. 
Baird and myself, P. Z. S. 1863-65. The new species sent by 
Mr. J. Xantus from Cape St. Lucas, and by Mr. J. G. Swan from 
Neeah Bay, appear in the 'Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.,' 1864-65. In 
the same Journal are. described the new species which I found in 
Col. Jewett's collection. Those sent to Dr. Gould from the same col- 
lection had been previously analyzed in the * Proc. Zool. Soc' 1856. 
The above are the principal sources of fresh knowledge; but a number 
of species from the Californian province, which do not range under 
any of these heads, will be found in the 'Journal de Conchy liologie' 
for the current year. 

In separate papers communicated to the Zoological Society are the 
diagnoses of additional species from Prof. Adams's Panama and from 
M. Reigen's Mazatlan collections. The remaining species, from the 
tropical province, are embodied in the present paper. The types 
(unless otherwise stated) are in the Museum of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

(Tellina) Angulus decumbens. 

A. t, tenui, subplanata, alba seu rosacea; leevi, strioHs incre* 
menti insculpta ; epidermide pallide stratninea induta ; antice 
et ventraliter valde producia ; postice truncaia, angulata ; 
umbonibus acufioribus, vix p^ominentibua ; marginibus dorsa* 
libus posiico recto, antico ad angulum parum excjarvato, antico 
et ventrali valde et regulariter excurvatis ; parte postica v, 
dextr. subito angulata, v. sinistr. parum sinuata ; nymphis an- 
gustis, elongaiiSy cartilagine omnino extemo : dent, card, mf 
nimis ; dent, lat, v. dextr, antico satis conspicuo, postico obso^ 
leto; V, sinistr, nullis ; cicatr, adduct, posticis subrhomboideis^ 
anticis valde elongatis, angustis; sinu pallii maximo, subtri* 
angularly usque ad cicatricem alteram utraque valva porrecta* 

Long. 1-7, lat. 1-2, alt. 68 poll. 

Eab. Panama (teste Jiowell, Pease). 

This shell was affiliated bv Mr. Hanley to the W. African T. 
■^271 



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279 DR. p. p. CARPENTER O] 

nymphalis, but differs in the internal 
T. dombeyi. Lam. (= Serobicularia j 
p. 230), but is easily recognized by t! 
and anterior lateral tooth, by the poj 
instead of waved, and by the junction 
opposite scar. By the same cliaractei 
tersa, Gld., which closely resembles S, 
Like many other Tellens, it has a wh 
name was printed by an oversight in B 
as A, amplectans ; but as it was unacc 
does not describe the shell, no confu! 
to the name first given. 

LUCINA UNDATA. 

L. t, convexa, tenuiorCt albida; tota 

creberrimis, cotnpressis, haud ac\ 

mis; parte ventrali costU radian 

dissimis, interstitiis parvis ; luni 

nita, sub umbonibus incurvatis J 

parte postica alata ; margine a 

crenulato ; ligamento quasi inter 

a fossa lunulari intortis ; lat, cu 

antica irregularis postica subovai 

ginem sit a, undata. 

Long. -45, lat. -44, alt. '3. 

Hab, Gulf of California (teste Eow 

The outline somewhat resembles 

is more that of Verticordia, while 

is suggestive of Opis. The shell is ses 

the anterior rib and the lunule reser 

projecting lunule and the posterior wi 

body of the shell. The specimen sent 

sonian Institution was completely smas 

from a perfect shell sent by Dr. Newc( 

Calliostoma (?LiMA, var.) aqxu 

C. t, "C. limee" simili; sed anfr 
tinctis ; sculptura regidari ; jun, 
aqualibus; t, adult a majot^ et 
rufescente, granulis interdum ru/i 
Hab. Acapulco (Newberry), 
Dr. Newberry's specimens agree in 
" Trochus lima, Phil.," in C. B. Ad 
appears identical with the shells marke 
N. Zealand," in Mus. Cuming. Th 
flat, while those from Panama are for 
in C. eximium, Rve. (=0. versicolor ^ 
However, there is no little variation 
mens of C. lima, and some are so slig 
pulcau form may be a local variety. 

272 



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OF MOLLU8KS FROM WESTERN NORTH AMERICA. 280 * 

Narica INSCULPTA. 

N. t, " N. apertee" similU sed magis compacta ; paullum angua- 
tiore, umbilico tamen major e; linei* spiralibits circ, xxvi. diS' 
tantibua insculptU cincta, quorum x,in anfr, penult, moMtran* 
tur : postice lineis incremetiti vix eompicuis. 
Long. -3, long. spir. -08, lat. 28 ; div. 100®. 
Bab, Acapulco, on Ostrea iridescens, Rowell. 
The Cape St. Lucas species (vide Ann. Nat. Hist. 1864, xiii. p. 476) 
his the sculpture in irregularly raised liriUse, while this has minute 
grooves chiselled out of a smooth surface. It appears that the San 
Franciscans import the huge tropical oysters in large quantities, 
their own species having the copper}' flavour which Americans dis- 
like in the British species. From the outside of the valves, Mr, 
Rowell obtained this and many other interesting species. 

Drillia bburnea. 

D. t turrita, cameo-albida, tenuiore, Icevi, maxime nitente; mar- 
ginibms spira rectis ; an/r, nucL ? . . . [decollatia] ; norm, 
eirc, ix., poatice planaiis, supra mturas appressis, medio satis 
meurvatis ; hie et illie rugis radiantibus^ obsoletis, irregular 
rihus exseulpta; bast prolongata, canali cojispicuo, aperi:>; 
itati postieo minore, in sulco lato, haud definito, spiram a^en- 
denle sito; labro aeuto; labio indistineto; columella plunata. 

Long. 1-3, long. spir. -8, lat. -45; div. 30®. 

Hab, Near Gulf of California (teste Rowell). 

Easily recognized by its smooth glossy aspect and French-white 
colour ; the notch lying along a broad spiral channel, which throws 
the junction of the whorl as it were up the suture. 

Mangelia albolaqueata. 

M. t, solida, turrita, alba, rudi, marginibus spira rectis; anfr. 
nucL? • . • \decollatis'] ; norm, circ, ix. subrotundatis, costis 
circ, xi.-xY., declivibus, satis angustis, postice obsoletis, lineis 
subregularibus spiram ascendentibus ; lirulis spiralibus anticis 
erebris, postice obsoletis ; basi elongata ; labrol • • • / labio 
'iallaso ; sinu postieo majore, suturam attingente. 
Long. -88, long. spir. -55, lat. -34; div. 30°. 
ffab, Panama (teste Rowell). 

Described from an imperfect and worn specimen, but easily recog- 
nized by its ivory-white colour, and ribs in slantmg rows, as though 
the creature were roofed with white tiles. It was erroneously quoted 
in the Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1863, p. 669, as a Drillia. 

EULIMA FALCATA. 

E. t, valde tereti, valde curvata, alba, politissima, solidiore, 
marginibus spira meniscoideis ; anfr, nucLl , , , [detrilis] ; 
norm. circ. x., planatis, lente augentibus ; axi hamata, sutvris 
ittdistinctis i basi elongata, haud tereti; apertura pyrijonnt, 
entice latiore; labro acuto; Jabio tenui, apjtresso. 

18 273 



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281 DR. F. P. CARPKNTER ON NET! 

Long. -31, long. apir. "21, lat. -09; div. \i 
Hab, Acapulco, on Ostrea iridescens, Ro^ 
The spire-outlines are scythe-shaped. It is 
solid than L. diatorta and (7var.) yod. 

Cbrithiopsis intercalaris. 

C. t. valde elonyata, rufo-fwea^ marginib\ 
imprests ; anfr. nucl. iii. + ? . . . (de 
tanter liratis; norm. x,,planatis; cost 
xii., dein circ, xxii., angustU, haud exta\ 
continuity interstitiis quadratis ; carinu 
nodulons, dein alteris ii. minoribits inti 
carina postica suiurali haud noduloaa, s> 
tertia intercalante aquante sed haud \ 
valde nodosa, quint a circa peripheriam, ^ 
haud nodosa, alteraque contigua, mini 
gyrat; basi concava, liBvi; columella v 
brevi, aperto; labrol . . . • 
ffab. Guacomayo. 

This heautiful species comes nearest to C, I 
of which, indeed, the type does not agree wit 
as does this specimen. It differs in having 
calating hetween the two principal ones, and 
ture beine continued to the periphery. Oi 
found in the shell-washings, not perfect at th 

COLUMBELLA HUUER08A. 

C. t parva, turrita, alba, linea seu macuU 

dum spiram ascendente ; marginibus sp\ 

anfr. nucl A . . . [detritis']; norm, vi., a 

tibus, suturis valde impressis ; costis rat 

tantibus, vcdidissimis, rotundatis; inti 

lirulis validis sviralibus extantibv4t. infei 

castas et harum interstttta transeunttbui 

rue raricoso, postice emarginato, intus s 

iv. munitis ; apertura late undata, camp 

Long. '26, long. spir. '15, lat. '13 ; div. 3^ 

Hab, Acapulco, on Ostrea iridescens, Ro¥ 

The sculpture resembles that of Rhizocheilu 

of Anachis ; yet it appears to belong to the r< 

MURICIDEA DUBIA, Var. 8QUAMULATA. 

Variat t. omnino albida ; sculp tura tenuior 
superficie minute squamulata, squamulis 
Hab, Cape St. Lucas {Xantus), 
The opercula in the beautiful specimens 

* I for^t to measure the specimen before retui 
Inst ; but it is about the size of C. aasimilata, 

274 



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or MOLL178K8 FROM WKSTKRN NORTH AMERICA. 282 

typicaDy Moricoid. The eBsential features are those of M, dubia ; 
the pale colour and delicate sculpture and imhrication may anse 
from a deep-water station, as is seen in similar European ahflls. 
Mr. Caming» howeyer, regards it as distinct. 

275 



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K. 



DIAGNOSES 



NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA, 

PROM 

THE WEST COAST OF iNORTH AMERICA, 

FIRST COLLECTED BY COL. E. JEWETT. 



BY 
PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



From the Annnis and Magazine of Natural History. Third Series, Vol. 
XV., pp. 177-182 (Nos. 37a-386), March, 1865. Ibid., pp. 394-399 
(Mangelia variegata to end), May, 1865. 



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DIAGNOSES 
«> 

NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA 

PROM 

THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 
FIRST COLLECTED BY Col. E. JEWETT. 

BY 

PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



An account of Col. Jewett's shells will be found in the British 
Association Reports for 1856 (pp. 226-231) and 1863 (pp. 53^^ 
539). The exact localities are often uncertain; but many of 
them have been fixed by subsequent explorers. Being generally 
vom beach-specimens, the diagnoses have been written (where- 
c?er practicable) from perfect shells, and especially from the 
beautiful series dredged by Dr. J. G. Cooper, in the Califomian 
State Survey. The types belong to Mrs. Boyce, of Utica, N. Y., 
and are at present in my keeping. The numbers, in the species 
from the temperate fauna, refer to the table in the British Asso- 
ciation Report for 1863, pp. 636-664. 

87 ft. Solen (? sicarius, var.) rosacetts. 

8, testa S. sicario simili, sed miuore ; multo angusiiore, elongata, 
recta, extus et intus rosacea; epidermide tenui, valde uiteuce. 
Long. -27, lat. -5, alt. -32 poll. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jewett) ; S, Pedro {Cooper). 

74. Subgenus Amiantis*. 
Callista : dente postico utraque yalva ruguloso. 
Type : Amiantis callosa, = Cytherea cailosa, Conr., = Dosinia 

* Tb. dfiiamos, 6 kqI ^, unpolluted. 

279 



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2 Dr. P. P. Caqjenter on new Farms of Mollu^ca 

callosa, Brit. Assoc, Rep. 1857 (from fragments) : non Venus caU 
losa (as of Conr.), Sow., Rve., Desb. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara {Nuttall, Jewett) ; S. Pedro (Cooper) ; Cap6 
St. Lucas (Xantus), 

Tbis section differs from tbe typical Callista as does Merce- 
naria from Venus. Whether tbe other peculiarities of tbe spe- 
cies (redescribed by Reeve as Cytherea nobilis) are coordinate, 
cannot yet be stated, as it stands alone. In sculpture and colour 
it resembles Dosinia ; in its ponderous growth, Pachydesma. 

110. Lazaria subquadrata. 

L, testa extiis Cardita variegatee jun. si mill ; pallida, casfaneo tincfa; 
subquadrata, antice truncata, subregulariter rentricosa, dorsabter 
turnidrt ; costis radiantibus circ. xiv.-xvi., tunn'dis, nodosis, dia- 
gonabbus majoribus; iuterstitiis pJus minusve in sculpt is : intus 
valva dextra deiite cardinali triangularis inter duas fossas site, band 
elongato ; dent. lat. a cardine separatis, ant. extante, post, obsoleto, 
calloso : v. sinistrali dent. card. ii. angustis, subeequalibus, radi- 
antibus; lat. ant. et post, extantibus: cicatr. adduct. subrotun- 
datis. Long. -37, lat. '25, alt. -34. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; Monterey, and along the coast to 
S. Pedro (State Coll. no. 4()3) (Cooper). 

The outside of this remarkable little species is typically Car- 
ditoid; tbe hinge is intermediate between Lazaria and Cypri- 
cardia. 

1 32. Modiola fomicata. 

M. testa curta, Icevi, latiore, maxime fomicata ; pallide camea. epi- 
dermide rufo-fusca, rugis incrementi et incrustatione densissime 
pilosa induta; umbonibus maximis, spiralibus, antice torsis, per 
tres quadrantes totee latitudinis devectis ; area ligamentali curtis- 
sima, arcuata ; margine dorsali antice nullo, postice longo, arcuato; 
margine ventrali recto, vix propter byssum hiante ; postico lato, 
antico angusto; altitudine dorsaliter valde elevata, ventraliter 
plane declivi, cuneiformi ; umbonibus trans marginem anticum per 
sextantem totius longitudinis excurrentibus : intus, sub umbonibus 
excavata ; cicatr. adduct. ant. ventraliter sita. Long. 1*4, lat. *76, 
alt. -95. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) -, Monterey (7fly/i>r). 

160. Pecten (?var.) aquisulcatus. 

i*. testa P. veniricoso simili, sed tenuiore, minus ventricosa ; costis 
pluribus ailgustioribus xx.-xxi. ; interstitiis (prsecipue valva su- 
periore) fere sequalibus ; auriculis magis productis, acutis ; sinv 
•errato : testa juu. interstitiis alte insculptis, lamiuis couceutricii 

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from the West Coast of North America. 3 

crehris, vix extantihus, interstitia, costas auriculasque transeunti- 
bu8. Long. 3-2, lat. 335, alt. 1-5. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; S. Diego (Cassidy, Newberry, 
Cooper). 

Intermediate between the tropical P. ventricosus and the 
Atlantic P. irradians, 

161. Pecten ^audcostatus, 

P. testa mibconvexa, vix requilai-erali ; castaneo sen rubido seu elec- 
triF.'} fji^ta; coBtis xi.-xv., ralidis, angustis, rotundatis; inter- 
stiriis multo latioribus, subpianatis; tota superficie minutissiine 
concentrice striata ; auriculis latis, baud aequalibus, lirulis circ. vL 
ornatis ; sinu paucideiitato : intus pallidiore, linea cardinis cos- 
tata, ad suturas auriculariim tuberculosa ; fossa ligamentali curta» 
transversim lata. Long. 1*7, lat. 1*84, alt. '56. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara [Jewett) ; Sta. Barbara Island [Cooper). 

Pecten (? var.) sqtiarrosus. (Page 536.) 

P. testa orbicnlarijsequilaterali, mbida, albido maculata ; ralvadextra 
convexa; costis xviii., eequalibus, testa juo. i^jiproximatis, testa 
adulta interstitiis eequalibus ; costis et interstitiis regulariter un- 
datis, striis crebris squamosis rndi'^ntibus ubioue oniata ; auriculis 
magnis, latissimis, subeequalibus : aiitica anguste fissata, serrata, 
postica sinuata; auriculis ambabus et regiooe contigua scabrosa 
striatis: intus alba, linea cardinal! alte sulcata. Long. r82» 
lat. 1-79, alt. '9. 

Hab. " Sta. Barbara^' teste Jewett. 

Resembles a shell in Mas. Cuming., marked ^' exasperatua, 
Tar.,'^ but does not agree with the diagnosis of that species. 
AH Col. Jewett^s valves were dextral. The locality needs con- 
firmation. 

183. Volvula cylindrica. 

V. testa cyliudracea, alba, nitente, striis spiralibus distantibus cincta ; 
medio planato, niarginibus fere parallelis ; antice satis effusa, 
postice subito angustata ; canali brevissimo ; labro acuto ; labio 
indistincto ; plica columellari parva, valde declivi. Long. *17> 
lat. 07. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara [Jewett). 

265. Phasianella [? compta, var.) punctulata. 

P. testa P. eomptts simili, sed elatiore; suturis impressis ; anfractibus 
tamentibns ; omnino minutissime fusco punctata ; columella lacii- 
rat9. Long. *24, long. spir. '12, lat. *14, div. 50^. 

Hab. S. Diego [Jewett)* 

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4 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 

265 b. Phasianella (? compta, var.) pulloides. 

P. testa P. puflo simillima ; solida, com pacta, spira breviore ; snturis 
distinctis. Long. *2, long;, spir. *1, lat. *13, div. 55°. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara {Jewett) ; Monterey, 20 ^fathoms (State 
Coll. no. 353). Smaller var., 8-10 fathoms, Catalina Island 
(Cooper). 

265 {?. Phasianella (^ compia^ var.) elatior. 

P. testa perparva ; spira elongata, ut in P. puUo picta ;' anfractibiu 
subplanatis; suturis baud impressis; columella baud lacuuata. 
Long. -19, long. spir. '12, lat. '11, div. 40**. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jewett). 

P. compta, with a large proportion of the small shells of the 
genus, is included under P. puUus in Mr. Reeve's monograph. 
In so difficult a tribe, it is judged better to name the distinct 
forms, and those from separated localities, until more is known. 

276. Trochiscus convexus, 

T. testa parva, subelevata, purpureo-fiisca, tenuiter sculpta; anfr. nucl. 
? sinistralibus, vertice quasi decollato ; norm, iv., convexis, suturit 
impressis ; obtusbsime bicarinatis, striolis confertissimis, miuimis, 
subobsoletis cinctis ; umbilico oiajore, costis duabus cincto, quarum 
interior acuta, exterior rotundaia, crenata; apertura circulari. 
Long. *I5, long. spir. '06, lat. *15, div. 90°. 

Hab, Monterey [Jewett). 

The nuclear whorls in this unique little shell and in the typi- 
cal species appear sinistral, as in Phoridse and Solariadse. The 
operculum also resembles that of Solariitm rather than of Tro- 
chus. The genus may prove to belong to the Proboscidifers, 
notwithstanding its nacreous texture. 

81 7. Hipponyx tumem* 

B, testa normaliter fornicata, rotundata, albida ; epidermide mgulosa, 
interstitiis pilulosa ; vertice nucleoso nautiloideo, Isevi, paiiim tii- 
roente, apice celatp, interdum persistente; dein rapidissime au- 
gente, expansa, undic^ue regulariter arcuata ; liris acutis, subele- 
vatis, distantibiis, spiralibus, aliis intercalantibus ; lineis incre- 
ment! minoribus decussantibus ; margine acuto; apertura ple- 
rutnqiie rotundata : cicatrice musculari a margine parum remota, 
regione capitis valde interrupta. Long. * 7, lat. *46, alt. *33, div. 90°* 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett); S. Pedro (Cooper). 

^''H. ?*u6;T//a" + " Capu.'us, 213," Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1857, 

P- 230. 

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frmn the West Coast of North America. 5 

329 A. Bittium (?var.) esuriens. 

B. testa B. filoso siraili, sed multo minore, graciliore, interdum vald 
attenuata ; sculptiira testse jun. ut in B.filoso^ testae adultae sub 
obsoleta; interstitiis baud insculptis. Long. *3, long. spir. *2i 
lat. -11, div. 25°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jewett) ; Neeah Bay {Swan) ; Monterey 
{Cooper). 

834. Bittiwn fastiffiatum, 

B, testa parva, gracili, pallide rufo-cinerea, marginibus spirae vix 
excorvatis ; anfr. nucl. Hi., Isevibus, tumidis, apice acuto; norm, ix., 
pknatis, suturis alte impressis ; anfr. primis iii. carinatis, postea 
costis radiantibus circ. xiii., obtusis, satis extantibus, ad suturas 
intemiptis, interstitiis undatis, liris spiralibus iy. in spira se mon- 
8trantibus» costas undatim superantibus, quarum antica in testa 
mn. plerumque extat; anfr. ultimo parum contracto, basi elongata, 
Jiris spiralibus vi. contiguis ornata; apertura gibbosa; labro 
acuto, interdum varicoso, antice angulatim emarginato ; labio 
tenui. Long. '25, long. spir. '19, lat. '09, div. 20*^. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jewett). 

Genus Amphithalamus*. 

Testa Rissoidea, nucleo magno ; apertura labio producto, labro 
Bubpostice juncto, subito in adulta contracto. 

355. Amphithalamus inclusus. 

A. testa minuta, lata, solidiore, pallide rufo-fusca ; Tertice mamillato; 
anfr. nucl. uno et dimidio, quoad magnitudinem permagnis, mi- 
nutissime et confertissime spiraliter et radiatim striolatis; anfr. 
norm, iii., l8evibus,subplanatis, suturis impressis ; basi subangulata; 
costa peripherica rotundata, baud extante, interdum in spina se 
monstrante ; costa altera circa regionem pseudo-umbilicarem ; labro 
acuto, hand contracto : labio testa adolescente normal!, dein a 
pariete separata, sinum posticum suturam versus formante, t. adulta 
valde separata, regionem quasi umbilicarem magnam formante; ad 
labnim subito fere perpendiculariter, subpostice juncto : operculc 
tenuissimo. Long. '04, long. spir. '02, lat. *03, div. 60°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara {Jewett) y S. Diego {Cooper), 

This very remarkable little shell bears th*e same relatiou to 
Bissoa that Stoastoma does to Helicina, The peritreme resem- 
bles a figure () inverted, as on the face of the type. In the dis- 
proportionate size of the nuclear whorls it resembles Vitrinella. 

373. DriUia mcesta. 

D. testa acuminata, Isevi, dense olivaceo-fusca, epidermide Isevi ad- 
hserente induta ; anfr. nucleosis?...(decollati8); norm, viii., pdrum 

^ Th. d/i^l, BakafMs, having a chamber on both sides. 
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6 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollusca 

excnrvatis, suturis paruni distinctis ; testa adolescente costis radi- 
antibus circ. x., subobsoletis, elongatis, arcuatis, sinum versus lu- 
terruptis, postice nodosis; anfr. ult. sculptura nulla; apertura 
elongata ; canali brevi, aperto ; columella recta ; labio tenui ; 
labro acuto, suturam versus sinuato, sinu parvo, expanse j operculo 
normali. Long. Tl, long. spir. '6b, lat. '36, div. 27^. 

Hob. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; S. Pedro (Cooper). 

386. Mitromorpha filosa. 

Jlf.- testa parva, solidiore, atro-purpurea, subconiformi, antice et pos- 
tice subeequaliter tereti ; anfr. nucl. ii., albis, Isevibus, apice 
mamillato ; norm, iv., planatis, suturis baud distinctis ; omnino 
sequaliter spiraliter lirulata ; lirulis acutioribus, in spira iv., anfr. 
ult. circ. XX., interstitiis niajoribus ; apertura lineata ; labro parum 
inflexo, rotundato, postice vix sinuato, intus circ. xii.-dentat4) ; 
labio inconspicuo; columella arcuatim truncata. Long. '26, 
long. spir. *!, lat. '12, div. 45**. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara [Jewett) ; Lower California (teste Trick, in 
Mu8. Cuming.). 

— fDaphnella filosa, Brit. Assoc. Rep. 1863, p. 658, notef. 

Mr. A. Adams obtained two similar species from Japan ; and 
as the shells do not rank satisfactorily under any established 
group, he proposes the above genus for their reception. M. Crosse 
suggests that Columbella dormitor, Sby.^ may be congeneric. 

Mangelia variegata. 

Jf. testa Talde attenuata, tenni, parva, pallide camea, nifo-fusco 
normaliter bizonata, interdum unizonata, sen zonis interruptis; 
vertice nucleoso conspicuo, anfr. uno et dimidio, apice mamillato ; 
anfr. norm, vi., subrotundatis, suturis valde impressis; costis 
radian tibus ix.» angustis; costulis spiralibus crebris, validioribus, 
in spira circ. x., costas superantibus ; apertura valde elongata; 
canali brevi, aperto ; labro tenui, juxta suturam conspicue arcuate; 
labio tenui. Long. -31, long. spir. '17, lat. •] poll., div. 22®. 

Yariat costis crebrioribus, sculptura minus expressa. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 

Mangelia (? variegata, var.) nitens. 

M. testa M, variegata simili, sed nitentiore, fascia alba et altera 
Tufo-fusca attingente spiram ascendentibus. Long. *25^ long, 
spir. -15, lat. -08, div. 20°. 

Hab* Sta. Barbara (Jewett), rare. 

Mangelia angulatfr. 

3t. testa parva, mfo-purpurea, vix gracili, epidermide tenui fugaci; 
anfr. nucL iii., helicoideis^ prinmm laevibus^ dein cuncellaiis, ajpice 

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from tlie West Coast of North America. 7 

naTnillato ; anfr. norm, iv., convexis, sutiiris impressis, in medio 
spine obtusangulatis ; costis radiantibus circ. xii., acutioribus ; cot* 
tula spiral! circa angulum, inter costas subobsoleta ; tota superficie 
tenuiter spiraliter crebrisulcata, 8ulcu1is sub lente stepius bifidis ; 
apertura pyriformi, canali longiorc, recto, aperto; labro acuto, 
postice eonspicue sinuato ; columella baud con tor ta ; labro obso- 
lete. Long. -35, long. spir. -18, lat. 'U, div. 30°. 

Uab. Sta« Barbara {Jewett). 

Myurella simplex. 

if. testa mfo-cinerea, minora, minus tereti, epidermide tenui; 
anfr. xii., planatis ; fascia suturali yalida, nodosa, tuberculis ovali- 
bus crebris validioribus (anfr, penult, circa xv.) ornata; testa 
adolescente costulis radiantibus, postea evanescentibus ; striolis 
antice et postice spiralibus, circa peripheriam saepe obsoletis; 
basi rotundata ; canali brevissimo, alte emarginato ; carina supra 
canalem acuta, columellam plicante; labro acuto^ tIx undato. 
Long. 1 -03, long. spir. -76, lat. -27, div. 20^ 

Tariat tuberculis subobsoletis. 

Hah. Sta, Barbara {Jewett); S.Pedro [Cooper). 

Odostomia infiata. 

0,\^\ majore, tenui, pallide cinerea, epidermide cinerea induta ; 
vert. nucl. subito immerso ; anfr. norm, iv., rapidissirae augenti- 
bus, subplanatis, suturis impressis ; tota superficie minutissime et 
confertissime spiraliter striolata ; umbilico nullo ; basi et apertura 
Talde elongatis ; labro acuto ; labio tenuissimo ; plica acuta, trans- 
versa, parietem attingente ; columella valde arcuata, antice effusa. 
Long. -26, long. spir. -69, lat. -14, div. 60^ 

Variat spira elatiore. Long. '24, long. spir. '11, lat. '13, div. 45*. 

Variat quoque striolis subobsoletis. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; Farraleone Islands^ in cavities, on 
Haliotis (teste R. D. Darbishire) ; near San Francisco {RoweU) ; 
Neeah Bay {Swan). 

Chemnitzia crebrifilata. 

C testa satis tereti, subalbida, baud regulari ; anfr. nucl. ii., heli- 
coideis, decliviter sitis, margines spirse parum excurvatos paullum 
superantibus ; norm, viii., quorum primi subrotundati, ultimi vix 
planati ; suturis valde distinctis ; cost rad. circ xxiv., subrecds, 
acutioribus, angustis, interdum attingentibus, anfr. ultimo ere- 
brioribus minus expressis, circa basim prolongatam baud subito 
evanescentibus; lirulis spiralibus, in spira circ. viii., rotundatis, 
expressis, anfr. ult. supra costas subnodulosis, circa basim crebri- 
oribus ; peritremate continuo ; columella vix torta, baud plicata ; 
labio distincto. Long. -22, long. spir. '17, lat. '07, div. IS**, 

Uab. Sta. Barbara^ I specimen [Jewett). 

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8 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Mollmca 

403 h, Chemnitzia {?torquata, var.) ntylina. 

C. testa C. torquata simili, sed valde teretiore, gracillima, interdam 
subdiaphana; anfr. nucl. ii., decUviter sitis, margines spirse fere 
parallelos vix superantibus ; norm. xiL, angustis, subplnnatis, sa* 
turis distinctis; costis radiantibtis circ. xxiii., latis, declivibus, 
testa juniore continuis, adulta fascia baud sculpta suprasuturaii 
Beparatis ; interstitiis parvis, baud scnlptis ; basi rotundata, baud 
sculpta ; columella parum torta. Long. "32, long. spir. '27* lat. '89 
div 10°. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara {Jeweti) ; Monterey {Cooper). 

Chemnitzia Virgo. 

C. testa parva, alba, gracili, stylina ; anfr. nucl. ii., decliviter sitis, 
margines spirae subparallelos baud superantibus ; norm. Tiii., 
subrotundatis, su turis distinctis ; costulis radian tibus circ. xviii., 
angustis, acutioribus, ssepe attingen tibus, circa peripheriam baud 
Bubito evanidis, interstitiis subsequalibus alte spiraliter su1catis» 
sulcis circ. viiL, latera costarum crenulantibus, costas baud super- 
antibus; basi valde rotundata, curta, baud sculpta; axi lacunato; 
peritremate yix continuo; columella recta. Long. *18, long, 
spir. -14, lat. -05, div. 12^ 

Hab. " Sta. Barbara," 1 specimen {Jewett). 

Dunkeria laminata. 

2>. testa satis elevata, rufo-fusca, fasciis pallidioribus interdnm cincta; 
anfr. nucl. ii., helicoideis, valde decliviter sitis, margines spirse 
subrectos baud superantibus ; norm, viii., subrotundatis, suturis 
hnpressis ; costis spiralibus rotundatis, in spira iv., aliisque sutu- 
ralibus vix rotundatis, interstitiis minoribus impressis ; super eas 
laminis radiantibus acutioribus circ. xxx., circa basim rotundatam 
tenuiter continuis ; liris spiralibus basalibus circ. viii., obtusis, cola- 
mellam versus subflexuosam obsoletis ; peritremate continuo ; labio 
appresso. Long. '25, long. spir. '18, lat. '07, div. 20°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett) ; San Diego {Cooper). 

Tbis beautiful Fenelloid species may be regarded as the type 
of the group Dunkeria. 

Eulima Thersites. 

E, testa parva, curtissima, albida, afcuata, valde distorta ; margini- 
bus spirse dextro subrecto, sinistro valde excurvato ; anfr. nucl. 
7. . (decollatis) ; norm, vi., leevibus, subplanatis, suturis distinctis ; 
basi valde arcuata ; apertura subovali, aextrorsum producta ; peri- 
tremate continuo, valde calloso; labro sinuato. Long. '21, long, 
spir. -13, lat. '09, div. 40°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, 1 specimen {Jewett). 

Preeminent for aberration among the distorted Eulimids. 
A second specimen occurred from an uncertain source. 

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from the West Coast of North America* 

Opalia bullaia. 

0. testa minore, alba, subdiaphana, turrita, gracili ; marginibus spiree 
subrectis; tota superficie minutissime et creberrime spiraliter 
striolata ; Tertice nucleoso declivi, celato ; dein anfr. ii., globosis. 
radiatim baud sculptis ; dein t. normalibus, pianatis, suturis yix 
impressis ; lirulis radiantibus circ. xxvi., baud nisi in anfr. primia 

iriter rotundatam ad axim continuis ; 
mfr. primis e lirulis extantibus for- 
ivenientibus, anfr. penult, circ. xvii.» 
I appressis, interstitiis baud infossis ; 
ita; apertura subovali, sinistrorsum 
tinuo, calloso; labro baud siuuato. 
•09, div. 20^ 

icimcD (Jewetty 

\iopsis purpurea. 

marginibus spirse parum excurvatis; 

circa peripberiam pallidiore; anfr. 
[., pianatis, suturis impressis ; serie- 

supra costulas spirales minures, ad 
iantium Tire, xxiii., lineis fere rectis, 
1 ascendentium sitis ; interstitiis im- 
uturalibus ii. baud nodulosis ; basi 
is ex|TCssis inter eas et costulas su- 

subquadrata ; columella torta, emar- 
r. -19, lat. -1, div. 20°. 

; Monterey, San Diego {Cooper). 

thiopsis fortior. 

sculptura multo fortiore, basi pallida; 
testa adolescente ii., postea iii. ; costis 
:iis magnis ; costis suturalibus validis, 
la. Long. '3, long. spir. *2, lat. *11, 

nen {Jewett). 

439. MargineUa subtrigona. 

M, testa M. Jewettii simili, sed multo curtiore, latiore ; antice valde 
angustata, postice valde tumenie ; labro postice minus prolongato; 
plicis iv., validioribus, parietal! una. Long. *14, long. spir. '01, 
lat. 11, div. 130°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara (Jewett). 

440. Margxnella regularis. 

M. testa M. Jewettii simili, sed multo minore, paullum angustiore ; 
tenui, nitidissima, crystallina, omnino diapbana ; labio magis cal- 
loso. Long. -13, long. spir. -01, lat. -00, div. 120°. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara i Jewett) ; coast of California south from 

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10 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on new Forms of Si 

Monterey, beach to 20 fathoms; Catalina Isl 
thorns. State Coll. no. 398 a (Cooper), 

453. Amycla tuberosa. 

A. testa A, minori simillima, sed vertice nucleoso ti 
tumidis, rapide augentilbus ; apice minimo, marg 

Sarum superante, interdum subdecliviter site ; t 
um unicolore, lirida seu aurautiaca ; plerumque 
Tarie picta, sea maculata, seu nebulosn, sen stri 
antibus seu flexuosis, seu varie peoicillata, seept 
subsuturali ; anfract. norm, v., planatis, suturit 
subangulata ; apertura pyriformi, canali satis pre 
labro iiitus acuto, deorsum quasi tumidiore, post 
circ. octodentato ; labio parum conspicuo, vix ruj 
torta, axi antice striate ; superficie leevi, seu inter 
sub lente radiatim striolata; epidermide come 
phana, spiraliter sub lente minutissime striolata ; 
formiy parvo, marginibus irregulariter serratis, < 
Long. -32, long. spir. -18, lat. -14, div. 30°. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, recent and fossil {Jewett) 
foimia north to Monterey; Catalina Island^ 
(Cooper). 

As this belongs to a group of closely allied sp 
Columbellae, a minute diagnosis is given. The 
are larger, and have the remarkable nucleus more 
of the recent shells yet seen. In appearance il 
from the small variety of the Mediterranean . 
but that (with A, comiculata) has a Chrysodom 
Californian an Alaboid. 

lAnachis pemcillata, 

T4. testa parva, Metnloidea, turrita, albida, rufo-fu 
penicillata ; anfr. nucleosis ii., tumidis, helicoidi 
lato ; norm, vi., tumidis, suturis valde impressis 
bus circ. xii., angustis, expressis; lirulis spirt 
in spira plenimque vi. supra costas transeuntibu 
formi, antice elfusa ; labro postice sinuato. 
spir. -13, lat. -08, div. 25^ 

Hab. Sta. Barbara [Jewett) ; S. Diego, Catali 
to 10 fathoms (Cooper). 

Neither of the specimens sent is quite matu 
is that of an adolescent Anachis, but the sculpti 

Siphonalia fuscotincta. 

S, testa minima, turrita, albida, apicem versus fi 
nucl. ii., compactis, subplanatis, apice mamillato 
vexis, suturis impressis ; costis radiantibus rotunc 
basim versus evanidis, interstitiis undulatis, subtei 

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fram the West Coast of North America. 11 

erebm spiralibus, costas superantibns ; apertura pjrifonni, in 
canalem breyem apertum contortam producta ; labro acuto ; la- 
bio hand conspicuo; columella canalem versus Talde contorta. 
Long. '17» long, spir, -1, lat. 08, div. 32^ 

Hob. Sta. Barbara {Jewett). 

The unique specimen is like a minute edition of S^honalia 
Kdlettii, but does not accord with the young of that or of any 
other species known in the region. It is probably not mature* 
19 289 



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L. 



DIAGNOSES 

OF 

NEW FORMS OF MOLLUSCA, 

CX)LLECrED BT COL. E. JEWKTT 
ON THB 

WEST TROPICAL SHORES OP NORTH AMERICA. 

BY • 

PHILIP P. CARPENTER, B.A,, Ph.D. 



From the Annals and Magazine of Kataral History. Third Series, YoL 
XV., pp. 399—400, May, 1866. 



(291) 



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p^'^"- 



DIAGNOSES 

Of 

NEW FORMS OP MOLLUSCi] 

COLLECTBD BY Col. E. JEWETT 

ON 

THE WEST TROPICAL SH0BE8 OF NOETH AMEBIOA; 

BY 

PHILIP p. CARPENTER, B.A.,Ph.D. 



Rmoina eapansa. 

B. testa magna, lata, tenmscnlpta, alba, nitente, subdiaplianai 
marginibns spirse param excarratis ; anfr. nucl. Isevibus, vertice 
mamillato ; nonn. t., planatis, suturis distinctis ; costulis radianti- 
bus circ. xxiv., obtusis, haad extantibus, interstitia eequantiboa* 
p^ripberiam versus evanidis ; circa basim productani striis spirali- 
bus expressis ; medio Isevi ; apertura ralae expansa, semilunata ; 
labro subantice producto, varicoso, antice et postice alte siuuato i 
labio calloso. Long. -35, long. spir. *18, lat. *17 poll., div. 30^ 

Hab. Mazatlan (teste Jewett). 

This fine species is the largest known in the fauna. It most 
resembles JR. infrequens, G. B. Ad., which was described from a 
dead shelL 

Mangelia hamata. 

M. testa cameo-aurantiaca, satis turrita, marginibus spirae excarratis $ 
anfr. nucl. ii. globosis. tenuissime cancellatis, apice mamillato ; norm. 
Ti., subelongatis, in spira tumentibus, subangutatis, suturis impressis ; 
Gostis radiantibus x.-xii., acutioribus, yalidis, circa basim pro* 
longatam continuis ; interstitiis concavis ; lirulis spiralibus filosis, 
distantibns, supra costas transenntibus, in spira iii.-iv. ; apertum 
eubelongata, quasi hamata, intus Isevi, intense coiorata; iabro 

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Dr. P. P. Carpenter an new Farms af Mollusca. 13 

acuto, dorsaliter yaricoso, postice yalde sinuato. Long. *24, lODg. 
gpir. 13, lat. -1, div. 25^ 

Hab, Panama (teste Jewett), 

This very beautiful species is easily recognized by the varicose 
lip, sloping oflF to a sharp edge; by the deeply cut posterior 
notch, giving the smooth mouth a hooked appearance ; by the 
sharp ridges, traversed by distant spiral threads; and by the 
flesh-tinted orange colour. 

Mangelia cerea. 

M. testa 3f. hamata simili, sed textura cerea, aurantiaca, graciliors^ 
anfractibus tumidioribus, baud angulatis; anfr. nucL leevibus; 
normalibus v., costis radian ti bus baud acutis, interstitia tequan- 
tibus ; liris spiralibus validioribus, baud filosis, supra costas nodu- 
losis, in interstitiis subobsoletis ; apertura» testa adulta, 7 • • • • 
Long. -25, long. spir. *14, Ut. *1^ div. 28^ 

Tariat testa rufo-fusca. 

Hab. Panama (teste Jewett). 

Col. Jewett's unique specimen is not. mature. It is distin- 
guished from M. hamata by the smooth nucleus, waxen texture, 
rounder whorls, more equal distribution of the contour between 
ribs and interstices, and especially by the spiral sculpture^ which 
is faint in the hollows, but nodulose on the ribs. Mr. Cuming 
lias a specimen with the same texture, but of a rich brown 
colour. 

Chemnitzia calata. 

C. testa satis magna, cinerea, elongata ; anfr. nucl. 7. . . ; norm. xiii.» 
planatis, suturis vix impressis; costis radiantibus xx.-xxviii., 
rectis, haud semper convenieiUibus, subacutis, ad peripheriam 
subito truncatis ; sulcis spiralibus in spira iv.-v., valde impressis, 
interstitia et costarum latera transeuntibus, juga haud superanti- 
bus; basi subito angustata, angulata, lirulis spiralibus circ. vi. 
omata ; apertura subquadrata ; columella satis torta. Long. '35, 
long. spir. -3, lat. -09, div. 13"*. 

Hab. West coast of North America {Jewett). 

This beautiful and unique shell was probably from Panama ; 
but there was no locality-mark. It is remarkable for its deep 
iurrows and the suddenly shortened and spirally sculptured 
base. It is much larger and broader than the northern C. Virgo^ 
and differs in details of sculpture. 

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M. 



NOSES 



^ NOUVEAUX 

E CALIFORNIE, 

DE L'INSnTUTION SKITHSONIMNS. 



BT 

ENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



, Vol. Xir. (Third Series, Vol. V.), P^ 
April, I860. 



J96 ) 



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Diagnoses de Moiiosiiues nomeaox provenant 
de Caiifornie el faisant partie du mus^ 
de riantltutloii SiiiltliS«iileiiiie, 

PAR Philip P. Carpenter, B. A., Pn. D« 



I. 

D'apr^s les lois des ^tats-Unis, tous les objets d*li!stoire 
Lalurelle recueillisdans le cours des eip^dilions failcs par 

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— 130 — 

les Etats deviennent la propri^t^ de Ti 
nienne, qui est autoris^e, de plus, a h 
Celle inslitulion, si bien dirig^e par U 
qui en est le secretaire, n'a pas pour 
soul agrandissement; elle est stabile 
ment et la propagation de la science p 
c*est-a-dire qu'clle embrasse toutes le 
change des doubles, on n'a pas pour bi 
pro quo, mais plul6t d'envoyer les ^ch 
endroit oil ils seront plus utiles pour 
science. Le revenu de Tinstitution n 
avoir k poste fixe des naturalistes chai 
decrire au besoin les objets d*bistoi 
mus^e, on envoie ces objets en commu 
ralistes des l^tats-Unis ou d*autres paj 
lite, en vue d'arriver ^ determiner le 
choit des echantillons pour leur colle( 
pour les ^changes. En conformity de 
recteurs de Tinstitution m'ont tran 
toutes les coquilles recueillies sur la 
rique. Je les al soigneusement coi^*^ 
de la collection Cuming et du muse< 
suite de cet examen comparatif jc 
propres materiaux, je me suis trouv 
decrire k peu pr^s trois cents espec 
en dehors de celles que j'ai publiees 
mon catalogue des coquilles de Maza 
On trouvera des renseignements i 
toutes les sources originates d'inror 
m£me sujet, dans mon aSupplerm 
present slate of our knowledge o^ 
H^^'est coast ofN. America, » ecrit h 

ciation brilannique pour Tavancen 

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— 131 — 

public dans ses Transactions poiir Tannine 1863 [p R17- 
686L Am na<ri*s fi/iB 664, on peul constilter une table dis- 
i Taire voir d'un coup d'ceil toutes les 
n de Vancouver el de Calirornie, jus- 
lues, avec tous les endroits ou on les 
6s les renseignements fournis par les 
is m£mes pages on Iron vera 

des especcs qui sont nou- 

aux diagnoses lalines, elles 
)nrnaut scientiHques, selon 
ispeces qu*elles concernent, 
en chercher le plus grand 

par le docteur Cooper, lore 

de Californie, dan? les Pro- 
idemy^ 186i-5. Les especes 

nerley au Pugei-Sound se 
urnal of the Philadelphia 

trouv^es par le colonel Je- 
publi^cs dans les Annals of 
IS qui ont 6le recueillies par 
, de rinstruclion desquels il 
ih (vis-^-vis rjle de Vancou- 
:ap St. -Lucas, se trouvent 
il pi^riodique (186i). Dans 
ical Society (1863, p. 339- 
I critique du Panama cata- 
iims, fait d'apr^s ses ^chan- 

le cours de la pr^sente an- 
iblier les especes nouvelles 
ueillies par MM. Reigen, 

:e avec laquelle T^diteur du 
)ien voulu ra'ouvrir les co- 



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— 132 — 

lonncs de son recueil scicntiGqiie, je me propose de don- 
ner, dans eel article, les diagnoses dcs esp6ces nouvelies 
de Californie, qui ne se Iroiivent pas d6cri(es dans lesm^ 
moires cit^s plus haul. Je me trouve dansrimposHbilit^ 
d*en donncr en m^^me temps les figures, atlendu que j'ai 
d^ja reslitu^ les ^chantillons typiques k rinslitution Smith- 
sonienne; mais cclle absence de figures est moins regret- 
table, si Ton consid<^re qu'elle n'est que momenlan6e, et 
que les esp^ces en question doivent £tre prochainement 
dessindes et gravies sur bois par le savant artiste, M. le 
D' W. Stimpson, pour le Manuel des ilollusques de la c6te 
ouest d*Afnirique. que je prepare en ce moment, h la de- 
mande de rmstilution Smilhsouienne (1). Lorsqu*il existe 
des doubles de ces diverges especes, on les trouvera ou 
dans le Alusie brilannique ou dans la collection Cuming. 
Warrington (Angleterre), i5 C^vrier 1865. 

II. 

1. Angulus Gouldii. 

it. ^ parva, alba, tenui, tumida, subdiaphana, subqua- 
draia; epidermide pallida, tenuissitna, induta; kevi^ li^ 
nets incrementi haud exstantibus;antiCeetventraliter in' 
flata , marginibus regulariter excurvatis ; parte postica 
minima, haud angulata; unU)onibus praminentibus : tn- 
tus, dentibus cardinalibus utraque valva uno simplici 
unoque bifida, validis, obtusis ; laterali antico valva dex^ 

(1) Je prie les naturalisles qui trouveraient des erreurs dans 
n)es ouvrages d^ja publics, ou qui poss^deraient de nouveaux 
maidriaux relatiTs aux Mollusques de la cdle ouesl d'Am6rique, 
de vnuioir bien me communiquer leurs renseig^nemeiits, en me 
les aaressaiit cbez M. le professeur Henry, Smiibsoniau institu- 
tion, Washington, D. C, Etais-Unis, afln qua je puisse rendre ce 
Manuel aussi complet et aussi exact que pos^ible• F. C. 

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— 133 — 

ira curto, valido, exstante; postico obsoleto; valva siniS" 
trali nullis; nymphis rectis, inconspicuis ; sinu pallii 
maximoy subtriangulari , fere cicatricem alteram tenut 
parrecto; cicatricibus adductoribus postica subquadrata, 
antica elongata. — Long. *i8, lat. '4, alt. H poll. (1). 

Hab. Son Diego, Cassidy. Llle de Cerros, dans la basse 
Calirornie, Ayres. ' 

Celte petite coquille porte le nom de « Mara Gouldiip 
Hani., » dans le mus^e Cuming et dans les Genera de 
MM. Adams (t. II, p. 396), mais je n'ai pu parvenir a en 
troaverde diagnose pubiiee. Sur quelques-uns des ^chan- 
tillons, on peut trouver le commencement d*une dent la- 
t^rale post^rieure. Ainsi la difTerence entre les sous- 
genres Mcera et Angulus de MM. Adams est de tr^s-peu 
dimportance. Cette esp&ce ofTre Taspect de T^tat jeune do 
Lutricola Dcmbeyi^ Lamarck {'i), mais elle en diff^re par 
la charni^re. 

(1) Les dimensions des esp6ces sont donn6es en peaces an- 
glais, dent chacun == 2.53 centimetres. 

(2J Pour ceUe section de Scrobicularia, MiNf . Adams proposent 
le vocable Capsa; ce qui fait grandement confusion, Capsa 6lam 
un nom de Lamarck, synonyme, il est vrai, d'fphigenia, Schuma* 
cber, mais n6aiimoins tr^s-usite. Je propose de reconstituer le 
genre ancien Lutricola, de Blainville, pris dansun sens reslreintf 
pour ce groupe, intermMiaire enire les vrais Scrobicularia et les 
Macoma, ainsi qa*il suit ; 

Sous-genre Lutricola. 

ss Lutricola, Blainv. pars. 

^Capta, H. et A. Ad., non Lam. 

= Scrobicularia, seu Macoma, seu Tellitta, pars, auct. 

Testa tumida, Bcepe incsquivalvis, irregularis, subquadrata seu 
antice producta : pars postica undala seu truncata; cartilago fossa 
subintema sita, ligamento curtiore contigua : dentes cardinales 
uiraque valva duo, lalerales nulli. 

Ex. LtUricola ep'iippiam, Solander, L. alta, Conrad; L. Dom' 
6«yt, Lamarck, etc. 

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— 13i — 

OEdalia, n. g. 
tlym. dt^AKtA (une coquille) reiiflee. 

Testa inflaia, tenuis, ccquivalvis, cequilateraliSy cyckt* 
diformis : margo hand hians^ hand sinuatus : ligamentum 
et cartilago externa : dentes cardinales 3-2, bi/idi, late^ 
rales nulli : sinxis pallii magnus. 

% OEdalia subdiaphana. 

0^. t. albida, tenuissima^ subdiaphana, submargarita' 
cea, tumente; losvi, striulis incrementi exillimis; epider- 
mide pallide straminea, tenuissima^ induta; suborbiculari, 
umbwiibiLS tumentibus, prominentibus ; marginibus om- 
nino satis excurvatis, antico rotundato, postico paululum 
porrecto, lunula nulla : intm, valva sinistrali deniibus 
cardtnalibus 3 bifidis, radiantibus, quorum centralis ma- 
jer, valva dextra 2 bifidis, intercalantibus ; nymphis par» 
vis, Curtis, tenuibus ; ligamento circa umbones excurrente; 
lamina cardinali dorsaliter parum claviculata; cicatrici-^ 
bus adductoribus parvis, marginem dorsalem versus sitis, 
aniica ovali, postica subrotundata ; sinu pallii regulariter 
avali, per duos trientes interstitii incurrente, longitudi- 
naliter tenuissime corrugato; linea pallii antice a mar^ 
gine remota, diagonaliter reflexa. — Long. '62, lot. '44, 
alt. -26, poll. 

Bab. San Diego, Cassidy. 

ie n'ai vu qu'un seul ^chantilloD de cette coquille fort 

remarquable. Apr^ Tavoir examinee pour la seconde fois 

et avec beaucoup de soin au microscope, pour caract6ri- 

ser Tesp^ce et pour comparer ses caracleres avec ceui du 

Cooperella scintilhformis, j'ai eu Ie malheur de Ie laisser 

tomber h terre et de Ie briber : mais je puis attester I'exac- 

tUude de la description. Teffe esp^ce a I'aspcct exlerne 

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— 135 — 

'cularis; riiiflexion pollute d*nn Se- 
(^ircumumbonal des Circe et des Pse- 
fii^re tres-compleie, contenant cinq 
). Avec le sous-genre Cooperella, qui 
les Luiricoh et les Macoma (le car- 
et peut-Mre avec les Cyclar 
upe particulier des TellinidcB, 

\ TELLI1ITAU8. 

subqtmlrata, tumidiore, valde 
r obtusis, vix prominentibm ; 
purpurea [maxime circa mar'^ 
pidermide tenuissima tnduto; 
concentrice striata; margini^ 
parallelism antico rectiore, pos* 
-inspicua : intus, dentibus cen* 
elongatis, posticis valde elon- 
to.— Long. -09, lat. '07, altit. 

»artie dorsale d'une Haliolide, 

e compose de tr^s-petites co- 

Tanimal est ovivipare» comme 

eaux douces» et des Bryophila 

f marins. La charni^re porte 

slles ressemblent k celles des 

it les dents anl^rieures et pos- 

e Psephis tellimyalis se trouve 

groupe. II a I* aspect ext^rieur 

et quelque chose aussi de sa 

grand developpenient des deux 

\ de la dent centrale. Je n*en ai 
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— 136 . 

TU qu'un seul ^chantillon, qui 
J. Rowell, pasteur h San Franci 

4. Tapes lac 

T. ^ « r. stamtnecB • simili, s 
tenuiore; satis tumida, snbovaU 
cinerea; lunula linea impressa^ j 
Ims, postico vix subquadrato, an 
baud prominente; costis radiai 
ventraliter dimidium interstitu 
parvis, crebris, antice hits; Ian 
rimis, vix ereetis, castas transe 
stitiis eleganter undatis^ haudm 
bida; dentihus cicatricibusque Ui 
tis ; sinu pallii paulum longiore, 
lat. %alt. i'i,poll. 
Hab. San Diego, Rieh^ Blake^ 
C^ette espftce est remarquablc» 
ddlicatesse de sa sculpture, et p( 
liers de sa texture. £lle apparti 
les T. Adamsiif Reeve, T. ten 
d*apr^ un individu tr6s-jeune) 
Cette derni^re esp^ce comple par 
tilii et V. ruderala^ Deshayes, V 
diversa^ Sowerby)et V. tumida, 1 
tingue racilement de toutes ces I 
centriquesy dispos^es au-dessus c 
tersticcs bien prouonc^St ^t ' 
^l^gammeot. 

5. Kellia (Lapebousii, 

K. t. • K. Laperousii^ simili; s 

tersa, ventraliter excurvata; ep 

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— 13T — 

bimibus angustiaribus : dentibus multo minoribus, hand 
exstaniibus. — Lofig. -76, laL -62, alt. -41, polL 
Hab. Neeah Bay, Swan ; San Pedro, Cooper. 

Cette vari^l^ est assez dislincte de la Torme typiqiie du 
K* Laperotuli; inais la suite d'individus que j'ai eu occa- 
sion d* examiner comparativement m*a permis de me con- 
f ^aincre que Tespice variait beaucoup. 



f ^ ^^A.'% 6. Kellia rotundata. 



^^. 



. <v> Jf. I^ROiuissima, orbiculari, satis convexa, ceouilate^ 

ff/ir tali, Iceutjppidermide subnitente, pallide oUvacea; um^ 

^^^^^Oma^fyjistis, satis prominentibus ; marginibus omnino 

regutSriter excurvatis : intus, dentibus cardinalibus 2 

tenuibus, satis conspicuts, clavicula haud exstante ; denti'» 

bits lateralibm satis elongatis. — Lang, '6, lat. *6, alt. '28, 

polL 

Hab. Monterey, Taylor. 

Cette esp^e est beaucoup plus grande, mats moins 
renfl^e que le K.^suborbicularts, et se distingue I'acile- 
ment par sa forme presque completement arrondie. 

7. OSTBEA LURIDA. 

0. t. irregulari, suborbiculari, ellipsoidea, sen pro- 
ducta; superficie interdum laminata, purpurea seu sqfia^ 
tide grisea, haud costata : intus olivacea, interdum pur- 
purea tincta, seu amnino purpurea, submargaritacea; car^ 
dine recto; umbanibus haud conspicuis, haud exoavatis; 
margine interna^ cardinem versus scepe crenulata. 

Animal flavore cupreo tinctum. 

Var. laticaudata. Null, ms. : t. omnino purpurea, mar- 
gine producto, undato; cardinem versus, deniiculis con- 
spicuis instructo. 

Hab. Vancouver Is., a 2-5 toisessur fond de vase, Lordz 
20 ^ 305 



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— 138 — 

Shoalwaler Bay. Cooper, Neeah Ba; 
Su?an (Var.) Monterey, NuUall. 

?Var. expansa : t. omnino planata, 
ciem affixa ; extus, marginem versus 
radiata; intus, olivacea-rufa, ligamet 
undato, solidiore. 

Hab. S. Pedro, Cooper. 

?Var« rvfoides : t. « 0. Virginicce • 
nuissima^ luteo-rufa, inlus rufo tine 
cavis. 

Hab. S. Diego, Cassidy, Cooper. F 
20 pieds au-dessus de la haute mar^e, 

Les IluUres de Californie, dans l( 
comroe on les trouve au Shoalwater 1 
peu pr^s la couleur et Taspect de p 
individus des mers plus chaudes ont I 
tincts; mais, d'apr^s le docteur Coope 
experience de la matiere, ce ne sont < 
ne pouvais pas prendre pour nom spd 
professeur NuUall avail donne en mar 
accidenlelle. Quant aux autres Torro 
dans leurs diverses localil^s, je leur a 
qui pourront servir a les di^signer s( 
soit comme vari^l^s, lorsque, plus 
sance d*un plus grand nombre d'ii 
d'avoir une opiniun definitive en ce q 
variety rufoides a beaucoup de Taspec 
(Maz. Cat., n^ 212). Eile elait d^sign^ 
?rufa TO par le docteur Gould ; ma is j( 
que I'espece de Lamarck est une vari^t 
tiqu6s, attendu que les coquilles de 
n'^laient pas connues a I'^poque ou il 

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— 139 — 

8. TORNATELLA PCNCTOCiELATA. 

r. t» tenuij satis elongata, ovoidea; cinerea, fasciis 
duabus latis fuscis omata; vertice nucleosodeclivUer ccb- 
lata; dnfractibus normalibus 4 vix convexis^ suturis 
distinctis; toia superficie sulcis subdistantibus ccelata, 
punctis impressis seriatim dispositiSj quarum 7-9, in 
spira monstrantur ; basi ovali; apertura latiore; labro 
acuto^ antice sinuato; labio indistincto ; plica acuta de- 
divijuxtaparietem^haudexstante; columella antice torta. 
Long, 'i, long. spir. -Oe, lat. 'Q9, poll.: div. 50*. 

Hab. San(a-Crux» Rou)ell. —San Diego, Cooper. 

Cette espice est un pcu aberran(e» k cause de son ou- 
verture large, de son pli report^ pr^ du bord parietal el 
de sa columelle tordue comme celle des Bullina. La cise- 
lore des tours ressemble aux impressions que laisfserait une 
s^rie de petils colliers. 

9. Ctlichua planata. 

C.t.parvaj cylindracea, subelongata, alba, Icevi, epi- 
dermide straminea induta; marginibus fere parallelis ; 
spira planata^ haud umbilicata, haud mamillata; anfrac^ 
tibus 4 convolutis, suturis parum impressis; basi modice 
effusa; labro tenuis in medio satis productOy antice late 
arcuatOj postice parum sinuato^ haud canaliculate^ sutu- 
ram versus satis rotundato; labio distincto, postice sub" 
calloso : columella plica satis exstante, axi basim circum^ 
gyrante. Long. *\\, lat. 'O^h^poll. : div. 480*. 

Hab. San Diego^ Cassidy. 

On n'a trouv^ qu*un seul ^chantillon de cette petite 
espece, qui est iuterm^diaire entre les Cylichna et les 
Tomatina. 

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— 140 — 

Genus LOTTU 

= Lollfa, Gray, pars. 
:= AcmcBa, $e\i Tectum^ seu Pa 
= Tictwrella^ Cpr. Brit. Assoc, 
non Stimpson, Invert.* Grand-Maa 

Testa Patellis quibusdam seu j 
rumjtAe planata, solida, apice anie> 

Animal margine pallii intus pa 
dorsum lateraque instructo, region 
pede elongato, ovali, planaio; brant 

Ce genre est intermediaire entre I 
rta. Dans les AcmcBa^ le manteau 
Scurria^ il est garni, sur toute sa cir 
qui, k premiere vue, oflTrent Tappar 
vraies Patelks; chez les Lotlia^ on 
le corps, mais non sur la t£(e de 
brancbie, qui est ordinairement all 
plume chez les ActMBa, et triangu 
est tris-petile dans le genre qui i 
pr^matur^ de vouloir fixer d^finiti 
conch} liologiques du genre LoUia 
trds-dilTigrent des Palelles ordinain 
que quelques-unes des esp6ces que 
lement comme des Palelles se tfoi 
lorsqu'on aura eu I'occasion d'obsei 

On sait qu il j a quatre noms ei 

les Palelles h brahchie de petite din 

premier en date, ayant &{& public 

voyage de Kolzebue. J'aurais voii 

groupe le vocable g^ndrique Tea 

Milne- Edwards) par Gray et MM. A 

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— 141 — 

que Sowerby sen., dans son Gen^'ra^ a figure Tespice 
originale comme type de son a Ij)Uia^ Gray. » 

C'est le dodeur Cooper qui, le premier, a' observe et 
signal^ les particularity de Taniraal ; mais la diagnose, 
que je viens de donner est le resultat des eludes du doc- 
teur Alcock, qui a succ6d£ au capitaine Brown comme 
curaleur du Hus^e de Manchester. II a Tait Tanatomie de 
presque toutes les Patelles de la c6te ouest d'Am^rique; 
mais je ne veux pas anticiper sur ses decouvertes. Voici la 
diagnose de Tespke typique. 

10. LoTTiA GiGANTBA, Gray. 

L, t, magna, crassiore, planata, expansa, textura scppius 
m; nucleo minore, comeo, nigro-fiisco, an- 
'tice mamillato, subelevato; dein elongata, 
, undulata; t, adolescente verrucosa, radits 
)e hand verrucosis; t. adulta plus minusve 
Inusve radiata sen verrucosa; apice plus 
gine remoto; parte antica seu haud exstante, 
er quintam to tins longitudinis projiciente, 
olus minusve elevata, convexa; extus ut in 
\ *picta, albido-grisea, fusco-olivaceo copiose 
strigata : intus, plerumque testudinaria, 
nigro; spectro definite, seu rarius albido, 
ulari fortiore, interdum purpureo seu vio- 
laceo tincta. 

Long. [sp. normalis) 2-6, lat. 2*05, alt. -7, poll. A. 

Long. {sp. variantis) 2-95, lat. 2 35, alt. '8, poll. B. 

On mesure de Vapex jusqu*au bord ant^rieur, dans le 
vp. A, '45. 

On mesure de Xapex jusqu*au bord antiricur, dans le 
sp. B, 05. 

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— 142 — 

UaUilude <le Yapex en sp. A est de -6 
L'altitiidedc Yapex en sp. B n*estqu( 
== Teclurella grandi$^ Tpr. Brit. Assc 

ou Ton pent voir quelques details sur 

celte espece remarquable. 

11. BlTTIDM (?VAR.) ESUBI 

Is. t. « B, filoso » simili, sed multo m 
interdum valde attenuata; sculptura 
• B, filoso; » sed t. adulta subobsoleta, 
insculptis. Long. '27, long. spir. '\9, 
div. 25®. 

Ilnb. Neeah Bay, Sxjoan. Sla. -Barbara, 
lerey, San l*edro, Cooper. 

Bien que j*aie vu beaucoup d*indi 
et un phis grand nombre encore i 
(= Turriiella Eschrichli^ Midd. = 
Adams. Genera), je ne puis pas di^cid 
complete si c*esl une veritable espfec 
variete dcgradee el, pour ainsi dire, i 
IL filbsum, qui, d'ailleurs, ne varie ] 
losum ne s^etend pas aussi loin au su 
les echantillonscalirorniensdoivent £ 
dirUncls, iandis que les individus de 
rienne pcuvent 6tre r^unis au B. fih 
vidus qu'on a envoy js etaient tr6s-roi 

12. BiTTIUM ATTENU. 

B. t. valde gracili, attenuata ; dn^ 

narmalibus \0 plana lis, suturis hand 

lirulis spiralibus 2 anticis conspicuis, 

conspicuis, supra costulas circiter \ \ 

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— 143 — 

tibus; t. adulta costulis et lirulis anticis obsoletis; lirulis 
•2. suturalibus ; bast prolongata, striis circiter 6 ornata; 
apertura ovali; columella intorta, parum emarginata. 
Long. -4, long, spir. •3\, lat. '\\,polL : div. 18®, 

Hab. Monterey, Taylor. — Neeoh Bay, Sxoan. 

Je n ai vu qu*un seul ^chnntillon en bon 6tat de cette 
esp^e. Elle o la taillc dn B. plicalum^ A. Ad.^ mais la 
sculpture de la base est diOT^rente. 

IS. ?BlTTIDM QUADRIFILATUM. 

?B. t, satis iereti, pallide cinerea, tenuisculpta ; anfr. 
nucleosis,primo omnino ccelato, ?sinxstrali, dein 2 IcevibuSy 
rotundatis, apice quasi mamillato: anfr. normalibus 7 
subplanatis; suturis valde impressis, haud sculptis; cos- 
tulis radiantibus circ. 16-22, angustis, subrectis, anfr. 
ult. crebrioribus, suturam versus evanidis: filis spiralibus 
Vus, supra sptram 4 angustis, expressis^ 
mtibus^haudnodulosis; filis duabus alteris, 
^a sita est; basi tenue striata; columella 
effusa; apertura ovata; labio parvo^ labro 
rcuato.Long, '26, long. spir. '48, lat. '09, 
poll.: div. 25« 

H»h. S. Pedro, Cooper. — S Diogo, Cassidy. 
Dans cette cspcce et dans quelques aiitres tris voi- 
sines, les D. aspemm et B armillafum, par exemple, le 
nucl6us est trcs-differcnt de celui des Bittium typiques. 
II est probable qu'elles n'appartiennent pas au m£me 
geure. 

14. Barlbeia sudtenuis. 

B. t, parva, tenui, interdum subdiaphana^ rufo'Cornea, 

anfr. nucleosis normalibus, apice submamillato; normali^ 

bus 4, planatis. suturis distinctis ; basi rotundata; aper^ 

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tura subovata^ peritremate con 
distincto, lacunam umbilicalem 
angulata operculo semilunato, 
mogeneo^ haud spirali, rudi; a 
columellam versus exstante. Li 
lat. -06, poll. : div. 40*. 

Hab. S. Diego, Cassidy ; sur 
St.-Lucas, Xantus. — Mazatlan, 

Si Ton juge seulement d*apr^ 
guere s^parer celte espece despc 
VHydrobia uhcB d'Europe. J*avf 
quelques individus, en tres-mau 
Beigen (Maz. Cat., nM17). Ms 
ont el^ recueillis, grice au zele 
s^dent I'opercule remarquable d( 

15. Barleeia (?scbtenu 

B. t, « B. subtenui » simili; 

anfractibus minus planatis; rinu 
Hbb, S. Diego, Cassidy^ Coo\ 
Peut-6lre cetle forme se Irou^ 

esp^e dislincte^ lorsqti'elle sera 

16. Barleeia hai 

B. t. parva, turrita^ Icevi, ai 
marginibus spirce subrectis; anj 
vertice submamillato; norm. 5 
tinctis; bast subplanata, obsolete < 
peritremati haud continuo; labro 
lose; columella vix arcuata; opei 
Lang. M, long. spir. 06, lat. -05, 

Hab. Basse Califurnie, sur la [ 
lioUde, Rowell. 

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— 145 — 

Celte espece est volsine du B. suhlenws} elle s'en dis- 
tingue par sa taille beaucoup plus pelile, et sa forme plu^ 
ilancte. 

17. Drillia torosa. 

D. t, acuminata, IcBvi, aurantio-fusca^ eptdermide au- 

rantio-olivacea induta; anfr, nucleosis ?...[detritis); nor* 

malibus 7 tumidioribus, suiuris planatis; serie una tuber- 

culorum validorum, subrotundatorum, anfractu penult 

timo 8, anfr. ultimo baud obsoletis; regions sinus parvi, 

lulum excavata; regione suturali haud 

i longiore; columellarecta; labio tenui; labro 

sinuato. Long. -OS, long. spir. -55, lat. '3, 



jrey, Taylor^ Cooper. 
Cette esp^ce» ainsi que d'autres Pleurotomidce caWfor - 
niens, appartient h ud groupe particulier, dont le D. iner- 
mis, Hinds, peut 6ire consid^r^ comme le type. Peut£tre 
ces formes seraient-elles mieux plac^esdans le sous-genre 
Clionella^ qui est vraiment niarin, d'apr^s les observations 
du docteur Stimpson sur les esp^ces du cap de Bonne- 
Esperance, et non pas M^lanien, comme Ta suppose le 
docteur Grny» et comme Foot dit, apr^s lui, MM. Adams 
et Chenu. 

18. Drillia (Ttorosa, t?ar.) aurantia. 

D. t. « D. torosce » simili, sed aurantia; linea suturali 
expressa; interdum spiraliter sculpta. Long. •&, long, 
spir. -32, lat. -28, poll.: div. 38*. 

Hab. San Diego, Cassidy. — San Pedro, Cooper. 

Les individus des localites mi^ridionales ^taient tous en 

mauvais dtat, et je ne suis pas encore convaincu qu'ils ap- 

partiennent h la m^me espke. 

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— 146 — 

19. DniLLIA PENICILLi 

D. t. « D. inermi » forma et indole i 
rufo'fusco dense penicillata; lineolis 
dum diagonalibus, seu ziczacfornlib\ 
ruptu; anfractibus planatis, plicato~C( 
citer < k, regione sinus minimi, lati, e 
postice nodosis; canali effusa.^-Long. < 
lat. :42, poll. : div. 25\ 

Hab. Cerros Is., basse Californie, Fi 

Tous les individus que j'ai vus de 
excessivement roul^» mais od peut 
facilement h sa coloration Elegante. 

20. ? DaPHNELLA ASP] 

? D. t. parva^ tenui, rufo-fusca, gr^ 
formi, epidermide tenm induta; anfr. 
vertice contorio; normalibus (t. adol 
fenestratis, suturis distinctis ; costuli 
ter 13 anguslis, acutis, et costulis j 
3, an fractu ultimo circiter \0, angusti 
superantibus, eleganter decussata; int 
dulosis, inters titiis quadra t is ; aper 
gusta, antice effusa ; labro postice v\ 
Ml, Umg. spir. '09, lat. -08, poll,: div 

Hab. Monterey, Taylor. 

Je n*ai vu de cede charma'nte pc 
seul ^chantillon tr^s-frais, mais incoi 
Peut-6lre se trouvera-t-elle roieux pi 
Milromorpha, A. Adams? 

21. Odostomia strami 

0. t. • 0. inflatcBj var. eUtiori » sit 
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— 147 — 

Here; hand inflata, epidermide straminea^ hand striu* 
lata. — Long. M8, long, spir, '08, lat, -K, poll. : div. 40'. 

Hab. basse Californie (sur la parlie dorsale d'uoe /7a- 
liotide)^ RotoelL — Cap St.-Lucas, Xantus. 

Od peut facilement dislinguer cette esp^ce de celles du 
Nord par sa spire allong^e et son ^piderme d'un jaune 
de paille. 

22. ChEMMTZIA TRIDENTATA. 

Ch. t. [quoad genxis) magna, compacta^ latiore; casta- 
nea, interdum fasciis pallidioribus ; anfr. nucleosis 3 AeZi- 
coideis, apice conspicuo, marginibus spirce rectis parum 
superantibus ; normalibus H subplanatis, suturis distinc- 
ti$; costis rectis acutisj interdum 49, interdum 24 tenus^ 
haud attingentibus, circa peripheriam haud subito evani' 
dis; interstitiis undatis, eleganter spiraliter sulcatis; 
sukulis circiter 8-40, costis haud.superantibm; apertura 
subquadraia; laJbro intus tridentato; columella tortuosa; 
basi rotundatdm — Long. '45, long. spir. -35, Za^ H2, poZ/.; 
div. \6\ 

Hab. Santa Barbara, Jewelt. — Puget Sound, Kenner- 
ley. — Monterey, San Pedro, Cooper. 

Les trois dents de cette belle espt^ce, cachees tout h fait 
h rint^rieur de I'ouverture, coname dans plusieursesp&ces 
da genre Obeliscus, ont M, pour la premii^re Tois, ob- 
S3rv^es sur un individu casse et roul£ de Sanla Barbara. 
Celui-ci a 22 c6tes ; ceiul de Monterey, 20; celui du nord, 
19; et cenx de San Diego, 24. 

23. Chemnitzia (?var. ) aurantia. 

Ch. t. « Ch. chocolatce » simili, sedmulto minore, latiore, 

haud teretif aurantia; anfr. nucleosis?... [detritis); nor- 

malibus 7 planatis^ suturis impressis; costulis radianti* 

315 



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— U8 

bm circiter 26, haud express^ 
interstitiis late undatis; lineoi 
berrimis tola superficie ornaU 
mella parum torta; apertura 
labio haud conspicuo.^-Long. •! 
poll.: div. 20*. 

Hab. Santa Barbara, Jefjcelt. 

II est possible qu'on recon 
espdce est le jeane Age 6\\ Ch 
medial re eotre elle et le Ch. ch 

2(^. YOLUTELLA 

V. t, parva, « V. margaritu 
pallide tincta ; antice anguslk 
conspicuo; labro postice paru 
mintis expressis ornato; plicis 
acutioribus.-^ljmg, '\, lat. -Oi 

Hab. San Diego, Cooper. — 
loay exploring Expedition, » 

Cette espece ressemble au I 
n** 589), mals elle est plus a 
Fomt^i/a, Swatnsou (non d*Ort 
C/omdeGray. 

25. OCINEBBA POCL! 

0. t. turrita^ solida, luteo- 

raliter lineata; vertice nuolec 

mente : t. juniore rhomboidea, 

nata^ peripheria subangulata, 

bro intm dentato, labio distim 

anfr. 7 primis planatis, post 

natiSf sedareaposticaconcava, 

316 



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— 149 — 

iumentihuSf irregularibuSy anfractu ultimo 1, cxrciter 
quinquies subnodosis; tola super ficie spiraliter crebre in* 
sculpta; sulcis punctatis, rufosanguineis ; aperturaovali; 
labro acutiore, dorsaliter tumido, varicoso, intus dentibus 
validis circiterQ muni to; labio solido, sub suturam dente 
valido parietali munito, super columellam calloso; canali 
breviore^ aperto. — Long. \ -85, long, spir. '96, lat. '93, 
polU : div. 38». 

Hab. San Diego, Nutlall — Cerros Is., Vealch. — 
Santa Barbara, Jewell. 

Je n'ai va que trois individiis de cette belle esp^ce : 
I'un d'eux, qui est typique, porte le nom de u Buccinum 
Poulsoni 9 dans la collection Nuttall qui fait partie du 
Husde brilanniqiie : un second, tres-jenne, et d'un as- 
pect fort particulier, bien qu'il appartienne ^videmment 
k la m6me espece, a M recueilli par le colonel Jewett, 
probablement aSaiita Barbara (mais, d'apres son Etiquette, 
h Panama) : enGn celui du docteur Veatch provient de la 
basse Californie, et II est en tr^s-mauvais dtat. Le premier 
a^t^dessin^ sur bois pour Tiustitution Smithsonienne 
par H. Sowerby. Comme cctte espece int^ressante est 
presque inconuue en France, j'ai cru devoir en donne? 
une description sumsamment precise. F. p. c 

317 



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N. 



ON 



)CENE FOSSILS 



rA. BAKBARA, CALIFORNU; 



OF NEW SPECIES. 



BY 
PENTER, BA^ Ph.D. 



)f Natnral History. Third Series, Vol. 
4-278, April, 1866. 



319 ) 



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IFrom iJie Ann'als and Magazine of Natural History 
for April 1866.J 



OK 

THE PLEISTOCENE FOSSILS 

COLLECTED BY Col. E. JEWETT AT Sta. BARBARA, CALIFORNIA! 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 

BT 

PHILIP p. CARPENTER, B.A., Ph.D. 



The study of the recent and tertiary mollusks of the west coast 
of America is peculiarly interesting and instructive, for the fol- 
lowing reasons. It is the largest unbroken line of coast in the 
world, extending from 60° N. to 55° S., without any material 
salience e}i6ept the promontory of Lower California. Being 
flanked by an almost continuous series of mountain -ranges, the 
highest in the New World, it might reasonably be supposed that 
the coast-line had been separated from the Atlantic from remote 
ages. The almost entire dissimilarity of its faunas from those 
of the Pacific Islands, from which it is separated by an immense 
breadth of deep ocean from north to south, marks it out as con- 
taining the most isolated of all existing groups of species, both in 
its tropical and its temperate regions. When we go back in time, 
we are struck by the entire absence of anything like the boreal 
drift, which has left its ice-scratchings and arctic shells over so 
large a portion of the remaining temperate regions of the northern 
hemisphere, and also by the very limited remains of what can 
fairly be assigned to the Eocene age. The great bulk of the 
land on the Pacific slope of North America (so far as it is not 
of volcanic origin) appears to have been deposited during the 
Miocene epoch. Here and there only are found beds whose 
fossils agree in the main with those now living in the neigh- 
bouring seas. To trace the correspondences and differences 
21 321 



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2 Dr. P. P. Carpenter on Pleistocene Fossils 

betwelsn these and their existing representatives may be expected 
to present results analogous to those now being worked out 
with such discerning accuracy from the various newer beds of 
modern Europe. 

The first collection of Califomian fossils seen in the east was 
made near Sta. Barbara by Col. E. Jewett in 1849 ; but no ac- 
count was published of them before the list in the British Asso^ 
ciation Report (1863), p. 539. They consist of forty-six species, 
of which twenty-nine are known to be now living in the Cali- 
fomian seas, and others may yet be found there. The following 
ten are Vancouver species, some of which may travel down t* 
the northern part of California : — 

Margarita pupilla, Priene Oregonensis, 

Galerus fastigiatus, Trophon Orpheus, 

Bittium filosum, Chrysodomus carinaiuSf 

Lacuna solidula, C. tabulatus, and 

Natica clausa, C. dirus. 

Some of these are distinctly boreal shells, as are also Crepidula 
grandis (of which Col. Jewett obtained a giant, 3^ inches long, 
and which now lives on a smaller scale in Kamtschatka) and 
Trophon tenuisculptus (whose relations will be presently pointed 
out). So far, then, we have a condition of things differing from 
that of the present seas, somewhat as the Red Crag differs from 
the Coralline. But in the very same bed (and the shells are in 
such beautiful condition that they all appear to have lived on 
the spot, which was perhaps suddenly caused to emerge by 
volcanic agency) are found not only tropical species which even 
yet struggle northwards into the same latitudes (as Chtone 
succincta), but also species now found only in southern regions, 
as Cardium graniferum and Pecten floridus. Besides these, 
the following, unknown except in this bed, are of a distinctly 
tropical type, viz. : 

Opalia, var. insculpta. Pisania fortis. 

Chrgsallida, sp. 

From a single collection made only at one spot, in a few 
weeks, and from the very fragmentary information to be derived 
from the collections of the Pacific Railway surveys (described by 
Mr. Conrad, and tabulated in the Brit. Assoc. Report, 1863, 
pp. 589-596), it would be premature to draw inferences. We 
shall await with great interest the more complete account to be 
given by Mr. Gabb in the Report of the California Geological 
Survey. With the greatest urbanity, that gentleman has sent 
bis doubtful Pleistocene fossils to the writer, to be compared 
iirith the living fauna; but it would be unfair here to give any 

322 



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I. Barbara, California. S 

that they confirm the foregoing sttite- 

iracter. 

OSes of the new species in Col. Jewett's 

rritella Jewettii. 

tenui, cinerea rufo-fusco tincta ; anfr. 
nctis ; lirulis distantibus (quarum t. jun. 
iolis subobsolelis spiralibu;) ciiicta; basi 
'a subquadrata ; labro teuui^ modice si- 

stocene formation {Jewetfj. San Diego, 

larest to T. sangmneay Rve., from the 
atness of the sculpture. Mr. Cassidy's 
fossils, or very poor recent shells. 

itium ?asperum. 

rma, magnitudine, et indole simili, sed 
lem vertice nucleoso abnormali ; scd, vice 
LIS costas spirales superantibus, subnodu- 
Euiticis majoribuSj alteris miDimis ; postea 
ibus, interdum iii. interdum aliis inter- 
Eisali intensiore; costis radiantibus sub- 

Gabb, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila- 

in Pleistocene beds; abundant (/eii?^/^). 
na Is. 30-40 fms. {Cooper), State Col. 

hat his Turbonilla aspera is a Bitiium, 
not accessible; and as the diagnosis 
allied species, it cannot be said with 
htfully applies. As this is the corn- 
presumed that it is the " Turbonilla" 
fpe, however, be recovered, and prove 
take the name of B. rugatwn, under 
nosis, and which was unfortunately 
. Report, p. 539. The fossil speqimena 
tion than the recent shells as yet dis- 

tium armillatum. 

ufr. nucl. ii. laevibas, tamentibus, vertice 
ix. normalibus planatis, suturisimpressis; 
lodulorum tribus spiralibus extantibus, 
ostis radiantibus circ. xiii. fere parallelis, 
323 



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4 Dr. P. P. Carpenter an Pleistocene Fossih 

seriebas, a suturis separatis, spiram ascendentibus ; t. adulbi, 
costulis spiralibus, interdum iv., intercalantibus ; costulis radianti- 
bus creberrimiB ; costis suturalibus ii. Talidis, baud nodosis : basi 
effusa, liris circ. tI. ornaia; apertura subquadrata; labro labioque 
tenuibus ; columella vix torsa^ effusa, vix emarginata. 

Hab, Sta. Barbara^ Pleistocene, 1 sp. {Jewett). S. Pedro, 
S.Diego (Cooper). 

The sculpture resembles Cerithiopsis; but the columella is 
pinched, not notched. 

Opalia (I crenatoides, var.) insculpta. 

O, testa O. crenatoidei simili ; sed costis radiantibus pluribus, xiii.- 
xvi., in spira validis; anfr. ult. obsoletis; sculptura spirali nulla; 
punctis suturalibus minus impressis, circa fasciam basalem IscTem 
postice, non antice continuis. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, Pleistocene, 1 sp. (Jewett). 

Very closely related to 0. crenatoides, now living at Cape 
St. Lucas, and, with it, to the Portuguese 0. crenata. It is 
quite possible that the three forms had a common origin. 

Trophon tenuisculptus. 

T, testa T. Barvtcensi simili, sed sculptura minus extante ; Tertice 
nucleoso minimu ; anfractibus uno et dimidio Isevibus, apice acute; 
nonmalibus v., tumidis, postice subangulatis, suturis impresbis; 
costis radiantibus x.-xiv., plerumque xii., hand yaricosis, aiigustis, 
obtusis ; liris spiralibus majoribus, distantibus, quarum ii.-iii. iii 
spira monstrantur, aliis intercalantibus, supra costas radiautes 
undatim transeuntibus ; tota superficie lirulis incrementi, supra 
liras spirales squamosis, eleganter ornata; canali longiore, sub- 
recta, vix clausa ; labro acutiore, postice et intus incrassato, dcnti- 
bus circ. v. munito ; labio conspicuo, Isevi ; columella torsa. 

Hab. Sta. Barbara, Pleistocene formation (Jewett). 

This very elegant shell is like the least-sculptured forms of 
T. Barvicensis, from which it appears to diflFer in its extremely 
small nucleus. It is very closely related to T.fimbriatulus, A. Ad., 
from Japan, but differs in texture, and is regarded by Mr. Adams 
as distinct. It stands on the confines of the genus, there being 
a slight columellar twist, as in Peristemia. 

Pisania fortis. 

P. testa P. insigni simili, sed solidiore ; crassissima, sculptura Talde 
impressa ; anfr. norm, v., parum rotundatis, suturis distinctis; 
costis radiantibus t. juniore circ. xii., obtusis, parum expressis, 
postea obsoletis ; liris spiralibus validis, crebris (quarum t. juniore 
v., postea z., in spira monstrantur), subeequalibus, anticis majori* 
324 



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frmi Sia. Barbara, California. 5 

bos ; canali recurvata ; lacuna umbilical i magna ; labro intus 
crebrilirato ; labio conspicuo, spiraliter rugose lirato. 

Hab. Sta Barbara, Pleistocene formation (Jewett). 

Col. Jewett's single specimen is in very fine condition, and is 
confirmed by a fragment obtained by Mr. Gabb, the palseonto- 
logist to the California State Survey. Although resembling 
Purpura aperia and congeners in the irregular rugose folds of 
the labium, and Siphonalia in the strongly bent canal, Mr. H. 
Adams considers that its affinities are closest with the Cqntharus 
group of Pisania, That genus is extremely abundant in the 
tropical fauna, but does not now live in California. It is the 
only distinctly tropical shell in the whole collection ; and its 
presence, along with so many boreal species and types, appears 
somewhat anomalous, like the appearance of Valuta and Cassi^ 
daria in the Crag fauna. It is distinguished from the extreme 
forms of P. insignia by having the spiral lirse pretty equally dis- 
tributed over the early whorls, by the close internal ribbing of 
the labrum, by the absence of the stout posterior parietal toothy 
and by the great development of the columellar folds. 

Note. — Unfortunately, during the long interval which has elapsed 
between the transmission of the MS. and receipt of the proof, the 
types have been returned to the owner, and (with the remainder of 
Col. Jewett' s invaluable collection of fossils) have become the pro- 
perty of a college in New York State. As they are packed in boxes, 
and at present inaccessible, I am unable to give the measurements ; 
but the unique specimens were drawn on wood by Mr. Sowerby for 
the Smithsonian Institution.^?. P. C, Montreal, Feb. 22, 1866. 

325 



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INDEX OF SPECIES. 



N, B, The numbers taitkatit capitals refer to the/oot-paging in this volum$ : 
those with capitals to the original works quoted in the list, O-X. 



Acanthoobitea ) 
Aoanthoohlton t 

achates, 72. 

ayicola, 98, 136. 

arragonites, 108, 252, 318, 
P 198. 
Acanthoplenra 

Californica, 135. 

flaxa, 98, 135. 

nmaoosa, 16. 
Aoar 

gradata, 69. 
Aohatina 

Alberei, P 175, 287, 

Galifornioa, 59. 

eoDalarU, 287. 

coronata, 295. 

oyliDdracea, O 286. 

fasiformU, 285. 

Isabellina, 286. 

LiebmaDni, O 295. 

octona, 44. 

pulobella, P 177. 

SowerbyaDa, 286. 

Btreptostyla, 295. 

tortillaDa, O 286. 

turris, 59, P 175. 

zebra, P 176. 
▲oioQla 

tarris, P 175. 
Aclla ' 

inaignis, 73. 

eastreDsia, 88, 91, 98, 130, 
165. 

Lyalli, 130, 



Aolrsa 

borealis, 245. 
Esohriohtii, 3II0. 
menesthoidei, 104, 217. 
Aollft 

asoaris, P 438. 

fusifonnig, O 260, 335, P 437, 
tamens, O 260, O 335, P 438. 
Aomaoa 

ttraginosa, 19, 84, O 283, 

3*9. 
anoylus, 174, 215, P 208, 

V 221. 
Tanoyloides, 19, 215. 
Antillaram, P 203, 364. 
Asmi, 19, 23, 136. 
atrata, 27, 104, 152, 213. 
biradiata, 268 
oaDtbaras, 214. 
oassia, 7, O 173, 178, 290, 

O 319, O 348. 
var, oinis, 233. 
o«ca, 19. 

oribraria, 16, 211, 319. 
diaphana, 319. 
digitalis, 7, 136, O 174, 319. 
disoora, 60. 
doreaosa, 72. 
fasoionlaris, 108, 268, 233, 

O 239, O 252, 319, O 351, 

364, P 203, P 206, P 210, 

P 546. 
fimbriata, 319. 
flocoata, 268. 

(fflocoata, var,) filosa, 267. 
(13) 



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14 



INDEX OF 8PE0II8. 



▲omaDa 

(ffloooata, var,) subrotmida, 37, 
268. 

gigantea, 229, 233, O 297. 

grandia, 282, 283, 297, 
0319,0351. 

iDstabilis, O 212. 

Eochii, O 229, 233. 

var. limulata, 26, 136, 151. 

liyescens, 319. 

mamillata, 7, O 173, O 199, 
O 215, V 222. 

marmorea, O 173, 199, 215, 
V 222. 

Mazatlandioa, 319. 

meaoleooa, 16, 24, 27, 104, 197, 
214, 208, 209, 229, 
233, 239, 241, 252, 
O 276, 283, 319, 348, 
352, 366, P 203, P 206, 
P 208, P 210, P 546. 

mitella, 24, 92, 108, 236, 319, 
252, 291, O 364, P 210, 

P538. 

mitra, 173, 177, 199, 212, 
O 213, 215, V 222. 

montioola, 72. 

var. moDtionla, 72, 

matabilia, O 239, 252, P 203, 
P 205, P 206, P 546. 

OregoDA, 170, 229,0 233, 240. 

paleaoea, 227, 229, U 204. 

patina, 16, 23, 48, 48, 49, 69, 72, 
92, 104, 136, 170, 214, O 173, 
174, O 190, 198, 199, 
209, 215, 219, 229, 
O 233,0 252,0 290,0 291, 
319,0 347,0 348,0 351, 
0353,^203, P 207, V 221. 

pelta, 16, 19, 23, 26, 48, 49, 84, 
92, 136, 214, 309, 162, 173, 
O 199, 223,0 291,0 319, 
V 221. 

penoDa, 16, 19, 23, 26, 84, 136, 
151, 170, 174, 175, O 199, 
229, 233, 252, 291, 



AomaBa 

O 348, 351, 353, P 208, 

V221. 
pereoDoides, 215, O 319, P 

203. 
pileola8,*0 215, 319. 
(fpileolas, var.) roeaoea, 136, 
pintadina, 92, 229, O 233. 
radiaU, 174, 215, P 208, 

V 221. 
rosacea, 100, 136. 

•oabra, 13, 23, 26, 84, 136, 151, 
199,0 213,0 229,0 233, 
252, 282, 319, O 349, 
0351,0352,0353, V 222. 

•oarra, 190, 215, V 222. 

sontam, 19, 170, O 173, 190, 
215, O 219, P 207, P 209, 

V 221, V 222. 

rSieboldi, 69. 

•peotrnm, 16, 23, 26, 84, 136, 
151, 199, O 213, 229, 
O 233, 319, 351, V 222. 

striata, 0319,0 360. 

strigatella, 152, 214, 268. 

strigillata, 104. 

sabrotaDdata, 268. 

tessellata, 229, 233. 

testodinalis, 92, O 219, 366, 
P203. 

textilina, 213, 319. 

var. teztilis, 151. 

toreama, O 319, 349* 

var, nmbonata, 136. 

rernioosa, 24, 268. 

rerrioolata, 229, 233. 

respertina, 268, 319. 

(fyespertlna, var.) rernicoM, 

37. 

Tirginea, 136. 
Aoroloxus 

NatUUi, 161. 
AorybU 

aperta, 71* 
AotinU 

Candida, Q 235. 



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»r 8PEGIES. 15 

Alaba 

alabastritea, O 257, O 327, P 

368. 
oonica, 257, 327, P vi., 

P368. 
lagunoula, O 257, 328, P 

369- 
mutans, 257, O 328, P 367, 

P 369, P 370. 
Boalata, 257, O 327, P 368. 
Bupralirata, 109, 259, 257, 

o 327, o 364, P 366, P 367, 

P 369, P 530. 
terebrans, 109, 257, 327, 

P367. 
tervarioosa, O 364. 
violaoea, O 257, O 327, P 367. 
Alasmodon 1 
Alasmodonta ) 
arooata, 211. 
falcata, 85, 120, 210, O 211, 

212, O 213, O 234, 310. 
roargarifera, var. 210. 
YubaSnsis, 117, 120. 
Aletes 

oentiquadrus, 24, 27, 37, 42, 43, 
108, 194, O 324, 255, 275, 
P 301, P 306. 
foentiqaadras, var. imbricatos, 

42, 255, P 303. 
inargariUrum,42,0 255, 324, 

P303. 
Peronii, 282, 324. 
sqaamigenis, 43» 200, 233, 
O 324, O 349, P 303t P 304, 
2, V 226. 

Alora 

Gouldii, 24, 40. 
'8, Albania 
2, eflfasa, 257, 327, P 359. 

excurvaU, O 257, O 327, P 359, 

P360. 
filoea, 1 149 142, 241. 
iDooDspiooa, 327. 
reticalaU, 114, 142, 241. 
terebellam, O 327. 



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16 



INDEX or SPSCI£S. 



Alvania 

tumida, 36, 109, 189, 

357, P 359» P 360. 
tnnrita, 327. 



327, 



oolambiana, 159. 
▲malthea 

effodiens, R 5. 
.GrajaDs, P 299, R 4. 
Panamenais, P 297, R 3. 



oallosa, 22, 26, 39, 106, 126, 151, 
279. 
▲mlonla 

Testita, 71. 
Amnioola 

Hindsii, 90. 

longinqaa, 79, 162, O 283, 325. 

Nuttalliana, 84, 162, 

protea, 79, 162, O 283, 325, 

seminalis 84. 
▲mphldesma (s=80m0le) 

bioolor, 203, O 279. 

Californioam, 289. 

oorbaloides, 222. 

ooimgatiim, 62. 

d^iflum, 195, 228, V 213. 

ellipticum, 39, 203, 279, 

flayesoena, 226, U 199. 

nnoleolns, P 108. 

phjsoldes, P X05. 

prozimam, 39, 62, 203, 279, 
O 289, P 28. 

polchnim, 203, 188, 280. 

puDotattim, O 182. 

roseam, 195, O 228, V 213. 

rubrolineatmn, 195, V 212. 

rnpiam, O 182, 

stHosam, 39, 203, 280. 

tortnoptim, 203, 280. 

veDuatain, P 28. 

ventrioosom, 39, 203, 280. 
AmphlohaDna 

KiDdermanni, 297. 

regolaria, 104, 210. 



Amphlthal annul 

inclusas, 23, 100, 142, 283, 

laouBatas, 99, 143. 
Ampnllazla 

oarasom, O 291. 

ColambieDsis, 155, O 291. 

Cumingii, 179, O 291, 326* 

malleata, O 295, 326. 
Amnainm 

oaurinum, 22, 70, 73, 74, 81, 131, 
165, 169. 
Amyola 

Californiana, 23, 148. 

ohrTsalloidea, 99, 148. 

oornioolata, 288. 

gaosapata, 23, 25, 76, 114, 148, 

149. 
GoaldiaDa, 53. 
minor, 288. 

tnberoBa, 23, 25, 114, 148, 288. 
QDdata, 99, 148. 
Anaobis 

alboDodoBa, O 263, 343, P 512. 

atramentaria, i80| 361, 344. 

aariflaa, 112, 

azora, 225. 

Californica, 25. 

ooDspicaa, 180, 269, 344. 

ooronata, 25, 1 12, 151, 155,0 263, 

O 171, 343, P 508, P 5^3. 
costellata, 25, 180, 210,0 225, 

263, 343, 364 P 506, 

P507. 
Toostellata, var. 263. 
(?co8tellata, var,) paohjdArma, 

263, P 507. 
oofitolata, O 363. 
diminuU, 25, 180, 269, O344. 
fulva, 180, 263, 283, 343, 

P509. 
flactnaU, 25, 59, 61, 180, 344. 
fasoofitrfgata, 105, 221. 
Gaskoinei, 20, 53, 1 1 2, 260^ 263, 

O343, P5". 
gracilis, 180, 344* 



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Of SPECIES. IT 

Anellnm 

olathratam, 256, 324, X 442. 

elegantiBBimnm, X 443. 

Telegantissimam, var. Searlet- 
Woodii, X 443- 
09. elongatam, O 256, 324, X 44^. 
61, var. eemilave, X 442. 

flrmatum, 256, 324, X 442. 
09. Floridanum, X 442. 

gracile, X 443- 

gargulio, X 442* 

Tparvam, 324. 

palohellam, X 442* 
63, qnadratum, 256, 324, X 44^. 

t — var. oompaotam, X 442. 

regulare, X 443« 

sobimpresBUin, 256, 324, 

43, ^ 442. 

traobea, X 442. 

? var. obBoletam, X 442. 

tamidam, X 442. 
{43, nndatum, O 256, 324, X 443- 

Angulus 
^63, amplectans, 155, 273. 

decombens, 271. 
Gouldii, 125, 151, 3<»- 
modestuB, 88, 125, 167. 
obtusuB, 125, 235. 
tener, 88, 125, 167. 
variegatuB, 97, "3, 125, 235. 
Anoddn (:«Anodonta) 

angulaU, 17, 18, 86, 92, I2q, 
164, 206, 210, O 212, 
297, O 309. 
aDatina, O 222. 
anBerina, P ii7« 
atrovirenB, O 295, 309. ; 
Californienais, 77- 
celleoBiB, O 222. 
oicouia, 0170,0 232, 227, 
309, 248j P 117, U 202, 
cognata, 17, 9^ 210, O 212, 

O310. 
cornea, O 295, O 309. 
j feminaliB, 17, 86, 120, 210, 
O 212, 213, 309- 



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INDEX o: 



nta 

aca, 27, 30, 170, 227, 
' 248, 309, P 117, P 550. 
culea, 222. 
dicata, P 117. 
itezama, O 265. 
iragaa, O 295, 309. 
talliana, 91, 164, O 197, 
211, 309, V 218. 
^onensis, 17, 86, 91, 164, 
197, O 213, 309, V 
18. 

dalli, 117, 120. 
Ddoyata, 117, 120. 
ata, P 117. 
osa, P 117. 
igolaris, 117. 
igolata, 120. 

ilamatenBis, 86, 91, 92, 120, 
4, O 197, 309, V 218. 
la 

lingii, 287. 
ta, 287. 
;nig, O 287. 
ooardia 
losa, O 364, P 79. 
mbricaU, 23, 27, 38, 43, 55, 
6, 201, 170, 247, O 282, 
306, P 79, P 80. 
agosa, 23, 201,0229,0232, 
241, 247, 282, O 306, 
J64, P 79. 

aas, O 186, 312, 359. 

>piam, O 222. 

as, O 186, O 312. 

9, 24, 27, 38, 132, 151, 154, 

;, 198, O 192, 208, 241, 

250, 277, O 281, 286, 

;i2, P 167. 

osohisma, 85, 203, 218, 

(21, O 222. 

)ea, 72. 

iiformis, O 218. 

li, 76. 

stata, 76, 8i. 



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F 8PECIES. 19 



ArotnniB 

rndis, 9. 
Argina 

brevifrons, 31, 154. 
Argobuooinom 

cancellatum, 33, 338. 

Chemnitiii, 338. 

nodoBum, 182, 261, 270, 
367. 338, P 454, V 209. 

OregODeDSd, O 338. 

Roabram, 338. 
Argonauta 

ai«o, 99, "2, 150. 

hiaDS, 153. 

var. papjraoea, 11 2. 
Arianta 

arrosa, 157. 

Ajresiana, 158, 

Bridgesii, 158. 

CaliforDiensis, 158. 

CarpeDteri, 158. 

Dupetithouarsi, 158. 

ezarata, 158. 

intercisa, 158. 

levis, 158. 

Mormonam, 158. 

NiokliniaDa, 157. 

ramentosa, 158. 

redimita, 157. 

reticulata, 158. 

TownseDdiana, 1 57. 

Traskei, 158. 

tadioalata, 157. 
Arioia 

Arabica,*! i, P 374, 

arabicala, 27, 109, 176, 258, 
328, P 373, P 374. 

capat-serpentis, P 374. 

obvelata, P 374. 

panotulata, 24, 109, 155, 176, 
O328. 
Arion 

foliatofl, 159, 313. 

foUolatas, 210. 
Artemis 

Dankeri, 201, 224, 278, P 6i. 



Digitized by 



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20 



mOEX OV 8PSCIB8. 



Artemis 

gigantea, 60, 352. 

Pacifloa, 278. 

pooderosa, 60, 289, P 60. 

Bacoata, 201, 227, 246, 278, 
P 62, S 161, U 201. 

flimplex, 186, 246, O 278, 
287, P 61. 

snbqaadrata, 186, P 62. 

tenuis, O 281. 
?AMiminea 

dubiosa, 275. 

snbrotundata, 114, 142, 341. 
Astarte 

Banksii, O 178. 

borealis, O 219. 

oompaota, 88, 128, 168. 

oompressa, 88, 128, 223, P 162. 

oorbis, 236. 

oomigata, 219, 223, O 306, 

O347. 

orassidens, 175, O 347. 

DaDmoniensis, O 223. 

Esqaimalti, 128. 

fiaotuata, 97, 128. 

Garensis, O 221. 

laotea, 20, 71, 72, 175, 219, 
221, 347. 

Omalii, 128. 

omaiia, 97. 

orbioalaris, 128, 236. 

Sootioa, 20, O 219, 221, 223. 

semisulcata, O 219, 221, 347. 

f striata, O 178. 

triangularis, O 336. 
Asteronottui 

alabastrina, 94. 

sangninea, 94. 
AsthenothaBms 

Tillosior, 104, 209, 
?At78 

C^ta, 104, 212. 

Anltui 

grandis, 1 2. 
Aorioula 

aoota, O 375. 



Aarioala 

ooucinna, 275. 
• infreqnens, 275. 

Panaiiiensis, 275. 

papillifera, O 275. 

Btagnalis, 275. 

Tabogensis, O 275. 

trilineata, O 275. 
Autonoe 

rabra, P 108. 
Avionla 

Atlantica, O 227, O 236, 249, 

364, p 148, P 538. 

barbata, 50. 

Camingii, 50. 

fimbriata, O 296, P 55a 

heterc^tera, 50. 

libela, 31, 199. 

margaritifera, 277, 29$. 

Pera^iana, 107, 153. 

sterna, 24, 50, 199, i, O 227, 
O 229, 233, O 249, 277, 
O364, Pi48,Pi5i, U203. 
Aadnaoa 

Barbarensis, 80, 82,97, 130, 170. 

ina&qnalis, 154. t 

intermedia, 82, 97, 130, 17a 

gigantea, 107. 

mnlticosta, 154, 155. 

parcipiota, 154. - 

pectenoides, I54« 

septentrionalis, var* tabobao- 
leta, 113,130,237. 

Bankivla 

Tarians, O 253, 320, 365, 
P226, 
Barbatia 

alteraata, 24, 31, 200, 256. 

avioaloides, 24. 

gradata, 24, 69, 97, 107, I3C^ 
152. 

illota, 24, 107, 200. 

mntabilis, !$$• 

pemoides, 102. 

ReoTiana, 27, 107, 200» 



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':i 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



21 



BtfbatU 

Bolida, 24, 27, 107. 

TabogensiSy 31. 

Tespertilio, 107. 
Barleeia 

haliotiphiU, 142, 312. 

UraU, 109, 257, O 327, P 552. 

rubra, 32, P 552. 

8ubtenui8,32, 109, 142, 155, 313. 

(fanbteimis, iHir.) rimata, 142, 
312, 
Banioa 

Candida, 205. 
Bala 

deonssata, 71. 

ezcnrrata, 89, 144, 169. 

ildioula, 17, 144, 169, O 331. 

harpolaria, 71. 

nifa, 71. 

targida, 73. 

turrioula, 70, 144, 348. 
Bereneoia 

trtepinosa, P 3. 
Besoardloa 

abbreyiata, 24, 27, 110,151, 151, 
181: 

iDfiaU, 35. 
Biimeya 

DoUbflis, 95, 157. 
Bithinia 

naclea, 162, 326. 

similis, 144) O 326. 
Bittiam 

armillatum, 25, 99, 141, 311, 323. 

asperom, 99, Hi, 3", 323- 
atteniiataiii, 141,31a 
Bsoriohtii, 141. 
(Ivor,) esarienB, 23, 114, 141, 

283, 310. 
fastigiatam, 23, 141, 283. 
fllosam, 19, 25, 84, 141, 310, 

322. 
nitens, 104, 218. 
pllcatam, 141, 311. 
qnadrifilatam, 141, 311, 323. 
rogatum, 25, 323. 



BiTonia 

4lbida, 24, 43, P 307, 255, 

O324. 

oompacta, 114, 140, 239. 

oontorte, 24, 43, 108, 1531O235, 
O 237, O 25s, O 324, P 305. 

fcontorta, var, hidentata, P 307, 
0255. 

glomerata, 194, P 309, W 316, 

indentata, 43, 233. 

t'anamenBiB, 324, 

Quoyi, 43. 

saboaDoellato, W 315. 

BQtilis, 43. 

triqoetra, 43. 

var, tTpioa, 43. 

var, variegata, 43. 
Bornia 

inflata, P 105. 

latioola, 15, 203. 

Bemllunam, P io8. 
Broohina 

glabra, X 413, ^ 4i4, X 415, 
X 416, X 417, X 418, X 434, 
X 435, X 436, X 436, X 437, 
X 440, X 443. 

glabriformiB, X 437, X 443. 
Broohus 

annalatuB, X 414, X 423. 

aroaatus, X 436, i 437. 

glaber, X 436. 

Invis, X 436. 

rdtionlatns, X 423. 

Btriatas, X 425. 

trseohifbrmis, X 416, X 425. 
Bryophila (=PhUobrya) 

Betosa, 24, 98, 104, 131, 212. 
Bnooinum 

aoioolatam, P 389. 

aDgaloBom, 71, 177, 347. 

Antoni, 225. 

apluBtre, 4. 

armatam, 10, 177, 294. 

biliratam, 188, 361, P 515. 

boreale, 176, 21 8, 

Bojsii, 35. 



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Google 



INDEX 07 SPECIES. 



Buooinom 

bre video tatam, io,0 I77,0»I78, 

cancel latum, 20, O 218. 

oinis, 188. 

ciDgulatnm, P 458. 

compositamy 4. 

CoromaDdtjlianam, 188, P 5x6. 

corrngatum, 49, 84, O 342, 
211. 

orassum, 179, 268. 

cribrarium, O 181, P 487. 

orispatom, 4, 5. 

ojaneiUDy 217. 

decassatam, 

deDticulatnm, 10, 177, 178. 

devinctam, 367 

dirum, 18, 49. 

distortnm, 10, 179, 268. 

elegans, 48, 285. 

elongatam, 10, 41. 

fossatum, 17, 48, 209. 

fudiforme, 218. 

gemmatum, 238, P 515,? 542. 

gemmnlatom, O 236, 238, 

263, P 515, P 536. 
Geversianom, 7. 
gilvum, 236, O 263, P 508, 

P536 
glaciale, 70, 71, 218. 
GroenlaDdicam, 218. 
hsmastoma, P 477, P 517. 
bydrophannm, 218. 
insigne, 179, 268, P 514. 
iDterstriatam, 77. 
Janelii, O 204, O 263, O 269, 

P517. 
lamellosam, 5. 
leioheiIo808, 177, 
lima, 4. 

liratum, 4, 5, 83. 
Ingubre, 179, 268. 
Iateo8tom8,0 238, P 495, P 542. 
fmetala, 206. 
minQd, 179. 
modestom, 185, 270, 
modificatnin, 49. 



Buooinom 

mntabile, 204, 263, 268, 

P516. 
nigrooostatam, i88. 
Dodatum, 10. 
Northis, 293, 
nuoleolas, O 225, P 535. 
Ochoteose, 19, 71, 218, 221. 
ooides, 19, 218. 
ovoides, 221. 
ovum, 218, 223, 342. 
pagodas, 179, 268, O 293, 

P515. 
Panamense, 296. 
panralam, 262, O 269, P 487. 
pastinaca, 188. 
patolam, P 474. 
var. pelagioa, 71. 
planaxis, 10, 178, 268. 
plicatom, 4, 5. 
plumbum, 6. 

polaris, O 177, O 218, 347. 
Poulsoni, 317, 20I, 342, 

V227. 
prismaticum, 225. 
pristis, 179, 238,0 268,6 293, 

P542. 
pseudodon, 188. 
puicbrnm, O 188, 270, 

361. 
pnsio, 293. 
riogeus, 179, 171, 178, 

O 238, 269, P 518. 
roseum, 179. 
Rudolpbl, 178. 
Sabinii, 217. 
Bangninolentum, 179, 236, 

269, P 517, p 536. 
saturum, 4. 
Bcabrum, 218, 
Boalari forme -f- var$. 70. 
■erratum, 48, 238, 268, 

^93, O 294. 
serfcatum, 218. 
simplex, 19, 218, 221. 
Stimpeoni, 73. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



OF SPECIES. 23 

Bulimus 

discrepans, 44, 183, 315. 

D/soni, 44. 

eschariferas, O 18S, 240, 315, 

359. 

ezoelsus, 27, 116, 227, 234, 

U203. 
fenestratus, 286, 29a 
fimbriatus, 240, 315. 
Gallapaganns, 315, 359. 
Oraueri, 286, 290. 
Hondo rat! nus, 44. 
Hamboldti, 59, 162. 
incendens, 116. 
incrassatus, O 315, 359/ 
Jaoobi, O 315, 359, 183, 

O 188. 
Lanrentii, 162. 
Liebmanni, O 295. 
longns, 59. 
Manini, O 315, 359. 
melania, 59. 
melauocheiluSy 59, 251, P 

176. 
Mexicanns, 6, 59, 170, 3I4> 

P177. 
Moricandi, 44, 286. 
nucula, O 287, 315, 359. 
nux, O 181, 240, O 3^5,0359. 
obscurus, 222. 
pallidior, 27, 116, 227, 233, 

314, 351, 352, U 203. 
PanamensiS) O 181, 315. 
Prazianu8,44. 
pilula, 116. 
priDoepe, 188, 59, O 251, 

o 314, P 176. 

proteas, 116. 
punotalisBimas, 265. 
rndis, 290. 
nigifern8.0 183,0315. 
5, rogulosus, 188, 240, 315, 

O359. 
Sobiedeanns, 265. 
soolpturatns, 286, O 315, 

O359. 
22 



Digitized by 



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24 



INDEX OF BPECIE& 



Bnlimns 

Bemipelluoidufl, 44* 
striatus, 162. 
sufflatus, 21, 27, 116. 
transluoens, 181,0315. 
nndatus, 7, 59, "9f 170, 

251, P 176. 
nnicolor, 183, 315. 
nnifasoiatas, 45, 183, 240, 

288, 315, 359. 
nstalatas, 183, O 188, O 315, 

O359. 
yegetns, xi6, 227, O 233, 

U203. 
Terruoosus, 287, 359. 
yesioalis, 21, 116, 227, 234, 

U 203. 
Texillum, 181, O 315. 
xanthostoma, 265. 
XantQsi, 116. 
lebra, 59, 251, 314, P 176, 

P540. 
Ziegleri, 59, 314, P 177. 
ilgxag, 25i,P 176. 
BulinoB 

aarantiufl, i6i. 
elatas, 161. 
bypnorum, 161. 
Bulla 

Adamai, 24, 31, 37, 107, 194, 

237, O 282, 313, 364, 

P 173, P 540. 
anstralis, P 172. 
Califoraioa, 35. 
calycnlata, O 175. 
cerealis. 227, 229, U 203. 
oonstriota, U 203. 
crasBula, 160. 

onlcitella, O 227, 229, U 203. 
deoossata, 179, O 261, O 271, 

P454. 
exarata, 250, P 173, 313. 
fontinalifl, 160. 
fluTiatilis, 161. 
var, falminosa, I33« 
fosiformifl. U 203. 



BulU 

gracilis, O 237, 250, P 171, 

P540. 

inoalU, 79, 227, U 203. 

infreqneDfl, 237, O 250^ 275, 
P 171. 

jugulariB, 77. 

longinqna, 284, 313. 

latioola, 194, 274, P 170. 

major, P 172. 

media, P 172. 

nebaloea, 22, 26, 79, 85, 107, 132, 
151, 153,0x98,0233,0234, 
O 237, O 284, 289, 313, 
352, O 353, P 172, P 540^ 
V 220. 

fnebnlosa, 250, O 296, P VI., 

P>73. 
Panamensis, 295, 313, P 17a. 
petroBa, 165, 367. 
punctata, 194, 189, 274. 
pancticulata, 194, 274. 
punctulata, 31, 37, 194, 229, 

O313. 

Qaoyii, 5, 24, 100, 107, 132 
189, O 250, 313, 359, 
P 173. 

rotandata, U 204. 

mfolabris, 189, 313, 359. 

striata, 5, 364. 

tenella, 85. 

Telutina, 216. 

vesicula, 79, 227, 284, U 204. 

▼iresoens, 48, 79, O 284, 315. 

zebra, P 176. 
BollU 

ampallacea, 19, 70, 218, 221, 
223, O 342, 348. 

Perryi, 74. 
BulUna 

eximia, 90. 
Bursa 

bitaberonlaris, 41* 

fusoo-costata, 41. 
?Bas7COii 

Blakei, 75^ 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



26 



BjMoaroa 

alternata, O 310, P 137. 
Americana, 364. 
avicaloides, 310. 
divarioaU, 249, P 142. 
TDomingensis, 364. 
fQ8ca, 310, 249, 364, P 140. 
gradata,0 249,0 310,0 364, 

O366, P 141,11203. 
illota, 183, 249, 310, 

P 141, P 142. 
lactea, B 141, P 143, O 366. 
matabilis, 24, 10^ 200, 249, 

O 310, P 139. 
Paoilloa, 24, 107, 153, 249, 

O310, P 138, P X39, P 296. 
pemoides, O 227, 310, U 202. 
pholadiformis, 200, 278, 310. 
posilla, 249, P 142. 
soUda, 0249,0 310, 0364,0366, 

P 142, P 143, U 203. 
Tabogeiisifl, 200, 278, 310, 

P 141. 
tetragona, 366, P 139. 
tninoata, O 183, O 310, 359. 
Tesp«rtilio, 249,0 310, P 140. 

dentatnm, 238. 
ringena, O 238. 
CflBOum: See also under sections 

Anellom, Elephantalam, 

and Fartoltun. 
abnormale, P 316, X 420. 
anunlatam, X 417, X 423. 
bimarginatnm, X 421, X 440. 
Clarkii, X 443. 
olathrainm, 39, P 322, X 428. 
var. compaetum, 256, P 322. 
Cooperi, 98, 141. 
corrugn latum, X 433, P 327. 
orebrioinotum, 98, 141. 
diminutnm, 186, 4i 166, 

256, O 272, P 321, X 427. 
deztroTersum, P 328, X 433. 
(deztroversum, var,) AntiUa- 

mm, X 433- 



CaDctim 

eburneum, 186, 4, 166, 

272, X 427. 
elegantissimum, X 429, X 430. 
(elegantissimum, var,) Searles- 

Woodii, X 430. 
elongatum, P 320, X 424. 
elongatum, var, semilsTe, X429« 
faroimen, X 431. 
firmatam, 186, 4,0 166, 256, 

272, 357, P 319, P 320, 

P 321, P 324, P 326, X 427. 
flrmatum, var,^ 272, 273. 
Floridanum, X 428, X 429. 
glabriforme, 366, P 327, P 

328. 
glabrum, 366, P 313, P 314, 

P 327, X 413, X 426, X 432, 

X436. 
graoile, X 429.] 
gurgulio, X 426. 
heptagonum, P 319, X 423. 
imbricatum, X 422. 
imperforatum, P 321, X 413, 

X425. 
incurvatum, X 434, X 436,] 
insoulptum, P 315, X 420. 
lave, 155, 186, 272, P 314, 

P 325, P 326, X 431. 
laqueatam, 186, 272, P 315, 

P 328, X 420. 
liratooinotum, 155, P 3i5,P3i6, 

P 317, P 3>9i X 421. 
liratum, X 421. 
mamillatum, X 427, X 434, 

X436. 
mamillatum, var. subulatum, X 

434. 
mammillum, X 434. 
mouBtrosum, O 4, 166, 256^ 

O272, P313, P32i,X427. 
nitidam, X 439. 
obtnsum, P 317, X 421. 
parvum, 186, 256, O 273, 

P 323. 
plioatum, X 421. 



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86 



INDEX 07 BPEOISa 



Ceecum 

pollicare, X 429, X 432. 
pulohellom, P 312, P 313, X415, 

X424. 
pjgmsQm, 186, 4 166, 

256, O 273, P 321, X 427 
quadratum, X 42S. 
regnlare, X 417, X 423, X 428. 
reveream, P 329, X 434. 
Searles-Woodii, X 430. 
tvar. semilsove, 39,0 256, P 319. 
var, anboooioam, 256. 
snbimpressum, 108, P 320, 

P 322, X 424. 
Bnbspirale, P 315, P 316, X 419. 
sabqaadratum, 39, X 433. 
var. tenailiratam, 256. 
teres, P 329, X 434, X 440. 
trachea, P 313, X 413, X 414, 

X 415, X 416, X 417, X 418, 

P 424, X 425, X 426, X 427, 

X429. 
(Ttraohea, var,) obsoletnm, 

X426. 
tumidnm, X 426. 
nndntum, 36, 186, 4, 272, 

357, P 3H, P 321, P 323, 

P 325, P 326, X 429, X 430, 

X431. 
riireum, X 429, X 432. 
(fvitreum, var,} Clarkii, X 433. 
Oaloar 

erytbrophtlialmiiB, 296, P 227. 
oliTacens, 238, P 541. 
Melohersi, 238, P 227, P 541. 
8tellari», 238, P 541. 
Calliostoma 

(?lima, var,) SBqaiBcalpta, 154, 

272. 
annulatam, 13, 27, 138. 
Anton! i, 36, 191. 
canalioalatnm, 6, 13, 23, 27, 

"3, 138- 
castanenm, 3. 

ooetatnm, 13, 19, 23, 25,27, 138. 
dolarinm, 13, 138. 



Calliostoma 

eximinm, 40, io8, 272. 

fllosnm, 3, 13, 138. 

gemmulatnm, 98, 139. 

imbricatnm, 196. 

Leannm, 24, 32, 40, 154, rpi. 

ligatam, 3. 

lima, 24, 53, 154, 272. 

M* Andres, 32, 36, 4a 

modestnm, 3. 

splendens, 98, 139. 

sapragranosqm, 98, 139. 

Tariegatam, 89, 138. 

rersicolor, 152, 272. 

Tirginenm, 138. 
Calliita 

ai^nis, 30* 

alternata, 30, 106. 

anrantia, 23, 106, 201. 

oalloBa, 39, 57» 

ohionaea, 23, 27, 57, 106, 151, 201. 

oiroinata, 23, 30, 154, 

conoinna, 27, 30, 201. 

ooDsangoinea, 201., 

Dione, 57. 

Inpinarla, 6, 23, 57, 

pannosa, 91, 170. 

(fpanno8a> var.) pnelU, 23, 58^ 
104, 170, 211. 

petechialis, 30. 

pollicaris, 58, 104, 21a • 

prora, var, 104. 

rosea, 23, 57, 58. 

semilamellosa, 153, 154* 

spinosiasima, 154. 

tortuosa, 23, 30. 

Tolnerata, 151. 
Callochiton 

Elenensis, 198. 

interstinotus, 317, 348. 

pnlchellns, 198, 267, O 317. 
Callopoma 

flnctnatnm, 153, 253, O 348, 
P 223, Q 234. 

(fflnotnatnm, var,) depressuHiy 
41, 2S3f 288, P 223, a 234. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IKDEX OF 6P£a£8. 



2t 



Callopoma 

fluctuoBum, 27, 192, 224, 

253, 320, P 223, P 224. 
Fokkeaii, 31, 108, 151, 320. 
phasianella, 320 {vide 550]. 
saxosum, 24, 192, 282, 288, 

320. 
tesselUtam, 31, 151, 192. 
Calypeopsis 

aarioolata, 3, P 290. 
Byronensis, 3. 
hispida, O 3, 275, P 290. 
imbrioata, P 287. 
lignaria, 3, 184, P 290. 
macalata, 3, P 290. 
qairiqoina, 3, 190, P 291. 
rugosa, O 3, 190, P 287, P 291. 
serrata, 184. 
tenuis, O 3, 184, P 290. 
tabifera, 61. 
Cidyptrasa 

aberrans, 37, 195. 

Adolphei, 172. 

al^eolata, 51. 

amjgdalas, O 204, 254,? 278. 

Araacana, P 265. 

arenata, 184. 

aspersa, 37, 195. 

aaricQlariB, P 287, P 289. 

aurioalata, 190, P 287, P 290, 

P 292. 
BTTonensis, 255, t^ 291. 
cepacea, 37, I95, 235, 239, 

255, 275, 323, P 295, 

P546. 
cinerea, 48. 
oonioa, 37, 195, 239,0 275, 

P 265, P 266, P 545.^ 
cornea, P 295. 
oorrngata, 52, 184, 323. 
denUU, 195, 236, 255, 

275, p 287, P 538. 

dilatota, P 265. 
doraata, P 273. 
•ohinofl, 2, P 268. 
•qaeBtris, P 295. 



CalyptraDa 

ezoavata, O 184, P 274. 
fextinctorum, 47, 3, 174, 

236, P 267, P 287. 
fastigiata, 209. 
foliacea, P 272. 
gemmaoea, 204, P 288. 
hispida, 79, 195, 25s, 275, 

283, 284, P 290, P 291. 
hystrix, 2, P 268. 
imbrioata, 47, 4^, I95i O 184, 

190, 236, 275, P 287, 

P 288, P 291, P 292, P 538 

P 551, T 169. 
fimbrioata, var. Broderipii, 

P292. 
7?imbricata, var» Cumingii, 

P 287, P 292. 
inoQira, P 276. 
intermedia, P 292. 
laevigata, P 267. 
Lamarckii, 236, 239, 254, 

P 266, P 538, P 545. 
Lesson ii, 2, P 280. 
lichen, 254, P 265. 
lignaria, 184, O 190, 255, 

P 290, P 291, P 292. 
lorica, P 292. 
maoQlata, 195, 255, 275, 

P 290, P 291, T 167. 
mamillaris, 190, 230, P 266, 

P 267, P 292. 
marginalis, 184. 
perforaUs, 204, O 255, P 281. 
peziza, 255. 
pileiformis, 212. 
pileolQS, P 292. 
planulaU, 37i I95, 275, 

318. 
quiriqaifia, 190, 255, P 291, 

P 292. 
radians, P 264, P 265. 
radiata, 195, P 275, P 291. 
regularis, 195, 230,0 233, 

O 254, O 276, P 266. 
nidiB, 184, P 292, P 205. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX 07 SPEGIS8. 



239i 
292, 



290, 



255, 



290, 



CalyptraBa 

rngosa, 48, 3, 190, 204, 

O 236, 255, 275, P 287, 

P 290, P 291, P 292. 
serraia, O 184. 
Bordida, P 267. 
spinosa, 47, 48, 174, 

O 352, P 290, P 291, P 

PS46. 
sqaama, 2, 184, P 280. 
striata, U 205. 
Btrigata, P 272. 
tenuis, 184, 255, P 

P 291, P 292. 
tortilis, 51. 
trigonalis, 224. 
trochiformis, 190, P 265. 
tabifera, 3, O 204, 

P 290, P 292. 
umbrella, 195, 276, P 

PJ292. 
unguis, 37, 196, 276, P 267. 
raria, 184, 323, 360, 

P295. 
CampylaDa 

sportella, 157. 
Cancellaria 

acuminata, 181, 329. 
affinis, 35, 183, 271. 
albida, 206, 329. 
arotioa, 223. 
bioolor, P 381. 
bifasciata, 265, 329. 
brevis, 230, 294, 329, 

P 380, P 381. 
bucoinoides, 181, 217, 

329- 
bulbulus, 24, O 181, 329. 
buUata, 181. 
Candida, 27, 235, O 329. 
cassidiformis, 27, O 181, 235, 

o 238, 329, 352, P 543. 

chrjsoBtoma, 181, 294, 

O 329, 360. 
olaratula, 24, 181, 230,0 271, 

O329. 



Cancellaria 

corrugata, 2o6* 
costata, P 380. 
oostellifera, 217. 
Couthou/i, 217. 
orenata, 206, 329. 
deoussata, 24, 181, 271, 

O329. 
elata, 206, O 329. 
funiculata, 51, 206, 329. 
gemmulata, 181, 329. 
gonioBtoma, 24, 27, 36, 152, 183, 

181, 233, 235, O 238, 

258, 271, 294, O 329. 

P 380, P 381, P 435, P 543. 
h»mastoma,0 181, 329,0360. 
indentaU, 181, 206, O 329. 
lyrato, 51. 

mitriformis, 24, O 271, 329. 
modesta, 1 14, 146, 245. 
obesa, 27, O 181, 235, O 352, 

329, P 380. 
oblonga, 265. 
orata, P 380, P 543. 
pulohra, 271. 

pygm»a, 36, 183, O 271, O 329. 
reticulata, 61, 192. 
rigida, P 381. 
Bolida, 27, 181, 235, O 271, 

329, 352. 
teisellata, 24, 271, 329. 
uniplioata, 182, 271, O 329. 
nroeolaU, 35, 152, 183, 206, O 

192, 238, 258, 329, P 

380. 
Tentricosa, O 206, 329. 
Tiridula, 217. 
Canthams 

gemmatus, P 516. 
ringens, 518. 
sanguinolentoB, P 517. 
Capaa 

altior, 202, 182, O 279. 
Brasiliensis, O 364. 
deflorata, 63. 
IttvigaU, 364, P 42. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



29 



CapnliiB 

militarls, P 300. 
mitrnla, P 297, R 3. 
sabrufas, R 4. 
CardiU 

affinis, 201, 182, 229, 232, 
234, 236, 247, 278, 
282, 297, 306, P 84, 

P85,P539. 
arcelU, 14. 
borealiB, 9, 70, 210, 219, 

221, 223. 
Californioa, 232, 234, 236, 

287, o 352, P 84. 

oorbifl, 128. 

orassa, 178, 306. 

Cavieri, 10, 181, 208, 

306. 
latiooatata, 201, 182, 278, 

O306. 
iDcraasata, O 287, 306, 359. 
Michelini, 10, 14. 
modolosa, 14, 278. 
moDiliooeta, 118. 
nodolosa, 278. 
ocoideotalis, 17, 80. 
planicosta, 75. 
radiata, 20X, 182, 278, O 

306. 
sparoa, 221. 
Bobtenta, 17, 165, 367. 
targida, 14. 

Taria, 181, 306, 359. 
▼ariegata, 128, 280. 
TeDtricoaa, 17, 80, 91, 209, 

210, O 213, 306. 
▼olaoris, 229. 
Cardiom 

aooleatam, 154, 285. 
alabaatram, 247, O 307, P 94, 

P531. 
arenatnin, P 93. 
afiperum, O 364. 
Beloberi, 175, 297, 307. 
biangQlatuiD, 27, 175, 1B7, 

229, 307. 



Carditim 

blandnm, 14, I7» 49i 7o» 9i, 128, 

210, 212, 213, 307, 

O348. 
boreale, 175. 
ballatum, 364. 
Californianom, 13, 14, 17, 49, 

119, O X97, O 203, 212, 

213, 219, V 217. 
Californiense, 14, 17, 70, 91, 128, 

197, O 203, 219, O 221, 

223, 232, O 234, 283, 

307, 347. 
oarneosom, P 40. 
centifilosum, 97, 128. 
coDsora, 23, 27, 106,* 153, 187, 

O 234, 282, 307, 364, 
oorbia, 5, 13, 17, 91, 128. 
oostatam, 45, P 95. 
oruentatam, 21, 78, 227, 

284, 6 307, 352, U 201. 
Camingii, 183, O 307. 
DioDsam, O 175. 
disoors, 60. 
elatum, 153,0 232,0 247, 307, 

O 351, 352, 364, P 91, 

V218. 
EldDense, P 91, U 201. 
Qabbii, 119. 
gemmatum, 229. 
graniferam, 25, 30, 154, 201, 

322,0175,0187,0229,0248, 

278, 307, P 85, P 95. 
GrcBDlatfClioam, 47, 70. 
loelaDdicnm, O 210. 
Indionm, 45. 288. 
Laperousii, 14, 203, O 307. 
latioostatnm, 247, P 92. 
liDteum, 75. 
Incinoides, 248, P 96. 
luteolabrum, 13, 21, 128, 197^ 

227, O 307, 351, U 20X. 
niaoolatiim, 45, 282, 285. 
maoQlosom, 45, O 229, 285, 

O307. 
magnifionm, 187. 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Cardium 

modestam, 75, 97, 128. 
Mortoni, U 201, V 218. 
maricatum, 175, 236, 247, 

O 364, P 93, P 539. 
Nicolleti, 75. 
Nuttallianum, O 192. 
Nattallii, 4, 13, 14, 26, 71, 86, 

197, 203, 213, 219, 

223, 232, O 241, O 284, 

0307,0347,0 351, V 217. 
obovale, 23, 201, 229, 278, 

O307. 
Panamense, 178, 183, O232, 

O 234, 307, P 92 
planloostatum, 38, 201, 183, 

O 278, 307. 
prooerum, 14, 23, 106, 152 153, 

201, 178, 183, 236, 

O 247, 278, 307, P 91, 

P 92, P 539. 
peeudofossile, 14, 17, 49, 70, 128, 

247, P 94. 
punotolatum, 247, P 93. 
qoadragenarium, 13,21,86, 128, 

197, 307, V 217. 
radula, 175, 236. 
rastram, 247, 278, P 93. 
PotuDdatum, 247, 307, P 531. 
seiiticosum, 23, 106, 201, 247, 

0278,0307,? 93. 
Berratum, 364. 
sabeloDgatam, 14. 
Babstriatam, 78, 4t 197, 232, 

O 307, 351, U 201, V 218. 
triangulatnm, 247, P 94. 
xanthooheilum, 128, 197, 

227, 232, U 201. 
Carinea 

emapginata, 24, 176. 
gibbosa, 176. 
Carlnifex 

Newbeiryi, 161. 
CaroooUa 

Ilaydiana, 265. 

UbjrinUinB, 165. [ 



Carooolla 

qaadridentata, iSo. 

uuoigera, O 290. 
Cassldaria 

setosa, 261 367, P 455. 
CaMidoltui 

patalus, P 501. 
CassiB 

abbrcTiata, 35, 181, 238, 270, 
292, O 297, O 337, O 364, 

PS43. 

centiqaadrata, 171, 292. 

coarotata, 181, O 171, O 174, 
O 188, 234, 235, O 238, 
O 243, 270, 282, O 294, 
337, 350, 352, O 360 

364, P 543. 

corrugata, 7. 

doliata, O 171, O 292. 

granosa, 238. 

inflata. 181, 238, 364, P 543. 

laotea, 270, 292. 

Massene, 10, O 188. 

ringens, 7, 174, 238. 

tenois, 188, O 337, O 360. 

teBtiouluB, 171, 364. 
Caatra 

Turcica, 48. 
Cavolina 

crassicornis, 173. 

snbrosacea, 173. 

telemuB, 98, 107, 132. 
Cellepora 

areolata, 34, 256. 

ojolostotna, 244, 298, P 5. 

papillnformiB, 244, 298, P 5. 
Cerithium 

aduBtnm, O 189, 256, O 272, 
293, 325, 366, P 333, 
P334. 

alboliratnm, -24, 256, O 325, 
P336. 

aBsimillatam, 272, O 289, 

P445- 
' bf marginatum, 185, 272. 
Califoruianum, 212. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



81 



Cerlthitim 

oorallium, 170. 

fkmelicum, 36, 1S5, 256, 

272, 282, P 334, P 335. 
illoeam, 17, 185, 209, 212, 

O295. 
fragraria, 7, O 170. 
Gallapaginis, 32, 63, 185, 189, 

256, 272, 325, P :is^. 
gemmatam, 272, P 339, 
granosQm, 7, 170. 
GafDaicmn, P 333. 
Hegewischii, 295, P 345. 
Interrtiptum, 24, 32, 36, 45, 63, 

108, 155, 185, 189, 226, 

238, O 256, 272, 325, 

360, P 337, P 338, P 542. 
iostoma, P 345. 
irroratum, 17, 32, 36, 45, 185, 

189, 209, 256, 272, 

283, 325, P 337. 
LargiUierti, P 343. 
lima, 170, 222. 
literatnm, 170. 
aaaoulosum, 7, 24, 27, 108, 185, 

O 189, 230, O 238, 256, 

272, 282, 293, 325, 

360, 366, P 333, P 339, 

P 340, P 542. 
mediale, 367. 
var. medloljBve, 24, 35, 108, 185, 

256, P 334. 
Menkei, P 338. 
Montagnei, 190, 239, P 342, 

P 343, R 345i P 542. 
nmsioum, 7, 170, 171, 

256, 325, P 335. 
nebuloBam, 189, 256, 325, 

P333. 
neglectum, 185, 272. 
obesnm, 17, 32, 185. 
ooellatam, 45, 189, 236, 

23S, 256, 296, 325, 

366, P 337, P 536, P 542. 
Pitoiflcam, 48, 185, 170,0 272, 

325. I 



Cerithium 

paaperoalum, 186, 272. 
Pera^ianum, P 442. 
pulchruin, 186, 256,0 272, 

P343. 
ReeviaQam, 186, 256, 272, 

P343. 

retioulattttn, 6. 

Bacratam, 209, IT 206, V 226. 

Bteroasmoscarum, 17, 27, 32, 
36, 108, 152, 170, 209, 
233, 236, O 238, O 256, 
O 272, 282, O 325, 360, 
366, P 337, P 339. 

terebellom, 289. 

triliDeatnm, 289. 

nmbonatam, 256, P 335. 
• anoinatum, 24, 63, 108, 151, 
185, 256, 272, O 285, 
325, 364, P 334, P 335. 

validum, 186, 163, 257, 
272, P 344. 

▼aricosum, 7, 48, 170, 189, 

190, p 343, P 344. 

▼algatom, 170. 
Cerithidea 

albonodoaa, 153, 186, O 228, 

O283, 0325,0 351, U 205. 
Califomioa, 141. 
fusoaU, 79, 228, 233, P 

345- 
Lavalleana, 364. 
Mazatlanica, 108, 141, 186, 

O233. 
Montagnei, 24, 27, 151, 186, 

230, 256, O 272, 325, 

P 342, P 343. 
pulohra, O 325. 

pnUata, 141. 151, 325, 35i« 
Reeviana, 325. 
Bacrato, 23, 79, 141, 200, 228, 

O 230, O 233, 325, 35 1> 

P 345, U 206, V 226. 
(tsaorata, var,}, foBo^ta, U 206. 
Bolida, 230. 
yalida, 230, 335. 



Digitized by 



Google 



32 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



155, 
364, 



443, 



Cerithidea 

yaricosa, 7, 24, 186, 208, 170, 
190, 230, O 233, O 272, 
295, 325, 364. 

Tvaricosa, var, Mazatlanioa, 
257, P 344i U 206. 
Cerithiopsis 

assimilata, 99, no, 146, 
274, 260, 335, 

P445. 
bimarginata, 274, 335. 
oerea, 260, O 335, P 

P445. 
oolamna, 99, 114, 146, 245. 
conrexa, 260, 335, P 44. 
deoussata, O 260, O 335, P 445. 
filosa, 335, 348. 
fortior, 23, 146, 287. 
iDteroalaris, 274. 
manita, 114, 146,245. 
negleota, 185, 336. 
pauperoala, 336. 
pupiformls, 260, 335, P 443. 
parpnrea, 23, 146, 287. 
sorex, 260, P 335, P 444. 
terebellaf 364, P 445. 
trilineata, P 445. 
tabercDlaris, 169, 186, 366. 
rtaberoalata, 23, 114, 146, P 

442. 
tuberoaloides, 32, 36, 1 10, 260, 

335, 366, P 442, P 443. 
rtuberculoides, var, albonodosa, 
260, P 443. 
Cereos 

ooDglomeratos, 4. 
CeroBtoma 

var, Buraettii, 72. 

foliatum, 13, 48, 72, 149, 169, 

O345. 
monooeroB, 13, 149, 151, 152. 
monodon, 83, 149, 345. 
Nuttallii, 13, 27, 149, 201, 
345, 349, V 229. 
Chama 

Broderipii, P 89. 



Chama 

Baddiana, 26, 30, 38, 106, 200, 

247, 277, 307, P 89. 
obionada, iy8. 
oorrugata, 27, 38, 154, O 184, 

277, 307. 
orassicostata, 10. 
Delessertii, P 549. 
eobioata, 9, 30, 38, 106, 200^ 
178, 184, 234, O 247, 
277, 307, P 87, P 549. 
exogyra, 11, 71, 106, 127, O 232, 
247, 307, O 349, O 351, 
O 352, 353, P 90, V 217. 
frondoea, 9, 23, 106, 152, O 178, 
197, 232, 282, O 306, 
P 87, P 549. 
(ffrondosa, var,) fomioata, 38, 

200, 247, 277, P 89. 
frondoea, var, Mezicana, 200, 
178, O X97. 247, 307. 
352, 353, 364, P 87, 
P 89, P 548, V 217. 
imbricata, 63, 184, 307. 
Janus, O x86, 307, 359. 
lobata, II, 71. 
Mexioana, 30, 38, 232. 
Panameosis, 186, 307, P 

90. 
pellacida, 22, 127, 170, 197, 

232, 0307,0351, V 217. 
produota, 27, 184, O 307. 
rugosa, 234. 

epinosa, 23, 27, 97, 106, 128, 
208, O 247, 307, O 359, 
P 89, P 90. 
Bqnalida, O 178. 
▼enosa, 232. 
Chelyoonns 

panoticalatns, P 404. , 
pnrpnrascenfl, P 402. 
regalitatis, P 403. 
Chelyaoma 

MaoLeayanam, 176 
Chemnitsla 

Adamsii, 36, i i<x 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX or SPECIES. 



33 



acaleus, 187, 188, 260, 273, 

335, P 427, P 428. 
aonminata, 36, 187, 273. 
•ffinWf 33f 36, 187, 260, 273, 

335, P 429. 
tvar. aarantia, 23, 89, 145, 

315. 
bicarinata, T 171. 
bittiformis, T 171. 
oalata, 24, 294. 
oaDcellata, 260. 
C.-B.- Adamsii, 260, 335, 

P427. 
obocolata, 99, 145, 3x6. 
clatliratula, 36, 187, 273, P 

424. 
eommania, 36, 187, 190, O 273, 

P4'9, T 170. 
orebrifilata, 23, 285. 
Camingii, T 170. 
flavesoens, 1 10, 260, O 334, 

P432. 
gibbosa, 260, 334, P 430. 
gracillima,36, 188, 260, O334, 

P431. 
graclliop, 187, 273, O 335, 

P 431, P 432. 
intermedia, O 260. 
major, 36, 187, 273, 335. 
marginata, 187, 273. 
maricata, 260, O 334, P 42S. 
Panamensis, 33, *36, 110, 187, 

188, O 260, 273, 335, 

P427. 
paacilirata, 260. 
poljrzonata, T 170. 
proloDgata, no, 260, 334, 

P429. 
reticolaia, P 433. 
nibrofusoa, T 171. 
Bcalaris, P 414. 
simills, 33, 36, 188,0 260,0273, 

335, P 428. 
itriosa, 188, O 273, 335. 
tvar, Btjlioa, 23, 145, 
3 



Chemnitzia 

aubangalata, 260. 
tennicula, 23, 145, 228, 230, 

334, 349, U 207. 
(ftenaicula, var») sabcuspidata, 

99, H5- 
tenailirata, 154, 260, 334, 

P433. 
terebrans, 260, 334, P 432. 
torqaata, 23, 89, 90, 145, 286, 

228, 230, O 334, O 349, 

U 207. 
(?torqaata, var,) stylina, 286. 
tridentata, 23, 89, 145, 315, 316. 
turrita, 36, 188, 190, 273, 

335, P 429, T 171. 
nndata, 33, 36, 187, 260^ 

O 334, P 431, P 432. 
unifasciata, 260, 335, P 433. 
VanoouTerensis, 90, 145. 
Virgo, 23, 145, 286, 294. 
Chione 

amatbusia, 23, 27, 152, 154, 20X, 

236, 247, P 71, P 72, P 80. 
astartoides, 39. 
badia, 58. 
var. bilineata, 106. 
Californiensis, 7, 127, 152, O 

197, V 216. 
oalloea, 13, 39, 127, 152, 197, 

O 281, V 216. 
cancellata, 13, 127. 
Colnmbiensis, 247, P 75, 
creiiifera, 201, 247, P 74. 
discors, P 77. 
distans, 247, P 74. 
excavata, 13, 127,0 197, V 216. 
fluctifraga, 22, 39, 127, 152, 

153. 
gnidia, 27, 151, 152, 247, P 71, 

P72, V215. 
gnidia, var, P 72. 
grata, P 77. 

histrionioa, O 247, P 77. 
var. lilacina, 106. 
Lordi, 91. 



Digitized by 



Google 



34 



INDEX OF 8PECIE8. 



Chlone 

Inpanaria, P 67. 

negleoU, 23, 106, 151, 192, 

O 203. 
Nattalli, 127, 197, V 216. 

ror. 281. 

palioaria, var, 27, 106, 153. 

raderata, O 192. 

simillima, 13, 22, 127, 151, 

197, V 216. 
sqaalida, P 64. 
BtramiDea, V 215. 
saccinota, 13, 22, 25, 26, 27, 40, 

127, 151, 152, 154, 322. 
Bugillata, 23, 38. 
undatella, 106, P 75. 
Chiorsera 

leouina, 95, 210, 213, 313. 
Cbironia 

Laperonsii, 202, 203. 
Chiton 

aobatesy 72. 

aoatas, 13, 198, 318, Q 232, 

V 221. 
albolineatas, 175, 290, P 191. 
albus, 71, 72. 

amioalatus, 19, 214, 223. 
armatoB, 198. 
artioulatas, 178, 233,0 290, 

P 190, Q 232. 
Blalnvillol, 72, 233. 
Brandtii, 19, 215, 219, 

223. 
CalifornioiiB, 13, 198, 229, 

O318. 
cblamyB, 214. 
clathratuB, 267, 276, 318. 
Collei, 229. 

ColambiensiB, i8x, 318. 
ooncinnas, 72. 
ooDsimiliB, 13, 198, 297, 

O318. 
orenulatoBfO 187. 
Cumlngil, x8o. 
dentiens, 16, 92, 209, 318, 

O348. 



Chiton 

dUpar, 37, 198, 261, 266, 181, 

O276. 
ElenensiB, 180, O 318. 
Esohsoholtsii, 19, O 214, O 223. 
fastigiatns, O 288. 
flavesoena, 252, O 3i7f P ^9^* 
giganteuB, 18, 215. 
Goodallii, 180. 
Hartwegil, 4O1 287, 3"8» 

349, Q 231, Q 232. 
Hindsii, 92, 229. 
hlrandiformis, O 181, O 187, 

318, 360. 
inoarnatas, 35. 
iosignis, 208, 214. 
iuterstlDotas, x6, 210. 
l«vigatas, 92, O 285, P 191. 
lignarios, 209. 
lignoBQS, i6y 19, 84, 209,0318, 

O348. 
limaoifonniB, 180, O 252, P 

X94. 
lineatUB, 9, 208, 214, O 223, 

229, O 318. 
lividoB, X9,0 215, 223. 
Looohooanas, O 175. 
lariduB, 198, 276, O 318. 
Magdalensis, 206, 233. 
marginatUB, 92. 
Merckii, 19, 40, 215, 223. 
Mertensii, 19, 215, 224. 
MonterejensiB, 16, 40, 287, 

O 318, 349, a 231. 
mnrioatns, 18, 215. 
musooBUB, 16, 72, 84, O 198, 

209, 229, 317, 348, 

V221. 
Nnttallii, 13, 198, 318, 

O 349, <i 231, V 221. 
ornatoB, 16, 198,0 229,0 318, 

O 349, Q 232, V 221. 
Pallasii, 19, 214, 219,0223. 
patnluB, 38. 
propriaB, 790. 
pnlohelloB, ^l^i 198, 277. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IHDXX 07 SPECIES. 



35 



CUton 

reguUris, 40, 287, 318, Q 

232. 
reMi8ii3, i8o. 
sangaineas, 63, 364, P 194. 
scaber, O 229, O 290, 317. 
ftoabrioaloB, 180, 318. 
Bcrobionlatus, 19, 215, 234. 
Mtiger, 214. 
tetosns, 18, O 178, 180, 214, 

215, 318. 
Simpeonii, 208. 
SUehensia, 19, 192, 214, 

O 223, O 229, 290. 
Stelleri, 19, I94|0 214, 223, 

229. 
Stimpaonii^ 72. 
Btokesii, 38, 153, 198, 266,0 180, 

229, O 277, 
i^bmarmorenfl, 84, 214, 219, 

223. 
snloatns, 9, 187. 
textilis, 35. 
tuDioatns, 9# 84, 178, 192, 

214, O 223, O 288. 
▼eflpertiDns, 16, 210. 
TesUtua, O 175, 223, 296. 
Woenessenakii, 19, 92, O 214, 

O318. 
ChloTOBtoma 

aureotinotam, 28, 138, 152. 

brannenm, 27, 138. 

fanebrale, 19, 23, 27, 40, 49, 79, 

"3,138,170,0287,0297. 
gallina, 138, 152. 
macaloBam, 21, 227. 
marginatam, 79. 
moestam, 49, 17a 
nigerrimam, 28, 138. 
Pfeifferi, 23, 27, 138. 
vttr. pjri forme, 138. 
ingosam, P 233. 

var, O 283. 

var, sabapertniD, 113, 138. 
Chondropoma 
rabionndum, 45, 



Chorlatodon 

typioam, 29, 244, 364, P 

447, P 529. 
Chorus 

Belcberi, 60, 149, 151. 
ChaDtopleura 
mnscoaa, i6. 
dentiens, 16. 
Chrysallida 

aoominata, O 273, 334. 

anguBta, 104, 2x9. 

canoellata, 364. 

cincta, 99, 145. 

clathratula, 36, 187, O 259, O 

273, 334, P 424. 
olaasiliformis, 260, 334, P 

367, P 369, P 370, P '426. 
oommnnis, 36, no, 187,0 273, 

O 334, 357, 364, P 408, 

P 4x9, P 421, P 423. 
oonyaza, 260, 334, P 422. 
crebristriata, T 170. 
effasa, 36, 39, 187, 259,0 334, 

P422. 
fasolata, 39, 259, 334, P 417, 

P423. 
indenUU, 260, O 334, P 425. 
marginaU, O 273, 334, P 423. 
nodosa, O 259, O 334, P 3^9, 

P417. 
oblonga, O 259, 334, P 418. 
ovata, 259, 334, P 4i7, P 

4x8. 
pauperonla, 36. 
Photis, 260, 334, P 425. 
pamila, 99, 145. 
BeJgeni, 259, O 334, P 422. 
rotundata, 259, O 334, P 418, 

P 419. 
telesoopiom, 36, 39, 187, O 259, 

334, P 418, P 421, P 422. 
Chrysodomiis 

antiqaas, 69, 70, S$^ 166, 183, 

O343. 
BaeH, 343. 
Behringii, 343. 



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36 



INDSX OF BPEOIEa 



Chrysodomns 

var, Behringianns, 83. 

oarinatus, 25, 322. 

oassidarisformiB, 70. 

deoemoostatas, 83, 149, 

deformis, 70, 343. 

diras, 19,-25, 77, 83, 150, 322. 

dospectus, var, 25. 

fornioatus, 347. 

iDoisQS, 83, 150. 

Islandious, 71, O 343. 

liratus, 4, 20, 149, 169. 

luridas, 343. 

Middendorffi, 20, 83, 149. 

reotirostris, 89, 150. 

Sohantarioos, 71. 

Sitohensis, 49, 83, 150, 343. 
tabulatus, 25, 83, 89, 90, 102, 
"4, 149,322. 
Clngnla 

inoonspiona, 33, 36, 190. 

r 274. 

IsviB, 220. 
minata, 20, 220. 
pauperonla, 33, 36, 190, 259, 

274, O 327. 
saxicola, 274, O 327. 
striata, 220. 

terebellam, 33, 36, 190, 274. 
tervarioosa, 257, P 366. 
ftarrita, 33, 36, 190, 274. 
Ciroe 

margarita> 247, 306, P 81, 

P82. 
minima, 30, P 82. 
nammalina, 58. 
Bubtrigona, 247, 306, P 82. 
CircoBtrema 

diadema, 336, 360, P 448. 
fonioalata, 192, 260, 284, 
336, 360, P 447. 
Cirrus 

nodoBUS, P 354. 

Clstula 

troohlearis, 45. 



Cithara 

ooncinna, 183. 

fasoonotata, 104, 2i8. 

Binaata, 284, 332, 8 162. 

Strom boides, 24, 59, 109, 
332. 

ftritioea, 24, 109. 
Clathms 

hexagoDUB, P 446. 
Clathurella 

aarea, 259, 331, P 400. 

bella, 332. 

bioaDalifera, 183, O 332, P 
400. 

Candida, 332. 

oomuta, 332. 

oorrugata, 332. 

ericea, 332. 

exigua, 332. 

intercalaris, 284, O 332. 

gemmulosa, 332. 

merita, 332. 

mioans, 332. 

negleota, 332. 

oocata, 332. 

qaisqualis, 332. 

rava, 259, P 399, P 400. 

rigida, 184, 332. 

Boalpta, O 332. 

SArrata, O 284, 332. 

Tariculosa, 332. 
Clavella 

distorta, 25, 179, O 344. 
ClaTatnla 

aspera, 205. 
bella, 205. 
o«Iata, 205. 
Califomioa, 75. 
Candida, 205. 
ericea, 205. 
Griffithii, 61. 
Impressa, O 205. 
luctnofla, O 205, P 397. 
merita, 205. 
micans, 205. 
militaris, 205. 



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INDEX OF SPECIES. 



37 



CUnratnla 

negleota, 205. 
oooata, O 205. 
pardalis, 205. 
plambea, 205. 
padioea, O 205. 
promta, 75. 
qaisqualis, 205. 
rava, O 205, P 399. 
rigida, 205. 
Bcnlpta, O 205. 
Clementia 

graoiUima, O 246, 305, P 54, 
sabdiaphana, S8, 93, 126. 
dldiophora 

aeatedentata, 227. 
arcaata, 228. 

claTioolata, 225, 226, 22S, 229. 
cristata, 226. 
depressa, 227. 
disoors, 22S. 
nasuta, 167, 226. 
punoUta, 99, 113, 124, 167,227. 
tabaoea, 226. 

trilineata, 12, 124, 167, 226, 227. 
Closia. See Volutella. 
Cochlea 

neritoides, 160. 
Cochlodesma 

LeaDa, Q 229. 
Coohlogena 
melania, 59. 
vittata, 59 
Coohloatyla 

princeps, P 177, 
andata, P 176. 
CodakU 

exasperata, 30. 
panctata, 30, 106. 
tigerrina, 23, 27, 106, 248, P 96. 
CcBlodon 

Camingii, 229. 
delioatulns, 229. 
elongatns, 229. 
flexooBUS, 228, 230. 
nngnicalas, 230. 



Collonia 

marginata, 49. 
phasianella, 192* 
Colnmbella 
acicnla, 53. 
alboginosa, 221. 
angalaris, 181. 
atramentaria, 180, O 186, 269. 
baccata, iii. 

bioanalifera, 180, O 181, 231. 
bicolor, 59, 270. 
Boivinii, 52, 180, 265, 269, 

O341. 
Bridgesii, 52. 

Californiana, 286, 341. 
Californioa, 53, O 351. 
carinata, 23, 148, 151, 206, 

0231,0341,0349, O351. 
castanea, O 181, 192, 341. 
oervinetta, 262, 341, P 493^ 
— — var, obsoleta, 262, P 

493- 
citharula, 238, O 269. 
coniforinis, 235. 
conspioua, 180, 269. 
ooronata, 181, P 507, P 508. 
eosUU, 59, O 171,0 263, P 

508. 
oofltellaU, 35, 180, 176,0 181, 

O 269, P 506. 
oostulata, 263, 284. 
oribraria, 53, 171, O 189, 

231, P 487. 
diminata, 34, 180, 269. 
dormitor, 284. 
doraata, 180, O 269. 
eleotroides, 53. 
elegans, i8i. 
encaastioa, 53. 
festira, 25, ill, 180, 231, 

O288. O341. 
fluotnata, 180, 181, O 181, O 

269. 
falguranu, P 505. 
folva, 180, 181, 238, 269^ 

P 509, P 543. 



/ 



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38 



INDEX 09 8PECISS. 



Columbella 

fuscau, 25, III, 151, 180,0 171, 
O 181, 210, O 235, 238, 
262, 269, 283, 294, 
341, P 489, P 492, P 543- 

fasoata, var, 28. 

fasiformis, 206. 

gausapaU, 17, 84, 148, 210, 
341, 348. 

gibberula, 180, 231, O 269. 

gibbosa, 171, 234, 262, 
269, P 489, P 491. 

Gonldiana, 21. 

Gouldii, 53, 231. 

gracilis, 180, 269. 

guttaU, 53, 180, 181, 231, 
262, 269, P 487. 

h«mastoma, iii, 181, 192, 
231, 269, 294, 341, 
O361. 

Haneti, 62. 

harpiformis, 61, 181, 181, 
230, 231, 236, O 238, 
269, 341, P 537, p 5^3, 

Hindsii, 23, 114, 148. 

homerosa, 155, 274. 

labiofla, 25, 48, 269, O 283, 
O341. 

laotea, 53. 

lanoeolata, 181, O 190. 

lentiginosa, 206. 

ligata, 341. 

Hvlda, 181, 341. 

lyrata. 180, i8r, O 269. . 

maoalosa, r8i, 231, p 513. 

"^aJor» 25, 52, III, 180,0 171, 
181, 210, O 231, 236, 
262, 269, 341, P 489, 
P 491, P 492, P 507, P 537. 

manra, 181. 

meleagrig, 262, 269, 294, 
P492. 

meroatoria, 222. 

fmillepunctata, var, 25. 

mitriformfs. 177, 262, P 487. 

modesta, 180, O 270. 



Colnmbella 

moBsta, 181, O 270. 
nasata, 238, O 341, P 543. 
nigrioana, 181, 186, 231, 

O 270. 
Pacifica, 53. 
pallida, 235, P 535. 
pardalis, 341. 
parva, 35, 181, O 231, O 270. 
pavonia, 206. 
pajrtalida, 262, O 294, P 489. 
prooera, 181, 341. 
paloherrima, O 181, O 341. 
pnlobrior, 181, O 27a 
poDotata, P 487. 
pusilla, 53. 
pjgmsBa, 181, 181, O 192, 

O226, O270, P510. 
PTTostoma, 181. 
Reevei, 53, iii. 
rorlda, 53. 
ragnlosa, 186. 
rugosa, 181,0181,0231,0270. 
rustic*, 269, 294, P 489, P 

492. 
Baturall«, 59, 61, 269. 
BoalariDa, O 181, P 505. 
Bolidala, iii. 
Sowerbji, 270. 
spadicea, 53, 225, P 535. 
Sta.-Barbarensis, 21, 53, m^ 

228, 231, 341, O 349. 
strombiformig, 48, 181, 171, 

174, 178, O 192, O 210, 

234, 236, 262, O 270, 

341, P 490, P 537. 
Btromblformis, var, 262, 269, 

P489. 
Bnloosa, 53, 185, 272. 
Terpsicbore, 226, 238, 26^, 

P 508, P 543. 
tessellata, 35, 181, 270. 
taniata, 20, 53, 260, 225, P 

535. 
trinmphaHs, 10, 268. 
turrita, 181, 181, 270. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



X OF SPECIES. 39 

Conns 

gladiator, 24, 27, no, 182, 
>i. O 259, 270, 282, 332, 

P405. 
507. gradaias, 7, 10, 46, i78, 

I. Livroglyphus, II. 

h^»ua,0 170. 
incorvas, 46. 

interruptua, 9, 45f 46, 1$^ '54f 
176, 187, 235, O 360, 
P 402. 
■ var. 292. 

Largilllerti, 58. 

llneolatns, 170, 0^70, 333. 
Lorenzlanus, 46, 294, 333. 
Lusonieas, var. O 184, 333, 

O360. 
Mahoganl, 9, 24, 154, O 270, 

O 282, 292, 333. 
Maaritianus, 46. 
Hediterraneus, 222. 
minimus, 291, 360. 
> 259, miuimos, var, 333. 

nnx, 21, 24, 27, no, 182, 
3- 259, 270, 332, 360, P 

76, 405. 

omaria, 238, P 544- 
9, P Orion, 182, O 333. 

var, papillosas, 46. 
270, patricius, 205, 333. 

perplezas, 46. 
144, Phllippii, 59. 

prinoeps, 7, 58, no, 170,0 
183, O 233, O 238, O 333t 

352, P 544. 

259, palohellas, 187. 

puBctioalatnB, 9, 27, 46, 154^ 
) 297, 238, O 259, 332, P 404, 

P544. 
purparascens, 24, 27, 32, no, 
181, 176, 182, 228, 
j6o. 230, 259, 270, 332, 

364, P 402, P 403, U 206. 
pQrpnraBceiis, var, 259, P 
J2, 403. 

pnrpnreos, 236. 
28 



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Google 



40 



INDEX OV SPECIES. 



ConoB 

pnsillas, 9, 21, 228, O 230, 

332, U 206. 
var, pusillos, no. 
pastolosas, 46. 
pjrrifonnis, 292, 333. 
ravuB, 21, 144, 228, O 230, 

332, 333, 349, U 206. 
regalitatis, 32, no, 181, 184, 

O 236, 259, 270, O 282, 

O 333, P 403. 
pegius, 7, 58, 170, 270. 
pegularia, 24, 27, 238, O 259, 

270, 292, 333, 352, 

P 401, P 544. 
regnlaris, var. 46, O 176. 
reticolatas, 152. 
Boalaris, 7, 10, 46, no, O 170, 

259, P 406. 
terebellam, 205. 
tiaratos, 46, O 182, 292,0 360. 
tornatas, 9, no, 188, 333. 
troohnlus, 235, 
varias, 187, 360. 
▼irgatos, var, 46. 
▼ittatas, 270, 292, O ZZZ* 
Ximenes, 9, 46, 177, O 333. 
Zebra, 46. 
Cooperella 

sciDtillaBformis, 97, 125. 
Corbicola 

oonvexa, 154, 164, 287. 
yentrioosa, 164. 
Corbula 

alba, 224, 228, 244, P 534, 

P547. 
bicarinata, 23, O 183, O 224, 

228, 244, 280, 281, 

300, 364, P 21, U 199. 
blradlata, 20, 23, 39, 123, 204, 

205, 183, 244, 280, 

300, P 22. 
Boivinei, 300, 
carinata, 224. 
Cnbaniaoa, 364. 
Diegoana, 75. 



Corbula 

fragilia, 207, 300. 

gibbosa, 175, 347. 

lateola, 97, 123. 

marmorata, 207, 300. 

Basata, 23, 228, 300. 

nuoiformis, 23, 154, O 183, 
300. 

obasa, 204, 207, 300. 

ovulata, 33, 154, 204, 183, 
228, 244, 280, 300, 
P23. 

poljchroma, 20, 39, 205, 226, 
228, 300, U 198. 

postalosa, 39, 204, 244, 300, 
P 22. 

radiata, 207. 

rostrata, 175. 

rubra, 39, 204, 280, JQOb 

scaphoideB, P 547. 

speciosa, 207, 300. 

Taheitensis, 280. 

tenuis, 23, 204, 183, 228; 
244, 280, 300. 

fustulata, 236, P 539. 

Tentrioosa, 584, O 300. 

vennsta, 73. 
CoralUophlla 

Californica, 287. 

madreporarum, 63, 
Comiculina 

Ehrenbergii, X 419. 
Cornnoides 

major, X 416, X 425, X 426. 

minor, X 426, X 436. 
Coronajds 

nux, P 405. 
Crania ' 

radiosa, 55. 
Crassatella 

alta, 75. 

collina, 81. 

Esquimau!, 91. 

GnadalupensiB, P 549. 

gibbosa, 23, 106, 155, 204, 306; 
280, 297. 



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EX OF SPECIES. 



41 



O234, 
123. 
» 170, 



69,92, 
,0200, 
282, 

3 365, 
292. 

25- 
37, 51, 

174, 

230, 

323, 



3 184, 



0, 3» 



200, O 



Crepidola 

oalyptrseformis, P 270. 
capensis, 209, P 268. 
cerithicola, 254, 276, P 278. 
contorta, 239, 254, P 278, 

PS45. 
ooeUta, 2, 236, 239, 254, 

P 268. P 537, P 545. 
depressa, 254, P 272. 
dilataU, 51, 172, O 190, 

254, 323, 366, P 272, 

P 285, P 292. 
dilatata, var, 190. 
doreata, 13, 17, 23, 52, 92, 140, 

254, P 273, P 274, P 288. 
echinus, 52, 254,0 276,0363, 

P268. 
exoavata, 20, 24, 51, 98, xo8, 

140, 152. 196, 230, O 235, 

254, 276, O 364, P 274. 
— — var, 108. 
ezplanata, 27, 52, 140, 200, 

O 204, O 228, 233, 255, 

323, P 281, P 282, U 205, 

V225. 
ezuviata, 140, O 200, 228, 

233, 255, P 281, U 205, 

V 225. 
fimbriata, 17, 51, 140. 
foliacea, 190, 254, P 272, P 

292. 
fornioata, 20, P 282, P 286. 
GoreensiB, 239, O 369, 365, 

P 280, P 284, P 286, P 545. 
grandls, 20, 25, 70, 76, 169, 322, 

O 216, 223, 323. 
hepatloa, 196, 236, 254, 

276, P 276, P 278, P 537, V 225. 
hystrix, 52, 363, P 269, P 293. 
-^— var, 69. 
Inourva, 24, 37, 52, 79, ^54, 196, 

190, 230, O 236, O 254, 

276, 284, 323, 352, 

P 276, P 277, P 279, P 292. 
incnrva, var, P 275. 
incarvata, 175. 



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42 



INDEX or SPECIES. 



Crepldula 

Italioa, 255, 276, P 284. 
LessoDii, 51, 140, 196, 197, 

190, 276, O 358, P 269, 

P 282, P 293. 
liDeolaU, P 272. 
lingalata, 17, 5^, 92, 140, 209, 

0333. 

liraU, 52. 

margiualis, 184, 324, P 292. 

miniita, 17, 20, 200, O 216, 
O 223, 323, V 225. 

naatiloides, 51, 254, P 272. 

Bavicelloides, 17, 20, 25,52, 140, 
2CX), P 281, V 225. 

Bayioelloides, var. 200. 

nivea, 26, 37, 154, 196, 197, O 2, 
O 190, 255, 276. O 323, 
358, P 269, P 270, P 272, 
P 279, P 281, P 282, P 285, 
P 286, P 292, P 293, U 205, 
V 225. 

nivea, var, 190, 239, O 276, 

nummaria, 17, 52, 140, 200, 
O 209, 212, 323, V 225. 

onyx, 27, 37, 52, 108, 152, 196, 
O 190, 200, 204, O 230, 
O 235, 254, 276, O 278, 
O 323. 364, O 366, P 272, 
P 276, P 277, P 292, V 225. 

osculang, 31, 37, 197, O 276, 
O323. 

pallida, 254, P 272. 

Patagonioa, 190, O 254,0 255, 
P 272, P 281, P 292. 

patola, 254, P 272. 

perforans, 52, 140, O 200, 228, 
233, U 205, V 225. 

Peruviana, 24,3 254, O 366, 
P272. 

plana, 255, 276, P 284. 

porcellana, 364, P 275. 

princepe, 20, 25, 76, 166. 

prompta, 166, 369. 

protea, 255, P 272, P 281, P 292. 

rofltriformis, 32, 37, 51, 140, 197, 



Crepldula 

209, 230> 254, 276, 

323, P 275. 
roBtrata, 32, 37, 52, 140^ 197, 

O 254, O 276, O 323, P 275. 
rndis, P 263, P 289. 
rngosa, 23, 27, 51, 79, 140, q 200^ 

O 323, 349f P 278, P 279, 

V 224. 
Sitcbana, 20, 216, 223, 

323. 
Bolida, 31, 37, 51, 140, 197, 

O 206, o 216, 224, 254, 

276, O 323, P 275. 
sordida, 324. 

squama, 32, Si,^40i 196, 184, 
. O 235, 255, 276, O 286, 

P 269, P 280, P 281, V 225. 
squamosa, 35. 
Btrigata, O 254, P 272. 
striolata, 37, 2, 239, 255, 

276, P 280, P 281, P 282, 

P54S- 
umbrella, P 263, P 289. 
unoata, 32, 37, 52, 140, 197, 

O 254, O 276, P 275, P 538. 
nnguiculus, P 281. 

var, 255, P 281. 

unguiformis, 27, 37, 140, 196, 

197, O 2, 184, O 222, O 255, 

276, 282, 323, O 363, 

365, P 272, P 282, P 284, 

P 285, P 286, V 225. 
unguiformis, var, 275. 
Creplpatalla 

aculeata, P 268. 
Adolpbei, P 272. 
dilatata, P 272. 
dorsata, 3. 
ecbinus, P 268. 
explanata, 2. 
foliacea, P 272. 
bepatica, P 278 
hjfttrix, P 268. 
pallida, P 272. ' 
Btrigata, P 272. 



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Google 



INDEX or SPEOmS. 



43 



Craseis 

calignla, 173. 
oornacopisQ, O 173. 
ragolosa, X 425. 
Crucibaliun 

aarioalatum, T 168. 

auritam, 52. 

BTTonense, 52. 

oineream, 52. 

oorrngatam, 24, 52, U 204. 

dentatam, O 235, T 167. 

extiootoram, O 364, P 287. 

ferrogineum, 52. 

gemmaceam, 52. 

hiapidom, 52. 

imbrioatam, 27, 52, 108, 151, 

152, 153, 195, 3. 179, 

190,0 204,0.230, O 235, 

25s, 275, 323, P 287, 

P 292, P 293, T 167, T 168. 
imbricatam, var, O 275. 
imbricatom, var, Broderipii, 

190, O 288, P 287, T 168, 

U205. 
imbricatam, var, Carribbense, 

T167. 
imbrioatom, var, OamiDgii, O 

190, 288, O 363, P 292, 

T167. 
Jewettii, 21, 228,0 230, 323. 
lignarinm, 52, 224, 323. 
maoalatam, 52. 
■ par. 195. 

ctinatum, 24, 27, 52, P 292, 

T 168. 
pexiza, 52. 
qniriqainqm, 59. 
radiatom, 24, O 323. 
nide, 195, 235, 276, 282, 

T168. 
nigosom, 52, O 255. 
Bootellatam, 52, 255, P 287. 
serratum, 52, 323, P 292. 
sordidam, 52. 
ipinosam, 23, 24, 27, 52, 61, 76, 

79, 108, 14D, 151, 152, 19s, 



Cmoibolnin 

O 3i 179, 190, 200, 

O 204, O 230, 233, 235, 

255, O 280, O 283, 323, 

353, P 290, P 292, P 293. 
spiDoaam, var, 10. 
apinosam, var, compreseo-ooni- 

00m, 288, T 167. 
striatam, 52. 
tenue, 235. 
tabiferam, 52* 
nmbrella, 24, 27, 43, 52, 195, 

O 323. 364, P 295, T 163. 
angola, 52. 

TiolasoeDs, T 166, U 205. 
Crypta 

GoreoDsia, P 285. 
nivea, 2, P 281. 
Peraviaoa, P 272. 
rostrata, P 275. 
ragosa, P 278. 
Cryptobranchia 
oaudida, 219, 
c«Bca, 2 19. 
Cryptochiton 

Stelleri, 23, 70, 134, 297, 

O318. 
Cryptodon 

flexuoaos, 97, 129, i68. 

injoideB, 1 1, 

NatUllii, II, 61, 72, O 194, 

300, 349, V 210. 
serHoataa, 88, 129. 
Ghrypt omya 

Califorpioa, 22, 26, 71, 78, 79, 

87,88,119,123,0194,0211, 

V210. 
ovalia, 79. 
CalteUns 

lacidas, 349. 
sabteres, 195. 
Cnma 

oaloar, P 482. 

ooBtatam, 7, 35, 155, 180, 262, 

O 340, P 482, P 484,? 485. 
diadema, P 482. 



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44 



INDEX OF BPEOnS. 



Coma 

kiosquiforme, 24, i8o, O 262, 

O 340, P 481. 
kiosquiforme) var. 190. 
Balcatam, O 269. 
teotam, 24, 48, 180, 182, 191, 

340, P 355, P 475, P 4»t. 
Cmningia 

Adamsii, 38, 203. 

Califoroica, 26, 126,0 195, 231, 

234, 245, 304, O 351, 

353, P 30, V 213. 
var. coarot&ta, 38, 47, 203, 

245, 279. 
lamelloea, 38, 47, 203, O 183, 

O 245, 304, P 29, P 30. 
similis, 40. 
striata, 245. 
trigonularia, 38, 47, 105, 203, 

245, 279, 304, P 30. 

var. O 184, 

Cyathodonta 
pHcata, 27. 
nndulata, 1x9. 
Cycladella 

papjraoea, 29, 257. 
Cycladina 

Adausonii, P 108. 
^Cyclaa 

acaminata, 164. 

aastralia, P 108. 

oalyoalata, 222, P 106. 

cornea, 164, 210, 222, P 106. 

edentola, 164. 

egregia, 213, 308. 

Estrellana, 81. 

inoniata, 164. 

minor, 165, 

modesta, 164. 

nobilis, 165. 

oralis, 165. 

pandnta, 81. 

patella, 165, 210, 308. 

permacra, 81 • 

simplex, 164. 

Spokani, 91. 



Cyolas 

BtHatioa, 164. 

tenuistriata, 164. 

triangularis, 164, 

tamida, 91. 
Cyolina 

prodncta, O 284, 305, S 161. 

saocata, 305. 

sabquadrata, 77, 201, 227, 

246,0 278,0 305,0364, 

P 62, S 161, U 201. 
Cyolophoms 

ponderosas, 45. 

translucidas, 45. 
Cyolostoma 

aoatam, 220. 

anatinnm, 220. 

gigantenm, 185. 

Mexioanum, 265. 
Cyolostrema 

excaratam, T 169. 

ootoliratnm, T 169. 

pentegonioBtoma, T 169. 
Cyolottis 

gigantens, O 326. 
QyUolma 

Carpenteri, 34. 

(tcjlindraoea, var.) attonsa^ 
23, 89, 133, 169. 

incnlta, 133. 

luticola, 34, 194, 250, 275, 

313, P 170. 

mamillata, 133, 366. 

planata, 133, 307. 

iriticea, 71. 
Cylinder 

porphjretions, 48. 
Cylindrella 

Ghiesbreghti, 44. 

Liebmanni, 295. 

Pfeifferi, 295. 

salpinx, 44. 

teres, 295. 
Cymblmn 

patalam, 48. 

tuberoBum, 48. 



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•m^m^-^^:^ 



INDEX OF 8PEC1ES. 



45 



CjpraBa 

adi^U, 9, 291. 
acicalaris, P 373. 
albaginosa, 8, 45, 291. 
approzimaDSy O 285. 
Arabioa, 239, 265, P 545. 
arabioula, 35, 176, 164, 170, 

178, 235, 236, 239, 

282, P 373, P 537, P 545. 
arabioala, var,, 267. 
armadina, 188, 292. 
Call forni ana, 8. 
Californioa, 230, 291. 
candidala, 285, 294. 
oerrina, 258, P 371. 
oervinetta, 176, 258, 267, 

282, 328, 363, P 371, 

P372. 
oer^na, 258, P 372, 

var, P 371. 

ooBtata, 8. 

eglantina, 11, 265. 
exanthema, 27, 153, 154, 166, 

176, .0 258, 328, 362, 

363, P 371, P 372. 
p var. 267. 

flaveola, P 373. 
fowa, O 187, 239, P 378, P 

545. 
irioa, 187. 

Lamarokii, 170, 293. 
lathyraa, O 258, 293. 
Mangeriae, 182, 291. 
nigropanotata, 187, 190. 
nympha, O 291. 
obefta, O 235. 
olorina, 285. 
oniBoas, 8, O 267, P 376. 
onyx, 9, 49, 291. 
Paoifica, 182, 230. 
pedioulas, 8, 230. 
poraria, 8. 
palla, x86, 286, 291, P 

379. 
pnnctnlaU, 35, 176, O 230, 
267, 291, P 374. 



Cyprsea 

pufitalata, 6, 8, 48, 176, 174, 
230, 236, 239, 267, 

P 375, P 537, P 545. 
radians, 8, 177, 170, 174, 

230, 233, 267. 
xnbesoens, 35, 177, 182, 

267, 291, P 378. 
saugninea, 177, 230, 236, 

239, O 258, ,267, 288, 

293, P 537, P 545. 
Solandri, 230, 236, O 291, 

P 377, P 537. 
Sowerbyi, 235, 236, 293, 

P537. 
spadioea, 7, 8, 49, 230, 235. 
sparoa, P 373. 
stercoraria, P 373. 
snbrostrata, 8, 239, 292, 

O 294, P 379, P 545. 
snffasa, 188, O 230, 292^ 
tigris, 109. 
zebra, P 371. 

zonata, 235, 236, 293. 
CyprflecasaiB 
tenuis, 153, 
testioolas, 152. 
Cyrena 

aoata, 164. 

aeqni lateralis, 164. 

altilis, 164, I, 227, 232, 

248, P IIS, U202. 
angniata, 164. 
Californioa, 164. 
cordiformis, 164. 
Cnmingii, 164, 287. 
Floridana,0 i, 281, P 115, 

P116. 
Fontaine!, 164, 248, O 281, 

P 114. 
fragilis, 164, P 115. 
inflata, 164, 287, O 296, O 

309. 
insignis, 164, 287, 308. 
maritima, 38, 164, 201, O 278, 

309, S 161. 



Digitized by 



GoOgle 



46 



INDEX OP 8PI 



Cyrena 

Mezicana, 27, 164, i, 175, 
0248,0281,0308, P 115. 

Mexicana, var. O 227, 232. 

altilia, U 202. 

olivacea, 27, 164, 248, 281, 
0308,? 114, P 116. 

Panamensis, 164. 

plaoens, P 114. 

pallasti^, 164. 

radiata, 164. 

Reuluzii, 164. 

Bolida, 60, 164, 281, O 309. 

sordida, 164. 

aabquadrata, 164, 287, O 309. 

triangala, 164. 

tumida, 164. 

varians, 164, P 115. 
Cyrenoida 

serncata, P 104, 
Cyrtopleura 

truDuata, 121. 
Cyrtoltis 

distortns, 231. 

patalaa, P 501. 
Cytherea 

eeqailatera, 203, 246, P 549. 

ai&Dis, 201, 185, O 191,0 229, 
247, 278, P 69. 

alternata, O 247, 289, P 69. 

argentina, O 185, 236, P 539. 

argata, 60. 

auraDtia, 174, 229, 278. 

aarantiaca, 47, 201, 246, 
278, P 63. 

biradiata, 9, 211, 236, 
246, 366, P 64. 

brevispina, O 281. 

breviBpinosa, 289, P 69. 

oallosa, 12, 279, 197, V 216. 

casta, P 70. 

caRtanea, P 70. 

chfone, 211, 289, P 64. 

ohionsa, 236, P 64, P 539, 

circinata, O 289, P 69. 

ooncinna, O 185, P 69. 



Cyt 



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Google 



(7DXX OV SPECIES 



47 



\ 246, P 
O 278, 



0247. 
1 1^59. 



332. 



>,0 244, 



S 163, 8 



DandronottiB 

arboresceuSy 2x8, 313. 
Iris, 95. 
Dendropoma 
lituella, 42. 
megamastam, 42. 
Dentalium 

oorrngatam, O 251, 317, P 

189. 
dentalis, O 222. 
ebnrneum, 134. 
elephaDtinam, P 314, X 419. 
eotalis, 46, 98, 134, 296. 
glabrum, X 414, X 43S» X 43^. 
— var. X 414. 
hexagonnm, 46, 98, 134, 154. 
h7aliDam,3i, 134, 225,0251, 

317, P 188, P 536- 
imperforatuiDi X 414, X 425, 

X436. 
incarvntn, X 425, 
var. Indianorom, 98, 134, 169. 
laoteam, 31, 152. 
liratum, 46, 251, 317, P 188. 
minatnm, X 413, X 435. 
nebalosom, 175. 
politnm, 223, 317. 
pretiosDm, 31, 46, 98, 134, 

251, 296, P 189. 
psendosezagonam, 46. 
qnadrangulare, 46. 
recti U8, 89, 134. 
semipolitum, 31, 98, 134, 152, 

O175* 

spleudidam, 46. 

striolatnm, 46. 

sabBtriataiJD, 367. 

tesBaragonum, 180, 317. 

tetragon am, 46, 152. 

trachea, X 414, X 423, X 425, 

— — var, X 414. 
Dladora 

crnoibnliformis, 80. 
Diala ' 

acuta, 99, 143. 

eleotrina, 104, 217. 



Digitized by 



Google 



48 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Diala 

mamillata, 33, P 412. 
marmorea, 99, 143. 
paQpercuUi 259. 
Dione 

affluis, 305. 

alternata, 363. 

aurantia, 246, O 305, P 56 

P63. 
anrantiaoa, 282. 
biradiata, O 232, 305, P VI. 
brevispinai 57. 
brevispinata, 57, 281, P 69. 
brevispinosa, 247, 305, 

358, P 69. 
ohione, 366, P VI., P 63, P 

65. 
ohioDsa, 226, 232, 234, 

O 246, 282, 305, 352, 

366,PVI,P63, P64,P65, 

P70. 
ohiooflBa, var, 364. 
oiroinata, 58, 232, 247, 

305, 363, P 69. 
ooncinQa, 247, 305, P 69. 
conaangainea, 305. 
dione, 232, 364. 
elegans, P VI. 
exspiuata, 58. 
lepida, 234. 
lupinaria, 57, 232, O 246, 

265, 297, 305, 358, O 

364, P 67. 
maoulala, 57, 364, P 65. 
maltisplnoea, 57. 
Dobilis, 57. 
paDDOsa, 58, 211. 
prora, 58. 
■ var, 2IO, 

pnella, 21. 
roeea, O 232, 234, 246, 

305, P 66. 
Bemilamellosa, 57, 58. 
aqualida, 305, P VI., P 64, 
tortuosa, 305. 
nnicolor, 58, 305. 



Dione 

Veneris, 57, P 67. 
vulnernta, 246, 305, P 68. 
Dlplodonta 

oalouluB, 106, 308. 

oircolaris, 366. 

obliqoa, O 224, O 248, O 308, 

P 103, P 534. 
orbella, 12, 22, 26, 113, 129,0 

197, 232, 308, O 349, 

O 35i» 352, U 202, V 218. 
semiaspera, 30, 154, 197, 

224, 229, 248, 297, 

308, 363, O 366, P 102. 
^— — var, O 227, U 202. 
semiaspera, var, disorepans, 

248, P 103. 
serrioata, 248, P 104. 
snbqoadrata, xo6, 287, 308, 

Q230. 
trigonula, P 103. 
nndata, P 103. 
DiBcina 

Cuming!!, 37, 105, 155, 194, 205, 

266, 244, 298, O 366, P 7. 
Evansii, 55, 102, O 298, O 349. 
Btriata, 366. 
strigata, 54. 
Disoopora 

trispinoBa, P 3. 
Disctis 

VancoayerenBis, 157. 
DUpotaoa 

ByronensiB, 10. 
dentata, 3, P 287. 
Bpinosa, 239, P 546. 
Btriata, Q 234. 
DUtortio 

anuB, 171. 
ooiistriotns, 182. 
Ditrupa 

gadoB, X 413* 
Dolium 

crassilabre, 238, P 543. 
dentatnm, 8, 238, P 543* 
latilabre, 238, 



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Google 



>£X OF SPECIES. 



49 





Donaz 




MartiDioensls, 245. 




navioula, 23, 27, 106, 126, 202, 




186, 229, 246, 279, 




304, P so, P 548. 


^ 238, 


obesufl, 126, 195, 196, 




227, 296, 304, U 200, 




V213. 




obesulus, 287. 


0236, 


ovalinus, 287, 304. 


304, 


Panamensis, 295, 304. 




pretextus, 367. 


4. 


pnlohelluB, Q 230. 




punctatoatriatas, 7, 23, 27, 77, 


>» 151, 


126, 151, 170,0 232,0241, 


229, 


246, 285, 296, 304, 


3 287, 


P 44, P 46, P 48, U 200, V 


^ 351, 


213. 


J 200, 


punctostriatua, rar. caelatus, 




246, P 46.. 


» 202, 


radiatus, 7, 170, 191, 246, 


304, 


287, P 44. 


- 


rostratus, 23, 27, 38, 154, 202, 


,P43. 


229, 245, 279, 304, 




364, P 548, U 200. 


. 


rugOBUS, 364. 


\ 241, 


scalpellam, 9, 178, P 44. 


3 304, 


Bcortam, 296, 


3. 


semistriatns, 287, Q 230, 




serrula, P 548. 


287, 


Btultornm, 10. 




snloatas, 226. 


» 229, 


transversas, 23, 154, 174, 


00. 


245, 304, P 44, P 548. 


) 28s. 


Doris 




alabastrioa, 94. 




albopanotata, 95. 




Sandiegensis, 94, 95. 


) 227, 


sangulDea, 94, 95- 


P 44, 


Monterejensis, 94, 95. 




DoBlnia 


[) 229, 


alU, 80, 81. 




AnnsB, 154, 246, 305, P 61. 




oalloaa, 279, 281, 305, 




349, V 216. 




ooncentrica, P 60. 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OF 8P] 
Dri 



;, io6, 163, O 186, 
332, O 246, 282, 
305. 

232, 234. 
81. 

27, 39, 106, 151, 

30s, P 60, P 61. 

32. 

232, O 287, 305, 

81. 

81. 

364. 

331. 360. 
a. 155. 

331, P 397. 

109, 226, O 230, 
J3I, P 296. 
4, 218. 
i3i. 

•5- 

, 36, 109, 183, 184, 

564, P 393, P 395- 
ar. Meloheni, 36, 

\ P 393. 

O258. 
Ji, O 36a 
^, 144. 
258, 330, P 

I. 

,0331, 
83, O 331. 

o 331. 

54, 331. 
*,273- 

'84, 331, 360. 



Du 



Digitized by 



Google 



Kg^l^^ 



INDEX OF 8P£0I£8. 



61 



DunkeTia 

iBlermedifc, 260, 335, P 435- 
laminata, 23, 145, 286. 
paneiHntU, O 260, 335, P 434- 
•nbanguUU, 36, 187, O 260, 

335» P 434. 
wir. 36, 

Elephantnltun 

abnormale, 255, 324, X 442. 
heptagonom, O 256, 324, X 

442. 
imbrieatam, X 442. 
iiuoiilptom, O 255, 324, X 

442. 
laqQeatam, 324, X 442. 
Uratooinotnm, O 256, 324, X 

442. 
-^— var, saboonioam, X 442. 

■ var, sobobsoletam, X 

442. 
■ ■ ' var. tenviliratom, X 442. 
If ratiiia, X 442. 

obtnsam, 255, 324, X 442. 
plfcatam, X 442. 
snbspirale, O 255, 324, X 442. 
Bmargiiiiila 

crennlata, 175. 
rosea, 136, P 276, P 296. 



alveolata, O 341. 

earbonsria, ^i, 341 » 361. 

ovooostoma^ 25, 112, 231, 

O 341, 361. 
femigioosa, 231. 
heptagoDalis, 341. 
Jngoea, 270, O 341. 
manra, 341, O 361. 
pnlchra, 181, 341, O 361. 
fijrodtoma, 341, 361. 
Reeyiana, 25, 112, O 341, 

361. 
lonata, 341, O 361. 
EnsBta 

Comingii, 4a 
barpa, 40. 



BnBatella 

ambigoa, 39. 
railia, 205. 
Entodesma 
cuneata, 124. 
diaphana, 97, 124. 
inflaU, 97, 124. 
piotia, 124. 
Baxioola, 124. 

sazioota, vau oyliadraeea, 124. 
EoUdU 

pinuata, 173. 
Erato 

oolnmbella, 23, I43t '47. 169, 

228, 230, 236, O 328, 

P 537, U 206. 
Jewettii, 230. 
leucophiea, 143, O 228, 230, 

328, U 206. 
Mangeria, 24, 109, 112, 328, 

O364. 
Mangeris, var. Fanamensis, 

284, S 162. 
soabrinscula, 24, 45, Z09, 177, 

230, 267, O 328. 
.▼itellina, 23, 143, 206, 328. 
Erycina 

dnbia, 186. 
Geoftoyil, P 105. 
papjraoea, O 287. 
Baborbicularis, P 105. 
Tinlaoea, P 108. 
EthaUa 

ampleotaoB, O 254, 322, P 

253. 
carinata, 254, O 322, P 252. 
liruUta, 253, 322, P 251. 
pallidala, 253, 322, P 252. 
pyricalloaa, O 253, O 322, P 

251. 
snpra^allftla, 98, 138. 
Boprayallata, fvar. invallata, 

98, 138. 
Bnooamia 

oyclofttonm, 104, 215. 
punctata, 104, 215. 



Digitized by 



Google 



52 



INDEX OF 8P] 



Guoosmia 

variegaU, 214, 215. 
(fvariegata, var.) snbstriata, 
104, 215. 
Eulima 

acuta, 183, O 335, P 438. 

compaota, 99, 145. 

distorta, O 296, P 408, P 441. 

falcata, 273. 

fuscostrigata, 105, 219. 

hasUU, 154, 260, O 335, P 

438. 
Interrnpta, 183, 335. 
iota, 37, 192, O 274, P 440. 
tnicaos, 89, 99, 145, 169. 
recta, 193, O 274, P 439. 
ratila, 99, I45- 

solitaria, 37, 193, 274, P 439. 
Thersites, 23, 145, 286. 

yod, 39. 
Golimella 

obsoleta, 260, 335, P 436. 
Euomphalns 

radiatas, 238, 259, P 407, 
P541. 
Enpaiypha 

areolata, 158. 
Enryta 

aolculata, 24, 109, O 258, 329, 
O 366, P 389. 

Coseutini, O 366. 

fulgarans [ssfalgurata], 366. 

fulgurata, 24, 27, 109, 177, 
258, 329, P 388, U 206. 
Enthria 

ferrea, 70, 

plnmbea, 70. 
Evalea 

aeqniacnlpta, 219. 

delicatala, 219. 

sablirolata, 3^1 P 4^0» 

Fartulnm 

bimarginatom, X 443. 
oorrugolatum, O 256, 324, 
X443. 



Far 



Fas 



Fell 



Fen 



Fioi 



Digitized by 



Google 



INDEX OP SPECIES. 



53 



ricTila 

reticalata, 171. 
▼entrkjosa, 24, no, O 234, 
261, O 271, 337, P 453. 
P454. 
Fiaaorella 

cqualis, 197, 276. 

affinis, P 219. 

alba, 46, 154, 256, 236, O 252, 

319, P 217, P 218. Q 234. 
alta,46, 197, 276, P 221. 
aspera, 8, 84, 174, O 209, 

215, O 224, V 223. 
Barbadensis, O 162, 184, 

243, 252, 364, P 215. 
oancellatas, 46, 49. 
oatillas, P 220. 
ohlorotrema, 2, 236, 252, 

P 216, P 538. 
ooarotata, P 213. 
craUtia, 84, 199, 209, 

212. 
orenifera, 184. 
orenulaU, 76, 234, 283, 

V 223. 
densiolathrata, 49, 84, 1 74) 

199, 291, V 223. 
exarata, 199, V 223. 
ezcelsa, 46. 
gemmata, 236, 252, P 218, 

P 538. 
gibberula, 188, 319. 
GoDDeri, 49. 
bians, 175. 
humilis, 2, 236, 252, 

P 216, P 538, 
iD»quali8, I, 184, P 220, 
Lincolnl, 45» 84, 178. 
macrotrema, 24, 154, 197, 184, 

276, O 319, 360. 
microtrema, 37, 108, 197, 184, 

276, 319. 
Mexicana, 46, 188, 319. 
niua, 37, i97, i, 252, 276, 

319, P 551. 

muUbilis, 296, 320, 360. 



Fiflstirella 

liigropanctata, 24, 37, 84* ^54, 
197, 184, O 276, O 282, 
O 319, 360, P 214, P 218, 
Q234. 
nigrocincta, 46, 108, 252, 
288, 319, P 217, P 218, 
Q234. 
Novs-HollanditB, 49. 
obsoura, 46, 184, 320, 

360. 
ornata, 13, 26, 137,0 241, 319, 

349, P 214, V 222. 
oBtrina, 276, 319. 
Panamensis, 46, 184, 320. 
Peruviana, 252, 319, P 

219. 
i?ar. pica, 35, 37, I, 184, 

236, 252, P 220, P 538. 
rugosa, 24, 27, 46, 108, 155, 
196, 2, 188, 236, 252, 
291, 3i9» 360, P 215, 
P 216, P 218, V 223. 
rugosa, var. 239, 276, 
Bpongiosa, 252, P 219. 
tenebrosa, 46. 
turbinelloides, 49. 
viminea, 2, 239, 252, 

P 216, P 546. 
violacea, 100, 215, 224, 

O319. 
violasoenB, 348. 
virescens, 27, 37, 197, 3, 
162, 233, 234, 239, 
252, 276, 319, P 213, 
P 216, P 218, P 546, V 223. 
virescens, var, 364. 
Tolcano, 13, 23, 100, 114, 137, 
151, 208, O 233, 319, 

O349. 
Fl88iirellld»a 

aeqaalis, 197, 320. 
Flabellina 

crassicornis, 313. 
opalescens, 94, 95. 
Bubrosacea, 313. 



Digitized by 



Google 



54 



INDEX OF 8] 



Fluminicola 

fddoa, 163. 

semiualia, 90. 

yirens, 162. 
Foflsama 

abjeotua, 273. 

angioatoma, O 273. 

angnlatus, 216, 257, O 326. 

ezoaTatns, 188, 273, 326. 

foveatas, 273, 326. 

macolosas, 257. 

megaaoma, 273, 326. 

ovoideas, U 205. 

paroipictas, 104, 216. 

paras, 104, 216. 

retioalatus, U 205 

tab«ro0O8, 216, 257, 326, 
P354 
Fulvia 

modesta, 170. 

FOBtUI 

ambastnS) 21, 25, 150, 228, 

O 234, U 208. 
angalatas, O 177. 
antiqaos, 19, 217, 223. 
apertas, Q 263, P 504. 
Baerii, 19, 217. 
Bamffios, 209. > 
Behringii, 19, O 217. 
bellns, 183, 271. 
Berniciensis, 217. 
oanoellatas, 171, 210. 
oanoelliDas, 18, 211. 
carlnatuB, O 192. 
olayatns, 21, 150. 
coutrarios, O 217, 223. 
oorpalentas, 367. 
corragatoB, 293. 
deoemoostatos, 4, 20, 179, 

217, 223. 
defonnifl, 217. 
DnpetithoaarBii, 7, 28, 49, 112, 

O 192, 204, 208, 293, 

294, 296, 361. 
fidioolos, 17, 209, 211. 
fornioatos, O 177, 217. 



Tx 



Oc 



Digitized by 



Google 



or SPECIES. 55 



Oibbnla 

laonnata, 113, 139, 239. 

minor, P 461. 

nivosa, 73. 

optabilis, 98, 139. 

paroipicta, 113, 139,238. 

redimita, 73. 

BQcoiucta, 113, 139, 238. 
Oitocentmm 

Chilo^nsifl, 121 • 
Olandina 

iklbersi, 156, 251, O 287, 

313, P 175. 

— var. tnrrita, 156, P 175. 



54, 
82, 



23. 

40, 

33, 

82, 

66, 
'7, 

a 



^3, 



^5. 



f4, 



19, 



Carminenflis, 44. 

conalaris, 287. 

fosiformis, O 285. 

Ghiesbreghti, 44. 

Isabel Una, 286. 

monilifera, 286. 

nigricans, 286. 

obtnsa, 186, 314. 

Sowerbjana, 286, 314. 

tortillana, 286. 

tnrris, 156, 251, O 313, P 

«7S. 
Olaacus 

draco, 173. 
Pacifioas, 173.^ 
Olobolns 

tumens, O 253, 322, P 25a 
Olyoimeria 

Estrallina, 82. 

generosa, 123, 165, 168, 169. 
Olyphii 

alU, 24, 27, 197, 252, O 320, 

P 221, P 222. 
aspera, 45, 49, 137, O 199, 

291, 320, V 223. 
oratitia, 8, 137, 320. 
orenifera, 320. 
denaiclathrata, 8, 13, 23, 27, 

137, 320. 
innqnalis, 24, 27, 37, 108, 153, 
197, 214, I, 252, 360, 

P 220, P 222. 



24 



Digitized by 



Google 



56 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



OlyphU 

Liuoolni, 8, 137, 32a 

microtrema, 364, 

pica, O 32a 

Batnrnalis, 104, 214. 
Onathodon 

L«coutii, 78, 119. 

mendicas, 21, 29, 78, 232, 
246, 304, P 549, U 200. 

trigonal, 21, 62, 78, 119, O 227, 
P 52, U 200. 
Qonidea 

feminalis, 120. 

RandalUi, 120. 
Qooldia 

Paoifioa, 30, 38, 201, O 247, 

O 278, 306, O 364, P 82, P 83, 
P 84, P 549. 

varian8,3o,0 247, 306, O 364, 
366, P 83, P 530, P 549. 
Ghratelupia 

Hjdeana, 77, 

maotropeis, 77. 
Oryphaoa 

angalata, P i6o« 
Oondlaohia 

Californioa, 119, i6i« 

Hallotis 

aqoatilis, O 216, 286, O 320, 
O350. 

Californiana, 7, 170. 

CalifornieDsis, 6, 7, 13, 84, 100, 
137, 174, 199. 291, 
0320,0350,0351,7" 223. 

cornigata, 10, 84, 137, O 291, 
320. 350. 

Cracherodii, 6, 7, 9, 13, 23, 27, 
84, 100, 108, 137, 151, O 174, 
O 199, 229, 241, O 291, 
O320, 0350,0 351. V 223. 

discus, 69, 350. 

fnlgens, 60. 

glabra, 6, 9, 199, 291, V 
223. 

internipta, 7. 



Halectis 

Japonlca, 350. 
Kamtsohatkana, 27, 69, 72, 84, 

100, 113, 137,0 216,0 226, 

283, 295, O 320, 350. 
* nodosa, lo* 
paloherrima, 4. 
rufesoens, 7, 13, 23, 27, 84, 100, 

114, 137, 144, 192,0 229, 

O 320, O 350. 
splendens, 23, 27, 42, 60, 72, 

84, 108, 137, 151, O 199, 

286, 320, 350, O 351, V 

223. 
tnberonlatas, 43. 
Haminea 

ojmbiformis, 31, 132, O 250, 

313. P 174. 

hydatis, 85, 89, 132, 169. 

Inticola, P 170, 

▼esicula, 79, 132, 227, 313, 
351. U 203, U 204. 

yiresoens, 31, 79, 132. 
Haploooohliaa 

oyclophorens, 104, 215. 
Harpa 

orenata, 7, 8, 46, m, 153, 177. 
238, O 292, 340, O 366, 

P543- 

gracilis, 176. 

Mezicana, O 292. 

minor,^0 179. 

RiToliana, 46, 238, 292. 

rosea, 177, 179, 292, 
O366. 

rosea, var, O 292, 

soriba, O 171,0 340. 

testudinalis, 292. 
Qanrella 

elegans, 21, 23, 100, 204* 
Hastnla 

loctnosa, P 387. 
Haustator 

Banksii, P 330. 

goniostoma, P 330. ' 

tigrina, P 332. 



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INDEX OF SPECIES. 



b1 



Bftiistniiii 

dentez, 6. 

pietQin, 6. 

taberonlatam, 6. 
Heoaba 

onlminaU, P 54^. 
Helioina 

amcBna, 

chryseis, 45. 

Lindeni, 45. 

merdigera, 45. 
* Oweniana, 45. 

Salvini, 45. 

tnrbinata, 45. 
HellBoma 

oorpalentnm, i6i. 

trivolve, 161. 
Helix 

acntedentata, 157. 

anachoreta, 157. 

annnlifera, 286, 314. 

Antoni, O 295, O 314. 

arborea,96, 115, 116. 

arboretoram, 59, 157. 

arbastomm, 162. 

areolata, 116, 152, 158, 208, 
265, 294, 29s, O 314. 

arrosa, 59, 9^, 151, »57. 

aspera, 162, 239. 

Ayresiana, 118, 158. 

Baskervillel, 85, 157, 226, 
286, O 290, O 297, 314. 

bicinota, 294. 

Bridgesil, 118, 158. 

Breweri, 95, 96. 

Baftoniana, 265, 294, 295. 

oaduoa, O 295. 

Californloa, O 226. 

Californiensis, 59, 96, 120, 157, 
158, 198, 212, 234, 
294, 314, V 220. 

Carpenteri, 118, 158. 

Carpentoriana, 118. 

oartbnsiana, O 222. 

cbersina, 95, 96. 

oioercala, 265* 



Helix 

coaotiliata, 44. 

Colambiana, 85, 92, 96, 115, 

157, 198, O 239, 294, 
O 314, V 220. 

oonoaya, 1x5, 211. 
Cooperi, 115, 157. ^ 
crebristriata, 95. 
oaltellata, 59. 
Damasoenoa, 59, 120, 158. 
devia, 85, 157, 209, 213, 

O226. 
Dupetithonarsil, 59, 87, 92, 96, 

118, 119, 158, 203,0 294, 

O314. 
Dnranti, 96. 

enrjompbala, 44, 295. 
exaraU, 59, 96, 158. 
ezimia, 44. 
&cta, 95. 
fldelis, 59, 84, 92, 9^, 120, 157, 

158, 198, 212, 234, 
O 294, 314, V 220. 

fraterna, 211. 

falya, 222. 

Qabbii, 95. 

GanUeriana, P 247. 

germana, 157, 210, O 2ii, 

O314. 
Ohiesbreghti, 44, 295. 
griseola, 265, 294, O 295. 
Hildebrandi, 1x9. 
Hindsi, 286, 294. 
hispida, 222. 
Hnmboldtiana, 294. 
imperator, O 265. 
inflrmata, 283. 
infumata, 79, 87, 9^, I57, O 

3«4- 
infleota, 211. 
Sntercisa, 95, 120, 158. 
Kellettii, 95, 96, 158, 233, 

239, 314, 351. 
labiata, %2, 
labiosa, 85, 115, 157, O 209, 

0212,0213,0314. 



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58 



INDEX 07 SPECIES. 



HeUa 



labjrinthns, 239, 265, 

295. 

var, Blpunonlata, 286. 

Lalliana, 44. 

lazata, 44. 

Leoont}, 157. 

levis, 158, 208, 294, 295, 

O314. 
loisa, 157. 

lorioata, 96, 157, 209^ O 211, 
Incubrata, 265, 294. 
Mazatlanica, 59, 157. 
.Mexicana, 294. 
mormonam, 59, 96, 158. 
Mollani, 115, 157. 
nemorivaga, 157. 
Newberrjraua, 96. 
Niokliniana, 59, 96, 120, 157, 

158, 198, 212, O 226, 

314, V 220. 
NutUUiana, 59, 84, 87, 157, 
. O 210, 226, 239, V 220. 
Nystiana, 186, 295, 314. 
Oajacensis, 294. 
oraginosa, 13, 59, 87, 157, O 

226, O 283, 314. 
Oregonensis, 59, 79, 87, 120, 

158, 198, O 314, V 220. 
Pandora, 59, 116, 158,0 239, 

O314. 
pedestns, 59, 157. 
peregrina, 61, 162. 
plicata, 265, 295, 314. 
polygyrata, 115. 
polygyrella, 115, 157. 
princeps, P 177. 
palohella, 222. 
para, 222. 
Pytonegica, 95. 
qaadridentata, 295, 314. 
qainquestrigata, O 295. 
ramentosa, 120, 158. 
redimita, 157. 
reticulata, 59, 118, 158. 
Rothi, 95. 



Helix 

rotandata, 36, 92, 191. 

rnderata, 222. 

mida, 59, 157. 

mfesoens, 92, 

mfociucta, 95. 

Sagraiana, 59, 162, O 294, 

314. 
Sandiegonensis, 162, 
Solirenkii, 222. 
var, Bipnncnlaia, 239. 
Bolitaria, 115. 
spendidnla, 265. 
■portella, 85, 92, 96, 115, 157, 

209, 226, 314. 
spimlata, 186, O 265, 295, 

O314. 
stagnalis, P 361. 
Btriatella, 95, 116. 
Btrigosa, IIS, 157, O 209, 212, 

q 213, 314. 
Thonarsii, 92, 96, 118, 119. 
■ var, 96. 

tennioostata, 294. 
Townsendlana, 13, 59, 84, 92, 

US, 198, 210, O 213, 

O 226, O 239, 294, 314, 

V 220, 

Traakii, 96, 118, 158. 
Tryoni, 95. 

tadioulata, . 72, 85, 96, 157, O 
211, 233, O 294, O 314, 

O351. 
, nncigera, O 187, 290, O 29s, 

O314. 

nndata, P 176. 

YanooavereiiBiB, 79, 85, 92, 96, 
"5, »57f 198,0210^0211, 
O 212, 213, O 294, 314, 

V 220, 

yeoillata, O314: [misprint for] 
▼ellioato, 92, i is, 157, O 239, 
TentroBula, 286, 294. 
yinota, 158,0203, O 226, O 297, 

O314. 
▼ituta, 6, 59, P 177. 



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IL OF 8PE0IE3. 59 





Hipponyx 


io6, 


Grajranus, 24, 27, 37, 108, 194, 




184, 193, 200, 230, 




255, 275, 282, 353, 




360, 361, 366, P 299, 




R 4, R 5. 




mitralip, P 297. 




mitruU, 226, 324, 363, 




P 297, R 3. 


loS, 


Panamensia, 255, 275, 




324, 363, P 297, R 3. 




planatas, 140, 255, 284, 




324, P 298. 




radiatus, 194, 184, 200, 




230. 255,0 275, P 299, R 4. 




serratufl, 27, 98, 140, 195, 256, 




226, 236, 239, 255, 




324, 364. P 296, P 297, 




P 300, P 549, R 3, R 5. 




flubrufns, 37i 194, 282,0 230, 




275, 363, R 4. 




teasellatus, P 9O1 P 549« 




tnberculatus, R 4. 


,25, 


tumens, 23, 27, 140, 282. 


164, 


Homalopoma 


312, 


aangaineuni, 23, 74, 113. 




Hyala 




rotandata, 104, 217. 




Hyalna 


193, 


tridentata, 132. 




HydrobU 




oompaota, 104, 217. 


194, 


stagnalis, P 361. 


365, 


ulva, 20, 142, 257, 327, 




366, P 361. 


299, 








194, 


Lessonil, 2, P 280. 


324, 


sqaama, 2, P 280. 




tingufoulus, P 281. 


R4. 


nngaiformis, P 284. 








bifida, P 185. 




oommnnis, 74f 366, P 186. 


296, 


deoollata, 52, 107, 251, 316, 




364, P 187. 



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60 INDEX ( 

fragilis, 52, 186, 364, P 185. 
globoaa, 52, 251, P 187. 
pallida, 366. 
prolongata, 74, 251, 364 

366, P 185, P 187. 
striolata, 52. 
Btriulata, 31, 52, O 251, 316 

364, O 366, P 185. 
•^— ^ var. oontorU, O 251, F 
186. 
IberuB 

Gaalterianns, P 247. 
Bportella, 157. 
Imperator 

oliyacens, P 227, 
serratas, 98, 138. 
nDgaia, 29. 
Infondibalam 

Califoraicam, 40, O 286, F 

265. 
obloromphalas, 40. 
Gabiotenae, 82. 
radians, P 264. 
lopas 

sertam, P 489. 
Iphigenia 

altior, 23, 27, 202, O 245, O 304, 

P42. 
lavigata, O 245, O 304, 366, 
P 42, P 548. 
Iphinoe 

ooronata, 72. 
Isapis 

feDestrata, 99, 114, 142, 241. • 
maculosa, O 257, 327, P 247, 

P355. 
obtasa, 99, 142. 
ovoidea, 142, 241, O 230, 326, 

P 355, P 356, U 205. 
iBchnoohiton 
Beanii, 108. 

Elenensis, 38, 39, 104, 266, 
var. ezpressas, 38, 266, 
flectens, 89, 92. 
Gothicus, 98. 



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r BPEOIES. 61 

Lagena 

Wiegttianni, P 455. 
Ztamlnaria 

digitata, Q 236, Q 237. 
LanUtes 

discora, 70. 

lavigata, 70. 
LaaaDa 

oblouga, 248, 308, P 109. 

rubra, 30, 88, 97, 106, 129, 169, 
248, 308, 366, P 108. 

trlgonalis, 248, O 308, P 109. 
Laaea. See Ziasaoa. 
Lathima 

armatus, 287, 297, 338. 

Californioas, 338. 

oastaneas, 24, 48, 154, 183, 
282, O 338. 

oeratas, 24, no, 183, 261, 

338, 361, p 457. 

oonoentrioas, 282, 338. 
gracilis, S 166. 
Kuorrii, 364. 
nodatus, 338. 
rudis, 24, 183, 338. 
spadioeos, 183, 338. 
tobercalatuB, 24, 61, 282, 

0338,0361,0364, P 457. 

tamens, 284, 338, S 166. 

yarioosns, 338, O 361. 
Lathyrna. See Lathima^ 
Latirna. See Lathirua. 
Latyrua. See Lathirua. 
Lavignon 

lamellosa, P 29. 
Lazaria 

affinis, 14, 23. 

Californioa, 27, 30, io6. 

peotanoQltis, 153. 

Bobqnadrata, 22, 113, 128, 280. 
Leda 

arotioa, 70. 

oaBlata, 22, 130. 

oostellata, 311. 

comma tata, 130. 

ouneata, 98, 130. 



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)F SPECIES. 63 



LimnophTsa 

paiutttriB, i6o. 
proxima, i6o. 
refleza, 159. 
solida, 160. 
Sumassii, 159. 
Traskei, 160. 
Limnea 

AdelinaB, 160. 

apicina, 160, 210, 316. 

appressa, 159. 

'auricalarla, 222. 

bulimoides, 116, 160. 

cataracta, 93. 

catascopinm, 160. 

cornea, 160. 

desidiosa, 93, ii6« 

elodes, 90, i6o. 

elongata, 159. 

emarginata, 85, i6o. 

ezigna, 120. 

ezilis, 159. 

expansa, 160. 

ferrngiDea, 160, 265, 316. 

fragilis, 116, 159, 160. 

Gebleri, 222. 

Hajrdeni, 159. 

humiliF, 116. 

jugularis, 85, 159. 

lepida, 159, 209, O 213. 

leaoostoma, 222. 

megasotna, 93. 

Nnttalliana, 160, O 198, 316, 

V 220. 
Ontariensis, 160. 
pallida, 120, 160. 
palastris, 90, 116, 160, 169, 

222. 
pingnis, 160. 
pleb«ia, 160. 
prozima, 120, i6o. 
refleza, 159. 
serioata, 160. 
perrata, i6o, 
Bolida, 160. 
speoiosa, 159. 



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64 INDEX OF 8P 

Llzxmea Lit 

stagnalis, 93, 159, 222. 

Sumassii, 90, 159. 

Traskei, 160. 

truDcatala, 222. 

nmbrosa, 85, 159, 210, 316. 

veDtricosa, O 213. 

Virginiana, 160. 
Lizxmsea. See Limnea. ' 
LimnaDiui. See Llzxmea. 
LimaDa 

Bubaarioulata, 169. 
Llngula 

albida, 122, 207, O 298. 
Llooardium 

apioinam, 23, 104, 211, 261. 

ornentatnm, 128. 

elatum, 27, 97, 128, 152, O 248. 

Elenense, 170. Lit 

Mortoni, 168. 

sabstriatam, 21, 128, 168, 170. 
Liooonoha 

bierogljrpioa, loi. 
Liostraca 

distorta, O 335, O 363, 366, 
P441. 

•^— var, yod, O 260, P 441. 

fulvooincta, P 440. 

involnta, 193. 

iota, 33, 37, 335, P 441. 

f var. retexta, 260, P 

440. 

linearis, 193, 260, P 440., 

produota, 33, 193, 260. 

wota,33, 193, 260, 260, 335, 

P439. 
retexta, 33, 37, 39, 192. 
Bolitaria, 33, 193, 260, O 260, 

335, P 439. 
Liotia 

acotioostata, 98, 138. 
, carinata, 253, 322, P 248. 
C-B-Adamsii, 253, 322, P 

249. Litl 

fenestrata, 98, 138. 
8triulata, 253, 322, P 248. 



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SX OF 8PEG1XS. 6^ 



Litorlna 

patula, 17,84, 141,0 209, 212, 

O213. 
Pedroana, 76, 118. 
phasi&nelU, 273, O 295. 
PhUippii, 24, 32, 36, 108, 188, 

O 257, 273, 326, O 364, 

P .349. 
PhUippii, var. dubiosa, 273. 
var. penioUlata, 104, 109, 



162, 
I 230, 
> 273, 
• 348, 
40. 

73, 



\, 188, 
3326, 
!49« 



89, 
W. 
> 352, 



20, 

O223, 
> 326, 



O224, 
3 326, 



273,0 



216. 
planaxis, 17, 23, 27, 84, 141, I5^ 

200, O 209, O 212, O 224, 

230, O 235, O 326, 349, 

P 348, P 349, V 226. 
plena, 17, 7^, 7^, 79, 142, O 209, 

213, O 326. 
pnlohra, 48, 61, 189, 160, 

273. 326, P 351. 
pnllata, 32, 104, 216. 
ptmotata, P 346. 
punotiottlaU, 189, O 230, 257, 

o 273, P 346, P 347. 

poroata, 186, 326, 360. 

pnsilla, 230. 

rndis, 84, 141, 222. 

Boabra, P 35i- 

soutellata, 213, O 326, 348. 

gotttnlata, 17, 23, 84, ^42, O 

209w 

Sitchana, 17, 19, 20, 84, 141, 

216, 223, 0286, 326. 
gqnalida, 176. 
gnloaU, 84, 141. 
snbtenebrosa, 19, 84, 141, 215, 

220, 223. 
tenebraU, 13, 200, 230, V 

226. 
varia, 48, 188, 189, O273, O 

326. 
lebra, P 348. 
sioiao, O 364, P 348. 
(siozao, var,^ lineata, 104, 216. 
XdToim 

pica, O 225, 228, 321, O 

350. 



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66 



INDEX OF 



Zilvona 

picoides, 21, 23, ic», 138. 
Iiophyrns 

Adamaii, 198, 265. 
albolineatas, 252, 317, O 

352, P 191, P 193. 
artioalatus, 3, 251, O 317, 

P 190, P 192, P 193, P 199. 
dispar, 317. 
Qoodallii^ 317, 360. 
laBvigatus, 317, 352, P 191. 
striato-sqaamosus, O 252, 317, 

P 192, P 196. 
Stokeaii, 153, 198, 266, O 

317. 
saloatas, 317, 360, 
tenaiaculptus, 198. 
Lottia^ 

conica, 79. 

gigantea, 26, 47, 136, 151, 309, 

P199. 
mitra, 79. 
pallida, 177, O 199, 215, 

V 222. 

patina, 37, 79, 197, 268, 252, 

0276,0.284, P203. 
pintadiua, 31, 173, 209, 

O211, P203, P2o8,V 221. 
punctata, i74i 215, P 209, 

V 222. 

scabra, 79, 199, 284, P 209, 

V 222. 
Fpeotram, 79, O 284. 
testadinalis, 2ii. 
textilis, 209. 
▼iridala, 210. 

Luoapina 

alta, P 221. 

orenulata, 27, 45, 76, 137, 151, 
I, 174, O 199, 320, 
O 349, V 223. 

inaBqnalis, P 220. 

pica, P 220. 
[luoina 

acutelirata, 97. 

aoutilineata, 129, 165, 367. 



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EX OF 


SPECIES. 67 




Lupoziia 


154, 


albuginosa, 27, 32, 109. 


>8. 


flnibriolata, 154. 




nigropauctata, 328, 360. 


108, P 


seniipolita, 154. 




Sowerbyi, 27, 109. 


187, 


gpadioea, 9, 23, I43- 


>35i, 


spuroa, 32, 328. 




Lutrarla 




caDalicnlata, 211. 




oapaz, II, 86, 209, 213, 


02. 


219. 




oarinata, 211. 




elegans, 204, 280. 




inflata, 296. 




lineata, 61. 


>248, 


maxima, 11, 17, 86, 192, 


)363, 


209, 219, 224, 300. 




nasnta, 232. 




Nottallii, 61, 69. 




papyria, 81. 




transmontana, 81. 




Traskel, 76. 




nndnlata, 211, 227, 232, 




280, U 200. 




ventricosa, 29, 211, 227, 




232,0 246, P 51, P 548, U 




200. 


H8. 


Lntricola 




alta, 22, 80, 81, 125, 301. 


. 


Dombeyi, 40, 301. 


36, 


ephippium, 301. 




viridotincta, 105. 




Lymnsea. Stse Iiimnea. 




Lyonaia 


t, i47, 


arenosa, 73. 




bracteata, 124, 300. 




Californioa, 22, 26, 124, 167, 




194, 226, 300, 349, 




351, U 199, V 211. 




cnneata, Q 229. 




diaphana, 40, 284, 287, 




301, Q 228. 




flabellata, 73- 


> 337, 


Floridana, 119, 124, 169. 




gibbosa, 222. 



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68 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Iiyonsia 

hyalina, 20, 167, 194. 
inflata, 40, 105, 193. 
navicula, 73, 91. 
nitida, 124, O 194, O 297,0 300, 

U 199, V 211. 
Norvegloa, 20, 71, 73, 219, 

222, O 223. 
piota, 105, O 184, 245, 301, 

358, 364, P 26. 
plioata, 364. 
saxicola, 91. 
striata, 222* 
yentriooBa, 73. 
Iiyrla 

Camingii, 40. 
barpa, 24, 40. 

Maohcera 

costata, 20, 73, 87, 219,0 222, 
223, O 301. 
• laoida, 72, 124, O 195, O 301, 
V 211. 

maxima, 195. 

Nnttalli, 5, 349. 

patala, 12, 20, 22, 26, 72, 87, 
124, 154, 251. 

sodalis, 73. 
Maooma 

oaloarea, 70, 125. 

conoinna, 202. 

crassala, 235. 

Dombeyi, 202. 

edentala, 12, 70, 113, 125, 

edalis, 12, 86, 125. 

(fvar,) ezpansa, 88, 125. 

PabHoii, 125. 

fragilis, 125. 

fasoa, 167. 

Inoonapioaa, 12, 18, 20, 86, 125, 
167. 

indentata, 97, 125. 

iDqainata, 11, 80, 97, 125, 168. 

laU, 70, 8§, 125. 

nasuta, 20, 22, 26, 71, 125. 

proxima, 70, 88, 



Bfaooma ^. 

seota, 12, 22, 26, 86, 125, 151. 
Bolidala, 39, 125, 204. 
Bordida, 70. 
Snesoni, 70. 
teuera, O 221. 
teroa, 125. 

yoldiformis, 88, 97, 125. 
Maorooeramna 

polystreptns, 45. 
Maorooyolls 

Newberryana, 157. 
(f»ar.) sportella, 157. 
Yanooaverensis, 157. 
Macron 

Kellettii, 40, 102, 150, 151. 
lividuB, 100, 150, 151. 
Maotra 

alata, P 50. 
albaria, 76. 
aiignlata, O 229, 246, 282, 

289, 297, 304, P 52, 

8 161. 
angasta, O 287, 289, 304. 
Brasiliana, O 211, 246, P 51. 
Californioa, 26, 196, 229, 

232, O 287, 289, 304, 

O 349, V 214. 
oanalioalata, 364. 
caHnata, O 364, P 50. 
oarinalata, O 289, P 52. 
DiegoaDa, 76. 
donaciformis, O 289. 
elegang, O 174, O 227, O 280, 

O 282, O 284, O 289, O 304, 

352, O 364, U 200. 
exoleU, 208, 211, O 227, 

O 232, O 246, O 280, 364, 

P 50, P 51, P 52, U 200, V 

214. 
faloata, 209, 232, O 304. 
fragilia, O 243, 246, O 304, 

363, P 51- 
Qabiotensis, 82. 
goniaU, O 287, 304, P 52. 
la^inlata, 284, 304, S 161. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX OP SPECIES. 



69 



Maotra 

maxima, O 192. 

meDdioa, 227, P 549, U 200. 

modesta, 152. 

naaata, 211, 232,0 304, 
O352. 

NatUUii, O 194. 

oblonga, 246, P 51. 

ovalina,0 246, P 51. 

oralis, 219, 221, O 223, 
O304. 

pallida, O 175, 304. 

planalata, 25, O 196, O 304, 
349, V 214, 

ponderosa, O 221. 

Bimilia, O 178, O 192, 221. 

Btaltomm, P 531. 

sabgloboBa, 175. 

nDdnlata, U 200. 

velata, 204,0 280, 295, O 304. 
MaotreUa 

alata, 154. 

ezoleta, 29, 126, 204. 

oarinata, 154. 

lacinata, 284, S i6i. 
Masra 

Ooaldii, 301. 

salmonea, 113, 125, 235. 
BCalea 

craa8llabris,0 171,0 178,0 238, 
O 269, 

latilabris, 171, 238, 269, 
292, 6 337. 

ringena, 24, 34, 80, no, 152, 
153, 166, 179, O 171, O 238, 
282, O 288, 337. 

ringens, var, 238. 
Mamma 

nberina, P 452. 
BSangelia 

aoatiooatata, 36, 184, O 284, 
332, P 401, S 162. 

aoatioostata, var. sabangnlata, 
O 259, P 40a 

albolaqneata, 273. 

angulata, 23, 89, 144, 284. 



Mangelia 

atteiiaata, 144. 

cerea, 24, 294. 

ooDoinna, O 332. 

orebrioostata, 1 14, 144, 242. 

ezigaa, 184. 

gemmulosa, 184. 

hamata, 24, 293, 294. 

interfossa, 114, 144, 242. 

levideasis, 89, 144. 

neglecta, 36, 184, 272, 332, 

P 401, S 163. 
plambea, O 332. 
palohella, 24. 
rigida, S 163. 
— — var. fnsooligata, O 284, 

S 163, S 164. 
septangalaris, 144 
striosa, O 284, S 163. 
Bubdiaphana, 24, 104, 154, 21 8. 
snloata, 34, 259. 
Bolooaa, 185, 272, O 332. 
tabnlata, 114, 1449 242. 
variegata, 23, 144, 284. . 
(fvariegata, var.) nitens, 144, 

284. 
Bffargarlta 

acuminata, 47. 
aoatioostata, 98, 139. 
albnla, 73. 
arctioa, 19, 73, 322, O 216, 

220, O 223, 321, 
argentata, 71. 
oalostoma, 18, 40, 139, 286, 

0321- 
oidariB, 113, 139, 238. 
var. oonica, 139. 
oofltellata, 18, 40, 47, 92. 
OroenlaDdioa, O 216. 
helicina, 71, 113, 139, 169, O 

216. 
Hillii, 28, 240. 
iantliiDa, 73. 
\ inflata, 89, 139. 
liralata, 82, 139. 
masteliDa, 73. 



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Google — 



10 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



Bffarsarlta 

obscara, 70. 

var. obsoleta, 139. 

papilla, 25, 40, 47, 92, 98, 139. 

pnrpurata, 28, 240. 

pasiUa, 89. 

(ftHir.) salmonea, 98, 139. 

Schantarioa, 73. 

8ordida, 216. 

atriaU, 47, 71, 176, 216, 
223, 321. 

var, snbeleTata, 139. 

8alcata, 216, O 223, 321. 

var. tenoisculpta, 89, 139. 

iimbilioalis, 176. 

undnlata, 47, 98, 139, 

Vahlii, 89, 139, 169. 
Bffargarltana 

margaritifera, 85, 116, 120, 164. 
Margaritiphora 

albina, P 149, 

barbata, 199. 

ilmbriata, 27, 50, 107, 153, 199, 
jO 161, 249, 277, 282, 

O3". P550- 
margarUifera, P 149. 
Maxatlanlca, 199, 249, 296, 

O311, P 149, P 196. 
radiata, P 149. 
Marginella 

coBrnlea, 363 : [should be — ] 
ooeralesoens, 15, 24^ 35, 177, 

189, O 339, 365. 
carta, 296, O 339. 
OTprsBola, 45, 267, O 285, 

O339. 
glang, 15, 177. 
granam, 267 
Imbricata, O 226, 285, 297, 

339. 
Jewettii, 23, 147, 287, 228, 

O 339, 349, U 207. 
Laralleana^ P 461. 
margaritola, 261, 339, 

O 364, P 462. 
mluima, O 364, P 461. 



Marginella 

miuor, no, 147, 177, 261, 

267, O 339, O 364, P 461. 
oyaliformis, 261, 364, P 462. 
polita, 23, 24, O 261, 339, 

P462. 
pranain, 7, 15, 177, 189, O 
206, 282, O 339, 363, 
O365. 
regalaris, 23, 147, 287. 
sapotilla, 15, 35, 177, O 189, 
O 206, 231, 267, 282, 
339, O 363. 
sobtrigona, 23, 147, 287. 
Marinnla 

Recloziana, 275. 
MarmoTOBtoma 
planospira, 35. 
andalata, 10. 
Martesia 

interoalata, 1 14, 123, 151,0 244, 
O 299, P 13. 
Megalomastoma 

Bimalacram, 45. 
Meiooeras. See Miooeras. ; 
Melampna 

aoatos, O 315. 
Adamsiaaas, S i6i. 
bidentatas, P 178. 
Bridgeaii, 284, 315, S 161. 
coooinnas, 315. 
fasciatos, 44. 
infreqoens, O 315. 
olivaoeus, 107, 133, 151, 159, 
O 233, 251, 284, 315, 

351, P 178. 
Panamensis, 315. 
stagDalls, 315. 
Tabogensi8,0 315. 
trilineatas, 315. 
MelanU 

bolboea, 163, O 209, 32$. 
Baschiana, 51. 
exigaa, 163, 283. 
fnsoa, 163. 
Goaldi!, 325. 



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I OF sPEcisa H 

Meroenarla 

Stimpeoni, 69, 73. 
Meretriz 

Californiana, 75. 

Dariena, 77. 

impadica, P 70. 
{25. petichialis, P 70. 

Poulsoni, 75. 
163, Tularena, 75. 

nniomeris, 75. 

Uvasana, 75. 
MesaUa 

laotea, 89, 141. 

lacteola, 89, 93, 141, 166, 169. 

Bobplauata, 89, 141. 

teunisculptai 98, 141. 
209, MesembrinnB 

exoelsns, 158. 

iusoeiidens, 158. 

pallfdior, 158. 
Mesodesma 

nibrotiuotam, 78, 
Mesodon 

Columbianns, 157* 

devias, 157. 
Meta 

cedounlli, 53. 

ooniformis, 53. 

Dapontia, 53. 

ovuloidea, 53. 
Metula 

Hindsii, 342. 
MUtha 

Childreni, io6, 
!• Mioceras 

oornabovia, X 439, X 443. 

oornocopiaB, X 429, X 439, X 
440, X 443. 

nitidam, X 438, X 443. 
Miodon 

orbioalaris, 236. 

prolongatus, 97, 113, 128, 168, 
236. 
SdOralda 

laonnata, 33, P 414. 

qoinqoecinota, 33, P 414. 
25 



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12 



INDEX OF SPECIEa 



Miralda 

Boalariformis, 33, P 413. 
Mitra 

amphorella, P 461. 

attenaata, 188, 339. 

aariculoides, 231. 

babea, 171, 339. 

Belcheri, O 206, 339. 

Chilensfs, 13, 147. 

orassidens, 175. 

orenata, no. 

Dapontii, 231, 239, O 261, 

P466. 
effasa, O 185, 338. 
foraminatay O 231. 
fuDioulata, 24, 177, 267, O 

339. 
gausapata, O 186, 339, O 361. 
granalosa, 177, O 364. 
gratiosa, 186, 339, O 361 
Haneti, 62. 

Hindsii, 207, 208, 339. 
lens, 24, 28, 177, 231, O 239, 

261, O 267, 338, P 460, 

P545. 
maara, 13, 147, 170, 201, 

O 338, 349, V 227. 
muHoata, O 339, 361. 
naoleola, 24, no, 177, 267, 

338, 364, 
orientalis, 13, 147. 
pica, O 231. 
solitaria, no, 177, 267, 284, 

O339. 

Boloata, 188. 

tristis, 177, 185,0 267, P 461. 
Mitrella 

oribraria, P 487. 
Mitromorpha 

aspera,^i44* 

fllosa, 144, 284. 

effasa, 144. 
ModeUa 

striata, 118, 240. 
Modiola 

Adamsiana, sS, 



ModioU 

att^naata, P 124. 

Brasiliensis, 18, 23, ^S, 47, 50, 

152, 153, 199, O 248, O 277. 

309» O 363, P 121, P 122, 

P550. 
Brasiliensis, var, mntabilis, O 

248, P 122. 
Califomiensis, 174. 
oapax, 23, 27,38, 50, 78, 8s, 107, 

129, 152, 153, 199, 197, 
232, 236, 241, O 248, 
282, 284,0 296, O 351, 
O 352, 353. O 358, 3^h 
366, P 121, V 218. 

oandigera, O 249, P 127. 

Chennana, P 123. 

oinnamomea, 63, P 129, 

contraota, 76. 

caltellns, 203, 223, 

disorepans, O 211. 

divaricata, O 234. 

elongata, 211, O 309. 

flabellata, 13, 18, 85, 213, 
O309. 

— ^— var, 130. 

flabellnm, 234. 

fornicata, 22, 129, 280, 

Oibbsii, 218. 

grandis, 218. 

Gnyanensis, 248, P 122, 

modiolus, 22, 26, 85, 129, 169, 
218, O 223, O 309, 366, 
P 121. 

nigra, 223. 

nitens, 21, 50, 102, 227, O 

309, 349. 

opifez, 123. 

papaana, 218. 

plnmnla, P 125. 

recta, 13, 18, 22, 76, 129, 197, 

O 229, 349, V 218. 
semifusca, 38, 47, 199, 248, 

277, P 122, 
semilsYis, 236, P 539. 
spinifera, P 121.. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX OF 8PECIES. 



73 



ModioU 

snbporparea, 21, 5a 

sulcata, P 119. 

▼emicosa, 223. 

vnlgaris, O 211. 
Modiolaria 

corragata, 71. 

disoon, 21 8, 

Isyigata, SS, 130, 169, 2i8. 

I»vi8, 218. 

marmorata, 88, 130, 169. 

nigra, 71, O 218, O 221. 

yernicosa, 218, 221. 
Modulus 

carohedonions, 286, 364, 
P352. 

oatenulatus, 27, 109, 191, 230, 
233, 257, 274, 326, 

364, P 353. 

oerodes, 152. 

disenlns, 27, 36, 192, £02, 

225, 226, 230, 233, 

257, 326, 364, P 353, 

U205. 
doranoBUB, 21, 226, O 228, 

O 230, 257, O 326, P 353, 

U205. 
duplioatns, 226. 

var. 257, P 253. 

lenticnlaris, 21, O 226. 

liTidus, 274. 

troohiformis, 202, 257, P 

352. 
unidens, P 352. 
fMormula 

nnifasoiata, 33, P 433. 
Monooeros 

breyidens, 13, 149, 201, 

285, 340, V 229. 
breyideutatum, 25, 179, 191, 

231, 235, 269, 283, 

O341. 
dngulatum, 29, 48, 180, 171, 

188, 238, 269, P 457, 

P 458, P 542. 
oornigerum, 341. 



Monooeros 

orassilabrnm, 171, 235. 
cymatum, 48, 174, 177, 

235, 285, 294. 
engonatam, 83, 102, 149, 201, 

340, 349, V 228. 
globulus, 23^. 
grande, 177, 188, 204, 

294, 341, 361. 
lapilloides, 13, 83, 149, 201, 

231, 340, 349, V 229. 
lugubre, 10, 14, 48, 76, iSh ^53^ 

O 177, 178, 285, 294, 

O341. 

rar, 152. 

maoulatum, 177, 201, O 

341, V 229. 
murioatum,0 191,0 234,0 238, 

P 458, P 476, P 542. 
plumbeum, 35. 
punctatQm, 83, 149, 177, O 

201, 231, 235, 293, 

V 229. 
punotalatum, 201, V 229. 
fvar. spiratnm, 149. 
tuberculatum, 234, 341, 

O352. 
unicarinatum, S^, 149, 201, 
231, 235, 285, 293, 

V 229, 
Monodonta 

carohedonia, P 352. 
catenulata, 238. 
fuses, 35. 
modulas, P 353, 
pyriformls, 228, XJ 204. 
Sayii, 286. 
Montaouta 

ohaloedonica, 34, 354, P 

531. 
dioniea, 257. 
dfyaricata, 73. 

elliptica, 248, 308, P 113. 
obtnsa, 34, 257. 
subqoadrata, O 248, 308, P 

"3, P"4. 



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•74 



INDEX OP SPECIES. 



Mbpalia 

acata, 134. 

Blainvillei, 318, 351. 

Grayil, 89, 134. 

Hindsii, 13, 26, 89, 92, 31S. 

imporcata, 89, 134. 

ligDOsa, 40,^34, 

Herckii, 134. 

Montereyeueis, 19, 134. 

masoosa, 23, 26, 92, 134. 

Simpsonii, 134, 318, 349* 

sinnata, 89, 134. 

Stimpsoni, 72. 

(fvar.) Swanii, 113, 134, 238. 

vespertina, 134, 318, 348. 

WosneBsenskiiy 134. 
MorriBia 

Hornii, 118. 
MonnaB 

pilola, 158. 

snfllataB, 158. 

zantliostoma, 287. 
,MorviUa 

zoData, 71. 
Motiretia 

Perayiana, 9. 

Btellata, 185. 
Muoronalia 

involuta, 33, 259, P 439, 

Bolitaria, 33, 37. 
Mnllnia 

angalata, 23, 27, 76, 106, 204, 
246, O 280, P 52. 

oannalata, 152. 

densata, 80. 

donaciformiB, 204, 246, 280, 
P 52, P 549. 

ezalbida, O 295. 

Tentricosa, 204, 246, 280, 
P51. 
Momlola 

nodosa, 33, P 417. 

oblonga, 33, P 418. 

ovata, 33, 39, P 417- 

rotundata, 33, P 418. 



Morex 

acanthopteras, 177. 
aculeatas, 179,0 188,0238, 

271, P 527. 
alatuB, 173, 177. 
alveatuB, 188, P 527. 
amblguus, 177, O 237, 238, 

264, 271, P 521, P 543. 
amplnfliriB, 4. 
anceps, 182. 
argus, 4, 177- 
argQB, var. P 45$. 
armatua, 226,0 287, 344- 
Beloheri, 15,60, 182,0205,0351. 
bie^lor, 1 19, 172, 234, 235, 

O 238, 264, 352, P 524, 

P 525, P 543. 
■ var, 45. 

Boiviiili, 182, 293. 
brasBica, 174, 176, I77, 

O 234, 23^, 238, 264, 

P 523, P 537, P 543. 
CalifOFDicnB, O 205. 
oentrifaga, 99, 205. 
oerataB,0 I79, P457- 
olathratns, 217. , 

oomens, O 217. 
oorragatQS, O 294. 
orassispina, P 518, 
criBpatas, 5, 8. 
dablas, 182, 179, O 188, 

238, 271, p 526, p 543. 

dacallB, 176, 236^ 238, 

264, P 523. 
erinaoeas, P 528. 
erinaceoides, 172, P 527. 
— .— var, indentatnB, 264. 
eroBiiB, 182,0 182, O 271, 345' 

0364, 
erythroBtoma, 45, 238, O 264, 

P524- 

ferrugineus, 7, 173, 217. 
feBtivoB, 83, 205. 
flrobriattis, 287. 
foliatUB,3,5,6, 83,0 173, I77, 
O 235, 241, 293. 



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SX OF SPEOI£& t5 



Morex 

piuniger, 235. 

plioatus, 28, 112, 185, 234, 

263, 345, 352, P 518. 
pomnm, var. 45. 
ponderosns, 119. 
princeps, 264, P 124, P 523, 

P 525. 
pamilns, 182, 345, 361. 
purpura, 4, 5, <> ^77, P 485. 
radix, 6, 182, 174, 177, 

271, 283, P 521, P 522. 
radioatus, 205, 264, P 526. 
rectirostris, 182, 271, O 294, 

345, P 519, P 520. 
recurvirostris, 25, 28, 112, 182, 

0182,0271,0 345,0364, P 

519, P 520. 
var, llviduB, 264, P 



524. 
545- 

)223. 

264, 



> 294, 
)43. 



174, 



) 217. 

> 294, 

237,0 
' 521, 



123. 

361. 
293. 

O294. 
87, P 



519. 
regius, 182,0 172, 174, 177, 
179, 264, 271, 283, 

P524. 
rigidus, 10, 179, 188. 
salebrosus, 182, 179, 238, 

271, 293, P 485, P 543. 
sal mo, 10. 
sanguiuens, 10. 
sezoostatns, 35. 

ternispina, 238, P 518, P 543. 
tortuuB, 14. 
trialatns, 5, 192. 
tricolor, 119,0 172,0 264,0 

271, P 525. 
trigounlaris, O 177. 
tripterus, 5, 6, 173. 
nnoinatus, P 335. 
unidentatas, 238, P 519, P 

543. 
vibex, 183, 182, 271. 
vittatna, 183, 271. 
vitnlinua, I77, O 262, P 485, 

P486. 
Mnrloidea 

alveata, 155, O 345. 
Califomica, 149. 



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Y6 



INDEX OF SPEOIES. 



Morioidea 

dabia, 25, 28, 112, 182, 274,0 

264, 345, P 526. 
erioaceoides, 345. 
— ^ var, indenUta, 264, 

345, P 527. 
erosa, 182. 
laotaoa, 345. 
lappa, 264^ 345, P 526. 
pauzillas, O 264, O 345, P 

528. 
periU, 345. 
pinnigera, 25. 1 
radioata, 345. 
var. sqaamnlata, 274. 
vibex, 25, 345. 
vittau, 183, 345. 

MuaculuB-polylepto-glnglymnB 

Arca-Noae, 33. 
Mya 

abrupta, 165, 367. 

arenaria, 69, 70, 74, 219, 
222, 223, O 300. 

b/sBifera, O 221. 

canoellata, 87. 

hjalina, 222. 

Japonioa, 74. 

Monterejana, 80. 

pracisa, 17, 123, 209, 210, 
219, O 300. 

snborbicularis, P 105. 

sabsinnata, 80. 

trancata, 17,70, 123, 168, 209, 
210, 219, 222, 223. 

Uddevalensis, 222. 
Myrteea 

lentionla, 165. 
MyBia 

tomida, 12, 78, 129, O 196, V 
215. 

«8ta, 73' 
MyttUmeria 

Nattallii, 26, 87, 124, O 194, 
301, 349, V 211. 
MytilnB 

abbreviatns, 219. 



MytUns { 

AdaiDsianos, 41. 
bioolor, P 122. 
bifaroatns, 12, 49, 129, 198, 

226, O 309, 349, V 219. 
borealis, 219. 
BrasilieDsis, U 202. 
Californianas, 5, 22, 26, 72, 85, 

129, 192, 197, 212, 

234, 284, 309, 349, 

O 351, V 219. 
oiuDamomeas; P 129. 
oornscas, 73. 
Camingianus, 49. 
edulis, 18, 22, 26, 70, 72, 76, 

78, 85, 129, 151, 169, 192, 

197, 212,0 219,0 223, 

284, 309. 
^— var, 102. 

var. latissimos, V 219. 

flaboUatos, 18. 

Irons, 6. 

glomeratas, 26, 49, 102, 129, 

212, 227, 234, 309, 

P 119, U202. 
GaiaSDsis, 277. 
Guyanensia, P 122, 
humerus, 75. 
iucnrvatas, 219. 
Inezensis, 81 • 
latissimus, 197. 
lithophagus striatus, P 126. 
mnUiformis, 27, 41, 106, 199, 

200, 248, 309, P 118, 

P 120, U 202. 
normalis, 197. 
notatas, 219. 
palliopaDotatns, 49, 106, 248, 

0282,0309, P 118, P 119. 
Pedroanas, 76. 
pellooidns, O 197, 219. 
retosns, 219. 
ropan, 249, P 129. 
mgosus, 221. 
Sallei, 49. 
splendens, 72, 73. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



11 



MytUns 

spatula, 236, P 121, P 538. 

Bubsazatilis, 219. 

ieuoiaratas, P 118. 

troesulus, 18, 78, 129, 212, 
MyvreUa 

albocinota, 109, 258, P VI., 
P 384, P 336. 

elata, 177. 

frigata,0 36o. 

HiDdsii, 258, P 385, P 386. 

larrsformiB, 177. 

rufooinerea, 32, O 258, P 386. 

simplex, 23, 100, 143, 285. 

subnodosa, 109, 258, P 386. 

tuberculosa, 177. 

variegata, 109, 153. 

Naoella 

Asmi, 318. 

depioU, 21, 136, 227, 229, 
318, 349, U 204. 

Inoeesa, 23, 26, 136, O 229, 
318, 349- 

insUbills, 84, 136, O 318. 

paleacea, 21, 23, 136. 

peltoides, 31, 104, 213. 

subspiralis, 98, 136. 

fvar, triangularis, 98, 136, 
Naranio \ 
(Narinio) J 

seobina, 244, O 300, P 529. 
Narioa 

anomala, P 355* 

aperta, 104, 215. 

cryptophila, 254, O 323. 

Diegoaua, 76, 

insculpta, 273. 

OToidea, 228, 230, P 355, 
U205. 
Narinio. See Naranio. 

acuta, 35, O 263, O 342, 366, 

P 497, P 498. 
ambigua, 155, 364. 
angulifera, 186, 342, 361. 



Naasa 

Callfomioa, 155. 

oauescens, 35, 178, 268, 

342. 
ooUaria, 25, 155, 231, 268, 

O342. 
oomplanata, 25, 35, 151, 179, 

O231. 
Cooperi, 28, 100, 148. 
oorpulenta, 25, 28, iii, 231, 

O 268. 342. 
costellata, 167. 
crebristrlata, 25, 34, 35, 179, 

263, 342, 351, O 366, 

P499. 
orenulata, 222. 
deouss^ata, 35, 178, P 497, 
elegans, 17, 100, 148. 
exilis, 35. 

festira, 185, 268, O 342. 
fossata, 25, 27, 100, 148, O 209, 

O342. 
gemmulata, 69. 
gemmulosa, 178, 263, 268, 

342, P 498. 
Gibbesii, 17, 83, 148. 
glauoa, 268, O 342. 
incrassata, 167, P 499. 
insculpta, 99, 102, 148. 
iuterstriata, 76, 100. 
Innata, 76. 
luteoetoma, 28, 178, 176 

231, 235, 262, 268 

283, 342, 351, P 494, 

P 496, P 542, 
mendioa, 17, 23, 25, 27, 28, 76, 

83, 148, 168, 209, 212, 

342, 348. 
moesta, 206. 
nodicincU, 25, 153, 186, O 

342. 
nodifera, 178, O 185, O 268 

342, 361, P 496. 
nodooinota, 297, 361. 
nodulifera, 256, P 496. 
Nortbi», 48, 61. 



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Y8 



INDEX OF BPECIES. 



Nassa 

obsoleta, 179. 

pagodua, 25, 35, 178, 268, 

O 342, P 552. 
( var,) aonU, 178, 263, 

P498. 
pallida, 185, 342. 
Panamensis, 35, 179, 268, 

342. 
panpera, 35, 100, 179. 
Pedroana, 76. 
porpingois, 23,- 27, 100, 147, 

206, O 231, 342, O 349. 
polygonata, P 497. 
proxima, 34, 35, ^79, 268. 
Boabrinsoola, 25, 28, 35, 179, 

O 185, 268, 342. 
StImpsoDiana, 25, 179.- 
striata, 35, 100, 179, 268, 

O342. 
tegula, 25, III, 148, 151, 152, 

O 192, O 262. 283, 342, 

351, P 496, P 497. 

-^— var. nodulifera, 263, 

P496. 
tiarala, 192, P 497. 
trivittaU, 76, 83, 148, 168, O 

209. 
▼ewioolor, 25, 34,35, in, 179, 

231, 268, 342, 364, 

P499. 
— var. 268. 
Wilsoni, 35, 179, O 268, 342. 
Woodward!, 17, 28, 148. 
zaDthostoma, O 176, O 262, P 

495. 
Natioa 

alabaster, 261, 292, P 452. 

alapapilionis, no. 

algida, 17, 210, 212. 

alreata, 75, 77. 

aperta, 216, 220, 223. 

BeTerlH, 9. 

bifasoiata, 192, O 234, 235, 

292, O 296, 336, O 352. 
Bonplandl, 7, 170, 



Natioa 

borealis, 177, 216, 220. 
var. Californioa, 193, O 201, 

O336. 
canrena, no, 235. 
catenata, 24, no, 155. 
eanrina, O 209, 213, O 348. 
Chemnitsii, O 202, 21 1, 235, 

236, 240, O 260, O 274, 

292, 336, P 449, P 450, 

V227. 
olausa, 9, 25, 71, 72, 147, 169, 

322, O 176, 216, O 220, 

223. 335. 
oonsolidata, O 216, 220. 
Elenao, 40. 
exoavata, 40, O 282, O 336, 

S 165. 
flava, 19, O 216, 223. 
Oallapagosa, 176, 185, 274. 
genlculata, 77. 
gibbosa, 75. 
glaaoa, 172, 190, 202, 

237, P 540. 
Gouldii, O 216, 220, 
Grosnlandioa, 216. 
Haneti, 40, 194, 230, 274, 

O336. 
heliooides, 8, 223. 
heroulea, 84, 216, 224. 
heros, 211. 

iaDthostoma, 203, O 216. 
imperria, 348, 
Inexana, 82. 
intemerata, 286. ' 
intermedia, P 448. 
iostoma, O 235, O 261, P 449, 

R 450, P 536. 
lactea, O 216. 
Lewisii, 84,0 209, 211, 213, 

O 216, 284. 
lineata, 40, 8 165. 
larida, 37, 193, O 260, 274, 

P448. 
Moqainfana, 62. 
maroooana, 13, 27, 37, 63, 69, 



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Google 



INDEX OF BPE0IE8. 



79 



Natioa 

no, 193, 201, 202, 211, 
O 230, 234, 236, 237, 
261, 274, 296, 336, 
352» 353, 360, 36$, 

o 366, p 448, P 450, P 536, 

P540. 
var. 24, 230, O 235, 

240, 282. 

var. Californioa, V 227. 

marochienslB, 63, 69, 261, 

P448. 
Ooojana, 77- 
cBtites, 75. 
otiB, 9, 37, 193, 176, O 185, 

274, 296. 
ovum, 237, O 261, P 452, 

P540. 
pallida, 9, 176, O 216, 220, 

223, 347. 

Panamensis, 185. 

patula, 8,0 170,0 172,0 190, 

202, 234, 237. 
penpiona, 292. 
plicatala, 201. 
Pritohardi, 240, O 261, 336, 

P 449, V 227. 
pnsilla, 216. 
rapulum, 261, P 452- 
IWoluailana, 203, 208, 234, 

237, P 540- 
ragosa, 61. 
rnssa, 72. 

Salangonensis, 274. 
BangaiDolenta, O 203. 
saturallB, 177, O 216. 
Baxea, O 367. 

BeptentrionaliB, O 216, 220. 
semilanata, 75. 
severa, 72. 
Bouleyetiana, 24, 37, 193, 230, 

274, 336. 
TaBlei, 62. 

Ussellata, 261, P 449. 
nber, 7, 231, O 274, O 283, 

292, 35», P 452. 



Natica 

uber, var, 292. 

nberina, 185. 

unifasoiata, 37, 7h ^93, 230, 

O 261, P 448. 
nnimaonlata, 292. 
yariola||s, 35. 
TitriDolloideB, P 246. 
virglnea, 37, »93, 274. 
aonaria, 24, 27, no, 231, 
O336. 
Natloina 

Bcopalosa, 367. 
NautUns 

aogastatas, 367. 
zigzag, 367. 
Navarohns 

inermis, 95, 133. 
Navea 

snbglobosa, 121. 
Neaplysia 

Califomioa, 133, 
Necera 

costata, 207, 301. 
didyma, 207, 301. 
pectinata, 87, 88, 123, 
Neptunea 1 
CNeptnnaBa) ) 
badia, 60. 
oastanea, 60. 
barpa, 6o. 
Icelandica, 73. 
inoisa, 18. 
terebrans, 73. 
Nerlta 

Bembardl, 24, 27, 108, 152, 194, 

233, O 237, 254, 274, 

282, O 322, O 352, O 364, 

P257. 

oostata, 274. 

Deshayesii, 194, 254, 274, 

O 322, P 255, P 256. 
elegans, 230. 
fulgtirans, 61. 

funicnlata, O 237, 254,0 322, 
P 257, P 540. 



Digitized by 



Google 



80 



INDEX OP SPECIES. 



Nerlta 

glaaoina, P 448. 
maroooana, P 448. 
maroohieusis, 261, P 448. 
multijugis, 233, 236, 237, 

254, P 255, P 536. 
ornata, 48, I94, ^79, 237, 
254, 274, 322, P 255, 
P 256, P 540. 
papilionacea, 170. 
patnla, 179. 
prsoognita, 283. 
soabrioosU, 24, 27, 48, 62, 108, 
152, 194, 179, 230, 233, 
235, 254, O 274, P 255. 
fioabriascola, 192, 237, 

282. 
tessellata, 364, P 257, 
teztilis, 170. 
Nerltina 

alata, 176. 

Califoraioa, 291, P 258. 
oassioolam, 4, 237, O 254, 

275, 322, P 258, P 540. 
faba, P 258. 
FoDtaiueana, P 259. 
globosa, 24, 182, 322. 
Goayaqoilensis, 24, 194, 274, 

322, P 259. 
harpsformis, 230. 
intermedia, 24, 194, 182, 
274, 322. 

var, 182, 

latissiuia, 182, 322. 
Hasina, P 551. 

Listeri, ^89, 291, 322. 
Miohaudi, 189, 291, 322. 
piota, 24, 27, O 4, O i6o, 182, 
192, 233, 235, O 237, 
241, O 254, 275, 283, 
322, 352, 364, P 258, 
P 259, P 540. 
palohra, 188, 322. 
pasilla, P 237. 
tritonensis, 182. 
Tlrginea, 364, P 258. 



Netastoma ^ •i^ 
(NetastomeUa) / 

Darwinii, 15, 26, 91, 121, 123, 

170, 250. 
Neverita 

Chemiiitzii, P 449. 

glauoa, 110,0337. 

heliooides, 208. 

patula, 24, 27, 208, 337. 

Reoluslana, 147, 151, "52, 153, 

337, 349. 
Niothia 

gemmnlosa, P 498. 
Nitldella 

oribraria, 25, 28, 53, in, 180, 

220, 262, O 269, O 296, 

341, 363, 365, 366, 

P 487, P 493» U 208. 
densilineata, 105, 221. 
gansapata, 92. 
Gouldii, 21, 23, 53, 89, 149, 

O 228, 341, 349, U 208. 
guttata, 363, 365. 
millepunotata, 105, 155, 220, 

221. 
palobrior, 270, 341. 
Noetda 

reverea, 24, 31, 154, 155, 200. 
Northia 

pristis, 25, 48, 155, 294, 344. 
serrata, 6i, 179, O 344. 
NovaotiUna 

Caribbsea, 205. 
Nuoola 

arotica, 175, 219, 223. 
castrensis, 14, 75, 91, O 207, O 

219, 223, 310. 
cslata, O 207, O 311, 349. 
Cobboldise, 91, 207. 
costellata, 182. 
orispa, 207, 311. 
deoisa, 75. 
divarioata, 14, 75» 9", 165, 207, 

O367. 
Elenensifl, 200, 277. 
exoayata, 207, 3x1. 



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^D£X OF 8PECIES. 



81 



277,0 



229, 

J 206. 

O 333, 
333, P 

,219. 



49. 
49. 



16. 



r2o6. 



OdoBtomia 

gemmulosa, P 415. 

var, Gooldiiy 144. 

gravida, 23, 144, 228, 230, 

296, 333, 349, P 413, 

U 207. 
inflata, 23, 114, 144, 145, 285. 
lamelUU, 259, 333, P 

4". 
mamlllata, 36, 259, 259, O 

334, P 4", P 412. 
nnoiformis, 1 14, 144, 243. 
obelisons, 230. 
satara, 114, I44, 243. 
Btraminea, no, 145, 314. 
sublirulato, 145, 259, 333, 

P410. 
snbBulcata, 259,0 333, P 411. 
tenuis, 259, 334, P 412. 
tenaisonlpta, 114, 145, 243. 
vallata, O 259, O 334, 364, 

P 411, P 412. 
Odontidinin 

leyissimam, X 436. 
mgnlosnm, X 415, X 425, X 

426. 
CEdaUa 

soiDtillfeformis, 97. 
Bubdiaphana, 125, 302. 
OUva 

aldiDia, 63. 

angulata, 9, 24, 35,62, 153, 177, 

174, O 231, 238, 261, 

268, O 292, P 463, P 464, 

P 465, P 544. 
anaxora, O 239, O 292, P 545. 
araneosa, 35, 63, 178, 261, 

268, 292, O 364, P 466. 
anreooinota, 35. 
aarionlaria, 63. 
asemala, 62, 292. 
betioa, var. 63. 
bIplicaU, 8, 10, 25, 79, 208, 

231,0 235,0 284,0 292, 

O352. 
BrasilioDsis, 63. 



Digitized by 



Google 



82 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



OUva 

oaldania, 62, 63. 

Candida, 63. 

oolumellaris, 8. 

oraeDta, 282. 

CumiDgii, II, 28, 34, 63, 153, 

191,0292, O 339, P 464. 
dama, 63, 292. 
Deshayesiaoa, 63. 
Baolosi, O 261, 339, O 366, 

P467. 
ebnraea, O 231, 234, 339. 
erTthrostoma, 62. 
flmbriata, 63. 
fusiform is, 63, 178. 
gracilis, 226, P 461. 
hiatula, 262, P 472. 
inoonspicoa, 178, 268, O 364, 

P 470. 
intertincta, 34, 261, 339, 

P 465. 
intorta, 234. 
I Julietta, 62, 154, 178, 188, 

238, 339, P 466, P 544. 
kaleontina, 154, O 188. 
LevariaDa, 6. 
lineolata, 63, 178,0 177, 178, 

292, P 471. 
literate, 178. 
maotichora, 62. 
Maria, 62. 

Melohersi, 28, 35, iii, 178, 
' 238, 261, O 339, 364, 

P 464, P 465, P 466, P 544. 
memnonia, 63. 
matioa, 63. 
neduliua, 63, O 292. 
nivea, 268. 
obesina, 63, O 292. 
onisca, 63. 
oriola, 63. 
orjxa, 364. 
ozodona, 63, O 292. 
pantherina, 238. 
pellnoida, 34, 35, 178, 268, 
petioliU, 231, P 470. 



OUva 

pindarina, 62, 63, 292. 

plombea, 231. 

polpaster, 1 1, 188, 0191,0 339, 
P464. 

ponderoaa, 62. 

porphyria, 6, 24, 28, 48, ill, 
152, 178, 168, 174, 234, 
238, 268, 282, 339, 

350, 352, P 463, P 544. 

propatula, 265, V 209. 
purpurate, 63, 262, P 471. 
razomola, 62, 63. 
retioalaris, 62, 178,0 292, P 

464, P 465, P 466, P 467. 

var. 261, 268, P 466. 

rnfifasoiata, 63, 231. 
Sohumacberiaua, P 467. 
selasia, 62, 63. 
semistriate, 9, 178, 268. 
splendidala, 8, O 188, O 234, 

235, 283, 297, 339, 

o 351.0 352. 
Steerie, 63. 
subangnlate, 28/34, iii, 152, 

P464. 
tergina, 234, O 236, 239, 

O 292, P 469, P 537, P 544- 
testeoea, 178, 171, 177, 

231, 235, 239, O 265, 

O 268, 292, P 472, P 545. 

V 209. 
testeoea, var. 63. 
tigrina, 235. 
timoria, 63, 292. 
tisiphona, 63. 
todosina, 62. 
undatella, 10, 63, 178, O 177, 

239, O 268, O 292, P 467, 

P545. 

nstalata, 63. 

vennlate, 35, 63, 178, 192, 
238, 261, 268, 292, 
339, P 464, P 465. P 466, 
P 467, P 544. 

-^— var. 268. 



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Google 



INDEX OF SPE0IE8. 



83 



OUva 

TolQiella, 63, 178, 171, 177, 

O 178, 231, 235, 268. 
zonalis, 171, 177, 236, 
P 468, P 471, P 537. 

anazora, 23, 24, iii, 147, 262, 

O 339, P 469. 
anreociDcta, 34, iii. 
bstica, 23, 27, 76, 100, 147. 
biplioata, 13, 23, 27, 114, 147, 

151, 339. 

ballata, U 207. 
oolnmellaris, 178. 
conoidalis, 364. 
dama, 34, m, 178,0 262,0 

339, P 471. 
ebaniea, 352. 
folgida, 152. 
glandinaria, 13, 147, 201, 

O 339, V 227. 
gracilis, 24, 28, 34, 155, 178. 
inooDspiona, 24, 34, iii, 178, 

262, 340, P 470. 
intorta, 228, 339, O 352, 

U 207. 
kaleoDtina, 340, O 361. 
lioeolata, O 192, 262, P 471. 
matica, P 470, P 472. 

oryxa,i78, P470. 
pellacida, 178, 340. 
petiolita, 23, 147, 364, P 469, 

P470. 
— var, aureocinota, 262, 

339, O 364, P 470. 
rnfifasoiata, 23, 147, 339. 
semistriata, 24, 100, 178, 340. 
tergiDa, 24, 28, 147, 178, 262, 

340, 352, O 364, P 469. 
undatella, iii, 178,0 262, 

350, P 468. 
▼olatella, 24, 28, 178, 282, 

340, P 469. 
ZanoSti, 24. 
lonalis, 24, 111,0 262,0 339, 

363, P 472. 



OmmaBtrephes 

Ajresii, 99, 150. 

gigantens, 99, 150. 
Omphalins 

ater, 13, 200, V 224. 

anreotiDctas, 25, 151, 200, 
• 0321,0349,0351,7224. 

Braxilianas, P 234. 

bruDDens, 321, 351. 

BjroDensis, P 234. 

Californicus, 163, 233, 

297, P 235. 
ooroDulatos, 24, 27, 108, 191, 

274., 
cmoiatas, P 234. 
deDtatas, O 229. 
eaiyomphalas, 321. 
fanebralis, 13. 
fascescens, 27, 138, 151, 200, 

233, 321, V 224. 
globnlus, 253, 321, P 236. 
ligulatuB,24, 34, 138, 191,256,0 

253, 321, P 234, P 235, P 236. 
maoulosas, 321, 
xaargiuatus, 13, 200, 321, 

V 224, 
moestas, 321, 348. 
PanameDsis, 24, 192. 
Pfeifferi, 21, 227, 321, U204. 
retioalataB, 321. 
nig08U8, 27, 321, 352. 

. ffar, rnfotinotas, 253, 

P 233- 
▼iridulaa, 24, 36, 155, 192, 

229, 253, O 321, P 234, 

P 235, P 236. 
Onohidiom 

Carpenter!, 107, 159. 
Onisoia 

oniBons, 364. 
tabercalata, 282. 

var, 287. 

tuberculosa, 27, no, 188, 

234, 270, 292, 337, 

350, 352, O 360, O 364. 
zanthostoma, 337, 360. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



84 



INDEX OF SPEOIES. 



Onyohoteuthls 

Bergii, 218, 223, 345. 

fasiformis, 99, 118, 119, 150. 

Kamtschatioa, 218, O 223. 
OpaUa 

attenaata, 244. 

anstralis, 244, 245. 

bioarinata, 244. 

boi^alis, 18, 99, 114, 146. 

ballata, 23, 146, 287. 

orassioostata, 244, 245. 

crassUabrum, 244. 

orenata, 105, 220, 244, 324. 

crenatoides, 105, 220, 244, 

324. 

( var,) inscnlpta, 25, 105, 

146, 214, 322, 324. 

diadema, 244. 

fanioalata, 37, 244. 

MoAndreie, 244. 

OohotensiB, 114, 245. 

retiporosa, 99, 146, 244. 

aponglosa, 99, 146, 244. 
Orbioola 

Cumlngil, 54, 205, 280. 

Evanail, 55, 287. 

Nonregica, 55, 

ostreofdes, 55. 

striata, 55. 

strigato, 54. 
Orthaliciui 

llveng, 59, 251, P 176. 

Mexioanas, 250, P 177. 

prinoeps, P 177. 

undatus, 158, 363, P 176. 

xebra, 93, 158, 170, 363, 
P176. 

Ziegleri, 251, P 177. 
Orthocera 

glabra, X 436. 

imperforata, X 425. 

trachea, X 414, X 423. 
OsoilU 

exarato, 33, no, P41S. 

terebellum, 1 10. 

slziphina, 33, P 416. 



Osilinns 

ater, 321, 348, 351. 

gallinas, 321. 

var. U 204. 

Osteodeama 

braoteatnm, 17, 209, 2io. 

Califomicam, O 231. 

oorbuloides, 222. 

diapbanam, 287, Q 228. 

byalinum, 119, 209, 210, 
222. 

nitidum, 17, O 226, 228, 
U 199, Q 229, 
Oatrea 

equatorialis, 191, O 250, P 

157. 

amara, 27, 38, 107, 152, 199. 

bicolor, P 161. 

borealis, 74. 

Boargeoisii, 119. 

Caoadensis, P 160, P 550. 

GolambieDsis, 107, 132, 186, 
O 226,0 250,0 277,0 312, 
P161. 

conchaphila, 38, 78, 132, 151, 
152, 199, 198, 233, O 250, 
O 277, 282, O 312, O 351, 
353, O 365, P 159, P 161, 
P 163, P 352, P 482, V 220. 

Camingiana, 250, 312, 
352, P 163. 

•dulls, 85, 132, 198, P 159, P 
161. 

tvar. expaDsa, loi, 132, 306. 

frons, 6. 

gallns, 14. 

HeermaDnl, 76. 

iridesoens, 107, 117, 198, 273, 
274, 162, O 226, 250, 
312,0 365, P 157, P 162, 
P 164. 

var, latioaadftta, 10 1, 132, 305, 

longiro^tris, P 160. 

larida, 85, 92, loi, 132, 305. 

— var. 76, 

xnargaritacea, 250. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



EX OF SPECIES. 85 



233, 
? 163, 



) 226, 
,306. 



2, 152, 

> 277, 
160. 



567/ 
► 233, 



O267, 
O363. 



70. 

^ 230, 
370. 



Pachydesma 

crassatelloides, 25, 26, 81, 114, 
126, 151. 

Inezana, 81. 
Pachypoma 

gibberosum, I13, 137, 239. 

inspqaale, 137. 
PaUium 

Estrellanam, 80, 8i. 
PalQdina 

balthioa, 220. 

carinata, 170. 

Hindsii, 162. 

Eikxii, 222. 

mariatica, O 220. 

nnclea, 162, O 207, 297. 

Nattalliana, 162. 

ootona, O 220. 

pasilla, O 220. 

seminalis, 90, 120, 162, 211, 
206. 

Btagnalis, 220. 

, var. 220. 

tentaoulata, 222. 

tbermalis, 220. 

nlva, 220. 

Tirens, 162, 
Paludinella 

acaleas, O 215, 220, O 223. 

oastanea, 241, 215. 

oingulata, 215, O 220, 223. 

stagnalis, 215, O 220, 223, 
257, P 361. 
Pandora 

arooata, 228. 

bilirata, 80, 124, 232. 

brevifrons, 231, 185, 301. 

Cejiauioa, 229. 

cistula, 231. 

olavioulata, 124, 204, 225, 
287, 301, Q 228. 

oonmta, 39, 204, 227, 280, 
301. 

Cumingii, 229. 

delicatala, 229, 230. 

depressa, 227. 



Digitized by 



Google 



8G 



INDEX -OF SPECIBa 



Pandora 

discoFB, 228* 

flexaosa, 230. 

insqualis, 230. 

Indioa, 229. 

nasuta, 226. 

oblonga, 231. 

obtasa, 229, 230, 231. 

panotaU, 12, 226, 194, 301, 
349, Q 228, V211. 

radiata, 231. 

rostrata, 230, 231. 

Btriata, 232. 

trilineaUy 226. 

nngaicalasy 230. 

Wardiana, 230, 231. 
Pandorina 

areDosa, 222. 

flabellata, 73. 
Panopasa 

abrupta, 367. 

AldroTandi, 209. 

Fanjasii, 123. 

fragilis, 73. 

generosa, 73, 82, 209, 213, 
300, 348. 

Nonregioa, 222, 223. 

refleza, 82. 

var. sagrinaU, 73. 
Parapholaa 

aoominata, 29, 194, 244, 
265, 299, O 366, P 12, 

V 209. 

bisaloata, 61, J2i, O 265, V 

209. 
brandiiata, 366. 
Californioa, 26, 119, 121, 123, 

194,0 299,0 349, 351, 

V 209, V 210. 

calva, 26, 29, 61, 244, 299, 

P9. 
Jauelli, 123. 

penlta, II, 251, 194, V 210. 
Parthenia 

armata, 259, 334, 364, 

P415. 



Parthenia 

ezarata, 33, 36, 190, O 259, 
334, P 415, P 416. 

gemmolosa, 364. 

laouData, 334, P 414. 

quinqueciucta, 33, 36, 189, 190, 
O 259, 334, P 414. 

soalariformfs, 259, O 334, 
P 368, P 413, P 414, P 434. 

aiiiphina, 259, 334, P 416. 
Patella 

aoaleata, P 268. 

sruginoda, 19, 215, 224, 
P203. 

ancjloides, 19. 

antiquata, P 297, E 3; 

Asm!, 19, 215, 223. 

Araaoana, P 200. 

anricalata, P 287, P 290, T 168. 

aostralis, P 299, R 3. 

Barbadensis, P 215. 

caeca, 19, 215, O 219, 223. 

var, conoentrioa, 19. 

oaljptra, 3, 98. 

Candida, 71, 219. 

cassis, 215. 

cerea, 219. 

dnis, 48, 173, 290, P 207, 

V 221. 

clypeaster, 48, 172, 290, 

P208. 
conioa, 209. 

conrngata, O 252, 291, P 200. 
crepidala, 255, P 284. 
Cumingii, 173, 290, P 203, 

P 208, V 221. 
deaarata, 173, 215, 348. 
diaphana, 173, O 187, O 199, 

O 208, 239, 252, P 203, 

V 221. 
digitalis, 223. 

discors, 60, 108, 233, 252, 
282, 291, P 200, P 201, 
P 206, P 210. 

ezarata, 9, O 173, 290. 

fenestrata, 173, 198, O 291, 
P 207, V 221. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



DSX OF SPECIEa 



8? 



P284. 



^,0291, 

5,0 198, 

PI99. 
OI78. 

, 190, 
, 252, 
, P 201, 

1, V221. 
198, V 

p 210. 

, 291, 

), 291, 

1223. 

, 252, 



) 223, P 



PateUa 

pexiia, 10, 3, 179, P 287, 

P 290. 
pileaU, 174, 199, P 209, 

V222. 
pileolus, 19, O 215, 223. 
plioata, 35. 
plambea, 29. 
pooalam, 179. 
porplijrozouias, P 215. 
rosea, P 215. 
soabra, 16, 49, 199, 209, 

252, O 291, P 203, V 222. 
acurra, O 172, 173, 215, 

O 224, V 222. 
flcutellata, 3, P 287. 
spectrum, 16, 199, ^09, 

O 291, P 209, V 222. 
atipulata, 48, 187, O 318* 
striata, 187, 252, P 203, 

P208. 
Btrigillata, 173, 198, V 

221. 
talcosa, 9. 
tessellata, 173, I99, P 207, 

V 221. 
textilis, 16, 209. 
toreuma, 48, 288, 290, 

291, Q 233. 
^, var. tenailirata, O 288, 

trameeerioa, 3. 
trochiformis, P 264. 
trochoides, P 265. 
umbonato, 174, O 199, 291, 

P 209, V 222. 
venosa, 163, 290. 
▼erriculata, 173, 291, P 

203, P 207, V 221. 
vespertina, 48, 290, P 203. 
vulgata, 37, 198. 
zebrina, var, P 200. 
FateUoida 

depiota, O 206, U 204. 
punctata, O 215. 
striata, P 203. 
26 



Digitized by 



Google 



88 



INDEX Oi 



Patnla 

Cooperi, 157. 
Mazatlanica, 157. 
Bportella, 157. 
strigosa, 157. 
Pecten 

adspersas, 236, P 538. 
(fvar,) eqaisalcatos, 22, 26,78, 

85, '3', 155, 170, 28a 
altiplioataa, 81 • 
aspersQS, 199, O 277 
catUliformis, 77. 
caurinus, 73. 85, 131, 311, 

348. 
oiroularis, 40, 45, 76, 107, 

250, 285, 290, O 352, P 

152. 
denUtas, 233, 311, 352. 
deaerti, 76, 81. 
Dieffenbaohii, 73, 
digitatas, 207. 
discos, 81. 
exoavatus, 14. 
Fabricii, 60, 211, 218. 
faseiculatas, O 207, 311. 
floridus, 25, 322, 207, 311, 

O351. 
hastatns, 14, 18, 22, 81, 92, 131. 
hericeus, 18, 92, 131, 212, 

0311,0348. 
HiDdsii, 60, 92. 
inca, 199,0 277,0311 
intermedia, 80, 107. 
irradians, 281. 
Island icus, 4, 20, 60, 70, 92, 

131,0 218,0223. 
Jeffersonias, 81. 
laetus, 73. 
laqneatns, 288. 
latianritus 22, 45, 60, 131, 

198, 229, 233, O 234, 

3"» O 349, 351, V 219. 
Madisonius, 77. 
magnifious, 185, 311, 

359. 
magnolia, 81. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



89 



Pectonouliui 
oorbis, 4. 
giganteus, 27, 208, 233, 

285, 289, 310, 352. 
insqaalis, 10, 24, 200, 178, 

182, 249, 285, 289, 

290, 310, 366, P 144. 
maoalatos, 24, 200, 208, 

277, O 310. 
mnlticoBtatas, 249, 310, 

O 366, P 144. 
nitens, 165, O 367. 
paroipictus, 24, O 229, 310. 
patalus, 165, 367. 
pectenoides, 24, 208, 265, 

O310. 
peetiniformis, 249, P 144. 
septentrio&alis, 219, 223. 
tessellatus, O 229. 
Pedictdaria 

CaliGornica, 119, 149, 
decussata, 119. 
elegaDiisBima, 119. 
Sioala, 119. 
Pedipes 

angulatas, 275, 316. 
Uratos, 98, 116, 133, 159. 
Penitalla 

Conradi, 14, 121, 203. 

OToidea, 76. 

penita, 76, 121. 

spelsa, 76. 

tnbigera, 15, 203. 

Wllsonii, 121, 194, 265, V 

209. 
xylophaga, 15, 203. 
Perdicea 

nodosa, 48. 
Perlploma 

alta, O 280, 301. 

argentaria, 80, 124, 194, 301, 

0351, Q 229, V 211. 
excarva, Q 229. 
ezcuFTata, O 287, 301. 
Leana, 231, 297, 301, Q 229. 
obtasa, 62. 



Periploma 

papyraoea, 287, 301, Q 
229. 

planiusoulay O 194, 231, O 
301,0352,7211. 
Pema 

anomioides, 52. 

Galifornioa, 52, O 193, 198, 
O 234, V 219. 

ChemnitziaDa, 233, 277, 
P 150. 

oostellata, 52, 198, P 152, 
V 219. 

flexuosa, 208, 233, 249, 
P 150. 

incisa, V 219. 

maxillata, 82. 

moDtana, 82. 

qaadrata, 60. 

radiata, P 150. 
Peroxueoderma 

oohraoea, 104, 2 lo. , 

panlcea, 202. 
PeronsDoa 

artemisia, 158. 
PerBicola 

olandestina, P 462. 

fratnentam, iii. 

imbricata, 24, iii, II2, 

interrapta, iii. 

phrygia, 11 1, 112. 

minor, P 461. 

Bagittata, 11 1. 
Persona 

coustricta, 24, O 231. 

ridens, 24, 338. 
PetaloconchuB 

cereus, W 316, W 317. 

ooohlidium, W 314, W 315, W 

317. 

flaveficelis, W 3I4, W 317. 

maoropbragma, 24, 43, 108, 1 14, 
140, 239, 200, 25s, 323, 
351,0 353,0 364. P 306, 
P 309, V 226, W 313, W 314, 
W317. 



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Google 



90 



INDEX Of SPECIES. 



Petaloconchns 

nerinaoides, W 316, W 317, 

X 428, X 43'- 
ootosectas, W 317. 
reniMcttts, W 315, W 317. 
f , var. Woodwardii, W 

316. 
▼arians, 364, W 3»5» W 3i6» 

W317. 
Patricola 

amjgdalina, 1S4, 299, 

359. 
arouata, 12, 14, 45, 120, 127, 

O 196, 203, 229, V 214, 
— ^— var, 203. 
balbosa, O 226, 232, O 244, 

P 547, U 198. 
Califoruioa, 12, 45, 120, 127, 

196, 229, 299, O 349, 

351, V 214, 
oarditoides, 12, 14, 20, 22, 26, 

76, 78, 88, 120, 127, O 196, 

O 229, O 284, V 214. 
cognaU, 38, 203, 279, 299, 

O363. 
Cordieri, 196, 203, 229, 

V214. 
ojlindracea, I3, 14, 20, 78) 120, 

127, O 196, O 203, O 219, 

224, 229, O 284, V 214. 
dactylus, 232, 299, 352. 
denticulata, 244, 297. 
gibba, 20, 127, 196, O 219, 

O 223, O 299. 
lamellifera, var, 229. 
mirabilis, O 281. 
pholadiformis, 279. 
var, 23, 38, 203, 299, 

0363. 

robasta, 15, 29, 106, 184, 
O 226, 0' 232, 0*234, 244, 
O 265, 29s, O 299, 352, 
364, O 365, P 17, P 547, 
U 198, V 209. 

nibra, P 108. 



Petrioola 

giunosa, O 226, 244, O 265, 

P 547, V 209. 
snbglobosa, 45. 
Buborbicalaris, P 105. 
tenuis, 38, 203. 
▼entriooaa, 154, 244, 299, P 

19. 
Phasianella 

compta, 54, 79i 97, '37, 228, 

282, 230, 253, 283, O 

284,0 320, O 351, P 225, U 

204. 
(? var,) elatior, 23, 137, 

282. 
(? var,) pulloides, 23, 

137, 282. 
(?— var. ponctQlate, 23 

137, 281. 
fasoiata, P 226. 
falminata, P 226. 
minnta, P 224. 
perforata^ 24, 54, 155, 253, 

29s, 310, 364, U 204. 
f , var. strialata, 253, 

P225. 
pallaa, 282, P 226. 
Btriulata, 214. 
tessellata, P 224. 
undatella, P 226. 
zebrina, P 225. 
Phldiana 

iodinea, 94, 95. 
Pholadidea 

olaosa, 366. 

ooncamerata, 123. 

cornea, 121. 

carta, 244, 299, P 9. 

xnelanura, 121, 194, 244, 

265, O 299, 366, V 209. 
OToidait, 14, 22, 26, 123, O 226, 

O 299, 351, U 198. 
penlta, 22, 50, 87, 123, 251, 

O 299, 349, 351. 
tabifora, 205, 299. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



INDEX OF 8PS0IS8. 



91 



Pholadopsis 

peotiuata, 121, 265, V 209. 
Pholas 

acamioata, 184. 

Califomioa, 121, 194, 202, 

231, O 234, V 209. 
Californiensis, O 174. 
oalva, 184. 
CandeaDa, 121. 
oonoamerata, 87, 121, 194, 

202, O 211, O 228, V 210. 
cornea, 184, 229. 
craoifera, 280. 
cruoigera, 23, 205, O 184, 280, 

O299. 
carta, O 184, O 191. 
daotylas, 205. 
Danrinii, 251. 

Janellii, 121, 194, 202, V 209. 
lanceolata, 23, 280. 
laqaeata, 39, O 280. 
var, nana, 184. 
oblongata, 121. 
ovoidea, 226, 231, 234, 

D 198. " 
peniU, 87, 121, 194, O 202, 

211, 231, V 210. 
retifera, 121. 
rofltratra, 15, O 203. 
truncata, 121. 
tnbifera, 205, O 280. 
xylophaga, 205, 280, 299. 
FhorcuB 

CalifornlcuB, 253, 286, P 235. 
eurjomphalna, 139. 
liratns, P 235. 
macaloeofl, 139. 
maroidns, 139. 
Panamensis, O 295. 
pnlligo, 19, 21, 139. 
nmbilicaris, P 235. 
variegatufl, 253, P 234. 
Phofl 

articnlatns, 206, 343. 
biplicatus, O 284, 343, 8 166. 
orassos, 206, 268, 343. 



Phofl 

gaudens, 25, 206, 342. 

seuticoBus, 206. 

tnrritas, 186, 343. 

Veragaentsis, 206, 342. 
Phrontis 

xanthofltoma, P 495. 
PhyUiroe 

Liohtenstclnii, 173. 
Phyllonottts 

bicolor, 28, 112, 153, 264, 
345, P 524. 

brassica, 28, 155, O 264, 345, 

P523. 
imperial is, O 345. * 
nigritus, 28, 152, 153, 182,0264, 

O 345. P 521. 
nitidns, O 264, 345, P 523. 
oxjacanthns, 345. 
princeps, 28, 112, O 264, O 345, 

P 525. 
radix, 182, 34S 
regiua, 182, 264,0 345, P 524, 

P 525. 
Physa 

ampnllaoea, i6o. 

aurantia, 27,0237,0251,0316, 

O364. 
anrea, 160. 

buUata, 85, 160, O 283, 316. 
Charpentieri, 160. 
concolor, 161. 
coBtata, 118, 160. 
cylindrica, 160. 
elata, 27, 227, 296, O 316, 

O 364, P 180, U 203, V 220. 
elliptica, 160. 
elongata, 85, 161. 
elongatina, 161. 
fontinalis, 222. 
fontana, i6o. 
Gabbii, 160. 
glabra, i6o. 
gjrina, 160. 
heteroBtropba, 85, 93, 116, 120, 

160. 



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Google 



92 



INDEX OF S 



Physa 

Uildretbiana, i6o. 

humerosa, 79, 90, 160, 283, 
O316. 

bjpDoram, 116, 222. 

iuflata, 160. 

Lordi, 90, 93, 160. 

Maogerse, 61, 162, 364. 

oaoulans 160, 265. 

Peruviana, 237, 251, P 179, 
P 180, P 540. 

Phillipii, 160. 

planorbala, 161. 

plicata, 160. 

purparostoma, 44. 

SowerbjaDa, 44. 

striata, 160. 

subarata, 160. 

triticea, 120, 161. 

vlrgata, 160, 283, 316. 

virginea, 160, 209, 213, 
O316. 
PUa 

maltljugis, P 255. 

ornata, P 255. 

Bcabrioosta, P 255. 
PileopsiB 

aDtiqnata, P 297. 

mitrula, 255, P 297, R 3. 

pilosa, 275. 

snbrofa, R 4. 
PiUdlum 

commodam, 216, 220, 
233. 
Pinna 

lanceolata, 107, 208, 249, 

311, P 147. 
manra, 24, 38, 107, 199, 185, 

249, 0277,0311, P 146. 
nigra, 43- 

rndis 241, 282, 296. 
rugosa, 27, 107, 185, 249, 

O311, P 147. 
tuberonloaa, 24, 38, 199, 185, 

O277. 



Pi 



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Google 



S: OF SPECIES. 



93 



286, 

286, 
166. 

,76, 
218, 
3*2, 

223, 

3", 

257, 



164, 
328, 



257, 

178, 
235. 



283, 



Planorbifl 

carinatns, P 252. 
oomplanatoSi 222. 
ooniortos, 222. 
oorneus, 222, 
oorpulentus, 18, 44, 85, 93, 161, 

210, 316. 
defleotus, 211. 
Dnenasianus, 44. 
exaoutus, 211* 
var, fall ax, 161. 
graoilentus, 40, 283, 316. 
HaldemaDDi, 40. 
leutus, 161. 
leucostoma, 222. 
Liebmanni, 40. 
macros torn a, i6i. 
megastoma, 161. 
Newberryi, 120. 
opercularis, 85, 161, 209, 

0211,0316. 
Panamensis, 186, 316. 
parvus, 116. 
planulatus, 85, 161. 
regalarifl, 161. 
sabcrenatus, 93, 161, 198, 

316, V 220. 
tenagophilus, 161, 237, 251, 

P 181, P 540. 
Traskei, 40, "0, 161. 
trivolvis, 85, 116, 120, 161, 

V 221. 
lumens, 44, 161, O 237, 251, 

316, 364, P 181. 
tnmidns, 44. 
▼ermioularis, 161, 209, 211, 

O316. 
▼ermioalatns, 213. 
vortex, 222. 
Wyldi, 44. 
Flatyodon 

oancellatas, 11, 26, 87, 123, 

O 194, 231, O 234, 300, 

349,0 351, V 210. 
PlatysemuB 

Wossnessenskii, 92. 



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Google 



94 



INDEX OF SPECIES. 



PUudphora ) 
PUoiphora / 

retu:ia, O 318. 
Plaotodon 

scaber, 97, 124* 
Plearopos 

pellucidas, O 173. 
PleurophylUd