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Ir 



SMITHSONIAN 



/ 1> 



MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87 



/ 



: MAR 21 IQS'i 




EVERY MAN IS A V.VI.UABLE MEMBER OF SOCIETY WHO, BY HIS OBSERVATIONS, RESEARCHES, 
AND EXPERIMENTS, PROCL-RES KNOWLEDGE FOR MEN " SMITHSON 



(Publication- 3239) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

1934 



BALTIMOnE, MD., U. S. A. 



ADVERTISEMENT 



The present series, entitled " Smithsonian Aiiscellaneous Collec- 
tions," is intended to embrace all the octavo publications of the 
Institution, except the Annual Report. Its scope is not limited, 
and the volumes thus far issued relate to nearly every l)ranch of 
science. Among these various su])jects zoology, bibliography, geology, 
mineralogy, anthropology, and astrophysics have predominated. 

The Institution also publishes a quarto series entitled " Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Knowledge.'' It consists of memoirs based 
on extended original investigations, which have resulted in important 
additions to knowledge. 

C. G. ABBOT, 
Sccrctarv of the Smithsonian Institution. 



(Hi) 



CONTENTS 

1. KiLLir, Ellsworth P. The liotanical collections of William 

Lobb in Colombia. 13 pp., Eeb. 4, 1932- (Publ. 3133-) 

2. KELLor,.., Ri:mington. a Miocene long-beaked porpoise from 

California. 11 pp., 4 l'I>-. J^"- ^-'^ I93-'- * P"bl. 3135.) 

3. BusHNELL, David I., Jr. Seth Eastman: The master painter 

of the North American Indian. 18 pp., 15 pis., i fig. (Publ. 

4. AiiBOT, C. G. The periodometer : An mstrument for hndnig and 

evaluating periodicities in long series of observations. 6 pp., 
I pi., I fig., Feb. 6, 1932. (Publ. 3138.) 

5. Mtchelson. Truman. The narrative of a southern Cheyenne 

woman. 13 pp., Mar. 21, 1932. (Publ. 3140.) 

6. Lesser, Alexander, and Weltfish, Gene. Composition of 

the Caddoan linguistic stock. 15 pp., May 14, '93-- (Pul'l- 

3141.) 

7. Weltfish, Gene. Preliminary classification of prehistoric south- 

western basketry. 47 PP-, I9 %«•• J^h' i-'- ^97,^- (^'^^^^- 3i69-) 

8. Brackett, F. S. Graphic correlation of radiation and biological 

data. 7 pp.. I fig., May 17, 1932. (Publ. 3170.) 

9. Abbot. C. G., and Bond, Gladys T. Periodicity in solar varia- 

tion. 14 pp., 8 figs., ^lay 24, 1932. (Publ. 3172.) 

10. Meier, Florence E. Lethal action of ultra-violet light on a 

unicellular green alga. 11 pp., 2 pis., i fig., Ang. 17. I93-'- 
(Publ. 3173.) 

11. Russell, T- Townsend. Report on archeological research m the 

foothills" of the Pyrenees. 5 pp., 8 pis., Aug. 26, 1932. (Publ. 

3174-) 

12. Brackett, F. S.. and INIcAlister, E. D. A spectrophotometric 

development for biological and photochemical investigations. 
7 pp., 3 pis., 5 figs., Sept. 26, 1932. (Publ. 3176.) 

13. Brackett, F. S., and Johnston, Earl S. The functions of 

radiation in the physiology of plants. L General methods and 
ap])aratus. 10 pp., i ph. 3 ^gs-, Nov. 14. 1932. (Publ. 3179.) 

14. Johnston, Earl S. The functions of radiation in the physiology 

of plants, n. Some efTects of near infra-red radiation on 
plants. 15 pp.. 4 pis., 2 figs., Nov. 15. 1932. (Publ. 3180.) 

(v) 



VI 



CONTENTS 



15 



16 



x\bbot, C. G.. and Aldrich, L. 11. An improved water-flow 
l)vrheli(jnieter and the standard scale of solar radiation. 8 pp., 
I pi.. Nov. II, 1932. (Publ. 3182.) 

Hoover, W. H., Johnston, Earl S.. and Brackett, F. S. 
Carbon dioxide assimilation in a higher plant. 19 pp., 2 pis., 
8 figs., Jan. 16, 1932. (Pnl)l. 3186.) 

McAlister, K. D. Absolnte intensities in the visible and ultra- 
violet spectrum of a quartz mercury arc. 18 pp., 4 figs., Jan. 
16, 1932. (Publ. 3187.) 

Abbot, C. G. Sun spots and weather, to pp., 5 figs.. Nov. 20, 
1933. (Publ. 3226.) 

Wetmork. Ali:xander. -An ( )lig(x-ene eagle from ^^'v()ming. 9 
pp., 19 figs., Dec. 26, 1933. (Publ. Z--7-) 
20. ^\^ETM0RE, Ai.KXAXDRR. Plioceue bird remains from Idaho. 12 
pp., 8 figs., IDec. 27. 1933. ('Publ. 3228.) 



19 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOLUME 87, NUMBER 1 



THE BOTANICAL COLLECTIONS OF 
WILLIAM LOBB IN COLOMBIA 



BY 
ELLSWORTH P. KILLIP 

Associate Curator, Division of Plants, 
U. S. National Museum 



?^V '^^ * 1932 




^^ /.i?RA':Y 




(Publication 3133) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FEBRUARY 4, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 1 



THE BOTANICAL COLLECTIONS OF 
WILLIAM LOBB IN COLOMBIA 



BY 
ELLSWORTH P. KILLIP 

Associate Curator, Division of Plants, 
U. S. National Museum 




(Publication 3133) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FEBRUARY 4, 1932 



^e £or5 (§a(iimoxt (preee 

BALTIMORE, MS., D. S. A. 



I 



THE BOTANICAL COLLECTIONS OF WILLIAM LOBB 
IN COLOMBIA 

By ELLSWORTH P. KILLIP, 

ASSOCIATE CURATOR, DIVISION OF PLANTS, 
U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The name of William Lobb is closely associated with botanical 
exploration in western South America, and there are numerous 
references in literature to his collections from the Andes. While 
studying the distribution of certain species of Andean plants. I have 
found it necessary to examine rather carefully these references, espe- 
cially those in which the specimens are mentioned merely as " Peru, 
Lobb," or " Columbia, Lobb." Although these studies have been by 
no means exhaustive, and positive conclusions are perhaps not yet 
justified, it seems worth while to present the results of my preliminary 
investigations. 

My interest in the subject was first aroused by observing the 
unusual distribution of various species of Passifloraceae given in 
Masters' monograph ' of the family. There were numerous instances 
of a species being reported from Colombia solely on the basis of a 
Lobb collection, all other specimens cited being from Peru or southern 
Ecuador. More remarkable was the fact that my examination of col- 
lections not included in Masters' monograph or made subsequent to 
its publication showed that in the same instances this additional mate- 
rial came from Peru or southern Ecuador, never from Colombia. 
Turning to other plant families I found that a similar situation existed. 

The question at once presented itself : Did Lobb chance to visit a 
part of Colombia with a characteristic Peruvian or southern Ecua- 
dorean flora, never before or since explored by botanists, or has there 
been an error in the labeling of some of his specimens,^ certain 
Peruvian and Ecuadorean ones being labeled "Colombia"? The 
importance of answering this question is obvious : If the " Colombia " 
specimens actually came from Peru, many species must be eliminated 
in listing the known plants of Colombia, and conversely, in preparing 
a flora of Peru, many species hitherto supposed to have been endemic 
to Colombia must be accounted for. It should be noted that although 

'Mart. Fl. Bras. 13': 530-654- ^872. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 1 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

there is a great similarity between the flora of the southeastern 
Colombian lowlands and that of eastern Ecuador and northeastern 
Peru, all strictly Amazonian in character, in the mountains a much 
smaller number of species are common to both Colombia and Peru, 
and these invariably are to be found throughout the Ecuadorean 
mountains. The Lobb " Colombia " collections are mainly mountain 
types. 

In investigating this subject I have been greatly assisted by 
Mr. S. C. Skan, the assistant librarian of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, who has forwarded copies of papers relating to Lobb which 
are preserved there, and by Dr. H. A. Gleason, Dr. I. M. Johnston, 
and Mr. A. C. Smith, partly for examining questionable Lobb speci- 
mens for me and partly for supplying information about Lobb col- 
lections represented in groups they are studying. 

LOBE'S ITINERARY 

Definite information concerning Lobb's itinerary in South America 
is difficult to obtain. William Lobb was for many years (1840-1857) 
a collector for the well-known horticultural firm of James Veitch and 
Sons, of London. In 1906 the firm published the " Hortus Veitchii," ^ 
a work containing biographical sketches of the numerous collec- 
tors sent out by the firm, as well as lists of the more important plants 
collected and introduced into European horticulture through their 
efforts. Of William Lobb it is stated : *• 

.... he gladly accepted a proposal .... to go on a mission to various 
parts of South America for the purpose of collecting plants, and he sailed from 
Plymouth in 1840 for Rio Janeiro. On his arrival in Brazil he first proceeded to 

the Orgaos Mountains he then left for Chile, crossing the great pampas 

of the Argentine Republic and the Chilean Andes. Continuing southwards, Lobb 
penetrated the great Araucaria forests .... 

He returned to England in 1844, renewed his engagement, and sailed again 
for Brazil in April of the following year. 

After sending home from Rio Janeiro a consignment of plants collected in 
Southern Brazil, he proceeded to Valparaiso for the purpose of exploring South- 
ern Chile .... 

Following up these brilliant achievements, he continued explorations in 
Valdivia, Chiloe, and Northern Patagonia .... Lobb returned to England in 
1848. 

* Pp. 37-40. This account of William Lobb is taken from Veitch's Manual of 
Coniferae, compiled by Adolphus Kent. No additional information bearing on 
Lobb's route is given in the earlier work. 

' Pp. 37 sq. 



NO. I COLLECTIONS OF LOBB IN COLOMBIA — KILLIP 3 

The remainder of this account deals with Lobb's travels in the 
western United States between 1849 and the time of his death in 
San Francisco in 1857. 

It will be seen that no mention is made here of his travels in the 
Andes north of Chile. From statements in the accounts of the plants 
received by the Veitch firm from Lobb from Peru and northward in 
the Andes, as well as from references to Lobb's collections in Curtis's 
Botanical Magazine and similar publications, it appears that this part 
of Lobb's explorations was made between 1842 and 1843. 

No letters written by Lobb while in South America are extant 
apparently. The firm of James Veitch and Sons having been discon- 
tinued, Mr. Skan kindly sought information from a former employee 
of the firm, who replied, 

Apparently Lobb's letters were available when Adolphus Kent compiled 
Veitch's Manual of Coniferae, but they were not with the firm in my time. 
The only letters relating to Lobb which I saw were copies of the letters sent 
by the firm to Lobb. These were in a private letter book and were no doubt 
destroyed when the firm was wound up. 

In Lobb's time letters were few and far between and I have always understood 
that the Lobbs said and wrote little about either their finds or their travels. 

Two letters in the Kew Library ' bear upon Lobb's travels : 

Ed. Michel to W. Jameson. 
Guayaquil, Nov. 15, 1843. 
Mr. Lobb arrived here from Panama on the 28th ult. and embarked same day 
on board of the steamer Peru for Callao.— 7 boxes of plants to which Mr. Veitch 
refers were left by Mr. Lobb at the English Consul House at Puna [a settlement 
on an island in Guayaquil Bay] and were never forwarded to Panama. Mr. Lobb 
wrote from Guayaquil to Mr. Veitch explaining the occurrence and his letter 
will no doubt be a satisfactory reply to all Mr. V. inquiries. The boxes Mr. Lobb 
left on his first arrival in this country and on examination when he was last 
here he found, I believe, that the plants were in an unfit state to be sent forward 
and they were thrown away as useless. 

Seeman's letter of July 28, 1847, from Paita. 

Mr. Lobb speaks to me of Loxa and Cuenca in most extravagant terms— 
of all the parts of the interior he has visited he considers them the most beautiful 
and calls them the " Garden of South America." 

Lobb probably made herbarium specimens of most of the plants 
represented in the material sent to Europe for horticultural purposes, 
though apparently some of them were lost. He does not appear to 
have made more than a single specimen of each, and these^are depos- 
ited at Kew, the inscriptions on the sheets invariably being " Columbia, 
Lobb," " Peru, Lobb," and the like. 



* Hooker Corresp. vol. 19: no. 219, at Kew. 



4 SMITHSONIAN :MISCELLANE0US COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

The most helpful clues to Lobb's Andean itineraries are to be found 
in the list of plants introduced into horticulture through Lobb, given 
in the Hortus Veitchii, and in a manuscript " List of Dried Specimens 
from William Lobb from South America, July 1843," which is pre- 
served in the Kew Library. 

In the Veitch list of plants obtained by their collectors, there are 
numerous references to the collections of William Lobb, mainly to 
those obtained in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, and there is 
little reason to question the correctness of the data as to the place of 
origin of his material from those countries. Three Ecuadorean plants 
of Lobb's are mentioned. Calceolaria crcnata, from Quito, and 
Madeania punctata, and Tacsonia mollissima, all of which are known 
to occur in that country. Of the four " Colombian " plants of Lobb's 
given in this account. Fuchsia macrantlia most probably came from 
Peru, not Colombia (see page 10), and Tropaeolum lobhianum from 
southern Ecuador ; Tropaeolum smithii may have come from Colom- 
bia ; Hetcrotrichum macrodon is otherwise known only from Vene- 
zuela, and the identity of the Lobb plant and its place of origin are 
uncertain at present. 

In the " List of Dried Specimens " there are recorded 117 plants; 
to each a number is given and with each is associated a brief note 
as to the character of the plant, the color of the flowers, and locality 
data. For 31 of these, various localities in southwestern Colombia 
are given. A transcript of a part of the data for the Colombian entries 
follows : 



20. 


Tropaeolum 


Pro. Pasto New Granad. 


9000 ft. 


30. 


Befaria grandiflora 


Pro. Pasto New Granada 


9000 ft. 


5^- 


Calceolaria 


Near Guachucal 


5000 ft. 


61. 


Besleria 


Pasto New Granada 


7000 ft. 


81. 


Thibaudia 


Pasto New Granada 


6000 ft. 


82. 


>» 


near Barbacosa 




83. 


" 


do do 




85. 


Besleria 


near Pilispi P. Pasto 


4000 ft. 


86. 


Plant 


Pro. Pasto 


6000 ft. 


87. 


Fuchsia 


do do 


7000 ft. 


88. 


Plant Herb 


Near Pilispi do 


5000 ft. 


89. 


Shrub 


do do do 


5000 ft. 


90. 


Shrub 


do do do 


5000 ft. 


91. 


Plant procumbent 


n. Barbacosa 




92. 


Plant 


n. Barbacosa, Pr. Popayan 




93- 


Gloxinia 


do do do 




94- 


do 


near Barbacosa 




106. 


Atropa 


Near Guachucal Pr. Pasto 


7000 ft. 


107. 


Gesneria 


near Pilispi 


5000 ft. 


172. 


Plant Prostrate 


near Barbacosa P. Popayan 





NO. I COLLECTIONS OF LOBB IN COLOMBIA KILLIP 



175. Plant 


near Barbacosa 




176. Siphocampylus 


Prov. Pasto 




179. Utricularia 


Near Barbacosa 




180. Herb 


do do 




181. do 


do do 




182. Aquatic 


Laguna (illegible) Pr. Popayan 




183. Aquatic 


do " do 




Orchideae 






0.1 Epidendron 


Molletura, P. Popayan Equator 


6000 ft. 


2. do 


Pilispi P. Pasto 


6000 ft. 


II. Oncidium 


P. Pasto 


8000 ft. 


12. " 


near Pilispi 


5000 ft. 



Presumably these specimens are in the Kew herbarium, but unfor- 
tunately I have had no opportunity of examining them and ascertaining 
whether they represent characteristic Colombian species or Peruvian 
ones not otherwise known to occur in Colombia. However, from 
Mr. Smith's examination of the Thibaudieae, it appears that all of 
these may well have come from southern Colombia ; certainly there is 
no indication of a Peruvian origin. 

The localities on this list are mainly in the extreme southwestern 
part of Colombia, and are all in the present Department of Narino, 
formed from portions of the earlier provinces of Popayan and Pasto. 
Barbacosa is doubtless the city of Barbacoas, on the Patia River near 
the coast, at an elevation of about 100 feet. Pasto, the capital of 
Narino, is situated in the mountains on the main route of travel from 
Quito to Popayan. Guachucal is a town about 50 miles southwest of 
Pasto, and is one of the localities at which Humboldt collected. 
Pilispi I have not been able to find on any map or in any gazetteer 
of Colombia, Ecuador, or Peru. The insertion of the words 
*' P. Popayan " in the first orchid entry is clearly a clerical error, 
as elsewhere on the list " Molletura, Prov. Cuenca," [Ecuador] 
appears. 

From this it seems evident that Lobb did visit the southwestern 
part of Colombia, perhaps by going overland from Quito to Pasto, 
descending to Barbacoas, and boarding a ship at the port of Tumaco, 
or perhaps by stopping ofi at Tumaco and making a hurried trip to 
Pasto and return. I am confident that the plants he collected will all 
prove to be characteristic Colombian or northern Ecuadorean species, 
most of them probably represented in the subsequent collections of 
Andre and Lehmann, and that one need not expect to find in this 
region the characteristic Peruvian, or even southern Ecuadorean, 
species, as botanical literature would indicate. 

The political division of northwestern South America during the 
past century may be briefly noted here. From 181 o to 1831 the pres- 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

ent Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador were united in one political 
unit, the Republic of Colombia; in 1831 these countries became sepa- 
rate republics under the names Venezuela, Nueva Granada, and Ecua- 
dor. The name Nueva Granada was changed in 1861 to that of the 
United States of Colombia, and in 1886 to the Republic of Colombia. 
The boundaries between the three countries, either as entities or as 
parts of the early Republic of Colombia, have been substantially the 
same as they are today. The name Colombia has never been properly 
applied to Peru. In Lobb's time the three countries, Venezuela, Nueva 
Granada, and Ecuador, were distinct, and it is doubtful if Lobb ever 
used the term " Colombia," even for his New Granada collections. 
However, there is every indication that botanical students, of the 
present day as well as a hundred years ago, working far from the 
field, have had a very hazy idea of the political divisions and the 
geography of South America, and have used the names of the countries 
with much laxity. Doubtless those who first examined the Lobb 
mounted specimens wrote on the sheets indiscriminately " Peru " or 
" Columbia." 

CITATIONS IX LITERATURE 

As a collector of plants for horticultural purposes, Lobb gave spe- 
cial attention to such groups as Passiflora, Fuchsia, Tropaeolum, 
Bomarea, and Thibaudieae, and it is in these groups that we find the 
greatest number of Lobb collections cited. The following list contains 
all citations of Lobb's specimens, including those in the lists men- 
tioned above, that bear upon the questionable Colombian collections, 
which so far have come to my attention. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE 
Baker, Handbook Amaryllideae 1888 
EUCHARIS GRANDIFLORA Planch. 

Page 1 10. "Andes of New Granada, Lobb! Jameson! Lehmann! 
Andre! Introduced into cultivation in 1854 through M. Linden." 

Based originally upon a plant from the Choco, in northwestern 
Colombia, the species ranges south through Ecuador to northern Peru. 
Jameson collected only in Ecuador, Lehmann and Andre in both 
Ecuador and Colombia. Most of the material in the National Her- 
barium is from Ecuador. The Lobb specimens therefore may have 
come from either Colombia or Ecuador. 



NO. I COLLECTIONS OF LOBB IN COLOMBIA — KILLIP 7 

BOMAREA PHYLLOSTACHYA MaSt. 

Page 144. "Andes of Columbia, Lobb! " 

The species of Bomarea to which this is most closely related range 
from Colombia to Peru. Kranzlin has described ' a plant B. stricta, 
based upon a Lobb specimen from Peru, which differs from B. phyl- 
lostachya only in slightly smaller leaves and flowers. I strongly 
suspect that the type of B. phyllostachya came from Peru, and may 
even be a part of the same collection upon which B. stricta is based. 

Bomarea glomerata Herb. 

Page 148. "Andes of Columbia and Peru, Matheivs 1662! Lobb 
256!" 

iA-s Mathews collected only in Peru, the " Columbia " reference 
must have been to the Lobb plant. I can not separate B. glomerata 
from the common Peruvian plant B. setacea R. & P., which is not 
known to occur in Colombia. In all probability Lobb's 256 is from 
Peru. 

Bomarea formosissima (R. & P.) Herb. 

Page 153. "Andes of Peru, Pavon! .... Columbian specimens 
from Lobb and Bolivian from Pearce agree substantially with 
Pavon's." 

This is the only Colombian record for one of the most showy of 
Peruvian Bomareas. The Hartweg plant, from the vicinity of Bogota 
cited ' by Bentham as B. formosissima has been shown by Baker to be 
a distinct species, to which he gave the name B. herbertiana. 

Bomarea pardina Herb. 

Page 158. "Andes of New Granada and Ecuador, gathered recently 
by Lobb, Spruce, Pearce, and Andre." 

Spruce and Pearce did not collect in Colombia, but both made large 
Ecuadorean collections. Andre's plant came from Ecuador. Doubt- 
less the Lobb plant was obtained in southern Ecuador. 

TROPAEOLACEAE 

Tropaeolum lobbianum Veitch 

Hooker states,' " It was detected by a Veitch collector, Mr. Lobb, 
in Columbia, and sent home in the early part of 1843." 



'Ann. Nat. Hofm. Wien 27: 156. 1913. 

' PI. Hartw. 259. 1846. 

^Bot. Mag. Curtis 70: pi. 4097. 1844. 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8y 

As Buchenau has shown, ^ this is the same as T. pcltophormn Benth., 
described from Ecuador a year earHer. All material of this species 
which I have seen comes from Ecuador. This and the following 
species are both listed in the Hortus Veitchii (page 438). 

Tropaeolum smithii DC. 

The entry in the Hortus \eitchii gives Colombia for this collec- 
tion of Lobb's. The species ranges from Venezuela to Ecuador, so 
the Lobb plant may have come from either Colombia or Ecuador. 

There are nine entries of Tropaeolum in the " List of Dried Speci- 
mens," of which eight are associated with places in Ecuador and one 
is from Colombia. 

PASSIFLORACEAE 

Masters in Mart. Fl. Bras. 13^: 530-627. 1872. 

Passiflora trifoliata Cav. ( Tacsonia trifoliata Juss. ) 

Page 538. " Habitat in Peruvia : Ruiz et Pavon ! Gay ! Mathews n. 

674 ! 675 ! Cruikshanks ! MacLean ! ; et in Columbia : Lobb n. 20 ! " 
This is a common species of the high mountains of central Peru, 

and Lobb's collection was almost certainly made there. 

Passiflora ampullacea (Mast.) Harms. {Tacsonia ampidlacea 
Mast.) 

Psge 539. " Habitat in Ecuador prope Cuenca : Jameson ! ; in 
Nova Granada : Lobb ! " 

The Lobb specimen is a perfect match for the Jameson plant as 
well as for Lehmann's 4602, the type of Passiflora hieronymi Harms, 
from the western Andes of Cuenca. The latter species must be 
reduced to synonymy. The Lobb plant doubtless came from the 
vicinity of Cuenca where he made large collections. 

Passiflora urceolata (Mast.) Killip {Tacsonia urccolata Mast. ) 
Page 539. " Habitat in Colombia: Lobb n. 121 ! " 
This species is known only from the single type specimen, so that 
conclusions as to the precise locality are difficult to draw. Inasmuch 
as its nearest relatives, P. ainpnllacca and P. niatthctvsii are from 
southern Ecuador and northern Peru, respectively, it is probable that 
it, too, came from that general region. 



Pflanzenreich I V '^^ : 21. 1902. 



NO. I COLLECTIONS OF LOBB IN COLOMBIA KILLIP 9 

Passiflora parvifolia (DC.) Harms (Tacsoiiio parvifoUa DC.) 

Page 540. " Habitat in Columbia : Lobb ! ; in Peruvia : Ruiz et 
Pavon ! ; in Ecuador : Pearce." 

This plant has been found in Peru by recent collectors, but never 
in Colombia or Ecuador. There are two sheets in Kew herbarium, 
one labeled " Lobb, Peruvia," the other " Lobb, Columbia." There is 
every indication that these specimens were collected at the same time 
and even from the same plant, the degree of development of the 
flowers and the discoloration of the specimens being very similar. 
The Pearce plant from Ecuador (no. 35) was wrongly identified as 
P. parvifoUa by Masters; it proves to be P. ciimbalensis (Karst.) 
Harms. 

Passiflora mollissima (H. B. K.) Bailey {Tacsonia mollissima 
H. B. K.) 

Page 541. Under Tacsoiiia mollissima var. glahrcscens Masters 
cites two collections, " In Ecuador ad Cuenca : Seemann 823 ! ; in 
Columbia : Lobb ! " 

Passiflora mollissima is widely distributed in the Andes from Vene- 
zuela to Peru, the form with glabrescent upper leaf surfaces being 
found throughout the range. No conclusions regarding the origin of 
the Lobb specimen are therefore possible. 

Passiflora lobbii Mast. 

Page 533. " Habitat in Columbia: Lobb! " 

This plant has been collected in recent years in central Peru by 
Weberbauer, Killip and Smith, and Macbride, but never in Colombia. 
A Weberbauer specimen has been made the type of P. obtusiloba 
var. glandulifera Harms." Although P. lobbii and P. obtusiloba have 
a similar general appearance, the two are separated on several char- 
acters other than the presence or absence of petiolar glands. I am 
convinced that both species are restricted to central Peru. 

Passiflora sanguinolenta Mast. 

Page 559. "Habitat in Columbia: Wallis ! ; in Peruvia ( ?) : 
Lobb 151 ! " 

All other collections of the species are from southern Ecuador, 
where these two perhaps also were collected. On the Lobb sheet is 
inscribed " Peru," and this is the only instance I have yet discovered 
of a Lobb specimen apparently being mislabeled " Peru." 



Repert. Sp. Nov. Fedde 19:25. 1923. 



10 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Sy 

LOASACEAE 

Cajophora cymbifera Urb. & Gilg. 

Urb. & Gilg, Monographia Loasacearum 281, 1900. " Habitat in 
Columbia : Lobb," this collection being the type and only one of the 
species known. 

Of the 57 species of Cajophora treated by Urban and Gilg, this is 
the only one recorded from Colombia, and only one other, C. aequa- 
toriana, is known to occur north of the Peru-Ecuador boundary. The 
Lobb plant is probably from central Peru. Under C. aequatoriana the 
authors observe that a depauperate specimen in the Kew herbarium, 
said to have been collected by Lobb " in Columbia," perhaps is refer- 
able to that species. Cajophora aequatoriana ranges from Quito, 
Ecuador, to northern Peru, and the Lobb plant in question may well 
have come from southern Ecuador. 

MELASTOMACEAE 

Heterotrichum macrodon Planch. 

In Hortus Veitchii (page 264) and Curtis's Botanical Magazine this 
is said to have been raised in England from seed sent by William Lobb 
from New Granada. The species is known otherwise only from north- 
ern Venezuela. Pending examination of the Lobb specimen, it is 
impossible to suggest an explanation for this apparently unusual 
distribution. 

ONAGRACEAE 

Fuchsia macrantha Hook. 

In proposing ^" this species Hooker says, " It .... is an unde- 
scribed species, first, however, found by Mr. Mathews climbing on 
trees in lofty mountains at Andimarca, Peru, .... and next by 
Mr. V^eitch's collector. Mr. William Lobb, detected in woods near 
Chasula, Columbia, at an elevation of 5,000 feet above the sea." This 
is also one of the Lobb Colombian plants listed in the Hortus Veitchii 
(page 264). 

All the material of this species in the National Herbarium is from 
Peru, and I have been unable to find any other record for Colombia. 
" Chasula " does not appear in Colombian gazetteers, but there is a 
town Chasuta, not far from Andamarca, in the mountains of north- 
central Peru, and another town Chagula in central Peru, and it is not 
unreasonable to suppose that this plant may have come from one of 
these places. 



Bot. Mag. Curtis 72: pi. 423^. 1846. 



NO. I COLLECTIONS OF LOBB IN COLOMBIA KILLIP II 

VACCINIACEAE— THIBAUDIEAE 

(Information supplied by A. C. Smith, New York Botanical Garden, based 
upon a monographic treatment of the tribe, in press, and an examination of 
specimens in the Kew herbarium.) 

Ceratostema buxifolium Field. & Gardn. 

" Lobb 2, Columbia " on specimen. 

This is probably the type of Thihaudia microphyUa Lindl., which is 
a synonym of Ceratostema buxifolium. This specimen certainly is 
from Peru. 



Ceratostema grandiflorum R. & P. 
" Lobb 3, Columbia " on specimen. 
All other specimens belonging to this species are Peruvian. 

Ceratostema sp. 

" Lobb 252, Columbia " on specimen. 

This represents an undescribed species which Mr. Smith has in 
manuscript. All other Ceratostemas of this affinity are from Peru, 
and doubtless this is also. 

Englerodoxa alata Hoer. 

Lobb 80, 161. 

One of these sheets is labeled " Columbia." All other material of 
this species is from Ecuador. In the " List of Dried Specimens " the 
entry for no. 80 reads, " Thibaudia, shrub 3 to 4 ft., high mountains. 
Pro. Cuenca Ecuador." 

Thibaudia melliflora R. & P. 

There is in the Kew herbarium a sheet labeled " Columbia, Lobb," 
which has been identified as Thibaudia melliflora R. & P., a species 
otherwise known only from central Peru, the type specimen probably 
from the Department of Huanuco. 

Macleania macrantha Benth. 

" Lobb 82, woods, Barbasopa, Columbia " on specimen. 

This number is included in the " List of Dried Specimens." As 
already pointed out, the locality probably is Barbacoas, Colombia. 
This species was originally described from the Pichincha region of 
northern Ecuador, and the Lobb specimen may well have been col- 
lected in southern Colombia. 



12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

PSAMMISIA Sp. 

" Lobb 89, near Pilispi, 5,000 ft., New Granada." 

This also represents a new unpublished species of Mr. Smith's, and 
no other material is referable to it. The locality is probably in 
southern Colombia or northern Ecuador. 

Cavendishia, indeterminable 

" Lobb 83, Columbia " on specimen. Mr. Smith states that although 
the material is too incomplete for identification, it resembles species 
from southern Colombia, and probably is from that region. 

" Thibaudiae " 

" Lobb 79, woods Rosario, 5,000 ft., Columbia." 

This is the type of a species in an unpublished genus of Mr. Smith's. 
In the " List of Dried Specimens " the locality for this number is 
given as " Woods Rosario, Pro. Cuenca Ecuador, 5,000 ft." and the 
two other references to this place on the list are also associated with 
the Province of Cuenca. This is direct evidence of " Columbia " 
having been written on a sheet bearing an Ecuadorean collection. 

BORAGINACEAE 

CoRDiA curassavica ( Jacq.) R. & S. 

" Lobb 50, Columbia " written on specimen. 

This is the only Lobb specimen in material of Cordia from western 
South America sent me by Kew for examination. It is certainly 
C. curassavica, a Caribbean species common along the north coast 
of South America, extending south in Colombia only a comparatively 
short distance up the Magdalena Valley, and wholly unknown from 
the mountains of southwestern Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. If 
the specimen actually was collected by Lobb, he doubtless obtained 
it at some northern Colombian port while traveling between Panama 
and England. 

Heliotropium incanum R. & P. 

" Lobb 97, Columbia " written on sheet. 

Otherwise this species is known only from central and southern 
Peru, where it is common. In his paper on the South American species 
of HeUotropiuni Johnston cites " this specimen under the general 
heading Peru. 



Contr. Gray Herb. 81:41. 192S. 



NO. I COLLECTIONS OF LOBB IN COLOMBIA KILLIP I3 

COMPOSITAE 

EuPATORiUM DiPLODiCTYON Robinson 

" Lobb, Columbia " written on sheet. 

This is the type of the species, and has never since been discovered 
in Colombia, though J. F. Macbride recently collected the plant near 
Muiia, in central Peru (no. 4296). Doctor Robinson has briefly dis- 
cussed '' these dubious " Colombia " collections of Lobb's. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The material here presented covers doubtless only a small fraction 
of the Lobb Colombian specimens cited in literature and a smaller 
fraction of those in the Kew herbarium, but the following conclusions 
apparently may safely be drawn : 

1. That Lobb made a collection, probably a small one, in the pres- 
ent Department of Nariiio, in southwestern Colombia, and that these 
specimens represented characteristic species of that region. 

2. That he collected a few plants at a northern port of Colombia 
probably Cartagena or Santa Marta. 

3. That he made large collections in southern Ecuador and smaller 
collections in central and northern Ecuador, and that a great majority 
of these sheets are labeled erroneously " Columbia," a few, perhaps, 
" Peru." 

4. That he collected extensively in the mountains of central Peru, 
many of these sheets being labeled " Columbia." 

5. That botanists should view with suspicion all " Lobb, Columbia " 
citations in literature or inscriptions on herbarium sheets, and should 
hesitate before ascribing any extraordinary range of distribution to a 
species solely on the basis of these " Lobb, Columbia " specimens. 



Contr. Gray Herb. 77: 14. 1926. 



■- 




'< 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOLUME 87, NUMBER 



A MIOCENE LONG-BEAKED PORPOISE 
PROM CALIFORNIA 



(With Four Plates) 



/"' 






^MNga 



-^^C'CF IIBRABV .. 



■!.-jOc 



BY 



REMINGTON KELLOGG 

Assistant Curator, Division of Mammals, U. S. National Museui: 




(Publication 3135) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

JANUARY 22, 1932 



I 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 2 



A MIOCENE LONG-BEAKED PORPOISE 
EROM CALIFORNIA 

(With Four Plates) 



BY 

REMINGTON KELLOGG 

Assistant Curator, Division of Mammals, U. S. National Museum 






f^\ 



^^ 



(Publication 3135) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

JANUARY 22, 1932 



BALTIMORE, MD., 0. S. A. 



i 



A MIOCENE LONG-BEAKED PORPOISE FROM 
CALIFORNIA 

By remington KELLOGG 

assistant curator, division of mammals, u. s. national museum 

(With Four Plates) 

The fossil porpoise described in this paper was presented to the 
United States National Museum by G. M. Cunningham of the Stand- 
ard Oil Company of California, Bakersfield, Calif. This skull un- 
questional)ly represents an undescribed species of one of the long- 
beaked porpoises. Its closest affinities appear to be with the Pata- 
gonian Lower Miocene genus Argyrocctus to which it is tentatively 
referred. 

ARGYROCETUS JOAQUINENSIS new species 

Type. — LT.S.N.M. No. 11996. An incomplete skull, lacking the 
major portion of the rostrum, the superior border and right half of 
supraoccipital, the hinder outer border of right supraorbital process, 
the upper portion of right exoccipital, the right zygomatic process 
with exception of postglenoid portion, the tympanic bullae and peri- 
otics on both sides, and all of the teeth with the exception of one 
crown. 

Type locality. — About 12 miles northeast of Bakersfield and 1,000 
feet west of Pyramid Hill, in sec. 14, T. 28 S., R. 29 E., Kern 
County, Calif. ; shown on Caliente Quadrangle, United States Geo- 
logical Survey. 

Horizon. — This skull was embedded in a fine-grained calcareous 
sandstone nodule, which was found about 75 feet below the top of 
the Vedder zone during May, 1930, by Max Steineke of the Stand- 
ard Oil Company of California. The following invertebrate fossils 
were obtained at the same locality and identified by William F. 
Barbat : Pecten bozversi Arnold, Pecten perrini Arnold, Ostrea titan 
Conrad, Cardium vaqucroensis Arnold, Spisula granti Wiedey, 
Dosinia margaritana Wiedey, Phacoides saiictaecrucis Arnold, and 
Chione indet. The sands of the Vedder zone' lie about 1,400 feet 



'Wilhelm, V. H., and Saunders, L. W., Report on the Mt. Peso oil field. 
Summary of operations California oil fields. 12th Ann. Rep. State Oil and 
Gas Supervisor, California State Min. Bur., San Francisco, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 6, 
8-9, January, 1927. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 2 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

below the top of the Temblor formation ; the Vedder zone has a 
maximum thickness of 85 feet in the Mount Poso area and under- 
lying these sands are 550 to 650 feet of marine sediments, making a 
total thickness of 2,000 to 2,100 feet. The Vedder horizon, according 
to G. M. Cunningham, is older than the Barker's ranch locality which 
has been described by F. M. Anderson."" It is the opinion of Mr. 
Barbat that this horizon should be correlated with the Vaqueros 
formation which is thought to be equivalent in time with the Bur- 
digalian [ = Langhian] stage of the European Tertiary. 

DIAGNOSIS 

As compared with Argyrocettis patagonicus Lydekker," this spe- 
cies is characterized by an elevated vertex formed for the most part 
by the elongated nasals and the hinder ends of the thickened pre- 
maxillaries, the mesorostral gutter is narrower, and the hamular 
processes of the pterygoids are conspicuously prolonged backward. 
It agrees with A. patagonicus in having a broad, concave D shaped 
supraoccipital shield, in having the outer borders of the maxillaries 
at the base of the rostrum slope downward, and in having the vertex 
contracted antero-posteriorly. 

SKULL 

Dorsal vietv. — Although the major portion of the rostrum is de- 
stroyed it is obvious that this skull belongs to one of the long-beaked 
porpoises. The dorsal surface of the skull is constituted almost en- 
tirely by the maxillaries and the premaxillaries ; the hinder extremi- 
ties of the premaxillaries, the nasals, and the small wedgelike bone 
(presumably frontal) form the vertex of the skull. The maxillary 
notches are well marked. From the dorsal aspect the maxillaries are 
seen to increase in width from the broken extremity of the rostrum 
posteriorly. When they reach the level of the maxillary notches the 
maxillaries are thrust backward over the supraorbital processes of 
the frontals and expanded laterally to form the so-called frontal 
plates. These thin plates of the maxillaries and the corresponding 
underlying lateral extensions of the frontals roof over the temporal 

^ Anderson, F. M., The Neocene deposits of Kern River, California, and the 
Temblor basin. Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, vol. 3, pp. 98-100, No- 
vember 9, 191 1. 

^ Lydekker, R. Contributions to a knowledge of the fossil vertebrates of 
Argentina. Pt. II. Cetacean skulls from Patagonia. Anal. Mus. La Plata, vol. 2 
for 1893, pp. 10-12, pi. 5, figs. I, la, 2, 3, 1894. 



NO. 2 A MIOCENE LONG-BEAKED PORPOISE KELLOGG 3 

fossae. The maxillary does not entirely sheathe the preorbital angle 
of the supraorbital process. The hinder margins of the left maxillary 
are probably imperfect above the temporal fossae. The dorsal sur- 
face of the left maxillary is depressed opposite the nasals and slightly 
convex above the supraorbital processes of the frontals. The internal 
margin of the maxillary, with the exception of the narrow tongue- 
like portion, which overlaps the frontals on the vertex, is in contact 
with the premaxillary for practically its entire length. Two foramina, 
which are connected with the infraorbital canal, are present on each 
maxillary. The most posterior one of these is situated above the 
temporal fossa. The other foramen is located at or near the level of 
the maxillary notch and from it a deep groove extends forward for 
a distance of at least 20 mm. The outer border of the maxillary at 
the base of the rostrum is not bent upward as in Eurhinodelphis, but 
is curved obliquely downward. In correlation with this tapering of 
the rostrum the maxillary decreases in breadth anteriorly and the 
sides become more nearly vertical. Anterior to the maxillary notches 
the premaxillaries are fairly thick and their upper surfaces are con- 
vex. Their inner margins become closely approximated at a point 
130 mm. in front of the maxillary notches. The raised outer convex 
portions of the premaxillaries diverge strongly between this point and 
the maxillary notches, and constitute the outer border of the more 
or less flattened internal portions of the premaxillaries. In conse- 
quence of their tapering, these elevated outer convex surfaces dis- 
appear in front of the presphenoid. The premaxillaries commence 
to expand horizontally in front of the nasal bones and attain their 
maximum width at the level of the anterior walls of the narial 
passages. Opposite the narial passages there is an oval concavity on 
each premaxillary. The posterior end of each premaxillary is rela- 
tively broad, conspicuously thickened, and its dorsal surface is raised 
to the level of the nasals. The premaxillary foramina are moder- 
ately large and are situated behind the level of the anterior maxillary 
foramina. Each of these premaxillary foramina opens into a broad 
groove, which is continued obliquely backward and outward to a 
point opposite the narial passages. The internal border of the pre- 
maxillary, which is somewhat flattened in front of the presphenoid, 
narrows rapidly and finally disappears anteriorly under the raised 
convex outer strip. The premaxillaries do not approximate each 
other as closely in front of the narial passages as in Eurhinodelphis 
bossi from the Calvert formation of Maryland and hence the mesoros- 
tral gutter is not roofed over for a distance of 160-175 mm. Proxi- 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

mally, the floor of the mesorostral gutter is contributed by the pre- 
maxillaries and the vomer. 

The apex of the mesethmoid rises to the level of the dorsal sur- 
faces of the premaxillaries. The mesethmoid sheathes the dorsal and 
lateral faces of the presphenoid and thus forms a partition between 
the narial passages superiorly, fills in the frontal fontanelle, and pro- 
vides support for the nasals, and also for the vertex of the skull. The 
anterior narrowing of the narial passages is correlated with the 
distal enlargement of the presphenoid. Notwithstanding the hori- 
zontal expansion of the premaxillaries, most of the anterior end of 
the presphenoid is exposed. The presphenoid is the porous bone that 
forms a plug across the proximal end of the mesorostral gutter, but 
does not rise to the level of the premaxillaries above. 

The frontals are largely hidden from a dorsal view, being over- 
spread by the premaxillaries and maxillaries laterally and by the 
nasals medially. Posteriorly the frontals abut against the supra- 
occipital on the vertex and it is barely possible that a very narrow 
strip of these bones may have been exposed between the hinder ends 
of the nasals and the missing dorsal crest of the supraoccipital. 

The elongated nasals are relatively large (35 x 16.5 mm.) and are 
placed on the vertex between the posterior extremities of the pre- 
maxillaries, but do not overhang the narial passages. The anterior 
border of each nasal is bevelled off oblicjuely. The hinder ends of the 
nasal bones are unusually thick (pi. 3). Behind the right nasal and 
nearly in the midline, there is a small wedge-shaped bone which may 
be either an exposed portion of the right frontal or a fortuitous divi- 
sion of the right nasal. 

Lateral viczv- — Aside from the relatively large size of the brain- 
case, the skull (pi. 2) is characterized by a rather high temporal fossa 
which is partially roofed over by the maxillary and the underlying 
lateral extension of the frontal, a fairly wide orbit, and a long zygo- 
matic process. The rostrum is somewhat depressed proximally and 
compressed from side to side anteriorly. 

The orbit is strongly convex, the outer margin of the supraorbital 
process of the frontal being thickened, while the superimposed plate 
of the maxillary is thin and shelving. The preorbital portion of the 
supraorbital process of the frontal is rounded, while the postorbital 
angle is almost trihedral. The small lacrimal is closely appressed to 
the preorbital angle of the supraorbital process and its inner end is 
mortised into the under surface of the maxillary. The jugal is a very 
slender bone whose anterior end is ankylosed with the lacrimal below 



NO. 2 A MIOCENE LONG-BEAKED PORPOISE— KELLOGG 5 

the maxillary notch and whose styliform process is extended back- 
ward beneath the orbit to the anteroventral angle of the zygomatic 
process where it is expanded into a broad thin plate. The jugal was 
unavoidably removed while the skull was being freed from the 
matrix. 

The zygomatic process of the squamosal is thickened dorso- 
ventrally and is almost in contact anteriorly with the postorbital angle 
of the supraorbital process. As a whole the zygoma is robust, slightly 
curved, and rather long ; the dorsal profile slopes gradually forward 
and upward. The postglenoid portion of the zygoma curves down- 
ward and then forward. The greatest length of the left zygoma is 
90 mm. and the dorso-ventral diameter anteriorly is i8 mm. 

The crest formed by the contact of the supraoccipital with the 
hinder ends of the frontals is destroyed but it was presumably the 
highest point in the dorsal profile. The dorsal profile of the skull 
slopes rather steeply from the vertex to the level of the maxillary 
notches. On each side of the vertex, the frontal plate of the maxil- 
lary is depressed. The supraorbital process of the frontal and the 
superimposed maxillary do not rise above the level of the premaxil- 
lary in front of the narial passages. The temporal fossa is much 
longer than the orbit. In the temporal fossa the parietal is suturally 
united inferiorly with the squamosal, anteriorly and superiorly with 
the frontal, and posteriorly with the supraoccipital. Hence the parie- 
tals are excluded from the vertex of the skull. When viewed from 
the side, the occipital condyles are seen to project considerably be- 
yond the level of the hinder surfaces of the exoccipitals. The basi- 
cranial axis is bent downward from the axis of the rostrum. 

Posterior viczv. — This surface (pi. 3) attains its greatest breadth 
at the level of the exoccipitals. These exoccipitals are relatively large, 
are coalesced with the supraoccipital above, and are projected out- 
ward and backward like wings. Their external margins are sinuous- 
rounded, and are produced outward so that they conceal for the most 
part the postglenoid processes when viewed from behind. Anteriorly 
the exoccipital is in contact with the squamosal and inferiorly it is 
united with the basioccipital. The suture between the exoccipital and 
the basioccipital lies internal to the deep jugular incisure and the 
former constitutes the hinder border of the falcate process of the 
latter. At the bottom of this incisure and near the posterior margin 
there is a small condylar foramen. Externally the upper portion of 
the exoccipital is produced backward, forming a crest which follows 
the curvature of the hinder end of the temporal fossa. This thin- 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

edged crest is continuous with the corresponding portion of the 
supraoccipital and together they form a prominent lambdoid crest. 
The dorsal contour of the supraoccipital is uncertain since this por- 
tion of the lambdoid crest has been destroyed. Between the upper 
limits of the temporal fossae the supraoccipital is deeply concave. 
The greatest breadth of the supraoccipital is about equivalent to its 
vertical diameter above the foramen magnum. 

The foramen magnum is sub-oval in outline ; its transverse diame- 
ter is 35 mm. and its vertical diameter 24 mm. The occipital condyles 
are considerably broader near the apex than near the base, and their 
articular surfaces curve outward and forward. Their internal faces 
converge inferiorly and have a sharp hinder edge. The external mar- 
gins of the occipital condyles are convex and are not set off from 
the exoccipitals by distinct necks. The outer border of the left con- 
dyle has been damaged and the entire articular surface of the right 
condyle is missing. Below the occipital condyles and internal to the 
exoccipitals are the descending plates of the basioccipital and they 
in turn are separated from the large paroccipital processes by the 
deep jugular incisures. 

Ventral view. — Near the base of the rostrum the ventral surfaces 
of the maxillaries are closely approximated and the keel of the vomer 
is entirely concealed. 

The lacrimal is closely appressed to the anterior face of the supra- 
orbital process of the frontal and its internal end is mortised into 
the ventral face of the maxillary; the anterior end of the jugal is 
ankylosed with the lacrimal below the maxillary notch. Inasmuch 
as no suture can be found it should be stated that these three bones 
constitute the lower margin of the maxillary notch. 

The jugal is a long, slender bone consisting of a short triangular 
enlarged anterior portion ankylosed with the lacrimal, and a styli- 
form posterior process. The posterior end of the styliform process 
is dorso-ventrally flattened and extremely thin, being loosely at- 
tached to the ventral face of the zygomatic process. The jugal was 
unavoidably removed during the preparation of this specimen. 

There is nothing peculiar about the position of the palatines. They 
are suturally united medially in front and are closely appressed to the 
under surfaces of the maxillaries. Viewed from the side, the palatine 
extends forward beyond the level of the maxillary notch and projects 
backward above the external reduplication of the pterygoid to the 
anterior margin of the optic canal. Close to its posterior extremity, 
the palatine presumably comes in contact with the orbitosphenoid 
which lies above it. 



NO. 2 A MIOCENE LONG-BEAKED PORPOISE — KELLOGG 7 

The relations of the pterygoids with the surrounding bones is essen- 
tially in agreement with that of Eurhino del phis bossi. The external 
reduplication of the pterygoid is for the most part destroyed. Rem- 
nants of the ends of the outer plate on the left side show that the 
internal and external plates of the pterygoids are separated from 
each other by a narrow interval anteriorly, but posteriorly they are 
widely separated. Hence the usual pterygoid sinus must have been 
present. The curved internal plate contributes the lower outer sur- 
face for the narial passage. The combined internal and external 
plates of the pterygoid seemingly contribute to the formation of the 
elongated, backwardly projecting hamular process which constitutes 
a posterior extension of the palatal surface. The anterior margin of 
the external plate of the pterygoid is united by an irregular suture 
with the palatine. The external plate of the pterygoid is suturally 
united with the squamosal and palatine, and apparently is in contact 
with the parietal and alisphenoid. 

The outer wall of the cranium in the region of the alisphenoid and 
orbitosphenoid is imperfect. The optic canal, while seemingly con- 
fluent with the sphenorbital fissure, nevertheless has its course marked 
by a definite groove. This canal should be bounded anteriorly near 
its origin by the descending portion of the orbitosphenoid. 

A recess is formed by the backward extension of the alisphenoid 
(PI. 4) and the contiguous underlying lateral process of the basi- 
occipital, which completely excludes the periotic and tympanic from 
the inner wall of the cranium. On the roof of this recess and near 
its posterior end is a large orifice that corresponds to the foramen 
lacerum posteriiis for the nerves associated with the jugular leash. 

The thin descending plates or falcate processes of the basioccipital 
are directed downward and outward ; anteriorly they are suturally 
united with the internal plates of the pterygoids which overlap the 
basisphenoid. 

The distinguishing features of the squamosal are the large size and 
strength of the zygomatic arch, the short robust postglenoid process, 
and the thin falciform process which is directed forward and down- 
ward in front of the tympano-periotic recess. The zygoma is rather 
large and is directed slightly outward. The ventral glenoid surface is 
an oval concavity, looking forward, inward, and downward. A nar- 
row groove for the external auditory meatus traverses the squamosal 
behind the postglenoid process. The hinder end of the squamosal is 
suturally united with the exoccipital and between this suture and the 
transverse groove for the external auditory meatus a rounded tuberos- 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

ity is formed. Internal to the glenoid fossa and on the ventral sur- 
face of the squamosal there is a longitudinal depression, deeper 
posteriorly than anteriorly. This depression commences at the base 
of the inner face of the postglenoid process and extends forward to 
the anterior or temporal margin of the squamosal. The ventral por- 
tion of the squamosal, internal to this last-mentioned fossa, is pro- 
longed downward and inward to form a thin plate which, when com- 
plete, is suturally united with the external reduplication of the 
pterygoid. 

The paroccipital process is relatively thick, its ventral aspect is 
roughened, and internally in conjunction with the descending plate 
of the basioccipital an incisure is formed for the passage of the so- 
called jugular leash and associated nerves. 

REMARKS 

Porpoises with long slender rostra predominated in the pelagic 
faunas of the Lower Miocene, as is evidenced by the occurrence of 
Argyrocctus in Patagonia, and ZipliiodclpJiis, Schizodelphis Y = Cyrto- 
dclpJiis], Eoplafanista, and Acrodelphis in Italy. The two last- 
mentioned genera are sufficiently distinct from the California skull 
to eliminate them from further consideration. 

Although the proportions of this skull (PI. i) and the relations 
of the bones constituting the dorsal surface are strongly suggestive, 
at first glance, of Eurhinodelphis longirostris^ from the Upper Mio- 
cene Anversian stage of the Antwerp Basin, Belgium, there are some 
well-marked differences. The skull from California has a smaller 
orbit, a longer and more slender zygomatic process, a relatively 
greater transverse diameter at the level of the preorbital angles of 
the supraorbital processes, the zygomatic width is somewhat less, the 
hinder extremities of the premaxillaries are greatly thickened and 
are applied to the lateral surfaces of the elongate nasals, the supra- 
occipital shield is strongly concave, and the occipital condyles are less 
protuberant. The nasals are missing on the type skull of E. lon- 
girostris (No. 3249, Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique, Bruxelles) and 
the elements marked A^ on Abel's plate (1902, PI. 11) are actually 
the frontals, into which the nasals were mortised. It is certain, how- 
ever, that E. longirostris has much wider nasals than the California 
porpoise. The braincase of Argyrocetns joaquinensis is somewhat 



^ Abel, O., Les dauphins longirostres du Bolderien (Miocene superieur) des 
environs d'Anvers. Pt. II. Mem. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat. Belgique, Bruxelles, 
vol. 2, pi. II, 1902. 



NO. 2 A MIOCENE LONG-BEAKED PORPOISE KELLOGG 9 

narrower at the level of the supraorhital processes than that of 
Eurhinodelphis bossi ' from the Upper Miocene Calvert formation 
of Maryland, and the construction of the vertex is quite different. 
In E. bossi, w^hich is approximately the same size as A. joaquinensis, 
the nasal bones are quite small, the area of both nasals being some- 
what less than the exposed portions of the combined frontals on the 
vertex, and the thin outer border of the maxillary at the base of the 
rostrum is bent upward. 

The genus Eurhinodelphis is not known to occur in Lower Mio- 
cene deposits. There are, however, three related genera that are 
characteristic of this geological stage. The long-beaked porpoise, 
Ziphiodelphis abeli^ from the Lower Miocene Langhian sandstone 
quarries of Bolzano, Italy, has the vertex similarly contracted in an 
antero-posterior direction, the transverse diameter of the nasals being 
almost twice the antero-posterior diameter, the exposed portion of 
the combined frontals on the vertex is approximately equivalent in 
area to that of the two nasals, and a small interparietal is present. 
The supraoccipital shield is nearly vertical and flattened transversely, 
the rather thin outer borders of the maxillaries are bent upward 
at the base of the rostrum, and the hinder extremities of the pre- 
maxillaries are not conspicuously thickened. The teeth, however, 
have the roots markedly enlarged below the base of the enamel crown, 
but are rapidly attenuated toward the extremity. This genus seems 
to have its closest affinities with Eurhinodelphis. 

As regards Schizodelphis sulcatus from marine sediments belong- 
ing to the Lower Miocene Langhian stage at Gauderndorf near Eg- 
genburg, Austria,' and also from the Langhian sandstone quarries at 
Belluno in Upper Italy,* the nasals are quite small, the frontals com- 



' Kellogg, R., On the occurrence of remains of fossil porpoises of the genus 
Eurhinodelphis in North America. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 66, art. 26, 
pp. 1-40, pis. 17, 1925. 

^ Dal Piaz, G., Sui vertebrati delle arenarie Mioceniche di Belluno. Atti 
Accad. sci. veneto-trentino-istriana, Padova, CI. I, Anno V, pp. 13-16, figs. 5-7, 
1908; Basani, F., and Alisuri, A. Sopra un Delfinorinco del calcare Miocenico 
di Lecce (Ziphiodelphis abeli Dal Piaz). Mem. R. Accad. Lincei CI. sci. fis. 
mat. e nat., Roma (5), vol. 9, fasc. 2, pp. 25-38, pi. i, fig. 6, 1912; Dal Piaz, G., 
L'Istituto geologico dell' Universita di Padova nel 1922. Notizie Sommarie. 
Mem. 1st. Geol. R. Univ. di Padova, vol. 6, p. 11, fig. 6, 1922. 

'Abel, O., Untersuchungen fiber fossilen Platanistiden des Wiener Beckens. 
Denkschr. k. Akad. Wiss. math.-naturw. Kl., Wien, vol. 68, pp. 839-874, pis. 1-4, 
1899. 

* Dal Piaz, G., Sugli avanzi di Cyrtodelphis culcatus dell'arenana di Belluno. 
Pt. I. Palaeontographia Italica, Pisa, vol. 9, PP- 187-220, pis. 28-31, text figs. 16, 
1903. 



lO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

prise the major portion of the large vertex, the area of the exposed 
portions of the frontals on the vertex being considerably larger than 
that of the two nasals, a small interparietal is present, the zygomatic 
process is relatively short and robust, and the roots of the teeth arc 
shaped somewhat like a heraldic battle axe. In so far as our present 
knowledge goes the proportions, relations, and structural peculiari- 
ties of the several elements entering into the composition of the brain- 
case and rostrum of Schicodelphis are sufficiently pronounced to 
eliminate this genus from consideration. 

The long-beaked porpoise, Argyrocctus patagonicus!^ from the 
Lower Miocene Patagonian marine formation at Castillo, opposite 
Trelew, on the coast of Chubut Territory, Argentine Republic, re- 
sembles this California skull somewhat, for the vertex is contracted 
antero-posteriorly and the backward rostral thrust has carried the 
maxillary to the supraoccipital, but the two nasals are about equivalent 
in area to that of the exposed portions of the frontals on the vertex 
and the mesorostral gutter is relatively wide. This skull, unfortu- 
nately, is imperfectly preserved, both zygomatic processes being in- 
complete, the supraorbital processes are broken ofif, and the hinder 
ends of the premaxillaries are missing. The shape of the supra- 
occipital shield, the elevation of the vertex, and the proportions of 
the skull of Argyrocetiis patagonicus approximate in the main the 
skull from California. These resemblances seem to warrant the ten- 
tative allocation of the California skull to the genus Argyrocetus, 
though this is done with considerable hesitation, since the material 
upon which both species are based is quite fragmentary. 

TEETH 

The crown of a single tooth, presumably from the right maxillary, 
is embedded in the matrix 12 mm. in front of the broken extremity 
of the rostrum. The crown of this tooth is lanceolate in outline, it 
curves outward and then inward, and is flattened transversely. The 
anterior and posterior margins of the crown are rounded and not 
carinate, and the enamel is essentially smooth. The hinder end of 
the maxillary tooth row lies 60 mm. in front of the maxillary notch. 



' Lydekker, R., Contributions to a knowledge of the fossil vertebrates of 
Argentina. Pt. II. Cetacean skulls from Patagonia. Anal. Mus. La Plata, vol. 2 
for 1893, PP- 10-12, pi. 5, figs. I, la, 2, 3, 18Q4. 



NO. 2 A MIOCENE LONG-BEAKED PORPOISE KELLOGG II 

Measurements of the skull (in mUllmetcrs) 

Total length, as preserved 370 

Transverse diameter of skull across preorbital angles of supraorbital pro- 
cesses of f rontals 176 

Transverse diameter of skull across postero-external angles of supra- 
orbital processes of frontals 204± 

Distance across skull between outer surfaces of zygomatic processes.... 2io± 

Distance across skull between outer margins of exoccipital bones i78-f- 

Distance between inner margin of left occipital condyle and outer margin 

of left exoccipital 72 

Distance between outer angles of paroccipital processes 167 

Distance between outer surfaces of descending processes of basioccipital. . . 98 

Distance between outer margins of occipital condyles 74 

Greatest or oblique-vertical diameter of left occipital condyle 44 

Maximum transverse diameter of left occipital condyle ^2) 

Transverse diameter of foramen magnum 35 

Vertical diameter of foramen magnum 24 

Distance from upper margin of foramen magnum to apex of supraoccipital 

shield 105-f 

Vertical distance from basioccipital to apex of supraoccipital shield.... 1164- 
Distance from ventral face of hamular process of pterygoid to dorsal 

surface of nasal bone 156 

Greatest vertical depth of skull at level of anterior borders of narial 

passages 87 

Greatest vertical depth of rostrum at level of maxillary notches 57 

Greatest vertical depth of rostrum at broken extremity (165 mm. in 

front of maxillary notches) 35 

Preorbital angle of left supraorbital process to posterior face of left 

occipital condyle 215 

Greatest distance between outside margins of premaxillaries at level of 

narial passages 85 

Greatest breadth of left premaxillary at level of anterior border of narial 

passages 33-5 

Greatest breadth of left premaxillary at level of maxillary notch 21 

Breadth of rostrum at level of maxillary notches 108 

Greatest antero-posterior diameter of left supraorbital process of frontal . . 83 

Antero-posterior diameter of left nasal along suture 35 

Transverse diameter of left nasal, anteriorly 16.5 

Greatest length of left zygomatic process 90 

Width of braincase 10 mm. below squamosal-parietal suture in temporal 

fossae 122 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 2, PL. 1 




Argyrocetus joaquinensis new species. Type. 
Dorsal view of skull. About one-half natural size. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 2, PL. 2 




/ 



Argyr(jcetus joaqiiineiisis new species. Type. 
Lateral view oi skull. About one-half natural size. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 2, PL. 3 




%*■- 




Argyrocetus joaquinensis new species. Type. 
Posterior view of skull. About one-half natural size. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 2, PL. 4 




Argyrocetus joaquinensis new species. Type. 
Oblique view of ventral surface of skull. About one-half natural size. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOLUME 87. NUMBER 3 



SETH EASTMAN: THE MASTER 

PAINTER OF THE NORTH 

AMERICAN INDIAN 



(With 15 Plates) 



'•** 



BY 
DAVID I. BUSHNELL,JR. 



^'' 'Ox 

APR 11 1932 




(Publication 3136) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

APRIL 11, 1932 



! 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 3, PL. 1 




SETH Eastman, 1808-1875 

Self-portrait about 1829. now owned by his granddaughter, 
Miss A. H. Eastman, Washington, D. C. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 3 



SETH EASTMAN: THE MASTER 

PAINTER OF THE NORTH 

AMERICAN INDIAN 



(With 15 Plates) 



BY 

DAVID I. BUSHNELL, JR. 




(Publication 3136 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

APRIL 11, 1932 



Zf)C £orb Q0aftimorc (ptiee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



SETH EASTMAN: THE MASTER PAINTER OF THE 
NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN 

P.v DAMD I. BUSHXELL. JR. 

(With 15 Plates) 

Seth Eastman was born in Brunswick, Me., January 24, 1808, and 
died in Washington, D. C, August 31. 1875. He was appointed to the 
]\IiHtarv Academy, West Point, from Maine and entered as a cadet 
July I, 1824. He was graduated and became a second Heutenant in 
the First Infantry July i, 1829. 

Eastman appears to have possessed much natural talent for drawing 
and painting, but there are neither records nor family traditions of 
his having received instruction in sketching or portrait painting before 
he entered the Academy. A small self portrait in oil, reproduced as 
Plate I, was made at about the time of his graduation and reveals his 
ability at that time. The approximate date of the picture may be deter- 
mined by the fact that only one epaulet is shown, worn on the left 
shoulder. The army regulations of 1825 specified : " Captains of Engi- 
neers, one gold Epaulette on the right shoulder, and Subalterns one on 
the left." By the regulations of 1832 lieutenants, or subalterns, were 
required to wear two epaulets. Therefore the portrait was necessarily 
made between the date of his graduation, 1829. and the year 1832. 

Eastman's career as an artist may be divided into two distinct 
periods. The first and more important extended from the time he left 
the Academy as a second lieutenant until the winter of 1849- 1850, 
when he reached Washington ; on February 2^ . 1850, he was instructed 
to prepare illustrations for Schoolcraft's great work. His military 
record during these 20 years, as preserved in the Adjutant General's 
Office. War Department, Washington, D. C, is as follows: 

" On duty at Fort Crawford, W^isconsin, with regiment, 1829-1830, 
and at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, 1830-1831 ; on topographical duty 
1 83 1 to January 9, 1833 ; Assistant Teacher of Drawing, United 
States Military Academy, to January 22, 1840; in the Florida War 
1840-1841 ; with regiment at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, from 1841 to 
1846; on recruiting service in 1846; at Fort Snelling, with regiment, 
1846 to 1848; on march through Texas to San Antonio, Fredericks- 
burg, and the Neuces River, 1848-1849." 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 3 



2 SAIITPISOXIAX MISCKLLAXEOL'S COLLECTIONS \'OL. 87 

During these 20 years Eastman made innumerable paintings and 
sketches of the Indians with whom he came in contact, and scenes in 
the Indian country, inckiding the games, ceremonies, and activities wit- 
nessed in and about the native villages and camps. Many of the pencil 
sketches, remarkal^le in themselves, served the artist in later years, 
when they were reproduced in oil on canvas. The sketches were pre- 
pared with the greatest care, dated, described, and often signed, thus 
proving the training for detail which he had received at the Academy. 

The two army posts where the young lieutenant was destined to 
spend his first years of active service after leaving the ^Military Acad- 
emy were frontier posts in the heart of the Indian country. Both were 
frequented by several tribes possessing different manners and customs. 
Such surroundings afforded a young and enthusiastic artist many op- 
portunities to sketch and study the various ceremonies performed by 
the Indians who visited the posts, or whose camps and villages were 
nearby. Many details of their primitive ways of life were maintained, 
and these, fortunately, were often the subjects of the artist's sketches. 

Fort Crawford was the first post to which Eastiuan was sent during" 
the late summer or early autumn of 1829. It stood a few miles above 
the mouth of the Wisconsin River, near the left bank of the Mississippi, 
on the low ground, Prairie du Chien. which had Ijeen a gathering place 
for the native tribes for many generations — long before it was 
traversed by Europeans. A pencil drawing of the fort, an early ex- 
ample of the artist's work, is reproduced in Plate 2. This bears the 
legend " Fort Crawford, Prairie du Chien, 537 miles above St. Louis, 
Oct. 1829." The houses of the village of Prairie du Chien appear on 
the right. 

Father ^Marquette reached the Alississippi l)y descending the Wis- 
consin River, June 17, 1673, and evidently the region soon became 
well known to the French traders and trappers. Here, about the middle 
of October, 1766, came an English army officer, and in his narrative 
printed a few years later he mentioned a large Indian village ^ " on the 
bank of the Mississippi, near the mouth of the Ouisconsin, at a place 
called by the French La Prairies les Chien, which signifies the Dog 
Plains ; is a large town, and contains about three hundred families ; the 

houses are well built after the Indian manner This town is a 

great mart, where all the adjacent tribes, and even those who inhaliit 
the most remote branches of the Mississippi, annually assemljle al)0ut 
the latter end of Ma}', bringing with them their furs to dispose of to 
the traders." 



^ Carver, J., Travels through the interior parts of North America, in the years 
1766, 1767, and 1768, p. 50. London, 1770. 



♦ 



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NO. 3 SETH EASTMAN BUSHNELL 3 

Soon after Carver's visit a group of French, coming from Canada, 
established the village of Prairie du Chien. A garrison was main- 
tained in the vicinity for many years, but not until the year i8i6 was 
the construction of a fort begun. A year later, on July 25. 181 7, Maj. 
Stephen H. Long was at the post when returning from the Falls of 
Saint Anthony, and that day entered in his journal : ^ " Spent the day 
in measuring and planning Fort Crawford and its buildings. The work 
is a square of 340 feet upon each side ; and is constructed entirely of 
wood, as are all its buildings, except the magazine, which is of stone, 
it will accommodate five companies of soldiers." 

Fort Crawford, with the nearby French village of Prairie du Chien. 
soon became an important center, a gathering place where several tribes 
received their annuities and conducted their trade with the Fur Com- 
pany. The tribes who visited the post were the Menominee, Winne- 
bago, and Fox, then occupying lands east of the Mississippi, as well as 
some of the Siouan tribes from farther up the Mississippi. A small 
Menominee settlement stood near Fort Crawford in 183 1 which was 
the scene of a serious attack by some of the tribal enemies. About this 
time Schoolcraft visited the fort and wrote : ' 

" While at Prairie du Chien, the murder of 26 Monomonee men, 
women, and children, by a war party of the Sacs and Foxes, which 
had transpired a few days previous, was the subject of exciting in- 
terest. It was narrated with all its atrocious circumstances. A flag 
waved over the common grave of the slain, and several of the wounded 
Monomonees, who has escaped the massacre, were examined and 
conversed with. This afifray, unparalled for its boldness and turpi- 
tude, having occurred in the village of Prairie du Chien, in the hear- 
ing of its inhabitants, and in sight of the fort, was made the subject 
of demand by the government for surrendry of the murderers, and 
produced the concentration of troops on that frontier, which eventu- 
ated the Indian war of 1832." 

It is believed the picture of " Squaws Playing Ball on the Prairie," 
a photograph of which is reproduced in Plate 3, represents a group of 
Menominee, and possibly members of another tribe, in the vicinity of 
Fort Crawford, and that it was sketched while Fastman was stationed 
at that post, 1829- 1830. This would have been during the year pre- 
ceding the massacre mentioned by Schoolcraft. The level prairie is 
clearlv shown, with the river in the distance and the hills beyond. The 



^ Long, Maj. Stephen H., Voyage in a six-oared skiff to the Falls of Saint 
Anthony in 1817. Coll. Minnesota Hist. Soc, vol. 2, pt. i, p. 56, i860. 

' Schoolcraft, Henry R., Narrative of an expedition through the Upper Missi- 
ssippi to Itasca Lake, p. 13. New York, 1834. 



4 SMITHSONIAN INIISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Sy 

smoky atmosphere and l)ro\vned grass proves that it was a scene wit- 
nessed late in the autumn, and suggests Indian summer, that most de- 
lightful season of the year in the northern valley. This painting was 
one of six purchased from the artist by the American Art Union in 
1849. It bore the number i6y in the catalogue that year and was dis- 
tributed with others December 21, 1849. It is a work of great beauty 
and interest, and is believed to be one of Eastman's earliest Indian 
pictures. 

Others had witnessed and mentioned the game being played at, or 
rather on. Prairie du Chien. Pike reached the village April 18, 1806, 
and two days later, Sunday, April 20, held a council with Winnebago 
chiefs, and that same afternoon, so he wrote in his journal : ^ '' they 
had a great game of the cross on the prairie, between the Sioux on the 
one side, and the Puants and Reynards on the other. The ball is made 
of some hard substance and covered with leather, the cross sticks are 

round and net work, with handles of three feet long In the 

game which I witnessed, the Sioux were victorious, more I believe, 
from the superiority of their skill in throwing the ball than by their 
swiftness, for I thought the Puants and Reynards the swiftest run- 
ners." The great chief Wabasha was present at the gathering and con- 
sequently the Sioux who that day played against the Winnebago and 
Fox were probably of his band, who had come down the Mississippi 
from their village on Wabasha Prairie, mentioned by many who passed 
up and down the ri\er during succeeding years. But it remained for 
Catlin to leave the most interesting account of a game of ball played by 
women on the level ground at Prairie du Chien. This was witnessed 
during the summer of 1835, about five years after Eastman was sta- 
tioned at Fort Crawford. Catlin was at the ])ost when, so he wrote:* 
" Wa-be-sha's band of the Sioux came there, and remained several 
weeks to get their annuities." A day came when the men " wanted a 
little more amusement, and felt disposed to indulge the weaker sex in 
a little recreation also ; it was announced amongst them, and through 
the village, that the women were going to have a ball-play ! 

" For this purpose the men, in their very liberal trades they were 
making, and filling their canoes with goods delivered to them on a 
year's credit, laid out a great quantity of ribbons and calicoes with 
other presents well adapted to the wants and desires of the women ; 
which were hung on a pole resting on crotches, and guarded by an old 

' Pike, A[aj. Z. M., An account of expeditions to the sources of the Mississippi, 
and through the western parts of Louisiana, p. 100. Philadelphia, 1810. 

" Catlin, George, Letters and notes on the manners, customs, and condition 
of the North American Indians. London, 1841. 



NO. 3 SETH EASTMAN BUSH NELL 5 

man, who was to judge and umpire tlie play which was to take place 
among the women, who were divided into two equal parties, and were 
to j^lay a desperate game of hall, for the valuahle stakes that were hang- 
ing before them." 

Catlin's original painting of the game witnessed by him and de- 
scribed in the preceding quotation, is now in the collection of the United 
States National Museum, Washington. It reveals many details similar 
to those shown in Eastman's painting believed to have been sketched at 
the same place a few years before. Both represent the level area bor- 
dered by the river with hills beyond, groups of Indians gathered to 
witness the play, and the stakes " which were hung on a pole resting on 
crotches," to be awarded to the winners of the game. 

In 1835 Catlin wrote : " Praires du Chien is the concentrating place 
of the Winnebagoes and Menomonies, who inhabit the waters of the 
Ouisconsin and Fox rivers, and the chief part of the country lying east 
of the Mississippi and west of Green Bay." 

FORT SNELLIXG 

Fort Snelling or, as it was originally named. Fort Saint Anthony, 
was the second army post to which Lieutenant Eastman was assigned 
with the First Infantry. This was in 1830 and it is evident he went 
direct from Fort Crawford, up the Mississippi to the mouth of the 
Saint Peters. Several sketches in one of his sketch books, showing 
A'iews along the river, are believed to have been made at that time. 

Fort Snelling occupies the summit of a high cliff at the junction of 
the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, the latter formerly known as the 
Saint Peters. This prominent point is on the left bank of the Min- 
nesota and right bank of the Mississippi, and was visited and described 
by Pike in 1806. Eleven years later, in 18 17, Major Long recom- 
mended the establishment of an army post at the continence of the 
streams. Lieutenant Colonel Leavenworth, with a detachment of the 
Fifth Infantry, arrived at the mouth of the Saint Peters River 
September 17, 18 19, and " on the loth of September, 1820, the corner- 
stone of Fort St. Anthony was laid. The barracks were at first log 
structures." ^ Col. Josiah Snelling arrived at the post and relieved 
Leavenworth about the beginning of September, 1820. Later the name 
of the new commander was applied to the fort. 

The young lieutenant did not remain long at Fort Snelling at this 
time and from 1831 to January 9, 1833, was " on topographical duty," 



^ Neill, Rev. E. D., Occurrences in and around Fort Snelling from 1819 to 
1840. Coll. Minnesota Hist. Soc, 1865. 



6 SMITHSOMAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

but it is not known what part of the country he visited. From this lat- 
ter date to January 22, 1840, he served as assistant teacher of drawing 
at the Alihtary Academy, West Point. During these years he made 
many paintings and sketches, scenes in the vicinity of the Academy and 
many of the historic spots along the banks of the Hudson. He ex- 
hibited in the exhibitions of the National Academy of Design in 1836, 
1837, 1838, 1839, and 1840. In 1838 he included two paintings of Fort 
Snelling, both then owned by Army officers, the original sketches for 
which had undoubtedly been made in 1830 or 1831, when he was first 
stationed at that post. 

Eastman was elected an honorary member of the National Academy 
of Design in 1838, while still at West Point. He had one painting in 
the exhibition of 1848 which was described as " Indian Burial." There 
are no examples of Eastman's work at the Military Academy although 
he made many paintings and sketches during the years he was sta- 
tioned there as teacher of drawing. 

AMONG THE SEMINOLES IN FLORIDA 

As already stated. Lieutenant Eastman's assignment as assistant 
teacher of drawing at the Academy terminated January 22, 1840, and 
from West Point he went south to join his regiment. According to 
the army records he was "in the Florida War, 1840-1841," but just 
where he was stationed is not known. A brief sketch of events in 
Florida shortly preceding Eastman's arrival on the peninsula will be 
of interest in connection with one of his water-color drawings which 
is now reproduced. 

Maj. (ien. Alexander Macomb, Commanding in Chief of the Army, 
left Washington March 22, 1839. " for Carey's Ferry, on Black Creek 
in Florida," where he arrived April 5. His endeavor was to make 
peace with the Seminoles. Runners were sent throughout the country 
to acquaint the scattered Indians with his arrival in their country and 
to request them to gather in council at Fort King, but not until after 
the middle of the following month did he meet with a degree of suc- 
cess. " Lieutenant Colonel Harney, accompanied by Chitto Tustanug- 
gee, the great war chief of the tribes associated with Apiaka, attended 
by Ochi-Hajo, a ])rother of Blue Snake, arrived from Cape Florida 

the day before the council The next day (the 1 8th) the council 

was accordinglv held." ^ 



^ Report of the Major General Commanding the Army. Ex. Doc. No. 2. 
House of Repr. 26th Cong., ist Sess., Washington, 1839. 



NO. 3 SETH EASTMAN BUSHXELL 7 

Later that same day. after the Indians had met the Army officers in 
council. General ]\Iaconih issued the following General Orders : 

Head Quarters of the Army of tfie United States 

1-orf King, Florida. May i8, 1839. 
The ^lajor General, commanding in chief, has the satisfaction of announcing 
to the army in Florida, to the authorities of the Territory, and to the citizens 
generally, that he has this day terminated the war with the Seminole Indians 
by an agreement entered into with Chitto-Tustenuggee, principal chief of the 
Seminoles and successor to Arpeika, commonly called Sam Jones, brought to 
this post by Lieutenant Colonel Harney, 2d Dragoons, from the southern parts 

of the peninsula 

Alexander Macomb 

Major General Coiniuanding.^ 

The report of peace proved prematiu'e, and through treachery on 
the part of the Indians quiet was not restored for many months. But 
the document served to identify Sam Jones as the great chief of the 
.Seminoles, Ghitto Tustenuggee, whose name frequently occurs in re- 
ports and narratives connected with the war. 

Fortunately, Captain Eastman visited the southern part of Florida 
and, as would be supposed, made sketches with pencil and water color. 
One of the latter is a \iew of " Sam Jones' Village,'' which reveals a 
group of shelters, for the most part roofs of palmetto thatch sup- 
ported by upright posts set in the grotind. These primitive structures 
are surrounded b}' semitropical vegetation, with open water in the dis- 
tance. A large wooden mortar and pestle are shown in the extreme 
lower right corner of the sketch, with a very large snake on the left. 
The exact location is not known, but it was undoubtedly far south on 
the peninstila. This extremely interesting pictttre is reprodticed in 
Plate 4. 

AT FORT SNELLING 

\\\\\\ the exception of a short period during the year 1846 when he 
was " on recruiting service." Captain Eastman was stationed at Fort 
SnelHng with his regiment from 1841 to the autumn of 1848 when he 
went to Texas. During the years he served at the post he made in- 
numerable sketches of the Indians who frequented the fort, then in 
the heart of the region dominated by the Mdewakanton, a tribe of the 
Dakota, the largest division of the Siotian linguistic family. The native 
villages stood on the banks of the Mississippi and ^Minnesota rivers, 
easily reached from the fort. 

Maj. Lawrence Taliaferro had served as Indian Agent at Fort 
Snelling for many years and resigned at the close of 1839. His last 



^ Giddins, Joshua R., The Florida exiles. Xew York. 1863. 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

report was dated " Northwestern Agency, St. Peter's. Iowa Territory, 
September 30, 1839," and in it he gave a vahiable account of the sev- 
eral tril)es of the Dakota, with many of whom he was personally ac- 
quainted. Concerning the " !Medawakantons." occupying the countrv 
surrounding Fort Snelling. he said in part : " This tribe numbers ex- 
actly 1,658 souls; 484 warriors, 406 women, and 768 children of all 
ages. These reside in seven detached villages, composed of bark 
houses ; and in winter, buffalo, elk, or other skin lodges are resorted to 
during their migration or hunting ex])editions." These were the people 
with whom Eastman came in contact and were the subjects frequentlv 
sketched and painted. But parties of the Ojibway, who claimed and 
occupied the country north and east of the Mississippi, likewise visited 
the post, and often members of the two groups, ever enemies, met in 
the vicinity of the fort and engaged in combat which usuallv resulted 
in the death or wounding of some. 

Two important villages of the Mdewakanton. " mysterv lake village," 
of the Santee or eastern division of the Dakota, were then standing 
a short distance from Fort Snelling. Ka])Osia. the more extensive and 
better known, was on the right bank of the Mississippi about 12 miles 
below the mouth of the Saint Peters, or Minnesota River, as the stream 
was later designated. Little Crow was chief and the village was visited 
and briefly described by many who ascended the river. Both the bark- 
covered lodge, in form not unlike that of a log cabin but having the 
entrance at the t^nd instead of side, and conical skin tipi were to have 
been seen at the settlement, with an ancient burial ground and manv 
scaffold burials on the summit of the cliff' which bordered the low- 
ground over which the habitations were scattered. It is believed that 
many of I^astman's pictures were sketched at Kaposia. The seconrl of 
the native villages belonged to another band of the Mdewakanton and 
was usually known as " Shakopee's Village." from the name of the 
chief whose home it was. This settlement stood on the banks of the 
Minnesota River, some miles above its junction with the Mississippi, 
in the present Scott County, Minn. 

Far down the Mississippi, about 140 miles l)elow the mouth of the 
Minnesota River, was the important \illage of \\'ai)asha. on the right 
bank of the river. ()ccup\ing part of " Wahbasha's Prairie." now within 
the bounds of Winona County. A I inn. The name Wabasha, " the red 
leaf." was applied to a long line of chiefs of the Mdewakanton. long 
liefore they had been driven from the shores of Mille Lac and forced 
to seek a new home on the banks of the Mississippi, when they estab- 
lished the most southern village of their tribe, the first to be encoun- 
tered when ascending the river. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 3, PL. 4 




Size 8 1. : 



•SAM JONES- VILLAGE IN FLORIDA." 

Airs. M. M. Forrest 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 3, PL. 5 




Size IS by iij inches 1844 

Eta Keazah Sisseton Sioux at Fort Snelling 

David I. Bushnell. Jr. 



NO. 3 SETH EASTMAN— BUSHNELL 9 

Such then was the Indian Country in the midst of which the artist 
remained some years. A region of lakes and streams, forests and 
prairies, and where wild game abounded. Amidst these primitive sur- 
roundings Eastman made many sketches, but very few belonging to 
the years before 1847 have been traced. One portrait, made at Fort 
Snelling in 1844, 's reproduced in Plate 5. This is in oil, on a panel 
of wood, and is a likeness of a Sisseton Sioux named Eta Keazah. It 
shows the use of the beaded head covering worn by the northern In- 
dians, both Sioux and Ojibway, during the winter season ; however, 
caps of this sort were used extensively throughout the northern country 
as far east as the tribes of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Eastman 
shows them worn Ijy Indians fishing through the ice, in one of his later 
paintings. 

It is to be regretted that Eastman failed to keep a journal during 
his stay in the Indian country, for had he made notes of events that 
transpired at the army posts and of the gatherings of the Indians, and 
described the individuals and the native villages, his writings would 
have proved of value equal to that of his sketches and paintings. 

The year 1848 may be regarded as the most interesting period of 
Eastman's career as an artist, and possibly he anticipated his early 
removal from the post and departure from the upper Mississippi, and 
therefore made many sketches in the vicinity of Fort Snelling which 
served him in the following years when he was preparing the illustra- 
tions for Schoolcraft's work. 

While still on the upper Mississippi, during the month of July, 1848, 
he witnessed a stirring event on " Wahbasha's Prairie," about 150 
miles below the Falls of Saint Anthony, below Lake Pepin, on the 
right bank of the Mississippi. This excitement was occasioned by a 
band of Winnebago at the time of their removal, and may best be 
explained by quoting from the official documents of the time : 

St. Peter's (Wixxebago) Agency 

October 4, 1848 

Sir : Since my last annual report of the condition of the Winnebago Indians, 
the most important event connected with them is their removal from the neutral 
ground to the country they now occupy. When the tribe was notified last spring, 
by the government, that their new home was procured for them, they decided 
at once to remove, and such arrangements were made as would have enabled 
them to remove comfortably, and with a very moderate expense, but the inter- 
ference of interested individuals created dissatisfaction and disturbance among 
the Indians, which caused much delay, and resulted in scattering one-half of 
the tribe. Some of those who turned back went to their old hunting ground in 



lO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

Wisconsin, others went west into the interior and western part of Iowa. I have 
recently been informed that a party of about one hundred in number have joined 

the Ottoes, southwest of the Missouri river 

J. E. Fletcher, 
Indian Ageiit.^ 

The report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs dated Novem- 
ber 30, 1848, contains a brief reference to the removal of the Winne- 
bago: "The experiment in the case of the Winnebagoes has also 
been successful ; although their emigration from Iowa to their new 
country on the upper JNIississippi was attended with some delay and 
difficulty ; caused, however, by the unauthorized interference of inter- 
ested white persons, and of a portion of the Sioux that were desirous 
to have them stop and remain in their country." 

It was evidently Wabasha's band of Aldewakanton Sioux that 
desired the Winnebago to settle or remain with them, and the excit- 
ing scene witnessed by Captain Eastman was probably enacted at that 
time. The pencil drawing, described by the artist as : " Wahbasha's 
Prairie, Miss. River. Scene in July 1848. Difficulty with the Winne- 
bagoes while removing them to their present country," now repro- 
duced in Plate 6, is a beautiful example of his work and reveals his 
great skill in showing minute detail. The United States troops are 
drawn up on the left with a large number of mounted Indians, prob- 
ably the Winnebago, in their front. The small group of armed In- 
dians, crouching on the river bank in the immediate foreground, 
appear to be operating with the Americans. 

In a letter written from " Fort Snelling, I. T., August 6, 1848 " 
and signed " S. Eastman, Captain ist Infantry, Conunanding Fort 
SnclUng " he discussed " means as will effectually stop the Indians 
from smuggling ardent spirits into the country." The letter was ad- 
dressed to Maj. Thomas H. Harvey, Superintendent of Indian Af- 
fairs, but no means were ever effective. As Eastman was at that time 
in command at Fort Snelling he may have led the troops shown fac- 
ing the Winnebago on " Wahbasha's Prairie." 

Later in the year Captain Eastman again visited " Wahbasha's 
Prairie," and made an interesting sketch of a group of temporarv 
shelters, probably a camp of a small number of Indians. This bears 
the legend : " Miss. River. Wahbasha's Prairie. 725 miles above 
St. Louis — looking South. Oct. 1848 " (pi. 7). 

The Territory of jNIinnesota was created in 1849. O^'^ May 16 of 
that year one who was ascending the Mississippi entered in his nar- 
rative : " passed Wapasha's Prairie .... a beautiful prairie in Min- 

' Ex. Doc. no. I, 30th Cong., 2A Sess., Washington, 1848. 



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NO. 3 SETH EASTMAN BUSHNELL II 

nesota. al)Out nine miles long and three miles wide, occulted bv the 
chief Wapasha (or Red-Leaf) and his band of Sioux, whose bark- 
lodges are seen at the upper end of the prairie." And that same day, 
after leaving Lake Pepin, " an hidian village, called Red Wing, 
inhabited by a tribe of Siou.x is seen on the Minnesota shore. It 
appears to contain about one dozen bark lodges, and half as many 
conical lodges, covered with bufl'alo skins : also, a log or frame house, 
occupied by a missionary. Indian children were seen running, in 
frolicsome mood, over the green prairie, and Indian females were pad- 
dling their canoes along the shore. This village is near the mouth of 
Cannon River." ' The next day, ]May 17, he passed Kaposia, then 
consisting of some 40 skin lodges and having a population of about 
300. 

Such were the native villages along the banks of the Mississippi in 
Minnesota just before the organization of the State. 

The small water color reproduced in Plate 8 is believed to have 
been made on the bank of the ^linnesota River, above Fort Snelling. 
and may be a sketch of Shakopee's village. It is signed and dated 
1848 and was probably made just before Eastman was detached from 
Fort Snelling. Some beautiful pencil <lrawings made about this time 
are also reproduced, one being entitled : " Sioux Indians Playing the 
Game of the Plum Stones" (pi. 9), which was later engraved, and 
■' Buffalo Hunt of the Sioux Indians" (pi. 10). in which the artist 
recorded the use of the spear, bow and arrow, and gun, in' the mounted 
hunters. 

The report of the Indian Agent, dated " Saint Peters Indian 
Agency, Sept. 15, 1847," refers to the condition of the Sioux as 
" more favorable the past year. Buft'alo, al)Out the head of St. Peters 
River, have been much more abundant than usual, which is to be ac- 
counted for by the fact that prairies farther north were burned over, 
so that these animals were driven to seek subsistence in a more south- 
ern region." This may have enabled Captain Eastman to have wit- 
nessed the hunting of the buft'alo by the Indians nearer Fort Snelling 
than formerly, and some of his sketches were possibly made at that 
time. 

As already mentioned, many of the pencil sketches that Eastman 
made during the years he was stationed at Fort Snelling were copied 
and worked up in after years when he had returned to Washington. 
Two examples are shown in Plate it. illustrating two phases of the 
process of dressing a deer skin, which he had undoubtedly witnessed 



' Seymour, K. S., Sketclies of Alinnesota. Xew York, 1850. 



12 S.MITHSOXIAX .MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIOXS VOL. 87 

in the vicinity of the post. The two pictures are entirely cHfterent. 
Figure i, a water-color sketch, dated 1850 and consequently made 
in Washington, is copied from a small pencil drawing ; Figiu^e 2 is a 
photograph of a large oil painting, now hanging in a room of the 
House Committee on Indian Affairs in the Capitol Building, \A'ash- 
ington. D. C. The latter was painted in 1868 or 1869 and will again 
be mentioned. The two pictures serve to illustrate a passage in one 
of the publications of the artist's wife:' 

" Wlien the animal is killed .... the women take off' the hair of 
the skin with a knife, after which they moisten the skin, and stretch 
it to upright poles .... or on the ground, by means of pegs driven 
in the earth. When there are white people near to whom thev can 
apply, they try to obtain a little soap to cleanse the skin; but if 
dependent on themselves, they use, in the place of soap, the brains 
of the animal. These they spread over the skin, scraping it with an 
iron or bone scraper. Thus they remove all the fat and greasy par- 
ticles. They then rub the skin against a cord that is stretched to a 
couple of stakes, until it has become soft. The work is completed 
when the skin is smoked. To accomplish this, a hole is dug, and a 
small fire built at the bottom. Over the hole a few sticks are laid. 
Across these they place the skin. The hole is covered \vith leaves or 
turf, to confine the smoke as much as possible, and to smother the 
t^ame. After the skin is smoked from ten to twenty hours, it becomes 
of a dingy, yellowish color, and is ready for use." 

Although the foregoing reference is to buffalo skin, it is believed 
that all skins were tanned in the same manner and that the descrip- 
tion would apply equally well to deer skin. 

Skins of the buffalo thus prepared served many purposes, and were 
most important in the life of the Indian, especially of the plains 
tribes. They were used in making moccasins and coarse garments 
such as shirts and leggings, and a number of them sewed together 
and properly shaped formed the covering for the tipi. The hide is 
very harsh, rough, and quite porous and could never be dressed so 
fine and soft as were the skins of deer and other animals. 

CAPTAIN EASTMAN AND THE AMERICAN ART UNION 

The American Art L'nion. known during the first five years of its 
existence as The Apollo Association, was organized in 1838 and con- 
tinued until 1852. It was created for " the promotion of the Fine 



' Eastman, Mrs. Marv H.. The American aboriginal port folio. Philadelphia. 
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XO. 3 SETH EASTMAN BUSHXELL I3 

Arts in the I'nited States," and the money derived from the dues 
paid by the memlx'rs was used to purchase the works of American 
artists which were then distributed to the members by lot each year 
at the time of the annual meeting. This manner of disposing of the 
many paintings, engravings, medals, and other objects, was declared 
by the New York Supreme Court on October 22, 1852, " illegal and 
unconstitutional," and led to the dissolution of the organization. 

The American Art Union during its few years undoubtedly did a 
great deal to assist the young artists of the country, and the names of 
many who became well known in later years are to be found on the lists 
appearing in the publications of the Union. The first annual meeting 
was held December 16, 1839, at which time 63 paintings were dis- 
tributed among the members, but the number steadily increased and 
on December 22, 1848, 454 paintings were won Iw the members; the 
number distributed on December 21, 1849, was 460. 

The name of Seth Eastman first appeared in 1848, the last year 
he was stationed in the upper Mississippi valley. That year the Art 
Union purchased six of his paintings, all Indian subjects, but unfor- 
tunately neither description nor dimension is given in connection with 
the reference to the pictures which appeared in the Bulletin issued by 
the Union that year. The six paintings purchased during the year 
1848 were ; 

No. 288. Indian Burial. 

No. zZTi- Indian Scalp Dance. 

No. 334. Buffalo Hunt. 

No. 441. Moonlight — Sioux Landing. 

No. 448. Sioux Breaking up Camp. 

No. 449. Dog Dance — a Dance of the Braves. 

The next year, 1849. the Art Union again purchased six pictures, 
likewise Indian subjects, all of which were briefly though interestingly 
described in the Bulletin as follows : 

61. Sioux in Council. (25 by 35 inches.) 

" These figures are all painted from life, and are portraits. An old 
chief is lecturing a young warrior for cowardice." 
71. O-ho-ka-pe. an Indian Hunter. (25 by 35 inches.) 

" This is a celebrated hunter of the Sioux nation. He is said to 
have killed thirteen deer in one day. During the last war with Great 
Britain he was captured by the English, and kept in prison several 
months, at which time he lost his intellect. This was taken from life 
by Capt. Eastman." 
•]2. Sississiton Chief. (25 by 35 inches.) 

" This is also a portrait. The original is called ' The Burning 
Earth.' He resides near the headwaters of the St. Peters River, and 
is chief of a band of Dacotahs." 



14 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



167. Aledicine Dance. Dacotah or Sioux Indians. (25 by 35 inches.) 

"A large party of Indians beside their wigwams, engaged in the 
mystic ceremonies of the medicine dance." 
169. Squaws Playing Ball on the Prairie. (25 by 35 inches.) 

"A large number are engaged in this exercise, running swiftly 
in opposing bands, while others in the foreground are looking on." 
171. Buffalo Hunt. (25 by 35 inches.) 

"A herd of buffaloes are attacked by Indians, one of whom has 
been dismounted by a furious bull, which his comrade dispatches 
with a lance." 




Fig. I. — Label attached to the stretcher of the painting reproduced in Plate i- 



Again in 1850 Eastman disposed of the same number of pictures 
to the Art Union, hut all were not Indian suhjects, three heing of 
a different nature. The three pictures of interest at this time were 
thus described in the Bulletin : 

149. Indian Hunters. (30 by 25 inches.) 

" Two Indians — one seated, and holding a tomahawk ; the other 
standing beside him, wrapped in his blanket." 
155. Indians Playing Draughts. (30 by 2S inches.) 

" Two are engaged at this game, which a third overlooks." 
167. Indian Ball-Play. (25 by 33 inches.) 

"A large number of Indians are engaged in this anuisement upon 
the ice, beside which, among the trees, are seen the wigwams." 

In 1851, the last year the Art Union ptu"chased paintings. Captain 
Eastman disposed (jf one small ])icture entitled " Moonlight," evi- 
dentlv not an Indian sul)iect. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 3, PL. 13 



i ^^..'1 



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Size 5| by 8f inches 




1. Alamo at San Antonio 



Deceniljer 1848 



Airs. M. M. Forrest 




Size 4I by 7 inches 



2. Old Mexican Lookout or Watch ToweratSanantonio.tex. 
Two Miles from the Alamo 



Miss A. H. Eastman 



NO. 3 SETH EASTMAN BUSH NELL I 5 

Could the 15 paintings of Indian subjects which were acquired by 
the Art Union during the years 1848, 1849, and 1850 be assembled, 
they would form a collection of the greatest interest and importance, 
one not surpassed by the works of any other artist. Hut they are 
widely scattered, some are lost, and some may have been destroyed 
during the many years that have elapsed since they were distributed 
to members of the old organizatioiL However, two are described at 
this time which serve to indicate what the others may have been. 

The two paintings to which the preceding statement refers were 
distributed by the Art Union in December, 1849, ^"<^^ '^"^'^ the num- 
bers 167 and 169. The latter has already been described and illustrated 
in Plate 3. The second, number 167 in the Bulletin of the Art Union, 
December, 1849, is shown in I'late 12, and a photograph of the label 
attached to the stretcher is reproduced in Figure i. It portrays the 
Medicine Dance of the Sioux and is believed to have been a scene 
witnessed by the artist at one of the several native villages which then 
stood not far from Fort Snelling. It is a most interesting example 
of Eastman's earlier work and was probably made at the post. 

The ]\Iedicine Dance was one of the more important ceremonies of 
the Sioux, a very complete description of which was given some years 
ago I)}- one who had undoubtedly seen it enacted in the vicinity of 
F'ort Snelling. A brief quotation from the account will tend to make 
clear certain details of the painting. The superstitious beliefs of the 
people are first mentioned, with the traditional origin of the cere- 
mony, and then it continues to describe it as enacted : ' 

" Early in the morning the tent, in form like that which the god 
first erected for the jjurposes, is thrown open for the dance. The 
members assemble painted and ornamented, each bearing his medicine- 
sack. 

" After a few preliminary ceremonies, appropriate to the occasion, 
including a row of kettles of large dimensions, well filled and ar- 
ranged over a fire at the entrance of the court, guarded by sentries 
appointed for the occasion, the candidate takes his place on a pile of 
blankets which he and his friends have contributed." 

No two ceremonies would have been exactly the same, and this 
brief description is sufficiently clear to explain the scene as recorded 
on the canvas. On the left is a member, " painted and ornamented." 
carrying his medicine sack ; on the extreme right is visible " a row 
of kettles of large dimensions," and near the center, resting upon 
blankets, is one who mav be " the candidate." The large skin tipi, 



' Pond, G. H., Dakota superstitions. Coll. Alinnesota Hist. Soc, 1867. 



l6 SMITHSOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Sy 

opened and revealing a group of Indians witli a drum, may have been 
considered " in form like that which the god first erected for the 
purposes." 

IX TEXAS 

About the l)eginning of October, 1848, Captain Eastman left Fort 
Snelling. where he had served so many years, and passed down the 
Mississippi to N^ew Orleans. By the latter part of November he had 
arrived at San Antonio, but it is not known what route he had fol- 
lowed from Louisiana. He remained but a short time in San Antonio, 
then went some 65 miles north to Camp Houston, which had been 
established by the American forces near the town of Fredericksburg, 
where he remained until March 10. 1849. 

While in and about San Antonio Captain Eastman made some very 
beautiful ])encil and water-color sketches several of which are now 
reproduced. One small pencil sketch of the Alamo, dated Novem- 
l)er 22, 1848, bears this legend: " Front view of the Chapel in the 
Alamo, at San Antonio, Texas. David Crocket and 167 Texians 
were slain in this building l)y the Mexicans during the Texian Revo- 
lution.'' A few days later Eastman made the small water-color draw- 
ing which is now reproduced in Plate 13. This is signed with his 
initials and bears the date " Dec. 1848." Likewise on X'^ovember 22, 
1848, he made a pencil sketch of a ruined tower on which he wrote: 
" Old ]\Iexican lookout or watch tower at San Antonio, Texas, Two 
miles from the Alamo." A water-color drawing was later made of 
the ruin, a photograph of which is reproduced in Plate 13. Figure 2. 
This is signed '* S. Eastman, 1849." He also made a very beautiful 
pencil sketch of the " Mission Chapel of the Conception at San An- 
tonio, Texas. Xov. 28. 1848," signed " S. Eastman, L-. S. Army." 
These are of the greatest historical interest. 

Sketches made in the Aicinity of Camp Houston, near Fredericks- 
burg, show the quaint structures which had been reared by the German 
settlers, and scenes in and near the village. The live oaks which at- 
tain great size at Fredericksburg and in the surrounding country, 
attracted much attention and were often sketched but, unfortunatelv. 
the artist evinced little interest in the few Indians with whom he 
came in contact. 

Captain Eastman reached Washington during the winter of 1849- 
1850, where he remained more than five years preparing the numer- 
ous illustrations for Schoolcraft's work, " History. Conditions and 
Future Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States." For 
this purpose he made a great number of small water-color pictures, 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 3, PL. 15 




Size .SJ by 45 inches 



1. Indian Mode of Traveling 

House Ccimmittee un Indian Affairs, Capitol Building 




2. Spearing Fish in Winter 

House Committee on Indian Affairs, Capitol Building 



NO. 3 SETH EASTMAN BUSH NELL 1 7 

many of which were copied from original sketches made during the 
preceding years spent in the Indian country, others were composed 
and drawn for reproduction 1)y the engravers. But while engaged in 
making the illustrations for Schoolcraft's great work it is evident 
that Eastman painted other pictures of a more pretentious nature. 
One which he made in 1852 for his friend and neighbor, Peter Force, 
who then lived opposite the Eastman home on K Street, in Wash- 
ington, is shown in Plate 14. This beautiful example of Eastman's 
work is now owned by descendants of the one for whom it was 
painted. It is called " The Indian Council," and although the group- 
ing of the figures is quite similar to that of the painting made some 
years later for the Government, which is now hanging in the rooms 
of the House Committee on Indian Affairs, it dififers in many details 
and is a more pleasing picture. 

Having completed the Schoolcraft illustrations, Eastman served 
" with regiment at Forts Duncan and Chadbourne, Texas, 1855- 
1856." On October 31. 1856, he became a major and was attached 
to the Fifth Infantry; he was placed "on special duty in Quarter- 
master General's Office, Washington, D. C, 1857-1858." 

Having returned to his home in Washington, he again became 
interested in his paintings and early sketches of scenes in the upper 
Mississippi valley, and in 1857 he painted the canvas entitled " Ball 
Play on the Prairies." which was purchased by W. W. Corcoran and 
now hangs in the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington. D. C. 

Eastman became lieutenant colonel, ist Infantry, September 9, 
1861, and was retired December 3, 1863. He served in various 
capacities during the Civil War. 

On March 26, 1867. Congress passed a joint resolution which en- 
abled Eastman to paint the two groups of pictures which are owned 
by the government. This read in part : " It provides if the Presi- 
dent shall deem it proper to assign Brevet Brigadier General Seth 
Eastman, of the United States Army, now on the retired list, to 
duty, so as to entitle him to full pay, emoluments, and allowances 

of his lineal rank " The purpose of this was to have him 

execute paintings for the rooms " of the Committees on Indian 
Affairs and on Military Affairs of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives," to be made from his own designs, the work to be done 
under the supervision of the architect of the Capitol. In addition to 
the picture of a woman dressing a deer skin, already mentioned 
(pi. II), two other examples of his pictures painted for and now 
hanging in the rooms of the House Committee on Indian Affairs in 
the Capitol Building, are now reproduced (pi. 15, figs, i and 2). 



l8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

The first is entitled " Indian Mode of Traveling," and shows a long 
line of Indians, some mounted, others on foot, crossing the prairie. 
The second is one of the most beautiful of his many paintings, and 
bears the title " Spearing Fish in Winter." This wintry scene w-as 
described by Mrs. Eastman in her book already mentioned, and to 
cjuote in part : " In the picture an Indian is about taking a fine fish 
from ofl:' his spear ; the hatchet with which he broke the hole in the 
ice lies beside him. 

" He is dressed in the warm dress worn by the Dacotas in the 
winter, his head protected from the cold by the cornered hood, which 
is only worn by the men " 

These were the artist's last Indian pictures. A few years later, 
while engaged on the series of forts, he was stricken and died in 
Washington, D. C, August 31, 1875. 






SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLIlECTIONS ^''^2 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 4 \ /^i*K 



■Pa 



fo 






J^esearcl) Corporation iFunb 



THE PERIdUOMETER: AN INSTRUMENT 

FOR FINDING AND EVALUATING 

PERIODICITIES IN LONG SERIES 

OF OBSERVATIONS 



(With One Plate) 



BY 
G. G. ABBOT 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3138) 



GITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FEBRUARY 6, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOLUME 87. NUMBER 4 



iaesearcl) Corporation iFuntJ 



THE PERIODOMETER: AN INSTRUMENT 

FOR FINDING AND EVALUATING 

PERIODICITIES IN LONG SERIES 

OF OBSERVATIONS 

(With One Plate) 



BY 
G. G. ABBOT 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3138) 



GUY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FEBRUARY 6, 1932 



Z^t £ovi) (gaiiimovt (prcee 

BALTIMORE, MD., V. S. A. 



IResearcb Corporation jfun^ 

THE PERIODOMETER : AN INSTRUMENT FOR FINDING 

AND EVALUATING PERIODICITIES IN LONG 

SERIES OF OBSERVATIONS 

By C. G. abbot, 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

(With One Plate) 

In a paper entitled " Weather Dominated by Solar Changes," ' I 
described and illustrated a method of finding and evaluating periodici- 
ties by computation. My method consisted first in plotting the lengthy 
series of observational data on a large scale and scanning them from 
a distance in order to perceive tendencies, if any, toward a repetition 
of minima at some nearly regular interval. 

Such an interval of 8 months seemed to appear in the plot of solar 
variation in the years 1924 to 1930. To test it and evaluate it, I ar- 
ranged the 1 0-day mean solar-constant values in a table of 24 columns. 
The top line contained the values for the first 8 months, the second 
line those for the second 8 months, and so on until the data were ex- 
hausted. Mean values of the vertical columns were then taken. These 
indicated plainly the reality of the 8-month periodicity in solar varia- 
tion, and determined the distribution of it. The mean form found for 
the curve of this periodicity did not approximate a sine curve, but 
showed a short quick rise from the minimum and a long slow decline 
from the maximum to the minimum. 

The second step in computation was to subtract from the original 
data values representing the average march of the 8-month periodicity. 
A new curve of partial solar variation resulted, from which the aver- 
age 8-month periodicity had been cleared. This residual curve was 
next scanned, and seemed to display an 1 1 -month periodicity. It was 
evaluated and removed from the residual data in the same way that 
the 8-month periodicity had been evaluated and removed from the 
original data. The 11 -month periodicity showed a double maximum 
and still less resembled a sine form than the 8-month periodicity. 

A 45-month periodicity and a 25-month periodicity were similarly 
discovered, evaluated, and removed. In Figure i , the residual curve C 



* Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 85, no. i, 1931. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 4 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 




Fig. I. — Monthly mean sols 



NO. 4 



THE PERIODOMETER ABBOT 




,tiis analysed for periodicity. 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

of solar variation, after thus evaluating and removing these four 
periodicities of 8, ii, 25, and 45 months, is compared with the original 
data shown in curve A. One other periodicity above 8 months ap- 
pears conspicuously in curve C, namely, one of 68 months, as indi- 
cated by the smoothed curve. No other periodicity of importance 
remaining, the computation was concluded at that point. It had dis- 
closed that the solar variation since 1918, as depicted by the march 
of monthly mean values, is adequately represented as the sum of five 
regular periodicities of 8, 11, 25, 45, and 68 months, whose sum is 
given in curve B of Figure i. Curve B is drawn below curve A to 
avoid confusion, but will be seen to be a very close copy of curve A, 
except in the early years when the observations were least satisfactory. 

I would like to emphasize that none of these five periodicities is 
of sine form, though the 68-month residual is not far from it. I would 
like also to remark that these five necessary and sufficient constituents 
of the solar variation since 1918 are not related to each other in length 
in the ratios i : | : ^ : :^ : |^ as would have been the periodicities used in 
Fourier analyses. It seems to me that the method which I have used 
leads more directly to true and significant relations than the arbitrary 
fitting of a curve by the classical methods based on Fourier analysis. 

It occurred to me that the various steps used in computing might 
be done by a machine. Having suggested its design, I was so fortunate 
as to receive a grant of $1,000 from the Research Corporation of 
New York to aid in the construction. The work was done mainly by 
Mr. A. Kramer, instrument maker of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory. Finding some difficulty, however, with the two large 
grooved barrels, each equipped with 152 sliders and a clamping de- 
vice, these parts were very accurately made to my order by the 
Gaertner Scientific Corporation of Chicago. 

Plate I gives a photograph of the completed instrument. A steel 
scale, a, with double graduation into millimeters and half millimeters, 
respectively, enables the observer to set up the data on the right-hand 
drum. This he does by rotating the knurled wheel, b, which, through 
gearing, engages a rack at o, on which is carried a vertical displaceable 
pawl. This pawl is adapted to engage successively the sliders, d, d, 
152 in number, and push them along their grooves to proper settings, 
as measured by the scale, a. Check screw-clamps are provided to stop 
the rack at zero of the scale, a, on each return motion, whether to 
left as just indicated or to right as mentioned below. Thus a long 
curve, determined by the original data, is set up on the right-hand 
drum, and its sliders are clamped and fixed immovably by the screw 
and band, e, e. A small vice-clamp, /, operated by a knurled head now 






NO. 4 THE PERIODOMETER — ABBOT 5 

grasps one of the sliders on the left-hand drum. The vertical pawl 
used in pushing the sliders of the right-hand drum to their positions 
is now pushed by the rack and knurled wheel, h, until it touches the 
slider lying at the top of the right-hand drum. A train of gearing. 
g, h, variable through ratios ^, ^, ?,. and ^ operates simultaneously a 
rack carrying the knurled head and its vise-clamp, /, and thereby 
pushes the front slider on the left-hand drum through ^ (or other 
preferred fraction) of the travel of the pawl. 

Returning to zero of the scale, a, the two drums are then moved 
forward one division by making a single rotation of the knurled 
wheel, i. The above process is repeated until as many sliders are set 
on the left-hand drum as there are data in the periodicity sought. Let 
us assume for illustration that these data number 8. Thus the indi- 
vidual values of this interval of 8 data are reproduced on J scale on 
the left-hand drum. That drum is now reversed to its starting posi- 
tion, and a new series of 8 pushes is made. As these new pushes start 
from the positions already attained, we now have the average of the 
first 1 6 data reproduced on f scale. Repeating the process until 40 
data are covered, the left-hand drum then exhibits the mean value of 
the 8-datum periodicity over an interval of 40 data. 

If the periodicity sought seems real, as revealed by the form of the 
mean curve thus determined, it may next be read off and recorded. 
Fresh data on the right-hand drum may then be used to give a second 
and a third determination of the 8-datum period. If these new deter- 
minations of it harmonize fairly with the first, then it is clear that the 
8-datum period exists throughout the w^hole interval of the data. A 
mean of the three determinations is taken to represent it. 

The general mean form of the 8-datum periodicity is next set up 
on the left-hand drum and clamped. The sliders of the right-hand 
drum are loosened. Then, employing the vise-clamp, ;, and a second 
pawl available for the left-hand drum, all the sliders on the right-hand 
drum are moved toward the left through distances determined by the 
periodic setting of the sliders of the left-hand drum. This average 
8-datum periodicity is used end to end successively so as to remove 
completely the average 8-datum periodicity from all the original data. 
Thus a residual curve remains, from which the average 8-datum 
periodicity has been eliminated. 

The same procedure is repeated with any other periodicities which 
seem to be displayed by the settings of the sliders on the right-hand 
drum, until all promising possibilities are exhausted. 

It is frequently desirable to take consecutive means of several data 
at a time in order to smooth a long series of observations. This is 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

readily done with the periodometer. The original data are set up as 
usual on the right-hand drum. They are then all consecutively trans- 
ferred to the left-hand drum on a scale of |, |, or accordant to any 
preferred smoothing grouping of five or less. The left-hand drum is 
then set back by the interval of one groove, and the transfer of all the 
data is made a second time. This process is repeated five times, four 
times, or to correspond with whatever consecutive grouping is chosen. 
The left-hand drum will then have set up upon it a curve on the same 
scale as the original curve, but smoothed by consecutive means. This 
curve may be read ofT and recorded or it may be transferred back to 
the right-hand drum as follows : Set the right-hand check screw- 
clamp corresponding to zero of the scale, a, and all the right-hand 
sliders at zero. Disconnect the gear train, g, h, and set the left-hand 
pawl as described above for eliminating evaluated periodicities. Turn 
the knurled wheel, h, towards the left till the pawl touches a slider, 
clamp the right-hand clamp, ;', and turn back to zero of scale, a. 
Repeat for all the data of the smoothed curve, and the right-hand 
drum will then have upon it the smoothed curve set up ready for 
periodicity determinations. 

As yet the periodometer has not been extensively used. It may be 
that after longer experience with it additional automatic features may 
be introduced which will promote speed of operation. In its present 
form it works well. 



# 




SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOLUME 87, NUMBER 5 



THE NARRATIVE OF A SOUTHERN 
CHEYENNE WOMAN 



BY 

TRUMAN MIGHELSON 

Ethnologist, Bureau of American Etiinology 




MAR 21 1932 




(PlMU.ICATIOV 3140) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MARGH 21, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 5 



THE NARRATIVE OF A SOUTHERN 
CHEYENNE WOMAN 



BY 

TRUMAN MICHELSON 
Ethnologist, Bureau of American Ethnology 




(PUBLICATION" 3140) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MARCH 21, 1932 



ZS)e Bovb QSaftimore (preeet 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



THE NARRATIVE OF A SOUTHERN CHEYENNE 

WOMAN 

By TRUMAN MICHELSON, 

ETHNOLOGIST, BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 

The following narrative was obtained for me by Mack Haag near 
Calumet, Okla., in the summer of 193 1. I have corrected the English 
slightly, but otherwise the narrative is given as written out by Haag. 
I hereby express my warmest thanks. 

A few ethnological notes, appearing as footnotes, are added as an 
aid to the comprehension of the text. These are not exhaustive and 
are confined for the most part to published Cheyenne sources. Inci- 
dentally they bear witness to the authenticity of the narrative. 

NARRATIVE 

My mother is 80 years old and is still living in apparently good 
health. If my father were living he would be about 85 years old. 
I do not remember in what year he died. My father's sister is also 
dead. She died when she was 102 years old. This aunt of mine was 
the person who instructed me in all the ways of courtship.' 

I want to mention an incident that was later told me by my mother. 
She said that I was taught to ride horseback alone when I was 4 year? 
old. Of course, I do not remember this. 

Whenever they moved camp I was tied onto the saddle. One day, 
they say, I, or rather the pony, was lagging behind. My saddle girth 
became loose, and I and the saddle were under the horse's belly. 
Luckily the pony was very gentle. 

When I became an older girl I was rather expert in riding horse- 
back. This was my greatest sport. I even rode untamed ponies. Of 
course, sometimes I was thrown off by ponies who bucked very badly. 

Ever since I can remember I had a bed of my own in my parents' 
tipi.^ This bed consisted of willow head and foot uprights.'' My own 
bags were placed against the wall of the tipi. The wall of the bed also 
included buffalo hides." My pillows were decorated with porcupine 

' I do not know whether or not instruction in courtship, etc., given by a pater- 
nal aunt to her niece is institutional. 

* The beds ranged around the walls of a Cheyenne tipi : see Grinnell, George 
Bird. The Cheyenne Indians, vol. i, p. 225. New Haven, 1923. 

' Compare Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, pp. 242, 243, vol. 2, p. 365. 

* See Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, p. 225. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 5 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

quills.' My bed was always placed farthest from the door of the tipi, 
a place of honor.' 

My mother taught me everything connected with the tipi, such as 
cooking and tanning hides for dififerent purposes. The first pair of 
moccasins I made were for my father. " You are very good in mak- 
ing moccasins," he said with a smile. " they are very nice." This 
encouraged me greatly. 

My mother would show me how to twist the sinews, and how to cut 
the soles and uppers of the moccasins for dififerent sizes. I became 
very competent in this work at an early age. I used to make moc- 
casins for other children, beaded as well as plain ones. I was always 
well rewarded for my work by the parents of the children. 

Whenever we moved camp I always managed to catch my own 
riding pony, and to pack my personal belongings on another pony 
which was used for that purpose only. 

My mother would always tell me that the main purpose of her 
teaching me, as well as the object of my owning my own bed. was to 
keep me at home, and to keep me from being away to spend my nights 
with my girl chum. This was done so that there would be no chance 
for gossip by other people. 

My parents were very proud of me. In fact they treated me as if 
I were a male member of the family. They took the greatest pains 
to have me well dressed. Even my saddle was decorated. I also 
owned an elk-tooth dress." This was afforded by only a very few. 
And it was by no means considered obtained by luck, but by years of 
hard hunting. 

One day when we were moving, my mother taught me how to put 
a pack on the pony. This was a new pony unaccustomed to being 
packed. I noticed it would not stand still. When we turned it loose 
with the other pack animals it ran away and caused much excitement. 

Apart from the regular training my mother gave me, she made for 
me the paraphernalia of the deer-hoof bone game, which are strung 
and looped at the end of a string.* The game is played by girls ; and 
after maturity young men and young women participate in the game, 
sitting in alternate places. I was rather an expert in this game. I 
was always placed near the door. This was because I was a good 
player. In the alternate positions the young men were recognized 
as sweethearts whether they actually were or not. 



^ For pillows decorated with porcupine quills see Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. i86. 

^ See Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, p. 73. 
' ^ See Grinnell. loc. cit., vol. i, p. 224. 

* See Culin. Stewart, Games of the North American Indians, 24th Ann. Rep. 
Bur. Amer. Ethnol.. pp. 527 et seq., and ^2g-^^$, 1007. 



NO. 5 NARRATIVE OF A CHEYENNE WOMAN MICHELSON 3 

In my girlhood days we girls played what we called '" tiny play." 
This play imitated the customs and ways of the grown-up people. 
Our mothers made rag dolls of women, men, boys, girls, and babies. 
We used forked sticks to represent ponies, and we mounted the tiny 
people on the fork of the sticks, pretending to move camp. Sometimes 
a baby would be born ; or, a marriage would take place — in fact any- 
thing that we knew about older people. In this play we did not allow 
any boys to play with us girls. We had rag dolls to represent boys. 

After a time as I became a little older we played what we called 
" large play." ^ This play consisted of real people, namely, boys and 
girls. The boys would go out hunting (really, go to their tipis) and 
bring meat and other food. We girls would pitch our tipis and make 
ready everything as if it were a real camp life. Some of the boys 
would go on the warpath, and always came home victorious. They 
would relate their war experiences, telling how successful they were, 
especially with the Pawnee (Wolf Men). We girls would sing war 
songs to acknowledge the bravery of our heroes. Of course, we would 
have marriage feasts, dances, etc. Sometimes we had the Sun Dance.^ 
In this play we did not use real food, but baked mud bread and used 
leaves for dishes. The pledger and the woman were there. We would 
have our children's ears pierced ^ and gave away horses. Some of 
the boys would have their breasts pierced with cactus thorns, others 
dragged buffalo skulls (which were really chunks of dead wood). 
Sometimes the older boys would come. When we saw them we al- 
ways stopped and scattered. My aunt told me not to play with young 
men. 

At one time — I remember the incident well — while we were play- 
ing with boys some young men came upon us. One of them took after 
me and seized the sleeve of my dress and tore it off. I surely was 
frightened, not that I feared bodily injury, but because I thought, 
" Here is a young man trying to bestow his manly attentions on me." 
It all seemed so strange and bewildering to me. Eventually this young 
man would come and see me, to court me.* At first I was verv much 



^ For a similar game among the Crow see Lowie, R., The material culture of 
the Crow Indians, Anthrop. Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 21, pt. 3, p. 249, 
1922. 

^ On the Cheyenne Sun Dance see. Dorsey, G. A., The Cheyenne, II. The Sun 
Dance, Field Columbian Mus. Pub. 103, Anthrop. Sen, vol. 9, no. 2, 1905 ; Grin- 
nell, loc. cit., vol. 2, pp. 211 et seq. ; Petter, R., English-Cheyenne Dictionary, 
article " Sun Dance," pp. 1028-1030, Kettle Falls, Wash., 1913-1915. 

'For ear-piercing see Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, pp. 61, 62, 105-107, 149: vol. 2, 
p. 276; Petter, loc. cit., p. 181 (article "bred"). 

* According to Grinnell the modern Cheyenne courtship is like that of the 
Sioux; see loc. cit., vol. i, pp. 131 et seq. 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

afraid to venture outside after dark. I would always ask my mother 
to accompany me before I would go out. My mother furnished me 
rawhide twine and a piece of hide to use as a diaper which was se- 
curely tied around my hips and pudendum. This was done to preserve 
my virtue against the attacks of an overanxious young man.* 

My aunt (father's sister) had heard that a certain young man had 
begun to look upon me seriously. She came over and began to tell me 
what to say and how to act in the presence of this young man. She 
said : 

I hear you are beginning to have admirers. Your father and mother have 
reared you with great care. Your father especially has seen to it that you have 
had good things to wear such as other girls of your age do not have. And your 
mother has taught you with great patience the art of things that each woman 
is supposed to know so that she might make a good and successful wife. As 
you go through life all these things and what I am now telling you will be of 
great benefit to you. You will be in a position to teach your children if you 
have any. It is silly to exchange too many glances and smiles with this young 
man, especially in the presence of people. He will think j^ou are too easy and 
immoral. When he comes to see you at night you must never run away from 
him. If you do so this indicates that you are silly and not sufficiently taught 
and educated to respect the attentions of a suitor. You must never consent to 
marry your suitor the first time he asks you to marry him, no matter how good 
looking he may be. Tell him you would like to associate with him for some time 
yet to come. And if he really thinks anything of you he will not be discouraged, 
but will continue his visits and come to see you. When he comes at night do 
not let him stay too long, but ask him please to go. If you let him stay till he 
is ready to go he will think you are in love with him and will surely think less 
of you. You must always be sure to take great care to tie the hide under your 
dress, covering your pudendum, with strong raw hide string. You must remem- 

^ Compare Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, p. 131. Though not exploited by modern 
ethnologists " roping " was common enough among Indians of the Great Plains ; 
for the Sioux see Beckwith, M. W., Journ. Amer. Folk-Lore, 43, p. 361, foot- 
note 2; for the Assiniboin see Denig, 46th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., p. 590; 
for the Arapaho, cf. Vestal, S., Kit Carson, p. 122; for the Cheyenne and Arapaho 
see also Dodge, Col. R. I., Our Wild Indians, pp. 195, 196, 203, 212, 213. For 
the benefit of those who are not specialists I am constrained to say that Colonel 
Dodge's book can be used only with discrimination. I pass over such absurdities 
as the statement (p. 204) that an unmarried girl is never sent out to cut and 
bring wood, etc., for these are easily controlled by general factual knowledge 
as well as numerous documentary sources of information. Much more subtle 
than this are various statements regarding sex mores which are scattered 
throughout the book. The trained ethnologist will see that they are incompatible 
(see for example, pp. 195, 196, 203, 208, 211, 213 as opposed to pp. 210, 213) ; 
the casual reader will not. It is largely owing to the uncritical use of such 
sources that the main thesis of Briffault's The Mothers cannot be sustained. I 
lay stress on this because zoologists will pounce upon this work to bolster their 
own theories regarding human social origins (see now Aliller, G. S., jr.. The 
primate basis of human behavior. Quart. Rev. Biol., vol. 6, pp. 379-410). 



XO. 5 NARRATIVE OF A CHEYEXNE WOMAN MICHELSON 5 

ber that when a man touches >-our breasts and vulva he considers that you belong 
to him.' And in the event that he does not care to marry you he will not hide 
what he has done to you, and you will be considered immoral. And you will not 
have a chance to marry into a good family. In short, you will not be purchased, 
which is surely the ambition of all young women.^ What I mean by marrying 
into a good family is that the young man's people are not liars, thieves, or lazy, 
nor have they committed any offensive crime. If you allow the young man to 
take advantage of you willingly he will make jokes and sing songs with words 
about you. The people will know and we will be embarrassed and ashamed, 
especially since you have been brought up and taught in a good way. You must 
also bear in mind that there will be other young men who will come to see you. 
They will want to find out if you will succomb easily. If they are serious and 
approach the subject of marriage, turn them ofif by saying something nice about 
the young man who had been seeing you previously. In any case, you must 
never say anything bad or call any one names, nor remark on their looks or on 
the poverty of their people. The old saying is, " The birds of the air fly up 
above but are caught some day." ^ If you say bad things or call one bad names, 
the one insulted will crawl into the tipi and fondle you while you are asleep ; * 
and he will boast of knowing you. It will also be considered that the man is 
then your husband. Your denial will not help you. You will be placed at the 
mercy of gossipers. 

After I had reached the age of young womanhood, I was not single 
very much longer. One afternoon I was visiting my girl chum. When 
I came home that evening there were a number of old men in my 
father's tipi : I also noticed much fresh meat. I asked my mother 

' For touching the breasts compare for the Crow, Lowie, R., The Sun Dance 
of the Crow Indians, Anthrop. Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. i6, p. 42, 
1915: for the Thompson Indians, Teit, J., The Thompson Indians of British 
Columbia, Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, Anthrop., vol. i, Jesup N. Pac. Exp., 
vol. I, pt. 4, pp. 323, 324, 1900; for the Lillooet, Teit, J., The Lillooet Indians, 
Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Anthrop., vol. 3, Jesup N. Pac. Exp., vol. 2, pt. 5, 
p. 268. 1906 ; for the Shuswap, Teit, J., ibid., pt. 7, p. 59i, ipOQ ; for the feeling of 
ownership after touching the vulva, I have abundant confirmatory statements 
from various Cheyenne informants ; see also Beckwith, loc. cit. ; cf. also Czaplicka, 
M. A., Aboriginal Siberia, Oxford, pp. 84, 87, 1914. 

"Compare also Lowie, R., Primitive society. New York, 1920; Dorsey, J. O., 
Siouan sociology, 15th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., p. 242, 1897, quotes 
Matthew to the effect that among the Hidatsa the woman is not merely sold to 
the highest bidder. Among the Fox Indians of today the exchange of goods is 
the important point ; it is not purchase. 

^ As is known, proverbs, charades, the story within the story, the riddle, ani- 
mal tales of the type of " The Fox and the Crow " are either unknown or very 
rare in aboriginal America. 

^A similar trick was done among the Crow Indians; but the guilty man 
thereby was automatically barred from leadership in the white clay expedition 
of the Sun Dance. See Lowie, R., Social life of the Crow Indians, Anthrop. 
Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, vol. 9, pt. 2, p. 221, 1912 ; The Sun Dance of the 
Crow Indians, ibid., p. 42. For the same trick among the Sioux, See Beckwith, 
loc. cit. 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

what it was all about, and what those old men were here for. She 
said, " My daughter, these men are here to deliver a message, asking 
the consent of your father that you marry a male of their family.' 
And I want to tell you that your father has consented. However, he 
will speak to you later." My father said to me. " My daughter, these 
men have come here to ask my consent to your marriage. Five horses 
and other things will be sent over in the morning. I have consented. 
Now I myself want to hear what you think." I made no reply. I was 
frightened. But at any rate the horses were brought over the next 
morning. My male relatives were called to select their horses, but 
before doing that the}- called me in and asked me what I thought. 
My paternal uncle started to talk to me saying how^ well my parents 
had brought me up, and stated that marriage by purchase was con- 
sidered one of the greatest and happiest events in one's life." He said, 
" I know that this is your father's desire. As you can see, he is get- 
ting on in years. His eyesight is not very good. This young man will 
look after the necessary w-ork for your father. However, we do not 
wish to do anything against your will. Now, let us hear from you." 
I then said to them, " Since my father has consented to the ofifer of 
marriage by purchase, I also agree to the proposed marriage. I love 
my father, and whatever he deems best for me, that I will do. I can- 
not refuse my father's wishes for those reasons." ^ They were all 
glad to hear me, showing it by their sincere approval. 

They then proceeded to select their own horses, one at a time. They 
were all good saddle horses. They in turn gave their own horses. 
My people saddled one of the horses on which I rode over to my 
future husband's people, leading the four other horses. My future 
husband's Avomen folk met me near their camps and I dismounted. 
They carried me on the blanket the rest of the way, and let me down 
at the entrance of my future husband's tipi. I walked in and sat be- 
side him. This young man was no sweetheart of mine : he was a 
stranger to me : he never had come to see me when I was still single. 
I wondered if I would learn to love him in the future. After some 
little time the women brought in many shawls, dresses, rings, brace- 
lets, leggings, and moccasins. They then had me change clothes. They 
braided my hair * and painted my face with red dots on my cheeks. 
When I was completely arrayed in my marriage clothes I was told 

* On Cheyenne marriage see Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, pp. 137 et seq. 
" See footnote 2, on page 5. 

^ If Grinnell is right, this reply is not institutional but personal. From my 
own field-work among the Plains Cree. I can vouch that there at least the girl 
has the final say. 

* For the braiding of the liair of Cheyenne females see Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. I, 
pp. 59, 60. 



NO. 5 NARRATIVE OF A CHEYENNE WOMAN MICHELSON / 

to return to my people. My husband's women folk carried the bal- 
ance of my clothing to my tipi. In the meantime my mother and 
aunt had prepared a large feast. Towards evening my own tipi was 
erected. The cryer called in a loud voice inviting all my husband's 
relatives, naming my husband as the host. My husband came over 
with his male relatives. While there they told jokes, and some related 
their war exploits ; still others narrated funny things that had hap- 
pened to them in the earlier days. 

After I was married I thought I would have more freedom in going 
around with my girl friends, but my mother watched me more closely 
and kept me near my husband, day and night. This was done to pre- 
vent any gossip from my husband's people. 

A year or so before I married we played games. In the fall of the 
year we played " kick ball." ' This is played by kicking and counting 
the number of times the ball is kicked with one foot with the ball not 
touching the ground. Some girls could keep the ball in the air with a 
tally of 50 or 60. We had tally sticks to keep count, 150 of them. The 
side that won took the ball. The losers ran away from the winners 
who chased the losers all about the camp, pounding them on the back 
with the ball. This created merriment and excitement. Even those 
who did not participate in the '" kick ball " game were tagged and 
became " it." A person tagged before could not become " it." The 
losers were supposed to give food to the winners, and so the game 
ended. 

There was another game played by us young women on the frozen 
lake or river. We had dart sticks 10 or 12 feet long, smooth and 
straight. In one end of the dart sticks was the tip of a buffalo horn, 
about 4 inches long. The dart stick was thrown with great force on 
the ice and it slid a great distance.' This was a sort of gambling game. 
We bet our ear rings, finger rings, bracelets, hair-braid ties, and other 
things. 

In the spring of the year we played shinny, using clubs to drive 
the ball. There were 20 to 40 players on each side.* 

With the approach of summer our attention was directed to horse- 
back riding. Even after I was married my husband and I would 
travel on horseback. It was a long time before we had a wagon. 



'See Culin, loc. cit., p. 706; Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, pp. 330 et seq. ; Petter, 
loc. cit., p. 831. 

' See Culin, loc. cit., pp. 399, 400, 401 ; Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. I, pp. 334- 335 ; 
Petter, loc. cit., p. 830. 

= See Culin, loc. cit., p. 620: Petter, loc. cit., p. 828. 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

2\Iy parents continued to care for us.' My mother did all the cook- 
ing," but my husband's meals were always taken to our own tipi. This 
was for me to do. My mother and my husband were not allowed in 
the same tipi at the same time.^ My mother took especial care that 
my husband received the best portion of food. My husband's duty 
was to look after the horses and do all the work that was required of 
a man. 

We had our first child after we had been married a year. It was 
at this time that I began really to love my husband. He always treated 
me with respect and kindness. We had eight children before he died. 
The first decorated tipi I made was after I had had my fourth child.^ 
Of course when I was a girl my mother permitted me to look on when 



^ jMatrilocal residence is attested for the Cheyenne by both Grinnell (loc. cit., 
vol. I, p. 91) and Mooney (with the quahfication "not always"; see his The 
Cheyenne Indians, Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Assoc, vol. i. pt. 6, pp. 410, 411, 1907). 
It is confirmed by my own field-work. Matrilocal residence is a very different 
thing from exogamy with female descent. This last is claimed for the Cheyenne 
by Grinnell : see his Social Organization of the Cheyennes, Proc. Internat. Cong. 
Americanists for 1902, pp. 135-146, New York, 1905; The Cheyenne Indians, 
vol. I, pp. 90 et seq., New Haven, 1923 ; per contra see Clark, W. P., The Indian 
sign language, p. 229, Philadelphia, 1885 [Mooney's reference to p. 235 also, is due 
to some error] ; Mooney, J., The Ghost Dance religion, 14th Ann. Rep. Bur. 
Amer. Ethnol, p. 956, 1896; Mooney, J., Kiowa calendar, 17th Ann. Rep. Bur. 
Amer. Ethnol., p. 227, 1898 ; Mooney, J., The Cheyenne Indians, Mem. Amer. 
Anthrop. Assoc, vol. i, pt. 6, pp. 408-410, 1907. I do not think it can be said that 
Grinnell has successfully contested Mooney's strictures. My own field-work 
among the Cheyenne (beginning in 191 1) confirms Mooney's position by state- 
ments of informants and genealogies. I wonder if Grinnell's informants may not 
have had Crow blood and thus given a wrong impression, for the Crow are 
organized in exogamic groups with female descent. In justice to Grinnell it should 
be noted that he expressly states that " evidence of a clan system is not 
conclusive." 

^ For other courtesies shown by a Cheyenne mother-in-law to her son-in-law, 
see Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, vol. i, pp. 146, 147, New Haven, 1923. 

' Though this particular avoidance is only implied by Grinnell, loc. cit. 
vol. I, p. 147, there is no doubt that it was institutional among the Cheyenne : 
the same thing occurs among the Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Gros Ventre, and prob- 
ably elsewhere : see E. T. Denig, Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri, 46th 
Ann.. Rep. Bur, Amer. Ethnol., p. 511, 1930; Kroeber, A., Ethnology of the 
Gros Ventre, Anthrop. Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. i, pt. 4, p. 180, 1908 ; 
Wissler, C, The social life of the Blackfoot Indians, Anthrop. Papers Amer. 
Mus. Nat, Hist., vol. 7, pt. i, pp. 12, 13, 191 1. 

* Four is the " holy " number among the Cheyenne. See Dorsey, G. A., The 
Cheyenne, I, Ceremonial organization. Field Columbian Mus. Pub!. 99, Anthrop. 
Ser., vol. 9, no. i, pp. i, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 16, 19, 20, 23, 28, 32. 33, 1905 ; II, The 
Sun Dance, Field Columbian Mus. Publ. 103, Anthrop. Ser., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 60, 
63, 91, 96, 99, 100, 144, 159, etc., 1905 ; Grinnell, loc cit., vol. 2. pp. 197, 205, 
214, 227, 228, 229, 236, 237, 245, 251, 257, 288, 289, 291, 292, 297, 321, etc. ; Alooney, 



NO. 5 NARRATIVE OF A CHEYENNE WOMAN MICHELSON 9 

she made decorated tipis. There is a rather long ceremony in connec- 
tion with the making of tipis. I became a member of the " Tipi Deco- 
rators." which is composed of women only.' I was very carefully 
instructed never to disclose the ceremony in the presence of males. 
So I shall be obliged to discontinue the subject. 

My husband's health became broken. We summoned many Indian 
doctors, and gave away much personal wearing apparel, and also some 
ponies. One day when we were alone he pledged a Sacrifice Ofifering. 
This ceremony is a sacred ritual which is regarded as a prayer to the 
spirits for strength and health. When he made the pledge this in- 
cluded me, for the rule requires that a wife must be included. But sad 
to say, he passed away before we could carry out the pledge. 

Four of my younger children also died later. It was a good thing 
for me that my father and mother were still living. I did not really 
have a hard time to support my children. 

I surely loved my husband. His death made me very lonely, and it 
was a terrible event in my life. Apparently I missed him more than 
I did my children who died afterward. My hair was cut off just be- 
low my ears.' This was done by an old woman who had obtained the 
authority by participating in one or more sacred ritualistic ceremonies 
previously. Before cutting off my braids she first raised both her 
hands towards the sky. touched the earth with the palms of her hands, 
laid her hands on my head, and made a downward motion, repeating 
the motion four times. Thus my braids were cut off in accordance 
with the belief that the spirits would be pleased and extend blessings 
and sympathy to the bereaved. The old woman who cut my hair was 
given a blanket and a dress. 

The death of my husband marked the passing of our tipi, includ- 
ing all the contents. If people do not come and carry away something, 
the whole tipi is destroyed by fire.' 

J.. The Cheyenne Indians, Mem. Amer. Anthrop. Assoc, vol. i, pt. 6, p. 411, 1907. 
It is extremely common among North American Indians, but Mooney's gen- 
eralization is too sweeping; see for example, Lowie, R., Primitive religion, 
p. 284. New York, 1924. 

This note applies to all the references to the number four in the followmg 

' See Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, pp. I59 et seq., for lemale societies among the 
Cheyenne ; also Petter, loc. cit., article " bead," pp. 97, 98. 

= Compare Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 161. The same thing occurs elsewhere, 
c g among the Arapaho, Gros Ventre, and Blackfoot: see Kroeber, A., The 
Arapaho, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 18, pt. i, p. 16, 1902; Kroeber A., 
Ethnology of the Gros Ventre, Anthrop. Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. i, 
pt. 4, p. 181, 1908; Wissler, C, The social life of the Blackfoot Indians, Anthrop. 
Papers Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 7, Pt- i, P- 3i, 1912. 

' See also Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 162. 



lO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

After two years I heard that a man had pledged a Sacrifice Offer- 
ing/ My father and mother immediately advised me to go and see 
this man in order to be permitted to fulfill my deceased husband's 
pledge. My father said the pledge could not be set aside and neglected 
any longer, in spite of what had happened in the past.' So I went to see 
this man and his wife. They readily agreed to my request. They told 
me to be ready soon thereafter. They said they had everything that was 
needed in connection with the ceremony and that I need not worry 
about these things. They also said he had taken the sacred pipe to the 
priest to teach and lead them. This pleased me greatly as I had nothing 
to do now, and only waited to be notified when all was ready. The day 
before the ceremony proper green timbers were brought from the 
forest in order to have them in readiness for the following day. The 
day the timber is brought in the tipi is erected, that is, in the evening. 

The ritualistic ceremony itself begins early the next day. The 
pledgers are required to dress in their best clothing. The clothing thus 
worn becomes the property of the painters. The first thing the priest 
does is to prepare the Sacrifice OiTering cloth. Though other things 
can be used, such as black, white, red solid-colored or striped cloth — 
and gray eagle also — we used a striped cloth which the priest tied 
to a long stick. This is, of course, inside of the tipi. After this the 
priest smokes the medicine pipe and points the mouthpiece of the 
pipe to the four directions of the earth and towards the skies. The 
pipe is then passed to the left. The first person on the left of the 
priest smokes it, and so on, down to the doorway. The pipe is then 
passed backward without being smoked and is passed to the right of 
the priest until it reaches the last person near the doorway. This 
person smokes it, then the next person on his left, and so on until 
the pipe again reaches the priest. He then empties the bowl of the 
pipe. The pipe is then put away. The priest instructs the pledgers 
how to raise and point the stick to the proper directions when they 
go out. They then go outside. The person in the lead takes the stick 
and cloth. The priest begins to pray, and then sings medicine songs. 
At the end of each song he tells those outside to point the stick south- 
east, then southwest, then northwest, then northeast, and then straight 



^ Though this particular ceremony apparently is absent from published works 
on the Cheyenne, it is abundantly clear that the elements which compose it are 
simply old Cheyenne material recombined in slightly varying ways. The annota- 
tions will bring this out more clearly. Years ago I demonstrated the same 
thing for Fox gens festivals. 

^ The nonfulfillment of a pledge was fraught with supernatural disaster ; 
compare Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 195. 



NO. 5 NARRATIVE OF A CHEYENNE WOMAN MICHELSON II 

towards the sky. Anyone may then take the cloth and touch one's 
body all over with it, thereby receiving a blessing from the spirits. 

They then reenter the tipi. The ground is then broken by making 
dents in the earth four times, in the same manner as the pointing 
previously. The ground is made very smooth, and a hole is made 
for a fireplace in the center. Clean white sand is then laid on this 
clearing, representing the sky.' The coals of fire are scattered here 
and there, representing stars. There are four holy places on the sand, 
the home of the spirits ; and the holes are made in the same sequence of 
directions as given above. The path from the entrance into the tipi 
is marked with powdered coals towards the fireplace. A full moon "" 
is between the fireplace and the entrance. Beyond the fireplace is the 
crescent moon.^ These moons are made of black powdered coals. 
There are four buffalo chips ^ placed in front of the priest. The 
medicine bags are placed on top of the buft'alo chips before they are 
untied and opened. Before they are opened the priest spits medicine 
on one's hands four times, and passing motions are made, first using 
the right hand by making a drawing motion on the right leg, then the 
left hand on the right arm, next the right hand on the left arm, then 
the left hand on the right leg ; and both hands backwards over the 
head." This is required for old people. Young women are required 
to make a downward motion in front of their bodies, indicating an 
easy child-birth. 

The pledgers are stripped of their clothing. The painters paint 
their bodies red ; but in the case of women their arms and legs are 
painted, but not their bodies, and their faces are painted red with 
black circles all over ; others ha^e the paint represent the ground, 
namely, four black specks on the face and middle of the nose. When 
the painting is done, coals of fire are taken from the fireplace. 
Pinches of medicine are placed on fire which is in front of each per- 
son. Motion is made with both hands towards the smoke, and in- 
halation takes place. During the performance the priest sings medi- 
cine songs, one song for each performance. When all is done the 
pipe is pointed * to the four directions without being lit, and after it 

* For the ceremonial use of sand compare Dorsey, G. A., loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 65 ; 
Grimiell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 261. 

* For the ceremonial use of a full moon compare Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, p. 196. 
^ For the ceremonial use of the crescent moon compare Grinnell, loc. cit., 

vol. I, p. 193 ; vol. 2, pp. 24. 270. 

* For the ceremonial use of buft'alo chips compare Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, 
pp. 87, 121 ; vol. 2, pp. 18, Z2, 37, 57, 245 ; etc. 

"The ceremonial motions described by Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, p. 160, are 
nearly the same. 
° For pointing the pipe, compare Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 270. 



12 SMITHSONIAN" MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Sj 

is lit it is again pointed to the four directions. After the pipe is 
emptied the priest calls the pledger to come before him. The priest 
holds the pipe in his right hand ; he spits on the outstretched right 
hand. The pledger then grasps the stem of the pipe held by the priest 
with the bowl towards the ground. The pledger clasps the hand of 
the priest, and both hold the stem of the pipe. The pledger gently 
pulls the pipe towards himself four times. The fourth time the priest 
lets go. The pledger takes the pipe, tirst placing it on his right breast, 
then on the left, then right, then left ; he hands the pipe back to the 
priest. He makes drawing motions over his limbs as before, and 
then proceeds to touch the holy ground exactly as with the drawing 
motions. After this, all may touch the holy ground. This terminates 
the ceremony in the tipi. 

All this time the Sacrifice Offering cloth and the stick leaned against 
the breast of the tipi, and green timbers leaned against the back of 
the tipi. The women now take charge of the timbers, and proceed 
to build a sweat lodge.^ The first two timbers are planted on the 
east and the two on the west ; these sets are about 2 feet apart. Then 
the remaining timbers, about 13, are put in the ground, forming a 
circle about 8 feet in circumference. This will accommodate about 
15 persons. A round hole is made in the center of the sweat lodge. 
This is a place for hot stones ; it is about 2 feet in circumference and 
I foot deep. The dirt taken from the excavation is placed about 20 
feet towards the east of the entrance, and is made into a small 
mound. ^ This mound and the sweat lodge are connected by a trail. 
Then a young cottonwood tree ^ is placed in the ground in an upright 
position near, but east of, the mound. A buffalo skull * is then placed 
against the mound ; it is on the west slope ° and faces the sweat lodge. 
The skull is painted with black and red paint : the horns are black- 
ened, and the region around the nose is painted red ; a black streak 
runs from the back of the head to the tip of the nose.° 



' See especially Petter, loc. cit., article " sweat lodge " ; for the use of sweat 
lodges in religious ceremonies see also Lowie, Primitive religion, p. 195, New- 
York, 1924. 

" Compare Grinnell, loc cit., vol. 2, p. 103. 

^ For the ceremonial use of cottonwood trees, see Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. i, 
P- 95 ; vol. 2, pp. 229-232, 259, 287. 

* For the use of a buflfalo skull in combination with a sweat lodge, see Grin- 
nell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 103. 

^For the localization of the. buffalo skull on the west slope, compare Grinnell, 
loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 294. 

® The buffalo skull is painted nearly as in the Sun Dance ; compare Dorsey, 
G. A., loc. cit., vol. 2, pp. 96, 97 : in part compare Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 33. 



XO. 5 NARRATIVE OF A CHEYENNE WOMAN MICHELSON I3 

The wife of the pledger carries the skull from the tipi to the 
mound/ She carries it in a stooping position, very carefuUv and 
slowly. Five stones are then selected. Two are painted black, a third 
is not painted, the last two are also painted black. After this they are 
not handled with the hands, but are put in place with forked sticks 
between the mound and the sweat lodge, a little to the south of the 
trail. Motions are made with the hands four times towards the stones 
before the stones are forked. These stones are placed in the same 
manner as the holy places within the tipi but are closer together, the 
fifth stone being in the center. The dried wood and other stones are 
then placed without any ceremony. However, before fire is added to 
the heap, the heap is touched four times with a fork in the same man- 
ner as the stones. In the meanwhile the women cover the hut with 
heavy canvas. Blankets, fine clothing, and other things are placed on 
top of the canvas. These become the property of the priest and his 
helpers (who are the painters). The property is divided according to 
what the priest and his helpers gave when they were pledgers. If one 
or more horses are given away, the ceremony is conducted in the day- 
time. If not, it is conducted at night. 

The priest and pledger enter the sweat lodge with the paint still 
on them and go over the ceremony as in the tipi, except that they 
remove the paints put on by the painters, using sage ' ; water is drunk, 
and their bodies are washed. When the hot stones are brought in, 
two are brought in first, then one, then two. They then are placed in 
the same order as they were before they were heated. The remain- 
ing stones are then brought in. The sweat bath now begins. The 
priest utters a prayer and sings songs. The doorflap is raised ; also 
the rear is raised, thus airing the bather. This is done four times, and 
each period lasts about 20 minutes. When this is over we all go back 
into the tipi, when our relatives bring in all kinds of food for us to 
eat. Before we eat, bits of food are placed on the holy ground and 
drawing motions on the body are performed. We then proceed to eat. 
The sacred medicine bag is in a crescent shape ""; it is made out of 
raw hide. The inner bag is an entire prairie dog skin which contains 
the sacred herbs. 



^ For the pledger's wife carrying the buffalo skull, see Dorsey, G. A., loc. cit., 
vol. 2, pp. 107, 108; Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 291. 

"^ The use of sage for ceremonial purposes is common enough. See Dorsey, 
G. A., loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 159; Grinnell, loc. cit., vol. 2, p. 423. 

" See footnote 3, on page 11. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 6 



COMPOSITION OF THE CADDOAN 
LINGUISTIC STOCK 



BY 

ALEXANDER LESSER and GENE WELTFISH 
New York, N. Y. ^,» , , . 



^^ 



^1^\ 



^H INSi 




(Publication 3141) 



MAY 14 1932 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 14, 1932 



II 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOLUME 87, NUMBER 6 



COMPOSITION OF THE CADDOAN 
LINGUISTIC STOCK 



BY 



ALEXANDER LESSER and GENE WELTFISH 



New York, N. V. 




(Publication 3141! 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 14, 1932 



C^« £or5 (gfaffttnorc ^viee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



COMPOSITION OF THE CADDOAN LINGUISTIC STOCK' 

By ALEXANDER LESSER and GENE WELTFISH 

New York, N. Y. 

CLASSIFICATION 

The Caddoan linguistic stock, named after the language of the 
Caddo, is composed of four major languages. Pawnee, Wichita, 
Kitsai,^ and Caddo. Of these, the Kitsai had never developed 
dialectic differentiation; the Wichita and Caddo probably each in- 
cluded several dialects, but as at present spoken are known only in 
one form; and the Pawnee today occurs in three dialects. On the 
basis of present knowledge, the broad relationships of the four 
languages can be indicated as follows: Pawnee, Wichita, and Kitsai 
are, in relation to each other, about equally divergent, save that 
Kitsai in phonetic structure and some forms is probably closer to 
Pawnee than Wichita is to Pawnee. All three, however, are mu- 
tually unintelligible. Caddo is the most divergent of the four 
languages. The general interrelationships of these languages and 
their dialects can be summarized by the following table:* 



' Based on field research for the Committee on American Indian Languages. 

'' The authors have preferred this spelling of Kichai. Kitsai approximates 
more closely the phonetic character of the native name. 

' In the transcription of native names and words of this treatment, the authors 
have followed the recommendations embodied in Phonetic Transcription of 
Indian Languages, Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 66, no. 6, September, 1916. 
Briefly summarized, the characteristics represented are as follows: 

Consonajits: 

h, m, n, h, and y have their usual values. 

p, t, and k (except in Caddo) are intermediates, neither quite sonant nor quite 
surd. Pawnee final t is nasalized, indicated by superior n (t°). Caddo t is surd 
d sonant; Caddo k is, however, intermediate. 

s is throughout surd, somewhat more sibilant than English s. 

c is the usual sound of sh in English show. 

X closely approximates the ch of German ich. 

r in Pawnee and Arikara is a single trilled r made with the tip of the tongue on 
the alveolar ridge (see also Boas, Handbook of American Indian Languages, 
Bull. 40, Bur. Amer. Ethnol., pt. 1, p. 17, 1911); in Kitsai and Wichita where a 
distinct n occurs, the r more nearly approximates the English r, but it is never 
made as far back in the mouth or trilled as strongly. Caddo r is more strongly 
trilled. 

The affricative ts is intermediate where t is intermediate. In Caddo it is surd. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 6 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 



87 



I. Pawnee, Kitsai, and Wichita. 

A. Pawnee: a) South Band Pawnee (or Pawnee proper) 

spoken by: 
pi'tahawira't" 
tsawi"'' 
kitkghaxki'' 

b) Skiri^ Pawnee 

c) Ankara 

B. Kitsai : tikitse's band of the Wichita. 

C. Wichita: a) Wichita proper, spoken by: 

toka'ne 

tsi's 

tiwa' 

tta" 

ktriktri's 

akwi'ts 
b) Probably dialectically divergent: 

tawakaruw' 

weku' 
II. Caddo: a) Caddo proper; spoken by: 

nada'rko 

nacidoc 

ya't'as 

nak'ohodo'tsi 

ha'i'c 

kaygmaici 

kado'gdatc'" 
b) Hainai; spoken by: 

hainai 

nabadaitcu 
?c) ?Adai 



' Skirl is used herein for Skidi. The d of earlier records is the Pawnee r; see 
the phonetic key above. 



to has its usual affricative character in Caddo, while in Arikara it is more inter- 
mediate. 

w is slightly more rounded than in English. 

Vowels: 

With a few exceptions, the s^'mbols for vowels indicate the usual continental 
A^alues as follows: a as in father; a (Greek alpha) as u in but; e as a in fate; e (Greek 
epsilon) as e in met; ias ee in feet; i (Greek iota) as i in hit; as o in go; u as oo in 
hoot. Exceptional is e in Pawnee, where in making the sound the lips are very 



NO. 6 CADDOAN LINGUISTIC STOCK LESSER AND WELTFISH 3 

SUBDIVISIONS 
PAWNEE 

Of the three Pawnee dialects, that known as South Band Paw^nee 
or Pawnee proper preser\'es the oldest forms of Pawnee. The 
dialect of the Skiri differs from the South Band Pawnee primarily 
in phonetics. Speeds, lengths, and tones differ between these 
dialects; but most important is the fact that the phonetic changes 
which ha\e occurred have resulted in Skiri in the loss of a number 
of vowel and consonant distinctions that are found in South Band 
Pawnee. As a result, what was already a meager phonetic system 
in Pawnee proper is still further reduced in Skiri. ^ While it may well 
be true that historically — as tradition claims — the Arikara dialect 
diverged from a root which was once common to Arikara and Skiri, 
nevertheless on the basis of a comparison of the three Pawnee 
dialects as spoken today, the Arikara divergences should be treated 
in relation to the Pawnee proper or South Band dialect, rather than 
in relation to the speech of the Skiri. The phonetic divergence of 
Arikara can be characterized in two ways: first, there are many 
shifts of vow^els and consonants, numbering many more than those 
which differentiate Pawnee proper and Skiri; and second, in Arikara 
enunciation whole syllables are lost to the ear through elision and 
whispering of the vowels. Today, South Band and Skiri dialects 
are almost fully mutually intelligible; older natives understand the 
speech of the other group but reply in their own, while among the 
young people there is a tendency to develop a mixed dialect which 
overrides the differentiation of the two. Skiri and Arikara gener- 
ally insist that they can understand one another, and some do; but 



' Material on which these statements and those referring to the Arikara are 
based, as well as the details of the phonetic shifts, will be given in an analytic 
study of comparative text material. 

wide, the aperture between them forming a very narrow slit; and e in Pawnee 
which does not have the usual diphthongal quality. 

o) (Greek omega) of Wichita is the aw of English law. 

ai of Caddo is the diphthong of English height. 

Diacritical marks: 

The glottal catch (') and the aspiration (') are used in the usual way. Stress 
accent is indicated by (') after the syllable (a')- Vowel length is indicated by (') 
after the vowel (a"); vowel shortness by (^) under the vowel (a). Pitch accents 
are (a) for high tone, (a) for middle high. Tone combinations occurring in 
Pawnee are: (a') high to middle high, (a") normal to middle high, (a") middle high 
to normal, (a") middle high to high. 

Whispered or slightly articulated sounds are indicated as superior symbols (f^). 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

for the most part, this seems due more to their control of a smat- 
tering of the other dialect than to any inherent possibilities of 
intelligibility, which are in fact slight because of the character of 
the phonetic changes which have taken place. Actually an Arikara 
was not able to understand a Skiri text, but was at once able to 
grasp the same text in South Band Pawnee and translate or trans- 
pose it into Arikara. There is still current among the Pawnee a 
tradition that the Kawdra"kis group of the Pi'tahawira't" spoke 
like the Arikara. It is impossible at the present day to check this 
tradition, and it seems unlikely that it was true. The few sugges- 
tions of linguistic difference between Kawdra'kts speech and Pawnee 
proper which can be obtained, point rather to earlier dialectic 
differences in the speech of the South Bands. Traditions support 
this view strongly, all South Band Pawnees of the older generations 
insisting that when the bands lived apart there were differences in 
their speech, which disappeared after they came to live together. 
Texts taken from the oldest living representatives of each band 
failed to show any vestige of such differences remaining today.- 

The Pawnees have no name for themselves which includes as a 
unity the four bands of Tskiri, Tsawi"'', Pi'tghawira't", and 
Kttkahaxki''. These bands were known to themselves and to each 
other by their band names. The absence of a general tribal name 
reinforces other evidence for the fact that the four bands never 
formed an integrated tribal unity; in fact, they were in former times 
independent tribal groups. They often banded together for the 
buffalo hunt and other collective enterprises. But the Skiri, for 
example, were no more likely to join the three South Bands for a 
buffalo hunt in the early nineteenth century, than they were to 
join the Omahas and Poncas. This fact of the essential political 
independence of each of the bands is too often overlooked, in part 
because the United States Government has for long dealt with all 
the Pawnees as one group. 

The words "chahiksichahiks" (tsahiksttsahiks), often quoted as 
the name of the Pawnees for themselves', has quite a different use. 
It is not a word for the Pawnees as distinguished from other Indians, 
tsahiks — is "person", "human being", the generic word, as distinct 
from words for "man", "woman". In the combination the con- 
nective — I — has prepositional value rendered somewhat by the 
translation "men of men" or "people of people". This combination 
"men of men" implies "civilization" on the part of the persons 



' Fletcher, A. C, Handbook of American Indians, Bull. 30, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 
(cited hereafter as Handbook), pt. 2, p. 214, 1910. 



k 



NO. 6 CADDOAN LINGUISTIC STOCK— LESSER AND WELTFISH 5 

referred to. tsihiksti' ', "he's a man", "he's really a human being'', 
impHes the ide^ that a man's ways are civiUzed -^^ -mannered 
eentle A wild, ill-mannered, mean man would be called tsahiks- 
kaki"' "he's not a human being". Thus tsahikstt^ahiks is applied 
by the Pawnees not alone to themselves but also to other Indian 
groups of their acquaintance whom they considered civilized, such 
as the Poncas and Omahas. In a^general way it was also used for 
Indians as opposed to white men.^ 

The name Pawnee is one which was first applied to the Pawnees 
bv white men. It seems unlikely for linguistic reasons that its use 
came from parf-ku', "horns", as suggested in the Handbook. Ou 
informants claimed that it derived from pan's" , hunter (Skin 
dialect) They said that the first Pawnees to meet white men were 
on the hunt, and that when the white men asked, "Who are you? 
an Indian answered, "pari'su"', -'a hunter". In the light of this 
possible derivation, it is interesting to note that the spelling o 
Pawnee on the early maps is "panis", and also that in more recent 
years several recorders have written Pawnee "r s as n s because 
of the peculiar phonetic character of the Pawnee r . LlearK 
from "les panis" a derived singular would be pani or Pawnee.^' 

The Skiri derive their name from the word for the wolf. In 
present day usage this is tskcr.xk- (adding the diminutive) but i 
may well have been the shorter form earlier (tskiri). The Skin 
were known to themselves and to other tribes as wolves . 1 heir 
war whoop was the cry of the wolf, and for deception on the warpath 
and in scouting they dressed as wolves, and signalled each other 
vocally with wolf cries.^ In war dances where combat is dramatized 
the warriors act like wolves. A mythological background for this 

' This usage is also quoted from Hayden, Handbook, pt. 2, p. 216. 

3 "et ago'iames'R. Murie suggested to F. W. Hodge , a... as the origin 
of PawneZ and told the same story about it. See Amer. Anth-P --. vol. 17, 
on 215-216 1915. Apparently the story is a general Pawnee tradition, 
"^"^^ Dunbar J in Mag Amer. Hist., vol. 4, p. 259, 1880, offers as explana ion o 
the name Ski the association of this group of Pawnees with the Loup (Wolf) 
River which in turn was so called because of the abundance of wo ves along the 
stream. Pawnees of today still recall that wolves were abundant along the Loup 
R ver in early days. It seems reasonable to believe that such a wo f-teeming 
habitarhad an important influence on Skiri Pawnee cultural forms, and thus was 

indirectly responsible for the name. hpreafter as 

^•Grinnell G. B., Pawnee hero stories and folk tales (cited hereafter as 
Grinnell) pp. 245-248, 1890, describes these methods of deception in some detail. 
?he statements made herein are based on information from present-day infor- 
mants. 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

conception is furnished by an incident in the story of Lightning's 
visit to the earth carrying all people in a sack. The Wolf-Star, 
being jealous of the Evening-Star who has sent Lightning to the 
earth, sends a ^olf to steal Lightning's pack. When the people 
come out and observe the wolf's strange behavior, they kill him, 
thus introducing death into the world. Lightning tells them to 
skin the wolf, and to keep its hide on their sacred bundle. He tells 
them also that wolves will multiply, and that they shall be known 
as Tskiri.^ 

While there was no name for the four Pawnee bands together, an 
old informant stated that in Nebraska the Skiri used to speak of the 
other three bands together as tuha'wtt" (in South Band dialect the 
word is tuxra'wtt") which means "village-east". This evidently 
refers to the position of these bands in relation to the Skiri. The 
orientation of the Pawnee bands in Nebraska according to present 
informants was schematically as follows:" 

N 
W tskiri kttkghaxki'' tsawi"'' pi'tahawira't" E 

S 

It is a matter of interest that contrary to the theoretical state- 
ments that the Pawnees always maintained the same orientations 
of the bands, the band locations in Oklahoma are about as follows: 

tskiri 
W tsawi'"' E 

kttkghaxki'' 

pi'tghawira't" 
S 
The three bands which spoke South Band dialect or Pawnee 
proper did not, however, have any name for themselves as a unit 
group. Nevertheless restrictions upon intermarriage between bands 



' Dorsey, G. A., Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee, Mem. Amer. Folklore Soc.' 
vol. 8, pp. 17-18, 1904. 

" Dunbar, op. cit., pp. 257-258, discusses the location of the bands as they were 
oriented to each other in 1834. While his statements are ambiguous, their most 
likely interpretation would make the band orientation agree with the statements 
of our informants. Dunbar also gives tu'-ra-wit-u, eastern villages, as the name 
applied by the Skiri to the other bands. 

Fletcher, A. C, Handbook, pt. 2, p. 214, gives the relative positions exactly as 
we have recorded them. Grinnell, p. 218, also gives this order. Inasmuch as 
our records were secured independently from Pawnees who had moved to Okla- 
homa from Nebraska, and who knew the facts only from memory and tradition, 
they are important confirmation of the earlier statements. 



NO. 6 CADDOAN LINGUISTIC STOCK LESSER AND VVELTFISH 7 

broke down earlier among the three South Bands, and marriages 
were tolerated between tsawi"'' and pi'tghawira't" at a time when 
they were still frowned upon between any one of the three bands 
and the tskiri, indicating a closer affiliation of the peoples of the 
South Bands. 

The name pi'tahawira't" can be analyzed as meaning "man who 
goes east": pi'ta — "man", hawira't" — "goes east." The latter is a 

combination derived from a'wtt" — "east" and ira't" — "one who 

" 1 
goes. 

According to the writings of James R. Murie,^ the pi'tghawira't" 
were formed of two villages: the pi'tghawira't" proper and the 
kawgra'kts. Informants today state that while these two groups 
did not live apart, but formed one village, they did speak different 
dialects, as above noted, and also had independent bundles and 
ritual and ceremonial performances. The name kawgra'kts simply 
refers to the fact that these were the people who had or owned the 
kawgra'" bundle, which seems to have been one of the most ancient 
bundles of the Pawnees, certainly the oldest of the pi'tghawira't" 
bundles. An indication of the conceived relationship of the two 
groups is given by the kinship terms which they used for each other. 
The kawgra'kts called the pi'tghawira't" tsku'rus, "in-law", while 
the pi'tghawira't" replied rikurakatsku'rusu', "they are in-laws to 
us". 

kttkghaxki'' means literally "little mud lodge". "On a hill", the 
meaning given by GrinnelF, has no linguistic basis. 

Murie speaks of four divisions of the kttkghaxki'':* "the kttkg- 
haxki"" proper, the little kttkghaxki"", the Black Heads, and the 
kariki'su or 'one who stands in the circle to recite the creation 
ritual' ". A number of informants agree that there were not four 
divisions of the kttkghaxki'' band. Informants state that there 
were two divisions, the kttkghaxki'' proper, called kttkghaxkisu- 
rariksts" (rariksts", "real"), and the little kttkghaxki'', called 



' Grinnell, p. 216, gives " 'down the stream', or east" as the meaning of this 
name. There are two usages for east in Pawnee, of which one means "outside 
through the entrance", referring to the fact that the doorway of the Pawnee 
earth lodge is oriented toward the Morning Star and the rising sun, hence east- 
ward; while the second usage, a'wtt as above, is related to the stem for floating, 
hence has a downstream connotation. As all rivers flowed eastward or south- 
eastward from the Pawnee villages in Nebraska, the word has come to be used for 
east. 

^ Murie, J. R., Ceremonies of the Pawnee. To be published by the Bureau of 
American Ethnology. 

'Op. cit., p. 216. 

* Op. cit.; Grinnell, p. 241, speaks of three. 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

kitkahaxktripatski (kiripatski, "small"), and that the latter group 
split off from the main band not more than three generations ago 
under a self-made chief, Curly-Chief, tektesaxkanxku. The camp 
of the kitkahaxktripatski was set up southeast of the main village. 
The Black Heads (pdkska'tit") was the name of a society; and the 
kariki'su was the woman's dance or ceremony before the planting 
of the corn. Between the kttkghaxki'' proper and the little kttkg- 
haxki'' old informants claim there was a slight dialectic difference of 
speech; but they lived together in one village and as far back as 
memory and tradition go, their bundles and ceremonies were 
merged or the same. 

The tsawi"'' name, according to many Pawnee informants, has 
the reference "beggars."^ This could not be established as a lin- 
guistic meaning; the closest similarity of the word seems to affiliate 
it with the stem for "doctoring". Nevertheless, we do not doubt 
that "beggars" had a relevance which has been lost. People of the 
other bands claim that the tsawi''' always came asking for meat, 
hence the name. Wissler, in a footnote to Miirie,^ states: "They 
are now known as tsawi''' or Chaui, a band sprung from tsaktta'ru — 
itsat, coon; wi''' part of band". This derivation, on close linguistic 
analysis, does not seem likely; itsat and aktta'ru would combine 
into tsaktta'ru in South Band dialect, but itsat and wi''' would 
combine into tsaxwi''' not tsawi'''. 

The Arikara are called arikara'ru', "horns" or "elk", by the 
Pawnees, and they call the Pawnees awdhu. As the term Arikara 
is a good Pawnee and Caddoan word, the linguistic derivation of 
which is clear, it seems unlikely that, as has been contended, the 
name is not used by the Arikara for themselves.^ The word means 
"elk"." 



' Grinnell, p. 216, gives "in the middle" as the meaning of tsawi'". He prob- 
ably derives this from a confusion of the name with the word tawe which means 
"among". 

' Op. cit. 

^ Gilmore, M. R., The Arikara Book of Genesis, Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci., 
Arts, and Lett., vol. 12, p. 95, 1929. 

* The Handbook, under the synonymy of Arikara, lists: "starrahe" from Brad- 
bury's Travels in the Interior of America, and "star-rah-he" from Lewis and 
Clarke, the latter given by the explorers as the people's own name. Phonetically 
this is a good Caddoan (Pawnee or Arikara) word (tstarahi), and its suggestive 
correspondence to the "harahey" "arahey" of Coronado's expedition makes this 
a plausible alternative derivation of the Coronado name to awahi, the Wichita 
name for the Pawnees (see below). In the case of awahi, the possibility is that 
Wichitas spoke of Pawnees to the Spaniards, in that of "star-rah-he" that Turk 
or some other Pawnee told them about the Arikara. 



NO. 6 CADDOAN LINGUISTIC STOCK LESSER AND WELTFISH 9 

The word given by Gilmore' as the Ankara name for themselves, 
"sanish" is saxntc, paralleHng the South Band word tsaxriks, mean- 
ing "person"; and "san-sanish" is clearly the Arikara analogue of 
the Pawnee tsaxriksttsaxriks (tsahiksttsahiks) discussed above. 

Awahu, the name used by the Arikaras for the Pawnees means 
"left behind"; it also occurs as the name of one of the Arikara 
villages.^ Traditionally it is said to reflect the movements of the 
peoples, the fact that the Arikaras moved on to the north in the 
Pawnee migrations and left the Pawnees behind. 

While the Arikara spoke of the Pawnees as awahu, they also knew 
the bands by their individual names. These they rendered as 
follows: stci'ri (tskiri);' wi't^hawira'^t (pi'tahawira't") ; tttk°haxtc 
(kttkghaxki'^) ; sawi'at (tsawi''')- 

KITSAI 

This Caddoan language is known only as the speech of one small 
tribe of that name. It was in recent historic times closely affiliated 
with the Wichita peoples, and Wichitas will be found consistently 
to give the Wichita name for the Kitsai as one of the bands of the 
Wichita tribe, although all are aware of the difference in speech. 
In culture the Kitsai became so similar to Wichita that it is almost 
impossible today to find characteristics that differentiate them. 

The Kitsai language is closely related to both Pawnee and 
Wichita. Comparisons of the three indicate that it is intermediate 
to the two others. Many of the Kitsai forms show a striking rela- 
tion to the Pawnee, while others bear as pronounced a resemblance 
to Wichita forms. Kitsai resemblances are clearest with South 
Band Pawnee, and comparison with that Pawnee dialect indicates 
that these two — South Band Pawnee or Pawnee proper and Kitsai — 
have been most conservative in retaining old Caddoan forms of the 
northern Caddoan languages — Pawnee, Kitsai, Wichita. 

The Kitsai language is practically extinct today. Of six indi- 
viduals reputed to know it, one woman knows some simple vocabu- 
lary, another seems to understand but is never known to express 
herself in the language; one man who pretends to speak some Kitsai 
has its words and forms inextricably confused with a smattering of 
Pawnee (Wichita being his native speech). Thus only three can 



' Op. cit. 

'On Arikara village names see Gilmore, M. R., Notes on Arikara tribal organi- 
zation, Indian NtJtes, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 344-345, October, 1927. 

' Tschihri, quoted in the Handbook, pt. 2, p. 216, from Maximilian as the 
Arikara name for the Pawnee, is clearly the Arikara version of tskiri, as here 
given. 



10 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

be said to know any Kitsai, and these habitually talk in Wichita 
and use no English at all. Of these the man can control Kitsai in 
its simple forms well; one woman who speaks Kitsai and Wichita is 
not linguistically gifted in either, and is rather subnormal in intelli- 
gence; while one woman, Kai Kai, is thoroughly bilingual in Wichita 
and Kitsai, with a genuine talent for clear thought in language, and 
it is from her that a knowledge of Kitsai has been obtained and 
preserved. It may be said that only while she lives is Kitsai still 
existent; and she is now past 83. 

So far as the Kitsai are known to other Caddoans as a group 
distinct from the Wichita-speaking peoples, they are known by 
phonetic variants of their own name.' The Wichita speak of the 
language as ki'tse's, while their own pronunciation is kitsias; their 
full name tikitsias. The Pawnees call them krtsas. Their own 
name is said by Kai Kai to mean "going in wet sand"; while the 
Pawnees translate their version of it as "water turtle." 

The Kitsai designate the various groups of the Wichita by the 
regular Wichita band names, and the Pawnees as awahi, the same 
name as that used by the Wichita for the Pawnee. 

WICHITA 

The Wichita language is spoken by eight of the nine bands of the 
Wichita tribe, all bands save the tikitses or Kitsai. Today it con- 
sists of one dialect only, and there is no evidence in the speech as 
used by different W'ichitas of former subdivision or divergence. 
But by tradition, and some casually remembered words and expres- 
sions, it seems probable that at least two of the Wichita bands 
spoke Wichita that was dialectically divergent to a minor degree. 

Information obtained and cross-checked with a number of infor- 
mants yielded the following list of former Wichita bands. It is 
probably as complete and accurate a list as can be secured at this 
late date: toka'ne, tsi"s, tiwa', tta", kiriktri"s, akwi'ts, tawakgru'^', 
weku' (and tikitse"s). James Mooney^ lists nine bands, some of 
which are immediately identifiable with those above: thus kttikttish 
(ktnktrish) for ktrikiri's; akwesh for akwi"ts; tawakoni (tawakarehu) 
for tawakaru"'; and waco for weku'. "kirishkitsu", although it is 
evidently intended for a Wichita-speaking group, may be an old 
Wichita name for the tikitse's: in which case it is kik'i"skitsu, mean- 
ing "water turtles", and forming an analogy to the meaning which 



' Unless "kirishkitsu", as mentioned below is the old Wichita name for the 
Kitsai. 

- Handbook, pt. 2, p. 947. 



NO. 6 CADDOAN LINGUISTIC STOCK LESSER AND WELTFISH II 

is given by the Pawnee proper for the Kitsai name. "Tawehash" 
may be a variant of tiwa', possibly resulting from dialectic dif- 
ferences of pronunciation; the synonymy of the Handbook includes 
several Spanish variants, such as Teguayos, which seem to support 
this view.^ "Yscani," suggested by Mooney on the evidence of 
Bolton as possibly another name for the weku', an idea which is 
supported by the disappearance from historical records of the name 
Yscani at the time weku' makes its appearance, nevertheless accords 
too closely with toka'ne or tsi's or both taken together. Further 
the reason for the late appearance of weku' seems more probably as 
suggested below. Of Mooney's names, we have no record of 
"kishkat" and "asidahetch". The words can however be recog- 
nized as good Caddoan. Of the names in the list above Mooney 
lacks any suggestion of ita". One old informant suggested as an 
additional band name netekwco'^kgrik"'', "the laughing people", but 
others claimed this was the name of a village, not of a band. 

Traditions and statements of informants today agree that the 
tawakarii"^' and weku' (towaconi and waco) spoke somewhat dif- 
ferently from people of the Wichita bands, although mutual intel- 
ligibility is affirmed. Discussion of the speech of these two bands 
with contemporary Wichitas arouses laughter, apparently because 
many of the turns of expression of the tawakgru''' and weku' speech 
as grasped in Wichita phonetics have different meanings from those 
intended, and sound ludicrous. One or two expressions still re- 
called, though how accurately can not be determined, support this 
view, indicating a real dialectic difference which has been lost: a 
few others suggest as more probable difference of idiomatic usage 
as the distinction between the speech of these two bands and that 
of the others. As the weku' and tawakgru'^' were the westernmost 
groups of the Wichita, and somewhat apart from the others, it 
seems reasonable that local differences should have existed. 

The name generally given as the Wichita name for themselves is 
ktriktri's, the name of one of the bands. The origin of the term 
Wichita is open to some dispute. One tradition is that the first 
native met by a white man, asked who he was, replied "wtts tta", 
"a man, that's what I am", whence the name. The suggestion is 
sound linguistically; but in view of informants' statements that tta' 
was the name of a Wichita band, it may be that Wichita is a com- 
bination of wtts — "man", and ita" — ^this group name, viz., tta' — 



' Handbook, pt. 2, pp. 705-706. 



12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

men.^ Actually there seems no Wichita name for the tribe as a 
whole. 

Meanings have not been obtained for all the band names of the 
Wichita, and the full understanding of these must avv'ait thorough 
analysis of the Wichita language. 

tsi's means "awls", and was used for this group of the people 
because of their skill in the use of awls. 

akwi"ts is "dull teeth", said to refer to the fact that the old people 
of the band had dull teeth. 

tawakgrii"'' "neck of land in the water" refers to the character 
of the place where these people lived. 

ktriktri's "coon eyes", "raccoon eyes", is understood by the 
Pawnee proper as ktrikuruks "bear eyes". 

weku' is said by informants to be derived from wehiko, which 
latter is evidently the Wichita rendition of Mexico as pronounced 
by the Spanish; it was used for the people of this band because, 
according to tradition, they were always fighting with the Mexicans. 
They are spoken of as "Indians who were always scouting around". 
They are said to have originally been part of the tawakgru"', with- 
out a village to themselves, but later to have lived independently. 
If this origin of the name be correct, it is clearly not an ancient 
Wichita or Caddoan name, which may explain why it does not 
appear unmistakably in historical records until after 1820.- 

The Wichita refer to the Pawnee as awa'hi; apparently this is the 
same designation as the awahu of the Arikara. There is no evidence 
that use of awa'hi is recent; but the significance of this identity of 
Wichita and Arikara names for the Pawnee, in view of the tradi- 
tional explanation of its meaning as given by the Arikara, must 
await further study. 

It seems possible that this awa'hi is what was intended by the 
"Harahey" and "Arahey" of the Spanish accounts of Coronado's 
expedition into Wichita and Pawnee country. •'' The country to 
which Coronado was led has been identified as Wichita country, 
and there the people told the Spaniards about a land and people to 



' Nevertheless the same kind of misunderstanding occurred in the case of the 
Pawnee. Grinneil, p. 240, says of the Pawnees, "the southern tribes call them 
pi-ta'-da". This is evidently pi'tatat which means "man, that's what I am", and 
phonetically and morphologically is exactly equivalent to the Wichita wits tta. 

' Cf. Handbook, pt. 2, p. 887. 

^ James R. Murie some years ago made this same suggestion to F. W. Hodge. 
See Amer. Anthrop., n. s., vol. 17, pp. 215-216, 1915. 



NO. 6 CADDOAN LINGUISTIC STOCK LESSER AND WELTFISH 1 3 

the north, Harahey, whose customs and houses were similar to their 
own; evidently they spoke of the awa'hi.' 

CADDO 

Caddo, as spoken today, is essentially the language of the kado'- 
adatc'" band, which seems to have gradually eliminated whatever 
former dialectic differentiation existed, in favor of a common speech. 
All traditions of older living Caddos point to a time when the various 
bands lived apart and each spoke a somewhat divergent dialect; 
some even claim that these were not mutually intelligible, but there 
is little evidence for this view. 

There were in all eight branches of the Caddo tribe which are 
remembered by present day natives as speaking Caddoan: hainai, 
nabadaitcu, nada'rko, nacidoc, ya't'as, nak'ohodo'tsi, ha'i"c, 
kayamaici, and kado'adatc'". To these should probably be added 
the Adai. 

James Mooney lists 12 bands of the Caddo confederacy.^ Of 
these he identifies one (Imaha) as a small band of Kwapa, and 
another (Yowani) as a band of Choctaw. Of the remaining 10, 
9 will be found readily identifiable with the names in the above list; 
only Mooney's "Nakanawan" is absent. Mooney states that the 
kado'adatcu'", nada'rko, and hainai called themselves collectively 
hasinai "our own people". While this may have been used by 
Caddos for some groups of the people collectively, it seems doubtful 
that it included just these three, since nabadaitcu and hainai are 
closely associated together as speaking the same dialect, and as 
forming the most divergent branch of the Caddo. 

According to informants' statements, at one time all bands of the 
Caddo spoke divergent dialects, save the hainai and nabadaitcu, 
whose speech was identical ; in fact they claim that the nabadaitcu 
was a branch of the Hainai rather than of the Caddo in general. 
Hainai was the largest band numerically, kado'adatcu'" the second 
largest. 

The divergence of Hainai dialectically from Caddo proper is sup- 
ported by a little evidence still obtainable in the form of a few 
remembered differences in words. These are of two types: slight 
phonetic differences of a dialectic character; and complete difference 
of word. In some cases the latter type of difference suggests adop- 
tion of foreign words, particularly of Spanish words; such occur 



' Nevertheless the possible relation of "harahey" to the Ankara "star-rah-he", 
as above mentioned, cannot as yet be dismissed. 
= 14th Ann. Rep., Bur. Amer. Ethnol., p. 1092, 1897. 



14 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

prominently for words which must be relatively recent in use, such 
as the word for horse. In Caddo proper, the vocabulary shows 
instances of multiple synonymy, and more than one word for the 
same object, which may prove to have resulted from two factors: 
adoption of foreign words, as Spanish, and preservation of usages of 
a number of the Caddo bands in the contemporary Caddo proper. 
Hainai kinship terms and usages also differ from those of Caddo 
proper. 

Adai is preserved to us in the form of brief vocabularies.' Those 
words which can be summarily identified with Caddoan stems indi- 
cate that Adai is probably a divergent dialect of the Caddo. 

Linguistically the Caddo is most divergent of the Caddoan 
languages in three directions: phonetics, vocabulary and mor- 
phology. In vocabulary, it shows, as above suggested, a mixture 
of stems and words from a number of alien sources. 

NOTE ON NAMES APPEARING IN THE CORONADO NARRATIVE' 

It is well known that Coronado, w^hilein the Pueblos in 1540-1541, 
heard from captive Plains Indians of the lands to the east; and that 
"Turk", his guide into the Plains, was probably a Pawnee. The 
name Quivira, used in the Spanish accounts for the land along the 
eastern Plains to which they were led, is evidently the Pawnee word 
kiwira. This word is not one which was ever employed as a name 
for any definite tribe or country. It means "different", "strange". 
It seems plausible that Turk in trying to describe to the Spaniards 
the country to the east, explained "it's different", etc., meaning 
different as to flora, fauna and ways of life from the pueblo country 
in which the Spaniards then were. If this was the case, kiwira 
would have been correctly used for his meaning. 



' Latham, R. G., Opuscula, pp. 402-405 (50 words), London, 1860. 

Latham, R. G., Natural history of the varieties of Man, pp. 366-367 (48 words), 
London, 1850. 

Latham, R. G., Elements of comparative philology, pp. 468-470 (45 words), 
London, 1862. 

Gallatin, A., Synopsis of the Indian Tribes of North America, Amer. Antiq. 
Soc. Trans. (135 words from the Sible>' manuscript). 

Trans. Amer. Ethnol. Soc, vol. 2, pt. 1, pp. 95 and 97 (60 words from Sibley), 
1848. 

Gatschet, A. S., A migration legend of the Creek Indians, p. 42, Philadelphia, 
1884. Refers to a list of 300 words gathered in 1802 by Martin Duralde, which 
is now in the Library of the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia. W'c 
have not seen this last Adai vocabulary. 

'Winship, G. P., The Coronado expedition, 1540-1542, 14th Ann. Rep., Bur. 
Amer. Ethnol., pt. 1, 1896. 



NO. 6 CADDOAN LINGUISTIC STOCK LESSER AND WELTFISH 1 5 

While in Kansas, the Coronado expedition was told by the 
natives about a land and people to the north similar in ways of life 
to themselves. The Spaniards recorded the name given them as 
Harahey or Arahey. We have discussed the possible derivations 
of this name under xA-rikara and Wichita above. It has generally 
been accepted that the country to which Turk first brought the 
Spaniards was Wichita country. No doubt the statements of 
Spanish accounts that the houses were made of grass is part of this 
evidence. But there survives among the Pawnees a tradition to 
the effect that long ago their lodges were grass-covered, and that 
only as they came into colder northern regions did they cover the 
lodges with mud. Thus it seems to us possible that it was to a 
relatively southern group of Pawnee villages that Turk led the 
Spaniards, and that Harahey was intended to refer to the Arikara 
further north. This cannot be substantiated, however, by present 
usage of the Pawnee for the Arikara. 

Coronado and his men were told that the nation was ruled by 
Tatarrax. This is certainly a Pawnee word, tatara'k — forming the 
first person inclusive plural of all Pawnee verbs. The most prob- 
able form for which it was intended is tatara'k""", "one of us is 
present (sitting)". It is, however, not a personal name.^ 

Ysopete, the name of the Plains Indian who supplanted Turk in 
the confidence of the Spaniards, seems to be a Wichita word. 



'James R. Murie considered Tatarrax as probably intended for taturash 
(ta'turas), "I found it", stating that a Pawnee with that name died after the 
removal of the tribe to Oklahoma. See note by F. W. Hodge in Amer. Anthrop. 
n. s., vol. 17, pp. 215-216, 1915. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 7 



PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF 

PREHISTORIC SOUTHWESTERN 

BASKETRY 



BY 

GENE WELTFISH 
Fellow of the National Research Council, 1930-1932 



JUL 12 1* 

OfFICE U8?J^ 



y 




(Publication 3169) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

JULY 12, 1932 



\ 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 7 



PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF 

PREHISTORIC SOUTHWESTERN 

BASKETRY 



BY 
GENE WELTFISH 

Fellow of the National Researcli Council, 1930-1932 




(Publication 3169) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

JULY 12, 1932 



BALTIMORE, MD., D. S. A. 



PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION OF PREHISTORIC 
SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY ' 

By gene WELTFISH 
Fellozv of the National Research Cotiiicil, igjo-igs^ 

CONTENTS PAGE 

Introduction 2 

Abbreviations 3 

The San Juan area 3 

Sites in Navaho National Monument 3 

Marsh Pass, Ariz., and associated sites 3 

Betatakin 6 

Cradle House 7 

Canyon del Muerto 8 

Canyon de Chelly lo 

Southern Utah sites 12 

Grand Gulch I2 

White Canyon 13 

Kane County 14 

Battle Canyon (San Juan County, southeastern Utah) 14 

Allan Canj'on (San Juan County, southeastern Utah) 16 

Butler Canyon (San Juan County, southeastern Utah ) 16 

Alesa Verde sites 16 

Mesa Verde proper 16 

Mancos Canyon 19 

Johnson Canyon 21 

Piedra District, southwestern Colorado 21 

Pueblo Bonito, N. Mex 21 

Aztec Ruin, N. Mex. (Animas and La Plata region) 22 

Miscellaneous collections 23 

Southern Utah (San Diego Museum collection) 23 

Southern Utah and southwestern Colorado (Wetherill. and 

McLloyd and Graham collections) 24 

Palatki, central Arizona 25 

Little Colorado River region, Arizona 26 

Chaves Pass 26 

Chevlon Ruin 27 

' Acknowledgment is due the Council for Research in the Humanities, Columbia 

University, whose grant made possible a great part of the museum study on 

which this treatment is based ; the work has been completed as Fellow of the 
National Research Council. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 7 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

PAGE 

Lower Gila region 27 

Casa Grande ^j 

Upper Gila region 28 

Bear Creek on Blue River 28 

Rio Grande region 30 

Pajarito Plateau, N. Mex 30 

Lower Rio Grande Region 31 

Site near Las Cruces, N. Mex 31 

West of Sacramento Mountains 32 

West of Carlsbad, N. ]\Tex zz 

Ancient Pueblo ZZ 

Sikyatki 34 

Hopi (Moki) 34 

Santa Ana 35 

Sia 35 

Zuiii 36 

A'lisccllaneous zi 

Types of basketry 38 

Basket Maker type coiling 38 

Cliff Dweller type coiling 38 

Three-rod-triangular type coilini- ( fig. 11) 39 

One-rod-foundation coiling 40 

Unusual coiled specimens 40 

Sifter coiling 41 

Twill-plaiting 42 

Wickerwork 42 

Twined basketry 42 

Baskets showing combinations of techniques 43 

Conclusions 44 

Literature cited 45 

Techniques illustrated 47 

INTRODUCTION 

The following notes on prehistoric basketry of the Southwest are 
not an exhaustive treatment. They include references to the material 
with which I have come in contact and are a first attempt at classi- 
fication. 

The material is more or less uneven. It includes well-documented 
specimens from sites which have been thoroughly excavated, sporadic 
specimens which have been obtained from sites of undoubted im- 
portance but not as yet thoroughly worked out, and some general and 
miscellaneous collections of important specimens, some of which can- 
not be definitely ascribed to a particular site or archeological period. 
In the latter category would fall the Wetherill and the McLloyd and 
Graham collections and the collection in the San Diego Museum which 
can be referred only to generalized geographical locations. I have 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRV WELTFISH 3 

listed the material by sites so far as it was possible, and included under 
site classifications whatever in the above general collections could be 
localized. 

ABBREVIATIONS 

In referring to collections in various museums the following ab- 
breviations are used: 

A.M.N.H American Museum of Natural History. New York, N. Y. 

B.M Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

F.M.N.H Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 111. 

M.A.I., H.F Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 

New York, N. Y. 

S.D.M San Diego Museum, San Diego, Calif. 

U.C.M University of California Museum, Berkeley, Calif. 

U.P.M University Museum. University of Pennsylvania. Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

U.S.N.M United States National Museum, Washington. D C. 

THE SAN JUAN AREA 

Sites in Navaho National Monument 

MARSH PASS, ARIZ., AND ASSOCIATED SITES ' 

Culture horizons : Basket Maker, Pueblo I, and Clifif Dweller. 

From caves, ruins, and burials in Marsh Pass and in Sagiotsosi '' 
and Sayodneechee canyons, Kidder and Guernsey have unearthed 
great numbers of basketry remains. These are the type sites for 
basketry of Basket Maker type technique. Two periods are w^ell 
represented in the basketry recovered from this location, Basket 
Maker and later Clifif Dweller, and in addition a single specimen from 
Cave I, Segi Canyon, represents the intermediate, Pueblo I or pre- 
Pueblo period.^ 

The Basket Maker basketry found, with the exception of one twill- 
plaited specimen from White Dog Cave and another which may be 
matting from Cave i, Kinboko in Marsh Pass, was exclusively coiled 
ware. Basketry specimens were so abundant in Basket Maker caves 



^ Kidder and Guernsey ; Guernsey and Kidder. Statements on the material 
from these sites are based upon these publications ; I have also had the opportunity 
of examining specimens in the Peabody Museum. 

^ Besides the Kidder and Guernsey material, a coiled burden basket, a cradle 
basket, and a bowl are illustrated in Cummings, 1910, p. 34, as probably from 
this location ; and another cradle basket is mentioned from Bat-woman's House, 
Cummings, 1915, pp. 281-282. 

^ This basket is pictured on pi. 13, Guernsey, 1931. The specimen is in the 
Peabodv Museum. 



4 SMITHSONIAN- MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

as to constitute almost one third of the specimens found. The shapes 
of Basket Maker work fall into five classes: trays (the commonest 
form), bowls, carrying baskets, water baskets, and trinket baskets. 
Designs are all in black. 

The technique of the coiling found in this Basket Maker material 
can be summarized as follows : The work is consistently done toward 
the left of the basket maker (fig. lo. b). Most of the work is done on 
the concave surface ; some globular forms are worked on the concave 
surface to the shoulder and thence on the convex surface from 
shoulder to rim ; a few globular forms are worked entirely on the 
convex surface (fig. ib). The work being consistently in the left 
direction, concave work surface implies that the stitching is done at 
the far edge of the circumference (fig. la). while convex work surface 
implies that the stitching is done on the near edge of the circumference 





Fig. I. — a. Coiled basket with counter-clockwise spiral, worked on the concave 
surface, toward the left of the worker. /'. Coiled basket with clockwise spiral, 
worked on the convex surface, toward the left of the worker. The dot indicates 
the place on the circumference where the work is done. 

(fig. i^). Descriptively, baskets worked on the concave work surface 
show a counterclockwise spiral (fig. la) ; those worked on the convex 
work surface show a clockwise spiral (fig. lb). Throughout Basket 
Maker coiling the stitches are noninterlocking (figs. 2, 3).' The pre- 
dominant or typical foundation is two-rod-and-bundle-triangular 
(fig. 2) ; occasional specimens were found to have a single-rod-sur- 
rounded-by-fiber foundation (fig. 3). 

The above description with respect to the two-rod-and-bundle- 
triangular foundation baskets defines technically what I refer to 
throughout this paper as Basket Maker type coiling. 

Tzvill-plaitiii!^. — One specimen in twill-plaiting from White Dog 
Cave ' is in over-2-under-2 weave with the bottom unwoven ; it is 
probable that the basket was made downward from the rim." 

^ Kidder and Guernsey, pp. 168-169, fig. 80. 
^ Guernsey and Kidder, p. 63, and pi. 23/), opposite p. 62. 

' Compare the specimen of twill-plaiting from Canyon del Muerto described 
elsewhere in this paper, and the jar-shaped specimen from Canyon de Chelly. 



NO. 7 



SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY — -WELTFISII 



The Pueblo I or pre-Pueblo period is represented by a single speci- 
men, a well-preserved coiled burden basket from Cave i, Segi Canyon. 
The walls are almost vertical for about two thirds of the height, form- 
ing a narrow ellipse in cross-section, the upper third to the rim show- 
ing a very decided flare. The coiling is of the regular Basket Maker 
type. 




Fig. 2. — Coiling, with noninterlocking stitches, on a two-rod-aiid-bundle- 
triangular foundation. (This is the typical Basket Maker technique.) 




Fig. 3. — Coiling, with noninterlocking stitches, on a single-rod-surrounded-by- 
fiber foundation. (This is a variant of the Basket Maker type technique.) 

Cliff Dweller material ' includes fragments of shallow coiled trays 
and yucca-ring baskets. The yucca-ring baskets are predominant, the 
coiling being far rarer than in the Basket Maker sites. 

The technique of Cliff Dweller coiling is identical with that found 
in Basket Maker trays, the two types being distinguishable only in 
texture. In Basket Maker material, the stitch measurements range 

Guernsey and Kidder, p. 63, also point out the contrast of this type of twill- 
plaited basket with the yucca-ring baskets which are made from the bottom 
center up (fig. 4). 

^Kidder and Guernsey, pp. 108-110. 



6 SMITHSOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

from 2^ coils and 6 to 7 stitches per inch (the coarsest) to 7 coils and 
12 stitches per inch (the finest), the great majority of specimens 
having 5 coils and 9 to 11 stitches per inch. The stitches are spaced 
so that the foundation shows between stitches. In Clifif Dweller ma- 
terial, the stitch measurements range from 4 to 4.^ coils and 8 to 10 
stitches per inch (the coarsest) to 5 coils and 17 stitches per inch (the 
finest). In all Clifl: Dweller material the foundation elements are 
entirely concealed. In general, the sewing splints used by the Clifif 
Dwellers are considerablv finer than those of the Basket Makers. 




Fig. 4. — Central pattern of a yucca-ring basket in over-2-under-2 twill-plaiting 
with concentric diamond pattern, illustrating the type of twill-plaited basket made 
from the center bottom outward. (This is the typical Cliff Dweller technique.) 

The yucca-ring baskets are made in over-2-under-2 twill-plaiting 
of yucca strands as a mat and fastened to a wooden rim ring. All the 
yucca-ring baskets from this site had concentric diamond patterns ; one 
fragment indicated use of strands of two colors (fig. 4).^ 

BETATAKIN 

There are three specimens of coiled work from Betatakin in the 
United States National Museum. One is a fragmentary basket 

' Kidder and f^iuernsey, p. log. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISII 7 

bottom/ the other two are bowls/ All are in Basket Maker type 
coiling on two-rod-and-bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2). No 
design is evident. The stitch measurements are similar, one being 
5 coils, 12 stitches to the inch, another 5 coils, 11 stitches, and the 
third 4^ coils, 1 1 stitches. 

A yucca-ring basket collected by Fewkes at this site is made in 
over-2-under-2 weave with a concentric diamond pattern in one color." 

CRADLE HOUSE 

This ruin was named after the find there by W. B. Douglass of a 
Clifl: Dweller cradle, with which was associated a pair of infant 
sandals.* The basket is of burden-basket form with a deep cleft in 
the bottom ; it is made in Basket Maker type coiling on a two-rod- 
and-bundle triangular foundation with noninterlocking stitches. 

Fewkes, 1911a, mentions another specimen, practically identical 
with the above, which was found by E. B. Wallace in San Juan 
County, Utah, not far from the Colorado River. This, according to 
Fewkes, finally reached the Field Museum of Natural History. I find 
that this is the specimen which is now in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania Museum.' I have not seen the basket figured by P'ewkes, but 
I have seen the Pennsylvania specimen and another in the San Diego 
Museum.' These are so nearly identical that Fewkes' comment would 
apply, " that the two (three) might have been made by the same 
woman." I have examined both specimens in detail. They are so 
much alike that it is sufficient to give the facts on the San Diego basket. 

The San Diego basket comes from " a cave in southern Utah." It is 
about in the same condition as the one figured by Fewkes, the design 
somewhat more faded. The measurements are: 21 inches high (14^ 
inches from rim to leg, 6J inches for the legs), and the oval mouth 
is 9 by 6 inches.^ It is coiled on a two-rod-and-bundle-triangular 

'U.S.N.M. No. 270259. 

^U.S.N.M. No. 312393: I examined this specimen through the courtesy of 
N. M. Judd; U.S.N.M. No. 270258, Fewkes. 

^U.S.N.M. No. 270252, Fewkes. 

* Fewkes, 1911a, pp. 29, 30; pis. 19, 20, and 21. 

"The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, has published a post- 
card photograph of this specimen. Farabee, p. 202, says : " The basket was 
found in a cliff house in Moki Canyon, San Juan County, Utah, near the 
Colorado line. In 1904 it was exhibited at the World's Fair, St. Louis. There- 
after it was on loan at the Field Museum until finally purchased by the Uni- 
versity Museum in 1908." 

" S.D.M. No. 4759- 

' Compare Fewkes, 191 la, pi. 19, '" Dimensions : length 22 inches, breadth 
9 inches ; diameter 6 inches." 



8 sMirnsoNiAN :\iiscellaneous collections vol. 87 

foundation. with noninterlocking stitches, and is apparently worked 
toward the left of the worker on the concave work surface. The stitch 
measurements are 4 pkis coils and 12 stitches per inch. At the finish 
there are about 2 inches of false braid stitching. The design, prac- 
tically identical with the Fewkes and Pennsylvania specimens, is in 
red and black. 

Two other specimens of this type are referred to by Cummings.' 
One, " found in a pot hole in one of the gulches of Sagi at Sosi 
Canyon," the other from a room in Bat-woman House. 

Besides these specimens I have seen miniature coiled baskets of 
this shape and workmanship ; the texture of the stitching and founda- 
tion was much finer. Evidently such a miniature is a totir de force. 
These miniatures I saw through the courtesy of N. M. Judd of the 
United States National Museum ; I understand they are part of his 
material from Pueblo Bonito. 

Interesting in this connection is also a specimen in the Museum of 
the American Indian, Heye Foundation, which is from a cave in 
Grand Gulch, Utah.'" It is a miniature basket, like a toy, made in 
twill-plaiting in under-2-over-2 weave, in a shape that suggests a 
cradle basket ; that is, it has a body and two legs. 

Canyon del Muerto 

Culture horizons : Basket Maker III, Post Basket Maker, and 
Pueblo III. 

E. H. Morris found large numbers of baskets at several sites in 
Canyon del Muerto in Arizona. His collections are now in the Ameri- 
can jMuseum of Natural History. In addition, there is the large 
beautiful plaque in the United States National Museum.' 

In the basketry from the earlier horizons, two techniques are found, 
close coiling and twill-plaiting. There is evidence in the pottery 
remains from the site of the presence of a second type of coiling there, 
sifter coiling. 

Close coiling. — All the coiled basketry from this site is decidedly 
uniform in texture and technique. The technique is Basket Maker 
type (figs. I and 2), namely, with counterclockwise spiral, made on 
the concave work surface toward the left of the worker, with non- 
interlocking stitches. There are differences in the handling of globu- 



^Cummings, 1910, illustration p. 34; and Cummings, 1915, pp. 281-282. 

" M.A.I., H.F. No. 5/1790. Cf. elsewhere in this paper under Grand Gulch. 

^ U.S.N.M. No. 231776. It is a flat, round, coiled plaque secured by the 
Bureau of Indian Affairs; Culin, 24th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., includes 
a photograph of this basket as frontispiece. 



j;0. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISH 9 

lar Ijaskets/ In foundation, most of the baskets are made on a two- 
rod-and-bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2), occasional specimens 
on two-rod-and-reed-triang-ular foundation.' The stitching runs about 
5 coils and 9 stitches to the inch.'' 

In shape the coiled baskets include trays, bowls, globular baskets, 
large conical burden baskets, and a number of burden baskets of a 
different type— with almost vertical walls, flaring somewhat at the 
mouth, and with bottom and cross-section elliptical. The dimensions 
of the ellipse are about 3 : i-' 

Designs that occur on these baskets are in black, or in red and 
black. ^The plaque in the United States National Museum has a 
beautiful realistic figure of a frog painted in blue on the non-work 
surface. 

Sifter coiling.— A basket-moulded sherd ' from this site shows in 
reverse sifter coiling which resembles the Canyon de Chelly speci- 
men (fig. 6).^ 

Tzt'ill- plaiting. —From this site there is a cylindrical basket of yucca, 
woven in over-2-under-2 twill-plaiting. At the mouth, the shoulder, 
and the bottom is a row of twining. The bottom is open, and the 
strands of yucca from the body are unwoven and lie loosely across the 
bottom. It'seems probable that the basket was woven from the mouth 
down.' 

Material of the Pueblo III period " from this site includes a coiled 
bowl and four yucca-ring baskets. The coiled bowl has almost vertical 
walls, and is finely stitched in Basket Maker type technique on a two- 

' See above, p. 4. Cf. Amer. Aiithrop., vol. 3-2, P- 386. 

^ For example, the U.S.N.M. plaque, as above. 

' Morris, 1927, includes, pp. I95, 196, photographs of seven trays with the 
AMNH. numbers. Fig. 43e, P- 196. illustrates the average texture. The 
other photographed specimens show rather finer stitching than the average ot 
the coiled work from this site. 

*For example A.M.N.H. Nos. 29.1/8442 and 29.i/«343. All the specimens 

of this type of burden basket were found by Morris at one Basket Maker III 

site, in association with the mummy of a child. 

" Morris, 1927, P- 138, fig. la- . ^ n a ru^u.- 

"B.M. No. I1913, discussed elsewhere in this paper under Canyon de Lhellj • 

^\.M.N.H. No. 29.1/1549- , . ,., . , 

* These baskets were found by E. H. Morris in a burial cist which contained 
a mummy, pottery of Mesa Verde type, and other objects. The entire con- 
tents of the burial cist are on exhibit in the American Museum of Natural 
History. According to the label, "the only ruin in the locality characterized 
by such pottery is a large pueblo half a mile distant, from which presumably 
the body was brought for interment. The burial dates from the last ancient 
occupation of Canyon del ^luerto, probably around 1000 A. D. ' 



10 



SMITHSOXIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



87 



rod-and-liundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2). The closeness of 
the texture corresponds to what I have called above Cliff Dweller. 
Of the four yucca-ring baskets, two are large and two are small. Two 
are made in over-2-under-2 weave with plain diagonal pattern ; two 
in over-3-under-3 weave have a concentric diamond pattern (fig. 4). 

Caxvox de Chelly 

Many }'ears ago the Days secured cultural material from Canyon 
de Chelly, now in the Brooklyn Museum. Included is basketry in 
two techniques, coiling and twill-plaiting. The coiling is of two types, 
close coiling and sifter coiling. Of three examples of close coiling 
analyzed, a burden basket and a vertical-sided shallow bowl are Basket 
Maker type (fig. 2) in all particulars,' while the third specimen, a 




Fig. 5. — Coiling, with interlocking stitches, on a single-rod foundation. 

bowl, is atypical in that it has interlocking stitches and is made on a 
single-rod foundation (fig. 5).^ This basket is one of the occasional 
baskets in this technique found associated with Basket Maker type 
material. The vertical-sided shallow bowl shows 4 coils, 7 to 9 stitches 
to the inch. 

A specimen of sifter coiling is illustrated in Figure 6.' It is made 
on a two-rod-and-bimdle-triangular foundation with noninterlocking 
stitches. The thread is wrapped about the foundation of the course of 
coiling in work ; at intervals it is caught in the foundation of the course 
below, and then wrapped about itself between the courses. In prin- 
ciple, this method is of the same type as the sifter-coiling techniques 
found in specimens from the Hazzard Collection (fig. 7) and from 
Bear Creek on Blue River (fig. 17) . This Canyon de Chelly technique, 
as will be seen from a comparison of Figures 6 and 7, differs from that 

' B.M. No. 11912; the other is unnumbered. This burden basket has almost 
vertical walls and is oval in cross-section. 
*B.M. No. 10904. 
'B.M. No. 11913. 



NO. 7 



SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISH 



II 



of the specimen in the Hazzard Collection in that the " standing-part " 
of the fastening stitch, instead of being inserted under the wrapping 
of the completed course of coiling below, is set between two wrappings 
and put through the foundation of the completed course of coiling 




Fig. 6. — Sifter coiling, on two-rod-and-bundle-triangular foundation, with 
noninterlocking stitches. Type found in Canyon de Chelly (variant of type B). 

below ; in wrapping around the " standing-part " of the fastening 
stitch, the thread is wrapped twice instead of once ; and finally the fas- 
tening stitches are not made in alternate order, but one directly above 
the other so that they appear as radial lines on the sides. 




Fig. 7. — Sifter coiling, type B : Hazzard collection. 

The twill-plaiting technique is found in yucca-ring baskets in over- 
2-under-2 weave. A typical specimen ' has a concentric diamond 
pattern (fig. 4). Another has a plain diagonal twilled design.'' A third 
specimen is jar-shaped, was probably made from the mouth to the 
bottom without closing the bottom, and has a false bottom of bunched 
yucca leaves fastened together by twining.' 

^ B.M. No. 11942. 

'^ B.M. No. 11941 ; found with the mummy of a child in White House. A. E. 
Douglass dates White House 1060- 1275 A. D. 
'B.M. No. iigi8. 



12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

SouTHERx Utah Sites 
GRAND GULCH 

Considerable basketry and fragments have been found in Grand 
Gulch. The material I have seen from this site is in the American 
Museum of Natural History and the Museum of the American Indian, 
Heye Foundation. The basketry includes w^ork in close coiling, sifter 
coiling, and twill-plaiting techniques. 

Close coiling. — Seventeen complete baskets and a number of basket- 
bottoms consistently show the following technique : Concave work sur- 
face, counterclockwise spiral, worked toward the left of the worker, 
noninterlocking stitches, on a two-rod-and-bundle-triangular founda- 
tion (Basket Maker type, figs, la, 2).' 

The shapes of these baskets include trays, deeper round bowls, 
bowls with flat bottoms and straight slanting walls, baskets with flat 
bottoms and straight slanting walls which are oval in cross-section, 
large conical burden baskets, and globular baskets. Decorations are in 
red and black or in all black. These baskets are all coarse in texture, 
of the Basket Maker type of texture (with foundation elements ap- 
pearing between the stitches) rather than of the Cliff Dweller texture. 

Three baskets from Grand Gulch, of which two are small bowls and 
one a globular form, are made on a one-rod foundation with inter- 
locking stitches (fig. 5) : the liowls are made on the concave work 
surface, have a counterclockwise spiral, and were made toward the 
left of the worker (fig. la) : the globular basket was made on the 
convex work surface and has a clockwise spiral : it was also made 
toward the left of the worker (fig. i&)." 

Sifter coiling. — One basket in sifter coiling comes from this site. 
Around the rim are several courses of coiling on a one-rod foundation 
with interlocking stitches ; in technical traits this one-rod coiling is 
identical with that of the two bowls above mentioned, which are on 
one-rod foundation. The sifter technique is identical with that in a 
sifter basket from Kane County. Utah (fig. 8).' 

Tzuill-plaiting. — Six baskets examined from this site, in over-2- 
under-2 weave, fall into two groups : 



^ Mason, pis. 205-211, and Pepper, 1902, both picture many of the Grand 
Gulch specimens which are in the American Museum of Natural History. 
The museum numbers are: A.M.N.H. No. H-12264, 12270, 12273, 12275, 12276, 
12279, 12315, 13133. 13161, 13505. 13507, 13509, 13511, 13515, 13526, 13527, 
13928, 13960. 
^M.A.L, H.F. Nos. 5/5350, 5/5352; A.M.N.H. No. H/i3955- 
^ Now in the American Museum of Natural History. See Amer. Anthrop., 
vol. 32; pp. 484 and 488, fig. i8(7. See also Mason, p. 257 and pi. 31. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETR>' WELTFISH I3 

Two globular baskets made of yucca leaves are of the type that is 
probably made from the mouth down, leaving the bottom open ; one 
of these has a small mat fastened by twining to the bottom opening 
and a twill-plaited collar attached.^ 

Four baskets of yucca made from the center bottom up (similar in 
this to the yucca-ring baskets) include three bowl shapes with 
slightly constricted necks. At the mouth, they are finished by bending 
the edge over a rod and fastening with a row of twining. All have 
concentric diamond patterns (fig. 4). They differ from yucca-ring 
baskets in that the body is full and the neck constricted, so that they 
must have been shaped while weaving as yucca-ring baskets never 





"^^ 


— ^'— -k 


V- 




,;:;:: ::K 


^>^-:--: 


-.-.^^^ 


\X 


^'''' 




'Xrr" 




}^ 


i-V*. 



Fig. 8. — Sifter coiling, type A : Kane County. 

are. The fourth basket made of yucca leaves is of a form with body 
and two legs suggesting a cradle basket.'' 

There is also a yucca-ring basket from Grand Gulch now in the 
American Museum of Natural History." 

WHITE CANYON 

I have seen a basket in the Museum of the American Indian, from 
a cave at this location. It is a coiled tray of Basket Maker technique 
in every particular, with a zigzag design in black'' (measurements: 
6 coils, 13 stitches per inch). 



' A.M.N. H. No. H/13533, M.A.I., H.F. No. 5/5351. Baskets of this type with 
bottom unwoven are mentioned in this paper under Marsh Pass. Canyon del 
Muerto, Canyon de Chelly, and the San Diego collection from southern Utah. 

- M.A.I., H.F. Nos. 5/5353. 5/5354, 5/5357, 5/i79o. On the cradle basket see 
in this paper under Cradle House. 

^ The basket was found filled with beans. It is thus very doubtful that this 
is a basket of Basket Maker manufacture. Cf. Guernsey and Kidder, p. 63, 
footnote I, who refer to Pepper, p. 23, 1902. Mason, pi. 210, upper picture, center 
of lower row, illustrates this basket. 

* M.A.T.. H.F. No. 8/3822. 



14 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 



KANE COUNTY 

Culture horizon: Basket Maker II. 

From Kane County, Utah, Nussbaum ' secured 30 basketry speci- 
mens, which incUided one in sifter coiHng, the rest in close coiling. 

All the specimens in close coiling with one exception are consistently 
Basket Maker type technique on a two-rod-and-bundle-triangular 
foundation (fig. 2). One basket in close coiling has a foundation 
of a rod-surrounded-by-fiber, but in all other respects is consistently 
Basket Maker type work (fig. 3). 

The basket in sifter coiling is in a unique technique of stitching 
illustrated in Figure 8. 



BATTLE CANYON (SAN JUAN COUNTY, SOUTHEASTERN UTAH) 

There are 11 coiled baskets from this site in the Field Museum. 
Nine of these are of Basket Maker type coiling, concave work 
surface, counterclockwise spiral, worked toward the left of the 




Fig. 9. — Coiling, with noninterlocking stitches ; foundation of a split rod with a 
strip of yucca placed upon it. (Battle Canyon, southeastern Utah.) 

worker, noninterlocking stitches, with variations in the foundations. 
Six baskets have the usual two-rod-and-bundle-triangular foun- 
dation (fig. 2)." one has a two-rod-and-reed (or strip of yucca 
blade) -triangular foundation,'' and two have an unusual foundation; 
this consists of a round, rather heavy rod split in two, the flat 
split surface being placed downward. Upon the upper rounded 
surface of the rod a strip of yucca ( ?) is placed, through which the 
stitches are caught (fig. 9).* Stitch measurements are : one basket with 

^ Nussbaum. See also my notes on the material from this site in Amer. 
Anthrop., vol. 32, pp. 484, 486, 487, 488. 

" F.M.N. H. Nos. 165299, 165293 (found with Basket Maker skull 165294): 
165296, 165295. 165285 (these last tliree found with Basket Maker mummy of 
a child 165297) ; 165289 (found containing desiccated mummy of infant 165290). 

•■' F.M.N.H. No, 165302 (found with Basket Maker III mummy of child 

165303). 

* l^'.M.N.H. Nos. 165288. 165292 (both coated with light yellow gum on 
inside ) . 



NO. 7 



SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY— WELTFISIT 



4^ coils, 7 Stitches per inch : 4 with 5^ coils, 9 stitches per inch ; one 
with 6 coils, 10 stitches ; another with 5^ coils, 9 stitches ; and the 
last two with 5^ coils, 10 stitches, and 5^ coils, 13 stitches per inch. 
These are all round bowl and tray shapes with the exception of one 
large burden basket (165285), oval in cross-section, which proba- 
bly had a pointed bottom. 

Of the two remaining baskets from this locality, one is unusual 
in shape and weave and is probably of Pueblo III period as indi- 
cated by the associated artifacts/ It is oblong, indented on the long 
sides, having something of a guitar shape, the individual coils being 




Fig. 10. — Coiling, with noninterlocking stitches, three-rod-vertical foundation. 



narrowed at the ends and widened at the sides. The walls of the 
long sides are bent inward at the rim. 

The coiling is of general Basket Maker type : counterclockwise 
spiral, concave work surface, toward the left of the worker, with 
noninterlocking stitches ; the foundation is three-rod-vertical, the 
top rod being thinner than the other two (fig. 10). The rim coil 
has a foundation of two rods placed side by side. 

The other basket ^ is a deep round bowl made on a one-rod 
foundation, with interlocking stitches (fig. 5). The spiral is clock- 
wise, the work surface concave, and the work probably proceeded 
toward the right of the worker. The decoration is in dark brown 
bark. 



' F.M.N. H. No. 165274, burial cave no.' i. 
= F.M.N.H. No. 165294. 



l6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

ALLAN CANYON (SAN JUAN COUNTY, SOUTHEASTERN UTAh) 

From this locality are four almost complete coiled fragments of 
uneven quality. All are of Basket Maker type technique (fig. 2). 

A large oval burden basket found over a burial is probably Basket 
Maker II (measurements: 5| coils. 9 stitches per inch).' A large 
round tray of coarse open texture is made on a rod-surrounded-by- 
fiber foundation (fig. 3). (Measurements: 5 coils, 7 stitches per 
inch.) A round shallow bowl has almost vertical walls (measure- 
ments: 4^ coils. 13 stitches per inch).' A very closely woven almost 
cylindrical fragment is probably Cliff Dweller' (measurements: 
4| coils, 15 stitches per inch). 

BUTLER CANYON (SAN JUAN COUNTY, SOUTHEA.STERN UTAh) 

There are two baskets from this locality, one a coiled basket 
and the other a small twill-plaited yucca-ring basket. The coiled 
basket is a small bowl of the usual Basket Maker type weave in all 
particulars (fig. 2). Measurements: 6 coils, 10 stitches per inch. 
The design is in red and black.* The twill-plaited yucca-ring basket 
is in over-2-under-2 weave and has a concentric diamond pattern 
(fig-4)." 

Mesa Verde Sites 
MESA VERDE TROPER 

A specimen found by Fewkes in Mesa Verde National Park, 
a coiled basketry bottom, now in the United States National Museum, 
is labeled from Oak Tree House. Fewkes also figures from Spruce 
Tree House * a coiled basketry bottom, and from Cliff Palace a coiled 
basket hopper and an unfinished coiled plaque.' 

Nordenskiold figures three coiled specimens from Step House : a 
cylindrical basket found in a grave, a bowl, and a circular lid found 
hidden in a refuse heap ; and four twill-plaited yucca-ring baskets, 
three from Spruce Tree House and one from Ruin gJ' 

In the \\'etherill collections there are seven specimens marked as 



'F.M.N.H. Xo. 165286 (found over burial, lield no. 258). 
"F.M.N.H. No. 165300. 
= F.M.N.H. No. 165291. 
' F.M.N.H. No. 165304. 
■F.M.N.H. No. 165301. 

"A. E. Douglass dates Spruce Tree House 1273 \. D. approximately. 
'Fewkes, 1909, fig. 14, p. 42; 191 1, pi. 29 and fig. 2, p. 73. 
" Nordenskiold, pi. 44. 3. 5, 4 ; 44. i, 2; 45, 2, i. 



NO. 



SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISH 



17 



from a cliff house in Xavaho Canyon. Six of these are coiled haskets, 
and one is a yucca-ring basket.' 

Coiling. — All the specimens of coiling show nonintcrlocking stitches, 
counterclockwise spiral with concave work surface, which means a 
direction of work toward the left of the worker. "^ While there is some 
variation in foundations, all but two of the variations agree in having 
triangular form of three elements. 

The specimens from Oak Tree House and Spruce Tree House, the 
hopper from Cliff Palace, one Wetherill basket from Navaho Canyon, 
and probably the Nordenskiold material have two-rod-and-bundle- 
triangular foundation (fig. 2). (Stitch measurements: the Oak Tree 




Fig. II. 
dation. 



-Coiling, with nonintcrlocking stitches on a three-rod-triangular foun- 



House specimen 5 to 6 coils, 22 stitches per inch ; the Wetherill speci- 
men 5 plus coils, 14 stitches per inch.) 

Three Wetherill specimens from Navaho Canyon have a foundation 
of two-rod-and-reed-triangular. (Measurements: 4-^- coils, ii to 12 
stitches per inch.) One W'etherill Navaho Canyon specimen and ap- 
parently the unfinished plaque from Cliff Palace have three-rod- 
triangular foundation (fig. it). (Measurements: Wetherill basket, 
3 coils, 7 stitches per inch.) Exceptional are one of the above 
Wetherill specimens, which in addition to work on a two-rod-and- 
reed-triangular foundation on the rim, has walls made on a single-rod 
foundation with the stitches nonintcrlocking (fig. 12) ; and a little 
oblong-shaped basket, also Wetherill, which is made on a soft rod 
which has been split by the sewing stitches passing through it" 
(measurements : 6 plus coils, 10 stitches per inch). 

'U.P.M., Wetherill Nos. B 51, 55, 54, 42; U.C.M. Nos. 2/3635, -V3068, 2/3063. 
' Statements for Spruce Tree House and Cliff Palace specimens figured by 
Fewkes, 1909, are based on his pictures; I have not seen tlie specimens. 
'U.P.M., Wetherill Nos. B 51 and B 42. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 8/ 



Tzi'Ul- plaiting. — The yucca-ring l)asket in the Wetherill collections, 
which is allocated to Navaho Canyon, has a zigzag design carried out 
in Strands of two colors, in under-3-over-3, weave. After the basket 
was completed, a small plaited collar woven under-i-over-i was 
fastened around the rim.' Two of the Nordenskiold baskets from 
Spruce Tree House are of this same type with meander or scroll 
designs carried out in two colors, having a small plaited collar fastened 
around the rim.' The two others are woven in one color, the specimen 
from Spruce Tree House having a meander pattern, that from Ruin 9 
a concentric diamond pattern ( fig. 4) . Similar to these, with scroll 




Fig. 12. — Coiling, with noninterlocking stitches, on a single-rod foundation. 
(This variant of single-rod coiling is of rare occurrence.) 



pattern and collar about the rim, is an unallocated yucca- ring basket in 
the Field Museum ; the basket is in over-4-under-4 weave and is 10 
inches in diameter. 

Shapes. — All the coiled Wetherill specimens (except the one oblong 
basket, which is similar to small modern pottery paint cups) as well 
as the Cliff Palace basketry hopper, are bowl and cylindrical shapes ; 
the bowls are similar in size and shape. Of the two cylindrical shapes, 
one is shallow and one deep.' The Nordenskiold coiled material con- 
sists of a bowl, a deep cylindrical basket, and a circular lid. 



' U.C.M. No. 2/3065. There are other specimens of yucca-ring baskets in 
the Wetherill collections which agree in all the above particulars (although 
designs vary) with the one described, but these are not allocated. See especially 
U.C.M. Nos. 3/3071 and 2/3064. In addition, Kidder and Guernsey, p. 109, refer 
to several Wetherill baskets in two colors as in the Colorado State Museum at 
Denver. 

^ Nordenskiold, pi. 44, i and 2. 

'U.P.M., Wetherill No. 42, shallow; U.C.M. No. 2/3635. 



NO. 7 



SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISH 



19 



MANGOS CANYON 

In tlie Wetherill collections there is one basket marked " From 
Sandal Clifif House, Mancos Canyon " in double coiling on a two-rod- 
and-bundle-vertical foundation (fig. 13) ; the stitching runs three 
coils, 15 stitches to the inch.' 

From the description of the contents of the Wetherill collections as 
" from the Clifif Houses in ^lancos and tributary canyons of south- 
western Colorado," I judge that several other Wetherill specimens 
with canyon locations are to be associated with this region : 

" Lake Canyon " : a tray in Basket oMaker type coiling but with 
two-rod-and-reed-triangular foundation (measurements: 4 coils, 12 




Fir;. 13. — Coiling, with noiiinterlocking stitclics, on a two-rod-and-lmndle- 
vertical foundation. 



stitches per inch) and a design in black, from a cave ; and a basket 
in sifter coiling of the Kane County type from a ruin (fig. 8).'' In 
this sifter basket, it is not clear which is the work surface ; if it were 
worked as usual on the concave surface, the direction of work is 
toward the right, in which trait it dififers from other sifters of this 
type. (In descriptive terms, this sifter has a clockwise spiral.) 

" Red Canyon " : One bowl from a clifif house is in Basket Maker 
type coiling (fig. 2) in all details, with a design in black (measure- 
ments : 6 coils, II stitches per inch). One yucca-ring basket is in over- 
3-under-3 weave ; the pattern is concentric diamond in black and 
natural (fig. 4) ; there is a plaited collar fastened to the outer rim." 



^U.P.M., Wetherill No. 50 B; cf. Amer. Anthrop., vol. 32, p. 485. 
' U.P.M., Wetherill No. 20 D, and Wetherill No. 4 D. 
' U.P.M., Wetherill No. 9 U ; U.C.M.. No. 3/3071. 



20 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 



" Lost Canyon " : Five specimens of coiled ware from this locality 
include two trays and three bowls.' Both trays are Basket Maker type 
technique on two-rod-and-bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2) with 
Stitch measurements 5^ coils, 10 plus stitches per inch. The tray from 
" ruin in Lost Canyon " is i8i inches in diameter and very shallow ; it 
has a black band design near the rim. The other from " Deep Canyon- 
Lost Canyon " is 19^ inches in diameter, 4^ inches deep, with a black 
horizontal zigzag design ; the foundation of the rim coil consists of 
two rods and a twisted two-ply cord as the apex of the triangular 
foundation, instead of a bundle of fiber which is used in the body 
of the basket. The three bowls include one typical Basket Maker type 
7| inches in diameter (stitch measurements: 5 coils. 8 stitches per 
inch) with black band design ; one called " Cliff Dweller " from Lost 
Canyon in Navaho Canyon with body made in Basket Maker type 
coiling on a two-rod-and-bundle-triangular foundation ( fig. 2 ) . and a 
set-in bottom made on a one-rod foundation with interlocking stitches 
(fig. 5) ; stitch measurements of the body coiling run 10 to 12 stitches. 
5 coils to the inch ; of the bottom 5 to 6 stitches, 6 rods per inch ; 
and a third, vertical-walled with bottom missing, on a single-rod 
foundation with noninterlocking stitches (fig. 12), counter clock- 
wise spiral, concave work surface, toward the left of the worker, from 
clifif house. The stitches are successively a wrapping of the new 
rod alternating with a regular single-rod stitch (which includes both 
the new rod and the rod of the course below). 

" Colorado River Canyon " : Coiling. — Two bowls and a bottom 
fragment in Basket Maker type coil on two-rod-and-bundle-triangular 
foundation (fig. 2). One bowl 7I inches in diameter, 3 inches deep, has 
a design of black horizontal lines with no apparent plan ; stitch mea- 
surements are 9 stitches, 5 plus coils per inch, with the workmanshi]) 
rough and uneven. The other " found in a cave on the Colorado River," 
diameter of mouth 11 inches, diameter of bottom 5 inches, height 
5"! inches (stitch measurements: 5 to 6 coils, 10 stitches per inch), 
has a twisted fiber string near the rim and remnants of pitch on the 
inside. The bottom fragment " found in a cliff house " is 4^ inches in 
diameter (stitch measurements: 5 plus coils. 9 stitches per inch). 

Plaiting. — Two yucca-ring baskets include one which has a collar 
and a design of a double set of concentric squares in black and natural, 
and another without collar which has a concentric diamond pattern 
all natural color (fig. 4).' 

' Trays : U.C.M. Nos. 2/3073, 2/3075 ; Bowls : U.C.M. Nos. 2/3074, 2/3067 ; 
U.P.M., Wetherill No. 13 D. 

'Bowls: U.C.M. No. 2/3069; U.P.iV.f., Wetherill No. 14 D ; fragment U.P.M., 
Wetherill No. 2 D ; Yucca-ring baskets : U.C.M. Nos. 2/3064, 2/3063. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISH 21 

JOHNSON CANYON 

In cliff dwellings in Johnson Canyon, east of the Mancos River in 
southwestern Colorado, Morris found fragments of a fine closely 
coiled basket, a fragment of a twill-plaited basket, and a netlike 
container made of yucca leaves fastened on a wooden ring/ The 
coiled fragment, from the figure, has a two-rod-and-bundle-triangular 
foundation, noninterlocking stitches, and was worked toward the left 
of the worker (fig. 2). 

PIEDRA DISTRICT (SOUTHWESTERN COLORADO) 

In 1928 Roberts found here in a pit house a small charred fragment 
of coiling, about 2 inches square, which is now in the United States 
National Museum.'' The pit houses according to Roberts are Pueblo I 
period. 

The coiling is Basket jMaker type, two-rod-and-bundle-triangular 
foundation, with noninterlocking stitches (fig. 2). The stitches are 
sewn quite far apart so that the foundation material is exposed 
between them ; in which characteristic it resembles Basket Maker 
rather than Cliff Dweller. In connection with the coarseness of tex- 
ture of this basketry, it is interesting to note Kidder's comments on 
the early transitional or peripheral character of this site ; '' and that 
type A house is postulated as earliest at this site. 

Pueblo Boxito, N. Mex.^ 

Culture horizon : Pueblo III. 

In Pepper's excavations at Pueblo Bonito, he found basketry 
remains in two techniques, close coiling and twill-plaiting.' In refer- 
ence to Pepper's ground plan the distribution of the finds was as 
shown below. The page numbers refer to Pepper, 1920. 

Room 2, two coiled baskets, one a meal or gambling tray, " two-rod coil 
type and has a herringbone edge on the angle of the rim." It feet in diameter 
(p. 36). 

Room 13, fragment of a bowl with evidence of red pigment on both sur- 
faces (p. 69). 

'Morris, 1919a. Basketry fragment, pi. 47 f ; plaiting, pi. 52a; netted container, 
pi. 52&. I have noted pi. 52b as resembling the basketlike containers described 
and figured by Morris, igigb, fig. 35 and p. 57. 

^ U.S.N.M. No. 348328. See Roberts, pi. 3 and pp. 22 and 74. The specimen 
was found in his "A" village, 5-E 2 (house and room identification). 

^ Kidder, 1931, pp. 126-127. 

■* Date: (According to A. E. Douglass) 919 (earliest beam cut) to 1130 A. D. 
(latest beam cut). 

' Pepper, 1920. The ground plan is fig. 155. 



22 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

Room 24, a yucca-ring basket (p. 96). 

Room 25, fragments and a whole coiled basket " of the three-rod coiled 
variety"; and a yucca-ring basket with the concentric diamond pattern (p. 107). 

Room 32, "one very large basket" (coiled?) (p. 162). 

Room 33, a cylindrical basket, 3 inches in diameter and 6 inches in length, 
covered with turquoise mosaic (coiled?). 

Another cylindrical basket, decorated with turquoise and shell beads. (4 cm 
in diameter and 6 cm in length) (pp. 164 and 169, fig. 71 : pp. 174-175). 

Room 62, a number of large coiled baskets fovind covering pockets containing 
broken potsherds. * 

I have not seen the specimens referred to in the above. I read 
Pepper's " two-rod-coiled type " as two-rud-and-bundle-triangular 
foundation (fig. 2), and his " three-rod-coiled variety " as three-rod- 
triangular foundation (fig. 11). Thus we have evidence from Pueblo 
Bonito of coiled basketry, possibly of Basket Maker type, with two 
types of foundation, and of yucca-ring baskets.' 

Aztec Ruin, N. Mex (.\ximas .wu La Plata Region) 

Culture horizon: Great Pueblo period (late Pueblo 111). 

Morris obtained specimens and other evidence from Aztec indi- 
cating that two types of basketry techniques w^ere in use there : coiling 
and plaiting. There is also a type of basketlike container.' The coiled 
baskets were of three shapes : plaques, bowls, and cylindrical forms. 
The plaiting included two " carelessly made plaited baskets," and a 
plaited rush bag. From the illustration the bag is in twill-plaiting in 
over-2-under-2 weave. 

Morris refers to basketlike containers, of which 15 were found. 
The foundation is a hoop of wood, bound with yucca, to which a lacing 
of yucca strips is attached to form a loose meshwork within which is 
a linins: of husks." 



'- Pepper, 1920, pp. 234-235, and p. 227, fig. 100. 

* Mr. Judd showed me miniature coiled baskets in cylindrical, oblong, and 
cradle-basket forms, which he has not yet described in print. These are on 
two-rod-and-bundle-triangular foundation, in technical aspects analogous to the 
work of the Basket Alaker type site (Marsh Pass). They have a false-braid 
edge. This edging is referred to by Pepper, above, as " herringbone " on the 
two-rod-and-bundle coiled basket from room 2. Elsewhere in this paper I have 
compared the shape of Judd's miniature cradle basket to others (under Cradle 
House, Navaho National Alonument). 

' Morris, 1919b, pp. 54, 56, 57, figs. 32 and 35. A. E. Douglass dates Aztec 
as about 20 years later than Pueblo Bonito, namely about 11 50 A. D. 

* Morris, 1919b, fig. 35, and p. 57 ; see also reference in this paper under 
Tohnson Canvon. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRV WELTFISII 23 

Miscellaneous Collections 
SOUTHERN UTAH (sAN DIEGO MUSEUM COLLECTION) 

In the San Diego Museum, classified as prehistoric baskets from 
southern Utah, is a collection of seven coiled and three twill-plaited 
baskets. 

Coiling. — Five coiled baskets are Basket JMaker type in every par- 
ticular (fig. 2).* The shapes are: two bowls, one very large tray {21^ 
inches in diameter), a burden basket, and a cradle basket.^ All the 
baskets have about 4 plus coils to the inch, the stitching ranging from 
II to 14 stitches to the inch. The burden basket has two horizontal 
black zigzag designs ; the tray has a band of black near the center. 
Both tray and burden basket have two lugs of fiber cord on the convex 
or outside surface. One of the bowl-shaped baskets contains the 
mummy of a baby wrapped in a rabbit-fur cloak. 

One small coiled globular basket is made in Basket Maker type 
technique but the texture is finer.' There are 6 to 7 coils and 14 
stitches to the inch near the bottom. The work is finer toward the 
mouth ; it has a plain edge and all the work was done on the convex 
surface. The mouth is inverted and depressed ; six courses at the 
mouth are made on multiple grass foundation, so that this part of the 
basket is soft and flexible. A skin covering was put over the mouth 
and shoulder of the basket and fastened to it by cross-tying of buck- 
skin thongs over the sides and vmder the bottom. The basket is 
5 inches in diameter, 2^ inches high and the mouth opening is 2^ inches 
in diameter. 

One coiled bowl is made on a single-rod foundation with interlock- 
ing stitches (fig. 5), counterclockwise spiral, concave work surface 
toward the left of the worker. There is a false braid edge.^ 

Twill-plaiting. — Twill-plaited baskets include two yucca-ring bas- 
kets in over-2-under-2 weave, one of which has a concentric diamond 
pattern (fig. 4),* and one globular-shaped basket in over-2-under-2 
weave, probably made from the mouth down, with open bottom, over 
which a square of twill-plaiting has been fastened with one row of 
twining. This latter basket has two collars of plaiting, the outer one 
attached extraneously and the inner one a part of the body. There is 
a fiber drawstring at the mouth.' 

' S.D.M. Nos. 4789, 4756, 4788, 4759. 

^ See also under Cradle House in this paper. 

^ S.D.jM. No. 4758, similar in shape to the globular yucca basket below, 
(S.D.M. No. 4791). 

' S.D.M. No. 4790. 

" S.D.M. Nos. 4755, 4762. 

* S.D.M. No. 4791 ; baskets of this type and shape with bottom open and 
collar attached, are described also under Canyon de Chelly and Grand Gulch. 



24 SMITFISOXIAX M ISCEI.I-A X l.l )l"S tOI.I I'CiroXS VOL. S>y 

SOUTHERN UTAH AND SOl"TH\\'ESTERN COLORADO ( WETHERILL. AND 
iVrcLLOVD AND GRAHAM fOr.LECTIOXS ) 

Basketry material important from a technical standpoint is con- 
tained in the McLloyd and Graham and the Wetherill collections now 
in the University Museum. University of Pennsylvania, and the l^ii- 
versity of California Museum. Wherever possihle in this paper I 
have grouped or included specimens from these collections with loca- 
tions or sites ; there remain, however, a number of baskets for which 
no allocations can be made l)eyond the general regional one as above.' 

Coiled basketry. — Basket ]\Iaker type coiling on a two-rod-and- 
bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2) includes four bowls and (jne 
tray. Three undecorated bowls are respectively 8:[ inches in diameter 
of mouth, 4] inches high, 3I inches in diameter of bottom; 11 inches 
in diameter of mouth, 4^ inches in diameter of bottom, 5f inches 
high; and 13^ inches in diameter of mouth, 8 inches in diameter of 
bottom, 5 inches high. The stitch measurements are 6 coils, 8 stitches ; 
5 coils, 7 stitches; 5 coils, 13 plus stitches per inch.' A larger bowl, 
14I- inches in diameter of mouth, 9 inches in diameter of bottom, 6 
inches high, 4 plus coils, 12 to 13 stitches per inch, with a design in 
dark brown, an unusual color, has a circular piece of native cloth 
glued to the outer bottom with pinyon gum.'' The tray is 16^ inches 
in diameter by 4^ inches deep, runs 9 plus stitches, 6 coils to the inch, 
and has a black zigzag band design.^ 

Cylindrical forms. — These include three pieces, all of relatively fine 
texture ; one piece shows 6 coils, 15 stitches to the inch, while another 
is very fine, running 5 plus coils, 22 stitches to the inch (Cliff Dweller 
texture). Two have designs in red and black.' There are two oval 
baskets, one of which is a burden basket. One of the oval baskets 
has a design in black, while the burden basket has a design in red and 



' In reference to baskets of this collection in the University of California 
Museum, which have been classified above under canyon names, Dr. L. M. 
O'Neale sent me the following note from the catalog : " Baskets shipped from 
University of Pennsylvania, received August, 1891, named as C. D. Hazzard 
Collection, divided by G. H. Pepper." Cf. Amer. Anthrop., vol. 32, p. 485, 
note 58. 

■ U.P.M., Wetherill No. 15 D (found with skeletal remains), Nos. 21 D, 
25 D (found with human remains). 

' U.P.M., Wetherill No. 22 D. 

* U.P.M., no number. 

^ U.P.AI., Wetherill Nos. B 38, and D 21 (found with Iniman remains) ; the 
lliird is I'. P. AT., no numlier. 



XO. 7 SOrTllWF.STKRX RASKRTRV WF.LTFISH 25 

black." One oblong basket, witbout decoration and of coarse texture, 
sbows a use of botli yucca and wood sewin": threads in the same 
basket." 

Basket Maker type coiling on a two-rod-and-reed-triangular foun- 
dation : two bowls, one tray, one cylindrical shape. The tray is of 
coarse texture, the other three pieces somewhat finer. One undec- 
orated bowl has red paint adhering to the outside. The other howl 
and the tray are decorated in red and black." 

There is one shallow, circular fragment of Basket Maker technique 
on a three-rod-triangular foundation ; it is rather coarse in texture.^ 

Interlocking. — Two trays on a two-rod-and-reed-triangular foun- 
dation, worked on the concave surface to the left of the worker, show 
interlocking stitches ; the stitch measurements are 5 coils, 10 stitches, 
and 5 coils, 12 stitches to the inch ; one has a decoration in black in an 
unusual shiny material." Two specimens on a one-rod foundation 
show interlocking stitches (fig. 5), and are worked on the concave 
surface to the worker's left. One is a bowl, the second a cylindrical 
piece, with an unusual embroidery decoration.* 

Sifter coiling. — There is one sifter basket in these collections. The 
technique is illustrated in Figure 7. In principle it is related to the 
technique of specimens from Canyon de Chelly (fig. 6) and from Bear 
Creek on Blue River (fig. 17). I have grouped these variants as all 
of one sifter-coiling type, called type B. 

PALATKI, CENTRAL ARIZONA 

Basketry fragments found in a cliff house by J. W. Fewkes are in 
the United States National Museum. I have seen a fragment of 
coiling and a number of fragments of twining. 

Coiling. — The coiled fragment is made with noninterlocking stitches, 
on a three-rod-triangular foundation (fig. 11). It is rather coarse 
work, running 6 coils and 9 stitches to the inch. 

Tw/»»/^.'— These fragments are parts of what were evidently large 
conical burden baskets, made in twilled-twining (fig. 14). The stitch 

^ U.P.M., both specimens without number. 

'U.P.M., Wetherill No. 11 D (found with human remains). 

'The bowls and tray are U.P.M., no number; the cylindrical fragment is 
U.P.M., Wetherill No. B 36. 

* U.C.M. No. 2/3072. 

°The two trays are U.P.M., no number. 

*The two pieces are U.P.M., no number. 

'U.S.N.M. No. 156293: Basket fragments, Palatki, Ariz., ruin A, house G 
(J. W. Fewkes, 634). 



26 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 8 



is regular twilled-twine to the rim, three-strand twine (fig. 15) at 
the rim and the rim finish consists of two rows of loose coiling, with 
noninterlocking stitches on a scrap foundation. The twine stitches 
trend upward toward the right. No decoration is discernible. It seems 
likely that in shape and technique these baskets were similar to modern 
Havasupai burden baskets. 




Fig. 14. — Twilled-tvvining. 




Fig. 15. — Three-strand twining. 



LITTLE COLORADO RIVER REGION, .\RIZONA 
Ch.wf.s Pass 

In the United States National Museum are fragments of coiled bas- 
ketry secured by Fewkes at this location.* They show evidence of 
having been painted with red and blue paint. The stitches are non- 
interlocking ; the foundation is three-rod-triangular (fig. 11), com- 
posed of very fine thin rods. The fragments are so badly battered 
as to make any further comment hypothetical. 



'U.S.N.M. Xo. 157925. 



NO. 



SOUTH VVKSTERN BASKETRY WF.I.TFISH 



27 



Chevlon Ruin ' 

Fewkes collected from this site 12 fragments and a large part of a 
broken basket, all in coiling. I examined the broken basket in the 
United States National Museum.' 

The coiling is made on a three-rod-triangular foundation (fig. 11), 
counterclockwise spiral, concave work surface, toward the left of 
the worker (fig. la), with noninterlocking stitches (fig. 11). The 
foundation rods are very thin and fine. The basket is all in black 
with a fret pattern in natural thread : reconstructed, it is a shallow 




Fig. i6.^Wickerwork. 



jjasket with flat bottom and vertical walls, diameter of bottom, 3! 
inches, height of walls about I4 inches. 

The specimens from this site are technically similar to those from 
Chaves Pass. 

A specimen of wickerwork in every respect like modern Hopi 
wicker work of Third Mesa was recovered by Fewkes from Chevlon 
Ruin (fig. 16)." 

LOWER GILA REGION 

C.\SA Grande 

From Casa Grande there are a large number of charred fragments 
of coiled basketry in the United States National Museum. In the 
Museum is also one coiled tray from this site, with a black meander 
design in martynia thread, which is unquestionably of Pima manufac- 

' Chevlon Ruin is 15 miles from Winslow. 

' U.S.N.M. No. 157915 ; see also J. W. Fewkes, 22nd x\nn. Rep. Bur. Amer. 
Ethnol., pt. I, p. 99 and fig. 63. The same basket is figured in Mason, pi. 220, 
and p. 509. 

^ Mason, pi. 219 and p. 508. 



28 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

ture in all respects, differing decidedly from the other material from 
the site/ 

The coiling of the charred fragments is made on a three-rod- 
triangular foundation (the foundation rods are very fine and thin), 
with noninterlocking stitches (fig. ii) and plain edge. It looks as 
though the edge might have been sewn with martynia thread. Measure- 
ments : 6 to 8 coils and 14 stitches per inch. Technically this work is 
similar to the coiling of Chevlon Ruin and Chaves Pass, as above. 

UPPER GILA REGION ■ 
Bear Creek on Blue River 

From this site (Montezuma's cave) Hough obtained a large number 
of baskets.^ There are baskets in close coiling, sifter coiling, and 
twill-plaiting, and one specimen in an unusual technique — wrapped 
coiling. Hough also mentions wicker baskets which I have not seen. 

Close coiling. — Six specimens I examined included two bowls about 
5 inches in diameter and 2 inches in height, one fragment of the neck 
of a globular basket, one fragmentary bowl rim. and two miniature 
globular baskets (2^ inches in diameter, i^ inches in height ; i\ inches 
in diameter, i inch in height).'* In all these specimens, the coiling 
stitches are noninterlocking and are made on a two-rod-and-bundle- 
triangular foundation (fig. 2) . The bowls and fragments were worked 
on the concave work surface toward the left of the worker (fig. la) \ 
the two miniature globular baskets were worked on the convex surface 
(inevitable in such globular forms) to the right of the worker — -an 
anomalous direction of work, which is probably to be explained b}- 
attributing them to left-handed basket making. The texture of the 
stitching in the fragments and in the miniatures is very fine, that in 
the two small bowls, a little coarser ; the range of the measurements 
is from 7 coils, 23 stitches per inch in one fragment to 4 coils, 10 
stitches per inch in the coarser bowl. Decoration : one bowl is decor- 
ated in red and black, the other in black, and the larger miniature 
globular basket has a dark red decoration. 

Sifter coiling. — Twelve small, possibly miniature, sifter baskets'* 
(the range of diameters is from 2 inches to 5^ inches) are consistent 

^U.S.N.M. cat. 254596, ace. 49619, o. 296, Fewkes, prehistoric Casa Grande. 

^ Hough, 1907, pp. 50-52 and 24-25. 

'U.S.N.M. Nos. 246130; 246128; 232103; 246156 (cf. Hough, 1914, pi. 17, 
No. 4) ; 246129 and 232096 (cf. Hough, 1914, pi. 17, Nos. 2 and 5). 

''U.S.N.M. Nos. 246142, 246143, 232089, 246140, 246139, 246134, 246136. 
24614L 246137. 232087, 246131 ; 246135 (cf. Hough, 1914, pi. 24) ; 246138 (this 



SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISH 



29 



in all technical aspects except foundation. They are worked on the 
concave work surface to the left of the worker (counterclockwise 
spiral) with noninterlocking stitches. The stitch technique is what I 
have called type B sifter coiling, which includes also specimens from 
Canyon de Chelly (fig. 6) and from the Hazzard collection (fig. 7). 
Foundations are of three types: three baskets are on two-rod-and- 
bundle-triangular (fig. 2) ; six are on multiple grass (fig. 17) ; and 
three are on rod-surrounded-by-bundle (fig. 3). The thread is 
wrapped about the course of coiling in work and at intervals is fas- 
tened to the course below. There are two ways of treating the fas- 
tening stitch : either the stitch is caught in the foundation of the course 
below the one in work (fig. 17) (analogous to Canyon de Chelly speci- 
men), or the stitch passes underneath the lower course (analogous to 




]'"[(■.. 17. — Sifter coiling on a mnltiple-grass foundation. (T3'pe found at Bear 
Creek on Blue River; variant of type B.) 



the Hazzard collection specimen) . This latter method of fastening the 
stitch occurs in the three specimens with rod-surrounded-by-bundle 
foundation ; in the remaining nine with two-rod-and-bundle-triangular 
and with multiple-grass foundations, the stitch is caught in the foun- 
dation of the lower course. This variety of type B sifter coiling differs 
from the other two kinds in that the fastening stitch is not bound 
around itself between the courses. It differs further from the Canyon 
de Chelly variety in that instead of the fastening stitches being made 
one directly above the other, they are fastened in alternate order in the 
successive courses (see p. 11 and fig. 7). 

In all the baskets the starting knot is so made as to leave a large 
hole in the center bottom ; all are finished oft' with a few false-braid 

specimen is fastened with thread to a small stick, umbrella-fashion; of. Hough, 
1914. fig. 317). Hough, 1907, p. 25, refers to these sifter baskets as "lazy 
stitch." 



30 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

Stitches. All the baskets are decorated on the outside, the non-work 
surface, by painting in colors : black, red and black, red, black and 
white, red and blue. Two, in addition, are painted all over inside with 
red. (These two have respectively, outside decoration in red and black, 
and red and blue, and are both on a multiple-grass foundation.) 

Wrapped coiling. — One small conical basket is made in wrapped 
coiling similar to the work of Mohave burden baskets; the weaving 
strands are of basket-thread.^ 

Tivill-plaifiiig. — Three specimens of twill-plaiting " in over-3-un- 
der-3 weave ; the first is a yucca-ring basket with concentric diamond 
pattern (fig. 4), the second is a finely woven yucca-ring basket with 




Fig. 18. — Wrapped coiling. 

a square rim ring and diagonal design,' and the third is an oUa-shaped 
basket with a bottom design of a cross into which are set four series 
of concentric right-angled elements. This olla shape was made all in 
one piece, evidently beginning at the center bottom.' 

A twill-plaited specimen of special interest is a small, flat square 
mat with key pattern." (Compare with Nordcnskiold's plaited l)askets 
from Mesa Verde, described above.) 

RIO GRANDE REGION 

Pa jARiTO Plateau, N. Mex. 

From the small-house ruins of the Pajarito Plateau there is evidence 
of a great deal of close coiling and some twill-plaiting which may be 
mat work. The evidence is in the form of " an extraordinarily high 

'■ Hough, 1907, p. 25, refers to this Mohave type work ; see also Mason, p. 230, 
fig. 13, and Hough, 1914, p. 88 and fig. 318. 
"U.S.N.M. Nos. 246159; 246161 ; 246160. 
'' Hough, 1914, pi. 17, No. T. 
■'Hough, 1914, pi. 17, No. 3; also fig. 179. 
^ Hough, 1914. pi. 16, No. J. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRV WF.LTFISH 3I 

percentage of basket-marked sherds " found in association, primarily, 
with black-on-white pottery/ 

Kidder observes : " Such sherds occur, it is true, in most other 
black-and-white groups, but they are of the greatest rarity. Here, 
however, they can be picked up at almost any site. The impressions 
show that bowls and the lower parts of ollas were often formed in 
baskets. In these cases the clay was apparently coated on the inside of 
the basket and pressed down hard enough to render the marks of the 
weave sharp and clear. The upper parts of ollas were probably con- 
structed by the regular coiling method. Some bowls, however, seem to 
have been molded or cast entire in basket forms, as the impression of 
the weave runs to the rim. The baskets themselves were all of the 
coiled variety, tray- or bowl-shaped ; the coils measure 4 to 5 mm in 
breadth and there are about six stitches to the centimeter" ( 15 plus 
stitches. 5 to 6 coils per inch). 

From the photographed basketr3'-marked sherd, with the accom- 
panying cast."" the coiling is close work, either on a two-rod-and- 
bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2), or on a three-rod-triangular 
foundation. More probably it is the former, i f it were made on a 
three-rod-triangular foundation (fig. it), the appearance would 
probably be more rugose and the depressions between the courses of 
coiling, deeper. The sherd betrays suggestions of a zigzag design 
which was made in a heavier thread than the regular sewing thread, as 
shown by zigzag rows of deeper impressions in the sherd, higher 
elevations in the cast. 

In my opinion the general texture and finish of the basketry sug- 
gested by this sherd is decidedly similar to Basket AFaker type work 
of the finer (Clifif Dweller) grade. 

Lower Rio Grande Region 

Three sites in the Lower Rio Grande Region have \ielded speci- 
mens of prehistoric basketry. 

SFTi: NEAR LAS CRUCES, N. MEX. 

From a site near f-as Cruces, N. Mex., there are four baskets in 
the United States National Museum. Some basketry sherds were 
also found, but no pottery." 

' Kidder, 1915, pp. 413-414, and pi. 14. PI. 14/' shows on the filling-in of 
the mouth of a broken olla the impression of a twill-plaited mat; see also 
Kidder's text. p. 426. 

^Kidder, 1915, pi. 14a. From the standpoint of the way the basket was 
made, the sherd should he examined with the page inverted. 

' I examined these four specimens in the United States National Xfuseum 
through the courtesy of Dr. Walter Hough. They were obtained in connection 



32 



SMITHSONIAN MlSCELLANliOUS CULLECTIONS Vul,. 8/ 



All four specimens are in close coiling. Two are rather deep, round 
bowls, one a burden basket of an unusual shape — in profile the basket 
shows deeply concaved walls and widely flaring mouth ; a cross-section 
would be ovaloid — and the fourth is a unique specimen of coiling in 
that it is shovel-shaped (fig. 19/')- While it is probable that the bur- 
den basket had a design, in their present condition no designs could be 
made out on the first three of the above. In the shovel-shaped basket 
a radial design appears, sewn in dark red bark (almost a black). 

In all technical traits, the four baskets are Basket Maker type, con- 
sistently on two-rod-and-bundlc foundation (fig. 2) ; the stitch texture 
is coarse. The first three specimens are sewn with wood sewing 
thread, the usual Basket Maker type sewing thread, while in the 
shovel-shaped basket, a yucca sewing thread was used. 





Fig. 19. — Shovel-shaped coiled basket from site near Las Cruces, N. Mex. 
a. Shows the insertion of several sets of partial circuits to produce a form 
narrow in the middle, with walls built up at the two ends. b. Profile view. 

The shovel-shaped basket, being an unusual shape for coiling, shows 
a special way of using the coiling technique. In addition to the usual 
continuous circuit, partial circuits of coiling are introduced at interA^als 
as illustrated (fig. 19). 



WEST OF SACRAMENTO MOUNTAINS 

From a cave on the west side of the Sacramento Mountains I have 
seen a fragment of coiled basketry.' This is in the typical Basket 
Maker technique of coiling on a two-rod-and-l)undle-triangular foun- 
dation with noninterlocking stitches. The texture runs 5 coils, 10 
stitches per inch. The fragment is too small to determine work sur- 
face or possible shape. 

with the Yale Expedition of 1929. The site is further identified as Dona Ana 
County, in the southwestern portion of New Mexico, close to the east bank 
of the Rio Grande, about 25 miles north of the Texas State line. The shovel- 
shaped basket is U.S.N.M. No. 345916. 

' Found by E. B. Howard of the University Museum, Philadelphia. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY W ELTFISH ^^ 

WEST OF CARLSBAD, N. MEX. 

From a cave 50 miles west of Carlsbad, I have seen a coiled frag- 
ment which is in Basket Maker technique/ The texture is coarser 
than the Sacramento specimen, running 4 coils, 8 stitches per inch. 
The foundation was probably rod-surrounded-by-bundle-of-fiber. 
The arrangement of splicings suggests that the surface may have 
been originally in two colors, with a design in triangular elements. 



The indications are that the Lower Rio Grande region forms the 
southeastern boundary of the Southwestern basketry area. Further 
to the south a distinct type of coiled basketry is found. I have so far 
seen material of this Texas type from Brewster County, Texas,' 
from D. G. Knight cave (20 miles southwest of Valentine, Texas ),^ 
and from the Guadalupe Mountains.' 

The Texas type of coiled basketry is made on a bundle-of-grass 
foundation, with stitches split on the non-work surface, worked 
toward the left (jf the worker, on the concave surface : yucca sewing 
thread is used. 

ANCIENT PUEBLO 

Over a period of many years, basketry has been secured from a 
number of the existing pueblos (as well as one ruin — Sikyatki ) 
which have been classified as " ancient pueblo." There is no adequate 
evidence as to who made these baskets, but there can be little doubt 
that they are of considerable antiquity. 

Many of the baskets were collected long ago by Stevenson and 
Powell and are illustrated by photographs in Mason.* There are 
occasional specimens in other museums, some obtained quite recently, 
and still others are today in the hands of traders in Santa Fe and 
elsewhere. 



^ Found by E. B. Howard of the Universitj- Museum, Philadelphia. 

^ Found by M. R. Harrington of the Southwest Museum. Specimens now 
in Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. 

' Found by F. M. Setzler of the U. S. National Museum. 

* I give below in reference to the specimens, Mason's plates and page ref- 
erences ; there is some confusion in the Mason references ; where my museum 
number references do not agree with his information, they should be taken 
as a correction of Mason, as they have been obtained directly from the speci- 
mens. This is also true of some of Mason's allocations to pueblos and collectors. 

3 



34 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

SiKYATKI 

Culture horizon : Late Pueblo IVa. 

In the United States National AEuseuni there are specimens of 
basketry from Sikyatki in three techniques : wicker, close coiling, and 
twill-plaiting/ 

From the illustrations, the coiling is made on a bundle foundation 
and sewn with yucca sewing thread. This identifies it with modern 
Hopi coiling now made on Second ^Icsa. 

The technique of the wicker specimen is also identical with the 
modern Hopi wickerwork now made on their mesa ( fig. i6). 

The twill-plaiting seems to be in too bad a condition to make out 
details from the photograph. The piece may have been part of a 
yucca-ring basket, such as are made today on Second Mesa ; or it may 
be a piece of matting. In either case it seems similar to modern Hopi 
work. 

Hopi (Moki) 

From Hopi, I have seen four coiled baskets, three of which are 
bottle shapes, and one an oblong oval basket (boat-shaped) : 

U.S.N.M. No. 68473 (Mokis, J. W. Powell), not illustrated in Mason. Aleastire- 
ments : total height 9I inches ; diameters, bottom SV inches, neck si inches, 
mouth 7-4 inches ; 4? coils, 14 stitches per inch. Design in black and red. 

U.S.N.Af. No. 68474 (Mokis. J. W. Powell). Mason, pi. 214. third basket from 
left in upper row ; also Mason, p. 502. Measurements : total height 7 inches : 
diameters, bottom 7^ inches, neck 4-4 inches, mouth 54 inches. 4 coils, 12 
stitches per inch. Design in red and black. 

A.M.N.H. No. 50/9579 (Hopi) ; in shape, size, and texture similar to the above. 
No design discernible. 

IT.S.N.M. No. 68471 (Mokis, J. W. Powell). Mason, pi. 214, first basket a1 
left in upper row ; and Mason, p. 502.^ Measurements : ,34 inches high : 
diameters, bottom 9! inches, mouth y\ inches; 5^ coils, 13 stitches per 
inch. No design discernible. 

All the above specimens are in Basket Maker type coiling ; two-rod- 
and-bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2), noninterlocking stitches, 
convex work surface, clockwise spiral, worked to the left of the 
worker (fig. ib). The American Museum specimen is made on the 
concave surface past the bend (fig. la). then work is transferred to 
the convex surface and proceeds thereafter from the outside (fig. 
lb)' 

^ Mason, p. 509 and pis. 221, 222. 

^ Mason, p. 502, calls these two baskets .Stevenson's Zuiii collections ; this 
disagrees with catalogue and specimens. Note that the photograph of U.S.N.M. 
No. 68471 shows in white the designation as I have it. 

^ See also in reference to this change of work surface, .'Viner. Anthrop. vol. 32. 
p. 486. The presence of both of these methods, viz., globular baskets worked 



so. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WEl.TFISH 2<? 

In addition to the above specimens, Mason, Plate 218, pictures nine 
" ancient baskets from Oraibi," of which seven are coiled and two 
twined/ Six of the coiled baskets are on three-rod-triangular founda- 
tion (fig. 11). In texture and technique these coiled baskets are differ- 
ent from those above described, resembling the modern work of Utes. 
The large twined water bottle has a frame woven in like that of a 
burden basket, as has also one of the twined bottles from Zuni (Mason, 
pi. 213, upper center). 

Santa Ana 

In the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, there is 
a coiled, bottle-shaped basket collected in Santa Ana."" The measure- 
ments are : 7I inches high ; diameters, bottom 8^ inches, mouth 7 
inches ; si coils, 14 stitches to the inch. The technique is in every par- 
ticular Basket Maker type coiling on two-rod-and-bundle-triangular 
foundation (fig. 2). There is a design in red and black. 

SlA 

F"rom the pueblo of Sia there are six coiled bottle-shaped baskets : 

U.S.N.M. No. 134213 (Siana, N. Mex., Stevenson), Mason, pi. 28, lower, and 
p. 253.^ Measurements : total height gi inches ; diameters, bottom 9^ inches, 
neck, 5i inches, mouth 7\ inches; 4 plus coils, 15 stitches per inch. Design 
in black. 

U.S.N.M. No. 134214 (Stevenson; Mason, p. 409, calls this Sia), Mason, pi. 212, 
lower. Measurements : height inches ; diameters, bottom 8 inches, neck 
6 inches, mouth 7 inches; 4 coils, 12 stitches per incli. Design in red and 
black. 

U.S.N.M. No. 134214 (Siana, N. Mex., Stevenson), Mason, pi. 214, lower row, 
fourth from the left, and Mason, p. 502.^ Measurements: ni inches high; 
diameters, bottom, 7l inches, neck, 4I inches, mouth 6\ inches; 5 coils, 12 
stitches to the inch. Design in red and black.* 



throughout on the convex surface, and others with change of work surface 
is not inconsistent with finds of typical Basket Maker material, viz.. Marsh Pass 
collections of Kidder and Guernsey. 

^ Mason, pp. 506-507, describes these baskets, pointing out that one is 
modern ; he lists museum numbers. 

' M.A.I., H.F. No. 7/825. 

' Mason, p. 253, calls both baskets in pi. 2S, Sia, while he titles pi. 28 itself, 
Zufii. The upper basket is Zuiii, the lower is Sia. 

* Note that this basket and the preceding one have the same museum numbers 
as well as the two specimens numbered 1 3421 5. There are four specimens, not 
two. 

"That the design of this and the preceding specimen is red and black is my 
judgment; at the present day both designs appear as faded brown and red. 



36 SMITHSONIAN M ISCIilJ.ANEOUS COLLECTIONS \OL. 87 

U.S.N.M. No. 134215 (probably Gill, 1902?), Mason, pi. 212 upper and p. 4ggi. 

Measurements : height yi inches, diameters, bottom 6 inches, neck 4I inches. 

mouth si inches ; 5 coils, 13 stitches per inch. Design in black. 
U.S.N.M. No. 134215, Mason, pi. 214, lower row, third from the left. I have not 

seen the specimen. Mason gives, p. 502, diameter ii^ inches. Design not 

discernible from photograph. 
Eldody collection, No. 8463 (seen in La Fonda shop, Sante Fe, N. Mex.). With 

a rawhide band and handle around the neck ; design in red and black. 

All the above specimens are made in every particular in Basket 
Maker type coiling on a two-rod-and-bundle-trianguiar foundation 
(fig. 2), convex work surface (fig. lb). 

ZUNI 

From Zuni there are three coiled bottle shapes and two coiled 
globular baskets.' 

U.S.N.M. No. 68550 (Zuni, Powell), Mason, pi. 214, second basket from the 
left in the upper row, and p. 502. The basket has a small leather handle ; 
design in black. Aleasurements : total height 4^ inches ; diameters, bottom 
4 inches, mouth 35 inches ; 5 coils, 13 .stitches per inch. 

U.S.N.M^. No. 42140, Mason, pi. 214, first basket from right in upper row, and 
p. 502. Measurements : 45 inches high ; diameters, bottom 4 inches, neck 
3i inches, mouth 4I inches ; 5 coils, 10 stitches per inch. Leather handle ; 
design in black. 

LI.S.N.M. No. 68489 (Zuni, Stevenson), Mason, pi. 214, lower row, second from 
the left," and p. 502. ?^Ieasurements : total height gi inches ; diameters, 
bottom 82 inches, neck 45 inches, mouth 6i inches; 32 coils, 10 stitches per 
inch. Design in dark red. 

U.S.N.M. No. 68472 (Zuni, Powell), Mason, pi. 214, upper row, fourth from 
left and p. 502. Measurements : 4I inches high ; diameters, bottom 5? inches, 
mouth, 5I inches ; 3j coils, 1 1 stitches per inch. Leather handle ; design not 
discernible. 

U.S.N.M. No. 68479 (Zuni, Powell), Mason, pi. 28 upper and p. 253. Measure- 
ments : 5-4 inches high ; diameters, bottom 74 inches, mouth 9j inches ; 5 
coils, 15 stitches per inch. Design in red and black. 

The above five specimens are in every particular Basket Maker 
type coiling on a two-rod-and-bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2) 
and convex work surface throughout (fig. \b). The last one has the 
bottom broken out and a false bottom sewn in which is coarse coiling 
on a three-rod-triangular foundation, with stitches split on the non- 
work surface which faces the outside bottom. 



'There is also U.S.N.AL No. 68546 (Zuni, Powell). Mason, fig. 189, p. 503- 
I have not seen this specimen. From Mason's figure it seems very likely to be 
a Chiricahua Apache basket ; it is not at all similar to the baskets above. 

^ Mason, p. 502, has apparently transposed the numbers of the first and 
second baskets from the left in the lower row of his pi. 214. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY— WEI.TFISII 2)7 

Besides these coiled baskets called " ancient Zuiii," Mason also 
figures (pi. 213) seven twined baskets and one wicker basket, col- 
lected by James Stevenson. The twined baskets are bottle-shaped, 
while the wicker basket is globular. The types of twined stitches 
used include plain twining, twilled twining (fig. 14), and three- 
strand twining (fig. 15).' The twining is made toward the right 
of the worker (clockwise spiral, convex work surface) stitches 
trending upward toward the right in the direction in which the work 
proceeds. The technique of the wicker basket is similar to modern 
Hopi work, Third Mesa (fig. 16). 

Miscellaneous 

Besides the above baskets, there are seven coiled baskets secured 
in pueblos, and classified as " ancient pueblo " which do not specify 
what pueblo. All are bottle shapes. 

U.S.N. M. No. 313165 (collected by Hubby"). Design in red and black." 

U.S.N.M. 328022 (Hubby"). Design in red and black.'' Measurements: yl 
inches high; diameter 10 inches; 4 coils, 15 stitches per inch. 

U.S.N.M., no number. Measurements : 4 inches high, diameters, bottom 4I inches, 
mouth 3g inches ; 4 coils, 1 1 stitches per inch. Probably undecorated. 

U.S.N.M. No. 221415 (collected by F. H. Gushing). Measurements: ii| inches 
high ; diameters, bottom 83 inches, neck 5^ inches, mouth 6 inches ; 4 plus 
coils, 13 stitches per inch. Design in faded dark brown or black. 

U.S.N.M. No. 166800 (Mooney, Apache).'' Measurements: 5 inches high; 
diameters, bottom 4^ inches, mouth 33 inches; 5 coils, 12 stitches per inch. 
Design not discernible. 

Indian Arts Fund, Santa Fe (no number). Measurements: 8 inches high; 
diameters, bottom 8 inches, mouth si inches; 4 coils, 14 stitches per inch. 
Design in black.'' Buckskin handle around neck. 

F.M.N.H. No. 103032 (obtained at Navajo, Ariz., by H. E. Sargent). Measure- 
ments : 9I inches high ; diameters, bottom and mouth y\ inches ; 5 coils, 13 
stitches per inch. Design in red and black. Two rawhide lugs on shoulder. 

The seven baskets are in every particular Basket Maker type 
coiling on a two-rod-and-bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2) ; all 
are made on the convex work surface throughout (fig. ih) . 

^ Mason, pp. 500-501, describes the specimens and gives museum numbers. 

" Mrs. Hubby calls these Paiute ceremonial baskets. " These baskets were 
used by and are found among the Pueblo Indians. They were used to buy a 
fetich." These two baskets are in no technical or decorative aspects similar 
to Paiute work. 

^ The designs on these three baskets resemble in .style those on the "Ancient 
Pueblo " baskets from Sia. 

* From the note " collected among the xA.paches by Mooney " ; but not like 
Apache work. Consistent with the " ancient pueblo" baskets of this type. 



38 SMITHSONIAN MISCELI.ANROUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

TYPES OF BASKETRY 

In the preceding notes, it will he seen that certain technical types 
Stand out clearly : 

In coiling there are the three types with triangular foundation 
elements : Basket Maker, in two varieties : two-rod-and-bundle-tri- 
angular (fig. 2) and two-rod-and-reed-triangular ; Cliff Dweller; and 
the type with three-rod-triangular foundation (fig. 11). All three are 
consistent in left direction of work, concave work surface (figs. la. 
b), noninterlocking stitches (fig. 2). The dift'erence between the 
Basket Maker and Cliff Dweller is one of texture. Both have two-rod- 
and-bundle-triangular foundation (fig. 2). The third type differs from 
the two preceding only in that the foundation is three-rod-triangular 
instead of two-rod-and-bundle. There is also the type on single-rod- 
surrounded-by-fiber-foundation, with noninterlocking stitches (fig. 3). 

One other coiling technicjue occurs with sufficient frequency to be 
called a type. This is the coiling on one-rod foundation with inter- 
locking stitches (fig. 5), left direction of work and concave work 
surface (fig. la). 

In sifter coiling, there are two types, A (fig. 8) and B (figs. 6, 7, 
17), of which the latter occurs with minor variations. 

In twill-plaiting there are two types, the yucca-ring baskets made 
from center bottom upwards (fig. 4), and the second type which is 
probably made from mouth down with the bottom unfinished. 

Basket Maker Type Coiling 

On the basis of the textual distinction between Basket Maker and 
Cliff' Dweller material, basketry of Basket Maker type coiling occurs 
in the preceding enumeration in Marsh Pass and associated sites. 
Canyon del Muerto, Canyon de Chelly, the Piedra District, Grand 
Gulch, Kane County, Battle Canyon, Allan Canyon, Lake Canyon, 
among the Wetherill material from southern Utah and southwestern 
Colorado, possibly at Las Cruces, N. Mex., and in caves of the Lower 
Rio Grande Region. 

The Basket Maker subvariety, distinguished from the regular Bas- 
ket Maker only in that the foundation is two-rod-and-reed-triangular, 
occurs in Canyon del Muerto, Battle Canyon, Navaho Canyon, Lake 
Canyon, and in the Wetherill material from southern Utah and south- 
western Colorado. 

Cliff Dweller Type Coiling 

Material of such fine texture as to be associated typologically with 
Cliff' Dweller material rather than Basket Maker material, is found 



NO. 7 SOUTTl WESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISH 39 

at Marsh Pass, Betatakin. Cradle House, other Navaho National 
Monument sites. Mesa Verde. Johnson Canyon, Canyon del Muerto, 
White Canyon, Allan Canyon, Butler Canyon, Pueblo Bonito, among 
the San Diego material from southern Utah, ainong the Wetherill 
pieces from southwestern Colorado (and southern Utah), Bear Creek 
on Blue River, Pajarito Plateau, and " Ancient I'ueblo " material. 

The above distinctions, being typological, are, of course, tentative 
and subject to correction ; where but few specimens are recovered, no 
range of measurements can be taken and certain measurements are 
bound to fall in an intermediate class, as, for example, those of the 
'■ Ancient Pueblo " material. Also, in view of the clcjse association of 
Clifif Dweller and Basket Maker cultures as indicated by Kidder and 
Guernsey, and the probability that Cliff Dweller peoples looted Basket 
Maker remains, where we have only miscellaneous specimens from a 
location it is likely that we are dealing with a mixture of the types. 

Tiiree-Rod-Triangular Type Coiling (fig. ii) 

Material consistent with Basket Maker type coiling except for 
three-rod-triangular foundation comes from Navaho Canyon and Cliff 
Palace (Mesa Verde), Pueblo Bonito, Palatki, Chaves Pass, Chevlon 
Ruin, and Casa Grande ; one such basket also is in the Wetherill 
collection. 

In connection with the above three types, it is important to note 
that all have triangular-form foundations. Triangular- form founda- 
tion in North American coiled basketry, modern as well as ancient, has 
a definitely limited distribution. In prehistoric material it occurs in 
Lovelock Cave as well as in the Southwest. In modern material it 
occurs among the Pomo-Maidu-Miwok, Paviotso and Southern Paiute. 
Chemehuevi, Ute, Havasupai. San Carlos and Jicarilla Apache, and 
Navaho. Its northernmost occurrence is among the Pomo and its 
southernmost among the San Carlos Apache. It is likely that three- 
rod-triangular foundation is a later development from two-rod-and- 
bundle, and that two-rod-and-reed-triangular foundation is a transi- 
tional step. To the basket maker, the function of the apex element is 
to bind the courses together. The sewing thread passes through the 
apex bundle (fig. 2), reed or rod (fig. ii). On the other hand, there 
is no mechanical reason for placing the lower two elements side by 
side, save perhaps to thicken the walls ; but this could be accomplished 
in other ways. Thus the origin of the use of triangular foundations 
in basketry coiling can not be determined by functional factors, but 
must rather be credited to historical factors. With this in mind, and 
considering the limited area of distribution for triangular-form foun- 



40 SMITHSONIAN ^f ISCKI.l.ANI-J )rS COLLRCTIONS VOL. ^J 

dations, there is some reason to believe that uhimately these contigu- 
ous appearances of the use of such a foundation are in some way 
historically related. 

In some of the Basket Alaker material there are occasional baskets, as 
noted, which have a foundation of rod-surrounded-by-fiber (fig. 3) ; 
namely, close-coiled baskets from Marsh Pass, Kane County, Allan 
Canyon and the Lower Rio (irande Region, and sifter coiling from 
Bear Creek and in the Wetherill collection. The close-coiled baskets 
are in other traits like the Basket Maker — Cliff Dweller complex. 
From a formal standpoint, this type of foundation can be classified 
with bundle fcnmdation (fig. 17). Little of historical significance can 
be drawn from similarities in basket-making technique which are 
based merely on the use of bimdle-form foundations, since this is the 
most universally used type of foimdation in coiled basketry in the 
world. Mechanically, it is the most elementary. The function of the 
bundle is to give a foundation body through which the sewing stitch 
can readily pass, binding course to course. 

OXE-Roil-FOUXIIATION CoiLING 

I'rom Canyon de Chelly, Grand (julch. Battle Canyon. Allan 
Canyon, and in the San Diego collection from southern Utah and 
the Wetherill collections, there are coiled baskets on a one-rod foun- 
dation with interlocking stitches (fig. 5). counterclockwise spiral, 
concave work surface toward the left of the worker. It seems 
likely that these will prove to have been intrusive ware. In addition, 
there are two specimens of one-rod coiling, as above, save that the 
stitches do not interlock (fig. 12). One of these is a complete basket 
from Lost Canyon : the other is a Wetherill basket from Navaho 
L'anyon. the walls of which are in one-rod coiling, the rim in two- 
rod-and-reed-triangular coiling. It is interesting to note that on a 
basket which, from its other traits is Basket Maker type coiling, the 
one-rod coiled stitches do not interlock. The stitching of the Lost 
Canyon basket is unusual in that it has a wrapping of the new founda- 
tion rod alternating with each regular stitch. 

Unusual Coiled Spfximens 

In the Wetherill material from southern LTah and southwestern 
Colorado are two trays on a two-rod-and-reed-triangular foundation, 
apparently of the usual Basket i\Iaker type and texture, but with inter- 
locking stitches. These are the only examples of coiling other than 
on a one-rod foundation with interlocking: stitches. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY — -WELTFISII 4I 

Two coiled bowls from Battle Canyon which are Basket Maker type 
coiling in all other respects are made on a foundation of half a heavy 
rod with a strip of yucca placed upon it, through which the stitches 
are caught (fig. 9). 

Two baskets are unusual in that they have foundations of vertical 
form. One is the oblong basket from Battle Canyon which has a three- 
rod-vertical foundation (fig. 10). although the rim coil is made on a 
foundation of two rods placed side by side ; the other is a basket from 
Sandal Clifif House, Mancos Canyon, made in double coiling on a two- 
rod-and-bundle vertical foundation (fig. 13). 

Sifter Coiling 

This technique occurs in two types which I have called A and B. 
Type A (fig. 8) is found without variation in a specimen from Grand 
Gulch, one from Kane County, and one from Lake Canyon. Type B 
occurs in three variants. The Hazzard collection specimen is from the 
Wetherill material, and comes from southern Utah or southwestern 
Colorado (fig. 7). A simpler type, without binding stitch around the 
" standing-part," is found in 12 specimens from Bear Creek on Blue 
River (fig. 17). A type with double binding around the " standing- 
part " is found in the Canyon de Chelly material (fig. 6) ; the speci- 
men differs from the Hazzard collection specimen in that instead of 
the bindings alternating in the successive rows, they are found one 
above the other, forming vertical lines which radiate from the center. 
The Blue River specimens show both these methods of placing the 
fastening stitch. On a basket-marked sherd from Canyon del Muerto 
there is evidence of sifter coiling which resembles the basket from 
Canvon de Chelly. As sifter coiling is a unique technique in North 
America, unknown in modern work save for the " grasshopper " bas- 
kets of the Yokuts,^ and as the two types mentioned are not mechanic- 
ally related, these two distributions are of importance historically.' 

In foundation, type A is consistently made on a single-rod. Type B 
occurs with three foundations : two-rod-and-bundle-triangular (fig. 2), 
rod-surrounded-by-fiber (fig. 3), and bundle-of -grass (fig. 17). 
Thus type B, on the basis of foundations, is to be associated with 
Basket Maker close coiling, while type A affiliates rather with the one- 
rod coiling with interlocking stitches which occurs sporadically 

(figs-5>8)- 

' Mason, pi. 196 ; p. 480, tigs. 172 and 173. 

^I have seen modern basketry in shops made in type B sifter coiling said 
to have been made bv Mexican natives. 



42 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

Twill-Plaiting 

Yucca-ring baskets (fig. 4) and twill-plaited baskets of that type 
are found in Marsh Pass Cliff Dweller material, and occur also at 
Betatakin, Canyon del Muerto, Canyon de Chelly, Grand Gulch, 
Butler Canyon, Navaho Canyon, Spruce Tree House, Red Canyon, 
Colorado River Canyon, Pueblo Bonito, in the southern Utah material 
of the San Diego Museum, and at Bear Creek on Blue River. Kidder 
and Guernsey established this type of basket at Marsh Pass as the 
typical Cliff Dweller product, and there seems reason to believe that 
the specimens from other localities are to be associated with the same 
culture horizon. 

Twill-plaited baskets with unfinished bottom were found at Marsh 
Pass (with Basket Maker material), Canyon del Muerto, Canyon de 
Chelly, Grand Gulch, and southern Utah (S.D.M.). The Basket 
Maker associations of the Marsh Pass material suggest that this un 
finished bottom type is earlier than the Cliff Dweller yucca-ring type. 

From Johnson Canyon, Aztec Ruin, and Sikyatki there is evidence 
of twill-plaiting which may be baskets, but if so the type can not be 
determined. 

WiCKERWORK 

VVickervvork has been mentioned in the above treatment as found 
in Chevlon Ruin (fig. 16) and at Bear Creek on Blue River, in Siky- 
atki and in the Zuhi "Ancient Pueblo " collection. This wicker tech- 
nique is the same as modern Hopi and Zuni wickerwork. Prehis- 
torically, wickerwork is found in Lovelock,* and in modern work in 
Pomo seedbeaters and Algonquian trinket baskets. 

TwixED Basketry 

Twined basketry is unknown in Basket Maker material. In the 
above enumeration, twined basketry is referred to from Palatki (figs. 
14, 15) and in the "Ancient Pueblo " material of Hopi and Zuni. In 
shapes, technique, and texture this work resembles modern work of 
Havasupai and Hualapai, and of modern Ute. Except for the evi- 
dence of shapes, this twined work could also be compared with that 
of Apache groups. 

' Cf . Anier. Anthrop., vol. 32, pp. 490-491. The statement that wickerwork hi 
prehistoric material is " found exchisively " in Lovelock Cave is to be considered 
corrected by the statement in this paper. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WEI.TFISII 43 

Baskets Showing Combinations of Techniques 

In the foregoing discussion several coexistences of two techniques 
on the same specimens occur : 

The basket from Navaho Canyon (Mesa Verde) which has walls 
on a single-rod foundation with a rim made on two-rod-and-reed-tri- 
angular foundation indicates the contemporaneity of single-rod foun- 
dation coiling and Basket Maker coiling ; but it should be noted that 
the one-rod coiling here is without interlocking stitches (fig. u). 
Single-rod foundation coiling with noninterlocking stitches is unusual, 
and its distribution sporadic in modern times. In prehistoric material 
the specimen in question is the only one known to me which is normal 
single-rod coiling ; the specimen from Lost Canyon has special peculi- 
arities. In modern work one-rod noninterlocking coiling is limited to 
a few coiled baskets of the Paviotso Paiute. In the Paviotso work, 
the absence of interlocking is not a conventional trait of their tech- 
nique, as in collections of their one-rod coiled baskets interlocking and 
split stitching are to be found as well as noninterlocking. By contrast, 
one-rod foundation coiling is generally to be found associated with 
interlocking stitches (fig. 5). In view of the undoubted Basket Maker 
type provenience of the prehistoric basket on which this one-rod 
coiling without interlocking is found, the implication seems to be that 
when peoples who made Basket Maker type work attempted one-rod 
coiling, their noninterlocking convention was carried over. This seems 
to me to support the theory that the one-rod coiled baskets with inter- 
locking stitches are intrusive where they are found associated with 
Basket Maker or Clifif Dweller material. 

The basket in sifter coiling of type A (fig. 8) which comes from 
Grand Gulch has several courses of one-rod foundation coiling with 
interlocking stitches (fig. 5) around the rim. If, on the basis of the 
foregoing, the one-rod coiled baskets with interlocking be considered 
intrusive ware, the sifter baskets of type A must also be considered 
intrusive. It is of interest in this connection that although sifter 
coiling of type B (figs. 6, 7, 17) has a wide distribution in the world, 
being found even in modern Mexican native work, in a specimen 
from San Salvador, and in characteristic work of Samoa and other 
places in the South Seas, I know of only one analogy to sifter work of 
type A, and this is only a partial similarity, viz, basketry made in 
Tierra del Fuego.' 

The basket in the Wetherill collection from either southern Utah or 
southwestern Colorado, which is made in Basket Maker type coiling 



^ See Mason, p. 258, fig. 59, and p. 531, fig. 204. 



44 SMITHSONIAN MISCKLI.ANF.Ol'S COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

on a two-rod-and-buiidle-triangular foundation (fig-. 2), but which 
lias been repaired by setting in a bottom coiled on a one-rod founda- 
tion with interlocking stitches ( fig. 5 ) . again indicates the contempor- 
aneity of the two techniques. In the light of the above discussion of 
the intrusive character of the one-rod coiling with interlocking stitches, 
it should be noted that while this bottom shows interlocking stitches, it 
is not part of the basket, but an attached piece. 

Two exceptional specimens are known. There is first the specimen 
from Sandal Gifif House. Alancos Canyon, in double coiling on two- 
rod-and-bundle vertical foundation (fig. 13) ; double coiling is limited 
in modern times to San Carlos Apache and Salinan. The second is 
the specimen of wrapped coiling from Bear Creek on Blue River, 
which resembles Mohave work (fig. 18). 

CONCLUSION.S 

The most important implication of the above seems to be the strong 
evidence of a unified San Juan area in which Basket Maker material is 
concentrated, with more divergent types appearing at the periphery.' 
The outstanding Basket Maker types associated with this area are the 
close coiling with noninterlocking stitches on two-rod-and-bundle- 
triangular foundation (fig. 2) and two-rod-and-reed-triangular foun- 
dation, the sifter coiling of type B ( figs. 6, 7, 17), and the twill-plaited 
baskets with open bottom. Associated with this area but perhaps in- 
trusive are the coiled baskets with interlocking stitches on one-rod 
foundation (fig. 5) and the sifter coiling of type A (fig. 8). 

The outstanding ClifT Dweller types are the close-coiled basketry of 
Basket Maker type technique with finer texture and the yucca-ring 
baskets (fig. 4). The apparent Clifif Dweller traits of the so-called 
" Ancient Pueblo " coiled basketry is supported by the persistence into 
modern times of the making of yucca-ring baskets, a Clifif Dweller 
trait, at Hopi (Second Mesa) and the Rio Grande pueblos. 

The close coiling with noninterlocking stitches of fine texture on 
three-rod-triangular foundation ( fig. 11) is a basketry type that is 
independent of the Basket Maker — Clifif Dweller comjilex. Its dis- 
tribution is more southern, and it seems to be related to a later culture 
horizon. The type is identical with the modern coiled basketry of the 
.San Carlos Apache. This is the only modern parallel which is exact. 

The close affiliation of Sikyatki with modern Hopi peoples is sup- 
ported by the basketry evidence. The intrusion of twined ware is 



* The specimens from caves in the Lower Rio Grande region are a striking 
exception to the concentration in the San Juan area of the Basket Maker type. 



NO. 7 SOUTH WIlSTERN BASKliTRV WICI.TFISH 45 

suggestive of possible purchase from Havasupai and Hualapai. or 
possibly Ute. The practise of purchasing Havasupai coiled baskets 
is current today among the Hopi. 

The appearance of a distinct Texas type of coiled basketry south 
of the Lower Rio Grande probably marks the limit of the prehistoric 
Southwestern area. 

LITERATURE CITED 

CULIN, S. 

1907. Games of the North American Indians. 24th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. 
Ethnol. 

CUMMINGS, B. 

1910. The ancient inhabitants of the San Juan Valley. Bull. Univ. Utah, 

vol. 3, pt. 2, pp. 5 and 34. 
1915. Kivas of the San Juan drainage. Amer. Anthrop., n. s., vol. 18, 
pp. 281-282. 
Farabee, W. C. 

1902. Museum Journ., December, p. 202. 
Fewkes, J. W. 

1909. Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park, Spruce Tree House. 

Bull. 41, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 
1911a. Preliminary report on a visit to the Navaho National Monument, 

Arizona. Bull. 50, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 
1911b. Antiquities of the Mesa Verde National Park, Cliff Palace. Bull. 
51, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 
Guernsey, S. J. 

1931. Explorations in northeastern Arizona, report on the archeological 
field work of 1920- 1923. Pap. Peabody AIus. Amer. Archeol. and 
Ethnol., vol. 12, no. i. 
Guernsey, S. J., and Kidder, A. V. 

1921. Basket-Maker caves of northeastern Arizona. Pap. Peabody Mus. 
Amer. Archeol. and Ethnol., vol. 8, no. 2. 
Hough, W. 

1907. Antiquities of the Upper Gila and Salt River valleys in Arizona and 
New Mexico. Bull. 35, Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 

1914. Culture of the ancient pueblos of the Upper Gila River region, New 

Mexico and Arizona. Bull. 87, U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Kidder, A. V. 

1915. Pottery of the Pajarito Plateau and of some adjacent regions in 

New Mexico. Mem. Amer. Anthropol. Assoc, vol. 2, pt. 6. 
1931. Review of F. H. H. Roberts' Bulletins 92 and 96, Bureau of American 
Ethnology. Amer. Anthrop., n.s., vol. 33, pp. 121-126. 
Kidder, A. V., and Guernsey, S. J. 

1919. Archeological explorations in northeastern Arizona. Bull. 65. Bur. 
Amer. Ethnol. 
Mason, O. T. 

1904. Aboriginal American basketry. Rep. U. S. Nat. Mus. for 1902. 



46 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANIiOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

Morris, E. H. 

1919a. Preliminary account of the antiquities of the region between the 

Mancos and La Plata rivers in southwestern Colorado. 33rd Ann. 

Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., pp. 155-206. 
1919b. The Aztec ruin. Anthrop. Pap. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 26, pt. i. 
1927. The beginnings of pottery-making in the San Juan area; unfired 

prototypes and the wares of the earliest ceramic period. Anthrop. 

Pap. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 28, pt. 2. 

NORUENSKIOLD, G. 

1893. The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa V'erde. Translated by D. Lloyd 
Morgan, Stockholm. 
NUSSBAUM, J. L. 

1922. A Basket-Maker cave in Kane County, Utah, with notes on the 
artifacts by A. V. Kidder and S. J. Guernsey. Mus. .Amer. Lid., 
Heye Found.. Lid. Notes and Monogr., no. 29. 
Pepper, G. H. 

1902. The ancient Basket-Makers of southeastern Utah. Amer. Jkhis. Journ.. 

vol. 2, no. 4. supplement. 
1920. Pueblo Bonito. Anthrop. Pap. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 2"/. 
Roberts, F. H. H., Jr. 

1930. Early pueblo ruins in the Piedra District, southwestern Colorado. 
Bull. 96. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 
Weltfish, G. 

1930. Prehistoric North American basketry techniques and modern dis- 
tributions. Amer. Anthrop., n.s., vol. 2)2, pp. 454-495. 



NO. 7 SOUTHWESTERN BASKETRY WELTFISH 4~ 

TECHNIQUES ILLUSTRATED 

COILED BASKETRY 

Fig. No. Page 
Coiled basket, with counterclockwise spiral, worked on the concave 

surface, toward the left of the worker la 4 

Coiled basket, with clockwise spiral, worked on the convex surface, 

toward the left of the worker ib 4 

Coiling, on a two-rod-and-hundle-triangular foundation, with non- 
interlocking stitches 2 5 

Coiling, on a three-rod-triangular foundation, with noninterlock- 

ing stitches 11 17 

Coiling, on a single-rod-surrounded-by-fiber foundation, with non- 
interlocking stitches . . .' 3 5 

Coiling, on foundation of a split rod with a strip of yucca placed 

upon it, with noninterlocking stitches 9 14 

Coiling, on a single-rod foundation, with noninterlocking stitches.. 12 18 

Coiling, on a single-rod foundation, with interlocking stitches 5 10 

Coiling, on a three-rod-vertical foundation, with noninterlocking 

stitches 10 15 

Coiling, on a two-rod-and-bundle-vertical foundation, with non- 
interlocking stitches 13 TQ 

Sifter coiling, type A : Kane County 8 13 

Sifter coiling, type B : Hazzard collection 7 11 

Canyon de Chelly 6 11 

Blue River 17 29 

TWILL-PLAITING 

Over-2-under-2 twill-plaiting, with conccntric-dianmnd pattern 

(center of a yucca-ring basket) 4 6 

TWINING 

Twilled-twining 14 26 

Three-strand twining 15 26 

WICKER 
\N'ickerwork 16 27 

WRAPPED COILING 
Wrapped coiling 18 30 

SHOX'EL-SHAPED COILED BASKliT 
Shovel-shaped coiled basket from site near Las Cruccs, N. Alex 19 32 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 8 



IRoeblino jfunbf^ may i? 193^ 

GRAPHIC CORRELATION OF RADIATION 
AND BIOLOGICAL DATA 



BY 

F. S. BRAGKETT 

Chief, Division of Radiation and Organisms, 

Smittisonian Institution 



'SL T W 



(Publication 3170) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 17, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 8 



IRoeblino fxmb 



GRAPHIC CORRELATION OF RADIATION 
AND BIOLOGICAL DATA 



BY 

F. S. BRAGKETT 

Chief, Division of Radiation and Organisms, 

Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3170) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 17, 1932 



Zi>& JSor5 ^akimove (preee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. 8. A. 



IRocblino dfun& 

GRAPHIC CORRELATION OF RADIATION AND 
BIOLOGICAL DATA 

By F. S. BRACKETT 
Chief, Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 

In discussions of the relation of radiation to biological phenomena 
one frequently wishes to correlate transmission curves and the char- 
acteristics of common sources of light with the response curves of the 
biological phenomena. Although the facts involved are for the most 
part well known, they are scattered through the literature in such a 
way that it is difficult to form a clear picture of their interrelation 
without gathering this material together graphically. In order to meet 
this need the composite graph shown in Figure i has been developed. 
The accompanying explanation indicates the significance of each 
curve, and the bibliography at the end of the paper will enable anyone 
who wishes more detailed data to go immediately to the original 
sources. 

As water is the chief constituent of most living matter, its trans- 
mission characteristics set definite limits for other than surface efifects 
of radiation. It is perhaps significant that radiation therapy has found 
its effective wave-length regions in those ranges where transition takes 
place from negligible transmission to relatively great transmission. 
Such a region exists in X rays from lA to shorter wave lengths, and 
again in the ultra-violet for wave lengths immediately longer than 
.18/A. Another region which has as yet been little studied occurs in 
the near infra-red for wave lengths shorter than 1.4/i. The trans- 
mission characteristics of water may perhaps most readily be indi- 
cated by plotting the absorption coefficients, that is k in the expression 
I — 1^0-^-^, as a function of wave length or frequency over the regions 
of interest. The full line curve a iji the upper section indicates these 
values for the range from io/a to .i/t in wave length as indicated at 
the bottom of the graph, or .1 to 10, X 10* wave number (waves per 
cm, i. e., proportional to frequency) as indicated at the top. The values 
of the absorption coefficients are shown at the left outside the frame. 
Another convenient method is to indicate for each wave length or 
frequency the thickness of water which will reduce the light to one-half 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 8. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 



EXPLANATION OF FIGURE 1 

Upper Section : ABSORPTION. 

a Water, ultra-violet, visible, and infra-red. 

Ordinates : Absorption coefficients k in I =1 hc'^'^ (outside left). 

Thickness transmitting half intensity in cm (inside left) 
Transmission of i-cm thickness (right). 
Abscissae: Wave lengths in microns pl (bottom). 
Wave numbers, waves per cm (top). 

b Water, X ray (same ordinates). 

Wave lengths in Angstroms (instead of /i as indicated 

at bottom). 

c ._._._._ Ozone, (same coordinates as in a; gas at standard conditions). 

Atmospheric transmission is equivalent to about 3 mm and can be 

found by shifting scale (right) up by approximately half a 

division. 

Middle Section: RADIATION. 

Relative emission from body at 1,000° K. (dull-red therapeutic lamp). 
Relative emission from body at 3,000° K. (high-temperature Tungsten 

lamp). 
Relative emission from sun. 
Relative emission from mercury arc in (|uartz. 

Lower Section: BIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA. 

a, transmission of flesh (1/2 cm thick) in per cent. 

b, relative visibility. 

c, relative phototropism. 

d, Vitamin A. 

Absorption and vitamin value disappears when radiated. 

e, Ergosterol. 

Absorption disappears under radiation, which produces activation 
yielding therapeutic value of vitamin D. 
/. Relative erythema effectiveness, zero degree (very light). For extreme 
erythema, fourth or fifth degree, the relative intensities of the 
the two maxima are reversed. 



NO. 8 RADIATION AND BIOLOGICAL DATA — BRACKETT 




I I I — I — I — r 
to^ i 7 t> S '^ J 

INFRA-RED 



ULTRA-VIOLET 



Figure i. 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

its incident intensity value. These may be found from the same curve 
by reference to the ordinates at the left within the frame. 

Thus at the limit of the visible in the red we find that some 30-cm 
water path is required to reduce the intensity of light to one-half its 
original value, whereas at i^ix only .03 cm or .3 mm will produce the 
same result. As water cells are frequently used of i-cm thickness it is 
convenient to indicate the wave-length range over which such a cell 
will yield appreciable transmission. The values of transmission for 
I -cm path are indicated at the right of the upper section. These 
enable one to immediately estimate the wave-length range for the 
cut-ofT from such a cell. 

In order to compare the absorption characteristics which are fa- 
miliar to radiologists in the X-ray range with those exhibited in the 
visible range the X-ray values have been indicated by the dotted curve 
b, the wave lengths being found by reading Angstroms instead of /x at 
the bottom of the graph. It is interesting to note the relatively smooth 
transition from low to high transmission in the X-ray region com- 
pared with the highly selective characteristics exhibited in the infra- 
red, visible, and near ultra-violet. 

As the presence of ozone in the atmosphere plays an important role 
in limiting the light which reaches the earth, the transmission char- 
acteristics of ozone gas under standard conditions have been indicated 
by curve c. The transmission values at the right now apply to a cell 
of I -cm thickness of ozone gas under standard conditions. Since, 
however, the whole absorption in the atmosphere is equivalent to about 
3 mm, in order to estimate the absorption of atmospheric ozone it is 
necessary to shift the transmission scale bodily upward by one-half 
of one of the large spaces indicated. We thus find the transition from 
90 per cent to i per cent occurring in a very narrow region from 
3,200 A to 2,950 A respectively. 

With these curves in mind we may now profitably turn to the matter 
of sources of radiation with which one has commonly to deal. For the 
sake of comparison we have assumed that lamps will be chosen of such 
a size and used at such a distance that a comparable amount of maxi- 
mum energy is received. The curve at the left shows the relative 
emission per unit wave length of radiation at each wave length for a 
soHd body at the absolute temperature of 1,000° K. Here we find 
most of the energy occurring for wave lengths longer than 1.4.(1, or, in 
other words, in a region where practically all the energy will be ab- 
sorbed in an extremely thin layer of water. The customary dull red 
therapeutic lamp has characteristics not greatly different from this 



NO. 8 RADIATION AND BIOLOGICAL DATA BRACKETT 5 

curve. For that reason it must be regarded for the most part simply 
as a surface heater. 

The next curve indicates the emission of a soHd body at an absolute 
temperature of 3,000° K, where it is now seen that its maximum 
energy lies in a region which would be relatively well transmitted by 
water. Such a radiation might well be expected to penetrate some- 
what into the living matter. It does, however, contain a considerable 
proportion of energy which will be absorbed in a thin layer, that is for 
wave lengths longer than 1.4/*. If one wishes radiation that is as 
nearly free as possible of this surface-absorbed energy, a light of this 
temperature should be used with a water filter. A modified curve is 
indicated terminating at approximately i.4fx, which shows the type of 
radiation which one would receive from an ordinary high-temperature 
lamp such as the customary Tungsten light when equipped with a 
water cell of i-cm thickness. Again, on approximately the same scale 
the relative distribution of solar energy is shown as it would be with- 
out atmospheric absorption. Owing to atmospheric ozone no ap- 
preciable ultra-violet reaches us from the sun beyond 2,950 A. As the 
amount of ozone fluctuates this limit varies considerably. Further- 
more, large amounts of energy are absorbed in the infra-red by at- 
mospheric molecules, particularly water vapor. This, again, is subject 
to extreme variations, depending upon the location, time of day, and 
amount of humidity. In the solar curve we see that the chief energy 
lies in the visible region, whereas our high-temperature lamp, even 
with a water filter, has the larger proportion of its energy in the near 
infra-red. Since for therapeutic purposes the mercury arc is very 
widely used, its energy distribution has also been shown. As its light 
is radiated chiefly in a large number of restricted regions of prac- 
tically monochromatic light, it can best be shown simply by vertical 
lines. The height of these lines is proportional to the intensity. Since, 
however, they difter widely for different conditions of excitation, they 
must be regarded at best as only a rough basis for estimation. 

In addition to the blue and ultra-violet lines with which we are 
chiefly concerned, this arc shows not only strong yellow and green 
lines, but in most cases a line at 1.014/^ of an intensity which exceeds 
any other line. This great line in the near infra-red occurs in a region 
where it is readily transmitted by water and, as we shall see in a 
moment, to a great extent by flesh. This wave length of radiation is 
readily transmitted by the aqueous humor of the eye and will be 
chiefly absorbed in the retina. While undoubtedly ultra-violet effects 
would be noticed long before any danger would be incurred from this 
radiation in the case of a quartz mercury arc, on the other hand in the 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

case of ordinary glass mercury arc caution should be used to avoid 
too great exposure as it may produce a lasting injury in the nature 
of an actual burn on the retina. 

In order to be able to correlate these physical characteristics which 
we have indicated with the direct observations of biological material, 
the lower portion has been devoted to characteristics for which data 
is available. Curve a shows the transmission of flesh, having been 
corrected for surface absorption. On the long wave-length side un- 
doubtedly water is most important in setting the limit. On the short 
wave-length side other constituents of the living matter account for 
the fact that this transmission drops off rapidly on passing into the 
visible range. It will be noticed, therefore, that the region of the 
maximum transmission of flesh occurs roughly in the range emitted 
from a water-filtered high-temperature light. The near infra-red thus 
constitutes a region of relatively penetrating radiation for therapeutic 
purposes. Curve b shows relative visibility of light for the human eye. 
Curve c shows the relative phototropic response of an oat seedling to 
light. It will be noticed that it is insensitive to red and a considerable 
portion of the yellow, the maximum occurring in the blue. Curve (/ 
shows the absorption band that seems to be correlated with vitamin A. 
Radiation that is damaging to the vitamin value causes a weakening in 
this band. Curve e shows the absorption band that seems to be corre- 
lated with ergosterol and vitamin D. Radiation that seems to produce 
activation destroys this absorption. Curve /, the full line curve, shows 
the erythema response of the human skin in the case of a very light 
erythema (zero degree). Here it will be seen that a minor maximum 
occurs at .298/* and a great maximum in the region of .253111. In the 
case of extreme erythema, fourth or fifth degree, the relative effective- 
ness of these two regions is reversed, the great maximum occurring 
at .300ja and the smaller maximum at the region of .253;^. It is, 
however, very significant and perhaps important from a therapeutic 
standpoint that a minimum of erythema occurs between these two 
ranges and that this minimum coincides with the chief ergosterol 
absorption. It may thus be possible to secure a maximum therapeutic 
dosage with a reduction in resulting erythema by the use of mono- 
chromatic light in this range. The magnesium spark lines at .280/x are 
promising for this purpose. 

Another point of interest is that the lethal region for algae occurs 
in this same range as ergosterol absorption, the threshold for this 
effect being indicated by the arrow marked D. The solar energy falls 
oft" rapidly at this jKiint. 



NO. 8 RADIATION AND BIOLOGICAL DATA BRACKETT 7 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Upper Section of Figure i : 

0. Becquerel, J., and Rossignol, J., International Critical Tables, vol. 5, 
p. 269, 1929. Lyman, T., The spectroscopy of the extreme ultra-violet, 
p. 67, New York and London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1928. 

b. Siegbahn, M., The spectroscopy of X-rays, p. 248, London, Oxford Uni- 

versity Press, 1925. 

c. Fabry, C, Guthrie Lecture, The absorption of radiation in the upper 

atmosphere. Proc. Phys. Soc, vol. 39, pt. i, pp. 1-14, Dec, 1926. 

Middle Section: 

1000° K. Fowle, F. E., International Critical Tables, vol. 5, p. 240, 1929- 
3000° K. International Critical Tables, vol. 5, p. 241, 1929. 
Sun. Ann. Astrophys. Obs., vol. 3, p. 200, 1913. 

Hg. McAlister, E. D., Phys. Rev., vol. 34, no. 8, p. 1142, 1929. Also Rep. 
Seer. Smithsonian Inst., 1931, p. 133, 1931. 

Lower Section : 

a. Cartwright's curve corrected for reflection by Forsythe and Christian, 

Journ. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 20, no. 12, p. 696, 1930. 

b. Ives, H. E., International Critical Tables, vol. 5, p. 436, 1929. 

c. Unpublished data from Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smith- 

sonian Institution. 

d. Morton and Heilbron, Biochem. Journ., vol. 22, p. 987, 1928. 

e. Pohl, R., Nach. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen. Math. -Phys. Klasse 1926, Heft 2, 

p. i8s, 1927- 
/. Adams, Barnes, and Forsythe, Journ Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 21, no. 4, 
p. 217, 1931- 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 9 



/=^ 



\^ 



^HiAN msTiTi} 



IRoeblino 3Funb( may 24 1932 



-PFriCE im^'^^ 



PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION 



(With Two Plates) 



BY 
G. G. ABBOT 

Secretary, Smitlisonian Institution 

AND 

GLADYS T. BOND 

Statistical Assistant, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 




(Publication 3172) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 24, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 9 



IRoeblino jfwnb 



PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION 



(With Two Plates) 



BY 
C. G. ABBOT 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

AND 

GLADYS T. BOND 

Statistical Assistant, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 



?c%'Nc/?i: 






fi^\ 






(Publication 3172) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

MAY 24, 1932 



BALTIMORE, MD., V. 8. A. 



IRoebliuQ fwn^ 

PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION' 

By C. G. abbot 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

AND 

GLADYS T. BOND 

Statistical Assistant, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
(With 2 Plates) 

Long ago, Secretary Langley induced Congress to support the study 
of solar radiation at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. He 
pointed out that all life and all weather depend on it. He held out the 
possibility and hope that a sufficient knowledge of solar radiation and 
of its behavior in our atmosphere might even enable meteorologists to 
forecast long in advance the fat years and the lean years as Joseph is 
said to have done in Egypt. 

After 40 years of research, we have results which seem to us to 
justify in some degree Langley's hope. We have not yet, it is true, 
tried the bold venture of long-range forecasting, but we have evidence 
to present to the Academy today that the sun's output of radiation is 
variable ; that its variation is periodic ; that the United States weather 
departures from normal are periodic ; and that nearly all of the ranges 
of weather departures from normal are comprised in a series of peri- 
odicities which are identical with those found in the sun. We expect 
to discover by a little more research whether we have here real cause 
and effect. If it should prove so, we need not emphasize the value of 
such knowledge. 

For more than 25 years the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory has been measuring the intensity of solar radiation. At 
first, in Washington, w^e further developed the method devised by 
Langley and used by him about 50 years ago at Allegheny and at 
Mount Whitney. We devised the silver-disk pyrheliometer for ordi- 
nary daily measurements of the total intensity of solar radiation at the 
station. We also devised the water-flow and the water-stir standard 
pyrheliometers, whereby we reduced the scale of measurement to 

^ Paper presented before the National Academy of Sciences, April 26, 1932 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 9 



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NO. 9 PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION AllBOT AND BOND 3 

standard calories per square centimeter per minute. We improved the 
recording spectrobolometer of Langley so that in less than lo minutes 
it could furnish an excellent record of the intensities of all wave lengths 
in the solar spectrum from about 0.35 micron in the ultra-violet to 
about 2.5 microns in the infra-red. We devised graphical methods 



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NOV. JAN. MCH. MAY JULY SEPT. NOV. JAN MCH. MAY JULY SEPT. 



1920 1921 1922 

Fig. 2. — Solar variation 1920-1922 showing great change in 1922. 

operated by instrumental appliances whereby we were able to compute 
the intensity and distribution in the spectrum of the solar radiation as 
it is outside the atmosphere, whenever we determined the intensity and 
distribution of it as it reached the surface observatory at different solar 
altitudes. We devised an instrument for measuring the brightness 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

of the sky about the sun, which we named the pyranometer. By its 
aid we have devised a brief empirical method for estimating the at- 
mospheric transparency in all wave lengths. We have also devised a 
spectroscopic method for estimating the quantity of precipitable water 
held in the form of vapor in the atmosphere. From our determinations 
of atmospheric transparency we have checked exactly with other 
methods on the determination of the number of molecules per unit 
volume. 

As the temperature of the earth and the fundamental factors of 
climate and weather depend on the intensity of solar radiation, we 
have made earnest efforts over a long period of years to secure accurate 
measurements of it. When we began this work in 1903, authorities 
were in doubt over the entire range as between PouiUet's value of 1.76 
calories, and Angstrom's value of 4-0 calories for the solar constant of 
radiation. As a result of our work, carried on at all seasons, at stations 
ranging from sea-level to 4,500 meters elevation, and checked by auto- 
matic apparatus exposed from sounding balloons at 25,000 meters 
elevation, there is now no doubt that the true value lies certainly within 
one per cent of 1.94 calories per square centimeter per minute. 

We have discovered evidences of variability of the sun's emission. 
Having devised a brief method of measuring the solar constant, we 
have applied it several times a day on all favorable days over a long 
term of years. We have occupied mountain stations in desert lands m 
Arizona and southern California, in northern Chile, and in South West 
Africa. Plate i, Figure i shows our station at Mount Montezuma in 
northern Chile, 9,000 feet above sea-level. Plate i, Figure 2 shows a 
closer view of the apparatus. The pyrheliometers and the pyranometer 
are exposed outside, and the solar altitude is measured with a theodo- 
lite. A beam of light is reflected into a cave observatory where the 
spectrobolometric work is done. Figure i shows the close accord 
attained in the monthly mean values of the solar constant at three 
widely separated stations. It is clear that if the observations at the 
earth's surface and the estimates of losses in the earth's atmosphere 
were correctly made, then determinations of the solar constant (that 
is, the intensity of solar radiation outside the atmosphere) ought to 
agree exactly wherever made on the earth's surface. In fact we have 
so far refined our determinations that our two best widely separated 
observatories, Montezuma, Chile, and Table Mountain, Calif., do 
agree in their monthly mean values over a period of five years within 
an average difference of 0.08 per cent. The probable error of the 
mean curve shown in Figure i is well below o.i per cent. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 9, PL. 1 




Su«%->ai«>.' 




\ijM:\^^^1* 




Solar radiation station, Alount A'lontezuma, Chile. 
I, The dwelling; 2, the cave observatory. 




0/3 — 



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NO. 9 PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION ABBOT AND BOND 



It will be noted that the three stations not only agree closely, but 
unite to indicate fluctuations of the sun's emission. The extreme range 
of variation shown in Figure i is 1.2 per cent. On an earlier occasion, 
in 1922, a range of the monthly mean values of nearly 3 per cent was 
observed as indicated in Figure 2, where values from Montezuma, 





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Fig. 3. — Solar variation, 1920-1930, composed of seven regular periodicities of 
7, 8, II, 21, 25, 45, and 68 months interval, respectively. A, original data; C, 
8-month; D, ii-month; E, 25-month; F, 45-month; G, 68-month; H, 7 and 
21-month ; B, residual after removing all periodicities. 

Chile, and Harqua Hala, Ariz., are compared. Taking the best results 
of the work as derived from the evidence of all stations, we find the 
variation of monthly mean solar-constant values since 1920 as indicated 
in Figure 3, curve A. We are able to reproduce it as the sum of seven 
regular periodicities of 7, 8, 11, 21, 25, 45, and 68 months. The degree 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

of approximation is shown by the smallness of the residuals in curve B. 
It is to be noted that larger residuals are found in the earlier years 
when the solar observing was less perfected than it became later. 

These results on periodicities have been obtained by Mrs. Bond with 
an instrument which we call the periodometer, shown in Plate 2. It 
was constructed with the aid of a grant of $1,000 from the Research 
Corporation of New York. Its purpose is to discover and evaluate 
periodicities in long series of observations. It does not recognize the 
reality of any period until tested, and it evaluates its distribution in 
amplitude without regard to any assumed mathematical expression. 
It appears to us, for instance, that as the curve of sun-spot frequency is 
well known not to be of regular sine form, there is no reason to 
suppose that other solar periodicities should have a sine form. Hence 
our instrument is designed to evaluate their forms as Nature fixed 
them, not according to the forms assumed in mathematical series and 
harmonic analyzing machines. 

Curves C, D, E, F, G, H, of Figure 3 show the periodicities actually 
discovered in the solar radiation by aid of the periodometer. It will 
be seen that the 21 -month period betrays also one of 7 months. In the 
cases of the shorter periods, we have been able to separate the data into 
several groups and independently evaluate the periodicities at several 
epochs. These partial determinations are shown in curves Ci, C2, C3, 
Di, D2, D3. In such cases we have been encouraged to find that the 
maxima and minima occur without change of phase in these inde- 
pendent epochs. Thus we regard the periodicities found as having 
reality and permanence. We ventured in November, 1930, to make a 
forecast for 193 1 and 1932 of the probable march of solar variation.' 
Thus far it has been well verified, although it called for solar-constant 
values almost all the time since 1930 about one per cent above the mean, 
notwithstanding that the values preceding the date of forecast for 
several years had been prevailingly below the mean. 

It has been of great interest to us to note that several of the 
periodicities found in solar variation are closely related to the sun-spot 
period of ii^ years or 135 months. Thus, 68 months is within its 
probable error one-half, 45 months one-third of 135 months. Again, 
if we take a period approximately three times as long, or 400 months, 
which is near the Bruckner period, 25 months is one-sixteenth, 21 
months closely one-nineteenth, 11 months closely one-thirty-sixth, 
8 months is one-fiftieth, and 7 months one-fifty-seventh of its duration. 

If we admit provisionally (subject to the findings of subsequent 
years) that the solar variation is made up of the seven periodicities 

^ See Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 85, no. i, fig. 3, I, 1931. 



'J.\Ul 



NO. 9 PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION ABBOT AND BOND 



named, it becomes of interest to see it these same periodicities are 
traceable in temperature departures of the weather. We have inves- 
tigated this question for three widely separated United States stations, 





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Fig. 4.— Temperature departures, Clanton, Ala., and their periodicities. A, 
original data; C, 8-month; D, gi-month; E, i8-month; F, 2i-month; G, 
25-month; H, 34-month; I, 39-month; J, 45-month; K, 68-month; B, residual 
after removing periodicities, shows iii-year periodicity. 

viz. : Clanton, Ala. ; Washington, D. C, and Williston, N. Dak. We 
have taken our data from the climatological summaries of the United 
States Weather Bureau, 1918 to 1930. In order to eliminate the 
yearly march of temperature, we have computed for each station the 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

mean monthly temperatures 1918-1930, and have subtracted them 
from the observed, thus giving monthly departures exactly suited to 
the epoch studied. Lest the influences of shorter-period changes should 
obscure the general march of events, we have smoothed the monthly 
temperature departures by taking five-month consecutive means of 
the form 

ai + a2 + ao + ai + 05 . a-i + Oz + ai + o-^ + C'^. ^^^ 
5 5 

With the data thus prepared, we have sought and evaluated with 
the periodometer all the periodicities which the curves disclosed. Our 
procedure, as in the case of solar variation, is to subtract from the 
data the effect of each periodicity as soon as determined, before pro- 
ceeding to evaluate in the residual curve another periodicity. We 
continued the search and evaluation until no more periodicities could 
be perceived. 

The result obtained for Clanton is shown in Figure 4. Periodicities 
of 8, 9-I, 18, 21, 25, 34, 39, 45, and 68 months were evaluated. These 
periodicities and their partial determining curves are indicated by 
letters C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J of Figure 4. The residual shown in 
curve B plainly indicates the ii^-year period. We also note the large 
positive departure shown in the residual curve B for the year 1930, a 
year remarkable for the extraordinary drought and accompanying 
cloudlessness. A similar extraordinary positive departure for 1930 is 
shown in Figure 5, curve B, for Washington, and also in Figure 6 for 
Williston. It will be noted that strong periodicities of 8, 21, 25, 45, and 
68 months found in Clanton temperatures are found also in solar vari- 
ation. The 1 1 -month solar period is indistinct in Clanton temperatures. 
The 135-month period is doubtless of solar origin, although it does not 
appear conspicuously in the solar variation between 1918 and 1930. 
The other Clanton temperature periodicities of 9^, 18, 34, and 39 
months were not found in the sun, but nevertheless 34 months is one- 
half of 68 months, which is conspicuously found as a periodicity in 
the sun. 

The results for Washington are shown in Figure 5. Periodicities of 
8, 9^, 13^, 18, 25, 45, and 68 months are found as indicated at C, D, E, 
F, G, H, I. The residual curve B shows clearly the 135-month peri- 
odicity in practically the same phase, though lesser amplitude, than 
Clanton. The extraordinary drought of 1930 produces its strong posi- 
tive departure. Here again the strong periodicities of 8, 25, 45, and 
68 months seem to reflect solar-radiation changes. The periodicities of 



NO. 9 PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION ABBOT AND BOND 9 

9^ and i8 months are found also at Clanton. The i3|-month periodi- 
city is new. No appreciable influence of the 1 1 -month solar periodicity 
is found. 

The results for Williston, N. Dak., are shown in Figure 6. Much 
wider range of departures is shown by curve A than by the correspond- 









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Fig. 5. — Temperature departures, Washington, D. C, and their periodicities. 
A, original data ; C, 8-month ; D, g-V-month ; E, i3|-month ; F, i8-month ; G, 
25-month; H, 45-month; I, 68-month; B, residual after removing periodicities, 
shows I i^^-year periodicity. 

ing curves at Clanton and Washington. Yet, as shown by curve B, this 
range is reduced nearly to zero by withdrawing the periodic departures 
discovered. They are shown in curves C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, and 
L, respectively of 7, 8, 11, 13^, 18, 21, 25, 28, 45, and 68 months 
periods. The ii^-year period is but indistinctly shown in the residual 



lO 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 



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1927 1928 1929 1930 


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Fig. 6. — Temperature departures for Williston, N. Dak., and their periodicities. 

A, original data; C, 7-month; D, 8-month; E, 11 -month; F, ij^-month; G, 
18-month; H, 21-month; I, 25-month; J, 28-month; K, 45-month; L, 68-month; 

B, residual after removing periodicities, doubtfully showing ii^^-year periodicity. 



NO. 9 PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION ABBOT AND BOND 



II 



curve B, and has a very different phase from corresponding curves at 
Clanton and Washington. 

In order to fix our ideas of the relations between solar and terrestrial 
periodicities which we have discovered, we give in Table i a summary 
of them. We invite attention to the fact that a majority of the peri- 
odicities in terrestrial temperatures which we have found are identical 
in length with periodicities in solar variation. The sum of the maxi- 



Table I 



Periods of 


A 


mplitudes of 


periodicities 




solar origin 










months 


Sun 
calories 


Clanton 

op 


Washington 
°F. 


Williston 
°F. 


7 


0.005 






1.2 


8 


.005 


0.7 


0.7 


1.0 


II 


.009 






1-3 


21 


.004 


2.0 




0.7 


25 


.010 


1.6 


1-7 


2.7 


45 


.013 


1.8 


2.2 


4.0 


68 


.014 


1.8 


2.0 


5-5 


135 




2.0 


1-5 


0.7 


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mum amplitudes of these periodicities which may be of solar causation 
is much greater than the sum of those which appear to be of terrestrial 
origin. In fact, if we make the hypothesis that a terrestrial tempera- 
ture departure periodicity is of solar causation if it is of identical 
period with a solar periodicity, then we shall come to the result that 
nearly the whole magnitudes of the ranges of terrestrial temperature 
departures from normal used in our analyses are due to variations of 
solar radiation. 



12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

We do not venture to claim this important conclusion as yet. We 
intend to carry on the research much longer. But at least the inves- 
tigation has decided promise. 

We have been es^^ecially interested to compare among themselves 
the curves marked A in the four figures 3, 4, 5, and 6, giving the solar 
variation and the temperature departures at the three stations. We 
have also wished to compare the curves giving periodicities of 25 and 
45 months in solar radiation with the corresponding temperature peri- 
odicities at the three stations. These comparisons are shown in Fig- 
ure 7. 

It appears at sight that parts of the curves of temperature departures 
for A\^illiston and Washington are very similar, but that the similarity 
is slight as between Williston and Clanton. On the other hand, there 
are many points of similarity between the temperature departures of 
Washington and Clanton. The large departures of similar form found 
at Williston and Washington in the years 1918 to 192 1 occur from one 
to two months later at Washington than at Williston. 

Finally, we have made an experiment at long-range weather pre- 
diction. Instead of making our readers wait several years to test it, 
we have made our prediction backwards from 1918 instead of forwards 
from 1930, so that we could immediately compare expectancy with ob- 
servation. Figure 8 shows the predicted and observed temperature 
departures from March, 1918, backward to September, 1916, for 
Clanton, Washington, and Williston. The agreement is not perfect, 
yet there is in each case a tendency to a correspondence in the trends. 
But it must be recalled that the periodicities found represent the 
average march of weather from 1918 to 1930, and therefore are to 
be regarded as of the epoch 1924. None of the periodicities fits this 
entire long interval of 13 years perfectly. Hence in predicting back- 
ward to 191 7 we are really attempting a seven-year forecast from 1924. 
It is perhaps extraordinary that the correspondence is as good as it is. 
If our method should be used for serious long-range forecasting, it 
must be perfected so as to pass from the last year or tivo of known 
values to the unknown, not seven years as here attempted. 



NO. 9 PERIODICITY IN SOLAR VARIATION ABBOT AND BOND I3 



1918 1919 1920 I9?r 192? 1923 1924 1925 1926 1937 1923 (929 1930 

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Fig. 7.— Comparison of solar variation with terrestrial temperature departures, 
curves A, B, C, D. Solar and terrestrial 25-month periodicities, curves E, F, G, H. 
Solar and terrestrial 45-month periodicities, curves I, J, K, L. Temperature 
stations: Clanton, Ala.; Washington, D. C. ; Williston, N. Dak. 



14 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 



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1918-1916. Based on average periodicities in departures 1918-1930. 




-3?l. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 10 



LETHAL ACTION OF ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT 
ON A UNICELLULAR GREEN ALGA 



(With Two Plates) 






'^■A 



\ 



BY 
FLORENCE E. MEIER 



AUG 17 1932 



Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3173) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

AUGUST 17, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 10 



LETHAL ACTION OF ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT 
ON A UNICELLULAR GREEN ALGA 



(With Two Plates) 



BY 

FLORENCE E. MEIER 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smitlisonian Institution 




(Publication 3173] 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

AUGUST 17, 1932 



Z^i £oti> (§aitimovi (Prcec 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



LETHAL ACTION OF ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT ON 
A UNICELLULAR GREEN ALGA ' 

By FLORENCE E. MEIER 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 

(With Two Plates) 

INTRODUCTION 

The stimulative and lethal action of ultra-violet irradiation on 
higher and lower plants and animals has been the subject of interesting 
research during the past 50 years. Unfortunately, the lack of sufficient 
physical data makes a correlation of the various results difficult and 
often inconclusive. 

An accurate determination of the action of ultra-violet light on 
plants and animals can be obtained only by the use of monochromatic 
light and by measuring its actual intensity at the surface of the 
organisms. 

For the work described here a quartz spectrograph was constructed 
for the purpose of exposing algae under sterile conditions to mono- 
chromatic light and thereby observing the effectiveness of a wide range 
of wave lengths in a definite time. This spectrograph was designed by 
Dr. F. S. Brackett and was constructed in the shop of the Division of 
Radiation and Organisms of the Smithsonian Institution. A delicate 
thermocouple ' made possible the unselective determination of the rela- 
tive energy of the different wave lengths. 

I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. C. G. Abbot, Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, and to Dr. F. S. Brackett, Chief of the Divi- 
sion of Radiation and Organisms of the Smithsonian Institution, for 
their aid and suggestions. The work was done with the cooperation of 
Dr. E. D. McAlister of the Division of Radiation and Organisms, who 
carried out the spectroscopic manipulations and physical measure- 



^ This paper reports investigations made under a grant from the National 
Research Council to the author as National Research Fellow in the Biological 
Sciences. 

' The thermocouple of special design developed in the Division of Radiation 
and Organisms, similar to those described in the paper, The automatic record- 
ing of the infra-red at high resolution, by Brackett and McAlister, Rev. Sci. 
Instruments, vol. i, pp. 181-193, 1930, was constructed by Dr. E. D. McAlister. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 10 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

ments. In a paper in process of publication Dr. F. S. Brackett and 
Dr. E. D. McAlister will discuss more fully some of the physical prob- 
lems that arise in connection with this work. 

RESULTS OF OTHER INVESTIGATORS 

The unicellular green algae, such as Chlorella, Pleiirococcus, Scene- 
destnus, and Chlamydomonas , because of the similarity of their cells in 
size, shape, and contents when in pure culture, can be grown fairly 
homogeneously on a plate for exposure in the spectrograph. They thus 
form excellent material for the study of the effect of ultra-violet light. 

As early as 1882 Engelmann placed green cells of Oedogouium, 
Cladophora, and other algae in the spectrum of a microspectroscope to 
observe the movement and accumulation of oxygen-loving bacteria in 
those regions most favorable to assimilation. He used a constant gas 
light and an incandescent electric light as sources of illumination. 
Because of the great light intensities he was able to use a narrow slit 
and so obtain a very pure spectrum. Ingenious as this method is, his 
values are only approximate. Pringsheim ( 1886) using the same 
general method found quite different values. 

Ward ( 1893) exposed plates of agar uniformly covered with bac- 
teria to the spectrum and then observed the behavior of the illuminated 
regions after incubation. He used the solar and " electric " spectra and 
found that no detrimental action was perceptible in the infra-red, red, 
orange, and yellow regions, but that all the bacteria were destroyed in 
the blue and violet regions and far into the ultra-violet. 

Hertel ( 1905) was the first worker who made quantitative measure- 
ments of the intensities of monochromatic light used for ultra-violet 
radiation. His monochromator with its quartz prism and lenses was 
similar to those now used in ultra-violet microscopy. He determined 
the relative intensities of four lines of the ultra-violet part of the spec- 
trum by means of a thermopile and he varied the intensity by regulat- 
ing the amperage of the metallic arc. He found the region 2,800 A.' 
to have a very destructive action on paramoecia and bacteria. 

In the past few years Cernovodeanu and Henri (1910), Browning 
and Russ (1917), Mashimo (1919), Bang (1905), Bie (1889, 1905), 
Bovie (1915), and a number of other workers have used the quartz 
spectrograph for the study of the bactericidal action of light. Raybaud 
(1909) made a spectrogram of three fungi. Hutchinson and Ashton 
(1929), and Weinstein (1930) have studied the effect of monochro- 



^ A. ^ Angstrom units, i/u = i,(X!om/[i ^ 10,000 A. There are 100,000,000 A. 
to the centimeter. 



NO. 10 ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT ON GREEN ALGA MEIER 3 

matic light on paramoecia. Hutchinson and Newton (1930) have con- 
tributed quantitative data on the effect of irradiation on yeast. Bucholtz 
(1931) found that the cells of higher plants are more resistant to the 
lethal action of ultra-violet light than bacteria and paramoecia. Wein- 
stein (1930), Bucholtz (1931), and many of the other authors 
have made comprehensive reviews of the literature on ultra-violet 
irradiation. 

Of the recent investigators, Gates (1929. 1930) has most clearly 
'demonstrated the value of the use of monochromatic light of different 
intensities in the study of the lethal eft'ect of 10 lines of the mercury- 
vapor spectrum on bacteria. By the use of a specially constructed 
monochromator and a thermopile he found the wave-length limits of 
the bactericidal action to be between 3,130 and 2,250 A., although the 
lower limit could not be positively ascertained. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

Chlorella vulgaris, the alga which was used in this experiment, is a 
unicellular green alga, the spherical cell containing a parietal chromato- 
phore and one easily visible pyrenoid. The diameter of the cell is 
usually 3-5/x, although some giant cells exceed iO;ti,. It multiplies by 
oval or elliptical spores, usually two to four in number. This alga has 
been maintained in pure culture in my collection for two years. 

The nutritive solution in which the algae were grown is Detmer 1/3, 
a modified Knop solution, made up in the following proportions and 
then diluted to one-third : 

Calcium nitrate . . . : i- gram 

Potassium chloride 0-25 

Magnesium sulfate 0.25 

Potassium acid phosphate 0.25 

Distilled water i- liter 

Ferric chloride ^ trace 

Petri dishes 9.5 mm in diameter containing the above solution plus 
2 per cent agar were sterilized in the autoclave at 15 pounds pressure 
for 20 minutes. When the media, which was about 4 mm thick, had 
solidified, a suspension of green cells of Chlorella vulgaris that had 
been growing in Detmer 1/3 solution in diffuse light was poured over 
the agar in the petri dish. This suspension of green cells was allowed 
to remain on the media for 24 hours, then the excess was poured off. 
The covered culture was placed under a bell jar and grown in diffuse 
light from a north window during the month of July. After a 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

month's time the surface of the agar plate was covered with a quite 
uniform green growth of algal cells. 

The cover was removed, and the lower part of the petri dish was 
immediately covered with clear cellophane that had been soaked in 
99 per cent alcohol. The culture was then placed in position in the 
spectrograph. It is necessary that no absorbing medium shall be pres- 
ent between the measured incident energy and the exposed algae. 
However, Johnson ( 1931) found that the percentage transmission of 
cellophane as compared to air is close to 100. Browning and Russ 
(1917) have demonstrated that no difference can be detected in the 
density of the growth of bacteria over the irradiated and non-irradi- 
ated portions of agar ; consequently, ultra-violet irradiation has no 
appreciable effect upon agar. 

After exposure of 21 minutes to the spectrum the cover of a sterile 
petri dish was placed over the cellophane-covered lower dish and the 
petri dish culture was returned to the bell jar in diffuse light. 

Xo change was observed in the growth of the algae on this first plate 
until one week after exposure. Then white lines resulting from the 
complete decolorization of the chlorophyll and death of the green cells 
corresponded to the typical mercury lines for all wave lengths shorter 
than 3,000 A. just as they would be seen on a photographic positive 
(see pi. i). 

A slightly different technique was developed for the preparation of 
subsequent plates for exposure in the spectrograph. The surface of a 
glass plate of dimensions 8 by 10 cm was ground so as to retain the 
agar poured on it. The plate was placed in a large petri dish 15 cm 
in diameter and covered with Detmer 1/3 agar 2 per cent, sterilized, 
and inoculated as described above with a suspension of green cells of 
Chlorella vulgaris. After a month's time the agar plate covered with 
green cells was cut out of the surrounding agar in the petri dish and 
placed upright in a closed sterile brass container with a quartz window. 
A decker was arranged in front of the slit of the spectrograph to per- 
mit the exposure of different portions of the plate for different lengths 
of time. 

The second plate was subjected to five irradiation periods of 6 and 20 
minutes, i, 3, and 18 hours. When the plate was removed from the 
spectrograph at the end of 222 hours the effect of the 18-hour exposure 
was clearly visible. Three lethal regions of the 3-hour exposure were 
also visible. Plate 2, Figure i is a photograph made of the plate as 
soon as it was removed from the spectrograph. The algal plate was 
placed in a sterile petri dish in a bell jar in diffuse light. Within two 
days the results of all five exposures were evident. 



NO. 10 ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT ON GREEN ALGA MEIER 5 

RESULTS 

Decolorized regions appeared where the plate was exposed to wave 
lengths 2,536, 2,652, 2,699, 2,753. 2,804, 2,894, 2,967 and 3,022 A. 
Those algae exposed to wave lengths 3,130, 3,341, 3,650 A. were 
unharmed and the cells were filled with green chlorophyll. Further- 
more, it may be noted that wave lengths 3,130 and 3,650 A. are more 
intense by actual thermocouple measurements, as shown in Table i. 

McAlister, by the use of the double monochromator and extremely 
sensitive thermocouples, has accurately measured the energy distribu- 
tion in the mercury arc in the ultra-violet region between 2,000 and 
4,000 A. In Plate i the first algal spectrogram obtained in this experi- 
ment is superimposed on McAlister's record of the mercury-arc spec- 
trum. The ordinates given here in centimeters of galvanometer deflec- 
tion are proportional to the intensities measured with the double mono- 
chromator. For quantitative comparison these intensities have been 
corrected for the relatively lower transmission of the fused quartz 
system of the spectrograph used in this experiment. 

Table i gives the intensities of the lines used and the computation 
of the relative lethal sensitivity to each line. Duplicate natural-color 
plates were made of the first algal spectrogram which was exposed for 
21 minutes over the entire length of the slit. Black and white copies 
of these color plates were then made, and a densitometer record was 
determined on a Moll recording microphotometer. The curves of the 
density of the silver in the photographic emulsion correspond here to 
the algal density. A photometer record was also made of the composite 
superimposition of the two negatives of the color plates, the photo- 
graph of which is shown in Plate 2, Figure 2. The areas under the 
photometer curves corresponding to the intensity of the lethal effect 
were measured with a planimeter. In cases where the plates were 
obviously so thin that the densitometer record appears as a truncated 
pyramid, extrapolation to a normal curve has been made in order to 
correct as far as possible for this source of error. The probability is 
that the stronger lines are still undercorrected. The average of the 
areas of these three densitometer records gives the best available data 
for the first traverse of the color plate. 

A second traverse, that is, a densitometer record across another 
region of the plate, was made in order to obtain a better representative 
determination and so minimize the inhomogeneity of this plate. The 
uniformity in the second traverse is such that equal weight has been 
given to it with the average area determinations of the first traverse. 

Mean area (A) is the average of the areas from the first and second 
traverses. These areas should give a reasonably good measurement 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 



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NO. lO 



ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT ON GREEN ALGA MEIER 



of the lethal effect, for they should be proportional to the algae killed, 
within the limitations due to plate thickness and other possible causes. 
If these figures are divided by the relative intensity of the lines, an 
approximate value is obtained of the relative lethal effect of a given 
quantity of incident energy of different wave lengths. These values 



are given in the ratio — 



While these values have been griven to two 



figures for the sake of uniformity, the significance of the quantities 
differs greatly for different wave lengths. Values for wave lengths 



! 




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Fig. I. — Relative lethal effect of ultra-violet light on Chlorella vulgaris. The 
ordinates are relative lethal effect in arbitrary units. The abscissae are wave- 
lengths in Angstrom units. (Dots occur through points of less weight.) D Ex- 
posure I, black plate; O exposure 2, black plate; X color plate. 

2,536 A. should receive almost no weight because of the changing 
intensity due to the progressive opacity of the arc walls. Lines 2,652 A. 
and 2.804 A., because of the fact that they are both highly lethal and 
very intense, are rendered doubtful, since all the algae were killed over 
a wide range so that corrections for this thin plate effect are uncertain. 
The black plate or second plate was taken some months later with 
the result that the wall of the arc had become so opaque that it was 
impossible to work with line 2,536 A. and the intensity of the line 
2,652 A. was reduced by a quarter of its original value. Two expo- 
sures of different lengths were obtained on this plate and are shown 
in Plate 2, Figure i. Exposure i, which lasted three hours, gives an 
idea of the relative effects of lines 2,652 A. and 2,804 A., which are 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

badly overexposed when adequate exposure is made for the weaker 
lines. Exposure 2 lasted 18 hours and shows perceptible lethal effect 
even in line 3,022 A., which was scarcely noticeable in the color plate. 
The values of relative lethal effect for the color plate and each of 
the two exposures on the black plate have been plotted and are shown 
in Figure i. Those points connected by dotted lines are to be given 
relatively smaller weight. Of course, it should be emphasized that 
these measurements are only approximate in that different periods of 
incubation and different times of exposure may modify the relative 
effects of different wave lengths. As the lines differ so greatly in 
intensity it is hoped that further investigation can be undertaken so 
that the effects of intensity and time exposure may be studied. 

DISCUSSION 

The ultra-violet component of solar radiation at the earth's surface 
is from the limit of the visible spectrum, 4,000 A. to about 2,950 A. 
In nature, plants are exposed to invisible radiations in this region. 

The amount of ultra-violet light which the plant receives varies 
according to the altitude, atmosphere, and season of the year. Life as 
it is on the earth is possible only because of the ozone formed in the 
upper layers of the atmosphere by the action of the short wave lengths 
of the ultra-violet of sunlight on oxygen. This ozone serves as a 
light filter and thus protects the life on the surface of the earth from 
the shorter destructive rays. 

Throughout the ages living organisms have probably become adapted 
to solar radiation as it is received on the earth's surface and very pos- 
sibly with the same spectrum limit due to ozone. It is, therefore, not 
surprising that radiation of wave lengths shorter than the solar limit 
produce unusual effects. While large amounts of ultra-violet of cer- 
tain wave lengths are lethal, it is possible that very small amounts 
of the same wave lengths may be not lethal but, on the contrary, stimu- 
lating to the growth of green algae. With further experimentation 
we hope to obtain more definite information in regard to the possibility 
of this stimulative effect. 

SUMMARY 

It is extremely interesting to note that in the regions where the 
ultra-violet waves beyond 3,022 A., the approximate limit of ultra- 
violet irradiation in nature, were directed on the culture, the green 
algal cells were killed. These lethal regions appear as decolorized cells 
in the green algal plate at the wave lengths 3,022, 2,967, 2,894 2,804, 
2,753, 2,699, 2,652, and 2,536 A. Wave lengths longer than 3,022 A., 



I 



XO. 10 ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT ON GREEN ALGA — MEIER 9 

that is the wave lengths 3,130, 3,341, and 3,650 A., had no appreciable 
lethal effect upon the algae. Yet by the thermocouple measurements 
a greater intensity of light was directed on the cultures at wave lengths 
3,130 and 3,650 A. 

LITERATURE CITED 
Abbot, C. G. 

191 1. The sun's energy-spectrum and temperature. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 
34, pp. 197-208. 
Bang, Sophus. 

1904. Om Fordelingen af bakteriedraebende Straaler i Kulbuelysets Spek- 
trum. Meddelelser fra Finsens Med. Lysinstitut, vol. 9, pp. 123-135. 
Bayne-Jones, S., and Van der Lingen, J. S. 

1923. The bactericidal action of ultra-violet light. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 
Bull., vol. 34, pp. 11-15. 
BiE, Valdemar. 

1899. Unders^gelser om Virkningen af Spektrets forskellige Afdelinger paa 
Bakteriers Udvikhng. Meddelelser fra Finsens Med. Lysinstitut, 
vol. I, pp. 33-74- 
BoviE, W. T. 

1915. Action of light on protoplasm. Amer. Journ. Trop. Diseases and 

Prev. Med., vol. 8, pp. 506-517. 

1916. The action of Schumann rays on living organisms. Bot. Gaz., vol. 61, 

pp. 1-29. 
1923. Ultra-violet cytolysis of protoplasm. Journ. Morph., vol. 38, pp. 295- 
300. 
Brackett, F. S. and McAlister, E. D. 

1930. The automatic recording of the infra-red at high resolution. Rev. 

Sci. Instruments, vol. i, pp. 181-193, 1930. 
1932. A spectro-photometric development for biological and photo-chemical 
investigations. (To be published shortly by the Smithsonian 
Institution.) 
Browning, C. H., and Russ, Sidney. 

1917. The germicidal action of ultra-violet radiation, and its correlation 

with selective absorption. Proc. Roy. Soc, ser. B, vol. 90, pp. 33-3^- 
BucHOLTZ, Alex. F. 

1931. The eflfect of monochromatic ultra-violet light of measured intensities 

on behaviour of plant cells. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden, vol. 18, 
pp. 489-508. 

BUSCK, GUNNI. 

1904. Lysbiologi.— En Fremstilling af Lysets Virkning paa de levende 

Organismer. Meddelelser fra Finsens Med. Lysinstitut, vol. 8, 

pp. 7-III- 
Cernovodeanu, p., and Henri, Victor. 

1910. £tude de Taction des rayons ultraviolets sur les microbes. Acad, des 

Sci. Comptes Rendus, vol. 150, pp. 52-54- 
1910. Comparaison des actions photo-chimiques et abiotiques des rayons 

ultraviolets. Idem, vol. 150, pp. 549-551- 
1910. Action des rayons ultraviolets sur les microorganismes et sur dif- 

ferentes cellules. Etude microchimique. Idem, vol. 150, pp. 729-731- 



10 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

Delf, E. Marion. 

1928. The influence of ultra-violet light on plants. Biol. Rev. and Biol. 
Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, vol. 3, pp. 260-269. 
Delf, E. Marion, Ritson, K., and Westbrook, A. 

1927-8. The effect on plants of radiations from a quartz mercury vapour 
lamp. British Journ. Exp. Biol., vol. 5, pp. 138-153- 
Ellis, Carleton, and Wells, Alfred A. 

1925. The chemical action of ultra-violet rays. New York. 
Eltinge, E. 

1928. The effects of ultra-violet radiation upon higher plants. Ann. Missouri 

Bot. Garden, vol. 15, pp. 169-240. 
Engelmann, Th. W. 

1882. Ueber Sauerstoffausscheidung von Pflanzenzellen im Mikrospectrum. 
Bot. Zeit., vol. 40, pp. 419-426. 

1887. Zur Abwehr. Gegen N. Pringsheim und C. Timiriazeff. Idem, vol. 

45, pp. lOO-IIO. 

1888. Die Purpurbacterien und ihre Beziehungen zum Lichte. Idem, vol. 

46, pp. 677-689, 693-701, 709-720. 
Gates, F. L. 

1929. A study of the bactericidal action of ultra-violet light. I. The re- 

action to monochromatic radiation. Journ. Gen. Phys., vol. 13, 
pp. 231-248. 

1929. A study of the bactericidal action of ultra-violet light. II. The 

effect of various environmental factors and conditions. Idem, vol. 
13, PP- 249-260. 

1930. A study of the bactericidal action of ultra-violet light. III. The ab- 

sorption of ultra-violet light by bacteria. Idem, vol. 14, pp. 32-4^. 
Hertei, E. 

1905. Ueber physiologische Wirkung von Strahlen verschiedener Wellen- 

liinge. Zeit. f. Allgem. Phys., vol. 5, pp. 95-122. 
Hutchinson, A. H., and Ashton, Miriam R. 

1929. The specific effects of monochromatic light on the growth of para- 

moecium. Can. Journ. Res., vol. 4, pp. 293-304. 
Hutchinson, A. H., and Newton, Dorothy. 

1930. The specific effects of monochromatic light on the growth of yeast. 

Idem, vol. 2, pp. 249-263. 
Johnson, Frank H. 

1931. Cellophane covers for petri dishes for keeping out contaminations 

and studying the effects of ultra-violet light. Science, vol. 73, 
pp. 679-680. 
Mashimo, Toshikazu. 

1919. A method of investigating the action of ultra-violet rays on bac- 
teria. Kyoto Imp. Univ. Col. Sci. Mem., vol. 4, pp. i-ii. 
McAlister, E. D. 

1929. The spectrum of the neutral mercury atom in the wave-length range 
from I-2/J.. Phys. Rev., vol. 34. pp. 1142-1147. 
Meier, Florence E. 

1929. Recherches experimentales sur la formation de la carotine chez les 
Algues vertes unicellulaires et sur la production de la gelee chez 
un Stichococcus (S. mesenteroides) . Bull. Soc. Bot. de Geneve, 
vol. 21 (i), pp. 161-197. 



i 



NO. 10 ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT ON GREEN ALGA MEIER II 

Newcomer, H. S. 

1917. The abiotic action of ultra-violet light. Journ. Exp. Med., vol. 26, 
pp. 841-848. 
Pringsheim, N. 

1886. Ueber die Sauerstoflfabgabe der Pflanzen im Mikrospectrum. Jahrb. 
f. Wissen. Bot., vol. 17, pp. 162-206. 
Raybaud, Laurent. 

1909. De I'influence des rayons ultra-violets sur le developpement des 
moisissures. Acad, des Sci. Comptes Rendus, vol. 149, PP- 634-636. 
Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1931, p. 129. 

SCHULZE, J. 

1909. t)ber die Einwirkung der Lichtstrahlen von 280 mm Wellenlange auf 
Pflanzenzellen. Beih. Bot. Zentralbl., vol. 25, pp. 30-80. 
Ward, H. Marshall. 

1893. The action of light on bacteria. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, vol. 54, 
pp. 472-475- 
Weinstein, Israel. 

1930. Quantitative biological effects of monochromatic ultra-violet light. 
Journ. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 20, pp. 432-456. 



JSMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 10, PL. 1 




ALGAL Spectrogram Superimposed on Mercury Arc Spectrum 



The ordinates are proportional to the intensity given in terms of galvanometer deflections in 
;ntimeters. The abscissae are wave-lengths in Angstrom units. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 10, PL. 2 



Z600 Z800 3000 3Z00 

I i t 




I. P>lack plate showins' results of exposures of eighteen hours' and three 

hours' duration. 



Z600 ZSOO 3000 izoo 
J I I I I I I 




2. Composite <.if color plates showinu results of exposure of twenty-one 

minutes' flm'atimi. 

ALGAL Spectrograms 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 11 



REPORT ON ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCH 
IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE PYRENEES 

(With Eight Plates) .,-^^^0^-'^'" '^ ' ' '''''o^^ 

^OFFICE UBl*-^ 
BY 
J. TOWNSEND RUSSELL 

Collaborator in Old World Archeology, U. S. National Museum 




(Publication 3174) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

AUGUST 26, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 11 



REPORT ON ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCH 
IN THE FOOTHILLS OF THE PYRENEES 



(With Eight Plates) 



BY 
J. TOWNSEND RUSSELL 

Collaborator in Old World Archeology, U. S. National Museum 




(Publication 3174) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

AUGUST 26, 1932 



i 



? ^i Bovi) (§aitimove (Prcea 

BALTIMORE, UD., U. S. A, 



REPORT ON ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE 
FOOTHILLS OF THE PYRENEES 

By J. TowNSEND Russell, 
Collaborator in Old World Archeology, U. S. National Museum 

(With Eight Plates) 

During July and August, 1931, the Smithsonian Institution and 
the University of Toulouse carried on cooperative research in pre- 
history in the departments of the Ariege and Haute Garonne, France. 
The writer, on the staff of the United States National Museum, was 
Field Director and the Smithsonian representative, while Count Henri 
Begouen, Professor of Prehistory at the University of Toulouse, 
represented the University. The results of this cooperation were so 
satisfactory that an agreement has been signed between the two in- 
stitutions which continues the work during a period of 10 years. 

MARSOULAS 

The cave of Marsoulas, situated on the southern side of an abrupt 
hill on the right bank of a little stream known as the Louin, in the 
Commune of Marsoulas, Haute Garonne, was chosen as the first site 
for excavation. 

The cave, having its opening due west, was formed by the action 
of water along a fault in limestone containing algae and foraminifera, 
belonging to the Thanetian or base of the Nummulithic series of the 
" Petites Pyrenees."^ Its present opening is 10 meters behind the 
original emplacement, and the terrace, previous to this year's work, 
was buried deep under humus and rock falls from the former roof 
and the hill above. The gallery runs almost due southwest-northeast 
into the hill to nearly 60 meters depth. At about 40 meters it dips 
sharply down for some 5 meters to a spring, beyond which it is 
blocked by clay infiltration. The spring, flowing under the gallery, 
issues from the hill below the entrance and liecomes part of the Louin. 

Earlier excavation, in 1885-86, had brought to light two levels of 
Magdalenian and one of Aurignacian age." Of its yield, only a few 



^ The Smithsonian Institution wishes to express its thanks to Monsieur 
Mengaud, Professor of Geology at the University of Toulouse, who visited 
Marsoulas while excavation was in progress and gave the above determination. 

^ Abbe Cau-Durban, La Grotte de Marsoulas. Impremerie et Librairie Abadie, 
St. Gaudens, 1887. Cau-Durban erroneously calls the Aurignacian level Solutrean. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 11 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

objects are extant, a collection of flint and rock-crystal artifacts and 
a few worthy examples of geometric and figured art on horn and 
bone ^ now to be seen in the Musee d'Histoire Xaturelle at Toulouse. 

In 1897, only a short time after the existence of Quaternary art 
had been established by the acceptance on the part of the scientific 
world of the authenticity of the polychromes in Altamira, M. Felix 
Renault announced the presence of frescoes in the gallery of 
Marsoulas.^ These and many others, unseen by Monsieur Renault, 
were later published by Cartailhac and Breuil.'' Among the geometric 
signs, polychromes, and engravings, the most outstanding are the 
well-known engraved human heads, the two dotted bisons in red and 
black, and the panel of aborescents, pecti forms, tectiforms, etc. 

Shortly before his death, Monsieur Cartailhac purchased the cave 
and willed it to the University of Toulouse, after which it became a 
classified monument." 

While the interior of the cave was found to have been excavated, 
an entrance sounding at the emplacement of the modern gate erected 
by the University of Toulouse revealed an intact hearth apparently 
extending in front under the terrace. This was at first thought to be 
of Magdalenian age, but it later proved to be Aurignacian. Accord- 
ingly, the surveying zero was established on top of this hearth and 
the terrace was entirely removed. It contained four levels: Level i, 
humus not quite I meter at its thickest ; Level 2, averaging 2.25 meters 
thickness in the vicinity of the entrance, relic-bearing and comix)sed 
of rock falls and earth ; Level 3, bear clay ; ' Level 4, the present bed 
of the underground stream running from the spring in the back of 
the cave (pi. i ). 

^ Abbe Breuil, Les Sub-divisions du Paleolithique Superieur et leur Significa- 
tion. Congr. Int. d'Anthrop. et Arch. Prehist. Comte Rendu XVI Sess., Geneve, 
1912. Abbe Breuil et de St. Perier, Les Poissons, les Batraciens, et les Reptiles 
dans I'Art Quaternaire. Mason et Cie., 1927. Count Henri Begouen, Sur un Os 
Grave de la Grotte de Marsoulas. Rev. Anthrop., Oct. -Nov., 1930. 

^ Bull. Archaeol., p. 210, 1903. 

' Cartailhac, E. et Breuil, L'Abbe H., Les Peintures et Gravures murales des 
Cavernes Pyreneennes. E.xtract from L' Anthropologic, vols. 15 and 16, Mason 
et Cie., 1905. 

" A " classified monument " is an archeological site or architectural monument 
which is classified by the French Government and protected by law from depreda- 
tion or removal from France. The Smithsonian Institution wishes to express its 
thanks to the Beaux Arts Commission for Classified Monuments, who graciously 
gave their permission for excavation to be carried on in Marsoulas. 

' The term " bear clay " is applied bj' prehistorians to a level occurring in the 
caves of this region, which contain the bones of the cave bear (Ursus spclaciis) 
and in which the cultural remains of Homo sapiens have so far never been 
found. 



NO. II ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN PYRENEES RUSSELL 3 

Adhering to the right wall, along the fault which caused the forma- 
tion of the cave, partially inside the mouth and covered by Levels i 
and 2, was a deposit of travertine. This deposit, white and porous, 
was due to one of two causes : infiltration of water down the face 
of the fault or a blocking of a stream once flowing out of the cave 
at this level.* There are three phases in its formation : the oldest, at 
the bottom, is compact and sterile ; the second, relic-bearing and 
grayish, with charcoal ; the third and uppermost, sterile and friable. 
The flint and bone extracted from the relic-bearing level have a water- 
rolled appearance. Flint is extremely rare as, owing to the chemical 
action of the deposit it had so disintegrated as to be indistinguishable 
from the travertine. The bone presented the usual features of splin- 
tered bone coming from Paleolithic levels. 

The relic-bearing level (pi. i, Level 2) contained two small hearths. 
That found in the sounding proved to be but a vestige, yielding nothing 
but a small collection of flint and bone tools typical of the Aurignacian 
culture. A second hearth, slightly outside the cave entrance, was 
located at plus 20 centimeters and sloped out and upward to plus 
60 centimeters. It was thin and reddish in color and yielded only a few 
flint flakes and splinters of bone. Although there were no other hearths 
in this level, a sufficient quantity of splintered bone and artifacts was 
recovered to show that it composed the terrace of Paleolithic times, 
while the artifacts themselves have distinct Aurignacian affinities. 
Only four of these objects are worthy of note : Two scrapers, one 
of rock crystal (pi. 2), and the other a fragment of bivalve shell 
much used and too small for identification of species ; a shell of the 
species Capuliis hungaricus Linne, perforated for suspension and 
having the inner surface of its lip decorated with incisions ; and an 
unusually large conch of the species Triton nodifenim Lamarck 
encountered at plus 1.60 centimeters (pi. 3). This mollusk, belonging 
to a warm-water fauna, occurs in the Atlantic as far north as the 
Charante Inferieure and is rare in the Mediterranean. It inhabits 
the coral zone at 25 to y^ meters depth and is therefore seldom thrown 
up on the shore. The species averages 230 to 250 millimeters long, 
sometimes reaching a length of 300 millimeters, while the width 
averages 170 millimeters. The Marsoulas specimen measures 310 by 
180 millimeters. It had remained on a beach for a considerable length 
of time, as the test shows attack by Algae clione. The cone of the shell 
had broken and healed during its lifetime. Except for an ancient 



Idem, p. I, footnote r. 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

irregular breaking of the lip and an unfortunate perforation at the 
time of excavation, there is no artificial adaptation of any sort." 

The find of a Triton shell in a Paleolithic level is important from 
several points of view. A few stations have yielded Strombus, but 
this is the only Triton so far reported. The 250 kilometers separating 
Marsoulas from the Mediterranean and the 300 kilometers distance 
from the Atlantic is witness to the wide migrations or trade contacts of 
the Paleolithic hunters, provided the species existed in those seas during 
Quaternary times. If it did not, the distance over which it came 
indicates for these hunters travels or contacts farther afield than 
has been previously considered possible. 

Fauna from the Paleolithic terrace: Red fox {Vulpcs sp.), fox 
(Vulpcs sp. or Alopcx sp.), horse (Eguits cf. cahallns), reindeer 
(Rangifcr ci. tara Jidus) ,hov'id (Bos or Fyison sp.), Mollusca (Capiihts 
JiungaricHS Linne, Triton nodifcrnm Lamarck). 

Fauna from Aurignacian hearth: Fox (Vidpes sp. or Alopcx sp.), 
horse (Eqiiiis s]).), reindeer {Rangifcr cL tarandns), bovid (Bos or 
Bison). 

Fauna from travertine: Horse {Eqnus sp.), bovid (Bos or Bison 
sp.). 

TARTE 

On the floor of the cave of Tarte," situated in the same hillside and 
500 meters west of Marsoulas but in the Commune of Cassagne, Haute 
Garonne, an interesting industry in poor quality quartzite, neglected 
by former searchers, was remarked. It was decided to make a sound- 
ing in the hope of finding an intact layer that would date these 
artifacts. 

Two layers were found, one on the right just inside the entrance 
and the other on the extreme left of the terrace. Both contained 
the Aurignacian typical of Tarte, and both contained the quartzite 
industry. 

The form of the quartzite artifacts was limited by the poor quality 
of the material, and no particular type is recognizable. Only one 
face of these artifacts was retouched, and they apparently served 
as choppers and crude scrapers (pi. 4, figs, i to 4). The specimen 
shown in Plate 4, Figure 4, is water-worn and is, therefore, probably 



* The Smithsonian Institution wishes to express its thanks to Monsieur Joleau, 
Professor of Geology at the Sorbonne, who examined the specimen in question 
and gave the above opinion. 

" Cartailhac, Quelques faits Nouveaux du Prchistoirie Ancien des Pyrenees. 
L'Anthropologie, 1896, p. 316; Cartailhac and J. Bouysonie, Une Fouille a Tarte. 
Assoc. Franqaise Advanc. Sci., 1909, p. 128; Cazedessus, Jean, La Grotte du 
Tarte. IX Congr. de I'Union Hist, et Archaeol. des Societes du Sud Quest, 1926. 



NO. II ARCHEOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN PYRENEES RUSSELL 5 

of Lower or Middle Paleolithic age, having been found by tlie Aurigna- 
cians in a stream bed, brought by them to Tarte and used without 
further adaptation. 

Among the quartzite pieces on the floor of the cave was found a 
splendid example of the Paleolithic artist's pallette, which probably 
came from the Aurignacian levels. This piece consists of the cleanly 
broken half of a quartzite pebble, the flat surface of which is thickly 
coated in red ochre. It measures 23 centimeters long by 19 centimeters 
wide. 

THE OPEN-AIR WORKSHOP OF ROQUECOURBERE 

Four kilometers " as the crow flies '' due east from Marsoulas 
and Tarte is a cave known as the Cave of Roquecourbere " situated 
in the Commune of Betchat, Ariege. It is one of the two sites in the 
Pyrenees that yielded remains of the Solutrean culture. Soundings 
were made here, but it was found to have been completely emptied. 
Below the clifi:' containing this cave, on the left bank of the little 
stream known as the Lens, is the open-air workshop of Roquecourbere. 

The site is in a wood and covers several hectares. A number of 
man-made flint flakes found in a rain-washed cart track leading 
through it first attracted attention to the station. 

Twenty-one soundings were made. Below a level of humus vary- 
ing from 60 centimeters to over a meter in thickness was a layer 
50 centimeters thick consisting of quartzite pebbles and flint nodules 
of poor quality tightly packed with earth. This layer had been 
superficially quarried from the surface in Upper Paleolithic times. 
Artifacts and debris of manufacture occurred in this level, as well 
as in the lower part of the humus. In sounding No. 8, a consid- 
erable quantity of flints was found where the quarry layer appeared 
to have been dug into deeper than elsewhere. The stones had been 
thrown aside so as to make a cup-like depression, whose borders were 
covered only by a few centimeters of humus. 

The quality of the material is very poor and the yield of the station 
meager ; the proportion of worked flakes and finished tools is only 10 
to 15 per cent of the whole (pis. 5-8). Plate 6, Figure i shows a 
nucleus trimmed into a double scratcher resembling the rostro-carinate 
scratchers of the Aurignacian from Tarte. 

The industry belongs to the Lower Aurignacian, but if the work- 
shop was used by the people of Tarte, the poor quality of the material 
rendered impossible the production of typical Tarte pieces. 



" Cazedessus, Jean, Galerie de Roquecourbere. Assoc. Frangaise Advanc. Sci., 
Congr. du Havre, 1929. 



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SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 11, PL. 2 




Rock-crystal scraper, Level 2, Marsoulas. 




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SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 11, PL. 5 








4 5 

Five scratchers from the open-air workshop of Roquecourbere. 





0^ 



B - 




SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 11, PL. 7 








2 5 

Five scrapers from the open-air workshop of Roquecourbere. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 11, PL. 8 






Three nucleii from the open-air workshop of Roquecourbere. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 12 



A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR 

BIOLOGICAL AND PHOTOCHEMICAL 

INVESTIGATIONS 



(With Three Plates) 



SEP :,,J 1932 



BY 
F. S. BRAGKETT AND E. D. McALISTER 



■^L^JCE LlBR.Nji- 



Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3176) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

SEPTEMBER 26, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 12 



A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR 

BIOLOGICAL AND PHOTOCHEMICAL 

INVESTIGATIONS 



(With Three Plates) 



BY 

F. S. BRAGKETT AND E. D. McALISTER 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication' 3176) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

SEPTEMBER 26, 1932 



BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DEVELOPMENT FOR BIO- 
LOGICAL AND PHOTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

By F. S. BRACKETT and E. D. McALISTER 
Division of Radiation and Organisms. Smithsonian Institution 

(With Three Plates) 

Investigations of the effect of radiation upon biological material can 
be carried out advantageously with microscopic organisms such as 
unicellular algae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi, along lines closely 
analogous to customary spectroscopic practice. The great advantage 
of this general method of approach is that one is able to obtain 
numerical evaluations which depend statistically on large numbers 
of organisms without going to equipment of cumbersome dimensions. 
The needs are, however, sufficiently different as to make desirable the 
development of special equipment and methods. It is our purpose to 
describe the development along these lines which has been undertaken 
in the Division of Radiation and Organisms, with a view to carrying 
out cooperative investigations with biologists who have specialized 
in the study of particular types of small organisms. It has been our 
idea to make the special equipment developed available not only to 
members of the Division but more generally to biologists who may 
arrange to carry on investigations at the Smithsonian Institution m 
cooperation with the Division. 

The first of these cooperative experiments has been carried out with 
Dr. Florence E. Meier, National Research Fellow, working with the 
alga ChlorcUa vulgaris of her collection. The results of her experi- 
ments have been presented in a previous publication. Smithsonian 
Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 10, 1932. Some of the prob- 
lems of a physical nature which have arisen in the course of these 
experiments will be taken up in connection with this discussion. 

In order that advantage may be gained from comparative observa- 
tions of a differential type it is desirable that the organisms be ex- 
posed to several wave lengths at the same time. Where slides can be 
prepared coated with a layer of microscopic organisms, they may be 
exposed in an instrument of the spectrograph type. Since, however, 
there exist essential difficulties in securing either as great uniformity 
or as fine texture or structure as is presented by the photographic 
plate, it is desirable to secure as large an area exposed to a given wave 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 12 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

length as possible. In other words, one wishes to work with a wide 
and long slit and as large monochromatic images of the slit as is com- 
patible with essential spectral purity. A second demand is that pro- 
vision be made for a nonselective determination of the relative intensi- 
ties of the different wave lengths incident upon the organisms. A third 
demand is that provision be made for the exposure of the organisms 
without great hazard of contamination. 

These three requirements determine the general character of the 
combined recording monochromator and biological spectrograph which 
has been constructed. Since one of the most interesting regions from 
a biological standpoint lies between 2,500 A. and 3,000 A., fused 
quartz serves very well as the material for the construction of the 
optical parts. The difficulty which such material presents due to its 
slight inhomogeneity is not of great moment in this connection. The 
resulting loss of definition is of no consequence because of the wide 
slits demanded by the coarse-structured biological plates. In order 
that a comparatively high degree of spectral purity might be maintained 
despite the use of large slit-widths, a relatively great dispersion is 
required. This is obtained by the use of two 60° prisms, together with 
focal lengths of collimator and telescope of 50-60 cm. In order to 
maintain a high light intensity, unusually large prisms have been em- 
ployed, yielding a numerical aperture of f . 4 to f . 5 depending on the 
wave length. The second prism is slightly larger than the first, the 
first being 13 cm high x 13 cm diagonal face, the second 14 cm high x 
16.5 cm diagonal face. The use of a larger second prism minimizes 
the reduction in aperture for the beams of least and greatest devia- 
tion. The optical arrangement is shown diagrammatically in Figure i. 
With the high numerical aperture, it was necessary to have the lenses 
ground aspherically in order to minimize spherical aberration. Since 
it was desirable that the instrument should be used efficientlv over 
a wide range of wave lengths either as a spectrograph or mono- 
chromator, provision was made to swing both collimator and camera. 
The first slit " s " is curved, compensating for the change of prismatic 
deviation ofif the axis and thus yielding straight line images of the 
slit. A slit-length as great as 5 cm proves to give satisfactory images. 
Provision is made for the independent focusing of both collimator 
and camera. The lenses are 16.5 cm in diameter. The camera has 
been specially constructed to serve first, with a conventional plate 
holder, for photographic purposes, and second, with a special plate 
holder which can be sterilized in an autoclave, for biological purposes. 
This plate holder is constructed of metal and provided with both 
shutter and quartz window so as to isolate the biological material 



NO. 12 



SPECTROBIOLOGY BRACKETT AND McALISTER 



under sterile conditions. Furthermore, provision is made to traverse 
the spectrum with a thermocouple. This is supported by a worm- 
driven dovetail slide. Last, a second slit may be supported in place 
of the thermocouple and the instrument used strictly as a mono- 
chromator. Provision has been made for automatically recording the 
galvanometer deflections when the spectrum is traversed by the thermo- 




FiG. I. — Diagram of optical arrangement. 

couple. The instrument is provided with, scales and is of such rigid 
construction as to make possible a high reproducibility of setting. 

Plate I shows the. spectrograph with the prisms exposed. A number 
of unique features will be noted ; the extra long slit is supported by 
parallel rods which extend so as to carry the source and the condenser 
lenses when used. This permits the swinging of the collimator without 
realignment of the preliminary system. As will be noted, the instru- 
ment extends from one room to another. Provision is made for 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

closing the window, thereby isolating the working room from the 
source of ultra-violet light. The standard plate holder mounting is 
shown at the left while the special biological plate holder lies at the 
front of the concrete table. It is shown with the back removed. Slide 
and quartz window are placed at 45° to the plate support in order to 
minimize reflection from the window. 




l^ 



'^'. 



I I I I I I I I I 

.3 5 .40 



.25 .30 .35 .40 .50 1.00 r.SO p 

Fig. 2. — Record of mercury spectrum taken with open thermocouple. 

Plate 2 shows the camera, thermocouple, and recording system in 
the adjoining room. The biological plate holder is in place with the 
back and slide removed. The thermocouple can be moved across the 
spectrum imder these conditions, the traverse thus being made under 
the identical conditions to .which the biological material is exposed. 
At the extreme right the box is shown w^hich houses a cylinder upon 
which the galvanometer record is made through a cylindrical lens. Gear 
mechanisms accomplish convenient reduction of motion so as to secure 
the desired spread of spectrum upon the record. An interchange of 
standard reduction gears allows a modification of ratio. 

Figure 2 is a direct record of the mercury spectrum from 2,500 A. 
to i.7fj.. This record was made with an open thermocouple, thus 



NO. 12 



SPECTROBIOLOGY BRACKETT AND McALISTER 



avoiding the difficulty of correcting for window transmission. Only 
two settings of collimator and camera have been required for the 
recording of the entire range of the spectrum, the region from 2,500 A. 
to 3,900 A. being traversed at one setting and the region from 
3,900 A. to i./jji at the other. In this case a small spread or high 
gear ratio has been used in recording to show conveniently the entire 
spectrum. 

Figure 3 is another automatic record of the mercury arc taken with 
a vacuum thermocouple of the type described by Brackett and Mc- 
Alister.^ As will be seen this record has been taken with a finer slit- 
width, the spectral range subtended by the slit being of the order of 




I I I 

3200 3300 3400 



Fig. 3. — Record of mercury spectrum taken with vacuum thermocouple 
showing higher resolution and greater stability. 



8 A. Here a lower gear ratio has been used in order to secure a larger 
spread. This permits the ready integration of areas for quantitative 
comparisons. One will note that the same order of deflection has been 
achieved despite the great increase in resolution and improvement in 
stability of zero. 

Plate 3, Figure i, shows a photographic spectrogram of the quartz 
mercury arc. Although rather a wide slit has been used it will be 
seen that the finer lines are sharply defined. Furthermore, although 
over 4 cm of slit-length has been shown in the illustration excellent 
straightness of line has been obtained. 

Plate 3, Figure 2, shows a typical spectrogram obtained with bio- 
logical material where the organisms are destroyed by the wave lengths 
of a given spectral region. This was obtained by Doctor Meier, using 
unicellular algae, and was discussed in her paper " The Lethal Action 

^The automatic recording of the infra-red at high resolution. Rev. Sci. In- 
struments, vol. I, no. 3, pp. 181-193, 1930. 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. Sj 

of Ultra-\'iolet Light on a Unicellular Green Alga." ^ As will be noted 
in comparing Plate 3, Figures i and 2, lines in the region from 
2,500 A. to 3,000 A. appear in much their usual character, while the 
very heavy lines shown between 3,000 A. and 3.200 A. are wholly 
lacking. In order that such a biological spectrogram may be made to 
yield a quantitative measure of lethal effect, one may resort to the 
microphotometer methods which are in use for photographic pur- 
poses. Again, the only essential difference is that one is dealing with 
a plate of less uniformity and greater coarseness of structure in the 
biological work. Consequently, a recording microphotometer of the 




I I I \ \ \ \ 

2500 zeeo aroo zeeo zsoo 3000 sioo 

Fig. 4. — Photometric record of algal spectrogram of mercury arc. 

Moll type may be used, provided it is equipped with unusually long 
and wide slits, thus providing an integration over a considerable area. 

Figure 4 shows such a record by the microphotometer of the algal 
plate. The lines are readily recognized although it will be observed 
that the heavier ones have been so overexposed as to present a flat- 
topped or truncated appearance. Such a thin plate effect may be 
partially corrected by extrapolating the curves to a normal p3^ramidal 
shape. This is, of course, only a first approximation, accurate work 
requiring varied exposures so that one stays within a narrow range of 
effective lethal action. 

Figure 5 shows a similar record by the microphotometer of the 
photographic spectrogram, Plate 3, Figure 2. Although there is in 
this case no evidence of a thin plate effect, the fact that the sensitivity 
of the plate varies widely, not only for different wave lengths but 
also for dift'erent intensities, is readily observed by a comparison of 
this record with Figure 3. For convenience, the microphotometer 
used has been equipped with extra large slits, special lenses being sub- 
stituted for the microscopic type in standard use. Thermocouple and 
second lens have been eliminated, a Weston photronic cell being sub- 

' Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 87, no. 10, 1932. 



NO. 12 SPECTROBIOLOGY BRACKETT AND McALISTER 7 

stituted for this work. Because of its large area and uniform response 
this arrangement proves quite satisfactory. It is, of course, particularly 
suitable to the algal plate. As the same set-up of the photometer was 
used with the photographic plate, considerable of the detail is not 
brought out. 

This combination of equipment, spectrograph and microphotometer, 
makes possible a type of biological investigation which is capable of 
yielding quantitative results, approaching those of photographic spec- 
trophotometry, the limit being set simply by the uniformity of tex- 
ture of the biological plates which can be prepared. 



N-,A, 




3000 



Fig. 5. — Photometric record of photographic spectrogram of mercury arc. 

Obviously the equipment developed presents unusual advantages 
for pure photochemical investigation. Because of the large aperture 
and long slit it is possible to secure a large amount of monochromatic 
energy, thus enabling one to work with large enough quantities of 
material for convenient analysis. A mounting has been developed 
which permits the simultaneous exposure of 6 small test tubes to 
different lines of the spectrum. As in many cases slit-widths as great 
at 2 mm are possible without overlapping of lines, amounts of energy 
become available of the order commonly secured in photochemical 
practice by technique which yields considerably less resolution. Thus, 
with lines varying in intensity from 4.8/ergs/sec./mm ' to 125.6 ergs/ 
sec/mm', and slit 2 mm wide by 50 mm long, one obtains corres- 
ponding rates of energy supply 480 ergs per sec. to 12,560 ergs per sec. 
Each test tube is surrounded by its own cylindrical cover in which a 
slit of the desired width has been cut. This second use of the instru- 
ment has already proved of considerable interest, cooperative work 
having been carried out with the United States Department of Agri- 
culture upon photochemical changes in plant products. 



1ITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 12, PL. 1 




Spectrograph for biological and photochemical investigations. 




u 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, No. 12, PL. 3 




2500 



I ' > ' I I 
3000 3500 



Photographic spectrogram of mercury arc. 



ZSOO ZSOO 2000 3200 




Spectrogram of mercury arc shown by lethal effect on algae. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 13 



THE FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION IN THE 
PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS 

I. GENERAL METHODS AND APPARATUS 

(With One Plate) ^f^sS^*'^* ''^"^^/^//^ 






BY 



NOV if 1932 



F. S. BRAGKETT AND EARL S. JOHNSTON 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institutijjq, „ 



N 




(Publication 3179) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

NOVEMBER 14, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOLUME 87. NUMBER 13 



THE FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION IN THE 
PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS 

1. GENERAL METHODS AND APPARATUS 

(With One Plate) 



BY 

F. S. BRACKETT AND EARL S. JOHNSTON 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3179) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

NOVEMBER 14, 1932 



Z^i Boxi) (gattimoxc Optceo 

BALTIUORE, MD., D. 8. A. 



THE FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION IN THE PHYSIOLOGY 

OF PLANTS 

I. GENERAL METHODS AND APPARATUS 

By F. S. BRACKETT and EARL S. JOHNSTON 
Dh'ision of Radiation and Oriianisnis, Smithsonian Institution 

[With One Plate] 

Radiation undoubtedly affects many of the physiological processes 
of plants in addition to the well-recognized ones of photosynthesis and 
phototropism. To what extent these and other reactions may influence 
each other, if at all, is wholly an open question. Since it has been im- 
possible to produce artificially any process which bears a close similar- 
ity to those found in the plant, one must perforce seek as complete 
data as can be obtained from direct studies of plant behavior. Modi- 
fications of the two essential light characteristics, wave length and 
intensity, may in general affect not only the reaction which is being 
given particular attention, but also other photochemical reactions 
which take place in the plant. So far as observational data are con- 
cerned one is limited to numbers which represent overall effects, that 
is, gas interchange, change in dry weight, change in height, change in 
shape, change in color, etc. Anyone who assumes that one of these 
overall numbers may be varied without influencing another must cer- 
tainly accept the burden of the proof. 

Consequently it is our view that investigations of photosynthesis can- 
not safely be interpreted without due consideration of problems of 
growth and characteristic plant behavior. It has therefore been our 
purpose to supplement our investigations of photosynthesis with ex- 
periments to determine the ways in which changes in intensity and 
wave length affect the characteristics of plant behavior. In order that 
such investigations of the light variables may yield data which are 
reproducible and significant, it is of course necessary that other varia- 
bles be maintained constant and as far as possible defined as to magni- 
tude. Obvious as such a consideration is, failure sufficiently to realize 
this demand has contributed to a considerable degree to the chaotic 
results found scattered through the literature. However, to create 
conditions under which the physical and chemical factors of environ- 
ment can be sufficiently well controlled and defined is by no means a 
simple problem. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 13 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLAXEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

The Division of Radiation and Organisms of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution has devoted consideral)le time and effort during its first three 
years to the de\'elopment of equipment and methods for the compara- 
tive investigation of the effects of hght upon plant growth and be- 
havior. Since to a considerable degree the general plan of investigation 
and the apparatus employed will be common to a series of experiments 
it seems desirable to describe the developments in some detail. Such 
is the purpose of this discussion. 

SOURCES OF RADIATION 

The type of set-up to be developed depends necessarily in a large 
measure upon the characteristics of the sources of radiation which are 
available. Practically one has three choices : first, the sun ; second, 
standardized incandescent filament lamps ; third, electrical discharges 
through gases. The chief objection to the first, namely, its unavoidable 
fluctuation in intensity and distrilnition, has been sufficient to rule it 
out in the present undertaking. In designing the apparatus provision 
has been made to utilize both of the latter types. Incandescent lamps 
have the definite advantage of furnishing radiation distributed continu- 
ously over a large range of wave lengths. They can be obtained with 
a minimum of expense and, with suitable control, made to yield reason- 
ably constant conditions. If it is desired, however, to restrict the light 
to a very narrow wave-length range, that is, pure color, one finds rather 
rigidly-defined limitations. A monochromator type of illumination 
must be ruled out in the case of most investigations of higher plants, 
not only because of expense but also because it fails to furnish a 
sufificient quantity of available radiation. The use of light filters, 
however, enables one to modify and limit the distribution to a con- 
siderable extent. 

An interesting set of filters, developed by the Corning Glass Works, 
transmit continuously the radiation of long wave lengths from about 
2.5/A in the infra-red to fairly well-defined limits in the visible and 
ultra-violet. This short wave-length limit differs for the different 
filters. A group of lo filters may be chosen, for which the short wave- 
length limit varies at convenient intervals from the deep red to the 
ultra-violet beyond 2,900 A. While the short wave-length limit is 
not ideal, the change of transmission from 80 per cent or more to less 
than 2 or 3 per cent takes place within a few hundred Angstroms. 
The transmission characteristics of these filters are shown in Figure i, 
curves i to 10. Percentage transmission is plotted against wave length 
in microns. The infra-red transmission values have been determined 



NO. 13 FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION— BRACKETT AND JOHNSTON 3 

upon an automatically recording infra-red spectrograph constructed at 
the Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory in cooperation with this 
Division. For the visible and ultra-violet they have been determined 
by means of a double monochromator using the special thermocouples 
developed in this Division. Two standard Bausch & Lomb quartz 
monochromators have been combined in order to secure greater wave- 
length purity. These observations will be discussed in greater detad 
in other publications. 

From a photochemical point of view this set of filters has a number 
of interesting possibilities. Since photochemical reactions show a 
long wave-length threshold, that is they do not proceed for any wave 
lengths longer than a definite value (the threshold), it is possible with 
such a group of filters to vary the illumination so that different photo- 




FiG. I. — Transmission curves of filters. 
I Pvrex • 2 Nultra ; 3, Noviol, shade O ; 4, Noviol, shade C ; 5, Heat resisting 
yellow! yellow shade; 6, Lighthouse red; 7, Heat res.stnig red, 212 per cent; 
8 Heat resisting red, 122 per cent: 9, Heat resisting red, 62 per cent ; 10, Blue 
purple ultra plul heai resisting red, 212 per cent; H, Heat absorbing Alko, light 
shade. 

chemical reactions may be diiTerently afifected, provided they have 
dififerent long wave-length thresholds. 

Another set of filters is also of interest in such experiments. This 
is a group of heat-absorbing filters which remove the infra-red longer 
than i/x and cut off in varying amounts the near infra-red and longer 
wave lengths of visible radiation. Such filters are of particular im- 
portance in view of the fact that standard incandescent lights pro- 
duce an excessive amount of infra-red radiation as compared to the 
sun At present only one type of heat-absorbing filter has been ob- 
tained. The transmission of this filter is indicated by the dotted line H 
in Figure i Other filters which transmit a greater proportion of light 
in the red are being procured. These glass filters have the advantage 
of a considerable degree of permanency. 

Only a few filters are available that eliminate both the long and short 
wave-length ranges of the spectrum, leaving a definite band of limited 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

wave-length range in the transmitted beam. Unfortunately the few 
filters which are available either transmit too wide a band for sig- 
nificant experimentation or transmit too low an intensity for practical 
purposes. Consequently lamps of the incandescent type together with 
available filters fail to meet a very urgent need for practically mono- 
chromatic sources of illumination. 

This need is met by the last mentioned group, namely, electrical dis- 
charge through gases. Such sources of illumination have been in 
common laboratory use for physical investigation for decades. Com- 
mercial application however, until very recently has been limited to 
the mercury arcs. The development of Neon signs has stimulated in- 
dustrial interest in such sources of light which emit selectively a limited 
number of practically monochromatic " lines " of radiation. Helium 
tubes are now available which furnish an intense yellow radiation and 
*sodium tubes have been developed and should be available in the rela- 
tively near future. Hydrogen tubes are a matter of common laboratory 
practice. These yield a very strong red line together with less intense 
blue-green and blue lines. 

In order that these sources may be used intelligently it is necessary 
that the distribution of energy of a given source maintained under 
specified conditions be known. While data are available so far as 
the common incandescent light is concerned, such is by no means the 
case in regard to the sources of selective emission, namely, discharges 
through gases. In order to meet this situation our laboratory has been 
equipped not only to make such special lamps as are not available, 
but also to make photometric determinations of the distribution of 
intensity in terms of well-defined standards for all types of sources. 
Since information is required for the entire range from i.5ju, to .2fx, 
both as to emission of sources and transmission of windows, the spec- 
troscopic developments are rather unusual in scope. Automatically 
recording instruments are being developed which will yield absolute 
intensities for the entire range. Results of these developments will 
be discussed in other papers. 

PLANT GROWTH CHAMBERS 

With the general attributes of available sources of radiation in mind, 
a set of growth chambers has been developed whose primary purpose 
is to expose plants to different radiation conditions while Qther factors 
of environment are maintained essentially the same. In order that 
temperature, humidity, and gas concentrations may be as nearly 
identical as possible, the set of four chambers is controlled by a central 
reservoir and manifolding system. Both air and water are distributed 
from common sources, for the sake of temperature control. By the 



NO. 13 FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION BRACKETT AND JOII NSTON 



use of the same nutrient solution throughout an entire experiment, 
the nutritional factors are necessarily identical. 




VIEW or UNDERSIDE SHOWING 



t-. £ - , 1-. t - -t.^-!? 



Fig. 2. — Detailed diagram of plant growth chamber. 

Plate I shows the completed apparatus. The four growth chambers 
are located in the corner spaces upon a large steel frame. The center 
space accommodates the central controlling reservoirs. Each chamber 
is an octagonal cylinder in form, 2.2 inches high by 15 inches in diam- 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

eter. The details of construction are shown in Figure 2. In order 
that the various types of hght sources may he conveniently used and 
a maximum of flexibility obtained, arrangements have been made for 
both lateral and overhead illumination. Four of the eight faces of 
the octagon may be covered with glass windows, bolted on with suitable 
gaskets. The other four sides are double-walled in order to provide 
for temperature control by circulating water. These are shown cross- 
hatched, in a portion of the top view. The inner faces of these sides 
are of polished monel metal, which has the advantage of a fairly 
permanent polish and a minimum of variation of reflecting power 
from the visible to the far ultra-violet. Circular openings 14 inches 
in diameter have been provided in both the top and bottom. This 
choice of diameter enables one to use the standard front glasses of 
industrial flood lights for windows. These convex windows are avail- 
able in pyrex, a matter of considerable importance when dealing with 
lights of high candle power. Furthermore, through the cooperation 
of the Corning Glass Works the filters previously described and 
usually available only in small sizes have been cast in these larger 
standard molds. It thus becomes possible to secure a color filter which 
will cover the entire opening. Provided with suitable gaskets two 
of these windows may be separated by a water layer, as shown in 
r^igure 2, section A-A, thus providing for the removal of a large por- 
tion of the infra-red radiation and at the same time for the mainte- 
nance of the temperature of this top surface. The bottom opening is 
provided with suitable equipment for the introduction and support of 
the plants under observation. For convenience a metal disk may be 
bolted over this opening, which is provided with flanges threaded for 
the standard Mason jar. It has also been water-cooled for additional 
convenience in temperature control. This plate is shown in a bottom 
view in the lower left-hand corner of Figure 2. Since the frame upon 
which the chambers are supported stands some 18 inches above the 
floor these jars may be readily introduced from below and are sup- 
ported from this plate by the threaded top. Thus water baths for 
temperature control of the roots can readily be introduced surrounding 
the jars. 

Provision is also made for the introduction of an intermediate 
adaptor shown in the lower right-hand corner of the diagram, which 
permits air to be bubbled through the nutrient solution in the jars 
without escaping into the chamber above, the plants being supported in 
cork stoppers in the usual manner. Arrangement is made so that one 
large plant may be introduced into the chamber through a central open- 
ing, or four smaller plants symmetrically arranged and located opposite 



NO. 13 FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION BRACKETT AND JOHNSTON 7 

the reflecting walls as indicated by the diagram in the lower half of 
the top view. This arrangement provides that the central plant will 
be symmetrically illuminated from four sides, and where four smaller 
plants are used the distribution of radiation will not only be identical 
for the different individuals but practically balanced so far as lateral 
illumination is concerned. 

In this plan the overhead opening is particularly convenient for 
the standard incandescent lamp. A suitable support which provides 
for the raising and lowering of the lamp and reflector is shown in 
the diagram. The lateral spaces, being long and narrow, lend them- 
selves better to the discharge tube type of source. Where radiation in 
the regions of the ultra-violet is desired the use of ultra-violet trans- 
mitting windows presents such disadvantages, not only as to expense 
but also as to loss of radiant energy, that provision has been made to 
avoid them. In this case reflectors have been constructed which can 
be bolted on in place of the lateral windows, making the entire enclo- 
sure approximately a square with slightly rounded corners. In this 
case the ultra-violet sources of radiation are introduced through holes 
in the top, the only walls interposed being the transparent walls of the 
discharge tube itself and such cooling jackets as are required. 

These special monel reflectors are shown on the right-hand side of 
the diagram, the ordinary window arrangement being shown on the 
left. In the latter case ordinary plate glass mirrors are inserted to 
form the corner. Of course, in actual practice all four windows are 
identically equipped, the diagram merely being a composite for con- 
venience of illustration. 

CENTRAL CONTROL SYSTEM 

The central circulating system which has been developed for temp- 
erature and humidity control is shown in Figure 3. For convenience 
only one of the chambers is included. The location of the humidity- 
control tank has been changed in order to permit a clearer diagram of 
connections. The scale however is unchanged. A water-circulatmg 
system provides for identical wall temperature of the four chambers. 
From the lower central control tank thermostated to a temperature T\ 
the water is pumped to the upper air temperature-control tank and 
thence downward to each of the four chambers, returning to the 
lower tank. Humidity control is secured by a similar recirculation of 
air. It is pumped through a copper spiral in the upper temperature- 
control tank T, thence through a central manifold into the various 
chambers. It emerges near the loottom of the tank through an air-flow 



8 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. ^J 



meter, thence to a long spiral coil in the humidity-control tank at 
temperature T-. Excess humidity produced by the transpiration of 
the plants condenses in this coil and may be removed from the con- 




FiG. 3. — Detailed diagram of control systems. 

densation bulb by a stopcock. As it passes through the spiral in the 
humidity-control tank the air is driven by a fan through the spiral 
in the upper control tank, where it is brought back to temperature TS 
and so returned by means of the manifold to the chambers. The 
proper humidity is of course maintained by suitable adjustment of 



NO. 13 FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION BRACKETT AND JOHNSTON 9 

temperature T' relative to T\ Such new air as is required is bled into 
the circulating system from a compressed-air supply line. 

Since the water which is circulated into the walls determines the 
temperature of the air in the upper control tank, both water and air 
enter the tanks at the same temperature, T\ As the four chambers 
may be illuminated by different intensities of radiation, the air may 
experience a different rising temperature in each chamber. In order 
to overcome this difficulty the water which is passed through the 
upper filter and also the lower plate, can be adjusted differently for 
the different chambers. The flow is adjusted and the temperature of 
the discharge observed as shown by the indicators in the lower left- 
hand corner. Since the upper filter and the lower plate are the surfaces 
which receive most of the overhead illumination this arrangement 
yields a very satisfactory control over the rise in temperature. As 
this compensating cooling is required only while the lights are on, a 
solenoid valve (No. 2) has been provided, which is connected to the 
lighting circuit so that the water is allowed to flow only when the 
lights are on. With the lights off, the side walls are still maintained 
at the same temperature by the main recirculation system. This insures 
that during periods of darkness the four chambers have the same 
temperature. 

GENERAL 

The chief advantage of the apparatus which has been described is 
that a satisfactory degree of control has been secured without loss of 
flexibility. It is readily adapted to all types of artificial light sources. 
Plants may be exposed to overhead or lateral illumination at will. Half 
of the entire solid angle may be utilized for illumination. Humidity can 
be controlled over a wide range. The temperature of three-fourths 
of the walls is controlled by water circulation. Gas concentration may 
be varied, as the entire enclosure can be hermetically sealed ; the pres- 
sure of the gas phase may even be modified. Observations of growth 
and color may be readily made through convenient ports. Finally the 
apparatus lends itself readily to measurement of gas phase concentra- 
tion, temperature, humidity, and light intensity. Measurements of 
carbon dioxide assimilation in connection with these various observa- 
tions may be made under the influence of different spectral distribu- 
tions, but at present this type of investigation is being carried out 
only in tubular glass growth chambers with young wheat plants. 

In planning the apparatus the following types of experiments have 
been contemplated: i, investigations of the effect of the infra-red; 



lO 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 



2, comparative observations of visible radiation limited on the short 
wave-length side to different portions of the spectrum with a view to 
detecting the effects on photochemical reactions which differ as to 
threshold ; 3, observations of the effects of monochromatic light in 
the visible and ultra-violet, first alone and second supplementary to 
other illumination. 



I 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 13. PI. 1 




GENERAL VIEW OF PLANT GROWTH CHAMBERS AND EQUIPMENT FOR 
CONTROL OF EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 14 



THE FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION IN THE 
PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS 

II. SOME EFFECTS OF NEAR INFRA-RED RADIATION 

ON PLANTS 



(With Four Plates) ^.,-rr^HUW I .^is]777/'7?>s. 



y^^ 



NOV 15 1932 



BY 

EARL S. JOHNSTON " 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Sniitlisonian Institution 




(Publication 3180) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

NOVEMBER 15, 1932 




SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 14 



THE FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION IN THE 
PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS 

II. SOME EFFECTS OF NEAR INFRA-RED RADIATION 

ON PLANTS 

(With Four Plates) 



BY 
EARL S. JOHNSTON 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3180) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

NOVEMBER 15, 1932 



Zf)c jSorJ) (gaitimovc (prcee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



I 



THE FUNCTIONS OF RADIATION IN THE PHYSIOLOGY 

OF PLANTS 

II. SOME EFFECTS OF NEAR INFRA-RED RADIATION ON PLANTS 

By earl S. JOHNSTON 
Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 

(With Four Plates) 

Experimental results bearing on the influence of near infra-red 
radiation on plant growth and coloration are presented and discussed 
in this paper. Plants were grown under two different radiation dis- 
tributions of equal visual intensity, one limited entirely to visible 
radiation, the other including a large amount of energy in the near 
infra-red. These preliminary experiments are a part of the program 
being undertaken by the Smithsonian Institution bearing upon the 
functions of radiation in various plant processes. A description of 
the special equipment (see pi. i) that has been developed for the 
study of the effects of radiation upon plants grown under controlled 
conditions has been given in another publication (5).^ 

CULTURAL METHODS 

The tomato plant was selected for these experiments because con- 
siderable work (12, 13, 14) had already been done with it in water 
culture and many of its growth characteristics are known. Further- 
more, it has been used as an indicator plant (10) for determining the 
deficiency of certain fertilizer elements in the soil, and it responds 
very quickly to unfavorable atmospheric conditions. Because of its 
quick response to slight environmental changes its behavior is an 
excellent criterion of those conditions. 

Tomato seeds of the Marglobe variety were germinated between 
layers of moist filter paper in a covered glass dish at a temperature 
of 25° C. When the roots had grown to a length of 2 to 10 mm 
the young plants were transferred to a germination net. This net 
was made by stretching two pieces of paraffined cotton fly-netting 
over a circular glass dish 19 cm in diameter by 10 cm deep. The 



^ Numbers in parentheses refer to the list of Hterature cited, found at the end 
of this paper. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 14 



2 SMITHSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

two pieces of netting were separated by a piece of glass rod 0.5 cm 
thick, bent to fit inside the dish. As the roots grew through the 
mesh the two layers served to hold the plants in an upright position. 
Flowing tap water was passed through the dish in a manner to 
keep the upper layer of netting afloat. The plants were illuminated 
by a 200-watt Mazda lamp placed 30 cm above the netting. Lateral 
light was cut off by surrounding the germination net and plants with 
black cardboard tacked to a light wooden frame. This frame was 
raised above the table level and was large enough to provide ample 
air circulation around the plants. When the seedlings were approxi- 
mately 3 cm in length they were transferred to the culture solutions. 
Each culture consisted of a single plant supported by means of cotton 
in a small hole in a paraffined flat cork stopper which fitted into a 
2-quart Mason jar containing the nutrient solution. Four of these 
jars were then screwed to the under side of the bottom plate of each 
growth chamber ; the young plants extended through the holes into 
the chamber. 

The nutrient solution was made up of the following salts with 
the corresponding partial volume-molecular concentrations : 

Ca (N03)2 0.005 

Mg SO4 0.002 

K H2PO4 0.002 

Mil SO4 0.0000178 

H3BO3 0.00005 

The approximate calculated concentrations of the nutrient ions in this 
solution expressed as parts per million and milliequivalents are : 

Ppm. Millicciuivalents " 

Ca 200 10. 

Mg 49 4-0 

K 78 2.0 

NO3 620 10. 

SO4 194 4.0 

POi 190 6.0 

Mn I 0.0364 

B 0.55 0.15 

° Calculations based on milliequivalent per liter ;= — x ppm. 

at. wt. 

To this nutrient solution was added humic acid ^ containing 2.4 mg 
iron per cc at the rate of 0.5 cc per liter of nutrient solution. The 



^ The humic acid used in these experiments was supplied by Dr. Dean Burk 
of the Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory, United States Department of 
Agriculture. 



NO. 14 EFFECTS OF INFRA-RED OX PLANTS — JOHNSTON 3 

method of making this iron compound has been described and dis- 
cussed by Burk, Lineweaver, and Horner (6). This compound 
promises to be a very useful source of iron for nutrient sokition ex- 
periments. UnHke most of the other iron compounds used in this 
type of work, the sokition contains very httle if any precipitate, 
even at high pH vakies. Hence it is not necessary to add this form 
of iron every day or two during the early stages of growth as must 
be done with ferric tartrate and some other iron compounds. One 
application of iron humate is sufficient to keep the plants green 
under good growing conditions for at least two weeks. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

In the experiments herein described, only the overhead illumination 
was used. The light period for each 24 hours extended from 9 a. m. 
to 12 midnight. This period of illumination (15 hours) falls within 
the optimum range for tomato plants. Two wave-length ranges for 
two different light intensities were used. One wave-length range in- 
cluded all radiation transmitted by a water cell 1.5 cm thick with 
pyrex cover glasses, and the other was further limited by a heat- 
absorbing filter. Two chambers of each pair had the same visual 
intensity. It is realized, of course, that the radiant energy required 
in plant reactions is not exactly limited to the visible region, nor 
is it at all likely that their requirements are at all proportional to the 
visibility. It would be preferable to compare the effect of radiation 
in the range absorbed by chlorophyll with radiation including the 
near infra-red as well. Practical considerations make it necessary to 
use a heat-absorbing fdter which cuts off not sharply at the limit of 
chlorophyll absorption, but gradually from 6,000 to 8,000 A. The 
method to be described for equalizing the visual intensities is simply 
a convenient means of attaining approximate equality of intensities 
in the visible range common to both types of radiation. 

The light intensities were equalized at the beginning of the ex- 
periment by means of a Weston photronic cell provided with a special 
heat-absorbing filter (Corning heat-resisting, heat-absorbing, dark 
shade filter 2.82 mm thick). At the conclusion of the experiment of 
two weeks' duration the light intensities gave the values indicated 
in Table i. This combination yielded a sensitivity curve shown as a 
continuous line in Figure i. Sensitivity is plotted as ordinates in arbi- 
trary units with 100 as maximum against wave lengths in Angstrom 
units. The visibility curve shown as the dash line is included in this 
figure for the sake of comparison. 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

The two distributions of energy, adjusted for equality for visible 
radiation measured as indicated, are shown in Figure 2. In order to 
determine the distribution of energy in the chambers with and with- 
out the heat-absorbing filters, a curve of relative emission per unit 
wave length of radiation for a tungsten filament at the absolute tem- 
perature of 2,980° K. was constructed. This tungsten radiation curve 
was then corrected for energy absorbed by the pyrex filters and 
1.5 cm of water. Another curve was obtained by further correcting 
for energy absorbed by the heat-resisting, heat-absorbing light shade 
filter (8 mm thick) and 1.5 cm of water. From each of these two 
distribution curves corresponding response curves were drawn by 



Table i 
Light sources and iutcnsittcs 



Chamber 


Mazda lamp 
(watts) 


Glass " of water 
filter 


Illumination measured by Weston 
photronic cell with filter * 




Microamps 


Estimate of 
foot-candles 


I 
2 
3 
4 


500 

500 

1500 

1000 


p and p 
h and p 
h and p 
p and p 


100 

106 
580 
580 


339 

359 

1966 

1966 



" p, pyrex; h, Corning heat-resisting, heat-absorbing, light shade filter, 8 mm thick. 
* For these measurements a circular piece of Corning heat-resisting, heat-absorbing, dark 
shade filter, 2.82 mm thick was placed over the Weston photronic cell. 

applying the factors obtained from the sensitivity curve of the 
photronic cell with its special heat-absorbing filter. The ratio of 
the areas under the two response curves then gave a factor which 
was applied to one of the distribution curves in order to adjust 
their relative values so as to yield equality of total response, that is, 
equality of visible radiation as determined by the photronic cell with 
its filter. These two adjusted curves are the ones presented in 
Figure 2. A comparison of the areas of these curves shows that the 
total energy applied to the plants receiving no near infra-red radia- 
tion was 22 per cent of that applied to the plants receiving radiation 
including the near infra-red. 

Thermometers were hung in the chambers in such a manner that 
their bulbs were shaded from the direct rays of the lamps but were 



NO. 14 EFFECTS OF INFRA-RED ON PLANTS — JOHNSTON 




3000 



4000 



5000 



6000 



7000 



8000 



Fig. I. — Sensitivity curve (continuous line) of a photronic cell provided witli 
a special filter, and the visibility curve (dash line). 




Fig. 2. — -Curves showing the two types of energy distribution adjusted for 
equality of " visible " radiation as measured by the photronic cell with its special 
filter. 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

freely exposed to the air. Temperatures were usually read three 
times each day. During the light periods the temperatures were 
approximately 3.5° C. higher than during the dark periods. The 
average temperatures are shown in Table 2. 

In this experiment no measurement was made of the rate at 
which air was recirculated through the chambers. Fresh air was 
injected into the system at the rate of 15 liters per minute. It 
should be emphasized that a sufficient rate of air movement in plant 
growth chambers is very essential. It is true, as has been discussed 
by Wallace (20), that some plants have been grown for several 
months in glass containers hermetically sealed. Few plants, how- 
ever, are suited to such an existence and then only when there is a 
proper balance of mineral and gaseous elements, temperature, and 
light in their microcosm. In two previous experiments air was 



Table 2 
Average air temperatures in the plant groiuth chambers 



Growth chamber 


I 2 


3 


4 


Light period 

Dark period 


24.4 
20.9 


24. 5 
20.8 


25.3 
20.8 


25-9 
20.8 



recirculated very slowly. Under these conditions the plants were very 
soon affected with oedema. Numerous frosty-white intumescences 
appeared on the midribs, petioles and stems. The leaves soon became 
twisted and contorted and finally gave the plant a wilted appearance 
as illustrated in Plate 2. Atkinson (4), Orton and McKinney (11), 
and others have described this disease as due to excess humidity, 
poor lighting, and overheating. With a low rate of air flow in the 
growth chambers the conditions are ideal for producing this disease. 
Further experimentation show-ed that with an air flow of 40 liters 
per minute per chamber all symptoms of oedema were entirely 
eliminated. 

Marglobe tomato seeds were placed in the germinator on April 21, 
1932, and the sprouted seeds removed to the germination net on 
April 26. Eight days later the young plants whose average height 
was 2.5 cm were set out in the culture jars and placed in the four 
growth chambers, four to a chamber. For comparison two groups 



NO. 14 EFFECTS OF INFRA-RED ON PLANTS— JOHNSTON 7 

of four plants each were grown under uncontrolled conditions in 
natural light, one group placed in a west window of a room in the 
Smithsonian tower, the other standing in the north window of the 
basement laboratory. At the end of two weeks the plants were photo- 



Table 3 
Plant data at harvest, expressed as averages per plant 



Radiation 



Intensity 



Low 



Distribution" V and I 



Plant group. 



Dry weight (mg) 

Tops 126 

Roots i M 

Total j 140 

Water absorbed (cc) 45 



Stem height (cm) 

Final 

Increase 



20.2 
17.2 



Number of leaves. . 
Order of greenness. 



Water requirement 320 



„ ■ root ^ 

Ratio wt. 

top 



16 

3 

19 



6.8 
4-4 

4-3 

I 



High 



Daylight 



Vandl 



810 



426 

40 

466 

88 



t8.o 
15-6 

-..8 



West 
window 



Ratio 



Internodal index 
stem ht. 
no. of leaves 



Ratio 



Stem elongation 

(final ht. 

original ht.) 



4.0 



6.7 



1.6 



2.8 



igg 

31 
230 

93 



12.7 
9.9 

5.8 

3 



162 

30 

192 



North 
window 



40: 



7.8 

5-4 

5-4 
4 



16 

3 

19 

18 



5.6 
3-5 

3-5 

2 



0.09 



3-1 



7-5 



4.5 



444 
0. 18 

1.3 

3.^ 



956 
o.i; 

1-4 



" V and I, visible and near infra-red radiation; V visible radiation. 

graphed and measured. The plant data obtained from these measure- 
ments are presented in Table 3. 

In an examination of the data of this table it should be remembered 
that the visible intensities in chambers i and 2 were approximately 
the same. Likewise those of 3 and 4 were alike. However, in the 
latter pair the light was much more intense. In chambers 2 and 3 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

the infra-red was removed. A comparison of the dry weights shows 
the greatest growth to have occurred in chamber 4 and the least in 
chamber 2. In a subsecjuent experiment, similar to this one except 
that the temperatures were higher, the same order of growth, as 
measured by dry weight, existed between the four chambers. That 
is, in order of plant dry weight the series in this and a subsequent 
experiment was 4, 3, i, 2 (high visible plus infra-red, high visible 
only, low visible plus infra-red. low visible only). It is also rather 
interesting to note that the growth of plants in chamber 2 (low 
visible) was very similar to that in the north window of the laboratory. 
Also there was a good deal of similarity between the plants in cham- 
ber 3 (high visible) and those grown in the west window of the tower. 

A greater amount of water was absorbed by the plants exposed to 
the greater light intensities — those in chambers 3 and 4. It should 
also be noted that in chambers i and 4, where the proportion of red 
and infra-red was greater, the plants elongated much faster than 
those in chambers 2 and 3. Although there was little difference found 
in the average number of leaves of plants in the four chambers, 
there is an indication that more leaves were produced in the more 
intense light. 

Attention is directed to the order of greenness of the plants grown 
under these six conditions of illumination. Those grown in chambers 
2 and 3, which received only visible radiation, and in the north window 
were greener than the others. The lower leaves of the plants in 
chamber 4, where the radiation was more intense and included infra- 
red, had turned yellow. Those in chamber i, while not as yellow as 
those in 4, were far from a healthy green color. 

In the lower part of the table several derived values are tabulated. 
Water requirement is here considered as the amount of water ab- 
sorbed by the plant during the two wrecks of growth per unit of 
total dry matter. Plants in chambers i and 4, where infra-red radia- 
tion was present, were more economical in their use of water than 
the others. The ratios of root to top dry weights indicate that some- 
what heavier roots in proportion to tops occur without infra-red. 

The internodal index was determined by dividing the height of the 
plant by the number of its leaves. It gives a relative index of the 
length of internodes. This index as well as the ratio of final to 
original height of the plants shows that much less elongation occurs 
without infra-red. 

Plate 3 shows the general appearance of the six groups of plants 
after two weeks of growth under the conditions of light mentioned 



NO. 



14 EFFECTS OF INFRA-RED ON PLANTS— JOHNSTON 



in this paper. With the exception of set i all the individuals of the 
various groups are very uniform, with but slight variations. For 
better comparison a representative culture from each group was 
selected and photographed. These are presented in Plate 4- 

DISCUSSION 

Growth of plants under different wave lengths of light has re- 
ceived considerable attention at the hands of plant investigators. 
Much of this earlier work has been reviewed by Teodoresco (18, 19), 
who has done very valuable work along this line. He investigated 
two main spectral regions (the blue-violet and the red-orange) by 
means of colored solutions and glass filters. Because of the general 
conclusion of many previous investigators and his own experience 
that infra-red has no appreciable effect in addition to heatmg. he 
did not think it necessary to use water screens between his light 
sources and the plants. However, in measuring his light intensities 
a screen of water and copper acetate was used to eliminate the effect 
of the infra-red upon his measurements. His general conclusions 
from experiments with a large number of land plants, many of which 
were duplicated with both glass and solution filters, are: that in 
the longer wave lengths, internodes were elongated and more numer- 
ous areas of leaves reduced, the leaves themselves were thinner, 
and a general abnormal configuration resulted. In the shorter wave 
lengths growth in length was retarded, leaf area increased as well as 
leaf thickness. The general appearance of the plants was normal, 
resembling those grown in white light. In many respects the plants 
grown in the red-orange region resembled plants grown in darkness 
except for their green color. As Teodoresco points out, plants grown 
in darkness became etiolated without chlorophyll assimilation, so that 
growth ceases. In red light, however, the plants grow for a longer time 
than in darkness, due to the production of food by photosynthesis. 
In view of the fact that different color filters usually transmit dif- 
ferent amounts of infra-red light, the existence of an effect of radia- 
tion in the near infra-red would necessarily qualify the conclusions 
to be drawn from such experiments. Consequently, the results ot 
the present investigation raise serious doubts as to the validity of 
this type of experiment, unless it is definitely shown that the different 
filters transmit the near infra-red in the same degree. 

Funke (7), working mainly with aquatic plants, studied the effects 
of three general spectral regions, red, green, blue, and subdued white 
light Any ultra-violet or infra-red passing through his filters was 



10 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

neglected. The intensities behind these filters were approximately 
25 per cent of the energy of diffused daylight. For many species 
the light intensity was insufficient. Results were obtained for plants 
in which photosynthesis was greater than respiration. The anatomy 
and behavior of plants in the blue light resembled those in full 
daylight. Those in red were " etiolated as in darkness (except of 
course that chlorophyll is formed). In green, phenomena are either 
the same as those in red or development is reduced to a minimum ; 
the latter is undoubtedly due to a total absence of assimilation of 
carbonic acid. In gray, development now resembles that in blue, now 
that in red, depending on the needed quantity of blue rays being 
small or great." 

Arthur, Guthrie, and Newell (3) have carried out a great many 
experiments on the growth of plants under artificial conditions and 
find the tomato the most sensitive to high light intensity in com- 
bination with a long day period of illumination. In three series they 
used respectively 5, 7, 12, 17, 19, and 24 hours of illumination daily, 
with an intensity of 450, 800, and 1,200 foot-candles. The air tem- 
perature of the first and second series was maintained at 78° F. 
and the third at 68° F. Their results show that the tomato will not 
withstand a 24-hour day of illumination at intensities which cause 
little or no injury to other plants. Even 19- and 17-hour days are 
injurious at the higher intensities. In the greenhouse experiments, 
where the plants were exposed to 12 hours daylight and 12 hours 
artificial light, the plants were injured. However, the rate of de- 
velopment of this injury was decreased by this combination of day- 
light and artificial light. The injury was characterized by the leaves 
becoming faintly mottled with necrotic areas appearing along the 
veins. The plants also had yellow leaves. The first signs of injury 
appeared in five to seven days. 

In commenting on the illumination used these authors state : 

The energy value in the constant-light room calculated at 0.3 gram calory 
per square centimeter per minute amounts to approximately 12,960 gram calories 
per month of 30 days. The total for the month of solar and sky radiation as 
published by the New York Observatory for June, 1929, was approximately 
11.903 gram calories. The two energy values are similar but, as already pointed 
out, the spectral distribution is in no way comparable. The glass-water filter 
in the constant-light room absorbs practically all radiation of wave-length longer 
than 1,400 niM so that the total energy value of 12,960 gram calories includes 
only the visible region and the near infra-red of wave-length shorter than 
1,400 m/x. 



NO. 14 EFFECTS OF INFRA-RED ON PLANTS — JOHNSTON II 

The experiments described in the present paper set forth the gen- 
eral growth characteristics of tomato plants grown under two ranges 
of wave lengths for two different intensities. One group of plants 
was exposed to light, a large proportion of whose energy was in the 
red and near infra-red region, the other exposed to light limited 
to the visible wave length region. Thus, an attempt is here made to 
separate any near infra-red effects from those brought about by 
other wave lengths. 

The growth of these tomato plants as measured by their total dry 
weights clearly shows that the plants receiving infra-red radiation 
were considerably heavier, with less difference occurring in the 
stronger light. It is conceivable that if the illumination were further 
increased the plants receiving no infra-red would surpass in weight 
those receiving these longer wave lengths. Such an increase in 
illumination would undoubtedly have been beneficial since Arthur (2) 
found that where light of the same composition as sunlight was re- 
duced to 35 per cent of full sunlight tomato plants thrived best. 
Assuming 10,000 foot-candles as a value for full sunlight, then an 
illumination of 3,500 foot-candles would be the optimum illumination 
for tomatoes. In these experiments the higher estimated intensity was 
1,966 foot-candles, approximately half their optimum intensity. 

The general form of the plants grown under the near infra-red 
radiation was somewhat characteristic of plants grown under shade 
conditions in that the internodes were long. However, the leaves 
were not small as might be expected for shade conditions. The 
water requirement was also lower than that of the plants receiving 
only visible radiation. This point is rather interesting because shading 
is usually considered an environmental factor increasing the water 
requirement of plants. Thus, some general growth habits of the plants 
exposed to the near infra-red radiation are common to plants grown 
under shade conditions and others to those grown under normal 
light conditions. 

Although the dry weight production was greater for plants ex- 
posed to the infra-red radiation, these plants were distinctly less 
green than those receiving only the visible wave lengths. In the 
higher intensity of the infra-red the lower leaves were rather yellow. 
This evident destruction of chlorophyll in the near infra-red region 
is extremely interesting. Although considerable work has been done 
on growing plants in different colored lights, many of the early re- 
sults are questionable because of inadequate light filters and a lack 
of suitable measuring devices for evaluating the intensity factors. 
In recent years many of these difficulties have been overcome. 



12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

Light within certain wave length and intensity Hmits is generally 
considered essential to chlorophyll formation, although it is true that 
certain pine seedlings and a few algae become green in darkness. 
As early as 1874 Wiesner (21) found that chlorophyll was formed 
in plants when illuminated by light passed through solutions of 
potassium bichromate and copper sulphate. These filters divided the 
visible spectrum into two parts. He also showed that no greening 
occurred in the nonluminous heat rays. 

Sayre (15) studied the development of chlorophyll in seedlings of 
several varieties of plants by growing them under Corning glass ray 
filters and noting the relative greenness as compared with seedlings 
grown in full daylight. No greening was observed in wave lengths 
longer than 6,800 A. In the visible spectrum he found that for ap- 
proximately equal energy values the red wave lengths were more 
effective for the development of chlorophyll than the green and the 
green more effective than the blue. The effectiveness apparently in- 
creased with increasing wave length up to 6,800 A, where it ended 
abruptly. 

Shirley (16) working with several types of plants grown in the 
spectral greenhouses at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant 
Research found an increase in chlorophyll concentration with de- 
creasing intensity to a point so low as to hazard the health of the 
plant. At approximately 10 per cent of full sunlight intensity the 
chlorophyll content was practically the same for wave lengths 3,890- 
7,200, 3,740-5,850 and 4,720-7,200 A. 

Plants grown at high altitudes were found by Henrici (9) to con- 
tain less chlorophyll than similar ones grown at lower altitudes. As 
noted by Spoehr (17) "this is presumably due to the greater 
intensity of light at higher altitudes. However, whether the lower 
chlorophyll-content of plants grown under high illumination intensity 
can be directly ascribed to the destructive action of such light (espe- 
cially the red-yellow rays) on chlorophyll, does not seem entirely 
established." 

Tomato plants grown under ordinary greenhouse conditions and 
then placed under continuous artificial illumination were found by 
Guthrie (8) to show a marked decrease in their chlorophyll content in 
a few days. The leaves turned yellow and later showed necrotic areas. 
By analysis the chlorophyll decrease was greater on the dry-weight 
than the fresh-weight basis, due to a very large increase in carbo- 
hydrates. It is interesting to note that this author found a consistent 
lowering of the chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio. Both a and b de- 
creased under the effect of the light, but a decreased faster. 



NO. 14 EFFECTS OF INFRA-RED ON PLANTS JOHNSTON I3 

If radiation within certain wave length and intensity limits is 
necessary for the formation of chlorophyll and if, as appears probable, 
other radiation limits are destructive either directly or indirectly, 
then the amount of chlorophyll present in a leaf at a given time is 
the resultant of these two processes of production and destruction. 
According to Sayre, as noted above, the effectiveness of the wave 
lengths apparently increases up to 6,800 A., where it ends abruptly. 
In earlier experiments it appears that no distinction was made be- 
tween the near and far infra-red, so that definite conclusions cannot 
be drawn. From the present experiments it would appear that the 
near infra-red has a decided destructive action on chlorophyll, even 
great enough to surpass its rate of formation in the presence of wave- 
lengths shorter than 6,800 A. It should be remembered, however, 
that these tentative conclusions are based on the appearance of the 
leaves. Before definite conclusions can be drawn the experiments 
should be repeated and chlorophyll determinations made. 

From the experiments of Arthur (i) on the production of pigment 
in apples it appears that the near infra-red radiation alone or in the 
presence of visible light has a marked detrimental effect on apples. 
Under these rays a typical wrinkled, necrotic area soon develops. In 
his work with tomato plants Arthur found that injury occurred with 
the use of continuous illumination even as low as 150 foot-candles. 
The fact that the rate of injury was greatly decreased where half 
sunlight and half artificial light was used emphasizes the necessity 
for a more thorough investigation of light sources whose distribu- 
tions differ from that obtained with the Mazda lamp. 

One point should not be lost sight of, namely, that in the region of 
the strongest chlorophyll absorption bands the plants grown in the 
distribution including the infra-red receive some three times greater 
intensity of radiation. This very likely in large measure accounts for 
the greater increase in dry weight exhibited by the plants grown 
under this distribution. It is furthermore likely that the higher 
internal temperatures produced by the more penetrating near infra- 
red would account to some extent for other differences exhibited. 
In a future experiment it is hoped to compare two distributions 
in which the radiation in this region is approximately equalized. For 
this purpose it will be necessary to secure heat-absorbing filters which 
cut off at longer wave lengths. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The tomato plants that received both visible and excessive near 
infra-red radiation under the artificial conditions of these experiments 



14 SMITHSONIAN^ MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

showed some general growth habits common to both normal and 
shade-grown plants. The internodes were larger, the leaves larger, 
and the water requirement less than in plants grown under the 
visible radiation alone. 

A marked decrease in chlorophyll occurred in the leaves of the 
tomato plants grown under the full visible and infra-red range of 
wave lengths. A distinct yellowing and death was noted in extreme 
cases. It appears that, if not actually destructive, this infra-red region 
of the spectrum is of little or no benefit to chlorophyll formation. 

It would appear that normal growth of the tomato plant can be 
obtained under artificial light conditions where the infra-red is cut 
off and the intensity great enough. 

From a review of the literature and from the results obtained in 
these experiments with the tomato plant it appears that the near 
infra-red region of the spectrum is of considerable biological 
importance. 

Furthermore, experiments comparing the effects of different por- 
tions of the visible region must be scrutinized for the possible 
presence of different amounts of near infra-red. 

LITERATURE CITED 

(1) Arthur, John M. 

1932. Red pigment production in apples by means of artificial light 
sources. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst., vol. 4, pp. 1-18. 

(2) Arthur, John" M. 

1932. Some effects of visible and invisible radiation. (Abstract) Torreya, 
vol. 32, pp. 107-108. 

(3) Arthur, John M. ; Guthrie, John D. ; and Newell, John M. 

1930. Some effects of artificial climates on the growth and chemical 

composition of plants. Amer. Journ. Bot., vol. 17, pp. 416-482. 

(4) Atkinson, Geo. F. 

1893. Oedema of the tomato. Cornell Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 53, 
pp. 101-128. 

(5) Brackett, F. S., and Johnston, Earl S. 

1932. The functions of radiation in the physiology of plants. I. General 
methods and apparatus. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 87, no. 13, 
pp. I-IO, I pi. 

(6) BuRK, Dean; Lineweaver, Hans; and Horner, C. Kenneth. 

1932. Iron in relation to the stimulation of growth by humic acid. Soil 
Sci., vol. 33, pp. 413-452. 

(7) Funke, G. L. 

1931. On the influence of light of different wave-lengths on the growth 

of plants. Recueil des travaux bot. Neerlandais., vol. 28, pp. 

431-485- 

(8) Guthrie, John D. 

1929. Effect of environmental conditions on the chlorophyll pigments. 
Amer. Journ. Bot., vol. 16, pp. 716-746. 



NO. 14 EFFECTS OF INFRA-RED ON PLANTS — JOHNSTON I5 

(9) Henrici, Marguerite. 

1918. Chlorophyllgehalt unci Kohlensaureassiniilation bei Alpen- und 
Ebenenpflanzen. Verh. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, vol. 30, pp. 
43-136. 

(10) Meyer, L. 

1929. Die Tomate, ein empfindlicher und schneller Indikator fiir Phos- 
phorsauremangel des Bodens. Fortschr. Landwirtsch., vol. 4, 
pp. 684-693. 

(11) Orton, C. R., and McKinney, W. H., Jr. 

1918. Notes on some tomato diseases. Ann. Rep. Pennsylvania Agric. 
Exp. Sta. 1915-16, pp. 285-291. 

(12) Johnston, Earl S., and Hoagland, D. R. 

1929. Minimum potassium level required by tomato plants grown in 
water cultures. Soil Sci., vol. 27, pp. 89-106. 

(13) Johnston, Earl S., and Dore, W. H. 

1929. The influence of boron on the chemical composition and growth 

of the tomato plant. Plant Physiol., vol. 4, pp. 31-62. 

(14) Johnston, Earl S., and Fisher, Paul L. 

1930. The essential nature of boron to the growth and fruiting of the 

tomato. Plant Physiol., vol. 5, pp. 387-392. 

(15) Sayre, J. D. 

1928. The development of chlorophyll in seedlings in different ranges 

of wave lengths of light. Plant Physiol., vol. 3, pp. ^\-^^. 

(16) Shirley, Hardy L. 

1929. The influence of light intensity and light quality upon the growth 

of plants. Amer. Journ. Bot., vol. 16, pp. 354-390. 

(17) Spoehr, H. a. 

1926. Photosynthesis. The Chemical Catalog Co., Inc., New York. 

(18) Teodoresco, E. C. 

1899. Influence des diverscs radiations lumineses sur la forme et la 
structure des plantes. Ann. Sci. Nat. Botanique 8^ ser., vol. 10, 
pp. 141-162. 

(19) Teodoresco, E. C. 

1929. Observations sur la croissance des plantes aux lumieres de di- 
verses longueurs d'onde. Ann. Sci. Nat. Botanique 10"" sen, 
vol. II, pp. 201-336. 

(20) Waixace, R. H. 

1928. Long time experiments with plants in closed containers. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club, vol. 55, pp. 305-314- 

(21) Wiesner, J. 

1874. Untersuchungen iiber die Beziehungen des Lichtes zum Chlo- 
rophyll. Sitzungsber. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss., vol. 69, pp. 327-385. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 14, PL. 1 




GENERAL VIEW OF PUANT GROWTH CHAMBERS AND EQUIPMENT FOR 
GENERAL VIE ^^^^ ^^ ^^p^^, ^, ENTAU CONDITIONS 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 14, PL. 2 




APPEARANCE OF TOMATO PLANT AFFECTED WiTH OEDEMA BROUGH" 

ABOUT BY Poor ventilation 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 14, PL. 3 





^3ip|r 






5 6 

Appearance of the Six Groups of Tomato Plants After 
Weeks of Growth 

Low light intensity: 

X'isible plus near infra-red i 

X'isible only -2 

Ili^;h light intensity; 

\ isihle plus near infra-red 4 

Visible only 3 

Natural illiiniiiiation : 

In west window of tower 5 

In north window of laboratory 6 




I 
u 
< 

llJ 


(T 

IL 



u 



ir 
u 


h 
< 



H 



r-> 



I 




SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER IS 



,i 



rif^'''" 



S^i.Af* j.VJ," 



IRoeblino jfunb novh 1932 

AN IMPROVED 

WATER-FLOW PYRHELIOMETER AND THE 

STANDARD SCALE OF SOLAR 

RADIATION 

(With One Plate) 

BY 

C. G. ABBOT and L. B. ALDRICH 

Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3182) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

NOVEMBER 11, 1932 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER IS 



IRoeblino jfunb 



AN IMPROVED 

WATER-FLOW PYRHELIOMETER AND THE 

STANDARD SCALE OF SOLAR 

RADIATION 

(With One Plate) 



BY 

C. G. ABBOT and L. B. ALDRIGH 

Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3182) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

NOVEMBER 11, 1932 



^^4 £orv) (^afttmou (prcee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 15. PL. 1 







1. Water-flow pyrheliumeter No. 5 
disassembled. 



2. Water-flow pyrhelionieter No. 5 
assembled. 





3. L. B. Aldrich reading silver-disk pyrheliometer S.I. 51. is as mounted with 
water-flow pyrheliometer Xo. 5 lor comparison. 



AN IMPROVED WATER-FLOW PYRHELIOMETER AND 
THE STANDARD SCALE OF SOLAR RADIATION 

By C. G. ABBOT and L. B. ALDRICH, 

Smithsonian Institution 

(With One Plate) 

In 1927, V. M. Shulgin ' suggested an improvement of the water- 
flow standard pyrheliometer." He pointed out, and our experience 
abundantly confirms it, that fluctuations of the rate of flow and of the 
temperature of the water lead to irregular drift and wiggle of the 
galvanometer record in the use of such an instrument, for instance, 
as water-flow pyrheliometer No. 3. These irregularities make up a 
principal part of the total error in using the instrument as described 
by us in Volumes 3 and 4 of the Annals of the Astrophysical Observa- 
tory. Shulgin's improvement consists in duplicating the instrument 
so as to have two chambers instead of one. He divides the current 
of water nearly equally between them. Solar radiation is introduced 
in one chamber, and compensating electrical energy in the other. Thus 
a null method is substituted for the deflection method, and the ir- 
regularities of the water current are eliminated as a source of error 
because they affect both chambers equally and simultaneously. 

We wholly approved of Shulgin's principle but felt that a more 
favorable mechanical and electrical expression than his could be given 
to it. Accordingly, by the skill of A. Kramer, mechanician, we du- 
plicated last winter the water-flow pyrheliometer No. 3, described 
at page 52 of Volume 3 of the Annals. We combined the two chambers 
thus made available to form a new standard water-flow pyrheliometer 
No. 5. In combining the two instruments, in order to control sur- 
rounding conditions, we added a common enclosing metallic case whose 
hollow walls were bathed by a separate current of tap water. We also 
arranged a common entrance pipe for the distilled water used in the 
measurements. This entering water stream was protected by a closely 
surrounding Dewar vacuum enclosure and was well stirred by a baffle 
circulatory system. To determine the equality of temperatures of the 

' Monthly Weather Rev., August, 1927. 

" See description of this instrument, Ann. Astrophys. Obs., Smithsonian Inst., 
vol. 3, p. 52, 1913. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 8/, No. 15 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

water streams outflowing from the two chambers we employed eight 
thermoelectric junctions of nickel-platinum connected in series with 
their elements passing alternately from one stream to the other. .Short 
glass outflow tubes pierced to admit these thermoelectric elements were 
skilfully made by L. B. Clark of this Institution. These delicate parts 
of the apparatus were enclosed completely by an air-tight box made 
of cellophane and wax. Thus air currents could not directly affect the 
thermoelectric system. Plate i, Figures i, 2, 3, show the instrument 
in various stages of completion as thus constructed and used. The 
electric heating coils are wound on the rear surfaces of the receiving 
cones at the extreme rear of the absorption chambers. In water-flow 
pyrheliometer Xo. 3 we wound heating coils not only in that position, 
but also on the front edges of the cone. We found in our use of that 
instrument that coils in these two positions give equal results ; hence 
we felt justified in omitting the edge coils in water-flow pyrheliometer 
No. 5. 

With the cooperation of Doctor Siiring, Messrs. Abbot and Martens 
compared at Potsdam in October, 1931, silver-disk pyrheliometers 
S.I.5bis and S.I. 12. The latter instrument has been for about 20 years 
in the possession of the Meteorological Observatory at Potsdam. The 
constant of S.I.5bis, 0.3715, as used last October, was determined by 
Messrs. Abbot and Hoover in August, 193 1, by 24 comparisons with 
A.P.O.Sbis bis- We have used the latter instrument since 1912 solely 
for standardizations at Washington. Using this constant, 0.3715, read- 
ings of pyrheliometer S.I. 12 were found to satisfy within 0.3 per 
cent the identical constant found for it in 1912. In order to carry 
through a direct comparison with S.I. 12 in use at Potsdam, we 
employed at Mount Wilson in June, 1932, silver-disk pyrheliometer 
S.I.5bis as the comparison instrument, together with our improved 
water-flow pyrheliometer No. 5. For convenience of observing, the 
latter was supported in a fork carried by an equatorial telescope 
mounting, and pyrheliometer S.I. 5b is was so attached that its tube 
for admission of solar rays was exactly parallel to the two tubes of 
No. 5. In this way the observer of S.I.5bis kept No. 5 as well as 
S.I.5'bis continually pointing at the sun during comparisons. Times of 
reading of the silver disk pyrheliometer were governed by a sounder 
beating seconds. Observers C. G. Abbot and L. B. Aldrich inter- 
changed duties in reading the pyrheliometers. No difference in result 
was noted. 

Water currents of approximately 45 cubic centimeters per minute 
in each branch of pyrheliometer No. 5 were found to give good re- 
sults, but different rates of flow were tried at various times without 



XO. 15 IMPROVED PYRHELIOMETER ABBOT AND ALDRICH 3 

affecting the results of the comparisons of pyrheHometers. There was 
a deflection of about 9 centimeters on the scale of the moving coil 
galvanometer when sun rays were allowed to enter one chamber of 
pyrheliometer No. 5 without electric compensation. No wiggle as great 
at o.or centimeter was ever detected during observations. Accidental 
fluctuations were therefore less than i/iooo part of the deflections. 
Slow drift of a millimeter or two during a run of half an hour some- 
times occurred, but was eliminated by alternating the chambers ex- 
posed to solar and electric heating. In short, water-flow pyrheliometer 
Xo. 5 behaved far better than we had expected and indeed so perfectly 
that we can not conceive of its improvement. 

In the use of it, we at first regarded as the zero of the galvanometer 
that position on the scale which was assumed when no outside energy 
of sun or electricity was entering either chamber. There was then 
considerable inequality in the results from the two chambers. Later 
we perceived the advantage of using as galvanometer zero^ the position 
assumed when solar rays were shining fully into both chambers simul- 
taneously. Using this zero, the results from the two chambers were 
then very nearly equal, usually within i per cent. But no difference in 
the mean result of the comparisons with S.I.5bis was discerned, which- 
ever zero was employed. 

In using the water-flow pyrheliometer No. 5, we found that an ex- 
posure of two minutes before interchanging chambers was ample. It 
is clear that a certain time must be allowed to elapse before interchang- 
ing, for the electric heating is applied where the water current is 
about to issue from the chambers. A small part of the solar heating, 
on the other hand, is absorbed near the front orifices of the chambers. 
From that location the current of water must flow several meters 
through its spiral channel within the hollow walls of the chambers 
before emergence. Hence the full effect of electric heating reaches 
the thermoelectric junctions quicker than can the full effect of solar 
heating. It is therefore necessary to wait until both sources of heating 
can exert their full effects before making a balance. We assured our- 
selves that two minutes was ample time for this by trying much 
longer exposures and finding thus no change of the results of com- 
parisons of pyrheliometers. 

The accuracy of the results with water-flow pyrheliometer No. 5 
does not depend on any measurements of the rate of flow or of the 
temperature of the water .^ It depends on the measurement of the 



^ The question of temperature concerns us only in reducing the electric energy 
in joules to its equivalent in calories. We use the factor 4.185 to reduce to 15° 
calories. 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

areas of the solar apertures, on the adjustment of the heating current 
to reproduce exactly the observed zero reading of the galvanometer, 
and on an exact determination of the electric heating current required. 
The solar apertures were turned truly circular and equal, and a plug 
exactly fitting them was made. This plug was inserted from time to 
time during observations to surely clear the aperture of dust particles. 
It was measured at numerous diameters with two different Browne & 
Sharpe micrometers. The mean value was 2,312 centimeters. The 
computed area of the aperture was thus found to be 4.198 square 
centimeters. Two milliammeters in series were used to measure the 
currents. One of them was a more satisfactory instrument than the 
other, and its results were used exclusively in the final computations. 
The others dift'ered from them only very slightly. These electric in- 
struments were calibrated several times during the measurements 
against new Weston standard cells. It is believed that the errors of 
individual current measurements did not exceed o.i per cent, so that 
the errors of individual energy measurements, due to inaccuracy in 
reading the current values, did not exceed 0.2 per cent. In the mean of 
many observations given below this error would be sensibly eliminated. 

We computed the loss of solar radiation by reflection through the 
entrance of the receiving chamber and made a plus correction of o.i 
per cent for the imperfect " blackness " due to it. 

In our earlier days of observing in June, 1932, the sky was very 
exceptionally clear at Mount Wilson. Observed values of radiation 
reached 1.53 calories according to silver-disk pyrheliometer S.I.5bis 
notwithstanding that the earth was then in aphelion, and besides, the 
temperature being high, the atmospheric humidity was considerable. 
At that time we used the water-flow pyrheliometer No. 5 with exactly 
the same sky exposure as that described for No. 3 in Volume 3 of 
the Annals, which had an angular aperture as viewed from the limit- 
ing diaphragm of about 16°. The silver-disk pyrheliometer S.I.5bis, 
on the other hand, was of our modern improved type, exposing only 
5° 48' angular diameter as viewed from the silver disk, or 0.0013 
hemispheres. Fearing that the June measurements of the two instru- 
ments would not be quite comparable, despite the exceptional clearness 
of the sky, we subsequently erected a double highly reflecting screen 
in front of pyrheliometer No. 5 designed so as to give it exactly the 
same sky exposure as S.I.5bis- We repeated the comparison on July 8 
with these arrangements but obtained almost exactly the same results 
as before. 

The following table includes all the comparative observations of 
pyrheliometer S.I.5bis and water-flow pyrheliometer No. 5, except a 



NO. 15 IMPROVED PYRHELIOMETER ABBOT AND ALDRICH 







SUMMARY 






Date 
1932 


Time 


Calories 

by 

water-flow 


Corrected 

reading 

of 


Constant 
of 


Deviation 
from 






No. 5 


S-I-Sbu 


S-I-Sbis 


mean 


June 26 


loNl" 


I .461 


3-950 


0.3699 


+ 74 




17 


I .460 


4-007 


-3644 


+ 19 




23 


1.467 


4-031 


-3639 


+ 14 




295 


1-465 


4.008 


•3655 


+30 




38 


1.469 


4.049 


.3628 


+ 3 




42 


.1.472 


4 059 


-3626 


+ I 




48 


1.464 


4.084 


-3586 


-39 




II 22 


1.470 


4 033 


• 3645 


+20 




26 


I 485 


4.064 


-3654 


+29 




30 


1-473 


4.058 


•3630 


+ 5 




35 


1-485 


4.058 


•3659 


+34 




40 


1.488 


4- 1 17 (?) 


.3614 (?) 


— II 




I 44 


1 .460 


4.021 


■3631 


+ 6 




47 


I 450 


4.046 


-3584 


-39 




53 


1-453 


4.023 


.3612 


-13 




57 


1-452 


4 053 


■3583 


-42 




2 II 


I -451 


4.021 


3609 


-16 




22 


1-447 


3 965 


3649 


+24 




25 


1-455 


3-961 


■3673 


+48 




31 


1-438 


3-986 


.3608 


-17 




34 


.1-438 


4 035 
Mean, 21 values 


■3564 
.3628 


-61 


June 27 


9 50 


1-495 


4. lOI 


-3645 


+20 




54 


1-507 


4-133 


-3646 


+21 




1005 


1-497 


4.168 


-3592 


-33 




10 


1.498 


4.178 


-3585 


-40 




52 


1.502 


4.140 


-3628 


+ 3 




57 


1.508 


4.148 


-3635 


+ 10 




II 04 


1.502 


4.164 


-3607 


-18 




08 


I 505 


4.164 


-3614 


-II 




32 


1-523 


4.190 


-3635 


+ 10 




37 


1.520 


4. 211 


.3610 


-15 




43 


1-530 


4.216 


.3629 


+ 4 




48 


1-530 


4-215 
Mean, 12 values 


-3630 
.3621 


+ 5 


July 8 


10 14 


1 .411 


3.866 


■3650 


+25 




23 


1 .402 


3.890 


-3604 


— 21 




36 


1.390 


3-852 


.3609 


-16 




44 


1 .406 


3-885 
Mean, 4 values 


-3619 
.3621 


- 6 



Mean of 37 observations (3 days) 0.3625 

Average deviation, 0.00217 

Probable error, 0.00030, or 0.08 per cent 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 



few preliminary ones of June 24, at which time the silver-disk pyr- 
heliometer measurements were affected by a timing error. From these 
comparisons the constant of pyrheliometer S.I.5bis results as 0.3625. 
Many comparisons were made at Washington in Avigust, 1931, 
and in September, 1932, between silver-disk pyrheliometers S.I.5bis 
and A.P.O.Sbis bis- The latter instrument has been used for many 
years to standardize silver-disk instruments sent abroad. The former 
was furnished with 1 2-1/2 inch vestibule and the other changes made 
upon it in August, 1931. The comparisons just referred to resulted 
as follows : 



Date 



Aug. 8, 1931. 
Aug. 17, 193 1 
Sept., 1932. . 




Ratio 



S-I-Sbh 



-'^•PO-8bis bis 



I . 0206 
I .0177 
I .0170 
I .0182 



According to these results and to the observations made with Stand- 
ard No. 5, the constant of A.P.O.Sbis bis could now be taken as 0.3691. 
We have hitherto adopted 0.3786. A change of — 2.5 per cent is 
indicated. 

Is this difference to be regarded as due to error in the experiments 
with our water-flow and water-stir pyrheliometers No. 3 and No. 4 
with which we established the Smithsonian scale of 1913? First of 
all we recall that in the use of these instruments at Washington and 
Mount Wilson their sky exposure, reaching an angular diameter of 
about 16°, is to be contrasted with the sky exposure to only 10° 38' 
in the original silver-disk instruments. More than twice as much sky 
area was observed by the standard instruments as by the silver-disk pyr- 
heliometers in 191 3. This may have made several tenths of a per cent 
too high a scale value in the work of 191 3. 

In the second place, the calibration of the platinum resistance 
thermometers used in standard pyrheliometers No. 3 and No. 4 in- 
volved the whole technique of exact mercury thermometry. Those 
who have had occasion to use mercury thermometers for exact work 
will know what was involved in the determinations of temperatures, 
as given in Tables 10 and 19 of Volume 3 of the Annals, and that 
appreciable inaccuracy there may have been possible. Indeed, the 
irregularity of run of the numbers in the latter part of Table 10 seems 
to throw some doubt on the sufficient accuracy of the coefficients of 
temperature change determined. 



NO. 15 IMPROVED PYRHELIOMETER ABBOT AND ALDRICH / 

In the third place, we pointed out, as Shulgin has done also, that 
irregularities of flow of the water current in the use of standard 
pyrheliometer No. 3 caused galvanometer drift and wiggle, and 
difficulty in deciding as to the true deflections due to solar heating. 
Personal equation might well enter in such a case, and there may have 
been a tendency to read the deflections too large. 

As compared with all these complex and numerous sources of error 
in the older standard pyrheliometer, the extreme simplicity and perfect 
operation of standard pyrheliometer No. 5 must strongly incline us 
to attribute very much greater weight to its results. 

In the fourth place, we have altered the silver-disk pyrheliometer 
vestibules in recent years to expose only to an angular diameter of 
5° 48'. In making this change of vestibules of A.P.O.Sbis on Decem- 
ber I, 1927, it IS possible that some slight structural modification of 
the pyrheliometer occurred. We did, indeed, make careful compari- 
sons of A.P.O.Sbis with silver-disk instrument S.I. 5 before and after 
the change. These comparisons resulted as follows : 



Date 



Number 

of 

comparisons 



Ratio 



S.I.5 



A.P.O.8. 



Ratio 



S.I.s 



A.P.O.8. 



Apr. 15, 191 1 
Dec. 20, 1912 . 
Oct. 14, 1921 . 
Mar. 6, 1922. 
Oct. 10, 1927. 
Oct. 22, 1927. 
Nov. I, 1927. 
Dec. I, 1927 . 
Dec. 27, 1927 . 
Feb. 27, 1928 . 



18 
12 
20 
8 
20 
20 



0389 
0281 

0339 
0291 

0457 
0305 
0395 



1 .0328 
1.0311 
I .0422 



Allowing for the almost unavoidable irregularities of such compari- 
sons over so long a time, due to sky conditions, personal equation, 
and watch eccentricity, there is nothing here to indicate any change 
of constant of A.P.O.Sbis with respect to S.I.5. The latter instrument 
had not been changed at all during all this time. The weighted mean 
values are as follows : 



Date 


No. of 
values 


Weighted 
mean ratio 


I91I-I922 


57 
48 

24 


I .0310 
I . 0368 
I 0354 


Mar.-Nov., 1927 


Dec, 1927-Feb., 1928 





8 SMITHSONIAX MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

Pyrheliometer S.I. 5 after these experiments was altered early in 
August, 193 1, as explained on a preceding page and called S.I.5bis- 

Other comparisons support the view that pyrheliometer A. P.O. 
8bis bis still gives fairly the standard scale of 1913. Thus the com- 
parisons referred to on a preceding page made in Potsdam in October 
1931 on exceptionally clear days indicate through S.I.Sbis and A. P.O. 
8bis bis for S.I. 12 the constant 0.3624. The original calibration made 
in September 1912 resulted 0.3631. Again a long series of compari- 
sons between A.P.O.Sbis and S.I.i from 191 1 to 1920 indicate even 
greater constancy than the set of comparisons with S.I.5 just quoted. 

On the whole, therefore, we are forced to conclude that the standard 
scale of radiation as indicated by water-flow pyrheliometer No. 5 
lies 2.5 per cent below the Smithsonian scale of 191 3. The great sim- 
plicity and freedom from accidental error in the measurements of 
standard No. 5 warrants very high weight for its results compared 
to those obtained from pyrheliometers No. 3 and No. 4. In confirma- 
tion it may be added that a long series of unpublished measurements 
made by Messrs. Abbot and Aldrich with No. 3 at Mount Wilson in 
the year 1920 also tended to give results below the scale of 1913. We 
hope, however, to make additional experiments on this question next 
summer. 

In our solar-constant values hereafter to be published, we regard 
comparability with preceding ones as more important than absolute 
scale. Hence we shall not introduce our new scale into such future 
publications. We may remark, however, that if applied to our mean 
value, 1.940 calories per square centimeter per minute, for the solar 
constant of radiation, it would become as corrected 1.893. ^^^^ have 
admitted, however, our belief that a contrary small correction of un- 
determined magnitude should be applied to allow for extreme ultra- 
violet rays not observed, some of which cannot enter the atmosphere 
through the ozone layer. 

In his publication " Ein neues Pyrheliometer f iir Absolutmes- 
sungen," C. Tingwaldt gives a preliminary result obtained by experi- 
ments at Davos. This indicates a plus correction of 1.9 per cent to the 
Angstrom scale, and according tO' Tingwaldt indicates a minus correc- 
tion of 1.8 per cent to the Smithsonian scale of 1913. Our own correc- 
tion is in that direction, but of greater magnitude. We hope that fur- 
ther experiments on very clear days may be made by Tingwaldt and his 
colleagues, in which silver-disk pyrheliometer S.I. 12 will be the com- 
parison instrument. We shall then be in a position to evaluate very 
closely the difference, if any, between our new water-flow pyrheliometer 
No. 5 and the absolute pyrheliometer used by Tingw^aldt. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 16 



/ 



I ; JAN 17 193; 

IRoeblino dFunb \^fr,cE i<m«i 



CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION IN 
A HIGHER PLANT 

(With Two Plates) 



BY 

W. H. HOOVER, EARL S. JOHNSTON, AND F. S. BRACKETT 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 




[Publication 3186) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

JANUARY 16, 1933 



'^>^ 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 16 



IRoeblino jFunb 



CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION IN 
A HIGHER PLANT 



(With Two Plates) 



BY 



W. H. HOOVER, EARL S. JOHNSTON, AND F. S. BRACKETT 
Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3186) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

JANUARY 16, 1933 



BALTIMORE, MD., U. 8. A. 



IRoeblino fxm^ 

CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION IN A HIGHER PLANT 

By W. H. hoover, EARL S. JOHNSTON, and F. S. BRACKETT, 
Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 

(With Two Plates) 

INTRODUCTION 

Carbon dioxide assimilation of young wheat plants grown under 
controlled environmental conditions has been determined for a wide 
range of radiation intensities and carbon dioxide concentrations. 
Special growth chamber and control equipment have been developed 
for determinations using the entire plant. The purpose of this in- 
vestigation is to determine the possibilities and limitations inherent 
in such technique for the investigation of photosynthesis. 

The use of excised leaves common in such investigations, while 
offering the advantage of more ready isolation and control, and lend- 
ing itself to better radiation distribution, raises many questions regard- 
ing the possible influence of accumulated end products and abnormal 
growth conditions. Work with algae has many advantages, chief among 
them being (i) avoidance of shielding, (2) the maintenance of defi- 
nite temperature through immediate contact with water (owing to 
the high heat capacity of water, the actual temperature of the algae 
structure cannot differ perceptibly from the observed temperature of 
the surroundings), (3) because of their small size, unicellular algae 
offer the possibility of greater simplification and wider latitude in 
methods of illumination. Disadvantages common to the algae work 
however are (i) problems of dift'usion of gas through the nutrient 
solution, and (2) the difficulties of obtaining suitable buffer solutions 
which can maintain algae continuously in a healthy condition over a 
long period. A great deal of work in this field has been done in such 
solutions that algae can exist only for a few hours. This again raises 
questions as to the influence of physiological factors upon the reactions. 
These difficulties common to most of the earlier work have been to a 
considerable extent overcome by Van den Honert.^ Our observations 



^ Van den Honert, T. H., Carbon dioxide assimilation and limiting factors. 
Rec. trav. hot. neerl., vol. 27, pp. 149-286, 1930. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 16 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

offer an interesting basis for the comparison of photosynthesis in 
higher plants with his observations on algae. A discussion of this 
comparison will be taken up in connection with our experimental data. 

GROWTH CHAMBER AND CONTROL EQUIPMENT 

The problem of controlling the various factors affecting the rate 
of photosynthesis is somewhat simplified by construction of a growth 
chamber designed for tall slender plants such as wheat, which can be 




Fig. I. — Diagram of plant growth chamber (G) with auxiliary control systems. 

confined in a narrow tubular space. The simple form of the apparatus 
depends to some extent on the fact that the plants are grown in nutrient 
solution. A general view of the apparatus is shown in Plate i. 

Figure i is a diagrammatic drawing of the growth chamber and the 
necessary auxiliary apparatus for controlling the air-carbon dioxide 
supply, temperature, and humidity. The light intensity was controlled 
by the number, size, and distance of the incandescent lights placed 
symmetrically around the growth chamber. 

The growth chamber, G, consists of a double-walled glass tube about 
90 cm long and 2.6 cm inside diameter with the inner tube extending 
about 5 cm below the seal with the outer tube. The inside diameter of 



NO. l6 CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION HOOVER ET AL. 3 

the neck of the flask, N, which holds the nutrient solution, is some- 
what greater than the diameter of the inner tube of the growth chamber. 
The two are connected by a rubber annulus, S. The plants are sup- 
ported by inserting them through small holes in a paraffined cork 
stopper which fits into the lower end of the growth chamber. The 
cork, in addition to supporting the plants, separates the flask of 
solution containing the roots from the space occupied by the tops of 
the plants. The roots are aerated by passing air through a tube sealed 
in the side of the flask and extending to the bottom, the air escaping 
through a side tube near the toj) of the flask. Air for the plant stems 
and leaves is admitted through a glass tube entering the growth 
chamber just above the stopper. 

The supply of air containing any desired concentration of carbon 
dioxide is derived from a 50-gallon galvanized iron tank, R. Air 
in this tank under a pressure of 75' pounds per square inch is sufficient 
for the plants for a period of 14 to 16 hours. An electric heater is 
placed on the bottom of the tank to insure rapid mixing of the air 
and carbon dioxide. 

The rate of flow of the air is regulated by means of the flowmeter, 
M, reducing valve, V, and capillary tube. The capillary tube is 
inserted in the air line between the reducing valve and the flowmeter 
to produce a back pressure, as the reducing valve does not regulate 
well unless the back pressure is 8 pounds per square inch or more. 
This precaution insures that a sufficient quantity of air is delivered to 
the flowmeter for all pressures in the tank between 10 and 75 pounds 
per square inch. The flowmeter used is designed to maintain a constant 
I)ressure difl:'erence between the intake and the discharge, for small 
changes of pressure on the discharge side. To prevent leakage of car- 
bon dioxide the entire air system is made of glass, with the exception 
of the recirculating air pump, F, and three short rubber connections. 
The rubber connections are coated with paraffin. To test for a possible 
leakage of carbon dioxide the entire apparatus was assembled, without 
plants, and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air measured 
before and after passing through the apparatus. No change in the 
concentration was detected. 

A two-way stopcock is placed in the air line at i, one branch leading 
directly to the carbon dioxide measuring apparatus for determining 
the original concentration of carbon dioxide, and the other leading 
to the growth chamber. During a determination of the original con- 
centration, air is supplied to the plants through stopcock 2. 

The flowmeter is adjusted to give 600 cc of air per minute. Under 
extreme conditions the plants absorbed as much as one half the avail- 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

able carl)on dioxide. It is necessary, therefore, to recirculate the air 
in order to reduce the change in concentration of carbon dioxide along 
the plants. The air is recirculated by pump F, the direction of cir- 
culation, as indicated l)y the arrows, being down the double-walled 
tube, C, through the coil in I, and up through the growth chamber. 
Air enters the circulating system at a and is discharged at b for 
analysis. Pump F delivers about 21 liters of air per minute. Thus 
the effective cpiantity of air passing over the plants is increased by 
a factor of 35. If we assume the air entering at a contains .04 per 
cent carbon dioxide and the air discharged at b .02 per cent, the differ- 
ence between the two or .02 per cent represents the amount absorbed 
by the plants. If the air is not recirculated the change in concentra- 
tion of carbon dioxide along the plants amounts to 50 per cent. Since 
the effective flow has been increased by a factor of 35, the actual 
change in carbon dioxide concentration along the plants is 
.02-^35, or .00057 P^r cent of the total gas supply. Then if .02 per 
cent represents the concentration of the discharged air, .02057 per 
cent represents the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air entering 
the growth chamber. This amounts to a change in concentration along 
the plants of 2.77 per cent of the initial concentration. This repre- 
sents about the maximum change in the course of the experiment. 

Temperature control.- — Water is recirculated through the space be- 
tween the walls of tube G by a small propeller in the inner tube of P, 
through the cylinder, I, and the small bottle containing the thermostat, 
Ti. A continuous stream of water flows past the electric heater, Hi, 
and through the space between the walls of P. A resistance in series 
with the heater is adjusted to give about the desired temperature and 
the final regulation obtained by the thermostat, Ti, which changes 
the resistance in series with the heater. There is some lag in this 
method of controlling the temperature, but thermometers at the two 
ends of the growth chamber showed differences of only one half of 
a degree or less. 

Humidity. — The tube, C, is maintained at a temperature of about 
3° C. below the tem|)erature of the growth chamber by a continuous 
flow of water past the heater, H2, the tube, C, and past the thermostat, 
To. In order to hold the humidity constant it is necessary to have the 
humidity of the air supply high enough so that the addition of moisture 
due to transpiration will produce saturation at the temperature of 
C ; any excess will be condensed on the walls of tube C. Due to the 
rapid recirculation of air we have air saturated at the temperature 
of C raised to the temperature of the growth chamber in I. From 
these data the relative humidity may be calculated. This calculated 



NO. l6 CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION — HOOVER ET AL. 5 

value is not exactly the humidity in the growth chamber, since mois- 
ture is added by transpiration of the plants and the recirculated air 
is mixed with the air supply at the bottom of tube C. The error, 
however, is small since the temperature of tube C may be raised to 
within half a degree Centigrade of the temperature of G without 
moisture collecting in tube G. 

The roots of the plants are kept at a fairly constant temperature 
by passing the water from tube C through a coil immersed in water 
surrounding the flask of nutrient solution. 

Illumination. — The plants were illuminated by means of eight 500- 
watt Mazda lamps arranged in two planes perpendicular to the axis 
of the growth chamber. The two planes were 30 cm apart, and the 
lights in each plane were equally spaced around the growth chamber. 
The light intensity was varied by varying the distance of the lamps 
from the plants. A thermocouple with a cylindrical receiver, con- 
structed in this laboratory, was used to measure the intensity. In- 
tensity measurements were made by a thermocouple placed within the 
growth chamber. For each position of the lights determinations were 
made at several points along that portion of the tube which was oc- 
cupied by the plants during observation. A mean of these values was 
taken, and these mean values were assumed to be proportional to the 
average intensities on the surface of the leaves. During an experiment 
the thermocouple was kept at a fixed position in the tube in order to 
control the illumination. 

To express the intensity of radiation in watts per cm- the thermo- 
couple was calibrated against a standard radiation lamp yielding a 
calibration factor, 3.56x10'*. Thus, reducing the light intensities 
given in Table 2 to absolute units we get for the maximum and mini- 
mum .0689 and .0058 watt per cm- respectively, or in terms of calories, 
.985 and .083 calorie per cm- per minute. The intensity as determined 
by the thermocouple is not the true intensity at the surface of a single 
leaf, for a single leaf does not receive energy from all the lights. Since 
the lights are equally spaced around the plants a leaf with its surface 
perpendicular to the incident beam from one of the lights would re- 
ceive energy from only one light in each plane. For any other posi- 
tions of the leaf it would receive energy from two lights in each plane, 
but since the radiation impinges on the surface at an angle the 
energy received from the two lights is practically equal to that which 
would be received from one at normal incidence. Thus we may take 
34 of the above values, or .246 and .021 calorie per cm- per minute as 
the approximate limits of the radiation intensity on the surface of 
the leaves. 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

Measurements of the light intensity were also made with a photronic 
cell in order to express the results in foot-candles. The photronic cell, 
with a dark shade heat-absorbing filter, giving a resulting sensitivity 
curve approximating the visibility curve, was calibrated against a 
standard of illumination. Readings of the photronic cell, at any 
particular light intensity, were taken at various vertical positions 
along the growth chamber and at various orientations. A mean of 
these readings is taken as the mean intensity on the leaf surface. In 
order to convert the value given in arbitrary units to value in foot- 
candles, multiply by 4.96. The above limits of intensities expressed in 
foot-candles are 947 and 80, respectively. 

It is interesting to compare the light intensities used in this experi- 
ment with the total solar intensity. The daily values of the total solar 
radiation received on a flat surface, expressed in calories per cm'-, are 
given in the Monthly Weather Reviezv. On cloudless days in Washing- 
ton during May and June the total solar radiation may be as high as 
600 or 700 calories per cm-. On the basis of a lo-hour day we may 
conclude that the average solar intensity for cloudless days during 
these months is approximately one calorie per cm- per minute. The 
intensities used in this ex}>eriment varied from 0.021 to 0.246 calorie 
per cm- per minute. Thus the intensities used varied from 1/48 to ^ 
that of sunlight. 

APPARATUS FOR MEASURING CARBON DIOXIDE 

The apparatus ' for determining the carbon dioxide content of the 
air, shown in Figure 2, is one developed and built at the Fixed Ni- 
trogen Research Laboratory, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, and loaned to us for this work. The principle is to scrub a 
definite volume of the air with a definite volume of potassium hydrox- 
ide solution and to determine the titer of the resulting solution by 
means of its electrical conductivity. 

The flow of the KOH solution (in this case .02 N) from the large 
reservoir, R, is maintained fairly constant by means of the constant 
level device, S, so that the liquid falls from the tip of the capillary 
tube. A, in drops of uniform volume at intervals of about eight sec- 
onds. Each drop falls through the bulb, B, upon the opening, C, 
trapping the air in the tube, CD, and forcing it along to the constric- 
tion in the tube at E. The constriction in the tube is of such size and 
shape as to arrest the drop at this point until displaced by the impact 



^ White, Ernest C, An apparatus for continuous gas analysis. Journ. Amer. 
Chem. Soc, vol. 50, pp. 2148-J154, 1928. 



NO. l6 CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION HOOVER ET AL. 7 

of the next drop at C. The air to l^e analyzed enters through the 
tube, N, and is brought to the temperature of the bath before entering 
the bulb, B, by passing through the coil, O. Since only a small portion 
of the air is used for analysis the excess escapes through the side 




Fig. 2. — Diagram of apparatus for carbon dioxide determination. 



tube, P. After the air and KOH solution have been brought together 
in definite proportion by volume they traverse the coiled tube, F, suf- 
ficiently long to insure practically complete absorption of the carbon 
dioxide. They are separated at the bottom end of the coil, F, w^hich is 
widened at this point to disrupt the liquid film, the liquid flowing into 
the cell, HGK, and the air escaping through the tube. The over- 
flow from the cell passes out through the siphon, L, the outer portion 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

being bent up so that the end, M, is shghtly higher than the electrode, 
H. The cell is a few centimeters of small-bore glass tubing bent up- 
ward at the two ends to prevent bubbles of gas collecting on the 
walls. The electrodes, H and K, are made of platinized platinum. 

As the sensitivity required for this work was greater than that for 
which the apparatus was originally developed it was necessary to 
improve the temperature control and eliminate to a greater degree the 
effects of polarization. For temperature control a special thermostat 
was developed, whose bulb was a cylinder of annular section. This 
has the advantage of securing a maximum of exposed surface with a 
minimum of heat capacity. This thermostat was of the liquid ex- 
pansion type, using carbon tetrachloride as the working material. The 
temperature fluctuation was limited to ±0.005° C. Accurate control 
of the temperature is necessary, since the conductivity of the cell 
changes rapidly with temperature. 

The conductivity of the solution was determined by making the cell 
one arm of a Wheatstone's bridge. To reduce the amount of polariza- 
tion when using direct current on the bridge the direction of the cur- 
rent through the cell was reversed several times a second by a special 
commutator running in oil. There were also contacts on the commu- 
tator to short-circuit the galvanometer during the time of reversal. 
A'ery consistent results were obtained in this manner when the speed 
of the commutator was held constant. 

For obtaining a zero point means were provided to recirculate the 
air inside the apparatus by connecting the exhaust with the intake. 
Thus in a short time the carbon dioxide was completely absorbed from 
the recirculated air and the conductivity cell filled with standard KOH 
solution. 

Since small concentrations of carbon dioxide were used, a calibra- 
tion of the apparatus was determined from the available conductance 
data and a measurement of the volume of air associated with each 
drop of solution. At a pressure of 760 mm and a temperature of 
25° C. the volume of air is 3.125 cc and the volume of each drop is 
.0991 cc. The volume of carbon dioxide under the above conditions, 
necessary to neutralize .0991 cc of .02N KOH, is .02444 cc. Thus 
.02444^3.125 gives .782 per cent, the concentration of carbon dioxide 
in the air necessary to neutralize the KOH solution and fill the cell 
with -JKaCO.,. From the conductance data we find the equivalent 
conductance of .02N KOH and ^KoCOa to be 225 and 109.2 re- 
spectively. The resistance of the cell full of KOH is 26450 ohms, then 
the resistance of the cell full of -IKsCOs is 225/109.2x26450 or 
54513 ohms. For zero concentration of carbon dioxide the conduc- 



NO. l6 CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION HOOVER ET AL. 9 

tance of the cell is given by 1/26450, and for a concentration of .782 
per cent the conductance is 1/545 13. Intermediate concentrations 
will l)e proportional to the change in the reciprocal of the resistance. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

Wheat ' of the Marquis variety was selected for this work. It grows 
well in nutrient solutions, and by the use of such a medium a more 
accurate control of the nutritional phases of the work can be obtained. 
The nutrient solution used and the general cultural methods have been 
described in a previous publication.^ The wheat was germinated be- 
tween layers of moist filter paper in a covered glass dish at a tempera- 
ture of 25° C. When the roots had grown to a length of 2 to 4 cm 
the young plants were transferred to a germination net stretched 
over a glass dish through which tap water flowed. The plants were 
illuminated by a 200-watt Mazda lamp placed 30 cm above the netting. 
When the seedlings were approximately 4 to 5 cm in length, four 
individuals selected for uniformity of size were transferred to the 
growth chamber. The plants were supported by means of cotton in 
the four small holes in a paraffined flat cork stopper which fitted into 
the lower end of the tubular growth chamber. The growth chamber 
was then placed over the Erlenmeyer flask containing the nutrient 
solution and held in place by means of a rubber annulus. 

From the work of Johnston ° with tomato plants grown under 
Mazda lamps it appears that the large proportion of infra-red radia- 
tion found in this type of illumination is somewhat injurious. More 
nearly normal growth and physiological response were obtained where 
heat absorbing filters were used. Nearly normal wheat plants were 
produced when the excessive infra-red radiation from the lamps was 
absorbed by a solution of copper sulphate. This was easily accom- 
plished by using a solution of copper sulphate (1.046 sp. gr.) in place 
of water in the circulating system for controlling the temperature of 
the growth chamber. Plate 2 shows four wheat plants grown in the 
growth chamber for a period of 20 days. 

In the following tables the light intensities are expressed in ar- 
bitrary units, and the carbon dioxide concentrations and assimilation 
rates expressed as changes in the reciprocal of the resistance of the 
conductivity cell. To express the concentration in terms of volume 



' The wheat used in these experiments was obtained through the courtesy of 
H. H. McKinney, Jr., of the United States Department of Agriculture. 

* Johnston, Earl S., The functions of radiation in the physiology of plants. 
II. Some effects of near infra-red radiation on plants. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 
vol. 87, no. 14, pp. 1-15, 1932. 

' Idem. 



lO 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87 



percentage the results should be multiplied by .000041, the calibration 
constant of the instrument. To express the assimilation rate in cubic 
centimeters of carbon dioxide per minute the results should be multi- 
plied by 0.025, i. c, 0.000041 x6oo. 

Two experiments were performed. In the preliminary one certain 
difficulties were encountered which suggested the procedure followed 
in the second experiment. A number of points of interest, however, 



■ 400 


- 










^^ 


-- 




^ 


-- 


1900 










/^^ 




— 


— 




-^ 


1000 


- 






/^ 


^-^^ 










- 


soe 


— 




^ 


^ 








1210 




— 








'f 


^^ 


^—-^ 






__640_ 






600 


- 




r^ 


^^' 








795 




- 






/zy\ 


X ^^ 


--^"^ 














400 


y 




^ 










«75 








^ 
















^ 


^^^"7^ 


— — ^"^ 










320 








1 1 




1 


1 


i_ 




1 





Fig. 3. — Light-assimilation curves from lirst experiment uncorrected for growth. 

Ordinates, carbon dioxide assimilated. Multiply by 0.025 to obtain cubic 

centimeters per minute. 
Abscissas, light intensity. Multiply by 3.56 X 10'* to obtain watts/cm". 

Multiply by 4.Q6 to obtain foot-candles. 
Parameters, carbon dioxide concentrations. Multiply by 0.000041 to 

obtain volume per cent. 



brought out in the first experiment make it worth while to present 
both experiments. 

PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT 

On a given day the plants were supplied with air containing a 
given concentration of carbon dioxide and the rate of photosynthesis 
determined for six light intensities. This procedure was repeated 
on other days for different concentrations of carbon dioxide. The 
results of this series of experiments for several concentrations are 
given numerically in Table i and graphically in Figure 3. 



NO. 



i6 



CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION HOOVER ET AL. 



II 



Table i. Assiinilatioii data from first c.vpcriiiiciit " 

Light intensity variable ; carbon dioxide concentration the parameter ; tem- 
perature 19° C, relative humidity 74 per cent. 













Corrected 


CO2 concentra- 










assimilation 


tion of air 


Light 




Corrected 


Growth 


divided by 


supply 


intensity 


Assimilation 


assimilation 


factor 


growth factor 


882 


19.0 


57 


42 


1. 00 


42 




39.8 


85 


70 


1. 00 


70 




124.7 


164 


149 


1. 00 


149 




195-0 


202 


187 


1. 00 


187 




3114 


206 


191 


1. 00 


191 




375-1 


206 


191 


1. 00 


191 


444 


20.5 


58 


43 


1-25 


34 




41-3 


83 


68 


1-25 


54 




131.1 


118 


103 


1-25 


82 




205-8 


131 


116 


1.25 


93 




323-5 


125 


no 


1-25 


88 




389.2 


125 


no 


1.25 


88 


1308 


19.3 


96 


81 


2.20 


37 




39.2 


175 


160 


2.20 


73 




127.1 


397 


382 


2.20 


174 




199.2 


510 


495 


2.20 


225 




3 12. 1 


508 


493 


2.20 


224 




376.2 


512 


497 


2.20 


226 


1970 


19-5 


102 


87 


2.23 


39 




39-8 


199 


184 


2.23 


85 




126.6 


515 


500 


2.23 


224 




198.6 


702 


687 


2.23 


308 




310.4 


742 


727 


2.23 


326 




371.0 


757 


742 


2.23 


333 


2993 


19-5 


147 


97 


2.41 


40 




39.1 


247 


197 


2.41 


82 




123.0 


653 


603 


2.41 


251 




193.2 


967 


917 


2.41 


380 




302.1 


IIOI 


1051 


2.41 


437 




361.5 


1 165 


1115 


2.41 


463 


4364 


19.9 


145 


95 


2-49 


39 




39-7 


251 


201 


2.49 


81 




126.1 


681 


631 


2.49 


253 




196.7 


1036 


986 


2.49 


396 




306.6 


1205 


1155 


2.49 


463 




366.1 


1256 


1206 


2.49 


483 


5722 


19.1 


151 


lOI 


2.64 


39 




38.3 


260 


210 


2.64 


80 




125-9 


700 


650 


2.64 


248 




196.6 


1089 


1039 


2.64 


397 




307-9 


1278 


1228 


2.64 


468 




368.0 


1371 


1321 


2.64 


504 


1307 


19.0 


130 


IIS 


3.61 


32 




38.1 


235 


220 


3.61 


61 




125.2 


570 


565 


3.61 


156 




195.5 


657 


642 


3.61 


178 




306.2 


671 


656 


3.61 


182 




366.0 


667 


652 


3-61 


180 


" Conversion factors 












Carbon dioxide 


concentrati 


3n. Multiply by 


0.000041 to 


obtain volume 


per cent. 


Light intensity 


Multiply 


by 3.56 X iQ-^ 


to obtain watts/cm-. Multiply by 4.96 to 


obtain foot- 


candles. 










Carbon dioxide 


assimilated. 


Multiply by o. 


025 to obtain 


cubic centime 


ers per minute. 



12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

The data, without correction for growth, are plotted in Figure 3. 
An extrapolation of the curves in this figure indicate a small apparent 
assimilation rate for zero light intensity. This may be explained by 
a leakage of carbon dioxide into the apparatus through the rubber 
tubing which constituted part of the air line in this first experiment. 
This trouble was eliminated in later experiments by making a prac- 
tically all-vitreous air system. 

We had hoped to determine the growth curve of the plants from 
respiration measurements, but the changes in concentration of carbon 
dioxide in the air due to respiration proved to be too small to give 
accurate results. An approximate curve was obtained from the daily 
measurements of leaf lengths. The interpretation of these curves 
will be discussed in connection with the second experiment. 

SFXOND EXPERIMENT 

In this experiment the order of procedure was reversed. The 
light intensity was held constant and the assimilation rate on a given 
day determined for several different carbon dioxide concentrations. 
This was repeated for five other light intensities. The data for this 
series of experiments are given in Table 2 and Figures 7 and 8. 
Thus we obtain immediately curves showing the assimilation rate 
as a function of the carbon dioxide concentration for six light in- 
tensities (fig. 7). The data for Figure 8 are derived from Figure 7. 
The curves in this figure show the assimilation rate as a function 
of the light intensity for several concentrations of carbon dioxide. 

In the second experiment the rubber connections were eliminated 
by construction of a practically all-vitreous system. The growth 
curve for this experiment was determined in a manner somewhat 
similar to that employed by Van den Honert. The assimilation rate 
of the plants was measured under the same conditions, twice each 
day, and a linear growth relation assumed for the intervening time. 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

In order to compare the curves of the first experiment with those 
of the second experiment growth correction must be applied to the 
data of Figure 3. Applying arbitrary growth factors which will bring 
the two sets of curves into harmony after making the zero correction 
for leakage, we obtain Figure 4. These arbitrary growth factors are 
plotted in Figure 5 and are shown by the solid curve. It is interesting 
to compare this curve with the curve for total leaf length indicated 
by the dotted line and those obtained from the respiration measure- 
ments shown by the broken line. It must be borne in mind that the 



Table 2. Asshnilatioii data from second experiment " 

Carbon dioxide concentration variable ; light intensity the parameter ; tem- 
perature 22° C, relative humidity 79 per cent. 



Light 


CO2 




Growth 


Assimilation divided 


intensity 


concentration 


Assimilation 


factor 


by growth factor 


175 


2Q02 


621 


1. 00 


621 




1793 


580 


1.05 


552 




957 


504 


13^ 


382 




745 


433 


1-35 


321 




622 


355 


1.38 


257 




283 


169 


1.40 


121 




7525 


881 


1.42 


621 




7031 


945 


I -5 1 


623 




5i9t 


957 


1-54 


620 




4064 


984 


1.60 


615 




3078 


1009 


1.62 


622 


191 


7826 


1293 


1.85 


699 




4823 


1273 


1.87 


682 




5277 


1313 


1.88 


700 




4371 


1314 


1.89 


697 




7812 


1485 


2.12 


700 




3394 


1493 


2.14 


698 




2425 


1383 


2.16 


640 




1806 


1287 


2.18 


590 




lOIO 


1015 


2.45 


415 




512 


SA9 


2.47 


236 


127 


6390 


II 75 


2.49 


472 




9657 


1358 


2.88 


472 




6977 


1326 


2.90 


457 




5552 


1329 


2.92 


455 




4013 


1328 


2.93 


453 




2772 


1330 


2.93 


452 




7412 


1479 


3-24 


457 




4146 


1497 


3.25 


461 




2102 


1519 


3.26 


465 




981 


948 


3-27 


290 




223 


358 


3-28 


109 




1706 


1370 


3-29 


415 




SCO 


726 


3-30 


220 


80.4 


I04I8 


lOIO 


2-?>2 


304 




9655 


1062 


3-50 


304 




7079 


1057 


3-52 


301 




SI73 


1046 


3-53 


296 




3569 


1077 


3.54 


304 




2505 


1061 


3-55 


299 




10984 


1 123 


370 


304 




2004 


1099 


372 


296 




1506 


1017 


373 


273 




1030 


860 


374 


230 




687 


650 


375 


173 




350 


508 


376 


135 




200 


308 


377 


82 


31-5 


9876 


455 


3-95 


115 




SO94 


460 


3-96 


116 




2558 


450 


3-97 


113 




1267 


439 


3.98 


no 




855 


319 


3-99 


80 




300 


240 


4.00 


60 




150 


161 


4.01 


40 


16.2 


10569 


252 


4.20 


60 




3020 


260 


4.21 


62 




1223 


250 


4.22 


59 




808 


214 


4.23 


50 




400 


148 


4.24 


35 




ISO 


85 


4-25 


20 


Conversion factors : 










Light intensity. 


Multiply by 


3.56 X lo-* to obtain 


watts/cm-. 


Multiply by 4.96 to 



obtain foot-candles. 
Carbon dioxide concentration. Multiply by 0.000041 to obtain 
Carbon dioxide assimilated. Multiply by 0.025 to obtain cubic 

(13) 



volume per cent, 
centimeters per minute. 



14 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 57 




Fig. 4. — Light-assimilation curves from first experiment corrected by arbitrary 

growth factors. 

Ordinates, carbon dioxide assimilated. Multiply by 0.025 to obtain cubic 

centimeters per minute. 
Abscissas, light intensity. Multiply by 3.56 X 10"* to obtain watts/cm'. 

Multiply by 4.96 to obtain foot-candles. 
Parameters, carbon dioxide concentrations. Multiply by 0.000041 to 

obtain volume per cent. 





- 










/ 


- 


3 


- 






_ci— — ^'''^ / 

y^ / 


/ 
/ 
■/ 


/ " ../ 


- 


2 
1 


A 


y^~ - 


1 


y^ 1 

/ 
/ 
/ 
' 

\ 1 1 




1 1 1 1 1 


- 



2 4 C e 10 

Fig. 5. — Growth factors from first experiment. 

Arbitrary factors applied to Figure 3. 

. . . . Factors obtained from leaf measurements. 

Factors obtained from respiration measurements. 

Ordinates, numerical factors. 

Abscissas, duration of experiment in days. 



NO. 



l6 CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION HOOVER ET AL. I5 



respiration measurements involve changes in concentration which 
are small compared to those of assimilation measurements. This 
accounts for the fact that whereas our error of observation is suffi- 
cient to account for the difference between these growth curves, it 
it still small when considered on the scale of the assimilation curves. 
The method of growth correction adopted in the second experiment 
being based upon assimilation under identical conditions has an 
accuracy of the same order as the assimilation measurements them- 
selves. Thus the arbitrary factor involved in the interpretation of 
the first experiment is wholly eliminated in the second. 

The first set of curves are interesting, however, first, because they 
show observations made over a wider range of light intensities, and, 
second, because although made in a completely dift'erent order of 
sequences in time, they are in complete agreement. If any marked 
effects of day and night or age were present, such agreement would 
not be possible even through arbitrary growth correction. 

In order to further compare the results of the first experiment 
with those of the second, curves have been derived from the corrected 
data (fig. 4) showing carbon dioxide assimilation as a function of 
carbon dioxide concentration with light intensities as parameters. 
These are shown in Figure 6. 

Directly from the second experiment we obtain assimilation rate 
as a function of carbon dioxide concentration for six light intensities 
as given in Figure 7. In the main points the two experiments are 
in reasonably good agreement, remembering of course that dift"erent 
plants have been used so that the assimilation values are not directly 
comparable. For the highest light intensity, 191 (fig. 7), we see 
that the assimilation rate is proportional to the carbon dioxide con- 
centration from o to about 850. The maximum rate is not reached 
until the concentration has been increased to about 3,500. A further 
increase in the concentration produces no change in the assimilation 
rate. As the light intensity is decreased the departure from the linear 
relation occurs at a lower and lower carbon dioxide concentration. 
The maximum assimilation rate is less and the maximum is reached 
at a lower carbon dioxide concentration. In Figure 8 we see, for a 
carbon dioxide concentration of 3.500 or more, that the assimilation 
rate is proportional to the light intensity from o to the highest in- 
tensity used. As the concentration is decreased the departure from 
the linear relation occurs at a lower and lower light intensity. For 
small carbon dioxide concentrations a maximum rate of photo- 
synthesis is reached for the light intensities used in this experiment. 
A further increase in intensity produces no change in the assimilation 



i6 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 




Fig. 6. — Carbon dioxide-assimilation curves derived from Figure 4. 

Ordinates, carbon dioxide assimilated. Multiply by 0.025 to obtain cubic 

centimeters per minute. 
Abscissas, carbon dioxide concentration. Multiply by 0.000041 to obtain 

volume per cent. 
Parameters, ligbt intensities. Multiply by 3.56 X 10"* to obtain 

watts/cml Multiply by 4.96 to obtain foot-candles. 



— 




^ 






















19t.O 








■^ 


















/ 




A 


















175.0 












'" 


















^/ 






























r 


























i 


1/ 


+ 








^ + 












127.0 


+ 

























- 


/ / ^ 


/" 






















eo.a 


l^ 
























- / 


;/ 


























- 





























1 
























.6.1 






1 




1 




1 




I 1 


1 




1 


1 





Fig. 7. — Carbon dioxide-assimilation curves from second experiment. 

Ordinates, carbon dioxide assimilated. Multiply by 0.025 to obtain cubic 

centimeters per minute. 
Abscissas, carbon dioxide concentration. Multiply by 0.000041 to obtain 

volume per cent. 
Parameters, light intensities. Multiply by 3.56 X lu"* to obtain 

watts/cm'. Multiply by 4.96 to obtain foot-candles. 



NO. 



l6 CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION HOOVER ET AL, 



17 



rate. It thus appears, for the condition of this experiment, that 
carbon dioxide may be the limiting factor for the high Hght intensities, 
assimilation being proportional to the carbon dioxide concentration 
over a considerable range. For the high carbon dioxide concentrations, 
the light intensity may be the limiting factor, assimilation being 
proportional to the light intensity. There exist well-defined regions 
over which the assimilation seems to depend upon both factors. 




Fig. 8.=— Light-assimilation curves derived from Figure 7. 

Ordinates, carbon dioxide assimilated. Multiply by 0.025 to obtain cubic 

centimeters per minute. 
Abscissas, light intensity. Multiply by 3.56 X 10"^ to obtain watts/cur. 

Alultiply by 4.96 to obtain foot-candles. ' 
Parameters, carbon dioxide concentrations. Multiply by 0.000041 to 

obtain volume per cent. 



Assuming the simplest type of Blackman reaction involving only 
linear segments, some transition range is to be expected, since ideal 
conditions cannot be obtained. Not all the chloroplasts can be main- 
tained in the same light intensity, nor can all the surfaces of the 
leaves be brought in contact with exactly the same concentration of 
carbon dioxide. The fact that the lights are symmetrically placed 
around the plants not only reduces the fluctuation of intensity over 
the surfaces of the leaves, but, owing to the fact that the leaves are 
exposed to radiation from both sides, reduces to a minimum the 



l8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

variations of intensity through the leaf. Rapid recirculation of the 
air insures a small variation in concentration of carbon dioxide over 
the plants. 

In view of these precautions, is it possible to explain the whole 01 
the transition range as being due to variations in the environmental 
conditions? The actual variation of intensity over the surface of the 
leaves, as determined by thermocouple and photronic cell measure- 
ments, may be as much as 10 or 12 per cent from the mean values 
given. The chloroplasts are distributed more or less uniformly 
throughout the entire body of the wheat leaf ; thus, there must be a 
considerable variation in intensity when we consider chloroplasts at 
different distances below the surface of the leaf. In order to get 
some idea of the absorption of the light in a leaf, the transmission 
of a wheat leaf was measured with a photronic cell, a 500-watt lamp 
being used as the source of light. The transmission of the leaf for 
the whole range to which the cell is sensitive was 18 per cent. When 
the radiation from the lamp was filtered through a heat-absorbing 
glass the transmission was reduced to 14 per cent. This is due, of 
course, to the regions of selective absorption. Even with the leaf 
illuminated from both sides it must be concluded that there is a 
large variation in the intensity of radiation at the surfaces of the 
various chloroplasts throughout the leaf. If one assumes that the 
whole transition range may be explained by a variation in light in- 
tensity then the variation in the intensity may be determined from 
Figure 8. For a concentration of carbon dioxide of about 900 we 
see that light is the limiting factor for a very small range. At an 
intensity of 10, carbon dioxide has already become the limiting factor 
for some of the chloroplasts. It is necessary, however, to increase 
the intensity to 200 or more before carbon dioxide is the limiting 
factor for all the chloroplasts. This would indicate that some of the 
chloroplasts were receiving only 5 per cent or less of the effective 
radiation intensity of others. It does not seem likely that the variation 
of intensity is so great. 

Comparing these families of curves obtained from young wheat 
plants with those of Van den Honert obtained from algae one observes 
a close agreement as to general form. Both show well-defined linear 
variations over restricted ranges ; both show transition from one 
linear range to the other in which the two variables affect the photo- 
synthesis. Higher plants show a wider range of transition, as is to 
be expected from the fact that both light intensity and carbon dioxide 
concentration vary over a considerable range for different chloro- 
plasts. Whereas light intensity has been measured with considerable 






NO. l6 CARBON DIOXIDE ASSIMILATION HOOVER ET AL. IQ 

accuracy in absolute terms the lack of accurate data as to leaf area 
and chlorophyl concentration prevents one from attaching particular 
significance to the slope of the linear variation. 

It is evident from this discussion that such an experiment does 
not lend itself to an analysis of the transition range in terms of 
chemical kinetics. The difficulty lies entirely in the nature of the 
organism examined, so that further efforts in the direction of obtain- 
ing more ideal conditions and further analysis of the energy distri- 
bution, absorption characteristics, etc., would seem relatively fruitless. 
It remains possible, however, to make a critical attack upon many 
interesting problems of photosynthesis in cases where one is chiefly 
concerned with the range in which one or the other of the variables 
acts as a limiting factor. The method has the advantage of eliminating 
many of the objectionable factors involved in experiments where 
organisms are placed in abnormal growth conditions. 

CONCLUSIONS . 

A set of families of curves has been obtained showing assimilation 
of carbon dioxide by young wheat plants over a wide range of 
carbon dioxide concentrations and light intensities. Linear variation 
of assimilation with carbon dioxide concentration in the presence of 
excess light has been observed over a limited range. Linear variation 
of carbon dioxide assimilation as a function of light intensity for 
excess carbon dioxide concentration has also been observed over a 
limited range. The transition range between the two regions of limit- 
ing factors is more extensive in higher plants than in algae. This 
may be expected from the lack of homogeneity of light intensity and 
carbon dioxide concentration throughout the leaf. These experiments 
indicate that a wide range of critical experiments upon photosynthesis 
may be carried out with higher plants, using the technique developed, 
so long as one is not particularly concerned with problems such as 
constants of dissociation and others particularly relating to the transi- 
tion range. 



I 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87, NO. 16, PL. 2 




Wheat plants after Jo days (if srowtli 



•:'! 



,1 




SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 17 



IRoeblino jFun^ jan i? 1933 



5S^ 



ABSOLUTE INTENSITIES IN THE VISIBLE 

AND ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTRUM OE 

A QUARTZ MERCURY ARC 



BY 
E. D. McALISTER 

Division of Uadiation and Organisms, Smitlisonian Institution 



r^^S^ 



rm^^ii 



mi 




trt 



'^^^ 



(Publication 3187) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

JANUARY 16, 1933 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 17 



IRoeblino jfunb 



ABSOLUTE INTENSITIES IN THE VISIBLE. 

AND ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTRUM OF 

A QUARTZ MERCURY ARC 



BY 
E. D. McALISTER 

Division of Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 






f'r^. 



/ORBWO/Tj 



(Publication 3187) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

JANUARY 16, 1933 



BALTIMOEE, MD., V. S. A. 



IRoeblino 3fun& 

ABSOLUTE INTENSITIES IN THE VISIBLE AND ULTRA- 
VIOLET SPECTRUM OF A QUARTZ MERCURY ARC 

By E. D. McALISTER, 
Division of. Radiation and Organisms, Smithsonian Institution 

INTRODUCTION 

For some of the biophysical investigations (i)' in progress at the 
laboratory of the Division of Radiation and Organisms of the Smith- 
sonian Institution an absolute measure of the energy in the lines 
of the mercury arc spectrum was needed in greater detail than is 
available in the literature. This has been obtained for a common 
type of commercial arc (Cooper-Hewitt 220 volt D.C. quartz mercury 
arc), and it is believed that these results will be of interest to users 
of this type of mercury lamp. Although this source is not ideal from 
a spectroscopic standpoint the present measurements cover a wide 
spectral range and are accurate enough to show a smooth and regular 
decay in the sharp and diffuse series. Also it is found that the theo- 
retical intensity relation for these triplets is approached by higher 
members of the series. 

A preliminary report of these measurements was presented at a 
meeting of the American Physical Society (2) and the preliminary 
curves — uncorrected for instrumental transmission — were included 
in the Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for 
the year ending June 30, 1931 (p. 133). The transmission of the 
two monochromators used has since been determined and the spectrum 
remapped under steadier operating conditions, so that the data may 
now be presented as absolute measurements of radiant flux. 

Coblentz in his extensive examination of light sources (3) used 
in phototherapy has given data on this type of arc. His data consists 
mainly of filter observations that give in absolute measure the energy 
distribution in the different spectral regions. In a recent paper (4) 
he has given relative intensities of the prominent lines in the ultra- 
violet. Harrison and Forbes (5) and Hulburt (6) show energy 



* Numbers in parentheses refer to the list of literature cited, found at the end 
of this paper. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 17 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

curves of the quartz mercury arc using an effective slit width of 
200 A. and lOO A. at A 4,000 A. respectively. Hulburt supplemented 
his thermopile measurements with photocell observations and obtained 
a smaller effective slit width. ( 10 A. at A 2.500 A., 20 A. at A 
3,000 A.). The present work was done with an effective slit width 
of 2 A. at A 2,300 A. which increased to 12 A. at A 4,000 A. Since 
the present experimental work was completed the text " Lichtelek- 
trische Zellen " by Simon and Suhrmann (7) has been published. 
In it appear energy curves of the mercury arc spectrum obtained by 
Suhrmann which apparently have not been published elsewhere. The 
resolution attained is nearly identical with the writer's, and the 
measurements are given as absolute. The relative intensities agree 
fairly well with the present work, even though the arcs were of 
different type. However, the absolute values disagree by more than 
two orders of magnitude. This will be discussed later. 

EXPERIMENTAL 

These measurements were made on the Cooper-Hewitt 220 volt 
D.C. quartz arc in the spectral region 2,100 A. to 7,000 A. Observa- 
tions were taken on four " vertical " arcs and one " horizontal " arc. 
Two sets of measurements were made: i, the arcs running under 
normal power consumption of 4.5 amperes with 150-volt drop across 
the arc, and 2, a low power consumption of 3.0 amperes and 44 volts. 
Subsequently these will be called " high intensity " and " low in- 
tensity " operating conditions respectively. Radiation from a 20-mm 
length of the arc midway between electrodes was measured with the 
monochromator and thermocouple combination, care being taken that 
no scattered light of any consequence was included. Filter measure- 
ments with a bare (windowless) thermocoui^le were taken of the 
radiation from this 20-mm midsection, as well as the radiation from 
the total arc. These filter observations provide a measure of the 
energy in different spectral regions with which the summation of the 
line intensities can be compared. Also they provide a factor that can 
be used — with no serious error — to reduce the line intensities for the 
midsection of the arc to " total arc " intensities. A bank of storage 
cells was used as a source of current for the low-intensity observa- 
tions. A D.C. motor-generator outfit — regulated with a .synchronous 
motor — was used for the high-intensity work. In both cases the choke 
coil and series resistance furnished by the manufacturer were used 
to steady the arc. 

A single-junction vacuum thermocouple provided with a crystal 
quartz window and of a type described elsewhere (8) was used for 



NO. 17 ULTRA-VIOLET INTENSITIES McALISTER 3 

the monochromator observations. A Leeds and Northrup H.S. 
galvanometer with a curved (circular) scale was used and calibrated 
for current versus deflection in the usual manner. The thermocouple 
galvanometer combination was calibrated in terms of a radiation 
standard furnished by the Bureau of Standards. By using an auxiliary 
windowless thermocouple and a monochromatic beam of light — 
A 4,358 through the monochromator of which the window of the 
vacuum couple transmitted 91.0 per cent — it was determined that 
86 per cent of the radiant energy from the standard of radiation was 
transmitted by the window of the vacuum thermocouple. The thermo- 
couple was provided with a slit o.io mm wide, which is immediately 
in front of the receiver. The receiver is 2.8 mm high. At a distance 
of 2 m from the standard of radiation the flux is 64.2 microwatts per 
cm'. This produced a deflection of 41.5 mm. Hence a deflection of 
i.o mm corresponds to an intensity of 1.33 microwatts per cm^ on 
the receiver. For the bare thermocouple a deflection of i.o mm corre- 
sponds to an intensity of 8.51 microwatts per cm ^ 

For dispersion two Bausch & Lomb quartz monochromators were 
used, both singly and in tandem as a double monochromator. When 
used singly the exit slit of the monochromator was removed and 
replaced by the thermocouple which is provided with a slit. When 
the two were used in tandem the curved exit slit of the first mono- 
chromator served as the entrant slit of the second. This arrangement 
straightens out the image falling on the thermocouple and improves 
the resolution. The two w^ere maintained in permanent alignment 
on a cast-iron table with seats provided for the leveling screws of 
the monochromators. A special sleeve held the collimator of the 
second instrument in proper position with respect to the telescope 
of the first. The use of two instruments greatly reduces the scattered 
light which in an instrument of numerical aperture f4 is to a certain 
extent inevitable. The source to be examined was rigidly attached 
to the cast-iron table so that no change in illumination could occur 
during a series of observations. The length of the entrant slit was 
reduced to 2.75 mm by two knife edges and the arc placed 250 mm 
from it. No condensing lens was used. Since the section of the arc 
exposed was nearly square the illumination produced at the collimator 
lens of the monochromator was square in form and covered about 
one half the area of the aperture. The corners of the square were 
well inside the circle limiting the aperture, the illumination being 
observed by placing the eye at the exit slit with an intervening screen 
to reduce the intensity. In measuring the absolute intensities of 
isolated spectral lines a single monochromator with a o.io-mm slit 



4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

was used. To obtain the greater resolution required for close groups 
and reduce the effect of scattered light the double monochromator 
set-up was used with a 0.05-mm slit. 

The transmission of the monochromators for the wave lengths used 
was obtained with the aid of a photronic cell provided with a quartz 
window. This was used instead of a thermocouple because its charac- 
teristics render it relatively insensitive to a change in position behind 
the monochromator. For a constant amount of incident energy the 
cell's response is practically independent of the area exposed. One of 
the vertical arcs operating at high intensity was used for this cali- 
bration. It was placed 250 mm from the slit so as to give an illumina- 
tion identical with that used in the intensity measurements. Another 
photronic cell connected to a microammeter was placed so as to 
receive total radiation from the arc. This microammeter, which 
indicated the output of the arc, and a voltmeter and ammeter measur- 
ing the input were mounted near the galvanometer scale so that the 
observer could glance at them before taking a reading. For both the 
transmission measurements and the intensity measurements galvanom- 
eter readings were taken only when this photronic cell indicated 
the same output from the arc. The intensity of 19 of the stronger 
lines was observed at the exit slit of one monochromator. Then the 
second instrument was placed in tandem and readings taken on the 
same lines. The ratio of the latter reading to the former for a 
particular wave length is the transmission of the second mono- 
chromator for that wave length. The positions of the instruments 
were then reversed and the process repeated. The transmissions so 
obtained were plotted and smooth curves drawn. Points taken from 
the smooth curve for the instrument used in the intensity measure- 
ments are included in Tal)le i. The transmission of one instrument 
differed by less than i per cent (/". c, 46 per cent compared with 
47 per cent) from that of the other and was consistently higher. 
The transmission of either machine with the field illuminated as 
stated was several (2 to 4) per cent higher than that given by the 
manufacturer. This difference is probably due entirely to the differ- 
ence in illumination, as the manufacturer's figures are for a com- 
pletely filled aperture. 

Measurements were made with a bare thermocouple of the energy 
in the spectral regions transmitted by the following filters — taken in 
the order given: i, no filter (all wave lengths); 2, rock salt (all 
wave lengths up to 19/;.) ; 3, fused quartz water cell (all wave lengths 
up to i.4ja with a slight diminishing of the deep ultra-violet below 
2,500 A.) ; 4, filter No. 3 plus barium flint glass (wave lengths below 



NO. 17 



ULTRA-VIOLET INTENSITIES McALISTER 



3,200 A. excluded). These wave-length limits are only approximate 
because the filters do not have a sharp " cut-off." There is a region 
of 200-300 A. in which the change from opaqueness to transparency 
takes place. A typical change is seen in Table i, column 4, which is 

Table i. Instrumental constants 







3 


.\mount excluded by 




2 


Transmission of 


barium flint and trans- 


I 


Transmission of 


thermoconple 


mitted by fused quartz 


length (A.) 


nionochromator 


window 


water cell 


6908 


0.520 


0.918 


0.00 


6234 


■SO7 


.917 


.00 


5780 


•499 


.916 


.00 


5461 


.493 


.915 


.00 


4916 


.485 


.912 


.00 


4358 


•474 


.910 


.00 


4047 


.468 


•90s 


.008 


3906 


.466 


.904 


.014 


3654 


.461 


.902 


.030 


3341 


•456 


.900 


•405 


3130 


.452 


.900 


.894 


3022 


•450 


.900 


.90 


2967 


•449 


.900 


.89 


2925 


.448 


.899 


.88 


2894 


.448 


.898 


.88 


2804 


•445 


.897 


.88 


2752 


•443 


.897 


.88 


2699 


•442 


.896 


.88 


2652 


.440 


.895 


.88 


2602 


•438 


•895 


.85 


2576 


.436 


.89s 


.80 


2536 


•434 


.894 


.76 


2483 


•431 


.894 


.69 


2463 


•430 


.894 


.69 


2447 


.429 


.893 


.68 


2399 


.426 


.892 


•67 


2378 


•42s 


.892 


.64 


2352 


.422 


.891 


.60 


2323 


.420 


.891 


.58 


2300 


.418 


.890 


•57 


2283 


.416 


.890 


•55 


2250 


.413 


.890 


•51 



the difference — transmission of fused quartz water cell minus the 
transmission of the barium flint filter. A series of four diaphragms 
was used to exclude radiation other than that coming directly from 
the arc. The results of these measurements are given in Table 3. 
They are compared with the summation of the monochromator 
measurements and correlated with the measurements of other ob- 
servers in the discussion. 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Using the double monochromator — with the entrant slit set at 
0.05 mm and the middle slit 0.075 i^^"'' — a"<^I the vacuum thermocouple, 
the high-intensity spectrum was mapped by taking readings one slit 
width apart throughout. The arc was operated at 4.5 amperes and 
an average of 143.5 volts. 

In the region 7,000 to 6,000 A. readings were taken every 50 A., 

6,000 to 5,000 A. " " " " 25 A.. 

5,000 to 4,000 A. " " " " 20 A., 

4,000 to 3,500 A. " " " " 10 A., 

3,500 to 2,500 A. " " " " 5 A., 

2,500 to 2,100 A. " " " " 2.5 A. 

Readings were also taken at the peaks of the maxima. This gave a 
map of the spectrum of the highest resolution attainable with the 
setup. Fifty maxima many of which are complex were observed. 
Then a single monochromator was used with o.io-mm slit, and read- 
ings were taken on 32 of the stronger lines. The intensities obtained 
with the double monochromator were then corrected slightly where 
necessary so that they agreed with the more accurate values obtained 
with the single monochromator. The arc was then operated at low 
intensity and observations were made with the single monochromator. 
The galvanometer deflections were read with a telescope. These data 
are given in Table 2. Columns 2 and 3 are the galvanometer deflec- 
tions for the same arc run at high and low intensity respectively. 
This arc had been used about 400 hours. These deflections were 
reduced to absolute intensities by multiplying by 1.33 (microwatts 
per cm" for i mm deflection) and dividing by the product of corre- 
sponding values for the transmission of the monochromator and of 
the thermocouple window given in Table i, columns 2 and 3. These 
intensities are given in Table 2, columns 4 and 6, and are in micro- 
watts per cm ^ for a distance of 250 mm from the center of the arc 
and on the perpendicular bisector of a line from the cathode to 
the mercury pool. The values in Table 2, columns 7 and 8, show the 
amount of flux excluded by the barium flint and transmitted by the 
fused quartz water cell. These values are obtained by multiplying 
the absolute intensities in Table 2, columns 4 and 6, by corresponding 
values in Table i, column 4. The sums at the bottom of columns 
4, 6, 7, and 8 in Table 2 are for comparison with the filter observations. 
The sum of the intensities of all the lines of wave length less than 
and including A 3,130 is of interest, as it is this part of the radiation 
from the mercury arc that is useful in curing rickets and produces 



NO. I' 



ULTRA-VIOLET INTENSITIES McALISTER 



Table 2. Monochrouiator mcasnycmcnts of h'ujh and hm.' iiitriisifv arcs 



I 
Wave 


2 X 

Galvanometer 
reading (mm) 


4 s 

Absolute intensity 250 

a 20-mm midsection 

(mew cm-2) 

A 


6 

mm from 
af the arc 


Amount 

barium 
transmitt 
water cell 


8 
excluded by 

flint and 
fd by quartz 


length 


High int. 


High int. 
new arc 


Low int. 


(mew cm"2) 

A 


(A.) 


High int. 


Low int. 


High int 


Low int. 


6908 


2.7 


0.06 


7-5 




0.17 


0.0 


0.0 


6234 


0.9 


.03 


2.6 




0.09 


.0 


.0 


5780 


161 


3-73 


468 


473 


10.8s 


.0 


.0 


5461 


130 


9.0s 


384 


384 


26.70 


.0 


.0 


49 1 6 


4-5 


■03 


13-5 




.09 


.0 


.0 


4358 


106 


7.90 


327 


353 


24.40 


.0 


.0 


4047 


62 


4.80 


195 


204 


15.10 


1-5 


.12 


3906 


2.6 


.04 


8.2 




•13 


.1 


.00 


3654 


183 


5.50 


585 


643 


17.60 


17.6 


■53 


3341 


16 


.36 


52 


54 


1. 17 


3-4 


•47 


3130 


no 


5.10 


359 


377 


16.70 


321 


14.92 


3022 


57 


1. 16 


187 


194 


3^82 


168 


3-44 


2967 


29-5 


1.05 


97-1 


95.1 


3^46 


86.5 


3^o8 


2925 


4.0 


.11 


13-2 




•36 


11.6 


•32 


2894 


10.7 


■33 


35-4 


34-7 


1.09 


3L2 


.96 


2804 


22.4 


•44 


74^7 


71.7 


1^47 


65^9 


1.29 


2752 


7.0 


.18 


23-4 


.... 


.60 


20.6 


•53 


2699 


9-5 


.16 


31.9 




•54 


28.1 


.48 


2652 


40.5 


.86 


137 


130 


2.91 


121 


2.56 


2602 


2.7 


.04 


9.2 




.14 


7.8 


.12 


2576 


5-4 


•07 


18.4 




•24 


14^7 


.19 


2536 


52 


4-73 


178 


154 


16.20 


136 


12.30 


2483 


15.8 


•44 


54-6 


48.6 


L52 


37.8 


1.05 


2463 


2.1 


.06 


7-3 




.21 


5^0 


•15 


2447 


1.8 


■03 


6.3 




.10 


43 


.07 


2399 


5.8 


• U 


20.3 


23-3 


•49 


13^6 


■33 


2378 


4-9 


.11 


17.2 


22.6 


•39 


II.O 


•25 


2352 


4-5 


.07 


15-9 


16.7 


•25 


9.6 


• 15 


2323 


1.8 


•03 


6.4 




.11 


3-7 


.06 


2300 


1-4 


.06 


5.0 




.21 


2.9 


.12 


2283 


0.9 


.04 


3-2 




.14 


1.8 


.08 


2250 


0.7 




2.6 






1-3 




Total for 


143.5 volts 




3,302.3 




147^3 


1,126 


43.6 


Total corrected to 150 volts 


3.450 






1,180 





Total less than and includ- 
ing \ 3,130 for 143.5 volts 1,303 

Total less than and includ- 
^ 3.130 (corrected to 150 
volts) 1,362 



5L0 
For "total arc" multiply all values by 7.1 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

"sunburn " or erythema (4). The percentage of the total radiation 
which falls in this region is shown in Table 3. 

Measurements were made on the more prominent lines in the 
spectrum of a new arc. These are shown in Table 2, column 5. The 
differences between these values and those in column 4 are not large 
but are greater than experimental error and probably indicate the 
variation to be expected. 

Observations were also made upon two new arcs operating at low 
intensity. These two arcs are to be used only as standards, and since 
there is very little evaporation of the tungsten cathode or deterioration 
of the quartz at this temperature and wattage, they have never been 
run at any condition other than that of low intensity. Their output 
is dift'erent (by an amount greater than experimental error) from 
that of the 400-hour-old arc only in the 2,536 A. region. In this 
region one arc is 7.6 per cent lower and the other 2.7 per cent higher 
than the value given in Table 2, column 6. 

Figure i is a map of the high-intensity spectrum obtained with the 
double monochromator. The eff'ective slit width used is 2 A. at 
A 2,300 A. which increased to 12 A. at A 4,000 A. The intensities 
are mapped above a spectrogram (taken with a type E2 Hilger quartz 
spectrograph) of the arc operating at high intensity. The ordinates 
in Figure i are the values given in Table 2, column 4, and are for 
the 20-mm midsection of the arc. In order to obtain approximate 
values for the full length of the arc exposed, multiply these mid- 
section values by 7.1. This factor is obtained from the filter measure- 
ments given in Table 3. 

Figure 2 is a map of the low-intensity spectrum made from Table 
2, column 6. It is plotted above a low-intensity spectrogram of the 
same source. The same factor, 7.1, will convert these ordinates 
and the values in Table 2, column 6, to approximate total arc values. 

Figure 3 shows two microphotometer curves of spectrograms of 
the 2,536 A. region. The upper curve is from a high-intensity spectro- 
gram and the lower curve from one of low intensity. The exposure 
times were 20 seconds for the low intensity and i second for the 
high intensity. For the sake of comparison the slit width used in 
the thermocouple observations is indicated. The resonance line, 
A 2,536.5 A., which is partially self reversed at low-intensity con- 
ditions and completely reversed at high intensity, the line A 2,534.8 A. 
and a background of continuous (and band?) spectrum are super- 
imposed when observed with this 5 A. slit width. The reversal of 
the resonance line and the appearance of the background near it are 



NO. 17 



ULTRA-VIOLET INTENSITIES McALISTER 



more critical functions of the operating conditions and of the presence 
of small amounts of foreign gases than are the intensities of the rest 




Fig. I.— Absolute intensities 250 mm from a 20 mm mid-section of the "high 

intensity " arc. 

of the spectrum. Hence in a commercial product one would expect 
such a variation as is observed in comparing one arc with another. 



lO 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 



It is evident from these curves that the intensity in the 2,536 A. 
region as measured hy the thermocouple is largely due to the resonance 



— 30 




— 


— 25 MCW cm" 










— 20 








— 


— ts 














— 


— 10 














— 


— 5 




,ftA / 


» aI L 




1 








- 



I '^ l,n,l,„^:„l„„ln„l,„^^ l± ^ I, y,UjiPl 1^? I ^ H IP 

M I III I II II I II I III I I I I II I II I III 




"I T 



SHARP SINGLETS 



COMBINATIONS 







porcC 


tf* 


or _a- 


or uiyT 



Fig. 2. — Absolute intensities 250 mm fruni a 20 mm mid-section of the " low 

intensity " arc. 

line in the low-intensity arc, v^hile A 2.534.8 and the background are 
practically all that affect the thermocouple in the high-intensity arc. 



NO. 17 



ULTRA-VIOLET INTENSITIES- — McALISTER 



II 



Table 3 gives the intensities of radiation in the different spectral 
regions for a distance of i m from the arc. They are expressed in 




Fig. 3. — Microphotometer curves of spectrograms of the 2,536 A. region for 
the " high " and " low intensity " arcs. 

microwatts per cm \ Column i shows the intensity of the therapeutic 
(4) radiation .2^ to .35/^, column 2 the near ultra-violet, visible, and 



Table 3. Filter measurements 



High Intensity 



, ,. , fmcw cm 

20 mm of vertical arc. . . > 

\ per cent 



Total vertical arc... 

Total horizontal arc. 

Low Intensity 
20 mm of vertical arc. 

Total vertical arc... 



Jmcw cm' 
l^per cent 

fmcw cm" 
tper cent 



Jmcw cm" 
i per cent 

fmcw cm" 
\per cent 



12 3 4 5 

•2--3Si<t .35-I.4A i.4-i9,tt >I9A Total 

84 167 245 68 564 

14.8 29.7 43.4 12. 1 100 

600 1,130 2,710 350 4,790 

I2.S 23.6 56.6 7.2, 100 

615 995 2,700 370 4,680 

13.2 21.2 57.7 7.9 100 



2.8 77 77-5 8.0 96 

3.0 8.0 81.7 8.3 100 

19.8 59.6 704.8 124 908 

2.3 6.6 77.6 13.5 100 



near infra-red .35^1 to 1.4/x, column 3 the infra-red from i.4ju, to 19/^, 
column 4 the deep infra-red beyond 19/j,, and column 5 the total 



12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

radiation. The percentage of the total radiation is given immediately 
below each intensity value. Observations were made on the radiation 
from the 20-mm length of the midsection as well as from the total 
length of the arc for both high and low intensities. The data given 
in the table were obtained using a bare thermocouple, the procedure 
being as follows: Observations were made on: i, the total radiation 
• — no filter used ; 2, radiation transmitted by 2 mm of rock salt, which 
includes all wave lengths less than iQyx; 3, radiation transmitted by 
a fused quartz water cell, all wave lengths below 1.4/^, and 4, radiation 
transmitted by a combination of the water cell and 2 mm of barium 
liint glass which includes all wave lengths between .35/A and i.4ju,. 
These observations were then corrected for reflection and absorption 
by the following transmission factors: rock salt 0.91, water cell 
0.90, water cell and barium flint 0.81. After these corrections are 
applied the data in Table 3 are obtained as follows : values in column 
I are the difference between observation 3 and observation 4 ; column 
2, observation 4 ; column 3, observation 2 minus observation 3 ; column 
4, observation i minus observation 2; and in column 5, observation i. 
As the filter " cut-offs " are not sharp, appreciable error might be 
introduced by this method. For instance the short wave length " cut- 
off " for the barium flint filter is not sharp. However, in the mercury 
spectrum this is not serious because the " cut-off " occurs in a region 
where there are no strong lines. The sum of the monochromator 
values for all wave lengths less than and including A 3,130 A. for the 
20-mm midsection of the high-intensity arc is given at the bottom 
of Table 2, column 4. It is 1,362 microwatts per cm ^ at 250 mm 
from the arc. The filter measurement for this region is given in 
Table 3, column i, as 84 microwatts per cm "" at i m. Multiplying 
this by 16 to reduce it to the intensity at 250 mm from the arc we 
get 1,330 microwatts per cm ^, which is 2.1 per cent lower than the 
monochromator sum. 

For the sake of a more rigid check on the monochromator obser- 
vations one may compare the intensities given in Table 2, columns 
7 and 8, with the uncorrected thermocouple measurements. Table 2, 
columns 7 and 8, give the radiation excluded by the barium flint 
filter and transmitted by the fused quartz water cell for the 20-mm 
section of the high- and low-intensity arc. These can be compared 
with the filter measurements as follows : the radiation transmitted 
by the fused quartz water cell minus the radiation transmitted by the 
cell in combination with the barium flint filter, the latter value being 
corrected for the transmission of the barium flint alone is 1,210 
microwatts per cm ^ at 250 mm from the high-intensity arc. This is 



NO. 17 ULTRA-VIOLET INTENSITIES McALISTER I3 

2.5 per cent higher than the monochromator vahie i,i8o microwatts 
per cm' given at the bottom of column 7 in Table 2. For the low- 
intensity arc the filter measurement is 44.8 microwatts per cm ^ at 
250 mm from the arc. The monochromator value given at the bottom 
of column 8 in Table 2 is 43.6 microwatts per cm ^ which is 2.7 per 
cent lower than the filter observation. This is a fairly satis- 
factory agreement between the monochromator sums and the filter 
measurements. 

From Table 3 we obtain the factor 600/84 (or 19.8/2.8) =7.1 
which can be used to reduce the intensities for the midsection of the 
arc to total arc intensities. This factor applies to Figures i and 2 
and to the data in Table 2. 

Coblentz (4) gives a value of 623 microwatts per cm ' for the 
intensity of radiation of wave lengths less than and including A 3,130 
A. at 60 cm from a 260-watt arc of this type. Assuming his arc to 
be equally efficient in producing radiation in this region and neglecting 
the absorption of air this reduces to 582 microwatts per cm ^ This 
is 3 per cent lower than the value 600 microwatts per cm ^ given in 
Table 3. Hulburt (6) gives a value for the radiation from a 650-watt 
arc in the region 2,000 A. to 6,500 A. His value is given as 22.0 mm 
deflection (with a thermopile sensitivity of 0.97 microwatts per cm ^ 
for I mm deflection) measured at a distance of 240 cm from the 
arc. Of the 45 mm length of his arc, 4 mm was exposed. Assuming 
this 4 mm length to be typical and that the arcs are equally efficient 
we can reduce this to " total arc " at a distance of 25 cm to compare 
with the monochromator sum in Table 2 at the bottom of column 4. 
The calculation gives a value of 23,000 microwatts per cm ^ which is 
6 per cent lower than the monochromator sum 24,500 microwatts 
per cm ^ (3,450x7.1). This agreement is better than could be ex- 
pected because of the uncertainty in calculating the radiation from 
the " total arc " from the ratio of the total length to the length 
exposed. Suhrmann's measurements (7) are given as absolute but 
differ by two orders of magnitude from the present work. The mono- 
chromator he employed has a numerical aperture of 12.5 and the 
entrant slit (5 mm by 0.20 mm) was placed 25 mm from the arc. 
Thus probably less than i/ioo of the radiation coming through the 
monochromator slit passed through the collimating lens and was 
measured. This very likely explains his very low values. 

To obtain an " overall " value of the probable errors involved in 
the intensity measurements given in Table 2 a hypothetical line 
whose intensity is the average of all the lines measured has been 
assumed. Although the probable error calculated for it will be some- 



14 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

what too small for more intense lines and too large for very weak 
lines it will indicate the accnracy of the measnrements. For the high- 
intensity values, Table 2, the average galvanometer deflection was 
40 mm. The probable error of the mean of 10 readings was 0.7 mm 
or ± 1.4 per cent. Values in Table i, column 3, are subject to a 
probable error of ± 0.5 per cent and values in column 2 to ± 2 
per cent. The probable error of the value 1.33 (the thermocouple 
sensitivity) is ± 1.4 per cent. Hence the probable error of the mean 
value, 100 mew cm"-, is about 3 per cent or ± 3 mew cm"-. For the 
values given that are of the same order of magnitude as the probable 
error of the mean, ± 3 mew cm"-, the predominant error is in the 
galvanometer reading. Hence the probable error for these entries 
in Table 2, column 4, is about ±1.5 mew cm"-. For the low-intensity 
values in Table 2, the average galvanometer deflection was 1.9 mm 
and the probable error of the mean of 10 readings was 1/20 mm, or 
zt 2.6 per cent. Here the deflections were read with a telescope, and 
the arcs output was much steadier than for the high-intensity obser- 
vations. The other errors are the same so the probable error of the 
mean value, 4.6 mew cm"-, in Table 2, column 6, is about ± 4 per cent 
or .18 mew cm'-. As before the probable errors of values of this 
order of magnitude in Table 2, column 6, are determined by the error 
of reading the galvanometer; hence the probable error of these entries 
is about 0.12 mew cm""'. The average deviation of the values in 
Table 2, column 5 (new arc) from those in column 4 (arc 400 hours 
old) is 5.3 per cent, which is about twice the probable error. Thus 
it is reasonable to assume that the differences are real — especially so 
in the short wave length region where the new quartz is more 
transparent. 

Figure i shows 50 maxima. Thirty-two of the strongest and most 
clearly resolved of these are included in Table 2. The intensity of 
the weaker lines and of the unresolved components omitted from 
Table 2 will be reported in the near future. A new crystal quartz 
spectrograph of higher dispersion now in the process of construction 
will be used for this work. 

These absolute intensity measurements are interesting from a 
spectroscopic standpoint. The pressure of the mercury vapor in the 
high-intensity arc is about one atmosphere, and in the low-intensity 
arc it is several millimeters of mercury. This amount of vapor will 
cause considerable self reversal as is most evident for the resonance 
line A 2,536.5 A. and so make difficult the comparison of experimental 
and theoretical intensities of related spectral lines. However, because 
these measurements cover a wide spectral range it is interesting to 



NO. 17 ULTRA-VIOLET INTENSITIES McALISTER 



15 




zS 22 24 28^ 28 3° 



32 34 36 38 40 42 44 



Fig. 4.— Decay of intensity in the sharp and diffuse series of Hg I. 



i6 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87 



note the decay of intensity in the sharp (^Po,i>2-n^Si) and diffuse 
(^Po>i>2-n^Di,2,3) series as well as the relative intensities of the com- 
ponents of these multiplets. 

The classification of the lines measured is given below the spectro- 
grams in Figures i and 2. More than two thirds of these lines are 
members of the sharp and ditTuse series. Table 4 gives the relative 
intensity of these triplets that were of measurable intensity. The 





Table 4. Ri 


'lativc intensities of the 


multiplets 








Sharp 

, .j^ 

High int. 

50 
I7« 

8« 


ines 
Low int. 

50 

34" 

15° 


V (cm-') 
18308 
22938 
24705 


X 
3655 0^ 
3130 X' 
2967 A * 


Diffuse 


lines 




X 

5461 H' 
4358 ' 
4047 +' 


High int. 
l/v* 

50 

18 

4 


Low int. 
I/y* 

SO 

27 

4 


V (cm-') 
27388 
31984 
33691 


3341 H ' 
2894 <t> ^ 
2753 +' 


50 
19 
10 


50 
27 
12 


29918 

34549 
36316 


3022 
2652 
2535 


= 
X^ 


50 

22« 


50 

24" 


33087 
37696 
39440 


2925 
2576 
2464 


50 
25 a 
10 


50 

2I« 
13 


34173 
38804 
40572 


2804 
2480 
2378 




50 
21" 

6 


50 
31a 

7 


35660 
40278 
42034 


2760 
2447 
2345 


50 
26 




36225 
40856 
42624 


2699 
2399 
2302 

2640 
2352 
2259 

2603 
2323 
2232 




50 

19 

4 

50'* 

21 

8 

50 

23 


50 

29 

5 

50" 
26 

50 

25 


37042 
41665 
43426 

37869 
42496 
44257 

38404 
43030 
44830 



" Value given includes minur unresolved lines not related t(i the Iriplet (symbols given 
after wave length are those used in fig. 4). 



diffuse scries is really composed of sextets, but the closely spaced 
components were unresolved in the present work. The intensities 
of these groups have the same theoretical relation (1:3:5 for the 
Int/u*) as do the sharp triplets. It is evident here that the theoretical 
intensity relation is not attained but that it is approached by higher 
members of each series. The component whose intensity is most 
affected by changing from high intensity to low is the central one 
in both series. Also the component that deviates most from the 
theoretical rule is the central one in the sharp triplets and the high 
frequency one in the diffuse triplets. 



NO. 1/ ULTRA-VIOLET INTENSITIES McALISTER 1 7 

Figure 4 shows the intensity decay in these series. This is a plot 
of the logarithm of the relative number of transitions (intensity/v) 
that occur in the whole of the 20-mm section of the arc in unit time 
against the frequency (6). The symbols shown in Table 4 are used 
to identify the series and its multiple numbers. The smooth and 
regular decay shown here is not present in previous work and verifies 
the small experimental error given. The upper curves are for the 
high-intensity arc and the lower are for the low. The curves appear 
to approach asymptotic lines of the same slope in a given series. 
This slope is greater for the diffuse series which indicates a lower 
" Boltzmann " temperature for the ^D than for the 'S levels as 
was pointed out by Hulburt (6). 

SUMMARY 

Absolute measurements of the intensity of 32 of the more intense 
lines in the visible and ultra-violet spectrum of a quartz mercury arc 
have been made with a vacuum thermocouple and double mono- 
chromator. The effective slit width employed was 2 A. at A 2,300 A. 
increasing to 12 A. A 4,000 A. This yields a resolution about one 
order of magnitude greater than that of previous work of this nature. 
The probable error in the intensity measurements is ± 3 per cent. 
Observations made upon four arcs showed significant differences in 
intensity for many of the spectral lines. These differences averaged 
about 5 per cent, the maximum being 10 per cent for A 2,537 A. 
This is probably the deviation in output to be expected from different 
arcs of this same make (operating with the same current and voltage) 
that are reasonably new and have not been mistreated. 

About two thirds of the lines measured are members of the sharp 
and diffuse series. The present measurements show a smooth and 
regular decay of intensity in these series. The theoretical intensity 
relation for these multi-plets is not attained but is approached by 
higher members of both series. 

LITERATURE CITED 
(i) Meier, F. E. 

1932. Lethal action of ultra-violet light on a unicellular green alga. 
Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 87, no. 10. 
Brackett, F. S., and McAlister, E. D. 

1932. A spectrophotometric development for biological and photochemi- 
cal investigations. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 87, no. 12. 
(2) McAlister, E. D. 

193 1. Intensities in the ultra-violet spectrum of mercury. Phys. Rev., 
vol. 37. no. 8, pp. 1021-1022, Apr. 15. 



l8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

(3) Coblentz, W. W., Dorcas, M. J., and Hughes, C. W. 

1926. Radiometric measurements on the carbon arc and other light 
sources used in phototherapy. Sci. Pap. Bur. Stand., vol. 21, 
no. 539, pp. 543, 546. 

(4) Coblentz, W. W., Stair, R., and Hague, J. M. 

1932. Ultra-violet filter radiometry. Bur. Stand. Journ. Res., vol. 8, 
no. 6, p. 771, June. 

(5) Harrison, G. R., and Forbes, G. S. 

1925. Spectral energy characteristics of the mercury vapor lamp. 
Journ. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 10, no. i, pp. 1-17, Jan. 

(6) Hulburt, E. O. 

1928. The intensities of the lines in the spectrum of mercury. Phys. 
Rev., ser. 2, vol. ;i2, no. 4, pp. 595, 597, Oct. 

(7) Simon, H., and Suhrmann, R. 

1932. Lichtelektrische Zellen. J. Springer, Berlin. 

(8) Brackett, F. S., and McAlister, E. D. 

1930. The automatic recording of the infra-red at high resolution. Rev. 
Sci. Instr., vol. i, no. 3, pp. 181-193, Mar. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 18 



IRoebUno jFunb^ nov 20 193: 
SUN SPOTS AND WEATHER 



BY 

G. G. ABBOT 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institiition 




(Publication 32261 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

NOVEMBER 20, 1933 



% 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 18 



IRoeblino dFunb 



SUN SPOTS AND WEATHER 



BY 

C. G. ABBOT 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 






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.:*5 



rsTi 






(Publication 3226) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

NOVEMBER 20, 1933 



^^e Bovb (§(xitimoti (prcee 

BALTIMORE, MD., U. 8. A. 



i 



I 



IRoebliuG fxxn^ 

SUN SPOTS AND WEATHER 
By C. G. abbot 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

I wish to present evidence pointing to four major conclusions 
regarding weather, as follows : 

1. The principal departures from normal climates which comprise 
" weather " are due primarily to a group of periodic variations of the 
sun's radiation rather than to terrestrial complexities, as has been 
generally supposed. 

2. Sun spots are associated with important modifications of weather 
not hitherto recognized. 

3. Important periodicities in solar variation have their least com- 
mon multiple in 23 years. As a consequence, weather repeats itself in 
all parts of the world with 23-year intervals. This period agrees with 
Hale's discovery of the double sun-spot period cycle in the magnetic 
condition of the sun. 

4. At many stations this cycle in weather enables us to forecast 
general conditions of temperature and precipitation for many years 
in advance. Accurate seasonal predictions would require a more com- 
plete knowledge of the causes of shifts of phase in weather perio- 
dicities than is yet available. 

A. ASSOCIATED SOLAR AND TERRESTRIAL PERIODICITIES 

During the past year Mrs. A. M. Bond and I have been studying 
the departures from normal monthly temperatures for several stations 
in the United States. We have derived our data from " World 
Weather Records," ' and its continuation to 1930, now in galley proof 
at the Smithsonian Institution. In order to avoid confusion we have 
eliminated short-interval fluctuations by taking running 5-month 
means.^ This device, of course, greatly reduces the amplitudes of the 



* Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 79, 1927. 

^ If a, b, c, d, e, f, are values, substitute for c and d — — — — — — — — — , 

b + c-t-d-fe-f-f ^^^ 

5 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 18 



2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

periodic terms of 7- and 8-month periods. In what follows, all the 
modern results are derived from data thus smoothed. In the use of 
precipitation observations the absolute values are first converted into 
percentages of the monthly mean values as these are given in bold 
face type in " World Weather Records." Temperature departures 
are computed from the appropriate monthly means printed in bold 
face type in the same source book. 

In our early work we found that the seven periodicities discovered 
by the writer in solar variation ' and a few others have their counter- 
parts in temperature departures. Figure i shows, for instance, a study 
of the departures from normal monthly temperatures for Clanton, 
Alabama, for the years 1918-1930. It is apparent that the residual 
remaining after removing periodic terms is small. 

B. THE SUN-SPOT INFLUENCE 

When we expanded our research to embrace records extending 
from 1875 to 1925, we were embarrassed like other investigators by 
changes of phase and amplitude in the periodic terms. It occurred 
to me that since the periodicities employed were nearly related to the 
sun-spot period of 1 1 years, it might well be that they would be altered 
with the number of sun spots prevailing. This proved to be true. 
Figure 2 shows, for instance, the 11 -month periodicity in the depar- 
tures from normal temperature at Bismarck, North Dakota. The 
results are as computed from four groups of data between 1875 and 
1925, segregated with reference to the sun-spot numbers correspond- 
ing. It will be seen that the phases remain unchanged throughout this 
50-year interval when obtained for homogeneous groups chosen from 
sun-spot considerations, but alter steadily from group to group as the 
sun-spot activity increases. 

Thus it is apparent that the sun-spot activity produces an important 
influence on weather not heretofore recognized. This unperceived 
influence has no doubt disappointed many meteorologists in their 
studies of periodicities. 

C. THE 23-YEAR CYCLE 

In the year 1908 Dr. George E. Hale at Mount Wilson Observatory 
discovered magnetism in sun spots. He soon found that magnetic 
polarities are opposite in adjacent spots. Following up the investiga- 
tion it was disclosed that the order of the two polarities is opposite in 

' Abbot, C. G., Weather dominated by solar changes. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 
vol. 85, no. I, 1931 ; also, Forecasts of solar variation, ibid., vol. 89, no. 5, 1933. 



NO, 15 



SUN SPOTS AND WEATHER — ABBOT 




SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 




Fig. 2. — Phase-change in periodicity of temperature departures from normal 
associated with increasing sun-spot activity. 



NO. l8 SUN SPOTS AND WEATHER ABBOT 5 

the north and south solar hemispheres and that the order continues 
unchanged through each ii-year sun-spot period, but reverses at the 
beginning of the next period. Thus it requires two ii-year periods 
to bring the sun through a full cycle of magnetic changes. 

The writer first noticed about July 1933 that the periodicities found 
in solar radiation and in the weather were closely related to Hale's 
magnetic cycle. But numerous studies led the writer to assign to it 
the length of exactly 23 years, or 276 months. Dividing this period 
into submultiples, we find as follows : 

Name a b c d e f g h i j k 

Divisor 3 46 8 11 13 15 i8 25 34 39 

Period, 

months 92 6g 4634-1/225-1/11 21-3/13 18-2/5 15-1/3 11-1/25 8-2/17 7-:/i3 

Of these periodicities, b, c, e, f, i, j, and k are (within the error of 
determination) the same that I found in the variation of solar radia- 
tion, and the others have been found in terrestrial temperature 
departures. 

Inasmuch, therefore, as Hale's magnetic cycle is the least common 
multiple of so many periodicities in solar and weather variation, it 
seemed probable that the weather features would be found to repeat 
themselves at intervals of 2;^ years. As an illustration, figure 3 shows 
the smoothed percentages of normal monthly precipitation found at 
Nagpur in South Central India from 1856 to 1930. The values are 
arranged in 23-year cycles, so chosen that the year 1875 begins a 
cycle so as to fit with most of the lists in " World Weather Records." 
Lines have been drawn to guide the reader's eye to what seem to me 
to be homologous features in the four cycles illustrated. I would like 
to call special attention to the regions 1865-1870, 1888-1893, 1912- 
191 7. In 1865, 1868, and 1870 we find three pillarhke features of 
high percentage precipitation bounding two features of subnormal 
precipitation. Thus there stand out two intervals of three and two 
years, respectively, as if guarded by these sentinel features, but em- 
bracing nearly a score of subordinate features. The reader's attention 
is now invited to similar features, 1888- 1893, and 191 2- 191 7, in which 
nearly all the details seem to be recognizable. 

The separation between the first and second of these occurrences 
is almost exactly 23 years, but there is a delay of nearly a year in the 
appearance of the third. A similar delay marks, however, all of the 
features from 1899 to 191 8. after which the cycle returns approxi- 
mately to its earlier phase-status. Compare, for illustration, the year 
1929 with i860. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 







CM •<:: -^ ■<: ^ 



NO. lO SUN SPOTS AND WEATHER ABBOT 7 

D. THE 23-YEAR CYCLE DURING THE PLEISTOCENE 

Reeds has compared the thicknesses of clay varves near Haver- 
straw, New York, laid down in the glacial period and measured inde- 
pendently by Antevs and himself.* From these results I have formed 
25 consecutive 23-year groups, and have averaged them in groups of 
five, and also all together. Figure 4 shows the result of this investiga- 
tion. Owing to a variety of influences, such as warmths of summers, 
quantity of rainfall, hardness of the soil, and others which would all 
affect the thickness of the varves, we should not expect close accord 
in the individual cycles. Yet the five groups, each covering 115 years, 
show some similarity, and the general mean for 575 years seems to 
me fairly conclusive that the 23-year period was as influential during 
Pleistocene glaciation, some 30,000 years ago, as it is now. Eight 
principal features occur in the general mean, and I am inclined to 
believe them to indicate that the sun's radiation varied then as now 
by several periodicities related to 276 months, and that its variations 
then as now controlled the weather. 

E. FORECASTING WEATHER CONDITIONS 

In some cases the 23-year cycle has features of high or low values 
prevailingly over the course of several years, and repeated nearly simi- 
larly during each cycle. Such cases occur, for example, in the Nagpur 
precipitation cycles from the twenty-first through to the fifth year, 
during which seven years the precipitation is subnormal. I believe, 
therefore, that it is probable that subnormal precipitation will be ex- 
perienced in Central India from 1942 to 1948. Similar indications 
from studies of records of North Platte indicate subnormal precipita- 
tion in central Nebraska from about 1939 to 1948, though with partial 
relief during two separated years intervening. 

When the attempt is made to forecast weather for coming years in 
more detail than such general statements as these, the embarrassing 
changes of phase already referred to are encountered. These, though 
they do not destroy the general sequence of the individual features of 
the 23-year cycle, produce displacements, sometimes reaching a year, 
and often several months, in the times of their occurrence. Further 
research, it may be hoped, will aid in overcoming this difficulty. In 
order to show the shortcomings of such detailed forecasts if made 
only with present knowledge, I give in figure 5 predictions of depar- 
tures from normal monthly temperature and percentages of normal 

* See Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst. 1930, pp. 295-326. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 




Fig. 4.- 



■Twenty-three-year complex periodicity in the 
formation of Pleistocene varves. 



I 



NO. 1 8 



SUN SPOTS AND WEATHER — ABBOT 







10 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

monthly precipitation for Bismarck, North Dakota. These curves are 
based solely on records extending from 1875 to 1920, and show the 
expectation and the event from 1921 to 1932, a forecast and verifica- 
tion covering 12 years. There is considerable similarity (especially 
from 1 92 1 to 1926 in precipitation) between the forecasts and the 
events. Yet it would, I feel, be premature to make extensive forecasts 
of this character. I hope to press forward the investigation. 



I 



J^5^ 




1 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 19 



AN OLIGOCENE EAGLE FROM 



WYOMING 



BY 

ALEXANDER WETMORE 

Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 




DEC 23 1933 



(PUBLICATION 3227) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

DECEMBER 26, 1933 



'^ 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUA\E 87. NUMBER 19 



AN 0L1(;0CENE EAGLE EKOI 
WYOMING 



BY 

ALEXANDER WETMORE 
Assistani Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3227) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

DECEMBER 26, 1933 



BALTraORE, MB., C. 8. A. 



AN OLIGOCENE EAGLE FROM WYOMING 

By ALEXANDER WETMORE 
Assistaiil Secretary, Siiiillisoiiian Iiistititlion 

Among the collections obtained by the paleontologic expedition con- 
ducted in 1932 by C. W. Gilniore, curator of vertebrate paleontology, 
United States National Museum, one of the most important s])ecimens 
is a fossil eagle from Oligocene deposits in Niobrara County, Wyo. 
This bird was discovered, in beds practically barren of other fossils, 
by George F. Sternberg, who assisted Mr. Gilmore on the expedition. 
Great care was used to secure all available fragments, and broken 
bits have been skillfully fitted together in the laboratory by N. H. Boss, 
so that the final specimen comprises most of the important elements of 
the skeleton. The remains form the most complete representation 
known of an individual bird from the Oligocene deposits of America, 
and are of great importance in providing information on the early 
development of the accipitrine group in North America. Description 
of the specimen follows. 

Drawings illustrating the specimen are by Sydney Prentice. 

PALAEOPLANCUS STERNBERGI gen. et sp. nov. 

Characters. — Somewhat similar to Aquila and the larger species of 
Biiteo, but metatarsus with projecting wing of second trochlea re- 
duced, difl^ering in this respect from any of the related genera; skull 
small ; premaxilla relatively slender with a pronounced festoon on 
lower margin ; humerus and ulna relatively short and slender ; sternum 
somewhat reduced ; f urcula with outer, free end greatly narrowed ; 
liumerus with ectepicondylar process somewhat reduced ; pelvis rela- 
tively large ; lower limb relatively strong ; trochanteric ridge of femur 
considerably reduced ; feet with toes unusually large and strong. 

Type. — A partial skeleton, U.S.N.M. no. 12479, collected in the 
Upper Oreodon beds of the Oligocene on the east side of Plum Creek, 
Niobrara County, Wyo., on August 9, 1932. 

Description. — Skull (fig. i) with elongated, decurved, pointed tip, 
premaxilla relatively slender ; narial aperture broadly open, somewhat 
elongated ; ascending process of nasal fairly heavy ; quadrate heavy ; 
mandible rather slender, with external articular process well developed 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. Vol. 87, No. 19 



2 SMITHSONIAN IVIISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

and internal articular ])rocess relatively slight ; other characters of 
skull, particularly the form of the cranium, masked hy crushing. 

Sternum represented hy anterior [)ortion of body only ; light in 
weight and evidently pneumatic ; costal margin on left side fairly well 
preserved and on the right less so : six costal processes indicated, 
with intervening spaces containing pneumatic openings ; manubrium 
broken away. 

Left articular end of furculum (remainder of bone missing) nar- 
row and elongated, dithering from the heavier, broader form of living 




Fig. I. — ^Skull of Palaeoplaiicus stcrnbcrgi, natural size. The. 
cranial portion, shown by dotted lines, is crushed and distorted 
in the specimen. 




Fig. 2. — Lateral view of left side of furculum of Palaeoplanciis 
stcrnherqi, natural size. 



hawks and eagles (fig. 2) ; coracoidal attachment strongly developed, 
extending transversely across bone, projecting outward as a sharp 
ridge ; scapular end elongated and pointed ; bone evidently pneumatic. 
Right humerus (somewhat crushed but nearly complete) strong, 
with well indicated sigmoid fiexure of shaft (figs. 3-4) ; agreeing in 
general a])pearance with humerus in large species of Biitco, but with 
ectepicondylar process somewhat reduced ; condyles of distal end 
moderate in size, somewhat distorted by crushing, so that their 
form in detail is not clearly evident ; deltoid crest strong and well 
developed; upper end of shaft angularly ridged above line of attach- 
ment of latissimus dorsi ; head somewhat slender, with characters 
partly lost by crushing. 



NO. 19 



OLIGOCENE EAGLE WETMORE 



Ulna (tigs. 5-6) represented by most of right and proximal and 
distal ends of left element, strong, of usual buteonine form in so far as 
the detailed structure has been preserved ; more or less crushed and 
distorted. 





Figs. 3-4. — -Two views of right humerus of Palaeoplaucus st em- 
ber gi, natural size. The specimen is flattened by pressure so that 
the distal end is somewhat distorted. 

Radius (fig. 7), represented by right and left elements with distal 
ends missing, also relatively strong, of buteonine type : bicipital 
tubercle elevated and placed a relatively short distance below end 
of bone. 



SM 



ITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 





Figs. 5-6. — Proximal and distal 
ends of left ulna of Palaeoplanciis 
sternbergi, natural size. 




Fig. 7. — Proximal end of left 
radius of Palaeoplancns sternbergi, 
natural size. 



Fig. 8. — Cuneiform from left 
wing of Palaeoplancns sternbergi, 
natural size. 



NO. 19 



OLIGOCENE EAGLE WETMORE 



Cuneiform bone (lig. S) present, showing no especial peculiarities. 

Metacarpals from both right and left sides (figs. 9-12) preserved 
(the former nearly complete, the latter with part of anterior end 
missing) ; relatively strong and robust ; shaft of the second metacarpal 
particularly heavy; first metacarpal with extensor attachment project- 
ing strongly, the tip inclining inward; attachment for pollex broad. 







Figs. 9-12. — Four views of left metacarpal of 
Palacoplancus sternbergi, natural size.' The smaller 
figures represent the proximal and distal en4s. 



the articular surface plane, enlarged by the expanded margins ; carpal 
trochlea strongly angular with the anterior carpal fossa strongly 
marked; pisiform process projecting as a strong tubercle with a deep 
internal ligamental fossa about its base ; external ligamental attach- 
ment also strongly marked ; third metacarpal straight and strong, 
somewhat flattened from above downward toward distal end ; a shar])ly 
outlined sulcus tendini musculi on outer face extending about two 
thirds the length of the bone, entirely on the lateral face; muscular 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOf-. 8/ 





Fig. 13. — Second phalanx of the Fig. 14. — Proximal end of right 

first digit from the left wing of femur of Palaeoplancus Sternberg i, 

Palaeophncus stcnibcrgi. natural natural size, 
size. 



A. 



Figs. 15-16. — Anterior and posterior views 
of distal portion of left metatarsus of Palaeo- 
plancus sternhergi, natural size. 



NO. 19 OLIGOCENE EAGLE — ^WETMORE 7 

tuberosity at distal end of third uu'tacarpal strongly raised; fourth 
metacarpal a thin plate, broad proxinially and greatly narrowed 
distally ; facet for third digit projecting distally beyond level of second ; 
fornix metacarpi broad and strong. 

Second phalanx of first digit (fig. 13) with a broad, strong upper 
margin, from which a bladelike process projects downward ; meta- 
carpal facet broad ; digital facet roughly triangular in outline. 

Pelvis with anterior portion of synsacrum missing, somewhat frag- 
mentary in other portions : strong and robust, similar in detail, as far 
as preserved, to buteonine species. 

Femur (fig. 14) represented by proximal half of right side (nearly 
entire) and much of left (badly crushed, so that most of characters are 
lost) ; relatively strong and heavy, difl:'ering from the buteonine type in 
relative shortness of the trochanteric ridge, which is considerably 
restricted ; head of usual form, with large impression for attachment 
of the round ligament : neck relatively heavy ; trochanter broad and 
strong ; a single, large pneumatic fossa, oval in form ; anterior muscu- 
lar line strongly marked ; shaft strong, elliptical in cross-section. 

Metatarsus (figs. 15-16) represented by three fourths of the bone 
from the left side with the head missing, strong and well developed ; 
outer trochlea relatively heavy ( posterior plate missing and rest some- 
what cracked and broken) ; middle trochlea strong with deep exca- 
vations on either side and a well-marked groove around articular 
surface ; inner trochlea well developed, with inner face considerably 
excavated, and outer produced in a thin, bladelike process, the outer 
l)oint not projecting as far as the body of the trochlea, being more 
restricted than in buteonine hawks ; lower end of shaft flattened, with 
a heavily marked articular facet for the hallux ; inferior foramen oval, 
with a shallow groove leading into it on anterior face ; posterior face 
of shaft with slightly projecting margins, so that there is the appear- 
ance of a broad, shallow groove; outer margin flattened and nearly 
plane, expanded in center and from there sloping gradually toward 
either extremity ; inner slope on anterior face also flattened, but more 
irregular ; tibialis anticus tubercle elevated, strongly developed. 

Of the toes there are present one right first metatarsal, the phalanges 
of both first toes (fig. 17), the basal phalanx of the right third toe, 
a third phalanx from a third toe. and part of an ungual phalanx. Hal- 
lux remarkably long, being decidedly longer than in Buteo melano- 
leiicus (formerly Ceranoactus), in which the metatarsus is larger 
than in Palacof'laiicus. The foot, from the few elements present, 
appears rather slender. 



8 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 



Of the vertebral column the first and a part of the second cervical, 
parts of three dorsals, the first four caudals. and most of the pygostyle 
are preserved. Atlas and axis (fig. i8) in size and general form 
similar to those of the female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 
(thus matching the relatively small head) ; dorsals with most of the 
processes broken away and offering little in the way of characters ; 
pygostyle (fig. 19) and other caudal vertebrae relatively large, being 
as large as those of Buteo rnelanoleiicus; form of pygostyle more like 
that of Aqiiila chrysactos ; muscular attachments on all caudals slightly 
less developed than in the modern si)ecies with which comparison 
is made. 




Fig. 17. — Basal pha- 
lanx of left hallux of 
Palaeoplancus steni- 
brrgi, natural size. 




Fig. 18. — Anterior 
view of joined atlas 
and axis of Palaeo- 
plancus sternbergi, nat- 
ural size. The bones 
are somewhat distorted 
by crushing. 



Fig. 19. — Distal view 
of pygostyle of Palaeo- 
plancus sternbergi, nat- 
ural size. 



Measurements (in millimeters). — .Skull: Length of premaxilla 
29.8; length of mandible (approximate) 67.0. 

Atlas : Width 9.0 ; depth 8.3. 

Humerus: Length (approximate) 124.3 : transverse breadth across 
trochlea (approximate) 21.8. 

Metacarpus: Length (18.9; greatest height at proximal end 17.5; 
transverse breadth of shaft at center 5.5: vertical diameter at same 
point 6.2. 

Second digit: Length 27.9; greatest breadth at renter 5.2; greatest 
depth 10.4. 

Femur: Transverse diameter through head 20.1 ; diameter of head 
8.3 ; transverse diameter of shaft 9.6. 

Metatarsus: Transverse diameter through trochlea (approximate) 
18.0; transverse breadth of outer trochlea 3.9 ; (jf middle trochlea 5.3 ; 
of inner trochlea 7.0 ; least transverse breadth of shaft 9.0. 



NO. 19 OLIGOCENE EAGLE WETMORE 9 

Phalanges : Length of phalanx of first toe 32.3 ; transverse breadth 
at base 11.3. at center 6.2 ; length of basal phalanx of third toe 23.7; 
length of third phalanx of third toe 19.8. 

Remarks. — The general impression obtained from a survey of the 
skeleton of Palaeoplaimis is that of a bird with relatively small head 
like that of a golden eagle, moderately dcvelo])ed wings, strong legs, 
and large feet with unusually long and powerful toes. The relatively 
weak development of the tail indicates less rapid flight, or possiblv 
less addiction to soaring, than is seen in our living buteoninc hawks 
and our eagles, but at the same time the strong feet suggest a prclatory 
habit, and the grappling of active prey. 

After some consideration of the peculiarities of the metatarsus, 
furcula, and humerus, and the other features mentioned in the diag- 
nosis, it is seen that Palacoplaucus does not fall into any of the recog- 
nized subfamilies of the Accipitridae. It is like the buteonine group 
in general but differs in the points already indicated. The form of 
the pygostyle and of the furcula are somewhat like those of Haema- 
iornis (formerly called Spilornis^) in the Circaetinae, but no close 
alignment with this group is indicated. It seems necessary to propose 
that the form here described be recognized as a distinct subfamily to be 
called Palaeoplancinae, which should be placed between the Buteo- 
ninae and the Circaetinae. 

The species is named in honor of George F. Sternberg, skilled 
collector of vertebrate fossils, through whose efforts many valuable 
specimens have come to the National Museum. 



^ Swann, H. K., A monograph of the birds of prey, pt. 11, April i, 1933, p. 147. 



_~^^ 




:"\ 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87, NUMBER 20 



PLIOCENE BIRD REMAINS FROM 

IDAHO 

DEC 27 1933 



BY 
ALEXANDER WETMORE 

Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 




(Publication 3228) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

DECEMBER 27, 1933 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 

VOLUME 87. NUMBER 20 



PLIOCENE BIRD REMAINS FROM 

IDAHO 



BY 

ALEXANDER WETMORE 

Assistant Secretary Smithsonian Institution 









(Publication 3228) 



CITY OF WASHINGTON 
PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

DECEMBER 27, 1933 



Z^t £or6 (gdfftmorc (prsee 

BALTIMORE, MD., 0. S. A, 



PLIOCENE BIRD REMAINS FROM IDAHO 

By ALEXANDER WETMORE 

Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian In-stitution 

During the field seasons 1929 to 193 1 the Smithsonian Institution 
has carried on paleontologic explorations near Hagerman,. Idaho, 
which have yielded a most remarkable collection of fossil horse bones, 
a few other mammalian remains, and scattered bones of other verte- 
brates. The beds in which this material occurred were brought to 
attention in 1928, when Dr. Harold T. Stearns, of the United States 
Geological Survey, during geologic studies' in this area, was told of 
fossil deposits by Mr. Elmer Cook, a local resident. Dr. Stearns 
obtained from Mr. Cook a small collection of fossilized bones, and this 
collection, forwarded through the Geological Survey to the United 
States National Museum for examination, appeared so promising that 
the following June the late Dr. J. W. Gidley, assistant curator of 
mammalian fossils in the National Museum, went to Hagerman and 
made preliminary collections. These indicated that the deposits con- 
stituted one of the important discoveries in vertebrate paleontology 
in recent years, so that in ^lay 1930 Dr. Gidley again visited the site 
to continue work for the summer. The following year field-work was 
pursued under the direction of Norman H. Boss, chief preparator in 
the division of vertebrate paleontology of the National Museum.' The 
resulting collections from 3 years of effort include one of the most 
remarkable known series of fossil horse bones, of a species named by 
Dr. Gidley Plcsippus sJioshoncnsis.^ 

The fossil-bearing beds are in what is known as the Hagerman 
Lake beds. Although regarded by earlier authorities as Pleistocene. 
Stearns, through his detailed studies of this area, has placed these beds 
in the Upper Pliocene, in which conclusion he is supported by Gidley.' 

The principal quarry from which the fossil horse material was ob- 
tained is located in the face of the slopes lying above Snake River 



^See Explorations and Field-Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1931. 
Smithsonian Publ. 3134, 1932, PP- 41-44, figs. 35-39- 

^Journ. Mamm., 1930, p. 301. 

=■ For an account of Gidley's field-work in this area see Explorations and Field- 
Work of the Smithsonian Institution in 1929, Smithsonian Publ. 3060, 1930. 
pp. 31-34; idem, in 1930, Smithsonian Publ. 31", I93i. PP- 33-40- 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 87, No. 20 



2 SMITHSONIAN' MISCEl.LANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

about 2 miles in an airline west of Hagerman, the exact locality being 
NW^ Sec. 16, T. 76, R. 13 E. The elevation is about 400 feet above 
the level of Snake River. According to Gidley. 

the bone deposit was evidently at the time of its formation a boggy, springy 

terrain, perhaps a drinking place for wild animals This assumption is based 

on the general character of the deposits as stated, and the fact that it contains 
the bones of literally hundreds of animals, mostly belonging to an extinct species 
of horse. For the most part the bones are disarticulated, intermingled, and 
scattered in a way to suggest that they represent the slow accumulation of many 
years rather than the sudden overwhelming of a large herd in one grand 
catastrophe. Springs and swampy conditions are indicated from the fact that 
there are in the deposits the remains of frogs, fish, swamp turtles, beavers, and 
other water living animals, and abundant evidence of vegetation. 

The bones were found mainly in unconsolidated beds of sand and 
gravel . 

Considering the nature of these deposits and the large numbers of 
parts of other animals present, remains of birds are few. only two 
bird bones coming from the main quarry — a fragment of a swan 
humerus collected by Gidley and a bit from a pelican collected by Boss. 

For bird remains, a locality about 3 miles south of the fossil quarry 
described above is of more importance, as Gidley, assisted by S. P. 
Welles and Elmer Cook, obtained there in June 1930 a number of 
fragmentary specimens. These were labeled by Gidley as " from 
about 200 feet above level of Snake River and estimated to be about 
200 feet below horizon of fossil horse (PIcsippus sJwshonensts) 
quarry ". The deposit is Upper Pliocene. Additional specimens were 
collected subsequently at this point by Elmer Cook. 

It is unfortunate that the majority of these specimens are not more 
complete, as a highly interesting avifauna is indicated ; but with most 
of the species represented so indefinitely that they cannot be described 
their generic affinities are uncertain. To assign them names at this 
time would only give rise to uncertainty in subsequent work, so that 
they are listed with whatever discussion seems pertinent in the hope 
that further specimens may come to hand. 

Two additional specimens of the large Cygiius come from a locality 
designated as Canyon 9, 5I miles south of the main quarry, and at the 
same level as the fossil horse deposit. 

Subsequent to the field-work outlined additional specimens have 
been obtained from time to time from Mr. Cook, who found them in 
scattered areas south of the main quarry. Occurring also in Upper 
Pliocene deposits, these include fragmentary remains of several 
aquatic species of considerable interest. 



NO. 20 PLIOCENE Bllil) REMAINS^ — WETMORE 3 

The assemblage of birds is wholly of species of aquatic habit, thus 
bearing out Gidley's belief that the deposits were formed in bogs or 
swampy areas. 

A detailed discussion of the birds identified follows. Drawings 
illustrating this report have been made by Sydney Prentice. 

ANNOTATED LIST 

Order COLYMBIFORMES 

Family COLYMBIDAE. Grebes 

COLYMBUS sp. 

The distal end of a left humerus (U.S.N.M. no. 12825) was found 
by Elmer Cook in October 1930 at a site 6 miles south of the main 
quarry and about 300 feet above the level of the river. The specimen 
is identical in form with living Colymhus nigricollis and C. auritus, 
these two being identical in conformation and also indistinguishable in 
size in the part concerned. 

Colymbidae 

The head of a femur (U.S.N.M. no. 12242) from the deposit 
3 miles south of the Plesippus quarry and 200 feet above Snake River 
comes from a grebe, intermediate in size between the horned and the 
Holboell's grebe, that differs in its details from any of the genera of 
the family Colymbidae found in North America today. It seems to 
represent a distinct genus and certainly an unknown species but is 
considered too fragmentary to name at present. 

Order PELECANIFORMES 

Family PELECANIDAE. Pelicans 

PELECANTJS HALIEUS sp. nov. 

Characters.— Rsidius (figs. 1,2) similar in form to that of modern 
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin ' but much smaller ; slightly smaller 
than mod&vn Pelecamis occidentalis occidcntalis Linnaeus,' with bicipi- 
tal tubercle located nearer to head. 

Xypc U S N.M. no. 12233, proximal portion of right radius, col- 
lected July 20, 1931, by Norman H. Boss, from Upper Pliocene 



'Pelecanus erythrorhynchos Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. i, pt. 2, 1789, P- 57i. 
■Pelecanus Onocrotalus ^ occidentalis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, vol. i, 



1766, p. 215. 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 



1 

Fkjs. 1-2. — Type of Pelcconits haiicus. natural 
size. The smaller drawing depicts the distal end 
of the bone. 



NO. 20 PLIOCENE BIRD REMAINS WETMOKE C 

deposits of the Hagennan Lake beds, in the NW:|- Sec. i6, T. 76, 
R. 13 E., about 2 miles west of Hagerman, Idaho. 

Description. — Head quadrilateral in general outline, with angles 
rounded ; humeral facet well depressed ; ulnar facet slightly rounded, 
with head projecting at this point beyond line of shaft ; ligamental 
l>apilla strong, projecting as a shelf below level of head: bici])ital 
tubercle located only a short space below head, forming a sharji- 
angled ridge of slight prominence ; shaft moderately strong, somewhat 
inflated below head, flattened slightly from side to side at first, with 
a marked projection forming a ridge on outer aspect below head; 
beyond this the shaft becomes somewhat trihedral in outline, with the 
side facing the ulna more flattened, and then assumes a more rounded 
form ; shaft with a strong sigmoid fle:^ure. 

Measurements.— Tr^.n?,\trst diameter of head at right angles to 
ligamental papilla y.^ mm ; transverse diameter of head through and 
including ligamental papilla 9.5 mm ; distance from center of bicipital 
tubercle to margin of humeral facet 7.0 mm ; transverse diameter of 
shaft near center 6.8 mm. 

Remarks. — The radius, while susceptible of identification in dealing 
with fossil or modern birds, ordinarily is a bone with such slight 
dififerential characters that I have usually considered it of doubtful 
value in determining the identity of species where other material cor- 
roborative of the identification was lacking. The specimen used here 
as a type, though laid aside with scant attention when first brought 
to me, to my surprise has on study proved to be so characteristic that 
it serves to establish an extinct form without the slightest doubt or 
confusion. It is therefore used as the basis for a new name. 

In outline this bone is a diminutive replica of the corresponding- 
part in the American white pelican, common today in the general 
area under discussion. It difTers distinctly from the salt-water-in- 
habiting brown pelicans, in which the bicipital tubercle is located 
relatively farther below the head. In size Pelecamu halieus is slightly 
smaller than the West Indian race of P. occidentalis. Resemblance to 
the white pelican, except for its smaller dimensions, is remarkably 
close, so that there is the distinct impression that the bird is closely 
related to P. erythrorhynchos. 

Family PHALACROCORACIDAE. Cormorants 

PHALACROCORAX IDAHENSIS (Marsh) 

Gracuhis idahensis Marsh, Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 49, 1870, p. 216. 

The distal portion of a left ulna (U.S.N.M. no. 12240) was col- 
lected in 1930 about 200 feet above Snake River and the same distance 



6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

below the fossil horse horizon. The specimen comprises about one 
third of the bone. 

The type specimen of this cormorant is the proximal end of a 
right metacarpal, including about one half the bone, preserved with 
other material in the Marsh collection in the Peabody Museum at 
Yale University. Through the kindness of Dr. Malcolm R. Thorpe, 
an excellent cast of this type has been available for study, which has 
made possible proper consideration of its characters and relationships. 
In general, this type is similar to the metacarpal in modern Fhalacro- 
corax auritiis but is decidedly larger, being larger, in fact, than any 
living cormorant. It is about equivalent in size to the extinct Pallas's 
cormorant, Fhalacrocorax pcrspicillutits, from Bering Island, differing 
from this species in being more slenderly, less heavily, molded. 

The fragmentary ulna here under discussion is distinctly larger 
than that of living cormorants, though not quite as heavy as in P. 
perspicillatus. On this basis of relative proportion it is identified as 
P. idahensis. Its characters in general, aside from dimensions, are 
those of other cormorants, except that the carpal ridge is somewhat 
longer. This find represents the second known occurrence of this 
species. 

In the original description Marsh states that his type of idahensis 
" is from a fresh-water Tertiary deposit, probably of Pliocene age, 
on Castle Creek, Idaho Territory ". Dr. O. P. Hay ' places this 
locality in the Pleistocene, stating in the last reference given that it 
is from the Nebraskan stage. On this basis P. idahensis was listed as 
from the Pleistocene in the third and fourth editions of the " Check- 
list of North American Birds " prepared l)y committees of the Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union. Dr. Plarold T. Stearns, of the United 
States Geological Survey, who has done extensive work on the geology 
of this general area, informs me, however, in recent correspondence 
that the deposits at Castle Creek are correlative with the Hagerman 
beds or possibly older. This would place them in the Pliocene, so that 
Phalacrocorax idahensis should be allocated to the Pliocene, instead 
of to the Pleistocene as generally accepted at present. 

PHALACROCORAX AURITUS (Lesson) 

Carbo auritus Lesson, Traite d'Orn., Livr. 8, June 11, 1831, p. 605. 

A right metatarsus (U.S.N.M. no. 12239), complete except for 
slight wear on the margins of its various processes, was obtained in 



* Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. 179, 1901, p. 533; and Carnegie Inst. Washington, 
Publ. y22, 1923, p. 8. 



NO. 20 



PLIOCENE BIRD REMAINS WETMORK 



the same locality as the specimen identified as Phalacrocorax idahcnsis. 
about 3 miles south of the fossil horse quarry, 200 feet above the 
present level of Snake River, and the same distance below the fossil 
horse horizon. The specimen, like various others with which it was 
found, has a slightly porous surface but is well preserved. 

The association of this specimen with the fragmentary ulna identi- 
fied as Phalacrocorax idahensis immediately suggested that it might be 
that species. The relative proportions, however, are such as to indicate 
with certainty that this metatarsus comes from a much smaller l)ird. 





Pi(;s 3-4.— Metatarsus of Phalacrocorax ^ anritus 
from a Pliocene specimen, natural size. 

SO small that it must be considered as belonging to an entirely different 

species. r j u 

On careful comparison this metatarsus (figs. 3-4) is found to be 
identical with that of the existing double-crested cormorant. It is 
somewhat more slender than many individuals but is equalled m this 
respect by some specimens of the modern bird. Its contours are so 
exactly those of the existing species that there can be found no basis 
whatever for separating it as a distinct form. 

While it is commonly recognized that numerous fossils mdistm- 
guishable from living species and therefore identified as representing 
modern birds occur in Pleistocene deposits, it. may at first glance 
seem dubious or even impossible to carry this same procedure back 
into the Pliocene. The writer has in recent years expressed the belie t 



8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 87 

that our modern avifauna, in so far as its various species is concerned, 
has had its period of origin and evolution in the Tertiary period, with 
such changes as have since occurred confined to the minor dififerences 
that characterize geographic races or subspecies, these being expressed 
in color and in slight variations in size. As his work with the avian 
life of the past proceeds, he has become more and more convinced 
of these facts. It is therefore only natural to suppose that representa- 
tion of various modern species will be found in Pliocene deposits as 
more remains of birds from such horizons are discovered. This may 
be expected especially among such groups as the cormorants, which 
appear to be of ancient and long stabilized type. 

The modern cormorants of the species Phalacrocorax aitrltiis arc 
divided in current usage among four subspecies. Without anv attempt 
to identify the Plitjcene metatarsus here discussed as to geographic 
race, it may l)e said that it seems closest to Phalacrocorax aiiritiis 
albociliafus, now living in the Pacific coast region from northern 
Oregon south to Lower California, and on inland lakes from ( )regon 
and Utah south to Arizona and western Nevada. 

PHALACROCORAX sp. 

Among specimens collected by Elmer Cook are the heads of two 
coracoids from a cormorant slightly smaller and slenderer than the 
average for P. aurifits. One of these ( U.S.N.M. no. 12827) was ob- 
tained 5^ miles south of the main quarry at an elevation of 400 feet 
above the river in October 1930. The second specimen (U.S.N.M. 
no. 12828) was collected 4^ miles south of the Plesippus quarry and 
350 feet above the streauL These appear to represent a third species 
of cormorant from this Pliocene locality. 

Order ANSERIFORAIES 

Family ANATIDAE. Ducks. Geese, and Swans 

CYGNUS sp. 

The material collected in 1930 from the locality 200 feet above 
Snake River, and the same distance below the fossil horse horizon, 
includes the head of a metacarpus and the shaft of a metatarsus of 
a swan having the approximate size of the modern whistling swan, 
Cygniis columbianus. The specimens (U.S.N.M. no. 12238) are worn 
and broken and cannot be specifically identified. The head of a 
scapula (U.S.N.M. no. 12830), considerably worn, collected by Cook 
in November 1930, 5I miles south of the main quarry and 400 feet 



NO. 20 I'LIOCENI-: BIRD REMAINS WETMORE Q 

above the river, and another similar fragment (U.S.N. M. no. 12826) 
obtained by Welles 3 miles south of the main quarry opposite Two- 
mile Rapids on Snake River are also similar in size to this species. 

CYGNUS sp. 

Remains of a sw^an about as large as the modern trumpeter swan. 
Cygnus hnccinafor, are fairly abundant in the collection here under 
discussion but are all in such fragmentary condition as to make an 
attem])t at specific identification inadvisable. 

A small section of the lower end of the shaft of a right humerus 
(U.S.N.M. no. 12234) was collected in June 1930 from the main 
Plesippus quarry, being one of the few bird bones obtained from that 
excavation. This bone dififers from the humeri of modern swans ex- 
amined in having the brachial depression located nearer the external 
margin. 

The locality 200 feet above Snake River, from which the smaller 
swan was obtained, produced also the proximal ends of two scapulae 
(U.S.N.IM. no. 12243) of ^ larger species that should be mentioned 
here. They are about the same in size as the trumpeter. 

From another locality designated as Canyon 9, located 5^ miles 
south of the main Plesippus quarry, at the same level as that deposit, 
there were obtained the proximal ends of two metacarpals more or 
less fragmentary and worn (U.S.N.M. no. 12236). One of these is 
slightly larger than the other, the difiference probably being individual. 
A specimen (U.S.N.M. no. 12824) identical with these was collected 
in a locality indicated as Canyon 8, 5 miles south of the main quarry 
at an elevation of 200 feet above the river. 

CHEN PRESSA sp. nov. 

Characters. — Femur (figs. 5-8) similar in form to that of Chen 
Jiyperhorca (Pallas) ' but smaller; neck shorter, so that the space 
between the trochanter and the head is decidedly reduced. 

Type. — U.S.N.M. no. 12823, left femur, collected in February 1931 
by Elmer Cook from Upper Pliocene deposits of the Hagerman Lake 
beds I luile south of Plesippus quarry and 350 feet above level of 
Snake River, near Hagerman, Idaho. 

Description. — Head with upper free surface hemispherical (outer 
surface somewhat broken), indented slightly for the attachment of the 
round ligament, lower free margin undercut ; iliac facet broad and 
nearly plane; trochanter prominent (partly broken away), approach- 

' Anscr hypcrboreus Pallas, Spic. Zool., vol. i, fasc. 6, 1769, p. 25. 



10 



SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS 



VOL. 87 



ing very near to head and forming an abrupt right angle with the 
neck, the neck being appreciably shortened ; obturator ridge strong 
and prominent ; trochanteric ridge well developed ; a strong, sharply 
ridged linea aspera from below the head down the posterior (lower) 
surface of the shaft, becoming flattened and disappearing after trav- 
ersing about three fourths of the length; a nutrient foramen near its 







Figs. 5-8. — Four views of the type of Chen prcssa, 
natural size. The smaller drawings represent the 
proximal and distal ends respectively. 

lower end on the posterior face of the shaft ; another linea aspera. 
less elevated, but strongly marked, on anterior surface extending 
down from the trochanteric ridge for about two thirds the length ; 
shaft strong, straight, somewhat swollen at either end, cylindrical in 
the center and flattened slightly anteroposteriorly at proximal and 
distal extremities ; fibular condyle well developed (external surface 
partly broken away) with a flattened fibular groove; external condyle 
strongly ridged ; internal condyle heavily sculptured, flattened on 
articular surface, rising abruptly from the popliteal area ; inter- 



NO. 20 PLIOCENE BIRD REMAINS— WETMOKK II 

condylar fossa broadly open, leading anteriorly into a broad rotular 
groove. Bone brownish white, varying to slate or dull white at the 
extremities and along shaft ; strongly fossilized. 

Measurements. — Total length 66.9 mm, transverse breadth through 
head 15.4 mm, transverse breadth of shaft at center 6.7 mm. trans- 
verse breadth through condyles 16.5 mm. 

Remarks. — The type femur is about the size of the corresjjonding 
bone of the emperor goose, Philacte canagico, which may be taken as 
some criterion of the relative size of the new species. In the arrange- 
ment of the various tubercles on the shaft and in other particulars 
it agrees with CIicii and differs from Branfa, being closely similar. 
except as indicated above, to the modern snow geese. Tt represents 
an interesting addition to our steadily increasing list of fossil birds. 

QUERQUEDULA sp. 

In material collected Ijy Elmer Cook there is the distal end of a 
humerus (U.S.N.M. no. 12829) obtained February 11. 1931. in Can- 
yon 3. i^ miles south of the main quarry and 350 feet above the river, 
that represents a teal of this genus, being equal in size to males of 
Querquedula discors and Q. cyonoptcra. 

The upper section of a coracoid (U.S.N.M. no. 12833) secured 
in 1932, about 3 miles south of the Plcsippus quarry and al)0ut 200 
feet lower, agrees also in form and size with this genus, having the 
head slightly heavier than in Nettion, which is about equal in size. 

Anatidae 

• 

In material associated with the cormorant bones from a locality 
3 miles south of the Plesippus quarry there is the distal end of a 
metatarsus and the head of a humerus (U.S.N.M. no. 12241) belong- 
ing to this family that cannot be certainly identified. They represent 
birds about the size of the blue-winged teal ; the two may possil^ly 
come from one species, though this is not certain. They cannot be 
allocated to any genus on the basis of present information. 

The distal end of a tibio-tarsus (U.S.N.M. no. 12831) obtained by 
Cook about 3 miles south of the main quarry comes from another 
species of duck about the size of a shoveller but having the inter- 
condylar sulcus broader than in that species. It is so worn that it 
cannot be certainly identified. 



12 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 8/ 

Order GRUIFORMES 
Family GRUIDAE. Cranes 

Among miscellaneous fragments from a locality " about 3 milc^ 
south of Smithsonian Hill ", /. c, from the Plesippiis quarry, there 
is a section of the premaxilla of a crane (U.S.N.M. no. 12235) that is 
as large as the whooping crane, Gnis americana. This specimen 
seemingly represents a peculiar type of this family, as the groove on 
the low^er surface is unusually narrow, owing to the approximation of 
the projecting overhanging walls on either side. 

Family RALLIDAE. Rails, Coots, and Caliinulcs 
GALLINULA CHLOROPUS 

The distal end of a right tibio-tarsus (U.S.N.M. no. 12822) was 
found November 8, 1930. by Elmer Cook in Canyon 9, 54 miles south 
of the main quarry at a level 400 feet above the river. This specimen 
agrees in size with males of the modern Florida gallinule, being closely 
similar to U.S.N.M. no. 318852 male, from lie a Vache, Haiti. While 
Fnlica and Galliniila are closely similar in this part of the skeleton and 
in some individuals cannot be separated, this specimen shows the 
narrowed intercondylar sulcus and the form of the posterior articular 
surface characteristic of well-marked tibio-tarsi of GaUinuJa. Some 
modern birds have the intercondylar sulcus broader, but as indicated 
above this fossil is identical with at least one modern skeleton at hand. 

The identification of this bone carries this species back into the 
Pliocene ; it has been recorded previously as fossil from the Pleistocene 
of the Seminole Field and Itchtucknee River, Florida. 

Rallidae 

The distal end of a tibio-tarsus (U.S.N.M. no. 122^,"/) from the 
deposit 3 miles south of the fossil quarry, and 200 feet above Snake 
River, is distinctly ralline in form, but from the fragment at hand 
cannot be definitely allocated except to state that it represents either 
a coot {Fnlica) or a gallinule {GaJIiiiula)- — probably the former. It 
comes from a bird about one half or less the size of the modern 
American coot. 

Another species of this family, represented by a fragment of a meta- 
carpal intermediate in size between the sora {Porzana Carolina) and 
the king rail {Rallus clcgans), was collected by Elmer Cook in 1932 
at a point about 3 miles south of the Plcsippns quarry, and 200 feet 
lower in elevation (U.S.N.M. no. 12832). The specimen is too 
fragmentary to be definitely identified. 




i 



I