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Full text of "Smithsonian year"

BOSTON 

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LIBRiu-Y 




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SMITHSONIAN 

YEAR 
1965 



Smithsonian Year 
1965 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOR THE YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30, 1965, INCLUDING THE 
FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE 
COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Washington 1965 




With this, the first issue of the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution to appear under the general title THE SMITHSONIAN 
YEAR, certain changes have been instituted in the procedures pertaining to 
Smithsonian annual reports: 

1. The Annual Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (now 

THE SMITHSONIAN YEAR) will no longer be followed by the green- 
bound volume containing the General Appendix of articles in the sciences 
and the arts. The last of the old series is that for 1 964. 

2. The objectives of the General Appendix, according to present plans, will be 

met by an annual volume in the nature of a Smithsonian yearbook, an 
anthology of distinguished and important contributions to the sciences and 
the arts written by authorities in their fields and presented for the general 
reader. The first of these yearbooks will appear in the spring of 1966 and 
may be purchased. It will contain the eleven addresses delivered at the 
scholarly sessions of the Smithson Bicentennial Celebration held in Wash- 
ington in September 1965. 

3. The Report of the United States National Museum will no longer be issued 

initially as a separate document but incorporated in THE SMITH- 
SONIAN YEAR together with the reports of the other branches of the 
Smithsonian. Reprints of each of the agency reports will be available. 



SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATION 4648 



Contents 



Page 

The Establishment iv 

The Smithsonian Institution v 

Statement by the Secretary 1 

United States National Museum 19 

Museum of Natural History 23 

Research and Publications 31 

The Collections 86 

Exhibits 98 

Museum of History and Technology 105 

Research and Publications 110 

The Collections 124 

Exhibits 135 

Visitor Services 140 

International Exchange Service 145 

National Zoological Park 159 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 211 

National Collection of Fine Arts 245 

Freer Gallery of Art 265 

National Gallery of Art 287 

Canal Zone Biological Area 307 

National Air Museum 315 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 327 

National Portrait Gallery 345 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 353 

Science Information Exchange 361 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 367 

Smithsonian Museum Service 371 

Smithsonian Institution Library 377 

Publications and Information 389 

Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents 403 

Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 429 



The Establishment 



Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States 
Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the United States 
Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States 
Dean Rusk, Secretary of State 
Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury 
Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense 
Nicholas de B. Katzenbach, Attorney General 
John A. Gronouski, Postmaster General 
Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of the Interior 
Orville L. Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture 
John T. Connor, Secretary of Commerce 
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary of Labor 
Anthony J. Celebrezze, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 



The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 
1846, in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, 
of England, who in 1 826 bequeathed his property to the United 
States of America "to found at Washington, under the name 
of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase 
and diffusion of knowledge among men." In receiving the 
property and accepting the trust, Congress determined that the 
Federal Government was without authority to administer the 
trust directly, and, therefore, constituted an "establishment," 
whose statutory members are "the President, the Vice President, 
the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive departments." 



The Smithsonian Institution 
June 30, 1965 



Presiding officer ex officio 

Chancellor 

Regents of the Institution 



Executive Committee 

Secretary 

Assistant Secretaries 



Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United 
States 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United 
States 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United 
States, Chancellor 

Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the 
United States 

Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the Senate 

J. William Fulbright, Member of the Senate 

Leverett Saltonstall, Member of the Senate 

Frank T. Bow, Member of the House of 
Representatives 

Michael J. Kirwan, Member of the House of 
Representatives 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of 
Representatives 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Robert V. Fleming, citizen of Washington, 
D.C. 

Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of Dela- 
ware 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

Jerome C. Hunsaker, citizen of Massachusetts 

Robert V. Fleming, Chairman, Clinton P. 
Anderson, Caryl P. Haskins 

S. Dillon Ripley 

James Bradley, Assistant Secretary (Admin- 
istration) 

T. Dale Stewart, Acting Assistant Secretary 
(Science) 



Statement by the Secretary 




Music on the Mall for summer visitors to Washington and the Smithsonian 
is heralded by tower music — trumpets playing on the north portico of the 
Smithsonian Building. 





An audience of 12,000 at a Music on the Mall concert in summer 1965 heard 
the National Symphony Orchestra, under Howard Mitchell, play Aaron 
Copeland's Lincoln Portrait. The late Ambassador to the United Nations, 
Adlai E. Stevenson, was narrator. 






Statement by the Secretary 
S. Dillon Ripley 



In presenting this report in the year 1965, which marks the two- 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of James Smithson, it is 
appropriate to turn back to some of the thoughts of Joseph 
Henry, the first Secretary, who labored to make the Institution 
truly a center for "enlarging the bounds of human thought." 
This year it has been my privilege, representing the Institution, 
to testify before a Congressional Subcommittee on Science, 
Research, and Development on the subject of the National 
Science Foundation. One of the topics of that testimony was 
the increasing need for supporting basic rather than applied 
research. In 1854 Professor Henry was much concerned about 
the state of the increase of knowledge in America, one of the 
foundation stones of James Smithson's famous will. Joseph 
Henry felt that comparatively little encouragement was being 
given to the "increase" of knowledge. As he wrote: "As soon 
as any branch of science can be brought to bear on the neces- 
sities, conveniences, or luxuries of life, it meets with encourage- 
ment and reward. Not so with the discovery of the incipient 
principles of science. The investigations which lead to these 
receive no fostering care from government, and are considered 
by the superficial observer as trifles unworthy the attention of 
those who place the supreme good in that which immediately 
administers to the physical necessities or luxuries of life." 

As he further stated, the Institution has "two fundamental 
maxims ... to do nothing with its funds which can equally 
well be done by other means; and, second, to produce results 
which, as far as possible, will benefit mankind in general" 
(hence our interest in basic research). What then are the ac- 
tivities with which the Smithsonian staff feels it can primarily 
concern itself and what have been some of the results in the past 
year? 

1 

789-427—66 3 



2 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

In the science field noteworthy activities of the Museum of 
Natural History staff included the following : 

In a paper to be published in a forthcoming issue of Deep Sea 
Research the first occurrence of a deepwater coral structure out- 
side of the North Atlantic is recorded. This structure was dis- 
covered by Dr. Donald F. Squires in the Sub-Antarctic Islands 
of New Zealand while he was cooperating with the New Zealand 
Oceanographic Institute's oceanographic program in that region. 
Coupling his knowledge of living coral structures of the eastern 
coast of the United States with study of the deepwater fossil 
structure in New Zealand, Dr. Squires was able to postulate 
sequences in the development of the coral structure. Stages of 
development lead from a colony of coral up to several meters in 
diameter through the accumulation of dead skeletal material and 
living animals in distinctive communities to form a coral bank 
several kilometers in diameter and as high as 50-60 meters. 
Intermediate stages of development, termed "thicket" and 
"coppice," have been identified in the fossil record. 

Several important scientific discoveries were made by the 
department of mineral sciences during the past year. These 
include the discovery by Dr. Kurt Fredriksson, division of 
meteorites, of a glass with inclusions of metallic nickel-iron in 
the Chainpur chondrite. This discovery, which was studied in 
detail with the division's new electron microprobe, is of funda- 
mental importance in determining the origin of chondrules and 
of chondritic meteorities in general. 

As part of a cooperative study with Woods Hole and Scripps 
Oceanographic Institutions, Dr. William G. Melson of the divi- 
sion of petrology discovered metabasalts in ocean dredge 
samples from the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. Such rocks may require 
modifications of existing theories about the origin of the Mid- 
Atlantic Ridge, and about processes of rock formation beneath 
the sea floor. 

While participating in the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian 
Biological Survey of Dominica, entomologist Paul Spangler dis- 
covered for the first time the presence on the island of the snail 
Planorbina glabrata (Say), the intermediate host of the principal 
helminthic disease of man, schistosomiasis. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 3 

In a study of yucca moths, Dr. Donald R. Davis has proved 
beyond doubt the close relationship between agave and yucca 
through the habits of the moths. The two genera of plants have 
always been placed in two families, but the evidence concerning 
the moths suggests that the two genera of plants should be 
associated in one. 

In a study of material collected on the mid-Pacific Island of 
Rapa, Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke has found that an ancient connec- 
tion between the fauna of Rapa with those of Australia, New 
Zealand, and South Africa is apparent. 

In the area of anthropology Dr. K. V. Flannery's preliminary 
research in the Valley of Oaxaca, southern Mexico, has verified 
the presence in many of the caves and rockshelters of abundant 
perishable remains of human occupation, and has determined 
that the corn cobs, cactus fruits, fragments of squash, etc., and 
associated artifacts came from the period 6500-2500 B.C. 
During this time the development of domesticated plants and 
of techniques for growing them provided the basis of the all 
important change to settled village life, rapid population growth, 
and increasingly complex socioeconomic and religious systems. 
Thus Oaxaca joins a few other localities in Mexico in developing 
the prerequisities of civilization as we presently are inclined to 
describe it. 

Dr. W. H. Crocker continued his field work among the Canela 
Indians of Brazil. He found that under the pressure of expand- 
ing non-Indian settlement and the destruction of their simple 
way of life, they were experiencing a messianic movement, led 
by a prophetess whom he was able to study at first hand. Rarely 
has a social scientist been able to observe at close quarters the 
social, psychological, and ecological revolution that a people 
undergoes with the impact of shattering external contacts — a 
microcosm of much of the upheaval today throughout the 
world's developing nations. 

For more than 19 years the Smithsonian has administered the 
Panama Canal Zone Biological area, whose scientists are engaged 
primarily in behavioral and ecological studies. Four Smith- 
sonian staff members are currently employed. Dr. Martin 
Moynihan is investigating the evolution of behavior in New 
World primates and passerines, particularly the evolution of 



4 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

social signal systems. Dr. Robert Dressier is continuing his 
work on the pollination relationships among the New World 
orchids. Dr. Neal Smith is studying the evolution and genetics 
of egg-mimicry in parasitic cuckoos, and has initiated a study of 
avian species diversity in tropical grasslands. The newest 
member of the staff, Dr. Stanley Rand, is continuing his studies 
on the ecology of iguanid lizards and has begun investigating 
the role of vocalizations in the social organization of certain 
neotropical frogs. 

The Institution's Radiation Biology Laboratory investigates 
the direct effects upon, or the indirect control of the functions of, 
living organisms by radiation. One of the significant achieve- 
ments has been the development of instrumentation to measure 
the spectral quality of sunlight, in 1 00-millimicron bands, from 
sunrise to sunset throughout the year. The data that are being 
accumulated by means of this instrumentation have been cited 
as urgently needed by biologists who deal with light as an 
environmental factor. Advances have been made in other areas 
of the research program, such as additional information toward 
determining the chemical structure of polyphosphate com- 
pounds in marine organisms and algae, the light-stimulated 
metabolism of sugars in plant development, and improved 
techniques for removing radioactive radon from carbon-dating 
samples so that samples may be counted without the 30-day 
delay previously necessary. 

During the past year's work at the Smithsonian's Astrophysical 
Observatory satellite-tracking data from the Baker-Nunn 
cameras at the 12 astrophysical observing stations were used to 
make more accurate determinations of the gravitational poten- 
tial of the earth, and of the station positions. Analyses of 
atmospheric drag on satellites and the atmospheric variations 
deduced from it have been completed for half a solar cycle from 
the maximum of solar activity during the International Geo- 
physical Year through the minimum during the International 
Year of the Quiet Sun. Baker-Nunn photographs of comets 
are being reduced in studies of tail motions and brightness as a 
function of solar activity. The camera network also continues to 
observe flare stars. The Prairie Network of automatic cameras 
for simultaneous photography of very bright meteors went into 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 5 

full operation this year and has already collected significant 
data. The Harvard-Smithsonian Meteor Radar Network has 
been improved to achieve greater sensitivity and accuracy. 
Observations of artificial meteors launched from Wallops 
Island have been made, and the data are being reduced. New 
measurements of radioactive and stable isotopes in meteorites 
and in dust samples from the Greenland Ice-Cap and elsewhere 
have been carried out. In theoretical astrophysics, studies of 
stellar atmospheres and of very massive and very dense systems 
continue. Of the observatory's flight experiments, the proto- 
type of Project Celescope is undergoing environmental testing 
while flight hardware is being constructed, a spark-chamber for 
detection of gamma rays during balloon flights has been fabri- 
cated and is now being tested and calibrated. 

In American studies, a wide variety of techniques were 
employed in field, laboratory, and library to advance the research 
program of the Museum of History and Technology. Among the 
year's accomplishments have been the perfection of underwater 
surveying and measuring methods by Mendel L. Peterson in 
exploring a late 16th-century shipwreck off Bermuda; the use 
of tape recorder and camera by Mr. and Mrs. C. Malcolm 
Watkins in recording the survival of folk potterymaking in 
Moore County, North Carolina; and the completion of a 700- 
page manuscript, The Origins of Chemistry, based upon studies of 
archival and printed sources, by Dr. Robert P. Multhauf. In 
addition, John C. Ewers has prepared a book, Artists of the Old 
West, profusely illustrated with reproductions in black-and-white 
and color of historically significant drawings and paintings 
from museum collections of the United States, Canada, and 
Europe. 

A hallmark of the Smithsonian's research enterprise is that it 
draws upon a highly diverse community of scholars whose con- 
certed efforts can transcend narrow disciplinary approaches to 
learning. It undertakes to pursue those courses of investigation 
uniquely suited to its institutional character, especially those 
which illuminate the ways in which diverse areas of knowledge 
are interdependent. An example of this lies in the character 
and collections of the Freer Gallery of Art. As always, research 
has been the primary activity. Man's history and culture; the 



6 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

organization of life ; the nature of the universe : these are time- 
less questions. For more than a century they have been the 
central concerns of Smithsonian research. 

The major joint effort this past year, occupying three Freer 
staff members, has been devoted to the final stages of the cata- 
logue of Chinese ceremonial bronzes which has been in prepara- 
tion for some time. Individual projects range through such 
diverse fields as History of Pigments and Coloring Materials, 
Biographical Studies of Chinese Painters, Buddhist Wall Paint- 
ings in Afghanistan, Yamatoe Painting and Design in Japan, 
Dionysiac Elements in Sasanian Art, and Early Distribution 
of Chinese and Japanese Porcelain in World Trade. The 
traditional close collaboration with the University of Michigan 
in the teaching of oriental art has been maintained; and two 
curators have taught regularly scheduled courses at the New York 
University and Johns Hopkins University. A Freer staff member 
has been active on the American committee planning the great 
exhibition to be sent to this country by the Japanese Govern- 
ment in the coming year and has also supervised the preparation 
of the catalogue. 

The preceding are all examples of research in which part of 
the staff happen to be concerning themselves. Much of this 
research depends upon collections of objects which already 
belong to the Smithsonian, those 57 million objects so often 
referred to, that vast accretion. Some, like the original Wilkes 
Exploring Expedition collections arrived fortuitously and were 
thrust upon the Institution. Some, like insects from the Island 
of Dominica recently collected, have been eagerly sought 
after by Smithsonian scientists as evidence of the principles of 
evolution. It should never be forgotten that the collections of 
the Institution are intended for original investigation. The 
Nation has no need of an attic as such, nor should any curator be 
charged simply with housekeeping or janitorial tasks. 

In our efforts to maintain the levels of excellence to which the 
Smithsonian justly lays claim we must demonstrate to the Nation 
and to international scholarship our valid and continuing stew- 
ardship of these collections through research. The technical 
and learned staff of the Smithsonian cannot perform this notable 
task alone. This is why this year we have issued the first "Re- 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 7 

search Opportunities" pamphlet, listing some of the many pos- 
sibilities in undergraduate and summer programs, in graduate 
studies, and in postdoctoral research available to the Nation's 
students and scholars for study here. In this cause we are selfish. 
We wish to replicate ourselves, to exhibit to others how many and 
how intriguing are the avenues to the increase of knowledge 
which lie within our doors. What greater pleasure could we 
as scholars afford than to exhibit our collections, our objects as 
source material for study? To open avenues to this study 
should be our primary objective. To study objects is to return 
to the original wellsprings, like the documents and manu- 
scripts preserved in a library. The objects are our archives. 
From them we can construct concepts about the very nature of 
man himself and that "invisible wall which bounds the prison 
of our knowledge." 

Without such a positive attitude toward our collections not 
only will we never be through curating them but we will never 
have properly evoked the knowledge which lies within our 
grasp in their constructive study. Anthropologists know this. 
The dwindling realms of primitive peoples, people who live on 
a different scale and time from ourselves, have yielded up vast 
storehouses of ethnography, some of which has revealed truths 
about patterns of human life to students from the days of Powell 
and Morgan to the more contemporary, Boas, Malinowski, and 
Mead. Present-day anthropology is in a quandary about peoples 
and social organization. How right were some of the earlier 
theorists? Should the theories not be reexamined? One way 
to do it, one way to reillumine the scene with vigor and new 
intellectual clarity would be to reexamine the objects themselves. 
The objects at least still exist, and most of the documents, 
journals, and accounts that go with them. Social anthropolo- 
gists of the future will be derelict in their duty to the whole 
realm of social psychology and cultural evolution if they do not 
turn again to the objects, the life formulae, which can speak to 
them as surely as to any artist or sculptor. 

There is a relation, not tenuous, between the objects and the 
thoughts they evoke and the most basic principles of education. 
Somewhere in this unrealized, metaphysical half-world there 



8 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

may lie a key to the present baffling phenomenon to educators, 
the problems of how to interest anyone in anything. 

Today, with our national hopes and goals in education, there 
is a sense of urgency in this. As part of the President's war on 
poverty and the Youth Opportunity and United Planning Or- 
ganization campaigns, the Smithsonian has taken on over 100 
youths in various summer programs of training opportunities. 
In addition we have undertaken a voluntary Teacher Institute 
for 50 social science instructors from a poverty area in order to 
train these instructors in how to use the museums as teaching 
tools. These are the areas of interest with which the Smith- 
sonian should experiment. It may be that the Institution, as 
well as museums in general, is especially qualified to develop 
interests and technical skills in many young people who do not 
respond to more conventional educational techniques. 

We hope that this year of the observance of the bicentennial of 
James Smithson's birth will mark a reawakening of under- 
standing of the role and the utility of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion in many areas little known to our people, in areas of re- 
search, of the study of conservation, of knowledge of nature and 
the atmosphere, of those dwindling populations of men whose 
adjustment to their environment is radically different from our 
own, of those dwindling populations of species of animals and 
plants the world around that are becoming extinct often because 
of relentless pressures unleashed by man himself. Finally, in the 
world of creative art and expression the Smithsonian plays a 
role in which historical studies become one, with recurring pat- 
terns, with those which help to lay bare the mysteries of the 
universe, and the life processes which make it up. The Smith- 
sonian as it has grown and as it exists lays open a simple present 
truth. There are no "two cultures." We are all, scientists and 
historians, concerned with a common intellectual process, not 
merely with concepts of it, involving a morphology of forms and 
in the end a similar testimony to "the increase of knowledge." 

The Board of Regents 

The membership of the Board of Regents remained unchanged 
except for the new Vice President of the United States, the 
Honorable Hubert H. Humphrey, who became an ex officio 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 9 

member on January 20, 1965, filling the seat formerly occupied 
by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The roll of Regents at the 
close of the fiscal year was as follows: Chief Justice of the 
United States Earl Warren, Chancellor; members from the 
Senate: Clinton P. Anderson, J. William Fulbright, Leverett 
Saltonstall ; members from the House of Representatives : Frank 
T. Bow, Michael J. Kirwan, George H. Mahon; citizen mem- 
bers: John Nicholas Brown, William A. M. Burden, Robert V. 
Fleming, Crawford H. Greenewalt, Caryl P. Haskins, Jerome C. 
Hunsaker. 

The customary informal dinner meeting, preceding the annual 
meeting, was held on January 27, 1965, in the reception room of 
the Museum of History and Technology. Dr. Richard S. 
Cowan spoke on "The Smithsonian Institution's Bredin-Arch- 
bold Biological Survey of Dominica"; Mendel L. Peterson on 
"New Methods of Surveying Ancient Shipwrecks" ; and Dr. 
I. E. Wallen on "Oceanography in the Smithsonian." 

The annual meeting was held on January 28, 1965, in the 
conference room of the Museum of History and Technology. 
The Secretary presented his published annual report on the 
activities of the Institution. The chairman of the Executive 
and Permanent Committees of the Board, Dr. Robert V. 
Fleming, gave the financial report for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1964. 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was held on 
May 19 in the conference room of the Smithsonian building. 
An informal dinner followed in the newly decorated Regents' 
room. 

Finances 

A statement of finances, dealing particularly with Smithsonian 
private funds, will be found in the report of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Board of Regents, page 401. 

Funds appropriated to the Institution for its regular operations 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1965, totaled $15,540,000 and 
were obligated as follows : 

Astrophysical Observatory $1, 247, 610 

Bureau of American Ethnology 114, 648 



10 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Canal Zone Biological Area SI 79, 640 

International Exchange Service 113, 330 

National Air Museum 319, 601 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 75, 302 

National Collection of Fine Arts 158, 971 

National Portrait Gallery 75, 004 

United States National Museum 5, 838, 639 

Office of the Secretary 395, 052 

Buildings Management Department 5, 322, 564 

Administrative Services 1, 677, 888 

Unobligated 21, 751 

Besides this direct appropriation, the Institution received 
funds by transfer from other Government agencies as follows: 
from the District of Columbia for the National Zoological Park, 
$1,738,565; from the National Park Service, Department of the 
Interior, for the River Basin Surveys, $237,000. 

Lectures 

Stella Mary Newton, formerly consultant on historic dress 
and adviser to the Restoration Department of the National 
Gallery, London, England, delivered an illustrated lecture, 
"Social Implications in the Costumes in Hogarth's Paintings," 
in the auditorium of the Museum of History and Technology on 
the afternoon of October 27, 1964. 

Vice Admiral Friedrich O. Ruge, GN (Ret.), gave an illus- 
trated lecture on "Rommel and the Invasion of Western Europe 
in 1944" in the auditorium of the Museum of Natural History 
on the evening of November 23, 1964. This lecture was spon- 
sored jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and the Naval 
Historical Foundation. 

Paul MacKendrick, professor of classics at the University of 
Wisconsin, lectured on "Athenian Aristocracy: Archaeological 
Evidence," in the auditorium of the Museum of History and 
Technology on the evening of February 11, 1965. This illus- 
trated lecture was sponsored jointly by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion and the Archaeological Institute of America. 

Scott Symons, assistant curator-in-charge of the Canadiana 
collections, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, gave an 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 11 

illustrated lecture, "French Ganadiana Versus the American 
Dream," in the auditorium of the Museum of History and 
Technology on the evening of February 16, 1965. 

The second Edwin A. Link Lecture, "The United States and 
the Oceans," was delivered by Lt. Cmdr. Don Walsh, U.S.N., 
in the auditorium of the Museum of Natural History on the eve- 
ning of February 17, 1965. This series of lectures, made possible 
by a grant from the Link Foundation, is administered by the 
Smithsonian Institution in cooperation with the U.S. Office of 
Education. 

Dr. A. G. W. Cameron, senior scientist, Goddard Institute 
for Space Studies, Columbia University, gave the 30th Annual 
James Arthur Lecture on the Sun on the evening of March 10, 
1965, in the auditorium of the Freer Gallery of Art. His subject 
was "The Early History of the Sun." 

Several lectures sponsored by the Freer Gallery of Art and the 
National Gallery of Art are listed in the reports of these bureaus. 

Visitors 

Visitors to the six buildings comprising the Smithsonian com- 
plex on the Mall this year again surpassed all preceding records 
with a total of 13,153,713, which was 2,340,518 more than in 
fiscal 1964. August 1964, with 2,517,672, was the month of 
largest attendance, and July 1964 was second with 2,250,105. 
The greatest number of visitors for a single day was 109,839 on 
April 19, 1965. The tabulation on page 12 gives a summary of 
attendance records for the six buildings. The National 
Zoological Park had an estimated 4,536,256 visitors during the 
year. This figure, added to the attendance in the Institution's 
buildings on the Mall, and to the 1,253,102 recorded at the 
National Gallery of Art, brings the total Smithsonian attendance 
for fiscal 1965 to 18,943,071. 

New Offices 

Mindful of the widening horizons and varied opportunities 
facing the Institution, the Smithsonian established three new 
offices in the past year: 



12 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



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STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 13 

Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. — On February 1, 
1965, the Bureau of American Ethnology and the Department 
of Anthropology of the Museum of Natural History were com- 
bined to form the new Smithsonian Office of Anthropology 
under the Museum of Natural History. This consolidation 
unites the efforts and resources of the Institution in modern 
programs in ethnology, linquistics, archeology, and physical 
anthropology. Dr. Richard B. Woodbury was appointed its 
acting head. Activities of the new office as well as the bureau's 
accomplishments in the past year are given on pages 39-53 of 
this report. 

Division of Education and Training. — Recognition of the 
Smithsonian's responsibilities and opportunities in research and 
higher education led to the establishment in October 1964 of 
the Division of Education and Training. Effective July 1, 1965, 
Dr. Charles Blitzer was appointed its director. The objective 
of this new division is to bring about the fullest use of the Insti- 
tution's resources — both its collections and its distinguished staff 
of scientists and scholars — and to make these resources available 
to the scientific and scholarly community at large. This objec- 
tive is being pursued through a variety of programs. 

Under one of these programs the Smithsonian entered into 
agreements with a number of universities for cooperation in 
postgraduate education. Typically, such agreements contem- 
plate use of the Smithsonian collections by Ph. D. candidates 
with the supervision of Smithsonian staff members ; often, closer 
ties are developed between Smithsonian scholars and the 
universities' graduate departments. During the year under 
review, cooperative programs were established with the Uni- 
versity of Kansas for graduate training in botany and pale- 
ontology, with the University of Pennsylvania for graduate 
training in the history and philosophy of science, and with the 
George Washington University for graduate training in 
American Studies, in museum techniques, and in sedimentology. 
At the end of the year negotiations were in progress for similar 
cooperative programs in anthropology, botany, field biology, 
the fine arts, the history of art, and marine science. 

The results of these programs — already measurable in those 
that have been operating for some time — will be the develop- 



14 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

ment of highly trained specialists in areas of the sciences, the 
humanities, and the arts in which the Smithsonian traditionally 
has been involved, as well as the enhancement of research 
activities by the Institution's permanent staff as it is brought 
into closer contact with colleagues in the academic world. 

The Division of Education and Training also conducted two 
programs through which undergraduates and beginning grad- 
uate students are brought to the Smithsonian during the summer 
as junior research associates. Of the 53 students appointed 
under this program, 16 were supported by a grant to the Smith- 
sonian from the National Science Foundation's Undergraduate 
Research Participation Program. Appointments were based 
on academic achievement and potential for research, and con- 
siderable care was taken to ensure that each student's experi- 
ence would contribute significantly to his education. 

With a view toward extending the Smithsonian's services to 
the local research community, the Division of Education and 
Training conducted a survey of the educational activities of 
Federal research centers, private research centers, and uni- 
versities in and around the District of Columbia. Results of 
this study were made available to those concerned with the 
development of the area's potential for higher education. 

The division also arranged for the holding of a special summer 
institute for 50 social science teachers from the public schools 
of the District of Columbia. The purpose of the institute was 
to develop with the teachers ways of using the museums on the 
Mall as major educational resources for their classes. 

Throughout its history the Smithsonian has welcomed scien- 
tists and scholars from colleges, universities, and other research 
institutions in this country and abroad. Their use of the Smith- 
sonian's collections, and their association with its professional 
staff, clearly contribute to the purposes for which the Institution 
exists. Their presence testifies to the importance of the Smith- 
sonian's resources for research and, at the same time, serves lo 
enliven the scholarly atmosphere of the Institution. 

To encourage the use of the Smithsonian's resources by out- 
side investigators, and to ensure that their visits will prove as 
fruitful as possible both from the point of view of advancing 
human knowledge and from the point of view of the special 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 15 

concerns of the Smithsonian, the Division of Education and 
Training is developing a number of programs for visiting re- 
search associates. Funds, both public and private, are being 
sought for these programs. 

Office of Special Projects. — The Office of Special Projects 
was established this year with Robert N. Cunningham in charge. 

The primary concern of the office thus far has been the detailed 
and thorough preparation for the formal commemoration of the 
birth of the Institution's founder, James Smithson. The year 
1965 marks the 200th anniversary of his birth, and Congress 
designated September 17 and 18 as special days to honor Smith- 
son's memory. In addition to honoring the Institution's 
founder, the stated aims of the Bicentennial Celebration are : 

1. To pay tribute to the distinguished past of the Smith- 
sonian and affirm to its members and Regents, to scholars, 
scientists, and kindred institutions, and to the general public, 
the Smithsonian's intent to fulfill a vital and useful role in 
society; and 

2. To examine the nature of knowledge and creative dis- 
covery as conceived by Smithson and as understood today. 

The Office of Special Projects has also been laying the ground- 
work for the establishment of a Smithsonian Society of Associates, 
an organization seen as a national association with several types 
of membership, which would seek to diffuse knowledge of the 
Institution as widely as possible in order to enlarge understand- 
ing and support of its activities — thereby increasing the scope 
and depth of the Smithsonian's scientific, cultural, and educa- 
tional contributions to mankind. 




New flight cage at National Zoological Park was shown to distinguished 
guests by Secretary and Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley at formal opening in February 
1965. 



United States National Museum 




789-427—66 4 



United States National Museum 
Frank A. Taylor, Director 



The annual reporting procedures of the U.S. National Museum have 
been changed to take cognizance of the broadening scholarly horizons 
of the Smithsonian Institution and of the enlarged scope of the Museum 
of History and Technology resulting from the move to its new building. 

In order that its message reach a wider audience, the full report of 
the U.S. National Museum, rather than the condensed version pre- 
viously given, will be carried in Smithsonian Tear. Within the Museum 
Report, henceforth, the work of the component Museums of Natural 
History and of History and Technology will be treated separately. 
Furthermore, the contents of each report are rearranged to emphasize 
the fact that research and publication are the foundations from which 
arise the other activities and services of the Museum. To this end, 
also, a bibliography of staff publications is appended to the research 
report of each office and department. A full list of the publications 
issued by the Museum appears in the report on publications, on pages 
392-395. 

Those activities heretofore found under the Bureau of American 
Ethnology in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution are 
reported by the Museum on pages 39-53, under the Smithsonian Office 
of Anthropology, into which office the Bureau has been merged. 

The consolidated Annual Report formerly issued by the U.S. National 
Museum is discontinued. Instead, separates of the reports of its com- 
ponent Museums appearing in Smithsonian Tear will be available for 
those accustomed to receive the consolidated Annual Report. To each 
separate report will be appended a full list of the donors to that 
Museum. 

Conservation 

To serve the various museums of the Smithsonian Institution, a con- 
servation research laboratory has been established under the United 
States National Museum. Directed by Charles H. Olin, its offices are 
located in the Museum of History and Technology. 

The conservation research laboratory began the installation of 
equipment for physical and chemical analysis. This includes in- 

19 



20 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

strumentation for x-ray spectrography and x-ray diffraction, equipment 
for preparing, examining, and photographing cross-sections of metals, 
an infrared spectrophotometer, and accessory equipment. 

In the area of x-ray spectrography, qualitative spectra were used to 
identify the composition of metal alloys in objects from the Freer 
Gallery and from the divisions of archeology, numismatics, mechanical 
and civil engineering, medical sciences, and physical sciences of the 
Museum of History and Technology. Approximately one-fourth of 
the time devoted to x-ray analyses involved the establishment of 
sampling methods and standards. In quantitative analysis, an in- 
vestigation was begun into the method of sampling whereby drillings 
of the sample are pressed into a pellet. X-ray diffraction was used 
for the identification of corrosion products and pigments for the 
National Collection of Fine Arts and for the divisions of cultural 
history and archeology. 

Of 134 requests for analyses and conservation received, the laboratory 
completed 52 analyses and furnished the services required in 54 of 
the conservation requests. Advice was furnished on requirements 
for collection preservation involving air conditioning and the control 
of light and dust. Conservation treatment was performed on objects 
of bronze, glass, hide, ceramics, and wood; and also on paintings, 
prints, feathers, photographs, and archival materials, even though the 
facilities of the laboratory are designed for analysis and conservation 
research and not for treatment. 

The problem of providing an abstracting service for the fields of 
conservation and archeological chemistry was studied for the laboratory 
by Dr. Seymour Lewin, Conservation Center, New York University. 
His report, which evaluated the problem and outlined a program, is now 
being used to secure support for a proposed abstract journal. Professor 
Cyril Smith, who visited the laboratory for one week, prepared reports 
on the organization of the laboratory and on the metallographic 
examination of objects from Ecuador. 



Museum of Natural History 




Museum of Natural History 
T. Dale Stewart, Director 



The trend toward specialization in science has reached the point where 
few museum curators can be considered broad naturalists in the sense of 
some of their predecessors. Botanists more than ever concentrate on a 
portion of one plant family and disclaim anything but a general knowl- 
edge of other families. Vertebrate paleontologists work with larger 
assemblages, such as groups of reptiles, fishes, or mammals, but often 
in a single geographical area or geological epoch. Anthropologists 
study man from the standpoint either of some part of his physique or 
of his culture, and the latter only in its historic or its prehistoric aspect. 
And much the same holds for other specialties. For this reason, and 
also because more money is available for research than ever before, 
research projects in which many people from a number of disciplines 
participate have become customary. 

The Museum of Natural History finds itself involved in some large- 
scale projects of this sort. Mention has been made in previous reports, 
for example, of the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of 
Dominica. Since January 1964 when it was initiated, 24 specialists 
representing 10 disciplines have spent varying periods of time on this 
Caribbean island. The Smithsonian African Mammal Project has had 
altogether about 15 collectors in the field since 1961, giving attention 
not only to the mammals but to their ectoparasites. Also, the 
International Indian Ocean Expedition has included in its numerous 
cruises 11 specialists from the Museum representing 6 different fields, 
with a large back-up group in the Museum's Sorting Center hastening 
the preparation of the resulting collections. 

But the project which surpasses all others in number of personnel and 
size of the geographical area covered is the Pacific Ocean Biological 
Survey Program, described in the following section by its principal 
investigator. 



23 



24 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

An Ecological Survey of the Central Pacific 

The Smithsonian Institution is engaged in an ecological survey 
of a central Pacific area comprising some four and a third million 
square miles of open ocean, dotted here and there with clusters and 
strings of islands and atolls. The major goals of this survey are to 
learn what plants and animals occur on the islands in this vast region 
and the seasonal variations in their numbers and reproductive activities, 
and in addition to learn more about the factors which determine the 
distribution and abundance of the birds of the open ocean in that 
environment. 

The survey is designed to accumulate in a few years sufficient data 
on the plants and animals, on the pelagic birds at sea, and on climatic 
and oceanographic variables, to permit broad ecological conclusions 
to be drawn. 

To initiate the survey, the Smithsonian sent several small field parties 
to the Hawaiian Leeward and Phoenix Islands. As the survey grew 
in scope, other institutions and government agencies joined the effort, 
and today the Smithsonian alone has a combined field and laboratory 
staff of about 40 intensively studying the plants and animals of 33 
islands. 

The main area of interest (see map), which represents only a small 
fraction of the total Pacific Ocean, was more or less arbitrarily delimited 
to include a wide variety of island groups and oceanic conditions. It 
spans the Equator, extending from latitudes 30° N. to 10° S., and it 
includes islands and island groups from longitudes 150° to 180° W. 
Most of the islands are products of coral construction on worn-off 
volcanic upheavals— the tops of the submarine mountain ranges which 
spring up from the ocean floor 15,000 to 18,000 feet below. The 
Hawaiian Islands stretch for 1,578 miles across the northern end of the 
study area. Johnston Atoll, an isolated surface indication of the vast 
mid-Pacific mountain range, lies 450 miles south of the Hawaiian ridge. 
Farther south and to the east, the Line Islands stretch in a long chain 
across the Equator. In the southwestern corner of the study area 
Howland and Baker lie just north of the Equator, the Phoenix Islands 
are clustered 3° to 5° south of it, and the Tokelaus lie 5° farther south. 

Except for the main Hawaiian Islands and certain of the Line and 
Phoenix Islands, this whole area is characterized by low rainfall. The 
majority of the low-lying coral islands have desert climates. Their 
sparse vegetation consists of a few grasses, herbs, and dwarf shrubs. 

A few species of terrestrial mammals and reptiles, some of them 
introduced by man, occur on several of the islands, but across this vast 
central-Pacific area, oceanic birds are the dominant terrestrial verte- 



r 




Pacific Ocean Biological Survey party landing on Lisianski Island, Hawaii. 
Below: Campsite on Phoenix Island. 





' • .". 



Banding a blue-faced booby at Gardiner pinnacles, Hawaiian Islands. Below: 
Sooty-tern colony on Laysan Island. Background vegetation is bunch grass 
(Eragrostis variabilis) and escaped cultivated tobacco. (See pp. 26-27.) 







MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY — INTRODUCTION 25 



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. HOWLAND 



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Area of Pacific Ocean Biological Survey spans the Equator, extending from 
latitudes 30° N. to 10° S. and from longitudes 150° to 180° W. (See p. 24.) 



789^27—^66 6 



26 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

brates. Apart from the endemic and introduced birds on the 
main Hawaiians and certain of the Hawaiian Leeward and Line 
Islands, about 90 species occur as migrants, accidentals, or nesting 
birds. On islands of the area, 28 species of oceanic birds are known to 
nest, and an additional 21 species occur as regular migrants or 
accidentals. 

The ecology of oceanic birds is a curious hybrid between the ter- 
restrial ecology of islands and the ecology of the sea (more often called 
oceanography), in that the surrounding ocean provides food for the 
island avifauna and affects the climate of the island as well. The 
ecology of the oceanic birds under study, moreover, is affected not only 
by conditions on and around the islands, but by conditions in regions 
remote from the central Pacific. 

Present conditions on these islands reflect the introduction of many 
species of plants and animals over the years by man, who has also made 
major changes in the distribution and abundance of soils and other 
surface materials by his guano mining during the latter part of the 
19th century. Hence, to understand, the disturbed conditions on many 
of the islands, it has been necessary to delve deeply into the history of 
man's activities in the central Pacific. 

Fortunately, the extensive file of published and unpublished reports, 
diaries, and other records pertaining to the area, organized by Edwin 
H. Bryan, Jr., manager of the Pacific Scientific Information Center at 
the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, and the extensive files of Dr. F. Ray- 
mond Fosberg of the U.S. Geological Survey have been placed at 
the service of the Smithsonian. From these and other sources can be 
learned the extent to which man has disturbed the ecology of some of 
these Pacific islands. For example, over a period of about two decades 
during the latter part of the 19th century, approximately 125,000 tons 
of guano were removed from Howland, a remote desert island only 
eight-tenths of a square mile in area. In the 1930's this island was 
colonized, and three airplane runways, each 150 feet wide, were built, 
preempting 7 percent of its total area. And in the early years of 
World War II it was shelled or bombed at various times. 

On islands of the nearby Phoenix group from which the human popu- 
lations have been moved out, a legacy remains of introduced plants 
and mammals, of which the domestic cat is surely the most destructive 
influence. Phoenix and McKean Islands are free of cats and support 
16 species of nesting birds including petrels, shearwaters, boobies, 
frigatebirds, tropicbirds, and terns. Howland and Baker Islands both 
had cat populations. At that time Howland supported only 5 nesting 
species of birds, numbering fewer than 3,000 individuals, and Baker 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY INTRODUCTION 27 

but one nesting species, the noddy tern, with a population of fewer 
than 100. 

One year later all cats on Howland and Baker were finally extermi- 
nated. Almost immediately the number of species present and nesting 
increased. Coincidentally, on Baker Island the house mouse became 
superabundant, with its population estimated to number in the hun- 
dreds of thousands, where in the previous year it had been extremely 
rare. Thus, even though man's actions have drastically modified many 
of the islands, changing the vegetation and in some cases exterminating 
some of the animals, the sea-bird populations are able to recover swiftly 
when predators are eliminated through effective conservation. 

Although the ecology of plants and animals of all kinds is the concern 
of the Smithsonian survey, most of the field effort has been devoted to 
the birds and arthropods, which are the most abundant terrestrial 
organisms in the central Pacific. In the two and one-half years that the 
survey has been under way, enormous quantities of data have been 
collected and are being organized, but as yet any attempt at synthesis 
would be premature. New data and new ideas are appearing at such 
a rapid rate that it will be some time before a first level of organization 
and synthesis is completed and ecological conclusions can be drawn. 

An example of the survey's data-collecting efforts is the study of 
bird distribution in the central Pacific by means of banding. This 
banding program is designed to provide answers to such questions as: 
What contribution do the bird populations of each island make to the 
avifauna of the open sea? What is the pattern of dispersal of birds from 
any given island — where do they go after the nesting season? It is also 
designed to provide new facts concerning the biology and behavior of 
the population of birds on any given island, and on the origins of the 
migratory birds which pass through or winter in the area. To provide 
this information enormous numbers of birds must be banded. Up to 
April 1965, Smithsonian field parties had attached U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service bands to the legs of over 425,000 birds of 44 species. 
Although most of these birds were banded on islands in the area of 
interest, programs were also undertaken in the Marshalls and Gilberts, 
on Wake Island, and on St. George Island in the Pribilofs. 

For most of the resident species in the area of interest, it is the hope 
to band over 50 percent of entire populations. For species such as the 
sooty tern, the populations of which number in the millions, this is 
clearly impossible, but for species with populations numbering in the 
tens of thousands, the Smithsonian has been able to band over half the 
entire breeding population. The blue -faced booby illustrates this 
point: over 25,000 individuals have been banded in the study area, and 



28 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

of this number more than 500 have been recaptured at sea or at other 
islands. The data from interisland returns of banded birds now make 
it possible to state in quantitative terms the differences between age 
groups and nesting and nonnesting birds in their amount of wandering 
at different times of the year. As additional data of these kinds ac- 
cumulate, it will be possible to determine the amount of interisland 
mixing, the composition of roosting flocks, age at first nesting, longev- 
ity, mortality curves, and so on. 

The effectiveness of the Smithsonian banding program in the central 
Pacific has been largely due to the enthusiastic cooperation of the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service Bird Banding Laboratory. Without this 
organization and its system of maintaining and processing data, the 
program could never have gotten underway. 

In order to increase the rate of recovery of banded birds throughout 
the Pacific world, the Smithsonian has sent out thousands of copies of 
a notice soliciting reports of banded or color-marked birds. Printed 
in five languages, these have been distributed to 19 countries and 21 
major island groups, where the notice has been further translated 
into Korean, Malay, Samoan, Gilbertese, Ponapean, and other 
languages, and has been reprinted in newspapers, magazines, and vari- 
ous commercial and official or semiofficial government reports. The 
notice has formed the basis for lectures to school children, clubs, and 
professional groups, and it has been distributed to vessels in various 
commercial fishing fleets and shipping lines, and to the U.S. Navy, 
Merchant Marine, and Coast Guard. The Smithsonian also issues a 
newsletter which is sent to all cooperators in the Pacific-wide bird 
banding program. This publicity effort, in addition to increasing the 
recovery of banded birds, heightens public interest in problems of 
conservation in the Pacific area. 

Although most of the field work in the central Pacific is being under- 
taken by a Smithsonian field staff under director Charles A. Ely, 
whose offices are in Honolulu, the success of the program depends 
most heavily on the generous cooperation of numerous collaborating 
institutions and individuals. 

An agreement between the Institution and the U.S. Department of 
the Interior has resulted in a free exchange of information and services, 
particularly with respect to the Hawaiian Leeward Islands, where 
mutual interest and exchange of information further enhances the 
status of these islands as wildlife refuges or sanctuaries. The Smith- 
sonian has received enthusiastic cooperation from the State of Hawaii 
Division of Fish and Game, which represents the interest of the State in 
ecology, management, and conservation. 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY INTRODUCTION 



29 




BLACK- FOOTED ALBATROSS 
LESSER FRIGATEBIRDS 
RUDDY TURNSTONES 



Recoveries of birds banded under Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program 
r-T'are shown by hatched areas. (See p. 28.) 

The effectiveness of Smithsonian studies of the distribution of 
pelagic birds at sea is almost entirely dependent upon the Department 
of the Interior, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, in Honolulu. This 
agency has generously provided not only ship support for bird censuses, 
but also a body of oceanographic data which, when combined with the 
ornithological data, will make a unique contribution to our understand- 
ing of the oceanographic factors affecting their distribution. 

Modern transportation and communication facilities are essential 
for the coordination of a large-scale biological survey over such a 
vast region. The Smithsonian maintains permanent field parties on 
two islands through the courtesy of the U.S. Coast Guard, which also, 
from time to time, very kindly grants opportunities for Smithsonian 
personnel to visit various islands during the course of regular Coast 
Guard trips. In addition, the U.S. Navy has generously permitted 
Smithsonian personnel to carry out at-sea observations on its vessels. 
Never before has it been feasible to visit most of the islands in this 
area three or four times a year, or to carry out monthly at-sea surveys 
over a period of years to collect data on pelagic bird distribution and 
on various physical oceanographic factors. 



30 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Studies of the distribution and ecology of terrestrial plants on islands 
of the central Pacific, in which Dr. Charles Lamoureaux and Mr. 
Robert Long, of the University of Hawaii, are collaborating with the 
Smithsonian Institution, are important not only in developing an 
inventory of plants on each of the islands and a history of plant intro- 
ductions, but also to an understanding of the factors affecting the 
distribution and abundance of terrestrial animals. 

Perhaps the most important practical accomplishment of the Smith- 
sonian survey will be the delineation of the environment over a relatively 
short period of time. This will provide a baseline of comparison 
for biologists concerned, 10 or 20 years from now, with measuring the 
effects of man-made modifications of the environment on natural 
populations of organisms. The need for such a baseline is most 
urgent today, when man, in his struggle to advance himself, is changing 
the face of the earth at an appallingly rapid rate, and is subjecting 
the total environment — water, atmosphere, and living tissues — to 
physical and chemical influences which need to be measure^ g)w and 
in the future. For unless these fundamental changes in his environ- 
ment are properly assessed, man himself, through ignorance, may fall 
victim to his own progress. 

Philip S. Humphrey 
Chairman, Department of Vertebrate ^oology 



Research and Publications 



SYSTEMATICS 

The Office of Systematics was established early in 1965 to provide a 
focal point for systematic interests both within the Museum of Natural 
History and outside it. Although nearly all the professional staff 
engage in systematic research, interdisciplinary needs increasingly 
occur which can be met best by a non-discipline-oriented office. 
Typical of these needs are research problems requiring joint attack 
by several disciplines. 

In long-range terms, the most important project which transects 
all disciplinary lines involves data processing by computer. As the 
number of specimens in natural history collections increases, a stage is 
reached at which the specimen-attached data become difficult or 
impossible to organize and recover by "manual" methods. A central 
file of such data from our own millions of specimens, and ultimately 
including those of other museums, will provide the means by which 
many permutations of these data can be performed almost instantly. 
Moreover, bibliographic, karyologic, genetic, ecologic, and biochemi- 
cal data can be inserted in such a data bank and retrieved in various 
new combinations with other data. Such a facility will provide the 
researcher with a means by which an almost limitless number of data 
configurations can be programed to meet his needs. 

Such vast files of information require any available device which 
facilitates their organization into retrievable form; the binomial borne 
by each species of plant or animal is the means by which the most 
diverse sort of information can be organized, stored, and retrieved. 
But 30 million names are difficult and prohibitively expensive to use 
directly in an information system. Under way is the development of 
a code to express names in machine-readable form, free of hierarchical 
implications and completely open-ended. Support from several sources 
is being sought to complete the code and begin the accumulation of data. 

The International Biological Program will begin field operations 
in January 1967, and those studying the biota of Africa will have in 
hand a field guide to the mammals. This is the objective of a project 
receiving Institutional support through the Office of Systematics. One 
of the foremost mammalogists in southern Africa is writing various 
parts of the manual, and he is securing the contributions of mammal 
specialists over the world. 

The National Institutes of Health have provided contractual support 
for a project to search among our collections for tumors of invertebrates 

31 



32 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

and cold-blooded vertebrates. There is reasonable hope that the 
phylogeny of some of the animal groups, as well as that of tumor 
diseases, may be elucidated by this project. 

An ad hoc committee consisting of representatives from archeology, 
paleobotany, and modern plant systematics has participated in present- 
ing the need for a pollen laboratory and staff. Pollen grains are highly 
resistant to destruction and are so distinctive as to permit the specialist 
to reconstruct reasonably accurately the former vegetation of an area 
and the environmental conditions under which the plants grew. 
Likewise, the pollens of primitive man's crop plants persist in the refuse 
of his habitations and reveal much about the kinds of things he grew 
and under what conditions. The student of recent plants uses paly- 
nological data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of plant groups 
and to clarify phylogenetic relationships. Funds have been set aside 
for the equipping of the laboratory, and it is hoped that a research 
palynologist can be employed by the end of the next fiscal year. 

A new publication, "Smithsonia," planned for next year, is dis- 
tinctive in that it is a series of which each unit is devoted to the descrip- 
tion of a new species or redescription of an old one. Such a format 
will permit progressive revision of genera and other taxa by the pub- 
lication of groups of descriptions. 

Initial planning has begun toward convening at the Smithsonian in 
1966 an international symposium on systematics, jointly sponsored 
by the National Science Foundation, the National Academy of Sciences, 
and the Smithsonian Institution. Outstanding systematists from 
abroad will participate with prominent American ones in a one-day 
session on principles of systematics and a second day on methodologies. 
It is hoped that future conferences can be held on important questions 
related to the training of both technical researchers and scientific aides 
for systematics. Such meetings satisfy an important responsibility of 
the Office — to represent systematics at all levels, to urge the incorpora- 
tion of taxonomic data in otherwise non-systematic studies, and to 
broaden the base of current systematics to include information from as 
many ancillary sources as possible. 

ECOLOGY 

Man has learned, to a very large extent, how to escape, through 
control of his environment, the pangs of hunger, the rigors of un- 
favorable weather, and the anxieties of individual preservation, as op- 
posed to group protection. In the process, however, man has so 
greatly modified his surroundings that the human species, as its popula- 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ECOLOGY 33 

tions expand apace, stands in very real danger of losing control over 
its own destiny. To focus research effort, while there is yet time, on 
important problems of environmental biology, plans were completed 
for establishing, on July 1, 1965, an Office of Ecology. Selected as 
its head, and assistant director for ecology, is Helmut Buechner, who 
will continue his own researches in the behavior of certain ungulate 
mammals. 

Since the systematic research produced by the professional staff has 
generally included ecological data, the program represents not a 
beginning of Institutional interest but a means to focus staff attention 
on the subject and to facilitate cooperation between the Smithsonian 
and other Federal agencies and educational organizations. 

In January an informal conference of outstanding biologists discussed 
research trends and opportunities in environmental biology, including 
ecology, genetics, behavior, and the study of wild populations under 
natural conditions. Participants were requested specifically to con- 
sider (1) what contributions might be made by environmental studies 
in the New World Tropics, (2) the desirability of undertaking studies of 
soil ecology, and (3) the projected field stations on Chesapeake Bay. 

Several planning sessions were devoted to organizing the Center for 
Field Biology, on land at the head of Chesapeake Bay, in summer of 
1965. As its first director, Kyle Barbehenn will be in charge of the 
Center and its program development. Sharing the Center with 
Smithsonian research personnel will be biologists from the Johns 
Hopkins University, the University of Maryland, and, to a limited 
extent, from the National Institutes of Health, who will study captive 
animals, as well as native and migrating ones, and their possible inter- 
action with the environment. 

Consideration has been given to undertaking a research program 
on soil biology in which will be investigated the nature of the inter- 
actions of soil organisms on each other and with their environment. 
Although applied studies of soil organisms are under way in various 
research laboratories, little or no attention has been devoted to the 
ecological aspects of this problem. 

Since the International Biological Program is strongly oriented toward 
environmental biology, the Office of Ecology will also be a focal point 
for staff participation in this program. 



OCEANOGRAPHY 

Although the Smithsonian Institution has been engaged in studies of 
marine organisms since Spencer F. Baird joined its staff more than 



34 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

100 years ago, the active involvement of the Institution in a National 
Oceanography Program has made it necessary for the Institution to 
reexamine its interests and capabilities for studying the world ocean. 

This reexamination has rested comfortably within the context of the 
traditional operations of the Museum of Natural History; that is to say, 
the Smithsonian's marine operations are principally concerned with 
collecting marine natural-history objects in order to determine the 
kinds, distributions, and populations of organisms and sediments in 
the world ocean. These studies are oriented toward systematics; the 
available data are exploited, however, for additional information 
concerning the ecology, biogeography, and evolution of the specimens 
collected. Because proper study of these specimens is not feasible 
without an active program to gather material from areas not repre- 
sented in the national collections, Smithsonian scientists continue to 
seek collections from chartered vessels and from ships of many public 
and private agencies. 

In addition to these research responsibilities, the Smithsonian has 
always provided limited service to other governmental and non- 
governmental scientists by making identifications of natural-history 
objects. As a part of its expansion in the National Oceanography 
Program, the Institution has now developed an increased capability 
for the accomplishment of such service by establishing the Smithsonian 
Oceanographic Sorting Center for the separation of bulk collections 
into groups which may be studied effectively by individual scientists. 

The magnitude of effort required for this involvement in the National 
Oceanography Program is evidenced by the nearly 80 U.S. oceano- 
graphic vessels of assorted sizes that are gathering marine specimens, 
many of which may end up at the Smithsonian Institution: 10 private 
U.S. oceanographic institutions use 22 ships for oceanographic col- 
lection of data and specimens; 22 Coast Guard vessels collect data and 
specimens on ocean stations; and many large and small vessels of the 
Navy, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, and other government agencies obtain data and collections 
from the ocean. Impetus recently has been given to a so-called 
"ships of opportunity" effort which could use for biological collections 
many of the estimated 6,000 civilian and military ships which may be 
at sea on any one day in the North Atlantic alone. The backlog of 
biological research information waiting to be uncovered is scarcely 
realized, even within the Museum. 

The oceanography plans of the Institution have been developed in 
continuous consultation with scientists of the United States in all 
fields of biological oceanography. Hence, a large portion of this 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS OCEANOGRAPHY 35 

program involves cooperation with many other agencies. Since 
1962 the Institution has maintained membership in the Interagency 
Committee on Oceanography (ICO), and the assistant director for 
oceanography of the Museum of Natural History is chairman of its 
research panel. In addition to support from Congress, joint research 
projects, with funds from both organizations, have been undertaken by 
the Smithsonian and each of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Office 
of Naval Research, the Department of State, the Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, the National Science Foundation, the Naval Oceanographic 
Office, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the 
Interagency Committee on Oceanography, and one state agency — the 
Maryland Fisheries Commission. Also, joint research projects have 
been undertaken by staff members of the Institution with support from 
the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Lamont Geological 
Observatory, the Marine Biological Laboratory of Woods Hole, the 
University of Maryland, Duke University, the University of Kansas, 
Johns Hopkins University, the University of Michigan, the University 
of Minnesota, the University of Miami, the University of Southern 
California, Yale University, Florida State University, the University 
of Washington, and others. 

Regional industrial and professional groups, foundations, and in- 
dividuals also have provided support and specimens to the Institution's 
oceanography program. These include International Business Ma- 
chines, Inc., the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Link 
Foundation, the National Geographic Society, the American Chemical 
Society, the Guggenheim Foundation, the Hong Kong Fisheries 
Research Station, the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, 
the Guinean Trawling Survey, the Indian Ocean Biological Center, 
the National Oceanographic Data Center, General Ed Schwengel, 
Jeanne Schwengel, and Edwin A. Link. 

Specimens have been identified for the Naval Oceanographic Office, 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Coastal Engineering Research 
Center, the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, the Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries, the National Science Foundation's Antarctic 
Research Program, and a large number of other Federal and private 
organizations. 

Field support has been provided to members of the oceanography 
staff by ships of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the 
National Science Foundation, Stanford University, the University of 
Southern California, the Marine Biological Laboratory of Woods 
Hole, Mass., the University of Miami, and the National Aeronautics 



36 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

and Space Administration. Vessels also have been chartered specifi- 
cally for use by the Institution. 

Projects that have been supported by other agencies have been in the 
areas of marine systematics and ecology, the processing of specimens, 
the keeping of records of natural-history specimens, and the publication 
of appropriate documents, as well as the establishment of an oceano- 
graphic exhibit in the Museum of Natural History. 

In doing research on the biological and geological natural history 
of the oceans, members of the staff of the Smithsonian Institution have 
functioned to study existing collections of the Museum of Natural 
History and other museums; to take additional collections in unique 
areas; to describe organisms in relation to their environment; to report 
unusual natural history features, such as the presence of cancer and 
other abnormalities, in order that biological and physiological studies 
might be pursued elsewhere; to formulate theories with regard to the 
evolution of organisms; to provide explanations of the intra- and inter- 
relationships of organisms; to develop field guides for the easy identifica- 
tion of marine specimens; to develop and test basic collecting gear for 
use in studying marine organisms; to provide an urgently needed 
identification service; to assemble, maintain, and provide access to the 
national collections; to provide a collecting staff for use in unique 
areas; to develop curating and preservation techniques, and other 
handling advice and experience; and to provide for proper storage of 
collections in appropriate facilities. 

A natural outgrowth of the National Oceanography Program has 
been an ever-broadening involvement of the Institution in collections 
from the routine operations as a part of the world ocean survey, from 
research cruises and expeditions of other agencies, and from special 
international programs such as the International Indian Ocean Expe- 
dition and the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical 
Atlantic. The Institution has found it desirable to be involved as 
closely as possible in the planning of various expeditions and has en- 
deavored to produce labels and specimen-handling information on a 
continuing basis, so that collections can be maintained in better con- 
dition for ultimate study and so that adequate environmental infor- 
mation is available to provide broad interpretation of the biological 
data resulting from the studies. 

Perhaps the most obvious of the changes in the first three years of the 
Smithsonian's research effort in oceanography has been a large increase 
in staff involvement in biological and geological oceanography activi- 
ties. Not only has the number of scientists involved in the oceanog- 
raphy program tripled in these three years, but the number of organi- 




Photomicrography of phytoplankton samples at the Smithsonian Oceano- 
graphic Sorting Center. Below: Zooplankton laboratory houses many 
activities, including recording and verifying data, splitting and relabeling 
samples, sorting aliquots to 52 taxonomic categories, and packaging and 
shipping invoiced specimens to specialists. (See pp. 37-39.) 





Top, left: Bird stomach, received at the Sorting Center from Pacific Ocean 
Biological Survey, is opened for examination of contents; right: small 
bottom invertebrates are separated and retrieved by sieving. Below: 
Tagged grouper being placed in monel-lined tank containing 75% ethyl 
alcohol. (See pp. 37-39.) 




RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — OCEANOGRAPHY 37 

zational units included in the program also has tripled. Whereas 
before, the Institution had extremely restricted capability to treat the 
nearly 100 major groups of marine organisms, selective recruiting has 
resulted in the addition of capabilities to examine and carry out research 
on groups which could not be included in earlier oceanographic efforts. 

The expansion of staff within the Museum of Natural History has 
been almost entirely in the systematics area. Additional groups of 
marine organisms may now be studied, and in this fiscal year, capabili- 
ties have been added to carry out research in such marine groups as 
ostracodes, amphipods, nematodes, macroalgae, coralline algae, and 
plankton. New personnel include a senior electron microscopist, a 
sedimentologist, and a petrologist interested in marine rocks. 

The principal new activity within the oceanography program is the 
Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, conceived by A. G. Smith, 
former Assistant Secretary for Science, and organized in January 1963 
to receive bulk samples from governmental and private sources; to 
separate them into appropriate taxa for identification by specialists; to 
obtain and coordinate the station data to provide maximum environ- 
mental information with the specimens; to experiment with preserva- 
tion, labeling, accessioning, shipping, and storage of specimens; to 
train technicians for all aspects of specimen handling; and to provide 
information and forms helpful to oceanographic investigations by 
insuring that consideration be given to the maximum collection of 
environmental data. 

More than five million specimens have been sorted by the Center, and 
more than three million of these have been shipped to specialists for 
study. In spite of this productivity, the Center has a tremendous back- 
log of specimens which have been given it for processing, and a sub- 
stantial expansion in its staff is needed to work on the specimens. 

The Sorting Center uses a series of seven advisory groups, each con- 
sisting of five members with differing research specialties. The advice 
of these committees is sought with regard to the assignment for study 
of specimens processed by the Center and for recommendations of 
permanent depositories of identified specimens. In addition to these 
continuing groups, the Center has sought specific advice from John 
Wickstead of the British Plymouth Laboratory; from Ruth Patrick of 
the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; from Allan Be of the 
Lamont Geological Observatory; from E. C. Jones of the Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries Laboratory in Hawaii; from Saul Saila of the 
University of Rhode Island; and from Isabel Farfantes Canet. In 
addition, assistance and advice is given by the several hundred sci- 
entists visiting the Center. Such guidance is continually sought 
through correspondence with the above and other persons. 

7S9^27— 66 7 



38 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Of special note is project support for strong involvement of the Sort- 
ing Center in the U.S. Antarctic Research Program of the National 
Science Foundation (NSF). With NSF support, the Center lists 
specimens taken from all past U.S. efforts in the Antarctic, and it sorts 
and maintains records of specimens now being taken from the Ant- 
arctic. In addition, the photographs of the ocean bottom taken from 
the NSF research vessel Eltanin are duplicated and distributed to 
scientists. 

Also noteworthy are collections made available for study by the Na- 
tional Science Foundation through the International Indian Ocean 
Expedition, by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, and by the Inter- 
governmental Oceanographic Commission's International Cooperative 
Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic. Other collections have come 
to the Sorting Center from the Pacific Halibut Commission, the Inter- 
American Tropical Tuna Commission, the Guinean Trawling Survey, 
the Geological Survey, the Coast Guard, the Naval Oceanographic 
Office, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Coastal Engineering Re- 
search Center, the Laboratory of Radiation Biology of the University 
of Washington, the University of Michigan, the Atomic Energy 
Commission, and the Government of Chile. 

Through the Sorting Center, technician Jack Rudloe was employed 
to make special collections as a professional collector during the Inter- 
national Indian Ocean Expedition; T. Peter Lowe worked as a tech- 
nician in lieu of a scientist on the Anton Bruun; and Mrs. LaNelle Peter- 
son and Mrs. Cynthia Stoertz participated as professional collectors in 
a cruise of the Eltanin in the Antarctic in early 1965. 

Special labels and other collecting materials and forms were devel- 
oped for, and provided to, the International Indian Ocean Expedition, 
the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic, 
and the U.S. Antarctic Research Program. Duplication and distribu- 
tion of these labels, as well as the provision of a central receiving and 
processing facility, have resulted in increasing the effective results of 
natural history expeditions by providing for better maintenance of more 
collections for study. 

The Sorting Center has served as a unifying influence in the system- 
atics of marine organisms by providing specimens and information con- 
ing the stages of their processing, together with information on the 
commitments of specialists scattered throughout the world. Visiting 
scientists may find working space in the Center. As a result of the 
activities of the Center, an increasing number of the individual speci- 
mens from multiple bulk collections are being processed for their re- 
search value, and the results may be fitted together more effectively. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS OCEANOGRAPHY 39 

It is anticipated that this flourishing activity will go on from its healthy 
beginning to do much to meet the challenge of man's expansion into 
the ocean. 

As the most recent new effort of the Smithsonian, an oceanographic 
vessel has been acquired from Navy surplus and modified slightly for 
use in an investigation of coralline algae of the North Atlantic Ocean. 
This vessel, the Phykos, is a converted small freighter, 133'9" length, 
30' beam, 650-ton displacement, which will be used principally as a 
platform for SCUBA diving and for the operation of a small undersea 
vehicle. It is anticipated that a crew of six or seven will be able to 
operate the vessel for a scientist to collect these algae from shallow 
depths around the margin of the North Atlantic. The Phykos began 
operation during this year and will operate throughout the next. 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology was created on February 
1, 1965, to renew and expand the Smithsonian's role in anthro- 
pology. Uniting the separate activities of the Bureau of American 
Ethnology and of the Department of Anthropology of the Museum 
of Natural History, it includes all the personnel of both former units, 
and its head is also an assistant director of the Museum of Natural 
History. The Office consists of a division of cultural anthropology and 
a division of physical anthropology, and it administers the Smith- 
sonian River Basin Surveys. It also includes the archives and library 
of the Bureau of American Ethnology, a conservation laboratory, and 
a section for illustrations. It maintains the only set, in the vicinity of 
Washington, of the Human Relations Area Files, a comprehensive, 
systematic inventory of data on a worldwide sample of cultural groups. 
Renovation of its office space, work areas, and storage sections in the 
Museum of Natural History provides excellent space for SOA's activ- 
ities, and offices for the newly merged professional and subprofessional 
staffs. Thus, for the first time since the 19th century, all the anthro- 
pological personnel of the Institution is under one roof, and the foun- 
dation has been laid for carrying on past activities efficiently and 
initiating new anthropological programs of several types. 

Publication of the Bulletins of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
which began in 1887, will cease with Bulletin 200, and henceforth 
anthropological papers and monographs will appear in the new series 
"Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology," which has a new format 
and increased page size that present more effectively such material as 
illustrations, tables, and maps. Unlike the Bulletins, the new series 



40 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

will include material dealing with the Old World as well as the New. 

Research in the Old World was conducted in a few widely scattered 
areas. Olga Linares de Sapir, who was appointed a collaborator in 
January 1965, began archeological research in Senegal with a post- 
doctoral fellowship from the National Science Foundation. This 
portion of Africa is one of the least-known archeologically of any part 
of the world, and the establishment of a firm sequence of prehistoric 
events will be of great importance. 

In June, J. Lawrence Angel left for an extended investigation of 
human skeletons excavated from Neolithic and other sites in Greece 
and Turkey. His work, supported by the American Philosophical 
Society and the Wenner-Gren Foundation, continues research in physi- 
cal anthropology in Greece, carried on for many years, into the 
social biology of culture change. 

Field work in the Far East was carried out by William C. Sturtevant, 
who from October 1963 to October 1964 was in Burma investigating 
the forms, functions, and symbolism of modern Burmese dress. Prior 
to returning he visited London to examine archival material on 
Burmese dress. 

From August 29 to October 30, Richard B. Woodbury examined in 
Spain, Libya, Egypt, Pakistan, and Israel a great variety of ancient 
and modern water-control systems, especially cisterns, irrigation ditches, 
and terraces, for comparison with the New World techniques studied 
in the Western United States and in Mexico. The trip, supported by 
the National Science Foundation, included visits to abandoned Roman 
irrigation works in Libya, modern farms in the Fayum using traditional 
water systems, Mohenjo-Daro, a center of intensive irrigation in the 
Indus Valley five millennia ago, and the restored Nabatean terraced 
farms of the Negev in Israel. 

Eugene I. Knez continued research on several aspects of Korean and 
Japanese culture, working particularly on a bibliography of Korean 
anthropology with emphasis on Asian literature, and on a study of 
Japanese ceramic materials in this Institution. He is seeking to relate 
the ceramics chronologically to traditional kiln sites in Japan. Knez 
also visited several museums to study material aspects of Korean culture 
in connection both with future exhibits and a monograph on Korean 
village life that he is preparing. 

William H. Crocker continued field work with the Canela of Brazil, 
with whom he worked in 1963. This small tribe, living in relative 
isolation and supporting themselves by a simple pattern of hunting, 
gathering, and rudimentary farming, is now undergoing rapid changes 
due to the pressure from Brazilian settlers in adjacent areas. Prior to 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — ANTHROPOLOGY 41 

his arrival in the field in July 1964, the Canela had been moved from 
their savannah habitat to a forested reservation, providing radically 
different surroundings, different resources, and a serious challenge to 
the continuation of their way of life. Six months before this, a Canela 
woman had announced that she was receiving messages transmitted by 
the motions of her unborn child. These messages were thought to be 
instructions from the Canela culture hero who announced in this way 
that when the child was born he would transform the Canela world 
into a city with all the comforts and machines necessary to make life 
easy. In accordance with his directions, this prophetess proceeded to 
bring together several scattered villages, create a new pattern of danc- 
ing, order the selling of personal belongings to buy goods, and direct 
the stealing of cattle from neighboring settlers for consumption during 
festivals. Although her child was stillborn in May, she managed to 
redirect the movement into new rites adopting Catholic elements. 
Shortly after this the Canela were attacked, and several were killed and 
others wounded by the settlers whose cattle they had been stealing. 

The prophetess, Maria, had predicted the enemy bullets would all 
miss their mark because the culture hero would protect them. With 
the total failure of her predictions and the death of several Canela, her 
power and her cult movement became discredited. In 1963 the Canela 
had been resettled, and when Crocker and his wife arrived in the field 
they were able to study firsthand the effects of this drastic sequence of 
events to which the Canela had been subjected. He is analyzing his 
data in terms of three approaches: social, psychological, and ecological. 
Socially, the Canela have been little affected by this traumatic move, 
since their social system continues to function in their new external 
social environment, to which they have adjusted with their usual and 
remarkable flexibility. Psychologically, however, there is evidence of 
a great deal of suppressed hostility which is likely to find an oudet in 
the near future, both against themselves and against neighbors. So 
far this hostility has affected in only minor ways their motivations and 
outlook, but some Canela already are preferring helplessness and an 
admission of failure to the creating of a new life. They blame their 
predicament on civilization and not themselves. 

Ecologically the problems are much greater: because they have not 
adjusted to the necessities of forest living and its greater need for sani- 
tation, disease rates, especially tuberculosis, have risen sharply; having 
failed to learn to hunt in the forest, they suffer from a scarcity of meat 
and considerable undernourishment; and because many materials 
available in the savannah, and needed to carry out their customary 
practices or to keep certain taboos, are unavailable in the forest, a 



42 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

number of practices and related beliefs are rapidly being lost and con- 
fidence and faith in their old traditions are being weakened. Crocker 
has supplemented these field observations with extensive linguistic 
work and kinship analysis, and a substantial series of photographs. His 
field work, supported by the National Science Foundation and the 
Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, is expected to 
result in a major monograph. 

The opportunity for Crocker to make on-the-spot observations of 
these rapid and traumatic changes is almost unique, as anthropologists 
have so often been forced by circumstances to rely on secondhand 
accounts or on interviews with survivors of such rapid changes, made 
years after the events took place. His results will be of importance far 
beyond any interest we have in the fate of this small group of Brazilian 
Indians, as they will make clearer the processes by which human groups 
respond to, adjust to, or break down under the impact of sudden, 
overwhelming changes imposed from outside sources. Since much of 
the world today is in the midst of rapid and unprecedented change, 
any of his conclusions will have very wide significance. 

A very different type of field work is represented by the trip of Clifford 
Evans and Betty J. Meggers to Brazil from October 5 to November 
22, 1964. The teaching aspects of this trip, supported by the Fulbright 
Commission, are described on page 50. In addition, they were able 
to make an extensive inspection tour of departments of anthropology 
at various universities and museums throughout Brazil in order to 
determine needs and potentials for archeological research programs. 
By becoming familiar at firsthand with the collections and facilities, 
and, even more importantly, with the personnel, of Brazilian institutions, 
they were able to lay a groundwork for a long-term cooperative program 
in Brazilian archeology in which they will have the support and co- 
operation of a large proportion of the promising younger Brazilian 
scholars. Such a coordinated program will make possible the securing 
of data under carefully planned conditions, strictly comparable and 
useful to scholars elsewhere in Brazil and throughout the world. 

During the Brazilian trip, Evans and Meggers worked with Mario 
Simoes at the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, Para, on sherds 
from stratigraphic excavations at a locality on Marajo Island, not 
investigated by them in their 1948-49 excavations there. The new 
material could be interdigitated into the previously published sequence, 
and they extended it back to earlier time periods with a substantial 
amount of material. This new work is of special importance because 
carbon samples were secured by Simoes and his coworker Napoleao 
Figueiredo, to be tested at the carbon-dating laboratory of the Smith- 
sonian's Radiation Biology Laboratory. The results, it is hoped, will 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ANTHROPOLOGY 43 

provide the first absolute dates for the archeology of Marajo Island, a 
key locality in the prehistory of the entire South American lowlands. 

A pre-doctoral fellowship from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for 
Anthropological Research made it possible for Yoshio Onuki, of the 
University of Tokyo Andes Expedition, to spend six months at the 
Museum analyzing and studying a large collection of potsherds, received 
from the University of Tokyo Andes Expedition through the courtesy 
of its director, Professor Seiichi Izumi. It includes type specimens for 
the entire range of Formative Period materials from the site of Kotosh 
in the Department of Huanuco, Peru, and is of particular importance 
for comparative purposes in view of the interest of Meggers, Evans, and 
Flannery in the Formative Period of Mesoamerica and South America. 

From January to April 1965, Robert M. Laughlin was in Zinacantan, 
Chiapas, Mexico, with support from the National Institute of Mental 
Health, continuing his study of the Tzotzil Indians, one of the surviving 
Maya-speaking descendants of the famous prehistoric Maya Indians of 
Central America. He has concentrated on the elicitation, through 
systematic procedures, of the entire vocabulary of the Tzotzil language, 
both as a basis for a Tzotzil dictionary and, even more important, as a 
means of determining the ideas, concepts, and attitudes that lie behind 
the more visible and material segments of Tzotzil culture. Prior to 
this field work, he continued the analysis of myth and dream material 
previously collected, as a means of determining the values implicit in 
Tzotzil culture. Both of these approaches are significant means of 
securing data on the more intangible and frequently ignored aspects 
of a primitive culture. 

Kent V. Flannery, who joined the staff on July 8, 1964, continued 
research on both the Old and the New World with parallel programs 
dealing with the beginnings of domestic plants and animals in two key 
localities — southwestern Iran and central and southern Mexico. From 
July through September he was at Rice University studying more than 
10,000 identifiable bone fragments from prehistoric caves and villages 
in the Deh Luran valley, Khuzistan, Iran. Shedding light on the 
important problem of the beginnings of domestication of sheep, goat, 
cattle, and the dog, these came from three archeological sites which 
spanned the time from about 7900 B.C. through the beginnings of town 
life about 4500 B.C. to the threshold of urban civilization about 3800 
B.C. Among the important conclusions he reached is that agriculture 
began in this region with the very small-scale, almost incidental, 
growing of wheat and barley in forms closely related to their wild ances- 
tors, and that only later were the techniques added by which farming 
became the mainstay of life. He also concluded that goats were domes- 



44 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

ticated substantially earlier than sheep, the latter apparently being 
imported from distant areas after their domestication there. The 
botanist Hans Helbaek, working with the expedition, has shown through 
the study of details of the flax seeds that irrigation of at least this crop, 
and presumably of wheat and other crops as well, began some six 
millennia before the Christian era in this region — much earlier than 
had heretofore been suspected. 

In December 1964, with the cooperation of Mexican authorities, 
and particularly of Ignacio Bernal, director of the Museo de Antro- 
pologia in Mexico City, Flannery was able to visit many of the 200 
already-located sites in the valley of Oaxaca. These will provide the 
basis for a major archeological study of the beginnings of agriculture in 
this area and of prehistoric human ecology during the centuries which 
span the beginnings of village life and the growth of villages into towns, 
and which led to the foundation of civilization in Mexico. Numerous 
caves or rock shelters, appearing to cover the period from 6500-2500 
B.C., were found. These assure abundant perishable archeological 
materials such as corncobs, fragments of squash, cactus fruits, twine, 
and so on. When plans now complete are carried out next year, the 
study will parallel the important Tehuacan Project in which Flannery 
and Richard B. Woodbury have both participated in previous years. 
The intensive archeological study of key areas in such regions as Middle 
America, through cooperative programs with botanists, zoologists, 
archeologists, and others, is providing far fuller and more meaningful 
data than have heretofore been available. Both in Flannery 's Iranian 
work, now nearing completion, and in the contemplated work in Oaxaca, 
close collaboration with other specialists within the Museum of Natural 
History is proving extremely rewarding, as a result of the generosity 
with which they make available their particular talents in a variety of 
fields. 

Gus W. Van Beek made substantial progress on his study of South 
Arabic ceramic technology and architecture in conjunction with the 
preparation of his final report on the excavations at Jahar Bin Humeid. 

Before and after the meeting of the 7th International Congress of 
Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences which he attended in 
Moscow, August 3-10, Henry B. Collins studied museum collections 
in Copenhagen, Stockholm, Helsinki, Moscow, Leningrad, and 
Tblissi. Saul H. Riesenberg, who attended the same meetings, also 
studied Pacific collections in several of the same museums. 

As part of a larger genetical study in conjunction with blood-group 
researches on Pacific populations by the U.S. National Institutes of 
Health and the Australian Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, 



Ethnologist William Crocker in the 
field with an adopted Canela Indian 
brother. (See pp. 40-42.) 



Below: Work and study room, divi- 
sion of cultural anthropology. On 
table in foreground are ethnological 
and archeological specimens being 
cataloged into the permanent records 
of the Museum of Natural History. 






Exhibits dealing with political authority, music, and signaling were among 
those added to the African section of the hall of cultures of Africa and Asia. 
Others treated such subjects as weapons, clothing, control of the super- 
natural, various hand-skills, and special ethnic groups. (See p. 98.) 




Sfc 




River Basin Surveys party screening debris at Bottleneck Cave, a small rock 
shelter in the upper Yellowtail Reservoir, Bighorn River, Montana. (See 
p. 47.) Below: The remains of two circular earth lodges excavated by a 
RBS field party at Fort George Village, an 18th-century site in the Big Bend 
Reservoir of central South Dakota. (See pp. 46-49.) 




«'<^M^H 






RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ANTHROPOLOGY 45 

Riesenberg completed his research on migrations and movements of 
people in Micronesia. He also carried forward his research projects 
on Ponapean political organization and folklore. 

Gordon D. Gibson continued his researches on African material 
culture as part of the preparation of new exhibits in the hall of African 
cultures. 

J. Lawrence Angel continued, for the third and final year, his re- 
study of senior medical students whom he first studied as freshmen 
at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. Changes in body 
composition, blood serum make-up, body measurements, and external 
appearance recorded in this study will clarify the process of differential 
aging in man. 

Lucile E. Hoyme visited the Department of Anatomy, Washington 
University Medical School, St. Louis, in November and December 
1964, to make observations on about 175 human pelves of known 
age and sex, to supplement data already recorded on U.S. Negro 
pelves at Howard University and American Indian and Eskimo 
specimens at the Museum of Natural History. 

Waldo R. Wedel continued research in the Plains during July and 
August 1964, with support from a National Science Foundation grant. 
Accompanied in the field by George S. Metcalf and Edgar W. Dodd, 
his survey had two objectives: to clarify the relationships among 
several late prehistoric and early historic Indian groups — those defined 
for the Central Plains, for the upper Rio Grande area of New Mexico, 
and the southern plains of Oklahoma; and to assess the nature of 
ecological adjustments made by pre-white peoples in the transitional 
zone where the subhumid eastern prairie plains environment gives 
way to a semiarid short-grass or steppe environment on the west. 
The area of study was selected because hitherto it has been little ex- 
amined but is adjacent to better known areas providing material for 
comparative study and cross dating. From a base camp in Kansas 
at the Meade County State Game Farm, dune and blowout localities 
along the Cimarron River and its tributaries as far west as the Colorado 
line were checked. Visits were also made to the Crooked Creek 
Valley and to localities on the Medicine Lodge River and on the Salt 
Fork of the Arkansas River. 

In the western part of this area, where the Cimarron crosses the 
High Plains, pottery-bearing sites were small and scarce, often with 
little but a few sherds and flints. Grinding stones, however, and some 
of the many chipped-stone tools suggest aboriginal occupation ranging 
in time from the Archaic period of several thousand years ago to his- 
toric times, the latter represented by iron arrow points. Fluted or 



46 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

lanceolate blades, indicative of Clovis and Folsom or of the Eden 
and Scotts bluff complexes, respectively, were extremely scarce. 
Non-pottery sites, marked by quantities of stone artifacts and refuse 
and by clusters of hearth stones, were, however, surprisingly numerous, 
apparently coming to light wherever the sandy soils along the Cimarron 
have been blown away to expose former ground surfaces. 

Farther east, pottery-bearing sites with an inferred semihorticultural 
subsistence basis included several that merit further study. These had 
pottery identifiable as belonging to the Woodland period before about 
A.D. 900, to the Central Plains complex of about 1000-1450, and to 
the Dismal River complex of about 1650-1750. Pottery-bearing sites 
tended to occur in the immediate vicinity of springs or other depend- 
able surface water supplies, some of which have almost totally dried 
up in the past 50 years, thus materially changing the appearance 
of the landscape and its apparent potential for farming occupants. 
Potsherds originating from the Pueblo settlements on the upper Rio 
Grande were seen in local collections and were collected from a number 
of sites visited; these are being examined by experts in New Mexico 
for identification and dating. 

The general impression from the summer's work is that semiseden- 
tary, probably horticultural settlements, more closely related to late 
prehistoric cultures of central Oklahoma than to the Central Plains 
cultures north of the Arkansas River, occurred at least as far west as 
Meade County. Farther west were more transient economies based 
primarily on seasonal hunting and gathering, with springs and ponds 
as foci of human interest and with winter residence elsewhere than in 
these treeless, windswept, inhospitable steppe lands. 

Special attention by aerial and ground reconnaissance was given to 
the vicinity of Englewood, Kans., where traces remain of fairly extensive 
irrigation systems no longer in use. Persistent local traditions and 
archeological reports of the 1930's specify that these are, in part, of 
prehistoric Indian origin. No evidence was found, however, either in 
the remaining ditches themselves or in the scanty archeological sites of 
the locality, to support the view that there was ever a prewhite popu- 
lation sufficiently numerous, settled, or advanced technologically, to 
have constructed such irrigation works as are now visible. 

River Basin Surveys 

As in previous years, by far the most extensive field activities in 
archeology for the Smithsonian Institution were carried on by the 
River Basin Surveys in the Missouri River Basin. This was their 19th 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — ANTHROPOLOGY 47 

year of continuous operation and again included large-scale excavation, 
surveys of lesser known areas, processing and analysis of specimens from 
excavations, and the preparation of reports of results. During the year 
23 field parties worked within the Missouri Basin, of which 11 were 
in the field in July, August, or September 1964, in the following places: 

1. The Sommers Site, Upper Big Bend Reservoir, S. Dak., one of 
the largest in the reservoir area, with at least 50 house depressions but 
unfortunately with heavy overburden, requiring the use of drag line 
and bulldozer to reach house floors. 

2. The Fort George Site, a small fortified earth-lodge village near 
Pierre, S. Dak. Both the pottery and the objects of glass, iron, and 
brass suggested occupation in the first half of the 1 8th century, probably 
by the protohistoric Arikara. 

3. The Ghapelle Creek Site, 20 miles downstream from Pierre, 
where previous disturbance by amateur excavators and the rise of 
water resulting in waterlogging, limited severely the extent of excavation. 

4. A number of sites on the right bank of the Missouri in the Upper 
Big Bend Reservoir in which extensive test excavations suggested occu- 
pation from the Middle Missouri period through the time of the 
modern Dakota Indians. 

5. The Davis Site and the Larson Site near Mobridge, S. Dak. 
At the latter, skeletons on the floors of the most recently occupied 
houses and associated musket balls and copper arrow points indicated 
clearly that occupation extended from prehistoric times into historic. 

6. The Stelzer Site, near Mobridge, the largest known Woodland 
burial and occupation site along the middle Missouri. 

7. Calamity Village, also near Mobridge, a small site protected by 
moats and palisades and located on a small spur of land overlooking 
the river. 

8. Some 30 sites, either newly found or tested in accordance with 
recommendations from previous years, in the Yellowtail Reservoir on 
the Big Horn in southern Montana and northern Wyoming. The 
most important of these was Bottleneck Cave, a deep rock shelter 
containing at least five prehistoric occupations extending back to the 
paleo-Indian time level. 

9. Several new sites were found on a shoreline survey of the west 
bank of the Fort Randall Reservoir, S. Dak. The degree of damage 
to surviving archeological sites by bank erosion was evaluated, and the 
need for additional testing or excavation was determined. 

10. A survey in the Rathbun Reservoir on the Chariton River, 
Iowa, with emphasis on the revisiting of previously known sites, par- 
ticularly six major mound groups overlooking the flood plain. Exten- 



48 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

sive tests yielded stratigraphic information but no cultural material 
serving to identify the mounds with a known complex or to date them. 
1 1 . A brief reconnaissance of sites in the Upper Oahe Reservoir to 
assess the needs for future excavation. 

In April, May, and June, 1965, 12 additional field parties undertook 
field work, as follows: 

1. Survey of three reservoirs in eastern Kansas: the Onaga Reser- 
voir on the Vermillion River, the Hillsdale Reservoir on the Osage 
River, and the Garnett Reservoir on Pottawatomie Creek. 

2. A short reconnaissance of several Missouri River mainstem reser- 
voirs: Gavins Point, Fort Randall, and Oahe, with special attention to 
sites being actively eroded. 

3. The beginning of test excavation and large-scale work at a site 
near Fort Yates in the Oahe Reservoir area. 

4. A 1965 continuation of work at the Sommers Site designed 
especially to clear additional long rectangular houses, to test non- 
residential areas, and to examine possible evidence of a defensive 
perimeter. 

5. Excavations in the Upper Oahe Reservoir at another site with 
large, long, rectangular houses. 

6. Work at Fort Manuel, an important fur-trade post in northern- 
most South Dakota. 

7. A continuation in the Rathbun Reservoir, Iowa, of work begun 
in the fall of 1964. 

8. Further work in the Upper Big Bend Reservoir where sites had 
been damaged by recent construction or threatened by recreational 
development of the area. 

9. Work in the Garrison Diversion Project of North Dakota, begun 
late in the fiscal year to survey and test selected sites. 

10. A revisit to the Upper Yellowtail Reservoir to obtain palyno- 
logical and soil samples from selected locations. 

1 1 . Work at the Aycock Site in the Oahe Reservoir. 

12. Work in the Upper Big Bend Reservoir. 

In addition to the field parties from the Lincoln office of the River 
Basin Surveys, a number of institutions cooperated in 1964 in carrying 
out significant field work in the Missouri Basin; these included Iowa 
State University, Kansas State Historical Society, the University of 
Missouri, the University of Nebraska, the Science Museum of the St. 
Paul Institute, Minnesota, the State Historical Society of North Dakota, 
and the State University of South Dakota. Each of these had field 
parties carrying on salvage excavations or survey work in areas of 
immediate concern to them. At the end of the fiscal year five cooper- 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ANTHROPOLOGY 49 

ating institutions again had field parties in the Missouri Basin: the 
University of Nebraska excavating in the Glen Elder and Milford 
Reservoirs of Kansas; the University of Kansas working in the Perry, 
Clinton, and Kirwin Reservoirs of Kansas; the Kansas State Historical 
Society, also excavating in the Perry Reservoir; the University of Mis- 
souri, continuing work in the Kaysinger Bluff and Stockton Reservoirs of 
Missouri; and the State Historical Society of North Dakota, excavating 
at the Shermer Site in the Oahe Reservoir. 

One of the important undertakings of the River Basin Surveys has 
been the Missouri Basin Chronology Program which recently has in- 
cluded, by cooperative agreement with the U.S. National Park Service, 
a review of dendrochronological data on the Plains area, being carried 
out by the Tree Ring Laboratory of the University of Arizona. Initial 
indications are encouraging for the future development of dendro- 
chronology in the Plains as a supplement to other less precise chrono- 
logical systems. 

Other Scientific Activities 

Henry B. Collins continued to serve as a member of the Board of 
Governors of the Arctic Institute of North America, which he helped 
to found in 1945, and as chairman of the directing committee of its 
comprehensive "Arctic Bibliography," in which are indexed and sum- 
marized the contents of publications in all fields of science and all lan- 
guages pertaining to the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of the world. 
Volume 12, prepared for publication during the year, will contain ab- 
stracts in English of 7,270 papers and monographs, 94 percent of which 
were published between 1960 and 1962. Of these, approximately half 
are in English, almost as many in Russian, and the majority of the re- 
mainder are Scandinavian, German, and French. Collins also con- 
tinued as chairman of the advisory committee of the Institute's Rus- 
sian Translation Project, which he organized in 1960. With a grant 
from the National Science Foundation, the editing of the fifth volume 
of the series, "The Archeology and Geomorphology of Northern 
Asia: Selected Papers," was completed for publication by the Univer- 
sity of Toronto Press in 1964; and a sixth volume, consisting of papers 
on Siberian archeology, was expected before the end of 1965. Prior 
to the merger of the Bureau of American Ethnology into the Smith- 
sonian Office of Anthropology, Collins served for a year and a half 
as Acting Director of the Bureau. 

W. H. Crocker continued as a contributing editor for South Amer- 
ican ethnology for "The Handbook of Latin American Studies" of 



50 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

the Hispanic Foundation of the Library of Congress. In that capacity 
he surveyed about 800 articles or books published from 1960 to 1964 
in this particular field and prepared critical abstracts of over 400 of 
the items for use in the Handbook. 

At the invitation of the Fulbright Commission of Brazil, C. Evans 
and B. J. Meggers received travel grants in order to give in Brazil 
an intensive training course on archeological method and interpre- 
tation to a select group of Brazilian archeologists at the University 
of Parana. This program, conducted October 5-30, 1964, was held 
at the Museu Paranaguense de Arqueologia e Artes Populares in 
Paranagua and at the Department of Anthropology at the Univer- 
sity of Parana in Curitiba. It was held in seminar form, six days a 
week. Mornings were devoted to lectures on archeological theory and 
a review of the latest information on New World archeology. After- 
noons were devoted to practical workshop sessions with specimens in 
order to show methods of classifying pottery, of seriating sequences, 
of writing pottery type descriptions, of reconstructing regional se- 
quences, and of determining the cultural history of aboriginal 
Brazil. Evenings were devoted to discussions of general problems 
in Brazilian archeology, the planning of field research, and the or- 
ganizing of common themes for study and presentation at the 1966 
International Congress of Americanists to be held in Argentina. 

The seminar was highly successful, both in training and developing 
the interest of a group of able young Brazilian archeologists, and in 
providing the Smithsonian Institution with new contacts and an aware- 
ness of current research in this region. The seminar also made possible 
the planning of a comprehensive, long-range research program for 
key areas of Brazil hitherto neglected or investigated only by outmoded, 
inadequate methods that produce results not comparable with those 
of other areas. The young scholars participating, it is hoped, will 
be able to collaborate with Smithsonian archeologists in this program, 
both carrying on their own research in Brazil and visiting the Museum 
of Natural History for short periods for conferences and additional 
training programs, and for comparative study of collections not avail- 
able in Brazil. 

Publications by the Staff 
July 1964 through June 1965 

Angel, J. Lawrence. Prehistoric man. In S. H. Engle, ed., New 
perspectives in world history. 34th Yearbook, National Council 
for the Social Studies, Washington, D.C., ch. 6, pp. 96-117, 1964. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ANTHROPOLOGY 51 

. Osteoporosis: thalassemia? Amer. Journ. Phys. Anthrop., 

n.s., Vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 369-374, 1 pi., September 1964. 
Baker, Paul T., and Angel, J. Lawrence. Old age changes in 

bone density: Sex and race factors in the United States. Human 

Biology, vol. 37, pp. 104-121, 1965. 
Coe, Michael D., and Flannery, Kent V. The pre-Columbian 

obsidian industry of El Chayal, Guatemala. Amer. Antiquity, vol. 

30, no. 1, pp. 43-49, 3 figs., July 1964. 
Collins, Henry B. Recent trends and developments in Arctic archae- 
ology. Actes du VI Congres International des Sciences Anthro- 

pologiques et Ethnologiques, Paris, 1960. Tome II (premier 

volume), pp. 373-377, 1963. 
. Paleo-Indian artifacts in Alaska: An example of cultural 

retardation in the Arctic. Anthrop. Pap. Univ. Alaska, vol. 10, 

no. 2, pp. 13-18, 1963. 
. Man in the Arctic. In The Arctic basin. Arctic Inst. North 

America, pp. 191-195, 1963. 
. The Arctic and Subarctic. In Jesse D. Jennings and Edward 

Norbeck, eds., Prehistoric man in the New World. Univ. Chicago 

Press, pp. 85-114, 1964. 
. Introduction. In Franz Boas, The Central Eskimo. Bison 

Book Ed., Univ. Nebraska Press, pp. v-xi, 1964. 
. James Louis Giddings (1909-1964) [Obituary]. Arctic, vol. 



18, no. 1, pp. 66-67, 1965. 

Crocker, William H. Conservatism among the Canela: an analysis 
of contributing factors. In Actas y Memorias, XXXV Congreso 
Internacional de Americanistas, Mexico, 1962, vol. 3, pp. 341-346, 
1964. 

Estrada, Emilio; Meggers, Betty J.; and Evans, Clifford. The 
Jambeli culture of south coastal Ecuador. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 115, no. 3492, pp. 483-558, 1964. 

Evans, Clifford, and Meggers, Betty J. British Guiana archaeol- 
ogy: A return to the original interpretations. Amer. Antiquity, 
vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 83-84, 1964. 

Flannery, Kent V. The middle formative of the Tehuacan valley: 
its pattern and place in Mesoamerican prehistory. 224 pp. -j- 
appendices (128 pp.), 34 illus., Univ. Chicago Microfilms, 1964. 

. The ecology of early food production in Mesopotamia. 

Science, vol. 147, no. 3663, pp. 1247-1256, March 12, 1965. 

Hole, Frank; Flannery, Kent V.; and Neely, James. Early agri- 
culture and animal husbandry in Deh Luran, Iran. Current 
Anthrop., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 105-106, February 1965. 



52 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Meggers, Betty J., and Evans, Clifford. Especulaciones sobre rutas 
tempranas de difusion de la ceramica entre Sur y Mesoamerica. 
In Hombre y Cultura, Revista del Centro de Investigaciones 
Antropologicas de la Universidad Nacional, tomo I, no. 3, pp. 1-15, 
December 1964. 

Stephenson, Robert L. Quaternary human occupation of the plains. 
In Quaternary of the U.S., eds. H. E. Wright and David G. Frey. 
Princeton Univ. Press, pp. 685-696, 1965. 

Stewart, T. D. Shanidar skeletons IV and VI. Sumer, vol. 19, nos. 
1-2, pp. 8-26, 14 pp. of figs., 1963. 

. Ales Hrdlicka, pioneer American physical anthropologist. 

In The Czechoslovak Contribution to World Culture, ed. Miloslav 
Rechcigl, Jr. Mouton & Co., The Hague, pp. 505-509, 1964. 

Sturtevant, William C. Studies in ethnoscience. In Transcultural 
studies in cognition, eds. A. K. Romney and R. G. D'Andrade. 
Amer. Anthrop., vol. 66, no. 3, part 2, pp. 99-131, 1964 (spec, 
publ.). 

. Mutilations and deformations. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 

vol. 16, pp. 1106-1107, 1965. 

. Tattooing. Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 21, p. 834, 1965. 

, Diamond, Stanley, and Fenton, W. N. Memorandum 

submitted to subcommittees on Indian affairs of the Senate and 
House of Representatives. Amer. Anthrop., vol. 66, no. 3, pp' 
631-633. {Also in "Kinzua dam," 88th Cong., 1st Sess., H.R., 
Comm. on Int. and Ins. Affairs, Comm. print ser. 6, pp. 504-505, 
1964, and "Kinzua dam," 88th Cong., 2d Sess., Senate, Comm. 
on Int. and Ins. Affairs, Comm. print, pp. 109-111, 1964.) 

-, Fairbanks, Charles H., and Rouse, Irving, eds. Indian and 



Spanish: Selected writings by John M. Goggin. Univ. Miami 
Press, Coral Gables, 329 pp., 1964. 

Van Beek, Gus W. Frankincense and myrrh. In The Bibilical Archae- 
ologist Reader 2. Anchor Book A250b, pp. 99-126, 1964. (Re- 
printed from Biblical Archaeologist, vol. 23, no. 3, 1960.) 

, Cole, Glen H., and Jamme, A. An archeological reconnais- 
sance in Hadhramaut, South Arabia — a preliminary report. In 
Ann. Rep. of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian 
Institution, 1963, pp. 521-545, 1964. 

Wedel, Waldo R. Primitive man. In Hugo G. Rodeck, ed., Natural 
history of the Boulder area. Univ. Colorado Museum, leaflet no. 
13, pp. 90-96, 1964. 

. Visit to Caribou, 1963. Colorado Magazine, vol. 41, no. 3, 

pp. 247-252, 1964. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 53 

Woodbury, Richard B., and Woodbury, Nathalie F. S. The chang- 
ing pattern of Papago land use. In Actas y Memorias, XXXV 
Congreso International de Americanistas, Mexico, 1962, vol. 2, 
pp. 181-186, 1964. 

. [Review]. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 1, 

ed. Robert G. West. Science, vol. 148, pp. 798-800, 1965. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Although the horizons of research in vertebrate zoology are con- 
tinually expanding, this does not reduce the importance of taxonomic 
studies at the "alpha" level in many groups, nor does it eliminate the 
continuing need for field collecting, particularly in less well-known 
parts of the world, such as the tropics. 

Fishes are taxonomically the least well-known vertebrates, and re- 
search on this group involves to a great extent the description of new 
forms and revisions at the generic and higher levels. Victor G. 
Springer is carrying out revisionary studies of blennioid fishes and re- 
cently completed the examination of material for a world revision of 
the genus Entomacrodus. This work is one of the few intensive studies 
of a circumglobal genus of marine shore fishes based on abundant 
material. 

William R. Taylor is studying speciation, relationships, morphology, 
and distribution of several families of marine and freshwater catfishes. 

Stanley H. Weitzman's current and projected research includes 
studies on the morphology and evolution of stomiatoid fishes, especially 
the deep-sea fish families Astronesthidae, Melanostomiatidae, and 
Gonostomatidae. He is also continuing work on the morphology, 
evolution, and classification of the large South American and African 
suborder of freshwater characi fishes, Characoidei. 

Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., and several colleagues are studying the bathy- 
pelagic fishes collected on two north-south transects in the western 
Indian Ocean during two cruises of the International Indian Ocean 
Expedition. The relationship of the distribution of species to physico- 
chemical and biological properties of the oceans is receiving much 
attention. Gibbs also neared completion of an ecological analysis of 
pelagic oceanic fishes, collected 1956-1960 from the M/V Delaware, 
and continued study of Atlantic Ocean flyingfishes. 

Ernest A. Lachner recently completed a study of certain North 
American barbel minnows. Robert E. Jenkins, graduate student, 
Cornell University, and Robert Ross, professor at Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute, over the past several years have amassed thousands of speci- 

789-427—66 9 



54 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

mens from central Appalachia using electric shocking devices. Jenkins 
and Lachner have analyzed the river populations of these nest-building 
chubs (genus Hybopsis, subgenus Nocomis). Their studies concern the 
ecology, distribution, origin, and dispersal of the several species and 
their infraspecific populations in relation to preglacial and postglacial 
stream captures and avenues of dispersal. 

In the division of reptiles and amphibians a major manuscript on 
the frogs of Colombia was completed by Doris M. Cochran in collabo- 
ration with Coleman J. Goin of the University of Florida. 

James A. Peters is studying the systematics and ecology of the reptiles 
and amphibians of Ecuador, including analysis of the results of six 
ecological transects made through the Subalpine, Transition, Cloud 
Forest, Subtropical, and Tropical Zones of the eastern slopes of the 
Andes. The area, almost totally unknown ecologically, is an evolution- 
ary microcosm, with striking examples of barrier formation and accom- 
panying speciation, altitudinal zonation, ecological indicator species, 
population al and community differentiation, and micro-faunules. 
Field studies in Ecuador of comparative cardiac physiology (with 
Robert Mullen, supported by the National Institutes of Health) re- 
sulted in the first known electrocardiograms of caecilians, the rare 
legless amphibians, and a large series of electrocardiograph records of 
Ecuadorian snakes and lizards, which will ultimately provide a contri- 
bution to physio-ecological studies of phylogenetic relationships. 

Peters also published a dictionary which contains over 3500 words 
and terms descriptive of the biology of the reptiles and amphibians, 
including material drawn from such other disciplines as behavior, 
genetics, ecology, physiology, and pathology, as well as systematics 
and morphology. 

Research on birds has a strong ecological orientation, with empha- 
sis on sea birds in four of the world's oceans and land birds in Latin 
America. 

George E. Watson has developed a cooperative research program 
with the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries to study the distribution, 
abundance, and behavior of sea birds in association with fish schools in 
the tropical Atlantic Ocean. He participated in a cruise aboard the 
Bureau ship Geronimo in the Gulf of Guinea in August and aboard the 
Woods Hole research vessel Atlantis II off northern South America from 
October to December. These resulted in the production of an illus- 
trated preliminary identification manual designed to facilitate collection 
of reliable data on the distribution of pelagic birds. With J. Phillip 
Angle as assistant, Watson is working on a similar manual for Antarctic 
birds on a grant from the National Science Foundation. They gathered 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 55 

data aboard the aircraft carrier Croaton, used as a mobile launch facility 
by NASA, off the west coast of South America in April. Frank B. Gill, 
research assistant, returned to the United States after 1 5 months on the 
International Indian Ocean Expedition. 

The Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program, of which Philip S. 
Humphrey is the principal investigator, reached the end of its first 
phase of general survey work at the end of June 1965. An inventory of 
the terrestrial organisms and seasonal variations in their distribution 
and abundance has been made in the study area, and preparation has 
begun for a series of survey reports on an island-by-island basis. 

Humphrey's other research activities during the year mostly con- 
cerned studies of the distribution and ecology of Latin American birds. 
He continued field studies of the ecological and seasonal distribution 
of birds and arboviruses in the tropical rain forest in cooperation with 
Robert E. Shope of the Belem Virus Laboratory in Brazil under a grant 
from the Rockefeller Foundation. During the dry season they gathered 
comparative ecological data in the same study area used during the 
rainy season in 1963. Humphrey also continued his research on 
Patagonian birds, assisted by David Bridge. 

Paul Slud, a specialist in tropical ecology, joined the staff in July 1964 
and left almost immediately for a year of field work in Costa Rica. 
He is part of a team working on a bioecological classification for mili- 
tary environments supported by the Army Research Office. An im- 
portant objective has been to study a variety of habitats in detail in 
order to classify and predict plant formations and the distribution of 
birds. 

Alexander Wetmore continued his studies of birds of the Isthmus of 
Panama and was in the field from January through March. 

Richard L. Zusi made considerable research progress in functional 
anatomy and adaptation, completing in collaboration with Robert W. 
Storer of the University of Michigan one manuscript comparing head 
and neck anatomy in the pied-billed grebe with that of the rare giant 
pied- bill, and another on the mechanism of kinetics in the bird skull. 
His other studies in progress include adaptive radiation in shorebirds, 
for which he obtained useful data and motion pictures during field 
work in Kansas and Florida. He is working on a joint study of the 
evolution of the woodhewers, a group of tropical American tree-trunk 
climbing birds, with Paul Slud, who has contributed specimens and field 
observations from Costa Rica. 

In mammals, research is oriented mostly toward studies of tropical 
faunas which are far less well-known than those of temperate areas. 
Much of this work is done in cooperation with specialists of other 



56 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

disciplines. For example, Henry W. Setzer works extensively with 
parasitologists in his faunal studies, supported by the Office of the 
Surgeon General, Department of the Army. This year he conducted 
field work in Mozambique in July and August, and throughout the 
year he supervised a field team working in Iran and Pakistan and two 
others working in Mozambique and Bechuanaland, each including 
entomologists as well as mammalogists. 

In cooperation with Vernon Tipton, Brooke Army Medical Center, 
Fort Sam Houston, Tex., Charles O. Handley, Jr., began work on a 
study of the distribution and ecology of mammalian ectoparasites, 
arboviruses, and their hosts in Venezuela, with support by the Office 
of the Surgeon General. On the project staff are 11 parasitologists, a 
virologist, and an ecologist. With support from the National Science 
Foundation, Handley also directed field work in Panama and in the 
southeastern United States. 

David H. Johnson is studying some of the Far Eastern species of the 
genus Rattus as a part of a comprehensive study of the mammals of 
southeastern Asia. 

Publications by the Staff 
July 7964 through June 1965 

Cochran, Doris M., and Goin, Coleman J. Description of a new frog 
of the genus Phyllobates from Colombia (Amphibia, Ranidae, Den- 
drobatinae). Senck. Biol., vol. 45, pp. 255-257, 1 fig., December 1, 
1964. 

Collette, Bruce B., and Gibbs, Robert H., Jr. Thunnus South, 1845 
(Pisces): proposed validation under the plenary powers. Z.N.(S.) 
1652. Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 442-443, 1964. 

Deignan, Herbert G. A new race of the Alpine accentor, Prunella 
collaris, from Formosa. NAMRU-II Res. Rep. MR005.09- 
1601.3.26, 3 pp., June 1964. 

. Birds of the Arnhem Land expedition. In Records of the 

American-Australian scientific expedition to Arnhem Land, vol. 
4 (zoology), pp. 345-425, October 1964. 

Parrotbill (1). In A new dictionary of birds, ed. Sir A. Lans- 



borough Thomson. Nelson, London, pp. 602-603, 1964. 

Notes on the nomenclature of the whistling-thrushes. Bull. 



Brit. Orn. Club, vol. 85, pp. 3-4, January 1965. 
Friedmann, Herbert. Evolutionary trends in the avian genus 
Clamator. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 146, no. 4, pp. 1-127, 
October 30, 1964. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 57 

Garrick, J. A. F.; Backus, Richard H.; and Gibbs, Robert H., Jr. 

Carcharinus floridanus, the silky shark, a synonym of C. falciformis. 

Gopeia, 1964, no. 2, pp. 369-375, 5 figs., 1964. 
Gibbs, Robert H., Jr. Family Astronesthidae. In Fishes of the 

western North Atlantic. Sears Found. Mar. Res., Mem. I, part 4, 

pp. 311-350, 15 figs., 1964. 
. Family Idiacanthidae. In Fishes of the western North 

Atlantic. Sears Found. Mar. Res., Mem. I, part 4, pp. 512-522, 

4 figs., 1964. 
Humphrey, Philip S. The swallows. In Song and garden birds of 

North America, by Alexander Wetmore and other ornithologists, 

National Geographic Society, Washington, pp. 121-130, 1964. 
Jenkins, Robert E., and Lachner, Ernest A. The distribution and 

dispersal of the cyprinid fishes of the subgenus Nocomis (genus 

Hybopsis) in the central Atlantic states. Abstr. Pap. Pres. 44th 

Ann. Meet. Amer. Soc. Ichthy. and Herp., p. 20, 1964. 
Johnson, David H. Mammals of the Arnhem Land expedition. In 

Records of the American-Australian scientific expedition to Arn- 
hem Land, vol. 4 (zoology), pp. 427-515, pis. 3-16, October 1964. 
Jones, J. Knox, Jr., and Johnson, David H. Synopsis of the lago- 

morphs and rodents of Korea. Univ. Kansas Publ., Mus. Nat. 

Hist., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 357-407, February 12, 1965. 
Lachner, Ernest A., and Jenkins, Robert E. New cyprinid fishes 

(genus Hybopsis, subgenus Nocomis) of eastern United States. Abstr. 

Pap. pres. 44th Ann. Meet. Amer. Soc. Ichthy. and Herp., p. 23, 

1964. 
Morrow, James E., Jr., and Gibbs, Robert H., Jr. Family Melano- 

stomiatidae. In Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Sears 

Found. Mar. Res., Mem. I, part 4, pp. 351-511, 45 figs., 1964. 
Peters, James A. Dictionary of herpetology. Hafner Publ. Co., 

New York and London, pp. xi and 292, 30 figs., 1964. 
. The lizard genus Ameiva in Ecuador. Bull. Southern 

California Acad. Sci., vol. 63, part 3, pp. 57-67, 1964. 

Supplemental notes on snakes of the subfamily Dipsadinae 



(Reptilia: Colubridae). Beitr. zur Neotropischen Fauna, vol. 4, 

no. 1, pp. 45-50, 1964. 
Schultz, Leonard P. Three new species of frogfishes from the 

Indian and Pacific oceans with notes on other species (family 

Antennariidae) . Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 116, no. 3500, pp. 

171-182, pis. 1-3, September 1, 1964. 
. Family Sternoptychidae. In Fishes of the western North 

Atlantic. Sears Found. Mar. Res., Mem. I, part 4, pp. 241-273, 

1964. 



58 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Short, Lester L., Jr., and Banks, R. G. Louisiana waterthrush in 

Baja California. Condor, vol. 67, p. 188, 1965. 
Slud, Paul. The birds of Costa Rica. Distribution and ecology. 

Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 128, pp. 1-430, 3 maps, 1964. 
— ■ . [Review]. Seasonal activity and ecology of the avifauna of 

an American equatorial cloud forest, by Alden H. Miller. Auk, 

vol. 81, pp. 444-446, 1964. 
Springer, Victor G. A revision of the carcharhinid shark genera 

Scoliodon, Loxodon, and Rhizoprionodon. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 

vol. 115, no. 3493, pp. 559-632, 1964. 
. [Review]. Revised classification of the blennioid fishes of 

the American family Chaenopsidae, by J. S. Stephens, Jr. 

Copeia, 1964, no. 3, pp. 591-593, 1964. 
and Garrick, J. A. F. A survey of vertebral numbers in sharks. 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 116, no. 3496, pp. 73-96, 1964. 
and Rosenblatt, Richard H. A new blennioid fish of the 



genus Labrisomus from Ecuador, with notes on the Caribbean 
species L. filamentosus. Copeia, 1965, no. 1, pp. 25-27, 1965. 

Taylor, William R. Comment on the proposed rejection of Curimata 
Walbaum, 1792. Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol. 21, pp. 260-261, 
1964. 

. Fishes of Arnhem Land. In Records of the American- 
Australian scientific expedition to Arnhem Land, vol. 4 (zoology), 
pp. 45-307, 73 figs., October 1964. 

Watson, George E. Preliminary Smithsonian identification man- 
ual: seabirds of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, xxvii -f- 108 pp., 12 pis., 1965. 

Weitzman, Stanley H. One new species and two redescriptions of 
catfishes of the South American callichthyid genus Corydoras. 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 116, no. 3498, pp. 115-126, 1964. 

. Fishes of subfamilies Lebiasininae and Erythrininae with 

special reference to subtribe Mannostomina. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 116, no. 3499, pp. 127-170, 1964. 

Wetmore, Alexander, with other ornithologists. Song and garden 
birds of North America. National Geographic Society, Washing- 
ton, pp. 1-400, 550 illus., 1964. 

. Aves. In New Paris No. 4: A Pleistocene cave deposit in 

Bedford County, Pennsylvania, John E. Guilday, Paul S. Martin, 
and Allen D. McCrady. Bull. Nat. Speleol. Soc, vol. 26, p. 134, 
October 1964. 

. Screamer. In A new dictionary of birds, ed. Sir A. Lans- 



borough Thomson. Nelson, London, pp. 718-719, 1 fig., 1964. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 59 

-. Seriema. In A new dictionary of birds, ed. Sir A. Lans- 



borough Thomson. Nelson, London, p. 724, 1964. 
. Tody. In A new dictionary of birds, ed. Sir A. Lansborough 

Thomson. Nelson, London, pp. 824-825, 1 fig., 1964. 
. Aves. In L. S. B. Leakey, Olduvai gorge 1951-61, vol. 1, 



pp. 71-72, 1965. 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Invertebrate animals are still so little known with respect to their kinds 
and diversity, their distributions, and the mechanisms that control these 
distributions, that much research in invertebrate zoology is necessarily 
fundamental and exploratory. It is still preoccupied with "alpha" 
taxonomy — the exploratory phases of systematics. The range of this 
research exploration extends from the Antarctic to the Arctic and 
includes all of the oceans of the world. Some of the activities de- 
scribed below illustrate the nature of the department's research and 
predict the far-reaching conclusions which someday may follow these 
preliminary studies. 

The International Indian Ocean Expedition, concluded this year, has 
provided a unique opportunity for American zoologists to cooperate in 
a full-time biological effort in one of the least known areas of the world. 
Many members of the department have participated. Joseph Rose- 
water completed a study of the tridacnid clams of the Indo-Pacific, in 
part based upon the collections made during participation in Te Vega 
Cruise A and earlier observations made at Eniwetok Atoll. He is now 
considering the littorinid snails of the Indo-Pacific region, using these 
same collections and others from western Malaysia, Thailand, and the 
islands south of Sumatra. Charles E. Cutress, Jr., who collected exten- 
sively along the Indian coast in 1963, has been describing certain of the 
sea anemones. 

Louis S. Kornicker, aboard Te Vega for Cruise B during early 1964, 
collected from Ceylon to the Maldive Islands. He returned in Novem- 
ber and December to cruise the East African coast and the coral reefs 
of the western Indian Ocean aboard Anton Bruun on Cruise 9. The 
myodocopid ostracods he obtained will provide the nucleus for study 
of these little-known forms in the Indian Ocean. To provide com- 
parative materials for his studies, Kornicker also collected from 
the Bahamas and other areas from which few reference materials exist 
in most museum collections. 

Museum technician T. Peter Lowe made important and significant 
collections of deep-water corals from south of the Malagasy Republic. 



60 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

These specimens provide an index to the northern boundary of the 
Southern Ocean fauna under study by Donald F. Squires. Although 
temperatures at great depths in the ocean are quite low, there appears 
to be a clear-cut faunal demarcation between a "deep-water tropical 
fauna" and the deep-water corals of the Southern Ocean. Lowe also 
collected reef corals from some of the more southerly coral reefs during 
stops at ports in the Malagasy Republic. 

Among the many intriguing studies of marine invertebrates are those 
concerned with planktonic faunas, for these organisms live throughout 
their lives in a medium in motion and therefore are dynamic both 
spatially and temporally. Thomas E. Bowman, in his analysis of the 
planktonic copepod crustaceans, has been considering the striking zona- 
tion of species which occurs in an inshore-offshore progression. The 
zones appear to represent a series of communities which replace each 
other from shallow neritic to deeper oceanic waters. Each of these 
faunas inhabits water masses having potentially definable physical 
characteristics; therefore, they are indicators of these water bodies. 
Studies made on the distribution of two species of a genus of planktonic 
shrimp indicate that these striking and easily identifiable forms could 
be used for very rapid identification of some of these water bodies. 
The results of this study have potential importance in understanding 
the ecological basis of the fisheries off the southeastern coast of the 
United States. Incidental to this research, Bowman has been con- 
sidering the distribution of certain aquatic cave isopods from various 
regions of the Americas, and he presented a paper on the evolution of 
these forms to the Society of Systematic Zoology. 

Western Atlantic stomatopods, which may become important as a 
food source, were subjected to further study by Raymond B. Manning, 
who is concluding his monographic treatment of this group. An ex- 
tension of these studies to the eastern Atlantic was made possible by his 
participation, both this year and last year, in cruises to the Gulf of 
Guinea aboard the University of Miami research vessel Pillsbury. His 
studies include investigations of the planktonic larvae of the stomato- 
pods. In conjunction with his field-based studies, Manning completed 
a revision of the Australian and New Zealand stomatopods. 

Other studies of the invertebrates of the eastern United States region 
were carried out by Meredith L. Jones, Marian H. Pettibone, and W. 
Duane Hope. Jones, who continues his long-range program of research 
upon the tropical polychaete faunas, engaged in field work in the area 
of Margarita Island, Venezuela, and off Key West, Fla. He also com- 
pleted an analysis of the spatial distribution of some marine benthic 
invertebrates in San Francisco Bay, Calif. Such an analysis, made 




Specimens lent for study by other scientists in the United States and abroad are 
either sealed in cans or placed in plastic bags before being boxed. Below: 
Well-illuminated, accessible shelves for storage of wet collections of marine 
invertebrates have white vinyl lining to increase effective illumination at 
all levels. (See p. 88.) 





In Tonga, members of the biology class of Tonga College were recruited by 
Curator Harald Rehder to collect mollusks from the flat behind the raised 
Ha'ateiho Reef on Tongatapu. Below: In the laboratory, Rehder makes 
initial identifications of mollusks collected in the Pacific islands. (See 
p. 62.) 




RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 61 

upon collections taken with a special sampling device, permits a better 
understanding of the community structure of small organisms and may 
ultimately give us insight into some aspects of their behavior, but 
it can be carried out only in those areas where the organisms are 
sufficiently well known to permit identifications. 

It is toward this higher level of understanding that research such as 
that of Pettibone is directed. She continues her detailed studies of the 
polychaetes of the New England region, extending from Nova Scotia 
south to Cape Hatteras, and is preparing another in her series of mono- 
graphs on this fauna. Polychaete worms, which constitute a large pro- 
portion, by mass, of animals in many marine environments, are poorly 
known and difficult to study. It is only through long-range projects 
resulting in monographic taxonomic treatments for the identification 
of these animals that other biological studies can progress. 

Revisional studies are often possible only after long experience with 
the fauna of a region or with a smaller group of organisms with which 
one has had vast experience. The summary of a lifetime of work with 
such a group is the objective of research associate Waldo L. Schmitt, 
who is studying the New World species of pinnotherid crabs. This 
study, in which Schmitt brings together what is known of the diversity 
and distribution of these crabs, will permit a better understanding of 
their position in the evolution of the Crustacea and make possible mean- 
ingful studies of their ecology and their role in the marine environment. 

The work of systematics often extends beyond descriptive analyses of 
species. W. Duane Hope has been considering seasonal distribution of 
marine nematode worms in the Woods Hole, Mass., region. The nema- 
tode fauna reflects the variable seasonal environments, as well as local, 
stable habitats which might be due to a single aberrant ecological 
parameter, such as the sediment type. A description of a fauna such 
as the nematodes, in this region, requires, therefore, a knowledge of 
distribution mechanisms, as well as of the methods by which the indi- 
vidual species may be recognized. This program of research has been 
underway since September, when Hope joined the departmental staff, 
and is being conducted in cooperation with the Systematics-Ecology 
Program of the Marine Biological Laboratory of Woods Hole. 

J. Laurens Barnard, whose association with the Smithsonian began 
in August, has continued his studies of the benthic amphipods of the 
California coast, particularly those of the intertidal zone from Monterey 
Bay, Calif., to Bahia de los Angeles in Baja California. Upon comple- 
tion of this study, which is expected early next year, Barnard will 
commence investigations of the benthic Antarctic amphipods. 

Broad-scale zoogeographic studies such as that to be commenced by 
Barnard are already underway in the Antarctic region, or more 

789-427—66 11 



62 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

properly in the Southern Ocean (the southern portions of the Atlantic, 
Pacific, and Indian Oceans), by David L. Pawson and Donald F. 
Squires. Pawson has been concerned with the systematics and distri- 
bution of holothuroids (sea cucumbers) and echinoids (sea urchins), 
particularly those of the New Zealand and Australian regions. Squires' 
long-range program on Southern Ocean corals likewise has been con- 
centrated in the above regions. But both investigators expect to ex- 
tend their area of interest into the Southern Pacific, which is virtually 
unknown biologically. The emphasis on the New Zealand and Aus- 
tralian regions is not accidental, for New Zealand lies athwart the 
boundary between the subtropical and sub-Antarctic faunas, and the 
relationship between the faunas of New Zealand and those of the 
Antarctic sheds light on the paths of migration of these faunas and on 
their history. 

It is well known that faunas are most diverse toward the center of 
their distribution but become attenuated or less diverse near the periph- 
ery. Only the more hardy species can live in the often marginal 
ecological conditions which exist in peripheral regions. The applica- 
tion of this principle to the molluscan faunas of the marginal tropical 
Pacific areas is the subject of research by Harald A. Rehder. The 
immensely diverse molluscan faunas found in the tropical coral reefs 
of the Pacific Ocean become less diverse in the island groups on the 
edge of the coral-reef area. The diminution of these faunas reflects 
their isolation, as well as their more severe environments; knowledge of 
the diversity and composition of the faunas is essential for an under- 
standing of the causes of such diminution. To accumulate the data for 
his studies, Rehder spent four months in southeastern Polynesia and 
supervises a continuing program of field collection. 

Although the major interest of the department is in the marine forms 
of life, there has been some activity toward better understanding of 
freshwater and terrestrial species. Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., who has 
been engaged in studies of the evolutionary history of crayfish and their 
commensal entocytherid ostracods, has engaged in a project on the 
freshwater and terrestrial decapods of the Antillean Islands. A report 
being prepared jointly with Fenner A. Chace, Jr., deals with the fauna 
of Dominica, surveyed as a part of the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian 
biological survey of Dominica. This work is a continuation of studies 
of the North American crayfishes and those of the Mexican region 
which have doubled the known species of these important organisms, 
used frequently in experimental and behavioral studies. In connection 
with his taxonomic studies, Hobbs conducted field work in the south- 
eastern United States, particularly in Louisiana. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 63 

Joseph P. E. Morrison, who continues work upon brackish-water 
mollusks, also collected in the southeastern United States and the U.S. 
Virgin Islands. Mrs. Mildred Stratton Wilson, who has been mono- 
graphing the freshwater calanoid copepod crustaceans of North Amer- 
ica, in an attempt to develop a geographic and physiographic index to 
the faunal composition of individual bodies of water, had her work 
delayed as a result of damage to her laboratory and library in the 
Alaskan earthquake of 1964. 

Publications by the Staff 
July 1964 through June 1965 

Bowman, Thomas E. Mysidopsis almyra, a new estuarine mysid crus- 
tacean from Louisiana and Florida. Tulane Studies in Zool., 
vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 15-18, 1964. 

. Antrolana lira, a new genus and species of troglobitic cirolanid 

isopod from Madison Cave, Virginia. Internat. Journ. Speleol., 
vol. 1, parts 1-2, pp. 229-236, pis. 50-57, 1964. 

. An arostrate population of the copepod Acartia lilljeborgii 

Giesbrecht (Calanoida: Acartiidae) from St. Lucia, West Indies. 
Crustaceana, vol. 8, part 2, pp. 149-152, 1965. 

-. A bloom of the planktonic blue-green alga, Trichodesmium 



crythraeum, in the Tonga Islands. Limnology and Oceanography, 
vol. 10, pp. 291-293, 1965. 

Clark, Ailsa M. On the identity of Clypeaster rosaceus (Linnaeus). . . . 
Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol. 21, pp. 297-302, 1964. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. A new cave-dwelling crayfish from the Green- 
brier drainage system, West Virginia (Decapoda, Astacidae). 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 77, pp. 189-194, 10 figs., 1964. 

and Bedinger, M. S. A new troglobitic crayfish of the genus 

Cambarus (Decapoda, Astacidae) from Arkansas with a note on 
the range of Cambarus cryptodytes Hobbs. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, vol. 77, pp. 9-15, 11 figs., 1964. 

and Villalobos, Alejandro. Los cambarinos de Cuba. 



Ann. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Mexico, vol. 34, nos. 1-2, pp. 307-366, 

5 maps, 50 figs., 1964. 
Kornicker, Louis S. A seasonal study of living Ostracoda in a Texas 

bay adjoining the Gulf of Mexico. In Publ. Zool. Stat. Naples, 

1965, vol. 33, suppl., pp. 45-60, 1965. 
. Ecology of Ostracoda in the northwestern part of the Great 

Bahama Bank. In Publ. Zool. Stat. Naples, 1965, vol. 33, suppl., 

pp. 345-360, 1965. 



64 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Kornicker, Louis S. and King, Charles E. A new species of lumi- 
nescent Ostracoda from Jamaica, West Indies. Micropaleontology, 
vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 105-110, 1965. 

Northcote, T. G.; Wilson, Mildred S.; and Hurn, D. R. Some 
characteristics of Nitinat Lake, an inlet on Vancouver Island, 
British Columbia. Journ. Fish. Res. Board Canada, vol. 21, no. 5, 
pp. 1069-1081, 3 figs., September 1964. 

Pawson, D. L. The Holothuroidea collected by the Royal Society 
expedition to southern Chile, 1958-1959. Pacific Sci., vol. 18, no. 
4, pp. 453-470, 1964. 

. The echinoid genus Caenopedina in New Zealand. Trans. 

Roy. Soc. New Zealand (zool.), vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 63-66, 1 pi., 5 figs., 
1964. 

. A new cidaroid from New Zealand waters. Trans. Roy. Soc. 



New Zealand (zool.), vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 67-70, 1 pi., 4 figs., 1964. 
. New sea-cucumbers from New Zealand waters. Rec. Do- 
minion Mus. Wellington, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 75-82, 19 figs., 1965. 
. Some echinozoans from north of New Zealand. Trans. Roy. 



Soc. New Zealand (zool.), vol. 5, no. 15, pp. 197-224, 1965. 
and Fell, H. Barraclough. A revised classification of the 



dendrochirote holothurians. Breviora, no. 214, pp. 1-7, 1965. 

Rehder, Harald A. A further note on Homalocantha. Hawaiian Shell 
News, vol. 12, no. 10, p. 2, 1964. 

Rosewater, Joseph. The family Tridacnidae in the Indo-Pacific. 
Indo-Pacific Mollusca, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 347-396, pis. 263-293, 
1965. 

Squires, Donald F. Biological results of the Chatham Islands 1954 ex- 
pedition. Part 6. Scleractinia. New Zealand Dept. Sci. and 
Industr. Res. Bull., vol. 139, no. 6, 29 pp., 4 pis., 1964. 

. Deep water corals as fish food. Nature, vol. 203, no. 4995, 

pp. 663-664, 1964. 

. Fossil coral thickets in Wairarapa, New Zealand. Journ. 



Paleont., vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 904-915, pis. 147-148, 1964. 
. New stony corals (Scleractinia) from northeastern New Zea- 
land. Rec. Auckland Inst, and Mus., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 1 pi., 
1964. 
. The Southern Ocean: A potential for coral studies. Ann. 



Rep. Smithsonian Inst., 1963, pp. 447-459, 4 pis., 1964. 

. A new species of Pliobothrus, a hydrocoral, from the Oli- 

gocene of New Zealand. Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand (geol.), 
vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 23-25, pi. 1, 1965. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ENTOMOLOGY 65 

Squires, Donald F. Neoplasia in a coral? Science, vol. 148, no. 

3669, pp. 503-505, 1965. 
Stevens, Belle A., and Chace, Fenner A., Jr. The mesopelagic 

caridean shrimp Notostomusjaponicus Bate in the northeastern Pacific. 

Crustaceana, vol. 8, part 3, pp. 277-284, 4 figs., May 1965. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Throughout the department there has been marked activity in the 
field and in basic research this year. Paul J. Spangler completed his 
study of Peruvian water beetles for the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. Both larvae and adults were included in this work, 
which included the description of two new genera and 12 new species, 
all represented by 129 illustrations. Spangler also continued his 
studies toward a revision of the important water-beetle genus Tropi- 
sternas. Members of this Western Hemisphere genus have been shown 
to be intermediate hosts of several important internal parasites, notably 
a tapeworm cysticercoid and the thorny-headed worm, both affecting 
swine in Puerto Rico. Certain species are implicated in the trans- 
mission of botulism to waterfowl. Other species of Tropisternus are 
host to many species of fungi being studied by mycologists. One of 
the most significant of Spangler's accomplishments was his discovery 
of the snail Planorbina glabrata (Say) — the intermediate host of the 
principal helminthic diseases of man, schistosomiaisis — on the island of 
Dominica while he was participating in the Bredin-Archbold-Smith- 
sonian biological survey of Dominica. 

Oscar L. Gartwright is continuing his research on the scarab-beetle 
genus Ataenius, which consists of about 300 described species; he spent 
two months studying types in the British Museum (Natural History) 
and the Museum d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. 

Research associate Doris H. Blake continued her study of the Chrys- 
omelidae of the Western Hemisphere. She completed two papers and 
is presently revising the genus Glyptoscelis. Mrs. Blake devoted five 
weeks to research at the Science Museum, Institute of Jamaica, and 
on several field trips there she acquired new material for the national 
collection. 

Richard C. Froeschner completed a revision of the cactus plant 
bugs (family Miridae) which makes available names to be used in 
ecological studies of insects important to the culture and control of 
cacti. Clarification of the nomenclature of the burrower bugs (Cyd- 
nidae) was accomplished by the fixation of correct names. 



66 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Research associate Carl J. Drake continued his investigations of the 
lacebugs (Tingidae) of Madagascar, the Congo, and the Americas, but 
the publication of his 634-page catalog, Lacebugs of the World, is the 
most significant contribution to the knowledge of this group of insects that 
has ever appeared and is the culmination of a lifetime of research and 
investigation. [Active to the last, Carl J. Drake died October 2, 1965.] 

Donald R. Davis conducted biological investigations of yucca and 
agave moths, emphasizing differences in life histories, host specificity, 
and other factors. His published work will be replete with illustrations 
demonstrating his findings. Davis is also engaged in a study of the 
New World Incurvariidae, small moths belonging to the superfamily 
Tineoidea. In April 1965 he joined the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian 
biological survey of Dominica for field work which will emphasize 
investigations of the Tineoidea. 

W. Donald Duckworth has made significant progress with his research 
on the New World Stenomidae. Particularly important in this con- 
nection have been the field investigations carried on in El Salvador, 
Costa Rica, and Panama. These investigations have resulted in the 
accumulation of much material which will contribute to our knowledge 
of the ecology and zoogeography of the group. Further advances in 
the research on the Stenomidae were made by his study of the extensive 
collections of typical and ordinary material at the British Museum 
(Natural History); also the type material from the Naturhistorisches 
Museum, Vienna. 

William D. Field continued his research on the butterflies of the 
genera Thecla and Vanessa and initiated studies of the butterflies and 
larger moths of Dominica. The latter project will include the moth 
families Arctiidae, Ctenuchidae, and Sphingidae. 

J. F. Gates Clarke furthered his long-term project of elucidating the 
Meyrick types of Micro lepidoptera. Volume 5 of this series appeared 
in March 1965. The solutions to several problems and the revision of 
several groups of Neotropical Microlepidoptera have been accom- 
plished. The research on the moths of this area is another long-term 
project greatly facilitated by a grant from the National Science Founda- 
tion. Concurrently, Clarke is continuing research on the Micro- 
lepidoptera of Rapa, Micronesia, and other Pacific Islands. 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr., in his research on the Trichoptera (caddisflies) 
of the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, has concentrated on those of 
the West Indies, with the result that major papers on the Trichoptera 
of Jamaica and the Lesser Antilles are nearly complete. 

Research associate Thomas E. Snyder continued work on the second 
supplement to his notable "Annotated, Subject-Heading Bibliography 
of the Termites." 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ENTOMOLOGY 67 

Research associate K. C. Emerson completed several projects on the 
taxonomy of the Mallophaga or biting lice. In the course of his 
investigations he has studied major collections of lice from birds from 
Uruguay, New Guinea, the Congo, and the Pacific Ocean. 

Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., is continuing several projects, mostly begun 
several years ago. Among them are a monograph of the New Zealand 
chilopods, a revision of the genus Strigamia, and a revision of the 
Mecistocephalidae. He is also preparing several articles on the dolicho- 
cephalic Geophilomorpha. Work on two projects, a monograph and 
a checklist of North American Chilopoda, is suspended because of the 
unavailability of certain type specimens. From May 18 to September 
8, 1964, Crabill studied critical collections in London, Munich, Vienna, 
Hamburg, and Frankfurt. In order to augment our material, Crabill 
undertook several field trips in north, central, and southern Germany 
and in the Tirol and Vorarlberg areas of Austria. 



Publications by the Staff 
July 1964 through June 1965 

Blake, Doris H. Twelve new species of chrysomelid beetles from the 
West Indies (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Amer. Mus. Novit., 
no. 2217, pp. 1-13, 14 figs., March 1965. 

Carriker, M. A., Jr. Mallophaga de Mexico y Centro America 
(Insecta). Rev. Soc. Mexicana Hist. Nat., vol. 24, pp. 49-67, 
18 figs., December 1963. 

— . On the genera "Cinconiphilus" and " Ardeiphilus" with descrip- 
tions of six new species (Mallophaga, Menoponidae). Rev. Brasi- 
leira Biol., vol. 24, pp. 95-108, 27 figs., June 1964. 

Cartwright, O. L. Lectotype designations and new synonymy in the 
genus Ataenius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Coleopterists' Bull., 
vol. 18, pp. 101-104, December 1964. 

Clarke, J. F. Gates. A new genus and species from the Juan Fernan- 
dez Islands (Lepidoptera: Blastodacnidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington, vol. 77, pp. 125-126, June 1964. 

-. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, VI. Genera Orsotricha Mey- 

rick and Palinorsa Meyrick (Gelechiidae, Oecophoridae). Proc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 116, no. 3502, pp. 197-204, 4 figs., 1 pi., 
November 1964. 

. Catalogue of the type specimens of Microlepidoptera in the 

British Museum (Natural History) described by Edward Meyrick, 
vol. 5, pp. 1-581, 283 pis., March 1965. 



68 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Grabill, Ralph E., Jr. A revised interpretation of the primitive 

mecistocephalid genus, Arrup, with redescription of its type-species. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 77, pp. 161-170, October 1964. 
. Untersuchung iiber die Charaktere und Verwandtschaft 

von Turkophilus. Opuscula Zoologica, nr. 76, pp. 1-6, December 

1964. 
Drake, Carl J. The Australian genus Euaulana Drake (Hemiptera: 

Tingidae). Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, vol. 75, pp. 37-38, 

1 fig., October 1964. 

and Catley, A. An unreported gall-producing lacebug in 

New Guinea (Papua) (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Pacific Insects, 
vol. 6, pp. 229-230, 4 figs., August 1964. 

■ and Herring, Jon L. The genus Nidicola (Hemiptera: Antho- 

coridae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 77, pp. 53-64, 5 
figs., June 1964. 

and Hill, B. G. Some Ethiopian lacebugs (Hemiptera: 

Tingidae). Great Basin Naturalist, vol. 24, pp. 83-92, 3 figs., 
December 1964. 

and Quadri, M. A new species of lacebug from Pakistan 



(Hemiptera: Tingidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 77, 
pp. 247-250, 1 fig., December 1964. 

and Ruhoff, Florence A. Genus Plerochila (Hemiptera: 

Heteroptera, family Tingidae). Institut Pares Nat. du Congo 
et Rwanda, fasc. 44, pp. 101-113, 3 figs., December 1964. 

Lacebugs of the world: a catalog (Hemiptera: Tingidae). 



U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 243, pp. 1-634, 57 pis., March 1965. 
Duckworth, W. D. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, IV. A new genus 

of Stenomidae with descriptions of four new species (Lepidoptera: 

Gelechioidea). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 116, no. 3497, pp. 

97-114, 8 figs., September 1964. 
. North American Stenomidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 116, no. 3495, pp. 23-72, October 

1964. 

North American moths of the genus Swammerdamia (Lepi- 



doptera: Yponomeutidae) . Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 116, 
no. 3507, pp. 549-556, 3 figs., May 1965. 

Emerson, K. C. A new species of Mallophaga from Natal. Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 13, vol. 6, no. 72, pp. 717-718, 3 figs., Decem- 
ber 1963. 

. A new species of Mallophaga from the Philippine Islands. 

Journ. Kansas Ent. Soc, vol. 38, pp. 68-69, 4 figs., January 1965. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS BOTANY 69 

Emerson, K. G. The Vernon L. Kellogg Mallophaga type material 

in the Cornell University collection. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, 

vol. 67, pp. 46-50, April 1965. 
and Stojanovich, C. J. A new species of Mallophaga from 

the Mikado pheasant. Ent. News, vol. 75, pp. 256-258, 4 figs., 

December 1964. 
Flint, Oliver S., Jr. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Puerto Rico. 

Univ. Puerto Rico Agr. Exp. Sta. Techn. Pap. 40, pp. 1-80, 

19 figs., December 1964. 
Froeschner, Richard C. Larinocerus balius, a new genus and new 

species of plant bug from the United States (Hemiptera: Miridae). 

Ent. News, vol. 76, pp. 85-89, 1 fig., April 1965. 

BOTANY 

The vast forests, plains, tablelands, and islands of the New World 
tropics are a reservoir of countless species of plants still to be understood 
and described. For over 75 years botanists of the U.S. National 
Herbarium have spent a large share of their research time exploring for 
plants in these regions and in making them understood to the scientific 
community through their publications. 

This tradition of specialization in the New World tropics has con- 
tinued into the present time. During the past year Lyman B. Smith 
spent six months collecting plants in Santa Catarina and adjoining 
States of Brazil in preparation for a flora of the former area. This 
work is being pursued in collaboration with Brazilian botanists Padre 
Raulino Reitz and Roberto M. Klein of the Herbario "Barbosa 
Rodrigues," Itajai, Santa Catarina. The grasslands of Brazil's Mato 
Grosso and other parts of the planalto were explored by Thomas R. 
Soderstrom in association with his studies on the grasses of Brazil. 
Soderstrom accompanied botanists of the New York Botanical Garden 
and first collected plants around Brasilia, an area surprisingly unknown 
botanically. Later, poorly known parts of the States of Mato Grosso 
and Goias were visited, including a wide variety of habitats on the 
Serra do Caiapo which support a rich and varied flora and made for 
collections of excitingly different plants. Antillean plants were sampled 
by Dan H. Nicolson, who spent six weeks on Dominica in conjunction 
with the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian biological survey of that Carib- 
bean island. 

Keen interest has prompted the Smithsonian Institution to participate 
actively in an international program for the preparation of a "Flora 
Neotropica." To this end, research associate Jose Cuatrecasas was 



70 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

appointed by the "Organization for a Flora Neotropica" as one of 
two scientific directors. For his work with the Organization, the Smith- 
sonian has given him laboratory and office space to help him carry out 
his responsibilities. Besides continuing his own investigations of New 
World plants, Cuatrecasas will act as liaison officer, especially with 
Latin American botanists, to stimulate research clarifying the taxonomic 
complexities occurring in the Western Hemisphere tropics. Production 
of a tropical flora for the New World is a Herculean undertaking 
because of the great number of species, the shortage of sufficiently 
trained botanists, and the still difficult access to many outlying regions. 
It will be the labor of generations of botanists; the present hope is to 
lay a sound foundation for the research of years to come. 

A smaller, but nonetheless significant, project also begun this year 
is the production of a flora for the Island of Dominica. Actually, this 
island falls within the range of the "Flora Neotropica," of which the 
information set forth will form a fragment. The scientific aspects of 
this venture are under the direction of Dan H. Nicolson, who is being 
aided by fellow Smithsonian scientists as well as those from other 
botanical institutions in the United States and abroad. 

Mason E. Hale, Jr., carried his research on the cosmopolitan lichen 
genus Parmelia to the Far East this past year under the auspices of the 
National Science Foundation and the Government of Japan. He made 
extensive general collections of lichens in Hawaii, Sabah, Sarawak, the 
Philippines, and Japan; and through his work the Museum will have 
the world's most extensive Malaysian and Philippine lichen collections. 
Hale was based at the National Science Museum in Tokyo for the 
greater part of his studies abroad, collaborating there with Syo 
Kurokawa. 

As the facts accumulated by intensive study of plants become over- 
powering in their numbers and increasingly more difficult to consult, 
it becomes evident that means must be found for the rapid storage and 
retrieval of these data so that they can conveniently be used for further 
investigations. Presently, searches for data are subject to the vagaries 
of abstracting and indexing journals and to human shortcomings, and 
therefore a large body of pertinent data relative to current research 
projects might easily be overlooked. Machine storing of data does not 
automatically confer accuracy or reliability, since the system is only as 
good as the confirmed data stored in it; but the data are always re- 
trievable in their entirety, and automatic data processing, moreover, 
provides ways objectively to manipulate facts in a manner not pre- 
viously possible. 

Botanists are realizing that data processing devices and computers 
may be important tools in the treatment of botanical facts; thus, David 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS BOTANY 71 

B. Lellinger has completed research on the generic relationships of the 
fern subfamily Adiantoideae, a taxon of 45 genera. The study was 
the first of its kind to use a large digital computer to apply neo-typologi- 
cal methods to evolutionary classification. The computer employed 
models of character-state distributions, and chose those characters which 
were most probably important to an evolutionary classification of the 
taxa in Adiantoideae. Machine-made computations enabled Lellinger 
to construct dendrograms illustrating the most probable evolution of 
the genera. Among the resultant taxonomic conclusions which he 
drew were the division of the subfamily into six tribes and the segrega- 
tion of several genera. These separations were made on the basis of 
probability, rather than intuition. The computer proved to be a val- 
uable adjunct to, but not a replacement for, conventional taxonomic 
methods. 

In taxonomic studies it is important to consider all evidence which 
may assist in elucidating problems in plant classification and evolution 
and to be concerned with all parts of the plant body, with the influence 
of environment, and with pertinent chemical processes. Accordingly, 
it is noteworthy that Richard H. Eyde is continuing his investigations 
into the anatomy and morphology of the genus Corokia which has been 
allied to the Cornaceae in most taxonomic treatments. Eyde's data, 
based partially on specimens of Corokia gathered by Smithsonian ento- 
mologist J. F. Gates Clarke from the remote South Pacific island of 
Rapa, permit the confident exclusion of the genus from Cornaceae. 

Research on the cytology and pollen morphology of Campanula ameri- 
cana has been completed by Stanwyn G. Shetler. He is preparing a 
paper in collaboration with James Matthews of the University of North 
Carolina on the taxonomic affinities of this species within the genus 
Campanula. Along a similar vein, Wallace R. Ernst began a cytotax- 
onomic survey of selected West Indian plants. This will be the first 
study of its kind on many of these tropical plants. Although associated 
studies such as those described above may never completely replace 
traditional morphological taxonomic research, they provide new win- 
dows through which plant systematics can be viewed, and they present 
other methods of approach to taxonomic problems. 

Publications by the Staff 
July 7964 through June 7965 

Ayensu, Edward S., and Stern, William L. Systematic anatomy and 
ontogeny of the stem in Passifloraceae. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb., 
vol. 34, part 3, pp. 45-73, August 1964. 



72 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Conger, Paul S. A new species of marine pennate diatom from Hono- 
lulu Harbor. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 146, no. 7, pp. 1-5, 
10 figs., October 1964. 

Cuatregasas, Jose. Cacao and its allies — a taxonomic revision of the 
genus Theobroma. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb., vol. 35, part 6, pp. 379- 
614, 11 maps, 12 pis., 44 figs., August 1964. 

. Miscelanea sobre flora neotropica I. Ciencia (Mexico), 

vol. 23, pp. 137-151, 4 figs., October 1964. 

Studies on Andean Compositae VI. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 



ington, vol. 77, pp. 127-158, 8 figs., October 1964. 

Theobroma. In A. Robyns, Sterculiaceae, Flora of Panama. 



Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., vol. 51, pp. 89-97, November 1964. 
Culberson, William L., and Hale, Mason E., Jr. Pyxine caesio- 

pruinosa in the United States. Bryologist, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 113- 

116, 1965. 
Ernst, Wallace R. The genus Eschscholzia in the South Coast Ranges 

of California. Madrono, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 281-294, 4 figs., 

October 1964. 
Eusebio, Mario A., and Stern, William L. Preservation of herbarium 

specimens in the humid tropics. Philippine Agriculturist, vol. 48, 

pp. 16-20, 1964. 
Eyde, Richard H. Inferior ovary and generic affinities of Garrya. 

Amer. Journ. Bot., vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 1083-1092, November- 
December 1964. 
Hale, Mason E., Jr. The Parmelia conspersa group in North America 

and Europe. Bryologist, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 462-473, 1964. 
. A monograph of Parmelia subgenus Amphigymnia. Contr. 

U.S. Nat. Herb., vol. 36, part 5, pp. 193-358, April 1965. 

and Kurokawa, Syo. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia. 



Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb., vol. 36, part 4, pp. 121-191, August 1964. 
Leonard, E. C, and Smith, Lyman B. Sanchezia and related American 

Acanthaceae. Rhodora, vol. 66, no. 768, pp. 313-343, 5 figs., 

January 1965. 
Morton, C. V. The nomenclature of a Madagascarian Platycerium. 

Baileya, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 36-38, June 1964. 
■ . New combinations in Lycopodium. Amer. Fern Journ., vol. 

54, no. 2, pp. 71-73, June 1964. 

A new Jamaican Cyathea. Amer. Fern Journ., vol. 55, no. 1, 



pp. 30-32, March 1965. 
Nicolson, Dan H. Proposal to conserve the generic name Montri- 
chardia Criiger (1854) against Pleurospa Rafinesque (1838). Regn. 
Veg., vol. 34, p. 55, 1964. 








The scrubby vegetation of the Brazilian planalto provides a variety of plant 
species new to science. Top left: A native collector gathers material of a 
leguminous shrub for preservation. Right: Members of a Smithsonian-New 
York Botanical Garden expedition arrange newly collected plants in papers 
prior to drying. Below: An important step in successful plant collecting 
in the humid tropics is the prevention of specimen deterioration through 
rapid drying. Plant presses are filled and arranged over drying racks, 
heated by gasoline stoves placed under them. Hot air passing through the 
presses carries off the moisture of the succulent plant parts. (See p. 69.) 





Modern stacks of fireproof and pest- 
proof cabinets are used at the Lamont 
Street quarters of the department of 
entomology. Below: Fragile speci- 
mens are restored by introducing a 
relaxing agent into the vial. Tri- 
sodium phosphate is used on such 
arthropods as ticks, millipedes, and 
spiders. (See p. 89.) 




RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS BOTANY 73 

. Collecting Araceae. Regn. Veg., vol. 39, pp. 123-126, 1965. 

Robinson, Harold E. A small collection of bryophytes from upper 

Assam, India. Journ. Hattori Bot. Lab., no. 27, pp. 124-130, 1964. 
. A synopsis of the Dolichopodidae (Diptera) of the south- 
eastern United States and adjacent regions. Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. 

Amer., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 103-192, 1964. 
. Two new genera of Dolichopodidae from Mexico (Diptera). 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 245-252, 1964. 
. New taxa and new records of bryophytes from Mexico and 

Central America. Bryologist, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 446-458, 1964. 
. Notes on Leucobryaceae in Central America. Bryologist, 

vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 89-93, 1965. 
— . A new species of Plagiochila from Venezuela. Bryologist, 

vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 93-94, 1965. 

Discopygiella, a new genus of Dolichopodidae from Mexico 



(Diptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 51-55, 

1965. 
and Hermann, Frederick J. Notes on American Grimmias. 

Bryologist, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 170-174, 1964. 
Rudd, Velva E. Nomenclatural problems in the Acacia cornigera 

complex. Madrono, vol. 17, pp. 198-201, April 1964. 
Shetler, Stanwyn G. Plants in the arctic-alpine environment. 

Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst, 1963, pp. 473-497, 12 pis., 1964. 
•. Komarov Botanical Institute, Leningrad. Plant Sci. Bull., 

vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1-3, April 1965. 
Smith, Lyman B. Bromeliadata of the month, no. 8: Abromeitiella. 

Bromeliana (Greater New York Chapt. Bromel. Soc), vol. 1, no. 8, 

pp. 2-4, 1 fig., June 1964. 
■. Bromeliaceas nuevas o criticas del Peru — I. Publ. Mus. 

Hist. Nat. "Javier Prado," ser. B (Bot.), no. 16, pp. 1-6, 11 figs., 

1964. 
. Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXII. Phytologia, vol. 10, no. 6, 

pp. 454-488, 2 pis., October 1964. 
■. Vriesea marnier-lapostollci. Bromel. Soc. Bull., vol. 14, no. 6, 

pp. 108 and 109, 2 figs., 1964. 
. Letter. Bromeliana (Greater New York Chapt. Bromel. 



Soc), vol. 1, no 11, pp. 2-5, 10 figs., December 1964. 

. Letter. Bromeliana (Greater New York Chapt. Bromel. 

Soc), vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 26-29, 16 figs., May 1965. 
. Restoration of two Domingan Tillandsias. Bromel. Soc. 



Bull., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 3, 4, 2 figs., 1965. 



74 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

and Downs, Robert J. Notes on the Solanaceae of southern 



Brazil. Phytologia, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 422-453, 12 pis., October 
1964. 

and Downs, Robert J. Kleinodendron, novo genero de 

euforbiareas. Sellowia, no. 16, pp. 175-1 78, 1 fig., December 1964. 

and Schubert, Bernice G. Nuevas especies peruanas de la 



familia Begoniaceae. Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. "Javier Prado," ser. 

B (Bot.), no. 17, pp. 1-11, 4 pis., 1964. 
Soderstrom, Thomas R., and Decker, Henry F. Reederochloa, a 

new genus of dioecious grasses from Mexico. Brittonia, vol. 16, 

no. 3, pp. 334-339, 13 figs., July 1964. 
Stern, William L., and Zamuco, Isidro T. Identity of "tiaong" 

(Dipterocarpaceae) . Brittonia, vol. 17, pp. 35-46, January 1965. 
Swallen, Jason R. Species of Ichnanthus in South America related to 

I. ichnodes (Griseb.) Hitchc. & Chase. Phytologia, vol. 11, no. 2, 

pp. 73-80, December 1964. 
. New South American Ichnanthus. Phytologia, vol. 11, no. 3, 

pp. 145-151, December 1964. 
. Two new genera of Olyreae from South America. Phyto- 



logia, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 152-154, December 1964. 

and Tovar, Oscar. The grass genus Dissanthelium. Phyto- 



logia, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 361-376, March 1965. 
Wurdack, John J. Melastomataceas novas do Estado do Parana. 

Papeis Avulsos Herbario Hatschbach, no. 4, 3 pp. (unnumbered), 

1 fig., December 1963. 
. Melastomataceas nuevas Venezolanas. Bol. Soc. Vene- 

zolana Cienc. Nat., vol. 25, no. 107, pp. 211-216, 1 fig., June 1964. 
. Botanical exploration of the Marafion rainforests. Gard. 

Journ. New York Bot. Gard., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 143-146, 8 figs., 

July-August 1964. 
. A Peruvian bromeliad trove. Bromel. Soc. Bull., vol. 14, 



no. 6, pp. 110-116, 7 figs., November-December 1964. 

. Certamen Melastomataceis IX. Phytologia, vol. 11, no. 6, 

pp. 377-400, March 1965. 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

Continuing his studies of the Permian Brachiopoda of West Texas, 
G. Arthur Cooper, in collaboration with Richard E. Grant of the U.S. 
Geological Survey, completed a manuscript of 4000 pages. The illus- 
trations are yet to be made. With J. T. Dutro of the U.S. Geological 
Survey, Cooper spent a month in New Mexico completing a study of 
the stratigraphy of the Devonian of that State. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — PALEOBIOLOGY 75 

Investigation of the Lower Devonian fossil flora of eastern Canada by 
Francis M. Hueber is demonstrating that this is a more diversified flora 
than previously anticipated. Hueber visited nine European museums 
and universities to obtain data, for comparison with the Canadian flora, 
from their collections of Devonian plants from classic European local- 
ities. He observed a striking similarity of occurrence and composition 
between the western European and Canadian floras. His paper "New 
data on the morphology of Devonian Psilopsida and Lycopsida," em- 
bodying much of the new information gained from his studies of the 
Canadian Lower Devonian flora, was presented at the Symposium on 
Earliest Records of Plant Life, during the Tenth International Botanical 
Congress at Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Walter H. Adey extended his studies of crustose coralline algae 
northward from the Gulf of Maine along the coasts of Nova Scotia, the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, to Newfoundland and Labrador. His northern- 
most station was at latitude 60°6'N. A collection of 3010 specimens 
was assembled. Preparation and examination proceeded as the col- 
lecting schedule progressed during summer, and was completed during 
winter and spring with the help of museum aide Mary Cochran. 
Through a rare opportunity, the sexual development of a species of the 
coralline Lithothamnium was recorded and worked out. Work has pro- 
ceeded in plotting of the bathymetric and geographic distribution of the 
crustose coralline species in the regions where collections were obtained. 

C. Lewis Gazin is investigating the morphology of the Eocene con- 
dylarthran mammal Hyopsodus. He completed a study of a "fossil 
brain" of the middle Eocene primate Smilodectes, the first well-preserved 
endocranial cast of a Tertiary primate reported from this country. He 
also completed a study of a series of early Eocene mammalian faunas 
and their environments in the vicinity of the Rock Springs uplift. 

Field work last summer by Gazin and Franklin L. Pearce of the 
laboratory of vertebrate paleontology yielded rare Paleocene mammals 
from the Puerco and Torrejon horizons of the San Juan Basin in New 
Mexico, and early Eocene and Oligocene mammals from the Wind 
River Basin in central Wyoming. 

David H. Dunkle continued studies of new and poorly known fossil 
fishes from Middle and Upper Devonian strata of Ohio, Ontario, and 
Michigan. Accompanied by museum technician Gladwyn B. Sullivan, 
he made a second trip to Tijeras, Bernalillo County, N. Mex., where 
in 1963 a unique assemblage of marine fishes was discovered in the 
Late Paleozoic Madera Formation. There, two types of sharks, a 
paleoniscoid, an osteolepid, and a probable lungfish were collected. 

Nicholas Hotton III, starting in September 1963, spent a year in a 
field study of the stratigraphy and environment of the Permo-Triassic 



76 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Beaufort Series of South Africa, 10,000 feet thick. Preliminary study- 
indicates more overlap between supposedly distinct faunal zones than 
hitherto suspected, and suggests that some of the lower zones may rep- 
resent contemporaneous environmental facies rather than temporal 
sequences. 

A collection of the abundant mammal-like reptile fauna of the Beau- 
fort was also made, with emphasis on the herbivorous suborder Anomo- 
dontia. Knowledge of the anomodonts is vital to understanding of 
Beaufort stratigraphy and paleoecology because of their abundance 
and variety and because of their basic position in the food pyramid of 
Permo-Triassic times. 

Publication of Clayton E. Ray's research on later Cenozoic mammals 
included three papers on Antillean faunas. A survey of fossil walruses 
of the eastern states is in progress. 

With museum specialist John E. Ott, Ray spent two weeks in Florida 
collecting a partial skeleton of a mammoth discovered by a Boy Scout 
troop. The specimen was donated to the Institution by Explorer Post 
410 of Wauchula, Fla. Ray is also studying Pleistocene musk oxen 
referred to him by Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 

Research associate Remington Kellogg continued investigating the 
developmental history of the Cetacea with special reference to the 
Mysticeti. A study of a Calvert Miocene sirenian was completed. 

Richard S. Boardman and research associate John Utgaard completed 
a major restudy of some genera of Paleozoic Bryozoa. Their paper 
includes an interpretative section on the budding of most incrusting 
forms, illustrated by 3-dimensional cutaway drawings by scientific 
illustrator Lawrence B. Isham. Boardman has begun an investigation 
of living species of cyclostome Bryozoa considered closely related to 
Paleozoic forms. Microstructure of the calcareous walls of individuals 
in the colonies is being studied jointly with Kenneth M. Towe, using 
the electron microscope. 

In other research on Bryozoa, museum specialist Frederick J. Collier 
finished a detailed taxonomic study of two Devonian genera that will 
be the nucleus for a larger publication on rhomboporoid genera. 

Richard H. Benson, professor of geology at the University of Kansas, 
joined the staff in July 1964 to work on Recent and fossil ostracodes. 
He spent his first five months in the western Indian Ocean as a member 
of the scientific party on the R/V Anton Bruun. He collected thousands 
of specimens off Africa and Madagascar and has begun to sort and de- 
scribe them. Benson is also completing a survey of the effects of the 
formation of Bering Strait on the ostracodes of the North Pacific and 
Arctic Oceans. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS PALEOBIOLOGY 77 

Martin A. Buzas completed a manuscript on a multivariate analysis 
of some species of Elphidium. He is currently applying the same ca- 
nonical analysis to the distribution and abundance of Foraminifera off 
Texas. In addition, he has been surveying the Foraminifera in Chesa- 
peake Bay as part of a preliminary sampling program which will be 
followed by an ecological study of the Foraminifera in the Bay. In 
cooperation with the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, 
Mass., Buzas has also been studying the distribution and abundance of 
Foraminifera in Hadley Harbor, Mass. 

Richard Cifelli continues his studies of planktonic Foraminifera from 
the north and equatorial Atlantic in a cooperative program with the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution that includes the detailed sur- 
vey and sampling of portions of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Last year 
the R/V Chain surveyed around latitude 22° N., and many cores, 
bottom samples, and dredges were collected from the crest and flank 
of the Ridge. Several samples yielded chunks of cemented foraminif- 
eral oozes associated with basalt and basaltic weathering products. 
The oozes are all late Tertiary, but represent at least two and possibly 
three distinct ages. From the relationships between the oozes and the 
basalts, it appears that the latter were deposited during the late Miocene 
or early Pliocene. 

Erie G. Kauffman continues to study the Mesozoic pelecypod groups 
Inoceramidae, Ostreidae, and Thyasira. A morphologic and supra- 
specific taxonomic revision of the Inoceramidae and a study of the 
Caribbean Cretaceous inoceramids were completed. Significant prog- 
ress was made on study of the Upper Cretaceous Inoceramidae of 
North America. A study of American Cretaceous Thyasira and three 
studies dealing with the Ostreidae are completed or in progress. Work 
was initiated on a major revision of early Upper Cretaceous stratigraphy 
in Colorado and Kansas, and several local biostratigraphic studies in 
Colorado and New Mexico are in progress. Kauffman was in the field 
for three months' work on Cretaceous paleontology and stratigraphy of 
the Rocky Mountains, and he conducted two weeks of research in 
Trinidad. 

In an effort to understand the living habits of fossil echinoids, Porter 
M. Kier three years ago started a study of the echinoids living off the 
Florida Keys. Using scuba gear, he and Richard E. Grant of the U.S. 
Geological Survey mapped the distribution of 17 species found between 
the shore and a depth of 1 10 feet seaward of the reef. Particular atten- 
tion was paid to the relationship of the echinoids to the bottom, vegeta- 
tion, depth, and nearness to shore. Most species were restricted to a 



78 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

narrow depth range and to a particular type of bottom. The species 
living on sand were only rarely found on rock or coral. 

Kenneth M. Towe, who joined the staff on October 1, 1964, is in 
process of setting up a laboratory for research with the electron micro- 
scope. His principal interests include calcification and shell structure, 
and clay and colloid mineralogy. 

Research associate Wendell P. Woodring spent two months in Central 
America collecting Tertiary mollusks for a continued study of the 
paleontology and stratigraphy of Panama, Costa Rica, and adjacent 
areas. He is currently in the field collecting faunas from the classical 
Tertiary localities of Italy and France. Research associate Franco 
Rasetti completed one phase of study on a new Lower Cambrian tri- 
lobite fauna from the Taconic region of New York. And research 
associate Axel A. Olsson continues his studies of South American 
Tertiary Mollusca. 

Publications by the Staff 
July 1964 through June 1965 

Adey, Walter H. The genus Phymatolithon in the Gulf of Maine. 

Hydrobiologia, vol. 24, nos. 1-3, pp. 377-420, September 1964. 
Benson, Richard H. Recent cytheracean ostracodes from McMurdo 

Sound and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Univ. Kansas Paleont. 

Contr., art. 6, pp. 1-36, pis. 1-4, figs. 1-25, 1964. 
. Photography of microfossils. In Handbook of paleontological 

techniques, eds. B. Kummel and D. Raup, sect. F, pp. 433-446, 

1965. 
. Recent podocopid and platycopid ostracodes of the Pacific. 

In Ostracods as ecological and paleoecological indicators. Publ. 

Staz. Zool. Napoli, suppl. 33, 40 pp., 1965. 
and Maddocks, R. F. Recent ostracodes of Knysha estuary, 

Cape Province, Union of South Africa. Univ. Kansas Paleont. 

Contr., art. 5, pp.1-39, pis. 1-6, figs. 1-22, 1964. 

and Tatro, J. O. Faunal description of Ostracoda of the 



Marlbrook Marl (Campanian), Arkansas. Univ. Kansas Paleont. 

Contr., art. 7, pp. 1-32, pis. 1-6, figs. 1-15, 1964. 
Boardman, Richard S., and Utgaard, John. Modifications of study 

methods for Paleozoic Bryozoa. Journ. Paleont., vol. 38, no. 4, 

pp. 768-770, 1964. 
Buzas, Martin A. Foraminifera from late Pleistocene clay near 

Waterville, Maine. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 145, no. 8, 

30 pp., 5 pis., 1965. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS PALEOBIOLOGY 79 

Cifelli, Richard. Planktonic Foraminifera from the western North 

Atlantic. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 148, no. 4, 36 pp., 9 pis., 

1965. 
, Sachs, K. N., Jr., and Bowen, V. T. Ignition to concen- 
trate shelled organisms in plankton samples. Deep-Sea Res., vol. 

11, pp. 621-622, 1964. 
Cooper, G. Arthur, and Grant, Richard E. New Permian strat- 

igraphic units in Glass Mountains, West Texas. Amer. Assoc. 

Petrol. Geol. Bull., vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1581-1588, 2 figs., September 

1964. 
Dunkle, David H. Preliminary description of a paleoniscoid fish from 

the Upper Devonian of Ohio. Scient. Publ. Cleveland Mus. 

Nat. Hist., n.s., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-16, 3 pis., 5 figs., October 1964. 
. The presumed holocephalan fish Pseadodontichthys whitei 

Skeels. Scient. Publ. Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist., n.s., vol. 3, 

no. 3, pp. 1-10, 1 pi., 2 figs., May 1965. 
Gazin, C. Lewis. A study of the early Tertiary condylarthran mammal 

Meniscotherium. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 149, no. 2, 98 pp. 

11 pis., 9 figs., 1965. 
Hooijer, D. A., and Ray, Clayton E. A metapodial of Acratocnus 

(Edentata: Megalonychidae) from a cave in Hispaniola. Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 77, pp. 253-258, December 1964. 
Hotton, Nicholas, III. Tetrapods. In: Handbook of paleontological 

techniques, eds. B. Kummel and D. Raup, 1965. 
Hueber, Francis M. The Psilophytes and their relationship to the 

origin of ferns. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 5-9, 

November 1964. 
Johnson, J. H., and Adey, Walter H. Studies of Lithophyllum and 

related algal genera. Quart. Colorado Sch. Mines, vol. 60, no. 2, 

97 pp., 21 pis., April 1965. 
Kauffman, Erle G. Costellacesta, a new subgenus of Lima from the 

Cretaceous of the Gulf and Atlantic Coast Province. Tulane 

Stud. Geol., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 89-101, 1 pi., 3 figs., 1964. 
. The Upper Cretaceous Inoceramus of Puerto Rico (published 

abstract and 30-page mimeographed copy of manuscript). Abstr. 

4th Caribbean Geol. Conf., Trinidad, p. 1, 1965. 
. Collecting in concretions, nodules, and septaria. Handb. 



Paleont. Techn., sect. A, pp. 175-184, 1965. 
Kier, Porter M. Fossil echinoids from the Marshall Islands, U.S. 
Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 260-GG, pp. 1121-1127, pi. 32, figs. 328- 
331, 1964. 



80 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

, Grant, Richard E., and Yochelson, Ellis L. Whitening 



fossils. Handb. Paleont. Techn., sect. F., pp. 453-456, 1965. 
McAlester, A. L.; Speden, I. G.; and Buz as, Martin A. Ecology of 

Pleistocene molluscs from Martha's Vineyard — A reconsideration. 

Journ. Paleont., vol. 38, pp. 985-991, 1964. 
Rasetti, Franco. New Lower Cambrian trilobite faunas of north- 
eastern Tennessee. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 148, no. 3, 127 

pp., 21 pi., 1965. 
Ray, Clayton E. A small assemblage of vertebrate fossils from Spring 

Bay, Barbados. Journ. Barbados Mus. and Hist. Soc, vol. 31, 

no. 1, pp. 11-22, November 1964. 
. The relationships of Quemisia gravis (Rodentia: ?Heptaxo- 

dontidae). Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 149, no. 3, 12 pp., 

1 pi., April 1965. 

and Lipps, Lewis. An assemblage of Pleistocene vertebrates 



and mollusks from Bartow County, Georgia (abstr.). Bull. Georgia 
Acad. Sci., vol. 23, no. 2, p. 67, April 1965. 
Sohl, Norman F., and Kauffman, Erle G. Giant Upper Cretaceous 
oysters from the Gulf coast and Caribbean. U.S. Geol. Surv. 
Prof. Pap. 483-H, 22 pp., 5 pis., 3 figs., 1964. 



MINERAL SCIENCES 

The department of mineral sciences completed its first full year as 
a separate department on October 15, 1964. Kurt Fredriksson joined 
the staff in July 1 964 to head the division of meteorites and to implement 
a research program supported by the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. Later in the year Brian Mason joined the meteorite 
group, and in August 1964 William G. Melson joined the staff to head 
the division of petrology. 

The division of meteorites now operates a modern and complete elec- 
tron microprobe laboratory. Emission and x-ray fluorescence spec- 
troscopy and x-ray diffraction facilities have also been added. The 
optical microscopy and photographic equipment has been upgraded 
and extended. The chemical laboratory has obtained modernized 
equipment for sample preparation and spectrophotometry. 

The electron microprobe is an instrument for nondestructive ele- 
mental analysis of extremely small (~ 1 micron) particles of material 
or areas. In operation, a polished sample, such as a petrographic thin 
section, is bombarded with a finely focused electron beam. The 
elements present in the sample then emit their characteristic x-ray 




Electron probe x-ray microanalyzer in the division of mete- 
orites. To the right are high-voltage and electron-lens 
power supplies and vacuum controls. The main tank has the 
electron gun (top), a microscope, sample chamber with 
access door and sample stage, and three spectrometers. To 
the left of the operator are beam-scanning controls and display 
oscilloscopes with camera. The recording unit at the left 
contains detector and control-voltage supplies, strip-chart 
recorders, and x-ray counting devices (scalers) connected to 
the automatic typewriter (far left). The instrument was 
obtained under a grant (NsG- 688) from the National Aero- 
nautics and Space Administration for meteorite research 
now in progress. (See p. 80-81.) 




Uncut diamond crystal of extraordinary size (253.7 carats) and unusually 
perfect form was taken from the Dutoitspan mine, near Kimberley, South 
Africa. Given by Harry Winston, Inc., in memory of Sir Ernest Oppen- 
heimer, Chairman of the Board of De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., 
from 1929 until his death in 1957. (See p. 97.) 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — MINERAL SCIENCES 81 

spectra that are analyzed with three focusing spectrometers, and the 
elements determined. Quantitative analysis is obtained by comparing 
the intensity of a specific spectral line emitted by the sample to a 
standard of known composition. The sensitivity of the method is 
usually better than 0.1 percent, and since the sample weight can be of 
the order of 10~ 12 grams, it may be possible to detect 10~ 15 grams of an 
element. The electron beam can be made to sweep the area of the 
sample synchronously with an oscilloscope on which the light intensity 
is modified by the x-rays emitted from the sample. By means of 
this technique a "map" can be obtained illustrating semiquantita- 
tively the distribution of all elements heavier than lithium in areas 
from about 10 x 10 to 500 x 500 microns. 

The acquisition of an x-ray diffraction unit, used for identifying and 
estimating abundances of different phases in meteorites, has filled a 
long-time deficiency in the department's facilities. Also acquired was 
an x-ray fluorescence unit which attaches to the diffractometer. This 
is used for routine survey analyses of meteorites and rocks before 
deciding if more costly wet-chemical analysis is warranted. Newly 
acquired emission spectrographic equipment makes it possible to 
perform semiquantitative spectrographic analyses, particularly for the 
first survey of an unknown sample when only a small amount, a 
milligram or less, is available. 

Although the new laboratory has been operating for only six months, 
an intensive program of meteorite research has been pursued, the 
scope and variety of which is indicated by the publications that have 
ensued. 

Edward P. Henderson and Brian Mason collected tektites and 
meteorites in the interior of Australia for approximately six weeks. 
A number of fine specimens, including one unique form, were found, 
and the material is presently being studied in detail as to morphology 
and material loss during the flight through the atmosphere. This 
work is being carried out in cooperation with scientists from the NASA 
Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. Significant evidence for 
the fall of tektites in defined "streaks" was obtained. 

Henderson's study of hexahedrites shows that the world-wide dis- 
tribution is suggestive of showers rather than individual falls. 

Mason published a fundamental study of the distribution of plagi- 
oclase in chondrites. The presence or absence of this mineral is related 
to the olivine composition and the type of pyroxene present. From 
these observations it was concluded that most chondrites have under- 
gone solid-state recrystallization and that the amount of plagioclase and 
orthopyroxene may be a measure of the intensity of this metamorphism. 

789-127—66 13 



82 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

With H. B. Wiik, Mason published new descriptions of four meteorites, 
and he was also coauthor of a paper describing a peculiar new 
mineral "sinoite," silico oxynitride (Si 2 N 2 0), found in several enstatite 
chondrites. 

Another new mineral was described by Fredriksson and Henderson 
(1965). It was first found in enstatite chondrites but is also present in 
a stony-iron (Mount Egerton) and an iron meteorite (Horse Creek). 
The findings indicate a close relationship between these different classes 
of meteorites. Together with K. Keil of the Ames Research Center, 
Fredriksson published a microprobe analysis of olivine and pyroxene 
of 90 chondrites, and also a detailed study of the Murray carbonaceous 
chondrite. These data, as well as the discovery of glass enclosing 
metallic nickel-iron in the Chainpur chondrite by Fredriksson and 
Reid, make it possible to set rather rigid boundary conditions for the 
formation of chondrules and chondrites. There is exceedingly strong 
evidence for the supposition that chondrules are quenched droplets and 
that the nickel-iron in chondrites is cogenetic with the main part of 
the silicates olivine and pyroxene. . 

From an investigation of the mineral phases in the Orgueil carbona- 
ceous meteorite and their equilibrium relations, completed by Fredriks- 
son and Kurt Bostrom, University of California, San Diego, it could be 
shown that the minerals in Orgueil are not in equilibrium but represent 
at least three different temperature stages. The last formed minerals 
indicate the presence of an external source of oxidation, possibly water 
dissociated by ultraviolet radiation. 

E. Olsen and Fredriksson described iron phosphates from iron 
meteorites. Thermodynamic calculations of the system metallic iron, 
iron phosphide, and iron phosphate indicate that the degree of oxida- 
tion of fine octahedrites is approximately the same as in ordinary 
chondrites and considerably higher than in enstatite chondrites. 

Roy S. Clarke, Jr., completed analyses of two iron meteorites, Bogou 
and Angelica, and one stony meteorite, Harleton. Eugene Jarosewich 
analyzed the Bonita Springs chondrite and is working on two of the 
unequilibrated chondrites, Semarkona and Sharps. An investigation 
of the distribution of gallium and germanium in iron meteorites and 
stony-irons is in progress. Tektite studies, particularly relating to the 
Martha's Vineyard and Georgia tektites, are continuing. Clarke is 
working on this project cooperatively with colleagues at the Corning 
Glass Works and the U.S. Geological Survey. He also continues 
cooperative work with Rutherford J. Gettens of the Freer Gallery on 
iron-oxide corrosion products associated with antique bronze objects. 
Paul Ramdohr, professor emeritus, University of Heidelberg, and 
temporarily on the staff of the Geophysical Laboratory, made micro- 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS MINERAL SCIENCES 83 

scopical investigations of a large number of polished sections of 
meteorites. 

In the division of mineralogy, George S. Switzer worked on a group 
of rare ammonium-sulfate minerals, and on a description of one of these, 
letovicite, from the Geysers, Sonoma County, Calif. He found that 
published composition of letovicite is given correctly as (NH 4 ) 3 H(S04)2, 
but that the crystallo graphic data for letovicite given in standard 
reference works are for the artificial compound NH 4 HS0 4 , not known 
as a mineral. Work on this poorly described group of minerals is 
continuing. 

In spring of 1965 Switzer spent several weeks in South Africa visiting 
diamond mines. Of particular interest were the "pipe" mines where 
diamonds are found in their original matrix of the ultramafic rock 
kimberlite. Collections were made of kimberlite from several mines in 
the Republic of South Africa and in Tanzania, and of the eclogite 
inclusions in these pipes. A detailed mineralogical study of these 
collections has been started, an extension of work done some time ago 
on similar rocks occurring in California. A closely related long-range 
study underway is the composition of garnet from rocks of all types, 
and in particular from eclogite, as a first phase of the study. 

Paul E. Desautels continued work on a suite of radioactive minerals 
from a new occurrence in Mexico. John S. White, Jr., continued work 
on a first description of the crystallography of natural crystals of platt- 
nerite. During the year Desautels and White spent two weeks in 
Oaxaca, Mexico, examining an area of pegmatites containing an in- 
teresting suite of minerals, including scapolite crystals of very large 
(up to two feet) size. 

The origin of the ocean basins is a subject of speculation largely 
because very little is known concerning the rocks which compose them. 
The geologic contrast between the igneous and metamorphic rocks of 
the continents and ocean basins is only poorly known. Rocks obtained 
during recent deep-sea dredgings have demonstrated particularly that 
important modifications are required in current theories about the 
origin of the ocean basins and about processes of rock formation be- 
neath the sea floor. 

During the past year in the division of petrology W. G. Melson began 
a cooperative study with Vaughan T. Bowen and Tjeerd van Andel of 
the Woods Hole and Scripps Oceanographic Institutions, respectively, 
concerning rocks from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This study, which 
began when Melson visited Woods Hole in March, resulted in the 
discovery of metabasalts in the Mid- Atlantic Ridge. Such rocks may 
require modification of existing theories about the origin ot the Ridge. 



84 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

The study of these rocks, nearly completed during the past year, is 
scheduled for completion before December 1965. 

In conjunction with Bowen, Melson began a second study, con- 
cerning a large group of ultramafic rocks collected from St. Pauls 
Rocks and from the surrounding sea floor. St. Pauls Rocks, situated 
on the central portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is believed by 
many petrologists to be an upthrusted portion of the earth's mantle 
and is thus particularly worthy of a detailed petrologic study. This 
study to date has resulted in electron microprobe analyses of an amphi- 
bole which has a composition approximating basalts, and is of interest 
in connection with the origin of basalts. A preliminary publication on 
this amphibole and associated rocks should be completed by the end 
of 1965. 

Melson has manuscripts in press on phase equilibria in calc-silicate 
hornfels, Lewis and Clark County, Mont., and on plagioclase-spinel- 
graphite zenoliths in metallic iron-bearing basalts, Disko Island, 
Greenland, and he has completed a manuscript on the geology and 
mineral deposits of the Lincoln area, Lewis and Clark County, Mont. 
Additional field and laboratory studies of the latter topic are planned. 
He also began a long-term study of the igneous and metamorphic rocks 
of west central Montana. 

Short-term studies begun during the past year include: (1) high- 
magnesium chlorites, Natural Bridge, N.Y. (cooperatively with Mar- 
garet Foster of the U.S. Geological Survey); (2) corundum-bearing 
gneisses, Montana (cooperatively with George S. Switzer); (3) pumice 
from the South Pacific Ocean (with George E. Watson of the division 
of birds); and (4) magnetic particles from the Red Sea floor (with 
Sidney Knott, of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and 
Charles Fiori). 



Publications by the Staff 
July 1964 through June 1965 

Andersen, C. A.; Keil, K.; and Mason, Brian. Silicon oxynitride : 

a meteorite mineral. Science, vol. 146, pp. 256-257, 1964. 
Desautels, Paul E. The gemstone collection of the U.S. National 

Museum. Lapidary Journ., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 4-11, 14, 18, 22, 

and 26-28, April 1965. 
Fredriksson, K., and Andersen, C. A. Electronprobe analysis of 

copper in meneghinite. Amer. Mineral., vol. 49, pp. 1467-1469, 

September-October 1964. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — MINERAL SCIENCES 85 

; De Carli, P. S.; Pepin, R. O.; Turner, G.; and Reynolds, 

J. H. Shock emplaced argon in a stony meteorite. Journ. 
Geophys. Res., vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 1403-1411, 1964. 

and Henderson, E. P. The Horse Creek, Baca County, 



Colorado, meteorite (abstr.). Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 
vol. 46, p. 121, 1965. 

and Keil, K. The Fe, Mg, Ca and Ni distribution in co- 
existing minerals in the Murray carbonaceous chondrite. Meteor- 
itics, vol. 2, pp. 201-207, 1964. 

Henderson, E. P. Hexahedrites. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 148, 
no. 5, 41 pp., 1965. 

and Dole, H. M. The Port Orford meteorite. Ore Bin, 

vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 113-130, 1964. 

Keil, K., and Fredriksson, K. The iron, magnesium, and calcium 
distribution in coexisting olivines and rhombic pyroxenes of chon- 
drites. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 69, pp. 3487-3515, 1964. 

; Mason, B.; Wiik, H. B.; and Fredriksson, K. The Chainpur 

meteorite. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 2173, 28 pp., 1964. 

Mason, Brian. The meteorite and tektite collection of the American 
Museum of Natural History. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 2190, 
40 pp., 1964. 

. Meteority [Russian transl. of Meteorites (Wiley, 1962)]. 

Mir Publ., Moscow, 305 pp., 1965. 

. Feldspar in chondrites. Science, vol. 148, p. 943, 1965. 

. The chemical composition of olivine-bronzite and olivine- 

hypersthene chondrites. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 2223, 38 pp., 
1965. 

— ■ and Wiik, H. B. The composition of the Forest City, Tenn- 



asilm, Weston, and Geidam meteorites. Amer. Mus. Novitates, 

no. 2220, 20 pp., 1965. 
Olsen, E., and Fredriksson, K. Iron phosphates in iron meteorites 

(abstr.). Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 46, pp. 121-122, 

1965. 
Switzer, G. Thirty-ninth annual report on the diamond industry 

1963. Jewelers' Circular-Keystone, Philadelphia, 70 pp., 1964. 
; Clarke, Roy S., Jr.; Sinkankas, John; and Worthing, 

Helen W. Fluorine in hambergite. Amer. Mineral., vol. 50, 

pp. 85-95, January-February 1965. 



The Collections 
CARE AND CONSERVATION 

SPECIMENS ACCESSIONED, IDENTIFIED, AND DISTRIBUTED- 
FISCAL YEAR 1965 



Departments 


Accessions 
(transac- 
tions) 
1965 
(new) 


Received 
on loan 


Exchanged 
with other 
institutions 


Trans- 
ferred to 
other Gov- 
ernment 
agencies 


Lentjor 
study to 

investigators 
and other 

institutions 


Specimens 
identified 


Anthropology . . 


108 


18 


81 


84 


3,637 


4,139 


Invertebrate Zool- 














ogy 


368 


661 


1,544 





16,158 


32, 625 


Vertebrate Zool- 














ogy 


210 


6,748 


1,120 


1 


10, 545 


20, 834 


Entomology . . . 


523 





3,908 


57 


65, 220 


9,107 




315 


439 


20, 209 


1,811 


28, 534 


12,641 


Paleobiology . . 


156 


853 


2,373 





6,412 


45, 890 


Mineral Sciences . 


289 


6 


1,907 


244 


1,444 


1,115 



Total 



1,969 8,725 31,142 2,197 131,950 126,351 
ANTHROPOLOGY 



Physical renovation of office and storage space in the Office of Anthro- 
pology, and the administrative reorganization of the Office, have both 
necessitated and made possible extensive rearrangements and improve- 
ments in storage facilities and in procedures for processing, accessioning, 
and cataloging new specimens. The 5000 drawers of skeletal material 
were placed in an alphabetical arrangement of states and foreign 
countries, with a special placing of the Huntington collection of early 
20th-century Americans (largely born abroad). This work was skill- 
fully supervised by Donald Ortner. The African collections were 
placed in a systematic, geographical arrangement, and within each 
major area many objects formerly arranged by type were rearranged 
by tribe. The Old World archeological collections were rearranged. 
And the Smithsonian's sizable collection of Japanese ceramics was 
classified according to geographic regions and to the kilns of Japan. 
Objects resulting from acculturation, whether made for export or for 
sophisticated local use, were placed apart from the traditional specimens. 
Rearrangement and reidentification of the Japanese ceramics were 
greatly facilitated by the assistance of Mr. and Mrs. Victor Hauge. 

The American Foundation for the Study of Man has loaned the 
Museum all its archeological material from southern Arabia, the 
finest and largest such collection in the world, and except for selected 
specimens to be used in the new hall of Old World archeology, this will 
be maintained as a separate study collection. 
86 



THE COLLECTIONS CARE AND CONSERVATION 87 

All the paintings that were made by Europeans or other non-native 
artists and that were in the former division of ethnology have been 
transferred on a long-term loan to the National Collection of Fine Arts. 
This includes, particularly, the extensive series of Indian paintings by 
George Catlin and the excellent facsimiles of the paintings of John 
White. 

The archives formerly part of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
are now a part of the Office of Anthropology and continue to serve 
anthropologists and other scholars throughout the world. Several 
extensive collections of photographs were cataloged, particularly 
covering the years from 1890 to the early 1900's and mainly recording 
details from tribes of the Plains and Southwest, but also including the 
Maya and Seminole. 

Most significant were the creation of a single processing laboratory for 
archeological and ethnological materials, and the institution of im- 
proved procedures for handling incoming collections and the constant 
outgo of materials for loans, identifications, and study by visitors. 
Management of the six Museum aides, technicians, and specialists 
engaged in this work is a responsibility of Clifford Evans. 

A. Joseph Andrews continued his repair, restoration, and casting 
work with the limited facilities thus far available for the conservation 
laboratory. Among the items handled were two elaborately painted 
wooden doors from India; a marimba from Guatemala; pottery from 
China, Egypt, Libya, Brazil, and the Pima, Acoma, and Zuni Indians; 
and a Sioux tobacco pipe. 

The illustrating staff, consisting of Edward G. Schumacher, aided 
part-time by G. Robert Lewis and Marcia Bakry, prepared for the 
publications of the research staff a large number of scientific drawings 
and maps. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

The end of the year saw all divisions of the department, except 
fishes, in new quarters and the reorganization of their collection man- 
agement and research facilities in process or completed. 

To improve management of the fish collections, the ledger-type 
catalog books were replaced by a 3- by 5-inch card file. This new 
system provides complete data in the jar with each cataloged lot; 
it automatically provides duplicate cards for cross-reference purposes, 
and it is adaptable to automatic recorders and to data processing 
systems. 

Since color discrimination is important in systematic research on 
birds, the problem of supplying reproducible light conditions has been 



88 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

solved by the installation of banks of new Examolite fixtures over the 
five permanent work surfaces in the bird range. These generate a 
light spectrum very near that of natural sunlight. 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

The long-awaited move of the marine-invertebrate collections to 
new quarters in the west wing was made in March and April of this 
year. Its accomplishment in somewhat less than four weeks was made 
possible only by the complete cooperation of all staff members, and 
especially by the coordination of all aspects of the move by museum 
specialist Henry B. Roberts, who devoted much of the year to the 
manifold details necessary for the transfer of over 450,000 bottles of 
specimens and their rearrangement in the process of transfer. 

Normal curatorial activities continued, nonetheless. Marian H. 
Pettibone arranged for the acquisition of the Berkeley collection of 
Polychaeta, traveling to Nanimo, British Columbia, to supervise 
its labelling and packing. David L. Pawson, having assessed the 
requirements of the echinoderm collection, instituted an international 
exchange program with 30 institutions in more than 20 countries to 
broaden the scope of the collection and enhance its value as a reference 
tool. And Joseph Rosewater completed an index to the uncataloged 
collections of mollusks, which include over 1100 miscellaneous acces- 
sions; these specimens, only generally available previously, are now 
more readily accessible and may be incorporated into the general 
collection more rapidly. 

ENTOMOLOGY 

Under grants from the National Science Foundation more than 10,000 
water beetles and 14,133 specimens of Ataenius have been prepared for 
critical study. The transfer of Hemiptera collections into the unit 
tray system was completed this year. Carl J. Drake continued to 
improve the Drake collection so that now the combined Museum and 
Drake material contain more than 80 percent (1491) of the 1820 species 
of the family Tingidae (lacebugs). Research associate Carl F. W. 
Muesebeck and members of the Department of Agriculture staff have 
added to the collection of Hymenoptera large deposits of specimens 
from biological studies. Approximately 20,000 newly acquired 
specimens of Lepidoptera were prepared and sorted by Mrs. Joan 
M. Ledbetter, and approximately 2500 North American chrysaugine 
moths were consolidated and reorganized by summer intern E. D. 
Cashatt. The New World Glyphipterygidae were reclassified and 



THE COLLECTIONS CARE AND CONSERVATION 89 

properly arranged as was much of the large collection of Brassolidae. 
Approximately 3000 newly acquired Microlepidoptera were prepared 
for critical examination. 

An important achievement concerns the enormous F. C. Bishopp col- 
lection of ticks, of which, when it was received, practically all of the 
specimens were dried out. During the past year Mrs. Sophie G. 
Lutterlough restored 35,000 specimens by treating them with trisodium- 
phosphate solution and then reintroducing them into alcohol. The 
gradual introduction of trisodium-phosphate solution into the vials of 
dried specimens by means of a large syringe avoids disturbing the 
specimens and thus prevents damage. Ralph E. Crabill and Mrs. 
Lutterlough have restored, relabeled, and rehoused 3000 myriapods 
and arachnids, among which 40 unsuspected type specimens were 
found. In addition, 1118 microscope slides were cleaned and sorted, 
and 14,600 specimens from the Hopkins collection were treated. 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

Because of increased need for space, the division of paleobotany 
was assigned to new quarters in the recently completed west wing of 
the Natural History Museum. For the first time, the entire paleobo- 
tanical collections of the Museum and those of the U.S. Geological 
Survey housed in the Museum are located in a single area. The collec- 
tions are arranged in order of stratigraphic occurrence and further 
arranged alphabetically by State under each age category. Foreign 
collections are maintained as a separate unit categorized first by strati- 
graphic occurrence and then alphabetically by country. The type 
collections are housed separately. The work of segregating specimens 
and preparing a type-specimen catalog by museum specialist James P. 
Ferrigno has been interrupted by the move. 

Museum specialist Louis R. Purnell completed a card file of type 
specimens in the Paleozoic ammonite collection of invertebrate paleon- 
tology. Three major-type collections have now been fully curated and 
manuscript lists prepared for the publication of a series of catalogs of 
type specimens which will supersede the 1905 catalog in part. 

Research associate Remington Kellogg undertook a major reorgani- 
zation of the extensive study collections of fossil marine mammals. 
This involved identification and the completing or furnishing of catalog 
data. The segments of the national collection of fossil fish, involving 
the scales, otoliths, agnathans, acanthodians, and placoderms were 
trimmed, cleaned, completely reorganized in storage, and their docu- 
mentation revised by David H. Dunkle with the aid of summer intern 
James McKenney. 



90 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 

SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL COLLECTIONS MAY 31, 1965 

Department of Anthropology 1,000,010 

Archeology 773, 562 

Ethnology 188,645 

Physical Anthropology 37, 803 

Department of Invertebrate Zoology 11,962,150 

Marine Invertebrates 2,113,365 

Mollusks 9,848,785 

Department of Vertebrate Zoology 2, 793, 396 

Mammals 325, 746 

Birds 514,209 

Reptiles and Amphibians 161, 564 

Fishes 1,791,877 

Department of Entomology 16,489,253 

(Former Division of Insects total, 1963 15,978,513) 

Coleoptera 134,085 

Hemiptera '. 132,880 

Lepidoptera 121, 595 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 23, 238 

Neuropteroids 98, 942 

Department of Botany 3,118,587 

Phanerogams 1, 963, 362 

Ferns 237,177 

Grasses 387, 269 

Cryptogams 486, 881 

Plant Anatomy 43, 898 

Department of Paleobiology 13,179,166 

Invertebrate Paleontology 13,128,197 

Vertebrate Paleontology 48, 055 

Paleobotany . 2,914 

Department of Mineral Sciences 422, 541 

Mineralogy & Petrology 417,212 

Meteorites 5, 329 

Total Natural History Collections 48,965,103 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

To the physical-anthropology collections were added a series of 24 
skeletons from Buena Vista, Ecuador, excavated by Emilio Estrada. 

In connection with the preparation of new African ethnological 
exhibits, a collection of 69 items from Libya and a collection of ten 
specimens from Zambia were secured. 



THE COLLECTIONS — GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 91 

Among the outstanding ethnological Asian materials received and 
accessioned are the Tokyo National Museum collection, with 54 speci- 
mens including rural tools and basketry; the Government of the Ryukyu 
Islands collection, with 71 items emphasizing the wide range existing in 
traditional textile production; the Beue Tann collection, with 49 
objects related to Chinese calligraphy; 16 exceptional examples of 
Japanese folk art, from Mr. and Mrs. Victor Hauge; 23 Nepalese 
carvings, from Paul Rose; and 37 Jewish ritual objects made by well- 
known Israeli craftsmen, from Dr. and Mrs. Abraham Kanof. 

The large series of Paleo-Indian artifacts from the Lindenmeier Site 
in Colorado, excavated by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., from 1935 through 
1940, was the most important archeological material accessioned. In 
addition, a large collection of potsherds was received from the Uni- 
versity of Tokyo Andes Expedition, through the courtesy of its director, 
Professor Seiichi Izumi; type specimens are included for the entire 
range of formative period materials from the site of Kotosh in the 
Department of Huanuco, Peru. Archeological accessions included a 
large collection from the Brooks Range, Alaska, covering the time span 
from the earlier human occupations to the modern Eskimo, excavated 
by research associate John M. Campbell. An important collection 
from the Hostermann Site in South Dakota was also received by trans- 
fer from the River Basin Surveys. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Fishes totaling about 15,000 specimens were received from three 
critical geographic areas: Victor G. Springer collected nearly 10,000 
specimens of the inshore marine fish fauna of Dominica during October 
and November 1964 as a participant of the Bredin-Archbold-Smith- 
sonian biological survey of Dominica. These will be especially useful in 
monographic studies of western Atlantic fishes, for no comparable 
collections have been made in this area. Several thousand well- 
preserved fishes from islands of Oceania were received from the Smith- 
sonian Institution Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program. Rich in 
representative species of the tropical, inshore reef habitat, they fill 
many geographic gaps from which few or no specimens are in the 
national collections. 

From the exploratory fisheries research activities of the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, several thousand specimens of pelagic and deep 
sea fishes were received. Taken mainly from the Caribbean area, these 
represent some of the best scientific collections ever obtained in the 
region. Collections in the Western Atlantic, resulting from the Fish 



92 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

and Wildlife Service Exploratory Program, have contributed impor- 
tantly to the great success of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research 
monographic studies of the fishes of the western North Atlantic. 

Three major collections from the New World tropics came as gifts to 
the collection of reptiles and amphibians from Wilmot A. Thornton, 
Albert Schwartz, and C. J. Marinkelle. An important collection of 
amphibians from East Africa was given by Margaret Stewart. And 587 
specimens of reptiles and amphibians were collected in Iran for the 
Museum by Robert G. Tuck and John Neal of the division of mammals. 

Birds accessioned this year include important new material from 
little-known regions. The first major collection in the United States of 
specimens from Socotra and Abd-el-Kuri in the northern Indian 
Ocean was obtained by an expedition carried out by Alex Forbes- 
Watson. An important collection of oceanic birds from islands in the 
Central Pacific, obtained by the Smithsonian Pacific Ocean Biological 
Survey Program, documents many new distribution and nesting 
records. Some of the islands visited during the field work had never 
before been surveyed for birds. Three collections of Latin American 
birds totaling over 2000 skins and almost 400 anatomical specimens 
were accessioned during the year. These include specimens collected 
in Dominica by Richard L. Zusi, in Brazil by Philip S. Humphrey, and 
in Panama by Alexander Wetmore, whose years of field work there have 
brought the Museum an unparalleled collection of Panamanian birds. 
By transfer from the Fish and Wildlife Service 1033 skins and 111 
skeletons of North American birds were received. 

In 1965 over 8000 specimens of mammals were accessioned. The 
largest increment came from Africa and the Middle East through the 
efforts of Henry W. Setzer. Particularly noteworthy were 5700 
mammals from South Africa, Mozambique, and Iran, collected on 
grants from the Department of the Army; 1228 mammals from Pakistan 
collected by Robert Traub and the Department of Microbiology, 
University of Maryland; and a superb collection of 542 bats from 
Kenya, presented by Russel E. Mumford. 

A number of important accessions were of mammals from tropical 
America: 185 bats from northeastern Brazil, collected by Philip S. 
Humphrey and R. E. Shope; 185 mammals from the interior of 
British Guiana, obtained from Stanley E. Brock; Colombian bats from 
Jose Borrero and C. J. Marinkelle; 436 Panamanian mammals, 
mostly from Isla Cebaco, collected by E. L. Tyson on a National 
Science Foundation grant; and 218 Nicaraguan mammals from the 
University of Pennsylvania, through L. G. Clark. 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 93 

A number of individual specimens of unusual interest was received: 
a skull and complete skeleton of the rare Pacific right whale from the 
Whales Research Institute, Tokyo, through the generosity of its 
Director, Hideo Omura; a frozen specimen of the rare Ross seal from 
the National Science Foundation, Office of Antarctic Programs; a 
frozen head of a pigmy sperm whale from Marineland Research 
Laboratory; and a skull of the rare rough-toothed porpoise Steno breda- 
nensis, from the University of Florida. The trend toward deposit of 
types in the National Museum continues; holotypes of the new sub- 
species of mink Mustela vision and of the bat Chiroderma salvini were 
contributed by the Alaska Department of Game and Fish and the 
University of Arizona, respectively. 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Perhaps the largest and most significant addition to the invertebrate 
zoology collections this year was the more than 10,000 specimens of 
Polychaeta collected by Edith and Cyril Berkeley of the Pacific Bio- 
logical Laboratory at Nanaimo, British Columbia. This collection 
represents the accumulation of over 40 years of work, most of it having 
been the subject of study and scientific publication by this team. The 
significance and content of the collection have been described by 
Marian H. Pettibone in a paper soon to be published. The deposition 
in the Museum of an important collection such as this assures its per- 
manent availability to students. 

By exchange, 212 specimens of isopods were obtained from the 
Zoological Institute, Leningrad, U.S.S.R.; and 500 specimens of mol- 
lusks, from Tonga and the subantarctic islands of New Zealand, were 
obtained from the Dominion Museum, Wellington, New Zealand. 
Purchased through the Chamberlain fund were 3290 marine shells 
from North Borneo, collected by Mrs. Mary Saul, and 610 from Muscat, 
Oman, by Donald T. Bosch. 

Colleagues in other institutions and universities often deposit their 
study collections in the national collections when their researches are 
complete. In this manner 2354 specimens of copepods collected by 
Arthur Humes of Boston University were donated to the Museum. 
They were obtained during Humes' researches at Nosy Be, Malagasy 
Republic, as a part of the Indian Ocean Expedition. 

ENTOMOLOGY 

The largest, and perhaps most outstanding, contribution made to 
the entomological collections this year, that obtained in the western 



94 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Mexican states by Paul Spangler and his family, consisted of 50,850 
specimens, of which 32,000 were water beetles. Spangler also donated 
7000 specimens from his personal collection. J. F. Gates Clarke and 
his wife contributed 11,674 specimens from the remote island of Rapa, 
obtained with the aid of a grant from the Office of Naval Research, and 
2622 specimens from Arkansas. Ronald W. Hodges presented 3000 
Goleoptera through the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Oliver S. 
Flint contributed 2062 beetles from the West Indies, and 2000 beetles 
of the subfamily Aphodiinae were obtained from Argentina. 

To the Hemiptera collections were added 5000 specimens from George 
F. Knowlton, 1169 specimens from George E. Bohart, and 651 speci- 
mens from Oliver S. Flint, Jr. To the Lepidoptera collections were 
added a notable number of small but important contributions, con- 
spicuous among which were the more than 3900 specimens collected 
in the Malagasy Republic by E. D. Cashatt and K. I. Lange; 791 
butterflies from Greece collected by J. G. Coutsis; 1300 New Zealand 
moths contributed by T. H. Da vies;. 632 Hydrelia flies from D. L. Donier 
and J. L. Laffoon; 5000 specimens collected in Florida by Ronald W. 
Hodges; 495 European flies from D. L. Knutson; 890 Alaskan flies 
from K. M. Sommerman; and 2336 flies collected by George G. 
Steyskal, primarily in Egypt and North America. 

Donald R. Davis contributed over 5000 specimens from Arizona and 
New Mexico; W. Donald Duckworth and his wife obtained 10,125 
moths and flies from Panama; Oliver S. Flint, Jr., contributed 1887 
Lepidoptera and Diptera from the West Indies and the United States; 
and Waldo L. Schmitt presented 458 flies collected by him in Antarctica 
and New Zealand. 

Particularly important additions to the collection of biting and sucking 
lice were made by K. G. Emerson who deposited 1160 slides, including 
33 holotypes, of these insects. In addition, he was responsible for the 
transfer of 919 slides of these important ectoparasites from the Depart- 
ment of the Army. Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., presented 402 European 
myriapods, almost all the species of which were previously unrepre- 
sented in the collections. Yu Hsi Moltze Wang presented 107 identi- 
fied Formosan myriapods, none previously represented in the col- 
lections. Waldo L. Schmitt presented 2383 mites from New Zealand 
and Antarctica, noteworthy because of the paucity of material in the 
collections from this part of the world. 

BOTANY 

Noteworthy among the wide diversity of botanical research materials 
from various areas of the globe added to the collections was a group 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 95 

of 1 330 herbarium specimens of flowering plants received by exchange 
through the Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the 
U.S.S.R. A group of 1250 microscope slides of cleared strobili of 
Selaginella was received as a gift from Northwestern University. These 
slides document published research of Howard J. Arnott and Harry T. 
Horner, based largely on collections in the National Herbarium, on the 
disposition of mega- and microspores in this genus. The historically 
valuable diatom collection of M. L. Walsh, received as a gift from Mrs. 
Walsh of Baltimore, included 920 microscope slides, 350 samples of 
diatomaceous earth, and 385 bottles of liquid-preserved diatom- 
bearing materials. These represent careful collections from almost 
all the known diatom deposits in southern Maryland, many of which 
have now been exhausted or otherwise obliterated. Conrad V. 
Morton added 2595 photographs of fern types prepared in European 
herbaria. A collection of 1 50 ferns constituting three series of "Filices 
Japonicae Exsiccatae," prepared by M. Tagawa and K. Iwatsuki, was 
accessioned. These specimens contain isotypes of several new fern 
species. Two collections of African grasses were added to the grass 
herbarium: 385 specimens of Digitaria gathered by A. J. Oakes in West 
Africa, and a miscellaneous assortment from R. R. Martenson, a mis- 
sionary in Northern Cameroun. A large set of Mexican grasses was 
accessioned through A. Robinson of Kansas Wesleyan University, who 
identified them during a visit to the National Herbarium. Three 
groups of wood specimens were accessioned from Southeast Asia: a 
small but rare set from Cambodia, received on exchange from the 
French Centre Technique Forestier Tropical; 120 specimens from 
Thailand, donated by Robert M. King; and 220 woods from the 
Philippines, from William L. Stern. The latter two accessions com- 
prise excellent research materials, since the identifications of all speci- 
mens are corroborated by herbarium vouchers. Other important 
accessions included 330 specimens of European mosses received on 
exchange from the University of Helsinki and 635 lichen specimens 
from southeastern United States, collected by Mason E. Hale, Jr. 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

Among the specimens accessioned by the division of paleobotany, 
those of major importance include the 142 type or figured specimens 
received as gifts, of which a few examples are: the Goucher collection 
of cycadeoid trunk sections, representing the finest collection of de- 
scribed specimens from the Lower Cretaceous of Maryland, from 
Goucher College; the earliest described specimen of an American 
cycadeoid, from Johns Hopkins University; and, among the microfossils, 



96 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

12 holotypes of Maestrichtian and Danian calcareous nanno plankton 
from Alabama, Arkansas, France, and Denmark, from M. N. Bramlette 
and E. Martini. From the Walcott fund was purchased 1000 pounds 
of selected Rhynie chert. This quantity of material constitutes the 
largest single collection in the United States of this classic Middle 
Devonian plant-bearing material. From the Roland W. Brown fund 
was purchased an excellent exhibit specimen of the Lower Cretaceous 
cycadeoid Cycadeoidea marylandica, found near Laurel, Md. Also pur- 
chased was a collection of fossil plants from the Eocene of Bolca, Italy. 
Exchange with the Paleobotaniska Avdelning, Naturhistoriska Riks- 
museets in Stockholm, Sweden, brought in 89 specimens of Chinese 
Permo-Carboniferous plants and 44 Swedish Rhaeto-Liassic plants. 

A collection of amphibians and therapsid reptiles from the Permo- 
Triassic of the Karoo region in South Africa, outstanding in being 
probably the best documented Beaufort collection to date, was made 
by Nicholas Hotton under a grant from the National Science Founda- 
tion and with the help of J. W. Kitching of the Bernard Price Institute 
in Johannesburg. It includes about 312 specimens consisting of skulls, 
partial and complete skeletons, and identifiable fragments, and is 
particularly strong in the herbivorous anomodonts. A collection of 
about 550 specimens of early mammals was made by C. L. Gazin, 
assisted by Franklin L. Pearce, under a grant from the National Science 
Foundation. The greater part, about 320 specimens, consisted of jaws 
and maxillae of a variety of rare Paleocene mammals from Puerco and 
Torrejon horizons of the Nacimiento formation in New Mexico. The 
remaining portion of the collection was obtained principally from the 
Lysite early Eocene and Chadronian Oligocene of the Wind River 
Basin, Wyo., greatly increasing our representation of the smaller 
mammals of these horizons. 

David H. Dunkle, assisted by Gladwyn B. Sullivan, during the latter 
part of the summer season made a collection of about 115 specimens 
of vertebrate and invertebrate animals under support from the Walcott 
fund. Of these specimens, 81 were fossil fish secured from a clay pit 
in the upper Madera formation near Tijeras, N. Mex. Particular 
mention may be made of unusually complete skeletons of acanthodian 
and a variety of palaeoniscoid fishes, as well as the fragmentary remains 
of several sharks and a caelacanthine. 

An outstanding addition to the invertebrate-paleontology collections 
was made possible by the Walcott fund: during the winter of 1963-64, 
Richard E. Grant, of the U.S. Geological Survey, accompanied by 
Ali N. Fatmi, of the Geological Survey of Pakistan, made an extensive 
collection of Permian fossils from the Productus Limestone of the Salt, 
Khisor, and Surghar Ranges of West Pakistan; these consist of an 




Specimens of the feather-duster worm Sabellastarte magnified photographed 
alive in Puerto Rico. This photograph, in color, is being used by modelmaker 
Alfred Strohlein seen (below, left) discussing with Curator Charles Cutress 
the early stages of a model for exhibition. 





Line of visitors waiting to see exhibit of the Dead Sea Scrolls of Jordan in the 
foyer gallery of the Museum of Natural History. Such lines were common, 
and during the 22 days the Scrolls were on display over 200,000 persons 
were recorded entering the gallery. 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 97 

estimated 35,000 specimens and an additional undetermined number 
that will be freed from limestone blocks by dissolution in hydrochloric 
acid. This collection, which is to be shared by the Geological Survey 
of Pakistan, will provide a basis for direct comparison of American 
Permian specimens with those from the best known Permian sequence 
in Asia, since the Productus Limestone of the Salt Range is a standard 
for reference and correlation of Permian rocks of all parts of the world, 
and its fauna must be considered in connection with Permian studies 
everywhere. The Pakistan collection, a valuable addition to the 
national collections under any circumstances, is especially valuable 
in view of the extensive program of Permian studies now under way. 
The Walcott fund also supported field work which resulted in several 
other important additions to the collections, each of several thousand 
specimens. These include Devonian invertebrates from southern 
New Mexico, collected by G. Arthur Cooper and J. T. Dutro; Ordo- 
vician Bryozoa from measured sections and type localities in north- 
eastern New York, by Richard S. Boardman and Olgerts Karklins; 
and invertebrates from the Middle Ordovician at Paquette Rapids, 
Ont., by Ellis Yochelson. 

MINERAL SCIENCES 

To the collections were added 11 meteorites not previously repre- 
sented, as well as 2066 grams of tektites received from the Ames 
Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

A major effort is being made to acquire for the petrographic reference 
collections specimens of rocks that have been described and chemically 
analyzed. About 100 such rocks were acquired during the year, most 
of them by transfer from the U.S. Geological Survey. 

Of the many important additions to the mineralogy collections, 
three were of outstanding importance: Harry Winston, Inc., presented 
to the Smithsonian in memory of Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, former 
Chairman of the Board of De Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., a 
magnificent gem-quality diamond crystal weighing 253.7 carats, 
from the Dutoitspan Mine, Republic of South Africa; John B. Jago 
of San Francisco donated his collection of minerals, numbering nearly 
4000 specimens and generally considered to be the finest contemporary 
private collection in the United States; and Mr. and Mrs. Lennart 
Erickson of Palo Alto, Calif., donated three outstanding gems: a 117- 
carat emerald cabochon brooch, a 126-carat aquamarine, and a 50.5- 
carat rubellite tourmaline. 



789-^27—66 14 



Exhibits 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

An exhibit of Dead Sea Scrolls from Jordan was shown in the foyer 
gallery of the Museum of Natural History from February 27 through 
March 21. Negotiations for loan of the specimens and accompanying 
photographs, conducted by Gus W. Van Beek and the Department of 
State, had been in progress since 1960 with the Government of Jor- 
dan, which generously loaned the material for the Smithsonian ex- 
hibit. One of the most popular ever presented in the Museum, 
the exhibit was kept open Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evenings; 
and during its 22 days 209,643 persons were recorded as visiting it. 
The exhibition provided a synopsis of the story of the Dead Sea Scrolls 
in four sections: first, the discovery; second, the Essenes, the people 
of the Scrolls, and their community; third, the Scrolls themselves and 
their significance for historical and religious studies; and fourth, the 
techniques of Scroll research and publication. Van Beek was assisted 
in preparation of the exhibit by a number of internationally known 
scholars and by Rolland O. Hower, of the Smithsonian's exhibit 
staff, who was chief designer. The imaginative and effective arrange- 
ment, created for temporary traveling display, will eventually ac- 
company the material back to Jordan, where it will become part of the 
permanent Palestine archeological exhibits. The material was sched- 
uled for display in Philadelphia, Berkeley, Claremont, Omaha, and 
Baltimore, and will then go to Canada and England before its return 
to Jordan. This exhibit is an outstanding example of how much 
can be done to associate the meaning and significance of a group of 
objects with the objects themselves, stressing ideas in the exhibit 
rather than merely presenting specimens. 

Substantial progress was made in the African hall, in the hall of 
physical anthropology, and in the hall of Old World archeology. 
In the preparation of African materials, it was fortunately possible 
to undertake extensive restoration, cleaning, and repair of important 
specimens — some of them old and unique. A special crew, under 
contract, in the course of the year treated 288 separate items, of which 
the largest number were spears and swords and among the most 
important were wood carvings and masks, some of them among the 
oldest surviving from parts of Africa. They similarly treated over 100 
specimens for exhibit in the hall of Old World archeology. 

A significant achievement was made by the plastics laboratory of the 
Office of Exhibits in the making of new casts of important works of 

98 



EXHIBITS 99 

sculpture. Previously such casts have been made of plaster, and re- 
sulted in heavy, fragile specimens requiring considerable maintenance, 
including frequent repainting. Under the supervision of John C. 
Widener, old plaster casts are now being replaced with casts made of 
plastic. This involves cleaning and repairing the plaster cast, making 
a rubber mold of it, and then casting a reinforced, colored plastic 
duplicate. These new duplicates are light in weight, strong, and resis- 
tant to damage; they have the color built in and can be maintained 
by an occasional washing with detergent and water. A number of 
monochrome plastic casts have been made of reliefs from Zinjirli, 
Persepolis, and Nineveh. Much more ambitious was the copying in 
plastic of a large Egyptian red-granite lion, utilizing techniques devel- 
oped by Walter G. Sorrell. Using a fragment of Egyptian red granite 
as a guide, he made thin sheets of plastic reproducing the colors of the 
different crystals in the granite. These sheets were then broken into 
chips of various sizes, distributed over the surface of the mold, and a 
pink plastic matrix poured over them. The result is a magnificent 
cast which so nearly approximates the original stone that a fragment of 
the red granite placed against the plastic cast becomes lost in its back- 
ground. These techniques hold considerable promise for newer 
museums that are no longer able to acquire original sculptures from 
abroad. 

Work continued on the preparation and installation of the remaining 
few exhibits in the Asian hall, and collections already in the Museum 
were augmented with eight contemporary objects donated by Dr. and 
Mrs. Abram Kanof through the Jewish Museum in New York, and 
three specimens given by the Embassy of Israel. 

Installation of the Hall of Physical Anthropology approached its 
final stages with sections on man as a primate, on human biological 
variation, on pathology, and on the populations of the world, being 
produced. The section of exhibits on fossil man and a panel on mech- 
anisms of evolution are the only portions remaining for future prepara- 
tion. The world map showing body-build silhouettes of various popu- 
lations and accurate face masks of individuals from all parts of the world, 
has turned out to be particularly impressive and informative. 

On May 25, 1965, fire caused by a faulty electrical circuit gutted 
two cases in the Indian hall, one exhibiting Zuni and Hopi kachina 
figures, some of them collected as early as 1870 by such early explorers 
and scholars as Burke, Powell, Wheeler, Palmer, Cushing, and Steven- 
son, and the other, objects from the Spanish Mission period of the 
southwestern United States, illustrating the transition from Indian 
religious concepts to Catholicism. Nearly all of the objects in these 



100 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

two exhibits were a total loss, although a few of the kachina figures can 
still be used for scientific study though not for exhibition. An ad- 
joining case illustrating the life of the Cocopa Indians was somewhat 
damaged by water and flames, but all of the material was saved. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

A model of a giant-sized black marlin, Makaira indica, captured by 
the donor, Alfred C. Glassell, Jr., provided a spectacular addition 
to the hall of life in the sea. The marlin, a world record for rod and reel, 
was captured off Cabo Blanco, Peru, and measured 14% feet in length 
and weighed 1560 pounds. 

Members of the curatorial staff participated in the planning and de- 
sign of the hall of osteology, which opened during the year, and the 
hall of cold-blooded vertebrates. The latter is in process of construc- 
tion, and considerable progress has been made in obtaining material 
for the topical and habitat cases. 

The freeze-dry method of preserving reptiles continues to be highly 
satisfactory and efficient. Freeze-drying of amphibians often brings a 
whitish wax to the surface, which is easily painted out by a thin coat of 
oil paint. 

On the basis of his experience in Chile and Antarctica last year, 
George E. Watson provided scripts for three cases in the temporary 
exhibition "Image of Chile," on display in fall of 1964. 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Work on the hall of life in the sea progressed slowly throughout the 
year, with no additional exhibits opened. For alcove cases depicting 
reproduction and parental care, many models have been completed 
and work on others begun under the direction of Charles E. Cutress, 
Thomas E. Bowman, and David L. Pawson. In these exhibits an 
attempt is being made to show, by enlarged models, some of the many 
fascinating ways and devices by which marine invertebrates repro- 
duce their kind and provide protection for their eggs and young. 
Methods of reproduction, ranging from simple asexual splitting to the 
complex courtship behavior associated with sexual reproduction in a 
fiddler crab, and examples displaying parental care have been selected 
from as wide a range of animals as possible, so that these cases will also 
serve to illustrate the great diversity of form and structure in inverte- 
brate animals. 

With the assistance of summer intern Durbin Dixon, coral specimens 
were produced for inclusion in the coral-reef life group, but significant 



EXHIBITS 101 

progress on this exhibit awaits construction of viewing ports and 
supporting steel work. 

Accompanied by Kjell B. Sandved, Cutress collected selected in- 
vertebrates and took over 1200 color photographs of living animals in 
Puerto Rico during August and September 1964. These, together 
with detailed notes, will form the basis for the construction of the models 
required for adequate representation of many of the minute and deli- 
cate invertebrate forms. Among the many specimens photographed 
was the large Caribbean feather-duster worm Sabellastarte magnified, 
selected to represent a polychaete annelid and a particular feeding 
mechanism. A model maker will construct with plastics and waxes an 
enlarged representation of this organism, working from the preserved 
specimens, notes, and photographs. Cutress continued to supervise 
the construction of models, for which data were obtained during a 
similar trip to the Hawaiian Islands in the previous year. 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

Clayton E. Ray was heavily occupied in developing plans for the 
hall of Quaternary vertebrates in collaboration with designer Lucius 
E. Lomax, of the Office of Exhibits. The laboratory of vertebrate 
paleontology made progress in mounting skeletons for exhibition in 
this hall of a Rancho La Brea group that includes the sabre-tooth cat 
Smilodon californicus, the ground sloth Paramylodon harlani, and the horse 
Equus occidentalis. Restoration has been completed preparatory to 
mounting the 4-horned antelope Stockoceros onusrosagrus from the 
Pleistocene of Arizona, received in an exchange from the Frick Lab- 
oratories at the American Museum in New York. Much progress also 
has been made in restoring the two giant ground sloths Eremotherium 
rusconii, secured by C. Lewis Gazin from the Pleistocene of Panama, 
which are to serve as the central display in the hall. 

MINERAL SCIENCES 

Construction was completed for new physical geology, meteorite, 
and jade exhibits, and for a major enlargement and revision of the 
gem exhibit. Paul E. Desautels wrote scripts for all the gem exhibit 
cases, the design was completed by Mrs. Dorothy Guthrie, and rein- 
stallation begun. When the gem exhibit was closed for revision in 
January 1965, a temporary exhibit was set up in the adjacent mineral 
hall. Edward P. Henderson and William G. Melson began writing 
scripts for the meteorite and physical geology exhibits, and the design 
and production of these will be started as soon as the gem and jade 
rooms are completed and reopened to the public in summer 1965. 



Museum of History and Technology 





Mrs. Lyndon Johnson during inspection of plans for Music on the Mall at the 
Museum of History and Technology. Secretary Ripley, left, is showing her a 
bass ophecliede from the collection of musical instruments. Below: Part of 
audience of over three thousand at concert of band music of the 1860's, 
played on restored Civil War-period instruments (see p. 109). 





Specially constructed device used for 
taking off exact measurements of 
hulls of sunken ships. Here it is 
being used to measure timbers on a 
ship believed to be late 16th-century 
Spanish, sunk off Bermuda. (See 
pp. 105-107.) 




Museum of History and Technology 
John C. Ewers, Director 

The Museum Historian as Scholar 

The academic historian relies upon the printed page and the written 
document for his primary source materials in reconstructing and 
interpreting history. The resourceful museum historian, however, is 
not limited to verbal sources. He knows that history is written in 
objects as well as in words. He seeks to recover the sights and sounds 
as well as the descriptions of history. In field and laboratory he 
seeks to employ the tools and methods of modern technology to obtain 
a more precise understanding of how people lived in the past. He is 
limited only by his ingenuity in making the most effective uses of 
these resources. 

The current research program of professional historians at the 
Museum of History and Technology provides numerous examples of 
this broader, more ingenious approach to history. I cite only a few 
examples. 

Buried treasure — whether it is in the ground or under the sea — 
has excited the curiosity of generations of Americans. In recent years 
the technical perfection of light diving gear has made undersea treas- 
ure hunting an increasingly popular pursuit. But under the leadership 
of Mendel L. Peterson, chairman of the Museum's department of 
armed forces history, underwater exploration in the Western Hemi- 
sphere has evolved from mere treasure hunting into systematic under- 
water archeology. In solving historical problems it combines with 
field exploration of underwater sites the study of written records of 
shipping and shipwrecks, and of the manufacture and uses of artifacts. 
It results in the recovery, preservation, and identification of dated 
artifacts which help to document the progress of the introduction of 
European culture into the New World, routes and cargoes in colonial 
trade, and the development of ships, and of their armament and other 
equipment. 

At underwater sites off Bermuda this year Peterson has conducted 
research in the techniques of surveying, measuring, and recording- 
undersea remains. Three new instruments for measuring in plan and 
elevation were used in exploring the timber remains of a ship believed 

789-427—66—16 1Q5 



106 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



l^g 




Half plan and elevations of timber remains, measured by the method described 
on the opposite page. Shape of the keel is conjectural. 



to be Spanish and of the late 16th century. An ingenious camera 
stand for photographing the remains in plan was built in the form of 
a brass tower adjustable in height. Carrying a 35-mm. camera at 
the top, the tower is set over the timber remains which have been 
marked with numbered "tacks" in a grid pattern. The photographs, 
taken in succession as the tower is moved over the site, later are as- 
sembled in a photographic mosaic which becomes a valuable guide 
to the artist making the finished drawing of the remains. 

Two instruments for measuring remains in elevation proved to be 
very successful. The first, a simple sighting device, is settled in the 
middle of the site and leveled. With this instrument, a theoretical 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION 107 

plane is established, and at each corner of a square encompassing the 
site datum rods are then set in the sea bottom, clear of the timber 
remains. With this sighting device, targets are set on the datum rods 
and securely fastened. These remain in place throughout the measuring 
operation. 

After the theoretical plane is established, a measuring frame con- 
sisting of heavy aluminum beams is placed on steel stanchions set 
vertically on the keelson of the timber remains. The frame is then 
secured to the stanchions at the plane established by the sighting device. 
Attached to this frame is a rack in which ride — at 6-inch intervals — 
measuring rods scaled in inches. Over each ship's timber in turn, 
starting at one end and progressing along the remains, the rack is set, 
leveled with the beam, and anchored at the outer end. The measuring 
rods are then lowered to contact the frame, and readings are taken 
directly from them. In this manner the curvature of each of the ship's 
frames is established. From these data, recorded with a grease pencil 
on white plastic sheets, an accurate elevation of the remains can be 
drawn. 

Techniques for preserving objects recovered from underwater sites 
meanwhile are being perfected through research in the Museum 
laboratory. These studies include the perfection of a more rapid 
method for dehydrating organic materials, and the uses, for wood 
specimens, of preservatives that penetrate and strengthen the specimens. 

Peterson's History Under the Sea: A handbook for underwater exploration, 
published in 1965, provides the first handbook on this subject ever 
printed. This pioneer text and its 56 plates cover the surveying of 
underwater sites, field preparation of materials recovered from these 
sites, laboratory techniques for preserving artifacts from underwater 
explorations, and photographic reproductions of selected metal, glass, 
and pottery specimens recovered from underwater sites and processed 
in the laboratory. 

Eugene Ostroff, associate curator of photography, employed modern 
technology in pioneering another field of historical research. Recog- 
nizing that image discoloration and fading was making old photo- 
graphs in the collections useless for reference or exhibition, he investi- 
gated the causes of this deterioration and explored the practicality of 
restoring the image. With some of the earliest photographs made by 
W. H. F. Talbot of England, who in 1839 invented the photographic 
negative, he obtained strikingly successful results. Faded prints in 
which the image was not visible to the eye were irradiated with neutrons 
in a reactor at the Brookhaven National Laboratories. This converted 
some of the image silver into radioactive isotopes. When an unexposed 
sheet of x-ray film was placed in contact with the original for a short 



108 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

time, then processed, a clearly visible restored image corresponding to 
the original appeared on the x-ray film. 

Old photographs can be important historical documents. It is 
expected that the historian of the future will be indebted to Ostroff for 
his discovery of a means to recover the lost images on these faded 
documents. 

The use of the modern tape recorder in gaining knowledge of the 
past from living informants has proved an effective method of research 
in a variety of historical projects. Edwin A. Battison, associate cur- 
ator of mechanical and civil engineering, obtained from the surviving 
inventor, J. Frank Duryea, information on the construction of the 
Duryea automobile built in 1892-93, one of the first gasoline-powered 
automobiles built in the United States and the oldest in our collection. 
On the basis of these interviews with the inventor it was possible to 
restore missing details of the vehicle. The recorded data also pro- 
vided some of the information for Donald H. Berkebile's account of its 
construction, The 1893 Duryea Automobile, published by the Smithsonian 
Institution this year. 

C. Malcolm Watkins, curator of cultural history, carried a tape 
recorder to rural Moore County in North Carolina to record surviving 
folk-pottery traditions in an area where country folk have made 
red earthenware and salt-glazed pottery since before the American 
Revolution. There Ben Owen charmingly recalled how his grand- 
father had made pottery and described how he himself carried on 
the family tradition — from the digging of the clay to the removal of the 
fired pot from the kiln. Mrs. Joan Watkins supplemented the oral 
account with an extensive series of color photographs of this potter's 
shop and of the stages in his making of pottery. Examples of this 
pottery were obtained for the Museum collections. 

In the mountains of Virginia and North Carolina last fall Jay Scott 
Odell, museum specialist in the section of musical instruments, recorded 
traditional folk songs of the Appalachian Highlands played on the 
dulcimer and banjo, and descriptions of the making and use of these 
instruments from the lips of their makers or the musically talented 
descendants of makers. At the same time he photographed the playing 
of a dulcimer, made about 1875, which he later obtained for the na- 
tional collections. Such thorough documentation will be appreciated 
by the historian of future years. 

The sounds of history were sweet indeed in the series of concerts 
arranged by Mrs. Cynthia Adams Hoover, associate curator of musical 
instruments, during the year. The November 11, 1964, concert of 
Gustav Leonhardt, harpsichordist, playing on the Museum's restored 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION 109 

1754 Dulcken harpsichord, and Frans Brueggen, recorder player, 
was considered one of the highlights of the Washington musical year. 
At popular request, a program of the music of the 1860's, played on 
brass instruments of that period from the collections, was repeated 
in an open-air concert on the Mall in June. The musical arrangements 
were taken directly from handbooks of the Third New Hampshire 
Regiment of the 1860's. These and other concerts, played upon the 
kinds of instruments for which the music was written, not only delight 
those in attendance but are recorded for the study of musicians and 
historians. 

Surely the museum historian is no less concerned with written his- 
tory than is the academic historian — but he consults a greater variety 
of sources. He reads history not only in letters and documents, but 
also in illustrated trade catalogs, magazine and newspaper advertise- 
ments, plans, drawings, paintings, prints, and photographs, and in 
three-dimensional objects as well. 

The museum historian has the same dedication to detailed accuracy 
as does the scholar in the natural sciences. He requires the same 
precision in restoring a hundred-year-old machine tool or a two-hun- 
dred-year-old highboy as does the paleontologist in his restoration 
of a hundred-million -year-old dinosaur. 

In his field work the museum historian's methods resemble those 
successfully employed by the anthropologist, be he an archeologist 
exploring a prehistoric site occupied by a little-known primitive people, 
or an ethnologist obtaining from an aged American Indian informant 
verbal information on tribal customs of six decades ago. Historic- 
site archeology — on land and under the sea — offers the historian oppor- 
tunities to recover plans of ships and of domestic, industrial, and 
military structures about which little information is available in written 
sources, as well as possibilities of recovering dated artifacts which will 
help to document other undated ones. The oral testimony of elderly 
men and women provides previously unrecorded details about inven- 
tions, manufacturing and crafts processes, and the disappearance or 
survival of traditional arts and crafts. 

In his dealings with the objects he studies and admires, the mature 
museum historian's interests extend far beyond their aesthetic quali- 
ties and beyond the tracing of technological developments per se. Like 
the anthropologist, he is concerned with the broader implications of 
objects — 'the roles they played in the cultures which produced them 
and the social implications of technological change. He will continue 
to employ a variety of techniques and to consult a wide range of 
sources in his quest for answers to the problems of history. 



Research and Publications 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

A number of major works by members of the department of science 
and technology were published or are in press this year. Silvio A. 
Bedini, in his Museum Bulletin Early American Scientific Instruments and 
their Makers, brought together a wealth of facts and photographs that 
has stimulated wide interest in this subject. As a result, enough new 
information has been elicited to warrant a revised and enlarged edition, 
on which he is working at present. Bedini also has assembled data and 
illustrations documenting the scientific instrument as it appears in 
American archeology. His purpose is a study of the scientific back- 
ground of the exploration and early settlement of the North American 
continent up to about 1700, for a book-length work completed in first 
draft. The American Philosophical Society now has in press his 
Mechanical Universe. 

In his Museum Bulletin Bark Canoes and Skin Boats of North America, 
Howard I. Chapelle brought order and meaning to the inchoate 
50-year accumulation of notes and portions of manuscript left by the 
senior author and authority on canoes, Edwin Tappan Adney. This 
monograph, carried to completion through the generosity of the 
Mariner's Museum, which supported Chapelle in his work on the 
Adney paper and his preparation of the numerous line drawings it 
contains, represents a high order of cooperation in museum research, 
and makes available information which otherwise might have remained 
forever buried in museum archives. 

Sami K. Hamarneh's Bibliography on Medicine and Pharmacy in Medieval 
Islam was published in Stuttgart by the Internationalen Gesellschaft fur 
Geschichte der Pharmazie. And the Early Engineering Reminiscences 
(1815-40) of George Escol Sellers, which Eugene S. Ferguson edited and 
annotated while he was curator of engineering, appeared as a Museum 
Bulletin. 

Three other book-length manuscripts are in press: Robert P. Mul- 
thauf, The Origin of Chemistry, Uta C. Merzbach (with Garrett Birk- 
hoff), Source Book in Classical Analysis, and John H. White, Jr., The 
Cincinnati Locomotive Builders. And among the total of 35 publications 
listed by the staff this year were a group of historical and analytical 
articles on museums of science and technology making up the December 
1964 issue of Technology and Culture (vol. 6, no. 1). 

A number of publications appeared as a result of research directed to 
the documentation of collections. Donald H. Berkebile's study of the 
Duryea automobile exploits a series of tape-recorded interviews with 

110 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 111 

the surviving inventor J. Frank Duryea, initiated and conducted here 
in 1956 and 1957 by Edwin A. Battison. The Duryea automobile, 
built in 1892-93, is the oldest in our collection and one of the first 
gasoline-powered automobiles constructed in the United States. 
Only through these interviews was it possible to restore missing details 
of the vehicle. 

White's article on the Pioneer documents a locomotive built in 1851 
by Seth Wilmarth in South Boston, Mass., and used primarily on the 
Cumberland Valley Railroad in Pennsylvania. The machine was 
given to the Museum in 1960 by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 

Bedini's study of an 18th-century astronomical clock deals with a 
timepiece designed, in the words of its inventor, Father Francesco 
Borghesi (1723-1802), "so that I might contemplate leisurely, both 
during the day and in the night, the true face of the heavens and of the 
seas unobscured by clouds, even though I had no astronomical equip- 
ment." This clock, for which the faculty of eclipse prediction was also 
claimed, was presented upon its completion in 1764 to the Empress 
Maria Theresa of Austria. It was acquired by the Museum in 1958. 

An article by Edwin S. Battison on screw-thread cutting by the 
master -screw method is based upon a study of one of the oldest extant 
screw-cutting machines, signed "Manuel Wetschgi, Augspurg" and 
dated from the end of the 17th century or the beginning of the 18th. 
The machine was received from the Yale and Towne Company in 1959. 

Some other research papers published this year were inspired by 
work in connection with exhibits. Chapelle's paper on Robert Fulton's 
"Steam Battery" is one of a series of articles he has based on his design 
reconstructions of historically important ships. The subject of the 
article, the first steam-powered warship, was designed during the War 
of 1812. The reconstruction of this historic ship is based upon plans 
located by Chapelle in the Danish Royal Archives in Copenhagen. 

A paper on early electromagnetic instruments was published in 
connection with the design of the exhibits in electricity by Museum 
consultant Robert Chipman. The problem which inspired this paper 
was the reconstruction for exhibit of "Schweigger's multiplier" of 
1821, popularly regarded as the progenitor of the galvanometer. In 
the course of this work Chipman found that several other instruments 
of the same type were developed in the same year by Johann C. Pog- 
gendorf and James Cumming. The consequence was an exhibit, in 
which five reconstructed instruments are shown, and the present paper, 
in which his findings are exposed. 

Robert M. Vogel has produced three papers in connection with the 
design of the hall of civil engineering. His paper on the engineering 



112 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

contributions of Wendel Bollman arose in the dual problem of repre- 
senting the work of Bollman in the exhibit of bridge building and of 
evaluating an actual bridge, which had been brought to our attention 
as the last surviving example of Bollman's work. Because of the 
interesting and unique problems arising during the design and con- 
struction of the hall, Vogel has presented the results of his experience 
in two papers that describe the manner in which objects and docu- 
ments are utilized to produce exhibits which will be both attractive to 
a general audience and informative to the specialist. 

Walter F. Cannon, who spent part of 1962 and 1963 in London on a 
National Science Foundation research grant for the study of science in 
England in the 19th century, published the results in two papers, 
"History in Depth: the Early Victorian Period," and "Scientists and 
Broad Churchmen: an Early Victorian Intellectual Network." He is 
now working on a biography of John Herschel. 

Hamarneh spent the period June 29 through October 17, 1964, in a 
research tour often Middle Eastern countries and Spain. In addition 
to assembling manuscript data for a history of medicine in medieval 
Islam, he collected data for indexing the medical manuscripts in the 
Zahiriyah National Library, Damascus. 

Edwin A. Battison arranged for and supervised the translation of two 
Russian books through the Israel Program for Scientific Translations: 
S. V. Tarasov, Technology of watch production (Moscow, 1956), and A. S. 
Britkin and S. S. Vidonov's biography of the machine builder A. K. 
Nartov. These translations, which have been completed, will be 
published with introductions by Battison. 

Publications by the Staff 
July 1964 through June 1965 

Adney, Edwin T., and Chapelle, Howard I. The bark canoes and 
skin boats of North America. (U.S. National Museum Bulletin 230), 
246 pp., 224 figs., 1964. 

Battison, Edwin A. Screw-thread cutting by the master-screw 
method since 1480. Paper 37 in Contributions from the Museum of 
History and Technology (U.S. National Museum Bulletin 240), 
pp. 105-120, 23 figs., 1964. 

Bedini, Silvio A. Early American scientific instruments and their makers. 
(U.S. National Museum Bulletin 231), 184 pp., 85 figs., 1964. 

-. The Borghesi astronomical clock in the Museum of History 

and Technology. Paper 35 in Contributions from the Museum of 
History and Technology (U.S. National Museum Bulletin 240), pp. 
29-76, 35 figs., 1964. 




U.S. Army communications satellite "Courier" (see p. 135) in newly opened 

hall of electricity. 




JHOHHHn 



A section of hall of electricity tracing development of early lighting systems 

and the telephone. 




Special exhibit of early modern scientific instruments from the collection 
of David H. H. Felix of Philadelphia. Above: 17th- and 18th-century 
Persian and Italian astrolabes and armillary spheres. Below: Gregor- 
ian telescopes by Watson and Nairne, planetarium by Jones. 





American merchant marine hall was opened November 13, 1964. Its many 
rigged models trace the evolution of American ships for over two centuries. 
Above: model of Santa Maria, built in Museo Maritimo, Barcelona, as 
reconstructed for New York World's Fair. Gift of Lawrence H. M. Vineburg. 
(See p. 129.) 





Installing 12-ton piston assembly of Interborough Rapid Transit Co. engine 
in the hall of heavy machinery. Engine from which it was removed was 
one of eight that drove the generators supplying power to New York's first 
subway, opened in 1904. These principal moving parts convey a sense of 
the size of the reciprocating steam engine at the peak of its development, 
before it was displaced by the steam turbine for this use. The piston is 
7 feet in diameter and with its rod weighs 6 tons. The crosshead being 
screwed on lower end of the piston rod, below, guides the rod when the 
engine is in operation. 




RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 113 

. Bramante e l'astrario del de' Dondi: Memorie della Acca- 



demia Patavina di Scienze. Letter e ed Arti (Padua, 1964), vol. 34, 
pp. 286-290. 

. Johann Wolfgang Gelb of Ulm, 17th century clock and 

instrument maker. Physics (1964), vol. 6, pp. 245-258, 6 illustr. 
. Time and light, the history of combined utensils for lighting 



and timekeeping. La Suissee Horlogere (internat. ed.), (Winter 
1964), vol. 78, pp. 486-502; (Spring 1965), vol. 79, pp. 54-76. 
— . A Renaissance lapidary lathe. Technology and Culture (Summer 
1965), vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-9, 10 pis. 

The evolution of science museums. Technology and Culture 



(Winter 1965), vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-29, 2 figs. 
Berkebile, Donald H. The 1893 Duryea automobile. Paper 34 in 

Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National 

Museum Bulletin 240), pp. 1-28, 29 figs., 1964. 
Cannon, Walter F. History in depth: The early Victorian period. 

History of Science (1964), vol. 3, pp. 20-38. 
. The role of the Cambridge movement in early 19th century 

science. Pp. 317-320 in Proceedings of the 70th International Congress 

of the History of Science. Paris: Hermann, 1964. 
. The normative role of science in early Victorian thought. 



Journal of the History of Ideas (October-December 1964), vol. 25, 
no. 4, pp. 487-502. 

. Scientists and broad churchmen: An early Victorian intel- 
lectual network. Journal of British Studies (November 1964), vol.4, 
no. 1, pp. 65-88. 

William Whewell, F.R.S., Part II: Contributions to science 



and learning. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London (Decem- 
ber 1964), vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 176-191. 

Chapelle, Howard I. Fulton's "Steam Battery": Blockship and 
catamaran. Paper 39 in Contributions from the Museum of History 
and Technology (U.S. National Museum Bulletin 240), pp. 137-176, 
20 figs., 1964. 

Chipman, Robert A. The earliest electromagnetic instruments. 
Paper 38 in Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology 
(U.S. National Museum Bulletin 240), pp. 121-136, 8 figs., 1964. 

Farber, Eduard. History of phosphorus. Paper 40 in Contributions 
from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National Museum 
Bulletin 240), pp. 177-200, 23 figs., 1965. 

Ferguson, Eugene S., Edit. Early engineering reminiscences (1815-40) 
of George Escol Sellers. (U.S. National Museum Bulletin 238), 
203 pp., 83 figs., 1965. 



114 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 
. Technical museums and international exhibition. Tech- 



nology and Culture (Winter 1965), vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 30-46. 
Finn, Bernard S. The new technical museums. Museum News 

(November 1964), vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 22-26. 
. The science museum today. Technology and Culture (Winter 

1965), vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 74-82. 
Hamarneh, Sami K. Origin and functions of the hisbah system in 

Islam and its impact on the health professions. Sudhofs Archiv fur 

Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschqften (June 1964), vol. 48, 

no. 2, pp. 157-173. 
■ ■. The pharmacy museum at Krakow. American Journal of 

Hospital Pharmacy (June 1964), vol. 21, pp. 266-273, 12 illustr. 
. Bibliography on medicine and pharmacy in medieval Islam. 



Internationalen G e sell schaft fur Geschichte der Pharmazie (Stuttgart, 1 964), 

n.s., vol. 25, 184 pp., 5 illustr. 
. History of the division of medical sciences. Paper 43 in 

Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National 

Museum Bulletin 240), pp. 269-300, 24 figs., 1964. 
. Medicine U.S.A. . . . Damascus international fair. Journal 



of the American Pharmaceutical Association (January 1965), n.s., vol. 5, 
no. 1, pp. 28-29, 3 illustr. 

Surgical developments in medieval Arabic medicine. View- 



points (April 1965), vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 13-18, 6 illustr. 
Lenzen, Victor F., and Multhauf, Robert P. Development of 

gravity pendulums in the 19th century. Paper 44 in Contributions 

from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National Museum 

Bulletin 240), pp. 301-348, 34 figs., 1965. 
Multhauf, Robert P. The ancient natural philosopher as a chemist. 

Pp. 815-818 in Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of the 

History of Science. Paris: Hermann, 1964. 
— . Engineering in Philadelphia, 1775-1825: Pennsylvania's 

contributions to the professions. Pp. 60-67 in Proceedings of the 

Second Rose Hill Seminar. 1 964. 

A museum case history. Technology and Culture (Winter 1965), 



vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 47-58. 
Vogel, Robert M. Tunnel engineering, a museum treatment. 

Paper 41 in Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology 

(U.S. National Museum Bulletin 240), pp. 201-240, 44 figs., 1964. 
. The engineering contributions of Wendel Bollman. Paper 36 

in Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. 

National Museum Bulletin 240), pp. 77-104, 24 figs., 1964. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 115 
— . Smithsonian Institution opens a new hall of civil engineering. 



Civil Engineering (July 1964), pp. 84-85, 4 illustr. 

Assembling a new hall of civil engineering. Technology and 



Culture (Winter 1965), vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59-73, 9 figs. 

White, John H. The "Pioneer" — light passenger locomotive of 1851. 
Paper 42 in Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology 
(U.S. National Museum Bulletin 240), pp. 241-268, 30 figs., 1964. 

. Alexander Latta as a locomotive designer. Bulletin Cincin- 
nati Historical Society (April 1965), vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 128-135, 3 
illustr. 

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 

The new curator of agriculture and forest products, John T. Schle- 
becker, took up his duties on June 14, 1965. Since 1959 associate 
professor of history at Iowa State University, he is a member of the 
executive committee of the Agricultural History Society and an im- 
portant contributor to agricultural history studies. His History of 
Dairying in the United States 1607-1964 is in press, and he has in progress 
a much-needed general history of American agriculture. 

Paul V. Gardner spent six weeks in Europe examining 22 museum 
and private collections for the purpose of verifying attributions and 
preparing material for a definitive catalog of the unique collection of 
18th-century European porcelains received from Dr. Hans Syz. In 
the same connection and with the support and cooperation of the 
Ceramica Stiftung of Basel, Switzerland, arrangements were made by 
Dr. Syz for consultation in Washington with Dr. Rainer Ruckert, Ober- 
konservator of the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum, Munich, Germany, 
who spent the period April 19 through June 14, 1965, working with 
Dr. Syz and the staff on special problems. 

Dr. Syz, who on April 27, 1965, was appointed an honorary fellow 
of the Smithsonian Institution in recognition of his scholarly contri- 
butions to the history of ceramics, continues to spend several days every 
month on the project. 

Gardner, who has spent a major portion of his time revising the 
script for the new hall of ceramics to include the Syz collection, has 
nearly completed his biography of Frederick Carder, founder of Steuben 
Glass Works. While in Europe, he visited London and the English 
Midlands in search of material concerning Carder's early training and 
experience. J. Jefferson Miller II was also heavily involved in the 
revision of the hall of ceramics script to include recent important 



116 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

acquisitions in the Syz and Sutherland collections. He has contributed 
extensively to the material for the Syz catalog. 

Jacob Kainen continued his study of the Dutch engraver Hendrick 
Goltzius (1558-1617). 

Eugene Ostroff has developed a new technique to restore faded 
photographic images through neutron irradiation. This work, de- 
scribed on page 107, is the subject of a paper, "Early Fox Talbot 
Photographs and Restoration by Neutron Irradiation," to be published 
by the Journal of Photographic Science (London). Ostroff is continuing 
his research into Talbot's experimental procedures. As part of his 
investigation he examined four Talbot work diaries, and he uncovered 
a group of Talbot's photographic experiments which has been brought 
back to Washington for study. He also found what may prove to be 
the earliest negatives on a transparent flexible-base material. These 
photographs by Nevil S. Maskelyne were made, ca. 1860, on very thin 
sheets of mica. At the invitation of Beaumont Newhall, director of 
George Eastman House, Ostroff presented a paper describing this work 
at the Symposium on the History of Photography and served as modera- 
tor of a panel on the preservation of photographic materials. 

A project idea originated by Mr. Ostroff has resulted in a unique 
photograph of the United States. This consists of an unbroken aerial 
color photograph of the United States from the east to the west coast, 
and, as a result, the longest panoramic picture in the world was pro- 
duced. The project involved the cooperation of the United States 
Navy, North American Aviation, Chicago Aerial Industries, and Gen- 
eral Aniline and Film Corporation. 

Museum technician David Haberstitch, who joined the staff in 
November 1964, has investigated the history of the section of photogra- 
phy. His report concerning its establishment and early activities 
reveals that the Smithsonian Institution was probably the first museum 
in the United States to collect material related to the history of 
photography. 

Philip W. Bishop worked on studies of early drilling methods and has 
documented the procedure used by Colonel Drake in drilling the first 
commercial oil well. A study of depreciation methods and their 
influence on the process of innovation, especially during the period 
1870-1914, is also in progress. 

Research concerned with the preparation of scripts for the halls of 
nuclear energy, petroleum, iron and steel, and general manufacturing, 
has required continuous consultation with the technical staffs of in- 
dustrial firms and scientific laboratories and has resulted, incidentally, 
in a number of substantial gifts to the Museum. John N. Hoffman, 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 117 

who entered on duty July 12, 1964, as associate curator of manufac- 
tures and heavy industries, has developed a design for the hall of coal. 
He has begun a study of the significance of the canal in the develop- 
ment of Pennsylvania's coal resources in the early 1 9th century. 

Mrs. Grace Rogers Cooper continued her research on the spinning 
wheel and its use in America from the Colonial era through the 19th 
century. 

Rita J. Adrosko made progress in her work on American coverlets and 
began two short-term projects: one on Jacquard-woven silk pictures 
and Jacquard imitation tapestries, and the second on the use of natural 
dyes in 18th- and 19th-century American textiles. 

Museum specialist Doris M. Bowman located a number of excellent 
examples of early machine-made net of the late 18th and early 19th 
century for her study of that article. Her catalog of the Museum's 
excellent collection of sewing birds and similar clamping devices is also 
further advanced. 

Publications by the Staff 
July 1964 through June 1965 

Androsko, Rita J. Restoring an old loom. Handweaver and Craftsman 

(Summer 1964), vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 16-18, 4 figs. 
Cooper, Grace R. Sewing machines, unusual styles of the 1850's. 

Spinning Wheel (a national magazine about antiques), (July- August 

1964), vol. 20, nos. 7-8, pp. 20-21, 5 figs., cover illustr. 

. John Kay. In vol. 13 of Encyclopedia Britannica, 1965. 

. Moire. In vol. 15 of Encyclopedia Britannica, 1965. 

Miller, J. Jefferson ii. Transfer printed English earthenware for 

the American market. Apollo (January 1965), n.s., vol. 81, no. 35, 

pp. 46-50. 
. Early Meissen tea canisters. Country Life (Feb. 4, 1965), 

vol. 130, no. 3544, pp. 222-223. 
. Transfer printed American scenes on Staffordshire wares. 

In Annual Catalog of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Carriage House Antique 

Show (May 1965). 



CIVIL HISTORY 

Documentation of an important and extensive collection of over 
350 examples of American folk art, the Eleanor and Mabel Van 
Alstyne collection, which came to the museum in December, partly 



118 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

by gift and partly on loan from Mrs. Fred Dana Marsh of Woodstock, 
N.Y., was undertaken by Peter Welsh and Anne Castrodale. This 
collection includes rare examples of the late 1 8th century and extends 
to the early 20th century. Carved animals from carousels, circus 
wagon figures, and shop and tavern signs abound in the group, which 
also includes paintings, calligraphy, weathervanes, ships' ornaments, 
and small carved birds and animals. 

The original interior appearance and furnishings of the Smithsonian 
building have been the subject of an extensive research project ini- 
tiated by Richard H. Howland. In this he has been assisted by 
Rodris C. Roth. This nationally significant architectural landmark 
was designed in the 1840's by the noted architect James Ren wick, 
and the long-range plan of renovation is intended to produce an 
interior that is in harmony with the exterior, and yet can serve use- 
fully as offices and exhibit areas. The research is nearing completion : 
renovation of the Regents' room and the Secretary's offices has been 
completed to reflect the period of the third quarter of the 19th century, 
the epoch of Joseph Henry's secretaryship; and considerable work 
has already been accomplished on the renovation of the great hall, 
which will serve as an exhibit area and visitors' lounge. Welsh has 
collaborated in choosing for it exhibits that reflect the significant 
research accomplishments of the museums and major bureaus of the 
Smithsonian. 

Museum specialist Jay Scott Odell made two field trips to the south- 
ern Appalachian mountain country, primarily in Virginia and North 
Carolina, to search for American folk instruments for the collections 
and to record the present traditions of musical performance in those 
areas. 

Concerned with interrelated objectives of research and exhibits, 
C. Malcolm Watkins and Mrs. Joan Pearson Watkins, research col- 
laborator, during October sought a post-Gold Rush period ranch 
house kitchen in northern California to install in the Museum's hall of 
everyday life in the American past. One was found in a long-aban- 
doned house, built about 1862 at the foot of Mount Shasta, which 
exemplifies both the transfer of traditional Eastern folk concepts of 
farm-house architecture and the adaptation of design to new Western 
conditions. With the cooperation of George H. Watson, specialist 
in restoration of old structures, the house was thoroughly analyzed 
and measured, and its plans were drawn. Mrs. Watkins made a 
detailed photographic study of it, and interviewed descendants of the 
builder, a gold-miner-turned-rancher named George Washington 
Arbaugh, and others. 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS — ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 119 

Mr. Watkins is also engaged in research relative to a frame "salt 
box" house built in 1853 in Half Moon Bay, San Mateo County. 
Embodying ideas from 18th- and early 19th-century Eastern proto- 
types as well as adaptive features typical of California, the house is 
rich in implications of cultural transfer and cultural change. 

Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli published her Select Numismatic Bibli- 
ography, a compilation of 4962 titles, arranged by subject, that sum- 
marize research in numismatics during the past two centuries, including 
the study of medals and decorations, and a history of prices and related 
economic and historical problems. 

Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, in addition to his publications, gave two 
lectures, "The Future of United States Coinage" and "Historical 
Notes on Some Coinage Metals," that attracted wide press coverage 
because their themes touched on the impending shortage of silver for 
United States coinage. 

Publications by the Staff 
July 1964 through June 1965 

Borthwick, Doris E. Outfitting the United States Exploring Expe- 
dition: Lieutenant Charles Wilkes' European assignment, August- 
November, 1836. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 
(June 1965), vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 159-172, 7 illustr. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. Medallic art at the Cleveland convention: 
Exposition des medailles a la convention de Cleveland. Medailles 
(Paris, December 1964), vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 2-5. 

. Select numismatic bibliography, xiv, 406 pp. New York: 

Stack's, 1965. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir. A new quarter shekel of the first year 
of the Jewish war. Israel Numismatic Journal (1964), vol. 2, p. 7, 
pi. 6. 

. The future of United States coinage. Numismatist (1964), 

pp. 1673-1675; (1965), pp. 39-41. 

. The silver crisis in the United States coinage system. Central 

Economic Letter (Central National Bank of Cleveland, 1965), vol. 4, 
pp. 1-4. 

Collins, Herbert R. Political campaign torches. Paper 45 in 
Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National 
Museum Bulletin 241), pp. 1-44, 1964. 

. Red Cross ambulance of 1898. Paper 50 in Contributions 

from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National Museum 
Bulletin 241), pp. 165-176, 1965. 



120 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

Hoover, Cynthia Adams. The slide trumpet of the nineteenth 
century. Brass Quarterly (Summer 1963), vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 159-178, 
7 pis. 

Howland, Richard H., and Forbes, John D. The society of archi- 
tectural historians. Pp. 77-81 in Report of the Commission on the 
Humanities. New York: American Council of Learned Societies, 
1964. 

. What is past is prologue. Museum News (November 1964), 

vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 34-39. 

. Echoes of a gilded epoch. Arts in Virginia (Fall 1964), 



vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 2-9. 
Klapthor, Margaret Brown. Southern Maryland during the War 

of 1812. The Record (Quarterly Journal of the Historical Society 

of Charles City, Md., 1965), pp. 1-6. 
(ed. of historical text). The First Ladies' Cook Book: Favorite 

Recipes of all the Presidents of the United States. Pp. 1-224. New 

York, 1965. 
Melder, Keith E. Bryan the campaigner. Paper 46 in Contributions 
from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National Museum 

Bulletin 241), pp. 45-80, 1965. 
. The beginnings of the women's rights movement in the 

United States, 1800-1840. 500 pp. University Microfilms, 1965. 
Murray, Anne W. The elegant handkerchief. Antiques (June 1965), 

pp. 720-723. 
Roth, Rodris. The colonial revival and "centennial furniture." 

Art Quarterly (1964), vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 57-81, 24 figs. 
Scheele, Carl H. A new home for the Smithsonian's philatelic and 

postal history collections. Congress Book (Thirtieth American 

Philatelic Congress, 1964), pp. 11-14, 1 pi. 
■ . A philatelic new look at the Smithsonian. Society of Philatelic 

Americans Journal (September 1964), vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 13-18, 

3 figs. 

Philately and postal history at the Smithsonian Institution. 



Scandinavian Scribe (March 1965), vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 67-71. 
Washburn, Wilcomb E. A Roman sarcophagus in a museum of 

American history. Curator (December 1964), vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 

296-299. 

. [Introduction to facsimile edition of] History of the Indians of 

Connecticut from the earliest known period to 1850, by John W. De Forest, 
Archon Books, 1964 [20 pp.]. 
. Law and authority in Colonial Virginia. Pp. 116-135 in 

Law and Authority in Colonial America, edit. George A. Billias; Barre, 

Mass., 1965. 



. 




From this two-room frame house, built about 1862 by George Washington 
Arbaugh in Siskiyou County, California, came the western frontier ranch 
kitchen, shown below, which has been installed in the hall of everyday life 
in the American past. (See pp. 118, 138.) 





This faded photograph of a table setting, taken circa 1841 by W. H. F. Talbot 
of England, who in 1839 invented the photographic negative, was exposed 
to radiation in the pile at Brookhaven National Laboratories. 




When the treated original was then placed in contact with x-ray film, the 
radioactive isotopes of some image silver produced this picture. (See pp. 
107-108.) 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ARMED FORCES HISTORY 121 

— . Natural light and the museum of the future. AIA Journal 
(January 1965), vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 60-64. 
— . The museum and Joseph Henry. Curator (May 1965), vol. 8, 



no. 1, pp. 35-54. 

Welsh, Peter C. Tanning in the United States to 1850: A brief history. 
(U.S. National Museum Bulletin 242), 108 pp., 28 illustr., 1964. 

. The decorative appeal of hand tools. Antiques (February 

1965), vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 204-207, 15 illustr. 

. United States patents, 1790 to 1870. Paper 48 in Contribu- 
tions from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National 
Museum Bulletin 241), pp. 109-152, 57 illustr., 1965. 



ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

Underwater exploration, with its related activities, continued to be 
a major element in the program of Mendel L. Peterson. Research on 
the techniques of surveying and measuring underwater remains pro- 
ceeded on Bermuda sites. Three new instruments for measuring in 
plan and elevation were tested on the timber remains of a ship believed 
to be Spanish of the late 16th century. Their use is described in detail 
and illustrated on pages 105-106. 

Research on techniques of preserving organic materials recovered 
from underwater sites was continued with substantial results by museum 
specialist Alan B. Albright. The following investigations were carried 
on: 

1. The devising of a rapid method of dehydration, using heated 
alcohol. 

2. Tests using acetone as a dehydration agent. 

3. Experiments using various heat ranges in attempting to speed 
up the penetration of PEG 4000 in dehydrated wood. 

4. Experiments in the use of PEG 6000 in the place of PEG 4000 
where the greater inherent strength of the higher weight PEG would 
be useful in restoring very fragile organic objects. 

5. Research into the use of fiberglass resin as a wood preservative. 

6. Continued research in the problem of the preservation of iron 
recovered from under water; research into the use of high temperatures 
and wax impregnation under vacuum in an attempt to eliminate the 
long process involved in the use of electro-chemical baths. 

7. Restoration of ceramic materials. 

The results of these researches were published by Peterson this year in 
his History under the Sea: A Handbook for Underwater Exploration. 

789-427—66 18 



122 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

In the division of military history Edgar M. Howell and museum 
specialist Donald E. Kloster completed in draft the first volume of a 
comprehensive descriptive and critical catalog on United States Army 
dress to include uniforms, headgear, and footwear. In connection 
with this work, they actively assisted the Department of the Army in 
research which resulted in the adoption of a new-type headgear. 
Howell continued his work on contemporary graphics relating to the 
role of the Army in the opening of the West, publishing a second 
monograph on the subject. Kloster completed as partial requirement 
for the degree of master of arts a thesis, "The United States Uniform 
from 1832 to 1851, from Romance to Practicality." 

In the division of naval history Philip K. Lundeberg broadened his 
long-range study of modern commerce warfare, completing a survey of 
"The Impact of Undersea Warfare upon Allied Strategy during the 
First World War," which he presented at the annual convention of the 
American Historical Association. Delivered at a session sponsored by 
the American Military Institute on the influence of technology upon 
strategy in World War I, this paper re-examined the maritime con- 
flict in terms of the downfall of Imperial Russia, as well as Imperial 
Germany. Notwithstanding the fact that undersea operations utterly 
failed Germany, their most ardent protagonist during the First World 
War, submarine and mine warfare exerted a profound influence upon 
Great Britain's peripheral strategy, repeatedly frustrating her attempts 
to achieve effective maritime collaboration with her isolated eastern 
ally. 

Melvin H. Jackson continued his study of naval muzzle-loading 
ordnance of the 18th and 19th centuries. A field trip to Europe, which 
covered the coastal region from Sweden to Spain and included southern 
France and England, produced from naval museums and archives 
basic information which will enrich material contained in a manu- 
script on muzzle-loading ordnance prepared by the late Colonel 
Carey Tucker. At the Legersmuseum in Leiden, a series of 50 draw- 
ings concerning brass cannon founding in the 18th century was 
brought to Jackson's attention. These drawings by Pieter Verbruggen 
(who, with his father Jan, was master-founder of the Royal Brass 
Foundry at Woolwich, England, from 1770 to 1800) proved of such 
interest, from both the point of view of ordnance and the history of 
technology, that plans are under way for their publication. Jackson's 
manuscript "Caribbean Vortex, 1793-1801," a maritime history of the 
Wars of the French Revolution in the Caribbean was completed and is 
under consideration by a university press. His lecture at the Walter 
Library, University of Minnesota, Salt, Sugar and Slaves'. The Dutch in 



RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS ARMED FORCES HISTORY 123 

the Caribbean, was published by the Associates of the James Ford Bell 
Collection. 

Publications by the Staff 

July 1964 through June 1965 

Goins, Graddock R., Jr., Lorenzoni repeating system. P. 151 in 

Encyclopedia of Firearms, 1964. 
■ — ■. John H. Hall and Hall breech-loading arms. Pp. 157-158 in 

Encyclopedia of Firearms, 1964. 

— ■ . Edward Maynard. P. 218 in Encyclopedia of Firearms, 1964. 

— — — . Pump action. Pp. 249-250 in Encyclopedia of Firearms, 1964. 
— — ■ — . Repeating arms. Pp. 254-256 in Encyclopedia of Firearms, 



1964. 
Howell, Edgar M. A special artist in the Indian Wars. Montana, 

the Magazine of Western History (1965), vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 2-23, 23 pis. 
Jackson, Melvin H. Salt, sugar and slaves: The Dutch in the Caribbean 

(No. 2 in James Ford Bell Lectures). Minnesota: Associates of the 

James Ford Bell Collection, 1965. 
Peterson, Mendel L. History under the sea: A handbook for underwater 

exploration. Smithsonian Publication 4538, 108 pp., illustr., 1965. 
■. Preservation of material recovered from water. 20 pp. Washing- 
ton: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Division of Naval 

History, 1965. 
— ■ ■. The Spanish plate fleet. Pp. 162-169 in Proceedings of the 



Fifth Annual Convention of the Underwater Society of America. Mexico 
City, 1965. 



The Collections 
CARE AND CONSERVATION 

SPECIMENS ACCESSIONED, IDENTIFIED, AND DISTRIBUTED— 
FISCAL YEAR 1965 



Departments 

Science and Tech- 
nology .... 

Arts and Manu- 
factures .... 

Civil History . . 

Armed Forces His- 
tory 

Total . . . 



Accessions 
(transac- 
tions) 
1965 
(new) 

254 

266 

744 

128 

1,392 



Trans- Lent for 
J erred to study to 
Exchanged other Gov- investigators 
Received with other ernment and other Specimens 
on loan institutions agencies institutions identified 



2 
1,393 



1,398 





334 
50 



92 

181 
1,460 

22 



112 

1,150 
145,834 

950 



384 1,755 148,046 



SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

The receipt of a large collection often poses a problem in cataloging 
and documentation. Such collections sometimes come to the Museum 
because their processing has been beyond the capacity of other museums 
or private collectors. The extant records may be incomplete, and 
their rehabilitation and full documentation may require years. Three 
large collections were handled this year: the Hirsch collection of water 
meters (96 items), the Read collection of phonographs (93 items), and 
the Arthur collection of timekeeping devices (about 2600 items). 
Processing them called for a special effort in which summer interns and 
outside consultants assisted Deborah Mills in their cataloging. 

A program to make operable the majority of machines to be exhibited 
in the hall of heavy machinery was undertaken by William Henson 
and Marion Jarboe. The latter also began occasional demonstrations 
of the machine tools in the hall of tools. An alarm system devised by 
Elliot Sivo witch and Roy LaRoche of the division of electricity has 
been installed experimentally for the protection of several objects not 
cased. 

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 

A new technique for restoring faded photographs through neutron 
irradiation was devised by Eugene Ostroff (it is described in detail on 
page 107). A small selection of the most valuable photographs in the 
collection is now being treated by this method. 

124 



THE COLLECTIONS CARE AND CONSERVATION 125 

Museum specialist Elliott Hawkins continued a long-range program 
of increasing the collections of periodicals, monographs, and books 
devoted to motion pictures. 

The cleaning of George Washington's headquarters tent, a major 
conservation project, was jointly undertaken by the divisions of textiles 
and military history. With plans for its permanent exhibition, this 
Revolutionary War tent, which had been carefully stored for 75 years 
in the military history collections, was carefully examined. It was 
found basically in sturdy condition, but the metal hooks and eyes 
used to fasten the sidewalls to the top had rusted and had stained and 
deterioriated the linen fabric, leaving it in an acid condition. The 
tent was also mud stained and generally dusty. After consultation, it 
was decided that for safe preservation, the tent, of single ply, z-twist, 
plain-woven, unbleached linen, should be cleaned to neutralize the 
acid condition which is very harmful to cellulose fibers. 

Stretched out, the sidewalls measured 82 / 3 // long and between 6 '4" 
and 5'iy 4 " high. The top measured 34' by 20 '8" and was edged 
with a valance trimmed in a narrow woven red wool-twill tape of 2-ply, 
s-twist worsted yarns. Before work could be started, the 171 rusty 
hooks and eyes were removed to prevent further deterioration from 
rust. The tent parts were then protected with fiberglass screening 
and carefully vacuumed with a hand-type, low-suction vacuum cleaner 
to remove all loose dust and dirt. 

Although neutralized distilled water would have been preferred, 
the quantity required made it more economical to use de-ionized water 
with a non-ionic detergent. To handle the two portions of the tent, 
a wooden frame ll'x7' by 1" deep was constructed to support a con- 
tainer made of two layers of polyethylene sheets that could be clamped 
and undamped to the frame as required. 

The sidewall portion was folded into eight layers, placed on fiber- 
glass screening of suitable size, and lowered into a bath of 1 80 gallons of 
neutral, de-ionized water at room temperature, where it was soaked 
for 65 hours. This removed the large water-mark stains on the tent 
and some of the soil. Supported on the screen, the sidewall was re- 
moved from the bath, the soiled water pumped out, and the dirt film 
was wiped off and rinsed from the polyethylene bath liner, after which 
the bath was refilled with a wash solution consisting of % oz. of non- 
ionic detergent to each gallon of de-ionized water, the detergent 
first having been dissolved in beakers of water over low heat. When 
the entire bath was at room temperature, the sidewall was lowered into 
it and remained there for 3% hours. The only mechanical action used 
was a gentle pushing and smoothing movement by hand to eliminate 
air bubbles that formed between the layers of tent. After being re- 



126 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

moved from the detergent solution, the sidewall was rinsed four times. 
Each rinse solution was tested for pH, and the final reading was a very- 
satisfactory 7.1. 

After removal from the final rinse, the sidewall was allowed to drain 
on the screening until excess moisture was eliminated. It was then 
laid on a polyethylene film placed over a terrazzo floor and carefully 
smoothed flat while damp. The linen adhered to the plastic and 
dried smooth overnight. White absorbent towels, laid along the full 
length, took up excess moisture and protected the linen from dust. 
It was then rolled until the case was completed for exhibition. 

The top was treated in the same manner, except that, because of the 
shaped construction, it was dried on a frame stretched with fiberglass 
screening and supported two feet from the ground to allow a good 
circulation of air and to keep drying time at a minimum. At installa- 
tion it was lightly sprayed with distilled water and smoothed to the 
shape of its contour support structure. 

The entire project, under the general supervision of Mrs. Grace R. 
Cooper, was carried out by museum technician Maureen Collins of the 
textile laboratory, assisted by museum technician Lois Vann of the 
division of textiles and museum specialist Donald Kloster of the division 
of military history. 

CIVIL HISTORY 

A new, well-equipped conservation laboratory designed by museum 
specialist Jay Scott Odell, has facilities for the restoration of all types 
of musical instruments and includes a "go-bar deck," an adaptation of 
an 18th-century device for gluing bridges on harpsichord sound boards. 
With the completion of this laboratory, most of the restoration work 
can now be done at the museum under controlled conditions. Once 
the collections are in order, this shop will also be used for experiments 
in the building of modern reproductions of medieval, Renaissance, and 
Baroque instruments. 

Specially designed metal storage racks, installed for keyboard instru- 
ments, are cantilevered to allow for storage flexibility. The keyboard 
instruments, with their legs removed, are mounted on wooden pallets 
and lifted into place by a fork-lift truck. This system permits ready 
examination of the instruments, and is efficient enough to store a major 
portion of the Smithsonian's collection of more than 200 keyboard 
instruments. 

Under the guidance of museum technician Mrs. Betty J. Walters, 
considerable progress was made in assembling data on certain phases 
of the collections for use in a Termatrex data-retrieval system. Ulti- 
mately, it is expected that major portions of the collections, with their 



THE COLLECTIONS — GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 127 

associated catalog records, can be made useful in a variety of ways 
hitherto impossible by visual or manual means. 

More than 95 percent of the entire reference collection of philatelic 
items was moved from the old Arts and Industries building into the 
new museum within two days, and the move was completed without 
damage to any of the 9,800,000 specimens handled. 

ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

Experiments were begun to test the effectiveness of a commercial 
rust-inhibitor formula C.R.C., which appears to be most effective and 
requires less work than is presently required in applying a wax formula. 

GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 

SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL COLLECTIONS MAY 31, 1965 

Department of Science and Technology 84, 405 

Physical Sciences 4,453 

Mechanical and Civil Engineering 11,091 

Electricity 7, 333 

Transportation 25, 783 

Medical Sciences 35, 745 

Department of Arts and Manufactures 149, 808 

Textiles 35,172 

Ceramics and Glass 17, 157 

Graphic Arts 51,714 

Manufactures and Heavy Industries 35, 214 

Agriculture and Forest Products 10, 551 

Department of Civil History 10,196,735 

Political History 48,350 

Cultural History 23,688 

Philately and Postal History 9, 944, 937 

Numismatics 179, 760 

Department of Armed Forces History 53, 303 

Military 41,249 

Naval 12,054 

Total 10,484,251 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

A number of notable collections were acquired this year by the 
department of science and technology. Among them are the Arthur 
collection of timekeeping devices, the Read collection of phonographs, 
a rare early American woodworking shop, a collection of wood- 
carvings, and the "first generation" of communications satellites. 



128 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

The first, assembled by James Arthur, who also endowed the Arthur 
lectures at the Smithsonian, is especially remarkable for Japanese 
and early American clocks and for American watches. It was re- 
ceived on permanent loan from New York University. The Read 
collection was received from Oliver Read, co-author of the book 
From Tinfoil to Stereo. It contains such rarities as the Edison coin- 
operated phonograph of 1897, and it more than doubles the size of 
the Museum's phonograph collection. The woodworking shop, from 
Mansfield, Conn., contains an up-and-down sawmill, water turbines, 
and, among other machines, one of the earliest extant lathes with a 
completely intact automatic feed. It also contains a very important 
gage attachment for woodturning with handtools, which allows 
"automatic" sizing of the work. 

The wood carvings, gift of Joel Barlow, include a number of ship 
half-models, which augment our already strong collection, and also 
decorative ship carvings and figureheads, of which we have heretofore 
had very few. And in a highly successful example of systematic 
collecting of pioneer apparatus in a particular field, Bernard S. Finn 
succeeded in acquiring from five different donors, for a special ex- 
hibition of "communications in space," actual examples of the first 
eight communication satellites. 

Among the important individual specimens added to the collections 
were the following: 

A Chinese monumental equatorial sundial of the Ming dynasty. 
This instrument, 52 inches in height, is the only sundial of its type 
known to exist in the Western world. Its construction is of native 
copper gilded by the mercury process. The 25-inch dial is designed 
to be read on both sides, with the shadow marking the hours on the 
upper side during the summer months and on the lower side during 
the winter. 

The second ammonia-beam maser apparatus, designed in 1955 
by Charles Townes of Columbia University, a joint gift of Townes 
and the University. The maser is an outstanding development of 
20th-century quantum physics for which the inventor shared the Nobel 
Prize in 1964. 

An early American-made Schmidt telescope, built in the 1930's 
by C. A. and H. A. Lower of San Diego, Calif., was received from 
San Diego State College. 

A White Motor bus of 1917, received from the Baltimore Transit 
Co., the first commercial transit motor vehicle in the collection. 

A model, to the scale of 1" equals 1', of the famed "Louisville 
pumping engine," one of the masterpieces of Erasmus D. Leavitt, 
builder of the most efficient steam engines of the 19th century. Before 




Washing George Washington's headquarters tent (see pp. 125-126). Here 
the 82-foot sidewall is being rinsed. 




Sidewall is carefully smoothed onto polyethylene film for drying and is covered 
with towels to absorb excess moisture and to protect it from dust. 




Indian silhouette weathervane, one of many examples of American folk art in 
the Eleanor and Mabel Van Alstyne collection, gift of Mrs. Fred Dana 
Marsh. 



Chinese equatorial sundial, recently obtained for the national collections 
(see p. 128), is 52 inches high and measures 48 inches in overall length. 
The diameter of the dial is 25 inches. It is constructed of almost pure 
native copper assembled with wide dovetail joints, hammered into surface 
smoothness from the interior, and soldered. The decorative motifs are 
chiseled and engraved from the outside, and the whole is covered with 
heavy fire gilt. The dial is read on both sides — on the upper surface during 
summer and on the lower surface during winter. 




Early 1 5-passenger motor bus with solid-rubber tires, gift of Baltimore Transit 
Co., was built in 1917 by the White Motor Company. The body was made 
by J. G. Brill, the famous streetcar builder. Below: Bow view of model of 
the United States revenue cutter Bear, as she appeared in the late 19th 
century, acquired for new hall of naval history. 




. 




THE COLLECTIONS — GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 129 

the original engine was scrapped jin 1 962, this fully operating model 
was begun by the builder and donor, Mr. Harry H. Catching of 
Lexington, Ky. 

A model of Columbus' flagship of 1492, Santa Maria, constructed 
at the Museo Maritimo in Barcelona, under the supervision of its 
director, Jose Ma. Martinez-Hidalgo y Teran. This model, presented 
by Lawrence H. M. Vine burgh, was built in connection with the 
full -sized reconstruction of the Santa Maria for the New York World's 
Fair. The project was directed by Sr. Hidalgo, as the leading authority 
on the ships of Columbus, with the advisory participation of Howard I. 
Chapelle. 

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 

With the cooperation of the Fine Hardwoods Association and 
specialist manufacturers some 200 panels of foreign and domestic 
woods were presented for incorporation into a decorative screen, 
designed by the exhibits laboratory, that will provide the hall of forest 
products with an encyclopedic account of available timbers. For the 
agriculture collections a fine contemporary model of the first field 
pick-up hay baler (1932) was received from Mr. Leslie R. Tallman, 
son of the inventor. 

The ceramics collections continued to receive support from previous 
donors, notably Mrs. William A. Sutherland and Robert H. McCauley. 
Dr. Hans Syz formally donated 16 extremely valuable items of that 
part of his collection still on loan to the Museum. Other major gifts 
were those of Dr. Lloyd Hawes who presented 23 pieces of 18th- 
century English earthenware, including some excellent examples of 
polychrome salt glaze; and of Mr. and Mrs. Edward M. Pfiueger, 
whose gift included an extremely fine pair of Chinoiserie busts from 
the Bow Factory (ca. 1755). 

The Holmegaards Glasvaerk of Denmark and the N. V. Koninklijke 
Nederlandsche Glasfabriek "Leerdam" of Holland added to the 
collections of contemporary glass some fine pieces which it was possible 
to include in the present exhibition area. Ray Winfield Smith's 
collection of ancient glass was lent to the Museum for installation in 
the glass gallery in September 1964, and during the year ten pieces 
from this collection were acquired. 

A splendid set of 31 Venetian views by Antonio Canal (1697-1768), 
commonly called Canaletto, constituting the entire body of his etchings, 
was received from Mrs. Francis P. Garvan of New York City. Among 
other important acquisitions were outstanding examples of German 
Expressionist printmaking including work by Max Beckmann, Ernst 

789-427—66 20 



130 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

Ludwig Kirchner, Erich Heckel, Franz Marc, and Max Pechstein; 
one of the earliest known lithographs Landscape with Men in Armor 
(1803) by Joseph Fischer; and the aquatint Green Clown with Boy 
by Georges Rouault. American contributions were represented by the 
etching Woolworth Tower (1913) by the pioneer modernist John Marin, 
and the color woodcut View from Taormina by Carol Summers. 

The A. B. Dick Company of Chicago presented an early model (ca. 
1885) of the Edison mimeograph, an important pioneer example of 
duplicating equipment. 

To the collection of historic photographic equipment were added 
the first Polaroid-Land camera to be produced (1948); a prototype of 
the first Leica camera, invented by Osker Barnack (1912) and marketed 
by Leitz in 1924; and two examples of the Technicolor Corporation's 
3-step color motion-picture cameras associated with the introduction 
of high-quality color motion pictures in 1930. 

Colonel and Mrs. Burnett Brown of Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, the 
home of W. H. F. Talbot, gave a rare copy of Part VI (April 1846) 
of the latter's publication The Pencil of Nature, the first book to be 
illustrated with photographs. 

Dr. Zoltan Bay of the National Bureau of Standards deposited the 
original electron-multiplier developed by him (1938) at the Institute 
of Atomic Physics of the Royal Hungarian University, Budapest. 
This apparatus, to be included in the hall of nuclear energy, repre- 
sented a turning point in the development of instruments for counting 
elementary particles. An equally critical stage in the study of nuclear 
physics is represented by the million-volt Van de Graaff accelerator 
(1931) given by Merle A. Tuve of the Carnegie Institution's Division 
of Terrestrial Magnetism. Among other achievements, this machine 
brought protons close enough to atomic nuclei to overwhelm the inher- 
ent electrical repulsion, and so demonstrated the existence of the short- 
range nuclear force. Pioneer work among elementary particles was 
commemorated by Professor Conversi of the Universita degli Studi, 
Rome, Italy, in the form of a replica of his experiment with Piccioni 
and others (1941-1943) demonstrating the noncapture of mu mesons. 

A number of substantial gifts were received from industry for the 
iron and steel hall. Ford Motor Company Fund and U.S. Steel 
Corporation are supporting the construction of large models of a 
foundry and of an integrated steel plant, respectively. The Allis- 
Chalmers Company gave a model of a pelletizing plant, Bausch and 
Lomb a bench metallograph, and the Tinius Olsen Company a display 
of hardness-testing equipment. 

The coal industry contributed a variety of miners' tools, while a 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 131 

further portion of a collection of tinware, previously on loan, was 
converted to a gift. 

Plans for the hall of petroleum were virtually completed by agreement 
with the engineers of various firms for demonstrations of oil production 
techniques to accompany the actual machinery. A group of oil men 
in and around Tulsa, Okla., have contributed, through Mr. W. H. 
Helmerich, a 57-foot mural describing the oil industry. This mural, 
now being painted by Mr. Delbert Jackson, staff artist of the Pan 
American Petroleum Corporation, will embellish the entrance to the 
hall of petroleum. 

The Austrian Imperial bridal veil, an outstanding example of Brus- 
sels Point de Gaze lace, was presented to the textile collections by Mrs. 
Marjorie Merriweather Post. The veil was worn by Princess Stephanie 
of Belgium for her wedding to Crown Prince Rudolph in 1881. Scat- 
tered over the Brussels needlepoint reseau, sheerest of all lace grounds, 
are garlands and sprays of ferns and flowers of many kinds. The crown 
of the veil is powdered with tiny rosebuds, while the double-headed 
eagle of Austria dominates the center back. The arms of the provinces 
of Austria and Belgium form the border, with the arms of Belgium at 
the center. 

Also added to the textile collections were nine fragments of Egyptian 
tapestry-woven fabric, woven between the third and eighth centuries, 
A.D. These interesting examples of early tapestry-weaving technique 
will be incorporated into the expanded area of tapestry weaving in 
the new textile hall. 

CIVIL HISTORY 

The collections were enriched in a variety of ways. The Honorable 
David K. E. Bruce presented numerous objects of French and English 
decorative arts and furniture. Mrs. Gustave A. Murman gave the 
woodwork of a Federal-period parlor from a house in Martha's Vine- 
yard, Mass. This room is remarkable for the primitive landscape 
painting that appears in an oval cartouche in the rectangular over- 
mantel panel above the fireplace. The room, with contemporary 
furniture, will be installed in the hall of everyday life in the American 
past. It was moved from its site by the Museum's restoration specialist, 
George H. Watson. The Eleanor and Mabel Van Alstyne collection, 
containing outstanding examples of folk art of the United States, was 
given by Mrs. Fred Dana Marsh. In addition to the kitchen of the 
George Washington Arbaugh ranch house in Siskiyou County, Calif., 
discovery of which is described on pages 118 and 138, the collections of 



132 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

Californiana were greatly enriched by a unique figure of a hunter, 
carved of redwood, holding a gun in one hand and a partridge in the 
other. The wheeled platform on which it stands and its costume both 
confirm the traditional belief that it was carved, in about 1850, as a 
sign for a gun shop in San Jose. 

A handsome bass viola da gamba was acquired for the collection of 
musical instruments. This fine instrument, made in London, 1718, by 
Barak Norman, who is regarded as the Stradivarius of the viola da 
gamba, is richly carved with floral designs and an elaborate monogram 
on the back and sides. A carved male figure appears on the head. In 
excellent condition, this instrument, when not in use in Museum 
concerts, will be on exhibit. 

At a ceremony on December 18, 1964, Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 
contributed to the First Ladies collection a most significant addition, 
the satin evening dress worn by her at a state dinner at the White 
House in December 1964. Presented by Mrs. Gladys P. Lehmann 
was one of a group of 188 arm chairs ordered in 1818 by Henry Clay 
and used in the United States House of Representatives until 1857. 
The chair, upholstered in its original black horsehair, bears the label of 
the maker, T. Constantine and Company of New York City. The 
Honorable John W. McCormack, Speaker of the House, presented the 
Museum with the flag flown at the Capitol during the time the body of 
President Kennedy was lying in state. 

Among the pieces of unusually fine jewelry given by Mrs. Merri- 
weather Post are a necklace of diamonds and oriental emeralds and a 
ring set with a large oblong emerald. Her daughter, Mme. Leon Barzin, 
gave a pair of pear-shaped diamond earrings once owned by Marie 
Antionette; another daughter, Mrs. Augustus Riggs IV, presented a 
seed-pearl bag with platinum frame set with rubies, emeralds, and 
sapphires. 

Remarkable during the past year was the increased number of 
institutions and private individuals from abroad contributing to the 
growth of the numismatic collections. Among them were the Hermit- 
age in Leningrad; the mints of Australia, the Netherlands, Norway, 
Nationalist China, and Pakistan; the banks of Guatemala, New Zea- 
land, and Venezuela; the Deutsche Bundesbank; the Bayerische 
Hypotheken- und Wechsel-Bank; the Australian Numismatic Society; 
as well as engravers and medallic art companies from Denmark and 
Italy. Frederick Hauck donated an impressive collection of 2478 gold 
coins, among them 1918 United States pieces which filled many gaps 
in the branch-mint issues in the national collections, and 560 foreign 
gold and platinum coins as well as medals encompassing the entire 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 133 

world. Other additions to the United States series came from Mrs. 
F. G. C. Boyd, who gave 934 United States tokens and medalets. 

From the Stack family in New York came many donations, among 
which should be noted particularly a group of trial impressions of 
United States coins and pay orders signed in 1795 by David Ritten- 
house, first Director of the United States Mint. Mr. Willis H. du Pont 
added to his previous gifts of Russian coins, formerly owned by the 
Grand Duke G. Mikhailovitch, a group of 923 coins and medals in 
silver and bronze encompassing the period from Catherine II to 
Alexander I. Mrs. Wayte Raymond contributed over 2000 foreign 
coins struck during the 19th and 20th centuries. A well-rounded 
collection of coins of Nepal from the 1 7th through the 20th century was 
presented by Mr. Paul W. Rose. 

Outstanding among the philatelic objects acquired is a unique cover 
and its enclosure, carried by John Wise in his balloon Jupiter, August 
17, 1859, from Lafayette, Ind., on the first attempt to carry American 
mail by air under authority of postal officials. The cover was pur- 
chased through the Charles and Rosanna Batchelor fund and the 
Milton A. Holmes Memorial fund. A specialized collection of 2392 
stamps of various nations commemorating Rotary International was 
received from Dr. Joseph H. Kler of New Brunswick, N.J. Portions 
of this collection, important for its scope and completeness, were 
exhibited at a special ceremony in Washington, D.C., held to observe 
the issuance of new Rotary commemorative stamps by the Republic 
of China. An additional 80,000 postage stamps, with perforated 
initials, were given by Mr. and Mrs. Victor J. Van Lint of Riverside, 
Calif., and additional essays, proofs, and photographs of the stamps of 
China were given by Mr. and Mrs. R. O. D. Hopkins of Contoocook, 
N.H. 

ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

Significant additions to the national collection of historic warship 
models, being installed by the division of naval history in the new hall 
of armed forces history, include an attractive admiralty-style model 
of the 44-gun H.M.S. Boston, a vessel constructed for the Royal 
Navy in 1748 by Yankee shipwrights; a superb model of the United 
States Revenue cutter Bear, representing that historic vessel under sail 
during her late 19th-century service in Alaskan waters; and impressive 
models of the nuclear submarine George Washington, the nuclear frigate 
Bainbridge, and the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Vigilant. 

A remarkable group of maps and nautical charts, located at Ellicott 
City, Md., by Philip K. Lundeberg, includes an early hydrographic 



134 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

survey (ca. 1828) of the harbor of Annapolis, Md.; pre-construction 
maps of the proposed Chesapeake and Potomac Canal and the Erie 
Canal; early 19th-century nautical charts of North American waters, 
retailed by Edmund Blunt; and, most significant for the history of 
exploration, a series of four manuscript charts of the southern coast of 
South America prepared during the Malaspina Expedition, an official 
survey conducted by the Spanish Navy in that quarter from 1798 to 
1799. 

The Medal of Honor and other decorations, orders, and service 
medals awarded Major George G. McMurtry for conspicuous gallantry 
in action with the "Lost Battalion" in World War I were presented by 
Mrs. McMurtry. The Medal of Honor is the only example of this 
unique decoration from the modern period, during which it has been 
rarely awarded, in the national collections. From the Patent Office 
came an important group of ordnance patent models that supplement 
the already extensive and unique collection in the division of military 
history. A rare Confederate cutlass was received from Douglas 
R. Williams. 

The collections of materials from underwater sites were increased 
substantially during the year through field activity in Bermuda during 
July and August 1965. A large collection of sherds from the Spanish 
site, believed to be late 16th century, were acquired. From these frag- 
ments some 1 5 individual shapes of redware pottery probably can be 
reconstructed. A significant collection of ordnance materials recov- 
ered from the site of VHerminie, a. French frigate which sank in 1838, 
includes a device which may be a pill-lock firing mechanism for the 
heavy guns. If this identification proves to be correct, the device will 
be a very rare specimen, as this type of lock was transitional and in use 
for only a brief period. 

An early 18th-century iron naval cannon came to the collections as a 
gift from the DACOR Corporation through its vice president, Mr. 
D. L. Davison. This piece was recovered from a site, as yet unidentified, 
lying on Banner Reef south of Jamaica, West Indies. 



Exhibits 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

Two major exhibition halls were opened in their entirety, and two 
others in part. The hall of civil engineering was dedicated on July 8, 
1964, and the hall of American merchant shipping, on November 12, 
1964. In September 1964, the refrigeration and diesel sections of 
the hall of heavy machinery were opened, and in February 1965, 
that portion of the hall of electricity representing communications, 
power, and electrical measurement. 

The division of electricity undertook a notable program of special 
exhibitions. In July 1964, the exhibition "Communications in Space" 
brought before the Museum's visitors the story of communications 
satellites from its beginning in 1958. The exhibit is based upon 
eight operable satellites received from the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Co. (Telstar I), National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration (Echo I, Relay I, and Syncom II), Department of the Army 
(Score and Courier), U.S. Air Force and the Lincoln Laboratory of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Westford), and the American 
Radio Relay League (Oscar). The exhibit is completed by an ani- 
mated diorama illustrating the variety of modern communications 
systems and by an exhibit relating to the Satellite Communications 
Corporation. For this exhibit, which is scheduled for a 2-year showing, 
an illustrated brochure was prepared. 

Special exhibits were opened on the history of electrical transformers, 
on early modern scientific instruments, and on the Verrazano-Narrows 
bridge. The exhibit of transformers, in October 1964, was occasioned 
by the loan of two historic transformers of 1885 by the Budapest 
Historical Museum. Through the courtesy of the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment Peter Asztalos of the Ganz Electrical Works of Budapest 
presented two lectures here in connection with this exhibit. The 
exhibit of early modern instruments consisted of a collection, chiefly of 
17th- and 18th-century instruments, owned by David H. H. Felix 
of Philadelphia. 

A showing in March and April 1965 of 43 drawings and paintings 
by Lili Rethi recorded the construction of the Verrazano-Narrows 
bridge, 1961-65. Also shown in March 1965 was a collection of 
prints from the civil engineering collections, to be circulated by the 
Smithsonian traveling exhibition service. 



135 



136 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 

In September the halls of hand and photomechanical graphic-arts 
processes were opened. To the collections and exhibits transferred 
from the old building were added new cases and redesigned displays, 
among them a handsome free-standing installation of the diorama on 
Japanese woodcutting. The first special exhibition, "Sporting and 
Western Lithographs by Currier & Ives," was shown in the special 
exhibition hall, April through May 1965. The exhibit of photographs 
by Sam Falk, installed June 1964 in the exhibit hall in the Arts and 
Industries building, was extended through the year. 

Installation of the Tuve Van de Graaff accelerator in the hall of 
nuclear energy was virtually completed. This machine was dismantled 
at the division of terrestrial magnetism of the Carnegie Institution 
under the supervision of M. A. Tuve and Louis Brown. The supporting 
columns were redesigned by the staff. The reinstallation by exhibits 
specialist Abraham Richards and museum technicians John Carter 
and Francis Gadson has required meticulous measurements and the 
fitting of a complicated mass of instrumentation in an area difficult 
of access. 

Plans were advanced for extension of the demonstration program of 
the division of textiles to include spinning as well as weaving. In 
January demonstrations of tapestry weaving started on an experimental 
basis in the Arts and Industries building. These "live" exhibits, even 
on their present limited scale, continue to draw local residents as 
well as tourists, who actively participate by asking questions. 

Examples of contemporary and 19th-century hand-weaving and 
needlework were lent to the Instituto de Cultura Hispanica for a 
special exhibition in Madrid, "Arte Popular de America y Filipanas." In- 
cluded were a 20th-century afghan, poncho, stole, guest towel, and 
overshot coverlet, as well as a 19th-century overshot coverlet, a silk 
slumber throw of 1883, and an applique album quilt of 1847. 

Preparation for the reopening of the textile hall in the Museum of 
History and Technology is under way. One area of the new hall 
will be reserved for special changing exhibits drawn from the collections 
and from temporary loans. 

Part of the glass gallery was opened September 18, 1964. A special 
exhibition of 65 contemporary glass objects chosen by the curator and 
given by Leerdam factory in Holland is being installed in it. The 
opening of the ceramic hall, in production throughout the year, is 
scheduled for early spring, 1966. 

The popular beehive unfortunately had to be closed down during 




Gallery of glass, opened October 1964. traces the history of glassmaking from 
about 1500 B.C. to the present. 





Installing the Tuve Van de Graaff accelerator in the future hall of nuclear 

energy. 




History of the posts exhibit in newly opened hall of philately and postal history, 
Museum of History and Technology. Below: Transportation of the mails 
exhibit. 





Die transfer press, used by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing for the 
preparation of printing plates, is exhibited in the stamp production section. 
Below: Country-store post office of about 1880, furnished with original 
equipment, is a principal exhibit in the new hall. 





Nineteenth-century screw coining press in the new hall of monetary history 
and medallic art. This type of press, known as early as the 16th century, 
was widely used between 1700 and 1830. In the background, display of 
United States coins. Below: The Honorable John W. Snyder, former 
Secretary of the Treasury, and Director of the Mint Eva Adams examine 
display of currencies circulated in Colonial America. 




EXHIBITS 137 

the winter because the colony proved too small for survival. It is 
hoped to modify the hive and install a larger colony during the current 
season. 

CIVIL HISTORY 

The numismatic displays in the Arts and Industries building were 
moved to the new Museum of History and Technology, where the hall 
of numismatics was opened Friday, October 23, 1964. While the 
layout differs in many respects from that previously used, the general 
character of the exhibit remains the same. The exhibits trace the 
evolution of money within a sequence of significant historical events 
and show it as an integral part of the cultural development of human 
society. Additional features are the world's largest collection of gold 
coins on display and the famous United States Mint collection, which 
had its inception in the late 18th century. 

Among the special numismatic displays were "The Kennedy Half 
Dollar," with original mint models and designs made available by the 
United States Mint; "The Austrian Empire and Its Currencies," an 
historical exhibit made possible by a recent donation from Mortimer 
and Anna Neinken; and "A Selection of Contemporary Artistic Medals 
from Europe," featuring prominent artists from France, Germany, 
Greece, and Italy. 

The Reifenberg collection, illustrating Israel's ancient history through 
its coins, was displayed from November 1964 through January 1965. 
Starting with two exceedingly rare pieces struck in Judaea under 
Persian rule, the exhibit, featuring a virtually complete series of ancient 
Judaean coins, was made possible through the cooperation of Mrs. 
Esther Reifenberg of Jerusalem, and Mr. M. Avida, Director, Cultural 
Relations Department of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem, 
Israel. 

A temporary display, arranged through the courtesy of the Argentina 
Mint, illustrated coins and paper currencies of Argentina and included 
master hubs for the silver peso of 1881, Argentina's first national coin; 
the original model for the Liberty-head appearing on many of its 
coins; a wooden block for the 1000-peso banknote — the first issue made 
at the Buenos Aires Mint in 1889; as well as color proofs for projects 
of banknotes. 

The first international numismatic display ever held in the United 
States was organized by V. Clain-Stefanelli in August 1964, on the 
occasion of the convention of the American Numismatic Association 
in Cleveland. The displays from 20 countries represented contribu- 
tions from 41 exhibitors. 



138 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 — MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

The hall of philately and postal history was opened September 18, 
1964, after ceremonies at which more than 500 guests were addressed 
by assistant postmaster general Ralph Nicholson and James Conlon, 
chief, currency and stamp manufacturing, Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing. The new exhibits include more than 70 major units dealing 
with the history of the world's posts, United States stamp production, 
transportation of the mails, United States and foreign postal stationery, 
and the history of revenue stamps and stamped paper. Among them 
are a comprehensive selection of stamps of the world from the national 
collection, exhibited in 473 pull-out frames; the re-creation of a country- 
store post office, ca. 1880, furnished with original equipment and fix- 
tures; 15th- and 16th-century correspondence carried by the posts of 
the Republic of Venice; papyrus letters from Egypt; and a cover with its 
enclosure, carried by John Wise in his balloon Jupiter in 1859 from 
Lafayette, Ind., on the first attempt to transport mail by air under 
authorization of postal officials. The new hall, developed under 
former curators George T. Turner and Francis J. McCall and the pres- 
ent associate curator in charge, Carl H. Scheele, is the only permanent 
exhibition in the United States which presents a comprehensive and 
large-scale survey of postal history and stamp production. 

A special exhibition of stamps from the Federal Republic of West 
Germany was opened in April 1965 by His Excellency Heinrich 
Knappstein, the German Ambassador. Postal issues of the recent 
post-war period displayed included stamps honoring the late John F. 
Kennedy and the German resistance to the Nazis during World War II. 

Inclusion of a California post-gold-rush ranch- house kitchen in the hall 
of every day life in the American past became possible when an appro- 
priate room was found in Siskiyou County, Calif. Remarkable for never 
having been disturbed since it was constructed about 1862, and for 
bearing its original blue paint, the kitchen of tongue-and-groove 
boards was dismantled by George H. Watson, specialist in the restora- 
tion of old structures, and his assistant, Charles H. Rowell. Not only 
was the interior woodwork removed, but also the peeled cedar post 
rafters and pine roofers from the roof overhead and the heavy pine 
floor joists and stone piers supporting them. All were reconstructed in 
the exhibit hall by Watson and his crew so that the visitor views the 
room with its structure above and below, as though looking into a 
cross-section of the house. The kitchen is equipped with furnishings 
and utensils of the period collected in California and originally used 
there. On the other side of the kitchen is a temporary exhibit, "The 
Chinese in California," and nearby are prints and paintings lent by 
Joan Pearson Watkins. The kitchen and its associated exhibits, con- 



EXHIBITS 139 

ceived and planned by C. Malcolm Watkins, were opened on May 7, 
1965, with a ceremony and reception sponsored jointly by the Cali- 
fornia State Society of D.C. and the Smithsonian. For this occasion, 
the historic gold nugget found by James Marshall at Sutter's Mill, 
which inspired the great California gold rush, was specially exhibited. 

An exhibit of furniture from the Surrender Room of the McLean 
House at Appomattox, Va., marked the 100th anniversary of the 
surrender on April 9, 1865. An exhibition, opened May 29, 1965, 
marking the 200th anniversary of the Virginia Resolves against the 
Stamp Act, includes sections on the passage of the Stamp Act, the 
colonial reaction to it, and its eventual repeal. The exhibit will con- 
tinue into the bicentennial years of these events, through 1965 into 
1966. 

"The Victorian American," a temporary exhibit of prints from the 
Harry T. Peters lithography collection, was organized by Peter C. 
Welsh to illustrate the national character of Americans during the 
Victorian era. 

ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

Completion of exhibits for the armed forces halls has occupied the 
entire staff of the department. 

The preparation of General George Washington's headquarters tent, 
a unique specimen in an excellent state of preservation, considering its 
age, proved an unusual and exacting task (cleaning, repairing, and 
preparing the tent itself for exhibition are described on p. 125). An 
undertent of unchemically treated linen was constructed and mounted 
over a chemically inert metal frame. The original tent was then placed 
over the whole with no resultant stress on any seams or fibers. One 
end of the tent was opened to present a period-room display using con- 
temporary camp furniture and objects. The whole was enclosed in a 
glass case. 

Completion of the extensive exhibit of the Continental gondola 
Philadelphia marked a memorable stage in the long history of that re- 
markable relic of the American Revolution. A system of ramps and 
protective railings enables visitors to view this heavily armed gunboat 
from all elevations, while ensuring her physical security. Nearby are 
cases of artifacts recovered from the Philadelphia site on Lake Champlain, 
as well as a series of maps illustrating Benedict Arnold's Northern Cam- 
paign of 1776, in which this historic man-of-war served. 



Visitor Services 

An important and extensive program for utilizing the Museum's 
ancient instruments in a series of concerts was initiated by Mrs. Cynthia 
Adams Hoover. In these activities she has been assisted by museum 
specialist Jay Scott Odell. 

Winter concert activities included a program of music of the 1860's 
played on brass instruments of that period from the collections. The 
musical arrangements were taken directly from the band books of the 
Third New Hampshire Regiment of the period (at popular request, 
this music was played again in a concert on the Mall). The English 
Consort of Viols played at the Smithsonian in November. The con- 
cert by Frans Brueggen, recorder, and Gustav Leonhardt, playing on 
the Museum's restored 1745 Dulcken harpsichord, was considered by 
local music critics as one of the highlights of the Washington musical 
year. In December, the Smithsonian and the Library of Congress 
were hosts to the national meetings of the American Musicological 
Society and the College Music Society, for which a concert featuring 
Carissimi's Oratorio "Jonas" was arranged. 

Music on the Mall was initiated in May on the Museum's terrace 
with the National Symphony Orchestra. The Honorable Adlai Steven- 
son, Ambassador to the United Nations, narrated Aaron Copland's 
"Lincoln Portrait," and the young pianist Andre Watts played Saint- 
Saens' Concerto No. 2. Tower music was a weekly feature in summer. 
Played by five wind musicians from the top of the north portico of the 
Renwick-designed Smithsonian building, it began the summer Tuesday 
evening music series in early June. These new developments have 
materially changed the atmosphere of the Mall lying between the 
Smithsonian's buildings. Mrs. Hoover collaborated in the extensive 
research leading to the design and construction of a new music platform 
and background shell for the outdoor concerts on the terrace. 

Several lectures and forums were sponsored in the department of 
civil history. Stella Mary Newton, advisor to the restoration depart- 
ment of the National Gallery, London, gave a lecture "Social Impli- 
cations in the Costumes in Hogarth's Paintings." John Harris, keeper 
of drawings of the Royal Institute of British Architects, lectured on 
"William Kent." Scott Symons, formerly assistant-curator-in-charge 
of the Canadiana collections, The Royal Ontario Museum, lectured 
publicly on "French Canadiana Versus the American Dream" and 
gave an intramuseum seminar on the same subject. (Mr. Symons also 
spent three weeks in residence as a visiting scholar studying the 
Museum's furniture collections.) 

140 



VISITOR SERVICES 141 

In association with the Naval Historical Foundation, the division 
of naval history inaugurated an annual series of lectures on naval and 
maritime history. In November 1964, the noted German naval 
historian Vizeadmiral Friedrich C. Ruge presented an illustrated 
lecture, "Rommel and the Invasion of Western Europe, 1944," before 
a capacity audience of military and naval historians. As former 
naval advisor to the colorful field marshal, Ruge described Rommel's 
dogged but unsuccessful efforts to concentrate German armored 
strength on the Normandy coast on the eve of Operation "Overlord." 
In March 1965, the division again joined with the Foundation in 
sponsoring a lecture, "The Defense of Trade in World Wars I and 
II," by the distinguished British historian, Captain Stephen W. Roskill, 
R.N. Drawing not only upon his voluminous official history, The 
War at Sea, but also on his recent researches on British naval policy 
between the wars, Roskill analyzed the nigh-disastrous Allied under- 
estimation of a renewed U-boat threat in 1939 and presented a critical 
evaluation of the role once again played by the convoy system in 
safeguarding Allied sea communications. 



International Exchange Service 




International Exchange Service 
J. A. Collins, Chief 

The original plan of organization of the Smithsonian Institution 
provided for a system of exchange of current publications which would 
afford the Smithsonian Institution the most ready means of entering 
into friendly relations and correspondence with all the learned societies 
in the world and of enriching the Smithsonian library with the current 
transactions and proceedings of foreign institutions. 

When the first of the Smithsonian's long series of scientific publica- 
tions was issued, copies were sent to scientific and learned institutions 
abroad. In return, the Smithsonian Institution received many 
valuable publications from foreign institutions. To continue this de- 
sirable international exchange of scientific information, the Smithso- 
nian Institution appointed agents in a number of foreign countries to 
distribute the publications received from the Smithsonian Institution 
and to forward to the Smithsonian Institution the publications received 
from the foreign institutions. 

In 1851 the privilege of transmitting publications through the 
Smithsonian Institution to other countries, and of receiving publica- 
tions from foreign institutions in return, was extended to other insti- 
tutions in the United States. This opportunity to distribute their 
publications abroad was eagerly accepted and the system grew so 
rapidly that today most Government agencies, many universities, 
and scientific organizations representing every State in the Union 
utilize the International Exchange Service. 

Among the many colleges and universities transmitting publications 
through the Service during the past fiscal year were the following: 
University of California, Columbia University, Cornell University, 
Harvard College, University of Illinois, Indiana University, University 
of Kansas, University of Michigan, University of Oregon, University 
of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, University of Texas, University 
of Virginia, and Yale University. 

In fiscal year 1965, the International Exchange Service received for 
transmission 989,779 pounds of publications from foreign and domestic 
sources. This was a slight decrease from the preceding year. Of the 
amount received, 115,537 pounds were from foreign sources for dis- 
tribution to addressees in the United States. A strike of the long- 
shoremen on the east coast of the United States affected the operation 

145 

789-427—66 21 



146 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



THE NUMBER AND WEIGHT OF PACKAGES RECEIVED FROM 
FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC SOURCES FOR TRANSMISSION 
THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE FISCAL 
YEAR 1965. 



Classification 


For transmissioti abroad 
by the Smithsonian 


Received by the 

Smithsonian for 

distribution in the 

United States 




Number of 
packages 


Weight in 
pounds 


Number of 
packages 


Weight in 
pounds 


U.S. parliamentary documents re- 
ceived for transmission abroad . . 

Publications received from foreign 
sources for U.S. parliamentary 


823, 051 
315,841 

169, 558 

1,308,450 
1,371,313 


340, 275 
290, 775 

243, 192 
874, 242 


8,344 
7,005 

47, 514 
62, 863 


12,081 


U.S. departmental documents re- 
ceived for transmission abroad . . 

Publications received from foreign 
sources for U.S. departmental 


20, 933 


Miscellaneous scientific and literary 

publications received for trans- 
Miscellaneous scientific and literary 
publications received from abroad 
for distribution in the United 


82, 523 


Total 


115,537 


Total packages received . . . 
Total pounds received . . . 


989, 779 



of the Service from the middle of December 1964 until March 1965. 
Another strike in June by the Maritime unions against some of the 
steamship lines delayed the forwarding of publications to many countries. 

Publications were received from more than 350 different organizations, 
institutions, Government bureaus, Congressional committees, agricul- 
tural experiment stations, and individuals during the year for trans- 
mission to more than 100 different countries. 

Publications weighing 624,125 pounds, 70 percent of the total 
weight received for transmission abroad, were forwarded by ocean 
freight at a cost to the Smithsonian Institution of $36,856, or approx- 
imately 5.9 cents per pound. 



INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 147 

Addressed packages of publications are mailed directly to the intended 
addressees in the countries that do not have exchange bureaus. During 
the past fiscal year packages of addressed publications weighing 259,354 
pounds — 30 percent of the total weight received for transmission 
abroad — were mailed to the intended addressees at a cost to the Smith- 
sonian Institution of $61,039, or approximately 23.5 cents per pound. 

Listed below are the names of the foreign exchange bureaus to which 
the International Exchange Service forwards addressed packages of 
publications for distribution to the intended recipients. 

List of Exchange Services 

Austria: Austrian National Library, Vienna. 

Belgium: Service des Echanges Interna tionaux, Bibliotheque Roy ale de 

Belgique, Bruxelles. 
China: National Central Library, Taipei, Taiwan. 
Czechoslovakia: Bureau of International Exchanges, University Library, 

Prague. 
Denmark: Institut Danois des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque Royale, 

Copenhagen. 
Egypt: Government Press, Publications Office, Bulaq, Cairo. 
Finland: Library of the Scientific Societies, Helsinki. 

France: Service des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
Germany (Eastern) : Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin. 
Germany (Western) : Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bad Godesberg. 
Hungary: Service Hongrois des Echanges Internationaux, Orszagos Szechenyi 

Konyvtar, Budapest. 
India: Government Printing and Stationery Office, Bombay. 
Indonesia: Minister of Education, Djakarta. 
Israel: Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem. 
Italy: Ufficio degli Scambi Internazionali, Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, 

Rome. 
Japan: Division for Interlibrary Services, National Diet Library, Tokyo. 
Korea: National Central Library, Seoul. 

Netherlands: International Exchange Bureau of the Netherlands, Royal Li- 
brary, The Hague. 
New South Wales: Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 
New Zealand: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway: Service Norvegien des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque de 

PUniversite Royale, Oslo. 
Philippines: Bureau of Public Libraries, Department of Education, Manila. 
Poland: Service Polonais des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque 

Nationale, Warsaw. 
Portugal: Servico Portugues de Trocas Internacionais, Biblioteca Nacional, 

Lisbon. 



148 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Queensland: Bureau of International Exchange of Publications, Chief Secre- 
tary's Office, Brisbane. 

Republic of South Africa: Government Printing and Stationery Office, 
Cape Town. 1 

Rumania: International Exchange Service, Biblioteca Centrala de Stat, 
Bucharest. 

South Australia: South Australian Government Exchanges Bureau, Govern- 
ment Printing and Stationery Office, Adelaide. 

Spain: Servicio National de Canje de Publicaciones, Biblioteca Nacional, 
Madrid. 1 

Sweden: Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 

Switzerland: Service Suisse des Echanges Internationaux, Bibliotheque 
Centrale Federate, Berne. 

Tasmania: Secretary of the Premier, Hobart. 

Turkey: National Library, Ankara. 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Bureau of Book Exchange, State Lenin 
Library, Moscow. 

Victoria: State Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia: State Library, Perth. 

Yugoslavia: Bibliografski Institut FNRJ, Belgrade. 



FOREIGN EXCHANGE OF GOVERNMENTAL DOCUMENTS 

The Smithsonian Institution received during the fiscal year 719,901 
publications weighing 257,355 pounds for transmission to the recipients 
of full sets of official U.S. Government publications, and 92,512 publi- 
cations weighing 36,488 pounds for transmission to the recipients of 
partial sets. The recipients of full sets receive copies of all of the official 
publications, while the recipients of partial sets receive a selected list of 
the official publications. 

Recipients of the Full Sets 

Argentina: Division Biblioteca, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, 

Buenos Aires. 
Australia: National Library of Australia, Canberra. 

New South Wales: Public Library of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland: Parliamentary Library, Brisbane. 

South Australia: Public Library of South Australia, Adelaide. 

Tasmania: Parliamentary Library, Hobart. 

Victoria: State Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Western Australia: State Library, Perth. 

1 Change in name. 



INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 149 

Austria: Administrative Library, Federal Chancellery, Vienna. 
Belgium: Service Beige des Echanges Interna tionaux, Bruxelles. 
Brazil: Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janiero. 
Burma: Government Book Depot, Rangoon. 
Canada: Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Manitoba: Provincial Library, Winnipeg. 

Ontario: Legislative Library, Toronto. 

Quebec: Library of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. 

Saskatchewan: Legislative Library, Regina. 
Ceylon: Department of Information, Government of Ceylon, Colomboi 
Chile: Biblioteca Nacional, Santiago. 
China: National Central Library, Taipei, Taiwan. 

National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan. 
Colombia: Biblioteca Nacional, Bogota. 
Costa Rica: Biblioteca Nacional, San Jose. 
Cuba: Direction de Organismos Internacionales, Ministerio de Relaciones 

Exteriores, Habana. 
Czechoslovakia: University Library, Prague. 

Denmark: Institut Danois des Echanges Internationaux, Copenhagen. 
Egypt: Bureau des Publications, Ministere des Finances, Cairo. 
Finland: Parliamentary Library, Helsinki. 
France: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. 
Germany: Deutsche Staatsbibliothek, Berlin. 

Free University of Berlin, Berlin-Dahlem. 

Parliamentary Library, Bonn. 
Great Britain: 

British Museum, London. 

London School of Economics and Political Science. Depository of the 
London County Council.) 
India: National Library, Calcutta. 

Central Secretariat Library, New Delhi. 

Parliament Library, New Delhi. 
Indonesia: Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Djakarta. 
Ireland: National Library of Ireland, Dublin. 
Israel: State Archives and Library, Hakirya, Jerusalem. 
Italy: Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, Rome. 
Japan: National Diet Library, Tokyo. 2 
Mexico: Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, Departamento de Information 

para el Extranjero, Mexico, D.F. 
Netherlands: Royal Library, The Hague. 
New Zealand: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Norway: University Library, Oslo. 
Peru: Section de Propaganda y Publicaciones, Ministerio de Relaciones 

Exteriores, Lima. 
Philippines: Bureau of Public Libraries, Department of Education, Manila. 

2 Receives two sets. 



150 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Portugal: Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. 

Republic of South Africa: State Library, Pretoria, Transvaal. 

Spain: Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. 

Sweden: Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm. 

Switzerland: Bibliotheque Centrale Federate, Berne. 

Turkey: National Library, Ankara. 

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Ail-Union Lenin Library, Moscow. 

United Nations: Library of the United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Uruguay: Oficina de Canje Internacional de Publicaciones, Montevideo. 

Venezuela: Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas. 

Yugoslavia: Bibliografski Institut FNRJ, Belgrade. 2 

Recipients of the Partial Sets 

Afghanistan: Library of the Afghan Academy, Kabul. 
Belgium: Bibliotheque Royale, Bruxelles. 

Bolivia: Biblioteca del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Gulto, La Paz. 
Brazil: Minas Gerais: Departmento Estadul de Estatistica, Belo Horizonte. 
British Guiana: Government Secretary's Office, Georgetown, Demerara. 
Cambodia: Les Archives et Bibliotheque Nationale, Phnom-Penh. 
Canada: Alberta: Provincial Library, Edmonton. 
British Columbia: Provincial Library, Victoria. 
New Brunswick: Legislative Library, Fredericton. 
Newfoundland: Department of Provincial Affairs, St. John's. 
Nova Scotia: Provincial Secretary of Nova Scotia, Halifax. 
Dominican Republic: Bibloteca de la Universidad de Santo Domingo, Santo 

Domingo. 
Ecuador: Biblioteca Nacional, Quito. 
El Salvador: Biblioteca Nacional, San Salvador. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, San Salvador. 
Greece: National Library, Athens. 
Guatemala: Bioblioteca Nacional, Guatemala. 
Haiti: Bibliotheque Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras: Biblioteca Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Tegucigalpa. 
Iceland: National Library, Reykjavik. 
India: 

Bombay: Sachivalaya Central Library, Bombay. 
Bihar: Revenue Department, Patna. 
Kerala: Kerala Legislature Secretariat, Trivandrum. 
Uttar Pradesh: 

University of Allahabad, Allahabad. 
Secretariat Library, Lucknow. 
West Bengal: Library, West Bengal Legislative Secretariat, Assembly 
House, Calcutta. 

2 Receive two sets 



INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 151 

Iran: Imperial Ministry of Education, Tehran. 
Iraq,: Public Library, Baghdad. 
Jamaica: Colonial Secretary, Kingston. 

University College of the West Indies, St. Andrew. 
Lebanon: American University of Beirut, Beirut. 
Liberia: Department of State, Monrovia. 
Malaysia: Federal Secretariat, Federation of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 

National Library, Singapore. 1 
Malta: Minister for the Treasury, Valletta. 
Nicaragua: Ministerio de Relaciones Exterior es, Managua. 
Pakistan: Central Secretariat Library, Karachi. 
Panama: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Panama. 

Paraguay: Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriors, Section Biblioteca, Asuncion. 
Philippines: House of Representatives, Manila. 
Scotland: National Library of Scodand, Edinburgh. 
Sudan: University of Khartoum, Khartoum. 1 
Thailand: National Library, Bangkok. 
Viet-Nam: Direction des Archives et Bibliotheques Nationales, Saigon. 



INTERPARLIAMENTARY EXCHANGE OF THE OFFICIAL 

JOURNALS 

There are being sent on exchange through the International Ex- 
change Service 110 copies of the daily issues of the Congressional Record 
and 88 copies of the daily issues of the Federal Register. Listed below 
are the names and addresses of the recipients of the official journals. 

Recipients of the Congressional Record and Federal Register 

Algeria: Direction de la Documentation, Ministere de l'Orientation, Algiers. 4 5 
Argentina: Biblioteca del Poder Judicial, Mendoza. 3 

Direction General del Boletin Oficial e Imprentas, Buenos Aires. 

Camara de Diputados Oficina de Information Parliamentaria, Buenos 
Aires. 
Australia: National Library of Australia, Canberra. 

New South Wales: Library of Parliament of New South Wales, Sydney. 

Queensland: Chief Secretary's Office, Brisbane. 

Victoria: State Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 3 

Western Australia: Library of Parliament of Western Australia, Perth. 
Belgium: Bibliotheque du Parlement, Palais de la Nation, Brussels. 4 
Brazil: Biblioteca da Camara dos Deputados, Brasilia, D.F. 4 

Biblioteca do Senado Federal, Brasilia. 1 4 



1 Change in name. 3 Federal Register only. 4 Congressional Record only. 
6 Added during the year. 



152 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Burundi: Departement des Affaires Juridiques et de Contentieux, Secretariat 

d'Etat a la Justice, Bujumbura. 3 5 
Cambodia: Ministry of Information, Phnom-Penh. 
Cameroon: Imprimerie Nationale, Yaounde. 3 
Canada: Clerk of the Senate, Houses of Parliament, Ottawa. 

Library of Parliament, Ottawa. 
Ceylon: Ceylon Ministry of Defense and External Affairs, Colombo. 4 
Chile: Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Santiago. 4 
China: Legislative Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan. 4 

Taiwan Provincial Assembly, Taichung, Taiwan 
Cuba: Biblioteca Publica Panamericana, Habana. 3 
Czechoslovakia: Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. 4 
Ecuador, Archivo-Biblioteca del Poder Legislativo, Quito. 3 5 
Egypt: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egyptian Government, Cairo. 4 
Finland: Library of the Parliament, Helsinki. 4 
France: Bibliotheque Assemblee Nationale, Paris. 

Bibliotheque Conseil de la Republique, Paris. 

Library, Organization for European Economic Cooperation, Paris. 4 

Bibliotheque du Conseil de PEurope, Strasbourg. 4 

Service de la Documentation Etrangere Assemblee Nationale, Paris. 4 
Gabon: Secretary General, Assemblee Nationale, Libreville. 4 
Germany: Amerika Institut der Universitat Miinchen, Miinchen. 

Archiv, Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn. 

Bibliothek des Instituts fur Weltwirtschaft an der Universitat Kiel, 
Kiel-Wik. 

Bibliothek Hessischer Landtag, Wiesbaden. 4 

Deutsches Institut fur Rechtswissenschaft, Potsdam-Babelsberg II. 3 

Deutscher Bundesrat, Bonn. 4 

Deutscher Bundestag, Bonn. 4 

Hamburgisches Welt-Wirtschafts-Archiv, Hamburg. 

Staatsbibliothek der Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbestiz, Berlin- 
Dahlem. 1 4 • 
Great Britain: Department of Printed Books, British Museum, London. 

House of Commons Library, London. 4 

N.P.P. Warehouse, H.M. Stationery Office, London. 3 7 

Printed Library of the Foreign Office, London. 4 

Royal Institute of International Affairs, London. 4 
Greece: Bibliotheque Chambre des Deputes, Hellenique, Athens. 
Guatemala: Biblioteca de la Asamblea Legislativa, Guatemala. 
Haiti: Bibliotheque Nationale, Port-au-Prince. 
Honduras: Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional, Tegucigalpa. 
Hungary: Orszagos Szechenyi Konyvtar, Budapest. 



1 Change in name. 3 Federal Register only. 

4 Congressional Record only. 6 Added during the year. 

8 Three copies. 7 Two copies. 



INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 153 

India: Civil Secretariat Library, Lucknow, United Provinces. 3 

Jammu and Kashmir Constituent Assembly, Srinagar. 4 

Legislative Assembly, Government of Assam, Shillong. 4 

Legislative Assembly Library, Lucknow, United Provinces. 

Kerala Legislature Secretariat, Trivandrum. 4 

Madras State Legislature, Madras. 4 

Parliament Library, New Delhi. 

Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Poona. 4 
Ireland: Dail Eireann, Dublin. 4 
Israel: Library of the Knesset, Jerusalem. 
Italy: Biblioteca Camera dei Deputati, Rome. 

Biblioteca del Senato della Republica, Rome. 

International Institute for the Unification of Private Law, Rome. 3 

Periodicals Unit, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 
Nations, Rome. 3 
Ivory Coast: Chef des Services Legislatifs, Assemblee Nationale, Abidjan. 4 
Japan: Library of the National Diet, Tokyo. 

Ministry of Finance, Tokyo. 
Jordan: Parliament of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Amman. 4 
Korea: Library, National Assembly, Seoul. 

Kying Hee University, Seoul. 4 6 
Luxembourg: Assemblee Commune de la C.E.C.A., Luxembourg. 
Mexico: Direccion General de Information, Secretaria de Governacion, 
Mexico, D.F. 

Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, Mexico, D.F. 

Aguascalientes: Gobernador del Estado de Aguascalientes, Aguas- 
calientes. 

Baja California: Gobierno del Estado de Baja California, Mexicali. 

Campeche: Gobernador del Estado de Campeche. 

Chiapas: Gobernador del Estado de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez. 

Chihuahua: Gobernador del Estado de Chihuahua, Chihuahua. 

Coahuila: Periodico Oficial del Estado de Coahuila, Palacio de 
Gobierno, Saltillo. 

Colima: Gobernador del Estado de Colima, Colima. 

Guanajuato: Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado, Guanajuato. 

Jalisco: Biblioteca del Estado, Guadalajara. 

Mexico: Gaceta del Gobierno, Toluca. 

Michoagan: Secretaria General de Gobierno del Estado de Michoacan, 
Morelia. 

Morelos: Palacio de Gobierno, Cuernavaca. 

Nayarit: Gobernador de Nayarit, Tepic. 

Nuevo Leon: Biblioteca del Estado, Monterrey. 

Oaxaca: Periodico Oficial, Palacio de Gobierno, Oaxaca. 3 

Puebla: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Puebla. 

Queretaro: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Section de Archivo, 
Queretaro. 

Sinaloa: Direccion del Periodico Oficial C E1 Estado de Sinaloa, Culiacan. 



154 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Sonora: Gobernador del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo. 

Tamaulipas: Secretaria General de Gobierno, Victoria. 

Veracruz: Gobernador del Estado de Veracruz, Departamento de 
Gobernacion y Justicia, Jalapa. 

Yucatan: Gobernador del Estado de Yucatan, Merida. 
Netherlands: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague. 3 
New Zealand: General Assembly Library, Wellington. 
Nigeria: Office of the Clerk of the Legislature, Enugu. 4 

Office of the Western Nigeria Legislature, Ibadan. 4 

Clerk to the Regional Legislature, Mid-West Region, Benin City. 3 5 
Norway: Library of the Norwegian Parliament, Oslo. 
Pakistan: Secretary, Provincial Assembly West Pakistan, Lahore. 4 

National Assembly of Pakistan, Rawalpindi. 4 6 
Panama: Biblioteca Nacional, Panama City. 4 
Philippines: House of Representatives, Manila. 
Poland: Kancelaria Rady Panstwa, Biblioteka Sejmowa, Warsaw. 
Republic of South Africa: Cape of Good Hope: Library of Parliament, 
Cape Town. 

Transkei: Legislative Assembly, Umtata. 4 5 

Transvaal: State Library, Pretoria 
Rhodesia: Legislative Assembly, Lusaka. l 3 
Rumania: Biblioteca Centrala de Stat RPR, Bucharest. 
Rwanda: Service de la Legislation, Cabinet du President, Kigali. 3 
Senegal: Secretaire-General, Assemblee Nationale, Dakar. 4 
Sierra Leone: Office of the Clerk, House of Representatives, Freetown. 4 
Spain: Boletin Oficial del Estado, Presidencia del Gobierno, Madrid. 3 
Sweden: Universitetsbiblioteket, Uppsala. 
Switzerland: International Labour Office, Geneva. 3 7 

Library, United Nations, Geneva. 
Tanganyika: Library, University College, Dar es Salaam. 4 
Togo: Ministere d'Etat, de l'lnterieur, de l'Information et de la Presse, Lome. 
Uganda: National Assembly of Uganda, Parliament House, Kampala. 4 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Fundamental'niia Biblioteka 

Obshchestvennykh Nauk, Moscow. 
Upper Volta: President de la Commission des Affaires Sociales et Culturelles, 
Assemblee Nationale, Ouagadougou. 4 

Chef de Cabinet, Presidence, Ouagadougou. 3 
Uruguay: Diario Oficial, Calle Florida 1178, Montevideo. 
Yugoslavia: Bibliografski Institut FNRJ, Belgrade. 7 

Libraries, scientific societies, educational institutions, and individuals 
may transmit publications through the International Exchange 
Service to other countries if they are being sent on exchange or as gifts. 
The publications must be packaged and addressed to the intended re- 
cipients. Transportation charges to the Smithsonian Institution must 

Footnotes: see p. 152. 



INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 155 

be prepaid. There is no charge to the sender for the transportation 
charges from the Smithsonian Institution to the intended addressees. 

Packages of publications are accepted for transmission to addressees 
in all countries except to the mainland of China, North Korea, and 
Communist-controlled areas of Viet-Nam. Packages of publications 
from domestic sources intended for addressees in the United States or 
in a territory subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are not 
accepted for transmission. 

The work of the International Exchange Service serves as a means of 
developing and executing, in part, the broad and comprehensive 
objective of the Smithsonian Institution — "the diffusion of knowledge." 
Over the years the Service has played a proud role in helping to 
promote the rapid growth of science by facilitating the international 
exchange of ideas. Libraries and learned institutions through- 
out the world have been enriched by the publications received through 
the Service from many institutions in the United States, and, in turn, 
the libraries and learned institutions of the United States have bene- 
fited from the publications received from the institutions in other 
countries. 



National Zoological Park 




National Zoological Park 
Theodore H. Reed, Director 

With the completion of the remodeled birdhouse (December 4, 1964), 
efforts of the National Zoological Park were turned to restocking the 
avian collection, which had dwindled during the time that there was 
little exhibition space for birds. When the house opened to the public 
on February 14, 1965, many new species were on view in addition to 
the ones that of necessity had been kept behind the scenes during the 
rebuilding. 

PURCHASES 

The major part of purchases for the year consisted of birds, but a 
number of interesting mammals were also added to the collection. 

Most important of these was a young female gorilla, Femelle, bought 
as a mate for Leonard, the male born at the National Zoo on January 
10, 1964. Femelle and Leonard were not compatible, however, and 
the new female was put with Tomoka, a 3}2-year-old male, also born 
at the Zoo. This pairing has worked out most amicably. 

A pair of siamangs was obtained from a dealer. Twelve tenrecs 
were bought from a collector who had obtained them in Madagascar. 
These rare little insectivores had not been exhibited at the Zoo since 
1910, and the Park was fortunate in securing two species: Hemicentetes 
semispinosus, the streaked tenrec, and the so-called common tenrec, 
Tenrec ecaudatus. 

Another interesting acquisition was a small-eared dog (Atelocynus 
microtis) purchased as a mate for one secured last year. 

For many years the Zoo had only one ostrich, an elderly male. Six 
young specimens of this interesting bird were obtained and are now 
on exhibit in a yard near the birdhouse. 

Other purchases were: 

1 flat-headed cat (Felis planiceps) 6 honeycreepers 

1 owl monkey 3 Inca jays 

29 chipmunks 4 black-eared golden tanagers 

8 flying squirrels 1 azure jay 

1 bushbaby 2 green Inca jays 

1 female jaguar 2 San Bias jays 

159 



160 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



2 troupials 

4 Australian crested bronze-winged 

doves 
2 American band-tailed pigeons 
2 pied mynahs 

2 spectacled mocking thrushes 
2 black-headed orioles 
4 blue rock thrushes 
2 white-winged trumpeters 
1 Curtis python 
6 mud puppies 

1 Texas lined snake 

2 black-necked screamers 
10 turacos 

18 hummingbirds 

3 cocks-of-the-rock 

2 black-headed sugarbirds 

6 blue-shouldered mountain tanagers 



1 rufous motmot 

10 masked crimson tanagers 

2 quetzals 

4 violaceous jays 

3 Inca terns 

2 blue-eared pheasants 

2 common bronze-winged doves 

5 black-bellied glossy starlings 
2 pagoda mynahs 

2 necklaced laughing thrushes 
2 gold-headed mynahs 
2 gray-headed mynahs 
assorted finches 

4 pancake tortoises 
1 prairie king snake 
1 eastern hog snake 

1 black-necked garter snake 



BIRTHS 



The number of animals born and hatched in the Zoo during the 
past year was gratifying. Reproduction of their kind is evidence that 
animals have adjusted well to the necessarily artificial conditions of 
captivity. The pygmy hippopotamuses for which the Zoo has long 
been famous continue to breed. Offspring of the original male were 
all named Gumdrop, but with the advent of the new sire progeny 
were given the names of Greek letters, and the eight young ones, two 
of which were born this year, bear names running from Alpha to Iota. 
The Nile hippopotamuses also had another baby. 

Birds in the new house took to nest-building almost immediately 
upon their transfer there. Of especial interest were the kookaburras 
and the Indian moorhens. By June 30 three pairs of kookaburras, all 
hatched at the National Zoological Park, were nesting. 

Following the procedure of previous years, all births and hatchings 
are listed below, whether or not the young were successfully raised. In 
many instances, the record of animals having bred in captivity is of 
interest. 




"Archie" is the splendid adult orangutan Elf owls (Micrathene whitneyi) 
obtained by exchange with the Toronto were obtained from the Ari- 
Zoo on June 2, 1965. zona-Sonora Desert Museum 

by exchange. 



Aldabra tortoise with leg in 
cast as a result of a spiral 
oblique fracture of the right 
humerus. Unable to walk on 
three legs, it soon learned to 
propel itself when put on a 
trucker's dolly. 





Forty-two anacondas born from one female on February 15, 1965. The 
young were approximately twenty inches long and one inch in diameter at 
birth. 




The new great outdoor flight cage, shown here just after completion and 
before the birds were moved in, may be entered from a walk leading through 
the deer area, or by way of a bridge from the upper level of the birdhouse. 



Typical of the new exhibition concept in the renovated birdhouse is such a 
grouping of birds as shown here in their natural habitat. 




NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



161 





Number 




Number 




of births 




of births 




and 




and 


Common name 


hatchings 


Common name 


hatchings 


Mammals 




Mammals — Continued 


Opossum 


1 


Dorcas gazelle 


3 


Ring-tailed lemur 


*1 


African pygmy goat 


4 


Spider monkey 


1 


Aoudad 


*1 


Black spider monkey 


1 


Barbary sheep 


1 


Pygmy marmoset 


2 


Big-horn sheep 


*1 


Rhesus monkey 


1 






Barbary ape 


4 






VervetXgrivet guenon 


2 


Birds 




Green guenon 


1 






Chimpanzee 


1 


Double-crested cormorant 


1 


Two-toed sloth 


2 


Black-necked swan 


2 


Prairie dog 


2 


Canada goose 


3 


Patagonian cavy 


5 


Wood duck 


33 


Chinchilla 


*3 


Mallard duck 


44 


Common jackal 


*2 


Black duck 


7 


Gray fox 


*3 


Cayenne wood rail 


2 


European brown bear 


3 


Indian moorhen 


4 


Grizzly bear 


*2 


Nanday parrot 


3 


Neumann's genet 


4 


Kookaburra 


5 


African water civet 


2 






Leopard 


*2 






Black leopard 


2 


Reptiles 




California sea-lion 


*2 






Hyrax 


1 


Common snapping turtle 


23 


Grant's zebra 


1 


Common box turtle 


12 


Collared peccary 


5, *2 


Painted turtle 


1 


Nile hippopotamus 


1 


Yellow-bellied turde 


1 


Pygmy hippopotamus 


2 


Red-eared turde 


6 


Llama 


1, *1 


Tokay gecko 


1 


Reindeer 


3, *3 


Fence lizard 


8 


Reindeer X caribou 


1 


Blue spiny lizard 


26 


Cape buffalo 


1 


Anaconda 


42 


Brindled gnu 


6 


Ribbon snake 


5 



*Stillborn, or died shortly after birth. 



789-427— 6C 



-22 



162 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

GIFTS 

The Zoo received a bequest from the Gordon Gaver estate, consisting 
of a large number of reptiles, 25 mammals, and 3 birds. Mr. Gaver, 
who died in August 1964, had for many years owned and operated a 
roadside snake exhibit near Thurmont, Md. At his death, his entire 
collection came to the National Zoological Park and made a note- 
worthy addition. In some instances there were more specimens than 
the Zoo could exhibit, and these were of great value as exchange 
material with other zoos. 

The Montana Fish and Game Department sent two pronghorn 
antelopes; the Japanese Embassy gave the Zoo a collection of 40 
especially fine goldfishes which had been part of the exhibit at the 
Japanese pavilion at the New York World's Fair. 

Space does not permit listing all gifts received during the year, but 
a complete list of Mr. Gaver's collection, and other gifts of interest, 
follows: 

Animal Rescue League, Washington, D.C., great black hawk. 

Back, Mrs. Allan N., Kensington, Md., boa constrictor. 

Blomeley, Dr. Charles P., Takoma Park, Md., cedar waxwing, 
mourning dove. 

Boehm, Edward Marshall, Trenton, N.J., 3 white-cheeked turacos. 

Bryan, John R., Bethesda, Md., 2 boa constrictors. 

Capps, Mrs. Carol, Washington, D.C., Chinese macaque. 

Carrol, Robert, Springfield Va., timber rattlesnake. 

Charles, Mrs. R. H., Washington, D.C., 2 ring-necked doves, albino 
ring-necked dove. 

Cochran, Dr. Doris, Washington, D.C., 2 tropical coral snakes. 

Cooper, William I., Washington, D.C., blue-faced toucan. 

DePrato, Mario, Washington, D.C., barking tree frog, 2 paradise 
fish. 

Dixon, Lindon, Fairfax, Va., pine vole. 

Eaton, Rev. Charles E., Washington, D.C., 2 Congo pygmy frogs. 

Edmunds, W. W., Oxon Hill, Md., 2 sparrow hawks. 

Fowle, Mrs. Margaret, Bethesda, Md., 4 strawberry finches, orange 
weaver, 2 cut-throat weavers, 2 African fire finches, Bengalee finch, 
7 zebra finches, 2 red-eared waxbills. 

Gatti, Steve, Silver Spring, Md., Eleonora's falcon. 

Gaver, Gordon, Thurmont, Md., chimpanzee, woolly monkey, 9 
rhesus monkeys, weeping capuchin, 3 capuchins, 2 green guenons, 2 
sooty monkeys, 3 spider monkeys, 1 burro, 2 domestic goats, yellow- 
and-blue macaw, 3 Pekin ducks, cantil, Mexican beaded lizard, gila 
monster, African black cobra, Indian python (light phase), 2 coral 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 163 

snakes, 2 Cook's tree boas, 2 banded kraits, 1 1 Russell's vipers, emerald 
tree boa, Gaboon viper, ball python, 27 Indian cobras, king cobra, 
regal python, 2 sand boas, 5 many-banded kraits, 6 star tortoises, 4 
black tegus, 2 anacondas, South American boa, Indian python (dark 
phase), 4 American alligators, American crocodile, 2 chicken snakes, 
6 pilot black snakes, corn snake, 59 common water snakes, timber 
rattlesnake, 6 eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, 36 western dia- 
mondback rattlesnakes, 55 cottonmouth moccasins, Galapagos tor- 
toise, red-footed tortoise, 8 northern copperheads, indigo snake, 3 
Philippine cobras, 2 Indian cobras, 22 miscellaneous water snakes. 

Gray, Dr. Clinton, Alexandria, Va., 2 cockatiels. 

Greenhall, Paul, Washington, D.C., 4 tropical hermit crabs, fresh- 
water eel, tree frog, 2 giant toads. 

Griffin, Robert Dale, McLean, Va., pileated woodpecker. 

Grimmer, J. Lear, Washington, D.C., 14 West Indian anoles, 2 fence 
lizards, higatee turtle, 5 Grand Cayman water snakes, lazy snake, 
Grand Cayman racer. 

Hagen, Clemens O., Fairfax, Va., double yellow-headed parrot. 

Harman, Mrs. Ann, Washington, D.C., Asiatic quail. 

Hemba, Alton W., U.S. Consul General, Guayaquil, Ecuador, Gala- 
pagos tortoise. 

Keefer, Lonny, Mt. Rainier, Md., canyon tree frog. 

Keese, Robert, Rockville, Md., boa constrictor. 

Lakigh, George, Jacksonville Beach, Fla., 3 natterjack toads, 2 green 
toads, sand lizard. 

Locke, Otto Martin, New Braunfels, Tex., 8 collared lizards, 3 Texas 
alligator lizards, 25 blue spiny lizards, prairie kingsnake, Great 
Plains rat snake, Texas lined snake, eastern hog-nosed snake, eastern 
black-necked garter snake. 

Malone, Col., U.S. Army, Arlington, Va., 5 chameleons. 

Marcus, Dr. Leonard, Washington, D.C., 2 scorpions, whiptail, 2 
western swifts. 

Martin, James, Norfolk, Va., 2 water moccasins. 

Martin, W. H., Leesburg, Va., slender glass lizard, peninsula cooter. 

May, Lonnie G., Laurel, Md., timber rattlesnake. 

McCrae, Glen, Littleton, Colo., bullsnake, Sonora gopher snake, 
western milk snake, California striped racer, Great Basin gopher 
snake. 

McGreevy, Dr. J., Arlington, Va., coatimundi. 

Meckstroth, Lt. Col. L. E., Davidsonville, Md., red-headed conure. 

Miller, Miss Christine, Bethesda, Md., civet. 

Morrison, Mrs. A., Washington, D.C, double yellow-headed parrot. 

Murphy, Miss Gwen, Arlington, Va., half-moon conure. 



164 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

National Aquarium, Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D.C., piranha, 

2 diamond-backed terrapins. 
Pohlman, Gunther, Neuwied/Rhn., West Germany, 22 newts. 
Preston, Mrs. Lois, Riverdale, Md., Chinese macaque. 
Quinlan, Mr. G. J., Washington, D.C., squirrel monkey. 
Ragan, Miss Donna, Washington, D.C., 18 western painted turtles. 
Reeves, Mrs. Clyde P., Arlington, Va., lesser hill mynah. 
Rider, V. D., Warrenton, Va., alligator. 
Ripley, S. Dillon, Washington, D.C., rosy-billed pochard, 2 falcated 

teal. 
Robey, Mrs. R. W., Silver Spring, Md., weeping capuchin. 
Robinson, Mrs. William S., Seat Pleasant, Md., ocelot. 
Ronningen, Miss Karen, McLean, Va., white-winged parakeet. 
Rowan, Mrs. Michael B., Silver Spring, Md., 2 Texas tortoises. 
Schwartzbeck, Donald F., Washington, D.C., snapping turtle 

(32 lbs.). 
Scott, James F., Falls Church, Va., pig-tailed macaque. 
Seibel, Hilda, Chevy Chase, Md., cockatiel. 
Sharpe, Brian, and Ereckson, Willard, Washington, D.C., European 

racer. 
Smith, Mrs. J. B., Arlington, Va., peach-faced lovebird. 
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Ray, Falls Church, Va., western flying squirrel, 

Abyssinian cavy. 
Smithsonian Institution, Division of Birds, Washington, D.C., 3 

sooty terns, 6 Laysan albatrosses, 6 black-footed albatrosses. 
Stack, Dick, Linthicum Heights, Md., diamondback terrapin. 
Terborgh, Dr. John, College Park, Md., New Guinea tree snake. 
Teschan, Lt. Col. P. E., Chevey Chase, Md., Florida king snake. 
Teunis, Mrs. Elizabeth, Washington, D.C., red-and-blue macaw. 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Cambridge, Md., 2 whistling swans. 
Washington, H., Washington, D.C., American bittern. 
Webb, Vick, Alexandria, Va., sulphur-breasted toucan. 
Williams, Mrs. Nellie, Hyattsville, Md., lesser hill mynah. 
Winn, Col. C. G., McLean, Va., white-handed gibbon. 



EXCHANGES 

The National Zoological Park participates in a continuing program 
of exchanging surplus animals with other zoos. This year Leonard, 
a young male gorilla born in the Zoo, was sent to Riverside Park Zoo 
in Toronto, Canada, in exchange for a 10-year-old male prangutan, 
a proven sire. Archie, the new orangutan, is being introduced to 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 165 

the Zoo's two females, and it is hoped that eventually young ones 
will be born here. The National Zoo has bred gorillas, chimpanzees, 
and gibbons, but never orangs. 

Through the offices of U.S. Senator Karl Mundt, the Zoo received 
3 pairs of ring-necked pheasants from South Dakota. In exchange 
a hybrid macaque and 2 parrots were sent to the Great Plains Zoo 
in Sioux Falls, S. Dak. 

Animals obtained through exchange were: 
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Ariz., 2 elf owls. 
Baltimore Zoo, Baltimore, Md., elephant trunk snake. 
Calgary Zoo, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2 American martens, 1 

coyote, 1 coatimundi, 1 lynx. 
Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado Springs, Colo., 1 musang. 
Crowder, R. L., Stuart, Fla., 1 pygmy rattlesnake, 1 indigo snake. 
El Pinar Zoo, Caracas, Venezuela, 2 troupials, 2 blue tanagers, 2 

brown tanagers, 15 saffron finches, 10 scarlet ibises. 
Gans, Carl, Buffalo, N.Y., 1 saw-scale viper. 
George's Pet Shop, Hyattsville, Md., 2 South American foxes, 1 tayra, 

1 rhinoceros iguana, 1 Indian otter, 1 South American green lizard, 

1 capybara, 1 golden tamandua, 2 speckled agoutis, 2 caimans, 

1 14%-foot anaconda. 

Honolulu Zoo, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1 Nene goose. 

Kerfess, Cdr., John F., Alexandria, Va. Mohave diamondback rattle- 
snake, 2 banded geckos, 2 faded snakes. 

Memphis Zoo, Memphis, Tenn., 1 African porcupine. 

Portland Zoo, Portland, Oreg., 7 California ground squirrels. 

Rider, V. D., Warrenton, Va., 2 siamangs, 3 blood pythons, 1 gila 
monster, 1 beaded lizard, 1 galago. 

San Antonio Zoo, San Antonio, Tex., 4 scaled quail, 2 roadrunners, 

2 wattled guans, 3 roseate spoonbills, 5 Cuban flamingos, 2 glossy 
ibis, 2 green-winged teal, 2 least tinamous. 

San Diego Zoo, San Diego, Calif., 4 double-yellow-headed parrots, 2 

white-fronted Amazon parrots, 2 yellow-winged lorikeets, 1 eclectus 

parrot, 4 Beebe parakeets, 2 lorikeets. 
Southeast Pet Shop, Washington, D.C., 2 rhesus monkeys, 1 sooty 

mangabey. 
Tote-Em-In Zoo, Wilmington, N.C., 2 brown water snakes, 2 house 

snakes, 2 green chicken snakes, 1 canebrake rattlesnake, 1 Nile 

crocodile, 1 European badger. 

The following animals were sent to other zoos and to private col- 
lectors in exchange: 
Alipore Zoo, Calcutta, India, 1 pair red-and-blue macaws, 1 pair blue- 

and-gold macaws, 1 pair red, blue, and yellow macaws, 6 pairs wood 



166 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

ducks, 2 pairs Canada geese, 2 Mexican beaded lizards, 2 gila mon- 
sters, 4 caimans. 

Baltimore Zoo, Baltimore, Md., 1 king cobra, 3 baby anacondas. 

Bates Wood Zoo, New London, Conn., 1 European brown bear cub. 

Buffalo Zoo, Buffalo, N.Y., 2 water civets. 

Chicago Zoo, Brookfield, 111., 4 baby anacondas. 

Cincinnati Zoo, Cincinnati, Ohio, 2 llamas. 

Cleveland Zoo, Cleveland, Ohio, 4 prairie dogs, 1 kookaburra. 

Crowder, R. L., Stuart, Fla., 1 baby anaconda. 

Department of Recreation and Parks, Richmond, Va., 2 peacocks. 

Detroit Zoo, Royal Oak, Mich., 1 Morelett's crocodile. 

Edinburg Zoo, Edinburg, Scotland, 4 raccoons, 19 chipmunks. 

Griffin, James, Key Biscayne, Fla., 4 pairs wood ducks. 

Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, 111., 4 blossom-headed parakeets. 

London Zoo, London, England, 1 coatimundi. 

Palmer, Harold C, Douglasville, Ga., 1 American bison, 1 white fallow 
deer, 2 aoudads, 1 chimpanzee, 1 leopard, 1 Patagonian cavy, 2 ar- 
madillos, 1 douroucouli monkey, 1 black swan, 2 caimans, 3 boa 
constrictors, 1 regal python, 4 snapping turtles. 

Philadelphia Zoo, Philadelphia, Pa., 1 woolly monkey. 

Portland Zoo, Portland, Oreg., 5 baby anacondas, 2 blossom-headed 
parakeets. 

Pretoria Zoo, Pretoria, South Africa, 4 flying squirrels, 6 chipmunks. 

Rider, V. D., Warrenton, Va., 1 chimpanzee, 1 black leopard. 

San Antonio Zoo, San Antonio, Tex., 2 llamas, 2 dorcas gazelles. 

Topeka Zoo, Topeka, Kans., 2 baby anacondas. 

Tote-Em-In-Zoo, Wilmington, N.C., 2 spider monkeys, 4 capuchin 
monkeys, 9 rhesus monkeys, 2 sooty mangabeys, 2 green monkeys, 
3 Pekin ducks, 15 copperheads, 53 water moccasins, 4 American 
alligators, 1 timber rattlesnake, 25 western diamondback rattlesnakes. 

STATUS OF THE COLLECTION, June 30, 1965 



Class 

Mammals 

Birds 

Reptiles 

Amphibians 

Fishes 

Arthropods 

Mollusks 

Total 50 171 929 2,628 



Orders 


Families 


Species or 
subspecies 


Individuals 


13 


50 


231 


643 


22 


69 


432 


921 


4 


27 


204 


716 


2 


10 


31 


107 


5 


11 


26 


156 


3 


3 


4 


55 


1 


1 


1 


30 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 167 

In the following lists of mammals and birds, sex is given where 
known; 1.0 indicates one male, 0.1 indicates one female, 1.1 indicates 
one male and one female. 



ANIMALS IN THE COLLECTION ON JUNE 30, 1965 

MAMMALS 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Marsupialia 
Didelphidae: 

Common opossum Didelphis marsupialis 8 

Phalangeridae: 

Sugar glider Petaurus breviceps 0.1 

Squirrel glider Petaurus norfolcensis 1.2 

Phascolomidae: 

Hairy-nosed wombat .... Lasiorhinus latifrons 2.0 

Mainland wombat Phascolomis hirsutus 0.1 

Macropodidae: 
Rat kangaroo Potorous tridactylus 1.3 

Insectivora 
Tenrecidae: 

Common tenrec Tenrec ecaudatus 5 

Streaked tenrec Hemicentetes sp 4.2 

Erinaceidae: 
European hedgehog .... Erinaceus europaeus 1 .0 

Chiroptera 
Pteropodidae: 

Giant fruit bat Pteropus giganteus 3.4 

Primates 
Lemuridae: 

Ring- tailed lemur Lemur catta 1.2 

Brown lemur Lemur fulvus 1.0 

Lorisidae: 

TickelPs slow loris Nycticebus coucang tenasserimensis . . 0.1 

Great galago Galago crassicaudatus 0.1 

Bushbaby Galago senegalensis z ain -zibaricus . . 2.1 

Common potto Perodicticus potto 0.1 



168 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Cebidae: 

Douroucouli, or night monkey . Aotus trivirgatus 1.1 

Red uakari Cacajao rubicundus 1.1 

White-faced saki monkey . . Pithecia pithecia 1.1 

Capuchin Cebus capucinus 2.5 

Weeping capuchin Cebus griseus 2.0 

Squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus 2.4 

Black spider monkey .... Ateles fusciceps 5 

Spider monkey Ateles geojfroyi 6 

Woolly monkey Lagothrix sp 1.2 

Callithricidae: 

Pygmy marmoset Cebuella pygmaea 4 

Geoffroy's marmoset .... Oedipomidas spixi 1.1 

Cottontop marmoset .... Saguinus oedipus 1.1 

Hybrid marmoset S. midasXS. oedipus 1.0 

Moustached tamarin .... Saguinus mystax 1.1 

Cercopithecidae : 

Toque, or bonnet monkey . . Macaca sinica 1.1 

Philippine macaque .... Macaca philippinensis 1.0 

Crab-eating macaque .... Macaca irus 0.1 

Hybrid macaque M. philippinensis XM. irus .... 1.0 

Pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina 0.1 

Chinese macaque Macaca lasiotis 0.2 

Rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta 3.3 

Formosan monkey Macaca cyclopis 1.1 

Red-faced macaque .... Macaca speciosa 0.1 

Wander oo, or lion-tailed Macaca silenus 1.1 

monkey. 

Barbary ape Macaca sylvanus 20 

Moor macaque Macaca maurus 1.2 

Crested macaque, or Celebes Cynopithecus niger 1.0 

ape. 

Gray-cheeked mangabey . . Cercocebus albigena 0.1 

Agile mangabey Cercocebus galeritus 1.0 

Golden-bellied mangabey . . Cercocebus g. chrysogaster 1.0 

Red-crowned mangabey . . . Cercocebus torquatus 1.1 

Sooty mangabey Cercocebus Juliginosus 4.2 

Crested mangabey Cercocebus aterrimus 2.1 

Drill Mandrillus leucophaeus 1.0 

Olive baboon Papio anubis 3.2 

Chacma baboon Papio comatus 1.0 

Gelada baboon Theropithecus gelada 3.4 

Vervetguenon Cercopithecus aethiops 2.5 

Grivet guenon, color variant . Cercopithecus aethiops 0.1 

Hybrid guenon, color variant . C. a. pygerythrus X C. a. aethiops . 2 

Moustached monkey .... Cercopithecus cephus 1.2 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



169 



Family and common name Scientific name 

Diana monkey Cercopithecus diana . . . 

Roloway monkey Cercopithecus diana roloway . 

DeBrazza's guenon Cercopithecus neglectus . . 

White-nosed guenon .... Cercopithecus nictitans . . 

Allen's swamp monkey . . . Allenopithecus nigroviridis . 

Patas monkey Erythrocebus sp 

Dusky langur Presbytis obscurus . . . . 

Langur Presbytis entellus . . . . 

Crested entellus Presbytis cristatus . . . . 

Pongidae: 

White-handed gibbon .... Hylobates lar 

Wau-wau gibbon Hylobates moloch 

Hybrid gibbon H. lar X H. sp 

Siamang gibbon Symphalangus syndactylus . 

Borean orangutan Pongo pygmaeus 

Sumatran orangutan .... Pongo pygmaeus abelii . . . 

Chimpanzee Pan satyrus 

Lowland gorilla Gorilla gorilla 



Number 
1.0 
0.1 
1.0 
0.1 
1.1 
1.0 
1.0 
0.1 
1.0 

1.0 
0.1 
0.4 
2.0 
0.1 
2.1 
3.1 
2.2 



Edentata 
Myrmecophagidae: 

Giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla . 

Tamandua, or collared ant- Tamandua tetradactyla . 

eater. 
Bradypodidae: 

Two-toed sloth Choloepus didactylus . . 

Dasypodidae: 

Nine-banded armadillo . . . Dasypus novemcinctus . . 



0.1 
3.0 



8 
1.1 



Sciuridae: 

European red squirrel . . 
Gray squirrel, albino . . 
Western fox squirrel . . 
Southern fox squirrel . . 
Tricolored squirrel . . . 
Formosan tree squirrel . . 
Woodchuck, or groundhog 

Hoary marmot 

Prairie-dog 

California ground squirrel 
Washington ground squirrel 
Antelope ground squirrel 
Golden-mantled ground 

squirrel. 
Round-tailed ground squirrel 



RODENTIA 

Sciurus vulgaris . . . 

Sciurus carolinensis . . 

Sciurus niger . . . . 

Sciurus niger . . . . 

Callosciurus prevosti . 
Callosciurus erythraeus . 

Marmota monax . . 

Marmota caligata . . 

Cynomys ludovicianus . 

Citellus beecheyi . . . 

Citellus washingtoni . 

Citellus sp 

Citellus lateralis . . . 



Citellus tereticaudus 



1.1 

0.2 
1.0 
0.1 
0.1 
1.1 
0.1 
1.1 
28 
0.2 
0.1 
1.0 
0.1 

1.0 



170 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Family and common name 



Scientific name 



Eastern chipmunk Tamias striatus . 

Eastern chipmunk, albino . . Tamias striatus . 

Yellow pine chipmunk .... Eutamias amoenus 

Siebold's chipmunk Eutamias sibiricus 

Eastern flying squirrel . . . Glaucomys volans 
Heteromyidae: 

Kangaroo rat Dipodomys sp 

Castoridae: 

Beaver Castor canadensis 

Pedetidae: 

Cape jumping hare Pedetes capensis . 

Cricetidae: 

Fat-tailed gerbil . . . 

White-footed mouse 

East African maned rat 
Muridae: 

Egyptian spiny mouse . 

Egyptian spiny mouse . 

Negev spiny mouse . . 

Giant forest rat . . . 

Slender-tailed cloud rat 
Gliridae: 

Garden dormouse 
Hystricidae: 



Cavia porcellus . . 
Dolichotis patagonum 



African porcupine 

Brush-tailed porcupine 

Palawan porcupine . 
Cavidae: 

Abyssinian guinea pig 

Patagonian cavy . . 
Dasyproctidae: 

Hairy-rumped agouti 

Speckled agouti . . 

Acouchy 

Chinchillidae: 

Mountain viscacha . 
Hy drochoeridae : 

Capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaerus . . 



Pachyuromys duprasi 
Peromyscus sp . . 
Lophiomys ibeanus . 



Acomys cahirinus 
Acomys dimidiatus . 
Acomys sp . . . . 
Cricetomys gambianus 
Phloeomys cumingii 



Eliomys quercinus 



Hystrix cristata . 
Atherurus sp . . 
Thecurus pumilus 



Dasyprocta prymnolopha 
Dasyprocta punctata . 
Myoprocta acouchy . . 



Lagidium sp. 



Carnivora 
Canidae: 

Dingo Canis familiaris dingo 

Coyote Canis latrans . . . , 

Common jackal Canis aureus . . . , 

Timber wolf Canis lupus . . . . 



1.2 
1.0 
1.0 
1.1 

2.2 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 171 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Texas red wolf Cards niger rufus 0.1 

Fennec Fennecus zerda 1.1 

Gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus 1.2 

Red fox Vulpes fulva 1.0 

Raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides 0.1 

South American fox .... Dusicyon culpaeus 1.1 

Small-eared dog Atelocynus microtis 1.1 

Cape hunting dog Lycaon pictus 1.1 

Ursidae: 

Spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus 1.0 

Himalayan bear Selenarctos thibetanus 0.1 

Japanese black bear .... Selenarctos t. japonicus 1.0 

Korean bear Selenarctos t. ussuricus 1.1 

European brown bear .... Ursus arctos 2.2 

Iranian brown bear .... Ursus arctos 1.1 

Grizzly bear Ursus horribilis 1.1 

Kodiak bear Ursus middendorffi 1.0 

Black bear Euarctos americanus 1.1 

Polar bear Thalarctos maritimus 1.2 

Hybrid bear Thalarctos maritimus X Ursus 2.1 

middendorffi. 

Malay sun bear Helarctos malayanus 0.2 

Sloth bear Melursus ursinus 1.1 

Procyonidae: 

Cacomistle Bassariscus astutus 1.1 

Raccoon Procyon lotor 0.1 

Raccoon, albino Procyon lotor 0.1 

Raccoon, black phase .... Procyon lotor 1.0 

Coatimundi Nasua nasua 2.2 

Peruvian coatimundi .... Nasua n. dorsalis 1.2 

Kinkajou Potos flavus 2.1 

Olingo Bassaricyon gabbi 1.1 

Mustelidae: 

Fisher Martes pennanti 0.1 

Marten Martes americana 1.2 

Yellow- throated marten . . . Martes fiavigula henrici 1.1 

British Guiana tayra .... Tayra barbara poliocephala .... 1.1 

Grison Gallictis allimandi 1.0 

Zorilla Ictonyx striatus 1.0 

Wolverine Gulo gulo 0.1 

Ratel Mellivora capensis 1.0 

Eurasian, or common badger. Meles meles 0.1 

Golden-bellied ferret badger . Melogale moschata 1.1 

Common skunk Mephitis mephitis 0.1 

River otter Lutra canadensis 2.0 



172 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name 

Viverridae: 

Genet Genetta genetta 

Formosan spotted civet . . . Viverricula indica . . . 

Linsang Prionodon linsang . . . 

African palm civet Nandinia binotata . . . 

Masked civet Paguma larvata .... 

Binturong Arctictis binturong . . . 

African water civet Atilax paludinosus . . . 

Cusimanse Crossarchus fasciatus . . 

White-tailed mongoose . . . Ichneumia albicauda . . 

Black-footed mongoose . . . Bdeogale sp 

Hyaenidae: 

Striped hyena Hyaena hyaena .... 

Felidae: 

Bobcat Lynx rufus 

Canada lynx Lynx canadensis .... 

Jungle cat Felis chaus 

Serval cat Felis serval 

Fishing cat Felis viverrinus .... 

Leopard cat Felis bengalensis . . . 

Golden cat Felis aurata 

Flat-headed cat Felis planiceps 

Ocelot Felis pardalis 

Jaguarondi Felis yagouaroundi . . . 

Puma Felis concolor 

Leopard Panthera pardus .... 

Black leopard Panthera pardus .... 

Lion Panthera leo 

Bengal tiger Panthera tigris .... 

Bengal tiger, white Panthera tigris .... 

Jaguar Panthera onca .... 

Clouded leopard Neojelis nebulosa .... 

Cheetah Acinonyx jubata .... 



PlNNIPEDIA 

Otariidae: 

California sea-lion £alophus californianus 

Patagonian sea-lion Otaria Jlavescens . . . 

Phocidae: 
Harbor seal Phoca vitulina . . . 



TUBULIDENTATA 

Ory cteropodidae : 

Aardvark Orycteropus qfer 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 173 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Proboscidea 
Elephantidae: 

African elephant Loxodonta africana 0.1 

Forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis 1.0 

Indian elephant Elephas maximus 0.2 

Hyracoidea 
Procaviidae: 

Rock hyrax Procavia capensis 4 



Perissodactyla 

Equidae: 

Mongolian wild horse . . . Equus przewalski 1.0 

Grevy's zebra Equus grevyi 1.2 

Grant's zebra Equus burchelli 1 .4 

Burro Equus asinus 1.1 

Tapiridae: 

Brazilian tapir Tapirus terrestris 1.1 

Rhinocerotidae: 

One-horned Indian rhinoceros . Rhinoceros unicornis 1.1 

African black rhinoceros . . Diceros bicornis 1.1 

White, or square-lipped Ceratotherium simum 1.1 

rhinoceros. 

Artiodagtyla 

Tayassuidae: 

Collared peccary Tayassu tajacu 6.2 

Hippopotamidae : 

Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius 1.2 

Pygmy hippopotamus .... Choeropsis liberiensis 4.5 

Camelidae: 

Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius 1.0 

Bactrian camel Camelus bactrianus 0.1 

Llama Lama glama 1.2 

Alpaca Lama pacos 1.1 

Cervidae: 

Axis deer Axis axis 2.0 

Red deer Cervus elaphus *1.4 

Sika deer Cervus nippon *1.7 

American elk Cervus canadensis *1.0 

Pere David's deer Elaphurus davidianus 1.0 

Forest caribou Rangifer caribou 0.1 

Reindeer Rangifer tarandus 4.10 

Hybrid reindeer R. tarandusXR. caribou 0.1 

*On deposit at another zoo or sanctuary. 



174 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Giraffidae: 

Masai giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis 1.2 

Antilocapridae : 

Pronghorn antelope Antilocapra americana 1.0 

Bovidae: 

Sitatunga Tragelaphus spekii 

Yak Poephagus grunniens 

Gaur Bibos gaurus (one on deposit) . . . 

Cape buffalo Syncerus coffer 

Anoa Anos depressicornis 

Brindled gnu Connochaetes taurinus 

Maxwell's duiker Cephalophus maxwellii 

Dorcas gazelle Gazella dorcas 

Saiga antelope Saiga tatarica 

Rocky Mountain goat . . . Oreamnos americanus 

Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus 

African pygmy goat .... Capra hircus 

Ibex Capra ibex 

Aoudad Ammotragus lervia 

Bighorn sheep Ovis canadensis 

Dall sheep Ovis dalli 

BIRDS 

Sphenisciformes 
Spheniscidae: 

King penguin Aptenodytes patagonica 

Adelie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae 



Struthioniformes 
Struthionidae: 

Ostrich Struthio camelus 

Rheiformes 
Rheidae: 

Common Rhea Rhea americana 



Casuariiformes 
Casuariidae: 

Double-wattled cassowary . . Casuarius bicarunculatus 
Dromiceiidae: 
Emu Dromiceius novaehollandiae 



*On deposit at another zoo or sanctuary. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 175 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

TlNAMIFORMES 

Tinamidae: 

Spotted tinamou Nothura maculosa 1 

Tataupa tinamou Crypturellus tataupa 1 

Procellariiformes 
Diomedeidae: 

Black-footed albatross .... Diomedea nigripes 1 



Peleganiformes 
Pelecanidae: 

Old world white pelican . . Pelecanus onocrotalus 2.2 

American white pelican . . . Pelecanus erythrorhynchos 2 

Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis 1 

Dalmatian pelican Pelecanus crispus 2 

Phalacrocor acidae : 

Double-crested cormorant . . Phalacrocorax auritus 3 

Great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 5 

ClCONIIFORMES 

Ardeidae: 

Common egret Casmerodius albus 7 

Black-crowned night heron . Nycticorax nycticorax 11 

American bittern Botaurus lentiginosus 1 

Bare-throated tiger bittern . . Tigrisoma mexicanum 1 

Balaenicipitidae: 

Shoebill Balaeniceps rex 0.1 

Ciconiidae: 

American wood ibis .... Mycteria americana 1 

White stork Ciconia ciconia 2 

White-bellied stork Sphenorhynchus abdimii 1 

Black-necked stork Xenorhynchus asiaticus 1.1 

Painted stork Ibis leucocephalus 1 

Threskiornithidae: 

White ibis Eudocimus albus 3 

Scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber 11 

Black-faced ibis Theristicus caudatus 1 

Glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus 5 

Black-headed ibis Threskiornis melanocephala .... 1 

Roseate spoonbill Ajaia ajaja 3 

Phoenicopteridae: 

Chilean flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis 1 

Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber 3.3 

Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber roseus 1 



176 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Anseriformes 
Anhimidae: 

Crested screamer Chauna torquata 3 

Black-necked screamer . . . . Chauna chavaria 1.1 

Anatidae: 

Coscoroba swan Coscoroba coscoroba 

Mute swan Cygnus olor 

Black-necked swan Cygnus melancoriphus 

Whistling swan Cygnus columbianus 

Whooping swan Olor cygnus 

Trumpeter swan Olor buccinator 

Black swan Cygnus atratus 

Egyptian goose Alopochen aegyptiacus 

White-fronted goose .... Anser albifrons 

Bar-headed goose Anser indicus 

Emperor goose Anser canagicus 

Snow goose Anser caerulescens 

Snow goose, blue phase . . . Anser caerulescens 

Ross's snow goose Anser rossii 

Nene, or Hawaiian goose . . Bratita sandvicensis 

Red-brested goose Branta ruficollis 

Canada goose Branta canadensis 

Canada goose X snow goose, Branta canadensis X Anser caerulescens . 
hybrid. 

Canada goose Branta canadensis parvipes 

Canada goose Branta canadensis maxima 

Canada goose Branta canadensis minima 

Fulvous tree duck Dendrocygna bicolor 

Wood duck Aix sponsa 

Mandarin duck Aix galericulata 

Common pintail Anas acuta 

Green-winged teal Anas crecca 

Chestnut-brested teal .... Anas castanea 

European widgeon or Anas penelope 

baldpate. 

American widgeon Anas americana 

Spot-billed duck Anas poecilorhyncha 

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 

American black duck .... Anas rubripes 

Philippine duck Anas luzonica 

Greater scaup Aythya marila 

Lesser scaup Aythya qffinis 

Ring-necked duck Aythya collaris 

Rosy-billed pochard .... Netta peposaca 

Red-crested pochard .... Netta rufina 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



177 



Family and common name Scientific name 

Comb duck Sarkidiornis melanotos 

Ruddy shelduck Tadorna jerruginea . . 



Falconiformes 

Cathartidae: 

Andean condor Vultur gryphus . . . 

King vulture Sarcoramphus papa . . 

Sagittariidae: 

Secretary bird Sagittarius serpentarius 

Accipitridae: 

Hooded vulture Necrosyrtes monachus . 

Griffon vulture Gypsjuluus .... 

Ruppell's vulture Gyps ruppellii . . . 

Red- tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis . . 

Swainson's hawk Buteo swainsoni . . . 

Red-shouldered hawk .... Buteo lineatus . . . 

Ornate hawk-eagle Spizjaetus ornatus. . . 

Long-crested hawk-eagle . . Lophaetus occipitalis . 

Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos. . . 

Imperial eagle Aquila heliaca . . . 

White-bellied sea eagle . . . Haliaeetus leucogaster . 

Pallas' s fishing eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus 

Bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus 

Bateleur eagle Terathopius ecaudatus 



Lammergeier, or bearded 
vulture. 
Falconidae: 

American kestrel or American 

sparrowhawk. 
Peregrine falcon or duckhawk 
Eleonora's falcon . . 
Red-footed falcon . . 
Feilden's falconet . . 
Collared forest falcon 
Crested caracara . . 
White-throated caracara 



Gypaetus barbatus 



Falco sparverius 



Falco peregrinus . . . 
Falco eleonorae . . . 
Falco vespertinus . . . 
Keohierax insignis . . 
Micrastur semitorquatus 
Polyborus plancus . . 
Phalcoboenus albogularis 



Galliformes 
Megapodiidae: 

Brush turkey Alectura lathami . . 

Cracidae: 
Red-wattled curassow .... Crax globulosa . . 

Crested guan Penelope purpurascens 

White-crested piping guan . . Pipile cumanensis . 
789-427—66 23 



Number 
2.2 
3.3 



1.0 

2 

1.1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
5 
2 
1 
1 
7 
1 
1 



0.1 

1 
1 
1 
0.1 
2 
2 
1 



1 

1.1 

1.0 
2.0 



178 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Phasianidae: 

Common quail Coturnix coturnix 0.1 

Rain quail Coturnix coromandelica 8 

Scaled quail Callipepla squamata 4 

Gambel's quail Lophortyx gambeli 1.0 

California quail Lophortyx calif ornicus 1 

Argus pheasant Argusianus argus 1.0 

Golden pheasant Chrysolophus pictus . 0.1 

Black-breasted Kalij pheasant . Lophura leucomelana 1.1 

Silver pheasant Lophura nycthemera 1.0 

Ring-necked pheasant .... Phasianus colchicus 6.4 

Blue-eared pheasant Crossoptilon auritum 1.0 

Napoleon peacock-pheasant . Polyplectron emphanum 1.1 

Gray, or chinquis peacock- Polyplectron bicalcaratum *1.1 

pheasant. 

Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus 3.3 

Red jungle fowl Gallus gallus 1.0 

Chukar Alectoris chukar 1.1 

Painted partridge Francolinus pictus 1.0 

Island chukar gray partridge . Francolinus pondicerianus 1.1 

Greek chukar black wood Melanoperdix nigra 3.2 

partridge. 
Numididae: 

Vulturine guinea fowl .... Acryllium vulturinum 0.1 

Gruiformes 
Gruidae: 

Asiatic white crane Grus leucogeranus 1 

Sandhill crane Grus canadensis 6 

Common crane Grus grus 1.1 

Sarus crane Grus antigone 1 

Crowned crane Balearica pavonina 7 

Demoiselle crane Anthropoides virgo 4 

Psophiidae: 

White-winged trumpeter . . . Psophia leucoptera 1.1 

Rallidae: 

Cayenne wood rail Aramides cajanea 3 

White-throated crake .... Laterallus albigularis 1 

Common gallinule Gallinula chloropus 6 

Purple gallinule Porphyrula martinica 1 

Eurypygidae: 

Sun bittern Eurypyga helias 1 

Cariamidae: 

Crested seriama Cariama cristata 1 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 179 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Otididae: 

Kori bustard Ardeotis kori 2.0 

Senegal bustard Eupodotis senegalensis 1.0 

Charadriiformes 
Jacanidae: 

Pheasant-tailed jacana . . . Hydrophasianus chirurgus 1 

Charadriidae: 

Banded plover ^pnifer tricolor 2 

American golden plover . . . Pluvialis dominica 1 

Southern lapwing Belonopterus chilensis 4 

Glareolidae: 

Egyptian plover Pluvianus aegyptius 6 

Recurvirostridae: 

Black-necked stilt Himantopus mexicanus 1 

Laridae: 

Ring-billed gull Larus delawarensis 3 

Laughing gull Larus atricilla 3 

Silver gull Larus novaehollandiae 4 

Sooty tern Sterna fuse ata 5 

Inca tern Larosterna inca 2 

COLUMBIFORMES 

Columbidae: 

Speckled pigeon Columba guinea 1 

Band-tailed pigeon Columba fasciata 2 

Green imperial pigeon . . . Ducula aenea 1 

Crested bronze-wing pigeon . Ocyphaps lophotes 4 

Orange-breasted green pigeon . Treron bicincta 0.2 

Common bronze-wing pigeon . Phaps chalcoptera 2 

Blue ground dove Claravis pretiosa 1.1 

Ruddy ground dove .... Columbigallina talpacoti 1 

Emerald dove Chalcophaps indica 1 

Ringed turtle dove Streptopelia risoria 5 

Mourning dove ^enaidura macroura 7 

PsiTTACIFORMES 

Psittacidae: 

Kea Nestor notabilis 1.0 

Black cockatoo Calyptorhynchus magnificus 1 .0 

Solomon Islands cockatoo . . Kakatoe ducrops *1 

Sulphur-crested cockatoo . . Kakatoe galerita 2 

Bare-eyed cockatoo Kakatoe sanguinea 1 

Rose-crested cockatoo .... Kakatoe moluccensis 1 

Leadbeater's cockatoo . . . Kakatoe leadbeateri 4 

Cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus 1.2 



180 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Family and common name 
Yellow and blue macaw . . 
Red-and-green macaw. . . 

Scarlet macaw 

Red-and-blue macaw . . . 
Cherry-headed conure parrot 
Brown-throated conure . . 

Petz's conure 

Dusky-headed conure . . . 
Nanday or blackheaded 

conure. 

Chilean conure 

Yellow-winged conure . . . . 

Monk parakeet 

Double-yellow-headed 

Amazon parrot. 
Single-yellow-headed Amazon 

parrot. 
Yellow-naped Amazon parrot. 
Yellow-fronted Amazon 

parrot. 
Red-lored Amazon parrot . . 
White-fronted Amazon parrot . 
Festive Amazon parrot . . . 
Black-headed caique . . . . 
Budgerigar or warbling grass 

parakeet. 
Blue-rumped parrotlet 
Princess parrot .... 
Rosy-faced lovebird 
African grey parrot . . 
Red-sided eclectus parrot 
Alexandrine parakeet . 
Rose-ringed parakeet . 
Moustached parakeet . , 
Blossom-headed parakeet 
Blue-winged parakeet . . 



Scientific name 



Ara ararauna . . . 
Ara chloroptera . . 
Ara macao .... 
Ara maracana . . 
Aratinga erythrogenys 
Aratinga pertinax . 
Aratinga canicularis 
Aratinga weddellii . 
Nandayus nanday . 



Microsittacae ferruginea 
Brotogeris versicolurus 
Myiopsitta monachus . 
Amazona ochrocephala 

Amazona ochrocephala 

Amazona ochrocephala 
Amazona ochrocephala 

Amazona autumnalis . 
Amazona albifrons . . 
Amazona /estiva . . . 
Pionites melanocephala 
Melopsittacus undulatus 

Forpus cyanopygius . . 
Polytelis alexandrae 
Agapornis roseicollis . 
Psittacus erithacus . . 
Lorius roratus . . . 
Psittacula eupatria . . 
Psittacula krameri . . 
Psittacula alexandri. . 
Psittacula cyanocephala 
Psittacula columboides 



GUGULIFORMES 

Musophagidae: 

White-bellied go-away bird 
White-cheeked turaco . . . 
Purple-crested turaco . . . 
Cuculidae: 
Greater roadrunner Geococcyx californianus 

*On deposit at another zoo or sanctuary. 



Corythaixoides leucogaster 
Tauraco leucotis .... 
Gallirex porphyreolophus . 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Family and common name Scientific name 



Strigiformes 
Tytonidae: 

Common barn owl Tyto alba .... 

Strigidae: 

Spectacled owl Pulsatrix perspicillata 

Snowy owl Nyctea scandiaca 

Barred owl Strix varia .... 

Brown wood-owl Strix leptogrammica . 

Burrowing owl Speotyto cunicularia 

Eagle owl Bubo bubo .... 

Elf owl Micrathene whitneyi 



181 

Number 



Trochilidae: 

White-throated amazilia 
hummingbird. 

Coliidae: 
Red-faced coly . . . 



Apodiformes 

Amazilia amazilia 
COLIIFORME 

Colius indicus . . 



Momotus momota . . . 
Baryphthengus ruficapillus 



GORAGIIFORMES 

Alcedinidae: 

Kookaburra or laughing Dacelo gigas . . 

jackass. 
White-breasted kingfisher . . Halcyon smyrnensis 

Momotidae: 

Blue-crowned motmot 

Great rufous motmot , 
Coraciidae: 

Lilac-breasted roller .... Coracias caudata 

Indian roller Coracias benghalensis 

Bucerotidae: 

Concave-casqued, or great Buceros bicornis . . 

pied, hornbill. 

Indian pied hornbill 

Malabar pied hornbill 



Wrinkled hornbill. . 
Wreathed hornbill . 
Yellow-billed hornbill 
Abyssinian ground hornbill 
Leadbeater's ground hornbill 



Anthracoceros malabaricus 

Anthracoceros coronatus . 

Rhyticeros corrugatus . . 

Rhyticeros undulatus . . 

Tockus fiavirostris . . . 

Bucorvus abyssinicus . . 

Bucorvus leadbeateri . . 



13 



1 
1 

2 
2 

•1.1 

2 
1 
1 
0.1 
0.1 
1.1 
1.0 



182 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

PlCIFORMES 

Capitonidae: 

Lineated barbet Megalaima lineata 3 

Great hill barbet Megalaima vixens 1 

Ramphastidae: 

Swainson's toucan Ramphastos swainsonii 0.1 

Keel-billed toucan Ramphastos sulfuratus 0.1 

Channel-billed toucan . . . Ramphastos vitellinus 0.2 

Razor-billed aracari .... Pteroglossus castanotis 1.0 

Picidae: 

Pileated woodpecker .... Dryocopus pileatus 1 

Passeriformes 
Cotingidae: 

Peruvian or scarlet cock-of- Rupicola peruviana 1.0 

the-rock. 

Tyrannidae: 

Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus 3 

Dicruridae: 

Greater racket-tailed drongo . Dicrurus paradiseus 3 

Oriolidae: 

Maroon oriole Oriolus trailli 0.1 

Corvidae: 

Magpie-jay Calocitta formosa 1 

Green jay Cyanocorax yncas 3 

Violaceus jay Cyanocorax violaceus 4 

San Bias jay Cissilopha sanblasiana 2 

Bushy-crested jay Cissilopha melanocyanea 1 

Himalayan tree pie Dendrocitta Jormosae 1 

Common jay Garrulus glandarius 1 

Blue jay Cyanocitta cristata 1 

Hunting cissa Cissa chinensis 6 

Red-billed blue magpie . . . Urocissa erythrorhyncha 3 

Formosan blue pie Urocissa caerulea 8 

Pied crow Corvus albus 2 

Common raven Corvus corax 2 

Paridae: 

Great tit Parus major 1 

Timaliidae: 

Slaty-headed scimitar babbler . Pomatorhinus schisticeps 1 

White-crested laughing thrush. Garrulax leucolophus 4 

Necklaced laughing thrush . . Garrulax monileger 2 

Nilgiri or rufous-breasted, Garrulax cachinnans 2 

laughing thrush. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



183 



Family and common name 



Scientific name 



Troglodytes troglodytes 



Turdus migratorius .... 
Turdus migratorius .... 

Turdus viscivorus 

Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris 
Copsychus malabaricus .... 
^oothera citrina 



Black-capped sibia Heterophasia capistrata 

Silver-eared mesia Leiothrix argentauris . 

Red-billed leiothrix Leiothrix lutea. . . . 

Pycnonotidae: 

Black-headed bulbul .... Pycnonotus atriceps . . 

Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer . . . 

Red-whiskered bulbul .... Pycnonotus jocosus . . 

White-throated bulbul . . . Criniger Jlaveolus . . 

Irenidae: 

Gold-fronted chloropsis or leaf Chloropsis aurifrons . . 
bird. 

Troglodytidae: 

Winter wren 

Turdidae: 

American robin 

American robin, albino . . 

Mistle thrush 

Cliff chat 

Shama thrush 

Orange-headed ground 
thrush. 

Bombycillidae: 

Cedar waxwing 

Sturnidae: 

Rosy pastor 

Purple glossy starling . . . 
Greater glossy starling . . 

Violet starling 

Jungle mynah 

Hill mynah 

Pied mynah 

Gray-headed mynah . . . 
Black-headed, or Brahminy, 

mynah. 
Black-winged mynah . . 
Common starling .... 
Rothschild's mynah . . 
Gold-crested mynah . . 
Black-bellied glossy starling 

Nectariniidae: 

Tacazze sunbird .... 
Zosteropidae: 

Oriental white-eye . . . 



Bombycilla cedrorum 



Sturnus roseus . . . . 

Lamprotornis purpureus . 
Lamprotornis australis 
Cinnyricinclus leucogaster . 

Acridotheres fuscus . . . 

Gracula religiosa . . . 

Sturnus contra . . . . 

Sturnus malabaricus . . 

Sturnus pagodarum . . . 



Sturnus melanopterus . 
Sturnus vulgaris . . . 
Leucopsar rothschildi . 
Ampeliceps coronatus . 
Lamprotornis corruscus 



Nectarinia tacazze 



Number 
1 
4 
7 

5 
4 
4 

4 



0.1 

4 
2 
2 
2 

2 
1 
2 
2 
6 

1.0 



fysterops palpebrosa 



184 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Coerebidae: 

Green honeycreeper .... Chlorophanes spiza 0.1 

Purple or yellow-legged Cyanerpes caeruleus 1.0 

honeycreeper. 
Plocidae: 

Red-collared widowbird . . . Euplectes ardens 3.0 

Jackson's whydah Euplectes jacksoni 1.0 

Masked weaver Ploceus velatus 4.0 

Red bishop bird Euplictes orix 1.0 

Common silverbill or white- Lonchura malabarica 2 

throated Munia. 
Bengalese finch (domesticated Lonchura striata 1 

form of striated mannikin= 

white-backed Munia). 
Black-headed Munia or Lonchura malacca 3 

chestnut mannikin. 
Nutmeg mannikin or spotted Lonchura punctulata 6 

Munia. 

Cut-throat finch Amadina fasciata 2.1 

Strawberry finch Estrilda amandava 3 

Common waxbill Estrilda astrild 1 

Orange-cheeked waxbill . . . Estrilda melpoda 1 

Zebra finch Poephila castanotis 2.1 

Java rice finch Padda oryzivora 11 

Icteridae: 

Troupial Icterus icterus 3 

Yellow-headed marshbird . . Agelaius icterocephalus 1 

Giant cowbird Scaphidura oryzivora 1 

Shiny cowbird Molothrus bonariensis 1 

Colombian red-eyed cowbird . Tangavius armenti 1.0 

Bronzed cowbird Tangavius aenus 1.1 

Brown-headed cowbird . . . Molothrus ater 2 

Red-winged blackbird . . . Agelaius phoeniceus 1 

Purple grackle Quiscalus quiscula 3 

Thraupidae: 

Blue tanager Thraupis virens 

Yellow-rumped tanager . . . Ramphocelus icteronotus 

Masked crimson tanager . . Ramphocelus nigrogularis 

Flame-rumped tanager . . . Ramphocelus flammigerus 

Blue-winged mountain tana- Compsocoma fiavinucha 

ger 
Boddaert's tanager Tachyphonus rufus 

Fringillidae: 

Black-chinned siskin .... Spinus barbatus 

Screaming seedeater Sporophila caerulescens 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



185 



Family and common name 
Ruddy-breasted seedeater 
Chestnut-bellied seed finch 
Buff-throated saltator 
Blue-black grassquit 
Ortolan bunting . . 
Red-headed bunting 

Canary 

Yellow-grass finch . 



Scientific name 
Sporophila minuta . . . 
Oryzoborus angolinsis . . 
Saltator maximus . . . 
Volatinia jacarina . . . 
Emberiza calandra . . . 
Emberiza brumiceps . . 
Serinus canarius .... 
Sicalis luteola 



Number 
1.1 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
2 
14 



Alligatoridae: 

Caiman 

Black caiman . . . 
American alligator . 
Chinese alligator . . 

Crocodilidae: 
Broad-nosed crocodile 
African crocodile . . 
Narrow-nosed crocodile 
Salt-water crocodile 
American crocodile 
Morelett's crocodile 

Gavialidae: 



REPTILES 

LORICATA 



Caiman sclerops . . . 
Melanosuchus niger 
Alligator mississipiensis 
Alligator sinensis. . . 



Osteolaemus tetraspis . 
Crocodylus niloticus 
Crocodylus cataphractus 
Crocodylus porosus . . 
Crocodylus acutus . . 
Crocodylus moreletii 



Indian gavial Gavialis gangeticus 



Chelydridae: 

Snapping turtle 

Alligator snapping turtle . . 
Kinosternidae: 

Stinkpot 

Mud turtle 

Tropical mud turtle . . . . 

Central American mud turtle. 
Emydidae: 

Tropical American pointed- 
nosed turtle. 

Box turtle 

Florida box turtle 

Ornate box turtle 

Kura kura box turtle . . . . 

Diamondback terrapin . . 

Map turtle 



Chelonia 

Chelydra serpentina 
Macrochelys temminckii 

Sternotherus odoratus . 
Kinosternon subrubrum 
Kinosternon spurrelli . 
Kinosternon cruentatum 



Geoemyda punctuaria 



Terrapene Carolina . . 
Terrapene c. bauri . . 
Terrapene ornata ornata 
Cuora amboinensis . . 
Malaclemys terrapin . 
Graptemys geographica 



9 

3 

10 
2 

2 
3 
1 
1 
2 
1 



17 
1 

4 
5 
3 
1 



75 
5 
1 
3 
8 
1 



186 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Family and common name 

Barbour's map turtle . 

Mississippi map turtle . 

Painted turtle .... 

Western painted turtle. 

Southern painted turtle 

Cumberland turtle . . 

South American red-lined 
turtle. 

Yellow-bellied turtle . . . 

Red-eared turtle 

Red-bellied turtle .... 

Gooter 

Peninsula cooter 

Florida red-bellied turtle 

Central American turtle . . 

Cuban water turtle .... 

Higatee turtle 

Chicken turtle 

Spotted turtle 

Wood turtle 

Iberian pond turde .... 

European water terrapin 

European pond turtle . . . 

Blanding's or semibox turtle 

Reeves' turde ...... 

Testudinidae: 

Duncan Island tortoise . . 

Galapagos tortoise .... 

Galapagos tortoise .... 

Giant Aldabra tortoise . . . 

South American tortoise . . 

Star tortoise 

Mountain tortoise 

Texas tortoise 

Soft-shell tortoise 

Pelomedusidae: 

African water turde . . . 

African black mud turtle . . 

Amazon spotted turtle . . 
Chelydidae: 

South American side-necked 
turde. 

Australian snake-necked 
turde. 

Matamata turde 

Small side-necked turde . . 



Scientific name Number 

Graptemys barbouri 4 

Graptemys pseudogeographica kohni 3 

Chrysemys p. picta 10 

Chrysemys p. belli 17 

Chrysemys p. dorsalis 1 

Pseudemys scripta troostii 7 

Pseudemys s. callirostris 2 

Pseudemys s. scripta 18 

Pseudemys s. elegans 36 

Pseudemys rubriventris 6 

Pseudemys floridana 6 

Pseudemys j ". peninsularis 1 

Pseudemys nelsoni 2 

Pseudemys ornata 2 

Pseudemys decussata 1 

Pseudemys rugosa 1 

Deirochelys reticularia 2 

Clemmys guttata 2 

Clemmys insculpta 6 

Clemmys leprosa 5 

Clemmys caspica rivulata 13 

Emys orbicularis 1 

Emys blandingii 2 

Chinemys reevesii 4 

Testudo ephippium 1 

Testudo e. elephantopus 1 

Testudo elephantopus vicina .... 2 

Testudo gigantea 4 

Testudo denticulata 5 

Testudo elegans 5 

Testudo emys 1 

Gopherus berlandieri 1 

Malacochersus tornieri 4 

Pelomedusa sinuata 2 

Pelusios subniger 1 

Podocnemis unifilis 5 

Batrachemys nasuta 1 

Chelodina longicollis 3 

Chelys fimbriata 1 

Hydromedusa iectifera 2 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 187 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Large side-necked turtle . . . Phrynops hilarii 7 

Krefft's turtle Emydura krefftii 3 

Murray turtle Emydura macquarrii 3 

South American gibba turtle . Mesoclemmys gibba 2 

Flat-headed turde Platemys platycephala 1 

Trionychidae: 

Spiny softshell Trionyx ferox 5 

Texas softshell Trionyx f. emoryi 1 

African softshell Trionyx triunguis 2 

Sauria 
Gekkonidae: 

Tokay gecko Gekko gecko 26 

Day gecko Phelsuma sp 1 

Banded gecko Coleonyx variegatus 2 

Agamidae: 

Agamid lizard Agama stellio 4 

Blood-sucker lizard Calotes versicolor 2 

Iguanidae: 

Common iguana Iguana iguana 7 

Basilisk lizard Basiliscus sp 1 

Rhinoceros iguana Cyclura cornuta 3 

Carolina anole Anolis carolinensis 50 

West Indies anole Anolis conspersus 4 

Fence lizard Sceloporus undulatus 4 

Blue spiny lizard Sceloporus cyanogenys 24 

West Indies fence lizard . . . Leiocephalus varius 1 

Plica lizard Plica plica 1 

Scincidae: 

Mourning skink Egernia luctuosa 2 

White's skink Egernia whitei 1 

Four-lined skink Eumeces tetragrammus 1 

Five-lined skink Eumeces fasciatus 1 

Great Plains skink Eumeces obsoletus 1 

Stump- tailed skink Tiliqua rugosa 1 

Gerr hosauridae : 

African plated lizard .... ^jonosaurus sp 1 

Madagascar plated lizard . . ^pnosaurus madagascariensis .... 1 

Plated lizard Gerrhosaurus major 1 

Lacertidae: 

European lizard Lacerta strigata trilineata 1 

Sand lizard Lacerta agilis 1 

Teeidae: 

Caiman lizard Dracaena guianensis 1 

Ameiva lizard Ameiva ameiva praesignis 1 



188 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Black tegu Tupinambis nigropunctatus 3 

Spotted whiptail Cnemidophorus gularis 1 

Cordylidae: 

South African spiny lizard . . Gordylus vandami perkoensis .... 2 

African spiny lizard .... Cordylus polyzonus 2 

Varanidae: 

Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis 1.0 

Dumeril's monitor Varanus dumerili 1 

Malayan monitor Varanus salvator 1 

Helodermatidae : 

Gila monster Heloderma suspectum 1 

Mexican beaded lizard . . . Heloderma h. horridum 2 

Beaded lizard, black phase . Heloderma h. alvernensis 1 

Anguidae: 

European glass lizard, or slow Anguis fragilis 2 

worm. 

Slender glass lizard Ophisaurus attenuatus 2 

European glass lizard .... Ophisaurus apodus 4 

Texas alligator lizard .... Gerrhonotus liocephalus inf emails . . 3 

Serpentes 
Boidae: 

Common anaconda Eunectes murinus 5 

Trinidad tree boa Epicrates fordii 2 

Cook's tree boa Corallus enydris cooki 1 

Boa constrictor Constrictor c. constrictor 5 

Emperor boa Constrictor c. imperator 1 

Sand boa Eryxjohni 1 

Sand boa Eryxjaculus 1 

Sand boa Eryx conica 1 

Indian python Python molurus 3 

Regal python Python reticulatus 4 

Blood python Python curtis 1 

African python Python sebae 1 

Acrochor didae : 

Elephant trunk snake .... Acrochor dus javanicus 1 

Colubridae: 

New Guinea tree snake . . . Boiga irregularis 1 

Eastern kingsnake Lampropeltis getulus getulus .... 3 

Speckled kingsnake Lampropeltis g. holbrooki 2 

California kingsnake .... Lampropeltis g. calif orniae 3 

Florida kingsnake Lampropeltis g. floridana 3 

Sonoran kingsnake Lampropeltis g. splendida 1 

Scarlet kingsnake Lampropeltis doliata doliata .... 1 

Tropical kingsnake Lampropeltis d. polyzona 1 

Eastern milk snake ..... Lampropeltis d. triangulum .... 2 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 189 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Coastal Plain milk snake . . Lampropeltis d. temporalis 1 

Western milk snake Lampropeltis d. gentilis 1 

Prairie kingsnake Lampropeltis c. calligaster 1 

Mole snake Lampropeltis c. rhombomaculata ... 2 

Texas lined snake Tropidoclonion lineatum texanum ... 1 

Eastern garter snake .... Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis .... 1 

Eastern black-necked garter Thamnophis cyrtopsis ocellata .... 1 
snake. 

Pvibbon snake Thamnophis sauritus 1 

Eastern hog-nosed snake . . Heterodon platyrhinos platyrhinos . . . 1 

Common water snake .... Matrix s. sipedon 3 

Broad-banded water snake . . Natrix s. confiuens 1 

Red-bellied water snake . . . Natrix erythrogaster erythrogaster . . 1 

Blotched water snake .... Natrix e. transversa 1 

Diamond-backed water snake . Natrix rhombifera 4 

Brown water snake Natrix taxispilota 4 

Grand Cayman water snake . Tretanorhinus variabilis lewisi ... 4 

Eastern indigo snake .... Drymarchon corals couperi 1 

Texas indigo snake Drymarchon c. erebennus 1 

Black rat snake Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta 6 

Black rat snake, albino . . . Elpahe o. obsoleta *1 

Yellow rat snake Elaphe o. quadrivittata 4 

Texas rat snake Elaphe o. lindheimeri 2 

Corn snake Elaphe guttata guttata 4 

Great Plains rat snake . . . Elaphe g. emoryi 1 

Asiatic striped rat snake . . . Elaphe taeniura 5 

Japanese rat snake Elaphe climacophora 1 

Chinese rat snake Elaphe carinata 2 

Aesculapian snake Elaphe longissima 2 

African house snake .... Boaedon Juliginosus 2 

Banded rat snake Dinodon rufozonatum 4 

European racer Coluber viridijlavus . 

Northern black racer .... Coluber constrictor constrictor .... 

European racer Coluber jugularis caspius 

Pink coachwhip Masticophis fiagellum testaceus . . . 

Northern ringneck snake . . Diadophis punctatus edwardsii .... 

Eastern worm snake .... Carphophis amoenus amoenus .... 

Brown's snake Storeria dekayi 

Great Basin gopher snake . . Pituophis catenifer deserticola .... 

Bullsnake Pituophis c. sayi 

Bullsnake Pituophis sp 

File snake Simocephalus capensis 

Wolf snake Lycodon fiavomaculatum 

Green-headed tree snake . . Leptophis mexicanus 

Glossy snake Arizona elegans 



*On deposit at another zoo or sanctuary. 



190 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

Elapidae: 

Indian cobra Naja naja 1 

Taiwan cobra Naja n. atra 7 

African black cobra .... Naja melanoleaca 1 

King cobra Ophiophagus hannah 2 

Many-banded krait Bungarus multicinctus 2 

Banded krait Bungarus fasciatus 1 

Viperidae: 

Gaboon viper Bitis gabonica 1 

Russell's viper Vipera russelli 1 

Saw-scale viper Echis carinatus 1 

Crotalidae: 

Copperhead Ancistrodon contortrix 2 

Southern copperhead .... Ancistrodon c. contortrix 2 

Northern copperhead .... Ancistrodon c. mokeson 2 

Broad-banded copperhead . . Ancistrodon c. laticinctus 1 

Cottonmouth Ancistrodon p. piscivorus 4 

Western cottonmouth .... Ancistrodon p. leucostoma 1 

Cantil Ancistrodon bilineatus 1 

Pygmy rattlesnake Sistrurus miliarus 1 

Green palm viper Trimeresurus gramineus 1 

Green viper Trimeresurus sp 2 

Mamushi Trimeresurus elegans 1 

Habu Trimeresurus flavoviridis 2 

Western diamondback rattle- Crotalus atrox 6 

snake. 

Timber rattlesnake Crotalus h. horridus 1 

Canebrake rattlesnake . . . Crotalus h. atricaudatus 1 

Mohave diamondback rattle- Crotalus scutulatus 1 

snake. 

AMPHIBIANS 

Gaudata 
Cryptobranchidae : 

Giant salamander Megalobatrachus japonicus 1 

Amphiumidae: 

Congo eel Amphiuma means 1 

Amby stomatidae : 

Tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum 2 

Spotted salamander .... Ambystoma maculatum 1 

Salaman dridae : 

Japanese red-bellied newt . . Diemictylus pyrrhogaster 4 

Red-spotted newt Diemictylus viridescens viridescens . . 11 

Broken-striped newt .... Diemictylus viridescens dorsalis ... 7 

European newt Triturus sp 3 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 191 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 

European newt Triturus sp 4 

Fire salamander Salamandra salamandra 6 

Proteidae: 

Mudpuppy Necturus sp 2 

Salientia 
Bufonidae: 

American toad Bufo terrestris americanus 1 

Fowler's toad Bufo woodhousei fowleri 1 

Blomberg's toad Bufo blombergi 1 

Giant toad Bufo marinus 8 

Natterjack toad Bufo calamita 1 

Green toad Bufo viridis 1 

Cuban toad Bufo peltocephalus 5 

Crested tropical American Bufo typhonius 2 

toad. 

Colorado River toad .... Bufo alvarius 2 

Western toad Bufo boreas 1 

Pipidae: 

Surinam toad Pipa pipa 4 

African clawed frog Xenopus laevis 3 

Congo pygmy frog Hymenochirus sp 2 

Hylidae: 

Gray tree frog Hyla versicolor 1 

Tree frog Hyla rubra 1 

Canyon tree frog Hyla arenicolor 1 

Green tree frog Hyla cinerea 1 

Barking tree frog Hyla gratiosa 1 

Microhylidae: 

Narrow-mouthed toad . . . Microhyla carolinensis 2 

Ranidae: 

American bull frog Rana catesbeiana 1 

Green frog Rana clamitans melanota 1 

Leopard frog Rana pipiens 25 

FISHES 

Neoceratodontoidei 
Protopteridae: 

Lungfish Protopterus sp 1 



Enchelycephaloidei 
Teleostidae: 

Freshwater eel Synbranchus sp. . 



192 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 
OSTARIOPHYSOIDEI 

Characidae: 

Piranha Serrasalmus natteri 1 

Black tetra Gymnocorymbus ternetzi 1 

Metynnis, or silver dollar . . Metynnis maculatus 1 

Cyprinidae: 

Zebra danio Brachydanio rerio 2 

Tiger barb Barbus partipentazona 1 

White Cloud Mountain fish . Tanichthys albonubes 1 

Goldfish Carassius auratus 31 

Loricariidae: 

South American sucking Hypostomus plecostomus 9 

catfish. 
Black bullhead Ictalurus melas 1 

Electrophoridae : 
Electric eel Electrophorus electricus 6 

Cyprinodontoidei 

Poeciliidae: 

Flag-tailed guppy Lebistes reticulatus 10 

Guppy Lebistes reticulatus 15 

Black mollie Mollienesia latipinna 1 

Platy, or moonfish Xiphophorus maculatus 5 

Green swordtail Xiphophorus sp 20 

Red swordtail Xiphophorus sp 40 

Percomorphoidei 

Anabantidae: 

Kissing gourami Helostoma temmincki 1 

Paradise-fish Macropodus operculars 2 

Centrarchidae: 
Common bluegill Lepomis macrochirus 1 

Cichlidae: 

Peacock cichlid Astronotus ocellatus 1 

Jack Dempsey fish Cichlasoma biocellatum 1 

African mouthbreeder . . . Pelmatochromis guentheri 1 

Angelfish Pterophyllum eimekei 1 

Gobiidae: 
Bumblebee fish Brachygobius doriae 1 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 193 

ARTHROPODS 
Decapoda 

Family and common name Scientific name Number 
Cenobitidae: 

Land hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus 6 

Key West hermit crab . . . Coenobita diogenes 13 

Araneida 
Aviculariidae: 
Tarantula Eurypelma sp 1 

Orthoptera 
Blattidae: 

Tropical giant cockroach . . Blaberus giganteus 35 

MOLLUSKS 

PULMONATA 

Planorbidae: 
Pond snail Helisoma trivolvis 30 

REPORT OF THE VETERINARIAN 

The posterior paralysis of Nikumba, the male lowland gorilla, has 
been mentioned in both the 1963 and 1964 reports of the veterinarian. 
In order to complete the record of his illness, it should be mentioned 
that mating has been observed on several occasions, and apparently 
he has made a complete physical and physiological recovery. 

The Komodo dragon, whose infection was discussed in last year's 
report, has completely recovered. Fecal cultures were made monthly, 
and in no instance were amoebae or flagellates indicated. 

The operation of the veterinary section was greatly facilitated by 
the construction of a one-story addition on the rear of the hospital, 
making it possible to remove animal holding cages from the building 
and to place them in the new addition. Within the additional space, 
it was also possible to provide an autopsy room with outside access, 
thus eliminating the transport of dead animals and birds through the 
hospital proper. 

Several interesting developments strictly within the field of veterinary 
medicine occurred during the past year. On July 4, 1964, the male 
Grevy zebra was observed to have a dangling left hind foot. The 

789-427—06 24 



194 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

stud was immobilized, and X-rays taken in the corral showed a double 
transverse fracture of the third metacarpal bone. While the animal 
was under anesthesia a plaster cast with a walking stirrup was applied, 
permitting relatively normal movement of the zebra. The cast was 
not disturbed for 12 weeks; following its removal, gradually increasing 
amounts of weight were placed on the foot. Two months later the 
animal was moving normally and had made a complete recovery. 

On June 7, 1965, a 400-pound Aldabra tortoise was found lame in 
the right front leg. X-rays taken in the enclosure revealed the presence 
of an oblique spiral fracture of the right forelimb, and a cast was 
applied. To assist in necessary movement, the tortoise was secured 
on a mover's dolly with ropes across its back. The cast as originally 
applied was lost the following weekend, and it was decided to immo- 
bilize the leg by using a part of the dolly as a splint. Relaxation of 
the right forelimb was much more pronounced, and a cast was applied 
that completely immobilized the fracture site. This cast will remain 
approximately 8 weeks, and further X-rays will be taken. The 
tortoise is separated from its cage mates, moves around effortlessly, 
and takes full advantage of the wheels on the dolly to support its 
weight. 

Cultural studies made on buccal and enteric infections in snakes 
and lizards in the reptile collection revealed a pure culture of Pseudo- 
monas aruginosa which was chlorotetracycline sensitive. A prophy- 
lactic program was established in which all snakes and lizards receive 
chlorotetracycline (soluble aureomycin) in their drinking water for 
5 days, followed by 9 days of clear water. Since initiation of this pro- 
gram in mid-January 1965, deaths from necrotic gingivitis and necrotic 
enteritis in the reptile collection have been reduced to one or two 
specimens a month. 

An informal agreement was reached with the veterinary pathology 
section of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Walter Reed 
Army Medical Center, involving the assignment, on a weekly basis, 
of a staff member to perform autopsies and to observe the clinically 
ill animals in the collection. This collaboration has been extremely 
beneficial both to the AFIP, because of their interest in comparative 
micropathology, and to the veterinary section, because of the Zoo's 
interest in having a more definitive statement as to the cause of deaths 
in the collecton. 

The staff of the veterinary section was increased by one medica 
technologist, Mrs. Janet Davis, who joined the section on March 1 
She is a graduate of Oregon State University and has had a broad 
range of experience in Hawaii and more recently at George Wash- 
ington Hospital. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 195 

The veterinary section procured the temporary services of three 
university students through the summer months. They are assisting 
in the routine operation of the veterinary hospital, as well as in animal 
care and treatment. 

The veterinary section was fortunate in having the cooperation and 
assistance of various specialists in the field of clinical investigation and 
medicine. Among these are Dr. A. G. Carlson of the Mayo Clinic in 
Rochester, Minn.; Dr. F. R. Lucas, director of the Livestock Sanitary 
Laboratory in Centerville, Md.; Dr. Anthony Morris of the National 
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.; Gen. Joe M. Blumberg and Col. 
F. M. Garner and their staff of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. 

The following papers were prepared for publication in the Inter- 
national Zoo Yearbook, volume 6 (London Zoological Society) : Use of 
a Walking Cast in a Third Metatarsal Fracture in the £ebra, by Clinton W. 
Gray, D.V.M.; Amoebiasis in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), 
by Clinton W. Gray, with Leonard C. Marcus, V.M.D. of the Armed 
Forces Institute of Pathology, W. C. McCarten, consultant in enteric 
microbiology, and Thomas Sappington, M.D.; Treatment of Pseudo- 
monas Infections in the Snake and Lizard Collection at the National Zoological 
Park, by Clinton W. Gray, Janet Davis, and W. G. McCarten. 

The veterinarian attended a meeting of the American Veterinary 
Medical Association in Chicago and a seminar on biomedical telemetry 
at San Francisco. He visited zoos in San Francisco and San Diego 
and the Penrose Research Laboratory in Philadelphia. 

Two specimens that died during the year may have established 
longevity records: (1) A Malay porcupine {Acanthion brachyura), col- 
lected in the vicinity of Pematang Siantar, Sumatra, by the National 
Geographic-Smithsonian Institution Expedition to the East Indies, 
was received on September 28, 1937. It died on January 12, 1965, 
after 27 years 3 months and 15 days in the Zoo. (2) An African 
lungfish (Protopterus annectens), received on June 10, 1942, as a gift from 
Dr. Thomas Barbour, director of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University, was collected in Uganda in 1937. It fed on meat, 
liver, hearts, frogs, and tadpoles and had many ailments throughout 
the years, but through use of mud baths managed to pull through. It 
was in the mud bath for a month prior to its death on September 25, 
1964. It had been at the Zoo for 22 years 3 months 15 days and is 
known to have been in captivity for 5 years previously. 

Following are autopsy statistics for the mortality which occured at the 
National Zoological Park during the past fiscal year, and a table of 
comparison with the past 6 years: 



196 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 
AUTOPSY STATISTICS, 1959-65 



Mortality, fiscal year 1965 



Cause 



Rep- 
tiles* 



Birds 



Mam- 
mals 



Total mortality 
past 7 years 



No autopsy, not enough remains, 

rotten, PMD 

Attrition (within 14 days after 

arrival) 

Systemic disorders 

Infectious diseases 

Injuries, accidents, killed by cage 

mates, not eating 

Euthanasia 

Miscellaneous (parasites, stillborn, 

shock) 

No cause determined 

Total 



150 

5 

51 



12 


6 

45 



269 



40 

64 

71 

6 

71 
2 

1 
44 

299 



15 

33 
3 

21 
12 

10 
14 



117 



1959. 

1960 
1961 
1962 

1963 

1964 



1965. 



472 

532 
517 

584 

636 
619 



685 



*Included with reptiles are amphibians, fishes, insects. 



VISITORS 

In August 1961 a planned attendance survey was begun at the Zoo 
under the direction of Albert Mindlin, statistician of the Management 
Office, District of Columbia, and was carried out by the police division. 
The following figures give the total estimated numbers of visitors who 
remained in the Zoo for at least an hour: 

1962 3,391,977 

1963 3,565,650 

1964 3,943,156 

1965 4,536,256 

Visiting hours at the Zoo were lengthened for the summer months. 
Beginning July 1, 1964, buildings remained open until 6 p.m. 

Thirteen groups of handicapped children and 24 busloads of patients 
from St. Elizabeth's Hospital were escorted through the Zoo by various 
police officers throughout the year. Six busloads of children from 
Junior Village also visited the Zoo this year. On May 8 a total of 
7,398 School Safety Patrol children, transported in 205 buses, visited 
the Park. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



197 



Seventy members of the Virginia Herpetological Society met in the 
reptile house on January 9. Films were shown, and snakebite and its 
treatment were discussed. The Washington Biologists' Field Club held 
its annual meeting in the reptile house on April 9. The Maharajah 
of Mysore visited the Zoo on January 9 especially to see the Indian 
elephant, Ambika, that was given largely through his efforts to the 
children of America, from the children of India in 1961. 

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF VISITORS FOR FISCAL YEAR 1965 



July (1964) 780, 400 

August 828,475 

September 345, 575 

297,338 

305,075 

58,576 



October . 
November 
December 



January (1965). 
February . . . 
March . . . . 

April 

May 



. . . 40,065 

. . . 206,200 

. . . 312,990 

. . . 562,640 

. . . 708,485 

June 490,427 



Total 4,536,256 



About 2 p.m. each day the cars parked in the Zoo are counted and 
listed according to the State or country from which they come. This 
is, of course, not a census of the cars coming to the Zoo but is valuable 
in showing the percentage of attendance by States of people in private 
automobiles. Many District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia 
cars come to the Zoo to bring guests from other States. The tabulation 
for fiscal year 1965 is as follows: 



Percentage 

Maryland 33. 9 

Virginia 26. 5 

District of Columbia 15.8 



Pennsylvania . 
New York . . 
North Carolina 
New Jersey . . 

Ohio 

West Virginia . 
Florida . . . 
Massachusetts . 



4.8 
2.6 
2.0 
1.6 
1.5 
1.3 
1.1 



Percentage 

Connecticut .7 

South Carolina .6 

California .6 

Texas .6 

Michigan .6 

Tennessee .5 

Illinois .5 

Georgia .5 

Delaware .4 

Indiana .3 

Total 97. 2 



The cars that made up the remaining 2.8 percent came from the 
remainder of the United States as well as foreign countries. 

On days of even small attendance there are cars parked in the Zoo 
representing foreign countries, territories, and other States. 



198 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

NUMBER OF BUS GROUPS VISITING THE ZOO IN FISCAL YEAR 1965 

Number of Number in 

Locality groups groups 

Alabama 12 485 

Arkansas 1 38 

Connecticut 9 332 

Delaware 31 1,139 

District of Columbia 1,098 21,355 

Florida Ill 3,875 

Georgia 63 2,287 

Illinois 10 318 

Indiana 4 133 

Iowa 5 207 

Kansas 2 80 

Kentucky 27 837 

Maine 8 331 

Maryland 1,684 61,818 

Michigan 9 325 

Minnesota 3 110 

Mississippi 3 110 

Montana 2 79 

New Jersey 42 1,641 

New Mexico 1 35 

New York 285 10,017 

North Carolina 522 9, 882 

North Dakota 1 73 

Ohio 19 617 

Pennsylvania 936 16,090 

South Carolina 46 1, 662 

Tennessee 70 2,726 

Texas 4 157 

Virginia 1,414 53,303 

West Virginia 104 3, 821 

Wisconsin 1 37 

Foreign groups 536 

Total 6,520 194,456 

New construction in connection with the redevelopment program 
for the National Zoological Park includes provision for parking areas. 
New parking areas have been completed under this program and during 

the next fiscal year more spaces with greater accessibility to display 
areas will be available to the public. 



FINANCES 

Funds for the operation of the National Zoological Park are appro- 
priated annually under the District of Columbia Appropriation Act. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 199 

The operation and maintenance appropriation for fiscal year 1965 
totaled $1,739,250, which was $141,894 more than for the preceding 
year. The increase consisted of $24,255 to cover salary increases for 
general-schedule employees in accordance with Public Law 88-426; 
$49,995 to cover salary increases for wage-board employees; $31,580 
for within-grade salary advancements for both general-schedule and 
wage-board employees; $3,504 for annualization of one position 
established in fiscal year 1964; $4,300 to establish one position; $6,197 
for employee's compensation; $7,000 for animal food; $10,000 for the 
purchase of animals; $1,600 for the replacement of guns; and $3,463 
for miscellaneous supplies and equipment. 

Of the total appropriation, 85 percent ($1,478,641) was used for 
salaries and related personnel costs and 15 percent ($259,924) for the 
maintenance and operation of the Zoo. Included in the latter figure 
were $88,450 for animal food; $31,140 for fuel and heating; $23,280 for 
materials for building construction and repairs; $15,500 for electricity; 
$18,700 for the purchase of animals; $6,900 for telephone, postal, and 
telegraph services; and $6,735 for veterinarian equipment and supplies. 
The balance of $69,219 in operational funds was expended for other 
items, including freight, sundry supplies, uniforms, gasoline, road re- 
pairs, equipment replacement, and new equipment. 



POLICE DIVISION 

New construction and general facelifting throughout the Park have 
thrown an extra burden on the police division. Patrolling in areas 
where trucks and bulldozers are working is important for the safety of 
the visitors. Shifts have been changed and additional police assigned 
to these areas. 

For the first time in 35 years, new 38-calibre pistols were bought and 
issued to every man. Under the watchful eyes of the pistol instructors 
(Lt. Wolfe, Sgt. Grubbs, Pvts. Porter and McGoldrick) the officers are 
showing a marked improvement in their scores. Each man has been 
awarded a badge to be worn on his uniform, denoting his qualification. 

One new scooter was added to the police division's motor vehicles, 
and others are available from the garage when needed. 

Refresher courses in first aid were again conducted by Sgt. A. L. 
Canter and Pvt. D. R. Bowman. 

Pvts. H. M. Bell, N. Bowe, V. T. McGoldrick, S. L. Middleton, and 
F. E. Reilly attended Juvenile School sponsored by the Metropolitan 
Police Department. This was an 8-week course, and all received 
certificates at its completion. 



200 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

During the year the police handled 1,141 traffic violations, 31 auto- 
mobile accidents, 123 juvenile arrests, 83 truancy cases, 37 criminal 
arrests, 177 miscellaneous complaints, and 149 police investigations. 
Sixty-nine adults and 278 children were either reprimanded or re- 
moved from the Park for misbehavior. The first-aid unit treated 716 
cases, most of them minor. 

Through the efforts of Lt. J. R. Wolfe, blood procurement officer, 
the American Red Cross Blood Bank received 41 pints of blood from 
Zoo employees during the year, making a total of 829 pints reserved 
for them in the Blood Bank. Twenty-three pairs of eyeglasses and 
sunglasses, found and unclaimed, were donated to the D.C. Chapter of 
the Society for the Prevention of Blindness. Fifteen bags of clothing 
and miscellaneous articles, found and unclaimed, were turned over to 
the Goodwill Industries. 

During the year a total of 10,837 visitors stopped at the police station 
requesting information or assistance. 

SAFETY SUBCOMMITTEE 

The National Zoological Park Safety Subcommittee held monthly 
meetings to suggest and discuss recommendations to the director for 
safety improvements. 

An emergency alarm system was installed in the reptile house to be 
used in the event of snakebite. Under the direction of the safety officer, 
this system is under constant surveillance to assure proper functioning, 
and test drills are held periodically. 

Arrangements were made with the General Services Administration 
to have employees receive training in firefighting and fire control. 
GSA fire inspectors made the annual fire inspection of the Zoo, along 
with members of the safety subcommittee, and their cooperation was 
very much appreciated. 

Members of the subcommittee periodically inspected all buildings, 
grounds, and equipment and made a careful examination of the newly 
renovated birdhouse area prior to its opening to the public; hazards 
were reported and corrective action was recommended. 

Routine inspection of roads, walkways, steps, and public areas has 
continued as a safeguard to employees and visitors. 

MAINTENANCE, CONSTRUCTION, GROUNDS 

The mechanical division was occupied with the routine task of 
maintaining the buildings and facilities of the National Zoological 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 201 

Park. Interspersed with routine were such unusual jobs as building a 
hydroponics room for growing grass and enlarging the room where 
worms and insects are raised for animal food. 

An addition was made to the building serving as veterinary hospital. 
Two old storerooms in the administration building were cleared out 
and completely remodeled to serve as offices for the director. The 
entire mechanical force joined in readying the remodeled birdhouse 
for its opening. 

New construction necessitated preparing quarters for many of the 
animals. A barn and paddock at the Garvin Tankersley farm in 
Boyds, Md., were made suitable for the zebras quartered there while 
their new Zoo enclosures were being built. 

Painting is a never-ending task. This year the interiors of the lion, 
monkey, reptile, and small-mammal houses were painted. 

The mechanical force made 190 new park benches and set them up 
throughout the Park for the comfort and convenience of visitors. The 
electrician installed a much-needed fluorescent lighting system in the 
puma house. 

Work of the grounds division included the planting of 93 trees, 400 
evergreens, 700 azaleas, 1,000 bulbs, and 3,500 annuals. 

Trees were planted along the creek banks near the pistol range, the 
restaurant patio, behind the small mammal building, and along the 
sidewalk at the crosswalk. Azaleas were planted between the restaurant 
and the police station, around the elephant house guard rails, elephant 
house hill, birdhouse, and at the crossroads. Various bulbs and annuals 
were used in the flowerbeds, new and old, throughout the Park, extend- 
ing color in the beds from early spring well into winter. Lightning 
protection on two large trees near the administration building was 
installed. 

The grounds department removed dead wood from 100 trees over 
walks, roads, and public areas: felled 35 trees that were dead or in bad 
condition or considered noxious to animals; filled cavities and traced 
wounds on badly damaged trees; removed stumps from lawns; cut 
numerous perches for bird and animal cages, and cut foliage to be used 
as food for animals. 

Major projects included assisting in the preparation of the birdhouse 
for opening, setting out 2,000 new plants, installing large perches, 
scouting the wooded areas for old logs and stumps and placing them 
around the inside cages. 

Gifts of plants were received from the District Waterworks, Botanical 
Gardens, National Bureau of Standards, Glendale Nursery, Walter 
Reed Hospital, Naval Hospital, and the management of the annual 
Flower and Garden Show. 



202 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

COOPERATION 

At all times special efforts are made to maintain friendly contacts 
with other Federal and State agencies, private concerns and individuals, 
and scientific workers for mutual assistance. As a result, the Zoo 
receives much help and advice and many valuable animals, and in turn 
it furnishes information and, whenever possible, animals it does not 
need. 

Special acknowledgment is due William Taback and John Pulaski, 
in the office of the Dispatch Agent in New York City, and Stephen E. 
Lato, Dispatch Agent in San Francisco, who are frequently called upon 
to clear shipments of animals coming from abroad, often at times of 
personal inconvenience. 

When it is necessary to quarantine animals coming into this country, 
they are taken to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's station in 
Clifton, N.J. During the past year, Dr. H. A. Waters and Andy 
Goodel, two of the officials stationed there, were most cooperative in 
keeping the National Zoological Park informed as to the well-being of 
animals and birds being held there for quarantine. 

Animals that died in the Zoo are offered to the U.S National Museum. 
If the Museum does not need them as study specimens or as exhibits, 
they are sent on request to research workers in other institutions. 
Specialists at the Museum are always willing to be of help in identifying 
rare specimens acquired at the Zoo. 

On May 7, 1965, under the auspices of the U.S. Forest Service, 
Smokey Bear, living symbol of forest fire prevention, received a certifi- 
cate and gold-medal award. These awards were presented by Lassie, 
star collie of the Lassie television series. 

Through the generosity of Stuart T. Saunders, chairman of the 
board, Pennsylvania Railroad Co., and John K. Murphy, public 
relations director, the Zoo received on June 23, 1965, a large carved 
granite eagle, one of 22 which graced the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Station in New York City from 1910 to 1965. At the demolition of 
the building, it was given to the National Zoo. Designed by the ar- 
chitectural firm of McKim, Mead & White, it weighs 5,700 pounds 
and stands 5 feet 4 inches high. It is now facing the plaza in front of 
the birdhouse. 

The National Zoological Park cooperated with the National Capital 
Parks and lent small animals to Park naturalists and to the Nature 
Center in Rock Creek Park for demonstration. 

The U.S. Army, Cameron Station, Va., again lent the grounds 
department a stump chipper, to be used in clearing unsightly stumps 
from Zoo lawns. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 203 

On April 24, Sgt. Canter of the police force took six boxes of Crotalidae 
antivenin to Children's Hospital for a patient who had been bitten 
by a snake. These boxes were replaced by Children's Hospital the 
next day. 

Vultures were made available to Betsy Garrett Bang, School of 
Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, for her studies. 
Results of her research were published as The Nasal Organs of the 
Black and Turkey Vultures; a Comparative Study of the Cathartid Species 
in the Journal of Morphology, vol. 115, No. 2, September 1964. 

FRIENDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOO 

The Friends of the National Zoo held their annual meeting on 
October 7 in the Zoo cafeteria. This was followed by an inspection 
tour of the birdhouse area. On the evening of February 1 1 many of 
the Friends attended the formal opening of the remodeled birdhouse. 

Friends of the National Zoo continued their publication of a quarterly 
newsletter entitled Spots and Stripes. Members of the Zoo staff collab- 
orate in the preparation of the material, but the newsletter is financed 
and distributed by the Friends. They have also continued to work 
on plans for an educational program to be aimed at various levels, 
with the purpose of making the Zoo more meaningful to the schools. 

INFORMATION AND EDUCATION 

The major activity of the information and education section was 
the continuation of signing, relabeling, and graphic-arts services and 
support. During the year a total of 481 animal identification labels 
were completed, and an additional 115 are in production. Also pro- 
duced were 218 supporting informational signs (safety signs, building 
information signs, directional maps, construction signs, etc.) and 188 
other visual information projects such as maps, charts, graphs, draw- 
ings, and publication layouts. Two scale models were also produced 
in conjunction with the renovation plans for the Zoo. 

Additional activities during the year included dissemination of 
animal information by telephone and correspondence; library and 
photograph file maintenance; and 23 special guided tours for groups 
of handicapped children, visiting schools and colleges, visiting personnel 
from other zoos, and foreign guests and dignitaries. 

The zoologist participated in two television programs for the edu- 
cational channel WETA. One was filmed in the studio using three 



204 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

live animals, and the other was filmed directly at the Zoo, the first 
show to be taped by WETA's mobile unit. 

The zoologist also taped a 15-minute radio program on the Zoo for 
the Armed Forces Radio, Military District of Washington Information 
Office. 

A paper was prepared for the International Zoo Yearbook, vol. 6, 
(London Zoological Society) on Behaviour and Development of a Hand- 
Reared Two-Toed Sloth (Cholocpus didactylus), by Marion P. McCrane, 
zoologist. 

PERSONNEL 

Donald R. Dietlein, formerly medical entomologist with the U.S. 
Navy, was appointed special assistant to the director in September. 
Kerry Muller, formerly senior keeper in the birdhouse at the San Diego 
Zoo, became manager of the bird division here in May; and Robert 
H. Artis was appointed as personnel management specialist in May. 

J. Lear Grimmer, associate director of the Zoo since 1957, resigned 
on April 15, 1965, to engage in private research. Michael A. Brown, 
senior animal keeper, retired on December 19 after 45 years of service; 
Ralph B. Norris, head animal keeper, retired on the same date after 34 
years at the Zoo. 

In fiscal year 1965 the Zoo had 212 authorized positions, as follows: 
Office of the Director, 12 (an increase of 1 special assistant to the di- 
rector by reallocation from the operations and maintenance depart- 
ment); operations and maintenance department, which includes the 
mechanical division, police division, grounds division, and services 
division, 122 (an increase of 1 authorized laborer and a reallocation of 1 
labor position to the office of the director); animal department, 76 
(a reallocation of 1 position to the scientific research department); 
scientific research department, 2 (an increase of 1 visual aid specialist 
by reallocation of an animal keeper position). 

The Smithsonian Institution named three persons as honorary col- 
laborators in recognition of their contributions to the National Zoologi- 
cal Park. These were Jean Delacour, world-renowned ornithologist, 
for his help and advice in stocking the new birdhouse, suggesting which 
species of birds should be exhibited, and giving valuable counsel in 
regard to suitable plants; J. Lear Grimmer, former associate director of 
the National Zoological Park, in recognition of his scientific and manage- 
ment contributions; and Mrs. Constance P. Warner, who has been 
associated with the Zoo for the past 8 years, working with the collection 
as an animal photographer. Mrs. Warner has generously allowed the 
Zoo to use freely any of her beautiful transparencies for labels and 
publications. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 205 

The director attended the annual meeting of the American Associa- 
tion of Zoological Parks and Aquariums in Houston, Tex.; the midyear 
Zoo Directors Conference in Colorado Springs, Colo.; and the Western 
Regional Zoo Conference in Calgary, Alberta. The director was 
present at the opening of the new aquatic birdhouse in the New York 
Zoological Park on September 24 and at the formal dedication cere- 
monies of the new rare mammal house in the Philadelphia Zoological 
Gardens on May 1 . On May 20 the director attended a conference, 
held at the New York Zoo, to discuss problems resulting from large- 
scale importations of primates for medical research. Lectures during 
the year included groups at the Cosmos Club and the University Club 
in Washington, D.C., the Metropolitan Chapter of the American 
Institute of Architects, and a meeting of the Dakota Zoological Society 
in Bismarck, N. Dak. 

Donald R. Dietlein, special assistant to the director, made official 
visits to Philadelphia, New York, St. Louis, and Chicago for the pur- 
pose of studying zoo problems and maintenance. 

Charles Thomas, senior keeper, left on June 1 1 for Liberia, escorting 
a shipment of animals for President Tubman's farm at Totota. He 
is expected to return about the end of July bringing with him some 
African animals. 

A biweekly newsletter, Tiger Talk, was started on November 24. 
This is solely for distribution to Zoo employees and serves to let each 
department know what other sections are doing. 

REORGANIZATION 

To meet more adequately the 1890 Congressional mandate to the 
Zoo for "the advancement of science and the education ... of the 
public" a reorganization of the Zoo's personnel and functions was 
effected during the year. There was created a department of scien- 
tific research to be headed by a resident scientist (reallocated associate 
director position) who will develop and direct the program within 
the Zoo. Also, by reallocation from the animal department, a staff 
scientist position was created and a secretary was reallocated from 
the operational services program. The scientific research department 
will develop into one of the Zoo's major functions. 

The engineer and draftsman positions were moved from the opera- 
tions and maintenance department to a staff function of the director's 
office. The complexity of the construction program necessitated 
constant technical supervision. 

The information and education program was transferred from the 
former scientific research division to a staff position in the office of the 



206 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

director. The staff has been increased by reallocating a position from 
the operational services program and a position from the protective 
services to create a docent and a visual information specialist. In 
addition to the signs and labels, the responsibilities of public relations, 
development of publications, and maintenance of libraries have been 
assigned to information and education. 

A position of divisional animal manager for each of the four divisions 
in the animal department has been created. As time and staffing 
permit, these positions will be filled by zoologically educated and 
experienced animal managers. 

It is felt that this reorganization will increase the potential for a 
higher level of animal care and increased scientific investigations. 

CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS 

In fiscal year 1965 the Smithsonian Institution Appropriation Act 
contained an item of $1,525,000 for the capital improvement program 
at the National Zoological Park. A portion of this is being used for 
the planning of the hospital and research complex and the service 
buildings — mechanical shop, automotive garage, property supply 
building, and greenhouse. The architect was selected for the planning 
of buildings in Phase IV of the new Zoo construction. At the sug- 
gestion of the Fine Arts Commission a landscape architect was engaged 
to assist in coordinating the entire plan and to make whatever adjust- 
ments in the master plan are necessary. Planning of the multiclimate 
house has been delayed until its siting is approved. The construction 
money was used for the hardy and delicate hoofed-stock areas and for 
the sewerage system. 

On July 21 work was started on the deer area, which consists of 8 
paddocks, 3 single shelters, and 2 double shelters on the previously 
undeveloped hill between the Connecticut Avenue entrance and the 
birdhouse. The anticipated completion date is early fall 1965. 

On the same date, construction was started on parking lots A and B, 
located beside the new perimeter road between the elephant house and 
the Connecticut Aveune gate. This work was finished on May 30. 
These lots are designed for automobiles only, and accommodate 258 cars. 

At the same time, construction work began on a fenced-in property 
yard and access road directly west of the Holt mansion. This con- 
struction eliminated the old carriage barn. It is anticipated that 
completion will be in the early fall of 1965. 

In October the relief interceptor sewer mentioned in last year's 
annual report was completed. Stone riprap was placed on the west 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 207 

bank of Rock Creek, which had been straightened, and willow and 
mulberry trees were planted. In a few years the austere vista will be a 
refreshing green and covered with foliage. 

On December 4 final inspection of the remodeled birdhouse was made 
and the building accepted from the contractor. The next 2 months 
were spent in feverish activity of planting, decorating the cages, assem- 
bling the birds, and developing new routines of management. On the 
evening of February 11, there was an invitational black-tie opening, 
sponsored by the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Minibuses 
were hired to carry the guests from the elephant house parking lot to the 
birdhouse. Fort Belvoir engineers furnished lights to illuminate the 
uncompleted great flight cage, and the Marine Corps furnished a jazz 
ensemble to brighten the party. The guests had a wonderful time and 
seemed to derive pleasure from being served canapes in the birds' 
kitchen. Two days later there was an invitational opening for the 
Friends of the National Zoo and employees of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. On February 14 the birdhouse was opened to the general public 
and has been a tremendous success ever since. A paper on The Remod- 
eled Bird House and New Great Flight Cage at the National Zoological Park 
by Theodore H. Reed, D.V.M., will appear in volume 6 of the Inter- 
national Zoo Yearbook, published by the London Zoological Society. 

On April 22 the construction of the hardy and delicate hoofed-stock 
areas was begun. 

On May 10 work started on a new transformer station for the Zoo 
at the Hawthorne Street gate back of the birdhouse, which will step 
down 13.2 kv. to 4.16 kv. for distribution throughout the whole Park. 
Installation of a new gas-fired boiler for the remodeled birdhouse 
was also started. 

In the middle of June the great flight cage was given final inspection 
and accepted. Again there is a period of feverish activity in getting 
the plants and other last-minute adjustments ready for a mid-July 
opening. The great flight cage received a citation for excellence in 
design from the American Iron and Steel Institute. 

On June 21 contractors began work on parking lot F, located behind 
the restaurant between Beach Drive and Rock Creek. When com- 
pleted, this parking lot will accommodate 24 buses and 270 automobiles. 

National Capital Parks, Department of the Interior, has lined the 
tunnel under administration hill (mentioned in last year's report) 
and installed electric facilities, and is constructing the portals and a 
bridge across Rock Creek at the lower end. 

During the year, the designs for the Zoo's internal sewerage system 
were completed and construction will start early next fiscal year. 



Astrophysical Observatory 




789-427—66 25 



Astrophysical Observatory 

Fred L. Whipple, Director 

The research achievements of the Observatory derive significantly 
from its ability to obtain data from its field installations and laborato- 
ries and to combine these with theoretical investigations.* To illustrate 
and emphasize this point, the results summarized in subsequent para- 
graphs are traced back to their origins in observational data. During 
the past year, the diversity of the data and the number of sources have 
been increased. That diversity is typified by the variety of observa- 
tions that now come from the Baker-Nunn cameras at the Observa- 
tory's field station. 1 In recognition of this fact, their name has been 
changed from Satellite Tracking Stations to Astrophysical Observing 
Stations. 

RESEARCH BASED ON DATA FROM 
ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVING STATIONS 

Gathering observational data on artificial satellites is still the major 
activity of the stations. During this past year, 52,528 observations of 
55 different satellites were made. Successful cooperation with the Air 
Force Baker-Nunn camera stations resulted in a series of observations 
linking the two networks. In addition, the Observatory has conducted 
a joint project with the Royal Radar Establishment, Malvern, England, 
using their 24-inch f/1 cameras to track bright passive satellites for 
geodetic objectives. 1 

An important new development under the direction of Carlton G. 
Lehr has been the experimental use of a laser beam to track satellites, 
a technique that permits the measurement of the range of the orbiting 
object from the observing site. 1 

Satellite tracking data continue to yield significant advances in our 
knowledge of the upper atmosphere. From an analysis of satellite drag 



* Unless otherwise noted, research is supported from Federal funds appropriated 
to the Smithsonian Institution. The Observatory, by paying scientists' salaries, 
shares in the support of all research. Support from outside sources is detailed in 
footnotes 1-25 on this and the following pages. 

1 Supported by grant NsG 87/60 from the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. 

211 



212 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

data gathered between sunspot maximum (1958) and minimum (1964), 
Dr. Luigi G. Jacchia has derived new atmospheric models based on 
diffusion equilibrium. With the collaboration of Dr. Max Roemer 
and Jack Slowey, he has computed densities of the neutral atmosphere 
starting from a fixed set of boundary conditions at 120 km. and follow- 
ing empirical temperature profiles defined by exponential functions 
of height. These models have been adopted by the U.S. Committee 
on the Extension of the Standard Atmosphere for inclusion in the U.S. 
Supplemental Atmospheres, together with the appended formulas 
which give the variations of temperature with solar, geomagnetic, 
and geographic parameters. 

A significant new result is the discovery that a seasonal effect exists 
at middle and high latitudes at all heights up to at least 600 km. An 
analysis of observations of 14 satellites, including two 12-foot balloon 
satellites (1963 53A and 1964 76A) launched specifically for this 
research, has revealed that at any given height above 200 km., the 
atmosphere has a maximum density in winter and a minimum in 
summer. 

Dr. Jacchia and Mr. Slowey have also investigated the relation 
between exospheric temperature and geomagnetic indexes and con- 
cluded that the former varies with the solar plasma velocities in a 
nearly linear fashion. 

Dr. Manfred Friedman has developed a set of equations to describe 
the structure of the upper atmosphere. The analysis based on these 
equations will include effects of thermal conductivity, radiative trans- 
fer, and diffusion of the different constituents. 

A new estimate has been made by Dr. Franco Verniani of the total 
mass of the earth's atmosphere. The result is (5.136±0.007)X10 21 
grams. 

Data from satellite tracking have also been used in the study of the 
geopotential. From precisely reduced observations of nine satellites 
with inclinations between 28 and 95 degrees, Dr. Yoshihide Kozai has 
derived new values for the coefficients of the zonal harmonics of the 
earth's gravitational field through J H . Treating these zonal har- 
monics as known quantities, Imre Izsak used more than 26,000 obser- 
vations of 11 satellites with inclinations between 33 and 96 degrees to 
compute a new set of tesseral harmonics through the sixth degree. 
Since independent determinations give reasonable agreement on the 
total contribution of the nonzonal terms to the geopotential, the main 
features of the geoid seem to be well established. 

Basing his work on the results of Dr. Kozai and Mr. Izsak, E. M. 
Gaposchkin has improved the treatment of perturbations in the Ob- 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 213 

servatory's computer program for differential orbit improvement and 
is now extending the program for determining the tesseral harmonics. 

The shapes for the surfaces of the constant potential and constant 
gravitation are being studied by Dr. Walter Kohnlein. 

Studies of the geophysical significance of satellite gravity results 
continue. From an analysis of zonal harmonics, Dr. Chi-Yuen Wang 
has suggested that the load of the last continental ice sheets, which per- 
sisted some 50,000 years near the end of the Pleistocene, may have de- 
formed the earth, flattening it near the poles and causing a bulge near 
the equator. Since the ice sheets retreated only some 11,000 to 15,000 
years ago, there has been too little time for a complete isostatic recov- 
ery of the earth, and the residual of this deformation therefore remains 
in the earth's ellipticity. Using different approaches, Dr. William 
Strange and Dr. Wang have been investigating the possible relations 
between heat-flow and the gravity results. 

The Baker-Nunn camera system of the Observatory is a principal 
source of data for the NASA Geodetic Program begun this year, and 
studies in these fields by Observatory scientists have been and will con- 
tinue to be an important part of the program. 2 

The rate of accumulation, reduction, and analysis of data from simul- 
taneous photography of satellites by two or more Baker-Nunn cameras 
was increased considerably during the year. A cooperative program 
was initiated with the Air Force to use Baker-Nunn cameras at Oslo, 
Norway; Cold Lake, Canada; and Johnston Island, Pacific Ocean. 1 
These stations were used to provide data to strengthen the solutions 
for the coordinates of the SAO Baker-Nunn stations by providing a 
triangular network of stations in North America and Europe and by 
decreasing the distance between intervisible stations in the Pacific 
Ocean. From this network of 1 5 stations, we now have data of inter- 
visibilities that encompass the globe, providing another mathematical 
condition that enhances the precision of the resultant geodetic infor- 
mation. About 800 intervisible arcs were precisely reduced during the 
year, compared to a total of 200 in the previous 3 years. Dr. George 
Veis, assisted by Leendert Aardoom and Antanas Girnius, analyzed 
these data to determine more precise station coordinates. 

A companion program employed in the Observatory's geodetic 
studies determines not only the tesseral harmonic coefficients for the 
geopotential but also improves station coordinates from an analysis of 
data of orbit dynamics. Mr. Izsak determined a set of more accurate 
station coordinates at the same time as he solved for the tesseral har- 
monic coefficients. 

3 Supported by contract NSR 09-015-018 with the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration. 



214 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

A procedure was developed by Dr. Kohnlein to combine the results 
of the intervisible (geometric) method and those of theorbital (dynamic) 
method to determine still more accurate station coordinates and the 
tesseral harmonics through the fourth order. It was gratifying to 
learn that the geometric and dynamic methods of determining station 
coordinates were in good agreement. Until this comparison, it was 
not known whether there might be a difference in the two results due 
to some unrecognized factor. 

The Astrophysical Observing Stations also gather data for the study 
of comets. Nine of the Baker-Nunn cameras have been equipped with 
a plastic defocusing device; measurements of the image density of 
photographs made through these optics reveal the total brightness of 
a comet. A total of 303 sequences of photometric observations of 
four comets, particularly of Ikeya and Everhart, have thus far been 
obtained. 3 

Dr. Richard B. Southworth analyzes these films for correlations 
with solar phenomena and for indications of the physical behavior 
of comets. As a necessary part of this work, Dr. Southworth is con- 
ducting an initial study to solve the problem of transferring observed 
stellar magnitudes to the Baker-Nunn color system. For the deter- 
mination of the spectral sensitivity of the Baker-Nunn optics, a catalog 
of published spectrophotometric data on standard stars has been 
compiled, and microdensitometer measurements have been made on 
films taken with the camera. 

To answer the question whether streams of solar particles reaching a 
comet play a significant role in its activity, Daniel Malaise, at 1' Uni- 
versity de Liege, is investigating the apparent motion of bright streamers 
in comet tails, using Baker-Nunn photographs. 4 He is also studying 
the pseudoperiodic variation of the apparent angle between the comet 
tail and the radial direction from the sun. More than 200 photographic 
sequences of tail motion are being reduced and analyzed. 

For another line of investigation, the Astrophysical Observing Sta- 
tions obtain photographs of flare stars, which are characterized by 
sudden, nonperiodic increases in brightness. On a predetermined 
schedule, the stations repeatedly photograph a known flare star that 
is simultaneously being observed by one of the cooperating radio 
telescopes. Presently we cooperate in this program with the 250' 
Jodrell Bank telescope at Manchester, England, the 210' telescope 
at Parker, N.S.W, Australia, and the 1000' Cornell instrument at 
Arecibo, Puerto Rico. The resultant records permit a study of the 



3 Supported by grant GP 2999 from the National Science Foundation. 
* Sponsored by fellowships from Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique, 
Belgium, the European Preparatory Commission for Space Research, and NASA. 



ASTROPHYSIGAL OBSERVATORY 215 

relationship between optical and radio emissions. During this year, 
approximately 270 hours of optical observations have been logged, 
the data from which are analyzed by Leonard Solomon. The India 
cooperating agency, the Uttar Pradesh Observatory, has joined the 
program for observing flare stars and is using a photoelectric 
photometer in its research. 

Astrophysical Observing Stations have in past years made photo- 
metric observations to determine the earth's albedo. 6 In a continuing 
program, Dr. Fred A. Franklin is testing improved techniques and 
instrumentation to measure the earthshine on the dark portion of 
the moon's surface before first quarter and after last quarter. Sun- 
light reflected from the earth faintly illuminates this part of the moon 
and can therefore indicate how reflective the earth is. 

METEORS 

Ground-based photographic and radar instruments provide data 
on the meteor process as a fragment of matter plunges into the earth's 
atmosphere from space. 6 

The automatic camera stations that make up the Prairie Network 
are providing data on bright meteors that will enable scientists to 
determine their orbits. In addition, there is the hope that some of 
the bodies photographed by the network will survive their journey 
and will be recovered on the earth's surface. Such freshly fallen 
meteorites can provide valuable data on the history of the objects 
in space. Dr. Richard E. McCrosky continues to supervise operations 
and to analyze photographs taken by the network's cameras. 

In the 11 months from May 1964 to April 1965, the period for which 
complete results are available, the network photographed 34 multiple- 
station meteors. Of these observations, 20 to 22 were of adequate 
quality for reduction to orbits. Because meteorite falls might have 
occurred, four of these were on a high priority basis. Subsequent 
analysis showed that a substantial fall certainly resulted from one of 
these events but not from the other three. For the one fall, Observa- 
tory personnel thoroughly searched a 1 -square-mile section of Marshall 
County, Kans., but failed to find the object. However, the local popu- 
lace has been alerted to the fall and there still remains the possibility 
that a recovery may be made in a cultivated area. 

Personnel of the Astrophysical Observing Stations have also been 
requested to watch for meteoritic material that might be of interest to 



8 Supported in part by grant Y/8. 11/236 from the National Science Foundation. 
6 Supported by grant NsG 291-62 from the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. 



216 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Observatory scientists. Robert Citron at the South Africa station has 
recovered meteoritic specimens and added to our knowledge of the 
Gibeon meteorite fall. 

In the study of ionized meteor trails, electronic techniques play an 
important role. In Havana, 111., a radar installation jointly operated 
with the Harvard College Observatory, and under the direction of Dr. 
Gerald S. Hawkins and Dr. Southworth, has yielded observations of 
some 10,000 meteor trails. 7 These have been electronically measured 
and reduced. Since they are of both sporadic and stream meteors, 
they will provide a substantial body of data for research into the astrono- 
my and physics of meteor particles. 8 Dr. Southworth has been 
planning and supervising the improvement of the system so that it will 
be able to achieve greater accuracy of observations and to observe more 
and fainter meteors. 

Dr. Verniani and Dr. Hawkins have revised the ionization proba- 
bilities involved in the meteor process, thus permitting new estimates 
of the mass and density for a large sample of faint radio meteors. The 
mean density from this determination is 1 gm. cm. -3 , and the mass 
distribution corresponds to that of the brighter photographic meteors 
observed with Super-Schmidt cameras. 

In cooperation with Dr. William G. Elford of the University of 
Adelaide, Australia, Dr. Hawkins has found the flux of meteors more 
massive than 10~ 6 gm. to be 40 km. -2 hr." 1 . 

Together with Dr. Hawkins and Dr. Verniani, Dr. Southworth has 
computed the ablation coefficient, which represents the rate of loss of 
mass by a meteor moving through the atmosphere. With Dr. Elford 
and Dr. Hawkins, he has determined the distribution of the radiants of 
sporadic meteors. 

To gather data on high-altitude wind velocities and directions, Dr. 
Mario D. Grossi has designed the necessary modifications of the Havana 
equipment. 9 

The extensive analysis of the atmospheric trajectories of 413 pre- 
cision-reduced Super-Schmidt meteors, which Dr. Jacchia conducted 
with the collaboration of Dr. Verniani and Robert E. Briggs, has been 
completed and is presented in Special Report No. 175. The analysis 
confirms the importance of fragmentation in the meteor phenomenon 
and the individual physical characteristics of meteors in different 
showers, on which Dr. Jacchia reported in past years. From the fact 



7 Supported by contract NASr-158 between the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration and Harvard University. 

8 Supported in part by contract NAS 9-4873 with the NASA Manned Space 
Center. 

9 Supported by contract AF 19(628)-3248 with the U.S. Air Force. 







Tlfr 




Radar observing sites (trough-type antenna as shown) for measuring the 
speed, trajectory, and flux of micrometeoroids entering the earth's atmosphere 
are maintained in several locations by the Smithsonian Astrophysical and 
Harvard College Observatories. Information concerning these particles 
is of vital interest to spacecraft designers preparing for the hazards of future 
space flights. 




Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory headquarters, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. 




The Baker-Nunn camera, designed to the specifications of Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory scientists, is a special satellite-tracking camera first 
put into operation in 1957 in time to photograph Sputnik I less than two 
weeks after launch. Since then, SAO's Baker-Nunn's have taken more than 
150,000 photographs of objects in space. 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 217 

that some meteors suddenly break up completely at a point for which 
pv 3 is a constant (p— atmospheric density, v= meteor velocity) we 
infer that heat transfer rather than dynamic pressure is the trigger 
mechanism in the breakup; this leads to the picture of a meteor body 
so porous that air molecules can penetrate to its core. Larger meteors 
do not break up so suddenly and completely, apparently because of 
the shielding effect of the outer layers of the meteor body. 

To complement the study of natural meteors, a radar system similar 
to that in Havana has been built and put into operation south of 
Wallops Island, Va., to detect the reentry of artificial meteors. 10 The 
first records were obtained from this installation when a nickel-iron 
slug and an iron sphere were fired into the atmosphere with a velocity 
of approximately 10 km. sec. -1 This simulation is of great importance 
in testing the ionization and luminosity hypotheses that have been 
used in estimates of meteor masses. This work is closely correlated 
with that of a network of three cameras for photographing the arti- 
ficial meteors. Drs. Hawkins, Southworth, and McCrosky direct the 
scientific aspects of this investigation. NASA furnishes and fires the 
artificial meteors and the rockets. The Smithsonian field operations 
of both systems are under the management of Cliff Marsh. 

LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS 

Laboratory investigations of the Observatory involve meteoritics, 
the atmosphere, comets, and exobiology. 

The sources of data for the Observatory's program in meteoritics 
are collections of meteorites, meteoritic fragments, and dust particles, 
and their analysis in the laboratory. 

Collaborating with Chester C. Langway, Jr., of the Army Cold Re- 
gions Research Laboratory, Dr. Edward L. Fireman is collecting dust 
samples from melted snow deep within the Greenland ice sheet. Several 
years ago unwanted heat from a power installation in Greenland was 
dissipated by a radiator in the ice. The heat melted out a cavern 
about 110 feet in radius that is now slowly refreezing. Dr. Fireman 
and Mr. Langway have installed a pump and filters which retrieve 
from the water the dust that was imbedded in the snow and ice before 
they were melted. This collection technique is an improvement over 
that employed in previous years when a filter was used in the camp 
water supply, which was also derived from melted glacial ice. Using 
previous collections, an analysis of particles collected from the melting 



10 Supported by grant NsG 536 from the National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration. 



218 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

of millions of liters of ice and snow shows the presence of cobalt-60 but 
not of aluminum-26 or argon-39 radioactivities in the dust. On the 
basis of the decay characteristics of cobalt-60, Dr. Fireman and his 
collaborators tentatively ascribe this activity to iron-60 produced by 
cosmic rays. James C. DeFelice has developed a high-pressure geiger 
counter that is particularly useful in this work. 

Dr. Fireman wrote the 3-year summary article on meteorites for 
the commission on meteors and meteorites of the International Astro- 
nomical Union for 1965. 

Dr. David Tilles has made mass spectrometric studies of rare gases 
extracted from Pacific sea sediments and from the Greenland materials 
collected by Dr. Fireman and Mr. Langway. 11 From his analysis he 
has confirmed the anomalous argon isotope ratios (an Ar^/Ar 36 ratio 
below 200 compared with the atmospheric ratio of 295) of argon re- 
leased at high temperatures from a magnetic fraction of Pacific sediment 
previously reported by Dr. Craig M. Merrihue. He has also found 
similar argon anomalies in a separated high-density fraction of Green- 
land dust, demonstrating that these anomalies are a worldwide 
phenomenon. 

Dr. Merrihue developed a new technique for studying meteorites. 
It consists of doing mass spectroscopy on the noble gases from neutron- 
irradiated samples. With this technique he obtained a number of 
important results: First, the chondrules in meteorites are systematically 
enriched in radiogenic xenon-129, and are depleted in primordial 
xenon. This is evidence for an early high-temperature origin. Second 
the matrix materials in meteorites, on the other hand, show evidence of 
being formed at a lower temperature in equilibrium with solar gas. 
Third, the variations in the xenon-129/xenon-132 ratios as a function 
of temperature prove that the radiogenic xenon-129 results from in situ 
decay of iodine-129. Fourth, since both the xenon and the xenon-129 
are highest in minerals with the highest diffusion constants, there 
appears to be negligible xenon diffusion since the decay of iodine-129. 
Fifth, the chondrules show spallation-type anomalies in krypton and 
xenon that cannot be attributed to recent cosmic rays and may be 
evidence for a primordial irradiation by high-energy protons. In 
addition, the mass spectroscopy of noble gases from neutron -irradiated 
meteorite samples provides information on the abundances of iodine, 
bromine, selenium, and tellurium and is an interesting method for 
potassium-argon dating. This method for potassium-argon dating 
offers two important advantages over conventional methods. First, 
potassium and argon are simultaneously determined by a single 



11 Supported in part by grant G-16067 from the National Science Foundation. 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 219 

measurement on the same sample. Second, the absolute abundances 
of neither the potassium nor the argon are required. 

Dr. Merrihue also built the rare-gas extraction and sample prepara- 
tion system for the Observatory's mass spectrometer, thus aiding studies 
of rare gases from dust samples. 11 And he initiated a program for the 
analysis of halogens in meteorites and separate fractions of meteorites. 

With James G. D' Amico, Dr. Fireman is measuring radioactivities in 
recently fallen chondritic meteorites, using a gamma-gamma coinci- 
dence spectrometer. Studying sodium-22 and aluminum-26 in par- 
ticular, they find evidence that there may be a slight variation in the 
radioactivities of these two isotopes that is related to the orbits of bodies 
in space. 

A new iron-silicate mineral containing essential potassium was found 
by scientists at the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories and 
was analyzed by Mrs. Ursula B. Marvin. 12 The X-ray determinations 
showed that the mineral, which occurs in the Meso-Madaras chondrite, 
has the same structure as a synthetic potassium-magnesium silicate 
and is the first meteoritic mineral known to concentrate potassium. It 
was named Merrihueite. 

In collaboration with scientists at the General Electric Research 
Laboratory in Schenectady, N.Y., Mrs. Marvin investigated meteoritic 
minerals by the fission-trace method. Data indicate that uranium is 
not dispersed in meteorites, as was formerly believed, but rather con- 
centrated in certain minor accessory minerals, particularly whitlockite 
and zircon. These can contain up to 4,000 parts per million, but 
uranium is essentially absent from other minerals, including both olivine 
and quartz. The data also reveal that many meteoritic minerals 
contain excess fission tracks resulting from the spontaneous decay of 
some element other than uranium-238. The element may be extinct 
plutonium-244, which contributed to the track density early in the 
history of the universe. 

Dr. Whipple and Dr. Fireman have analyzed data on the cosmic -ray 
exposure ages of meteorites and have found evidence for space erosion 
of meteoroids. The estimated erosion rate is approximately 10~ 8 cm. 
per year for irons and 10~ 7 for stones. 

Dr. Matthias F. Comerford has conducted preliminary laboratory 
experiments to determine the relative erosion rates of different meteoroid 
classes. His early results indicate that a simple weighting technique 
will provide an adequate measure of mass loss, at least for brittle ma- 
terials. His work is proceeding in cooperation with Dr. H. Mark at 
NASA's Lewis Research Center. 



12 Supported in part by grant NsG 282-63 from NASA to Dr. Clifford Frondel of 
Harvard University. 



220 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Dr. Comerford has also begun making microstructural studies and 
measurements of annealing kinetics in metals and alloys to help 
explain recovery and recrystallization phenomena and to identify 
the processes involved. Such information is fundamental to a proper 
interpretation of the structures observed in iron meteorites. 

Dr. Paul W. Hodge and Dr. Frances W. Wright have completed 
surface analyses, by the electron-beam microanalyzer technique, of 
about 270 dust particles that probably are primarily cosmic in origin. 
To substantiate that probability, they are now working on similar 
analyses of the interiors of 23 spherules that had previously been sub- 
ject to surface analyses. To establish finally whether or not a volcanic 
origin is possible for the majority of spherules recovered in arctic ice 
deposits, they are continuing their investigation of volcanic spherules; 
results to date make a volcanic origin extremely unlikely. 

Dr. Joseph Goldstein redetermined the Fe-Ni phase diagram at 
temperatures above 500° C. The new phase diagram can be extrap- 
olated to 300°G. and suggests that the a/a -\- y boundary bends 
back to lower Ni concentrations above 400°C. He also measured the 
inter diffusion coefficients for the Fe-Ni system at 1 atm. and 40 
kilobar pressures. With the newly determined phase diagram and 
diffusion coefficients he calculated the concentration gradients in 
meteoritic kamacite. The results show a Ni depletion in the kama- 
cite near the a/y interface below 450 °C. because the kamacite cannot 
remain in equilibrium at low cooling temperatures and because of a 
number of other features of the kamacite phase. Electron-probe 
measurements on several metallic meteorites when compared to his 
predicted features of the kamacite phase agree with cooling rates of 
small bodies, indicating a low-pressure formation. 

Basing his work on a broad range of observational data, Dr. G. 
Colombo has conducted a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of 
dust particles orbiting in the vicinity of the earth. He and his co- 
workers, Dr. Don Lautman and Irwin Shapiro of the M.I.T. Lincoln 
Laboratory, conclude that more observational data from ground, 
rocket, and satellite experiments are much needed. 

Under the direction of Dr. Nathaniel P. Carleton and Dr. Charles 
H. Dugan, laboratory studies of electron impact excitation of metastable 
levels in atoms and molecules of atmospheric interest have been per- 
formed. 13 Studies were also made of the chemical reaction of certain 
of these metastable atoms and molecules. The atmospheric applica- 
tion of this work concerns the partition of energy supplied to the 



18 Supported by contract AF 19(628)-4203 with the U.S. Air Force. 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 221 

atmosphere by various mechanisms, particularly photo ionization and 
heating by electric currents in the ionosphere. 

To understand more fully the phenomena of comet nuclei, Dr. 
Charles A. Whitney, Dr. Charles A. Lundquist, and Douglas T. 
Pitman are continuing laboratory experiments simulating conditions 
on the surface of a nucleus. 

Dr. Carl Sagan's laboratory for research in prebiological organic 
chemistry and related exobiological problems is now in operation. 
The basic process in the synthesis of organic compounds is the appli- 
cation of energy, chiefly ultraviolet radiation, to a mixture of molecules 
simulating features of the primitive environment of the earth or of 
contemporary planetary environments. Techniques of autoradio- 
graphic paper chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and 
electrophoresis are applicable to these investigations. Some prelimi- 
nary results on nucleoside and nucleotide synthesis have been obtained. 

Dr. Sagan, working with J. P. Phaneuf and M. Ihnat of the Avco 
Corporation, has compared the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared 
reflection spectra of the Martian bright areas with corresponding 
laboratory reflectivities of a variety of minerals. 14 Except at short 
visible wavelengths, where the effects of the Martian blue haze are 
prominent, pulverized limonite matches the shape and amplitude 
of the Martian Russell-Bond albedo within experimental and obser- 
vational error. 

FLIGHT OPERATIONS 

Observations made from experiments high in the atmosphere or 
beyond it can yield information that is impossible to obtain from ground 
stations. The Observatory is broadening its efforts to obtain such data. 
To support the activities of these experiments, a new department of 
flight operations headed by John J. Burke has been established. 

Within this department work is progressing on a variety of flight 
instruments. Under the supervision of Dr. Giovanni G. Fazio and 
Dr. Henry F. Helmken, a spark-chamber detector to search for primary 
gamma rays has been built and is being tested. 15 A balloon flight is 
scheduled for next year. Dr. Fazio and Dr. Comerford are investigating 
detectors to measure polarization of celestial X-ray sources. 

The purpose of Project Celescope is to construct an accurate photo- 
metric map of the sky in each of four ultraviolet wavelength bands. 10 



14 Research sponsored by a fellowship from the Alfred P. Sloane Foundation. 
18 Supported by contracts NAS5-3255 and NAS5-9769 with NASA Goddard 
Space Flight Center. 
18 Supported by contract NAS5-1535 with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 



222 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

This program, under the scientific direction of Dr. Robert J. Davis, 
requires the use of sophisticated television techniques and the establish- 
ment of an accurate absolute standard of spectrophotometric sensitivity 
as a function of wavelength between 1000 and 3000 angstroms. The 
Celescope experiment has been rescheduled for installation aboard 
the third Orbiting Astronomical Observatory satellite, to be launched 
in 1 967. Preliminary experiments may also be conducted from balloons 
and rockets. 

Under Harvard auspices, Dr. Leo Goldberg and his group have 
designed and partially constructed a spectrometer-spectroheliometer 
which will be flown on the Orbiting Solar Observatory D satellite. 17 
This instrument is an improved version of the earlier OSO-BII experi- 
ment, which failed early in 1965 during its first orbits. Its purpose is to 
investigate the structure of the sun's outer atmosphere and to study the 
physical processes occurring in solar flares. 



STELLAR AND PLANETARY OBSERVATIONS 

Using several observational facilities, including the Kitt Peak National 
Observatory, Dr. Goldberg has been dealing with astrophysical im- 
plications of autoionization in atomic spectra. A considerable number 
of previously unobserved and unidentified features have been found in 
the solar spectrum. The profiles of the Ca I triplet near X 6350, recently 
identified by Mitchell and Mohler, have also been traced at various 
points along the solar radius and are being studied with the aid of 
absolute f-values measured by Mr. Gerald Newson in the Shock Tube 
Laboratory. 18 

A project has been established under the general direction of Dr. 
Stephen Strom and the specific direction of David W. Latham to de- 
velop instrumentation for obtaining highly accurate stellar continuous 
spectra. A prototype photomultiplier cooling package with careful 
temperature control has been designed by Thomas E. Hoffman and 
is being constructed. A data reduction scheme has been formulated 
by Mr. Latham, a semiautomatic data acquisition system has been 
perfected, and a monochromator is being built. 

The Observatory has supported the design and preliminary construc- 
tion of an infrared camera for Dr. Sagan's group. The camera is 
intended to obtain photographs of the moon and planets at several 
narrow-band wavelength intervals in the photographic infrared. The 
system is planned to be flexible for adaptation to a variety of large 

17 Supported by contract NASw-184 between NASA and Harvard University. 

18 Supported by grant NsG 438 from NASA to Harvard University. 



ASTROPHYSIGAL OBSERVATORY 223 

telescopes and will accommodate six interference filters on a filter 
wheel. 

Dr. Fazio and Dr. Helmken have used the large (28-ft. square) 
parabolic mirror system at the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories to detect 
air cerenkov light from cosmic -ray particles striking the atmosphere 
and producing charged particle showers. Significant improvements in 
detection ability were achieved during the year. 

One major result of observational work has been the preparation of 
an atlas of the Large Magellanic Cloud by Dr. Hodge and Dr. Wright. 
The atlas includes a historical account of research on the Cloud, 
together with a summary of current knowledge; a complete bibliog- 
raphy of papers on this subject from 1925 through 1964; and 167 
photographic charts on which have been identified known variable 
stars, star clusters, and emission nebulae. When the work is pub- 
lished, it should serve as a "clearing house" for information on these 
phenomena. 

Dr. Whitney and his group working in theoretical astrophysics 
have developed two observational programs: 19 

1. Use of existing equipment and other optical observatories 
under guest investigator programs. Dr. Strom, Mr. Latham, and 
Dr. Whitney obtained spectrographic data at the McDonald Observa- 
tory, the Kitt Peak National Observatory, and the Mt. Wilson Ob- 
servatory. Dr. Strom and Mr. Latham have developed extensive 
computer programs to handle the reduction of these data. 

2. Development of auxiliary equipment for the measurement of 
stellar spectra. As the first step in this program, Mr. Latham and Mr. 
Hoffman are constructing the photoelectric spectrometer mentioned 
earlier. Under this program they envisage the continuing develop- 
ment of various optical detectors to elucidate empirical questions 
raised by the theoretical program and to explore new avenues of 
observation. 

Dr. Sagan, Steven Kilston of Harvard College, and R. R. Drummond 
of the Goddard Space Flight Center undertook a search for life on 
Earth at km. resolution using photographs obtained by the Tiros and 
Nimbus meteorological satellites. Of several thousand photographs 
of essentially cloudless terrains taken by Nimbus I, two objects were 
found that were indicative of intelligent life on Earth: a jet contrail 
and a recently constructed interstate highway. One rectilinear 
feature was found on the Moroccan coast; it was not, however, due 
to the works of man. No signs of seasonal variation of vegetation 
could be found, although one rectilinear array due to the activities 

19 Supported by grants GP-940 and GP-4318 from the National Science Founda- 
tion. 



224 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

of Canadian loggers was discovered on a Tiros II photograph. It 
appears that several thousand photographs of the Earth, each with a 
resolution of a few tenths of a km., are required before any sign of 
intelligent life can be found with some reasonable reliability. An 
equivalent Mariner IV system — taking 22 photographs of the Earth 
with a resolution of several km. — would not detect any sign of life on 
Earth, intelligent or otherwise. 



THEORETICAL ASTROPHYSICS 

In a paper presented before the Thirteenth International Astro- 
physical Symposium organized by PInstitut d'Astrophysique of the 
University of Liege in Belgium, the director and Diarmaid H. Douglas- 
Hamilton of the Harvard College Observatory corrected visual bright- 
ness estimates of Comets Encke and Faye for telescope aperture and 
reduced them to absolute magnitude. A secular decrease in absolute 
brightness is indicated for both. On the assumption of a linear de- 
crease with time in the diameter of an icy nucleus, they calculated 
death dates of 1991 to 2000 for Comet Encke, and 1978 to 1985 for 
Comet Faye. 

They find no correlation between the brightness variations of the 
two comets and solar activity. On the other hand, for Comet Encke 
they find that the observed occurrence of a tail is strongly correlated 
with increased solar activity and with the observed presence of a 
distinct sharp nucleus. They suggest that variations in the solar 
wind may produce these effects. 

The director presented before the Symposium on Unmanned Ex- 
ploration of the Solar System, held by the American Astronomical 
Society in Denver, Colo., a description of cometry phenomena and of 
the probable basic nature of comets, and offered proposals for further 
investigations by improved classical astronomical methods, by labora- 
tory studies, by observations from balloons, by artificial comet ex- 
periments in space, by observations from space platforms, and by 
space probes passing near comets. These techniques should add signifi- 
cantly to our knowledge of the cometry nucleus and of possible cometary 
hazards to spacecraft, as well as to the possibility of using comets as 
fuel sources for interplanetary operation and exploration. 

From time to time a comet nucleus is observed to break into several 
pieces. Sometimes two or more comets are thus formed which sub- 
sequently follow nearly identical orbits. At other times the original 
comet simply vanishes, leaving only the suspicion that its nucleus 
fragmented. Dr. Whipple and Robert P. Stefanik have been conduct- 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 225 

ing a study of 12 such split comets. The fact that these appear to be 
"new" rather than periodic comets leads to the suggestion that early 
in its life each of these fragmented comets was a large dirty snowball 
containing a source of heat in radioactive atoms. Planetary encounters 
eject the comet far out of the solar system and into interstellar space 
where sublimation of the more volatile materials depletes the core 
over a long time interval. Diffusing outward through the nucleus, 
the gases recrystallize in the extreme cold near the comet's surface to 
form an external shell that is brittle and a structurally weakened core. 
During its long stay in interstellar space, the comet is affected by 
virtually no external physical forces. Thus on its first close approach 
to the sun, exposure to strong external radiation may result in the 
formation of heat shock that causes the comet to split. 

Before the Third International Symposium on Bioastronautics 
and the Exploration of Space, held at San Antonio, Tex., the director 
revised historically the predictions of meteoroid penetration of space 
vehicles near the Earth's orbit and then compared the predictions with 
observational data from satellites. He concluded that the hazard is 
far less than it was thought to be several years ago. 

Prof. Prabhu L. Bhatnagar of the Indian Institute of Science was a 
distinguished visiting scientist at the Observatory during the summer 
and fall of 1964. He directed his attention to the problem of deriving 
a precise theory of the radiation transfer problem in the lunar surface, 
in which the lunar surface density is constant, varies linearly with 
depth, and varies exponentially with depth. The methods are being 
programed for utilization of infrared and radio observations, both 
throughout a lunation and during eclipses. The director cooperated 
in this research. 

Research in cosmology and general relativity proceeded along several 
paths. Dr. James P. Wright and Dr. Sachiko Tsuruta evaluated the 
pulsation periods of relativistic objects, paying particular attention to 
neutron stars where the whole star may pulsate in 0.001 second. The 
stability of superdense stars was studied using conventional trial 
functions corresponding to homologous oscillation, and further work 
indicates the need to use more elaborate trial functions. Dr. Wright 
also investigated the role of rotation in a particular relativistic model 
of the universe. 

Dr. Tsuruta evaluated the neutrino energy loss from stars through the 
so-called URGA (uniform rapid contraction) process for ordinary and 
dense matter in the temperature range T = 10 9 °K to T = 5 X 10 9 
°K and of the density range p = 10 6 grams-cm. 3 to 3 X 10 u grams- 
cm. 3 . This energy loss rate is highly sensitive to temperature, and 
above a temperature of 2 to 3 X 10 9 °K the nuclear URGA process 

789-427—66 26 



226 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

exceeds the energy loss by the plasma-neutrino process; therefore the 
URGA process must be taken into account in detailed calculations of 
stellar evolution at high densities and temperatures. Dr. Tsuruta 
finds that inclusion of this new process does not significantly alter her 
earlier conclusions concerning the rate of cooling of neutron stars. 
She has found that stars of medium and heavy mass retain temperatures 
exceeding 2 X 10 9 °K for times of the order of 10 4 to 10 5 years, so such 
stars should be considered as candidates for some of the observed 
X-ray sources. 

Dr. Henri E. Mitler has made considerable progress in his study of 
neutron activation of nuclei in meteoroids from solar and galactic 
cosmic rays. He has found a relatively simple analytical method for 
obtaining the total number of neutrons, protons, and heavier particles 
evaporated from excited nuclei and has obtained an improved neutron 
production spectrum. He has also solved the problem of spallation 
production of nuclei in spherical meteoroids by cosmic rays and will 
apply this as a test of the space erosion theory by Dr. Whipple and Dr. 
Fireman. 

Dr. William M. Irvine completed a study of local irregularities in 
cosmological models according to general relativity. Conditions were 
derived for the validity of Newtonian gravitational theory on a local 
scale in such a universe, and it was shown that such models satisfy 
Mach's principle. The energy of the irregularities in such a universe 
is not conserved, a fact of significance to cosmogony. 

Research in stellar atmospheres, under the general supervision of 
Dr. Whitney, now comprises perhaps the strongest theoretical program 
of its kind in the world. 19 To supplement this theoretical work, the 
observational program previously mentioned was initiated this year. 
An event of particular note was the second Harvard-Smithsonian con- 
ference on stellar atmospheres, held at the Observatories in January. 20 
This meeting was organized by Dr. Whitney, Dr. Eugene H. Avrett, 
and Dr. Owen J. Gingerich; the proceedings, published as Special 
Report No. 174, contained over 450 pages summarizing 3 days' dis- 
cussion of problems of the formation of spectrum lines. This conference 
series has clearly been adopted as an "Institution" by the astronomical 
community. 

The theoretical work of the Observatory's group was aimed primarily 
at uncovering the effects of departures from local thermodynamic equi- 
librium on the formation of spectrum lines and the continuous spectra 



20 Supported in part by grant NONR(G)0031-65 from the Office of Naval 
Research. 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 227 

of stars. Also, accurate and powerful techniques for spectrum analysis 
have been brought to bear on problems of stellar composition. 

Dr. Avrett has made considerable progress in the calculation of strong 
absorption at emission lines formed in the outermost layers of stellar 
atmospheres and has completed an investigation of "source function 
equality" in multiplet lines. This study is part of a larger project 
involving radiative transfer calculations of spectra from complex atoms 
with applications to solar chromospheric lines. In collaboration with 
Dr. Robert W. Noyes, he is making a detailed analysis of the solar H 
and K lines of ionized calcium and of magnesium. 

The group devoted a major effort toward examining the validity of 
model atmosphere techniques and extending these theories and tech- 
niques to a practical analysis of the spectra of "real" stars. Dr. Wolf- 
gang Kalkofen continued his investigations of the influence of departures 
from local thermodynamic equilibrium on the structure of model 
atmospheres. 21 This theoretical work, done in collaboration with Dr. 
Avrett, promises to have an important bearing on the quantitative 
analysis of stellar spectra, as evidenced by recent work of Dr. Strom and 
Dr. Gingerich. 

Dr. Strom and Dr. Gingerich have nearly completed an analysis of 
the spectra of Sirius and Vega, two bright stars whose surface tempera- 
tures are about 10,000°K. This will be the most thorough study ever 
performed for any star other than the sun. Two principal results have 
emerged from this study. In the first place, it is quite clear that Sirius 
has a metal content similar to that of metallic-line A stars and much 
higher than that of Vega. Second, there were significant discrepancies 
in the results in the analyses which were removed when the departures 
from local thermodynamic equilibrium for the second and third levels 
of neutral hydrogen were explicitly included. The magnitude of this 
effect will be appreciated when it is noted that the new models alter 
the estimates of surface temperature for these stars by about 1,000°K, 
and may indicate that there will be a significant revision of the stellar 
temperature scale. 19 

Dr. Whitney's theoretical work was aimed at providing insight into 
dynamical properties of stellar atmospheres and the general problem 
of gas dynamic flow in the presence of radiative transfer. 

Dr. Noyes continued his theoretical and observational studies of the 
solar atmosphere. He and Dr. Whitney organized an informal 
symposium on "motions in the solar atmosphere" to which a small 
number of specialists throughout the country were invited. 

21 Supported in part by contract AF 19(628)-3877 between the U.S. Air Force 
and Harvard University. 



228 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Dr. George B. Rybicki derived radiative transfer equations for a 
medium with small stochastically defined opacity and energy fluctua- 
tions. The theory is shown to provide a description of the solar 
atmosphere which has statistically defined inhomogeneities due to an 
underlying convection zone. An unexpected result is that long-range 
correlations in the emergent intensity may appear that are not directly 
related to the correlation scales in the energy fluctuations. Rather, 
they are related to the depth of the zone in which the energy fluctua- 
tions occur, even if this is large in comparison with a radiation mean- 
free path. 

Dr. Irvine pursued his fundamental studies of scattering phenomena 
in planetary atmospheres. He developed a new approach to the 
study of the formation of absorption bands in a scattering atmosphere 
through equations for the probability distribution of photon-optical 
paths. Also, radiative transfer in layers of large particles (dust or 
clouds) was invesitgated with an explicit evaluation of the influence 
of the large forward lobe in the scattering pattern. Dr. Irvine com- 
puted the cross sections for extinction, scattering, and radiation pressure 
for both dielectric and absorbing particles and included the contribu- 
tion of surface waves to the scattering. As an aid to the study of 
planetary cloud and dust layers, he evaluated the albedo and asym- 
metry factor of water droplets and sand spheres. 22 

Analyzing recent passive and active radio observations of Mars, Dr. 
Sagan and Dr. James B. Pollack have found a significant correlation of 
radar reflectivity enhancements with the Martian dark areas Cerberus- 
Trivium Gharontis, Nepenthes, and Syrtis Major. 

They have also continued their study of the physical environment of 
the planet Venus. They have estimated surface thermometric tem- 
peratures to be as follows: mean disk, 700°K; subsolar point, 1000°K; 
antisolar point, 610°K; pole, 470°K. They have shown that the 
Venus limb-darkening detected by Mariner II can be explained 
consistently either by an absorbing cloud or by scatterers nonuni- 
formly distributed through the atmosphere. Reconsidering the Venus 
greenhouse effect, they find that cloudless atmospheres, either in 
convective or in radiative equilibrium, require, to explain the high 
surface temperatures, integrated infrared optical depths much larger 
than is realistically expected from the constituents of the Venus atmos- 
phere. If the Venus clouds are made of water, many of the cloud 
parameters can be derived from the observations; such clouds play 
a major role in maintaining the high surface temperatures of Venus. 



M Supported in part by grant NsG 89/60 from NASA to Harvard University. 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 229 

HISTORICAL ASTRONOMY 

Dr. Hawkins has developed a computer program in astroarcheology 
that determines the position on the celestial sphere that is marked by a 
chosen line on the ground. The stones, stone holes, and archways at 
Stonehenge in England revealed a surprising fit with the extreme 
positions of sunrise, sunset, moonrise, and moonset. Also, the circle of 
56 holes is exactly the number required to predict the swing of the 
moon and the occurrence of eclipse seasons. This observatory-com- 
puter is a remarkable achievement for circa 2000 B.C. Similar align- 
ments and computer possibilities were found from the stone rows and 
rings at Callanish, on the Isle of Lewis, Scotland. The program has 
been made available to other scientists, and already investigations 
using it have been made in Illinois, in Mexico, and elsewhere. 

Dr. Gingerich has undertaken an extensive study of Kepler's 
Astronomia Nova that should ultimately result in the first English 
translation of and commentary on this classic treatise. This work is an 
outgrowth of a previous computer study that indicated Kepler's 
work on the orbit of Mars was greatly impeded by his frequent nu- 
merical errors. Dr. Gingerich has also been examining, with the aid 
of a computer, Kepler's Rudolphine Tables of 1627 to determine the 
internal consistency of the calculations and their accuracy for pre- 
dicting planetary positions. 23 

INTERNATIONAL BUREAUS 

Recognizing the Observatory's active and productive program in 
geodesy, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics invited 
the Observatory to establish a Central Bureau of Satellite Geodesy. 
The Bureau is now in operation, with Dr. Whipple as director and 
Jan RolfF as executive director. 24 

On January 1 , the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams was 
transferred to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory from the 
Copenhagen Observatory, where it had operated since 1922. The 
Bureau's responsibilities include the rapid dissemination of astronomical 
information both by telegraph and by printed circulars, as well as the 
nomenclature of comets. Under the direction of Dr. Gingerich, the 
Bureau had issued 30 circulars by the end of the year. 25 



23 Supported in part by Harvard University. 

24 Supported in part by the International Association of Geodesy. 

25 Supported in part by the International Astronomical Union. 



230 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

STAFF CHANGES 

The Observatory staff was increased during the year by physicists 
Dr. Wolfgang Kalkofen, Dr. Anthony Lee, Dr. James Pollack, Dr. 
George Rybicki, Dr. Sachiko Tsuruta, Dr. Franco Verniani, and Dr. 
James Wright; astrophysicist Dr. Max Roemer; geodesist Dr. William 
Strange; and mathematician Dr. Manfred Friedman. John Burke 
joined the staff as flight operations manager, William Hirst as chief 
of Moon watch, Thomas Hoffman as staff engineer, John Hsia as chief 
of station operations, and Raymond Watts, Jr., as chief of editorial 
and publications. 

The computations, data, and photoreduction divisions became the 
data processing department under Dr. Richard Haefner. Edward 
Gaposchkin and Leonard Solomon joined research and analysis, and 
Jerome Cherniack became chief of computations and Robert Martin 
chief of data. E. Nelson Hayes became editor-in-chief. Jan Rolff 
was appointed executive director of the Central Bureau for Satellite 
Geodesy. 

Consultants to the Observatory during the year were Dr. G. 
de Vaucouleurs, Dr. William Kaula, Dr. Colin Keay, Daniel 
Malaise, Dr. Shambhu Sinvhal, Dr. George Veis, Dr. John Wood, 
and Costas Papaliolios. 

Metallurgist Dr. Joseph Goldstein transferred to Goddard Space 
Flight Center. Physicist Jack Tech transferred from and returned 
to the National Bureau of Standards during the year. Moonwatch 
chief Richard Vanderburgh and physicists Dr. Morton Davies and 
Dr. William Elford resigned. 

As of June 30, 1965, the Observatory employed 468 persons. 

Death took two young Observatory scientists in 1965. 

Dr. Craig M. Merrihue, physicist, and associate of Harvard 
University, died in a mountain-climbing accident March 14, 1965. 
Born in Schenectady, N.Y., July 8, 1933, he was awarded the B.A. 
degree from Harvard University in 1956 and the Ph.D. from the 
University of California at Berkeley in 1964. He lived in Cambridge 
with his wife Sandra and their son Jeffrey. In his short career, he 
demonstrated an unusual combination of theoretical skills and ex- 
perimental aptitude and made important contributions to science, 
particularly in the analysis of radioisotopes in meterorites. He was a 
quiet, modest, unassuming man with intense enthusiasm for life. 
He was deeply involved in the public problems of his time, taking an 
active interest in conservation, civil liberties, and political issues. He 
was concerned alike for the individual and for society. A skillful 
mountain climber, he had led an expedition to the Andes, had climbed 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 231 

in British Columbia and in the Karakoram in Pakistan, and was 
planning an expedition to the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan. While he 
and Daniel Doody, a member of the American Everest Expedition, 
were climbing on the side of Mt. Washington, they both fell and were 
killed. Because of his theoretical interests and practical skills as a 
scientist, and because of his experience as a mountain climber, Dr. 
Merrihue was a conspicuous candidate for the position of scientist on 
America's first manned expedition to the Moon. 

On April 21, 1965, Imre Izsak, chief of satellite research and analysis, 
and lecturer at Harvard University, died of a heart attack at the age 
of 36. He was in Paris attending a COSPAR symposium on tra- 
jectories of artificial celestial bodies as determined from observations. 
In the brief years of his scientific career, he had established himself 
as a preeminent authority on geodesy and had made significant con- 
tributions to the study of celestial mechanics. His death is both a 
deep personal tragedy and an irreparable loss to the scientific com- 
munity. Born in the small town of Zalaegerszeg, some 200 miles 
from Budapest, Izsak attended the University of Budapest, where he 
worked in astronomy under the late Karoly Lassovszky (who also 
later joined the Smithsonian) and specialized in the study of variable 
stars and galactic clusters. Fleeing Hungary during the 1956 revolt, 
he began studies of solar physics at the Zurich Observatory in Novem- 
ber of that year. Two years later he emigrated to the United States 
and, after a brief priod at the Observatory of the University of Cincin- 
nati, joined the staff of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. 
On February 24, 1964, he became a citizen of the United States. 
He lived in Cambridge with his wife Emily and an infant son Andrew. 
Izsak was a warm, charming, witty, gentle person. He gained not 
only the deep respect but also the spontaneous affection of his col- 
leagues. His association with them was one of mutual inspiration. 

PUBLICATIONS 

The following papers by staff members of the Astrophysical Observa- 
tory were published or presented as indicated: 

Aardoom, L.; Girnius, A.; and Veis, G. Determination of the absolute 
space directions between Baker-Nunn camera stations. Presented 
at the Second International Symposium on the Use of Artificial 
Satellites for Geodesy, Athens, April 1965. 
Avrett, E. H., and Strom, S. E. Comparison between model atmos- 
pheres and spectra from early-type stars. Ann. d'Astrophys., vol. 
27, pp. 781-795, 1964. 
. See also Kalkofen and Avrett; Strom and Avrett. 



232 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Carleton, N. P. Excitation and change of charge in ion molecule 
collisions in the adiabatic region. In M. R. C. McDowell, ed., Atomic 
Collision Processes, J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 652-660, 
1964. 

Carleton, N. P.; Oldenberg, O.; and Sheridan, W. F. Secondary 
effects in electron excitation of some nitrogen bands. In M. R. G. 
McDowell, ed., Atomic Collision Processes, J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., 
New York, pp. 440-442, 1964. 

Garleton, N. P., and Roach, J. R. Spectroscopic observation of a 
midlatitude red auroral arc. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 70, pp. 
1262-1265, 1965. 

Colombo, G., and Fiocco, G. Reply to "Note on Kazer detection of 
atmospheric dust layers" by D. Deirmendjian. Journ. Geophys. 
Res., vol. 70, p. 746, 1965. 

Colombo, G.; Lautman, D. A.; and Shapiro, I. I. Dynamics of small 
particles in the solar system. Presented at the annual meeting of 
Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, Washington, April 21, 1965. 

DeFelice, J. See Fireman and DeFelice; Fireman, DeFelice, and 
Langway. 

Dolan, J. F., and Fazio, G. G. Gamma-ray spectrum of the sun. 
Rev. Geophys., vol. 3, pp. 319-343, 1965. 

Elford, W. G., and Hawkins, G. S. Meteor echo rates and the flux 
of sporadic meteors. Harvard Radio Meteor Project Research 
Report No. 9, November 1964. 

Elford, W. G.; Hawkins, G. S.; and Southworth, R. B. The dis- 
tribution of sporadic meteor radiants. Harvard Radio Meteor Proj- 
ect Research Report No. 11, December 1964. 

Fazio, G. G. A vidicon spark chamber system for use in artificial earth 
satellites. Proc. Symp. on Filmless Spark Chamber Techniques and 
Associated Computer Uses. CERN, Geneva, pp. 95-103, 1964. 

. See also Dolan and Fazio; Pollack and Fazio. 

Fireman, E. L., and DeFelice, J. Multiple fall of Pribram meteorites 
photographed 7. The tritium and argon-39 in the Pribram meteorite 
(abstract). Bull. Astron. Insts. Czech., vol. 15, p. 113, 1964. 

Fireman, E. L.; DeFelice, J.; and Langway, C. C, jr. Greenland 
dust: radioactivity studies (abstract). Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 
vol. 46, p. 117, 1964. 

Fireman, E. L., and Langway, C. C, jr. Search for aluminum-26 
in dust from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Geochim. et. Cosmochim. 
Acta, vol. 29, pp. 21-27, 1965. 

. See also Schaeffer, Stoenner, and Fireman. 

Fleischer, R. L.; Naeser, C. W.; Price, P. B.; Walker, R. M.; and 
Marvin, U. B. Fossil particle tracks and uranium distributions in 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 233 

minerals of the Vaca Muerta meteorite. Science, vol. 148, pp. 
629-632, 1965. 

Franklin, F. A. See Wright, Hodge, and Franklin. 

Friedman, M. P. A description of a computer program for the study 
of atmospheric effects on sonic booms. NASA CR-157, February 
1965. 

Gingerich, O. Laboratory exercises in astronomy — spectral classifi- 
cation. Sky and Tel., vol. 28, pp. 80-82, 1964. 

•. Laboratory exercises in astronomy — the rotation of Saturn 

and its rings. Sky and Tel., vol. 28, pp. 278-279, 1964. 

. Translation of Introduction to Astrophysics: the Stars, 



by J. Dufay. Dover Press, New York, 1964. 
. Lunar visibilities in ancient Babylon. Isis, March 1965. 



Gingerich, O.; Mihalas, D.; Matsushima, S.; and Strom, S. An 

archetype non-gray stellar atmosphere. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 

141, pp. 316-319, 1965. 

. See also Strom, Gingerich, and Strom. 

Girnius, A. See Aardoom, Girnius, and Veis. 

Goldberg, L. The origin of the emission reversals in the Fraunhofer 

H- and K-lines. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 140, pp. 384-386, 1964. 
Goldberg, L., and Noyes, R. W. Origin of emission cores in lines of 

ionized Ca and Mg (abstract). Astron. Journ., vol. 69, p. 542, 1964. 
Goldberg, L.; Parkinson, W. N.; and Reeves, E. M. Carbon mon- 
oxide in the ultraviolet solar spectrum. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 

141, pp. 1293-1295, 1965. 
Goldstein, J. I.; Hanneman, R. E.; and Ogilivie, R E. Diffusion in 

the Fe-Ni system at 1 atm. and 40 kbar pressure. Trans, AIME, vol. 

233, pp. 812-820, 1965. 
Haefner, R. R. The simultaneous observation program of the 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Presented at the Second 

International Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for 

Geodesy, Athens, April 1965. 
. Precise reduction of Baker-Nunn films at the Smithsonian 

Astrophysical Observatory. Presented at the Second International 

Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy, Athens, 

April 1965. 
Hawkins, G. S. Interplanetary debris near the earth. Ann. Rev. 

Astron. Astrophys., vol. 2, pp. 149-164, 1964. 

. Letter to the Editor. Physics Today, vol. 17, p. 56, 1964. 

. Secret of Stonehenge. Harpers, pp. 96-99, June 1964. 

. Meteors, comets, and meteorites. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New 

York, 1964. 



234 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Hawkins, G. S. The sun and its planets. Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 
New York, 1964. 

Hawkins, G. S., and Friesen, D. A note on the grid of the ortho- 
graphic atlas of the moon. Planet. Space Sci., vol. 12, pp. 318-319, 
1964. 

Hawkins, G. S.; Lindblad, B.-A.; and Southworth, R. B. The 
velocity of faint meteors. Smithsonian Contr. Astrophys., vol. 8, 
pp. 133-139, 1964. 

Hawkins, G. S.; Southworth, R. B.; and Rosenthal, S. Prelimin- 
ary analysis of meteor radiants and orbits. Harvard Radio Meteor 
Project Research Report No. 7, August 1964. 

Hawkins, G. S.; Southworth, R. B.; and Verniani, F. On the 
ablation-coefficient of meteors. Harvard Radio Meteor Project 
Research Report No. 10, December 1964. 

Hawkins, G. S., and Verniani, F. On the ionizing efficiency of 
meteors. Harvard Radio Meteor Project Research Report No. 5, 
1964; also in Astrophys. Journ., vol. 140, pp. 1590-1600, 1964. 

. See also Elford and Hawkins; Elford, Hawkins, and South- 
worth; Verniani and Hawkins. 

Helmken, H. F. See Kraushaar, Clark, Gamire, Helmken, Higbie, and 
Agogino. 

Hodge, P. W. The Henbury meteorite craters. Smithsonian Contr. 
Astrophys., vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 199-213, 1965. 

Hodge, P. W.; Wright, F. W ; and Langway, C. C, Jr. Studies of 
particles for extraterrestrial origin. 3. Analyses of dust particles 
from polar ice deposits. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 69, pp. 2919- 
2931, 1964. 

. See also Wright, Hodge, and Franklin. 

Irvine, W. M. Local irregularities in an expanding universe. Ann. 
Phys., vol. 32, pp. 322-347, 1965. 

— . Light scattering by spherical particles: radiation pressure, 

asymmetry factor, and extinction cross section. Journ. Opt. Soc. 
Amer., vol. 55, pp. 16-21, 1965. 

Irvine, W. M. ; Pikoos, C; Charon, J.; and Lectome, G. Effect of 
high voltage on spectral sensitivity for two photo multipliers. Astro- 
phys. Journ., vol. 140, pp. 1629-1631, 1964. 

Izsak, I. G. A new determination of non-zonal harmonics by satel- 
lites. Presented posthumously at the Second International Sym- 
posium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy, Athens, 
April 1965. 

Izsak, I. G.; Gerard, J.; and Barnett, M. P. Mechanization of 
tedious algebra. Communications of the ACM, vol. 8, pp. 27-32, 
1965. 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 235 

Jacchia, L. G. The temperature above the thermopause. In P. 

Muller, ed., Space Research V, North-Holland Publ., Amsterdam, 

pp. 1152-1174, 1965. 
Jacchia, L. G., and Slowey, J. Temperature variations in the 

upper atmosphere during geomagnetically quiet intervals. Journ. 

Geophys. Res., vol. 69, pp. 4145-4148, 1964. 
Kalkofen, W., and Avrett, E. H. Departures from L.T.E. in a 

model atmosphere (abstract). Astron. Journ., vol. 69, p. 546, 1964. 
Kohnlein, W. Determination of station coordinates from optical 

observations of artificial satellites. Presented at the Second Inter- 
national Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy, 

Athens, April 1965. 
Kozai, Y. New determination of zonal harmonics coefficients of the 

earth's gravitational potential. Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, vol. 16, 

pp. 263-284, 1964. 
. New values for the zonal harmonics. Presented at the 

Second International Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satellites 

for Geodesy, Athens, April 1965. 

Summary of numerical results derived from satellite obser- 



vations. Presented at the Second International Symposium on the 
Use of Artificial Satellites for Geodesy, Athens, April 1965. 

Long range analysis of satellite observations. Presented at 



the Second International Symposium on the Use of Artificial Satel- 
lites for Geodesy, Athens, April 1965. 
Kraushaar, W.; Clark, G.; Gamire, G.; Helmken, H. F.; Higbie, 

P.; and Agogino, M. Explorer XI experiment on cosmic gamma 

rays. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 141, pp. 845-863, 1965. 
Langway, C. C, Jr., and Marvin, U. B. Some characteristics of 

black spherules. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 119, pp. 205-223, 1964. 
Langway, G. C, jr. See also Fireman and Langway; Fireman, 

DeFelice, and Langway. 
Lautman, D. A. See Colombo, Lautman, and Shapiro. 
Lundquist, C. A. Orbital mechanics. Part IV of E. Stuhlinger and 

G. Mesmer, eds., Space Science and Engineering. McGraw-Hill 

Book Co., New York, 1965. 
Marvin, U. B., and Klein, C, jr. Meteoritic zircon. Science, vol. 

146, pp. 919-920, 1964. 
. See also Fleischer, Naeser, Price, Walker, and Marvin; 

Langway and Marvin. 
Merrihue, C. M. Rare gas evidence for cosmic dust in modern 

Pacific red clay. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 119, pp. 351-367, 1964. 
McCrosky, R. E., and Boeschenstein, H. jr. The Prairie Meteorite 



236 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Network. Journ. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instr. Engrs., vol. 3, pp. 127- 

132, 1965. 
Mitler, H. E. Origin of light elements. Phys. Rev., vol. 136, pp. 

298-320, 1964. 
Noyes, R. W. See Goldberg and Noyes. 
Pollack, J. B., and Fazio, G. G. Nuclear interactions of cosmic rays 

as the source of the synchrotron radiating particles of our galaxy. 

Astrophys. Journ., vol. 141, pp. 730-744, 1965. 
Pollack, J. B., and Sag an, C. Polarization of thermal emission from 

Venus. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 141, pp. 1161-1183, 1965. 
. The microwave phase effect of Venus. Icarus, vol. 4, pp. 

62-103, 1965. 
. See also Sagan and Pollack. 



Rosenthal, S. See Hawkins, Southworth, and Rosenthal. 

Rybicki, G. Transfer of radiation in stochastic media. Dissertation, 
Harvard University, 1965. 

Sagan, C. The atmosphere of Venus. In P. J. Brancazio and A. G. W. 
Cameron, eds., The Origin and Evolution of Atmospheres and 
Oceans, J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 279-288, 1964. 

. Primordial ultraviolet synthesis of nucleoside phosphates. 

/n S. W. Fox, ed., The Origins of Prebiological Systems, The Aca- 
demic Press, New York, pp. 207-219, 1965. 

. Is the early evolution of life related to the development of the 



earth's core? Nature, vol. 206, p. 448, 1965. 
Sagan, C., and Coleman, S. Spacecraft sterilization standards and 

contamination of Mars. Astron. Aeronaut., vol. 3, pp. 22-27, 1965. 
Sagan, C; Hanst, P. L.; and Young, A. T. Nitrogen oxides on 

Mars. Planet. Space Sci., vol. 13, pp. 73-88, 1965. 
Sagan, C; Phaneuf, J. P,; and Ihnat, M. Total reflection spectro- 
photometry and thermogravimetric analysis of simulated Martian 

surface materials. Icarus, vol. 4, pp. 43-61, 1965. 
Sagan, C, and Pollack, J. B. Spacecraft observations of Venus. 

Ann. d'Astrophys., vol. 28, pp. 229-233, 1965. 
Sagan, C, and Swan, P. R. Martian landing sites for the Voyager 

mission. Journ. Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 2, pp. 18-24, 1965. 

. See also Pollack and Sagan. 

Schaeffer, O. A.; Stoenner, R. W.; and Fireman, E. L. Rare gas 

isotope contents and K-Ar ages of mineral concentrates from the 

Indarch meteorite. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 70, pp. 209-213, 

1965. 
Slowey, J. i&tfjacchia and Slowey. 
Southworth, R. B. The size distribution of the zodiacal particles. 

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 119, pp. 54-67, 1964. 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 237 

. See also Elford, Hawkins, and Southworth; Hawkins, Lind- 

blad, and Southworth; Hawkins, Southworth, and Rosenthal; 

Hawkins, Southworth, and Verniani. 
Strom, S. E., and Avrett, E. H. Detailed examination of a non-grey 

stellar atmosphere (abstract). Astron. Journ., vol. 69, p. 559, 1964. 
. The temperature structure of early-type model stellar 

atmospheres. I. Details of a representative model. Astrophys. 

Journ., vol. 140, pp. 1381-1390, 1964. 
Strom, S. E.; Gingerich, O.; and Strom, K. M. Metal abundance 

determinations for Vega and Sirius (abstract). Astrophys. Journ., 

vol. 70, p. 148, 1965. 
. See also Avrett and Strom; Gingerich, Mihalas, Matsushima, 

and Strom. 
Tilles, D. Atmospheric noble gases: solar wind bombardment of 

extraterrestrial dust as a source mechanism. Science, vol. 148, pp. 

1085-1088, 1965 
. Anomalous argon isotope ratios in particles from Greenland 

ice and Pacific Ocean sediments (abstract). Trans. Amer. Geophys. 

Union, vol. 46, p. 117, 1965. 
Tsuruta, S. Neutron star models. Dissertation, Columbia University. 

New York, 1964. 
Tsuruta, S.; Wright, J. P.; and Cameron, A. G. W. Oscillation 

periods of neutron stars. Nature, vol. 206, pp. 1137-1138, 1965. 
Veis, G. On the optimum use of satellites for geodesy. COSPAR 

Information Bulletin No. 20, November 1 964; also in Bull. Geodesique, 

No. 74, pp. 283-290, December 1964. 
. Establishment of a European satellite tracking network. 

Presented at the Symposium on the Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory Tracking Network, Paris, December 1964. 

Le reseau de tracking de l'observatoire de Smithsonian et 



les resultats geodesiques. Presented at a colloquium following the 
Symposium on the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Tracking 
Network, Paris, December 1964. 

The deflection of the vertical of major geodetic datums and 



the semimajor axis of the earth's ellipsoid as obtained from satellite 
observations. In Space Research V, P. Muller, ed., North-Holland 
Publ., Amsterdam, pp. 849-875, 1965. 

See also Aardoom, Girnius, and Veis; Whipple and Veis. 



Verniani, F. On the density of meteoroids. II: The density of faint 
photographic meteors. II Nuovo Cimento, vol. 33, pp. 1173-1184, 
1964. 

. Densita e struttura delle meteore. Ric. Sci., vol. 34, pp. 

5-12, 1964. 



238 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Verniani, F. On the luminous and ionizing efficiencies of meteors 

(abstract). Astron. Journ., vol. 69, p. 561, 1964. 
. Aspetti attuali della fisica e dell' astro nomia delle meteore. 

Ric. Sci., vol. 45, pp. 377-415, 1964. 
. On the luminous efficiency of meteors. Smithsonian Contr. 



Astropyhs., vol. 8, pp. 141-172, 1965. 
Verniani, F., and Hawkins, G. S. Masses, magnitudes and densities 

of 320 radiometeors. Harvard Radio Meteor Project Research 

Report No. 12, March 1965. 
. See also Hawkins and Verniani; Hawkins, Southworth, and 

Verniani. 
Whipple, F. L. The history of the solar system. Proc. Nat. Acad. 

Sci., vol. 52, pp. 565-594, 1964. 
. Evidence for a comet belt beyond Neptune (abstract). 

Astron. Journ., vol. 69, p. 563, 1964. 

Astronomy from the space stations and meteor problems 



and photographs of the Perseids. In T. Page and L. W. Page, eds., 
Wanderers in the Sky, Macmillan Co., New York, pp. 119-121, 1965. 
. Meteor problems and photographs of the Perseids. In T. 



Page and L. W. Page, eds., Wanderers in the Sky, Macmillan Co., 

New YorK, pp. 203-206, 1965. 
Whipple, F. L., and Veis, G. Erdvermessung mit Satelliten. Bild der 

Wissenschaft, No. 5, pp. 397-404, 1965. 
Whitney, G. A. Gas dynamics of stellar atmospheres. Presented at 

the Workshop on the Interdisciplinary Aspects of Radiative Trans- 
fer, J.I.L.A., Boulder, Colo., Feb. 11, 12, 1965. 
Wright, F. W.; Hodge, P. W.; and Franklin, F. A. The differences 

between meteoritic and volcanic spherules. Presented at the Amer. 

Astron. Soc. Meeting, University of Kentucky, March 16, 1965. 

. See also Hodge, Wright, and Langway. 

Wright, J. P. General relativistic instability . Phys. Rev., vol. 136, 

pp. 288-289, 1964. 
. Solution of Einstein's field equations for a rotating, stationary 

and dust-filled universe. J. Math. Phys., vol. 6, pp. 103-105, 1965. 
. See also Tsuruta, Wright, and Cameron. 

The Special Reports of the Astrophysical Observatory distribute 
catalogs of satellite observations, orbital data, and preliminary results 
of data analysis prior to journal publication. Numbers 1 57 through 1 80, 
issued during the year, contain the following material: 

No. 157, July 1, 1964 
Atmospheric densities and temperatures from the drag analysis of the 
Explorer 17 satellite, by J. Slowey. 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 239 

No. 158, July 10, 1964 
Satellite orbital data: Satellites 1959 <x\ {Vanguard 2), 1959 rj (Van- 
guard 3), 1960 a (Echo 1 rocket), and 1961 61 (Explorer 9), for July 
1-Dec. 31, 1962; Satellites 1961 ol (Transit 4A) and 1961 o2 
(Injun 3) for July 19-Dec. 31, 1962; Satellite 1961 a51 (Midas 4) for 
Mar. 13-Dec. 31, 1962; and Satellite 1962 ae\ (Tehtar 7) for July 
17-Dec. 31, 1962, prepared by I. Izsak. 
No. 159, July 17, 1964 
Satellite orbital data: Satellites 1958 a (Explorer 7), 1959 a\ (Vanguard 
2), and 1959 rj (Vanguard 3) for Apr. 1-July 1, 1963; Satellite 1959 
tl (Explorer 7) for Apr. 1-Sept. 2, 1963; Satellite 1960 il (Echo 7), 
1960 £1 (Explorer 8), and 1961 51 (Explorer 9) for Apr. 1-July 1, 1963, 
prepared by I. Izsak. 
No. 160, July 27, 1964 
Satellite orbital data: Satellites 1958 a (Explorer 7), 1959 a\ (Vanguard 
2), 1959 7? (Vanguard 3), 1960 £1 (Explorer 8), 1961 51 (Explorer 9), 
1962 ael (Tehtar 7), 1962 /3jul (Anna IB), 1962 ,8x2 (Injun 3), and 
1962 0el (Relay 7) for July 1-Oct. 1, 1963; Satellite 1960 il (Echo 7) 
for July 1-Sept. 30, 1963; Satellite 1963 9A (Explorer 77) for Apr. 
3-Oct. 15, 1963; Satellite 1963 13A (Tehtar 2) for May 7-Oct. 1, 
1963; and Satellite 1963 26 A (Geophysics Research) for July 9-Oct. 1, 
1963, prepared by B. Miller. 
No. 161, August 3, 1964 

Differential orbit improvement (D0I-3), by E. M. Gaposchkin. 
No. 162, August 14, 1964 

Measures of the earthshine, by G. Bakos. 
No. 163, September 11, 1964 
Coated metallic grains as a source of interstellar absorption lines, by 
C. A. Whitney. 
No. 164, October 1965 

Analytical development of the planetary disturbing function on a 
digital computer, by I. G. Izsak, B. Benima, and S. B. Mills. 
No. 165, November 2, 1964 

New determination of zonal harmonics coefficients of the earth's 
gravitational potential, by Y. Kozai. 
No. 166, November 30, 1964 

Thermal effect on the rotational period of an artificial satellite, 
by G. Colombo and P. Higbie. 
No. 167, December 21, 1964 

Proceedings first Harvard-Smithsonian conference on stellar atmos- 
pheres. 
No. 168, March 19, 1965 

Catalog of precisely reduced observations: Satellite 1962 /3jul 



240 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

(Anna 1B passive) for Nov. 1, 1962-Aug. 31, 1963; Satellite 1962 
/3/zl (Anna IB flash) for Nov. 1, 1962,— Apr. 30, 1963, and for 
Aug. 1-31, 1963, prepared by P. Stern and J. MacDonald. 
No. 169, March 24, 1965 

Satellite orbital data: Satellites 1958 a (Explorer 7), 1959 al 
(Vanguard 2) 1959 i\ (Vanguard 3), 1960 il (Echo 7), 1960 fl 
(Explorer 8), 1961 51 (Explorer 9), 1962 at\ (Telstar 7), 1962 /fyl 
(Anna 1B), 1962 0x2 (Injun 3), 1962 j8ul (/fe/aj> 7), 1963 13A 
(Telstar 2), and 1963 26A (Geophysical Research) for Oct. 1— Dec. 31, 
1963; and Satellite 1963 30D for Oct. 30-Dec. 31, 1963. 
No. 170, December 30, 1964 

Static diffusion models of the upper atmosphere with empirical 
temperature profiles, by L. G. Jacchia. 
No. 171, March 26, 1965 

Densities and temperatures from the atmospheric drag on six 
artificial satellites, by L.G. Jacchia and J. Slowey. 
No. 172, April 28, 1965 

The volcanic dust sampling program of the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observing Stations, by F. W. Wright and P.W. Hodge; 
based on field reports by A. Oakes, R. La Count, and S. Tishler. 
No. 173, May 24, 1965 

The Prairie Meteorite Network, by R. E. McCrosky and H. Boe- 
schenstein, Jr. 
No. 174, May 17, 1965 

Proceedings of the second Harvard-Smithsonian conference on 
stellar atmospheres. 
No. 175, April 23, 1965 

An analysis of the atmospheric trajectories of 413 precisely reduced 
photographic meteors, by L. G. Jacchia, F. Verniani, and R. E. 
Briggs. 
No. 176, May 17, 1965 

Some results at Smithsonian Observing Stations, by P. Brand, L. 
Solomon, J. Mazzotta, R. Proctor, J. Latimer, and E. Monash. 
No. 177, May 3, 1965 

Catalog of satellite observations: Satellites 1958 a\ (Explorer 7), 
1959 al (Vanguard II), 1959 7,1 (Vanguard III), 1960 il (Echo T), 
and 1960 i2 (Echo I rocket) for July 1 — Dec. 31, 1963, prepared 
by B. Miller. 
No. 178, May 5, 1965 

Catalog of satellite observations: Satellites 1960 fl (Explorer VIII), 
1961 51 (Explorer IX), 1961 ol (Transit 4A), 1961 o2 (Injun Solar 
Radiation 3), and 1962 ael (Telstar 1), for July 1-Dec. 31, 1963; 
Satellite 1962 tl (Cosmos 3) for Aug. 15-18, 1963; Satellite 1962 



ASTROPHYSIGAL OBSERVATORY 241 

ol (S51/UKI) for Dec. 1-5, 1963; Satellite 1962 a|"l (Cosmos 8) 
for Aug. 3-16, 1963; and Satellite 1962 /3al (Alouette) for Oct. 
15-31, 1964, prepared by B. Miller. 

No. 179, May 7, 1965 

Catalog of satellite observations: Satellites 1962 /3/il (Anna IB), 
1962 /3t (Injun 3); 1962 /3ul (Relay 7), and Satellite 1963 13A 
(Telstar 2) for July 1-Dec. 31, 1963; Satellite 1963 9A (Explorer 
XVII) for July 1-Nov. 6, 1963; Satellite 1963 10A (Cosmos 14) 
for July 31-Aug. 30, 1963; Satellite 1963 26A (Geophysics Research) 
for June 29-Dec. 31, 1963; and Satellite 1963 30D for Oct. 30- 
Dec. 31, 1963. 

No. 180, June 4, 1965 

Transfer of radiation in stochastic media, by G. B. Rybicki. 



789-427—66—27 



National Collection of Fine Arts 




National Collection of Fine Arts 
David W. Scott, Director 

The past year was one of dramatic developments for the National 
Collection of Fine Arts. The physical aspect of the Collection has 
changed in many ways, and its nature and plans have been no less 
affected. 

Physically, the Collection is administered from a new group of 
offices; it boasts a remodeled library and art hall; it is developing a 
large staging area on 24th Street, and it is engaged in very active 
planning in connection with the current remodeling of the Old Patent 
Office Building. Its planning during the past year extended even 
further, to include considerations for the development of display areas 
on the Mall, in the old Court of Claims Building, and in the John F. 
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 

The staff nearly tripled in size within the year. Beginning with 8 
regular employees in July 1964, it had doubled by January and reached 
22 by the end of June. The administrative side was greatly strength- 
ened by the establishment of two administrative officers and corre- 
sponding supporting staff. On the professional and curatorial side, 
a department of exhibits and a department of painting and sculpture 
were established. 

A central concern of the staff has been the care and development of 
the collections. The preliminary catalog listings have been completed 
through the categories of painting, scultpure, drawings, and prints. 
The Gellatly Collection was removed from the art hall so that ex- 
tensive conservation could be undertaken. An increasing number of 
donations of works of art has augmented the study, loan, and perma- 
nent collections. The purchase of a John Marin watercolor inaugu- 
rated a modest but vitally important program for rounding out the 
survey of American art. 

The wide expansion of the Collection's activities had been inspired 
and guided by the far-sighted legislation of May 17, 1938, and the 
competition program which followed that legislative encouragement 
for a gallery of modern and American art. The plans formulated 
during the past year were based on such directives as those instructing 
the bureau "to encourage the development of contemporary art and to 
effect the widest distribution and cultivation in the matters of such 

245 



246 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

art" and "to consider its province to be the cultural life of the com- 
munity all over the United States and ... its obligation to be the 
encouragement of a high standard of quality among artists in the 
fields of both the fine and practical arts." 

Bearing in mind these goals and others, including the Smithsonian's 
traditional role in research and the Collection's function as a repository 
for Government art, the director has developed policy guidelines in 
such studies as "The Mission and Projects of the National Collection 
of Fine Arts." Specific plans and projects have followed: community 
and educational exhibit proposals (including artmobiles) ; maintenance 
of Government-owned art (for instance Works Progress Administration 
[WPA] paintings) ; cooperative ventures with the Area Redevelopment 
Administration, the Office of Education, the Art-in-Embassies program, 
and the White House (Arts Festival) ; and a number of others. Gradu- 
ate programs and research facilities are being developed. 

A number of these projects are already bearing fruit. Probably the 
Collection's outstanding achievement of the year in support of American 
art was the organization and presentation of the Stuart Davis Memorial 
Exhibition, together with a catalog. This extensive exhibit (opened by 
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson) was most effectively presented in the re- 
modeled Art Hall. It may be said to reflect the high standards of 
presentation and scholarship of the NCFA and also the determination 
of the National Collection to present the great achievements of American 
art to the nation and the world. 

SMITHSONIAN ART COMMISSION 

The 42d annual meeting of the Smithsonian Art Commission was held 
in Washington on Tuesday, December 1, 1964. Members present 
were Paul Manship, chairman; S. Dillon Ripley, secretary; Gilmore D. 
Clarke, Page Cross, David E. Finley, Lloyd Goodrich, Walker Hancock, 
Bartlett H. Hayes, Wilmarth S. Lewis, Henry P. Mcllhenny, Ogden M. 
Pleissner, Edgar P. Richardson, Charles H. Sawyer, and Stow Wengen- 
roth. Also present were James Bradley, Assistant Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution; David W. Scott, director of the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts; Donald McClelland, acting assistant to the director; 
Richard P. Wunder, curator of paintings and sculpture; and Harry 
Lowe, curator of exhibits. 

Recommendations were made for the reappointment of Edgar P. 
Richardson, Charles Sawyer, and David E. Finley for the usual 4-year 
period. Dr. Richardson was elected chairman of the Commission 
replacing Paul Manship, who had served as chairman for many years 
and who had requested that he not be reelected. 




A view of the Stuart Davis Memorial Exhibition as it was shown in the National 
Collection of Fine Arts' Art Hall. The exhibition, organized by NCFA, 
was shown in the Art Hall from May 28 through July 5, 1965, before going 
on for exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago, the Whitney Museum of 
American Art in New York City, and the Art Galleries of the University of 
California at Los Angeles. There were 127 works by Stuart Davis in the 
exhibition; the one prominently shown in this photograph is a mural, titled 
Allee, lent to the show by Drake University of Des Moines, Iowa. 




John Marin's The Sea, Maine, 1921, a watercolor and charcoal, 163^ X 19^ 
inches. A new acquisition of the National Collection of Fine Arts. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 247 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Edgar P. 
Richardson, chairman; Gilmore D. Clarke, vice chairman; and S. 
Dillon Ripley, secretary. 

The following were elected members of the Executive Committee for 
the ensuing year: David E. Finley, chairman; Gilmore D. Clarke, 
Ogden M. Pleissner, and Henry P. Mcllhenny, with Edgar P. Richard- 
son and S. Dillon Ripley, ex officio. 

Mr. Ripley commented on the National Collection of Fine Arts and 
the appointment of Dr. Scott as the Collection's new director. He said 
that the current atmosphere in Washington appears to be suitable for 
the enhancement of the National Collection and that we can look for- 
ward with hope and great enthusiasm. 

Mr. Bradley remarked on current status of plans on remodeling of 
the Old Patent Office Building. He said that construction had already 
begun and that completion was expected in about 22 months' time. 

Events of the past year and for the future were briefly outlined by 
Dr. Scott and commented upon by members of the Commission. 

The Commission discussed the need to stimulate gifts and donations 
to the Collection. 

The Commission then reviewed works of art presented for their study 
and recommended the acceptance or rejection of these works as a part 
of the Collection. 

ACCESSIONS 

The Collection was increased by 1,243 new acquisitions from 27 
donors during the year. These include 209 paintings and drawings, 
7 pieces of sculpture, 1,025 graphics, and 2 decorative art objects. 
Significant among these accessions are a pair of portraits attributed to 
Jacob Eicholtz (1776-1842), Jane Evans Tevis and Joshua Tevis, given 
by the Misses Emily and Nanny Chase; two early 19th-century 
portraits of Margaret Schley Goldsborough and Edward Terbury Goldsborough 
by an undetermined artist, given by Miss Mary L. Schaff; a painting, 
Farmyard in the Snow, by the Ash-Can School painter James Preston 
(1873-1962), given by Mrs. Chester Browne; two murals by Ezra 
Winter (1886-1949), the gift of Mrs. Winter; representative examples 
of the work of Frank C. Kirk (1889-1963), given by Mrs. Kirk; a 
mural by Griffith Baily Coale (1890-1950), given by the United 
States [Line; two other works by Coale, gifts of the artist's widow; 
a study of an unexecuted equestrian monument, Work Horse, given by 
the artist Anna Hyatt Huntington (born in 1876); a large abstract 
painting by Charles Green Shaw (born 1892), given by the artist; 
1,000 19th-century engravings, the gift of Joseph V. Reed; and a 



248 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

watercolor, The Sea, Maine, 1921, by John Marin (1870-1953), acquired 
by purchase. 

The U.S. Department of Labor transferred 150 paintings executed by 
various American artists under the auspices of the Works Progress 
Administration during the 1930's. Included among these are works by 
Morris Graves (born 1910), Ivan Albright (born 1897), and Jerome 
Myers (1867-1940). In addition, the department of zoology, Museum 
of Natural History, transferred two paintings by James Henry Moser 
(1854-1913), The Still Hunt and Where the Millions Have Gone. 

A group of 20th-century paintings and drawings was made available 
for the Collection's lending service through the generosity of Olin Dows. 

The Catherine Walden Myer Fund 

The following was purchased from the Myer fund (established to 
secure first-class works of art for the use and benefit of the NCFA) : 

1964-2-1 watercolor. The Sea, Maine, 1921, 
by John Marin (1870-1953). 

The Henry Ward Ranger Fund 

According to a provision of the Henry Ward Ranger bequest, 
paintings purchased by the Council of the National Academy of 
Design from the fund provided by the bequest and assigned to American 
art institutions may be claimed during the 5-year period beginning 
10 years after the death of the artist represented. The following 
painting was considered for action by the Smithsonian Art Commission 
at its meeting December 1, 1963: 

No. 64. The Chiefs Canoe, oil by Belmore Browne (1880-1954), 
was accepted to become a permanent accession. 

Alice Pike Barney Memorial Fund 

Additions to the principal during the year amounting to $2, 305. 10 
increased the total invested sums in the Alice Pike Barney Memorial 
Fund to $47,014.08. 

The Alice Pike Barney Memorial Lending Collection 

Forty-three works of art were loaned through the year, and 23 
works were returned. 

Fifty-six paintings were examined, and priorities were established 
for the restoration of paintings and frames. Seven works are now in the 
process of restoration. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 249 

Harold Colborn of Washington, D.C., donated to the collection 
Madame R. by Alice Pike Barney. 



THE COLLECTION 

Loans to Other Institutions 

Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, Fort Worth, Tex. 1 

Archives of American Art, Detroit, Mich. 2 

Arts Council of Great Britain, London, England 1 

Direzione Belle Arti, Venice, Italy 1 

Gallery of Modern Art, New York, N.Y. 1 

Los Angeles County Fair Association, Pomona, Calif. 1 

Marycrest College, Rock Island, 111. 1 

Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Fla. 1 

Newark Museum, Newark, N.J. 1 

Stadtisches Museum Haus Koekkoek, Kleve, Western Germany 1 

University of California Art Gallery, Santa Barbara, Calif. 1 

University Gallery, Gainesville, Fla. 10 

University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 1 

University of Wisconsin Art Gallery, Madison, Wis. 2 

Yellowstone County Fine Arts Center, Billings, Mont. 12 

Total 37 

Works of Art on Loan to the Federal Government 

Bureau of Internal Revenue 2 

Bureau of the Budget 8 

Federal Aviation Agency 1 

Interstate Commerce Commission 10 

National Science Foundation 3 

Office of Economic Opportunity 1 

Smithsonian Institution 53 

U.S. Civil Service Commission 5 

U.S. Department of Justice 10 

U.S. Department of Labor 7 

U.S. Department of Treasury 2 

U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia 6 

U.S. Senate 7 

White House 91 

White House (Office of the Vice President) 9 

White House (Office of Special Assistant to the President) 1 1 
White House: 

(Office of S.R. for Trade Negotiations) 1 

(Plans for Progress) 3 

Total 230 



250 smithsonian year 1965 

Restoration 

During the year 10 paintings were restored by Harold F. Cross, 2 
by Ben B. Johnson, 1 by H. Stewart Treviranus, and 1 by Janice W. 
Hines. In addition, Mr. Cross examined paintings in the collections 
for condition, so as to establish a priority program for restoration 
preliminary to reinstallation in the Old Patent Office Building. 
Sixteen paintings by Albert Pinkham Ryder were examined by Sheldon 
Keck in anticipation of a special restoration project on these works. 

SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS 

The following chronological summary of the past year's special 
exhibitions reflects the NCFA's new awareness of its responsibility 
and potential as the Federal Government's primary agent for the 
recognition and encouragement of the Nation's artists. 

July 24-August 13, 1964. Fourth All- Army Art Exhibition 

The 20 final prize-winning works — 4 each in the categories of oil, 
watercolor, printmaking, drawing, and mixed media — selected 
after a series of competitive exhibitions held at Army installations 
around the world, comprised the exhibition. 

July 25- August 13, 1964. Potomac Appalachian Trail Club 

The Club's exhibition followed the Trail — through photo- 
graphs — its whole length, showing the opportunities for enjoyment 
and study of nature. A full program of talks, demonstrations, and 
slide showings was presented in the Natural History Building's 
auditorium throughout the period of exhibition. 

August 22-September 10, 1964. Sixth Bdsnnial Creative Crafts 
Exhibition 
The Creative Crafts Council of Washington, representing seven 
local craftsmen's associations, sponsored this exhibition of a wide 
variety of craftwork by their members. Among other crafts the 
show included original designs in ceramics, textiles, metalwork, 
and weaving. 

September 20-October 8, 1964. Ancient Rock Paintings and 
Engravings 
The exhibition contained 26 panels composed of photographs, 
casts, original surface prints, and drawings which surveyed pre- 
historic painting and carving in areas all over the world. The 
emphasis of the selection was on recent discoveries in the Great 
Lakes region of the United States. Circulated by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 



national collection of fine arts 251 

September 20-October 8, 1964. The Capital Area Art Exhibi- 
tion Sponsored by the Landscape Club of Washington, D.C. 
A wide variety of representational subject matter was included in 
the 1 22 paintings, graphics, and sculptures selected for the show by 
the Club's jury. 

October 17-November 5, 1964. 71st Annual Exhibition, Society 
of Washington Artists 
Ninety-seven paintings and sculptures by artists from the Washing- 
ton area were selected by the Society. 

October 17-November 5, 1964. Wildlife Paintings of Basil Ede 
Fifty-one watercolor paintings of birds by the contemporary 
British artist Basil Ede comprised the exhibition. The showing was 
jointly sponsored by the British Embassy, the English Speaking 
Union, and the Audubon Society of the Central Atlantic States. 

November 14-December 3, 1964. Watercolors by "Pop" Hart 
The exhibition contained 30 observations in watercolor of the life 
and peoples of North Africa, the West Indies, Mexico, and the 
South Seas by the colorful American artist George Overbury Hart. 
Circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service. 

November 14-December 13, 1964. One Hundred Books from 
Finland 
The exhibition, organized by the Finnish Publishers' Association, 
displayed a large selection of recent volumes from several popular 
presses of Finland. NCFA's presentation added several antique 
books, fabrics, and artifacts from Finland. 

December 13, 1964-January 3, 1965. 27th Annual American Art 
League 
The American Art League's annual exhibition included 126 
paintings, graphics, and sculptures by area artists. 

December 15, 1964-January 5, 1965. Vases from the Etruscan 
Cemetery at Cerveteri 
Fifty antique ceramics, primarily dating from the 6th and 5th 
centuries, B.C., comprised the exhibition. The material was lent 
from an Italian collection. Circulated by the American Federation 
of Arts. 

January 9-28, 1965. Operation Palette II — The Navy Today 
The exhibition, sponsored by the Department of the Navy, was 
drawn from its large collection of paintings and drawings commis- 
sioned as a record of the Navy's activities and personnel. One 
hundred and twenty works were shown. 

February 9-22, 1965. Swedish Folk Art 

Nearly 400 objects, mostly of 18th- and 19th-century date, were 



252 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

selected for exhibition by the Nordiska Museet of Stockholm. 
Kitchen implements and farm tools, as well as major pieces of 
furniture and objects connected with ceremonial events such as 
weddings, displayed a deep-rooted concern for the quality of every- 
day surroundings and a refinement of design that is characteristic 
of the Scandinavian manufacture. Circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

February 28-March 21, 1965. The Dead Sea Scrolls of Jordan 
Fourteen scrolls and scroll fragments were the main feature of the 
exhibit, but it included objects excavated from the religious com- 
munity which produced and preserved them. Explanatory maps, 
photographs, and charts coordinated the archeological treasures 
into a unified presentation of the story of the scrolls' discovery, 
the people and culture which produced them, and their contempo- 
rary importance to researchers in history, theology, and archeology. 
Circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service. 

March 8-April 5, 1965. Danish Abstract Art 

This selection of work, ranging in date from 1938 through 1964 by 
10 of Denmark's pioneering painters and sculptors, presented an 
ample experience of the development of contemporary abstract 
artistic expression in Denmark. Circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

April 28-May 16, 1965. Meddsval Frescoes from Yugoslavia 
This exhibition of approximately 90 full-sized facsimiles of frescoes 
from Yugoslavian churches offered a rare opportunity to view 
monumental, Byzantine-style painting of the 11th through 14th 
centuries. The copies of the originals were made under the super- 
vision of the Gallery of Frescoes in Belgrade, which organized 
the exhibition, and were of very fine quality. For NCFA the 
presentation of this exhibition had an added significance — it 
inaugurated the remodeled Art Hall. By combining the Foyer 
Gallery and Art Hall display areas, the NCFA was able to present 
the largest display of the murals in the United States. The 
NCFA and Yugoslav Embassy cooperated in playing host to the 
Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Symposium in connection with this 
exhibition. Circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service. 

May 28-July 5, 1965. Stuart Davis Memorial Exhibition 

The Stuart Davis Memorial Exhibition was certainly one of the 
the most important exhibitions in NCFA's history. The show was 
intended as a memorial tribute to one of the commanding figures 
in 20th-century American painting. This evaluation of the status 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 253 

of Stuart Davis could be defined by bringing together representative 
works from the whole range of his artistic lifetime as well as con- 
centrating on presentation of paintings of outstanding excellence. 
One hundred and twenty-seven of Davis's works — from an early 
watercolor portrait of 1911 to several canvases left unfinished at 
his death in 1964 — were lent at NCFA's request from 50 private 
and museum collections. 

NGFA coordinated the exhibition's tour to the Art Institute of 
Chicago, the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York, 
and the Art Galleries of the University of California at Los Angeles. 
The exhibit was opened by Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, and dis- 
tinguished guests included Mrs. Stuart Davis, her son Earl, and 
Mrs. Edith Halpert. 

June 5-17, 1965. "Draw, Cut, Scratch, Etch — Print!" 

Fifty prints by American artists, in all major graphic media and 
dating from the early 19th century to the present, made up this 
exhibition, circulated by International Business Machines. 

June 5-27, 1965. Mother and Child in Modern Art 

The exhibition was made up of 20 paintings, 20 prints and draw- 
ings, and 7 sculptures, all related to the theme of maternity. 
Display of the works of 47 artists produced a great range of style 
and points of view. Circulated by the American Federation of 
Arts. 



SPECIAL PROJECTS 
White House Changing Exhibitions 

The first in a series of exhibitions of modern American painting and 
prints has been hung in the Executive Wing of the White House under 
the supervision of the director and with the assistance of Adelyn 
Breeskin and Donald McClelland. The rotating exhibition presently 
consists of 38 paintings and 53 prints by outstanding American artists 
of the 20th century and has been made possible by loans from a number 
of museums, collectors, and galleries. 

White House Festival of the Arts 

The director and Mrs. Breeskin served as art advisers for the first 
White House Festival of the Arts held on June 14, 1965. The 
Festival was concerned with both the visual and performing arts and 
presented the best of our art today. The paintings selected ranged 
from the realism of Andrew Wyeth to the "op art" of Richard 



254 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Anuszkiewicz. The painting exhibition was designed and installed by 
Harry Lowe, curator of exhibits. 

Joseph Henry Statue 

In preparation for the Smithson Bicentennial Celebration, Harry 
Zichterman coordinated the task of cleaning and refinishing the Joseph 
Henry statue in front of the Smithsonian Building. Before restora- 
tion was initiated the metal and corrosive deposits of the statue were 
analyzed by the Conservation Research Laboratory of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

Art-In-Embassies Program 

The State Department's Art-in-Embassies program, under the 
direction of Mrs. Nancy Kefauver, has been assisted by the National 
Collection of Fine Arts. The program's purpose is to bring American 
art to our embassies and in turn to improve our cultural image abroad. 
The National Collection now serves as a repository and clearinghouse 
for the Project's collection of paintings, prints, sculpture, and other 
objects prior to sending these works abroad. Dr. Scott also serves as 
a member of the Executive Committee for this important program. 



Educational Research Project 

The National Collection of Fine Arts, the American Association of 
Museums, the Graduate School of Education, Harvard University, 
and the Arts and Humanities Branch of the Office of Education are 
sponsoring a survey study, conducted by Bartlett Hayes, Jr., director of 
the Addison Gallery, the purpose of which is to investigate the scope 
and effectiveness of existing museum programs of educational art 
exhibits in the United States, in order to determine how these programs 
may be extended, supplemented, coordinated, and strengthened. 

Area Redevelopment Administration 

The National Collection of Fine Arts entered in a contract with the 
Area Redevelopment Administration to provide professional evalua- 
tions of proposals the latter receives in the fields of arts and crafts. 
This involves determination of quality, acceptability, and the potential 
of items produced under the proposal to sustain a livelihood for crafts- 
men and their associates. A study of private and governmental 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 255 

activities in this field is being made under the supervision of the 
director and staff by Charles Counts (special consultant), who is pri- 
marily concerned with this project. 



LIBRARY OF THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE 
ARTS AND THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Ending a 12-year period when no full-time staff member was assigned 
to the library, regular operation was resumed in November 1964. 
The library now serves the National Portrait Gallery as well as the 
National Collection of Fine Arts. 

Although some new books and journals were acquired during the 
period mentioned, there were omissions of many important books and 
exhibition catalogs of the past decade; concentrated ordering of some 
of the most important of these has been a top priority project. 

The most important aspects of renewed activity during the year were 
the addition of a second staff member, the library assistant, in January 
1965, and the move of the library collection to more spacious and 
attractive temporary quarters in April. The arrival of the library 
assistant provided the resources needed to give proper attention to the 
bureau library's own acquisitions and loan records as well as to the 
physical collection itself, and also enabled the reestablishment of 
reference service to the Institution's growing staff. 

During the year the library ordered 334 titles and 167 titles were 
cataloged. The slide collection was augmented by the addition of 181 
slides, 46 of which were of the work of Albert Pinkham Ryder. 

Notable gifts received by the library during the year were: The 
Graphic Work of Mary Cassatt; a Catalogue Raisonne, by Adelyn D. 
Breeskin, New York, 1948, gift of the author; six catalogs of con- 
temporary art, by Roman Norbert Ketterer, Lugano, Switzerland, 
gift of the author; Portraits in Delaware, 1700-1850, published by the 
National Society of Colonial Dames of America, Delaware Chapter, 
Wilmington, 1951, gift of the Society; and The Arts in Early American 
History, by Walter Muir Whitehill (bibliography by Wendall and Jane 
Garrett), Chapel Hill, 1965, gift of the Institute of Early American 
History and Culture, Williamsburg, Va. 

The library must continue to build its strength as a general art 
reference collection. The following areas of concentration, however, 
are to be developed in depth to serve the special interests of the spon- 
soring bureaus: American painting and sculpture; portraits in all 
media, especially American portraits; American biography and 
history; and the 20th-century art of all countries. 



256 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

PUBLICATIONS 

Publications issued by the National Collection of Fine Arts are as 
follows: 
Preliminary Catalogue listing of Paintings, Drawings, and Sculpture, 127 pp., 

no. 41449-64. 
Preliminary Catalogue Listing of Prints, 73 pp., no 44625-64. 
Stuart Davis, 98 pp., 63 ills. (Smithsonian Publication 4614). 

Four catalogs of the Traveling Exhibition Service were issued: 

Medieval Frescoes from Yugoslavia, 32 pp., 31 ills. (Smithsonian Publi- 
cation 4594). 

American Primitive Water colors, 10 pp. text, 5 ills. (Smithsonian Publi- 
cation 4591). 

Sketches by Constable, 32 pp. text, 56 ills. (Smithsonian Publication 4610). 

Traveling Exhibitions 1965-66. 61 pp., 19 ills. (Smithsonian Publi- 
cation 4609). 

Leaflets were published in connection with the following Traveling 
Exhibition Service exhibitions: 

Watercolors by Pop Hart (Smithsonian Publication 4607). 
Brazilian Tapestries (Smithsonian Publication 4592). 
Old Master Prints. 
Brass Rubbings from England. 
Eugene Berman: New Stage Designs. 

Other publications by staff members: 
Richard P. Wunder, Architectural and Ornament Drawings of the 16th to 
the Early 19th Centuries in the Collection of the University of Michigan 
Museum of Art, 106 pp., Ann Arbor, 1965. 

ADDITIONS TO THE STAFF 

During the past year the following were added to the staff: Abigail 
Booth, museum technician; Adelyn Dohme Breeskin, special consultant; 
Waunita E. Franz, secretary; Kenneth R. Despertt, aide; James G. 
Duggin, photographer; Shirley Harren, library assistant, NCFA-NPG; 
Chris Karras, information specialist; Harry Lowe, curator of exhibits; 
Edith T. Martin, clerk-typist; Ronald D. Miller, aide; Priscilla B. 
Porter, museum technician; Jesse R. Price, clerk; Louise W. Robinson, 
administrative officer; William H. Truettner, assistant curator, painting 
and sculpture; Bayard Underwood, on contract as architectural con- 
sultant; William Walker, librarian, NCFA-NPG; Richard P. Wunder, 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 257 

curator, painting and sculpture; Marjorie S. Zapruder, registrar; 
Harry W. Zichterman, administrative officer. 

STAFF ACTIVITIES 

Members of the staff devoted considerable time to the study of the 
collections and new accessions. Research projects were carried out 
in fields represented by the collections. Staff members also served 
as jurors for a number of art exhibitions both locally and nationally. 
Advice was given with respect to 51 5 works of art brought to the Collec- 
tion for expert opinion by the curatorial staff. In addition, several 
thousand requests for information were received by mail and telephone. 

David W. Scott, director, represented the Smithsonian Institution 
at the opening of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art; served as 
juror at the Huntington Gallery of Art (Huntington, W. Va.); served 
as guest lecturer and critic at Pennsylvania State College; published 
"A Restoration of the West Portal of Saint Sernin of Toulouse" in the 
Art Bulletin, Fall, 1964; spoke on "Traveling Exhibitions" for the annual 
meeting of the Arts Councils of America, held in Washington; served 
on the Executive Council of the Art for Embassies program of the 
Department of State. 

Mrs. Adelyn D. Breeskin, special consultant for Fine Arts, was a 
member of the jury for the Carnegie International Exhibition, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.; a member of the Board for the Print Council of America; 
lectured as an American Specialist throughout the Orient for the 
Department of State; and lectured at the Newark Museum on "The 
Rise of Women Artists." 

Donald McClelland, assistant to the director, lectured on Albert 
Pinkham Ryder at the University of Chicago and at the National 
Gallery of Art; served as member of the Board for the Mackinac 
Historical Society; and acted as a consultant for Fine Arts to the 
National Headquarters of the Episcopal Church. 

Richard P. Wunder, curator of painting and sculpture, served as 
director of the Drawing Society; was an adviser to the Museum of 
Early American Folk Art, New York, and the Olana Preservation 
Committee. 

Harry Lowe, curator of exhibits, represented NCFA and the Ameri- 
can Association of Museums at the opening of the St. Petersburg, Fla., 
Museum of Art; lectured at the annual meeting of the Tennessee Asso- 
ciation of Museums; lectured on "The American Tate" for the 
Centennial Club of Nashville, Tenn., and on "What Makes the 
Difference in Art?" for the National Conference of the Society of 
Technical Writers and Publishers. 

789-427—66 28 



258 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Rowland Lyon, curator of the lending collection and information 
service, exhibited in two print exhibitions; acted as a consultant to 
the Society of Washington Artists and the Landscape Club of 
Washington. 



Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 

The National Collection of Fine Arts was instructed (PR 95 of the 75th 
Congress, 1938) to present exhibits throughout the United States in 
order "to foster ... a growing appreciation of art, both of past and 
contemporary time." The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service (SITES), a unit of the National Collection of Fine Arts, 
serves to implement the legislative mandates given to the National 
Collection of Fine Arts. SITES circulates exhibitions of cultural and 
educational value throughout the United States and Canada as a 
service to museums, galleries, colleges, libraries, and their public. The 
negotiations, preparations, and organization of these circulated exhibi- 
tions are undertaken by the Traveling Exhibition Service, a self-sup- 
porting nonprofit organization financed through its rental fees. 

The year 1964-1965 was one of great changes for the Traveling 
Exhibition Service. Mrs. Dorothy Van Arsdale assumed the position 
of chief, Mrs. Nancy Padnos, assistant chief; Miss Barboura Flues 
became registrar and then exhibits coordinator, and Mrs. Louis Rose 
became registrar. Additions to the staff during the year are Mrs. 
Michael Taylor, exhibits coordinator; Mrs. Sarah McGurgan, typist; 
Herbert Hodge, clerk; Mrs. Sadie Curtin, accounting technician. 

With these changes the staff for the next year includes, besides the 
chief and assistant chief, four exhibits coordinators, an accounting clerk, 
a registrar, a typist, and file clerk. As soon as space is found, an 
administrative secretary will be added, and SITES will be in a much 
improved position to expand its offerings and service. 

TRAVEL 

In November 1964, Mrs. Van Arsdale visited three museums in San 
Francisco, one in Portland, Oreg., two in Seattle, one in Denver, one 
in Omaha, and one in Minneapolis. Mrs. Van Arsdale, Mrs. Padnos, 
and staff members also visited museums and collections along the eastern 
seaboard. 

Mrs. Padnos left for Europe the early part of June to visit museums 
and galleries in England, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 259 

EXHIBITIONS 

The Service has initiated 41 new shows this year and continued 81 
from previous years. It has negotiated an exhibition of Treasures from 
Turkey. Among exhibitors are 106 public schools and 57 libraries, 
community centers, etc. The Service has made a total of about 586 
bookings this past year and, with a total budget of approximately 
$200,000, has had an estimated 1,000,000 viewers. 

Exhibits Continued From Prior Years 

1956-57: Japan II by Werner Bischof. 

1957-58: The American City in the 19th Century; Theatrical Posters of the 
Gay Nineties. 

1958-59: Advertising in 19th Century America; Religious Subjects in Modern 
Graphic Arts. 

1959-60: Brazilian Printmakers; Images of War; Portraits of Greatness by 
Yousuf Karsh; Paintings by Young Africans; Japan I by Werner 
Bischof. 

1960-61 : The America of Currier and Ives; American Art Nouveau Posters; 
The Spirit of the Japanese Print; Americans — A View from the 
East; Mies van der Rohe; Irish Architecture of the Georgian Period; 
Brasilia — A New Capital; Designed for Silver; American Textiles; 
The Image of Physics; The Beginnings of Flight; Tropical Africa I; 
Tropical Africa II; Symphony in Color; Paintings and Pastels by 
Children of Tokyo; Hawaiian Children's Art. 

1961-62: Physics and Painting: UNESCO Watercolor Reproductions; 
Caribbean Journey; The Swedish Film; The Story of a Winery; 
Contemporary Italian Drawings; Contemporary Swedish Prints; 
Japanese Posters; The Face of Viet Nam; Le Corbusier — Chapel 
at Ronchamp; The Hidden World of Crystals; Children Look at 
UNESCO; My Friends. 

1962-63: Eskimo Carvings; Holland; The New Generation: John Sloan; 
American Prints Today — 1962; Contemporary American Drawings 
I; Eskimo Graphic Art II; Pakistan Stone Rubbings: Contemporary 
Canadian Architecture; Twelve Churches; Today's American 
Wallcoverings; Craftsmen of the City; The Tradition of French 
Fabrics; A Child's World of Nature; West German Students' Art; 
Historic Annapolis; The Old Navy. 

1963-64: Alvar Aalto; Albers: Interaction of Color; Africa, Antarctica, 
the Amazon; American Kindergarten Art; Contemporary American 
Landscape Architecture; Fifty Years of American Prints; Recent 
American Synagogue Architecture; Birds of Asia; The Bird that 
Never Was; Prints by Mary Cassatt; Craftsmen of the Eastern 



260 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

States; Finnish Rugs and Tapestries by Oili Maki; Antonio 
Frasconi 1952-63; Graphics 163; Hearts and Flowers; Indian 
Miniatures; 7,000 Years of Iranian Art; The Nile; Treasures from 
the Plantin-Moretus Museum; Religious Themes by Old Masters; 
Eero Saarinen; Swedish Design Today; Swedish Folk Art; Swiss 
Posters; Turner Watercolors; Washington — My City. 

Exhibitions Initiated in 1965 

Archeology 

Dead Sea Scrolls Government of Jordan, Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, Dr. Gus W. Van Beek. 

Paintings and Sculpture 

American Primitive Watercolors . Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collec- 
tion, Williamsburg, Va. 

Arte Programmata Olivetti Corporation, New York City. 

Danish Abstract Art Danish Artists' Committee; Danish 

Embassy. 
Watercolors by Pop Hart . . . Miss Jeanne O. Hart, Kew Gardens, N.Y. 
Pueblo Indian Paintings .... Riverside Museum, New York City. 
Modern Watercolors from Swedish Institute, Stockholm; Swedish 

Sweden. Embassy. 

The Art of the Yoruba .... Dr. Lawrence Longo, University of 

Pennsylvania. 
Medieval Frescoes from Gallery of Frescoes, Belgrade; Embassy of 

Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia. 

Drawings and Prints 

Contemporary American Norfolk Museum of Arts and Sciences, 

Drawings II. Norfolk, Va. 

William Blake; Poet, Printer, William Blake Trust, London; Trianon 

Prophet. Press, Paris. 

Bridges, Tunnels, and Water- Smithsonian Institution, Division of Civil 

works. Engineering, Robert M. Vogel. 

Prints by Jacques Callot .... National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; 

Lessing J. Rosenwald; Robert L. Baumfeld. 

Sketches by Constable Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 

Graham Reynolds. 
Contemporary Fine Presses in The Philadelphia College of Art. 

America. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 261 

Eskimo Graphic Axt III . . . . Eskimo Art, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich., 

Eugene Power. 
The Fabulous Decade Free Library of Philadelphia; Miss Dorothy 

Hale Litchfield. 
Kokoschka: King Lear, Apul- Marlborough Fine Arts, London. 

ian Journey, Hellas. 
Prints from the Mourlot Press. . Mourlot Imprimeurs, Paris. 
Old Master Prints National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; 

Lessing J. Rosenwald. 

Decorative Arts 

American Costumes Index of American Design, National 

Gallery of Art, Washington, D.G. 
American Furniture Index of American Design, National 

Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 
Eugene Berman: New Stage De- Artist; M. Knoedler and Company, New 
signs. York City. 

Brazilian Tapestries Senor Genaro de Carvalho, Bahia, Brazil. 

Masters of Ballet Design .... Spreckels Collection, California Palace of 

the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, Calif. 
Murals in Lace Museum of Contemporary Crafts, New 

York City; Collection Mme. Luba Krejci, 

Czechoslovakia. 

History 

The American Flag Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 

Be My Guest ! Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 

Brass Rubbings from England . Mrs. Lewis Purnell, Jamaica, B.W.I. 

World Fairs Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 

Children's Art 

Paintings by Young Balinese . . Collection of Mrs. Gordon Wiles, Encino, 

Calif. 
Paintings by Mexican Children . The Phoenix Art Museum. 
National High School Prints . . F. Louis Hoover, Normal State University, 

Normal, 111. 

Natural History and Science 

Ancient Rock Paintings and En- Cranbrook Institute of Science, Cranbrook, 
gravings. Mich. 



262 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Colors and Patterns in the Animal CIBA Corporation, Basle, Switzerland; 

Kingdom. Prof. Dr. A. Portmann. 

The Eskimo in a Changing Charles Gimpel, Gimpel Fils, London. 

World. 

The Stonecrop Family; Variations San Diego Museum of Natural History, Dr. 

on a Pattern. Reid Moran. 

Photography 

African Folkways of Angola and National Geographic Society; Museum of 

Mozambique. Primitive Art, New York City. 

The Color of Water Jeanette Klute, Photographer; Eastman 

Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. 
The Eloquent Light Mrs. Nancy Newhall, George Eastman 

House, Rochester, N.Y.; Ansel Adams, 

Carmel, Calif. 

Architecture 

Pier Luigi Nervi American Institute of Architects, New 

York City. 



Freer Gallery of Art 




Freer Gallery of Art 
John A. Pope, Director 

THE COLLECTIONS 

Twenty-five objects were added to the collections by purchase as 
follows : 

Glass 

65.16. Egyptian (Roman period), possibly from Alexandria. Bowl of 
purplish translucent matrix; ribbed on the outside with 
opaque distorted spirals in millefiori technique. Slightly 
iridescent. Said to have been found in northwest Iran. 
Height: 0.052; diameter: 0.175. 

Metalwork 

64.10. Persian, Sasanian, 4th century A.D. Bowl, shallow, silver, on 
low ring foot, with a Bacchanalian triumphal scene in flat 
relief against a gilded background; in the exergue, a panther 
drinking from a vase, flanked by a musician on either side. 
Small areas of dirt accretions in interior; reverse oxidized 
and partly covered with earthy accretions. Height: 0.041; 
diameter: 0.219; weight: 1 lb. 14 oz. (Illustrated.) 

Paintings 

64.9. Chinese, Sung, 13th century. "Chien-tzu with a Shrimp Net." 
Kakemono, ink on paper. Inscription and one seal on the 
painting. Height: 0.746; width: 0.279. (Illustrated.) 

65.9. Chinese, Sung, 13th century, attributed to Hu Chih-fu. "Saky- 
amuni Emerging from the Mountains." Hanging scroll, ink 
on paper. Inscription and two seals on the painting. Height : 
0.920; width: 0.317. 

265 



266 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

65.10. Chinese, Ch'ing, dated 1759, by Chin Nung (1687-after 1764). 

Plum blossoms. Ink and color on paper. Written label with 
one seal on outside mounting; inscription and three seals on 
the painting. Height: 1.302; width: 0.282. 

65.13. Chinese, Ch'ing, 17th century, by Hung-jen. Landscape. 
Hanging scroll, ink on paper. Artist's inscription and seal, 
and three collectors' seals, on the painting. Height: 0.838; 
width: 0.419. 

64.8. Japanese, Edo, Nanga school, by Uragami Gyokudo (1745— 
1820). "San Chu Dankin." Landscape in ink, on paper. 
Height: 1.286; width: 0.515. 

64.11. Japanese, Edo, 18th century, Nanga school, by Ikeno Taiga 

(1723-76). Landscape: "Red Cliff." Ink and color on 
paper. Height: 1.308; width: 0.568. 

64.12. Japanese, Edo, 18th century, Nanga school, by Ikeno Taiga 

(1723-76). Landscape: "Yo-yang Tower." Ink and color 
on paper. Height: 1.304; width: 0.568. (Illustrated.) 

64.13. Japanese, Namboku Cho — Ashikaga, 14th century, Yamatoe 

school. Portrait of Kasuga Wakamiya. Ink, color and gold 
on silk. Height: 0.853; width: 0.396. 

65.1. Japanese, Ashikaga, 15th century, Yamatoe school. Portrait 

of Fujiwara-no-Kamatari (A.D. 614-669), accompanied by 
two sons. Ink, color and gold on silk. Height: 0.845; width: 
0.381. 

65.5. Japanese, Edo, Kano school, by Kano Naonobu (1607-50). 

"Genji Monogatari" — Tales of Genji, Ukifune, Chapter LI. 
Ink and color on paper. One of a pair of screens: 65.5-65.6. 
Height: 1.537; width: 3.526. 

65.6. Japanese, Edo, Kano school, by Kano Naonobu (1607-50). 

"Genji Monogatari" — Tales of Genji, Yugao, Chapter IV. 
Ink and color on paper. One of a pair of screens: 65.5-65.6. 
Height: 1.537; width: 3.526. 

Pottery 

65.2. Chinese, Ming, mid-1 5th century. Jardiniere with footed base 

attached, and quatrefoil rim. Clay: fine white porcelain, 
thick. Glaze: transparent, faintly bluish, streaky in some 
areas. Decoration: in underglaze blue, a different flower 
spray on each side (lotus, peony, -?- and camellia) ; small sprays 
on base and foot. Height: 0.140; width: 0.260. (Illustrated.) 

65.3. Chinese, Six Dynasties. Small dish on high footrim 

with lip cut in quatrefoil form. Clay: transparent, creamy 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 267 

white, fine. Glaze: transparent, glossy, faintly bluish in 
droplets. Decoration: none. Height: 0.045; diameter: 0.133. 

65.4. Chinese, Ming, Hsiian-te period (1426-35). Dish with 
slightly flaring plain rim. Clay: fine white porcelain. Glaze: 
transparent. Decoration: five-clawed dragons among clouds 
in overglaze iron red inside and out; six-character Hsiian-te 
mark in under-glaze blue on base. Height: 0.037; diameter: 
0.190. 

65.8. Chinese, T'ang. Rhyton in the shape of a duck. Clay: soft 
light buff pottery. Glaze: transparent lead glaze with fine 
crackle streaked with green and orangey brown; base unglazed. 
Decoration: carved in relief for the wings and tail feathers of 
the bird and to show floral motifs around the cup. Height: 
0.124; length: 0.172. 

65.11- Chinese, T'ang, Hsing ware. Five-lobed shallow bowls with 

65.12. low foot. Clay: hard, fine-grained grayish buff stoneware. 
Glaze: transparent, showing slightly bluish in thick areas; 
base only partially glazed by accident. Decoration: a floral 
device stamped inside center of bowl. Height: 0.045; diam- 
eter: 0.127; diameter of base: 0.057 (65.11) and 0.054 (65.12). 

65.14. Chinese, T'ang. Ovoid jar with flaring foot and three loop 

handles at the neck. Clay: whitish buff stoneware. Glaze: 
transparent, slightly creamy stopping unevenly short of base. 
Decoration: none. Height: 0.165; diameter: 0.133. 

65.15. Chinese, T'ang. Hemispherical bowl with flaring foot and 

thickened, turned-over rim. Clay: whitish buff stoneware. 
Glaze: transparent, slightly creamy, stopping unevenly short 
of base; unglazed inside. Decoration: none. Height: 0.092; 
diameter: 0.159. 

65.7. Japanese, Edo, 17th century, Imari. Shallow dish with plain 
rim. Clay: white porcelain. Six spur marks on base. 
Glaze: transparent. Decoration: underglaze blue; a stylized 
pine tree and clouds. Outside, continuous scroll pattern. 
Imitation Ming Ch'eng-hua mark badly written on base. 
Height: 0.060; diameter: 0.298. 

65.17. Japanese, Edo, 17th century, Imari. Shallow dish with 
rounded rim. Clay: white porcelain. Five spur marks on 
base. Glaze: transparent, slightly grayish with some black 
specks. Decoration: underglaze blue, floral border, and in 
center, stylized pine tree leaning over a small plant. Out- 
side, two stylized lotus scrolls. Imitation Ming Ch'eng- 
hua mark badly written on base. Height: 0.070; diameter: 
0.374. 



268 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

65.18. Japanese, Edo (ca. 1700), Imari. Hexagonal vase or sake 
bottle with small flaring mouth. Clay: white porcelain. 
Glaze: dark coffee brown around bottom with white run- 
ning unevenly down from the top. Decoration: on white 
glaze at shoulder and upper part, two eagles and branches 
of trees in colored enamels and gilding. Height: 0.224; 
diameter: 0.127. 



Wood Sculpture 

65.19. Japanese, Kamakura, late 13th century. Jizo. Decorated 
with kirigane; head, hands, and necklace separate; ear lobes 
and some beads missing; partial repair. Height: 0.355; 
width: 0.120. 



Repairs To The Collection 

Thirteen Chinese and Japanese paintings and screens were restored, 
repaired, or remounted by Mr. Sugiura, Oriental picture mounter, 
who also made a large number of rubbings of Chinese bronzes and 
sculptures. F. A. Haentschke, illustrator, remounted 91 Persian and 
Indian paintings. Ben Johnson, professional painting restorer, worked 
for some months at the Gallery, cleaning, repairing, and otherwise 
restoring 21 American paintings. 

Mr. Sugiura has also been working on a group of 11 Chinese and 
Japanese paintings and screens belonging to the Philadelphia Museum 
of Art, 6 of which have been completed; this work is being done in 
exchange for a Chinese bronze ting which has been incorporated into 
the Study Collection. In addition, he has completely cleaned, re- 
paired, and retouched three Far Eastern screens belonging to the 
Department of State. 



Changes In Exhibition 

Changes in exhibitions amounted to 39, which were as follows: 
American art — paintings 36 

Chinese art — pottery 1 

Near Eastern art — metalwork 2 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 269 

LIBRARY 

The library has been well used during the year, both by the staff and 
by students doing reference work. It also remains a continuing 
source of information for casual visitors wanting less scholarly material 
on the objects displayed in the galleries. 

The slide collection has been greatly expanded, with the acquisition 
of over 2,000 slides. Use of this resource has nearly tripled in the 
past year, as indicated by the number of slides borrowed by both staff 
members (73 percent) and by outside lecturers (27 percent). Most of 
the slides were provided by the photographic laboratory. 

During the year, 452 items were acquired by the library and inte- 
grated into the collection; 257 of these were by purchase, and 195 
were by exchange and gift. In addition, 286 photographs were added 
to the study files. The year's cataloging projects totaled over 1,000 
entries; 488 analytics were made, and 3,022 cards were added to the 
catalog. 

There were 330 requests for information by telephone and letter. 
Visitors were frequent: 670 scholars and students who were not 
members of the Freer staff used the library resources, 4 saw and studied 
either the Herzfeld archives or the Washington Manuscripts, and 3 
came to see the library installation. 

The following gifts deserve special mention because of their out- 
standing quality. The Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation has made 
it possible to purchase the following items: Pelliot, Paul — Toumchouq 
(Paris, 1961-64, two volumes); and Ota Ryo — Seishi kakei dai-jiten: 
Great dictionary of family names and family lines (Tokyo, 1963 reprint, three 
volumes). The library is receiving from the Felix and Helen Juda 
Foundation the volumes from the Hiraki collection of Ukiyoe prints 
currently being published in Tokyo, as well as a copy of Shin Saiiki-ki: 
New accounts of Chinese Turkestan — the journal of the Otani expedition 
(Tokyo, 1937). Richard P. Gale has also presented a set of 125 slides 
taken from his excellent collection of Japanese paintings. The gener- 
osity which makes these acquisitions possible is greatly appreicated. 

PUBLICATIONS 

New editions of two publications were issued by the Gallery as 

follows: 

Freer Gallery of Art Occasional Papers, Volume I, Number 4: James 
McNeill Whistler, A Biographical Outline Illustrated from the 
Collections of the Freer Gallery of Art, by Burns A. Stubbs (Smith- 
sonian Institution Publication 3994), originally published in 1950. 



270 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Hokusai: Paintings and Drawings in the Freer Gallery of Art, by Harold P. 
Stern (Smithsonian Institution Publication 4419), originally 
published in 1960. 
Publications of staff members were as follows: 



Cahill, James F. 



Ettinghausen, Richard. 



Gettens, R. J. 



"Li Kung-lin". In: Encyclopedia of World 
Art. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964. 
Vol. 9, pp. 247-251, pis. 132-136. 

Introduction to: Chang Dai-chien; exhibition 
of paintings Oct. 22-Nov. 2, 1963. New 
York, Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Inc., 
1963, 27 pp., illus. 

Review of "Chinese Art: Painting, Callig- 
raphy, Stone Rubbing, Wood Engrav- 
ing," by Werner Speiser, Roger Goepper, 
and Jean Fribourg. In New York Review 
of Books (June 3, 1965), vol. 4, no. 9, 
pp. 23-24. 

Review of "A History of Far Eastern Art," 
by Sherman E. Lee. In Saturday Review 
(Dec. 12, 1964), vol. 47, no. 50, p. 45, 
illus. 

Review of "Cairo, City of Art and Com- 
merce," by Gaston Wiet, translated by 
Seymour Feiler. In Middle East, Wash- 
ington, D.C. (spring, 1965), vol. 19, no. 2, 
p. 243. 

"The Corrosion Products of Metal Antiqui- 
ties." In Smithsonian Annual Report for 
1963, Washington, 1964, pp. 547-568, 
10 plates. 

Review of special issue (vol. 64, no. 1) of 
Museums Journal. In Studies in Conserva- 
tion (February 1965), vol. 10, no. 1, 
pp. 36-37. 

Review of "Orichalcum and Related An- 
cient Alloys: Origin, Composition and 
Manufacture with Special Reference to 
the Coinage of the Roman Empire," by 
Earle R. Caley. In American Journal of 
Archaeology (January 1965), vol. 69, No. 1, 
p. 86. 

Review of "Technical Supplements" in 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 271 

Museum News. In Studies in Conservation 
(February 1965), vol. 10, No. 1, p. 36. 

Stern, Harold P. Interview: "Nihon Kobijutsu Junkai Ten; 

the Traveling Exhibition of Ancient Japa- 
nese Art." In Nihon Bijutsu, Tokyo (Jan- 
uary 1965), No. 34, pp. 70-71, illus. 

Trousdale, William. "The Minaret of Jam; a Ghorid Monument 

in Afghanistan." In Archaeology (June 
1965), vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 102-108, illus. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC LABORATORY; SALES DESK 

The photographic laboratory made 12,688 items during the year as 
follows: 7,816 prints, 966 negatives, 3,642 color slides, 171 black-and- 
white slides, and 93 color sheet films. At the sales desk 71,436 items 
were sold, comprising 6,004 publications and 65,432 reproductions 
(including postcards, slides, photographs, reproductions in the round, 
etc.). These figures indicate a marked increase in the work of both the 
photographic laboratory and sales desk over that of previous years. 

BUILDING AND GROUNDS 

The exterior of the building appears to be sound, with the exception 
of the roof, which has continued to blister. There is, however, no 
noticeable damage to date; the condition is being kept under close 
surveillance. A new bronze handrail was installed at the south 
entrance; during installation, the steps were damaged, and two pieces 
of granite had to be replaced. 

The sidewalk at the south entrance is in poor condition, and its 
improvement is under discussion; the installation of a driveway to 
remedy the dangerous condition at the receiving entrance is also under 
consideration. 

In the interior, new types of cases are being installed in Storage Room 
2 for folding screens and outsize pictures; the latter in the past had no 
adequate storage space. All window sills and trims have been touched 
up and put into good condition. 

The work in the cabinet shop was divided among numerous jobs, 
including making and repairing furniture and equipment as the need 
arose. Attribution of man-hours for this year: 80 percent to installation, 
preservation, and restoration; 20 percent to building maintenance. 

Seasonal plantings in the courtyard were made and have flourished, 
and flower beds, first of bulbs and then of petunias, were made on the 
north side of the building. 



272 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

ATTENDANCE 



The Gallery was open to the public from 9:00 to 4:30 every day 
except Christmas Day. The total number of visitors to come in the 
main entrance was 211,104, an increase of approximately 25 percent 
over that of the preceding year. The highest monthly attendance was 
in June — 31,015. 

There were 2,856 visitors who came to the Gallery office for various 
purposes — for general information, to submit objects for examination, 
to consult staff members, to take photographs or sketch in the galleries, 
to use the library, to examine objects in storage, etc. 



AUDITORIUM 

The series of illustrated lectures was continued as follows: 
7964 

October 73. Dr. Eleanor Consten von Erdberg, of the Rheinisch- 

Westphalische Technische Hochschule, Aachen, 
West Germany: "T'ao-t'ieh and Tao in Early 
Chinese Art"; attendance, 94. 

November 70. Dr. George C. Miles, of the American Numismatic 
Society, New York: "Unknotting the Knotted 
Column in Byzantine Architecture"; attendance, 
125. 
7965 

January 72. William B. Trousdale, Freer Gallery of Art: "The 

Archaeological Exploration of Afghanistan"; attend- 
ance> 277. 

February 23. Dr. Sherman E. Lee, of the Cleveland Museum of 

Art, Cleveland, Ohio: "Nuances and Connoisseur- 
ship in Chinese Painting"; attendance, 274. 

March 23. Dr. David Talbot Rice, University of Edinburgh, 

Scotland: "Two Rare Arabic Manuscripts in the 
Edinburgh Library"; attendance, 119. 

April 20. P. R. Ramachandra Rao, Critic of Indian Art, 

Hyderabad, India: "The Buddhist Sculpture of 
Southeast India"; attendance, 222. 
The auditorium was also used by ten outside organizations for 31 

meetings, with a total attendance of 5,070. 




Silver bowl. Persian metalwork, Sasanian, 4th century A.D. 64.10, 
Freer Gallery of Art. 




Jardiniere. Chinese pottery, Ming dynasty, mid-1 5th century A.D. 
65.2, Freer Gallery of Art. 







1 '' II 

4H I 








.«, * i i fR t 

*> ' * ,ti 7 •• 

>- £ # ff ? . 

U *, <8 *> f * 




0^"~ 



i>/i, Landscape: Yo-yang Tower. Japanese painting, Edo period, 18th century 
A.D., Nanga school, by Ikeno Taiga (1723-1776). 64.12, Freer Gallery of 
Art. Right, Chinese painting, Chien-tzu with a Shrimp Net. Sung dynasty, 
13th century A.D. 64.9, Freer Gallery of Art. 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 273 

STAFF ACTIVITIES 

The work of the staff members has been devoted to the study of new 
accessions, of objects contemplated for purchase, and of objects sub- 
mitted for examination, as well as to individual research projects in 
the fields represented by the collection of Chinese, Japanese, Persian, 
Arabic, and Indian materials. In all, 10,627 objects and 1,499 photo- 
graphs were examined, and 781 Oriental language inscriptions were 
translated for outside individuals and institutions. By request, 36 
groups totaling 798 persons met in the exhibition galleries for docent 
service by the staff members. Eight groups totaling 144 persons were 
given docent service by staff members in the storage rooms. 

Among the visitors were 188 distinguished foreign scholars or per- 
sons holding official positions in their own countries, who came here 
under the auspices of the Department of State to study museum admin- 
istration and practices in this country. 



TECHNICAL LABORATORY 

Mrs. Elisabeth W. FitzHugh, assistant in technical research since 
1956, resigned in December. This position has been temporarily filled 
by student-intern William T. Chase of the Conservation Center, Insti- 
tute of Fine Arts, New York University. 

Reports were made on a total of 89 objects that passed through the 
laboratory. Among these, 30 Freer objects, exclusive of paintings, 
were examined and/or treated. Twenty-one paintings, mostly by 
James McNeill Whistler, were cleaned, repaired, and resurfaced. 
Among these, two were relined and eight were put on new stretchers. 
Twenty objects and paintings being considered for purchase were 
examined. Eighteen objects owned privately and by other museums 
were examined and/or repaired. Thirty-six identifications were made 
by X-ray diffraction analysis. Forty-one inquiries were answered by 
letter and numerous inquiries by telephone. 

Technical studies continued on Chinese bronzes in preparation of 
a forthcoming catalog on Ancient Chinese Bronze Ceremonial Vessels in 
the Freer Gallery of Art. Further studies were made on the corrosion 
products of metal antiquities. The editing of IIC Abstracts, published 
by the International Institute of Conservation of Historic and Artistic 
Works, London, was continued. 



789-427—66 29 



274 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

LECTURES BY STAFF MEMBERS 



By invitation, the following lectures were given outside the Gallery 

by staff members (illustrated unless otherwise noted) : 
7964 

August 20. Dr. Ettinghausen, in Denver, Colo., at the Denver Art 

Museum: "7,000 Years of Iranian Art"; attendance, 500. 

October 8. Mr. Gettens, in Spoleto, Italy, at the International 

Symposium on the Problems of Conservation of Bronze 
and Nonferric Metals: "The Corrosion Products of 
Copper Alloys and other Non-Ferrous Metal Antiqui- 
ties"; attendance, 75. 

October 9. Mr. Gettens, in Spoleto: "The Construction of Chinese 

Bronzes"; attendance, 75. 

October 72. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the University of Pennsylvania, 

Philadelphia: "Man and Nature in Islam"; attendance, 
80. 

October 72. Dr. James Cahill, at a Faculty Seminar, Skidmore College, 

Saratoga Springs, N.Y.: "Confucianism, Taoism and 
Buddhism in Chinese and Japanese Painting"; at- 
tendance, 75. 

October 29. Dr. Cahill, at the Hermitage Foundation, Norfolk, Va.: 

"Chinese and Japanese Art in the Freer Gallery"; 
attendance, 120. 

November 8. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery 

of Art, Kansas City, Mo.: "Persian Art of the Islamic 
Period: Tradition and Change"; attendance, 300. 

November 73. Dr. Cahill, at the University of California, Berkeley: 

"Yuan Chiang and His School"; attendance, 70. 

November 74. Dr. Cahill, at Mills College, Oakland, Calif., and at the 

Society for Asian Art, San Francisco: "The Expressive 
Means of Later Chinese Painting"; attendance, 85 and 
40, respectively. 

December 3. Dr. Pope, at a meeting of the Archaeological Institute of 

America at the Freer Gallery of Art: "Early America and 
the Far East"; attendance, 38. 

December 3. Dr. Cahill, at a meeting of the Sino-America Cultural 

Society, Washington, D.C.: "A Photographic Expedition 
to Taiwan"; attendance, 200. 

December 70. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Foreign Service Institute, Wash- 

ington, D.C.: "Culture of the Near East" ; attendance, 17. 
7965 

January 29. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the University of Chattanooga, 

Chattanooga, Tenn.: "Tradition and Change in Iranian 
Art of the Islamic Period"; attendance, 200. 

January 30. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the University of Chattanooga: 

"The Main Types of Iranian Architecture, Their Origin 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



275 



1965 and Most Important Examples", and: "Painting in the 

Islamic World (Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Indian)"; 
attendance, 14 at each lecture. 

January 30. Dr. Pope, at the College Art Association meetings, Los 

Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, Calif.: 
"Preliminary Observations on the Use of Landscape 
Decoration on Japanese Porcelain"; attendance, 150. 

January 30. Dr. Stern, at the College Art Association meetings, Los 

Angeles County Museum of Art: "A Self-portrait of 
Moronobu"; attendance, 150. 

February 1. Dr. Cahill, at the Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C.: 

"Works of Art of the Palace Museum Collection in 
Formosa"; attendance, 150. 

February 16. Dr. Cahill, at Brown University, Providence, R.I.: "The 

Expressive Means of Later Chinese Painting"; at- 
tendance, 350. 

February 24. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Department of State, Washington, 

D.C.: "Iran, Turkey and Pakistan: The Affinity of 
Their Civilizations"; attendance, 750. 

February 26. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Cleveland Museum of Art: 

"The Islamic Phase of Iranian Art: Tradition and 
Change"; attendance, 150. 

February 28. Dr. Stern, at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts; "Popular 

Painting of Tokugawa Japan" ; attendance, 150. 

March 3. Mr. Gettens, at the Museum of Natural History, Smith- 

sonian Institution: "Minerals in Art and Archaeol- 
ogy"; attendance, 678. 

March 10. Dr. Pope, at Oxford University, England (William Cohn 

Memorial Lecture): "Some Historic Collections and 
Collectors in China"; attendance, 160. 

March 12. Dr. Pope, at the Percival David Foundation of Chinese 

Art, London, England: "Chinese Porcelain in Early 
America"; attendance, 125. 

April 2. Dr. Pope, at the Cleveland Museum of Art: "The Rise and 

Fall of Angkor"; attendance, 150. 

April 5. Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Art Museum, University of 

Michigan, Ann Arbor: "Dionysian Elements in Sasanian 
Art"; attendance, 40. 

Abril 5. Dr. Stern, at Skidmore College, Faculty Seminar on Far 

Eastern Art and Culture: "Japanese Paintings, Prints, 
and Decorative Arts"; attendance, 25. 

April 6. Dr. Stern, at Skidmore College, student group: "Japanese 

Paintings, Prints, and Decorative Arts"; attendance, 300. 

April 29. Mr. Trousdale, at Maryland Institute, Baltimore: "The 

Archaeological Exploration of Afghanistan"; attendance, 
150. 



276 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



1965 



May 11. 
May 22. 



Dr. Ettinghausen, at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston: 
"Dionysiac Scenes in Sasanian Art"; attendance, 121. 

Dr. Pope, at the Frick Collection, New York: "Chinese 
Porcelains in Early America"; attendance, 175. 



Members of the 
ness as follows: 

1964 
May 18- July 7. 



June 8-September 2. 

July 16-18. 

July 28. 
August 13-17. 



August 15- 
December 11 . 



September 17-18. 



October 1-2. 



October 1-23. 



OFFICIAL TRAVEL 



staff traveled outside Washington on official busi- 



Mr. R. C. Mielke completed a trip through the Mid- 
western States, where he saw the building installations 
in the Dayton Art Institute, Cincinnati Art Museum, 
John Herron Art Institute (Indianapolis), City Art 
Museum of St. Louis, William Rockhill Nelson 
Gallery of Art (Kansas City, Mo.), Art Institute of 
Chicago, Detroit Institute of Arts, Toledo Museum of 
Art, and Cleveland Museum of Art. 

Dr. Pope, in Europe, visited numerous museums and 
saw private collections in Geneva and Basel, Switzer- 
land; Paris, France; and in and near London, England. 

Dr. Stern, in Philadelphia, examined numerous objects 
at the Philadelphia Museum of Art and one private 
collection. 

Dr. Cahill, in Baltimore, examined numerous Chinese 
paintings at the Walters Art Gallery. 

Dr. Stern, in New York, attended the Exhibition of 
Nepalese Art at Asia House, and examined Far 
Eastern objects at a dealer. 

Mr. Trousdale, in the Near East, participated in the 
University of Michigan's archeological excavation at 
Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi, Syria; visited archeological 
sites and architectural monuments, and examined 
museum and private collections in Istanbul and 
Ankara, Turkey; in Damascus, Syria; in Tehran, Qum, 
Isfahan, Arbaquh, Yazd, Kirman, Bam, the Sistan 
area, Kishmar, Mashhad, and Robat Sharaf, Iran; 
and in Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt. 

Dr. Cahill, in Ann Arbor, Mich., attended a special 
committee meeting to plan for the Palace Museum 
Photographic Archive. 

Dr. Pope, in New York, examined numerous Far 
Eastern objects at the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
and at several dealers. 

Mr. Gettens, in Italy, attended an International 
Symposium on the Problem of Conservation of Bronze 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



277 



and Nonferric Metals held at Spoleto, October 5-15; 
examined numerous bronzes and historical sites in 
Perugia, Venice, Ravenna, Ancona, and Rome, 
including Vatican City. 

October 16- Dr. Stern, in Japan, attended conferences with the 

December 11. Commission for the Protection of Cultural Properties 

of the Ministry of Education of the Government of 
Japan as participating member of Negotiations, 
Selection, and Cataloging Committees of the America- 
Canada Participating Museums for the Memorial 
Exhibition, "Masterpieces of Japanese Art," 1965- 
1966. Discussions were also held with the Cultural 
Attache of the U.S. Embassy on plans for the next 
Japan-America Cultural Conference. Examined 
numerous objects in the Kyoto and Tokyo National 
Museums, at the National Institute of Art Research, 
various temples and private collections, and at dealers. 

November 5-7. Dr. Cahill, in New York, attended a meeting of the 

Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization, 
A.C.L.S.; and examined numerous objects at several 
dealers. 

November 13-14. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, attended the annual 

meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt; 
and examined objects at several dealers. 

December 8-12. Dr. Pope, in New York, examined numerous objects 

at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in a private 
collection, and at several dealers. 
1965 

January 2. Dr. Ettinghausen, in Winchester, Va., examined Indian 

miniatures in a private collection. 

January 9. Dr. Pope, in New York, attended a meeting of the 

Advisory Committee, Asia House Gallery. 

January 9. Dr. Cahill, in New York, attended a meeting of the 

Advisory Committee, Asia House Gallery; and 
examined objects at several dealers. 

January 9. Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, attended a meeting of 

the Advisory Committee, Asia House Gallery; and 
examined objects at several dealers. 

January 13-14. Dr. Ettinghausen, in Houston, Texas, visited the 

Museum of Fine Arts and the Exhibition of Mythologi- 
cal Animals, Demons, and Monsters at the University 
of St. Thomas; and in Dallas, visited the Museum of 
Fine Arts. 

January 25-30. Dr. Stern attended, as chairman, the College Art 

Association meetings held at the Los Angeles County 
Museum of Art; and examined numerous objects at 
several museums, private collections, and dealers. 



278 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



1965 
January 26- 
February 2. 



February 1-2. 

February 12. 
February 12-14. 

February 16-20. 



February 25- 
March 2. 

February 28- 
March 24. 

March 6. 

March 20. 



March 31- 
April 10. 



Dr. Pope, in Los Angeles, attended meetings of the 
College Art Association, including a meeting of the 
Board; and examined Chinese and Japanese objects 
at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. In San 
Francisco, he examined Chinese paintings and bronzes 
for the U.S. Collector of Customs; and at the M. H. de 
Young Memorial Museum, numerous Chinese blue- 
and-white porcelains in the Roy Leventritt Collection 
and Chinese bronzes in the Avery Brundage Collection. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in Hudson, N.Y., examined objects in 
a private collection; and in New York, visited the 
Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. 

Dr. Stern, in New York, examined numerous objects in 
a private collection and at a dealer. 

Dr. Pope, in New York, attended meetings of the joint 
ACLS/SSRC Committee on Grants for Research on 
Asia; attended a.n exhibition of Indian sculpture at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art; and examined objects 
at several dealers. 

Dr. Cahill, in Providence, R.I., attended the exhibition 
of Oriental Arts at the Rhode Island School of Design 
Museum; in New York, attended a meeting at New 
York University to plan a summer seminar in Chinese 
Art; and visited the "Relics of Ancient China in the 
Singer Collection" at Asia House and the exhibition 
of Indian sculpture at the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art; examined objects at several dealers; in Princeton, 
N.J., attended a meeting of the Chinese Art Subcom- 
mittee of the Committee on the Study of Chinese 
Civilization at Princeton University; and examined 
objects in private collections and at several dealers. 

Dr. Stern, in Minneapolis and Mound, Minn., examined 
numerous objects at the Minneapolis Institute of 
Arts, and in a private collection. 

Dr. Pope, in Oxford and London, England, examined 
Far Eastern objects in several museums and private 
collections. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, examined objects at 
several dealers. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, met with Miss Marjorie 
Kevorkian of the Kevorkian Foundation; and ex- 
amined objects at several dealers. 

Dr. Stern, in Philadelphia, attended meetings of the 
Catalog Committee for the forthcoming Japanese 
Exhibition; in New York, attended a committee 
meeting of the Archives of American Art, and one for 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



279 



April 2-6. 
April 12-15. 

April 16-17. 
April 19-23. 



April 23-24. 
May 1-3. 

May 7-14. 
May 8-10. 
May 14-15. 

May 19-21. 

May 20-25. 



the Restorer Training Program, Institute of Fine Arts 
Conservation Center; also visited several exhibitions, 
and examined numerous objects at museums and at a 
dealer. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, examined objects for a 
dealer; and in Ann Arbor, Mich., examined objects at 
the Art Museum, University of Michigan. 

Dr. Pope, in Chicago, attended a meeting of the Ameri- 
can Oriental Society, and examined objects at the Art 
Institute and at a dealer; in Denver, Colo., examined 
objects in the office of the U.S. Attorney. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, examined objects at 
several dealers. 

Mr. Gettens, at Harbor Island, Kure Beach, N.C., did 
research at the Sea Horse Institute (International 
Nickel Company); in Richmond, Va., visited the W.J. 
Barrow Research Laboratory for Paper at the Virginia 
Historical Society, and at the Virginia Museum of 
Fine Arts examined Chinese bronze ceremonial vessels. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, examined objects at 
several dealers. 

Dr. Cahill, in Cambridge and Boston, attended a con- 
ference on projects for the Committee on Studies of 
Chinese Civilization; and examined objects at the 
Fogg Art Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts, 
including the Hobart Collection. 

Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, assisted in giving a 
doctoral examination at Columbia University; and 
examined objects in private collections and at dealers. 

Dr. Cahill, in Kansas City, examined Chinese paintings 
in the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, in- 
cluding the Nti Wa Chai Collection. 

Dr. Cahill, in New York, attended a meeting of the 
Committee on Studies of Chinese Civilization; visited 
the exhibition of Far Eastern art at the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art; and examined objects in a private 
collection and at several dealers. 

Mrs. West and Mrs. Quail, in New York, attended 
meetings of the Museum Sales Association, at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of the 
City of New York, and the Museum of Modern Art. 

Dr. Pope, in New York, attended a meeting of the 
Advisory Council of Asia House Gallery, and examined 
objects at several dealers; at Winterthur, Del., 
attended meetings of the Association of Art Museum 
Directors. 



280 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

1965 

May 27-22. Dr. Cahill, in New York, attended meetings of the 

Advisory Council, Asia House Gallery; and examined 
objects in a private collection and at several dealers. 
Dr. Ettinghausen, in New York, attended a meeting 
of the Advisory Council, Asia House Gallery; and 
examined objects at a dealer. 

May 24-26. Mr. Gettens, in Philadelphia, met with the Executive 

Council of the IIC-AG; visited the Science Center for 
Archaeology, University Museum; and examined 
objects at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

May 26-28. Mr. Mielke, in Philadelphia, attended meetings of the 

American Association of Museums, and visited the 
Philadelphia Museum of Art and the University 
Museum. 

June 2-4. Mr. Gettens, in Columbus, Ohio, attended the dedica- 

tion of the new Chemical Abstracts Building, Ohio 
State University; and in Oberlin, visited staff members 
at Oberlin College. 

June 10-20. Mr. T. Katsuki, in Boston, New Haven, and New York, 

examined numerous Far Eastern objects at several 
galleries and museums, and at dealers. 

Members of the staff held honorary posts, received recognition, and 
undertook additional duties outside the Gallery as follows : 

Dr. Pope: Research Professor of Oriental Art, Department of the 
History of Art, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Chairman, 
Editorial Board of Ars Orientalis, University of Michigan. Chair- 
man, Louise Wallace Hackney Scholarship Committee, American 
Oriental Society. Member, Board of Management, Cosmos 
Club, Washington, D.C. Member, Board of Directors, College 
Art Association. Member, Association of Art Museum Directors. 
Member, Board of Advisors of the Dumbarton Oaks Research 
Library and Collection. Chairman, ACLS/SSRG Joint Com- 
mittee for Grants for Research on Asia. Member, Advisory 
Committee, Asia House Gallery, New York, N.Y. 

Dr. Stern: Member, Art Committee, Cosmos Club, Washington, 
D.C. Advisor, City of San Francisco, for selection, artistic 
appraisal, and cataloging of Japanese and Korean objects in 
the Avery Brundage Collection. Member, ad hoc Committee 
for a planning program for the conservation of Far Eastern 
artistic and historic works, Freer Gallery of Art and New York 
University. Member, International Editorial Advisory Board, 
Japanese Ukiyoe Society, Tokyo, Japan. Member, Research 
Committee, Smithsonian Institution. Chairman, Program Com- 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 281 

mittee, Far Eastern Section, College Art Association. Member, 
Negotiations, Selection, and Cataloging Committees, America- 
Canada Participating Museums for Memorial Exhibition 
"Masterpieces of Japanese Art," 1965-66. 

Dr. Ettinghausen: Honorary member, German Archaeological In- 
stitute, Berlin, Germany. Trustee, American Research Center in 
Egypt, New York. Adjunct Professor of Fine Arts, Institute of 
Fine Arts, New York University. Research Professor of Islamic 
Art, University of Michigan. Member of Executive Committee, 
Trustee, and Chairman of the Accessions Committee, Textile 
Museum of the District of Columbia. Member, Editorial 
Board, Art Bulletin, College Art Association of America, New 
York. Member, Consultative Committee, Ars Orientalis, Uni- 
versity of Michigan. Governor, Washington Society of the 
Archaeological Institute of America, Washington, D.C. Mem- 
ber, National Committee, Iran Foundation, Inc., for the Ad- 
vancement of Health and Education in Iran, N.Y. Member, 
Board of Directors, American Iqbal Society, Washington, D.C. 
Member, Board of Governors, Middle East Institute, Washington, 
D.C. Member, Editorial Board, Kairos, Salzburg, Germany. 
Foreign Member, Society of Iranian National Monuments, 
Teheran, Iran. Member, Administrative Committee of the 
International Society for Oriental Research, Istanbul, Turkey, 
and Frankfurt, Germany. Member, Board of Directors, Iran- 
America Society, Washington, D.C. Associate Member, Institut 
d'Egypte, Cairo, Egypt. Member, Advisory Committee, Asia 
House Gallery, New York. Member, Advisory Board, Fairfax 
County Cultural Association, Inc. 

Dr. Cahill: Adjunct Professor, Oriental Art, American University, 
Washington. Trustee, Japan-America Society, Washington. 
Member, Board of Directors, Sino-American Cultural Society, 
Washington. Member, Advisory Council, Asia House Gallery, 
New York. Chairman, Subcommittee on Chinese Art, Com- 
mittee on Studies of Chinese Civilization, American Council 
of Learned Societies. 

Mr. Trousdale: Member, Oriental Languages Honor Society, 
University of California, Berkeley. Member, American Oriental 
Society. Member, Archaeological Institute of America. Mem- 
ber, Iran-America Society. 

Mr. Gettens: Section Editor, I-History, Education and Documen- 
tation, Chemical Abstracts. Member, Board of Consulting Fellows, 
Conservation Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York Univer- 
sity. Assistant Editor, IIC Abstracts: Abstracts of the Technical 



282 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Literature of Archaeology and the Fine Arts, London, England. 
Vice President, Council of the International Institute for Con- 
servation of Historic and Artistic Works (IIC), London, England. 
Member, Executive Committee, IIC, American Group. Mem- 
ber, International Council of Museums (ICOM), Committee 
on Museum Laboratories. Member, Advisory Board, Inter- 
museum Conservation Association, Oberlin College. Member, 
Art Committee, Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C. Member, 
Standing Committee for Commercial Standard CS 98-62 
(Artists' Oil Paints), Commodity Standards Division, U.S. 
Department of Commerce. Member, Committee to Advise on 
the U.S. National Museum Conservation Laboratory. 

Mrs. FitzHugh: Editor, IIC Abstracts: Abstracts of the Technical Literature 
of Archaeology and the Fine Arts, London, England. Member, 
Board of Governors and Assistant Secretary, Washington Society 
of the Archaeological Institute of America. 

Mr. Sugiura: Member, ad hoc Committee for planning program for 
conservation of Far Eastern artistic and historic works, Freer 
Gallery of Art and New York University. Member, Kokuho 
Shuri Soken, Senmei Kai (Japan) . 



PERSONNEL 

1964 

July 13. Miss Barbara Bernhard reported for duty under the 

Intern Program and completed her internship 
August 21. 

July 24. Miss Laura Schneider resigned as secretary-sten- 

ographer. 
Miss Doreen Gee completed her research under a 
University of California scholarship. 

September 4. Miss Kumi Sugiura resigned as apprentice to the 

Oriental picture mounter. 
Robert Maeda completed his term as a Hackney 
Scholar. 

September 8. Miss Susan Campbell resigned as clerk-typist. 

September 9. Mrs. Susan Redding reported for duty as clerk-typist. 

September 14. Leslie Benji Nerio reported for duty as a Hackney 

Scholar. 

September 21. Ben B. Johnson started work on the restoration of 

some of the Whistler paintings (contract worker) 
and completed his work on June 25, 1965. 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



283 



1964 
October 9. 



October 12. 
October 19. 
November 9. 

November 15. 

December 4. 

December 7. 

1965 
February 1. 

February 26. 
March 1. 

June 7. 

June 16. 



Leslie Benji Nerio completed his term of duty as a 
Hackney Scholar. 

Mrs. Blanche A. Shuler resigned as secretary-sten- 
ographer and reported for duty as library assistant 
on October 12. 

Miss Sarah M. Wilson reported for duty as secretary- 
stenographer. 

Miss Marianne G. Melton reported*for duty as 
secretary-stenographer. 

David J. Heflin reported for duty (contract worker) 
during the absence of Thomas Goetting, museum 
technician (Art). 

A. R. Kruik reported for volunteer duty as an observer 
of Mrs. Sugiura's work methods. 

Mrs. Elisabeth W. FitzHugh resigned as assistant in 
technical research (chemist, analytical). 

Miss Daphne Campbell reported for duty to work on 
the "Bronze Book" manuscript (contract worker). 

William T. Chase, III, reported for duty as assistant 

in the technical laboratory (contract worker). 
Mrs. Susan Redding resigned as clerk-typist. 
Miss Katherine E. Jernberg reported for duty as 

clerk-typist. 
Miss Susan Lyles reported for duty under the Intern 

Program. 
Miss Priscilla Parsons reported for a 3-month term of 

study under a grant from the New York University, 

in the Near Eastern field. 



National Gallery of Art 



&»& 




tts.s 



National Gallery of Art 
John Walker, Director 

ORGANIZATION 

The statutory members of the Board of Trustees of the National Gallery 
of Art are the Chief Justice of the United States, the Secretary of State, 
the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, ex officio. On May 6, 1965, Paul Mellon was reelected a 
general trustee of the National Gallery of Art to serve in that capacity 
for the term expiring July 1, 1975. The four other general trustees 
continuing in office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1965, were 
John Hay Whitney, John N. Irwin II, Dr. Franklin D. Murphy, and 
Lessing J. Rosenwald. On May 6, 1965, Paul Mellon was reelected by 
the Board of Trustees to serve as president of the Gallery, and John 
Hay Whitney was reelected vice president. 

The executive officers of the Gallery as of June 30, 1965, were as 
follows: 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren, chairman. 

Paul Mellon, president. 

John Hay Whitney, vice president. 

Huntington Cairns, secretary-treasurer. 

John Walker, director. 

Ernest R. Feidler, administrator. 

Huntington Cairns, general counsel. 

Perry B. Cott, chief curator. 

J. Carter Brown, assistant director. 
The three standing committees of the Board, as constituted at the 
annual meeting on May 6, 1965, were as follows: 



Executive Committee 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren, chairman. 

Paul Mellon, vice chairman. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. 

John Hay Whitney. 

Franklin D. Murphy. 

287 



288 smithsonian year 1965 

Finance Committee 

Secretary of the Treasury, Henry H. Fowler, chairman. 

Paul Mellon. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. 

John Hay Whitney. 

John N. Irwin II. 

Acquisitions Committee 

Paul Mellon, chairman. 
John Hay Whitney. 
John N. Irwin II. 
Lessing J. Rosenwald. 
John Walker. 

PERSONNEL 

At the close of fiscal year 1965, full-time Government employees on 
the permanent staff of the National Gallery of Art numbered 304. 
The U.S. Civil Service regulations govern the appointment of employ- 
ees paid from appropriated funds. 



APPROPRIATIONS 

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1965, the Congress of the United 
States, in the regular annual appropriation, and in a supplemental 
appropriation required for pay increases, provided $2,227,000 to be 
used for salaries and expenses in the operation and upkeep of the 
National Gallery of Art, the protection and care of works of art acquired 
by the Board of Trustees, and all administrative expenses incident 
thereto, as authorized by the basic statute establishing the National 
Gallery of Art, that is, the Joint Resolution of Congress approved 
March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51), U.S. Code, title 20, sees. 71-75. 

The following obligations were incurred: 

Personnel compensation and benefits SI, 966, 805. 00 

All other items 260, 154. 56 



Total obligations $2, 226, 959. 56 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

ATTENDANCE 



289 



There were 1,253,102 visitors to the Gallery during fiscal year 1965. 
There was, therefore, an increase of 16,947 over fiscal year 1964. The 
average daily attendance was 3,421. 



ACCESSIONS 

In all, 1,722 accessions were received by the Gallery as gifts, loans, 
or deposits during the fiscal year. While this quantity was substan- 
tially below the accessions in the preceding year, when the large and 
important gift by Lessing J. Rosenwald of graphic-arts materials 
swelled accessions to over 5,000, the gifts set forth below indicate 
that rarely in the Gallery's history have the accessions included so 
many outstanding paintings. 



GIFTS 

From the bequest of Chester Dale, New York, N.Y., the Gallery 
received 245 paintings, chiefly of the Impressionist School, including 
major works by Cezanne, Corot, Degas, Gauguin, van Gogh, Manet, 
Matisse, Monet, Picasso, and Toulouse-Lautrec. In addition, the 
following gifts or bequests were accepted by the Board of Trustees: 







Paintings 




Donor 




Artist 


Title 


Avalon Foundation, 




Heade 


Brazilian Seascape 


New York, N.Y. 








Do. 




Twachtman 


Winter Harmony 


Col. and Mrs. Edgar 


W. 


West 


Dr. Samuel Boud6 


Garbisch, New York, N.Y. 






Do 




do 


Mrs. Samuel Boude 


Do 




Unknown 


Vase of Flowers 


Do 




do 


Watermelon 


Do 




Hicks 


The Cornell Farm 


Do 




Field 


"He Turned Their Waters 
into Blood" 


Do 




Chandler 


Captain Samuel Chandler 


Do 




do 


Mrs. Samuel Chandler 


789-427—66— 


-30 







290 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Donor 
Ernest Iselin, New York, N.Y. 
Patrick T. Jackson, Jr., 

Cambridge, Mass. 
National Gallery of Art, 
Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund 
Do 
Do 



Do 

Arthur Sachs, Cannes, France 



Artist Title 

Sargent Mrs. Adrian Iselin 

Trumbull Patrick Tracy 

Sithium The Assumption of the Virgin 

Largilliere Elizabeth Throckmorton 

Guardi Carlo and Ubaldo Resisting 

the Enchantments of 
Armida's Nymphs 
do Erminia and the Shepherds 

French School, A Knight of the Golden 
XV century Fleece 



James C. 


Stotlar, Bethesda, 


Wyant 


Peaceful Valley 


Md. 




Sculpture 






Donor 


Artist 


Title 


Chester Dale, New York, N.Y. 


Despiau 


Maud Dale 


Do 




Gauguin 


"Pere Paillard" (Father 
Lechery) 


Do 




do 


Pair of Wooden Shoes 


Do 




Houdon 


Voltaire 


Do 




Kisling 


Death Mask of Amedeo 
Modigliani 


Do 




Modigliani 


Head of a Woman 


Do 




Renoir 


Coco 


National Gallery of Art, 


Lehmbruck 


Standing Woman 


Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund 






Do 




Maillol 


Venus 



Graphic Arts 



Mrs. George Matthew Adams, 


Whitney 


Portrait of a Man 


New York, N.Y. 


(after 
Legros) 




Chester Dale, New York, N.Y. 


Various 


21 prints and drawings 


Ella Fillmore Lillie, Danby, 

Vt. 
Mrs. John E. Lodge, 


Lillie 


10 lithographs 


Various 


12 prints 


Washington, D.C. 






John E. Thayer, Milton, 


Audubon 


Salt Water Marsh Hen 


Mass. 






Ukrainian Art Academy, 


Various 


7 contemporary Russian 


U.S.S.R. 




prints 



national gallery of art 
Exchange of Work of Art 



291 



Portrait of Martin Luther, an engraving by Cranach, was exchanged for a superior 
impression of the same work. 



Other Gifts 

In the fiscal year 1965 gifts of money were made by the Charles 
Ulrick and Josephine Bay Foundation, Avalon Foundation, Samuel H. 
Kress Foundation, Old Dominion Foundation, Mrs. Cordelia S. May, 
Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, J. I. Foundation, Inc., Mr. Edwin 
Binney III and the Lila Acheson Wallace Fund. 

Mrs. Mellon Bruce contributed additional funds for the purchase of 
works of art for the National Gallery of Art and for educational purposes 
related to works of art. 



WORK OF ART ON LOAN 

Portrait of a Man in a Fur-lined Coat by Rembrandt was received on loan 
from the Fuller Foundation, Boston, Mass. 



WORKS OF ART ON LOAN RETURNED 



The following works of art on loan were returned during the fiscal 
year: 

To Artist 

Col. and Mrs. Edgar W. Phillips 

Garbisch, New York, N.Y. 
Jerome Hill, New York, N.Y. Delacroix 

Do do 

Claiborne Pell, Washington, Bingham 

D.C. 
S. Dillon Ripley, Washington, Audubon 

D.C. 



Title 
Philip Slade 

The Arab Tax 

The Fanatics of Tangiers 

The Jolly Flatboatmen 

Washington Sea Eagle 



PAINTINGS TRANSFERRED TO NATIONAL 
PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Thirty-five portraits were transferred to the National Portrait Gallery. 



292 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



WORKS OF ART LENT 



The following loans ^ 


were 


made during t 


he fiscal year: 




To 




Artist 


Title 


Blair House; 


Washington, 


D.C. 


Stuart 


Ann Barry 


Do 






do 


Mary Barry 


Do 






do 
do 


A Gentleman of the Ashe 
Family 


Do 






Earl 


Andrew Jackson 


Do 






Sully 


John Quincy Adams 


Do 






Unknown 


Portrait of a Young Lady 


California Palace of the 




Quidor 


The Return of Rip Van 


Legion of Honor, San 






Winkle 


Francisco, 


Calif. 








Do 






Unknown 


Columbia 


Musee du Petit-Palais, Paris, 


Homer 


Breezing Up 


France 










Do 






Cooke 


Salute to General Washing- 
ton in New York Harbor 


Do 






Unknown 


Burning of Charles Town 


Do 






Bauman 


U.S. Mail Boat 


Museum of Fine Arts, St. 




West 


Self-Portrait 



Petersburg, Fla. 
Smithsonian Institution, 
Museum of History and 
Technology, Armed Forces 
History Hall 



Pine 



General William Smallwood 



Do 


Polk 


General Washington at 
Princeton 


Smithsonian Institution, 


Jarvis 


Commodore John Rodgers 


Museum of History and 






Technology, Presidential 






Reception Room 






Do 


do 


DeWitt Clinton 


Do 


Healy 


Daniel Webster 


Do 


Peale 


Robert Coleman 


Do 


Sully 


Major Thomas Biddle 


Munson- Williams-Proctor 


Audubon 


Arctic Hare 


Institute, Utica, N.Y. 






Vancouver Art Gallery, 


Pseudo 


Abundance and Satyr 


Vancouver, B.C. 


Antonio 
da Brescia 




Do 


do 


Jason (or Apollo) and the 
Dragon 


Do 


Master 
IO.F.F. 


Judgment of Paris 


Do 


Moderno 


David and Goliath 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 293 



To 


Artist 


Title 


Virginia Museum of Fine 


Homer 


Right and Left 


Arts, Richmond, Va. 






The White House, 


Sully 


Andrew Jackson 


Washington, D.C. 


EXHIBITIONS 





The following exhibitions were held at the National Gallery of Art 
during the fiscal year 1965: 

7000 Tears of Iranian Art. Continued from the preceding fiscal year 
through July 19, 1964. 

Prints by Whistler from the National Gallery of Art Collection. Continued 
from the preceding fiscal year through July 23, 1964. 

Selected Renderings from the Index of American Design. July 2, 1964, 
through October 1, 1964. 

French 18th Century Color Prints from the Widener Collection. July 30, 1964, 
through October 1, 1964. 

Exhibition of Watercolors by Perkins Harnley from the Index of American 
Design. August 12, 1964, through November 3, 1964. 

15th and 16th Century German Prints from the National Gallery of Art Collection. 
October 2, 1964, through December 6, 1964; January 11, 1965, 
through February 11, 1965. 

Drawings of the 15th and 16th Centuries from the Wallraf-Richartz Museum. 
October 4, 1964, through November 1, 1964. 

Blake's Engravings of Dante's Inferno and The Book of Job from the W. G' 
Russell Allen Collection. October 22, 1964, through January 10, 1965. 

William Blake: Poet, Printer, Prophet. October 25, 1964, through No- 
vember 22, 1964. 

Prints by Altdorfer, Durer, Lucas van Leyden, and Schongauer from the National 
Gallery of Art Collection. October 26, 1964, through December 15, 
1964; January 14, 1965, through April 22, 1965. 

Piranesi Etchings of Prisons and Views of Rome from the National Gallery of 
Art Collection. November 4, 1964, through April 18, 1965. 



294 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Designs for the Grave of the Late President John F. Kennedy. November 17, 
1964, through December 13, 1964. 

1964 Christmas Card Subjects from the Graphic Arts Collection. December 7, 

1964, through January 10, 1965. 

The Watercolor Drawings of John White. January 31, 1965, through 
February 22, 1965. 

Landscape Prints by Rembrandt and Other Dutch Artists from the Rosenwald 
Collection. February 12, 1965, through May 19, 1965. 

Eyewitness to Space — sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. March 14, 1965, through May 23, 1965. 

Rosenwald Miniatures and Widener French 18th Century Books. April 24, 

1965, through May 2, 1965. 

The Chester Dale Bequest. May 6, 1965, to continue into the next fiscal 
year. 

Graphic Arts from the Chester Dale Collection. May 6, 1965, to continue 
into the next fiscal year. 

Exhibition Illustrating Richard Bales' Index of American Design Suite No. 4. 
May, 20, 1965, to continue into the next fiscal year. 

Exhibition of Rembrandt's Portrait of the Artist's Son Titus on loan from the 
Norton Simon Foundation. May 26, 1965, to continue into the next 
fiscal year. 

Sketches by Constable from the Victoria and Albert Museum. June 6, 1965, to 
continue into the next fiscal year. 

White House Festival of the Arts Exhibition. June 18, 1965, to continue 
into the next fiscal year. 

Exhibitions of recent accessions: Tiberius and Agrippina by Rubens, 
November 29, 1964, through December 20, 1964; A Knight of the 
Golden Fleece, French School, XV Century, December 22, 1964, 
through February 5, 1965; Portrait of a Man in a Fur-lined Coat by 
Rembrandt, lent by The Fuller Foundation, from January 8, 1965; 
The Cornell Farm by Edward Hicks, Captain Samuel Chandler and Mrs. 
Samuel Chandler by Winthrop Chandler, February 6, 1965 through 
February 14, 1965; Watson and the Shark by Copley, February 21, 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 295 

1965, through April 4, 1965; Carlo and Ubaldo Resisting the Enchantments 
of Armida's Nymphs and Erminia and the Shepards by Francesco and Gian 
Antonio Guardi, April 4, 1 965, through April 27, 1 965; The Assumption 
of the Virgin by Miguel Sithium, from April 18, 1965; Mrs. Adrian Iselin 
by Sargent, Winter Harmony by Twachtman, and Brazilian Seascape by 
Heade, May 16, 1965, through June 8, 1965. 



TRAVELING EXHIBITIONS 

Special exhibitions of graphic arts from the National Gallery of Art 
collections were circulated during the fiscal year to 61 museums, 
universities, schools, and art centers in the United States and abroad. 

Index of American Design. Thirty-four traveling exhibitions of material 
from the Index were circulated to 17 States, the District of Columbia, 
and one foreign country, for 62 showings. 



CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES 

Under the direction of chief curator Perry B. Cott, the curatorial 
department accessioned 324 gifts to the Gallery during the fiscal year 
1965. Advice was given with respect to 1,740 works of art brought to 
the Gallery for expert opinion, and 28 visits to collections were made 
by members of the staff in connection with other gifts. About 6,189 
inquiries, many of them requiring research, were answered verbally 
and by letter. 

Assistant chief curator William P. Campbell served as a member of 
the Special Fine Arts Committee of the Department of State. 

Curator of painting H. Lester Cooke continued as consultant to 
NASA with duties of organizing and supervising commissions to 
artists for paintings of themes relating to the Space Program. He also 
acted as judge for the Tri-State Exhibition, Evansville, Ind., and "The 
Plains," a local art exhibit, during the fiscal year. 

The Richter Archives received and cataloged 485 photographs on 
exchange from museums here and abroad; 1,328 photographs were 
purchased, and about 500 reproductions have been added to the Rich- 
ter Archives. Five hundred photographs have been added to the 
Inconographic Index. 

RESTORATION 

Francis Sullivan, resident restorer of the Gallery, made regular and 
systematic inspection of all works of art in the Gallery and on loan to 



296 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Government buildings in Washington and periodically removed dust 
and bloom as required. He relined, cleaned, and restored 10 paintings 
and gave special treatment to 42. Thirty-seven paintings were x-rayed 
as an aid in research. He continued experiments with synthetic 
materials as suggested by the National Gallery of Art Fellowship at 
the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pa. Tech- 
nical advice was given in response to 252 telephone inquiries. Special 
treatment was given to works of art belonging to Government agencies, 
including the U.S. Capitol, Treasury Department, the White House, 
U.S. Coast Guard Academy, and the Freer Gallery of Art. 

PUBLICATIONS 

The volume by Gallery director John Walker entitled National 
Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., published by Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 
in 1963, was translated and published in Germany, France, and 
Spain in the respective languages. It was also published in London, 
United Kingdom, by Thames & Hudson. 

All the curatorial staff cooperated in the preparation of the three- 
volume definitive catalog covering the entire Chester Dale Collection — 
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Paintings and Sculpture of the French 
School, Twentieth Century Paintings and Sculpture of the French School, and 
Paintings Other Than French. 

The senior fellow of the National Gallery of Art Research Project 
at the Mellon Institute in Pittsburgh, Pa., Dr. Robert L. Feller, 
published several articles related to the important scientific research 
which he has been conducting. They are Control of the Deteriorating 
Effects of Light on Museum Objects in Museum, September 1964 issue; 
What's in a Name: Dammar in The Crucible, October 1964 issue; The 
Use of an Electrically-Conducting Glass Panel as a Heating Surface (with 
Jeanne L. Kostich) in Bulletin American Group — IIC, October 1964 
issue; and Critical Pigment Volume Concentration and Chalking in Paints 
(with J. J. Matous) in Bulletin American Group — IIC, October 1964 
issue. 

H. Lester Cooke, curator of painting, wrote an article for Art in 
America, April 1965 issue, entitled "A Plunger in the Market: Chester 
Dale and His Collection." 

Richard Field, assistant curator of graphic arts, prepared the catalog 
for the Pennsylvania State University exhibition Selected 15th Century 
Prints from the Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection, National Gallery of Art. 

Michael Mahoney, museum curator, wrote an article for the Min- 
neapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin, September 1964 issue, entitled "Salvator 
Rosa's Saint Humphrey." 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 297 

In April 1965 the Gazette des Beaux-Arts published an article entitled 
"Some Later Works of Piero di Cosimo," by Everett P. Fahy, Jr., 
National Gallery of Art Finley fellow. 



PUBLICATIONS FUND 

In fiscal year 1965 the Publications Fund placed on sale five new 
publications. These were: the Pantheon Story of Art for Young People, 
illustrated almost exclusively from the National Gallery of Art Col- 
lection; two books illustrated from subjects in the Rosenwald Col- 
lection — The Bite of the Print and George Rouault's Miserere; American 
Crafts and Folk Arts, based on the Index of American Design; and 
707 Masterpieces of American Primitive Painting from the Collection of Edgar 
William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch. In addition, three new catalogs 
of the Chester Dale Collection were published; these were made 
available to the public with the opening of the Chester Dale Bequest 
exhibition. Thirty-nine new 11- by 14-inch color reproductions 
were published which brought the total subjects on sale to 277. 
Twenty-eight new postcard subjects were added, which results in 224 
subjects now being available to the public. Four new large repro- 
ductions were published with Gallery assistance: Poussin — 77z* 
Assumption of the Virgin; Sassetta and Assistant — Saint Anthony Leaving 
His Monastery; Turner — The Dogana and San Giorgio Maggiore; and 
Monet — Rouen Cathedral, West Faqade, Sunlight. 

EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 

The program of the educational department was carried out under 
the direction of Raymond S. Stites, curator in charge of education, 
and his staff. Lectures, conducted tours, and special talks were given 
on the works of art in the Gallery's collections. 

Attendance for the general tours was 18,905 — an increase of 1,500 
over last year. Attendance for all regularly scheduled general tours, 
tours of the week, and picture-of-the-week talks amounted to 36,843. 

In a new series, the Radio Picture of the Week, 22 discussions of 
individual paintings in the Gallery's collections were prepared by the 
educational department and broadcast during the intermissions of 
the Gallery's Sunday evening concerts each week from October 4 
through February 28. A listener was able to subscribe on a monthly 
basis and follow the discussions with a color reproduction before him. 
Subscriptions so entered numbered 1,245. From replies to a question- 
naire, it is estimated that many subscriptions were utilized by complete 



298 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

families or assigned to school classes. On the basis of radio audience 
ratings, it is estimated that the total number of listeners to the series 
was approximately 400,000. 

Special tours, lectures, and conferences (a total of 467) were arranged 
to serve 16,310 persons. These special appointments (which increased 
by seven over 1964) were made for Government agency groups, the 
Foreign Service Institute, the Foreign Students Council, the Armed 
Forces, club and study groups, religious organizations, conventions, 
museum officials, hospital representatives, and school students and 
faculty members from various parts of the country. 

The program of training volunteer docents continued, and special 
instruction was given to 1 26 ladies from the Junior League of Wash- 
ington and the American Association of University Women. By 
arrangement with the public, private, and parochial schools of the 
District of Columbia and of the surrounding counties in Maryland 
and Virginia, these two organizations conducted tours for 2,654 classes 
from the Metropolitan area of Washington. The 75,934 children in 
these classes represented an increase of 7,098 over last year. These 
volunteer docents also guided 794 Safety Patrol girls from Atlanta, 
Ga., on tours of the Gallery. 

Forty-four lectures were given on Sunday afternoons in the audi- 
torium. Of these, 26 were delivered by guest lecturers, 8 by members 
of the staff, and 5 were full-length film presentations. The distin- 
guished Sir Isaiah Berlin delivered the 14th annual series of the A. W. 
Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts on six consecutive Sundays beginning 
March 14, 1965, on the general subject "Sources of Romantic Art." 

Attendance at the above-mentioned Sunday afternoon programs in 
the auditorium totaled 12,569. This was lower in fiscal year 1965 
than in 1964 inasmuch as the number of Sunday programs dropped 
from 52 to 44. However, there was a 10.4 percent increase in average 
attendance per Sunday. 

The slide library of the Educational Department has a total of 
48,951 slides in its permanent and lending collections. During the 
year, 1,327 slides were added to the collections. Altogether, 317 per- 
sons borrowed a total of 8,603 slides, and it is estimated that these 
slides were seen by 19,671 viewers. 

Members of the staff participated in outside activities which included 
lecturing at various schools, clubs, and Government agencies. 
Two members of the staff taught evening courses at local institutions. 
Staff members prepared and recorded scripts for the Lectour and 
radio talks, and prepared material for the school-tour program and 
picture-of-the-week texts which are sold with reproductions of the 
picture. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 299 

The project undertaken two years ago in connection with the "Widen- 
ing Horizons" program, designed by various Government agencies to 
introduce high school students to career opportunities offered in Wash- 
ington, was continued. Mr. Stites gave six briefing lectures and six 
tours to the volunteers conducting this program. These tours and 
lectures were attended by 1,570 persons — an increase of 755 over the 
previous year. 

A printed calendar of the programs and events of the Gallery was 
prepared and distributed to a mailing list of an average of approxi- 
mately 7,500 names. 



EXTENSION SERVICES 

The office of extension services, under the direction of Grose Evans, 
circulated to the public traveling exhibitions, films, slide lectures with 
texts, film strips, and other educational materials. 

Traveling exhibits are lent free of charge except for shipping expenses. 
The total number of exhibits in circulation was 1 04. These were cir- 
culated in 844 bookings, an increase of 445 over the preceding year's 
total of 399. 

Twenty-eight prints of two films on paintings in the National Gallery 
of Art were circulated in 316 bookings, an increase of 145 over last year. 

A total of 2,150 slide lecture sets was circulated in 5,717 bookings, an 
increase of 2,282 over the previous year. 

Based on the conservative average audience estimates per booking 
used for the past four years, the audience served by the traveling 
exhibitions circulated by the Gallery was approximately 422,000; for 
films the estimated audience was 94,800; and for slide lectures and 
film strips, the audience was an estimated 343,020. 

In addition, 64 exhibits were circulated by three outside groups, 
a national church organization, the New York State school system, 
and the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. These 
exhibits were seen by an estimated 111,243 viewers. 

It is estimated, therefore, that the extension services reached approx- 
imately 971,063 people during fiscal year 1965 as against 549,524 in 
fiscal year 1964. 

Mr. Evans prepared texts for new slide lectures and traveling ex- 
hibitions, made recordings of the texts for three slide lectures, and 
supervised the translation into French and recording of a lecture 
that will be circulated for the use of French language teachers. Five 
new subjects were added to the slide lectures and seven new subjects 
to the traveling exhibitions. Mr. Evans attended conferences to 



300 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

demonstrate the extension services and to keep abreast of new develop- 
ments in the audiovisual field. 



LIBRARY 

During the year the library, under the supervision of Ruth E. 
Carlson, accessioned 5,919 publications obtained by gift, exchange, 
or purchase. A total of 2,313 photographs, acquired by exchange or 
purchase with private funds, was added to the photographic archives. 

During the year 1,895 publications were cataloged and classified; 
6,686 cards were filed in the main catalog and the shelf-list. Library 
of Congress cards were used for 574 titles; original cataloging was 
done for 419 titles. Periodicals recorded were 3,129, periodicals 
circulated were 10,591, and 3,725 books were charged to the staff. 
There were 5,852 books shelved in regular routine. 

During the past fiscal year the library borrowed 1,242 books and 
received 6 photographic copies on the interlibrary loan program. 

The exchange program was continued and the library distributed 
298 National Gallery of Art publications, and received 790 catalogs 
under this program. 

The library is a depository for black-and-white photographs of works 
of art in the Gallery's collections. These are maintained for use in 
research by the staff, for exchange with other institutions, for repro- 
duction in approved publications, and for sale to the public. Approx- 
imately 9,111 photographs were added to the stock in the library 
during the year, and 1,504 orders for 6,663 photographs were filled. 
There were 425 permits for reproduction of 1,003 subjects processed 
in the library. 



INDEX OF AMERICAN DESIGN 

Under the supervision of Grose Evans, the Index of American 
Design circulated, in addition to the traveling exhibitions referred to 
above (page 295), 133 sets of Index material color slides (6,536) 
throughout the United States, and 254 photographs of Index subjects 
were used for exhibits, study, and publication. The file of photographs 
was increased by 44 negatives and 84 prints. Fourteen permits to 
reproduce 114 subjects from the Index were issued. Approximately 
271 visitors studied the Index material for research purposes and to 
collect material for publication and design. Special exhibitions were 
arranged of Index material, including one for the USIA for circulation 
overseas. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 301 

The curator of the Index held special conferences with a number of 
persons and lectured to several groups about the Index. He also 
attended the Alexandria Antiques Forum. 



MAINTENANCE OF THE BUILDING AND GROUNDS 

The Gallery building, mechanical equipment, and grounds have been 
maintained throughout the year at the established standards. 

The renovation of the skylight on the west wing of the building has 
been completed, and considerable progress has been made on the east 
wing. When completed, this renovating is expected to give the Gallery 
building a completely watertight skylight for the first time in its history. 

Six new gallery rooms were completed for the exhibition of the 
Chester Dale Collection of paintings. 

The Gallery greenhouse continued to produce flowering and foliage 
plants in quantities sufficient for all decorative needs on holidays, for 
special openings, and for day-to-day requirements of the Garden Courts. 

Contracts were entered into for the installation of special security 
devices for the protection of the cases containing Renaissance jewelry 
and other art objects in Gallery G—2. This is in the nature of a pilot- 
plant installation which, if it fulfills its promise, will be extended to 
other areas. 

LECTOUR 

During the fiscal year 1965 Lectour, the Gallery's electronic guide 
system, was used by 58,121 visitors. 



MUSIC PROGRAM 

Forty Sunday evening concerts were given during the fiscal year in 
the East Garden Court. Thirty-three of the concerts were sponsored 
by funds bequeathed to the Gallery by William Nelson Cromwell. 
The 22d American Music Festival of seven concerts was sponsored by 
the Guibenkian Foundation, Inc. The National Gallery Orchestra, 
conducted by Richard Bales, played nine concerts at the Gallery during 
the season. Two of these orchestra concerts were made possible in part 
by a grant from the Music Performance Trust Fund of the American 
Recording Industry. 

The National Gallery of Art strings, conducted by Mr. Bales, fur- 
nished music during four of the Gallery's openings. The orchestra 
program on October 25, 1964, was played in honor of United Nations 



302 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Day, and the concert on January 17 featured Mr. Bales's "The Repub- 
lic" and was played in honor of the inauguration of the President and 
Vice President of the United States. 

Seven Sunday evenings, April 25 through June 6, were devoted to the 
Gallery's 22d American Music Festival. All concerts were broadcast 
in their entirety by WGMS-AM and FM. Washington music critics 
continued their regular coverage of the concerts. During the inter- 
mission periods of the Sunday evening broadcasts, members of the 
educational staff spoke on art matters, and Mr. Bales discussed the 
musical programs. Mr. Bales appeared as guest conductor at various 
places throughout the country and taught a class in composition. The 
Gallery orchestra played a number of concerts at schools and churches 
in nearby towns and cities. 

Two hour-long television programs of the National Gallery of Art 
orchestra with Mr. Bales conducting were taped by WTOP-TV, and 
these, together with two previous programs which were repeated, were 
telecast during the winter and spring. 

Mr. Bales completed and performed two new works, one of which 
was commissioned by the Kindler Foundation of Washington. He also 
participated in the Civil War Centennial celebration and received an 
award for the National Gallery of Art. The Gallery orchestra and Mr. 
Bales also received a certificate of award from the American Association 
of University Women for an outstanding cultural and educational 
contribution to the community through the television programs. This 
is the third year that the Gallery has been so honored. 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

J. Carter Brown, assistant director, served in an advisory capacity to 
the White House in the organization and installation of the art in the 
White House Festival of the Arts, June 14, 1965. He was assisted by 
H. Lester Cooke, curator of painting, and other members of the Gallery 
staff. At the request of the President, the National Gallery of Art 
provided lunch for the 200 guests of the White House Festival of the 
Arts. 

Also at the request of the White House, the Gallery was opened 
especially for the National Conference of the Arts Councils of America, 
June 18, 1965. The delegates and guests of the International Pub- 
lishers Association spent an evening at the Gallery on June 4, 1965, 
during their convention. 

The Gallery provided facilities for the ceremony held by the Post 
Office Department on December 2, 1 964, in honor of the first-day issue 
of a stamp dedicated to the Fine Arts. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 303 

In response to requests, 41,766 copies of "An Invitation to the Gal- 
lery" and 2,100 information booklets were sent to Senators, Repre- 
sentatives, and various organizations for distribution. 

Henry Beville, head of the photographic laboratory, and his assistants 
processed 62,378 items including negatives, prints, slides, color trans- 
parencies, and color separations. 

A total of 196 permits to copy works of art in the National Gallery 
of Art and 92 permits to photograph were issued during the fiscal year. 

During the 1965 inaugural ceremonies, the Trustees were pleased to 
make the Gallery available for the Reception of Distinguished Ladies 
on January 18, 1965. Over 6,500 invited guests were received in the 
two Garden Courts and viewed the collections. Both the First Lady, 
Mrs. Johnson, and the wife of the Vice President, Mrs. Humphrey, 
assisted in the receiving lines. 



AUDIT OF PRIVATE FUNDS OF THE GALLERY 

An audit of the private funds of the Gallery will be made for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1965, by Price Waterhouse & Co., public 
accountants. A report of the audit will be forwarded to the Gallery. 




Girl with a Hoop by Auguste Renoir (1841-1919). Canvas 49^ inches X 
30H inches. Chester Dale Collection, 1962. National Gallery of Art. 




The Assumption of the Virgin by Miguel Sithium (circa 1465/70-1525). Canvas 8% 
inches X 6 l A inches. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. National Gallery of Art. 




Mademoiselle Malo by Edgar Degas (1834-1917). Canvas 3 Us inches X 25^i 
inches. Chester Dale Collection. National Gallery of Art. 




A Knight of the Golden Fleece. Flemish School, 15th century, circa 1495. 26H 
X 2VA inches. Gift of Arthur Sachs. National Gallery of Art. 




A Corner of the Moulin de la Galette by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. 39 l A X 35 V% 
inches. Chester Dale Collection. National Gallery of Art. 




Patrick Tracy by John Trumbull (American, 1756-1843). Canvas 
9\y 2 X 52^ 8 inches. Gift of Patrick T. Jackson, Jr., 1964. National 
Gallery of Art. 




Carlo and Ubaldo Resisting the Enchantments of Armida's Nymphs by Gian Antonio 
(1699-1760) and Francesco Guardi (1712-1793). Canvas 98H X 181 
inches. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. National Gallery of Art. 




Still Life by Paul Cezanne (French, 1839-1906). Canvas 26 X 32^ inches. 
Chester Dale Collection, 1962. National Gallery of Art. 



Canal Zone Biological Area 




789-427—66—32 



Canal Zone Biological Area 
Martin H. Moynihan, Director 

The Canal Zone Biological Area, a bureau of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, is responsible for maintaining Barro Colorado Island in Gatun 
Lake, Canal Zone, as a biological preserve. The island is approxi- 
mately 3,600 acres in area. It is almost completely covered by "tropical 
monsoon forest" (see tabulations on the annual rainfall below) and 
contains a rich fauna. One of the few places in the American tropics 
close to large centers of human population, yet largely unaffected by 
recent human activities, it is particularly suitable and convenient for 
research on many aspects of tropical biology and the tropical environ- 
ment. 

The Canal Zone Biological Area also has authority to use a large 
tract of land on the adjacent mainland near Gamboa, Canal Zone. 
This mainland territory is covered by various types of second-growth 
vegetation and patches of forest which are more humid than the 
forest on Barro Colorado Island. 

The bureau maintains a laboratory on Barro Colorado Island, with 
attached library and living quarters, available for use by scientists and 
students from all over the world. 

The bureau's scientific staff conducts research on several groups of 
animals and plants on Barro Colorado itself, in adjacent regions of the 
Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama, and in other parts of 
Central and South America. 



RESEARCH ACTIVITIES 

One hundred and nine scientists and students, representing 14 
nations, worked on Barro Colorado Island for at least several days, 
and used research facilities on the mainland. This represents a marked 
increase over previous years. These researches dealt with a wide 
range of disciplines. Fields receiving particular attention were behav- 
ioral studies of insects, fishes, amphibians, birds, and mammals; sys- 
tematics of insects and arachnids; communication systems of moths, 
birds, and primates; and the ecology of species diversity in vertebrates 
and higher plants. The General Electric Corporation, on behalf of 
the U.S. Army, conducted extensive investigations of the acoustical 
properties of the island forest. 

307 



308 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Dr. Austin Stanley Rand, a herpetologist, was added to the staff 
last year, bringing the total of senior staff scientists to four. 

Dr. Robert L. Dressier continued his studies of orchids and orchid 
pollination, supported by the National Science Foundation. In con- 
nection with this project, he made brief trips to Brazil, Peru, several 
U.S. museums, and a longer trip to Costa Rica. 

Dr. Neal G. Smith continued his field studies on the evolution and 
genetics of egg-mimicry in parasitic cuckoos, the behavior of oropen- 
dolas, and initiated an experimental study of avian species diversity 
in tropical grasslands. He visited museums in Washington, New York, 
Ithaca, and Boston. 

Dr. Rand attended the Lizard Ecology Symposium in Kansas City, 
Mo., and the meeting of the American Association of Ichthyologists 
and Herpetologists in Lawrence, Kan. He also visited the Chicago 
Natural History Museum, Harvard University, and the University of 
Pennsylvania for consultation on his continuing research on the evolu- 
tion of the West Indian Anoles, and on concepts and techniques of 
bioacoustics. 

Dr. Martin H. Moynihan continued research on the communication 
systems and social behavior of New World primates and various groups 
of passerine birds. A study of geographic variation in social behavior 
among Andean birds is being supported by a grant from the National 
Science Foundation. In connection with this work, Dr. Moynihan 
made several field trips to Colombia and Venezuela, and visited 
laboratories in London, Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, and New Orleans. 
He also delivered a paper in the symposium on social interactions 
among primates at the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science meeting in Montreal. 

The following papers by staff members of the Canal Zone Biological 
Area appeared in various publications: 
Dressler, R. L. Encyclia trachycarpa refound. American Orchid Soc. 

Bull., vol. 33, pp. 587-588. 1964. 
. Nomenclatural notes on the Orchidaceae II. Taxon 13, 

pp. 246-249. 1964. 
Moynihan, M. Some behavior patterns of platyrrhine monkeys I. 

The Night Monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 

vol. 146(5), pp. 1-84. 1964. 
Rand, A. S. An observation on Dracaena guyanensis foraging under 

water. Herpetologica, vol. 20, p. 207. 1964. 
. Ecological distribution in anoline lizards of Puerto Rico. 

Ecology, vol. 45, pp. 745-752. 1964. 
. Inverse relation between temperature and shyness in the 



lizard Anolis lineatopus. Ecology, vol. 45, pp. 863-864. 1964. 



CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA 309 

. On the frequency and extent of naturally occurring foot 

injuries in Tropodurus torquatus (Sauria: Iguanidae). Papeis Avul- 
sos do Departamento de Zoologia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, vol. 17, 
pp. 225-228. 1965. 



BUILDINGS AND EQUIPMENT 

An electrical cable system from the mainland to Barro Colorado 
Island was installed, providing the island with well-regulated 60-cycle, 
120-volt single-phase and 220- volt single- and three-phase power. 
Electrical power capacity was increased by a factor of 5, enabling the 
use of more sensitive instruments than was possible previously when 
erratic generators provided the electricity. The internal electrical 
wiring system also was revised to provide a larger margin for future 
power requirements. 

The laboratory building was extensively remodeled, permitting more 
efficient use of available space. A soundproof room has been installed 
to facilitate acoustical investigations. 

Radio transmitters for communication between Barro Colorado and 
the mainland were installed and are available for use at any time of 
the day or night in case of emergencies. 

The island's extensive trail system was cleared and trail markers 
replaced. 

Expansion of the library continued, and the bureau now has more 
than 4,700 volumes and receives 84 periodicals. In all probability, 
this is the largest and best general biological library in the American 
tropics. It is frequently used by members of other scientific and educa- 
tional organizations in the Canal Zone and the Republic of Panama, 
as well as by the scientists and students conducting research on Barro 
Colorado itself. 

New animal cages were constructed, and many of the older cages 
were repaired. 

Normal maintenance activities were carried on as usual. The 
launches required extensive repairs as they age rapidly. Living 
quarters were repaired and modified. 

FINANCES 

In addition to $179,640 appropriated to the Smithsonian Institution 
by Congress for the regular operations of the Canal Zone Biological 
Area, trust funds for the maintenance of the island and its living facil- 
ities are obtained by collections from visitors and scientists, table 
subscriptions, and donations. 



310 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

The following institutions continued their support of the laboratory 
through the payment of table subscriptions: Eastman Kodak Co., 
New York Zoological Society, and the Smithsonian Institution. 
Donations also are gratefully acknowledged from Dr. Eugene Eisen- 
mann, G. M. Goethe, and E. F. Morris. 



PLANS 

It is anticipated that limited facilities on both sides of the isthmus 
will soon be available for marine research. Dr. Ira Rubinoff, a marine 
biologist, will join the staff next year. 

Five research assistantships were made available this year, and the 
following predoctoral students were chosen: 

Michael Robinson, Oxford University, will study the behavior of 
leaf and stick mimicking insects. Nicholas Smythe, University of 
Maryland, is interested in the behavior and ecology of agoutis and 
pacas. Eugene Morton will investigate the effects of physical factors 
in the environment on the kinds and forms of vocalizations given by 
various animals. Martin Naumann, University of Kansas, will study 
neotropical social wasps. John Oppenheimer, University of Illinois, 
will initiate a long-term study of the social organization of the 
White-Faced Monkey (Cebus capucinus). 

A program has been established with the Organization of American 
States providing support for scientists and students, especially Latin 
Americans who do not have access to many other sources of support. 
Applications are now being reviewed by the Organization of American 
States. 

It is hoped to continue the expansion of the scientific staff and the 
research activities of the bureau, and to attract larger numbers of visit- 
ing scientists and students. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Canal Zone Biological Area can operate only with the excellent 
cooperation of the Canal Zone Government and the Panama Canal 
Company. Thanks are due especially to the Customs and Immigration 
officials; the Police Division; the Division of Sanitation; and the Elec- 
tronics Section of the Electrical Division. Also deeply appreciated 
are the advice and assistance provided by the Gorgas Memorial Lab- 
oratory, the Inter-American Geodetic Survey, the Division of Veteri- 
nary Medicine, Dr. W. John Smith of Harvard University, and R. A. 
Botzenmayer, chief engineer, Southern Command Network. 



CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA 



311 



ANNUAL RAINFALL, BARRO COLORADO ISLAND, CANAL ZONE, 

1925-64 





Total 


Station 




Total 


Station 


Tear 


inches 


average 


Tear 


inches 


average 


1925 


104. 37 




1945 


120.42 


109. 84 


1926 


118.22 


113.56 


1946 


87.38 


108.81 


1927 


116.36 


114.68 


1947 


77.92 


107.49 


1928 


101.52 


111.35 


1948 


83.16 


106. 43 


1929 


87.84 


106. 56 


1949 


114.86 


106. 76 


1930 


76.57 


101. 51 


1950 


114.51 


107.07 


1931 


123.30 


104.69 


1951 


112.72 


107. 28 


1932 


113.52 


105.76 


1952 


97.68 


106. 94 


1933 


101.73 


105.32 


1953 


104. 97 


106.87 


1934 


122.42 


107.04 


1954 


105. 68 


106. 82 


1935 


143.42 


110.35 


1955 


114.42 


107.09 


1936 


93.88 


108.98 


1956 


114.05 


107. 30 


1937 


124.13 


110.12 


1957 


97.97 


106. 98 


1938 


117.09 


110.62 


1958 


100. 20 


106. 70 


1939 


115.47 


110.94 


1959 


94.88 


106.48 


1940 


86.51 


109.43 


1960 


140.07 


107.41 


1941 


91.82 


108.41 


1961 


100.21 


106.95 


1942 


111.10 


108.55 


1962 


100. 52 


107. 07 


1943 


120.29 


109. 20 


1963 


108.94 


107.10 


1944 


111.96 


109. 30 


1964 


113.25 


107.28 



COMPARISON OF 1963 AND 1964 RAINFALL, BARRO COLORADO 

ISLAND 









[In inches] 






Accumu- 




Total 


Station 


Tears of 


7964 


lated 








excess or 


or excess 


Month 


7963 


7964 


average 


record 


deficiency 


deficiency 


January 


7.94 


.22 


2.24 


39 


-2.02 


-2.02 


February 


3.14 


.25 


1.33 


39 


-1.08 


-3.10 


March 


1.65 


.21 


1.20 


39 


-.99 


-4.09 


April 


6.38 


4.56 


3.55 


40 


+ 1.01 


-3.08 


May 


9.08 


15.82 


11.02 


40 


4-4.80 


+ 1.72 


June 


5.96 


19.25 


10.91 


40 


+ 8.34 


+ 10.06 


July 


12.83 


17.44 


11.73 


40 


+ 5.71 


+ 15.77 


August 


18.87 


8.56 


12.50 


40 


-3.94 


+ 11.83 


September 


8.06 


11.41 


10.32 


40 


+ 1.09 


+ 12.92 


October 


10.19 


16.87 


13.97 


40 


+ 2.90 


+ 15.82 


November 


21.60 


16.04 


17.90 


40 


-1.86 


+ 13.96 


December 


3.24 


2.62 


10.61 


40 


-7.99 


+ 5.97 



Year 



108.94 113.25 107.28 



+ 5.97 



Dry season 
Wet season 



19.11 5.24 

89.83 108.01 



8.32 
98.96 



-3.08 
+ 9.05 




Dr. Neal Smith, staff zoologist, examining eggs of parasitic cuckoos in the 
main laboratory building, Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone. 




Vocalization of frogs being recorded by Dr. Stanley Rand, staff zoologist, 
outside the main animal house, Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone. 



-'<2Vn> . I 




View of laboratory clearing from dock area, Barro Colorado Island, Canal 

Zone. 




Laboratory clearing at Barro Colorado Island, looking E.N.E. across Gatun 
Lake. An insect trap is located in right foreground. 



National Air Museum 




National Air Museum 
S. Paul Johnston, Director 

Fiscal year 1965 was a period of transition for the National Air 
(and Space) Museum. Not only did long-term plans for the new fa- 
cility to house the museum's collections come into clearer focus, but all 
museum programs were subject to critical reexamination. 

Orientation toward the "famous first" which had long dominated 
museum thinking was subordinated in favor of programs designed to 
yield scientific information and education tailored to fit the needs of 
our potential audiences in this period of rapidly advancing aerospace 
technology. 

1 . For the masses who are expected to visit the new facility yearly, 
our displays must present in clear and understandable fashion a bal- 
anced story of aerospace development — not only of where we have 
been and where we are but also where we are headed. 

2. For the relatively small group of serious researchers in aerospace 
technology and/or history, the museum must reorganize its already 
extensive research resources and make them more readily available. 

3. For those whose need-to-know includes the actual examination 
of aerospace hardware, the NAM study collection at Silver Hill, Md., 
must be better documented and better housed. All these matters re- 
quired detailed review. 

One of the first actions of the present director on taking office in 
September 1964 was to assemble a group of outside consultants to take 
an objective look at the over-all problem. None of these advisers 
were museum people as such, but each had a long background in some 
aspects of aerospace science and technology. Their collective exper- 
ience covered the entire range of air and space development. All 
were sufficiently senior to have broad personal historical perspective. 
They were asked to avoid any consideration of the placement of specific 
items of hardware in specific locations in a projected building, but 
rather to concentrate on such broad questions as "What is the purpose 
of an aerospace museum in the nation's capitol?" — "What sort of story 
should it tell?" — and "To whom does it speak?" 

The results of this exercise are contained in a report entitled "Pro- 
posed Objectives and Plans for the National Air and Space Museum," 
dated January 15, 1965. The report was considered and approved 
(with minor modifications) by the National Air Museum Advisory 

315 



316 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Board at its meeting on January 26, 1965. It was subsequently ap- 
proved by the Secretary and now constitutes the basic planning docu- 
ment for the future. A condensed version of this report was given wide 
distribution through one of the publications of the Aerospace Industries 
Association. 

The practice of seeking outside advice and assistance on museum 
problems was followed throughout the year. Individuals and groups 
knowledgeable and experienced in matters in which NAM is interested 
(e.g., aero and space medicine, meteorology, flight safety, lighter-than- 
air flight, etc.) were recruited to serve as advisers in developing useful 
and accurate presentations for the new facility. A great deal of interest 
in the museum has been engendered in this manner. It is evident that 
there will be no lack of enthusiastic volunteer support for NAM 
activities. 

In addition to such informal arrangements, contracts were made with 
certain specialized consultants (1) to make a study of NAM's organiza- 
tion and management problems in the preservation and restoration 
division at Silver Hill, (2) to make preliminary studies of the organiza- 
tion of our documentary and other research material, and (3) to advise 
on matters relating to flight control displays and similar operations. 

Although, in the past, a certain number of space artifacts had been 
collected and were on display, little in the way of space-oriented 
programs or scientific or technological capability existed. To remedy 
this difficulty, two major steps were undertaken. 

First, to alleviate the "space vacuum," an astronautics department 
under the direction of Frederick C. Durant III was established. Mr. 
Durant came into the museum in October 1964 as one of the members 
of the planning group. He joined the staff as assistant director of 
astronautics in January 1965. His long background and broad expe- 
rience in rocketry and space technology have greatly strengthened 
NAM's position. Under his direction a curatorial staff specializing in 
space vehicle design, launch and propulsion technology, auxiliary sys- 
tems development, and life support techniques will be developed. 

Second, close working relationships were established with NASA, 
not only through the activities of NASA's Artifacts Committee 
(which deals primarily with the disposition of important NASA- 
developed hardware) but also with the scientific and technical staffs 
of NASA. Administrator James Webb, Dr. Hugh Dryden, Dr. Robert 
Seamans, and their associates supplied strong and continuing support 
to NAM's plans and programs. In turn, NAM provided public 
exhibition space for NASA displays of current interest. Concurrently 
with the completion of such programs as the Gemini flights, the 
Ranger Moon shots, and the Mariner Mars exploration, the associated 



NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM 317 

equipment, explanations of the programs, and the achieved results 
were put on display in the rotunda and in the west hall of the Arts 
and Industries Building. Public interest and NASA's favorable 
reaction to these activities have been high. 

In addition to the establishment of a separate astronautics depart- 
ment as mentioned above, the organic structure of the staff was re- 
studied and lines of responsibility clarified. As now constituted, 
five major departments exist: aeronautics, astronautics, information 
and education, exhibits, and administration. 

As soon as conditions permit, an assistant director of aeronautics 
(as an "opposite number" for Mr. Durant) will be selected. During 
the year the work of the department was ably forwarded by the present 
curatorial staff: Louis Casey for aircraft, Robert Meyer for power 
plants and propulsion, and Kenneth Newland for auxiliary systems 
and devices. 

The information and education department, headed by chief 
historian Paul E. Garber, maintained a constant service to correspond- 
ents and visitors in connection with their studies on flight and flight 
technology. Steps were initiated to improve the sorting and cataloging 
of the Museum's collection of research material. The services pro- 
vided by Mr. Garber and his assistants contributed greatly to the 
preparation of many articles for publication, television, and other 
programs. Among his many activities, Mr. Garber gave 47 formal 
lectures on various aspects of the history of flight, conducted 14 lecture 
tours to museums, and participated in 6 radio and television programs. 

The exhibits department, under the direction of James Mahoney, 
in addition to maintaining close and continuous contact with the 
architects of the new facility, made considerable progress in temporarily 
refurbishing certain of the older NAM exhibit areas. Recognizing 
that NAM has an obligation to maintain acceptable exhibits for 
public display during the interval before any new building is available, 
several areas in the Arts and Industries Building (opened up by the 
removal of exhibits to the Museum of History and Technology) are 
being redeveloped for NAM's temporary use. These include the 
southeast hall for display of aircraft and engines primarily for pri- 
vate flying use, and the former power machinery hall for aerospace 
art works, including paintings, drawings, and prints from our own col- 
lections and on loan from NASA. As mentioned earlier, the west 
hall has been in active use for temporary NASA displays of current 
interest. 

Specimen preservation and restoration requirements for the preser- 
vation and restoration division at Silver Hill were the subject of con- 
siderable study and review in early 1965. The relationship between 



318 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

the curatorial staff and the division was clarified and codified. Under 
Walter Male's direction, in spite of severe personnel limitations, work 
progressed on the restoration of such major items as the NC-4 and 
the Loeing Amphibian, previously scheduled. It is expected that the 
studies now under way by consultants will provide a more stable base 
for future programing of the work of the division. Meanwhile, a 
complete inventorying and cataloging of all NAM specimens at Silver 
Hill was accelerated during the midsummer of 1965. 

In the late spring of 1965 the first floor of the facility at 24th Street, 
formerly occupied by the Museum of History and Technology was 
turned over to the NAM exhibits department. The space was cleaned 
and repainted and will be developed into an exhibits facility for the 
Air Museum. The entire NAM collection of aircraft models was 
moved into 24th Street to permit long-needed cataloging and evaluation 
and also to make available more room at Silver Hill for preservation 
and restoration work. 

Under funds appropriated by the Congress, the architectural and 
engineering work on the new facility made excellent progress in the 
past year. Close and frequent contact was maintained with the archi- 
tects, Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum in St. Louis and their associates, 
Mills, Petticord, & Mills in Washington. Gyo Obata was in active 
personal charge of the project during the entire year. In the spring 
he moved a part of his St. Louis design staff to Washington to facilitate 
close cooperation with NAM and GSA. By the end of the year prac- 
tically all major design problems were resolved, and the architect 
reported that the complete construction drawings will be available by 
the end of August 1965. Although Congress has not yet given final 
approval of the project, planning work is going forward as rapidly as 
time and personnel permit. The target date for completion of the new 
Air and Space Museum is now estimated sometime during fiscal 1970, 
and all budgeting is being drawn on that basis. 

Among the important staff-generated publications which appeared 
during the year were the National Aeronautical Collections, 10th edition, by 
Paul E. Garber, and the first two publications in the new Smithsonian 
Annals of Flight series, The First Nonstop Coast-to-Coast Flight and the 
Historic T-2 Airplane, by Louis S. Casey and The First Airplane Diesel 
Engine: Packard Model DR-980 of 1928, by Robert B. Meyer. Several 
other papers by staff personnel are in preparation. Also, the production 
of a definitive biography of Samuel Pierpont Langley was started in 
collaboration with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at 
Cambridge. 




President Johnson seen viewing a model of the proposed new Air and Space 
Museum. At left are S. Paul Johnston, Director of the Museum, and 
Secretary Ripley. 








SkiSt'll 






~. \m v . 



A sketch of the interior of the proposed new Air and Space Museum. 




■■mmiHIIIIIIIIIIIIHI"""""" 







•„*W 


rate 


jffiSJk^L*. 


1^ 



A model of the Smithsonian's proposed new Air and Space Museum showing 
the main entrance facing the Mall. The Wright Brothers' plane can be 
seen in the center background. 



NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM 319 

Accessions to the Museum, both in hardware and in research material, 
are listed below. Special mention, however, should be made of certain 
major items received in the past 12 months: 

Agena B Flight Test Vehicle, USAF 

Vertol VZ-2 Helicopter, AMG/USA 

McDonnell XHV-1 Gonvertiplane, USA 

Prototype Ion Thruster, Electro Optical Systems, Inc. 

Bell Model 30 Helicopter, Franklin Institute 

Laboratory Glassware — Ion Experiment, Mrs. Robert H. Goddard 

Besler Aero Steam Engine, Rear Admiral John K. Leydon 

SPIRE Inertial Guidance System, M.I.T. 

Prototype TIROS Satellite, NASA 



ACCESSIONS 

Additions to the National Aeronautical and Space Collections, re- 
ceived and recorded during the fiscal year 1965, totaled 324 specimens 
in 67 separate accessions, as listed below. Those from Government 
departments are entered as transfers unless otherwise indicated; others 
were received as gifts or loans. 

Air Forge, Department of the: Flight test vehicle (Agena B) (NAM 

1546). 
Air Forge, Department of the (Monteith, Maj. Gen. D. O., 

Amarillo Air Force Base, Tex.): General Electric I-A Turbojet 

Engine (1942), first American-made jet engine (NAM 1503). 
Air Forge, Department of the, Systems Command, Los Angeles, 

Calif.: Unmarked ball 16-inch diameter made of BSTM-B265/ 

58T. Outer shell oxidized. This specimen reentered atmosphere 

over Australia and is part of the Agena (NAM 1535). 
Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C. : Cutaway 

of ejection seat and accessory components from an F-86A-5 aircraft 

(NAM 1497). 
Army, Department of the, Army Materiel Command, Fort Eustis, 

Va.: Vertol VZ-2, S/N 56-6943, tilt-wing VTOL aircraft (NAM 

1536). 
Army, Department of the, Director of Procurement, Washington, 

D.C: McDonnell XHV-1 convertiplane combining feature of 

fixed-wing and rotary-wing (NAM 1537). 
Arnold, Maj. David L., Arlington, Va.: AAF summer uniform, 

worn during time immediately preceding death of Gen. H. H. 

Arnold (NAM 1549). 



320 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Basford, G. M., Co., New York, N. Y.: Cutaway model of Hensoldt 
binoculars, similar to those used by John Glenn on his space 
flight (NAM 1494). 

Brichagek, J. F., Euclid, Ohio: Model of 1914 Burgess-Dunne 
hydroplane -swept wing biplane, 1: 16 size (NAM 1540). 

Cochran, Jacqueline, New York, N Y.: One medal and two 
awards given to the donor for outstanding achievements in aviation 
(NAM 1490). 

Dickson, Sidney H., Easton, Md.: World War I, fleece-lined leather 
flying boots, purported to have been used by Col. William Thaw 
(NAM 1493). 

Doolittle, Gen. James H., Redondo Beach, Calif. : Bronze Antarctica 
Service Medal presented to donor by U.S. Navy (NAM 1517). 

Electro Optical Systems, Inc., Pasadena, Calif.: Ion Thruster, 
marked with label reading "in part developed by Dr. A. T. For- 
rester, Electro Optical Systems, Inc." This specimen is operational 
duplicate of Thruster used in suborbital shot (NAM 1545). 

Exchange Club, Meridian, Miss.: Curtiss P-40E fighter WW II 
(NAM 1506). 

Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, Pa.: Bell model 30 helicopter 
(NAM 1504). 

General Dynamics, Fort Worth, Tex. Desk model approximately 
1:80 size of the Convair F 111 A. Model has variable swept 
wing (NAM 1541). 

General Services Administration, Washington D.C. : LR-79 Rocket 
Engine (NAM 1534). 

Georgetown Cabinet & Finishing Co., Inc., Washington, D.C: 
Model of Vlaicu monoplane (1910) (NAM 1498). 

General Motors Corp., AC Electronics Division, Milwaukee, 
Wis.: An incomplete inertial guidance system for a Thor rocket 
booster, plus nose cone and first station of Thor (NAM 1526). 

Goddard, Mrs. Robert H., Worcester, Mass.: Equipment used 
to test the flash visibility range of several mixtures of metal powders 
(NAM 1552). Suitcase used by Dr. Robert H. Goddard (NAM 
1551). Glassware used by/or under the supervision of Dr. Goddard 
in experimental investigations of the behavior of ions (NAM 1550). 

Goodrich, B. F. Co., Washington, D.C: Polaris rocket chamber 
(sectionalized) showing filament winding technique (NAM 1553). 

Hamilton, R. B., Jr., Baltimore, Md. : Wright airplane stabilizer parts, 
1913; exact-scale reproductions of the impeller and pendulum 
units (Contract) (NAM 1527). 



NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM 321 

Hammersley, Col. Howard, Jr., Roanoke, Va.: AAF summer 

flight suit used in Mediterranean theater of operations during 

World War II (NAM 1548). 
Hartwigk, Herbert D., Cayucos, Calif.: Model of 1914 Burgess 

flying boat, 1:16 size; model of Curtiss N, circa 1913-14, Trainer; 

1:16 size; model of the Wright B-l, circa 1912, U.S. Navy Air- 
craft, 1 :16 size (NAM 1519). 
Institute of Aeronautical Science, New York, N. Y.: A periodic 

compass, World War I, German. Designed for use in aircraft 

(NAM 1495). 
Leydon, Rear Adm. John K., Washington, D.C.: Besler aeronautical 

steam engine of 1956 (120 h.p.) designed to power Fairchild M 224, 

four-engine airplane (NAM 1514). 
Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, Calif.: Wing section to illus- 
trate the thermal deicing system of aircraft wings (NAM 1539). 
Lockheed-Georgia Co., Marietta, Ga.: Lockheed Jetstar Corp. 

transport, 1:16 size, circa 1964 (NAM 1522). 
Lowe A. W., St. Louis, Mo.: Early type of static-line parachute 

(NAM 1509). 
Macdowell, Karl P., Fairfax, Va.: 1928 airline ticket for trip, 

London to Paris, issued to donor (NAM 1508). 
Massachusettes Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.: 

SPIRE inertial guidance system used on the first successful inertially 

guided transcontinental flight, Feb. 8, 1953 (NAM 1511). 
Matt, Paul R., Temple City, Calif., Model of Curtiss HA fighter, 

circa 1919; first Navy fighter type (NAM 1516). 
Mcdonnell Aircraft Corp., St. Louis, Mo.: One-third scale model 

of Gemini spacecraft. This model represents the spacecraft which 

will be used in the U.S. Manned-Space Program (NAM 1513). 
Mikesh, Mat. Robert C, San Francisco, Calif.: Model of Douglas 

DST bearing registration and livery of first of DC-3 production 

series (NAM 1523). 
Mohawk Airlines, Utica, N. Y.: Nine scale models representing 

aircraft used by Mohawk Airlines (NAM 1554). 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, 

D.C.: Prototype satellite Tiros, one of original five such craft 
built. Basic configuration that of Tiros II (NAM 1544). 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Flight Research 

Center, Edwards, Calif. : Model North American X-l 5-3, model 

1 : 16 size S/N 66672 (NAM 1518). 
Navy, Department of the (Marine Corps School, U.S.), Quantico, 

Va.: Japanese copy of a Type 92, 7.7 mm. Lewis machinegun for 
aircraft (NAM 1525). 

780-427—66 33 



322 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Navy, Department of the, Lakehurst, N. J.: Wooden propeller 
(NAM 1524). 

Navy, Department of the, Mechanigsburg, Pa.: A collection of 
Japanese and German World War II aircraft instruments (NAM 
1502). 

Navy, Department of the, Bureau of Naval Weapons, Washing- 
ton, D.G.: Michell-crankless aeronautical engine, 12 cylinder, 
liquid-cooled barrel, approximately 200 h.p. at 2,000 r.p.m. (NAM 
1538). 

Neumann, C, Tulsa, Okla.: Collection of early airborne radio and 
radar equipment plus descriptive manuals (NAM 1492). 

Northwest Airlines, Minneapolis, Minn.: Scale model of DC-8 
transport (NAM 1529). 

Opsahl, Alvin B., Minneapolis, Minn. : Wright J 4-B engine built 
April 2, 1926 by Wright Aeronautical Corp. (NAM 1528). 

Patent Office, U.S., Washington, D.C.: Patent model in support of 
patent claim for R. J. Spaulding Flying Machine, Mar. 5, 1889, 
patent no. 398984 (NAM 1521). 

Patterson, Mr. & Mrs. Jefferson, Washington, D.C.: Military 
uniform belonging to 1st Lt. Frank Stuart Patterson (1918) in whose 
honor Patterson Field (later Wright- Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio) 
was named (NAM 1499). 

Perkin-Elmer Corporation, Norwalk, Conn.: 1:16 scale model of 
the Stratoscope II telescope used in high altitude experimental 
telescopic photography (NAM 1500). 

Piasecki, Frank, Philadelphia, Pa.: Piasecki PV2, 3-blade rotor 
helicopter (NAM 1505). 

Robertson, Clifford, St. Petersburg, Fla.: Portion of fabric from 
the French airplane "Question Mark," which made first Paris to 
New York flight, autographed by pilots Coste and Bellonte (NAM 
1547). 

Ryan, Prof. James J., St. Paul, Minn.: Ryan Flight Recorder Exhibit 
unit which contains the components of the Recorder, showing its 
development and uses (NAM 1507). 

Scale Craft Models, Massillon, Ohio: Model 1:16 size of Fabre 
Hydro "Avion" Canard 1910 first hydroaircraft; Curtiss "Tan- 
ager" — Winner of Guggenheim Safe Flight Contest (1929) 1:16 
size; and model of Wright Model "F," 1:16 size (NAM 1543). 

Schoenberg, Mr., Long Island, N.Y.: 1:4 size model of a New 
Standard D-25A "Pride of Patterson" and a Curtiss-Reed propel- 
ler, circa 1925 (NAM 1489). 



NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM 323 

Smith, J. C, Massillon, Ohio: Lockheed XC-35 aircraft, 1:16 size 
model of first transport airplane with pressurized cabin (NAM 
1520). 

Smithsonian Institution, Unknown: Model 1 :49 size of North Ameri- 
can F-100G Super Sabre aircraft (NAM 1515). 

Smithsonian Institution, Found in NAM Collection: Small brass 
fitting, check valve; attributed to Robert Goddard (NAM 1530). 
Nose cone of small rocket with ejection mechanism attributed to 
Robert Goddard (NAM 1531). Tail section of small rocket attrib- 
uted to Robert Goddard (NAM 1532). Five pairs of World War 
I radio headsets (NAM 1496). Four pairs of World War I, U.S. 
Army radio earphones |(NAM .1501). Life-size painting of Maj. 
Gen. George O. Squier (NAM 1491). 

Sperry Gyroscope Co., Division of Sperry-Rand Corp., Great 
Neck, N.Y. : A collection of 60 early aircraft instruments, most of 
which were developed and manufactured by the Sperry Gyroscope 
Co. (NAM 1488). 

Vaeth, J. Gordon, Washington, D.C. : Copy of first Tiros Nephanaly- 
sis (cloud map) signed by James B. Jones and J. H. Conover (NAM 
1533). 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Va.: J44-R-12 Fair- 
child cutaway turbojet engine (1952-59) (NAM 1512). 

Waterman, Waldo, San Diego, Calif.: Full-size reproduction of the 
1909 Popular Mechanics glider (NAM 1542). 

Willis, J. L., Sydney, Australia: Two fine examples of native-made 
Australian boomerangs (NAM 1510). 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The cooperation of the following persons and organizations in 
providing reference materials for the Museum's Historical Flight 
Research Center is sincerely appreciated and acknowledged: 

Air Force, U.S., Wright-Patterson Bagley, J. A., Farnborough, Hants, 

AFB, Ohio. England. 

Air Force, U.S. Kelly AFB, Texas. Bell Aerosystems Company, Buffalo, 
All-Woman Transcontinental Air N.Y. 

Race, Inc., Teterboro, N.J. Boeing Co., Seatde, Wash. 

American Institute of Aeronautics and Bradford, R. W., Don Mills, Ontario, 

Astronautics, New York, N.Y. Canada. 

Aviation Week and Space Tech- Bronte, Emory B., Honolulu, Hawaii. 

nology, New York, N.Y. Brunner, Calyton J., Troy, Ohio. 



324 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Campbell, Mark (estate of) through 

Kenn C. Rust) Glendale, Calif. 
Cathcart, Donald G., Hermosa Beach, 

Calif. 
Chamberlain, Ralph G., Lincoln 

Park, Mich. 
Coast Guard, U.S., Washington, D.C. 
Coombs, Charles I., Los Angeles, 

Calif. 
Experimental Aircraft Association, 

Hales Corners, Wis. 
Fahey, James C, Falls Church, Va. 
Federal Aviation Agency, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
General Dynamics/Fort Worth, Fort 

Worth, Tex. 
Gratz, Charles Murray, Greenwich, 

Conn. 
Hart, John T. (through William 

MacCracken), St. Louis, Mo. 
Herr, Otto, Hanover, Germany. 
Hodous, Mrs. Charles J., Jr., Fairview 

Park, Ohio. 
Holt, Ken, Washington, D.C. 
Hooper, Harold, Vienna, Va. 
Hunsaker, Dr. J. C, Cambridge, 

Mass. 
Hutchinson, Capt. J. D., Denver, 

Colo. 
Jacobs, Col. Stanley F., USAF Ret., 

Arlington, Va. 
Kaman Aircraft Corp., Bloomfield, 

Conn. 
Kines, Ronald L., Hyattsville, Md. 
Knell, K. A., Cambridge, England. 
Koster, William C, Evanston, 111. 
Kulp, Mrs. Jeanne, Reisterstown, 

Md. 
Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Burbank, 

Calif. 
Lea, John, Washington, D.C. 



Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Lazarus, William C. (thru A. B. 
McMullen), Washington, D.C. 

Marshall, Mrs. Shirley, Tucson, Ariz. 

Matt, Paul R., Temple City, Calif. 

Merkle, Gustave John, Greenbelt, 
Md. 

Messer, Glenn E., Birmingham, Ala. 

Meyer, Jerome B., Ormond Beach, 
Fla. 

Murray, J. J., West Hollywood, 
Calif. 

National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration, Goddard Space 
Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. 

National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration Washington, D.C. 

Navy, U.S., Washington, D.C. 

Navy, U.S., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ninety Nines, Inc., El Paso, Tex. 

North American Aviation, Inc., 
Washington, D.C. 

Nye, Willis L., Hay ward, Calif. 

New York Port Authority, New York, 
N.Y. 

Rolls-Royce, Ltd., Derby, England. 

Shell Companies Foundation, Inc., 
New York, N.Y. 

Sivel, Dr. W., San Francisco, Calif. 

Smith, Mrs. Joan Merriman, Long 
Beach, Calif. 

Stearns, Raymond L., Raleigh, N.C. 

Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, Inc., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Townson, George, Meadowbrook, Pa. 

Turner, Thomas, Washington, D.C. 

Wigton, Don C, Detroit, Mich. 

Williams, Warren W., Douglasville, 
Pa. 

United Air Lines, Chicago, 111. 



Philip S. Hopkins, director of the National Air Museum since 1958, 
whose efforts during the past few years laid the groundwork for the 
magnificent new NASM facility-to-be, retired as of August 1, 1964. 
Paul E. Garber served as acting director for the month of August 
and the present incumbent took office on September 1, 1964. 



John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts 







John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 

Roger L. Stevens 
Chairman, Board of Trustees 

The past 12 months have seen greater strides toward the creation of 
the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts than any previous 
period since inception of the original idea. Funds have been raised to 
match the full Federal appropriation. The ground-breaking has taken 
place. The Metropolitan Opera National Company, jointly spon- 
sored and underwritten by the Center and the Metropolitan Opera 
Association, is a reality. Final architectural plans are being prepared, 
and the letting of contracts will begin in September. A year from now 
the superstructure of the Center should be rising on the banks of the 
Potomac. It is a year in which the Center has graduated from the 
realm of hopes, plans, and dreams to actuality, detail, and promise. 

ORGANIZATION 

The National Cultural Center was established by an Act of Congress 
in September 1958. This Act which terminated in 5 years was ex- 
tended for 3 more years until September 1966, and specified that the 
money for the Center's construction must be raised by voluntary 
contributions. Congress authorized a nationwide fund-raising 
campaign for this purpose. 

Following the death of President Kennedy there was a spontaneous 
movement throughout the country to make the Cultural Center, in 
which he had taken such a close personal interest, his sole official 
memorial in the Nation's capital. President Johnson sent an Admin- 
istration request to Congress in December 1963; the measure was 
passed with full bipartisan support and signed into law by the President 
on January 23, 1964 (Public Law 88-260). 

Under the bylaws of this Act, and pursuant thereto, the Board of 
Trustees have held three meetings during the past 12 months, and the 
members of the Executive Committee met five times during the same 
period. 



327 



328 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS 



Board of Trustees 

At the present time the membership of the Board of Trustees of the 
John F. Kennedy Center is as follows: 



Richard Adler* 
Howard F. Ahmanson 
Floyd D. Akers 
Robert O. Anderson + * 
Ralph E. Becker + 
K. LeMoyne Billings + 
Mrs. Thomas W. Braden* 
Ernest R. Breech 
Edgar M. Bronfman 
Mrs. George R. Brown* 
Ralph J. Bunche 
Anthony J. Celebrezze 
Joseph S. Clark 
Abe Fortas* 
J. William Fulbright 
Mrs. George A. Garrett 
Leonard H. Goldenson* 
George B. Hartzog, Jr. + 
Mrs. John F. Kennedy -f- 
Robert F. Kennedy +* 
Francis Keppel 
Mrs. Albert D. Lasker + 
Erich Leinsdorf+* 



Sol M. Linowilz+* 
Harry C. McPherson, Jr.+* 
George Meany 
L. Quincy Mumford 
Edwin W. Pauley* 
Arthur Penn* 
Mrs. Charlotte T. Reid 
Richard S. Reynolds, Jr. 
Frank H. Ricketson, Jr. 
S. Dillon Ripley, 11 + 
Richard Rodgers* 
Leverett Saltonstall 
Arthur Schlesinger, Jr.* 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse-f- 
Mrs. Jean Kennedy Smith* 
Roger L. Stevens + 
Frank Thompson, Jr. 
Walter N. Tobriner + 
William Walton + 
William H. Waters, Jr. 
Edwin L. Weisl, Sr.* 
Robert W. Woodruff* 
James C. Wright, Jr. 



Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, Mrs. John F. Kennedy 
and Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower continue to 
serve as honorary cochairmen of the Center 

The elected officers of the Center are as follows: 



Roger L. Stevens, chairman 
Robert O. Anderson, vice chairman 
Sol M. Linowitz, vice chairman 
Ralph E. Becker, general counsel 
Daniel W. Bell, treasurer 
K. LeMoyne Billings, secretary 



Philip J. Mullin, assistant secretary 

and administrative officer 
Herbert D. Lawson, assistant treasurer 
Kenneth Birgfeld, assistant treasurer 
Paul Seltzer, assistant treasurer 
L. Corrin Strong, chairman emeritus 



*Denotes a new member appointed by the President since June 30, 1964 
+ Denotes a member of the Executive Committee 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 329 

JFK Center/GSA Liaison Committee 

The General Services Administration is serving as the Center's 
agent for design and construction. The JFK Center/GSA Liaison 
Committee was formed to work on final plans and specifications 
and all future phases of building the Center. It held 18 meetings 
throughout the fiscal year. These meetings bring together represent- 
atives of the Center, General Services Administration, and the archi- 
tect and make determinations with respect to planning, contracting, 
and construction. The committee also serves as a coordinating 
group among the various agencies of the Government having inci- 
dental interest or jurisdiction in the planning and construction of 
the project. This includes the government of the District of Colum- 
bia, the National Park Service, and the various security and police 
jurisdictions. 

In addition to Mr. Stevens, chairman ex officio, trustees and offi- 
cers of the Center serving on the committee are : 

Ralph E. Becker, general counsel 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

S. Dillon Ripley 

George B. Hartzog, Jr. 

Philip J. Mullin, administrative officer 

Program Committee 

Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., was appointed chairman of the Center's 
Program Committee. Serving with him will be Mrs. Thomas W. 
Braden, Harold Clurman, Richard N. Goodwin, August Heckscher, 
Mrs. John F. Kennedy, Senator Robert F. Kennedy, Goddard 
Lieberson, Oliver Smith, and George Stevens, Jr. The Program 
Committee will make recommendations for the maximum effective 
use of the Center's facilities to comply with the law and the intent 
of the Congress and will also suggest candidates for the position of 
program director as well as guidelines respecting the duties of this 
office. The Board of Trustees in turn will act on these recommen- 
dations and define the policy with respect to the Center's operations. 

Memorial Committee 

The John F. Kennedy Center Memorial Committee, responsible 
for selecting a suitable and appropriate memorial to President Kennedy 
for inclusion within the Center complex, has met and has made a 
preliminary report on its recommendations to the trustees. 



330 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Fine Arts Accessions Committee 

The Fine Arts Accessions Committee appointed a subcommittee 
to assist it in preliminary consideration and screening of all works 
of art offered to the Center. The subcommittee is made up of leading 
authorities in the fine arts residing in the Washington area. Serving 
on the subcommittee are: David W. Scott, National Collection of 
Fine Arts, as chairman; J. Carter Brown, National Gallery of Art; 
Mrs. Marjorie Phillips, The Phillips Gallery; Edward Durell Stone; 
Hermann W. Williams, Jr., Corcoran Gallery of Art; and Karel Yasko, 
General Services Administration. The list of gifts tendered and offi- 
cially accepted thus far (not including those from foreign governments) 
comprise the following items: 

Portrait of President Kennedy by Carlos Andreson. Gift of the artist. 

Stein way grand piano. Gift of Mrs. Edward Sloane. 

Mural painting by Mark Rothko. Gift of Mrs. Albert Lasker. 

Japanese BYOBU folding two-panel screen. Gift of a group of 
Japanese ladies. 

Recording of Enesco's 1st and 2d Rumanian rhapsodies conducted 
by the composer. Gift of Donald H. Gabor. 

PROGRESS IN FUND RAISING 

As of June 30, 1965, pledges and contributions to the John F. Ken- 
nedy Center for the Performing Arts exceeded $15.5 million — the 
amount necessary to qualify for the full matching Federal grant. 
Included in that sum was a gift of S500,000 from the Joseph P. Kennedy, 
Jr., Foundation and a $5-million grant from the Ford Foundation 
which had been contingent on two-to-one matching terms as originally 
stipulated in April 1964. 

Land Gift 

The two daughters and the son of the late Mr. and Mrs. Christian 
Heurich, Sr., deeded to the Center, as a gift, a plot of land appraised 
at $150,000. It is situated within the boundaries of the Center's 
site. This gift, which was made in memory of Mr. and Mrs. Heurich, 
Sr., completed the acquisition of their property without the necessity 
for any condemnation action by the National Capital Planning 
Commission. 



kennedy center for the performing arts 331 

Foreign Gifts 

In addition to the previously reported gifts of marble from the 
Italian Government and a Waterford chandelier from Ireland, four 
other foreign governments have made contributions to the Center 
in the past year. The Danish Government agreed to supply the 
furniture valued at $155,000 for the Grand Foyer. The West German 
Government will donate sculptured bronze panels for the entrance of 
the Center with a minimum value of $250,000. A magnificent hand- 
woven red silk curtain, accented with gold, will hang from the proscen- 
ium of the Opera House as a joint gift from the Government of 
Japan and the America-Japan Society of Tokyo. Because of the time 
and skills required, the donors expect the cost to exceed $140,000. 
Twelve crystal chandeliers, designed by the noted Norwegian glass 
designer Jonas Hidle, will enhance the Concert Hall as Norway's 
contribution to the Center. The architect estimates that to procure 
or duplicate this gift which is being fabricated by the Christiania 
Glasmagasin, near Oslo, would cost in excess of $15,000 each. 

Development Committee 

With Robert O. Anderson as chairman, the Development Com- 
mittee will continue to prevail upon the trustees to assist the Center 
through their own individual gifts and by additional solicitation of 
foundations and individuals for major contributions. In addition, 
approaches to and from foreign governments will be further pursued. 

The Washington Area Special Gifts Committee and its subcommit- 
tees, having completed their work, ceased operation as a fund-raising 
adjunct of the Center. 

Washington Committee Theater Seat Priority Plan 

A maximum of 100 seats, at $3,000 each, will be allocated in the 
theater for sale by the Washington Committee under the Theater 
Seat Priority Plan. Each endowment will include priority privileges 
for opening-night performances for a period of 25 years. To become 
effective a minimum of 80 seats had to be sold. This number has 
already been subscribed. 

Seat Endowment Plan 

To date, 30 boxes and 270 seats have been officially designated by 
donors in the Center. A considerable amount of funds remains in 
the reserve account awaiting final disposition. 



332 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Sousa Memorial 

Orginally conceived in the form of a band shell to be erected on 
the roof terrace, this endowment, owing to changes in the utilization 
of the roof area, will provide the stage and acoustical sound reflectors 
in the Concert Hall. An appropriate plaque will designate this as 
a gift in the name of John Philip Sousa from John Philip Sousa Memo- 
rial, Inc. This group is made up largely of high school and college 
band masters whose bands are presenting concerts and other musical 
events: the proceeds from these events are being contributed toward 
the fulfillment of their $100,000 pledge. Nearly half of the pledged 
amount has been received by the Center. Bands and orchestras 
participating will be appropriately recognized by inscription on the 
memorial plaque. 

Gifts of Materials 

Interest has been shown by several domestic industries in supplying 
American-produced materials as gifts to the Center. The Reynolds 
Metals Co. has donated aluminum ingots valued at $75,000 which 
will be fabricated to meet the specifications of the architect. The 
Martin Marietta Corp. has given the Center 13,000 barrels of cement, 
which reduces the amount required for purchase in the building con- 
tract by more than $50,000. It is possible that other gifts of this type 
will be received before the invitations to bid go out to the general 
contractors. 

Future Needs 

With the monies obtained from public contributions, the Federal 
grant, and the Treasury bonds, there are, according to the General 
Services Administration, sufficient funds on hand to proceed with the 
construction of the Center. However, it should be recalled that in 
the John F. Kennedy Center Act (Public Law 88-260), Congress 
stated that the Center shall, among other activities, "develop programs 
for children and youth and elderly (and for other age groups as well) 
in such arts designed specifically for their participation, education 
and recreation." No previous provision has been made for the finan- 
cial support of such activities. In view of this the trustees have dis- 
cussed the need and plans for a program development fund to insure 
that the mandate of Congress will be appropriately and fully realized. 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 333 

ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENTS 

Studio Film Theater 

Final drawings are about complete for the 500-seat Studio Film 
Theater to be located on the roof of the Center above the 1,100-seat 
main theater. Proscenium-type screen facilities will provide for the 
projection of 16 mm., 35 mm., and 70 mm. motion pictures while the 
theater also will be available for dramatic offerings, concerts, dance 
recitals, and lectures. When desirable or appropriate, this auditorium 
can also be converted into a theater-in-the -round. 

Further Refinements 

Although the shape of the Opera House has been altered, it still 
maintains the circular effect originally envisioned. 

The Concert Hall now is in a rectangular form in the interest of 
better acoustics. Provision also has been made for the installation of 
an Aeolian-Skinner concert organ which was given to the Center by 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse. It has been designed for use either as a solo 
instrument or as part of an orchestra. 

In the theater more balcony seats have been added and some orches- 
tra seats removed to provide a more intimate atmosphere. 

There also will be a 200-seat tourist center and cinema on the ground 
level for the showing of documentary films and for orientation sessions 
in conjunction with tours of the Center. 

Land Developments 

Steps have been initiated for the condemnation of the Watergate 
Inn and surrounding area. 

On the property adjacent to the site of the Center there is under 
construction a project known as the Watergate Towne Development. 
Four buildings are contemplated in this undertaking and it is known 
that Building No. 1, which is designated as stage 4 of the development, 
will rise to a height 41 feet above the main roof of the Center. As long 
ago as last November 25, 1964, the Center's general counsel went on 
record before the Board of Zoning Appeals to express the trustees' 
opposition to the proposed height of this building. Thus far the Board 
has not handed down a ruling on this matter. The developer of the 



334 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Watergate project, however, indicated no intention of altering his 
blueprints. It was, therefore, resolved by the trustees that the officers 
and general counsel of the Center take all legal measures to oppose 
vigorously the construction of Building No. 1 to any height not sub- 
stantially below the cornice line of the Kennedy Center. 

Development of the Site 

On May 8, 1964, the National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) 
which is the central planning agency for the Federal and District of 
Columbia Governments, reaffirmed its approval of the site. On July 
23, 1964, the National Capital Planning Commission approved the 
site plan in lieu of zoning. These latter actions were taken after ex- 
tensive study by a task force composed of representatives of the NCPC, 
the General Services Administration, the National Park Service, the 
District of Columbia Department of Highways and Traffic, and the 
Center's architect. 



Consultants 

To assure that the Center will have the benefit of the finest technical 
knowledge and experience in the many diverse fields connected with 
the performing arts, the architect and General Services Administration 
have made extensive use of consultants. Specialists in lighting, seating, 
acoustics, audiovisual equipment, stage design and equipment, and 
theater planning have been retained. Working together they will af- 
ford the Center the finest technical competence available in all phases 
of opera, musical comedy, drama, ballet, symphony orchestra, and 
motion picture presentations. 

Included in the list are two of the Nation's leading acoustical ex- 
perts — they have been consulting, advising, and working closely with 
the architect, General Services Administration, and the Center to 
insure that the acoustical characteristics of the Kennedy Center will 
be the finest and most nearly perfect of any of the performing-arts 
halls in the world. 

Restaurant Facilities 

A 10-year agreement was entered into with the Restaurant 
Management Division of Automatic Canteen Company of America to 
cover the operation of all restaurant facilities in the Center. Auto- 
matic Canteen has recently designed the Metropolitan Opera's new 
facilities at Lincoln Center. They will be responsible for catering and 




Architect's model of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, 
showing the facade facing the Potomac River. 




Architect's conception of the entrance plaza of the John F. Kennedy Center for 
the Performing Arts in the Nation's Capital. 




Model of the grand foyer for the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 335 

servicing the main restaurant which will seat approximately 275 per- 
sons, a dual-purpose cafeteria/buffet seating approximately 245, and 
a coffee shop with a capacity of about 100 persons. In addition, there 
will be other refreshment areas in the Grand Foyer. Income accruing 
to the Center from this contract is expected to be sizable. 

Construction Schedule 

The architect reported that his final plans would be ready by Sep- 
tember 30. It will then take approximately 8 weeks for General 
Services Administration to review the plans and prepare the necessary 
documents for bidding. Thus, it would be about December 15, 1965, 
before the bids will have been received and evaluated. Prior to that 
time demolition of all remaining buildings on the site will have been 
completed and the necessary relocation of Rock Creek Parkway should 
be finished. 

SPECIAL EVENTS 

Ground-Breaking Ceremony 

At noon on December 2, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson broke 
ground for the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 
before an audience of more than 1,000 persons, including members 
of the Kennedy family, the Congress, the Diplomatic Corps, the Supreme 
Court, the Cabinet, the Center's trustees, and distinguished perform- 
ing artists. The program for the ceremony included the following: 

Invocation by the Most Reverend Philip Hannan, Auxiliary Bishop 
of Washington. 

Introduction by the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Sir John 
Gielgud who delivered a passage from Shakespeare's Henry V. 

A hymn by the choral group of the U.S. Navy Band. 

The reading by Jason Robards, Jr., of quotations from the speeches by 
President Kennedy concerning the arts. 

Remarks by Senator-elect Robert F. Kennedy. 

Address by the President of the United States. 

Swearing in of the Center's new trustees by Justice White of the 
Supreme Court. 



336 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Following the ceremony a luncheon was held in the diplomatic 
reception rooms of the State Department for some 400 distinguished 
guests. Speakers at the luncheon were Vice President-elect Humphrey, 
Edward Durell Stone, and Roger L. Stevens. 

John F. Kennedy Center-Metropolitan Opera 
National Company 

As an indication of his great and personal interest in the project, 
President Kennedy himself announced, at the White House on October 
11, 1963, the formation of the Metropolitan Opera National Company 
under the joint auspices of the Metropolitan Opera Association and the 
Center. At that time he fully endorsed the purpose of the Company 
to "fill a long-felt need in our musical life . . . (and to) . . . give 
opportunity to the young talent with which this country abounds." 

It was of increasing concern to the trustees of the Center that during 
the period of planning and construction it was vitally necessary to 
emphasize and give active affirmation to the national character of the 
Center. The Metropolitan Opera Association's concept of a truly na- 
tional opera company that would bring this art form to cities and 
citizens throughout this land seemed to present an ideal and timely 
project for furtherance of the trustees' efforts in this direction. 

Not only does the Company fulfill a specific provision of our Congres- 
sional mandate— to present classical and contemporary opera — 'but it 
also provides simultaneously a means of training and participation for 
talented young Americans. It seems particularly fitting that this first 
presentation under the cosponsorship of the Center should be one that 
was so close to the late President to whom the Center is a memorial. 

In the middle of July the Company is scheduled to assemble on the 
campus of Butler University in Indianapolis, Ind., for an intensive 
8-week rehearsal period prior to launching their first nationwide tour 
on September 20 at Clowes Memorial Hall in Indianapolis. Their 
season will extend through May 1966 and include some 70 North 
American cities. 

(On the evening of May 3, 1965, the Metropolitan Opera National 
Company appeared in the Department of State Auditorium as part of 
a series of Cabinet presentations.) 



kennedy center for the performing arts 337 

New York World's Fair 

One of the new exhibits in the Federal Pavilion at the 1965 New 
York World's Fair is a handsome display of the John F. Kennedy Center 
for the Performing Arts in which a model of the Center is the highlight. 
Surrounding it are color enlargements of interior and exterior photo- 
graphs of the model together with quotations from President Kennedy's 
speeches concerning the importance of the arts in our society as well 
as pertinent statements of President Johnson. This exhibit is located 
at the end of the panoramic ride in the Federal Pavilion which last 
year had 5% million visitors. 

THE FUTURE 

Never before in the history of the Nation's capital have the prospects 
for a truly national center for the performing arts looked as bright as 
they do today. From incoming mail, press comments, and general 
interest expressed in numerous ways, the country at large is aware of, 
in support of, and eager for the reality of the Kennedy Center. We 
have successfully hurdled the two initial stages: the preparation of firm 
and detailed groundwork and planning; and, the conclusion of the 
campaign to secure the necessary funds for construction. Ahead of us 
lies the construction itself and then utilization of the Center's facilities 
in compliance with the mandate of Congress. In the ensuing 12 
months major strides should be made in the building of the Center and 
progress will continue in planning for its projected operations. 

Finally, it cannot be stressed too greatly that the development of the 
Center to the stage herein described would not have been possible 
without the unceasing support and encouragement that has been 
received from the Smithsonian Institution, the General Services Admin- 
istration, the many other Government agencies who have been at all 
times helpful and understanding, the members of Congress whose faith 
and trust in our undertaking have eased many burdens and problems, 
all of the members of President Kennedy's family whose active interest 
has been a constant source of inspiration, and the enthusiasm and 
support of President and Mrs. Johnson. 



789-427—06 34 



338 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

FINANCIAL REPORT, JULY 1, 1964, THROUGH 
JUNE 30, 1965 

July 28, 7965 
To the Board of Trustees of the 
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 
Washington, D.C. 

Gentlemen: 

We have examined the books and records of the JOHN F. KENNEDY 
CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS for the period July 1, 1964, 
through June 30, 1965, and submit our report herewith as follows: 
Exhibit A — Balance Sheet as of June 30, 1965. 
Exhibit B — Statement of Income, Expenses and Fund Balance for the 

Year July 1, 1964 Through June 30, 1965. 
Exhibit B-I — Statement of Expenses for the Year July 1, 1964 Through 
June 30, 1965. 
Our examination was made in accordance with generally accepted auditing 
standards and accordingly included such tests of the accounting records and 
such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. 
In our opinion the accompanying report presents fairly the financial position 
of the JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 
at June 30, 1965 and the results of its operation for the period then ended in 
conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. 
Respectfully submitted, 

(S) John J. Addabo 
Certified Public Accountant 



EXHIBIT A 



BALANCE SHEET, JUNE 30, 1965 
ASSETS 

CURRENT ASSETS 

Cash in banks 
General accounts . $2,146,615.19 
Time deposits 

and savings 

accounts 10,015,320.77 $12,161,935.96 



Notes receivable — due within one 

year 125, 000. 00 

Accounts receivable 9, 219. 18 

Accrued interest receivable 164, 369. 20 

Petty cash fund 400. 00 

Deposit with airline 425. 00 

Stock, bonds, and property re- 
ceived 268,659.00 $12,730,008.34 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 339 

PLEDGES RECEIVABLE 

National General Account $10, 000. 00 

National Seat Reserve Account 600. 00 

President's Business Committee 26, 500. 00 

Washington Area Building Fund — 
General 6, 100. 00 

Washington Area Building Fund — 
Reserve 10, 523. 17 

Washington Area Seat Reserve Ac- 
count 5, 350. 00 

Washington Area Federal Employee 
Drive 1,884.50 

Washington Area Federal Employee 
Drive — Seat Endowment 45. 00 

Washington Area Tangible Property . 35, 000. 00 $96, 002. 67 



REAL ESTATE FIXED ASSETS AND OTHER 
TANGIBLE PROPERTY 

Cost of land— advanced to NCPC . . $146, 000. 00 

Construction costs 926, 784. 20 

Furniture and equipment — book 

value 5, 343. 88 

Land and other property donated. . . 414, 750. 00 

Gifts from foreign nations 1,787,000.00 3,279,878.08 

OTHER ASSETS 

Notes receivable — due later than one 

year $350, 000. 00 

Prepaid expenses — Creative America . 56, 425. 00 406, 425. 00 

Total assets $16, 512, 314. 09 

LIABILITIES AND NET WORTH 

LIABILITIES 

Payroll taxes withheld $1, 082. 34 

NET WORTH 

Pledges receivable $96, 002. 67 

Fund balance— June 30, 1965 16,415,229.08 16,511,231.75 

Total liabilities and net worth $16, 512, 314. 09 



340 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

EXHIBIT B 

STATEMENT OF INCOME, EXPENSES, AND FUND BALANCE 
FOR THE YEAR JULY 1, 1964, THROUGH JUNE 30, 1965 

CONTRIBUTIONS AND PLEDGES PAID IN GEN- 
ERAL ACCOUNTS 

National General Account $6, 255, 553. 36 

President's Business Committee 1, 361, 406. 36 

Washington Area Building Fund 661, 169. 01 

Washington Area Federal Employee 

Drive 1, 888. 63 

Interest Income 314, 054. 93 

National Tangible Property 1, 787, 000. 00 

Special Theatre Club 189, 614. 45 

Total general accounts $10, 570, 686. 74 

RESERVE ACCOUNTS 

National Reserve Account $104, 233. 98 

National Seat Reserve Account 161, 272. 78 

Washington Area Building Fund 603, 113. 94 

Washington Area Seat Reserve Ac- 
count 209, 126. 63 

Washington Area Federal Employee 

Drive — Seat Endowment 3, 449. 63 

School Children's Reserve Fund 1, 207. 46 

Total reserve accounts 1, 082, 404. 42 



Total income $11, 653, 091. 16 

Deduct expenses — exhibit B-l 392, 811. 61 

Excess of receipts over expenses $11, 260, 279. 55 

Fund balance — beginning of year 4, 815, 154. 08 

Expenses prior to July 1, 1964, capitalized as construction 

costs 339, 795. 45 

Fund Balance— June 30, 1965 $16, 415, 229. 08 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 341 

EXHIBIT B-l 

STATEMENT OF EXPENSES FOR THE YEAR JULY 1, 1964, 
THROUGH JUNE 30, 1965 

Salaries $76, 236. 04 

Extra help 3, 818. 77 

Depreciation — furniture and equipment 868. 34 

Equipment rental and repairs 2, 398. 01 

Meetings 4, 453. 23 

Office supplies and postage 3, 491. 54 

D.C. area expenses 6, 624. 17 

Printing and publicity 233. 51 

Promotion 32, 107. 83 

Publications 948. 60 

Telephone and telegraph 6, 863. 44 

Travel 17, 022. 29 

Taxes — payroll and civil service 4, 925. 18 

Unclassified (55. 58) 

Accounting and audit fees 4, 600. 00 

Legal fees 350. 00 

Insurance 1, 768. 93 

Public relations and fund raising fees 68, 637. 50 

President's Business Committee 45, 377. 92 

Metropolitan Opera 150, 000. 00 

Inaugural Ball— N.Y. World's Fair 313. 15 

Israeli Benefit 1, 427. 50 

Total $432, 410. 37 

Less — allocated to construction costs (-39, 598. 76) 

TOTAL EXPENSES $392, 811.61 



National Portrait Gallery 




National Portrait Gallery 

Charles Nagel, Director 

The National Portrait Gallery Commission is composed of the 
following members: Catherine Drinker Bowen, Julian P. Boyd, John 
Nicholas Brown, Lewis Deschler, David E. Finley, Wilmarth Sheldon 
Lewis, Richard H. Shryock, and Frederick P. Todd. Ex officio mem- 
bers of the Commission are Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States ; Director of the Na- 
tional Gallery of Art, John Walker; and Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. The Commission met three times during 
the fiscal year: on September 23, 1964, January 27, 1965, and May 19, 
1965. The director also attended these meetings. 

Final bids were received on the alteration of the Fine Arts and Por- 
trait Gallery Building, and work on it began on December 31, 1964. 
Happily, new construction is proceeding satisfactorily. The director 
and Victor Proetz have been working on plans for the exhibition areas 
that will be coordinated with the structural drawings prepared by 
the architects. 

In addition, John Frazer is pursuing a research project under con- 
tract in the Frick Art Reference Library, and Mr. Proetz is under 
similar contract for architectural studies of the exhibition areas of the 
Gallery's new building. 

The staff of the Gallery is being augmented as rapidly as funds 
permit and qualified personnel can be recruited. The director entered 
on duty July 1, 1964. At the end of the year neither the position of 
associate director nor that of historian-biographer had been filled, 
but prospects seemed good for obtaining outstanding men for these 
positions and for getting the archival programs of the Gallery organized 
and underway. Staff members appointed during the year include 
Robert G. Stewart, associate curator; William Walker, librarian; 
Mrs. Shirley Harren, library assistant; Barnard Lebowitz, museum 
aide; Mrs. Genevieve Kennedy, museum specialist; Jean T. Adamonis, 
secretary; Carol Hutchinson and Barbara Boiling, clerk-typists. 

Meanwhile, preparations are being made for a temporary gallery 
in the Arts and Industries Building in which to display some of the 
present holdings until such time as the move into the new building 
is consummated. 

During the year the director visited the National Portrait Galleries 
of Dublin, Edinburgh, and London, where he found directors who 

345 



346 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



were all most cordial and willing to share the benefits of their experi- 
ence. He also visited the Historical Museum in Mexico City to study 
the use of dioramas in connection with historical material. 

During the year the accessions listed on pages 346-348 came as gifts 
to the collections of the Gallery. Of these, the 34 likenesses transferred 
to our collection by the National Gallery of Art as a gift from the late 
Andrew Mellon constitute an outstandingly important accession during 
the Gallery's initial year of operation. An additional portrait of John 
James Audubon by his son was the gift of the Avalon Foundation. 
For other gifts, such as the portrait of John Jordan Crittenden by 
George P. A. Healy from Silas B. McKinley and that of Charles Lee 
from Mrs. A. D. Pollack Gilmour, the Gallery is particularly grateful. 
These portraits come to us as gifts from descendents of the sitters, the 
ideal but no longer, unfortunately, the usual way of objects being added 
to the collections. 

The four original drawings of Americans, a gift from the trustees of 
the National Portrait Gallery of London, were particularly welcome 
as evidence of the interest in our Gallery on the part of our great 
precursor. 

In addition, the archives has acquired nearly 20,000 portrait prints 
through the Metropolitan Museum from the Joseph V. Reed Collection 
and from the Robbins Print Collection. 

PORTRAITS ACCEPTED BY THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT 
GALLERY FOR FISCAL YEAR 1964-65 



SUBJECT 
*Aubudon, John James 

*Buchanan, James 
*Calhoun, John 
*CIay, Henry 

♦Clay, Henry 
*Clinton, DeWitt 
Crittenden, John Jordan 



ARTIST 

John Woodhouse Au- 
dubon 
George P. A. Healy 
Rembrandt Peale (att.) 
John James Aubudon 

(att.) 
George P. A. Healy 
John Wesley Jarvis 
George P. A. Healy 



Douglas, William Orville Oskar Stoessel 



Eisenhower, Dwight 
David 
♦Eisenhower, Dwight 
David 
Finley, David E. 



John Groth 
Thomas E. Stephens 
Oskar Stoessel 



DONOR 
Avalon Foundation 

Andrew Mellon 
Andrew Mellon 
Andrew Mellon 

Andrew Mellon 
Andrew Mellon 
Mr. & Mrs. Silas 

McKinley 
David E. Finley 
Arnold Roston 

Anonymous 

David E. Finley 



♦Portraits transferred to the National Portrait Gallery from the National Gallery 
of Art. 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



347 



PORTRAITS ACCEPTED BY THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT 
GALLERY FOR FISCAL YEAR 1964-65— Continued 



SUBJECT 

Ford, Henry 
♦Forrestal, James Vincent 
♦Foster, Stephen 
*Fuller, George 

Greeley, Horace 

♦Harrison, Benjamin, Jr. 
♦Harrison, William Henry 
Harte, Francis Bret 

* Hawthorne, Nathaniel 
♦Hemingway, Ernest 
♦Howells, Mildred and 

William Dean 
♦Howells, William Dean 

♦Jackson, Andrew 
♦Laurens, Henry 
♦Laurens, Henry 

Lee, Charles 

^Lincoln, Abraham 
♦Mac Veagh, Wayne 
♦Marshall, George C. 
♦Marshall, John 
♦McCloskey, John Car- 
dinal 
♦Men of Progress 
♦Monroe, James 
Moody, Dwight Lyman 

♦Moultrie, William 
♦Muir, John 

Pershing, John J. 

♦Pierce, Franklin 
♦Pocahontas 
Ripley, S. Dillon 



ARTIST 
H. Wollner 
Albert K. Murray 
Thomas Hicks 
George Fuller 

Thomas Nast 

Charles Willson Peale 
James Reid Lambdin 
Sir Leslie Ward 

Emanuel Leutze 

Rene Bolz 

Augustus Saint Gaudens 

John Quincy Adams 

Ward 
Ralph E. W. Earl 
John Singleton Copley 
J. S. Copley (eng. by 

Green) 
Cephas Thompson 

George P. A. Healy 
Augustus Saint Gaudens 
Thomas E. Stephens 
James Reid Lambdin 
George P. A. Healy 

Christian Schussele 
John Vanderlyn 
Carlo Pellegrini 

Charles Willson Peale 
Edwin Keith Harkness 

Leopold Seyfert 

George P. A. Healy 
British School 
Robert White 



DONOR 

Henry Ford II 
Anonymous 
Andrew Mellon 
Mrs. Augustus Vincent 

Tack 
Trustees, London 

N.P.G. 
Andrew Mellon 
Andrew Mellon 
Trustees, London 

N.P.G. 
Andrew Mellon 
Anonymous 
Miss Mildred Howells 

Miss Mildred Howells 

Andrew Mellon 
Andrew Mellon 
Andrew Mellon 

Mrs. A. D. Pollack 
Gilmour 

Andrew Mellon 

Eames Mac Veagh 

Anonymous 

Andrew Mellon 

Miss Elizabeth McClos- 
key Cleary 

Andrew Mellon 

Andrew Mellon 

Trustees, London 
N.P.G. 

Andrew Mellon 

Miss lone Bellamy 
Harkness 

Mr. and Mrs. Dudley 
Cooper 

Andrew Mellon 

Andrew Mellon 

S. Dillon Ripley 



♦Portraits transferred to the National Portrait Gallery from the National Gallery 
of Art. 



348 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



PORTRAITS ACCEPTED BY THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT 
GALLERY FOR FISCAL YEAR 1964-65— Continued 



SUBJECT 
*Rochambeau, Comte de 
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 
Sankey, Ira David 

Stone, Harlan Fiske 
Thayer, Abbott 
*Truman, Harry S. 



ARTIST 

Joseph Desire Court 
Oskar Stoessel 
Carlo Pellegrini 

Oskar Stoessel 



DONOR 
Andrew Mellon 
David E. Finley 
Trustees, London 

N.P.G. 
David E. Finley 



Gladys Thayer Reasoner Roger C. Fenn 
Augustus Vincent Tack Mrs. Augustus Vincent 
Tack 



Jacob Eichholtz 
Rembrandt Peale 
George P. A. Healy 
Sir Joseph Edgar 

Boehm 
the National Portrait 



Andrew Mellon 
Andrew Mellon 
Andrew Mellon 
Albert E. Gallatin 



Gallery from the National 



*Tyler, John 
♦Washington, George 
♦Webster, Daniel 
*Whistler, James Abbott 
McNeil 

* Portraits transferred to 
Gallery of Art. 

The National Portrait Gallery Commission, after some discussion, 
came to the conclusion that fine color photographs would be the ideal 
medium in which to present to the public the likenesses of the current 
holders of office in the Cabinet, Supreme Court, Senate, and the House 
of Representatives. Some 556 pictures at the present moment are 
involved, and the project would probably cost about $85,000 with 
the photographs framed. Once the project is completed it would 
take relatively little in the way of funds to keep it up to date, and 
those members of Government who were replaced would automatically 
become part of the iconographical archive with new photographs 
simply inserted in the frames to replace them. It was thought wise, 
because of the uncertainties of the lasting qualities of color, that both 
a color and a black-and-white print of each photograph be supplied 
for record purposes. 

The Gallery is making a late start and consequently is at a disad- 
vantage in the matter of securing what objects there are available. 
Purchase funds for the National Portrait Gallery are a must under 
present conditions and every effort should be made to obtain them from 
both public and private sources. Funds are vitally necessary to get 
important objects that suddenly come on the market, and the National 
Portrait Gallery should be in a competitive position to obtain such 
objects for its collection. 

Meanwhile, all the portraits received from whatever source are 
being checked to determine their condition and a conservation pro- 
gram is being embarked upon which will include a number of new 
frames. 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 349 

LIBRARY 

During the year the library accessioned 40 titles for the Gallery, 
17 of these having been obtained through exchange or gift. William 
Walker, though a member of the staff for less than a year, is making 
excellent progress in building up the joint library for both the National 
Portrait Gallery and National Collection of Fine Arts. He is seeing to 
it that books are assigned to each bureau according to its greater need 
and that a minimum of duplication is involved. It should be kept in 
mind that what is purchased for the National Collection of Fine Arts is 
available to the National Portrait Galllery and vice versa. At present, 
we have a small but most valuable reference library in our temporary 
offices in the Arts and Industries Building. 

At the May 1964 meeting, the Commissioners adopted the following 
criteria for the Proposed Library Research and Publication Program 
of the Gallery: 

The Library research and publication program of the National Portrait 
Gallery must be conceived in broad terms if the Gallery is to make significant 
contributions to education. 

To achieve this end, extensive biographical, archival, and iconographic 
materials are essential, as is also a skilled and ample staff of librarians and 
scholars who will engage in their own research as well as assist professional 
visitors. Publication should also be provided for, since it is by publication that 
the influence of the National Portrait Gallery will be most widely felt. 

The persons represented in the Library by drawings, prints, and photographs 
should be far more numerous than those represented in the Gallery and should 
include relatively minor figures as well as those of national significance. 
Biographical information on such figures should be assembled for the use of 
qualified scholars. 

If this program is carried out, the National Portrait Gallery will become a 
national biographical and iconographical research center. Such a center 
would include all standard reference works such as: 

1. General biographical dictionaries. 

2. Specialized dictionaries relating to regions, occupations, etc. 

3. Guides to and studies of biography as such. 

4. Critical and historical studies of American painting and other visual 

arts. 

5. National, state, and local histories. 

6. Files of journals devoted to American histories (national, regional, 

and state). 

7. Guides to collections of American manuscripts. 

8. Encyclopedias and bibliographies of American history. 

9. American biographies and memoirs. 

One of the Library's tasks would be the establishment of a national union 
catalogue of likenesses germane to the basic purposes of the National Portrait 
Gallery in public and private possession. 



350 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

In closing I should like to quote from a letter written by Thomas 
Carlyle to David Lang in 1854 concerning a project of a National 
Exhibition of Scottish Portraits. It puts forward in powerful fashion 
the need for and the value of the portrait and, where possible, accom- 
panying documentation. To the searcher after truth in the study of 
people who have made a significant contribution to the history and 
culture of their country, collections of such material are invaluable. 

In all my poor historical investigation it has been, and always is, one of the 
most primary wants to procure a bodily likeness of the personage inquired after; 
a good PORTRAIT, if such exists; failing that, even an indifferent if sincere one. 
In short, any representation, made by a faithful human creature, of that Face 
and Figure, which he saw with his own eyes, and which I can never see with 
mine, is now valuable to me, and much better than none at all. This, which is 
my own deep experience, I believe to be, in a deeper or less deep degree, the 
universal one; and that every student and reader of History, who strives 
earnestly to conceive for himself what manner of FACT and MAN this or the 
other vague Historical NAME can have been will, as the first and directest 
indication of all, search eagerly for a Portrait, for all the reasonable portraits 
there are; and never rest till he have made out, if possible, what the man's 
natural face was like. Often ... I have found that the Portrait was as a small 
lighted candle by which the Biographies could for the first time be read, and 
some interpretation made of them; the Biographical Personage no longer an 
empty impossible Phantasm, or distracting aggregate of inconsistent rumors — ■ 
in which state, alas his usual one, he is worth nothing to anybody . . . Next 
in directness are a man's genuine Letters, if he have left any, and you can read 
them to the bottom; of course a man's actions are the most complete and 
indubitable stamp of him; but without these aids of Portraits and Letters, they 
are in themselves so infinitely abstruse a stamp, and so confused by foreign 
rumor and false tradition of them, as to be oftenest undecipherable with 
certainty. 

This letter, written more than 100 years ago with all the quaintness 
of phrase, punctuation, and capitalization characteristic of a letter 
written by a great author about a field where his competence could be 
considered as no more than ancillary, is yet a definitive statement of 
the value to scholars of the collections we are belatedly endeavoring to 
assemble for the National Portrait Gallery in Washington. 




Abraham Lincoln by George P. A. Healy. Oil on canvas, lAVs X 54M inches. 
Gift of Andrew Mellon to the National Portrait Gallerv. 




Pocahontas, British School. Oil on canvas, 30 X 25 inches. Gift of Andrew 
Mellon to the National Portrait Gallery. 




Henry Laurens, attributed to John Singleton Copley. Oil on canvas, 54H 
X 405s inches. Gift of Andrew Mellon to the Nadonal Portrait Gallerv. 




Henry Ford, by H. Wollner. Bronze bust, 16 inches high. Gift of the Henry 
Ford Trade School Alumni Association to the National Portrait Gallery. 



Radiation Biology Laboratory 




Radiation Biology Laboratory 
W. H. Klein, Director 

On February 16, 1965, the Radiation Biology Laboratory was estab- 
lished out of the Division of Radiation and Organisms as an inde- 
pendent unit separate from the Astrophysical Observatory and 
reporting directly to the Secretary through the Assistant Secretary for 
Science. The laboratory will continue its emphasis upon three general 
areas: regulatory biology, solar radiation measurements, and carbon 
dating. The specific areas of biological research pursued during the 
year include mechanisms of control of regulatory responses by non- 
ionizing radiation such as phototropism, photomorphogenesis, the 
induction of photosynthetic activity, and the interaction of ionizing 
radiation such as X-rays with synthetic and morphological systems. 

A study has been completed of the composition of a water-soluble 
chloroplast protein fraction extracted from etiolated bean leaves 
greened in the presence and absence of chloramphenicol. The proteins 
of the water-soluble chloroplast fraction were analyzed by assessing 
the reaction to antisera of chloramphenicol treated and untreated 
plastids, by column chromatography, and by zone electrophoresis on 
acrylamide gel. 

Chloramphenicol caused an accumulation of a water-soluble chloro- 
plast protein fraction. This accumulation resulted from a decrease 
in the amount of some proteins found in the water soluble fraction 
and an increase in others. It had previously been found that chloram- 
phenicol partially inhibited light-dependent formation of chloroplast 
protein and lamellae. Therefore, it was concluded that chloram- 
phenicol inhibited the formation of some protein needed for building 
lamellae, resulting in accumulation in the soluble fraction of lamellar 
protein whose synthesis is insensitive to chloramphenicol. 

Experiments have been initiated to determine the effects of illumina- 
tion on the ability of chloroplasts isolated from etiolated bean leaves 
to synthesize proteins in vitro. 

In the area of polyphosphate structure, model phosphorus compounds 
such as trimetaphosphoimidate were chemically synthesized. Natural 
polyphosphate and model compounds were compared as to hydrolysis 
properties, infrared spectra, and phosphorus-to-nitrogen ratios. 

353 

7S9-427— 66' 35 



354 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

A study of the products of various chemical and enzymatic hydrolyses 
of natural polyphosphates was concluded. The results indicated that 
natural "polyphosphates" are really not linear phosphate anhydrides 
and, therefore, are not true polyphosphates. 

Polyphosphates were also isolated from uniformly C 14 -labeled 
Chorella cells and shown to be free from radioactivity. Thus, for 
the first time, the polyphosphate from Chorella has been shown to be 
truly inorganic. 

The study of the biochemical events occurring between an etiolated 
plant's first exposure to radiant energy and the manifestation of the 
light-induced morphological changes has been continued. The 
demonstration of the significant role of the endogenous reducing and 
nonreducing sugars has led to a detailed study of the incorporation, 
distribution, and utilization of exogenously supplied radioactive 
substrate. 

Glucose in solution applied to etiolated leaf tissue is incorporated 
almost entirely as sucrose. In light-treated samples the primary 
effect during the first few hours is an increased disappearance of 
sucrose. However, after an extended dark development period, the 
light response is reflected as loss of fructose. In general, results ob- 
tained substantiated the fact that the photomorphogenic response is 
dependent upon endogenous carbohydrate levels. 

Of particular significance is the inverse relationship between the 
disappearance of C 14 from the ethanol soluble fraction and the accumu- 
lation of C 14 in the cellulosic residue. These changes were easily 
determined during the first few hours following photomorphogenic 
induction. Significant changes were also observed in the basic (amino 
acids) and acidic (organic acids) fractions obtained through ion ex- 
change techniques. Identification of the specific compounds involved 
is now being pursued. 

In vivo spectrophotometric measurements of the phytochrome pigment 
controlling photomorphogenesis in 6-day-old dark grown bean seedlings 
indicate that the disappearance of the active form of the pigment after 
formation by red light is a pseudo second order reaction. Thus a plot 
of the reciprocal of the pigment concentration versus time gives a 
straight line. This fact allows for the interpolation and extrapolation 
of pigment concentrations at any time after inductive exposures and 
allows for the calculation of the amounts of inactive red-absorbing form 
of the pigment present at any time. Such calculations indicate little or 
no dark reversion of the 730-absorbing form to the 660-absorbing form 
and very little, if any, dark synthesis of the 660-absorbing form. 

A comparison of growth in three environmentally controlled areas, 
with light quality the variable factor, indicates that the direction of 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 355 

change in day length has marked influences on physiological responses 
in the day neutral plant, Black Valentine Bean. As day length increases 
there is a pronounced increase in dry weight, stem elongation, number 
of flowers and fruit set. These are reduced quite sharply with decreas- 
ing day lengths even though the total day length is relatively long. 
These differences in growth are most pronounced in the areas where 
there are large amounts of far -red radiation present. 

Data obtained from Wintex barley, a long-day plant, agrees with 
the dry-weight determinations for bean, indicating the influence of 
seasonal change in photosynthetic periods. Although the critical photo- 
period for Wintex barley is 14.5 hours, flower induction occurs in older 
plants planted in November when the maximum day length is 10.5 
hours. Also plants grown under sources containing longer wavelengths 
produce a marked increase in the number of elongated inter nodes as 
compared with plants grown in the absence of longer wavelengths. 
No significant differences have been observed between the different 
environmental conditions for fresh weights of shoots and roots or 
chlorophyll concentrations. 

The light-sensitive sporangiophore of Phycomyces has been demon- 
strated to respond to mechanical stimuli in much the same manner as 
to light. After a pressure increase in the cell there is a decrease in 
growth rate, and after a decrease in pressure there is an increase in 
growth rate. The time course of these responses is the same as for the 
light-induced growth responses. The interaction between the light- 
and mechanically-induced responses is not yet known. 

Near normal growth rates have been achieved in sporangiophores 
immersed in aerated water in which the osmotic pressure is about 3.4 
atmospheres using either glucose or inorganic salts. Using such an 
aqueous system it was demonstrated that materials can be taken up 
selectively by the light-sensitive growing zone, since the fluorescent dye 
phloxine was incorporated only into the wall of the growing zone. 
A number of other fluorescent dyes were examined, but none was 
incorporated. 

Approximately 100 samples of archeologic and geologic interest were 
dated by carbon- 14 techniques. A new system was developed for 
quantitatively removing radon from samples by passing carbon dioxide 
through an activated charcoal trap at — 40°G. This method now 
makes it possible to count radiocarbon samples immediately without 
the 30- or 45-day delay which was previously necessary. 

Water samples from the saline lake at the head of Antonette Bay, 
Ellesmere Island, were analyzed, and the data indicate that the lake 
was cut off from the fiord by glacial advance about 3,000 years ago. 

A survey of marine deposits on the east coast between Washington, 



356 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

D.C., and Myrtle Beach, S.C., did not indicate that the sea was above 
its present level in the last 50,000 years. The age of the Pamlico 
formation is greater than 45,000 years. 

Measurements of total sun and sky radiation have continued using 
an automatic system sampling once every 3 minutes for 100 m/x, band 
widths throughout the visible. Because of slight variations in calibra- 
tion constants indicated to be the result of the geometry of the standard 
pyranometer, a new square receiver pyranometer was designed to 
eliminate these variations. The total energy received upon a hori- 
zontal surface varies markedly, with weather conditions as expected, 
and spectral quality does change. For example, the energy received 
for a series of days in the month of November varied from 343 langleys 
for a clear day to 70 langleys for a cloudy day with some snow. Simi- 
larly, the ratio of the 0.6-0.7 micron band to 0.7-0.8 micron band 
changed from 3.4 to 1.6. 

OTHER ACTIVITIES 

The laboratory staff participated in a number of scientific meetings 
during the year. 

In July Dr. Klein collaborated with representatives of the Division 
of Biology and Medicine, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, to deter- 
mine the feasibility of making a prospective population genetics study 
in Iceland; he also surveyed sites near Keflavik, Iceland, to evaluate 
the possibility of establishing a field station for measuring solar radia- 
tion in high northern latitudes. In August Dr. Klein attended the 
Fourth International Photobiology Congress in Oxford, England, and 
participated in a symposium on phytochrome research. 

In June and July Dr. Shropshire consulted with investigators in 
photobiology and biophysics at Gif-Sur-Yvette, Zurich, Tubingen, 
Freiburg, Eindhoven, Wageningen, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Uppsala, 
and Stockholm. During this trip he presented a lecture at Le Phyto- 
tron, Gif-Sur-Yvette, entitled "Phytochrome Controlled Responses" 
and one at the Max-Planck Institut fur Biologie, Tubingen, entitled 
"Light-Induced Biochemical Changes and High Intensity Range 
Responses of Phycomyces." In August he attended the Photobiology 
Congress at Oxford and presented a symposium lecture, "Photoresponses 
in Phycomyces Sporangiophores," at the 10th International Botanical 
Congress in Edinburgh. 

In August the American Institute of Biological Sciences meeting in 
Boulder, Colo., was attended by Dr. Correll, Mr. Edwards, Dr. Klein, 
Dr. Loercher, Dr. Margulies, and Dr. Mitrakos. Dr. Correll presented 
a paper on "Alkali-Stable RNA Fragments from Chlorella," and Mr. 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 357 

Edwards and Dr. Klein presented recent data on "Relationship of 
Phytochrome Concentration and Physiological Responses." 

Dr. Klein participated in the executive committee sessions of the 
American Society of Plant Physiologists. 

Mr. Harrison attended the Advanced Seminar for Scientific Glass- 
blowers held in August at the State University of New York, Alfred, 
NY. 

In March Dr. Klein attended the meetings of the Solar Energy 
Society in Phoenix, Ariz., and in April he was a participant in the 
18th Annual Research Conference in Gatlinburg sponsored by the 
Biology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 

Also in March Dr. Correll was invited to present a seminar, "RNA 
Polyphosphate in Algae," to the Department of Botany, University of 
California, Berkeley, and Dr. Shropshire was invited to present a 
lecture on "Phycomyces Research" to the Department of Biology of 
the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. 

In March Dr. Shropshire consulted with Dr. Cairns of the Cold 
Spring Harbor Laboratory of Quantitative Biology to make arrange- 
ments for cooperatively offering, with Dr. Dennison of Dartmouth and 
Dr. Delbriick of the California Institute of Technology, an intensive 
course to be supported by the National Science Foundation on sensory 
physiology and the photoresponses of Phycomyces. 

In April Dr. Correll attended the meetings of the American Chemical 
Society held in Detroit, Mich., and Mr. Long attended the annual 
meetings of the American Geophysical Society in Washington, D.C. 

Dr. Margulies presented a paper entitled "Effect of Chloramphenicol 
on Structure and Protein Composition of Bean Chloroplasts" to the 
Washington Area Section of the American Society of Plant Physiolo- 
gists, held at the University of Maryland in May. 

Dr. Shropshire was an invited participant at the Thirtieth Cold 
Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology held in June on 
sensory receptors. 

In May Mr. Long visited the Lamont Geological Observatory in 
Palisades, N.Y., to use their mass spectrograph for C 13 analysis. He 
also attended the carbon dating conference held at Washington State 
University in June and presented a paper, "Techniques of Methane 
Preparation for Carbon Dating." 



STAFF CHANGES AND VISITING SCIENTISTS 

Scientists who joined the staff during the year are Dr. Bernard Nebel, 
plant physiologist, and Dr. Robert Rogers, cytogeneticist. Dr. Kon- 



358 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

stantinos Mitrakos, visiting plant physiologist from Athens, Greece, 
and Dr. Adolf Steiner, visiting plant physiologist from the University 
of Freiburg, continued their work on carbohydrate metabolism. 
On June 30, 1965, the laboratory staff consisted of 33 persons. 



PUBLICATIONS 

Correll, David L. Sialic acid-containing glycopeptide from Chlorella. 
Science, vol. 145, pp. 588-589, 1964. 

. Alkali-stable RNA fragments from Chlorella. 

Phytochemistry, vol. 4, pp. 453-459, 1965. 

Loercher, Lars, and Liverman, James L. Influence of cobalt on 
leaf expansion and oxidative phosphorylation. Plant Physiol., vol. 
39, pp. 720-725, 1964. 

Margulies, Maurice M. Effect of chloramphenicol on light-depend- 
ent synthesis of proteins and enzymes of leaves and chloroplasts of 
Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiol., vol. 39, pp. 579-585, 1964. 

. Relationship between red light mediated glyceraldehyde-3- 

phosphate dehydrogenase formation and light-dependent develop- 
ment of photosynthesis. Plant Physiol., vol. 40, pp. 57-61, 1965. 

Shropshire, W., Jr.; Klein, W. H.; and Edwards, J. L. Photomor- 
phogenesis induced by flavin-mononucleotide fluorescence. Physiol. 
Plantarum, vol. 17, pp. 676-682, 1964. 



Science Information Exchange 



Science Information Exchange 
Monroe E. Freeman, Director 

The Science Information Exchange (SIE) receives, organizes, and 
disseminates information about scientific research in progress. Its 
mission is to assist the planning and management of research activ- 
ities supported by Government and non-Government agencies and 
institutions by promoting the exchange of information that concerns 
subject matter, distribution, level of effort, and other data pertaining 
to current research in the prepublication stage. It helps program 
directors and administrators to avoid unwarranted duplication and 
to determine the most advantageous distribution of research funds. 
It serves the entire scientific community by informing individual 
investigators about who is currently working on problems in their 
special fields. 

The Exchange is concerned only with research actually in progress 
in order to cover the 1- to 3-year information gap between the time 
a research project is proposed or started and the time the results 
become generally available in published form. Thus, the Exchange 
complements, rather than duplicates, the services of technical libraries 
and established documentation centers. 

Information is received by the Exchange from all available sources, 
specifying who supports a research task, who does it, where it is being 
done, and a 200-word technical summary of what is being done. 
These basic data are cast into a one-page record, the Notice of Re- 
search Project (NRP), that serves as the major input and output of 
the Exchange. These records are analyzed, indexed, processed, and 
stored in computer and manual files in such a way that a wide variety 
of questions about any of these items or any combination of items can 
be quickly retrieved or compiled. 

The acquisition of research task records and the output of infor- 
mation services have continued to increase throughout the year. 
Registration of unclassified research by the Federal agencies is now 
approaching comprehensive proportions with registration including 
more than 95 percent of all federally sponsored research in the life, 
medical, biological, agricultural, and behavioral sciences, and with 
more than 60 percent of basic research in the physical sciences. Inter- 
est and participation by non-Federal research groups have shown a 

361 



362 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

slow but steady increase particularly in state programs in agricul- 
ture, natural resources, and conservation, a trend that will probably 
continue over the years for these relatively smaller and widely scat- 
tered research programs. A number of associations, widely varying 
in scope, such as the American Sociological Society and the American 
Chemical Society's Petroleum Research Fund, have arranged for 
increased input and participation. Discussions with many others 
are under way. 

The demand for information services, on the other hand, has increased 
substantially, rising from 34,000 information requests in fiscal year 
1964 to an estimated 43,000 in 1965. Especially significant has been 
an increasing demand from Federal agencies for the retrieval and 
organization of research records covering broad fields of national 
interest, such as all current research on water resources, pesticides, 
and oceanography, or the organization of records covering broad 
agency programs. About 1 8 of these major tasks involving the scien- 
tific staff and data-processing specialists have been completed or are in 
various stages of planning and development, compared with 6 such com- 
pilations in 1964. These compilations, such as the Water Resources 
Research Catalog, are often published and widely disseminated by the 
sponsoring agency. In connection with this particular catalog, SIE 
was designated by the President, in October 1964, as the national 
cataloging center for current and projected scientific research in all 
fields of water resources. 

The expanding services of SIE have been noted and commended 
in the past year by the President's report, War on Waste; in the report 
of the Select Committee on Government Research, House of Repre- 
sentatives; and by Senator Clinton P. Anderson in reference to the 
Water Resources Research Catalog. Recognizing that the comprehensive 
collection of current research records serves little purpose unless used 
to the maximum by scientists and engineers throughout the scientific 
community, SIE has made increasing efforts to make these services 
known and available to all eligible and potential users. More than 
60 articles, news notes, and briefings about SIE have been presented 
to scientific groups or published in a wide variety of scientific journals. 
Thirty thousand descriptive brochures were distributed, mostly on 
request. An information exhibit was set up at the national meeting 
of the Association for Clinical Research. Over the year, almost 800 
visitors came to SIE to study and explore its programs, including 
35 visitors from foreign countries. 

An increased interest in SIE has been exhibited by many foreign 
visitors, especially in regard to the future possibility of exchange 
arrangements. This has been seconded by a rising interest from 



SCIENCE INFORMATION EXCHANGE 363 

American agencies whose research interests and responsibilities do not 
necessarily stop at international boundaries. 

As a result of a 2-year program to increase efficiency and economies, 
substantial savings over anticipated needs have been realized. Al- 
though workloads generally increased in some activities as much as 
20 to 25 percent, the total staff was increased by only 2% percent 
while nonprofessional personnel decreased from 115 to 108. In illus- 
tration of the effectiveness of new systems, the registration cost of 
70,000 projects was reduced 16 percent, the registration cost of 
research proposals was reduced 50 percent, and the production cost 
of investigator reports was reduced 20 percent over fiscal year 1964. 

In addition to the continued effort to improve its present system, 
SIE is conducting a number of studies of more general relevancy to 
the field of information. From the vantage point of a current aware- 
ness program unique in terms of breadth of science areas covered, 
experience, and methods of approach, SIE professional staff were 
engaged in the systematic study of the following problems: 

1 . The use of current scientific research information for adminis- 

trative purposes. 

2. The evaluation of performance in retrieval by cooperative 

study with participating Federal programs. 

3. The development of new indexing systems for publication pur- 

poses as program management tools, also of value at the bench 
level. 

4. Information yield as a function of the depth of indexing. 

5. The study of education and experience requirements for the 

recognition of scientific content and context. 

6. The economics of computer storage and retrieval, as part of 

a broader study on optimal combinations of human and 
computer resources. 



National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board 




National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

John H. Magruder III, Director 

At its fourth meeting, on January 12, 1965, the National Armed 
Forces Museum Advisory Board recommended to the Board of Regents 
that— 

1. The Smithsonian Institution's facilities be expanded under the 

provisions of Public Law 87-186 to include a National 
Armed Forces Museum. 

2. Provisions be made in a reorganization plan of the President 

or by legislation to transfer to the Smithsonian Institution 
such authority as is necessary to enable it to administer and 
maintain Fort Washington as a site for the National Armed 
Forces Museum. 

3. The Smithsonian Institution be directed by legislation to 

pursue the planning, development, and construction of a 
National Armed Forces Museum and that such sums be 
appropriated by the Congress to the Smithsonian Institution 
as may be necessary for these purposes. 

These recommendations were based on a detailed study completed 
by the Advisory Board with the assistance of its coordinating staff, 
headed by Col. John H. Magruder III, U.S. Marine Corps. Later 
in the year the Board's study was published under the title A Study 
Relating to the Establishment of a National Armed Forces Museum (Smith- 
sonian Publication 4611). 

On January 28, 1965, the Board of Regents approved the foregoing 
recommendations subject to the condition that the legislation to be 
sought would authorize only the planning of a National Armed Forces 
Museum, not construction, at this time. The Board of Regents 
further approved the submission of a request for an initial appro- 
priation not to exceed SI 00,000 for planning. Subsequently, the 
Smithsonian Institution, in compliance with the provisions of Public 
Law 87-186, undertook preliminary consultations with the Commis- 
sion of Fine Arts, the National Capital Planning Commission, and the 
General Services Administration, preparatory to submitting formal 
recommendations to the Congress with respect to the establishment 
of a National Armed Forces Museum and the acquisition of a site. 

Throughout the year the staff of the National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board carried on negotiations with various agencies of the 
Armed Forces and the General Services Administration in regard to 

367 



368 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

the transfer to the Smithsonian Institution of military and naval 
objects appropriate for the collections of the proposed National Armed 
Forces Museum. As a result, a numerous and most varied assortment 
of objects was added to the collections. For example, there were 
acquired from the Department of the Army two now-rare Model 
1903 6-inch coast defense guns complete with disappearing carriages; 
from the Department of the Navy a 5-inch deck gun with fire-control 
equipment from the World War II submarine U.S.S. Scabbardfish; 
from the U.S. Marine Corps the prototype of the M50 ONTOS 
self-propelled antitank vehicle; and from the General Services Admin- 
istration a valuable series of wind tunnel models used in the develop- 
ment of the U.S. Army Nike Ajax and Nike Hercules guided missiles. 
Among objects designated for eventual transfer to the Smithsonian, 
the Department of the Army, with the cooperation of the Depart- 
ment of Defense, set aside a most comprehensive array of components 
of the Nike Ajax, Lacrosse, Corporal, Redstone, and SS-10 missile 
systems. 

The staff, in cooperation with the Smithsonian Library, continued 
to acquire from Armed Forces historical agencies and elsewhere 
numerous publications in the field of military and naval history, to 
serve as a nucleus of the study center library of the National Armed 
Forces Museum. 



Smithsonian Museum Service 






789-427—66 36 



Smithsonian Museum Service 
G. Carroll Lindsay, Curator 

The Smithsonian Museum Service expanded both the variety and 
quantity of its services in accepting the challenge of serving the 
nearly 19 million visitors who came to the Smithsonian in fiscal 1965. 
Moving forward at a quickened pace, the Smithsonian Museum Ser- 
vice established new programs designed to interest a public growing 
more knowledgeable and sophisticated each year. 

One of the most successful new programs was a series of free film pres- 
entations, known as the Smithsonian Free Film Theater. The Theater 
presents unusual films that are entertaining as well as educational. 
Showing is augmented by brief introductory remarks from noted scien- 
tists and specialists whose work often is seen in the films. The enormous 
response to this new program from museum visitors is further proof of 
the great potential of the Smithsonian as a practitioner of the special 
art of museum education. This program was organized and operated 
by audiovisual specialist Mary Ann Friend and Mrs. Linda Gordon, 
docent in zoology. 

The Smithsonian Museum Service continued its role of interpreting, 
through various educational media, the work and collections of the 
Smithsonian in the fields of science, history, and art. 

For the eleventh consecutive year the Junior League of Washington 
continued its volunteer docent program, conducting school classes 
from the greater Washington area through the Smithsonian. The 
program was carried out through the cooperation of G. Carroll Lindsay, 
curator of the Smithsonian Museum Service, with Mrs. Arnold B. 
McKinnon, chairman of the League's docent committee, and Mrs. 
Joseph Smith, Jr. co-chairman. Mrs. Smith will serve as chairman for 
the forthcoming year, with Mrs. Gilbert Grosvenor as co-chairman. 

During the 1964-65 school year 33,821 children were conducted on 
1,161 tours, an increase of over 50 percent above the preceding year's 
participation. 

Tours were conducted for grades 3 through 6 in the Halls of Every- 
day Life in the American Past, Mammals, Indians and Eskimos, Native 
Peoples of the Americas, and Textiles, and for grades 5 through 
junior high school, in the Halls of Gems and Minerals, and Prehistoric 
Life. The resumption this year of tours in the popular Early American 

371 



372 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Hall, now in the Museum of History and Technology, alone accounted 
for 13,016 children participating in 438 tours. 

Tours were conducted from October 12, 1964, through May 28, 
1965. This year, tours were able to proceed during the month of 
April, with the aid of compact portable amplifiers which enabled the 
docent to be heard even when the hall was massively crowded with 
tourists. 

In addition to Mrs. McKinnon and Mrs. Smith, the members of the 
League's guided tour committee were: Mrs. Roger Block, Mrs. 
Thomas A. Bradford, Jr., Mrs. Reginald Bragonier, Mrs. Keith A. 
Garr, Mrs. Challen E. Caskie, Mrs. Thomas R. Cate, Mrs. C. A. 
Child, Mrs. F. David Clarke, Mrs. Steven Conger, Mrs. Phillip 
Dearborn, Mrs. Henry M. deButts, Mrs. James L. Dooley, Mrs. 
Robert T. Foley, Mrs. George Gerber, Mrs. Gilbert Grosvenor, Mrs. 
Franklin Hart, Mrs. William Henry, Mrs. Scott Heuer, Mrs. Walter M. 
Johnson, Jr., Mrs. Vernon Knight, Mrs. Lansing Lamont, Mrs. 
James H. Lefeaver, Miss Robbin Liggett, Mrs. Dickson R. Loos, 
Mrs. James Mailliard, Mrs. John Manfuso, Jr., Mrs. Ernest May, 
Mrs. H. Roemer McPhee, Jr., Mrs. James E. Miller, Mrs. William 
Minshall, Jr., Mrs. R. Kendall Nottingham, Mrs. Edward Outlaw, 
Mrs. Jack Osburn, Jr., Mrs. Robert Point, Mrs. L. Edgar Prina, 
Mrs. W. James Sears, Mrs. E. Tilman Stirling, Mrs. William R. 
Stratton, Mrs. Charles Turner, Mrs. John S. Voorhees, Mrs. Richard 
Wallis, Mrs. Keith Wheelock, Mrs. Mark White, and Mrs. Kennedy 
Wilson. 

The Institution values most highly the proficient endeavors of 
these volunteers. Their services to the schools of the Washington 
area do much to make the Smithsonian museums effective educational 
resources. 

The staff of the Museum Service also provided tours of the exhibits 
for a large number of individuals and groups. These tours for visitors 
from all over the United States as well as abroad were given in a foreign 
language for those who were unfamiliar with English. Among the 
many distinguished visitors were Her Royal Highness Princess Christina 
of Sweden and Her Royal Highness Princess Benedikte of Denmark. 

In addition to offering such services as tours, members of the staff of 
the Museum Service gave lectures to groups both at the Smithsonian 
and outside. 

To assist the large number of museum visitors, the Museum Service 
maintained information aides at the entrances of the museum buildings 
during the summer. About 100 young men from the National Capitol 
Council of Churches' Neighborhood Youth Corps assisted with this 
activity, as did a local Girl Scout troop. 



SMITHSONIAN MUSEUM SERVICE 373 

The Audioguide system in the Museum of Natural History continued 
in operation, offering visitors general as well as detailed information 
about the exhibits, through tape-recorded lectures. 

Mrs. Linda Gordon, docent in zoology, and Mrs. Marjorie Halpin, 
docent in anthropology, responded to requests for services and informa- 
tion in their special fields. They also assisted members of the scientific 
staff with the training of the Junior League volunteer guides, and 
prepared bibliographies for use in responding to inquiries from the 
public. Mrs. Gordon, in conjunction with her responsibilities to the 
Free Film Theater, wrote several film reviews. Mrs. Halpin wrote and 
revised information leaflets and prepared a manuscript for an illustrated 
booklet on George Catlin's Indian paintings. 

Audiovisual programs continued under the direction of Mary Ann 
Friend, the audiovisual specialist. A large number of slides were sold 
or lent to individuals and groups for educational purposes. Photo- 
graphs and films also were distributed in the same manner. These 
audiovisual aids are provided as educational aids to persons who are 
not able to visit the Smithsonian. Many slides and photographs also 
were used by various communications media to publicize the work and 
activities of the Smithsonian. 

The second edition of the Brief Guide to the Museums in the Washington 
Area was published. Reproductions of two paintings by Stuart Davis 
were published in conjunction with the Stuart Davis Memorial 
Exhibition. 

Many publications interpreting the exhibits were made available at 
the Museum Shops, and visitors may browse at shops in the Museum 
of History and Technology, Museum of Natural History, and the Arts 
and Industries Building. Each area emphasizes self-service to allow 
visitors the greatest freedom in making their selections. In addition to 
publications, reproductions of objects in the collections are available, 
and prints, slides, and postcards also are sold. 

During the past year receptions were held in connection with openings 
of temporary exhibits and halls, presentations, and on other special 
occasions. The Museum Service arranged for the preparation of 
invitations, for the greeting and directing of guests, for catering services, 
and for other related functions. Among the important special events 
was a luncheon for the Medal of Freedom recipients which was held at 
the Smithsonian in conjunction with the inauguration of the President 
of the United States. Particular attention was given also to details of 
special meetings and conferences held here. 

The Urban Service Corps, as in the past, held several summer sessions 
at the Smithsonian. Mrs. Linda Gordon organized the classes at the 
museums, providing speakers, films, and tours. 



374 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Members of the staff made trips to various cities to attend and 
participate in conferences, seminars, and scholarly sessions, to confer 
on and to observe sales and audiovisual operations, and to study and 
discuss museum connoisseurship. 

William Grayson, consultant on television, film, and radio broad- 
casting, worked on programs to expand the Smithsonian's use of the 
mass media of broadcasting and film. Under his supervision, broad- 
cast coverage increased, and groundwork was laid for further activity 
in this area. Arrangements also were made for radio and television 
coverage of Smithsonian exhibits and events, and special announce- 
ments of such events were sent to a large number of radio and television 
stations. 

The Museum Service also prepared a monthly Calendar of Events 
of lectures, concerts, and temporary exhibits at the Smithsonian. 
Notices of these events were sent to newspapers, magazines, and other 
publications. In the spring the format of the Calendar was revised 
to facilitate mailing and to make the Calendar serve as an official invi- 
tation to the public to attend Smithsonian activities. 

Mrs. Paul Scott made a study of a membership program for the 
Smithsonian. She visited other museums and spoke and corresponded 
with persons well known for their work in this area. Her report 
encompassed not only operation of such a program but also activities 
and publications offered to the members — activities and publications 
designed to attract further interest in the Institution. 



Smithsonian Institution Library 



Smithsonian Institution Library 

Mary A. Huffer, Acting Librarian 

During the year emphasis has been placed upon improving services 
and strengthening the collections. The Library Committees have been 
active in advising and assisting the Library in formulating an acquisi- 
tions policy. During the summer a physical count and analysis of all 
materials under the Library's jurisdiction was made. For the first time 
in many years there is an accurate picture of the size and distribution 
of the various collections under the Library's administration, as well 
as the degree of bibliographic control exercised over them. Over 
the years the book collections have been acquired and added to the 
Library but never fully classified or cataloged, even though in some 
instances they are among the most heavily used and valuable portions 
of the Library's collections. Although the Library has maintained an 
active weeding program, it has not always counted the discarded or 
transferred material or adjusted the statistics. A summary of the data 
from the count is given in table 1 ; the official count given in table 2 
in the Summarized Statistics at the end of this report excludes all 
material not fully classified and cataloged, and all unbound pieces of 
serial material. Trade catalog literature and technical reports, 
because of the special manner in which they are processed, are listed 
separately. The official count will quickly climb back to the level of 
totals previously reported, as the partially cataloged and classified 
materials are processed in the reclassification program. 



Table 1— SUMMARY COUNT OF LIBRARY MATERIALS CATA- 
LOGED AND UNCATALOGED*, SEPTEMBER 1964 

Cataloged Uncataloged Totals 

Monographs 88, 921 104, 028 192, 949 

Serials (bound) 85, 312 45, 506 130, 818 

Serials (unbound)** 19, 738 22, 444 42, 182 

Trade Catalogs 3, 923 216, 241 220, 164 

Technical Reports 8, 000 8, 000 

Totals 205,894 388,219 594,113 

•Partially cataloged material was counted as uncataloged for purposes of this survey. 
**By estimated number of bound volumes. 

78^-427—66 37 377 



378 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Of major significance was the decision in March to begin to classify 
all incoming materials according to the Library of Congress classi- 
fication scheme and start a divided catalog. A full-scale reclassification 
program is planned as soon as staff becomes available; in the meantime, 
however, materials handled under this new system are moving appreci- 
ably faster through the cataloging process and into the hands of the user. 
Another significant development was the work begun in the acquisitions 
section to make use of the IBM 1440 computer in all applicable phases 
of its work. Coding and programing have proceeded to the point 
where early in fiscal 1966 all accounting and ordering procedures 
concerning monographic materials will be handled by the computer. 
Studies are continuing within the Library concerning possible future 
computer applications. 

After the creation of the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology in 
March 1964, Mary L. Horgan, who had been appointed Bureau of 
American Ethnology librarian in September, was designated librarian 
of the newly created Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Branch 
Library. She has spent a considerable amount of time planning the 
consolidation and move of the former Bureau of American Ethnology 
and Department of Anthropology libraries into new quarters on the 
third floor of the Natural History Building. 

Material submitted this year for translation on the Special Foreign 
Currency Science Information Program, formerly called the P.L. 480 
translation program, consisted of 5 volumes in Russian, totaling 3,119 
pages. Translation of several important sets is gradually being effected: 
G. P. Dement'ev's Birds of the Soviet Union, 6 volumes, and S. I. 
Ognev's Mammals of USSR and Adjacent Countries, 9 volumes, each 
lack only 1 volume to be submitted for completion of the set. Four 
volumes of the 30-volume Flora USSR are in process or finished and 
progress is being made on other sets. At present there is a list of 
164 volumes totaling over 63,000 pages, requested by Smithsonian 
research staff, waiting for translation from Russian into English. 

An event which will continue to have great impact on the Library 
was the establishment within the past year of the Federal Library 
Committee to improve coordination and planning among research 
libraries of the Federal Government. The acting librarian is serving 
on the Task Force on Acquisition of Library Materials and Correlation 
of Federal Library Resources of this committee. 

As an additional service and aid to keep staff members informed 
of all newly acquired materials, the Library began on October 31 to 
issue on a biweekly basis a new-book list. Twenty-three lists have 
been issued to date. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARY 379 

While its primary purpose is service to the Museum staff, the Library 
has become over the years an important center of research for other 
scholars and students. During the past year numerous visitors from 
throughout the United States and the world came to use the Library's 
facilities and to seek the help of its staff. 

During fiscal 1965 the reference staff contributed and assisted in 
the construction of the Central Pacific Reference File. This file, 
patterned on the concept used in organizing the Human Relations 
Area Files, came about in response to the need of the staff on the 
Pacific Program to have ready access to all the information that could 
be located in domestic and foreign sources on a group of islands in 
the Pacific Ocean for which an intensive biological survey is under way. 
The file is proving to be a time saver for the scientist. One scholar 
came half way around the world to see the wonderful tool that had 
responded so promptly and well to his query for information. 



BRANCH LIBRARIES 

Trade-catalog literature of approximately 200,000 volumes received 
from Columbia University was unpacked and placed on shelves, and 
later in the year the trade-catalog collection from the Baker Library, 
Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, was 
processed (2,573 pieces) and made available. The addition of these 
two collections to the trade-catalog literature already held by the 
Institution makes the Smithsonian Library holdings in this field most 
comprehensive if not preeminent. The Library is grateful to the 
Columbia and Harvard Libraries for their gifts. In January the 
installation of a Xerox 914 machine in the Museum of History and 
Technology Branch Library led to improved and speedier service. 

The Patent Office Library continued to be generous in transferring 
valuable back files of serials and materials for historical research to the 
Museum of History and Technology Branch Library. The outstand- 
ing item in the transfer this year is the Academie des Sciences' Descrip- 
tion des Arts et Metiers (Paris, 1761-89, 45 vols.), one of two complete 
sets in existence. 

On October 18, 1964, after 12 years during which there was no 
full-time librarian, William B. Walker was appointed librarian of the 
National Collection of Fine Arts/National Portrait Gallery Branch 
Library. The most important aspects of renewed activity during the 
year have been the addition of a second staff member, the library 
assistant, in January 1965, and the move of the library collection to 
more spacious and attractive quarters in April. 



380 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

The Entomology Branch Library has been without a librarian since 
A. James Spohn's transfer to the Central Reference Staff in October. 
Carl J. Drake presented to the Library his personal collection of approx- 
imately 1,000 books plus assorted journals and reprints, mainly on 
Hemiptera, which he collected over a span of more than 50 years. 



STAFF ACTIVITIES AND CHANGES 

Ruth E. Blanchard, librarian of the Smithsonian for the past 7 years, 
was appointed special assistant to the Secretary for Library of Congress 
and Smithsonian matters on November 16, 1964. 

Mrs. Mary A. Huffer was designated acting librarian, and Jean 
Chandler Smith transferred from the Department of the Interior 
Library on January 18, 1965, to become assistant librarian. Mrs. 
Mary C. Quinn was appointed to the new position, secretary to the 
librarian, on February 21, 1965. 

Janet Dickson, chief of the catalog section since October 1959, 
transferred to the Library of the Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare on November 21, 1964. Clarice M. Barker has been acting 
chief of the catalog section since that time. Mrs. Vija Karklins was 
appointed senior cataloger in April 1965 to replace Mrs. E. C. Bach- 
rach, who transferred to the National Agricultural Library in Decem- 
ber. Mrs. Angeline Ashford was appointed junior cataloger in 
February to fill the vacancy created when Salavador Waller left to 
become librarian at the D.C. General Hospital in January. Mrs. 
Maria Bazylewicz transferred in April 1965 from the section of numis- 
matics in the Museum of History and Technology to fill the position 
of library assistant. Carol B. Boyd was appointed library assistant 
on September 9, 1964. 

In the reference and circulation section the following staff changes 
took place during the past year : Mrs. Gloria Mauney resigned August 
28, 1964, after being with the library for 9 years, to take a position with 
the D.C. School System. A. James Spohn, entomology librarian, was 
detailed part time and later transferred full time to the Central Library 
reference staff. Mrs. Sue Chen was appointed on August 15, 1964, to 
the newly created position of reference librarian. Thomas Harper 
was appointed on June 27, 1965, as loan-desk librarian to replace 
Thomas Wilding, who had transferred to the acquisitions section. 

Mildred D. Raitt was promoted to assistant chief of the acquisitions 
section on February 28, 1965. Mrs. Shirley S. Harren transferred to 
the National Collection of Fine Arts /National Portrait Gallery staff 
on January 3, 1965, and, to fill the vacancy thus created, Thomas 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARY 381 

Wilding was made exchange librarian on March 28, 1965. Mrs. 
Jeannette L. Mills was appointed clerk-typist on September 5, 1964. 
All the vexing problems associated with so many personnel changes 
and vacancies, as can be seen from reading the above, have plagued 
the Library during the past year. 

The staff continued to attend special courses and seminars for growth 
and development. Participation was active in professional organiza- 
tions and in attendance at the annual conferences of the Special 
Libraries Association and American Library Association. 

The following papers by staff members of the Library appeared in 
various journals : 

Goodwin, Jack S., compiler. 

Current Bibliography in History and Technology (1963). Technology and 
Culture, 6: 346-374, 1965. 
Smith, Jean Chandler. 

Bibliography on the Metabolism of Endoparasites Exclusive of Arthropods, 
1951-1962. Experimental Parasitology 16: 236-290, 1965. 



NOTABLE GIFTS, FISCAL YEAR 1965 

Academie des sciences, Paris. Descriptions des arts et metiers faites approuvees 
par messieurs de l'Academie. 1761-89. 45 vols. Transfer from Patent 
Office Library. 

Blatchley, Willis S. On the coleoptera known to occur in Indiana. 1910, from 

Mrs. Lewis H. Weld, Arlington, Va. 
Breeskin, Adelyn D. The graphic work of Mary Cassatt; a catalogue raisonne. 

N.Y., 1948. Gift of the author. 
Brewster, David. The life of Sir Isaac Newton. 1831, and 33 other volumes 

on engineering, art, history, and many other subjects, from Mrs. Carolyn 

Edwards, Glen Echo, Md. 
Brinkley F. The art of Japan. 2 vols. 1901, from Mrs. Herbert Campbell, 

Washington, D.C. 
Bushell, Stephen W. Chinese art. 1914, from Mrs. Herbert Campbell. 

Washington, D.C. 
A collection of about 2,573 trade catalogs, post 1900, from the Baker Library, 

Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration. 
A collection of catalogs, covering about 400 different concerns, primarily 

heating and plumbing, filling about 75 linear feet of shelf space and number- 
ing in the thousands, from Clifford T. L. Cryer, Denville, N.J., and 

John Gordon L. Cryer, Newark, N.J. 
A collection of eleven books on covered bridges from Mrs. Samuel Reed, 

Peoria, 111. 
A collection of 79 books on numismatics of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries 

from Dr. and Mrs. Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, Washington, D.C. 
A collection of yearbooks, handbooks, and journals on various sports, numbering 

about 1,000 from the estate of Stephen Mahoney. Gift of Mrs. Stephen 

Mahoney, Washington, D.C. 



382 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Comstock, John N. The wings of insects. 1918, from Mrs. Lewis H. Weld, 
Arlington, Va. 

du Pont and allied families. 1965, from Pierre S. du Pont, Wilmington, Del. 

Goldwater, Barry Morris. The face of Arizona. 1 964, from Senator Barry M. 
Goldwater, Scottsdale, Ariz. 

Hattori, H. Myxomycetes of Nasu District. Revised edition, 1964, from Em- 
peror Hirohito through the Ambassador of Japan to the United States. 

Hirohito, Emperor of Japan. Flora Nasuensis, additions and emendations. 
1 963, from Emperor Hirohito through the Ambassador of Japan to the 
United States. 

Kalakaua. The legends and myths of Hawaii, edited by R. M. Daggett. 

1888, from Mrs. Herbert Campbell, Washington, D.G. 
Ketterer, Roman Norbert. 6 catalogs of contemporary art. Gift of the author. 

Lugano, Switzerland. 

National Society of Colonial Dames of America. Delaware Chapter. Portraits 
in Delaware, 1700-1850. Wilmington, 1951. Gift of the Society. 

Reynolds, G. William. New World heroes, Lincoln and Garfield. 1892, from 

Miss Elizabeth Spratt, Sydney, Australia. 
Roebling, John A. Report on the Niagara Railway Suspension Bridge. 1855, 

from Mrs. Milburn Truitt, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Viereck, Henry L. Hymenoptera of Connecticut. 1916, from Mrs. Lewis H. 
Weld, Arlington, Va. 

Whitehall, Walter Muir. The arts in early American history. (Bibliography 
by Wendell and Jane Garrett.) Chapel Hill, 1965. Gift of the Institute 
of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Va. 

Williston, Samuel W. Manual of North American diptera. 3d ed. 1908, 
from Mrs. Lewis H. Weld, Arlington, Va. 



SUMMARIZED STATISTICS OF ACTIVITIES 

ACQUISITIONS 

Items (pieces) received: 7963-64 1964-65 

Exchange and purchase 69, 584 

Gift and transfer 9, 656 

Miscellaneous 3, 260 



Total pieces 120, 008 82, 500 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARY 383 

Disposition of items (pieces) not retained: 

Library of Congress 60, 977 33, 323 

National Library of Medicine 2, 245 1, 263 

National Agricultural Library 1,406 95 

U.S. Book Exchange 3, 014 1, 220 

Other Federal libraries and agencies 389 1, 548 



4,498 


4,632 


1,284 


1,190 


81 


42 


1,064 


634 



Total pieces 68, 031 37, 449 

New material procured: 
Books purchased 
Subscriptions placed 
New exchanges arranged 
Specific publications requested as gifts or exchange 

Total pieces 6, 927 6, 498 



CATALOGING 
Volumes cataloged: 7963-64 1964-65 

Smithsonian Main Library including Museum of Natural 

History Branch 
Bureau of American Ethnology (SOA after March 1, 1965) 
Department of Entomology 
Museum of History and Technology 
National Air Museum 
National Armed Forces Advisory Board 
National Collection of Fine Arts 
National Portrait Gallery 
National Zoological Park 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Smithsonian Office of Anthropology 
Smithsonian Radiation Biology Laboratory 

Total (full cataloging) 

Trade catalogs (Museum of History and Technology) 
Simplified cataloging 

Total new material cataloged 
Volumes recataloged 

Total volumes cataloged 11, 257 12, 882 

Catalog cards Bled 34, 718 46, 808 

Number of serials recorded 35, 042 32, 572 

Binding and repair: 

Volumes bound 5,175 5,259 

Volumes repaired in the Library 1, 859 1, 761 

•Fleure adjusted. 



4,544 


3,982 


257 


112 




106 


3,530 


5,080 


184 


245 




16 


179 


178 


73 


12 


31 


74 


562 


414 




79 


77 


99 


9,437 


10, 397 


478 


1,433 


1,137 


916 


*1 1,052 


12,746 


205 


136 



384 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 
CIRCULATION STATISTICS 



Smithsonian books circulated: 

Central Library 

Museum of History and Technology 

Entomology 

Smithsonian Office of Anthropology 

National Collection of Fine Arts/National Portrait Gallery 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Total 

Library of Congress books circulated by: 

Central Library 

Museum of History and Technology 

Total 

Interlibrary loan books circulated by: 

Central Library 

Museum of History and Technology 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Total 

Total books circulated 



1963-64 1964-65 



12,960 


21,018 


11,957 


12,345 


985 


924 


*924 


1,125 




416 


2,045 


2,231 


28, 871 


38, 059 


2,095 


2,699 


1,218 


1,517 



3,313 4,216 



1,051 


1,619 


413 


475 




451 


1,464 


2,545 


33, 648 


44, 820 



REFERENCE SERVICES 
Reference searches: 

Questions received in person or by telephone 
Central Library 

Museum of History and Technology 
Entomology 

Smithsonian Office of Anthropology 
National Collection of Fine Arts/National Portrait 

Gallery 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Total 

Questions received by mail: 

Central Library 

Museum of History and Technology 
National Collection of Fine Arts/National Portrait 
Gallery 

Total 

Total reference requests handled 

•Bureau of American Ethnology. 



21,129 


22, 141 


12, 496 


13, 160 


996 


769 


*697 


1,045 




214 


3,135 


3,369 


38, 453 


40, 698 


148 


139 


33 


43 




4 


181 


186 


38, 634 


40, 884 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARY 



385 



Cataloged 

volumes 

as of 


Cataloged 
volumes 


Total 
cataloged 
volumes as 


October 
1964 


added 
1964-65 


of July 
1965 



56, 289 3, 601 



59, 890 



TABLE 2— CATALOGED ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY IN FISCAL 

YEAR 1965 



Library 
Smithsonian Central Library 

Branch Libraries: 

Museum of Natural History Libraries 

Museum of History and Technology 
Trade Catalog Collection 

Smithsonian Office of Anthropology (formerly 
Bureau of American Ethnology and Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, U.S.N.M.) 

Entomology 

Radiation Biology Laboratory (formerly Radia- 
tion and Organisms) 

National Air Museum 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

National Portrait Gallery 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 

National Zoological Park 

Canal Zone Biological Area 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Washington, D.C. 

Miscellaneous Collections 

Total 



15,127 


373 


1 5, 500 


42, 693 


5,080 


47, 773 


4,154 


1,433 


5,587 


35, 677 


305 


35, 982 


3,390 


106 


3,496 


1,640 


99 


1,739 


1,897 


245 


2,142 


6,698 


178 


6,876 


78 


12 


90 


13 


16 


29 


1,097 


74 


1,171 


3,178 


** 


3,178 


3,055 


414 


3,469 


2,378 




2,378 


2,018 


** 


2,018 



Technical Report Collection — S.A.O. Cambridge, 

Mass. 8, 000 



179,382 11,936 *191, 318 
8,000 



*No longer includes uncataloged or unbound serials. 
"Figures not available. 



Publications and Information 




Publications and Information 

Paul H. Oehser, Chief and Public Relations Officer 

The editorial and publications division expanded its operations in 
fiscal 1965 in full support of the Institution's newly defined emphasis 
on research and education. As the Smithsonian continues to fulfill 
its mission of "diffusing knowledge," the publishing arm of the Insti- 
tution plays a vital role in communicating research results to the world. 
Operating as the Smithsonian Press, responsibilities and activities of 
the editorial and publications division moved forward in four main 
programs: 

1. Editing, designing, and publishing of scholarly books and 
reports on explorations and research by staff members and collabora- 
tors of the Institution in the fields of science, history, and art, along 
with publications of a more popular nature, such as museum guide- 
books, information leaflets, and art catalogs. 

2. Control and distribution of Smithsonian publications. 

3. Day-to-day dissemination of information to the press and to 
the inquiring public. 

4. Printing of materials of a current and emergency nature, such 
as museum labels and invitations and announcements of Smithsonian 
events, by a branch of the Government Printing Office located at the 
Institution for this purpose. 



PUBLICATIONS PROGRAM 

One hundred and thirty publications appeared under the Smith- 
sonian imprint during the past year in its various series, as listed 
below. These publications are issued partly from federally appropri- 
ated funds (Smithsonian Reports and publications of the National 
Museum, the Bureau of American Ethnology, the National Air 
Museum, and the Astrophysical Observatory) and partly from private 
endowment funds (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, publi- 
cations of the Freer Gallery of Art, and some special publications). 
The Institution also publishes under the auspices of the Freer Gallery 
of Art the series Ars Orientalis, which appears under the joint imprint 
of the University of Michigan and the Smithsonian Institution. In 

389 



390 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

addition the Smithsonian also publishes for sale to visitors guidebooks, 
information pamphlets, postcards, folders, and popular publications 
on scientific and historical subjects related to its important exhibits 
and collections. 



Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 

In this series, under the immediate direction of Mrs. Nancy Link 
Powars, the following papers were issued: 

VOLUME 145 

No. 8. Foraminifera from late Pleistocene clay near Waterville, Maine, by 
Martin A. Buzas. 30 pp. 5 pis. 4 figs. (Publ.4596.) March 1,1965. ($1.) 

VOLUME 146 

No. 4. Evolutionary trends in the avian genus Clamator, by Herbert Friedmann. 

127 pp. 14 figs. (Publ. 4532.) October 30, 1964. ($2.) 
No. 5. Some behavior patterns of platyrrhine monkeys. 1. The night 

monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), by M. Moynihan. 84 pp. 22 figs. (Publ. 

4533.) October 23, 1964. ($1.25.) 
No. 6. A revision of the American vultures of the genus Cathartes, by Alexander 

Wetmore. 18 pp. (Publ. 4539.) August 14, 1964. (50 cents.) 
No. 7. A new species of marine pennate diatom from Honolulu Harbor, by 

Paul S. Conger. 5 pp. 1 pi. (Publ. 4593.) October 23, 1964. (40 cents.) 

VOLUME 148 

No. 1 . A new theory identifying the locale of Columbus's light, landfall, and 

landing, by Ruth G. Durlacher Wolper. 41 pp. 12 figs. (Publ. 4534.) 

September 11, 1964. (75 cents.) 
No. 2. The brachiopod superfamily Stenoscismatacea, by Richard E. Grant. 

192 pp. 24 pis. 34 figs. (Publ. 4569.) April 1, 1965. ($4.50.) 
No. 3. Upper Cambrian trilobite faunas of northeastern Tennessee, by Franco 

Rasetti. 127 pp. 21 pis. 2 figs. (Publ. 4598.) June 10, 1965. ($3.) 
No. 4. Planktonic Foraminifera from the western North Atlantic, by Richard 

Cifelli. 36 pp. 9 pis. 4 figs. (Publ. 4599.) February 23, 1965. ($1.) 
No. 5. Hexahedrites, by Edward P. Henderson. 41 pp. 4 pis. 8 figs. (Publ. 

4601.) June 14, 1965. ($1.) 

VOLUME 149 

No. 1. The distribution and abundance of Foraminifera in Long Island Sound, 

by Martin A. Buzas. 89 pp. 4 pis. 22 figs. (Publ. 4604.) May 25, 1965. 

($1.50.) 
No. 2. A study of the early Tertiary condylarthran mammal Meniscotherium, 

by C. Lewis Gazin. 99 pp. 11 pis. 9 figs. (Publ. 4605.) May 10, 1965. 

($2.) 



PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION 391 

No. 3. The relationships of Quemisia gravis (Rodentia: PHeptaxodontidae), by 
Clayton E. Ray. 12 pp. 1 pi. 2 figs. (Publ. 4606.) April 28, 1965. (50 
cents.) 

Smithsonian Annual Reports 

REPORT FOR 1963 

The complete volume of the Annual Report of the Board of Regents 
for 1963 was received from the printer on December 7, 1964. 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution showing 
the operations, expenditures, and condition of the Institution for the year 
ended June 30, 1963. xii+595 pp., illustr. (Publ. 4530.) 

The general appendix contained the following papers (Publ. 4570- 
4589): 

The solar system, by Sir Bernard Lovell. 

Advances in astronomical technology, by Aden B. Meinel. 

The analysis of starlight, by Bernard Pagel. 

Astronomical photography from the stratosphere, by Martin Schwarzchild. 

The Smithsonian's satellite-tracking program: Its history and organization — 

part 2, by E. Nelson Hayes. 
The neutrinos, by Melvin Schwartz. 

The antibiotics from a botanical viewpoint, by Kenneth L. Jones. 
Atomic and other wastes in the sea, by I. Eugene Wallen. 
What is cybernetics?, by Donald M. MacKay. 

The use of the electron microscope in the study of fossils, by William W. Hay. 
Color changes in animals, by D. B. Carlisle. 
History of the Corbin Preserve, by Richard H. Manville. 
The Southern Ocean: A potential for coral studies, by Donald F. Squires. 
The promise of underwater archeology, by George F. Bass. 
Plants in the Arctic-Alpine environment, by Stanwyn G. Shetler. 
Concerning whales and museums, by A. E. Parr. 
Tropical subsistence agriculture in Latin America: Some neglected aspects and 

implications, by Raymond E. Crist. 
An archeological reconnaissance in Hadhramaut, South Arabia — A preliminary 

report, by Gus W. Van Beek, Glen H. Cole, and Albert Jamme, W. F. 
The corrosion products of metal antiquities, by Rutherford J. Gettens. 
Religious art East and West, by Benjamin Rowland. 

REPORT FOR 1964 

The report of the Secretary, which will form part of the 1964 Annual 
Report of the Board of Regents, was issued January 28, 1965. 

Report of the Secretary and the financial report of the Executive Committee of 
the Board of Regents for the year ended June 30, 1964. xiii + 293 pp. 
14 pis. (Publ. 4595.) 



392 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Special Publications 

James Means and the problem of manflight during the period 1882-1920, by 
James Howard Means, M.D. xi + 143 pp. 29 pis. 15 figs. (Publ. 4526.) 
July 21, 1964. ($3.) 

Communications in space. 23 pp., illustr. (Publ. 4568.) August 13, 1964. 
(50 cents.) 

Masters of space, by Philip S. Hopkins. 32 pp., illustr. (Publ. 4590.) October 
23, 1964. (50 cents.) 

Research opportunities. 65 pp. (Publ. 4603.) December 9, 1964. (50 cents.) 

Training by simulation, by Alan B. Shepard, Jr. 13 pp. (Publ. 4597.) Janu- 
ary 8, 1965. (25 cents.) 

Opportunities in oceanography, by E. John Long. 33 pp. 46 figs. (Publ. 
4537.) July 29, 1964. (50 cents.) 

A study relating to the establishment of a National Armed Forces Museum. 
23 pp., illustr. (Publ. 4611.) April 15, 1965. 

History under the sea, by Mendel Peterson. 108 pp. 56 pis. (Publ. 4538.) 
April 26, 1965. ($3.) 

The national aeronautical collections, by Paul E. Garber. 10th ed. 168 pp., 
illustr. (Publ. 4255.) May 27, 1965. ($2.) 

Smithsonian Institution directory. 99 pp. (Publ. 4638.) June 30, 1965. 

Reprints 

A biographical sketch of James Smithson. 20 pp., illustr. (Publ. 2276.) 
October 21, 1964. (50 cents.) 

The gown of Mrs. John F. Kennedy. [Supplement to "The Dresses of the 
First Ladies of the White House," by Margaret W. Brown, published by 
the Smithsonian Institution in 1952. (Publ. 4060).] September 25, 1964. 
(50 cents.) 

Smithsonian physical tables. Prepared by William Elmer Forsythe. Ninth 
revised edition, third reprint. (Publ. 4169.) March 1, 1965. ($10.) 

Lichen handbook, by Mason E. Hale, Jr. 178 pp. 20 pis. 58 figs. (Publ. 
4434.) August 18, 1964. ($4.) 

Brief guide to the museums in the Washington area. 39 pp., illustr. (Publ. 
4528.) August 25, 1964. (25 cents.) 

Opportunities in oceanography, by E. John Long. 33 pp. 46 figs. (Publ. 
4537.) Revised edition, April 1965. (50 cents.) 

The Smithsonian Institution. 55 pp. (Publ. 4600.) Revised edition, Decem- 
ber 24, 1964. (50 cents.) 



United States National Museum Publications 

The editorial work of the National Museum continued during the 
year under the immediate direction of John S. Lea, assistant chief of 
the division. The following publications were issued: 



PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION 393 

REPORT 

The United States National Museum annual report for the year ended June 30, 
1964. Pp. viii+215, illustr., January 23, 1965. 

BULLETINS 

161, part 4 (end of volume). The Foraminifera of the tropical Pacific collec- 
tions of the "Albatross," 1899-1900, by Ruth Todd. Pp. v+139, 28 pis., 
January 26, 1965. 

230. The bark canoes and skin boats of North America, by Edwin Tappan 
Adney and Howard I. Chapelle. Pp. xiv+242, 224 figs., September 8, 
1964. 

231. Early American scientific instruments and their makers, by Silvio A. 
Bedini. Pp. xii + 184, 86 figs., August 14, 1964. 

238. Early engineering reminiscences (1 81 5-40) of George Escol Sellers, edited 
by Eugene S. Ferguson. Pp. xix+203, 84 figs., February 15, 1965. 

239. The Recent Mollusca of Augustus Addison Gould, by Richard I. Johnson. 
Pp. v+182, 45 pis., July 28, 1964. 

240. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology: Papers 
34-44, by members of the staff and others. 

Paper 34. The 1893 Duryea automobile, by Don H. Berkebile. Pp. 1-28, 

30 figs., October 13, 1964. 
Paper 35. The Borghesi astronomical clock, by Silvio A. Bedini. Pp. 

29-76, 35 figs., November 13, 1964. 
Paper 36. The engineering contributions of Wendel Bollman, by Robert 

M. Vogel. Pp. 77-104, 24 figs., November 13, 1964. 
Paper 37. Screw-thread cutting by the master-screw method since 1480, 

by Edwin A. Battison. Pp. 105-120, 23 figs., October 29, 1964. 
Paper 38. The earliest electromagnetic instruments, by Robert A. Chip- 
man. Pp. 121-136, 8 figs., November 13, 1964. 
Paper 39. Fulton's "steam battery": Blockship and catamaran, by 

Howard I. Chapelle. Pp. 137-176, 20 figs., November 24, 1964. 
Paper 40. History of phosphorus, by Eduard Farber. Pp. 177-200, 23 

figs., March 8, 1965. 
Paper 41. Tunnel engineering — a museum treatment, by Robert M. 

Vogel. Pp. 201-240, 44 figs., October 29, 1964. 
Paper 42. The "Pioneer": Light passenger locomotive of 1851 in the 

Museum of History and Technology, by John H. White. Pp. 241-268, 

30 figs., November 17, 1964. 
Paper 43. History of the Division of Medical Sciences, by Sami Hamarneh. 

Pp. 269-300, 24 figs., November 24, 1964. 
Paper 44. Development of gravity pendulums in the 19th century, by 

Victor F. Lenzen and Robert P. Multhauf. Pp. 301-348, 34 figs., May 

14, 1965. 

241. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology: Papers 
45-51, by members of the staff and others. 

789-427—66 38 



394 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Paper 45. Political campaign torches, by Herbert R. Collins. Pp. 1-44, 

95 figs., December 22, 1964. 
Paper 46. Bryan the campaigner, by Keith Melder. Pp. 45-80, 19 figs., 

May 6, 1965. 
Paper 48. United States patents, 1790 to 1870: New uses for old ideas, 

by Peter C. Welsh. Pp. 109-152, 57 figs., May 5, 1965. 
Paper 50. Red Cross ambulance of 1898 in the Museum of History and 

Technology, by Herbert R. Collins. Pp. 165-176, 8 figs., April 14, 1965. 

242. Tanning in the United States to 1850: A brief history, by Peter C. Welsh. 
Pp. ix + 99, 28 figs., December 21, 1964. 

243. Lacebugs of the world: A catalog (Hemiptera: Tingidae), by Carl J. 
Drake and Florence A. Ruhoff. Pp. viii + 634, 57 pis., 6 figs., March 8, 
1965. 

CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM 

From volume 34 — 

Part 3. Systematic anatomy and ontogeny of the stem in Passifloraceae, by 

Edward S. Ayensu and William L. Stern. Pp. 45-74, 12 pis., August 21, 

1964. 
From volume 35 — 
Part 6 (end of volume). Cacao and its allies, a taxonomic revision of the genus 

Theobroma, by Jose Cuatrecasas. Pp. 379-614, 12 pis., 44 figs., August 21, 

1964. 
From volume 36 — 
Part 4. Studies on Parmelia subgenus Parmelia, by Mason E. Hale, Jr., and Syo 

Kurokawa. Pp. 121-192, 9 pis., 1 fig., August 26, 1964. 
Part 5. A monograph of Parmelia subgenus Amphigymnia, by Mason E. Hale, Jr. 

Pp. 193-358, 16 pis., 29 figs., April 8, 1965. 

PROCEEDINGS 

From volume 1 1 4 — 

No. 3475. Moths of the family Acrolophidae in America north of Mexico 

(Microlepidoptera), by Frank F. Hasbrouck. Pp. 487-706, 219 figs.. 

October 15, 1964. 
From volume 115 — 

Title page, table of contents, and index. Pp. i-v-f 633-654, March 1, 1965. 
No. 3492. The Jambeli culture of south coastal Ecuador, by Emilio Estrada, 

Betty J. Meggers, and Clifford Evans. Pp. 483-558, 12 pis., 42 figs., 

September 25, 1964. 
No. 3493. A revision of the carcharhinid shark genera Scoliodon, Loxodon, and 

Rhizoprionodon, by Victor G. Springer. Pp. 559-632, 2 pis., 14 figs., 

September 1, 1964. 
From volume 1 1 6 — 
No. 3494. A review of the ophidioid fish genus Oligopus with the description of 

a new species from West Africa, by Daniel M. Cohen. Pp. 1-22, 5 pis., 

October 13, 1964. 



PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION 395 

No. 3495. North American Stenomidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea), by W. 

Donald Duckworth. Pp. 23-72, 4 pis., 45 figs., October 27, 1964. 
No. 3496. A survey of vertebral numbers in sharks, by Victor G. Springer and 

J. A. F. Garrick. Pp. 73-96, 1 pi., October 16, 1964. 
No. 3497. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, IV. A new genus of Stenomidae 

with descriptions of four new species (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea). Pp. 

97-114, 5 figs., September 11, 1964. 
No. 3498. One new species and two redescriptions of catfishes of the South 

American callichthyid genus Corydoras, by Stanley H. Weitzman. Pp. 

115-126, 6 figs., October 13, 1964. 
No. 3499. Osteology and relationships of South American characid fishes of 

subfamilies Lebiasininae and Erythrininae with special reference to subtribe 

Nannostomina, by Stanley H. Weitzman. Pp. 127-170, 10 figs., October 

13, 1964. 
No. 3500. Three new species of frogfishes from the Indian and Pacific Oceans 

with notes on other species (family Antennariidae), by Leonard P. Schultz. 

Pp. 171-182, 3 pis., September 1, 1964. 
No. 3501. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, V. Synopsis of the species of the 

genus Proeulia from central Chile (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by Nicholas S. 

Obraztsov. Pp. 183-196, 9 pis., October 29, 1964. 
No. 3502. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, VI. Genera Orsotricha Meyrick and 

Palinorsa Meyrick (Gelechiidae, Oecophoridae), by J. F. Gates Clarke. 

Pp. 197-204, 1 pi., 4 figs., November 23, 1964. 
No. 3503. Contributions to the knowledge of the Hemerobiidae of western 

North America (Neuroptera), by Waro Nakahara. Pp. 205-222, 1 pi., 

4 figs., January 26, 1965. 
No. 3504. A contribution to the study of the genus Sphaerocera Latreille in 

Central and South America (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae), by O. W. Richards. 

Pp. 223-242, 28 figs., April 5, 1965. 
No. 3505. Herpetology of the Zuni Mountains region, northwestern New 

Mexico, by Frederick R. Gehlbach. Pp. 243-332, 4 pis., 10 figs., February 

26, 1965. 
No. 3506. Review of the genus Cerceris in America north of Mexico (Hymenop- 

tera: Sphecidae), by Herman A. Scullen. Pp. 333-548, 1 pi.. 182 figs.. 

May 25, 1965. 
No. 3507. North American moths of the genus Swammerdamia (Lepidoptera: 

Yponomeutidae), by W. Donald Duckworth. Pp. 549-556, 3 figs., May 

25, 1965. 

Bureau of American Ethnology Publications 

The editorial work continued under the immediate direction of Mrs. 
Eloise B. Edelen. The following publications were issued: 

ANNUAL REPORT 

Eighty-first Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1963-1964. 
ii + 31 pp.1965. 



396 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

BULLETINS 

Bulletin 191. Anthropological Papers Nos. 68-74. iii-f 425 pp., 104 pis., 55 
figs., 13 maps. 1964. 
No. 68. The prehistory of Panama Viejo, by Leo P. Biese. 
No. 69. The language of Santa Ana Pueblo, by Irvine Davis. 
No. 70. Observations on certain ancient tribes of the Northern Appa- 
lachian Province, by Bernard G. Hoffman. 
No. 71. El Limon, an early tomb site in Code Province, Panama, by 

Matthew W. and Marion Stirling. 
No. 72. Archeological notes on Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama, 

by Matthew W. and Marion Stirling. 
No. 73. The archeology of Taboga, Uraba, and Taboguilla Islands, 

Panama, by Matthew W. and Marion Stirling. 
No. 74. Iroquois masks and maskmaking at Onondaga, by Jean Hendry. 
Bulletin 192. Archeology of the Yakutat Bay area, Alaska, by Frederica de 

Laguna et al. xi-f-245 pp. ? 19 pl s . } 25 figs., 7 maps. 1964. 
Bulletin 193. Archeological investigations in the Parita and Santa Maria 
zones of Panama, by John Ladd. xii-f-291 pp., 25 pis., 68 figs., 2 maps, 
14 charts. 1964. 

ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY PUBLICATIONS 

Publication during the year in the series Smithsonian Contributions 
to Astrophysics follows: 

VOLUME 8 

No. 4. The velocity of faint meteors, by Gerald S. Hawkins, Bertil-Anders 

Lindblad, and Richard B. Southworth. Pp. 133-139, 3 figs., September 

2, 1964. 
No. 5. On the luminous efficiency of meteors, by Franco Verniani. Pp. 

141-172, 8 figs., June 17, 1965. 
No. 6. Second catalog of hourly meteor rates, by Charles P. Olivier. Pp. 

171-180, May 11, 1965. 
No. 7. Meteor geomagnetic effects, by Sydney Chapman and Attia A. Ashour. 

Pp. 181-197, 4 figs., June 9, 1965. 
No. 8. The Henbury meteorite craters, by Paul W. Hodge. Pp. 199-213, 17 

figs., April 20, 1965. 

National Air Museum Publications 

The following monographs were issued during the year in the new 
series Smithsonian Annals of Flight: 

VOLUME 1 

No. 1. The first nonstop coast-to-coast flight and the historic T-2 airplane, 
by Louis S. Casey. Pp. x-f-1-90, 44 figs., December 17, 1964. 



PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION 397 

No. 2. The first airplane diesel engine: Packard model DR-980 of 1928, by 
Robert B. Meyer. Pp. vii+48, 38 figs., April 30, 1965. 

National Collection of Fine Arts Publications 
The following catalogs were issued during the year: 

Stuart Davis memorial exhibition. 98 pp., illustr. (Publ. 4614.) 1965. 
Traveling Exhibitions Catalog, 1965-1966. 61 pp., illustr. (Publ. 4609.) 

1965. 
Sketches by Constable from the Victoria and Albert Museum. 79 pp., illustr. 

(Publ. 4610.) 1965. 
Medieval frescoes from Yugoslavia. 32 pp., illustr. (Publ. 4594.) 1965. 
Brazilian tapestries of Genaro de Carvalho. 4 pp. (Publ. 4592.) 1964. 
American primitive watercolors. 16 pp. (Publ. 4591.) 1964. (25 cents.) 
Watercolors by Pop Hart. 4 pp. (Publ. 4607.) 1964. 
Old master prints. 4 pp. 1964. 
Brass rubbings from England. 4 pp. 1964. 
Eugene Berman: New stage designs. 4 pp. 1964. 

Freer Gallery of Art Publications 

Hokusai paintings and drawings in the Freer Gallery of Art. 38 pp. 35 figs. + 

2 color. (Publ. 4419.) Revised edition, 1965. ($1.) 
James McNeill Whistler: A biographical outline, illustrated from the collections 

of the Freer Gallery of Art, by Burns A. Stubbs. 29 pp. 28 pis. Freer 

Gallery of Art Occasional Papers, vol. 1, No. 4. (Publ. 3994.) 1965 

(reprint of 1950 edition). ($1.) 

American Historical Association Reports 

The annual reports of the American Historical Association are trans- 
mitted by the Association to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion and are by him communicated to Congress, as provided in the act 
of incorporation of the Association. The following reports were issued 
during the year: 

Annual report of the American Historical Association for the year 1963. Vol. 1. 
Proceedings. xxvii4-302 pp. December 15, 1964. 

Report of the National Society, Daughters of the American 

r.evolution 

In accordance with law, the manuscript of the 67th annual report 
of the National Society, Daughters of the American Revolution, was 
transmitted to Congress on March 19, 1965. 1 



1 D.A.R. reports are published as Senate documents and are not available from the Smithsonian 
Institution. 



398 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM 

Requests for publications and information showed a substantial 
increase during the year. The Publications Distribution Section, under 
the immediate supervision of Mrs. Eileen M. McCarthy, received 
41,014 requests for publications from foreign and domestic libraries, 
universities, research institutions, educational establishments, and 
individuals throughout the world. 

A total of 1,082,479 publications, miscellaneous items, and informa- 
tion leaflets were distributed during fiscal 1965. 

The following titles were issued and sent to libraries as a result of the 
Institution's participation in the National Science Foundation translation 
program : 

Berg, L. S. 

Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries, vols. 2 and 3. 
Borutsku, E. V. 

Freshwater Harpacticoida. Fauna of U.S.S.R., Crustacea, vol. 3, No. 4. 
Byalynitskii-Birulya, A. A. 

Scorpions. Fauna of Russia and adjacent countries, Arachnoidea, vol. 1. 

Arthrogastric Arachnids of Caucasia. Part 1 , Scorpions. 
Jerzmanska, Anna. 

Ichthyofauna from the Jasto Shales of Sobniow. Acta Palaeontologica 

Polonica, vol. 5, No. 4. 
Mischenko, L. L. 

Locusts and grasshoppers. Fauna of U.S.S.R., Orthoptera, vol. 4, No. 2. 
Nikol'skii, A. M. 

Ophidia. Fauna of Russia and adjacent countries, reptiles, vol. 2. 
Tarasov, S. V. 

Technology of watch production. 
Telenga, N. A. 

Braconidai. Fauna of the U.S.S.R., Hymenoptera, vol. 5, No. 4. 
Shishkin, B. K., editor. 

Flora of the U.S.S.R., vol. 3. 

INFORMATION PROGRAM 

With the growth of the Institution and the inauguration of many 
new programs, the day-to-day business of keeping the press and other 
communications media informed concerning the Smithsonian became 
highly accelerated. So much so that on July 20, 1964, a full-time 
press officer, George Berklacy, joined the staff. During the year 
stepped-up information activities included: 

1. Issuance of more than 100 press releases on noteworthy events 
and scientific researches. 



PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATION 399 

2. Distribution of 10 news features to specialized media. 

3. Answering some 500 written inquiries and more than 1,500 
telephone calls for specific information. 

4. Arranging and holding press conferences in advance of major 
exhibitions or activities. 

5. Giving information to approximately 300 visitors, many of them 
newsmen and writers, who sought knowledge concerning the work, 
facilities, history, and resources of the Institution. 

6. Installation of "Dial-a-Satellite" service. This tape-recorded 
message was inaugurated as a public service to furnish listeners within 
a radius of 150 miles of the Smithsonian with up-to-date information 
on the location of satellites and other astronomical phenomena. 
More than 700 individuals dialed daily for the message. 



PRINTING PROGRAM 

The Smithsonian Print Shop, a branch of the Government Printing 
Office under the immediate supervision of Murray C. Ballard, operated 
at more than maximum capacity during the past year, completing 
704 individual printing jobs, or approximately 28 percent more than 
the preceding year These assignments included labels, forms, invita- 
tions, programs, leaflets, flyers, announcements, and other printing of 
a current and emergency nature. 



OTHER ACTIVITIES 

For the first time the Smithsonian participated with a publications 
exhibit at the annual meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science in Montreal, December 27-30, 1964. The 
exhibit also encompassed the work of the Smithsonian in general with 
particular emphasis on its research and museum programs. Not only 
did the chief of the division attend the Montreal meeting, but he and 
two editors in the division represented the Institution at the annual 
meeting of the Association of American University Presses held the 
latter part of May in Lexington, Ky. 

The Smithsonian Institution and T.F.H. Publications, Inc., of Jersey 
City, N.J., in May 1963 entered into an agreement to establish a re- 
stricted fund to be known as the "T.F.H. fund for the increase and 
diffusion of knowledge concerning fishes suitable for home aquaria." 
T.F.H. will donate to the Smithsonian Institution reprinted books to 
be sold by the Institution at not less than cost. The money derived 



400 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

from such sales will be earmarked for research, collection or purchase 
of fish specimens, explorations, and publication of scientific reports 
related to aquarium fishes. The second reprint under this agreement 
was published March 29, 1965; it is The Fresh-Water Fishes of Siam, or 
Thailand, by Hugh M. Smith, Bulletin 188 of the U.S. National 
Museum, originally issued in 1945. 

STAFF CHANGES 

Three new editors were added to the staff of the division during the 
past year: Harriet T. Douty on July 13, 1964; Ernest E. Biebighauser 
on August 2, 1964; and Mrs. Joan B. Horn on September 8, 1964. 

On July 20, 1964, George J. Berklacy was appointed press officer, 
and on January 17, 1965, Grimilda Pontes joined the staff as assistant 
in the design department. 

Mrs. Dorothy M. Watson was. appointed clerk-stenographer on 
March 31, 1965, following the resignation of Sue D. Wallace on 
January 29, 1965. 



Report of the Executive Committee of the 

Board of Regents of the Smithsonian 

Institution 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1965 



Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 

For the Year Ended June 30, 1965 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following report 
in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution, together with a 
statement of the appropriations by Congress for the Government bu- 
reaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



Parent Fund 

The original bequest of James Smithson was £104,960 8s 6d 
($508,318.46). Refunds of money expended in prosecution of the 
claim, freight, insurance, and other incidental expenses, together 
with payment into the fund of the sum of £5,015, which had been 
withheld during the lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought the 
fund to the amount of $550,000. 

The gift of James Smithson was "lent to the United States Treasury, 
at 6 per centum per annum interest" (20 U.S.G. 54) and by the Act 
of March 12, 1894 (20 U.S.C. 55) the Secretary of the Treasury was 
"authorized to receive into the Treasury, on the same terms as the 
original bequest of James Smithson, such sums as the Regents may, 
from time to time see fit to deposit, not exceeding, with the original 
bequest the sum of $1,000,000." 

The maximum of $1,000,000 which the Smithsonian Institution 
was authorized to deposit in the Treasury of the United States was 
reached on January 11, 1917, by the deposit of $2,000. 

Under the above authority the amounts shown below are deposited 

403 



404 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

in the United States Treasury and draw 6 percent interest: 

Unrestricted 
Donor funds Income 1965 

James Smithson $727, 640 $43, 658. 40 

Avery 14, 000 840. 00 

Habel 500 30.00 

Hamilton 2,500 150.00 

Hodgkins (General) 116,000 6,960.00 

Poore 26, 670 1, 600. 20 

Rhees 590 35.40 

Sanford 1,100 66.00 



?, 000 $53, 340. 00 
Restricted 
funds 

Hodgkins (Specific) $100, 000 6, 000. 00 

Reid 11,000 660.00 



111,000 6,660.00 



,000,000 $60,000.00 



In addition to the $1,000,000 deposited in the Treasury of the United 
States there has been accumulated from income and bequests the 
sum of $7,314,088.20 which has been invested. Of this sum, 
$6,232,813.25 is carried on the books of the Institution as the Con- 
solidated Fund, a policy approved by the Regents at their meeting 
on December 14, 1916. The balance is made up of several small 
funds. 



report of the executive committee 405 
Consolidated Fund 

[Income for the unrestricted use of the Institution] 

Fund Investment 1965 Income 1965 

Abbott, W. L., Special $24,420.96 $1,197.37 

* Avery, Robert S., and Lydia 64,746.08 3,174.52 

Forrest, Robert Lee 1,771,443.93 86,855.18 

Gifts, royalties, gain on sale of securities .... 452, 590. 06 22, 1 90. 56 

Hachenberg, George P., and Caroline .... 6, 592. 34 323. 24 

♦Hamilton, James 661.65 32.44 

Hart, Gustavus E 798. 37 39. 12 

Henry, Caroline 1,982.44 97.21 

Henry, Joseph and Harriet A 80, 353. 01 3, 939. 70 

Higbee, Harry, Memorial Fund 19,211.07 941.93 

*Hodgkins, Thomas G. (General) 49, 654. 39 2, 434. 55 

Morrow, Dwight W 126,754.98 6,214.84 

Olmsted, Helen A 1,314.17 64.43 

*Poore, Lucy T. and George W 266,780.80 13,080.31 

Porter, Henry Kirke 469,448.21 23,017.17 

*Rhees, William Jones 775. 49 38. 03 

*Sanford, George H 1,459.13 71.56 

*Smithson, James 2,001.15 98.16 

Taggart, Gansen 586. 25 28. 72 

Witherspoon, Thomas A 211,535.38 10,371.60 

Total $3,553,109.86 $174,210.64 

*In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 



406 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Consolidated Fund 

[Income restricted to specific use] 

Fund Investment 1965 

Abbott, William L., for investigations in biology . $170, 887. 51 

Armstrong, Edwin James, for use of Department of 
Invertebrate Paleontology when principal 

amounts to $5,000. 00 2, 370. 64 

Arthur, James, for investigations and study of the 

sun and annual lecture on same 65 , 556. 00 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy, for traveling scholarship 

to investigate fauna of countries other than the 

United States 82,123. 80 

Baird, Lucy H., for creating a memorial to Secre- 
tary Baird 60,098. 06 

Barney, Alice Pike, for collection of paintings and 

pastels and for encouragement of American 

artistic endeavor 47,014. 08 

Barstow, Frederick D., for purchase of animals for 

Zoological Park 1 ,638. 70 

Brown, Roland W., endowment fund — study, care, 

and improvement of the Smithsonian paleo- 

botanical collections 53,393. 25 

Canfield collection, for increase and care of the 

Canfield collection of minerals 62 ,693. 53 

Casey, Thomas L., for maintenance of the Casey 

collection and promotion of researches relating 

to Coleoptera 20 , 546. 1 5 

Chamberlain, Francis Lea, for increase and pro- 
motion of Isaac Lea Collection of gems and 

mollusks 46,159. 90 

Dykes, Charles, for support in financial research. . 70,572. 10 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort, for preservation 

and exhibition of the photographic collection 

of Rudolph Eickemeyer, Jr 17,816. 94 

Guggenheim, David and Florence, Foundation for 

a commemorative Guggenheim Exhibit, an 

annual Daniel Guggenheim Lecture, and 

annual Guggenheim Fellowships for graduate 

students for research at the National Air 

Museum 25,251.29 

Hanson, Martin Gustav and Caroline Runice, for 

some scientific work of the Institution, prefer- 
ably in chemistry or medicine 14,572. 05 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 407 

Consolidated Fund — continued 

Fund Investment 7965 Income 7965 

Higbee, Harry, income for general use of the 

Smithsonian Institution after June 11, 1967. . $873. 99 $40. 31 

Hillyer, Virgil, for increase and care of Virgil 

Hillyer collection of lighting objects 10,772. 90 528. 21 

Hitchcock, Albert S., for care of the Hitchcock 

Agrostological Library 2,586.50 126.83 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie, to further researches in 
physical anthropology and publication in 
connection therewith 95,007. 12 4,440. 48 

Hughes, Bruce, to found Hughes alcove 31,375.95 1 538 39 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore, research in underwater 

photography 13,168.61 615.47 

Loeb, Morris, for furtherance of knowledge in the 

exact sciences 142,858.52 7,004.39 

Long, Annette and Edith C, for upkeep and preser- 
vation of Long collection of embroideries, laces, 
and textiles 890 02 43 63 

Maxwell, Mary E., for care and exhibition of Max- 
well collection 32,151.01 1,576.37 

Myer, Catherine Walden, for purchase of first-class 
works of art for use and benefit of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts 33,109. 66 1 ,623. 37 

Nelson, Edward W., for support of biological 

studies 39,014.44 1,912.88 

Noyes, Frank B., for use in connection with the col- 
lection of dolls placed in the U.S. National 
Museum through the interest of Mr. and Mrs. 
Noyes „ 1,574.79 77.21 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston, for maintenance of 

Alfred Duane Pell collection 12,150. 22 595 72 

Petrocelli, Joseph, for the care of the Petrocelli col- 
lection of photographic prints and for the en- 
largement and development of the section of 
photography of the U.S. National Museum . . 12 , 1 51. 68 595. 81 

Rathbun, Richard, for use of division of U.S. Na- 
tional Museum containing Crustacea 17,434. 18 854. 77 

*Reid, Addison T., for founding chair in biology, 

in memory of Asher Tunis 29,156. 18 1 ,429. 53 

Roebling Collection, for care, improvement, and 

increase of Roebling collection of minerals ... 197, 828. 71 9 , 699. 58 

Roebling Solar Research 41 , 1 04. 53 2 015.33 

Rollins, Miriam and William, for investigations in 

physics and chemistry 250,459.26 11,986.20 

Smithsonian employees' retirement 37,471.48 1 853.35 

*In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 



408 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Consolidated Fund — continued 

Fund Investment 1965 Income 1965 

Smithsonian Institution and THF $7 , 543. 98 $216. 66 

Springer, Frank, for care and increase of the 

Springer collection and library 29 ,394. 98 1, 441. 22 

Strong, Julia D., for benefit of the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts 16,389.20 803.56 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, for develop- 
ment of geological and paleontological studies 

and publishing results of same 787 , 543. 04 38 , 574. 76 

Walcott, Mary Vaux, for publication in botany . . 94,883.87 4,652.19 

Younger, Helen Walcott 127,107.05 6,737.52 

Zerbee, Francis Brinckle, for endowment of 

aquaria 1 ,554. 86 76. 22 



Total $2,806,250.73 $137,370.95 



Freer Gallery of Art Fund 

Early in 1906, by deed of gift, Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, gave to 
the Institution his collection of Chinese and other Oriental objects of 
art, as well as paintings, etchings, and other works of art by Whistler, 
Thayer, Dewing, and other artists. Later he also gave funds for con- 
struction of a building to house the collection, and finally in his will, 
probated November 6, 1919, he provided stocks and securities to the 
estimated value of $1, 958, 591. 42 as an endowment fund for the oper- 
ation of the Gallery. The fund now amounts to $11, 345, 500. 73. 



report of the executive committee 409 
Summary of Endowments 

Invested endowment for general purposes $5, 278, 509. 86 

Invested endowment for specific purposes other than Freer en- 
dowment 3, 035, 578. 34 

Total invested endowment other than Freer 8, 314, 088. 20 

Freer invested endowment for specific purposes 11,345,500.73 

Total invested endowment for all purposes $19,659,588.93 



Classification of Investments 

Deposited in the U.S. Treasury at 6 percent per annum, as 

authorized in the U.S. Revised Statutes, sec. 5591 Si, 000, 000. 00 

Investments other than Freer endowment (cost or market value 
at date acquired): 

Bonds $2, 869, 467. 95 

Stocks 3,416,006.37 

Real estate and mortgages 951, 406. 00 

Uninvested capital 77,207.88 7,314,088.20 

Total investments other than Freer en- 
dowment 8,314,088.20 

Investments of Freer endowment (cost or 
market value at date acquired): 

Bonds $6,270,238.91 

Stocks 4,869,718.34 

Uninvested capital 205,543.48 11,345,500.73 

Total investments $19,659,588.93 



789-127—66 39 



410 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Current funds: 
General: 
Cash: 
United States Treasury 
current account 
Inbanks and on hand 



Investments — stocks and 
bonds (quoted market 
value $1,418,400.00) 
(note) 

Travel and other advances 

Total general funds 
Restricted: 
Cash: 
United States Treasury 

current account 
In banks 

Investments — stocks and 
bonds (quoted market 
value $1,695,875.00) 
(note) 

Total restricted 
funds 



SMITHSONIAN 
BALANCE SHEET OF PRIVATE 



Assets 



$583,587.85 
40, 549. 99 



1,695,540.60 



$1,662,558.56 
112,511.03 

1,775,069.59 



1,459,651.17 
20, 262. 26 

3, 254, 983. 02 



2,319,678.44 



Total current funds 



5,574,661.46 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 411 

EXHIBIT A 



INSTITUTION 
FUNDS, JUNE 30, 1965 

Current funds: 
General: 
Unexpended funds — 
unrestricted 
(Exhibit B) 

Total general 
funds 



Fund Balances 



$3, 254, 983. 02 



3, 254, 983. 02 



Restricted (Exhibit C): 
Unexpended income from 

endowment 
Funds for special 
purposes: 
Gifts 
Grants 
Contracts 

Total restricted 
funds 

Total current 
funds 



1,351,543.59 



615,908.71 
613, 902. 20 
(261, 676. 06) 



2,319,678.44 



5. 574. 661. 46 



412 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Assets — Continued 
Endowment funds and funds 
functioning as endowment: 
Investments: 
Freer Gallery of Art: 
Gash $205, 543. 48 

Stocks and bonds 
(quoted market 
value 

$17,276,105.00) 
(note) 11,139,957.25 



11,345,500.73 



Consolidated: 
Cash $77, 207. 88 

Stocks and bonds 

(quoted market value 

$7,852,739.00) (note) 6, 155, 605. 37 



6,232,813.25 
Loan to United States 

Treasury 1,000,000.00 

Other stocks and bonds 

(quoted market value 

$177,204.00) (note) 129, 868. 95 

Real estate 951,406.00 8,314,088.20 



Total endowment 
funds and funds 
functioning as 
endowment 19,659,588.93 



$25, 234, 250. 39 



Note: Investments are stated at cost or appraisal value at date of gift. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 413 

Fund Balances — Continued 

Endowment funds and funds 
functioning as endowment 
(Exhibit D): 
Freer Gallery of Art $11, 345, 500. 73 

Other: 
Restricted $3, 035, 578. 34 

General 5, 278, 509. 86 



8,314,088.20 



Total endowment 
funds and 
funds function- 
ing as endow- 
ment 19,659,588.93 



$25, 234, 250. 39 



414 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



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REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 417 

EXHIBIT D 

Smithsonian Institution 

PRIVATE FUNDS 

STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN PRINCIPAL OF ENDOWMENT 

FUNDS AND FUNDS FUNCTIONING AS ENDOWMENT 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1965 

Balance at beginning of year $19, 220, 868. 62 

Add: 

Income added to principal as prescribed by donor 12, 010. 79 

Transfer from unexpended income for investment 7, 171. 64 

Net gain on investments 419,537.88 



Balance at end of year 19, 659, 588. 93 



Balance at end of year consisting of: 

Freer Gallery of Art 11, 345, 500. 73 

Other: 
Restricted 3, 035, 578. 34 

General 5, 278, 509. 86 

$19,659,588.93 



418 



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REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 421 

The practice of maintaining savings accounts in several of the Wash- 
ington banks and trust companies has been continued during the past 
year, and interest on these deposits amounted to $4,017.04. 

Deposits are made in banks for convenience in collection of checks, 
and later such funds are withdrawn and deposited in the United States 
Treasury. Disbursement of funds is made by check signed by the Secre- 
tary of the Institution and drawn on the United States Treasury. 

The Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and grants from the 
following : 

Ernest L. Abernathy, a gift to the Satellite General Program. 

American Heritage Publishing Company, a gift for the purchase of historical 

materials for the National Air Museum. 
American Petroleum Institute, a grant for research entitled "The Crustose 

Corallines of the North Atlantic." 
American Philosophical Society, a grant to defray expenses for expedition to 

Greece and Turkey. 
Anonymous donor, a gift for the Department of Botany. 

Anonymous donor, a gift to the Smithsonian Institution Bicentennial Ceremony. 
Anonymous donor, a gift for the restoration of the Belmont furniture. 
Appalachian Power Company, a grant for the survey of the areas on the New 

River in Virginia and North Carolina. 
Archbold Foundation, a grant for the support of research entitled "Biological 

Survey of Dominica Project." 
Atomic Energy Commission, a grant for research entitled "A Study of the 

Biochemical Effects of Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation on Plant Metab- 
olism During Development." 
Bredin Foundation, a grant for the support of research entitled "Biological 

Survey of dominica Project." 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Campbell, a gift to the Zoo Animal Fund. 
Joanne Toor Cummings, a gift for the purpose of acquiring ceramics and glass. 
DeBeers Consolidated Mines, Ltd., a gift to defray travel expenses to South 

Africa. 
Department of Agriculture, a grant toward the purchase of the J. Douglas Hood 

Collection of thrips. 
Department of Air Force: 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Study of Atomic and Electronic 
Collision Processes which occur in the Atmosphere at Auroral Heights." 

Grant for studies directed toward the development of a technique for measur- 
ing wind speed and direction at heights using ionized paths generated by 
meteors. 

Grant for the purpose of training personnel in tracking space object #388. 

Grant for the purpose of the observation in tracking space object #388. 

Grant for the purpose of training 8 personnel on the Baker-Nunn. 

Grant to provide optical satellite tracking support for two nights for program 
162. 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Researches — Molecular Collisions." 



422 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Compilation of a Subject Index 
and Cross Reference Listing for the 1964 OAR-AFRR." 
Department of Army: 

Grant for the support of basic research entitled "Potential Vectors and 
Reservoirs of Disease in Strategic Overseas Area." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Mammals and Their Ectoparasites 
from Iran." 

Grant for support of research on the analysis of bird migration in the 
Pacific Area and the study of the ecology of birds and mammals on one or 
more Pacific Islands. 

Grant for the support of research entitled "The Mosquitoes of Southeast 
Asia." 
Department of Interior: 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Bird Guide." 

Grant for the support of research entitled "Tropical Fishes." 

Grant for the purpose for the preparation of camera-ready copy of research 
data suitable for photocopying and printing as a current Water Resources 
Research Catalog. 
Department of Navy, a grant for the support of the Careers in Oceanography 

Fund. 
James M. Doubleday, a gift to the Historic Dresses Fund. 
Carl Dry, a gift for support of Smithsonian Institution's participation in an 

around the world cruise by Thomas Kurth and party. 
Ford Motor Co., a gift in support of the model foundry for the Iron and Steel 

Hall. 
General Motors Corporation, a gift to defray expenses in connection with 

International Council of Museums Committee for Museums of Science and 

Technology. 
Mrs. Robert H. Goddard, a gift for the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Fund. 
R. M. Griffin, a gift to the Zoo Animal Fund. 
E. P. Henderson, a gift for the support of research entitled "Meteorite and 

Tektite Research Fund." 
Historical Society of Montana, a contribution for the support of the Smithsonian 

Institution. 
Ethel R. Holmes, a gift for the Milton A. Holmes Memorial Fund 

"Numismatics." 
Ethel R. Holmes, a gift for the Milton A. Holmes Memorial Fund "Philately." 
International Association of Geodesy, a gift for the support of operation of 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Central Bureau of Geodesy. 
International Astronomical Union, a gift for the support of the Central Bureau 

for Astronomical Telegrams. 
Felix and Helen Juda Foundation, a gift to the Freer Gallery of Art for the 

purchase of collections. 
Joseph H. Kler, a gift for the Delaware Log House Exhibit. 
H. P. Kraus, a gift to the Freer Gallery of Art Library Fund. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 423 

Edwin A. Link, a gift for the support of the Oceanography Program of the 

Smithsonian Institution. 
Link Foundation: 
Grant for the support of the Second Annual Edwin A. Link Lecture. 
Grant for the preparation of a leaflet about the Oceanographic Sorting 
Center. 
Eugene and Agnes Meyer Foundation, a gift for the James Smithson Bicen- 
tennial Celebration. 
J. Jefferson Miller II, gift for the Gardner-Miller Ceramics and Glass Fund. 
Kathryn and Gilbert Miller Fund, Incorporated, gift for the support of the 

National Portrait Gallery. 
Jacques Minkus, gift for the purchase of Eleanor Roosevelt's eyeglasses and 

chain. 
Ambrose Monell Foundation, gift for the James Smithson Bicentennial 

Celebration. 
National Aeronautics and Space Administration: 
Grant for the procurement of photoreduction equipment for Satellite Track- 
ing Program. 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Optical Satellite Tracking 

Program." 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Textures of Meteorites." 
Grant for research of the systematic recovery of meteorites and the photog- 
raphy of meteorites in flight. 
Grant for the support of basic scientific research entitled "Physical and 

Chemical Investigations of Tektites and Related Glassy Materials." 
Grant for research studies in the recovery and analysis of space fragments. 
Grant for the scientific and engineering study for instrumenting an orbiting 

telescope. 
Grant for research entitled "Computation of Data Reduction of S-16 High 
Energy Gamma-Ray Experiment." 
National Geographic Society: 
Grant for support of research entitled "Investigation of the Crustose Coralline 

of North America." 
Grant for support of an aerial survey of Stonehenge and Callanish. 
Grant for support of meteorite-tektite studies in Australia. 
National Lead Company, gift for the design and furnishing of an exhibit on 

drilling mud. 
National Science Foundation: 
Additional grants for the support of research projects entitled as follows: 
"Early Tertiary Mammals of North America." 
"Earth Albedo Observations." 
"Revisionary Study of Blattoidea." 
"Rare Gases in Meteorites." 

"Morphology and Paleoecology of Permian Branchiopods of the Glass 
Mountain, Texas." 



424 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

"South Asian Microlepidoptera, particularly the Philippine Series." 

"Photoresponse and Optical Properties of Phycomyces Sporangiophores." 

"Taxonomy of Bamboos." 

"Lower Cretaceous Ostracoda of Israel." 

"Marine Mollusks of Polynesia." 

"Tertiary Echinoids of the Eastern United States and the Caribbean." 

"Zoogeography of Southern Ocean Sclearactinian Coral Faunas." 

"The American Commensal Crabs of the Family Pinnotheridae." 

"Indo-Australian Vespidae sens. lat. and Specidae." 

"Support of publication of an English translation of Flora of Japan, by 

Jisaburo Ohwi." 
"Revision of Genera of Paleozoic Bryozoa." 
"Monographic Studies of the Tingidae of the World." 
"Study of Type Specimens of Ferns in European Herbaria." 
"Polychaetous Annelids of New England." 
"The Phanerogams of Colombia." 
"Monograph of Parmelia Subgenus Xanthoparmelia." 
"Revision of Scarab Beetles of the Genus Ataenius." 
"Systemic Studies of the Archidaceae, Subtribe Epidendrinae." 
"A Monograph of the Stomatopod Crustaceans of the Western Atlantic." 
"Recording of Data for Specimens Collected During the U.S. Antarctic 

Program." 
"Distribution of North America Calanoid and Harpacticoid Copepoda." 
"Magalithic Structures of Panope." 
"Collection of Meteorites and Tektites in Australia." 
"Installation of powerline to Barro Colorado from Mainland." 
"Upper Cretaceous Inoceraminae in North America and Western Europe." 
"Environment of Permo-Triassic Reptiles of the Order Therapsida in 

South Africa." 
"Taxonomic and Biological Studies of Neotropical Water Beetles." 
"Evolution and Distribution of Parmelia in Eastern Asia and Pacific." 
"Sorting of U.S. Antarctic Research Program Biological Collections." 
"Taxonomic Studies of the Family Stenomidae in Neotropical Region." 
"Pre-Industrial System of Water Management in Arid Region." 
"Effects of Displacement." 
"Revisionary Studies in the Chilopoda." 
"Photographic Investigations of Comets." 
"Purchase of the Hood Collection of Thrips." 
"Archeological Survey of Southwestern Kansas." 

"Taxonomic and Biological Studies on Central American Caddisflies." 
"Undergraduate Research Participation Program." 
"Identification Guide to Antarctic Birds." 
"Ostracoda of the Indian Ocean." 

"Sorting of Collections from the U.S. Antarctic Research Program." 
"Sorting of Collections from the International Indian Ocean Expedition." 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 425 

"Systematic of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Gammaridean 

Amphipods." 
"Eltanin Cruise Participations." 
"Stellar Atmospheres." 

"Comparative Study of Molluscan Faunas of Tertiary Stages." 
"The Mammals of Panama." 
"Systematics of Stomiatoid Fishes." 
"Cooperative Systematics Studies in Antarctic Biology." 
Neinken Foundation, a gift for defraying the cost to Europe in order to investi- 
gate collections. 
H. F. O'Brien, grant for work in marine archeology to be known as the O'Brien 

Marine Archeology Fund. 
Office of Naval Research: 
Grant for the purpose of conducting a conference on "The Formation of 

Spectrum Lines." 
Grant to perform aeronautical research studies. 

Grant to provide expert consultants to advise the Navy Advisory Committee. 
Grant for the purpose of conducting systematic zoological research on the 

marine fauna of Tropical Pacific Area. 
Grant to perform psychological research studies. 
Grant for the support of research entitled "Information of Shark Distribution, 

and Distribution of Shark Attack all over the World." 
Grant for studies concerning the development of a proposal for an institute for 

Laboratory of human performance standards. 
Grant for research entitled "Behavior of Animals Associated with Coral 

Reefs." 
Grant for research entitled "Microlepidoptera of the Island of Rapa." 
Grant for support of research entitled "Studies of the Ecology, Distribution 
and Classification of South American Birds." 
Research Corporation, grant for its convocation of prominent scholars and 

scientists in recognition of the Smithson Bicentennial Celebration. 
Bernard T. Rocca, Sr., gift to purchase a very fine gold nugget from Colombia. 
Bernard T. Rocca, Sr., gift to the Rocca Fund. 
Rockefeller Foundation, grant for support of research entitled "Relationship 

of Birds to Arthropod Transmitted Virus Disease." 
S and H Foundation, grant to help defray the expense of the Bicentennial 

Celebration of the birth of James Smithson. 
Frank R. Schwengel, grant to the Jeanne Schwengel Memorial Fund. 
Montgomery Scott Company, grant to the Burleigh Rock Drill Fund. 
Shell Oil Foundation, grant for the purchase of photographs of World War I. 
Sidney Printing and Publishing Company, grant for the purchase of U.S. coins. 
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, grant for support of the observance of the 200th 

anniversary of the birth of the founder of the Smithsonian Institution. 
E. R. Squibb and Sons, grant for the purpose of enriching the Squibb Ancient 

Pharmacy. 
St. Petersburg Shell Company, grant for the St. Petersburg Shell Company 
Fund. 

789-427—66 40 



426 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 

For the purpose of the Smithson Bicentennial Ceremony: 

Anonymous Alexander C. Liggett 

Laura D. Barney Henry P. Mcllhenny 

John Nicholas Brown Paul Mellon 

Mrs. Henry Cook Mrs. Paul Moore 

David and Margey Finley Mrs. William Morden 

Crawford H. Greenwald Marjorie Merriweather Post 

Wilmarth Lewis Thomas Watson 

United States Steel Company, grant to defray the cost of a model of an in- 
tegrated steel plant. 

University of Michigan, a contribution to the Freer Gallery of Art for the ARS 
ORIENTALIS Fund. 

I. E. Wallen, a grant to provide for underseas vehicle experience by the 
Smithsonian Institution staff. 

C. Malcolm Watkins, a grant for the purchase of New York State pottery. 

Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation, gift to the Freer Gallery of Art for the 
Library Fund. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation, a grant to aid steady and analysis of skeletal ma- 
terial from Near Eastern sites. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation, a grant to aid attendance of non-LJ.S. anthropolo- 
gists at the Bicentennial celebration of the birth of James Smithson. 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, grant to permit the participation in 
the International Indian Ocean Expedition. 

Charles M. Wormser, grant to provide acquisitions for the Division of 
Numismatics. 

The following appropriations were made by Congress for the Govern- 
ment bureaus under the administrative charge of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the fiscal year 1965: 

Salaries and Expenses $15,540,000.00 

National Zoological Park $1,738,565.00 

The appropriation made to the National Gallery of Art (which is a 

bureau of the Smithsonian Institution) was $2,176,000.00 

Iii addition, funds were transferred from other Government agencies 
for expenditure under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution as 
follows : 

Working funds, transferred from the National Park Service, 
Interior Department, for archeological investigations in river 
basins throughout the United States $237, 000. 00 

The Institution also administers a trust fund for partial support of the 
Canal Zone Biological Area, located on Barro Colorado Island in the 
Canal Zone. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 427 

AUDIT 

The report of the audit of the Smithsonian Private Funds follows: 

THE BOARD OF REGENTS, 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20560 

We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smithsonian Insti- 
tution as of June 30, 1965, and the related statement of current general private 
fund receipts and disbursements and several statements of changes in funds 
for the year then ended. Our examination was made in accordance with 
generally accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests of 
the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we considered 
necessary in the circumstances. 

Except for certain real estate acquired by gift or purchased from proceeds 
of gifts which are valued at cost or appraised value at date of gift, land, build- 
ings, furniture, equipment, works of art, living and other specimens and certain 
sundry property are not included in the accounts of the Institution; likewise, 
the accompanying statements do not include the National Gallery of Art, the 
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and other departments, 
bureaus and operations administered by the Institution under Federal Appro- 
priations. The accounts of the Institution are maintained on the basis of cash 
receipts and disbursements, with the result that the accompanying statements 
do not reflect income earned but not collected or expenses incurred but not paid. 

In our opinion, subject to the matters referred to in the preceding paragraph, 
the accompanying statement of private funds presents fairly the assets and funds 
principal of Smithsonian Institution at June 30, 1965; further, the accompany- 
ing statement of current general private fund receipts and disbursements and 
several statements of changes in funds, which have been prepared on a basis 
consistent with that of the preceding year, present fairly the cash transactions 
of the private funds for the year then ended. 

Washington, D.C. PEAT, MARWICK, MITCHELL & CO. 

October 8, 1965 

Respectfully submitted: 

Robert V. Fleming 
Caryl P. Haskins 
Clinton P. Anderson 

Executive Committee. 



STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

June 30, 1965 



Office of the Secretary 
Special Assistants 



Executive Assistant 

Treasurer 

General Counsel 

Editorial and Publications 

Education and Training 

Library 

Library of Congress Liaison 

Fine Arts Special Project 

Special Projects 

Smithsonian Museum 

Service 
Personnel 

Buildings Management 
Supply Division 
Photographic Services Division 



Theodore W. Taylor, Assistant to the Secre- 
tary 

Philip C. Ritterbush, scientific matters 

William W. Warner, international activities 

John Whitelaw, research staff 

Robert W. Mason 

Otis O. Martin 

Peter G. Powers 

Paul H. Oehser, Chief 

Jerold Roschwalb, Assistant Director 

Mrs. Mary A. Huffer, Acting Librarian 

Ruth E. Blanchard 

Thomas M. Beggs 

Robert N. Cunningham, Director, Smithson 
Bicentennial Celebration 

G. Carroll Lindsay, Curator 

J. A. Kennedy, Director 
Andrew F. Michaels, Jr., Director 
A. W. Wilding, Chief 
O. H. Greeson, Chief 



Honorary Smithsonian Fellows, Associates, Collaborators, Custodians 
of Collections, and Honorary Curators 



Anthropology 



Vertebrate ^oology 



John M. Campbell (Archeology), Sister Inez 
Hilger (Ethnology), C. G. Holland (Arche- 
ology), Neil M. Judd (Archeology), Olga 
Linares de Sapir (Archeology), Betty J. 
Meggers (Archeology), Frank H. H. 
Roberts, Jr. (Archeology), Matthew W. 
Stirling (Archeology), Walter W. Taylor, 
Jr. (Anthropology), William J. Tobin 
(Physical Anthropology), Nathalie F. S. 
Woodbury (Archeology) 

John W. Aldrich (Birds), Oliver L. Austin 
(Birds), Leonard Carmichael (Psychology 
and Animal Behavior), Herbert G. Deig- 
nan (Birds), Robert W. Ficken (Birds), 
Herbert Friedmann (Birds), Laurence 
Irving (Birds), E. V. Komarek (Mammals), 
Richard H. Manville (Mammals), 
Michael Palmieri (Birds), Dioscoro S. 



429 



430 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Invertebrate ^oology 



Entomology 



Botany 



Paleobiology 



Mineral Sciences 

Science and Technology 
Arts and Manufactures 
Civil History 



Rabor (Birds), Lester L. Short (Birds), 
Robert Traub (Mammals), Alexander 
Wetmore (Birds) 

Willard W. Becklund (Helminthology) , 
J. Bruce Bredin (Biology), Ailsa M. Clark 
(Marine Invertebrates), Allen McIntosh 
(Mollusks), J. Percy Moore 1 (Marine In- 
vertebrates), Waldo L. Schmitt (Marine 
Invertebrates), Benjamin Schwartz (Hel- 
minthology), Mrs. Mildred Stratton 
Wilson (Copepod Crustacea) 

Doris H. Blake (Coleoptera), Melbourne 
A. Carriker, Jr. 2 (Mallophaga), Carl J. 
Drake 3 (Hemiptera), K. C. Emerson (Mal- 
lophaga), Frank M. Hull (Diptera), 
William L. Jellison (Siphonaptera, Ano- 
plura), Carl F. W. Muesebeck (Hy- 
menoptera), Thomas E. Snyder (Isoptera) 

Chester R. Benjamin (Fungi), Jose Cuatre- 
casas (Flora of Tropical South America), 
Francis R. Fosberg (Pacific Floras), Emery 
C. Leonard (Acanthaceae), Elbert L. 
Little, Jr. (Dendrology), Floyd A. 
McClure (Bamboos), Kittie F. Parker 
(Compositae), John A. Stevenson (Fungi), 
Egbert H. Walker (Myrsinaceae, Eastern 
Asian Floras), William N. Watkins (Woods) 

C. Wythe Cooke (Invertebrate Paleontology), 
J. Thomas Dutro (Invertebrate Paleon- 
tology), Remington Kellogg (Vertebrate 
Paleontology), Axel A. Olsson (Inverte- 
brate Paleontology), Franco Rasetti (In- 
vertebrate Paleontology), Wendell P. 
Woodring (Invertebrate Paleontology) 

Gunnar Kullerud (Meteorites), Waldemar 
T. Schaller (Mineralogy) 

Derek J. de Solla Price 

Hans Syz (Ceramics) 

Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood (Cultural 
History), Elmer C. Herber (History), 
Ivor Noel Hume (Cultural History), Fred 
W. McKay (Numismatics), Mrs. Emery 
May Norweb (Numismatics), R. Henry 
Norweb (Numismatics), Mrs. Joan Pear- 
son Watkins (Cultural History) 



l Deceased March 1, 1965. J Deceased July 27, 1965. 3 Deceased October 2, 1965. 



STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



431 



Armed Forces History 

Exhibits 

Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory 
Freer Gallery of Art 

National Air Museum 

National Zoological Park 
Canal %pne Biological Area 



William Rea Furlong, Frederic C. Lane, 

Byron McCandless 
W. L. Brown (Taxidermy) 
Charles G. Abbot 

Oleg Grabar, Grace Dunham Guest 4 , Max 
Loehr, Katherine N. Rhoades 

Frederick C. Crawford, Alfred V. Ver- 
ville 

E. P. Walker 

C. C. SOPER 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Director 
Registrar 

Exhibits Labels Editor 
Office of Exhibits 
Natural History Laboratory 

History and Technology 
Laboratory 

Conservation Research Laboratory 



Frank A. Taylor 
Helena M. Weiss 
George Weiner 
John E. Anglim, Chief 
A. Gilbert Wright, Assistant Chief 
Julius Tretick, Production Supervisor 
Benjamin W. Lawless, Chief 
William M. Clark, Jr., Production Super- 
visor 
Charles H. Olin, Chief 
Mrs. Jacqueline S. Olin, Chemist 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Director 

Assistant Director for 
Systematics 

Assistant Director for Oceanog- 
raphy 
Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center 

Administrative Officer 

Smithsonian Office of 
Anthropology 



Cultural Anthropology 



T. Dale Stewart 
Richard S. Cowan 

I. Eugene Wallen 

H. Adair Fehlmann, Supervisory Museum 

Specialist 
Mrs. Mabel A. Byrd 
Richard B. Woodbury, Acting Head 
Mrs. M. Blaker, Archivist 
Henry B. Collins, Senior Scientist 
Waldo R. Wedel, Senior Scientist 
Joseph Andrews, Exhibit Specialist 
Saul H. Riesenberg, Curator in Charge 
Clifford Evans, Jr., Associate Curator 
William H. Crocker, Associate Curator 
Kent V. Flannery, Associate Curator 



4 Deceased July 7, 1964. 



432 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Physical Anthropology 

River Basin Surveys 
Vertebrate ^oology 



Fishes 



Reptiles and Amphibians 
Birds 

Mammals 



Invertebrate ^oology 
Marine Invertebrates 



Mollusks 



Entomology 
Neuropteroids 



Gordon D. Gibson, Associate Curator 
Eugene I. Knez, Associate Curator 
Robert M. Laughlin, Associate Curator 
William C. Sturtevant, Associate Curator 
Gus W. Van Beek, Associate Curator 
J. Lawrence Angel, Curator in Charge 
Lucile E. Hoyme, Associate Curator 
Robert L. Stephenson, Acting Director 
Philip S. Humphrey, Chairman 
Leonard P. Schultz, Senior Scientist 
Watson M. Perrygo, Chief of Specimen Prep- 
aration Laboratory 
Ernest A. Lachner, Curator in Charge 
Victor G. Springer, Associate Curator 
William R. Taylor, Associate Curator 
Stanley H. Weitzman, Associate Curator 
Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., Associate Curator 
Leonard P. Schultz, Senior Scientist 
Doris M. Cochran, Curator in Charge 
James A. Peters, Associate Curator 
George E. Watson, Acting Curator in Charge 
Richard L. Zusi, Associate Curator 
Paul Slud, Associate Curator 
Charles O. Handley, Jr., Curator in Charge 
Henry W. Setzer, Associate Curator 
David H. Johnson, Research Curator 
Donald F. Squires, Chairman 
Raymond B. Manning, Acting Curator in 

Charge 
Thomas E. Bowman, Associate Curator 
Charles E. Cutress, Jr., Associate Curator 
Marian H. Pettibone, Associate Curator 
David L. Pawson, Associate Curator 
Meredith L. Jones, Associate Curator 
Louis S. Kornicker, Associate Curator 
J. Laurens Barnard, Associate Curator 
W. Duane Hope, Associate Curator 
Roger F. Cressey, Jr., Associate Curator 
Fenner A. Chace, Jr., Senior Scientist 
Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., Senior Scientist 
Joseph Rosewater, Acting Curator in Charge 
Joseph P. E. Morrison, Associate Curator 
Harald A. Rehder, Research Curator 
J. F. Gates Clarke, Chairman 
Oliver S. Flint, Jr., Associate Curator in 
Charge 



STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



433 



Lepidoptera 

Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 
Botany 
Phanerogams 



Ferns 

Grasses 

Cryptogams 

Plant Anatomy 
Fungi 



Paleobiology 
Invertebrate Paleontology 



Vertebrate Paleontology 

Paleobotany 
Sedimentology 



Donald R. Davis, Curator in Charge 
W. Donald Duckworth, Associate Curator 
William D. Field, Associate Curator 
Oscar L. Cartwright, Curator in Charge 
Paul J. Spangler, Associate Curator 
Richard C. Froeschner, Associate Curator 

in Charge 
Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., Curator in Charge 
William L. Stern, Chairman 
Lyman B. Smith, Curator in Charge 
Wallace R. Ernst, Associate Curator 
Dan H. Nicolson, Associate Curator 
Stanwyn G. Shetler, Associate Curator 
Velva E. Rudd, Associate Curator 
John J. Wurdack, Associate Curator 
Conrad V. Morton, Curator in Charge 
David B. Lellinger, Associate Curator 
Thomas R. Soderstrom, Curator in Charge 
Jason R. Swallen, Research Scientist 
Mason E. Hale, Jr., Curator in Charge 
Paul S. Conger, Associate Curator 
Harold E. Robinson, Associate Curator 
E. Yale Dawson, Curator 
William L. Stern, Acting Curator in Charge 
Richard H. Eyde, Associate Curator 
Chester R. Benjamin, Honorary Research 

Associate in Charge 
John A. Stevenson, Honorary Research Asso- 
ciate 
G. Arthur Cooper, Chairman 
Richard S. Boardman, Curator in Charge 
Porter M. Kier, Associate Curator 
Richard Cifelli, Associate Curator 
Erle G. Kauffman, Associate Curator 
Martin A. Buz as, Associate Curator 
Richard H. Benson, Associate Curator 
Kenneth M. Towe, Associate Curator 
C. Lewis Gazin, Curator in Charge 
David H. Dunkle, Associate Curator 
Nicholas Hotton III, Associate Curator 
Clayton E. Ray, Associate Curator 
Francis M. Hueber, Curator in Charge 
Walter H. Adey, Associate Curator 
Jack W. Pierce, Curator in Charge 



434 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Mineral Sciences 
Meteorites 



Mineralogy 
Petrology 



George S. Switzer, Chairman 

Kurt Fredriksson, Curator in Charge 

Edward P. Henderson, Curator 

Roy S. Clarke, Jr., Chemist 

Paul E. Desautels, Associate Curator in 

Charge 
William Melson, Associate Curator in Charge 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Liaison Editor 
Administrative Officers 
Science and Technology 



Physical Sciences 



Mechanical and Civil 
Engineering 



Electricity 
Transportation 



Medical Sciences 



Arts and Manufactures 
Manufactures and Heavy 

Industries 
Agriculture and Forest 

Products 
Textiles 

Ceramics and Glass 



John C. Ewers 

Silvio A. Bedini 

Roger Pineau 

William E. Boyle, Virginia Beets 

Robert P. Multhauf, Chairman; in Charge 
of Sections of Chemistry and Meteorology 

Deborah J. Mills, Assistant Curator 

Walter F. Cannon, Curator in Charge; 
Sections of Astronomy and Physics 

Uta C. Merzbach, Associate Curator, Sec- 
tions of Mathematics and Antique Instru- 
ments 

Robert M. Vogel, Associate Curator in 
Charge; Sections of Heavy Machinery, Tools, 
and Civil Engineering 

Edwin A. Battison, Associate Curator, Sec- 
tions of Light Machinery and Horology 

Bernard S. Finn, Curator 

Howard I. Chapelle, Curator in Charge; 
Section of Marine Transportation 

Kenneth M. Perry, Associate Curator 

John H. White, Jr., Associate Curator, Sec- 
tion of Land Transportation 

Sami K. Hamarneh, Curator in Charge; 
Sections of Medical and Dental History and 
Pharmaceutical History and Health 

Philip W. Bishop, Chairman 

Philip W. Bishop, Acting Curator 

John N. Hoffman, Associate Curator 

John T. Schlebecker, Curator 

Mrs. Grace Rogers Cooper, Curator 
Rita J. Adrosko, Associate Curator 
Paul V. Gardner, Curator 
J. Jefferson Miller II, Associate Curator 



STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



435 



Graphic Arts 
Civil History 

Political History 



Cultural History 



Philately and Postal History 
Numismatics 



Armed Forces History 
Military History 

Naval History 



Jacob Kainen, Curator 

Eugene Ostroff, Associate Curator, Section 

of Photography 
Richard H. Howland, Chairman 
Peter C. Welsh, Curator 
Mrs. Doris E. Borthwick, Assistant Curator 
Anne Castrodale, Assistant Curator 
Wilcomb E. Washburn, Curator 
Mrs. Margaret B. Klapthor, Associate 

Curator 
Keith E. Melder, Associate Curator 
Mrs. Anne W. Murray, Associate Curator 
Herbert R. Collins, Assistant Curator 
Mrs. Claudia B. Kidwell, Assistant Curator 
C. Malcolm Watkins, Curator 
Howard M. Brown, Associate Curator 
Mrs. Cynthia A. Hoover, Associate Curator 
Rodris C. Roth, Associate Curator 
Carl H. Scheele, Associate Curator in Charge 
Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, Curator 
Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, Associate 

Curator 
Mendel L. Peterson, Chairman 
Edgar M. Howell, Curator 
Craddock R. Goins, Jr., Associate Curator 
Philip K. Lundeberg, Curator 
Melvin H. Jackson, Associate Curator 



INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 
Chief J. A. Collins 

NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 



Director 
Office of the Director 



T. H. Reed 

Travis E. Fauntleroy, Assistant to the Direc- 
tor 
Marian McCrane, Zoologist 
Clinton W. Gray, Veterinarian 

SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 



Director 
Office of the Director 



Publications and Information 



Fred L. Whipple 

Carlton W. Tillinghast, Assistant Director 

(Administration) 
Charles A. Lundquist, Assistant Director 

(Science) 
Leon Campbell, Jr., Executive Director 
R. N. Watts, J. Cornell 



436 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



Astronomers 



Chemist 

Engineers 

Geodesists 

Geologists 

Geophysicists 

Mathematicians 

Physical Metallurgist 
Physicists 



G. Colombo, L. Goldberg, Y. Hagihara, 
G. S. Hawkins, Y. Kozai, R. Martin, 
J. Slowey, L. Solomon, F. W. Wright 

D. A. Pitman 

T. E. Hoffman, G. G. Lehr, Y. Nozawa 

L. Aardoom, W. Kohlein, J. Rolff, W. E. 

Strange, G. Veis 
O. B. Marvin, J. Wood 

E. M. Gaposchkin, C. Y. Wang 

R. W. Briggs, M. P. Friedman, D. A. Laut- 
man 

M. F. Comerford 

E. Avrett, P. L. Bhatnagar, N. P. Carle- 
ton, A. F. Cook, R. J. Davis, J. De Felice, 
C. H. Dugan, G. G. Fazio, E. L. Fireman, 
F. Franklin, O. Gingerich, M. Grossi, 
R. R. Haefner, H. F. Helmken, P. V. 
Hodge, W. M. Irvine, L. G. Jaccia, W. 
Kalkofen, A. R. Lee, D. J. Malaise, 
R. E. McCrosky, H. Mitler, R. W. 
Noyes, J. B. Pollack, A. G. Posen, M. 
Roemer, G. B. Rybicki, C. E. Sagan, R. B. 
Southworth, S. E. Strom, D. Tilles, 
S. Tsuruta, F. F. Verniani, C. A. Whitney, 
J. P. Wright 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Biochemists 

Geochemist 

Plant Physiologists 

Electronic Engineer 
Instrument Engineering 

Technicians 
Physicist 



W. H. Klein 
W. Shropshire, Jr. 
D. L. Correll 
M. M. Margulies 

A. Long 

V. B. Elstad, K. Mitrakos ; 

L. Price, A. M. Steiner 
J. H. Harrison 
D. G. Talbert. 

B. Goldberg 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 



Director 

Assistant to the Director 

Special Consultant 

Curator (Exhibits) 

Curator (Painting and Sculpture) 



David W. Scott 
Donald R. McClelland 
Mrs. Adelyn Dohme Breeskin 
Harry Lowe 
Richard P. Wunder 



STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



437 



Curator {Information and 

Lending) 
Librarian 
Smithsonian Traveling 

Exhibition Service 
Smithsonian Art 

Commission 

Members 



Members Emeritus 



Rowland Lyon 

William Walker 

Mrs. Dorothy Van Arsdale, Chief 

Mrs. Nancy Curtis Padnos, Assistant Chief 

Edgar Richardson, Chairman 

Gilmore D. Clarke, Vice Chairman 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 

Gilmore D. Clarke, Page Cross, David E. 
Finley, Lloyd Goodrich, Walker Han- 
cock, Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr., Wilmarth 
S. Lewis, Paul Manship, Henry P. 
McIlhenny, Paul Mellon, Ogden M. 
Pleissner, Edgar Richardson, S. Dillon 
Ripley, Charles H. Sawyer, Stow 
Wengenroth, Andrew Wyeth 

Leonard Carmichael, Alexander Wetmore 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



Director 

Assistant Director 

Head Curator {Near Eastern 

Art) 
Associate Curator {Chinese Art) 
Head, Technical Laboratory 



John A. Pope 
Harold P. Stern 
Richard Ettinghausen 

William Trousdale 
Rutherford J. Gettens 



Trustees 



President 
Vice President 
Secretary- Treasurer 
Director 
Administrator 
General Counsel 
Chief Curator 
Assistant Director 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United 
States, Chairman 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State 

Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution 

Paul Mellon, John Hay Whitney, John N. 
Irwin II, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Franklin 
D. Murphy 

Paul Mellon 

John Hay Whitney 

Huntington Cairns 

John Walker 

Ernest R. Feidler 

Huntington Cairns 

Perry B. Cott 

J. Carter Brown 



438 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1965 



NATIONAL AIR MUSEUM 



S. Paul Johnston 
Frederick G. Durant 

Paul E. Garber 

James A. Mahoney 
Louis C. Casey, Curator in Charge 
Kenneth E. Newland, Curator in Charge 
Robert B. Meyer, Curator in Charge 



Director 

Assistant Director 
(Astronautics) 
Assistant Director (Education 

and Information) 
Visual Information Officer 

Flight Craft 

Flight Materiel 

Flight Propulsion 

Preservation and Restoration Walter M. Male, Facilities Manager 






CANAL ZONE BIOLOGICAL AREA 

Director M. H. Moynihan 

Biologists Robert L. Dressler, A. Stanley Rand, 

Neal G. Smith 



JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 



Chairman 
Officers 



Roger L. Stevens 

Robert O. Anderson, Vice Chairman 

Sol M. Linowitz, Vice Chairman 

Ralph E. Becker, General Counsel 

Daniel W. Bell, Treasurer 

K. LeMoyne Billings, Secretary 

Philip J. Mullin, Assistant Secretary and 

Administrative Officer 
Herbert D. Lawson, Assistant Treasurer 
Kenneth Birgfeld, Assistant Treasurer 
Paul Seltzer, Assistant Treasurer 
L. Corrin Strong, Chairman Emeritus 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Director Charles Nagel 

Associate Curator Robert G. Stewart 

Commission Catherine Drinker Bowen, Julian P. Boyd, 

John Nicholas Brown, Lewis Deschler, 
David E. Finley, Wilmarth Sheldon 
Lewis, Richard H. Shryock, Col. Frede- 
rick P. Todd 

Ex Officio Chief Justice of the United States 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 
Director, National Gallery of Art 



STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



439 



SCIENCE INFORMATION EXCHANGE 



Director 

Deputy Director 
Associate Directors 

Assistant Directors 

Executive Officer 



Monroe E. Freeman 

David F. Hersey 

Willis R. Foster, Life Sciences 

Frank J. Kreysa, Physical Sciences 

William H. Fitzpatrick, Special Projects 

Harvey Marron, Operations 

Edward H. Kohn 



NATIONAL ARMED FORCES MUSEUM ADVISORY BOARD 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Museum Specialist 
Chairman 
Ex Officio 

Members 



Col. John H. Magruder III 

James S. Hutchins 

Col. Robert M. Calland 

John Nicholas Brown 

Secretary of Defense, Secretary, Smith- 
sonian Institution 

Chief Justice of the United States, Secre- 
tary of Army, Secretary of Navy, 
Secretary of Air Force, David Lloyd 
Kreeger, Henry Bradford Washburn, Jr., 
William H. Perkins, Jr., James H. Cassell,