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APR 5 - 1967 




SMITHSONIAN 

YEAR 
1966 



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Smithsonian Year 
1966 



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Smithsonian Year 
1966 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOR THE YEAR 
ENDED JUNE 30, 1966, INCLUDING THE 
FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE 
COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

Washington 1966 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.75 



The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846, 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, of England, 
who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America 
"to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men." In receiving the property and accepting the trust, 
Congress determined that the Federal Government was without 
authority to administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted 
an "establishment," whose statutory members are "the President, 
the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive 
departments." 

The Establishment 

Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States 

Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the United States 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State 

Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury 

Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense 

Nicholas deB. Katzenbach, Attorney General 

Lawrence F. O'Brien, Postmaster General 

Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of Interior 

Orville L. Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture 

John T. Connor, Secretary of Commerce 

W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary of Labor 

John W. Gardner, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

Robert C. Weaver, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

II 



Board of Regents and Secretary 
June 30, 1966 



Presiding Officer ex officio 

Chancellor 

Regents of the Institution 



Executive Committee 

Secretary 

Assistant Secretaries 



Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United 
States 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United 
States 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United 
States, Chancellor 

Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the 
United States 

Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the Senate 

J. William Fulbright, Member of the Senate 

Leverett Saltonstall, Member of the Senate 

Frank T. Bow, Member of the House of 
Representatives 

Michael J. Kirwan, Member of the House of 
Representatives 

George H. Mahon, Member of the House of 
Representatives 

John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode Island 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New York 

Robert V. Fleming, citizen of Washington, 
D.C. 

Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of Dela- 
ware 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, D.C. 

Jerome C. Hunsaker, citizen of Massachusetts 

Robert V. Fleming, Chairman, Clinton P. 
Anderson, Caryl P. Haskins 

S. Dillon Ripley 

James Bradley, Assistant Secretary (Admin- 
istration) 

Sidney R. Galler, Assistant Secretary (Science) 



\ listing of the professional staff of the Smithsonian Institution, its 
Dureaus, and its offices, appears in Appendix 6. 



in 




Last year, the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution for the 
first time appeared under the general title Smithsonian Tear. At that time certain 
changes were instituted in the procedures pertaining to Smithsonian annual reports: 

1 . Issuance of the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution 

(now Smithsonian Year) is no longer followed by appearance of a greenbound 
volume containing a General Appendix of articles in the sciences and the arts. 
The last of the old series is that for 1964. 

2. For 1965, the objective of the General Appendix was met by a Smithsonian 

yearbook containing the eleven addresses delivered at the scholarly sessions 
of the Smithson Bicentennial Celebration held in Washington in September 
1965. Entitled Knowledge Among Men, it was published in 1966 by Simon and 
Schuster for the Smithsonian Institution. 

3. The United States National Museum Annual Report is no longer issued initially as a 

separate document reporting on the activities of its component Museums 
of Natural History and of History and Technology. These reports are hence- 
forth incorporated in Smithsonian Year, together with the reports of the other 
branches of the Institution. 

4. Reprints of each of these reports are available. To some of them are appended 

tabulated and statistical information which is of primary interest to those 
concerned with the particular field covered, and which for reasons of space 
can no longer be carried in this volume. 



SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATION 4697 



Contents 

Page 

The Establishment ii 

The Smithsonian Institution hi 

Statement by the Secretary 1 

Office of the Secretary 19 

Office of International Activities 21 

Office of Education and Training 30 

Office of Public Information 32 

Smithsonian Press 33 

Smithsonian Museum Service 37 

Smithsonian Associates 38 

United States National Museum 43 

Office of the Registrar 45 

Office of Exhibits 47 

Conservation- Analytical Laboratory 52 

Traveling Exhibition Service 53 

Smithsonian Activities — Natural Sciences 57 

Museum of Natural History 63 

Research and Publication 72 

Systematics 72 

Ecology 73 

Oceanography 77 

Anthropology 78 

Vertebrate Zoology 90 

Invertebrate Zoology 95 

Entomology 98 

Botany 102 

Paleobiology 105 

Mineral Sciences 112 

The Collections 115 

Care and Conservation 115 

Gifts and Additions 122 

Exhibits 132 

Staff Publications 134 

National Zoological Park 153 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 163 

Radiation Biology Laboratory . 173 

v 



Page 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 181 

Meteors and Comets 182 

Meteorites and Cosmic Dust 184 

Planetary Studies 186 

Theoretical Astrophysica 192 

Radio Astronomy 195 

Optical Astronomy 196 

Historical Astronomy 199 

Central Bureaus 200 

Staff Changes 200 

Staff Papers 201 

Science Information Exchange 215 

Smithsonian Activities — History and Art 219 

Museum of History and Technology 221 

Research and Publication 224 

Science and Technology 224 

Arts and Manufactures 227 

Civil History 231 

Armed Forces History 233 

Growth of the United States 236 

American Studies 237 

The Collections 238 

Care and Conservation 238 

Gifts and Additions 242 

Exhibits 250 

Staff Publications 255 

National Air and Space Museum 259 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 269 

Freer Gallery of Art 271 

National Collection of Fine Arts 281 

National Portrait Gallery 293 

National Gallery of Art 303 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 321 

Other Smithsonian Activities 333 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 335 

International Exchange Service 339 

Administrative Support Services 341 

Appendix 345 

1 . Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents . . 347 

2. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants 375 

3. Publications of the Smithsonian Press 377 

4. Members of the Smithsonian Council 385 

5. Research Participation Program Appointments 391 

6. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 397 

VI 



Statement by the Secretary 



Statement by the Secretary 
S. Dillon Ripley 



The re-endorsement of the essential role of this Institution in 
research and various processes of education came dramatically 
this past year in the celebration of the two hundredth anni- 
versary of the birth of James Smithson. The two and a half days 
of the meetings, September 16-19, 1965, included an extraordi- 
narily interesting seminar on the situation of man's knowledge 
by scholars of international eminence. The twelve commissioned 
papers have just been published.* During the celebration and 
with great pageantry a robed procession of nearly five hundred 
delegates of universities and kindred scholarly institutions, pre- 
ceded by our mace bearer and banners of the various bureaus, 
by members of the Smithsonian's Establishment, and by its 
Chancellor and Regents, marched across the Mall. Thus we 
restated the unique circumstance of our half-government, half- 
private character, a symbolic composite, underscoring the spirit 
of freedom of inquiry and freedom of scholarly exchange with all 
nations of the world. 

President Lyndon B. Johnson addressed the assemblage with 
significant words: "learning respects no geographic boundaries. 
. . . partnership between Government and private enterprise 
can serve the greater good of both. . . . the Institution 
financed by Smithson breathed life in the idea that the growth 
and spread of learning must be the first work of a nation that 
seeks to be free. . . . We can support Secretary Ripley's 
dream of creating a center here at the Smithsonian where great 
scholars from every nation will come and collaborate. . . . 
Together we must embark on a new and a noble adventure: 



* Knowledge Among Men (New York: Simon and Schuster for the Smithsonian 
Institution, June 1966), the first in a new series to be known as the Smithsonian 
Annual. 

1 



2 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

"First, to assist the education effort of the developing nations 
and the developing regions. 

"Second, to help our schools and universities increase their 
knowledge of the world and the people who inhabit it. 

"Third, to advance the exchange of students and teachers who 
travel and work outside their native lands. 

"Fourth, to increase the free flow of books and ideas and art, 
of works of science and imagination. 

"And, fifth, to assemble meetings of men and women from 
every discipline and every culture to ponder the common prob- 
lems of mankind."* 

The Smithsonian hopes to work closely with the appropriate 
branches of Government in international scholarly meetings in 
furtherance of its traditional and pioneering international role. 

RESEARCH 

Our research accomplishments during the year have spread 
over a wide spectrum in science, history and art. 

An accomplishment of particular significance has been 
achieved by David L. Correll in the field of protein chemistry. 
One of the studies in this area has been the isolation of phy to- 
chrome, a proteinaceous pigment occurring in all higher forms 
of plants. This pigment serves as a photoreceptor that absorbs 
the radiant energy which regulates the morphological develop- 
ment of plants and that is controlled by the red and far-red 
portions of the visible spectrum. Without phytochrome there 
would presumably, be no stem elongation, no leaf expansion, 
and no flowering in the higher plants. It is only in the past 
few years that this pigment has been isolated, and then in impure 
form. Dr. Correll has isolated phytochrome in pure form and, 
with collaborators from the National Institutes of Health, has 
determined its amino acid content, molecular weight, and fluo- 
rescence spectrum, information that will undoubtedly lead to 
defining the metabolic role and physiological responses occurring 
as a result of the pigment's regulatory action. 

In astrophysics the culmination of a 10-year effort in the 
geodetic phase of the Smithsonian's Satellite-Tracking Program 



*The Noble Adventure, Remarks of the President at the Smithsonian Bicentennial 
Celebration, September 16,1965 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1965). 




The Regents and the Secretary 

of the 

Smithsonian Institution 

request the honor of your presence 

at the Bicentennial Celebration 

commemorating the two hundredth anniversary 

of the birth of 

JAMES SMITHSON 

Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, 

September Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and Eighteenth, 

one thousand nine hundred and sixty-five 

at the Smithsonian Institution 

Washington, District of Columbia 



The favor of a reply 
is requested 




THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON 

TO THE 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



THE President, Council and Fellows of the Royal 
Society of London send their greetings and congratu- 
lations to the Smithsonian Institution on the occasion 
of the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of its founder 
James Smithson. 

The Royal Society is happy to recall that James Smith- 
son was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society on 19 April 
1787 at a very early age, and contributed a number of 
scientific papers to its Philosophical Transactions. 

The Royal Society has followed with admiration the 
splendid way in which the Smithsonian Institution has 
developed over the years since its foundation in 1846, and 
has fulfilled the wish of its founder by the great contribu- 
tion it has made to the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men. 

The Royal Society confidently expresses the hope that 
the Smithsonian Institution may long continue its valuable 
contributions to the increase of knowledge and the welfare 
of mankind. 



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PRISSWENT 
SEPTEM13EH 1965 



James Smithson Bicentennial Cele- 
bration guests were registered 
September 16, 1965, in the great 
hall of the Smithsonian building. 
Renovated and refurbished in the 
spirit of architect James Ren- 
wick's design, the hall's red and 
gold carpets, marbleized pillars, 
and plush settees convey a sense 
of Victorian elegance of the 
period (1850-1860) when it was 
built. Harmonizing modern cases 
display objects that illustrate 
the wide range of Smithsonian 
activities. 





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Secretary S. Dillon Ripley ^left) and Science Information Exchange Associate 
Director Frank J. Kreysa greet museum directors from Czechoslovakia: 
Vladimir Denkenstein, National Museum, Prague; Jan Jelinek, Moravian 
Museum, Brno; and Joseph Kuba, Technical Museum, Prague. Below: 
Foreign Currency Program Director Kennedy B. Schmertz with Mohamed 
Yacoub, Director of the Musee National du Bardo, and Mohamed Masmoudi 
of the Musee Regional de Sfax. 





Smithsonian Secretary's badge of office, worn about the neck from a cherry-red 
ribbon, depicts the owl of Athena, symbol of wisdom. Below: Chief Justice 
Earl Warren, Chancellor of the Smithsonian, greets former Secretary 
Charles G. Abbot, before robing for the Academic Procession. 





From the rampart behind the statue of Joseph Henry, the Smithsonian's first 
Secretary, Tower Musicians have sounded a fanfare and the Herald has 
read President Johnson's proclamation on the occasion of the Bicentennial 
Celebration. Below: Preceeded by banners of the Smithsonian bureaus, 
procession of nearly 500 scholars from 90 nations march in the order of the 
founding of their institutions. 





The Procession: Chancellor Earl Warren and Secretary Ripley. Below: 
Three past Secretaries of the Smithsonian (from left) Charles G. Abbot 
(1928-1944), Alexander Wetmore (1945-1952), and Leonard Carmichael 
(1953-1964). (Photo courtesy Washington Star.) 




230-457—66- 




After the Procession, President Lyndon B. Johnson addressed the convocation. 
He announced support of the plan to create at the Smithsonian a center 
"where great scholars from every nation will come and collaborate." 




Guests of the Celebration were served meals in colorful pavilions on the Mall, 
in front of the Museum of History and Technology. Below: At the exhibit 
"The Art and Spirit of a People," featuring objects from the Eleanor and 
Mabel Van Alstyne collection, were gathered speakers who were to address 
the scholarly sessions (from left) : Fred L. Whipple, Ian McTaggart Cowan, 
Stephen E. Toulmin, Arthur Koestler, G. Evelyn Hutchinson, Claude 
Levi-Strauss, Herbert Butterfield, and Jerome S. Bruner. 





The scholarly sessions were held in the Departmental Auditorium. The 
Auditorium is located on Constitution Avenue, opposite the Museum 
of History and Technology. Below: Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson and Secre- 
tary Ripley greet Bicentennial Celebration guests at the White House lawn 
party and reception Friday afternoon, September 17. 





Thomas Boylston Adams, president of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
and descendant of two Presidents, addressed the banquet that concluded 
the Bicentennial Celebration. Below: At the banquet Lord Florey, President 
of the Royal Society of London, exhibits the citation accompanying award 
of the first Smithson Medal to the Royal Society. Robert V. Fleming 
(right), Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents, 
made the presentation. Sir Patrick Dean, British Ambassador, is at left. 





Smithson Medal, awarded for outstanding contributions in the areas of art, 
science, history, and technology. A bronze copy of the medal was presented 
to each guest at the Celebration. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 3 

was reached with the completion of the Smithsonian Standard 
Earth, a determination of the gravitational field and figure of 
the earth and of observing-site positions accurate to within 10 
to 20 meters. Observations of Explorers 19 and 24, the first 
balloon satellites placed in near-polar orbits, led Luigi Jacchia 
and Jack Slowey of the Observatory to the conclusion that, in 
addition to solar heating, the earth's magnetic field plays a 
role in the formation of the daytime "bulge" of the earth's 
upper atmosphere in the rarefied air 600 kilometers (400 miles) 
above the surface of the earth. 

These impressive dividends of fundamental discovery add 
greatly to the value of the satellite-tracking program entrusted 
to the Smithsonian by the National Aeronautics and Space 
Administration. 

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog, originally 
compiled for satellite-tracking use, was printed with the aid of 
electronic computers. A 4-volume catalog of some 260,000 
stars, it contains data that heretofore had to be sought in more 
than 50 catalogs. 

Significant advances in meteorite research in the Museum ol 
Natural History included the intensive study of the minute 
inclusions of glass in the chondrules of stony meteorites. This 
glass is proof of the original molten state of these enigmatic 
bodies, and its nature provides evidence of conditions during a 
very early stage in the history of the solar system. 

Tektite investigations continued cooperatively with colleagues 
at the Corning Glass works and the U.S. Geological Survey. 
Emphasis was placed on the study of artificial glass systems of 
tektite composition. A particularly interesting series of experi- 
ments demonstrated that artificial glasses prepared from geologi- 
cally old raw materials can give potassium-argon ages for the glass 
as high as five million years. This ties in with our studies of 
tektites from Central Australia, which have established that a 
serious discrepancy exists between their young geological age 
and the much greater age indicated for them by potassium-argon 
measurements. These findings may indicate that the currently 
accepted interpretation of the potassium-argon method as 
applied to tektites needs reexamination. 

Toward the end of the fiscal year, the new Smithsonian Office 
of Anthropology was engaged in preliminary planning for sev- 



4 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

eral major new research programs under the leadership ot 
Professor Sol Tax, who on January 1, 1966, was appointed special 
adviser on anthropology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

Inspired by Professor Claude Levi-Strauss' address at the 
Bicentennial Celebration, planning began for a large-scale pro- 
gram in salvage or urgent ethnology, our part of which is now 
called the Smithsonian Research Program on Changing Cultures. 

For at least a century anthropologists have understood a 
main purpose of their field investigations to be the recording of 
data on cultures undergoing change. Even when the focus of 
their research was different, most field workers have felt that in a 
sense they were producing primary historical documents on a 
unique cultural situation which would never again be quite the 
same, if indeed it would not soon be totally unrecognizable. 
From the beginnings of the field study of human cultures a sense 
of urgency has been created by the awareness that there were too 
few anthropologists to keep up with this culture change. 

In the last 15 or 20 years this sense of urgency has become 
more intense as it has become obvious that the course of indus- 
trialization and "modernization" and the rapid development of 
means of communication have so speeded up culture change all 
over the world that the disappearance within the near future 
of a very large part of the cultural variability of mankind can be 
foreseen, perhaps even the disappearance of most of that cultural 
variation which is important to anthropology and crucial for 
the testing of anthropological hypotheses. At the same time the 
study of culture and society has advanced to the point where we 
are more aware of the theoretical importance, actual or con- 
ceivable, of the data we are losing. It is no longer only historical 
or antiquarian interests that are threatened by the rapid trans- 
formation or disappearance of ancient cultural traditions. While 
it is true that all cultures change at all times, it can hardly be 
denied that the present situation is qualitatively different, and 
that anthropology is in danger of losing the largest portion of 
its laboratory just at the time when investigators have become 
able to use it most effectively. 

To assist SOA in planning an attack on this problem, an 
advisory conference with financial support from the Wenner- 
Gren Foundation was held in Washington on April 10-12. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 5 

This was attended by 29 anthropologists from abroad and 1 1 
from the U.S. (in addition to Smithsonian anthropologists). As 
a result, the Smithsonian now plans to take a leading role in 
the rapid increase in anthropological field research that is 
required. 

J. Lawrence Angel during the summer of 1965 studied skeletons 
from the first farming populations on the Anatolian plateau 
(Qatal Huyuk) and on the Macedonian plain (Nea Nikomedeia), 
dating to the 7th and 6th millennia B.C. About a quarter of 
the 59 skulls from these sites, located in marshy areas, show a 
virtual doubling of marrow space (diploe) and another third 
show lesser signs of this porotic hyperostosis. This is the bony 
expression of anemia, probably thalassemia and sicklemia. Since 
the heterozygotes carrying genes for these conditions have in- 
creased resistance to falciparum malaria, this early occurrence of 
severe porotic hyperostosis at these easy-to-cultivate marshy 
sites, but not at early sites in dry areas (Kephala, Khirokitia, 
etc.), implies that falciparum malaria increased greatly in some 
areas as man settled down in farming villages. This finding- 
parallels Livingstone's observations on modern sicklemia in 
Liberia, and suggests that in the early Eastern Mediterranean 
we are getting close to the provenience of origin of the mutation 
which produced Plasmodium falciparum from the better tolerated 
parasite P. malar iae. 

The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology in December 1965 
inaugurated a new series, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, 
that replaces the Institution's former series in anthropology. 
The new series introduces a larger size, double-column page, 
with a format that makes for a more effective presentation of 
illustrations, and its subject matter is not restricted to one 
geographical region as was that of the older series. Volume 1 is 
a definitive monograph on one aspect of the archeological work 
that the Smithsonian Institution conducted cooperatively with 
the late Emilio Estrada of Guayaquil, Ecuador, from 1954 
through 1961. 

Written by Betty J. Meggers, Clifford Evans, and Emilio 
Estrada, the study, Early Formative Period of Coastal Ecuador: 
The Valdivia and Machalilla Phases, suggests that the earliest 
pottery making culture in South America is the Valdivia Phase, 
dated by carbon- 14 at between 5 1 50 ± 150 and 42 70 ±60 years 



6 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

ago, and it argues provocatively that the pottery is a trans-Pacific 
introduction by an accidental drift from the Island of Kyushu, 
Japan. In addition to this speculative hypothesis the study 
adds considerable information on the culture sequences of the 
Andean area of South America, especially concerning the highly 
important transition from wild food collecting to the introduction 
of agriculture. 

The bamboos, economically one of the most important 
groups of flowering plants, received a fresh treatment in Floyd A. 
McClure's work The Bamboos published in 1966. The book, 
based on a lifetime of experience, deals with the propagation 
and use of this versatile plant, as well as with its morphology and 
taxonomy. 

Too often treated only from the classical and traditional view- 
points, the algae and other marine plants are difficult subjects 
for study in the classroom. E. Yale Dawson's new book, Marine 
Botany, presents a concise and readable text in a single volume 
especially adapted for class use. There are sections on marine 
flowering plants, food chains, algal physiology, commercial uses 
of algae, and algal ecology, as well as the systematics of algae, 
the sum of which has never appeared before in a college textbook 
in English. Dawson's book transects disciplinary lines within 
the broad field of marine botany and is certain to become a 
model of its kind. 

In a single step, the Smithsonian Institution has now become 
one of the important repositories of algal specimens in the United 
States. By securing the marine herbarium of the Beaudette 
Foundation and by negotiating a long-term loan for the algal 
herbarium of the Hancock Foundation, the Institution now has 
outstanding competence for research on the marine floras ol 
Pacific North America and the islands of Oceania. These rapid 
advances were the result of the energy and resourcefulness of 
Dawson, who had rapidly established a vigorous program of 
algal research and collection at the Smithsonian during the 
past year, prior to his tragic death in Egypt in June 1966. 

Ostracodes are microscopic arthropods that leave an abundant 
fossil record. The history to be learned from their remains 
may reflect changes in shorelines, formation of estuaries, drying 
up of lakes, and elevation or depression of the deep ocean 
floor. Dr. Richard H. Benson and his associate Dr. Rosalie F. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 7 

Maddocks, who recently have been active participants in the 
International Indian Ocean Expedition, are studying modern 
ostracode faunas from many parts of the world, with the double 
objective of developing more precise methods of making his- 
torical and environmental interpretations from fossil ostracode 
assemblages and of contributing to a fuller understanding of 
the history of the ocean basins. Computer analysis of species 
distribution patterns in coral reef environments of northern 
Madagascar has reaffirmed the trustworthiness and usefulness 
of ostracode assemblages as sensitive indicators of environmental 
change. A similar analysis of Arctic and northern Pacific ostra- 
codes has successfully demonstrated that the Bering Strait has 
not been a significant passageway for migration of marine 
bottom-dwelling animals, at least since the beginning of the 
Ice Age. 

This past year important field studies on Lepidoptera were 
undertaken by Donald R. Davis in the Philippines in concert 
with scientists from San Carlos University. An unsuspected 
relict Paleartic fauna was discovered on Mount Apo in southern 
Mindanao Island. The only previously known relict Temperate 
Zone insect fauna in the Philippines had been known from 
northern Luzon, far to the north. Presence of certain birds such 
as the Mount Apo bullfinch and the newly discovered Mindanao 
serin finch tend to underscore the importance of the highlands 
of Mindanao as refugia for old, relict invasion animals and 
plants. 

During a trip to Egypt, the new chairman of the department 
of entomology, Karl V. Krombein, made an exchange which 
has brought to our collections a few of the stored-products pests 
found in alabaster vases from the tomb of Tutankhamen. These 
represent several extant species of beetles whose larvae feed on 
dried vegetable matter, such as cracked grains, spices, or milled 
products. The beetles, recovered from tightly sealed vases, 
definitely date from the year of Tutankhamen's burial some 
3,500 years ago. Except for fossilized forms, these are the oldest 
insects in the Smithsonian collections. 

Since July 1965 the department of vertebrate zoology has 
become increasingly involved in the development of research 
programs which depend for their success on collaborative rela- 
tionships with scientists representing a variety of disciplines. 



8 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Although some of the programs to be mentioned below involve 
groups of organisms other than vertebrates, Smithsonian par- 
ticipation in these programs has stemmed from the enthusiastic 
interest of its vertebrate zoologists. 

Through the support of the Office of Ecology under Helmut K. 
Buechner, the department of vertebrate zoology in January 1966 
participated in the establishment of the Area de Pesquisas 
Ecologicas do Guama (APEG), Belem, Brazil. APEG was es- 
tablished through a series of official announcements by Dr. Jose 
Maria Conduru, Director of the Instituto de Pesquisas e Esperi- 
mentacao Agropecuarias do Norte (IPEAN). In addition, a 
Commission for the Coordination of Research Activities was 
formed to review and coordinate research at APEG. A pri- 
mary objective of APEG is the establishment of a broad program 
of basic research on the ecology of the Amazonian forest — one 
which will also offer scientific training directly related to re- 
gional needs. Both the Smithsonian and IPEAN are collabo- 
rating in the development of a scientific program for APEG 
through the provision of grants from the Smithsonian and of 
facilities, personnel, and equipment from IPEAN. From this 
support have sprung research programs on soils, botany, ento- 
mology, and epidemiology. Other institutions participating 
with IPEAN and the Smithsonian are the Belem Virus Labora- 
tory (Instituto Evandro Chagas), the Museu Paraense Emilio 
Goeldi, the Escola de Agronomia de Amazonia (Belem), the 
University of Brasilia, the Faculdade de Filosofia (Rio Claro, 
Sao Paulo), and INPA (Manaus). These institutions are all 
represented in the membership of the Commission for the 
Coordination of Research Activities on APEG. 

The Smithsonian Institution historically has a deep interest in 
problems of tropical biology, in which perhaps over half its 
scientists have at one time or another specialized, especially in 
Brazil and adjacent countries of northern Latin America. The 
recently renamed Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
(STRI — formerly the Canal Zone Biological Area), which ad- 
ministers the Barro Colorado Station in the Panama Canal 
Zone, has a continuing role to play in the expansion of collabo- 
rative activities with Latin American scientists. It has estab- 
lished marine stations in the Panama area at Fort Amador on 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 9 

the Pacific and at Galeta Island on the Atlantic. Important 
work in tropical animal ecology is proceeding at STRI under 
Dr. Moynihan's vigorous direction. Some of these studies are 
outlined further on in this report. 

We view these components of our activities as a valid and 
highly productive part of the developing United States segment 
of the International Biological Program. 

Activities in history at the Smithsonian include research into 
and eventual publication on a wide variety of problems in the 
history of various aspects of science and military and naval 
history as well as the history of economics and technology. 

Howard I. Chapelle has completed a history of ship design in 
the United States during the period of sail. The book will be 
published next winter by Norton under the title Search for Speed 
Under Sail in North America, 1700-1855. 

Elvira Clain-Stefanelli published what we believe to be the 
first up-to-date history of numismatic research, "Numismatics, 
An Ancient Science," (Paper 32 in Contributions from the Museum 
of History and Technology, 1965). 

Bernard S. Finn completed an elaborate study of the telephone 
research of A. G. Bell, based upon experimental study of the 
characteristics of the original instruments in our collection. 
Publication is expected in the Smithsonian Journal of History. 

Sami K. Hamarneh completed a catalog of the medical 
manuscripts in one of the most important Near Eastern libraries, 
the Zahiriyah National Library, Damascus, Syria. The work 
(in Arabic) will be published in Syria. This work was supported 
in part by a grant from the Fluid Research Fund. 

Melvin H. Jackson is undertaking, with a Dutch collaborator, 
the preparation for publication of an extraordinary collection of 
18th-century drawings of the operations of the Royal Brass 
Foundry at Woolwich, England. 

Peter C. Welsh organized and carried out two notable special 
exhibits, "The Art and Spirit of a People" and "The Trotter in 
America," both of which involved recently acquired collections. 
For each he prepared and the Smithsonian published a catalog. 

John H. White, Jr., has completed a manuscript, "Repre- 
sentative American Locomotives Before 1880." This work 
features engineering drawings of fifty locomotives, no less than 



10 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

half of which have not heretofore been represented by drawings. 
This work was supported by a Smithsonian Research Awards 
grant. 

Deborah J. Warner completed a biographical article (American 
Scientist, vol. 54, 1966) on an unusually elusive figure in the 
history of American astronomy — George Willis Ritchey (1864- 
1945), who was the pioneer designer of big telescopes. 

In connection with work undertaken in furthering the eventual 
development of the Armed Forces Museum, Assistant Director 
J. S. Hutchins commenced a study of the development of horse 
equipments used by cavalry, light artillery, and mounted in- 
fantry troops in United States service. 

Research in the archives of the Smithsonian, developed during 
the past year by Samuel T. Suratt, holds much promise for the 
future. Much of the history of American scientific activity 
during the 19th century reposes in these records and docu- 
ments. A certain exposure of the value of these materials will 
undoubtedly come through the work in future years of Nathan 
Reingold on the Joseph Henry Papers, a project of paramount 
importance in the history of science in America which we hope 
will be undertaken under the sponsorship of the American 
Philosophical Society, the National Academy of Sciences, and 
the Smithsonian. 

This year marks the completion by John A. Pope of the 
monumental work "The Freer Chinese Bronzes" to appear in 
1967 in two volumes, it will be a major addition to the subject, 
owing to the wide range and quality of the Freer collections. 

Continued vitality and energy has been evidenced in the work 
of the National Collection of Fine Arts and the National Portrait 
Gallery. Three exhibitions at the National Collection this 
year included important catalogs containing research material 
brought together by the staff: Mrs. Adelyn Breeskin's Roots of 
Abstract Art in America 1910-1930; Richard Wunder's Frederic 
Edwin Church, for a retrospective exhibit of the great American 
landscapist; and David W. Scott's American Landscape, a Changing 
Frontier. 

Both these galleries plan a major move during the coming year 
into the imposing Patent Office building, a long-heralded event 
of great importance to Washington and to the Nation, affording 
as it will identity to these organizations, a sense of unity, and a 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 1 1 

strong commitment to research in American art, and in biogra- 
phy and iconology. 

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTS 

Much of the life of the Smithsonian centers round the Mall, 
that stretch of greensward which epitomizes for so many Ameri- 
cans the very heart of the Nation's Capital. As a member of 
the President's Temporary Commission on Pennsylvania Avenue 
and the Mall, the Secretary of the Smithsonian is but demonstrat- 
ing the historic interest which the Institution has always had in 
the Mall and its surroundings. Under its original charter in 
1846 the Smithsonian was granted a park encompassing land 
on the south side of the Mall from Ninth to Twelfth Street. 
Its first Secretary, professor Joseph Henry, was much concerned 
with Smithsonian Park and wrote in his pocket diary in July 1848 

The idea has occurred to me that the Mall might be made one of 
the most delightful places in the United States by filling up the 
canal, planting the ground with clumps of native ornamental trees 
and making a broad gravel road entering around the whole, extend- 
ing from the foot of Capitol Hill to the Monument. This would 
be one of the finest "drives" in the World. 

How right he was. The Mall can be and should remain one of 
the most magnificent and beautiful spots in the world. The 
Smithsonian is deeply committed to supporting and encouraging 
all those concerned with the Mall in their plans for keeping it as 
an inspiring and enlivening heartland for the American people. 
Let it never be sterile and dull. Let it always be lively, vigorous, 
restful, varied, and above all, beautiful. 

Plans proceed apace for preserving and renovating James 
Renwick's delightful and entertaining Smithsonian castle on 
the Mall. It is our plan that the spirit of Renwick's design 
for this building will be preserved, but redesigned for amenities 
in such a way that it will stand as visible symbol of the paramount 
intellectual position and stature of the Institution it houses. 
Renwick's designs were among thirteen submitted to the Special 
Committee of the Regents who went in search of a building to 
epitomize the Smithson bequest. Prominent among these was 
Robert Dale Owen, Congressman from Indiana, whose taste 
and style had such an impact on the early Smithsonian, and 
whose brother David, the geologist, selected the stone for the 



12 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

building. His lineal descendant in Congress today, the Honor- 
able Winfield K. Denton of Indiana, with whom the Secretary 
journeyed this past summer to New Harmony to visit the home 
of the Owens, has served as chairman of a subcommittee of the 
House of Representatives charged with overseeing the Federal 
appropriations of the Institution. It is a pleasant coincidence 
indeed. 

The Regents chose Renwick after a searching survey of monu- 
mental public buildings on the Eastern Seaboard which included 
presumably not only Renwick's Grace Church (1843) and Saint 
Patrick's Cathedral (1853-87) in New York City, but also such 
outstanding buildings as the House of Refuge and the Eastern 
Penitentiary in Philadelphia, and the State Lunatic Asylum in 
Trenton. The subcommittee could hardly be accused of lack 
of diligence. 

The proposed and dramatic moves of the National Collection 
of Fine Arts and the National Portrait Gallery have already 
been mentioned. This year plans are under way for the re- 
design and renovation of the Smithsonian Arts and Industries 
building of 1879-81 which stands on the Mall next to the 
Renwick Castle. Now to be rechristened "Exposition Hall," 
the building was designed by Clauss and Schultz in a fanciful 
manner reminiscent, in plan, of the great 5th-century basilica 
of St. Simon Stylites in the Syrian Desert. Just a few years 
before Clauss and Schultz created their design, this remarkable 
basilica, with its central octagon sending out four naves of equal 
length, had been brought to the attention of the western world 
by the Count de Vogue's monumental publication on the early 
Christian buildings of Syria. He and subsequent scholars have 
been uncertain whether the central octagon had been crowned 
by a dome above the column on which the saint had sat in self- 
mortification for over two decades. The American architects 
thoughtfully provided us with a polygonal dome. Goode (1897)* 
called the design "admirable" as an exhibition building, which 
it is, but wrote that it is neither "externally or internally ... as 
pleasing or dignified as would have resulted from the use of a 
more expensive system of construction and more costly materials." 
To be sure it was built of brick, but it is light and airy inside, 



*The Smithsonian Institution, 1846-1896, edit. George Brown Goode (Washing- 
ton: Smithsonian Institution, 1897). 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 13 

and is indeed admirably designed for its purposes, as modern 
architects like Buckminster Fuller would probably testify. It is, 
moreover, a charming reminder of a whole period of "exposi- 
tion" architecture. The Smithsonian is undertaking additional 
studies to make its immediate surroundings in "Smithsonian 
Park" more gracious and appealing, more in keeping with the 
spirit of the Mall. 

Plans for another Renwick building, the original Corcoran 
Art Gallery on Pennsylvania Avenue at Seventeenth Street, 
are also under way. Recently used by the Court of Claims, 
this stylish gallery, in a 17th-century French mode, amply de- 
serves the renovation and restoration which the late President 
Kennedy and the Fine Arts Commission under its talented 
chairman William Walton decreed for it. President Johnson 
has taken the keenest personal interest in its allocation to the 
Smithsonian as a center for decorative arts and design where, 
near Blair House, it can convey to foreign heads of state a 
certain sense of the reality of American fine arts, style, and 
aesthetic creation — part of the American dream. 

The most notable contributions of the President and Mrs. 
Johnson to the artistic life of the capital, and indeed of the 
Nation, occurred this year when, as a result of their direct con- 
cern and intercession, Mr. Joseph H. Hirshhorn decided to 
present his collection of nearly sixty-seven hundred objects of 
painting and sculpture to the United States. The Smithsonian 
will act as custodian of this vast collection, valued at in excess of 
twenty-five million dollars. This is one of the three great art 
events of this century in Washington, the others being the 
Charles Lang Freer Gift of 1915 and the Andrew W. Mellon 
gift of 1938, continued so munificently by himself and his chil- 
dren. A site has now been chosen and approved by the 
Congress for this great Hirshhorn collection. 

This year, too, marked the authorization of a National Air 
and Space Museum building for the Museum that was first 
established by Congress in 1946 as a Smithsonian bureau. This 
Museum is destined to become a vital center for education and 
historical research to which will come scholars, historians, and 
professionals from many fields of learning to study its compre- 
hensive reference collections. 

An additional and most important project of the year was the 

230-457—66 3 



14 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

creation of the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology on 
parcels of land known as Java Farm and Ivy Neck on the western 
shore of Chesapeake Bay south of Annapolis. This research 
center, a collaborative venture with the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity and the University of Maryland, has been made possible 
through the original bequest of Robert Lee Forrest, through a 
most stimulating and seminal grant of $375,000 from the Ford 
Foundation, and through the collaboration of the Colhoun 
family, relatives of the late Miss Adelaide Murray, former 
hereditary owner of Ivy Neck. More recently, a grant of 
SI 00,000 from the Research Corporation has given the Smith- 
sonian an additional most valued contribution toward the funds 
needed to complete land acquisition. 

This past year has witnessed the setting up of the National 
Foundation for the Arts and Humanities, with its component 
Endowments, and the Federal Council on the Arts and Humani- 
ties, of which latter body the Secretary has been asked to serve 
as Chairman. This is an honor which the head of the Smith- 
sonian accepts with the assumption that it has a certain signifi- 
cance beyond mere symbolism. The relationships of the Foun- 
dation, the two Endowments, other agencies of government and 
the cultural scene generally deserve careful understanding and 
analysis. To these relationships the development of the National 
Science Foundation bears certain analogies. Above all, the 
future relations of these Foundations to the components of 
American education present fascinating opportunities for study 
and instruction. Art is still largely free of directed, or fraternally 
controlled management by the apparatus of education. The 
directions taken by the humanities, on the other hand, depend 
largely upon the interests of higher education, especially upon 
research in the graduate departments of universities. 

The university is an omnium gatherum today in the United 
States. As Robert Hutchins recently said, in addressing the 
Fund for the Republic convocation on the university, held in Los 
Angeles on May 8, 1966: "The responsibility of the professions 
for the preparation and induction of neophytes, the operation of 
training schools and research institutes outside the university, and 
a break of the greatest significance between secondary and higher 
education are the general rule in other countries," but are 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 15 

unknown or exceptional in the United States [italics mine]. Every 
other nation assigns some tasks of education, training and re- 
search to other institutions. Nowhere else is it automatically 
assumed that everything anybody wants by way of educational 
experience beyond the high school or anything anybody would 
like to see done by way of solving practical problems, collecting 
data, investigating the universe, or cleaning up the landscape 
may as a matter of course be a function of the university." 

Presumably the reason the National Foundation on the Arts 
and Humanities is not a part of the Office of Education is in 
partial recognition of the fact that support for the arts and 
humanities should relate to people, to groups and organizations 
not directly connected with the degree-granting processes. This 
has often been a problem for the National Science Foundation, 
which to some considerable extent has had to assume that science 
is performed by groups in laboratories, and that priorities for 
science may depend on relationships to national goals in educa- 
tion. Let us hope that the arts and the humanities can remain 
free from any dominating institutional pattern, on the highest 
plane of creativity and original research. 

LEARNING 

The Smithsonian Institution is much interested in the present 
condition of learning. We are concerned to relate our bureaus 
and offices to those in higher education at various levels. The 
Institution hopes to join with other institutions in the city to 
foster an international center for advanced studies; we shall 
continue to develop individual programs with universities. We 
now have programs with 17 for the training of graduate students. 
Last year 35 graduate students and 12 postdoctoral fellows 
worked in bureaus of the Smithsonian, while some 50 under- 
graduates had various term appointments to study at the Smith- 
sonian, including summer training courses. All this is an appro- 
priate evocation of our original purposes and our duty indeed to 
the cause of learning. In the coming year we hope to extend 
our work with students and specialists into a study of exhibit 
techniques and audience responses which may prove to be of 
direct benefit to the cause of education and its relation to the 
state of learning in our country. 



16 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

STAFF CHANGES 

Important changes took place within the Secretary's immediate 
staff during the year. Dr. Sidney R. Galler, formerly head of the 
Biology Branch in the Office of Naval Research, was appointed to the 
position of Assistant Secretary (Science). This position had been 
unfilled since T. Dale Stewart's return to fulltime research in the Office 
of Anthropology. 

A Public Information Office was established to bring together the 
press office and other responsibilities for public information which had 
been shared by several offices. The first director of the new office, 
B. Richard Berg, came to the staff from the George Washington 
University. 

After more than seven years of service as a staff assistant to the 
Secretary, Dr. T. W. Taylor resigned to accept appointment as Deputy 
Commissioner, Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

Robert G. Cunningham, who had joined the staff in 1964 to organize 
the Smithson Bicentennial Celebration and later to mar age the 
Development Office, left the Institution to return to secondary 
education. 

The Institution's largest museums gained new directors. Dr. 
Richard S. Cowan, a member of the department of botany from 1957 
and Assistant Director of the Museum of National History since 1 962, 
became Director of the Museum, succeeding T. Dale Stewart. Dr. 
Robert P. Multhauf was appointed the second director of the Museum 
of History and Technology after John C. Ewers' return to the Office of 
Anthropology as senior scientist. 

Upon the retirement of Paul H. Oehser as Chief, Editorial and 
Publication Division, Anders Richter came to the Institution from the 
University of Chicago Press. Under Mr. Richter's direction this 
division has been reorganized into the Smithsonian Press. 
THE BOARD OF REGENTS 

The membership of the Board of Regents remained unchanged. 
The roll of Regents at the close of the fiscal year is given on page iii. 

The customary informal dinner meeting, preceding the annual 
meeting, was held on January 26, 1966, in the Great Hall of the 
Smithsonian Institution Building. Dr. Harold Stern, Assistant Director 
of the Freer Gallery, spoke on Japanese hand scrolls; Mr. Charles Olin, 
Chief of the Conservation Laboratory, spoke on the Smithsonian's new 
conservation program. Mr. Donald McClelland, Assistant to the 
Director of the National Collection of Fine Arts, gave a presentation 
on the White House Art Project. The annual meeting was held on 
January 27, 1966, in the Regents Room. 



OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR 17 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was held on May 1 7, 
1966, in the Regents Room. At the conclusion of the meeting a brief 
installation ceremony was held in the Great Hall to recognize the 
recent appointments of Dr. Richard S. Cowan as Director of the 
Museum of Natural History and Dr. Robert P. Multhauf as Director 
of the Museum of History and Technology. The reception was followed 
by an informal dinner in the Associates Hall. 



FINANCES 

Federal funds appropriated to the Institution for its regular operations 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1966, totaled $18,921,000 and were 
obligated as follows (Appendix 1 contains a report on the private funds 
of the Institution) : 

Astrophysical Observatory $1, 164, 000 

International Activities 31,000 

International Exchange Service 121, 000 

National Air and Space Museum 385, 000 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 91, 000 

National Collection of Fine Arts 430, 000 

National Portrait Gallery 258, 000 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 336, 000 

Tropical Research Institute 213, 000 

United States National Museum 7, 013, 000 

Research Awards 335, 000 

Office of the Secretary 324, 000 

Management Support 237, 000 

Buildings Management Department 6, 063, 000 

Administrative Services 1, 894, 000 

Unobligated 26, 000 

VISITORS 

Visitors to the six buildings comprising the Smithsonian complex 
on the Mall this year totaled 12,150,854, of whom 3,895,758 came in 
July and August. The greatest number of visitors for a single day was 
114,441 on April 9, 1966. The tabulation on page 18 gives a sum 
mary of attendance records for the six buildings. The National 
Zoological Park had an estimated 4,383,463 visitors during the year. 
This figure, added to the attendance in the Institution's buildings on 
the Mall, and to the record 1,577,108 at the National Gallery of Art, 
brings the total Smithsonian attendance for fiscal 1965 to 18,111,425. 



18 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 



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Smithsonian Activities 



Office of the Secretary 



OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES 

William W. Warner, Director 

On March 7, 1966, the Institution established an Office of Inter- 
national Activities. William W. Warner, who joined the Smithsonian 
staff in March of 1 964 as a consultant to the Secretary, was named its 
first Director. 

Broadly conceived, the role of the Office of International Activities 
is to promote international programs in those disciplines or fields of 
study which find relatively little support from other sources, and in 
particular, those areas of basic research in the sciences and humanities 
where further advancement of knowledge in this country requires 
continuing and strong cooperative research programs with other 
nations. These programs benefit not only the Smithsonian, but many 
other American institutions. The Office also serves as the Institution's 
point of liaison with government agencies and international organiza- 
tions dealing with international matters of interest to the Smithsonian. 

The Director represents the Institution on such working groups as 
the Department of State's Interagency Council on International 
Educational and Cultural Affairs, which is a policy-making body for 
government-sponsored exchange of persons programs; the Cultural 
Activities Committee of the United States National Commission for 
UNESCO; and the International Committee of the National Trust 
for Historic Preservation. 

Beyond these basic responsibilities, the Office also helps other 
elements of the Smithsonian in the establishment of research projects 
or exhibit programs which involve substantial participation of foreign 
institutions or the international exchange of scholars. Examples range 
from an Archeological Survey of Brazil to a proposed scientist-exchange 
program with the Leningrad Institute of Zoology. Once established, 
some of these programs are directly administered by the Office of 
International Activities. More often, however, they are administered 
by the organizational units within the Smithsonian that are most 
interested or have greatest competence in the subject matter of the 
program. 

SPECIAL FOREIGN CURRENCY PROGRAM 

Fiscal Year 1966 saw the Smithsonian receive its first appropriation 
of excess foreign currencies deriving from the sale of agricultural 

21 



22 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

surplus under Public Law 480, in order to undertake a grant program 
for archeological excavation or research in the so-called excess- currency 
countries. At the beginning of the year Kennedy B. Schmertz, a 
former Foreign Service Officer with experience in the Near East, was 
appointed director of the Smithsonian's Foreign Currency Program 
within the Office of International Activities. By the end of the year, 
a total of $1,250,000 in foreign currencies had been granted to some 
21 American universities or museums. (A list of grants is found in 
Appendix 2 ) 

Among the major recipients of first-year grants were the American 
Research Center in Egypt and the Hebrew Union College-Jerusalem 
School of Archeology. The former is a consortium of ten American 
universities, with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts, and an 
overseas office in Cairo, which was established in 1948 to facilitate 
the research or excavations of the member institutions in Egypt. 
The Smithsonian's grant permitted the Center to field six archeological 
projects during the 1966 season, ranging from the excavation of Fustat 
near modern Cairo, which was a great Arab capital and trading 
center in the Middle Ages, destroyed during the Crusades, to a study of 
the hieroglyphics of the temples of Rameses II at Karnak. The 
Hebrew Union-Jerusalem School of Archeology grant was used to 
support a seminar on Near Eastern Civilization for American graduate 
students and to excavate at Gezer in southern Israel. This excavation 
uncovered a massive "cyclopean" defense tower dating from the 19th 
century B.C. and provided the first archeological proof that the city 
of Gezer was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar. 

In the exercise of this program, the Institution has been especially 
interested in supporting projects in those excess-currency countries 
where American institutions have had little or no opportunity for 
archeological investigation. For this reason special attention was 
given to the establishment of the American Academy of Benares 
through a grant to the American Institute of Indian Studies at Poona, 
a research center administered by the University of Pennsylvania. 
The guiding purpose of the Academy at Benares is quite clear. Experts 
have long maintained that the archeology and art history of India are 
so rich that often the most difficult question is where to begin. The 
Benares Academy seeks to answer this question by conducting long- 
range surveys which will document, record, and photograph ancient 
temples and both above-ground and below-ground archeological 
sites throughout India, as a prerequisite to the determination of in- 
telligent research priorities. With the appointment of Dr. Pramod 
Chandra of the University of Chicago as resident director, the 
Academy began operations in September 1965 in the historic Rewa 



OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES 23 

Palace building generously provided by the Hindu University of 
Benares. Shortly after establishment of the Academy, the Smith- 
sonian was pleased to acknowledge a grant of $56,750 from the John 
D. Rockefeller III Fund to meet the necessary dollar costs which are 
mainly for equipment unobtainable in India and for the travel within 
the United States of Indian scholars connected with the Academy. 

Other noteworthly achievements during the first year of the Foreign 
Currency Program include: 

The Peabody Museum of Natural History of Yale University 
excavations of the El Fayum badlands of Egypt, which have unearthed 
fossil remains of the oldest known land mammal of the African Tertiary 
and various examples of Oligocene primates ancestral to both man and 
the apes. 

The University of Missouri-Corning Museum of Glass survey 
and excavations of ancient glass factories along the Phoenician coast 
of Israel, which uncovered a massive nine-ton slab of opaque raspberry 
colored glass in an abandoned cistern of the ancient city of Beth 
She'arim. The site has since been converted into a small museum. 

The award of a joint dollar-foreign currency grant, with the 
Atomic Energy Commission, to the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory 
of the University of California, to test the practicability of X-raying 
Egyptian pyramids for unknown interior chambers. The first tests 
are being made on the Second Pyramid at Giza. 

As the Smithsonian's Foreign Currency Program developed through 
the year, the Institution received many expressions of interest and 
support from American scholars, the Congress, and United States 
Embassies abroad. Ambassador Chester Bowles in a letter to Secretary 
Ripley urged the Institution to become more and more involved in 
promoting archeological studies in India. Professor Robert Adams, 
Director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, charac- 
terized the program as "an important breakthrough in funding 
overseas research in archeology and related disciplines." Congress- 
man Leonard Farbstein, in the course of House hearings on the 
utilization of U.S. -owned foreign currencies, commended the .Smith- 
sonian for the rapidity and efficiency with which its program was 
established and termed it "a very satisfactory addition to the manner 
of disposition of the funds that we have been collecting in these various 
countries." 

Toward the close of the year under review, the Congress granted 
the Smithsonian a substantially increased foreign currency appro- 
priation and also authority to extend the program to other fields of 
Smithsonian interest, especially projects in systematic and environ- 
mental biology which support the goals of the International Biological 



24 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Program. With this in mind, the Director travelled to Yugoslavia 
and Poland in the spring of 1 966 to explore the possibilities for support- 
ing binational research projects using excess currencies in both those 
countries. Similar program explorations were carried out in Tunisia, 
Guinea, Pakistan, and Ceylon. 

EXCHANGE OF PERSONS PROGRAMS 

By a working agreement with the State Department's Bureau of 
Educational and Cultural Affairs, the Smithsonian Office of Inter- 
national Activities advises the State Department and other federal 
or private organizations on promising candidates for international 
exchange programs in fields of Smithsonian competence. Suggestions 
concerning American scholars to fill Fulbright and other openings 
abroad are usually forwarded to the Conference Board of Associated 
Research Councils. Suggestions concerning foreign scholars or museum 
curators who might benefit from study at the Smithsonian or kindred 
institutions in the United States are forwarded through the Depart- 
ment to Cultural Affairs Officers in U.S. Embassies overseas. 

In addition, the Office helps in or assumes total responsibility for 
programming the visits of foreign grantees coming to the United States 
under State Department or other exchange programs. Following the 
Smithson Bicentennial, a six-week study and observation tour was 
arranged for Dr. Mehmet Onder, Director of Antiquities of the Turkish 
Ministry of Education, and Dr. Raci Temezer, Director of the Hittite 
Museum in Ankara, as well as one-week tours for Dr. Hamit Kosay, 
Director of the Ethnographic Museum of Turkey, and Dr. Tahsin 
Dolunay, Director of the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul. Following 
their return to Turkey, the United States Embassy in Ankara reported 
that the visits of these museum directors had been instrumental in 
creating a favorable climate for increased exchange of exhibits and 
increased opportunities for American archeologists wishing to work in 
Turkey. Dr. Kosay published an account of his visit and his observa- 
tions of the Smithsonian in the Bulletin of the Turkish Historical Society. 

From January to March 1966, Joseph A. Patterson, Director of the 
American Association of Museums, made extensive visits to museums 
in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and the Far East. The purpose of 
this trip, funded and planned by the Office of International Activities, 
was first to determine what needs to be done by museums in the develop- 
ing world in order to better realize their potential for public education 
and second what American museums can do to help. Mr. Patterson 
discovered that the priority need, common to all countries visited, was 
for trained museum personnel, before improved facilities. Although 
physical plants and exhibit facilities are in most cases inadequate, 



OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES 25 

Mr. Patterson found that foreign museum directors themselves under- 
stood that new museums or new exhibit techniques cannot be success- 
fully planned or maintained without at least a strong nucleus of trained 
museum professionals in each country. Highlights of his trip included 
a meeting with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India, who expressed 
herself as extremely interested in museum education, and conferences 
with Korean officials which laid a firm groundwork for the establish- 
ment of a National Science Museum in Seoul. 

Brief conferences and observation tours with the Smithsonian's 
scientific or administrative staff were arranged for a total of 37 foreign 
grantees coming through Washington under State Department, Agency 
for International Development, Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare, and other auspices. A number of these visitors were ranking 
government officials interested in learning about the organization of 
the Smithsonian itself, as an example of how federal and private sources 
in the United States combine to support museums, basic research in 
the sciences or humanities, and the performing arts. Included in this 
category were M. Michel Pomey of France, Chief of Mission and 
General Counsel to the Ministry of Cultural Affairs; Dr. Dusan 
Popovski of Yugoslavia, Member of Parliament and former head of the 
Secretariat for Education and Culture; Dr. Zaven Hacobian of Iran, 
Director General of the Cultural Relations Department of the Ministry 
of Culture and Arts; and Mr. Mapatunage James Perera of Ceylon, 
Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs. 
Other visitors were primarily interested in museum administration or 
museum education; among them were Dr. Abdem Ramon Lancini, 
Director of the Museum of Natural Sciences of Caracas, Venezuela, 
who came to study the administration of science museums, and a group 
of ten Ugandan secondary school and college instructors, who conferred 
with Smithsonian staff members on the role of museums in supple- 
mentary primary education. 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE OF EXHIBITS 

During much of the period under review, Director William W. 
Warner and David W. Scott, Director of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts, held meetings with representatives of the United States 
Information Agency concerning increased Smithsonian responsibility 
in presenting exhibits of American art abroad. In the view of USIA 
officials, a true exchange program in the fine arts— that is, both the 
sending of American exhibits abroad and the circulation of exhibits of 
foreign provenance within the United States — might best be admin- 
istered by a single institution internationally recognized in the field. 
Since USIA was prevented by statute from the domestic circulation of 



26 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

foreign exhibits, while the Smithsonian had long been engaged in 
presenting foreign art to American museums through its Traveling 
Exhibition Service, the Institution seemed to US I A the logical organi- 
zational home for a two-way exchange program in the fine arts. 

Accordingly, in November 1965, an agreement was signed in which 
the Smithsonian took on responsibility for presenting American art 
exhibits abroad, including American representation at the Venice and 
Sao Paulo Biennials. The agreement encompassed only the fine and 
decorative arts, with USIA retaining responsibility for all other kinds 
of exhibits. USIA agreed to provide guidance on international 
cultural relations factors and a system for communicating requests 
for exhibits from foreign museums or galleries, through the good 
offices of Cultural Affairs Officers at U.S. diplomatic posts abroad. 
The Agency also agreed that its overseas posts would assist in schedul- 
ing and publicizing all exhibits sent abroad by the Smithsonian. 

The first major exhibit undertaken by the Smithsonian following 
the transfer of responsibility was the United States entry at the thirty- 
third Venice Biennale, which opened in the American Pavilion in 
Venice on the 18th of June. An account of this and other exhibits 
under the new exchange program is found in the report of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts (p. 281). 

In conjunction with the Traveling Exhibition Service and the NCFA, 
the Office also assisted in making arrangements for the Washington 
showings of various exhibits of international significance. These 
included Embroideries by Children of Chijnaya, an exhibit of embroideries 
made by Indian children of the Puno highlands of Peru and assembled 
by Peace Corps Volunteers, which opened at the State Department 
and subsequently toured 23 American museums with wide critical 
acclaim, including feature articles in the New York Times Magazine 
and Woman's Day; The World of Peru, a photographic panel exhibit 
depicting Peru's archeology, architecture, folk arts, natural history 
and industry, which opened at the Museum of Natural History; and 
The Preservation of Abu Simbel, a photographic and 3-dimensional 
exhibit prepared by the University of Pennsylvania and the National 
Geographic Society designed to create interest in the campaign of the 
American Committee to Preserve Abu Simbel, which also opened at the 
Museum of Natural History and was later enthusiastically received by 
some 18 museums across the nation. 

In addition, the Office assisted with the scheduling of Art Treasures 
of Turkey by providing a tour for three Turkish museum curators who 
visited the ten major cities where the exhibit was subsequently shown, 
in order to make advance arrangements and advance planning of 
installations. 



OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL ACTITIVIES 27 

THE SMITHSON BICENTENNIAL 

The Office Director served as Chairman of the Committee on Foreign 
Invitations, which had the responsibility of determining the foreign 
invitation list for the Bicentennial. Since the Washington expenses of 
all foreign guests were provided for by the Institution, there were 
obvious budgetary limits to the numbers invited. The formula 
eventually adopted was to invite directors of prominent museums, 
zoological parks and botanical gardens from the world over and to 
invite representatives from such universities, research organizations or 
other institutions of higher learning as had historical or contemporary 
ties with the Institution. Similarly, individual foreign scholars or 
scientists who had carried out research at the Smithsonian or other- 
wise collaborated with the Institution were also invited. In addition, 
invitations were sent to all Ministers of Culture or Education in 
countries with which the United States has diplomatic relations. 

The Office staff assisted the Bicentennial staff in advising foreign 
guests on appropriate institutions and individuals to contact in their 
travels within the United States following the Bicentennial celebrations. 

But perhaps the greatest benefit of the Bicentennial, in the view of 
the Office of International Activities, were the many opportunities to 
confer with foreign scholars and museum curators concerning future 
collaboration or the establishment of programs of common interest. 
Thus, for example, conversations were held with Drs. Mohamed 
Jacoub and Mohamed Masmoudi, Directors of Tunisian National 
Museums and the Sfax Ethnographical Museum, respectively, and 
Dr. Kazimierz Michalowski, Deputy Director of the National Museum 
in Warsaw, concerning extension of the Foreign Currency Program to 
Tunisia and Poland. Discussion concerning cooperative museum 
projects were held with Dr. Karl Katz, Director of the Bezaliel (Na- 
tional Museum) in Israel, Dr. Ajit Mookerjee, Director of the National 
Crafts Museum of India, and many others. 

CONFERENCES 
Early in December the Office of International Activities sponsored 
a small working-group conference on problems affecting the rich marine 
resources of the Peruvian coast. In attendance were representatives 
from the Department of Interior's Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, the 
Pan American Union, the National Academy of Sciences, the Con- 
servation Foundation, the Agency for International Development, the 
State Department, and the Smithsonian itself. The conference was 
inspired by Secretary Ripley's concern over the alarming decline in 
the populations of guano-producing sea birds of Peru's coastal islands 



28 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

and the need to stimulate research with an ecological approach to the 
interdependent factors — birds, fish, man's exploitation, variations in the 
Humboldt current — which influence Peru's marine environments. 

Various papers emanated from this conference, and in February, 
George E. Watson, curator of birds, Museum of Natural History, 
visited Peru to discuss the need for coordination of existing avian, 
fisheries, and oceanographic research with appropriate Peruvian scien- 
tists and government officials. Watson found that the Instituto del Mar, 
Peru's principal oceanographic center, was extremely interested in 
intensified and more coordinated research, with the help of appropriate 
American institutions and international organizations. By the end of 
the year under review, the Smithsonian forwarded a proposal to the 
Agency for International Development for funding of a small inter- 
national conference in Peru, the purpose of which would be to determine 
how to apply modern systems analyses, with the development of mathe- 
matical models and computer simulation, to the interrelated problems 
of Peru's marine eco-system. 

The Office also assisted in planning for the Office of Anthropology 
Conference on Changing Cultures, held at the Smithsonian in April. 
This conference, which considered preliminary planning for world-wide 
research on cultures or groups of peoples whose identity will soon be 
lost through rapid acculturation, was attended by some 36 foreign 
delegates whose travel was mainly provided for through the Foreign 
Currency Program. 

In May the Smithsonian played host to the Foreign Service Institute's 
Senior Seminar on Foreign Policy. A class of 25 senior Foreign Service, 
U.S. Information Agency, and Department of Defense officers heard 
Secretary Ripley explain the Institution's general mission, after which 
various staff members gave briefings on the forthcoming International 
Biological Program, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and 
its role in the International Geodetic Bureau, new programs of the 
division of education and training, and the Special Foreign Currency 
Program. Following lunch at the Museum of History and Technology, 
the class was given a conducted tour of two exhibits in preparation, 
growth of America and the history of medicine, by MHT Director 
Robert Multhauf. Ambassador G. Lewis Jones, coordinator of the 
Senior Seminar, called the visit important and useful, since it gave our 
senior diplomatic representatives abroad greater familiarity with the 
Institution's overseas commitments, as well as international scientific 
programs in general. He therefore made plans to have succeeding 
Seminar classes visit the Smithsonian on a regular basis. 




230-457 




Above: Philistine votive tablet dating from the 11th century, found during 
the Carnegie Museum-Pittsburgh Theological Seminary excavations at 
Ashdod, Israel, in July 1965, under the direction of Dr. James L. Swauger. 



Projects supported by grants from the Smithsonian Office of In- 
ternational Activities, Foreign Currency Program (see pp. 21-24). 



Opposite: Facade of the Rewa Palace (above), a fine example of early 19th 
century architecture in India, which houses the American Academy of 
Banares. Symposium (below) on the present-day study needs of South 
Asian art and archaeology held on April 3, 1966, in the main hall of the 
American Academy of Benares, Rewa Palace, Varanasi. 



Overleaf: Egyptian laborers at Mendes, a stratified Pharonic site in the Nile 
Delta, under the direction of Dr. Donald Hansen of the American Research 
Center in Egypt. 




Under a cooperative program arranged by the Office of International Activ- 
ities with the Peace Corps (see p. 30) , Volunteers in their spare time collect 
specimens for the Smithsonian. In Placencia, British Honduras, Volunteer 
James Grover (above) preserves a rare species of lobster, and (below) 
unearths insect larvae in the "bush" behind his house. 




OFFICE OF INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES 29 

COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS 

In February the Pan American Union awarded the first three grants 
to Latin American biologists for study at the Smithsonian's Tropical 
Research Institute (STRI), in the Canal Zone, or the Museum of 
Natural History under a new joint program with the Smithsonian. 

The initial grants went to Estanislau Kostka Pinto da Silveira, a 
vertebrate zoologist with the Brazilian Forestry and Conservation 
Research Center in Rio de Janeiro; to Maximo Alcides Galvez Riveros, 
associate professor of biology at the National University in Ayacucho, 
Peru; and to Brother Daniel Gonzalez Padifio, F.S.C., professor of 
pharmacology at the University of Antioquia in Medellin, Colombia. 
Professors Pinto da Silveira and Galvez Riveros are conducting field 
studies on Barro Colorado Island, while Brother Daniel is studying 
specimens of the economic plants of Colombia at the Museum of 
Natural History. 

The purpose of this program is to advance basic research in the 
natural sciences in Latin America by providing the opportunity for 
systematic biologists to study the Smithsonian's unique collections or, 
in the case of those primarily interested in environmental biology, the 
opportunity to carry out field work utilizing the equally unique 
resources of the Tropical Research Institute. The joint program was 
evolved by the Office of International Activities and the Pan American 
Union's Department of Scientific Affairs; it is funded through the 
Organization of American States' Fellowship Program. Candidates 
are free to carry out their own research interests or, as the case may be, 
to serve as research assistants in the on-going projects of the STRI 
scientists, in order to gain general experience in field investigative 
methods. It is hoped that this program, now relatively modest in scale, 
will grow as the opportunities become better known in Latin American 
universities and the number of qualified candidates increases. 

In the field of UNESCO relations, the Office provided study papers 
for the Department of State concerning the advantages of United States 
membership in the International Centre for the Study of the Preser- 
vation and the Restoration of Cultural Property in Rome, more 
popularly known as the "Rome Centre," which is an international 
organization dedicated to the advancement of museum conservation 
and historical or archeological site preservation, through training 
programs, consultation and technical publications. The study papers 
were in part based on a visit to the Rome Centre made by Charles 
Olin, chief of the Smithsonian's conservation research laboratory. The 
Office also held preliminary discussions with the Bureau of Educational 
and Cultural Affairs of the Department of State concerning the 



30 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Smithsonian as a potential site for UNESCO conferences of a scholarly 
or scientific character. 

Beginning in July of 1965, the Office of International Activities 
established a cooperative program with the Peace Corps in which Peace 
Corps Volunteers overseas collect specimens or make field observations 
in their spare time, according to the specific needs of Smithsonian 
curators. The Office Director wrote an article in the Volunteer, the 
monthly magazine sent to Peace Corps Volunteers around the world, 
explaining the Smithsonian's research objectives and describing the 
collecting needs of the different departments or divisions. Soon there- 
after Volunteers began to respond in significant numbers. The 
department of entomology has received many insect specimens from 
Africa and corresponded with Volunteers in 22 countries. The depart- 
ment of mineral sciences and the division of birds have also received 
significant help, while in the Museum of History and Technology the 
division of textiles has received photographs and descriptive material 
on weaving and dyeing processes in Sierra Leone. 

Toward the close of the period under review, the Office Director held 
preliminary conversations with Mr. Jack Vaughn, Director of the 
Peace Corps, concerning possible Peace Corps-Smithsonian projects 
utilizing Volunteers in conservation education, ecological surveys and 
major archeological excavations. 

OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING 

Charles Blitzer, Director 

The programs of the Office of Education and Training fall into 
two broad categories, reflecting the major activities of the Institution. 
The first, and larger, category includes those programs directly related 
to Smithsonian research in science, history, and the arts. The second 
category includes those programs directly related to the exhibit and 
public education functions of our museums. In both cases, the 
programs of the Office are designed to support and strengthen continuing 
and fundamental Smithsonian activities and, at the same time, to 
make the results of these activities more widely available to the appro- 
priate groups. 

The research-related programs of the Office consist primarily of three 
sorts of visiting research appointments: for post-doctoral scholars 
and scientists, for graduate students, and for undergraduates. These 
appointments serve a number of purposes: they make the enormous 
resources of the Smithsonian, both in collections and in trained pro- 
fessional staff, available to the scholarly and scientific community; 



OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING 31 

they bring these resources to bear directly upon the training of excellent 
students from our universities; they bring to the Smithsonian scholars 
and scientists whose researches contribute to the fulfillment of our 
research mission, and whose presence enlivens the intellectual atmos- 
phere of the Institution. Evidence of the need met by these appoint- 
ments is to be found in the numbers of applications received for the 
current academic year — a total, after preliminary screening, of more 
than 500 applications for some 80 appointments in all categories. 
The National Research Council, which administers the Institution's 
post-doctoral appointments in the sciences, reports that the ratio of 
applicants to available positions was the highest in its entire experience. 

The names and projects of those appointed for the academic year 
1965-66, and the summer of 1965 are listed in Appendix 5. 

Cooperative education programs were established between the 
Smithsonian and nine universities. A total of 17 such programs, 
aiming primarily at the training of graduate students, now exist. 
Programs which have been formalized since the publication of the 
1965 annual report are: 

University of Cincinnati Paleobiology 

Duke University Marine Sciences 

George Washington Invertebrate Zoology 

University 
Johns Hopkins University Paleontology 

University of Maryland American Studies 

Fine Arts 

Ornithology 
University of Miami Marine Sciences 

University of Michigan Oriental Art 

University of Washington Oceanography 

Yale University Paleobiology 

The Office of Education and Training sponsored six conferences of 
interest to Smithsonian staff members and their colleagues in the 
academic community: 

1 . Seminar on Aviation History (in cooperation with the American 

Aviation Historical Society) 

2. Revision of Smithsonian Institution Meteorological Tables 

3. Flora of North America 

4. Role of Historic Archaeology in the Study of American Culture 

and History 

5. Veterinary Medicine 

6. Political Campaigning in the Nineteenth Century. 



32 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

OFFICE OF PUBLIC INFORMATION 

B. Richard Berg, Director 

To strengthen the Smithsonian's capabilities for keeping the public 
informed about the expanding programs and activities of the Institution, 
a Public Information Office was established September 1, 1965. 
B. Richard Berg was appointed Director, with George J. Berklacy as 
press officer. William C. Grayson was appointed chief of film and 
broadcasting on March 15, 1966, and at the close of the fiscal year the 
audio-visual library also became part of the office, with Mary Ann 
Friend in charge, and Albert J. Robinson was appointed motion picture 
and public affairs photographer. 

The Bicentennial of James Smithson's birth in September, focused 
international attention on the Smithsonian and marked the culmination 
of a number of projects designed to improve public understanding of 
the work of the Institution. The early history and present diversity 
of the Smithsonian was documented by Walter Karp in a colorfully 
illustrated volume entitled The Smithsonian Institution published by the 
Institution in association with the editors of American Heritage. The 
first volume of the Smithsonian Annual brought together the scholarly 
papers presented during the three-day celebration in a volume entitled 
Knowledge Among Men (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966). 

A documentary film on the founding of the Institution was produced 
by Charles and Ray Eames with a grant from the International 
Business Machines Corporation, for premier showing at the Bicentennial. 
This 20- minute historical film, "The Smithsonian Institution," tells 
the story of James Smithson and his will, the intense debates in Congress 
over use of the legacy, the founding of the Institution, and decisions by 
early Secretaries which set the Smithsonian on its present course. 

The National Broadcasting Company arranged a nation-wide telecast 
of President Johnson's historic speech on "The Noble Adventure" of 
international education to delegates attending the Bicentennial convo- 
cation on the Mall, and the Voice of America broadcast the convocation 
program around the world. 

The celebration served as a focal point for a number of major articles 
in national magazines both here and abroad. The work of the Smith- 
sonian was described in Nature (London's weekly journal of science), 
Punch, Life, Business Week, American Education, Science, National Geographic 
Magazine, and many other publications. Editorials appeared in news- 
papers ranging from The New York Times to The Times (London) to the 
Pasco Times (Texas) to The Wall Street Journal. 

The number of press releases announcing educational programs and 



SMITHSONIAN PRESS 33 

research results more than doubled during the year. However, more 
information was provided to the public through direct cooperation 
with reporters, writers, and photographers than was generated through 
the production of formal news releases. 

More than 78,000 telephone inquiries were handled by the Office's 
Dial-A-Satellite service, providing recorded messages on satellites and 
other celestial objects visible in the Washington skies. Prepared by 
James C. Cornell, Jr., information officer at the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Dial-A-Satellite 
service is also provided to residents in the Boston metropolitan area, in 
the New York City area through an arrangement with the Hayden 
Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History, and in the 
Philadelphia area through an arrangement with the Fels Planetarium 
of the Franklin Institute. 

A Dial-A-Museum service, providing recorded announcements on 
museum hours and special events open to the public, is being inaugu- 
rated on August 1, 1966, to provide better assistance to the public by 
making general information accurately and quickly available and to 
free the Institution's switchboard for more efficient handling of complex 
inquiries. 

In broadcasting, the Smithsonian was represented this year in three 
half- hour programs on 100 stations of the National Educational 
Television network featuring the creation of exhibits, the Everglades 
life group, the hall of everyday life in the American past, and the hall 
of physical anthropology. These were produced by WETA of Wash- 
ington in cooperation with the Smithsonian. Other programs included 
a half-hour documentary on the Smithson Bicentennial, on WRC-TV, 
and a number of radio programs featuring the cultural activities of 
the Smithsonian. 

Efforts to achieve a full network program on the Smithsonian 
culminated in 1966 in successful negotiation with NBC for production 
of the first Smithsonian network television series of 26 programs to 
start October 15, 1966. 

SMITHSONIAN PRESS 

Anders Richter, Director 

In fulfillment of the founder's prescription for the "diffusion" of 
knowledge, the Smithsonian has from the days of its establishment 
placed its weight on the two pillars of publications and exhibits. 
In his "Advertisement" for Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, 
the first volume to appear (1848) in the Smithsonian Contributions to 



34 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Knowledge, Joseph Henry, the Institution's first Secretary, elaborated 
a most pregnant plan for the publication of scholarly and popular 
works. The prolific output of over twelve thousand titles in the en- 
suing 118 years is the natural issue of the first part of Smithson's 
prescription, for the "increase" of knowledge, for it is a truism that 
publication is a consequential extension of research. The Smithsonian's 
publications program partakes of the newly defined emphasis given 
by the present administration to research and education. The outer 
manifestation of this, during fiscal 1966, occurred with the creation 
of the Smithsonian Press and the appointment in May 1966 of a 
Director to succeed Paul H. Oehser, whose many years of superb 
service as Chief of the predecessor Editorial and Publications Division 
and as Public Relations Officer terminated with his retirement in 
December 1965. The responsibility for public relations was trans- 
ferred to a separate Office of Public Information. At the close of the 
fiscal year, the Director of the Press proposed for approval of the 
Secretary a general reorganization of the publications department. 
According to this plan, there will be further definition of Press re- 
sponsibilities through elimination of most non-publishing functions. 
The Press will continue its strong editorial and design effort in support 
of the several established series which report the explorations and 
research of staff and collaborators of the Smithsonian in science, 
history and art; as well as of more popular publications, such as 
museum guidebooks and art catalogs. It is expected, however, that 
the Smithsonian Press imprint will be extended to a greater number 
of books written as independent works by the staff, by other scholars in 
the Federal Government, and members of the academic community 
at large. Inasmuch as the pragmatic definition of publishing is 
"to make public," it will be necessary to expand the promotion and 
distribution services of the Press. In keeping with the objectives of the 
present administration, our purpose is the establishment of a university 
press of professional and academic excellence. 

Under the imprint of the Smithsonian Press are issued ten active 
series emanating from the various Museums and Bureaus of the Smith- 
sonian. This is a rare advantage to Smithsonian staff members and 
their collaborators, for few universities offer such a captive medium 
for reports of research. Much more, the Smithsonian serials constitute 
a public and scholarly service of extraordinary value, for they enable 
the publication of reports which fall between the journal article and 
the book — a most neglected species of publication. The present 
series are. from the Museum of Natural History, the United States 
National Museum Bulletins, the Proceeding of the United States National 
Museum, the Contributions from the National Herbarium, and the Smith- 



SMITHSONIAN PRESS 35 

sonian Contributions to Anthropology; from the Museum of History and 
Technology, the United States National Museum Bulletins and the 
Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology; from the National 
Air Museum, the Annals of Flight; from the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory, the Contributions to Astrophysics; and from the Freer 
Gallery of Art, the Freer Gallery of Art Oriental Studies, Occasional Papers 
of the Freer Gallery of Art, and Ars Orientalis. The National Collection 
of Fine Arts and the Travelling Exhibition Service sponsor a good 
many art catalogs, and the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections is a 
series with no particular source. The titles of all works issued in these 
series during fiscal 1966 are included in the list of Smithsonian publi- 
cations in Appendix 3. 

The Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology series was inauguarted 
during the year as a medium for material formerly published in the 
Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins, which will be discontinued. 
Another venerable series, the Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution, 
was re-designed and named Smithsonian Tear. The "General Ap- 
pendix" to the annual report, which formerly contained review essays, 
was eliminated and in its stead will appear a series of separate Smith- 
sonian Annuals. The first such annual, Knowledge Among Men, containing 
the addresses delivered by notable scholars at the bicentennial cele- 
bration of James Smithson's birth, was published in June 1966 by 
Simon and Schuster. 

In keeping with its purpose to make available works which describe 
and interpret its activities and related science to the public at large, 
the Smithsonian has continued and furthered its cooperative arrange- 
ments with private publishers. During the past year Simon and 
Schuster published the Smithsonian Treasury of 20th-century Science. 
Edited by Webster P. True, this volume is composed of articles reprinted 
from the "General Appendixes" of recent annual reports. Under 
terms of another agreement, the firm of American Heritage assisted in 
the preparation and production of a beautifully illustrated popular 
history of the Smithsonian, entitled The Smithsonian Institution, which 
was published upon the bicentennial anniversary of James Smithson's 
birth. 

During the past fiscal year, 109 publications appeared under the 
Smithsonian imprint. Of these, sixty-eight were funded by the federal 
appropriation in the amount of $238,319, thirty-eight were issued 
through Smithsonian private funds in the amount of $225,661, and 
three were supported by grants and gifts in the amount of $56,526. 
Among them are two works which must be considered major publishing 
events. 

The initial volume of the Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 



36 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

appeared in January. In it, authors Betty J. Meggers, Clifford Evans 
and Emilio Estrada have, under the innocuous title of Early Formative 
Period of Coastal Ecuador, The Valdivia and Machalilla Phases, adduced 
detailed evidence in support of a radical theory of trans- Pacific Japanese 
influence upon the early culture of South America. The book quickly 
received major reviews and promises to be a landmark in New World 
archeology. In April the Smithsonian Press scored another major 
event with issuance of the 4-volume Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
Star Catalog, compiled by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 
staff. This work identifies and locates every recorded star in the 
firmament to the ninth magnitude, more than one-quarter million in 
all. The work is distinguished further in that its twenty-six hundred 
pages were produced from computer tapes programmed to project each 
page on the face of a cathode-ray tube, where it was photographed for 
offset printing. This basic reference work encompasses information 
which previously had to be sought in more than fifty separate catalogs. 

The publications distribution section of the Smithsonian Press 
continued to receive requests for publications from libraries, univer- 
sities, research institutions, bookstores, and individuals throughout the 
world. A total of 360,781 publications were distributed (exclusive of 
those distributed by the Superintendent of Documents of the Govern- 
ment Printing Office) as opposed to 341,439 in fiscal 1965. Of these, 
approximately one-hundred thousand were sent to foreign addresses. 
In addition, 551,642 Smithsonian information leaflets were printed for 
the use of Smithsonian staff members for use in answering queries. 

The Press continues to administer a Print Shop, a small branch of 
the Government Printing Office, which exists to serve immediate 
printing needs — many of which, such as labels for collections, are 
peculiar to the Smithsonian. The Print Shop, with a staff of two 
journeymen, completed 849 printing jobs during fiscal 1966. 

By means of its publications has the Smithsonian conserved and 
communicated the fruits of its scholarship. But, in common with other 
university presses, the Press may provide less important benefits as well. 
The presence of an effective publishing program within the Institution 
plays an immeasurable but certain part in the attraction and retention 
of research staff. More measurable, though as easily overlooked, is the 
"public relations" effect of publications by themselves. It has been 
said that the Smithsonian is known and respected in some of the world's 
remotest parts by penetration of its books and pamphlets. Each publi- 
cation distributed under the imprint carries the name of the Smith- 
sonian in the very best context. 



SMITHSONIAN MUSEUM SERVICE 37 

SMITHSONIAN MUSEUM SERVICE 

Meredith Johnson, Acting Director 

During 1966 the Smithsonian Museum Service continued to expand 
its facilities for interpreting Smithsonian Museums and their functions 
to the nearly 19 million visitors who come to the Institution. Special 
emphasis has been placed upon on-the-spot information, direction, and 
orientation for visitors through Girl Scout information guides, leaflets, 
floor plans, and teleshows. 

The staff of the Museum Service carried on its previous program of 
providing the public with accurate and extensive information on the 
Smithsonian and other museums in the Washington area through 
phone calls and letters. They continued to give tours, often in foreign 
languages, to special guests of the Institution. In this fashion they 
served as host to The Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowden, and 
the Earl of Snowden, and to His Imperial Highness Prince Mikasa 
of Japan and his wife and daughter. 

The Junior League of Washington donated its 12th year of service to 
the elementary schools of the Greater Washington Area. The program 
of tours was conducted by the Museum Service in cooperation with 
Mrs. Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Mrs. Joseph Smith, Jr., and Mrs. Ernest 
N. May, Jr., chairmen of the Junior League Guide Program, and with 
the curatorial staff of the Smithsonian. More than 32,000 children 
were taken on 1,137 tours during the school year. The Junior League 
tour service is a significant contribution to the Institution's educational 
program. Teachers from the area were invited to come and help the 
guides and curators develop scripts that would follow closely the cur- 
riculum of the local school systems. 

The Docent Program provided visitors and scholars with written 
information on our zoological and anthropological exhibits and research 
facilities. They assisted in the training of the Junior League Guides, 
prepared bibliographies in their respective areas, and revised leaflets 
and brochures for distribution. 

The Free Film Theater continued to provide Wednesday evening 
films and lectures to the public. Curators often gave introductory 
talks and participated in question periods after the films. Over 7,000 
people attended these film showings during the year. Slides and films, 
made available to schools and other groups all over the country by the 
Audio- Visual Library, made it possible for those unable to visit the 
Smithsonian to take advantage of its exhibits and research. Films 
such as "The Smithsonian's Whale" and "The Leaf Thieves" do a great 
deal to publicize the activities of its Museums. 



38 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

For the benefit of the children who visit the Smithsonian Museums, 
a carousel was operated on the Mall, and its activities were accompanied 
by a steam calliope. Through an increasing number of evening func- 
tions the Service hopes to involve a greater percentage of the public in 
our work and to familiarize them on a less formal basis with our 
exhibits, their preparation and function. 

The special events division of the Museum Service greatly expanded 
its activities this year because of the tremendously increased number 
of presentations, receptions, permanent and temporary exhibit hall 
openings, and concerts. 

The Museum Service provided the invitations, programs, catering, 
and greeting of guests at all the special events of the Smithsonian. 
Many of the arrangements for the Bicentennial Celebration of James 
Smithson's birthday were handled by the Museum Service. This 
included the provision of bilingual guides and information aides for 
the many museum personnel who came from abroad to help the 
Smithsonian celebrate the anniversary of its benefactor. 

The Museum Shops of the Institution provided visitors with books, 
cards, slides, and reproductions relating to its exhibits. An additional 
shop was opened in the Smithsonian building this year in order to 
provide visitors there with attractive and educational remembrances 
of their visit. Museum Shops are now operating in each of our seven 
buildings. 

The Society of Associates began its first year under the joint guidance 
of Mrs. Vernon Knight and Mr. G. Carroll Lindsay, Director of the 
Museum Service. The tremendous success of its membership drive 
has been both an exciting experience and a rewarding insight into the 
interest in our Museums among the general public, not only here 
in Washington but throughout the country. 

SMITHSONIAN ASSOCIATES 

G. Carroll Lindsay, Acting Executive Secretary 

On September 18, 1965, during the celebration of the two- hundredth 
anniversary of the birth of James Smithson, the Secretary formally 
announced the establishment of the Smithsonian Society of Associates.* 

Formal recognition of the support accorded the Smithsonian by its 
friends across the Nation and, indeed, across the world, has long been 
a dream of the Institution. Charles D. Walcott, fourth Secretary of 
the Smithsonian, had considered the formation of a nationwide 
society of friends of the Smithsonian as part of an endowment cam- 



*The name was later shortened to Smithsonian Associates. 



SMITHSONIAN ASSOCIATES 39 

paign in the 1920s, but the project failed to materialize as a result of 
Walcott's death in 1927, and the onset of the great depression of the 
1930s prevented its revival. Membership in the Associates is open 
to all who care to join with the Smithsonian Institution in furtherance 
of the Institution's objective, stated by founder James Smithson in 
his will as "the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." 

Through their modest annual dues, members express their desire 
to participate directly in the work of the Smithsonian in the fields 
of science, art, and history. In response to this concretely expressed 
interest, the Institution provides the Associates with special educa- 
tional and cultural benefits, including events that acquaint them 
with the wide range of Smithsonian activities and its programs in 
education, scientific and historical research, museum exhibition, 
and the performing arts. Associates are encouraged to participate 
in these activities to the fullest possible extent. 

The Smithsonian will continue, as it has for the past 120 years, 
energetically to serve the scientific and scholarly community of the 
nation and the world, and make its museums and information resources 
available to the general public. The Associates, because of their special 
interest in the Smithsonian, will have the privilege of an especially 
close relationship with the Institution and the opportunity to share 
deeply in its programs. 

Since November the Associates in the Washington area have enjoyed 
a variety of lectures, film showings, programs for children, exhibit 
openings, and similar opportunities to become more fully acquainted 
with the varied work of the Smithsonian. One event of great interest 
was a behind-the-scenes tour of the Smithsonian's exhibit-production 
activities. Silk screen artists showed how they produce exhibit labels 
and graphics. Model-makers displayed their intricate wares in cut- 
away form, showing the delicate mechanisms which go into the pro- 
duction of a "working" exhibit. A large group of freeze-dry specimens, 
the freeze-dry process that is rapidly replacing conventional taxidermy 
methods at the Smithsonian, and a wide variety of other exhibits-making 
techniques were demonstrated. 

Another event of special interest was a program presented by car- 
toonist Milton Caniff, who drew for an audience of eager adults and 
children their favorite characters from "Steve Canyon." Johnny Hart 
and Brant Parker on another memorable evening delighted young and 
old with the King, Rodney the Cowardly Knight, the Wizard, the 
King's horse Bung, and other characters who inhabit the Kingdom 
of Id. 

In a more serious vein the Associates heard Archaeological Institute 
of America lecturer Machteld J. Mellink describe the archaeological 



40 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

work at Lycia, and heard Link lecturer George M. Low evaluate the 
Apollo space program. 

Younger audiences of members' children were captivated by Saturday 
morning programs that dealt with subjects ranging from a study of 
minerals to the exploration of outer space, all under the direction of 
Smithsonian scientists. 

Many members were absorbed by the contemporary art works from 
the Sao Paulo Bienal, shown for the first time in the United States 
at the Smithsonian and introduced to Washington at a gala Associates 
reception also attended by the artists whose works were on view. 

On May 1, 1966, Mrs. Vernon Knight, executive secretary of the 
Associates, resigned to take up residence in Texas and G. Carroll 
Lindsay, director of the Smithsonian Museum Service, assumed the 
position as acting executive secretary. On June 1, Mrs Lisa Suter, 
formerly membership secretary for the Corcoran Gallery of Art, joined 
the staff as program director, with responsibility for planning and 
directing the various programs of lectures, films, children's events, and 
other educational activities. 



Publications and Addresses 

The following addresses and statements were delivered by the 
Secretary (the scientific papers of the Secretary are listed on pages 
137-138): 

Commencement address, Marlboro College, Marlboro, Vermont, 
June 6, 1965. 

Statement on basic research and the National Science Foundation, 
presented to the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Develop- 
ment of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House 
of Representatives, July 22, 1965. 

"The museum as an enigma." Address before the closing banquet of 
the Bicentennial Celebration commemorating the birth of James 
Smithson, Washington, D.C., September 18, 1965. (Published in 
Knowledge Among Men. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966.) 

"Museums in today's changing world." Address to the International 
Council of Museums, New York City, September 27, 1965. 

Address to the Council of Fellows of the American Anthropological 
Association, Denver, Colorado, November 20, 1965. 

Opening remarks to the International Union for the Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources, Bangkok, Thailand, November 29, 
1965. 



ADDRESSES BY SECRETARY 41 

Statement on a center for advanced study in Washington, presented to 
the Woodrow Wilson Memorial Commission, Washington, D.C., 
March 10, 1966. 

"A perspective of the Smithsonian program in ecology." Address to 
the National Parks Association, Washington, D.C., March 15, 1966. 

"Three challenges to biology." Address to the Sigma Xi Initiation 
Banquet, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, 
April 21, 1966. 

"The future of environmental improvement." Address to the Environ- 
mental Improvement Lecture Series, The Graduate School of the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., May 31, 1966. 

"Status of learning." Commencement address, The George Wash- 
ington University, Washington, D.C., June 5, 1966. 

Publications and speeches by members of the Secretary's staff 
included the following: 

G. Carroll Lindsay. George Brown Goode. Pp. 127-140 in Keepers 
of the Past, edit, by Clifford Lord. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University 
of North Carolina Press, 1965. 

Ritterbush, P. C. Outside professional activities by federal laboratory 
personnel. In The Environment of the Federal Laboratory, Third 
Symposium of the Federal Council for Science and Technology 
(Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965), pp. 98-102. 

. Research training in governmental laboratories in the United 

States. Minerva (Winter 1966), vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 186-201. 

. "Science and technology in support of civilian power." 



Address, The Air War College, Maxwell A.F.B., Alabama, April 21, 
1966. 

Among the many newspaper and magazine articles about the 
Smithsonian appearing during the year, those listed below were of 
particular interest: 

Burkett, Warren. Science chases dust from "Nation's Attic" — The 
Smithsonian. Business Week, May 21, 1966, pp. 110-113. 

Carmichael, Leonard. James Smithson: Pathfinder in Science and 
Philanthropy. Nature (London: October 23, 1965), vol. 208, no. 
5008, pp. 320-321. 

The many splendored Smithsonian. Carnegie Magazine (September 
1965), pp. 239-244. 

Cowan, R. S.; Davis, D.; Humphrey, P. S.; Klein, W. H.; Ritter- 
bush, P. C; and Shetler, S. Smithsonian Institution Conference 
on Environmental Biology. Bioscience, vol. 15, 1965, pp. 607-608. 

Curry-Lindahl, Kai. Museijubileum i Washington. Svenska Dag- 
bladet, October 19, 1965, p. 1. 

230-457—66 5 



42 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Downie, Leonard, Jr. The National Air Museum. The Washington 

Post; Potomac [Magazine], September 5, 1965, pp. 10-11. 
Esterow, Milton. Man in the news: Smithsonian's birdman. The 

New York Times, May 30, 1966. p. 1. 
Glueck, Grace. Smithsonian widens art vistas— cluster of museums 

emerging as great national center. The New York Times, May 30, 

1966, pp. 1, 8. 
Herron, Paul. A legacy of learning. The Washington Post: [Maga- 
zine] Potomac, September 5, 1965, p. 2. 
Martin, David. The Smithsonian, wellspring of a Nation's pride. 

Life (November 19, 1965), vol. 59, no. 21, pp. 86-102. 
Morales, Herbert. Diffusing knowledge among men. American 

Education (September 1965), vol. 1, no. 6. 
The Smithsonian Institution. NEA Journal (September 1965), vol. 54, 

no. 6, pp. 30-32. 
Ripley, Josephine. The Smithsonian looks ahead. The Christian 

Science Monitor, August 14, 1965, p. 1. 
Sghaden, Herman. The Smithsonian, old and new. The Washington 

Star: Sunday Magazine, September 12, 1965, pp. 4-25. 
Simons, Howard. A thoughtful party. New Scientist (London: Sep- 
tember 30, 1965), p. 831. 
Tassler, Alan, and Payne, William A. Museum of History and 

Technology. The Washington Post: Potomac, September 5, 1965, 

pp. 18-23. 
Toulmin, Stephen. Dusting off the attic. Punch, October 27, 1965, 

pp. 605-607. 
White, O. M. Smithsonian: storehouse of science and culture. 

National Geographic School Bulletin, vol. 44, no. 3. September 27, 

1966, pp. 42-44. 
Witherspoon, Thomas C. Resource for understanding in the Nation's 

Capital. The George Washington University Magazine (Spring 1966), 

vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 20-21. 
Wolff, Geoffrey A. The Smithsonian Institution. The Washington 

Post: Potomac, September 5, 1965, pp. 5-8. 
Wyant, William K., Jr. Preserving the past for the future. Coronet, 

July 1966, pp. 138-143. 
Yenckel, James. The Natural History Museum. The Washington 

Post: Potomac, September 5, 1965, pp. 14-17. 



United States National Museum 

Frank A. Taylor, Director 




tn the Great Hall of the Smithsonian Institution, on the evening of 
■*■ May 17, 1966, Secretary Ripley installed Dr. Richard S. Cowan 
and Dr. Robert P. Multhauf as directors of the Museum of Natural 
History and the Museum of History and Technology, respectively. 
The installation ceremony was attended by members of the Board of 
Regents and Smithsonian colleagues of the Directors and their families. 

Dr. Cowan, botanist, came to the Smithsonian Institution in 1957 
as associate curator of botany and served from 1962 as assistant and 
later as deputy director of the Museum of Natural History. He was 
appointed Director in December 1965. Dr. Multhauf, historian of 
science, joined the Smithsonian staff in April 1 954 as curator of engi- 
neering and has served as chairman of the department of science and 
technology of the Museum of History and Technology since June 1957. 
He was appointed Director on April 4, 1966. 

The Act of 1846 establishing the Smithsonian Institution provided 
for a museum, and the name "United States National Museum" came 
into use in the 1850s. In 1884 appropriations to the Smithsonian for 
the U.S. National Museum were authorized and an annual report to 
the Congress by its Director was required. Today, its component mu- 
seums are institutions of individual and world-wide reputation. The 
reports on the Museums of Natural History and History and Tech- 
nology are therefore treated separately, in accordance with the re- 
porting procedures established in the Smithsonian Tear 1965, and are to 
be found on pages 63 and 221. 



43 



44 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

On September 10, 1965, the Senate passed the National Museum 
Act of 1965 and forwarded it to the House of Representatives. On 
June 2, 1966, the Committee on House Administration reported 
favorably on the House version of the bill, with recommendations that 
it pass. The prospect for passage was favorable.* 

The preamble of the Act states that the museums of the Nation 
constitute cultural and educational institutions of great importance 
to its progress, and that national recognition is necessary to insure 
that museum resources for preserving and interpreting the Nation's 
heritage may be more fully utilized in the enrichment of public life 
in the community. 

Implicit in the Act is recognition of the Smithsonian's traditional 
role of making available to all museums the results of its research into 
museum practices and techniques and the development of innovations 
in such areas as the exhibition and preservation of museum objects, 
cataloging of collections, and Museum administration. Also implied 
is the assistance given others by advice, by training of personnel, and 
by the review and evaluation of museum programs, building plans, and 
projects. The Act specifies that the Director of the United States 
National Museum shall cooperate with museums and their professional 
organizations in continuing study of museum problems and opportuni- 
ties, both in the United States and abroad, and that he shall prepare 
and carry out programs for training, publication, research, and the 
development of museum techniques. 

Pending the appropriation of funds to implement the National 
Museum Act, plans have been made for a modest start of new pro- 
grams in fiscal year 1 967. The need most frequently voiced by museum 
officers is for trained museum personnel. A series of seminars on 
museum functions will start with a meeting on museum education, to 
be held in late summer 1966. Arranged by the Smithsonian Office of 
Education and Training, this first seminar is being supported by the 
Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 
Guidance obtained from these meetings will be followed in developing 
cooperative programs under the Act. 

During the year, the Smithsonian cooperated with the American 
Association of Museums and the Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare in compiling and testing a questionnaire on the basic data 
of museums and their educational programs. The returns from this 
will bring up to date information about the museum field and will be 
the start of a machine-record information tool to be compiled and 



*The bill was passed and was signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 
15, 1966. 



OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR 45 

administered by the American Association of Museums with the 
assistance of Smithsonian computer facilities. 

The Director, United States National Museum, at the invitation of 
Dr. Roland Force, Director of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 
Honolulu, Hawaii, acted as one of several consultants advising on 
proposals to expand the scope of that museum in fields of archives, 
Hawaiian history, and the history of technology and industry in the 
State. 

The Director, with others, discussed with Dr. Grover Murray, 
incoming President of Texas Technological College, the development 
of the University Museum as a teaching aid and as a source of educa- 
tional exhibits for developing countries, as part of Dr. Murray's plans 
for an international center for research in the utilization of arid and 
semi-arid lands. 

As president of the International Committee for Museums of Science 
and Technology of the International Council of Museums, the Director 
assisted in planning for the Washington meetings of ICOM '65 and 
conducted the programs of the International Committee in Wash- 
ington, Philadelphia, and New York. 

The ICOM General Conference adopted a resolution calling upon 
governments owning blocked currencies in developing countries to 
employ these funds in aid of museums and their organizations. The 
Director assisted the Smithsonian Office of International Activities in 
drafting tentative programs for aid to museums in these excess currency 
countries. Joseph A. Patterson, Director of the American Association 
of Museums, made a preliminary survey of museum opportunities in 
Asia, under the proposed program. 

The National Museum arranged a day at the Smithsonian for the 
foreign museum professionals on the annual State Department-Ameri- 
can Association of Museums tour of United States museums. Direc- 
tors of the museums of the Smithsonian entertained the visitors at 
luncheon and with tours of their museums. 

The Director spoke at the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the 
Nashville Children's Museum. He was elected a member of the 
Council of the American Association of Museums. 



OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR 

A primary function of the Office of the Registrar is the accessioning 
of new material. As Registrar for both the Museum of Natural History 
and the Museum of History and Technology, this office recorded the 
accessions for 1,412,279 specimens, of which 1,281,062 were natural 



46 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

history materials. (Statistics on the present totals of the collections 
and the distribution of specimens in these two museums are given on 
pages 122 and 242.) Another function of the office is handling mail for 
both Museums. Its increased activity is reflected in the volume of mail 
flowing through the mail room, which this year rose to 3,553 pieces 
daily, as compared to 2,639 three years ago. 

Often overlooked as an educational aspect of the Smithsonian is still 
another service performed through this office — processing replies to 
daily requests for information on every conceivable subject. These 
inquiries come from the housewife, the farmer, the retired military 
man, the young man in the military service, the teacher, the business- 
man, and always, the school child. This year the queries totaled 
approximately 13,000, and who knows how many careers have been 
started or helped by the thoughtful, authoritative replies, many re- 
quiring for their preparation considerable time and research, which 
this office sought from the Smithsonian's professional staff and for- 
warded to the enquirer. 

Freight and express shipments processed by the office numbered 
5800 and totaled 581 tons. The equipment sent for use of Museum 
staff members engaged in explorations consisted not only of collecting 
and camping gear, diving equipment, and scientific instruments, but 
also of several pickup trucks and two boats that were shipped to foreign 
ports. Collecting equipment was likewise shipped to members of the 
Peace Corps, as well as to other Americans stationed in foreign coun- 
tries, who have offered to collect specimens distinctive to the particular 
areas of their official activities. 

Among the incoming foreign shipments cleared through the U.S. 
Customs in 1966 were items ranging from every variety of natural 
history specimen to a portable proton magnetometer (for use in under- 
water exploration). Four cases of rare Diirer drawings from Berlin and 
13 tons of art treasures carried by air freight from Turkey, together 
valued at more than six million dollars, were entered for the Traveling 
Exhibition Service. 

Official assignments for foreign travel accounted for more than three 
hundred individual passport transactions requiring visas to worldwide 
areas. Collecting permits and clearances were obtained from many 
countries for remote localities where field work was undertaken in 
behalf of the Smithsonian. 

To keep abreast of the rapid growth within the Smithsonian, a 
review is being made of procedures to simplify and improve registra- 
tion methods, including the possibility of automating some phases 
of the work. 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 47 

REGISTRARS OFFICE— SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES 
Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1966 

Accessions (specimens) 

Museum of Natural History 1,281,062 

Museum of History and Technology 131,217 

Mail (pieces) 895, 356 

Transportation — shipments arranged 5, 800 

(16,680 pieces, 581 tons) 

Letters of inquiry processed 13, 000 

Foreign travel requests processed 

Passports obtained 300 

Visas obtained 600 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 

Under the direction of chief of exhibits John E. Anglim and assistant 
chief Benjamin W. Lawless, the office of exhibits made its contribution 
to the Smithsonian's public education, information, and inspirational 
objectives. By means of imaginative design, effective arrangement 
of specimens, and readable labels, the office of exhibits gave signifi- 
cant support to the effort of museum scientists and historians to 
make readily understandable to the general viewer, complex and 
often little-understood historical, cultural, scientific, and technological 
concepts, and to awaken an interest in the fields of knowledge they 
represent. 

Research in new approaches to exhibit design was continued with 
the development of a learning-aid for elementary school children on 
the subject of the physics of light. The first unit was installed for 
testing in a Fairfax County, Virginia, school near the close of the school 
year. Progress made on the individual experiments assure that 16 
will be ready for rotation to 3 schools during the 1966-1967 school year. 

As part of a planning project to investigate principles of exhibits for 
the blind, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of an 
exhibit made especially for the blind and one made for the sighted but 
explained to the blind with the aid of touch objects passed around by 
a guide lecturer. Other experiments will be made under a grant 
from the Vocational Rehabilitation Administration of the Department 
of Health, Education, and Welfare. 

History and Technology Exhibits Laboratory 

The Museum of History and Technology exhibits laboratory com- 
pleted the architectural restoration of the great hall in the Smithsonian 



48 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

building in time for the Bicentennial Celebration of James Smithson's 
birth. This work included research on furniture and furnishings, 
color schemes, all appropriate to the architecture of the 1 840s, and the 
design of cases to display exhibits in the many disciplines of history, 
art, science, and technology embraced by the Smithsonian, Riddick 
Vann was the exhibits designer and coordinator for this project and 
was assisted in case installation by production teams under the super- 
vision of Walter N. Lewis. 

In November, exhibits were completed by production teams under 
the supervision of Frank A. Gambino in a major portion of the Armed 
Forces history section of the museum, including chronological exhibits 
through the Civil War; the ordnance hall; the Continental gondola 
Philadelphia; and the hall of orders, medals, and decorations. The 
chronological exhibits tell by means of historic specimens, documents, 
and finely detailed ship models the military history of America from 
the earliest explorations through the final battles of the Civil War. 
Such notable relics as General George Washington's campaign tent 
and General Philip H. Sheridan's horse mounted in a lifelike stance 
associate the visitor with the actual objects of history. Design of the 
hall layout as well as many of the individual exhibition units was by 
John W. Brown. Layout and design of the second part of the chrono- 
logical series, from the Civil War to the present, is being undertaken 
by John R. Clendening. 

The ordnance hall shows military and naval arms dating from 
Colonial times to the Korean War, generally arranged by chronology 
and type. Hall designer Brown, assisted by Nadya Kayaloff and 
John Clendening, show graphically the development of military weap- 
ons from the wheel-lock musket of the 16th century to the modern 
repeating rifle. 

The oldest American man-of-war still in existence, the gunboat 
Philadelphia, was installed adjacent to the ordnance hall under the 
design supervision of Mr. Brown. Adjacent exhibits cases and panels 
document the strategically important battle of Valcour Island and the 
part played in that battle by the crew of the Philadelphia. 

In the exhibition of orders, medals, and decorations of all countries, 
which progresses from the earliest orders of knighthood to the medals 
and decorations of our present century, designer Deborah Bretzfelder 
made use of the rich decorative content of the exhibit specimens to 
create an exhibition area of unusual visual interest. 

In March 1966, the hall of physical sciences was opened to the public. 
Covering the development of the physical sciences from ancient times 
to the present, the hall features a full-scale replica of the observatory of 
Ptolemy; a documented display of astronomical devices dating back 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 49 

to medieval times; a reproduction of the shop front of Benjamin Pike, 
complete with optical instruments built by this remarkable 19th- 
century American; a collection of early teaching instruments from 
major American colleges and universities; a life-group showing Andrew 
Ellicott and Benjamin Banneker surveying the northwest boundary 
of the District of Columbia; and actual portions of the Mark I and 
Eniac computers. Other specimens in this hall include a special ex- 
hibition of ruling and dividing engines, a special exhibit on the nature 
and theory of light, and a reconstruction of the interior of Henry Fitz's 
telescopemaking shop of the late 19th century. The exhibits designer 
was James J. Shelton, assisted by Miss Kayaloff and Mr. Clendening 
and installation of the hall was by production teams led by Harry 
H. Harris and Walter N. Lewis. 

The hall of ceramics opened to the public in April 1966. In it 
designer Barbara Bowes utilized a variety of room sizes and decorative 
motifs to complement and enhance a variety of ceramic objects ranging 
from sophisticated examples of European porcelain and delftware to 
the beginnings of American ceramics of the 17th and 18th centuries. 
Of particular note are the Robert McCauley collection of Liverpool 
jugs, the Hans Syz collection of porcelain, and the Ellouise Baker 
Larson collection of English earthenware and Staffordshire ware for 
the American market. The hall was installed by production teams 
under the supervision of Carl A. Alexander. 

The last two permanent exhibit halls opened during this fiscal year 
were the hall of medicine and dentistry and the hall of pharmacy. 
In these, a series of cases and period rooms portray in chronological 
order the development of the healing arts from Greek and Roman 
times to the present. The halls were designed by Mr. Clendening and 
the exhibits were installed by production teams led by Mr. Lewis. 

Special and temporary exhibits numbered 42, a great increase over 
previous years, and they demonstrated in 3-dimensional form the vast 
scope of the Smithsonian collections and the increasing scholarly 
interest in bringing the results of current research work on these 
collections before the general public. They ranged from American 
folk art to the life and times of Jawaharlal Nehru and from German 
glass to Atlas computers. 

Throughout the year, units of the MHT exhibits laboratory con- 
tinued their work of modelmaking, restoration, plastics, preparation, 
and cabinetmaking for various exhibits halls and special exhibitions. 
For the curatorial staff Robert L. Klinger and his group continued 
to prepare and restore exhibits specimens and to construct detailed 
museum models and animated devices such as a working model of the 
locomotive Stourbridge Lion recently completed for the hall of trans- 



50 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

portation. Richard W. Marshall worked on large-scale schematic 
models of piano, harpsichord, and clavichord key actions for display 
in the hall of musical instruments and completed a finely detailed 
model of an early mine pump for the hall of civil engineering. Donald 
Hoist prepared mannequins and reconstructed uniforms for the hall 
of Armed Forces History. John W. Schulz and Benjamin Snouffer 
prepared models and restored specimens for exhibit halls completed 
and in progress, including a schematic model of the Jacquard loom for 
the textile hall and a Dutch scoop-wheel turbine model for the hall 
of civil engineering. The restoration section under G. Gordon Dentry 
and Donald L. Fredette prepared furniture, ceramics, and glass for 
use in period rooms and case settings. 

In addition to its regular duties, the office of exhibits lent support 
throughout the year to various museums of the Smithsonian complex, 
as well as offering consultation in a number of exhibits disciplines to 
various museums throughout the United States and abroad. Here, 
too, special mention should be made of the considerable number of 
foreign museum experts who came to the Smithsonian to study our 
exhibits techniques. 

Also during this fiscal year, the exhibits editor's office, which formerly 
reported to the Director, was transferred to the office of exhibits. 
Under the direction of chief exhibits editor George Weiner, assisted 
by Mrs. Constance R. Minkin, the office is responsible for writing or 
rewriting, editing, coordination, and printing liaison of all exhibits 
labels for the U.S. National Museum and, as the need arises, elsewhere 
in the Smithsonian Institution. During this year, Mr. Weiner and 
his staff, which includes Mis. Edna W. Wright and Nicholas Rona, 
produced 8165 labels for 78 permanent and special exhibits of museums 
and offices of the Smithsonian Institution. 



Natural History Laboratory 

Under the direction of chief of exhibits John E. Anglim, assisted by 
A. Gilbert Wright, the Museum of Natural History exhibits laboratory 
completed 115 cases and panels for seven permanent exhibits halls, as 
well as producing a dozen special and temporary exhibitions and 
rendering substantial assistance to the exhibits programs of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts and the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service. 

The new hall of gems, designed by Mrs. Dorothy Guthrie, was 
opened in September 1965 during the Bicentennial Celebration, and 
the new jade room, also designed by Mrs. Guthrie, was opened in 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 51 

December. Also opened during the year were extensions of the 
cultures of Africa and Asia hall, designed by Lucius E. Lomax; the 
hall of osteology, designed by Morris Pearson; the hall of physical 
anthropology, designed by Joseph Shannon; and the life in the sea hall, 
also designed by Mr. Shannon. In June the reptile and amphibian 
section of the hall of cold-blooded vertebrates, designed by James 
Speight, was opened. 

Preparation and installation of the exhibits were performed by the 
production section under the supervision of production chief Julius 
Tretick, aided by assistant production chief Charles W. Mickens, 
fabrication supervisor Frank A. Nelms, and graphics supervisor 
Keith M. Metzler. Labels for the exhibits were edited and coordinated 
by the exhibits editor and his staff. 

During the year, the illustration section, under Christopher H. 
Reinecke, produced nearly 200 drawings, paintings, charts, and other 
illustrations for use in exhibits. The models, dioramas, and accessories 
section, headed by John Babyak, produced diorama figurines and 
life-size figures for life groups, foreground accessories, replicas of 
marine invertebrates, and other models. The plastics section, under 
John C. Widener, continued research into new plastics molding and 
casting techniques and produced a large variety of small and large 
plastic casts faithful in surface detail to the originals. Among the more 
notable were a Semitic storm god for the hall of Old World archeology; 
a basking shark for the life in the sea hall; life-size mannequins for the 
MHT First Ladies hall; and such diversified objects as lava formations, 
meteorites, and Corinthian capitals. The freeze-dry microbiology 
laboratory, under Rolland O. Hower, continued its work in perfecting 
this Smithsonian-developed preservation process, which has virtually 
supplanted the more tedious taxidermy procedures in the preparation 
of small animals for exhibition purposes. The new section of lighting 
and audio-visual techniques, headed by Carroll B. Lusk, devised new 
methods for illuminating diamonds, sapphires, and other precious 
stones; and Mr. Lusk, assisted by James C. Nyce, engineered an exceed- 
ingly popular audio-visual exhibition of African musical instruments 
for the cultures of Africa and Asia hall and conducted extensive research 
into visitor-operated random-access slide projectors to be used in both 
the Museums of Natural History and the Museum of History and 
Technology. 

In April, both Museums jointly developed a behind-the-scenes tour 
for the Smithsonian Society of Associates. Conducted in the Museum 
of Natural History, this tour showed the scope and variety of activities 
of the office of exhibits of the United States National Museum and 
demonstrated its techniques for bringing to the general public, for its 



52 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

education and enlightenment, representative portions of our collections 
and the results of Smithsonian research. 
During the year, 12 special exhibits were produced or installed. 

CONSERVATION-ANALYTICAL LABORATORY 

The conservation-analytical laboratory in 1966 placed its major 
emphasis on the development of a facility to produce rapid analyses 
for identification of materials. This is the result of a need for this 
facility in relation to the accessioning of objects, the determination 
of authenticity, and the importance of the identification of material 
used in conservation treatment. 

The laboratory is designed and equipped to undertake research in 
conservation which involves the materials, the environment, and the 
technology of the object and to cooperate in this research with other 
bureaus of the Smithsonian Institution and other museums and labora- 
tories in the United States, Europe, and Asia. 

One major analytical program which the laboratory undertook in 
cooperation with curator Gus Van Beek of the Smithsonian Office of 
Anthropology and Rutherford J. Gettens of the Freer Gallery of Art 
was the quantitative analysis of bronze objects using X-ray fluorescence 
analysis. 

Analysis of pigments was undertaken by the laboratory to authen- 
ticate works of art, and to recognize the unoriginal parts of an object. 
Analytical techniques used for analysis of pigment samples included 
microscopic examination, chemical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and 
infrared spectrophotometry. The latter two instrumental techniques 
require only 50 micrograms of sample for analysis and quickly provide 
information on the presence of impurity phases, minor constituents, 
variations in composition, extenders, and crystal structure, all of which 
are evidence of artificial or natural origins of mineral pigments and 
of methods of manufacture. 

During the past few years, extended -range high-resolution infrared 
instrumentation has become commercially available and has led to 
a wealth of new information for practicing industrial spectroscopists, 
especially those dealing with inorganic pigments and extenders. How- 
ever, a survey of the literature indicates that few spectra have been 
published for inorganic pigments encountered in the analysis of fine 
paintings. 

In the course of the preparation of a series of high-resolution infrared 
spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns on standard known samples of 
inorganic pigments for use in the identification and study of oil paint- 
ings, it became apparent that differences in the method of manufacture 



Office of Exhibits: Sculptor 
John Weaver completing 
clay figure of Congo Chief 
for hall of Asian and 
African cultures. 



Exhibits specialist Rolland 
Hower checking data in 
freeze dry laboratory. 





,1 



> v.\\\ 1 1 







Office of Exhibits: Accessories specialist Juan de Pau working on leaf specimens 
for the hall of botany. 



Installation of hall of ceramics — final stages, with Joseph Faletta working on 
an exhibit as John Brown and William Haase check plans. 




r- 




! XI ,. 



^ -/J!" 




Conservation Research Labora- 
tory. Painting in the Naval 
History collections is restored 
and rebacked: Top, Raking 
light shows tears before treat- 
ment. Center, detail of ship at 
left after tears filled and painting 
lined. Bottom, treatment com- 
pleated. 











,- 




ml 



Traveling Exhibition Service's "Rugs from the McMullen Collection" dis- 
played at the Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, New York. Travel- 
ing Exhibition Service's "Early Chicago Architecture" at the Chicago 
Civic Center. 




TRAVELING EXHIBITION SERVICE 53 

of recent pigments could be observed in the laboratory results. This 
suggested further work in two areas : clarification of the relationships 
between method of manufacture and X-ray diffraction and infrared 
results on the known samples and methods of distinguishing pigment 
samples from oil paintings on the basis of manufacture. Variations in 
the elemental composition also occur and can be detected by micro- 
techniques of X-ray fluorescence analysis. 

The detailed study of coinage, its composition, and the method by 
which it was manufactured, is a fertile field for the study of the history 
of metallurgy. A program of this nature was begun with curator 
Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli of the division of numismatics. The primary 
emphasis in this work is on the totally nondestructive techniques. 

The methods of analysis which have been used to date are: X-ray 
emission spectrography, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. 
X-ray emission spectrography gives us the major alloy composition of 
a very thin layer of metal on the surface of the coin. X-ray diffraction 
provides information on the crystal structure and physical state of the 
crystalline lattice of the surface layer. Optical microscopy is used to 
examine the surface characteristics of the coin. 

Planned future methods of analysis include neutron activation analy- 
sis, laser probe optical emission spectrography, X-ray radiography, 
and possibly ultrasonic and eddy current testing. Neutron activation 
analysis will allow us to make a more realistic estimate of the average 
composition of the coins under study because it does not restrict itself 
to the surface of the object. Laser probe optical emission spectrography 
is being considered because of the increased sensitivity to trace elements. 
One objection to laser excitation is a small mark which results on the 
coin; and the method does remove micro quantities of material. 
Laser probe emission spectrography does, however, present the possi- 
bility of comparing the source of raw material through correlation of 
trace element patterns. X-ray radiography will be used to reveal 
details of the gross internal structure while ultrasonic and eddy current 
methods will be used to obtain information about the internal structure 
on the micro scale. 



TRAVELING EXHIBITION SERVICE 

The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service is self- 
supporting, deriving its income mainly from the rental fees charged 
for its exhibitions. 

It currently circulates throughout the United States and Canada 
about 100 shows, as listed below. 

230-457 — 66 6 



54 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

The larger, important exhibitions of 1 966 included Diirer and His Time, 
from Berlin, Pre-Columbian Gold from Peru, Rugs From the McMullan 
Collection, from Mr. Joseph McMullan, and Art Treasures of Turkey, 
from Ankara and Istanbul. An extension of the loan of 7,000 Tears of 
Iranian Art permitted this exhibition to be shown at the Allentown Art 
Museum, an action given favorable notice in an article "Big Show, 
Small Museum" that appeared in Arts Magazine (December 1965). 
Catalogs were published for the Diirer, Latin American, McMullan 
and Turkish exhibitions, and a leaflet on Irish architecture and monu- 
ments. John Canaday wrote in The New York Times that the catalog 
Diirer and His Times, which was reprinted three times, is "a must for 
every art library." 

In accordance with the Smithsonian's widening educational interests, 
a pilot program to bring art to the District of Columbia schools was 
instituted. Works supplied by the National Collection of Fine Arts 
were prepared, transported, and installed at the Taft Junior High 
School and the Woodrow Wilson High School. On the basis of the 
enthusiastic response, a proposal to expand the program was submitted. 

On February 1 4, 1 966, the Traveling Exhibition Service was placed 
under the U.S. National Museum. Expansion of the scope of the 
exhibits into crafts, history, technology, science, and education was 
initiated, and exhibitions of objects and prints from the Smithsonian 
collections are being planned with the cooperation of the curators of the 
Museum of Natural History and the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology. The current catalog lists four of these exhibitions for 1967. 

Requests have been received from many foreign institutions for 
circulation abroad of exhibits such as the 1964-1965 Bridges, Tunnels 
and Waterworks after they finish their United States tours. Funds are 
being sought to respond to these requests. 

Art in Science and Polish Graphic Art were previewed in the Arts and 
Industries building. The latter exhibit was opened with ceremonies 
sponsored by the Polish Ambassador. 

During the year the small staff of the Service, which negotiates, 
organizes, and circulates the exhibitions, explained the Service to a 
number of foreign visitors at the request of the State Department, 
advised other institutions on circulating specific exhibitions, and re- 
sponded to many inquiries about the objectives and organization of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Close liaison was maintained with foreign 
cultural attaches and embassies. The Chief of the Service was in- 
vited to Belgrade as the guest of the Yugoslav Commission for Cul- 
tural Relations with Foreign Countries. 



TRAVELING EXHIBITION SERVICE 55 

Exhibitions carried over from prior years number 53. The service 
initiated 28 new shows, dispersed 32, and negotiated for 39 new ones 
during 1 966. During the year the exhibits were shown on 625 occasions 
to an estimated total of 1,250,000 viewers. 

Exhibitions Initiated in 1966 

Painting and Sculpture 

Art in Science New Names in Latin American Art 

Eyewitness to Space Art Treasures of Turkey 

Pre-Columbian Gold from Peru 

Drawings and Prints 

Six Danish Graphic Artists Contemporary African Printmakers 

The World of William Hogarth Contemporary Dutch Graphics 

Mirror of the Artist Polish Graphic Art 

Action-Reaction Diirer and His Time 

Architecture 
Art in Urban Architecture Early Chicago Architecture 

Design and Crafts 

Calligraphy in Islamic Textiles Jazz Posters 

Folk Toys from Japan Posters from Denmark 

Glass from Czechoslovakia Rugs from the McMullan Collection 

History 
Early Monuments and Architecture of Ireland 

Children's Art 

Danish Children Illustrate Hans Ghanian Textiles 

Christian Andersen Museum Impressions 

Embroideries by Children of Chijnaya 

Natural History and Science 
The Preservation of Abu Simbel 

Photography 
Gentle Wilderness: The Sierra Nevada 



56 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Exhibits Continued from Prior Years 

1964-65: Arte Programmata; Watercolors by Pop Hart; Modern Watercolors 
from Sweden; The Art of the Yoruba; Contemporary American Drawings II; 
William Blake: Poet, Printer, Prophet; Bridges, Tunnels, and Waterworks; 
Contemporary Fine Presses in America; Eskimo Graphic Art III; The Fabulous 
Decade; Kokoschka: King Lear, Apullian Journey, Hellas; Prints from the 
Mourlot Press; Old Master Prints; American Costumes; American Furniture; 
Masters of Ballet Design; Murals in Lace; The American Flag; Be My Guest!; 
Brass Rubbings from England; World Fairs; Paintings by Young Balinese; 
Paintings by Mexican Children; National High School Prints; Ancient Rock 
Paintings and Engravings; Colors and Patterns in the Animal Kingdom; 
The Stonecrop Family: Variations on a Pattern; The Color of Water; Pier 
Luigi Nervi. 

1963-64: Alvar Aalto; Albers: Interaction of Color; Contemporary American 
Landscape Architecture; Birds of Asia; Antonio Frasconi 1952-63; Hearts 
and Flowers; The Nile; Religious Themes by Old Masters; Eero Saarinen; 
Swiss Posters. 

1962-63: Craftsmen of the City; Historic Annapolis. 

1961-62: Physics and Painting; UNESCO Watercolor Reproductions; Con- 
temporary Italian Drawings; The Face of Viet Nam; Le Corbusier — Chapel at 
Ronchamp. 

1960-61 : The Image of Physics; Tropical Africa II. 

1959-60: Images of War; Paintings by Young Africans; Japan I by Werner 
Bischof. 

1956-57: Japan II by Werner Bischof. 



Smithsonian Activities 



Natural Sciences 



For the natural sciences the year was one of reappraisal and 
program consolidation. During this period an effort was made to 
reassess the Institution's role in the encouragement and support of 
of Scientific research in terms of its basic mission to increase and diffuse 
knowledge among men and in relation to the logistic resources re- 
quired to maintain the high quality of its research activities. It is 
appropriate to highlight here some of the new programs and activities 
to be described in greater detail elsewhere in this annual review in 
order to point up changes and trends in the Institution's research 
concepts. 

The Smithsonian's traditional interest in the biological sciences, 
particularly in systematics, prompted creation of a Task Force for 
Tropical Biology. Its mission was to survey the field of tropical 
biology and to design a comprehensive Tropical Biology Research 
Program embracing our existing scientific investigations in the Tropics 
and at the same time identifying other zones of research warranting 
the attention and the support of the Institution. One result of this 
survey, as the Secretary has noted, is that the Institution has broadened 
the research objectives and activities of its Canal Zone Biological 
Area, and redesignated it as the Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute. Also, a marine biological laboratory was added to STRI's 
research facilities and a program of research in tropical biology, 
involving close collaboration with other organizations concerned with 
the tropics, was initiated. 

During the same period, the Institution established on a tract of 
land located on the southwestern shore of the Chesapeake Bay, in 
Maryland, the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology. Its scientific 
research program is now being formulated by a consortium of academic 
institutions presently consisting of the Johns Hopkins University, the 
University of Maryland, and the Smithsonian Institution. The 
Center, which provides a natural biological preserve, both terrestrial 
and estuarine, in which to conduct long-term ecological and behavioral 
investigations, is visualized as the first of several field research stations 
strategically located so that scientists can construct a set of normal 
ecological standards, or so-called ecological bench marks. This 
system will permit them to measure and compare ecological changes, 
including those resulting from controlled environmental manipulation. 

The research objectives of the Office of Anthropology were broadened 
to include a Program of Urgent Anthropology designed to investigate 

59 



60 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

and document the cultures, languages, and physical characteristics of 
isolated communities and tribes threatened with extinction through 
assimilation and the encroachments of modern civilization. Professor 
Sol Tax of the University of Chicago is serving as a special advisor in 
anthropology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in order 
to facilitate this program. 

Another noteworthy change is the enlargement of the scientific 
responsibilities of the Office of Oceanography to include limnology. 
The Institution historically has been a leader in biological ocean- 
ography, and this enlargement is a tangible expression of its concern 
with the need for encouraging basic research concerned with fresh- 
water resources, especially lakes and rivers. The Office of Oceanog- 
raphy and Limnology has established a unique Oceanographic 
Research Guidance Committee to assist the Institution in assessing the 
taxonomic and ecological resources needed to support the research 
programs of public agencies and universities in the field of oceanography. 
The rapidly growing national program in oceanography involving 
the collection of marine organisms from the oceans of the world, 
requires facilities for processing and identifying specimens. The 
Committee will apprise the Institution of the status of oceanographic 
research programs and expeditions to that any necessary taxonomic 
assistance can be made available through the Smithsonian Ocean- 
ographic Sorting Center and through the research efforts of its scientists. 

To further the objectives of the International Biological Program and 
to consolidate the several investigations conducted by our scientists, 
a Smithsonian Institution Committee for the International Biological 
Program was formed. One noteworthy project initiated under this 
Program concerns the Center for Ecological Research, established in 
Belem, Brazil, which offers scientists from the United States and else- 
where an unparalled opportunity to collaborate on numerous inter- 
disciplinary ecological problems in the field. 

The problem of providing adequate logistic support for the Institu- 
tion's many research activities in the natural sciences has come in for 
a careful appraisal. As a result, the Smithsonian Research Awards 
Program concerns the center for ecological research established in 
who require "seed money" to initiate projects or to advance investiga- 
tions in progress. The Program was established to provide a mech- 
anism for responding rapidly to urgent financial requirements that 
cannot wait for the usual review and budgeting procedures. 

During this same period, the Institution established the Smithsonian 
Research Foundation as a means for increased administrative and 
logistic flexibility in the support of research projects. In this connec- 
tion, the Institution has established an annual inventory of research 



NATURAL SCIENCES 61 

projects in order to determine the current and future resources needed 
to sustain the Institution's scientific research programs. A project- 
planning system was devised to enable each investigator to present 
the status of his research project as well as the future fiscal and man- 
power requirements for maintaining an optimum level of research 
activity. 

Finally, computer programs and automatic data processing tech- 
niques are being adopted for the collection, storage, and retrieval of 
information concerning museum specimens. As a first step in this 
process, an electronic punchtape system is being used to produce at one 
operation a tape from which cross-indexed catalog cards, specimen 
labels, and shipping lists can be produced. 



Museum of Natural History 

Richard S. Cowan, Director 




~\ tore and more the museum scientist, whose goal is to elucidate the 
■*■*■*- particular aspect of nature that is his specialty, finds that to 
achieve his goal he must seek data from ancillary fields to complement 
the conventional criteria of his own field. Thus, as his scientific 
horizons widen and he attacks larger, more complex problems, he 
finds that the research team approach is essential. 

In anthropology for example, teams of botanists, archaeologists, and 
geologists are working together to solve the riddle of ancient man's 
existence in the Oaxaca Valley of Mexico. In zoology, taxonomists 
are working directly with histologists and anatomists to unravel the 
mysteries of evolution in several groups of animals. In at least two 
major groups of plants, chemical data are being used to support the 
validity of gross morphology in the study of their systematics. In 
mineral sciences, rocks from the deep-water mid-Atlantic ridge and 
extra-terrestrial meteorites and tektites are being analyzed by the 
non-destructive electron probe. In paleobiology, the significance of 
variation in fossil animal populations is being tested and evaluated on 
the basis of studies of modern forms. In entomology, the subadult 
stages are being studied along with the total biology of the organism 
in order to better interpret the traditional criteria for elucidating the 
evolution of various insect groups. 

That such studies can coexist with the more classical ones is not 
merely evident, the conviction grows that they are truly interdependent 
and that the Museum scientist, sharing goals with scientists in other 
institutions — universities, for example, must seek closer ties with them. 



63 



64 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

With this in mind, it is heartening to report that an increase in the 
number of supportive personnel has permitted our professional staff 
to undertake such significantly broadening activities, among which, 
perhaps, the most important are those related to education, especially 
at the graduate or near-graduate level. In summer 1966 numerous 
college students served as temporary interns, working in the collections. 
Graduate students are working independently or with members of the 
staff for the doctorate degree. And several post-doctoral fellows are 
likewise studying in the collections. These, especially, while solving 
their own research problems, broaden the understanding and interest 
of our own people. But educational activities are not confined to 
non-Smithsonian researchers coming to work with our collections and 
with our scientists, for a growing number of the research staff are 
establishing formal and informal educational relationships with 
universities, both local and more distant. Several members of the 
staff are conducting seminars at these centers of learning, others have 
been granted leave of absence from the Institution to teach courses for 
one or more semesters, and a number are preparing to participate in a 
pilot program that will integrate the exhibits of the Museum with the 
curriculum of the District of Columbia secondary schools. 

The growing concern of the scientific staff that it relate more closely 
to the mainstream of science is further attested to by its broad participa- 
tion in both national and international meetings. Smithsonian policy 
seeks to have representation at every national or international scientific 
meeting of significance to the areas of our interest. In consequence, 
one or another of the scientific staff has journeyed to distant parts 
of the globe in the past year to interact with his counterparts overseas. 
In addition, a substantial number of conferences and symposia involv- 
ing outstanding scholars from this country and from abroad, have 
been convened at the Museum to discuss mutual problems, to formulate 
research programs, and to evaluate the progress of organizational units 
with respect to their ultimate goals. 



In biological research, the necessity for studying organisms in their 
living condition has understandably led to increased scientific travel 
to the field. It is with the deepest sadness and a sense of irreparable 
loss that it must be reported that one of the research staff gave his life 
in the service of science during the past year. Dr. E. Yale Dawson, 
whose article immediately follows this statement, was drowned in the 
Red Sea June 22 while studying the kinds, distribution, and ecological 
relationships of the marine algae there. An incredibly well-organized 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY INTRODUCTION 65 

and outstandingly productive researcher, Yale Dawson will be re- 
membered equally as a warm, friendly human who always had time 
for the interests of others. Though he himself is gone, the work he 
accomplished in research and in building the algological collections 
in the Museum will stand for a very long time as a monument to the 
industry and devotion he applied to his every scientific undertaking. 
To his memory, the following report on the Museum's activities for 
1966, a year unparalleled for scientific progress, is dedicated. 

Marine Botany at the Smithsonian 

Early in its history the Smithsonian Institution recognized the 
significance to man of a knowledge of the vegetation of the sea. Its 
Contributions to Knowledge in the years 1851 to 1858 included a sumptuous 
monograph by W. H. Harvey on the seaweeds of North America, a 
work which has served as a superlative model to marine botany ever 
since. 

During succeeding years the study of marine animals in the Smith- 
sonian's Museum of Natural History far outstripped the study of plants 
of the sea. The classical collections of Harvey remained, however, in 
the National Herbarium, and to them were added through the years 
some 25,000 specimens of seaweeds of the world. 

The vast oceanographic enterprise of the International Indian Ocean 
Expedition in the early 1960s, in which the Museum of Natural History 
became deeply involved, provided a new impetus. The need for 
marine botanical studies became sharply evident, and from that need, 
a plan was developed through the office of the Assistant Director 
(Oceanography) to renew and to expand the established interests of 
the Smithsonian Institution in the vegetation of the sea. Activation 
of these plans was begun in 1963, and they received their most effective 
encouragement in 1965 with the establishment of an algal research 
facility in the new west wing of the Museum of Natural History. This 
facility, its use and application, has expanded rapidly during the past 
year. Some of the exciting and promising aspects of the program are 
outlined below. 

MARINE BOTANY FOR MARINE STATIONS 

The marked advance of higher education in biology in the United 
States is nowhere better illustrated than by the rapid advances since 
World War II in the field of oceanography, with all its biological 
ramifications. Nor has the new emphasis on marine sciences been 
confined to seaside institutions, for numerous inland colleges and uni- 



66 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

versities are successfully seeking to provide marine facilities for their 
students. Yet these advances have not been achieved without growing 
pains. On the Pacific Coast, in 1940 there were, for example, but five 
marine laboratories, whereas now there are 22, and at each of these 
where courses in marine biology are taught, publications describing 
local faunas and floras are needed to serve teacher, student, and re- 
searcher in the identification of the organisms being studied. Yet since 
1944, only a single local marine algal manual (designed for use at the 
Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California), has been avail- 
able for the entire Pacific Coast with its varied and elaborate algal 
representation. 

Recognizing this need, the Smithsonian Institution in 1965 began to 
encourage the preparation of identification manuals on the marine 
plants of the Pacific Coast. In cooperation with Humboldt State 
College at Areata, California, and the National Science Foundation, 
a course in marine botany was presented, and, with che help of the 
class, an identification manual was written for the seaweeds in the 
vicinity of the new marine facility at nearby Trinidad. Currently, in 
collaboration with the University of Arizona and the Office of Naval 
Research, a similar manual is being completed for the algal flora near 
the new marine facility, on the upper Gulf of California, jointly operated 
by the University of Arizona and the University of Sonora. 
. Obviously, the rapid development of marine laboratory facilities of 
California, of which a major new one is that established on Catalina 
Island by the University of Southern California, makes imperative a 
modern and thorough treatment of the marine algae of the entire 
State. The Smithsonian, through arrangement with the Stanford 
University Press and with partial support of the Office of Naval 
Research, is now engaged in preparing such a "Marine Algae of 
California," coauthored by Dr. Isabella Abbott of the Hopkins Marine 
Station, Dr. G. J. Hollenberg of the University of Redlands, Dr. 
Paul C. Silva of the University of California at Berkeley, and the writer. 
This study involves the treatment and illustration of nearly a thousand 
species. Many of these, especially the deepwater forms, have re- 
mained underscribed to date, and new entities are being discovered 
regularly as underwater explorations are conducted by diver-botantists. 
The Smithsonian Institution has been collaborating with the Uni- 
versity of California at Santa Barbara in such exploration in the 
southern California Channel Islands, through Dr. Michael Neushul 
and his students at the marine laboratory in Goleta. 

Another aspect of the rapid expansion of marine stations in this 
country and the enormous enlargement of student bodies in marine 
science is the concurrent need for more instruction in marine botany. 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY INTRODUCTION 67 

Traditionally, the subject has been taught only by highly specialized 
researchers in marine algae, and no textbook on marine botany, as 
such, has been available to the less specialized botany teachers. The 
Smithsonian Institution recently supported the completion of the 
first such textbook which, in conjunction with the use of local marine 
floras such as are available or in progress, will make possible the 
teaching of marine botany at almost any college or university in the 
nation to which representative marine plants can be brought. Such 
a course, as part of the Smithsonian's program, will be presented in 
early 1967 at the University of Arizona, in Tucson, a seemingly un- 
likely place for the subject, but one at which much marine interest 
has been aroused by the provision of marine facilities only four hours 
distant in connection with the experimental desalination plant at 
Puerto Penasco, Sonora, Mexico, operated by the U.S. Department 
of the Interior. 

THE HERBARIUM IN FLORISTIC RESEARCH 

The conduct of phytogeographic research in the algae, as in any 
other group of organisms, requires the use of large collections for com- 
parative examination. The more comparative material that is avail- 
able, the more conclusive can be the taxonomic results and the more 
reliable the interpretations of specimens of an organism to which a 
useful name is assigned. The building up of the algal reference col- 
lections at the Smithsonian's Museum of Natural History is a major 
consideration. Although 25,000 specimens had accumulated up to 
1965, no concerted effort had been made to develop a useful world 
representation, nor had adequate provision been made for deposition 
of liquid-preserved algal materials. 

Beginning in spring 1965, fieldwork directed toward assembling an 
extensive working collections of liquid-preserved algae was undertaken 
in California, in the Gulf of California, and in the Bahamas. A 
fortunate circumstance early in this program led to the acquisition by 
the Smithsonian of the large herbarium of the Beaudette Foundation 
for Biological Research, containing over 7,300 specimens, including 
1500 liquid preparations and 700 microscope slides. This algarium 
was incorporated into the Museum's herbarium during summer 1965, 
and to the combined collection nearly 10,000 specimens have since 
been added through the able assistance of museum technician Charles F. 
Rhyne. Fieldwork is currently being continued through cooperation 
with several foreign algologists, who arranged field collecting trips for 
the writer during the summer of 1966. These include Dr. B. Toziin, 
University of Istanbul, Turkey; Prof. Joseph Powell, American Uni- 



68 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

versity of Beirut, Lebanon; Dr. A. A. Aleem, University of Alexandria, 
Egypt; Dr. T. V. Desikachary, University of Madras, India; Mr. H. M. 
Burkill, Botanic Gardens, Singapore; Dr. H. B. S. Womersley, Uni- 
versity of Adelaide, Australia; and Dr. Valery May, Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Sydney, Australia. 

The conduct of fieldwork and the preparation and identification of 
specimens for the herbarium are greatly enhanced by collaboration 
of specialists who know well their own local floras. Thus, much of 
the field effort planned in the near future is to be conducted at estab- 
lished algological centers where rapid assembly of materials can be 
accomplished with the help of the most knowledgeable persons. At the 
same time, these foreign specialists are encouraged to prepare and send 
sets of their local materials in exchange. A number of such exchanges 
are already active, and additional agreements are being made from 
time to time. One of the latest of these is with the herbarium of the 
Botanisches Museum, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany, which lost its entire 
algal collection during World War II and is endeavoring to rebuild 
through exchanges for specimens currently being collected in an area 
of classical German algal research in the Adriatic Sea. 

Another major asset to the program of floristic studies and the prep- 
aration of manuals of Pacific American marine algae has been provided 
by the cooperation of the Allan Hancock Foundation at the University 
of Southern California. Its director, Dr. Leslie A. Chambers, has 
agreed to place on 5-year loan to the Smithsonian Institution the 26,000 
algal specimens of its herbarium. The availability of these collections, 
assembled by the writer during 20 years' research in the Pacific, will 
greatly enhance and speed the current program. 

In addition to its herbarium collections of macroscopic algae, the 
Smithsonian's Museum of Natural History has developed over the 
years an outstanding collection of carefully prepared slides of diatoms. 
These, under the care of Paul S. Conger since 1935 now number some 
24,000 microscope slides. 

A further research facility of considerable value is the Dawson marine 
algal library of some 5,000 titles which has been installed for use in the 
Museum's division of cryptogams. 

MONOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF CORALLINE ALGAE 

The continued development of field manuals and textbooks, and the 
integration of algological knowledge into a broader understanding of 
the oceans must ultimately depend upon detailed basic research on 
particular groups of marine algae. For many algae, even widespread 
and common species, only superficial information is available. There 




Seaweed collecting at Trinidad, California, near the Marine Station of Hum- 
boldt State College, one of the institutions with which the Smithsonian is 
cooperating in marine botany research (see p. 66). Below: Seaweed and 
sea lions at Bahia Independencia, Peru, in the southern region of the Marine 
Botany Program. 




E. Yale Dawson sampling sea- 
weed on a muddy shore in 
Potrero Bay, Costa Rica. 
Below: Phycologist at work 
on the sea floor, Isla Brin- 
canco, Panama. 




MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY INTRODUCTION 69 

are few specialists who enter into detailed anatomical, cytological, 
morphological, biogeographical, and physiological investigations of 
species and who are able, therefore, to integrate the results into system- 
atic studies of genera and families. Some large and important groups 
have been studied during the past century by only a handful of 
specialists the world over. 

The "crustose corallines," the calcified benthonic marine members 
of the red algae, comprise just such a neglected group. They occur 
from the Tropics to the Arctic; they are the major and, in some cases, 
even the primary elements of "coral" reefs; they form extensive banks 
and often control bottom form and benthonic animal populations in 
northern waters; and, being calcified, they are important fossils, 
occurring especially abundantly in rocks of Tertiary age. As fossils, 
they are of much interest to oil geologists because of their potential in 
dating and in determining paleoecology. Nevertheless, because of a 
lack of basic information, the crustose corallines are often treated in 
regional manuals with strong reservations as to accuracy, and in 
practice they are generally unidentifiable. 

Since 1964, Walter H. Adey of the Museum's division of paleo- 
botany has been engaged in a biosystematic-monographic study 
of the crustose corallines of the North Atlantic — arctic to tropic. Un- 
fortunately, the abundant, well-preserved collections and associated 
detailed field data needed for such a study have never been assembled, 
and even in the North Atlantic the necessary field facilities for such 
work are limited or not available. These difficulties notwithstanding, 
the area from Long Island Sound to northern Labrador has now been 
surveyed in some detail by use of small boats and diving gear. During 
the summer of 1965 the 134-foot freighter Phykos, obtained temporarily 
from the Navy reserve fleet, was used for preliminary study of the 
region from Sandy Hook to the Florida Keys. This vessel also pro- 
vided, below diving limits, a dredging and submersible capability for 
coralline work which cannot be matched with small boats. 

Continued extensive field work is planned for the next several years. 
Stations occupied in Jamaica during February 1966, with the assistance 
of Thomas Goreau and his staff at the Univeristy College of the West 
Indies, provided the additional information and collections prerequisite 
to preparing for the intensive Tropical Western Atlantic program that 
will begin in 1968-1969. During the summer and winter of 1966-1967 
small boats will be used for intensive collecting of crustose corallines 
in Iceland and Norway, and in the spring and summer of 1967 this 
program will be extended to France and the British Isles. 

Integrated with the field investigations during 1966-1967 will be a 
"type" search and study program, at European museums, directed 



70 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

toward providing a firmer taxonomic base for crustose corallines. 
This is necessary because the literature of coralline algae is largely 
deficient in the kind of detailed information on type specimens needed 
for accurate taxonomic interpretations. In many cases the whereabouts 
or even existence of type specimens is in doubt and must be researched 
and established. 

ALGOLOGY ALONG PACIFIC LATIN AMERICA 

The development of the University of Arizona marine station on the 
Gulf of California has stimulated renewed interest in the marine algae 
of Pacific Mexico and has shown a need for a revised marine flora of 
the Gulf of California to serve not only the station but other nascent 
marine facilities at Bahia de Los Angeles, at La Paz, at Guaymas, and 
at Mazatlan. In addition, a developing economic exploitation of sea- 
weed resources along the Pacific Coast of Mexico has created need for 
a more thorough knowledge of the kinds and distributions of Mexican 
algae. Several important species are currently being harvested along 
northwestern Baja California, Mexico, and the Smithsonian Institution 
has recently been instrumental in the birth of a new industry in the 
Gulf of California. There, through our assistance, Marine Colloids, 
Inc., of Rockland, Maine, has been successful in finding and initiating 
the harvesting of Eucheuma uncinatum, a seaweed much needed as a raw 
material for the production of industrial phycocolloids. 

A major focal point of biological attention along Pacific Latin 
America in recent years has been the Galapagos Islands. The Amer- 
ican Secretariat of the Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos 
Islands is now situated in the Department of Botany, and several 
Smithsonian scientists are currently studying material obtained in 
1964 on the expedition of the Galapagos International Scientific 
Project. Preliminary accounts of the cacti, the marine algae, and 
several groups of insects have been completed, and work on the amphi- 
pods and other animal groups is in progress. Several members of the 
Department of Botany are participating in the preparation of a new 
flora of the Galapagos being undertaken by the California Academy 
of Sciences through support of the National Science Foundation. 
Marine algal studies are continuing, and the Galapagos marine flora 
is currently being compared with the marine flora of mainland Ecuador 
and Peru. Planned collaboration in this program includes phycolo- 
gists Cesar Acleto of the Universidad de San Marcos, Lima, Peru, and 
Sylvia E. Taylor of Dunedin, Florida, both research participants on 
recent Pacific South American cruises of the National Science Founda- 
tion's research vessel Anton Br nun. 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY INTRODUCTION 71 

A further objective of the Pacific Latin American marine algal work 
is the continued preparation of floristic accounts and of illustrated 
identification keys to the genera and species. These are aimed at 
stimulating interest and promoting algological studies by resident 
investigators in the various eastern Pacific republics. Such manuals, 
in Spanish and English, have been prepared with support of the Office 
of Naval Research for El Salvador and for Pacific Central America, 
generally. A Spanish edition of Seaweeds of Peru is planned by 
Sr. Acleto, who is expected as a visiting investigator at the Smithsonian 
Institution during 1966-1967. 

E. Yale Dawson 
Division of Cryptogams 



Research and Publication 



SYSTEMATIGS 

While the overall objective of the office of systematics is to facilitate 
systematic undertakings within the entire biological community, its 
main concern is to help systematists in the Museum of Natural History 
initiate and extend research projects, especially those with an orientation 
transcending departmental structure. Externally the office seeks to 
develop in the entire scientific community an awareness of and appreci- 
ation for the stature, intrinsic importance, and intellectual content of 
systematics. 

The Office contracted with the Federal Services Division of the 
International Business Machine Corporation for a study of how data 
processing methods techniques can be applied to museum problems. 
Funds provided by the Office of Systematics enabled the department of 
invertebrate zoology to purchase equipment with which one operator 
can catalog all the very large number of collections being accessioned 
by the department, and which at the same time prints index cards on 
as many parameters as desired. In addition, the same operation 
automatically generates paper tape bearing the data from the collec- 
tions, and these data may then be inserted automatically in a central 
data center. It has been estimated that as much as a 60 percent in- 
crease in the efficiency of the cataloging operation is gained by having 
this equipment. 

A conference of distinguished primatologists was convened to assist 
in the development of a primatology program for the Museum of 
Natural History. The implementation of their planning in conjunction 
with that of the division of mammals is expected in the next fiscal year. 

Funds were provided for a joint study of the systematics of fishes of 
the mackerel assemblage by Tetsuo Matsui of the Institute of Oceano- 
ography and Robert Gibbs of the division of fishes. This support 
enabled Matsui to visit to the Smithsonian Institution for the purpose 
of studying the Atlantic populations of some of these fishes, on which 
Gibbs is a recognized specialist; this was especially important since 
Matsui previously had worked only with Indian and Pacific Ocean 
materials. 

72 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ECOLOGY 73 

Systematic research is often hampered by a lack of knowledge of 
Oriental and less familiar languages in which scientific results are 
sometimes reported. Assistance was provided for the translation of 
critical research papers which were important to the successful com- 
pletion of monographic studies. 



ECOLOGY 

In recognition of the challenges and opportunities in the field of 
environmental biology, the Smithsonian on July 1, 1965, established 
an Office of Ecology. This new Office is headed by Dr. Helmut K. 
Buechner, formerly professor of zoology at Washington State Uni- 
versity, Pullman, Washington. 

The foundations for a program in ecology at the Smithsonian have 
existed for some time. Extensive biological collections such as those 
at the Smithsonian are essential for precise determination of the com- 
ponents of the ecosystems under study; the Smithsonian has long 
engaged in a variety of ecological and behavioral studies at the Smith- 
sonian Tropical Research Institute on Barro Colorado Island, Panama; 
and excellent experimental programs on photosynthesis and the effects 
of radiation on organisms have been developed at the Smithsonian 
Radiation Biology Laboratory. 

Against this background the Smithsonian is now building a program 
in environmental biology that will extend through all levels of biological 
organization. At the cellular and subcellular levels, and reaching up- 
ward into the organismal level, it hopes to expand the Radiation 
Biology Laboratory to provide a broad base in environmental physi- 
ology. Present research there is concentrated on plants — in studies of 
the transmittal of solar energy into metabolic responses, storage aspects 
of photosynthesis, energy conversion, and genetic mutations induced by 
radiation. Expansion of the program on the animal side in close 
association with the scientists at the National Zoological Park would 
provide the physiological foundation essential to an overall program 
in environmental biology. At the organismal level, ecological ap- 
proaches contribute to an understanding of phylogenetic relationships 
and evolutionary biology. At the higher levels of biological organi- 
zation — population systems, vegetation, and whole ecosystems — the 
Smithsonian is expanding into new fields. By adding this new dimen- 
sion effectively, it hopes to develop a broadly conceived, integrated 
program in ecology of significance both to science and to society. 

Within this general framework, the Smithsonian is now in the process 
of refining objectives to identify those areas in which effective contribu- 



74 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

tions can be made through its own unique program and through an 
integration of its efforts with those at universities and other institutions 
here and overseas. In this connection the Smithsonian is initiating a 
survey of leading university programs in ecology to determine how 
and where it can contribute best to the growth of knowledge vital to 
establishing harmonious adjustments between man and his environ- 
ment in the years ahead. 

One way in which the Smithsonian can collaborate with universities 
is through its new foreign currency program. Under this program, 
initiated a little over a year ago, the Institution now has the financial 
capacity to pursue reseaixh in archaeology and anthropology in the 
countries where foreign currencies have been declared excess. These 
funds, derived from the sale of agricultural commodities, are made 
available to the Smithsonian under Public Law 480. Beginning in 
Fiscal Year 1967 the foreign currency program will be expanded 
substantially into environmental biology and oceanography. Through 
the use of these funds the Smithsonian has an unusual opportunity to 
combine and direct the efforts of anthropologists and ecologists toward 
developing a more complete history of man's environmental relation- 
ships as a basis for understanding his current behavior in various 
regional ecosystems. Foreign currencies will enable the Smithsonian 
to develop programs to study the structure and functions of natural 
ecosystems, with a view toward conservation and the orderly develop- 
ment of natural resources, in countries like India, Pakistan, and Ceylon. 
Both inventory and descriptive types of ecological investigations will 
be required, but thorough understanding of ecosystems will depend on 
studies of energy conversion through primary and secondary trophic 
levels, of the dynamics of population systems, and of regulatory mech- 
anisms of the system. It will be necessary, however, for the Smith- 
sonian to develop capabilities for handling ecosystem studies at home 
as well as abroad. 

The International Biological Program (IBP), which has a strong 
focus on environmental biology with a view toward broadening the 
productivity base for human populations, will provide unprecedented 
opportunity for ecological research and international conservation 
efforts during the 5-year period from 1967 to 1972. The Smithsonian 
will be engaged in the terrestrial conservation program of the IBP. 
Dr. Lee M. Talbot, an internationally known conservationist on the 
staff of the Office of Ecology, will work closely with the terrestrial 
conservation section of the IBP in the establishment of a World Network 
of Nature Reserves and the development of a world program in 
conservation. It is highly important that ecological benchmarks be 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ECOLOGY 75 

set aside for scientific research. Some of these may be National Parks, 
others, Wilderness areas, and still others, small Nature Reserves. They 
should not be merely set aside for posterity — they should be carefully 
studied for their contributions to knowledge now and in the future. 
One of our major contributions to this network of reserves can be in 
the inventories of the biological components and general descriptions 
of the ecosystems preserved. 

The success of the IBP will depend largely on the rapid training 
of young people at all educational levels. Through its new division of 
education and training the Smithsonian can contribute to the educa- 
tional program of the IBP. On-the-job training with the collections 
at the Institution and in the field under the guidance of our own 
scientists and those from cooperating universities will be an essential 
part of the Smithsonian participation in the IBP. 

During 1965 the Smithsonian established the Chesapeake Bay 
Center for Field Biology on about 700 acres of land about 7 miles 
south of Annapolis, on the west shore of the Bay. To the original 
Forrest bequest, known as Java Farm, the southern portion of Ivy 
Neck has been added through the cooperation of Miss Adelaide 
Colhoun and a generous grant from the Ford Foundation. The 
Smithsonian on February 9, 1966, formed a consortium with The 
Johns Hopkins University and the University of Maryland for coopera- 
tion in research and education. It is an open-ended consortium, which 
may be joined by other universities in the Washington area, in what 
it is hoped will become an intellectually stimulating venture. Dr. Kyle 
Barbehenn, Director for the new Center, is now planning a well- 
rounded research program with the universities, including studies of 
vegetation change, field and laboratory studies of social behavior of 
mammals, estuarian ecology, and population regulation. 

One of our most important facilities in the developing ecological 
program is the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (formerly the 
Canal Zone Biological Area). Over the past 20 years an impressive 
series of studies have emanated from this island station. Recent em- 
phasis, under the excellent leadership of its Director, Martin H. 
Moynihan, has been on comparative behavior of primates, the evolution 
of interspecific relations, the significance of social signal systems, social 
organization and behavior of tropical birds, and isolating mechanisms 
in marine fishes (a detailed report of this work appears on p. 1 63) . STRI 
provides a model and a base for expanding ecological research in the 
New World tropics. Increased activity in tropical research has been 
initiated under the guidance of Dr. F. Raymond Fosberg, a newly 
appointed specialist on tropical biology who comes to the Smithsonian 



76 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

from the Geological Survey with a wealth of tropical experience. The 
increased emphasis on tropical biology is in recognition of the signif- 
icance of this region to an understanding of the principles of ecology 
and evolutionary biology. 

A conference on bird life in central and northern Latin America, 
supported by a grant from The Conservation Foundation, was held at 
the Smithsonian April 13-15, 1966. The objective was to assess 
numerical changes in the populations of both resident and migratory 
birds in relationship to alterations in their habitats. This conference 
was first proposed by William Vogt, Secretary of The Conservation 
Foundation, who wondered whether the destruction of rain forests 
and other changes in vegetation might not have as much influence on 
recent declines in the numbers of migratory birds as agricultural 
pesticides. 

Most of the seven contributors from the five Latin American coun- 
tries represented, and appi-oximately a dozen contributors from the 
United States, agreed that because of their adaptability to wintering 
habitats, most migratory birds that breed in the north temperate 
zone can survive considerable environmental changes in their winter 
ranges. On the other hand, the conservation of resident species, 
particularly those of the humid tropical forests, is a much more serious 
problem. These birds, which through a long period of evolution are 
adapted to rain forests for nesting, are apparently losing ground. 

A group of conferees, headed by John W. Aldrich, compiled a list 
of 2 1 suggestions for action based on the conference papers and discus- 
sions. Among these the principal points covered were: (1) conservation 
of all renewable natural resources, as a basis for preservation of avifauna; 
(2) inventories and descriptions of samples of ecosystems; (3) control 
of illegal traffic in live birds and turtles and in cayman skins; (4) inter- 
national fellowships for training Latin American technicians; (5) trans- 
lations into Spanish of bird guides, of examples of successful conser- 
vation efforts, and of digests of books and articles on conservation; 
(6) the organization of bird-banding programs; (7) the development of 
intergovernmental studies on changes in the abundance of migratory 
birds; (8) international exchange of information; and (9) research, 
education, and publicity. 

The results of this conference may assist greatly, not only in the 
preservation of bird life, but in the overall conservation of renewable 
natural resources in northern Latin America. 

In summary, the Smithsonian plans to form a small group of some of 
the best research scholars in the country who will integrate their 
efforts (1) to contribute to theory in population biology and ecosystem 
science and (2) to provide information essential to the Federal Govern- 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION OCEANOGRAPHY 77 

ment in the evolution of our society in the critical years ahead. In 
this challenging new era of ecological orientation the Smithsonian can 
serve as a point of focus for both national and international programs 
in basic research and education. The Smithsonian is in a position to 
play a major role in the IBP — the outgrowth of which it is hoped will 
be a continuing emphasis on environmental biology as the background 
for harmonious relationships of human societies within the world's 
ecosystems. 

As opportunities for making contributions to ecosystem science 
and conservation emerge, the Smithsonian stands ready to accept its 
responsibilities in the firm conviction that the survival of human soci- 
eties at high standards of living in quality environments depends on 
what is accomplished in environmental biology within the next decade. 



OCEANOGRAPHY 

As has been the case in recent years, the Smithsonian plays a key role 
in biological oceanographic operations at the federal level. We are 
the national center for the identification and study of whole marine 
organisms. Although complementary studies of commercial and sports 
fisheries are made by the Department of the Interior, the Institution 
provides basic information on the kinds, distributions, and populations 
of organisms in the world ocean. 

The principal work of the oceanography program is the support of 
specimen-oriented research that leads to the preparation of mono- 
graphs of groups of marine organisms, showing their relationships and 
describing their ecology. 

The Institution's staff members participated during the past year 
in 74 cruises of 14 ships belonging to 10 organizations. 

The oceanography effort was expanded to include marine sedi- 
mentology. Cores and sediments have been given to the Institution 
by the Navy, the Coast Guard, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the 
Army Engineers, the Geological Survey, and other organizations. 
A new constant low temperature storage facility has been constructed 
and cores from the National Science Foundation's deep coring project 
will be transferred soon from their temporary storage area to our 
facility. Rocks from the mid-Atlantic ridge and from other oceanic 
areas have been collected and sent from other sources to the Institution 
for study by our active petrology group. 

In cooperative project undertaken with the U.S. National Academy 
of Sciences and the Government of the Republic of China, Assistant 
Director I. E. Wallen spent four weeks in Taiwan advising on ocean- 
ography development. The Institution, with support from the 



78 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Department of State, sent Wallen to the meeting of a special panel 
of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission on Mutual 
Assistance to Developing Countries. 

The Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center continued to expand 
its operations: the shipment of specimens increased, with 2,844,941 
being sent to 190 specialists from 27 countries during the year, as 
contrasted to 2,260,949 to 70 specialists in the prior 2% years of its 
existence. The total of specimens sorted during the year was 3,527,415, 
against 4,924,210 for the previous 2% years. The involvement of 
specialists from 27 countries emphasized the point that there does not 
exist in any one country the capability to identify all marine organisms. 
Biological oceanography as practiced in the Smithsonian Institution is 
as international as the seas themselves. 

During the year the surplus oceanographic vessel Phykos was used 
for 2}{ months before being laid up. The small sailing yacht Ellida, 
acquired as a gift, was reconditioned at modest cost and was used for 
research in the Chesapeake Bay area during May and June 1966. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Two additional senior research scientists joined the office of anthro- 
pology this year, John C. Ewers, formerly Director of the Museum 
of History and Technology, and T. Dale Stewart, formerly Director 
of the Museum of Natural History. Both had accomplished sub- 
stantial amounts of research and writing during past years, in spite of 
the demands of their administrative duties; they will now be able to 
devote much more time to their scholarly activities. 

During the year, John C. Ewers completed seven papers on the 
ethnohistory of the Great Plains and on the artists who recorded or 
interpreted its Indians. He also began work on an historical intro- 
duction to a centennial edition of George Catlin's O-kee-pa, the famous 
artist's major descriptive contribution to ethnology, to be published 
by the Yale University Press. He served as chairman of the planning 
committee of the Smithson Bicentennial Celebration, held at the 
Institution from September 16 to 19, 1965. On June 5, 1966, The 
University of Montana awarded Ewers the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws, in recognition of his contributions to museology and to the 
history and ethnology of the Plains Indians. 

T. Dale Stewart worked on his report on the archeological site in 
Stafford County, Virginia, known as Patawameke, from which 
Pocahontas was kidnapped in 1613 and taken to Jamestown. He 
edited portions of the volume on physical anthropology of the Handbook 
of Middle American Indians, being published by the University of Texas 



", .jM^r--" ~ 


- 




• *^Stfr ' ^&>&^ B^^^ip^*" ■ 







Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology. Grants (see pp. 14 and 45) have 
enabled the Smithsonian and its associates in the consortium — The Johns 
Hopkins University and the University of Maryland- — -to add two key parcels 
of land to the recentiy established Center. The three peninsulas that make 
up the southern half of Ivy Neck Farm are shown in the foreground while the 
B-shaped Corn Island is in the upper right. Hog Island, lying beyond Corn 
Island, and the forest to the right of that Island are part of the original 
Forrest bequest of 368 acres, acquired in 1962. The Center now contains 
700 acres, including mature forest, second growth, old fields, cultivated fields, 
and salt marsh. With control of over 10 miles of shoreline, it is the largest 
undeveloped expanse on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay. It lies a 
mere 7 miles south of Annapolis and an hour's drive from Washington or 
Baltimore, making it a convenient site for the use of biologists in the region. 
As the facility develops, it should attract students of ecology and behavior 
from around the world. (Official U.S. Navy photo.) 




Etruscan amphora of the late 6th century B.C. before and after cleaning in the 
anthropology conservation laboratory. Below: Example of thickening in 
Neolithic skulls from Turkey (see p. 85) caused by anemia, probably the 
result of chronic malarial infection: Top one is normal, middle (cremated) 
and bottom ones are thickened. 



x kf 






- > 







RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ANTHROPOLOGY 79 

Press, and he outlined exhibit scripts for the section of the hall of 
physical anthropology concerned with ancient man. 

Waldo R. Wedel was in the field in the summer of 1965, assisted by 
museum specialist George S. Metcalf and five university students, 
excavating an early historic Indian village in central Kansas. Believed 
to have been inhabited by a Wichita Indian group about A.D. 
1500-1 700, the site consists of refuse heaps scattered around an elliptical 
pattern of shallow oblong depressions placed end-to-end around a 
low earth mound. Excavations in 1940 had disclosed two long narrow 
curving pithouses inside the ring of surface depressions. In 1965, two 
more such pithouses were found; with those opened previously, they 
formed a subrectangular pattern around the mounded center and 
within the ring of depressions or "borrow pits." No similar structures 
or arrangement of structures have yet been reported from the Plains 
region or elsewhere. From their floors, beneath a thick layer of burned 
roof and wall material, were taken much pottery, and stone, bone, and 
shell artifacts generally like those found elsewhere on the site in stor- 
age pits and refuse mounds. From their central location in the village 
and their unusual construction and arrangement, it is tentatively in- 
ferred that these earth-covered pithouses probably represented the 
dwellings of the village leaders. 

At two other village sites lying about 800 and 2,100 yards east and 
south of the circle excavated, similar circles of depressions occur around 
a central mound. The line connecting their centers runs 30° south of 
due east, and, projected to the eastern horizon, corresponds exactly 
with the sunrise position at the winter solstice. Local observers on 
December 21-22, 1965, verified the alignment of these two circles 
with the rising sun. Since no obvious topographical or other reason 
appears for such an alignment, and in light of other alignments and 
orientations of sites and features, the location of these circles and their 
unique character argues for an intentional or planned placement on 
a recognized axis. These findings suggest strongly that the Wichita 
Indians of the 16th and 17th centuries, like their contemporaries among 
the upper Rio Grande pueblos, had a ceremonial calendar based on an 
astronomical year beginning with the winter solstice, instead of a 
descriptive calendar like most of their Plains neighbors in which the 
time reckoning began with some event of particular importance to 
the Indian. 

Scattered and disarticulated human bones found in the four pithouses, 
some of them charred or burned, suggest the possibility of enemy action 
or that human sacrifice was practiced. Ethnographic data indicate 
that winter solstice rituals in the Southwest were somehow connected 
with human sacrifice. Further examinations at other of the known 



80 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

circles in central Kansas are urgently needed to determine more 
accurately the relationships between these specialized structures and 
astronomical points, and the possibility that rituals of human sacrifice 
were directly involved. 

As a result of widespread newspaper publicity given the dig, visitors 
came in ever-increasing numbers, averaging 30 to 50 a day during the 
last few weeks, so that a total of about 3,000 persons, including many 
foreign visitors, saw Smithsonian research in progress at the site. 

Henry B. Collins continued his Eskimo research, supervising the 
preparation of two volumes issued by the Arctic Institute of North 
America: volume 6 of the series, Anthropology of the North: Translations 
from Russian Sources, a translation of A. P. Okladnikov's "The Soviet 
Far East in Antiquity, An Archaeological and Historical Study of the 
Maritime Region of the U.S.S.R.," and volume 12 of Arctic Bibliography, 
a series which summarizes and indexes the contents of publications in 
all fields of science, and in all languages, pertaining to the Arctic and 
sub- Arctic regions of the world. 

Robert M. Laughlin continued his work on a Tzotzil-English, 
English-Tzotzil dictionary (Tzotzil, a Mayan language, is spoken by 
approximately 100,000 Indians in the state of Chiapas, southeastern 
Mexico). The dictionary now contains some 20,000 entries. This is 
the most complete dictionary compiled since the 16th century for any 
American Indian language. 

As part of the Archbold-Bredin-Smithsonian Biological Survey of 
the Island of Dominica, in the British West Indies, Clifford Evans and 
research associate, Betty J. Meggers conducted an intensive arche- 
ological survey on Dominica during January 1966. After field recon- 
naissance located 22 different sites, many of which are early French 
and English colonial rather than Indian, it was determined that the 
ecological conditions for Indian occupation were so poor in comparison 
to nearby Guadaloupe and Martinique and other lesser Antilles that 
Indians must have used the island as a "stepping stone" without long 
occupation at any one spot. 

Supported by a Smithsonian research award, a long-range program 
of archeological research was begun in Brazil with Evans and Meggers 
as principal investigators. Nine Brazilians trained by them in 1964 
under the auspices of the Fulbright Commission have carried on the 
collaborative research efforts in the field. Official negotiations and 
agreements were arranged between the Smithsonian Institution and 
the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas of Brazil, which named as their 
official representative in Brazil the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, in 
Belem. The program was assisted by Artur Hehl Neiva of the Fulbright 
Commission who served as liaison. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ANTHROPOLOGY 81 

At the close of the fiscal year, Evans and Meggers were in Brazil 
inspecting each project to be sure that all participants were conducting 
their work according to standardized procedures of note-taking, 
classification, record-keeping, etc. so that at the close of the 5-8 year 
program all interpretations from all sites are comparable. The nine 
Brazilian archeologists have conducted field work to date in the States 
of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana, Sao Paulo, Guanabara, 
Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte and Matto Grosso. Al- 
ready some extremely important data have been secured, including 
deep stratified Paleo-Indian deposits in Rio Grande do Sul, and 
pottery-bearing sites in the State of Bahia, from which pottery had not 
previously been recorded. 

Using the hydration thickness technique of dating, Evans analyzed 
and interpreted the obsidian artifacts from Easter Island for inclusion 
by Thor Heyerdahl in volume two of the history and archeology of 
Easter Island. 

The reliability of an aspect of glotto-chronology is being questioned 
in an article now in preparation by William H. Crocker. Two Canela 
vocabularies taken from the same group and collected by different 
people in the same decade have been found to contain enough non- 
cognates to account for one thousand years of geographical separation. 
These noncognates are generally either synonyms or words with similar 
meanings, or attributable to errors of the field workers concerned. 
Newly collected data on the Canela messianic movement were prepared 
for presentation at the Symposium on the Biota of the Amazon, in 
Belem, Brazil, in June 1966.* 

For the 37th Congress of Americanists, being held in Argentina in 
September, Crocker has prepared an acculturative history of the 
Canela Indians since 1900. The early monograph on the Canela, 
The Eastern Timbira, by Curt Nimuendaju, was utilized as a mid- 
point base to assure the reliability of the information and the trends. 
Groups of informants of different age-grades were used to reconstruct 
the conditions of each of their adolescent initiation periods as the 
tribe moved from one old village site to another. As a result of the 
efficacy of this technique, a fairly full history of innovations, losses, and 
trends has been reconstructed, with the maximum error for most 
items being about plus or minus two years since 1900. In order to 
continue his acculturation study of the Canela and to obtain informa- 



*As reported in Smithsonian Tear 1965 (pp. 40-42) a prophetess among the Canela 
Indians of Brazil predicted that the traditional culture hero would come to earth 
to save his people and turn them into civilizados. They believed her and danced 
continuously and stole cattle to facilitate the festivities untd they were attacked 
and driven out of their lands by the neighboring Brazilian hinterlanders. 
230-457—66 8 



82 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

tion between field visits, Crocker has trained three Canela Indians to 
record information on certain daily events. They write from 40 to 60 
pages a month, and these manuscripts have been received regularly 
by mail. It is expected that at least one autobiography can be edited 
from these materials, and since one of the Indians makes his contribu- 
tion partly in his own language using phonemic script, his texts will 
serve to facilitate the linguistic analysis of the language. A system for 
coding the Canela ethnographic materials has been worked out, and 
a collection of about 12,000 Keysort cards is now ready for utiliza- 
tion in the analysis of specific topics. 

Gus W. Van Beek concentrated his research on the pre-Islamic pot- 
tery chronology of Hajar Bin Humeid, the longest continuously oc- 
cupied pre-Islamic site as yet excavated in southern Arabia. In 
addition to the ongoing descriptive work, technical studies of certain 
types of pottery were initiated. One of these, in collaboration with 
William Melson of the department of mineral sciences, involves the 
petrographic analysis of representative pottery types to permit a more 
accurate description of the composition of the pottery. The other, in 
collaboration with Edward V. Sayre of the Brookhaven National Lab- 
oratory, utilizes neutron activation analysis to investigate the composi- 
tion of one type of pottery, sand-tempered ware, with a wide 
distribution at a number of sites stretching in a belt from northeastern 
Ethiopia to Hadhramaut in southern Arabia; this analysis of trace 
elements should show whether sherds from all sites are identical and 
these data will indicate whether examples of this ware were made at 
one or more centers and whether direct trade was involved in its 
distribution. 

During the year, Van Beek also studied the enigmatic monolithic 
stele at Axum, Ethiopia, and presented before the African Studies 
Association, meeting in Philadelphia, October 27-30, 1965, a paper 
entitled "The Monuments of Axum in the Light of South Arabian 
Archeology," in which it was shown that these gigantic granite stele 
probably belong to the beginning of the Christian era in Ethiopia 
(A.D. 327), and must be interpreted in the light of the then rapidly 
developing Christian symbolism. He also prepared a survey and 
annotated bibliography on the archeology of Arabia during the period 
from 1960 to 1965 for the Council on Old World Archaeology. 

William C. Sturtevant continued his research on the culture of the 
Seminole Indians and related topics, in Washington and through 
visits to museums and archival collections elsewhere. He also initiated 
a long-term project aimed towards an exhaustive catalog of all illus- 
trations of Northeastern Indians done before 1860 and having any 
claim for ethnographic accuracy. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ANTHROPOLOGY 83 

Research on the collections, in conjunction with preparation of 
materials for exhibition in the hall of the cultures of Africa and Asia, 
was continued by Gordon D. Gibson. 

At the Peabody Museum and at Essex Institute, both in Salem, 
Massachusetts, Saul H. Riesenberg abstracted ethnographic and 
historical materials from the collections of ship's logs and journals in 
connection with his research in Micronesian ethnohistory. With the 
aid of a native Ponapean in this country, a student at Princeton, he 
carried forward the task of translating an important Ponapean manu- 
script which he and John L. Fischer of Tulane University, are anno- 
tating and preparing for publication. 

A sourcebook of Korean anthropology being prepared by Eugene I. 
Knez, in collaboration with Chang-Soo Swanson and assisted by 
Willie Song, will include, in translation, a selection of articles pertaining 
to Korean life and culture written by Korean and Japanese scholars and 
scientists representing the major subdivisions of anthropology. A 
selected and annotated bibliography of 500 articles, monographs, and 
books has been completed and will constitute the other half of the 
sourcebook. Most of the Asian articles and the bibliographic items 
have appeared in print since 1900, but are from many sources not well 
known here, or from out-of-print journals. 

Kent V. Flannery and his field party left in December for Mexico to 
begin their study of the prehistoric human ecology of the Valley of 
Oaxaca. Geomorphologists Michael and Anne Kirkby began by 
mapping the land forms and geological strata of the Valley, which is 
in the shape of a capital T, 70 miles from north to south and 30 miles 
east to west. It is now clear that the region was cut by the upper 
tributaries of the Atoyac River, and is, in effect, a river valley with at 
least three definable terraces; there never was a "giant lake" in central 
Oaxaca as suggested by earlier investigators. The distribution of 
archeological sites, and even the different types of soils accompanying 
them, make it clear that the prehistoric rise to prominence of the 
Valley of Oaxaca was not a product of any "lush, fertile, well-watered" 
aspect attributed to the Valley by earlier writers; in fact, its rise was a 
tribute to the ingenuity of the prehistoric Indians in making use of its 
scanty surface water and alluvial soil. No great "irrigation civiliza- 
tion," with centralized bureaucratic control of water resources was 
possible here, because no single stream in the valley could be used to 
irrigate more than a square mile; rather, there are at least 15 types of 
irrigation going on all over the valley, with intensively local adapta- 
tions. Some regions produce 10 alfalfa crops a year, while others can 
grow only maguey (Agave sp.). Preliminary indications are that early 
farmers here clung desperately to the alluvial areas with a 3-meter 



84 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

water table and spread only later into the vast stretches of marginal 
land upstream. The oldest prehistoric phase excavated dates to 
roughly 5000-3500 B.C. and resembles the Coxcatlan phase in the 
Valley of Tehuacan, 160 miles to the north. 

These early agriculturalists hunted deer and rabbit in the mountains 
near Mitla, and in the rock shelters where they camped have been 
found occupation floors containing hundreds of plant specimens pre- 
served by dessication. The presence of acorns and hardened deer 
antler suggests that these were autumn encampments by groups who 
were harvesting both wild and domestic plants as well as doing some 
hunting. Also during Early Formative times, in the Valley, villages 
were being built with houses having partial stone foundations and 
walls of wattle and daub. The pottery decoration, figurines, and 
other artifacts clearly show that important strides had already been 
made toward the craft specialization and urbanization that mark the 
growth of civilization in Mexico as elsewhere. 

Four main vegetational (and faunal) zones have been located in the 
Mitla area. One is the valley floor itself, at 1 ,600 meters, characterized 
by mesquite and prickly pear. A lower zone, the canyons east of 
Mitla, at 1,300 meters, is arid tropical, with iguanas and kapok trees 
{Ceiba sp.). A higher zone, on the lower mountain slopes at 1,900 
meters, has oak, organ cactus, maguey, copal (Bursera) and guaje 
(Lucaena). This is the richest zone in wild plants and was intensively 
used for collecting and hunting, while the valley floor was intensively 
used for agriculture. The fourth and last zone, the surrounding moun- 
tain tops at 2,200 meters or more, has oak, pine, manzanita, and 
madrono. Caves have been located in all four of these zones, and it is 
hoped to excavate one in each this season in order to extablish use of 
wild resources in prehistory. The definition of vegetation zones will 
be made easier by the 800 specimens of plants collected in January and 
February by Wallace Ernst of the department of botany. 

Tie-ins between the ethnographic work of Aubrey Williams, Univer- 
sity of Maryland, and the archeological work have been numerous. 
For example, working near Mitla at a purely dry-farming village, 
Williams discovered that farmers there plant one crop a year of yellow 
corn, black beans, and squash, in the same field, as well as a crop of 
small black beans which are cultivated on marginal land. Four miles 
away, at "Guila Naquitz" cave, in levels dating to A.D. 900, the 
archeologists uncovered a series of storage pits which contained exactly 
the same four food products. 

In February 1965, Robert L. Stephenson began a sabbatical leave 
from his duties as Acting Director of the River Basin Surveys. Before 
and during this leave he worked on reports on his archeological research 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION — ANTHROPOLOGY 85 

in the Whitney Reservoir area of Central Texas, on the Blue Blanket 
Island Site, on the Potts Village Site and on the Sully Site, all of 
Oahe Reservoir, South Dakota. 

Richard B. Woodbury and research associate, Nathalie F. S. Wood- 
bury, in collaboration with Watson Smith, Peabody Museum, Harvard 
University, completed a report on the 1917-1923 excavations at the 
Zuni ruin of Hawikuh, New Mexico, which were directed by Frederick 
Webb Hodge, formerly Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 
The excavations were sponsored by the Museum of the American 
Indian, Heye Foundation, New York, which is publishing the report. 
Hodge's voluminous field notes and the extensive room plans and 
drawings of pottery designs were used in the compilation. In addition, 
the pottery was reclassified and new type definitions were prepared in 
accordance with current archeological practice, although Hodge's 
own stratigraphic study was discovered in manuscript form and is 
included in the report. 

In August 1965, the Smithsonian Institution and the Georgia Kraft 
Company of Rome, Georgia, entered jointly into a research contract 
for the salvage of archeological sites, near Cottonton, Alabama, along 
the Chattahoochee River, which would otherwise be lost forever through 
the construction of a new paper mill and its supporting services. 
Research associate C. G. Holland, conducted field work for six weeks 
in areas ahead of the construction and as the work continues additional 
archeological investigation will be carried out. The salvage archeology 
is being conducted in an early to middle 18th-century Indian village 
producing gunflints, Indian pottery, kaolin pipes, trade beads, and 
iron artifacts. 

Olga Linares de Sapir continued archeological research in Senegal 
as an honorary collaborator. She made extensive excavations in shell 
mounds that unfortunately are being destroyed rapidly in the wanton 
excavation of the shell for paving primary and secondary roads. In 
addition to the work in Senegal she was able to travel into the 
Cameroons, Nigeria, and Ivory Coast and compare the status of 
archeological research in these areas with Senegal. Interesting com- 
parative information was obtained, but only in Nigeria is there a fully 
developed research program in archeology through the University 
in Ibadan. 

Museum specialist George S. Metcalf, in collaboration with Kent 
Flannery, prepared a report on an Olmec "were -jaguar" from the 
Yucatan Peninsula. He also collaborated with Stephen de Borhegyi 
on a study of an inscribed celt from Guatemala. 

J. Lawrence Angel, in Greece and Turkey in summer 1965, studied 
more than 500 human skeletons from sites ranging from Paleolithic 



86 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

to 19th century A.D. The Early Neolithic material from Catal Hiiyuk 
(N=34) in the marsh-edged Konya plain and from Nea Nikomedeia 
(N=104) in the marshy Macedonian plain near the old coastline 
shows a high incidence (20-30 percent) of fully developed porotic 
hyperostosis in adults (healed) and children. This overdevelopment 
of blood-forming diploe of skull and bone marrow (children) indicates 
anemia, probably sicklemia or thalassemia occurring in response to 
chronic severe infestation by malarial Plasmodium falciparum. Later 
Neolithic skeletons from Kephala (51) on rocky Kea and bones from 
Early Bronze Age Karatas (155) in mountainous Lycia show little or 
no hyperostosis. Angel is synthesizing results from about 150 later 
skeletons combined with his 1,200 from the Greek mainland to analyze 
the interaction between such health factors as malaria, arthritis, level 
of nutrition and age at death, and historical change. 

Lucile E. Hoyme directed a Howard University student, Walker B. 
Moore, in the identification of juvenile skulls in the collections of the 
Division of Physical Anthropology, in terms of physiological age at 
death. A precoded form for automatic data processing was designed, 
with the help of museum technician Donald J. Ortner, on which were 
recorded stage of tooth eruption, tooth wear, caries, and suture closure. 
Approximately 4,000 Eskimo and Aleut crania were examined, of 
which 291 proved to be juveniles. A method was also worked out for 
establishing the sequence of tooth eruption, and W. B. Moore used 
this as the basis for a prize-winning exhibit at the 100th annual meeting 
of the District of Columbia Dental Society. 

Donald J. Ortner developed methods for microprobe study of 
mineral concentration in bone, and in a pilot study found probable 
aging differences in Haversian systems. 

Hoyme also continued research on the geographical distribution of 
various human cranial characteristics, to determine whether patterns 
of distribution corresponding to climatic regions would suggest the 
mode of action of natural selection. Certain predicted correlations 
between cranial form and climatic factors proved absent, but it appears 
that natural selection maintains and even increases individual variation. 
Preliminary analysis of the American Indian and Siberian crania 
studied suggests other internal correlations, which will be tested as the 
research proceeds. 

Organizing and filing the data sheets of the Human Relations Area 
Files was completed during the year. There are now files of informa- 
tion (mostly photocopied from published sources, but also using un- 
published material) on 266 ethnic or political groups, representing 
the entire inhabited world. Use of the files by the Smithsonian staff 
and by visiting scholars and other government agencies has increased 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ANTHROPOLOGY 87 

markedly. About 50 outside research projects made use of the files, 
compared to 30 the previous year. 

River Basin Surveys 

In February 1966, Warren W. Caldwell was appointed Director of 
the River Basin Surveys, succeeding Robert L. Stephenson, who had 
been serving as Acting Director. 

The Smithsonian River Basin Surveys participated in a wide range 
of archeological projects during the year, concentrating on the Missouri 
Basin as in previous years. Field investigations totaling 13, of which 
9 were active in July and August 1965, were focused primarily upon 
the major enclave of horticultural communities extending along the 
axis of the Missouri River in the two Dakotas ; however, reconnaissance 
and excavation parties worked in Iowa, Wyoming, and elsewhere 
in North Dakota as well. 

1. The Sommers site, upper Big Bend Reservoir, South Dakota, 
continuing investigations begun in 1964 at what is perhaps the largest 
of the early villages in the Middle Missouri area. In addition to the 
clearing of several deeply buried houses, the 1 965 excavations demon- 
strated that at least part of the village was defended by a deep ditch 
or dry moat. 

2. The Cattle Oiler site, a small, isolated village in the upper Big 
Bend Reservoir where for the first time evidence was found of con- 
temporary or closely subsequent occupations by peoples of the Initial 
Middle Missouri and Extended Middle Missouri Traditions. 

3. The Ketchen site, just downstream from the Cattle Oiler village 
appears to have been occupied by peoples of the Middle Missouri 
Tradition. Although architectural features are abundant, other evi- 
dences suggest that the occupation was of short duration, or possibly, 
that the village was never completed. 

4. The eastern shore of the upper Big Bend Reservoir just down- 
stream from Pierre, South Dakota, where five sites were tested. For 
the most part, architectural remains were few and indeterminate; 
however, enough evidence was found to indicate that the principal 
occupations fell within the generic "La Roche" category. 

5. The Thomas Riggs site, in the Oahe Reservoir just upstream 
from Pierre, South Dakota. Prior investigators had concluded that 
the village was unfortified; however, aerial photographs suggested the 
presence of a complex, bastioned defensive perimeter. Test excava- 
tions using heavy earth-moving machinery proved the existence of a 
moat and palisade and indicated that further, intensive work is 
necessary. 



88 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

6. The Fort Manuel site, in the upper Oahe Reservoir of north- 
central South Dakota, an important but short-lived trading establish- 
ment of 1812-1813. 

7. The Medicine Crow site, near Fort Thompson in the lower 
Big Bend Reservoir where a renewed excavation exposed a fire hearth 
attributable to the early preceramic occupations. 

8. The Fort Yates area, upper Oahe Reservoir, south-central 
North Dakota, excavating at the Ben Standing Soldier and Battle 
Greek Sites where remains of the Extended Middle Missouri Horizon 
("Archaic Mandan") were found. In addition, tests at the Porcupine 
Creek Site produced good evidence of the early period of settlement 
on the Standing Rock Reservation. 

9. The Arpan site, in the middle Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge, 
South Dakota, where a low mound was excavated that contained sec- 
ondary human burials within a sub-floor pit. The remains were 
culturally related to others in the immediate vicinity and are assumed 
to date within a few years of A.D. 1200. 

10. The Stelzer site, a Plains Woodland camp area near the Arpan 
Mounds that has produced significant Plains Woodland remains in the 
past. Continued excavations here added no new evidence, however, 
remains of early-day "homesteader" activities were found. 

1 1 . Some 47 sites were recorded in reservoir and canal rights of 
way within the Garrison Diversion Project of eastern North Dakota. 
At least 12 of these, including mound groups and Woodland camps 
seem to be important enough to warrant continued investigation. 

12. A number of sites were found during a reconnaissance of the 
Bowman-Haley Reservoir on the upper Grand River in southwestern- 
most North Dakota. Two camp areas, both of McKean affiliation, 
will require intensive excavation. 

13. A brief shoreline survey of the Angostura Reservoir, south- 
western South Dakota, assessed the effects of bank erosion. 

In June of 1966, 6 additional parties began field investigations as 
follows: 

1. Additional work at the Sommers site to trace the defensive 
ditch discovered during previous excavations. 

2. Continued excavation at the Cattle Oiler and Ketchen villages 
in order to establish relationships between the sites and to clarify the 
sequence of occupation. 

3. The Durkin site, a large, early village in the Big Bend Reservoir 
that is assumed to be important to the interpretation of the adjacent 
Sommers Site. 

4. The lower Cannonball site, a large village in the upper Oahe 
Reservoir that seems to mark a crucial point in the putative transition 
from the Extended to the Terminal Middle Missouri Horizon. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ANTHROPOLOGY 89 

5. Excavation of one or more sites of McKean affiliation within the 
Bowman-Haley Reservoir. 

6. Mummy Cave, near Cody, Wyoming, where a combined 
Whitney Gallery of Western Art-National Geographic Society- 
Smithsonian Institution party was excavating deep deposits containing 
a long sequence of human occupation. 

In addition to the field parties of the River Basin Surveys, a number 
of other institutions worked within the Missouri Basin under coopera- 
tive agreement with the U.S. National Park Service. At the beginning 
of the year, the cooperators included: the University of Missouri, the 
University of Kansas, the Kansas State Historical Society, the State 
Historical Society of North Dakota, and the University of Nebraska. 
At the end of the fiscal year, cooperative agreements had been con- 
cluded with four institutions for investigations within the Basin: the 
University of Missouri, excavating in the Stockton and Kaysinger 
Bluff reservoirs of Missouri; the State Historical Society of North 
Dakota in the Oahe Reservoir of North Dakota; the University of 
Kansas, excavating in the Clinton Reservoir, northeast Kansas; and 
the University of Nebraska in the Glen Elder Reservoir, north-central 
Kansas. 

New Programs 

Towards the end of the fiscal year, the Smithsonian Office of An- 
thropology was engaged in preliminary planning for several major 
new research programs under the stimulus of Professor Sol Tax, of the 
University of Chicago, who on January 1, 1966, was appointed special 
advisor on anthropology to the Security of the Smithsonian Institution. 

As part of a substantial long-range research program of the Office 
of Anthropology on ancient technology, Precolumbian metal artifacts 
excavated from the Milagro Culture of Ecuador by Evans and Meggers 
in 1961 have been submitted to the Battelle Memorial Institute of 
Columbus, Ohio, for metallographic and spectrochemical studies. 
The reports received to date are so significant that the study is being 
broadened for the next several years to include the testing of artifacts 
from both New and Old World archeological cultures such as Arabia. 
Field research to rescue data on traditional crafts ahead of the rapidly 
changing cultures brought on by western industrialization is being 
organized in such areas as Iran and will be extended to other parts 
of the world. 

In April 1965, the Office of Anthropology decided to begin work 
towards a multi-volume "Handbook of North American Indians" to 
update the encyclopedic Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico 
(Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30, 2 vols., 1907-1910), which 
has been the most widely useful of the 200 Bulletins and 48 large Annual 



90 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Reports of the Bureau. William C. Sturtevant agreed to serve as editor 
of this new Handbook, and planning as to its content and format began. 
The aim is to produce a reference work for scholars and the interested 
public, which will summarize and systematize anthropological and 
historical knowledge of the cultures, languages, and physical form of 
the Indians north of Mexico, and outline the course and results of 
their relationships with the later European and African settlers of the 
continent. 



VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Research activities in the division of fishes included a broad range of 
studies by the staff and the approximately 160 visiting investigators 
who came to the division to consult with the staff on their research 
projects and to study the extensive fish collections. 

Ernest A. Lachner's studies of eastern North American barbeled 
nest-building chubs (Cyprinidae) have resulted in a comprehensive 
synthesis of their systematics, morphology, and distribution. His field 
studies contributed to the understanding of the biology and biogeog- 
raphy of the species and species groups. His ichthyological data have 
been correlated with the geology and physiography of the area, resulting 
in a comprehensive summary of the origins of the upland freshwater 
fish fauna of the eastern United States. 

The systematic studies by Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., with Bruce Collette, 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, of the giant-sized tunas of the world 
will have broad application in the fishery industry, and will be used by 
the industry and by fishery management organizations in many 
countries of the world where a* tuna fishery is part of the economic 
income of the nation. It is the first real analysis of the specific identity 
of the several populations found in the oceans of the world. 

William A. Gosline, Professor of Zoology, University of Hawaii, 
was appointed senior postdoctoral research associate for the year 
beginning September 1965. The subject of his investigation was the 
arrangement and classification of the major groups of the order Perci- 
formes, which with several thousand species, is the largest single order 
of living fishes. His approach to the problem is primarily through 
comparative osteology. 

Victor G. Springer completed a revision of the circumtropical 
blennioid fish genus Entomacrodns. One of the few intensive studies of 
tropical marine shore fishes, this research has resulted in a broader 
concept of fish speciation, distribution, origin, and evolution than has 
existed heretofore. A major advance in the zoogeography of this 




Many surviving village sites along the Big Bend Reservoir are in danger of 
destruction. Much of the Catde Oiler Site here (see p. 87) has already 
collapsed into the lake. Below: Remains of defensive stockade at Fort 
Manuel (see p. 88), a fur-trade post of 1812-13 in the central Oahe Reservoir, 
north-central South Dakota. 





Collecting macaroni penguins on Elephant Island, off the Antarctic Peninsula 
(see p. 92), are Smithsonian scientists George Watson and J. P. Angle. The 
site is that where Shackleton's party wintered during his 1914-16 expedition. 
Below: Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., dissecting a marlin during cruise 14 of RV 
Anton Brun in the Southeast Pacific (see p. 90). 




\ 




RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 91 

area has resulted. He is continuing his studies of the osteology, 
phylogeny, and relationships of the Blenniidae. 

Stanley H. Weitzman's osteological studies of numerous families and 
groups of fishes contributed to a recent classification of fishes, pub- 
lished in 1966, which he wrote in collaboration with P. H. Greenwood, 
D. E. Rosen, and G. S. Myers. This classification collates for the 
first time in many years the abundant nomenclature of the higher 
categories of fishes and presents tentative phyletic arrangements of 
families and orders. 

A new service to the science of herpetology was inaugurated in the 
division of reptiles and amphibians with the appearance of the first 
issues of the Smithsonian Herpetological Information Services. These 
are intended to provide multilithed copies of translations, indexes, 
bibliographies, lists, and similar material for distribution to herpeto- 
logical laboratories. It is common for an investigator to prepare as 
a useful adjunct to his own work an index or translation which would 
be equally useful to his colleagues if available but is generally not 
suitable for formal publication. This is the type of material which 
the Information Services distribute, and the scope of the project is 
indicated by the items currently available: 

A list of the herpetological publications of the United States National 
Museum, 1853-1965. 12 pp., issued December 10, 1965. 

On the biology of the giant Indonesian monitor lizard; by Darevsky 
and Kadarsan [translated from the Russian]. 6 pp., issued Decem- 
ber 10, 1965. 

A list of institutions offering course work and degree programs in 
herpetology. 9 pp., issued December 18, 1965. 

Considerations concerning the variability of amphibians and reptiles, 
by Stugren [translated from the Rumanian]. 10 pp., issued May 6, 
1966. 

Curator Doris M. Cochran and her collaborator Coleman J. Goin 
submitted for publication their monograph on the frogs of Colombia. 
In this study, 27 new species and subspecies of frogs are described. 

James A. Peters pursued his long-term work on Ecuador, with 
current emphasis on the zoogeographical and taxonomic problems 
of the fauna of the higher altitudes of the Amazonian slopes of the 
Andes. He spent October on the coastal plain investigating the 
transition zone between the dry, almost desert conditions of south- 
western Ecuador, which lie under the influence of the Humboldt 
Current, and the dense tropical rain forests of northwestern Ecuador, 
which show greatest relationships with the Caribbean slopes of Central 
America. Work was begun on a list of the snakes of the family 
Typhlopidae for Das Tierreich, to be included in the Liste der rezenten 



92 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Amphibien und Reptilien. An annotated list of rare and endangered 
species of reptiles and amphibians in the United States was prepared 
for the Department of the Interior's "Redbook," written by the Com- 
mittee on Rare and Endangered Species, of which Peters is a member. 

Curator George E. Watson continued work with J. P. Angle on an 
identification manual of Antarctic birds, participating in a joint 
U.S. Antarctic Research Program oceanographic research cruise 
on USCGC Eastwind to the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland 
and South Orkney Islands, from the end of December until early 
March. He also continued research on the birds of Greece, visiting 
seabird colonies throughout the Aegean islands, under the sponsorship 
of the National Geographic Society. 

Paul Slud concluded his field work in Costa Rica, where he collabo- 
rated with an ecological team working on a project sponsored by the 
Army Research Office. During the dry season, Slud conducted a 
survey of birds and environments on Barro Colorado Island, Canal 
Zone, and at the Area de Pesquisas Ecologicas do Guama, Belem, 
Brazil. 

Richard L. Zusi, continuing his studies of functional anatomy, 
locomotion, and feeding behavior in shorebirds by means of laboratory 
and field studies, obtained 1,300 feet of motion picture film of feeding 
shorebirds in California, including species of the rocky coast, mud 
flats, and ocean beach, to be analyzed by stop-motion projector. He 
studied the definition and interaction of functional complexes of the 
skull and the skeletal proportions of the trunk and limbs. He found 
that variations of the neck, wing, and pectoral girdle proved useful in 
the classification of plovers. As an outgrowth of the work on shorebirds 
he began a functional analysis of the schizorhinal skull in diverse 
orders of birds. With David Bridge, he obtained data at Assateague 
Island, Maryland, for a study of the unique pupillary mechanism of 
the black skimmer. 

Charles La Rue, a Smithsonian pre-doctoral intern and graduate 
student from the University of Maryland, under Zusi's direction 
worked on a functional-anatomical study of the head in certain Ci- 
coniiformes, with emphasis on variations in functional complexes. 
Useful in these anatomical studies are the newly installed X-ray 
machine and darkroom facilities of the division of birds. 

As honorary curator of North American birds, Lester L. Short, Jr., 
continued his research on hybridization and intergradation in birds 
of the Great Plains. New material for these investigations totalled 
800 specimens taken in Nebraska during summer 1965. He continued 
investigations of hybridization among three ecologically and morpho- 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 93 

logically divergent species of southwestern North American wood- 
peckers (Dendrocopos) and described other interesting hybrids. Fossil 
(Tertiary) hawk and stork bones from Nebraska were studied, and a 
new genus and species of stork were described. Work progressed on a 
zoogeographical analysis of North American birds, being conducted 
jointly with Ernst Mayr of Harvard University, and on a review of 
woodpeckers of the world, the latter in cooperation with Walter J. 
Bock of Columbia University. 

The first volume of Alexander Wetmore's Birds of Panama was 
issued in December. Dr. Wetmore conducted field work in south- 
western Chiriqui (Panama) from January until March. 

S. Dillon Ripley continued to work closely with his associate Salim 
Ali on the "Handbook of Indian Birds," to be published in India. The 
first volume has been completed and is scheduled to appear in late 
1966. The publication of this and subsequent volumes represents a 
long cherished desire on the part of both authors to bring up to date 
information on the bird fauna of India, Pakistan, Ceylon, and Nepal, 
and related islands and small territories and countries such as Sikkim 
and Bhutan. Ripley also continued his work on a projected mono- 
graph of the rails of the world, and completed, with research assistant 
Gorman M. Bond, a study of the birds of Socotra and Abd-el-Kuri. 

As part of the mammals of Panama project, directed by Charles O. 
Handley, Jr., systematic collections were made at opposite extremes of 
the Pacific coast of the Republic, near Jaque and near Puerto Armu- 
ellas, by Francis M. Greenwell and Theodore H. Fleming. Fleming 
stayed on in Panama to conduct an all-seasons study, supported in part 
by the National Science Foundation, of mammalian population 
dynamics. 

During the first year of the Smithsonian Venezuelan project, also 
under the direction of Charles O. Handley, Jr., about 8,000 specimens 
of mammals, their associated ectoparasites, and a large body of 
ecological and biological data for each were collected. In cooperation 
with Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) and 
Middle American Research Unit (MARU), collection of blood sera 
to establish a virus antibody profile for the wild mammal population 
was begun. Altogether 20 scientists (parasitologists, virologists, mam- 
malogists, and ecologists) in 5 countries are participating in this project, 
which enjoys the support of the Consejo de Bienestar Rural, the Museo 
de Ciencias Naturales, and Universidad Central de Venezuela, in 
Caracas. It is financed by the Office of the Surgeon General, Depart- 
ment of the Army. 

Also with the support of the Office of the Surgeon General, Henry 
W. Setzer's studies of the mammals and their ectoparasites in the 



94 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

African fauna continued in the southern part of the continent, particu- 
larly in the Bechuanaland Protectorate and South-West Africa, and 
they were extended to Nigeria and Senegal in West Africa. A pre- 
liminary synopsis of the Hyracoidea, by J. Bothnia, was issued as the 
first part in a projected identification manual for African mammals, 
being prepared under the direction of J. Meester, University of 
Pretoria. 

Steps were taken in the division of mammals toward development of 
a center for study and identification of subhuman primates. Particu- 
larly significant was a conference of prominent primatologists that 
considered the Smithsonian's assets and potential in this field and 
produced a plan for development of a center. 

Through the support of Helmut K. Buechner, Office of Ecology, the 
department of vertebrate zoology in January 1966 participated in the 
establishment of the Area de Pesquisas Ecologicas do Guama (APEG), 
Bel em, Brazil. The APEG was established through a series of official 
announcements by Director Jose Maria Gonduru, of the Instituto de 
Pesquisas e Experimentacao Agropecuarias do Norte (IPEAN). One 
of the primary objectives of the APEG is the establishment of a broad 
program of basic research on the ecology of the Amazonian forest, 
one which will also serve as a means of offering scientific training 
directly related to regional needs. Both the Smithsonian and the 
IPEAN are collaborating in the development of a scientific program 
for the APEG through the provision of grants from the Smithsonian 
and facilities, personnel, and equipment from the IPEAN. As a result 
of this support, research programs are already under way on soils, 
botany, entomology, and epidemiology. 

Several members of the department of vertebrate zoology have 
already participated in the research program of the APEG. In August 
1965 Handley made a significant collection of bats in the APEG 
bringing the known bat fauna of the Bel em area to a record total of 
over 60 species. He also gathered data on the vertical distribution of 
the bat fauna in the tropical forest making use of canopy mist nets. 

Philip S. Humphrey, in collaboration with the Belem Virus Labora- 
tory and supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, continued his 
studies on the ecological distribution and epidemiology of birds in the 
APEG. His field work was made enormously productive through the 
enthusiastic assistance of Thomas Lovejoy, David Soleau, and Stephen 
Humphrey. The emphasis of the summer's field work was on intensive 
banding of tropical forest birds, an approach never before attempted 
in the Amazon res-ion. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 95 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

On July 1, 1965, three new divisions — of Crustacea, of echinoderms, 
and of worms — were formed from the old division of marine inverte- 
brates and were joined with the existing division of mollusks to form 
the department of invertebrate zoology. It is one of the largest 
departments of its kind in the world with specialists in many of the 
groups of invertebrate animals. Staff members concentrate primarily 
on basic research in systematics, and their interests include classical tax- 
onomy, embryology, population dynamics, ecology, and oceanography. 

Raymond B. Manning concluded a monographic study on the 
stomatopod Crustacea of the western Atlantic. He also furthered his 
studies on decapod Crustacea during field and study trips to Dominica, 
the Institute of Marine Science, University of Miami, and to the 
Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, Netherlands. J. 
Laurens Barnard completed an illustrated handbook for the identifi- 
cation of families and genera of marine gammaridean amphipods. In 
addition he continued studies on the abyssal and bathyal antarctic 
amphipods. 

The origin of cave faunas is a fascinating study for the systematist 
because it so often divulges what appear to be direct evidences of 
evolutionary processes upon animals. Thomas E. Bowman completed 
three reports on cave isopods from Mexico and Cuba. 

John C. McCain carried out studies on caprellid amphipods of the 
southeastern United States. To supplement existing study material, 
McCain made collections at several localities in the northern Gulf of 
Mexico. In addition he completed a manuscript on a new deep-water 
genus and species of caprellid from the eastern Pacific. 

Louis S. Kornicker conducted research on the taxonomy and distri- 
bution of the myodocopid ostracods of the Atlantic Shelf, the Bay of 
Naples, and the Red Sea, and he studied collections at the British 
Museum, London, and the Naples Zoological Station. 

David L. Pawson completed studies on the bathyal holothurians and 
other echinoderms of the New Zealand-Australian region. He and 
Donald F. Squires participated in an expedition to the Antarctic 
Peninsula, during which large collections of invertebrates were ob- 
tained. Earlier in the year, Pawson studied holothurian and echinoid 
specimens in European museums. 

With the assistance of Joseph C. Britton, Joseph Rosewater completed 
a catalog of the more than 500 species of mollusks collected during 
Cruise "A" of the International Indian Ocean Expedition. Rosewater 



230-457—66- 



96 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

continued studies on the littorinid snails of the Indo-Pacific region, 
and the periplomatid clams of the western Atlantic. 

Joseph P. E. Morrison continued his research on brackish-water 
mollusks of the world and on the hydrobiid snails of American waters. 
He carried out field work in Dominica, Antigua, Montserrat, and 
Guadeloupe in an attempt to determine which of the mollusk species 
are endemic and which had been dispersed by artificial means. 

Studies on the composition and relationships of the Polynesian 
molluscan fauna were continued by Harald A. Rehder who completed 
for publication a number of reports on his research. He made progress 
on his monographic study of the gastropod family Harpidae, and in 
connection with his interest in Indo-Pacific mollusks examined museum 
collections in Europe. 

Meredith L. Jones carried out field work in the tropical western 
Atlantic in search of the marine polychaetous annelids upon which 
his systematic work is focused. He participated in an expedition to 
the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; he was joined by T. Peter Lowe 
in making collections on Santa Catarina Island, Brazil; and he also 
acted as scientific leader of an expedition to Andros Island, Bahamas, 
sponsored by H. J. Bowen, of Wilmington, Delaware. Jones also 
continued his monographic study of the magelonid polychaetes of the 
world. 

Studies on the fauna of northern waters were continued by Marian 
H. Pettibone, who specializes in the systematics of polychaete worms 
of the New England region. Her work continues on a revision of 
genera of polynoid polychaetes and on deep-water collections made by 
the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries off the mouth of the Columbia 
River, Oregon. 

In addition to administering the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian 
Biological Survey of Dominica, Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., continued 
his monographic work on the freshwater crayfishes and their associated 
entocytherid ostracods. He engaged in field studies on Dominica, 
and also collected decapod Crustacea during a field trip through 
southeastern Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia. During part of 
the year Hobbs examined crayfish collections in a number of European 
museums. 

The classification of collections of freshwater and terrestrial decapod 
crustaceans from Dominica was the object of a collaborative study by 
Hobbs and Fenner A. Chace, Jr. In addition, Chace began prelimi- 
nary work on the marine caridean shrimps collected by the Bredin- 
Smithsonian expeditions to the Caribbean in 1956, 1957, 1959, and 
1960. 



*" ' ^^r^ 




Aboard the RV Anton Brim off the coast of Chile, curator Roger F. Cressey 
(foreground) aids in the capture of a shark from which he will remove the 
parasitic copepods as a part of his studies on host-parasite relationships 
(see p. 97). Below: Photographed by curator Klaus Rutzler, a diver 
collects sponge specimens at a depth of 120 feet from the coral reef slope of 
northern Jamaica during the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian survey of 
Dominica. The specimens are being studied by Rutzler. 





Ernst Kirsteuer, from the American Museum of Natural History, examines 
pieces of coral rock for its microfauna as a participant in the Bredin-Archbold- 
Smithsonian biological survey of Dominica, Lesser Antilles. Below: Cata- 
loguer in the division of Crustacea typing labels on an SCM typewriter 
assembly which produces a master tape from which any number of individual 
specimen labels may be prepared. 




RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 97 

An interesting facet of evolutionary biology concerns the systematic 
problems arising from parasite-host relationships and the interpretation 
of host specificity. Roger F. Cressey, who is studying the copepods 
parasitic on fishes, has found indications that where host specificity 
occurs, it may provide new information relating to the phylogeny of 
the fish host. In carrying out his studies during the past year he 
participated in three expeditions, to the Gulf of Mexico and to the 
southeastern Pacific, during which sharks, tunas, and billfishes were 
examined for parasitic copepods. Cressey completed a revision of the 
Pandaridae, a family of copepods parasitic on sharks. 

Studies on community structure of animal populations were carried 
out by Thomas E. Bowman, involving distribution of planktonic 
marine Crustacea. J. Laurens Barnard was engaged in a study of the 
benthic fauna of Bahia de San Quintin, Baja California; and Mere- 
dith L. Jones is completing an analysis of a community of benthic 
invertebrates from San Francisco Bay, California. 

Donald F. Squires, former chairman of the department and now 
Deputy Director of the Museum of Natural History, continued his 
research on solitary corals. While on shipboard during the recent 
expedition to Antarctica, he made observations on living deep sea 
corals and he succeeded in returning several of the living corals by 
air to Washington for further study. 

W. Duane Hope has continued a monographic study of the freeliving 
marine nematode genera Deontostoma, Thoracostoma and Pseudocella. 
In winter 1965 he completed the field work for a study of seasonal 
changes in the populations of marine nematodes in Hadley Harbor, 
Massachusetts, and a survey of the marine nematodes for the Cape 
Cod area. 

Klaus Rutzler, who came from Austria to join the division of echino- 
derms in fall 1965, has gained, through wide field experience, an under- 
standing of the ecology as well as the systematics of Porifera, for 
ecology is often the key to classification of sponges. Since his arrival 
he has continued investigations on Caribbean and Adriatic sponges, 
and during the first half of 1966 carried out an ecological survey of the 
marine sponges of Jamaica and Dominica. 

Mary E. Rice has conducted a comparative study of the repro- 
ductive biology and development of three species of sipunculids from 
the San Juan Archipelago in the State of Washington. In addition she 
continued her study of the taxonomy of sipunculids collected from 
the Maldive Islands in the Indian Ocean. 

Honorary research associates of the divisions contributed sub- 
stantially to the furtherance of research in their several disciplines. 
Waldo L. Schmitt carried out a monographic study of the pinnotherid 



98 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

crabs and began compilation of the field notes covering his extensive 
collecting trips in the past, aided by his former secretary, Lucile 
McCain. Mildred S. Wilson continued her studies on the diaptomid 
copepods, which ultimately will lead to a revision of the North Ameri- 
can species. Ailsa M. Clark proceeded with her work on the shallow- 
water Indo-West-Pacific echinoderm fauna, and Elizabeth Deichmann 
completed a study of collections of holothurians from the Gulf of 
Guinea and continued her studies on the sea cucumbers of Florida 
and the West Indies. Roman Kenk studied the systematics, life 
cycles, and distribution of freshwater planarian flatworms. He has 
established a series of laboratory cultures which allow him to observe 
food habits, reproduction, and the behavior of planarians. Gilbert 
L. Voss, University of Miami, continued his research on the Cephalo- 
poda of the Atlantic. 

Supported by a Guggenheim Fellowship, Dr. Jayme de Loyola e 
Silva, Universidad do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil, was in residence in 
the division of Crustacea studying the collections of sphaeromatid 
isopods. NAS-NRC visiting research associate F. J. S. Maturo, 
from the University of Florida, continued his systematic studies in the 
division of echinoderms on the bryozoans of the Atlantic continental 
shelf in general, and of the southeast coast of the United States in 
particular. Also, during the past year, Dr. I. Canet was in residence 
in the division of Crustacea. She has nearly completed a revision of 
the economically important western Atlantic species of penaeid shrimps. 

This year an histology laboratory was established under the re- 
sponsibility of the division of worms to serve the needs of staff members. 
Equipment, supplies, and technical assistance are now available for 
making routine histological preparations for light microscopy. 

Under agreements reached with a number of universities making 
it possible for graduate students to carry on research projects in the 
department of invertebrate zoology, seven students were associated 
with the department under the guidance of five staff members. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Oscar L. Cartwright continued his research on the Scarab beetle 
family Scarabaeidae, especially the Aphodiinae. Many hundreds of 
additional specimens of Ataenius including additional types have been 
studied. A revision of two allied genera, Euparixia and R/iyparus, also 
received some attention. Cartwright participated in the Smith- 
sonian-H. J. Bowen expedition to Andros Island in the Bahamas, 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ENTOMOLOGY 99 

obtaining undescribed species in several orders of insects as well as 
new distributional records for many other species. He also collected 
winter and early vernal forms of Aphodiinae in several areas along the 
Gulf Coast in Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi. 

Paul J. Spangler actively continued his research on several families 
of water beetles. Identifications and ecological data for an additional 
3,800 specimens were added to his monograph of the hydrophilid genus 
Tropisternus. A manuscript on the Haliplidae of Mexico and Central 
America was advanced by the preparation of about 500 specimens for 
critical study and the completion of 38 illustrations. The study of a 
collection of Hydrophilidae from southern Argentina was undertaken 
at the request of the Hungarian National Museum; another study, on 
the water beetles of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, was 
begun; and a revision of the hydrophilid genus Enochrus from Mexico, 
Central America, and the West Indies was undertaken as a joint 
project with Ralph Gunderson. These and other taxonomic studies 
were forwarded by 2 months of museum study in England, Belgium 
and France, and by 12 weeks in Mexico and Central America, where 
99,100 insects and 1,375 miscellaneous specimens, including 46,200 
water beetles for his various research projects, were collected. His 
field work was completed by 10 days of collecting in the Virgin Islands 
to obtain material for one research project. 

Research associate Doris H. Blake continued work on her review 
of the chrysomelid beetle genus Glyptoscelis of the Western Hemisphere. 
Mrs. Blake collected for 10 days in Puerto Rico. 

Much of Richard C. Froeschner's research time was devoted to the 
completion or continuation of several projects begun by the late re- 
search associate Carl J. Drake: two papers have been submitted for 
publication with Drake's name as sole author; a paper on the Gala- 
pagos lacebugs was rewritten and will be submitted with Froeschner 
as coauthor; and some work was done on an important revisionary 
study of the American lacebug genus Corythuca, on which Drake had 
made only some preliminary plans. Froeschner completed a paper on 
the burrower bugs (Cydnidae) collected by the Danish Noona Dan 
expedition to the Philippines and New Guinea. He also commenced 
work on an illustrated manual of the known genera of lacebugs as a 
complementary volume to the Drake and Ruhoff Lacebugs of the World, 
a Catalog (U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 243, 1965); it will be based on Drake's 
remarkably complete collection of lacebugs. Sorting, preliminary 
examination, and determination was begun of some of the hemipterous 
insects collected on the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Sur- 



100 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

vey of Dominica; preparation of actual reports will be started after 
the survey teams complete their activities in 1966. 

Karl V. Krombein began a revisionary study of a new Oriental genus 
of myzinine wasp which is parasitic on cerambycid larvae boring in 
trees. He received proofs of a large volume on the biology, nest 
architecture, and associates of trap-nesting wasps and bees, and also 
of his section in the second supplement to the Hymenoptera of America 
North of Mexico, of which he is also co-editor. 

Research associate Carl F. W. Muesebeck completed a manuscript 
describing two new reared species of the diapriid genus Trichopria. 
He has also made considerable progress on his revision of the braconid 
genus Orgilus, an important parasite of caterpillars. 

J. F. Gates Clarke continued his studies of the Meyrick types of 
Microlepidoptera with preparations for volumes 6, 7 and 8; completion 
of this monumental contribution is scheduled for 1968. Clarke has 
also made significant progress on the Microlepidoptera of the Pacific 
Islands and Neotropical Region. 

Donald R. Davis almost completed the second part (subfamily 
Incurvariinae) of his revision of the New World Incurvariidae; work 
was intiated on the third (last) part treating the subfamily Adelinae. 
Revisionary studies were also begun on the New World Carposinidae, 
North American Acrolophidae, and North American Tineidae. 
Davis conducted field work for four months on five major islands of 
the Philippines, accompanied during the first three months by Julian 
Jumalon of San Carlos University. Ecological information and ma- 
terial collected on this trip will form an integral part of Davis' long- 
term project on Indo-Australian Psychidae. 

W. Donald Duckworth continued his long-term study of the New 
World Stenomidae by conducting field investigations in Venezuela, 
Trinidad, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. He also completed his study of 
the Amsel types of Venezuelan Stenomidae in Munich, and continued 
similar studies on stenomid types in Berlin and Vienna. 

William D. Field completed research on a new genus of thecline 
butterflies, and is preparing a manuscript for publication. He has 
also continued his investigations on a world revision of the butterfly 
genus Vanessa, and on the butterflies and larger moths of Dominica. 
During June, Field made a 10-day field trip into the New England 
mountains to collect rare and localized species of butterflies. 

Everett D. Cashatt, predoctoral associate, made considerable 
progress on a revision of the North American moths of the subfamily 
Chrysauginae. He also prepared a catalog of the Chrysauginae of 
the world, listing 174 genera and 532 species. Cashatt also completed 
investigations on the taxonomy and distribution of Oidematophorus 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ENTOMOLOGY 101 

balanotes (Pterophoridae) and initiated studies on the Neotropical 
chrysaugine genus Hyperparachma. 

The Southeast Asia Mosquito Project (SEAMP), started in 1964 
as a cooperative endeavor between the Smithsonian and the Depart- 
ment of the Army and now, in its second year, has in preparation 
monographic studies on the mosquitoes of the area concerned. SEAMP 
has issued an informative field manual on the mosquitoes of Vietnam. 

Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., continued research on several projects initiated 
earlier. Several articles on the dolichocephalic Geophilomorpha 
were almost completed. Considerable work was done on revisions 
of the Mecistocephalidae and the genus Strigamia. 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr., continued his studies on the Trichoptera of the 
New World. In working on new collections from Mexico, Central 
America, and Chile, he found many species new to the collection as 
well as many new to science. During the summer Flint collected for 
two and a half months in Mexico and Guatemala. Later in the year 
he spent two months collecting in Chile and in the Palmer Peninsula 
area of the Antarctic; this trip provided much valuable new material 
as well as first-hand information on the habitats of many exotic species. 

Research associate K. C. Emerson identified large collections of 
Mallophaga from birds and mammals of Africa and Thailand, and 
of Anoplura from Africa. 

Research associate Thomas E. Snyder nearly completed the second 
supplement to his Annotated Subject-Heading Bibliography of Termites; to 
aid in the publication of this volume he obtained a grant from the 
National Science Foundation. 

Research associate Robert Traub and several assistants from the 
University of Maryland School of Medicine have been working on 
fleas (Siphonaptera) and trombiculid mites on collaborative projects 
with the Smithsonian, dealing primarily with specimens collected in 
Pakistan, Iran, and Mexico. The Pakistani material, which raises 
the number of fleas known from that country from 10 to 67, includes 
3 genera, 1 subgenus, and 21 species new to science; this constitutes 
probably the richest single collection of fleas ever made. The need 
for further research in the field is illustrated by the genus Macrostylo- 
phora which parasitizes squirrels in South Asia; 16 species have been 
described to date, but 1 1 new species are at hand mainly from the 
Philippines and North Borneo. 

In December 1965, J. F. Gates Clarke was appointed senior scientist 
in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the development 
of the Department, and Karl V. Krombein transferred from the 
Department of Agriculture to become the new chairman. 



102 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

BOTANY 

Plant species and populations are often identified today, by joint 
studies of ecology, cytology, phytochemistry, physiology, and other 
nontaxonomic disciplines. The overall activities of the department of 
botany are directed toward such an integrative approach to problems 
in plant systematics. For example, a comparative study of the philo- 
dendron family has recently been completed by systematist Dan H. 
Nicolson and plant anatomist Richard H. Eyde. This horticulturally 
important, pantropical family is characterized by a peculiar arrange- 
ment of tiny flowers around a columnar floral stalk which often pro- 
trudes from the base of a cuplike, expanded, or strapshaped appendage. 
This appendage, or spathe, may be highly colored, as in the anthuriums 
of commerce and the jack-in-the-pulpit. The subject of their joint 
investigation was the anatomical structure of the flowers themselves 
and its possible bearing upon intrafamilial alignment, since no modern 
treatment was available. Their work was facilitated by Miss Priscilla 
Sherwin who, as a participant in the Smithsonian summer research 
assistant program, prepared the microscope slides upon which the 
study was based and assisted with the observations. Among other 
findings, their research showed that the genus Lysichiton was not 
evolutionary primitive; that the genus Philodendron did not arise from 
the Pothos subfamily, as advocated by some botanists; and that Acorus 
(sweet flag), is unique in the family and should probably be segregated 
and recognized in a new subfamily. These conclusions, which could 
not have been reached on the basis of the systematic or anatomical 
evidence alone, demonstrate the value of an interdisciplinary approach 
to problems in systematic botany. 

Kleinodendron, a new genus in the poinsettia family, was recently 
described from southern Brazil by Lyman B. Smith. He was anxious 
to know the closest relatives within this family but his own observations 
on floral structure and external morphology were insufficient to reach 
a conclusion. With the collaboration of William L. Stern, the ana- 
tomical structure of the wood was examined to establish, if possible, the 
nearest relatives of this Brazilian plant. Investigation and comparative 
study of related forms indicated that Smith was correct in his tentative 
interpretation that Kleinodendron could be assigned to the Cluytia tribe 
of the poinsettia family. 

Phytochemistry is playing an increasingly important role in system- 
atics. The presence of chemical substances is utilized by Mason E. 
Hale, along with data on morphology, geographic distribution, and 
habitat, in the identification and characterization of lichens. In an 
effort to complete world-wide studies of the important lichen genus 



Mason E. Hale of the depart- 
ment of botany finds lichens 
in many habitats (see p. 102), 
including Japanese rooftops, 
here near Biwako. Below: 
Foreign students are shown 
laboratory of grass anatomy 
(see p. 103) by T. R. Soder- 
strom (right) and Dr. Cleofe 
E. Calderon (far left), visiting 
Argentinian scientist. At the 
microscope is former Neigh- 
borhood Youth Corps girl 
Diana Newman, who works 
for Smithsonian research 
associate. 






Student of Lyman B. Smith holding plant of Tillandsia oerstedii in Costa Rica, 
where Smith taught course on epiphytes with the Organization for Tropical 
Studies. Below: Smith's class in the field. Here botany combines with 
entomology in the study ot orchid pollination. 




RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION BOTANY 103 

Parmelia, Hale during the past year undertook explorations in Hawaii 
and in western and southeastern United States to supplement previous 
wide-ranging excursions in southeastern Asia and Japan under the 
United States-Japan Cooperative Science Program. This research 
exemplifies a combined chemical, morphological, and field approach to 
the solution of taxonomic problems in a large genus. 

Chromosome morphology and number in plants of the melastome 
family are being investigated jointly by John J. Wurdack and col- 
laborator Peter H. Raven of Stanford University. Kittie F. Parker, 
honorary research associate, is working with biochemists at the Uni- 
versity of Texas on a study of chemical variation and taxonomy in 
Hymenoxys scaposa, a member of the composite family. Thomas R. 
Soderstrom is combining the taxonomic and anatomic methods in his 
continuing investigations of the primitive tropical olyroid grasses. His 
work is being aided by Cleofe E. Calderon who is concentrating on the 
anatomical phases of the research, while further assistance with studies 
of leaf epidermises was provided by Jerold Grashoff, a Smithsonian 
summer research assistant. 

Traditional phases of plant taxonomy continue to receive paramount 
attention notwithstanding some of the newer lines of research in which 
botany staff members are involved. Of major importance has been 
the establishment this year of the Index Nominum Genericorum 
Project in facilities provided by the department of botany. This 
project, initiated in 1954 at Utrecht, Netherlands, in association with 
the headquarters there of the International Association for Plant 
Taxonomy, has the aim of preparing a comprehensive card catalog of 
all plant genera which have been validly published according to the 
"International Code of Botanical Nomenclature." Each card carries 
the name of the author of the genus, the exact reference to the publica- 
tion in which the name appeared, and the name of the type species when 
available. Information on each card is verified by actual examination 
of the original publication as well as other publications pertinent to 
the establishment of a type species. This work is carried out insofar 
as possible by botanical monographers who volunteer their services, 
but where these are not available, the project staff undertakes to 
perform the necessary studies. To date 23,000 cards in sets of 1,000 
have been issued and distributed by subscription to botanical institu- 
tions throughout the world. The work is directed by botanical 
bibliographer Ida K. Langman with the assistance of Mary F. South- 
well. Support is through a grant to the International Association for 
Plant Taxonomy by the National Science Foundation; botanist 
Richard S. Cowan, director of the Museum of Natural History, acts as 
administrator. 



104 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

A conference to explore the feasibility of preparing a flora of North 
America, sponsored by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists, 
with Stanwyn G. Shetler as the local representative and organizer, was 
held during two days in May 1966. The meetings were attended by 
a select committee of ten botanists from the United States, Canada, 
and Mexico, as well as by members of the department of botany. The 
committee recommended that a flora be initiated and that the Smith- 
sonian Institution act as host institution for the production of the work. 
Shetler was suggested as secretary of the editorial committee. 

Each year the department is privileged to entertain distinguished 
visiting botanists who come for counsel, to examine the collections, 
and to use the library in pursuit of their research. Armando Dugand, 
Universidad del Atlantico, Barranquilla, Colombia, and Juan V. 
Pancho, University of the Philippines, College, have spent the year 
at the National Herbarium under the auspices of the John Simon 
Guggenheim Memorial Foundation. Dugand's work concerns the 
systematics and ecology of the flora and vegetation of the arid lands of 
Colombia bordering the Caribbean Sea. At the same time he is 
engaged in monographic studies of the catalpa family, in which he 
needs our extensive holdings in order to make proper comparisons and 
sound judgments. Pancho is studying the floristics of Mt. Makiling, 
which stands astride the borders of the provinces of Laguna and 
Batangas on the Island of Luzon. Several attempts have been made to 
prepare a flora of this extinct volcano and surrounding countryside, 
and there exists a manuscript, which is incomplete, prepared in the 
1920's by an American botanist, the late A. D. E. Elmer. Pancho is 
checking literature citations, examining critical specimens, and 
reorganizing Elmer's identification keys for the plants of the region. 

Julian Gonzalez Patino (Hermano Daniel), Rector of the Colegio 
de San Jose, Medellin, Colombia, with the assistance of a fellowship 
from the Pan American Union, is studying the medicinal plants of 
Colombia and the flora of the Departamento de Antioquia. 

John H. Beaman of Michigan State University spent the academic 
year in residence as a Smithsonian senior postdoctoral fellow continuing 
his studies on the alpine floras of Central America and Mexico. He 
is also collaborating with Thomas R. Soderstrom on a monographic 
treatment of the Central American bromegrasses. It is through 
assistance to such visiting botanists as these, by providing them with 
specimens and other facilities, that the department of botany is able to 
make contributions to science above and beyond the direct research of 
its own staff. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION PALEOBIOLOGY 105 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

Research by G. Arthur Cooper was devoted largely to preparation 
of illustrations for his monograph on the Permian of West Texas 
(Glass Mountains) with Richard E. Grant of the U.S. Geological 
Survey. All but 17 genera have been photographed for his manu- 
script, which totals about 4,000 pages. 

With members of the U.S. Geological Survey, Cooper made much- 
needed collections from significant Ordovician localities in Utah and 
Nevada in an effort to determine the age and correlation of some 
poorly known formations. In May and early June, aided by Thomas 
Phelan, Cooper carried on a field investigation of the Cedar Valley 
and related Devonian formations of Iowa and Missouri. The purpose 
of this trip was to collect fossils and data for a study on the correlation 
of the Cedar Valley, for presentation at a 1968 symposium on the 
Devonian, to be held in Calgary, Canada. 

Research on various elements of the Lower Devonian fossil flora of 
eastern Canada by Francis M. Hueber has been delayed for want 
of laboratory facilities in the new quarters of the division of paleo- 
botany in the west wing of the Natural History Museum. On the other 
hand, some progress was made in the research project through addi- 
tional fieldwork. Important petrifactions of plant material from 
northern New Brunswick and the Gaspe Bay area of Quebec, Canada, 
were obtained during a 2%-week collecting trip. During another 2 
weeks of fieldwork, fossil plant material for comparison with the 
Canadian fossil flora were obtained from Lower Devonian sediments 
at Beartooth Butte and Cottonwood Canyon, Wyoming. 

Investigation of the crustose corralline algae of the North Atlantic 
was continued by Walter H. Adey through use of the vessel Phykos, 
received from the Navy reserve fleet and remodeled for the coralline 
program. Collections were made aiong the shelf areas extending from 
Long Island Sound south to the Florida Keys. The Phykos was found 
to be well suited to the task, for it provided space and stability not 
available on the smaller vessels used earlier. The specimens obtained 
during the summer of 1965 form a nucleus collection for the south- 
eastern North Atlantic. Collections were made during February 
from land-supported stations along the coast of Jamaica at the invita- 
tion of Thomas Goreau, University of the West Indies. 

As a part of a more general investigation of the early Tertiary 
mammals of North America, C. Lewis Gazin has continued his detailed 
study of the morphology, systematics, and environment of the Eocene 
condylarthran mammal Hyopsodus, a companion piece to his earlier 



106 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

study of the coordinal, and in part contemporary, Meniscotherium. A 
study trip to the Carnegie Museum in April permitted him to extend 
his statistical analysis of speciation in Hyopsodus to the upper Eocene 
and to an important middle Eocene occurrence in the Green River 
formation of Utah. At the request of the Wyoming Geological Associa- 
tion, Gazin contributed a paper on the early Eocene mammalian faunas 
related to the Rock Springs uplift for the guidebook to their field con- 
ference during the latter part of the summer. 

David H. Dunkle concentrated his studies on the poorly known and 
widely scattered Middle Devonian fish faunas of North America, with 
emphasis on a better understanding of the "Dinichthys"" tuberculatus- 
pustulosus complex of coccosteiform arthrodires. Based on new and 
underscribed specimens in the national collections and other materials 
generously loaned for study by the Cleveland Museum of Natural 
History, the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, the 
Ohio University, and Bowling Green State University, a revisionary 
manuscript on the fishes of the Silica Shale of Ohio is near completion. 

In addition he collaborated with Dr. Habib-ur Rahman, Geological 
Survey of Pakistan, in a report, in press, concerning the stratigraphy 
of occurrence of a recently discovered fauna of marine Eocene fishes 
in the Dera Ghazi Khan District, West Pakistan. 

Nicholas Hotton III has been studying the functional morphology 
of therapsid reptiles and the field occurrence of reptilian fossils in 
the Beaufort series (Permo-Triassic, South Africa), in preparation 
for a systematic revision of the dicynodont reptiles. Approximately 
100 dicynodont fossil skulls from South Africa were prepared super- 
ficially during the summer of 1965, with volunteer assistance. About 
half of these have been tentatively identified. Functional morphologic 
studies completed since this material was prepared indicate that 
additional features of palate and jaws must be exposed before the 
specimens will be useful in the projected taxonomic revision of the 
group. 

Osteological variation in living lizards is being studied by Hotton 
from the viewpoint of their taxonomy, which is based on soft parts 
in these forms. The primary purpose of this study is to establish a 
model for determination of systematic patterns in the dicynodonts, 
but, if successful it will also provide information on the relationship 
between taxa established by neozoological techniques and taxa estab- 
lished by paleontological techniques. 

Petrographic studies of Beaufort sediments begun by research 
assistant Ruth O. Hotton, are showing increasing promise as technical 
problems, due chiefly to induration and fine grain of the material, are 
solved. About 350 rock samples, collected in 1961 to 1963-64 over an 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION PALEOBIOLOGY 107 

area more than 600 miles long and about 150 miles wide, are being 
studied. In about 10 percent of the collection, quartz and feldspar 
percentages have been determined by grain count in thin section, and 
an extensive heavy-mineral suite, as yet undescribed, has been 
extracted. 

Clayton E. Ray continued work on Quaternary mammals, in par- 
ticular on materials from the southeastern United States, Mexico, the, 
Antilles, and Venezuela. Progress made on his comprehensive study 
of the fossil musk oxen of North America resulted in two small manu- 
scripts in press and a third nearing completion. The work of sorting 
and identification of the Ladds, Georgia, fauna has continued as field 
parties from Shorter College, Rome, Georgia, continued collecting and 
shipping materials. One paper resulting from this project, the de- 
scription of a new, giant chipmunk, was published during the year. 

Ray spent approximately two months in Mexico during the latter part 
of the year, doing fieldwork and examining museum collections. The 
field work, in collaboration with personnel of the Peabody Museum of 
Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, is concentrated in 
late Pleistocene deposits of the Puebla Valley where the faunas are 
associated with early man. In June intensive fieldwork was begun at 
Saltville, Virginia, in collaboration with Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 

Research associate Remington Kellogg continued his study of the 
extinct whalebone whales, particularly those occurring in the Miocene 
Calvert, Choptank, and St. Marys formations of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. Progress was made on the allocation to better preserved speci- 
mens of the unsatisfactory fossil mysticete vertebrae and mandibles 
which served as types for the genera and species proposed by E. D. 
Cope. A description was completed of a previously unknown large 
odontocete from the Calvert formation of Maryland. 

Richard S. Boardman was charged with the organization and part 
authorship of a complete revision, for the Treatise of Invertebrate Paleon- 
tology, of the volume on Bryozoa, which will deal with the entire 
phylum down to the genus level, averaging a plate of illustrations per 
genus. At present, nine scientists from this country and Western 
Europe are contributing to this large undertaking. 

The identification and use of bryozoan fragments in subsurface well 
cuttings in oil exploration was the subject of an investigation by Board- 
man and Jesse Merida, a graduate student at George Washington 
University. The fragments are generally identifiable and should prove 
useful in future exploration for oil. Boardman also, as a part of a 
training program established between the Smithsonian Institution and 
the Geology Department of Yale University, gave three lectures at 
New Haven this year. 

230-457—66 10 



108 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

The study of Recent and Pleistocene podocopid ostracodes by 
Richard H. Benson continued as a new laboratory including the most 
advanced photomicrographic equipment was being completed. A 
general examination of the history and present status of research on 
the living marine descendants of this important fossil group was com- 
pleted early in the year and submitted for publication. Two studies 
concerned with the stratigraphic and ecologic aspects of the Pleistocene 
freshwater ostracodes of Texas and Kansas were also completed. One 
of these examined the feasibility of using muscle-scar patterns for 
classification, and developed a simple quantitative method for com- 
parison of the relative position of individual scars among different taxa. 
A fourth area of study concerned the description and biogeographic 
evaluation of the ostracodes of the Indian Ocean collected by Benson 
and others during the International Indian Ocean Expedition. He 
and his associate Rosalie Maddocks, who made extensive collections 
in Madagascar before coming to the Smithsonian on temporary 
appointment, have been documenting many new species from a portion 
of the world's ostracode faunas previously unknown. A new technique 
for removing fossil ostracodes from abyssal muds yielded a very large 
population of ostracodes from depths of more than 12,000 feet in the 
Madagascar Basin and Mozambique Channel. The ability to examine 
these abyssal faunas has great promise in the understanding of similar 
forms recovered from future drill cores taken from the ocean floor. 
Another study in progress was concerned with the evaluation of the 
Bering Strait as an effective barrier to migrant benthonic animals of 
microscopic size, of which the ostracodes are a good example because 
of their abundant fossil record. Examination of large faunas from the 
Arctic and the northern Pacific is made possible by application of 
computers and numerical taxonomic methods applied to biogeography. 

Martin A. Buzas completed a study which utilizes a multivariate 
statistical model called canonical analysis for comparison of biofacies. 
Computation of canonical axes on the IBM 7094 simultaneously com- 
pared abundances of 45 species of Foraminifera distributed in 182 
samples off the Texas coast. Data concerning the spatial distribution 
of Foraminifera from Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, are currently being 
analyzed by use of the binomial, Poisson, and negative binomial dis- 
tributions. In the Choptank River, Buzas is taking four foraminiferal 
samples monthly at each of three stations distributed across a faunal 
gradient. The temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll, phosphate, 
and nitrate are also measured at each station each sampling time. 
The study is unique in that its design will permit a statistical analysis 
of the relationship of the fauna to several environmental variables. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION PALEOBIOLOGY 109 

Richard Cifelli continued his studies of planktonic Foraminifera 
in the North and Equatorial Atlantic regions. In conjunction with K. 
Norman Sachs of the U.S. Geological Survey, a study of the abundance 
relationships between planktonic Foraminifera and Radiolaria showed 
the two groups to occur in roughly equal numbers over much of the 
western North Atlantic. This is rather surprising, as Radiolaria 
appear to be mostly rare or absent in sediments over most of the 
North Atlantic, while planktonic Foraminifera are prolific. This 
implies that the siliceous radiolarian test is chemically less stable than 
the calcitic foraminiferal test in the oceanic environment, and that 
most radiolarian tests are dissolved and recycled into the sea water. 
Interesting results were obtained from a study, in conjunction with 
R. K. Smith, of the distribution of planktonic Foraminifera in the 
waters east of the Grand Banks. The distributional patterns of the 
Foraminifera appear to substantiate Worthington's hypothesis of a 
two gyred circulation in the North Atlantic. 

Additional samples of Tertiary consolidated foraminiferal ooze 
were dredged and cored from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It has been 
postulated by Cifelli, V. T. Bowen of the Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution, and R. Siever of Harvard University that consolidation 
of the oozes is a consequence of uplift of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. 

Two major research projects were undertaken by Erie Kauffman 
during the past year. A detailed study of the Mesozoic bivalve family 
Inoceramidae revealed for the first time the morphology and evolution 
of interior shell features and provided a basis for a radically new 
taxonomy. In connection with this Kauffman spent a month diving 
in the Florida Keys studying the mode of life and habitat of living 
counterparts of the inoceramids, the Isognomonidae. A second study 
dealing with the ecologically unique cool-water bivalve Thyasira was 
completed. The ancestral Cretaceous thyasirids from North America 
were monographed for the first time. A detailed comparative study 
of living and Cretaceous Thyasira provided a means of interpreting 
paleoanatomy and equating the ecology of living and fossil representa- 
tives; it revealed major evolutionary trends in the group. 

Porter M. Kier spent the year researching on the fossil echinoid 
order Oligopygoida. He studied all the available specimens, excavated 
many lanterns, made a crystallographic analysis of the plates, and 
redescribed all the species. After a collecting trip to Jamaica to 
obtain more specimens, he is now completing a monograph of the 
order. Kier also gave three lectures this year at Yale University as a 
part of a training program established between the geology department 
of the University and the Smithsonian Institution. 



110 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

During the year 1966, Kenneth M. Towe completed installation of 
the electron microscope facilities housed in the department of 
paleobiology. Cooperative work is now underway with several staff 
members. 

At the semicentennial meetings of the American Association of 
Petroleum Geologists held in St. Louis, Missouri, Towe and Cifelli 
presented findings dealing with shell-wall infrastructure in the cal- 
careous Foraminifera which clarified some misconceptions and incon- 
sistencies in the studies of earlier workers. Their paper demonstrated 
that the so-called "radial wall" is not necessarily constructed of fibrous 
or prismatic crystals of calcite oriented perpendicular to the shell 
surface, and also that the lamellar character of the walls of several of 
the Foraminifera is not in agreement with the models suggested for this 
group. This work, being prepared for publication, will have a strong 
influence on existing systems of classification of the Foraminifera, which 
have been heavily weighted by patterns of wall structure. 

In the application of the electron microscope to the study of bryozoan 
shell material, Towe and Richard S. Boardman made promising 
progress in interpreting patterns and mode of calcification of zooecial 
wall structure. It was found that in some Recent species of hetero- 
poroid Bryozoa an interpretation of edgewise addition of calcite 
crystals within the zooecial wall, as seen in the electron microscope, 
helps to explain the origin of the reverse lamellar structures seen in the 
light microscope. Continued work is providing more insight into this 
problem. 

In addition to these studies, Towe has projects underway dealing 
with the mineralogical composition of colloidal iron oxides of both 
organic and inorganic origin, the morphology of clay minerals, as well 
as studies of shell structure in molluscs and brachiopods. 

Thomas R. Waller, who joined the staff in April, completed a study 
(Columbia University Ph.D. dissertation, 1966) of the evolution of a 
common group of bivalves, including the western Atlantic Bay and 
Calico scallops and their fossil ancestors. The application of population 
systematics, utilizing automated data processing, has revealed a picture 
of species forming and evolving on the Atlantic coast relatively rapidly, 
so that within a period of about ten million years parallelism, con- 
vergence, and extinction can be demonstrated at the species level. In 
contrast, related scallops in the eastern Pacific have evolved relatively 
slowly and today are morphologically primitive and ecologically 
generalized. 

Richard A. Robison, a specialist in trilobites and Cambrian stratig- 
raphy, joined the Museum staff in mid June after five years on the 
geology staff at the University of Utah. 




This silicified Permian brachiopod Waagenconcha abichi, in an unusually fine 
state of preservation, was obtained by R. E. Grant of the U.S. Geological 
Survey from the Khisor Range in West Pakistan. 



Electron micrographs of skeletal calcite of marine organisms (see p. 110): 
1 , Cross-sectional view of pore canals and microcrystals in the wall of Cibicides 
refulgens (Foraminifera) X 3,200. 2, View of the pores and microcrystals in 
the ventral wall of Ammonia beccarii (Foraminifera); the various micro- 
crystalline arrays in these minute animals may prove useful in their classifi- 
cation, X 4,500. 3, Calcite crystals lining the zooecial wall in Heteropora 
pelliculata (Bryozoa); the crystals point in the direction of growth, X 6,000. 
4, Microscopic unicellular marine algal coccoliths (Coccolithus huxleyi) useful 
to geologists for dating ocean sediments, X 5,000. 5, Aragonite crystals in a 
portion of the nacreous layer in the shell of Brachiodontes recurvus (Mollusca) , 
X 5,000. 

Overleaf > 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION PALEOBIOLOGY 111 

Honorary research associate J. T. Dutro, U.S. Geological Survey, 
continued his research on Paleozoic brachiopods, concentrating on a 
biostratigraphic analysis of the fossils from the Redwall limestone in 
Arizona. Field work included a 3-week trip to Nevada with G. A. 
Cooper and R. S. Boardman, R. J. Ross, Jr. (U.S. Geological Survey), 
H. B. Whittington (Harvard University), Fred Shaw (Mt. Holyoke 
College), and Brian Norford (Canadian Geological Survey) for the 
purpose of examining the regional stratigraphy of the Ordovician and 
making pertinent collections of fossils. 

Honorary associate curator Franco Rasetti, continued his work on 
the Cambrian trilobite faunas of the Taconic region of New York. 
Discovery of a Middle Cambrian fauna in addition to the previously 
recognized Lower Cambrian trilobites resulted in the preparation of 
several manuscripts of major importance to an understanding of the 
paleogeography and tectonics of the region during that period. 

Research associate W. P. Woodring continued his study of the 
Tertiary Mollusca of the Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama. 
A paper on the Panama land bridge as a sea barrier was prepared for 
publication. 

Working as a predoctoral intern under the direction of Woodring, 
Carmen Perrilliat is completing a study of Miocene mollusks from Santa 
Rosa, Veracruz, Mexico. 

Charles W. Harper, in residence under a visiting research associate- 
ship sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, has been studying 
the brachiopod collections as prelude to the preparation of manuscripts 
that include studies of Llandovian to Eifelian Chonetacea, of Middle 
Devonian North American chonetids, and of Middle Ordovician brach- 
iopods from Venezuela; a monograph on the family Stropheodontidae; 
and a memoir on the Brachiopods of the Arisaig series of Nova Scotia. 

Under its new curator, Jack W. Pierce, the recently established 
division of sedimentology, of the department of paleobiology, com- 
pleted its first year. During this formative period, space was remodeled 
for division laboratories and storage areas, equipment was acquired 
for a basic laboratory, and some field equipment was procured. 
Arrangements were made to start, in June, a feasibility study and 
initial sampling leading toward a research project treating the sedi- 
mentation and geochemical processes of the continental shelf and coast 
of Argentina. This is a joint venture between Pierce, Frederic Siegel 
(George Washington University), and Argentine scientists. His work 
on the evolution of the North Carolina Outer Banks is continuing. 

M. Grant Gross who agreed to join the staff in August 1966, will 
continue his work on the cores obtained from Midway Island in con- 
junction with J. I. Tracey and H. S. Ladd of the U.S. Geological Survey. 



112 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

MINERAL SCIENCES 

Research in meteorites was concentrated on phase analysis in chon- 
drites and in several unusual iron meteorites. For the second year 
this work was to a large extent supported by the National Aeronautics 
and Space Agency. Under an Air Force contract a number of rare, 
so-called unequilibrated chondrites were analyzed chemically. 

Kurt Fredriksson completed a study of some 30 L — and LL — 
group (amphoterites) chondrites and demonstrated that these two 
groups can be clearly separated on the basis of olivine and pyroxene 
compositions, although bulk analyses may show overlap. An intensive 
study of the Sharps meteorite showed that this is one of the few H — 
group chondrites that has variable olivine and pyroxene composition. 
Furthermore, it contains fragments of a carbonaceous chondrite and 
secondary chondrules, thus three igneous and three "sedimentary" 
cycles can be recognized. This demonstrates that chondrites are 
products of very complex extraterrestrial rock-forming processes that 
took place early in the development of the solar system. 

Research by Brian Mason during the year was directed toward 
investigation of the chemical and mineralogical composition of stony 
meteorites. Specimens of special research interest from the Museum's 
collection are being chemically analyzed, and their mineralogy 
studied by microscope, x-ray diffraction, and electron microprobe 
techniques. A detailed examination of meteorites collected at Wolf 
Creek crater in Western Australia in 1963 resulted in the discovery 
of two new minerals. Descriptions of these were to be presented at a 
meeting of the International Mineralogical Association in Cambridge, 
England, in September 1966. 

During July 1 965 Mason collected tektites in central Australia and 
mapped their distribution. In August he was joined by E. P. Henderson 
and together they carried out similar field work on the Nullarbor 
Plain, a limestone plateau 500 miles from east to west and 100 miles 
north to south, extending across South and Western Australia. As a 
result of this and previous expeditions to Australia the museum now 
possesses the finest collection of well localized tektites in any institution. 
These are being intensively studied in cooperation with scientists from 
the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. 

Roy S. Clarke, Jr., continued his research on tektites cooperatively 
with colleagues at the Corning Glass Works and the U. S. Geological 
Svirvey. Studies in progress on the potassium-argon ages of artificial 
glasses made from natural materials may have important implica- 
tions for the presently accepted interpretation of the potassium-argon 
experiment as applied to tektites. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION MINERAL SCIENCES 113 

Eugene Jarosewich analyzed 12 new meteorites, and a paper present- 
ing the results of these analyses is in press. In addition the pyroxenes 
from the Chainpur, Clovis, and Coolidge meteorites were analyzed, 
and a series of separate chemical determinations performed on the 
meteorites Knyahinya, Mangwendi, and Bjurbole. 

Installation of an X-ray fluorescence analyzer in the chemical 
laboratory was completed. Jarosewich and Joseph Nelen are devel- 
oping a method for analyzing stony meteorites by this technique. The 
fact that these meteorites have a silicate matrix containing finely 
dispersed metallic inclusions presented a problem, and the first 
objective was to obtain a fine, homogeneous powder. Various fusion 
techniques were tried but with disappointing results; however, acid 
attack to decompose the metal phase, followed by neutralization and 
low temperature ignition to oxides, seems to offer promise. 

After spending a month in Australia collecting tektites, E. P. 
Henderson continued his studies of hexahedrites. On December 31, 
1965, he retired and was appointed honorary research associate. 

George Switzer continued his work on the garnet group of minerals, 
and with William G. Melson completed a study of plagioclase-spinel- 
graphite xenoliths in iron-bearing basalts from Disko Island, Greenland. 
In November 1965 he was re-elected Secretary of the Mineralogical 
Society of America and appointed U.S. member of the Museums 
Commission of the International Mineralogical Association. 

Paul E. Desautels completed a morphological study of nickel veyite 
and continued his studies of radioactive minerals from Mexico and 
lead oxychloride minerals from Greece. 

John S. White completed his description of plattnerite and with 
Brian Mason worked on the descriptions of two new mineral species 
from the Wolf Creek, Australia, meteorite. 

Peter B. Leavens joined the staff in November 1965 as an NAS-NRC 
postdoctoral research associate. His primary interest is the mineralogy 
and geochemistry of iron-manganese phosphates in pegmatites, and 
he has been studying suites of these minerals in the Museum collections. 
He has finished a reexamination of the incompletely described man- 
ganese phosphate bermanite. In cooperation with T. A. Simpson 
of the Alabama Geological Survey, he is preparing a paper on the 
iron-manganese phosphates found in a pegmatite in Coosa County, 
Alabama. 

Among other research projects undertaken by Leavens are a paper 
completed on the calcium oxalate mineral whewellite; another in 
preparation on the OH:F ratio in the beryllium phosphate, herderite; 
and one co-authored with C. S. Hurlbut of Harvard University on the 
lithium silicates bikitaite and eucryptite. The specimens used in this 



114 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

study were collected by Leavens and John White at the Foote Mineral 
Company mine, King's Mountain, North Carolina. 

William G. Melson continued his investigations of oceanic rocks. 
Studies centered on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and include greenstones, 
basalts, and dolerites from lat. 22°N. ; ultramafic and alkali-rich mafic 
rocks from St. Paul's Rocks; and an alkali "basalt" (olivine nephelinite) 
and numerous other rock types dredged from the St. Paul's Rocks area. 
Melson in November 1965 participated in cruises to the 22°N. area 
(cruise 1 of the R.V. Thomas Washington) and in March 1966 to St. 
Paul's Rocks and the Romanche Trench in the equatorial Atlantic 
(cruise 20 of the R.V. Atlantis II). This work is part of cooperative 
investigations of the Mid-Atlantic with Tj. H. van Andel of the Scripps 
Oceanographic Institution and Vaughan T. Bowen of Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution. 

The cruises were extremely successful from a petrologic standpoint. 
Dredging produced very large and complex suites of rocks which will 
be examined into and perhaps through 1966. 

Studies of greenstones from the R.V. Chain cruise 44 (1964) were 
completed and the results are in press. In addition, several short 
notes were submitted for publication on oceanic rocks and minerals 
that include montomorillonites (mainly saponite) in hydrothermally 
altered basalts from the 22°N. area, and an olivine nephelinite dredged 
near St. Paul's Rocks during cruise 20 of the R.V. Atlantis II. 



The Collections 
CARE AND CONSERVATION 

SPECIMENS ACCESSIONED, IDENTIFIED, AND DISTRIBUTED— 
FISCAL YEAR 1966 





Accessions 






Trans- 


Lent for 






(transac- 






ferred to 


study to 






tions) 




Exchanged 


other Gov- 


investigators 






1966 


Received 


with other 


ernment 


and other 


Specimens 


Departments 


(new) 


on loan 


institutions 


agencies 


institutions 


identified 


Anthropology . . 


76 


1,226 


81 


9 


559 


2,228 


Invertebrate Zool- 














ogy 


460 


4,388 


1,802 





14, 506 


38, 578 


Vertebrate Zool- 














ogy 


191 


9,648 


6,751 


6 


16, 114 


25, 438 


Entomology . . . 


477 


6, 141 


2,243 


1,500 


75, 507 


31,547 


Botany 


337 


3,229 


7,876 


37, 701 


32, 160 


18, 172 


Paleobiology . . 


138 


341 


2,579 





13,706 


46, 794 


Mineral Sciences . 


298 


8 


1, 188 


151 
39, 367 


613 


437 


Totals . . 


1,977 


24, 981 


22, 520 


153, 165 


163, 194 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Creation of the anthropological conservation laboratory, which 
replaces and incorporates the previous preparatory service, represents 
a major step forward. In August 1965, the laboratory was set up in 
its new quarters, and considerable progress was made in the acquisition 
of basic supplies and equipment. The staff includes A. Joseph Andrews, 
who remains chief preparator, and Bethune Gibson, who joined the 
staff as a technician specializing in conservation, under the immediate 
supervision of Gus W. Van Beek. During the year, a total of 1,313 
specimens, ranging from fish-oil-saturated wooden bowls, from the 
Northwest Coast of the United States, to African iron weapons, to 
ancient Greek and Italic pottery, to bark paintings from Australia, 
have been cleaned and given conservation treatment. The laboratory 
personnel have also experimented with various materials in their search 
for solutions to problems of conservation. Noteworthy discoveries 
include development of processes for the removal of noncarbonate 
encrustations on pottery, and ubiquitous black "ink blot" and root 
deposits that occur on ancient pottery from various environmental 
situations. 



115 



116 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

In conjunction with the conservation laboratory, museum technicians 
have begun to reorganize the storage of all the ethnological specimens 
from the Northwest Coast of North America, the Philippines, and Korea 
and Japan. In the process it was determined that the U.S. National 
Museum has one of the finest collections from the Northwest Coast 
made in the late 1 800s — as yet unstudied except for an occasional piece 
which has attracted attention because of its esthetic qualities. Reorga- 
nization of the Old World archeological collection was also completed. 

Further progress was made in the storing of the Old World archeo- 
logical collections. The Asian anthropological collections are being 
systematically reviewed, and the orderly rearrangement of the skeletal 
storage was completed. 

During the year the archives of anthropology, which, under the 
management of Margaret C. Blaker continues to serve a large number 
of anthropologists, linguists, and other scholars, received and answered 
an increasing number of inquiries and orders for photographs. 

The archives, formerly a part of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
are old, extensive, and well organized. The contents include ethno- 
graphic, linguistic, archeological, historical, and some physical anthro- 
pological manuscript material, large collections of personal papers of 
a few anthropologists, and a very extensive collection of photographs. 
The restrictions which limited the BAE archives to materials on the New 
World having been removed, and being by no means limited to 
materials gathered by the Smithsonian staff, the archives now may 
receive anthropological manuscript and photographic material relating 
to all parts of the world, as well as the personal papers of anthropolo- 
gists. The collection thus becomes a national archive of anthropology, 
serving the needs of ethnohistory, culture history, ethnology, compara- 
tive linguistics, and the history of anthropology. 

Important additions to the manuscript and photographic collections 
received during the year include the personal papers of James Owen 
Dorsey, ethnologist with the Bureau of American Ethnology, 1878— 
1895, a gift from J. O. Dorsey's granddaughter, Mrs. Fitzhugh McLean 
of Takoma Park, Maryland. These papers, consisting of diaries, 
correspondence, autobiographical notes, lectures, and a volume 
of notes on Siouan ethnography and language, have been listed in 
detail and fill three manuscript boxes. The original manuscript 
which was printed as Ojibway Texts by William Jones (Truman 
Michelson, ed., Publications of the American Ethnological Society, 
vol. 7, pts. 1, 2, 1917, 1919), but was previously uncatalogued in the 
archives, was identified and arranged by comparison with the pub- 
lished texts. The originals include partial interlinear translations 
as well as the full English translations that were published. About 



THE COLLECTIONS CARE AND CONSERVATION 117 

5,000 prints have been made from glass negatives in the collection of 
the former Bureau of American Ethnology and copied on safety film. 
However, about 15,000 glass negatives remain uncopied, as well as 
nearly 10,000 nitrate film negatives which are in an unsafe, deterio- 
rating condition. Copying will continue as funds become available. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

The completion of the west wing of the natural history building 
enabled the division of fishes to move its collections into the new 
quarters during the summer of 1965. This move, accomplished in 
about three months through the cooperation of all staff members of the 
ichthyological laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, involved the 
transfer of approximately 300,000 jars of specimens in alcohol. Simul- 
taneously, the collection was rearranged and preservative was restored. 
All identified but uncataloged collections were placed in their proper 
family along with the cataloged material. The collection of large 
preserved specimens is gradually being transferred to 300 monel-metal- 
lined tanks in the west wing. 

The collections of reptiles and amphibians, moved into new quarters 
in FY 1965 and for the most part arranged in taxonomic order, are now 
more easily accessible. The program of relabeling and re bottling 
continued. 

In the division of birds over 400 new cases were added to the specimen 
storage area. With a few exceptions, anatomical specimens of birds 
preserved in fluid are no longer accessioned into the collections, as they 
are intended for dissection and replacement rather than for permanent 
reference. To encourage their use by qualified investigators, a catalog 
of the anatomical collections is being prepared, to be available on 
request. During the year Mrs. Julian Stein, Jr., volunteered her 
services towards rearranging the egg data file, and Mrs. John W. Boyd 
volunteered her services for working on maps of the distribution of 
Antarctic birds and for translating Russian articles. 

In the division of mammals, by the end of the year, the bulk of the 
collections were housed in permanent quarters that place major groups 
in areas which combine storage and research facilities. This is par- 
ticularly significant for certain groups like the rodents and primates 
for which special plans have been made for identification and service 
facilities. 

The osteological collections of cetaceans (whales, porpoises, and the 
like) are still scattered in various temporary storage areas, and plans 
are under consideration to centralize them in separate warehouse and 
research facilities outside of the Natural History Museum. 



118 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

During the year the department acquired a typewriter system 
designed to reduce cataloging and processing time by providing 
replicate labels and/or catalog cards from a single typing. The 
system features macro- and micro-typewriter units that can be oper- 
ated from a punched-paper tape. The data typed on the label with 
the microtypewriter is automatically reproduced on the catalog cards, 
and as many cards as needed can be made up from the tape. 

For most of the newly-established divisions of the department, 
curatorial activities centered around rearrangement of the collections 
in the new storage areas of the west wing. In the division of mollusks, 
largely through the diligence of Museum technician, Florence Ruhoff, 
15,736 lots were cataloged, a total higher than that during any of the 
past 6 years and three times the number produced last year. As a 
result, nearly all the large number of new accessions received during 
the year are processed and incorporated into the collections. A 
program initiated to sort the large backlog of uncataloged mollusk 
accessions to systematic and geographic groupings is expected to make 
this material more available to the researcher interested in obtaining 
representatives of various families of mollusks from particular faunal 
regions. 

Museum specialist H. B. Roberts began to identify the backlog of 
American crabs, particularly those from the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Caribbean, in a program designed not only to physically reduce the 
backlog but also to diversify the collections by arranging exchanges of 
excess material with other institutions. Also by providing routine 
identifications of specimens of crabs forwarded to the museum for 
examination, Roberts has materially reduced the burden of routine 
work formerly assumed by the professional staff. 

ENTOMOLOGY 

Under grants from the National Science Foundation, more than 
20,000 specimens of Central and South American Lepidoptera were 
sorted and labeled; a catalog of New World Stenomidae was prepared; 
a photographic file of Stenomidae was initiated; about 5,000 specimens 
of Ataenius were mounted and labeled; some 54,000 miscellaneous in- 
sects were counted, sorted to order, and placed in fresh alcohol; 46,000 
aquatic beetles were sorted to family and placed in fresh alcohol; 
and 5,100 water beetles were prepared for critical study by extraction 
of the male terminalia and by pinning, labeling, and sorting to genus. 

Summer student intern Judith Ann Holland sorted, determined to 



THE COLLECTIONS CARE AND CONSERVATION 119 

genus, and placed in the working collection about 1 2,000 miscellaneous, 
unidentified Scarabaeidae. Pre-doctoral associate Robert Gordon 
studied, identified, and revised our collections of Hydroporus (Dytis- 
cidae). Another pre-doctoral associate, E. D. Cashatt, segregated and 
studied 3,000 American Chrysauginae, and prepared over 800 genitalic 
slides. 

Museum aid Gloria House sorted to family nearly 84,000 beetles, 
mostly alcoholic material from Bolivia; she also mounted and labeled 
nearly 2,500 specimens, and mounted an additional 500. Mrs. Joan 
Ledbetter labeled, sorted and distributed over 97,000 miscellaneous 
insects, of which some 25 percent was Lepidoptera and Diptera. 
Mrs. Sophie Lutterlough restored, relabeled, and rehoused thousands 
of ticks, most of which had dried out, as well as great numbers of 
dried myriapods and arachnids; and cleaned and sorted many mi- 
croscope slides. Mrs. Mary Ann Floyd completed rearrangement of 
the Odonata collection by working over the Oriental and North 
American sections. 

J. F. Gates Clarke continued his reorganization and classification of 
the Neotropical Microlepidoptera with the incorporation of over 4,000 
specimens into the working collection. William D. Field transferred 
and reclassified several families of Lepidoptera, formerly housed in 
non-standard drawers; among the families transferred were the 
Amathusiidae, Brassolidae, and our extensive collection of Old World 
Papilionidae. Ralph E. Crabill found and verified the status of some 
dozen type specimens of the C. H. Bollman myriapod collection; he 
continued remounting O. F. Cook's microscopic slides, mostly typical, 
and he restored, relabeled, and rehoused large numbers of dried 
myriapods and arachnids, some of which turned out to be unsuspected 
type specimens. Research associate K. C. Emerson transferred and 
expanded the Mallophaga collection into new slide boxes; during this 
process he added the material from the Carriker collection. Miss 
Helle Starcke, assistant to research associate Robert Traub, began the 
transfer and arrangement of the Siphonaptera collection into new 
slide cabinets. 

Over 5,000 microslides of small Diptera were prepared for the 
collection by student aids at Radford College under a contract grant 
administered by the Department of Agriculture. This contract, 
initiated in 1961, has resulted in the addition of more than 30,000 
microslides of specimens to the national collection. Agriculture 
contracts with other universities and individuals have resulted in the 
mounting and labeling of an additional 30,000 insects during the 
current year; for the several years during which these contracts have 



120 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

been in effect the national collection has benefited by the preparation 
of some 1 1 5,000 specimens. 

BOTANY 

The addition of 363 new all-steel herbarium cases represents a 
major advance in specimen storage in the National Herbarium. Of 
these, 214 were incorporated into the phanerogamic segment of the 
herbarium, allowing for the much needed expansion of a small portion 
of the collections. The lichen collections are now completely housed 
in new steel cases as is a portion of the grass herbarium. Other steel 
cases were moved into the offices of curators to replace the wooden 
cases in which their study specimens had been kept. Over 2,000 more 
steel cases, however, will be needed to convert the entire herbarium 
to modern steel storage cabinets. 

During the year E. Yale Dawson, working with Charles F. Rhyne, 
curated and added to the research collections the entire accumulated 
backlog of algae. These totaled 14,931 specimens, In addition, a 
"wet stack" storage facility was established to house fluid-preserved 
specimens of algae. These specimens are represented by dummy 
sheets inserted in taxonomic sequence among the dried and pressed 
collections making the total collection available to users through 
consultation of a single file. 

Integration of New World and Old World type specimens into a 
continuous series was completed by Velva E. Rudd who has also 
transferred the formerly separate fruit collection into the general 
herbarium. Bulky fruits are now to be found taxonomically arranged 
in cases near the appropriate genus or family, a great convenience in 
systematic studies. 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

In the division of paleobotany, nearly all of the primary and second- 
ary type specimens of fossil plants have been segregated from the main 
body of the paleobotanical collections. There remain only certain 
elements of the Tertiary collection that require checking and relocation. 
The main body of the reference collection is being organized by 
Arthur D. Watt of the U.S. Geological Survey staff and placed in its 
permanent arrangement in the main storage area of the division's 
new quarters. 

In consequence of the lengthy period during which the laboratory 
of vertebrate paleontology has been concerned with exhibition, a very 
considerable backlog of preparation for the study series and general 



THE COLLECTIONS CARE AND CONSERVATION 121 

attention to the condition of the study and reference collections has 
accumulated. Much of this backlog pertains to preparation of plaster- 
encased blocks included in field collections acquired during the past 
several years. 

General arrangement of the reference and study collections of 
fossil vertebrates has been completed, since their move from the old part 
of the building to the east wing, except for the rather large collec- 
tion of Oligocene titanotheres, including several type specimens 
which together with certain large fish and reptile specimens, are 
temporarily laid out on case tops pending construction of covered 
storage racks. 

The curatorial activities in the division of invertebrate paleontology 
centered on processing type specimens. More than 5,000 types were 
checked against published literature, cataloged, and placed in the 
collection. Carding of more than 500 type specimens representing a 
large number of publications furthered the preparation of the planned 
published list of types on deposit in the Museum. Also, the Tertiary 
and Ordovician stratigraphic collections were moved to facilitate 
storage of tens of thousands of specimens and make them more accessible 
to the scientists directly involved with their use. The Ordovician 
material was sorted geographically and stratigraphically during the 
move. 

The U.S. National Museum has been a repository for approximately 
16,200 sediment samples, some of which were collected as early as 1840 
by the U.S. Coast Survey. The division of sedimentology is making a 
detailed inventory of these samples, the usefulness of which has been 
limited by lack of an adequate inventory and of a single storage place. 
An attempt is also being made to collate the samples with any published 
or unpublished sample data and with available station information. A 
preliminary tabulation discloses that 10,343 of the samples are from 
the Atlantic continental shelf of the United States, including 815 from 
the recent U.S. Geological Survey - Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution project; 1,772 off the West Coast of the United States; 400 
from Alaskan waters; 2,000 from the Albatross cruises; and 1,571 which 
can not be associated with any available station information or for 
which no information has been found. The remaining few samples 
are from the Caribbean Sea, the southeast Pacific Ocean, and the 
Arctic Ocean. 



230-457—66 11 



122 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 

SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL COLLECTION MAY 31, 1966 

Anthropology 1,005,034 

Cultural Anthropology 967,217 

Physical Anthropology 37,817 

Invertebrate Zoology 12, 149,941 

Crustacea 1,477,157 

Worms 651,097 

Echinoderms 80, 244 

Mollusks 9,941,443 

Vertebrate Zoology 2, 845, 582 

Mammals 336,825 

Birds 520, 338 

Reptiles and Amphibians 166, 778 

Fishes 1,821,641 

Entomology 17,345,519 

(Former Division of Insects total, 1963 15,978,513) 

(divisional totals are shown from this date) 

Coleoptera 306,477 

Hemiptera 233,879 

Lepidoptera 261,428 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 405, 544 

Neuropteroids 159,678 

Botany 3,238,876 

Phanerogams 2,009,269 

Ferns 256,568 

Grasses 394,317 

Cryptogams 533, 758 

Plant Anatomy 44, 964 

Paleobiology 13,233,558 

Invertebrate Paleontology 13,179,878 

Vertebrate Paleontology 49, 104 

Paleobotany 4, 576 

Mineral Sciences 427, 655 

Mineralogy 121,648 

Meteorites 7, 351 

Petrology 298, 656 

Total Natural History Collections 50, 246, 1 65 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

Among the several collections of ethnological materials from Africa 
received during the year, especially noteworthy were a complete 
costume of a Tuareg man, acquired from Sgt. Mohamcd Ali Ag. 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 123 

Mamatal, of the Mali army; and a collection of artifacts from the 
Mandara Mountain area of northern Cameroon, collected for the 
Smithsonian by Paul Hinderling. Darius Thieme, a musicologist, 
has been engaged for over a year in making a collection of Nigerian 
musical instruments for the Smithsonian, and two shipments of these 
have arrived. 

About 600 artifacts of the Canela Indians (Brazil) were collected 
in the field. Including items as varied as life-size ceremonial masks 
and maroon chalk ear plugs, they constitute the largest and most 
complete assemblage of South American tribal material in the Museum. 

An exceptionally well selected and documented collection received 
directly from Asia in recent years is the Province Henry collection of 
201 Taiwan tribal objects consisting of clothing, religious paraphernalia, 
utensils, weapons, woodwork, and other items. An outstanding collec- 
tion of 255 purchased and donated textiles was assembled mostly in 
India and Thailand by Mrs. Elizabeth Bayley Willis. Other valuable 
collections received were a Burmese collection of 600 objects from 
William C. Sturtevant, 125 Korean masks of folk drama from Professor 
Duhyun Lee, and 135 items of Iranian costumes from Mrs. Ethel Jane 
Bunting. From Mrs. Mary Slusser in Nepal came jewelry, clothing, 
toys, and games. 

A cast of the Niah Cave skull (North Borneo Paleolithic) as recon- 
structed by Don R. Brothwell, was received in exchange through 
Kenneth P. Oakley of the British Museum (Natural History) and 
placed on exhibit. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Major and significant additions to the vertebrate zoology collections 
of the Department were made through Smithsonian expeditions and 
surveys parts of the world, particularly in Latin America, the Pacific, 
and Africa, as well as by gift and exchange. 

Two outstanding collections of fishes, totaling approximately 10,000 
specimens, are the several thousand fishes from the western Atlantic, 
Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, received from the Exploratory 
Program of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and a large collection 
of bathypelagic fishes, made during a survey of the fauna of the Cali- 
fornia Current, received from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 
La Jolla, California. 

More than 5,000 specimens of reptiles and amphibians were cata- 
loged, including 122 specimens as types or para types of new taxa. 
Donald Broadley of the Umtali Museum, Rhodesia, sent a carefully 
selected series of specimens, including paratypes of many new species 



124 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

and also representatives of species not previously in the collections. 
Bernard Martof, of the University of North Carolina, gave his synoptic 
collection of 2,154 salamanders of the genus Leurognathus, which formed 
a basis for his recent review and revision of the genus. Gustavo 
Orces-Villagomez, Quito, Ecuador, deposited his extensive collec- 
tions of Ecuadorian reptiles and amphibians in the Museum, admirably 
supplementing the locality-oriented specimens obtained in Ecuador by 
Dr. Peters. The Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program of the 
Smithsonian has continued to add to the lizard collections from all 
parts of the Pacific. 

Outstanding accessions of birds include a specimen of Pterodroma 
baraui, received by exchange through Dr. Jouanin, and a specimen of 
Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron and two of Conioptilon mcilhennyi, by ex- 
change through Dr. Lowery. Both of these latter two genera are newly 
described tropical American passerines and as such represent exciting 
additions to the national collections. Among the anatomical speci- 
mens received were major collections from Chile, the Indian Ocean, 
and North America. Other valuable acquisitions included two skele- 
tons of the lesser flamingo donated by John G. Williams and skeletons 
of the cahow and black-capped petrel presented by David B. Wingate. 

More than 11,000 specimens of mammals were accessioned. Ap- 
proximately 8,000 of these result from major field operations in Vene- 
zuela and Africa, funded by Defense Department contracts. Important 
collections of bats were received from Belem, Brazil, through a col- 
laborative relationship with the Belem Virus Laboratory (Instituto 
Evandro Chagas); from Peru, from A. L. Tuttle; and from Colombia, 
sent by C. J. Marinkelle. In addition, an important collection of 387 
mammal specimens from West Pakistan was received from Col. Robert 
Traub. 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

One of the most significant of the additions to the collections of 
invertebrate zoology was a series of over 9,000 lots of leeches and an 
extensive library of books and reprints on the Hirudinea, received as a 
bequest from the late J. Percy Moore. 

Mollusks accessioned during the year include nearly 15,000 speci- 
mens from the southeastern Pacific, acquired through the studies of 
Harald A. Rchder. Joseph P. E. Morrison arranged the transfer of 
4,000 mollusks and 3,000 radula slides left by the late J. A. Weber of 
Miami. Also added to the collection were over 9,000 marine mollusks 
from southeast Asia, collected by Joseph Rosewater while participating 
in the International Indian Ocean Expedition. 




On Philippine expedition of Donald R. Davis, the rare butterfly Troganoptera 
trojana was sought. Here, Julian Jumalon of San Carlos University sets out 
a damaged male, which is deep velvet black, except for a brilliant red collar 
and metallic green patches along both wings, as bait to lure the more valu- 
able female. Below: a perfect female specimen, of which very few have 
ever been obtained. 





On a Smithsonian collecting trip, Paul J. Spangler with Malaise insect trap 
at campsite in Costa Rica ("see p. 99), near Esparta, July 1965. 



Spangler aspirating water beetles from his net after collecting in a pond at 
Puntarenas, Costa Rica. 




?" ji^FOSR* 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 125 

Transfers of specimens from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service added 
two large series of decapod crustaceans from the Gulf and Caribbean 
area, and also a large collection of caprellid amphipods. Two large 
collections of decapod crustaceans were received through the Institute 
of Marine Science, University of Miami, and an extensive collection of 
freshwater crustaceans was donated by Northeast Louisiana State 
College. 

Representatives of over 60 species of echinoderms, many not pre- 
viously represented in the collection, were received on exchange from 
the British Museum. More than 50 species of echinoids taken during 
the International Indian Ocean Expedition were also added to the 
collection during the year. 

ENTOMOLOGY 

Over 856,000 insects and allies were accessioned during the year, 
the second highest total in the history of the department of entomology. 
The tremendous F. C. Bishopp collection of ticks accounted for more 
than a third of this total. Holotypes of 1,122 species were accessioned 
during the year. 

The largest and most important gift of Coleoptera was the C. H. 
Dieke library and world-wide collection of 24,468 specimens of 
Coccinellidae. Various members of the departmental staff added 
materially; P. J. Spangler collecting 72,825 specimens and O. S. Flint 
10,234. The Dominican survey produced 7,244 specimens, with 
many more to be counted and accessioned. The African survey, under 
H. W. Setzer of the division of mammals, added 17,174 insects, a 
very important acquisition because our African material is so limited. 

Upon the death of research associate Carl J. Drake, full custody of 
the outstanding Drake Hemiptera collection passed to the Smithsonian 
and to the care of the division of Hemiptera. A small but critically 
important lot of 236 bedbugs from R. L. Usinger established our total 
holdings as the world's richest collection of species and types in the 
family Cimicidae. Other important acquisitions include 2,617 
miscellaneous insects from various parts of the world, from K. W. 
Cooper; 2,567 from the American tropics, collected by W. D. Duck- 
worth; 2,202 from various parts of the world, from N. L. H. Krauss; 
and 1,045 North American aphids from J. O. Pepper. 

Lepidoptera and Diptera received include 7,305 specimens collected 
on Dominica by J. F. G. Clarke and his wife; 18,850 Lepidoptera 
and Diptera collected in the Philippines and Dominica by D. R. 
Davis; 12,778 moths and flies from Dominica and Central America, 
by O. S. Flint; 16,928 Central American Lepidoptera and Diptera 



126 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

collected by P. J. Spangler and his wife. From non-staff members 
came 487 butterflies from Greece, from J. C. Coutsis; 786 New Zealand 
moths collected by T. H. Davies; 848 North American Lepidoptera 
and Diptera presented by G. F. Edmunds; 5,205 flies from North 
America, by K. Khalaf; and 3,841 moths from North America, from 
F. W. Stehr. The largest single accession was 43,160 flies collected 
by W. W. Wirth in Dominica, probably one of the finest representa- 
tions of Diptera ever assembled from any of the islands of the Lesser 
Antilles. 

In addition to the Bishopp tick collection, the Myriapoda and 
Arachnida holdings were augmented by several lots of critical im- 
portance: G. E. Ball presented over 600 chilopods mostly from pre- 
viously unsampled parts of Mexico; Smithsonian and Department of 
Agriculture colleagues collected an impressively sizeable assortment 
of myriapods and arachnids on Dominica; through W. Engelhardt 
was obtained an exchange of 29 chilopods from the K. W. Verhoeff 
collection, including a number of paratypes, an acquisition of critical 
importance because of Verhoeff' s position as a pioneer in myriapod 
studies. 

Among neuropteroids received were important synoptic collec- 
tions of Finnish Trichoptera from M. Meinander; Czechoslovakian 
Trichoptera from J. Sykora; North American Hydroptilidae from 
R. L. Blickle; and North American Plecoptera and Trichoptera from 
S. G. Jewett. The single most important accession was the collection 
of mostly South American Mallophaga assembled by the late research 
associate M. A. Carriker; it contains 17,882 specimens mounted on 
7,830 slides and included 653 holotypes. K. C. Emerson was respon- 
sible for the transfer from the Department of Defense of over 2,000 
slides of Anoplura and Mallophaga. 

A. B. Gurney of the Agriculture staff donated some 4,500 specimens 
of insects and allies collected by him in Ethiopia. H. W. Setzer and 
J. Neal of the division of mammals transferred more than 8,000 insects 
collected incidentally during their mammal survey in Iran. Both of 
these accessions were most welcome because previously these areas were 
virtually unrepresented in our collection. 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture transferred over 76,500 insects, 
many of them of considerable importance because of associated host 
data. One important acquisition in this transfer was the Alfieri 
synoptic collection of Egyptian Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidop- 
tera, and Neuroptera, consisting of about 7,400 specimens representing 
some 3,500 species and including several hundred types or cotypes. 
The tremendous value may be appreciated when it is noted that of the 
531 species of wasps and bees identified specifically in the Alfieri 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 127 

collection, over 70 percent were not represented previously in the 
Museum collection by identified specimens. Two other welcome 
lots were nearly 4,400 Diptera from Arizona collected by C. W. 
Sabrosky; and 800 Hymenoptera from North and South America, 
collected by D. R. Smith. 

BOTANY 

The inception of an algal research program has stimulated an 
increase in the botanical materials that are so important for staff 
activities. Holdings of algae have been appreciably enhanced by 
acquisition of the herbarium of the Beaudette Foundation for Marine 
Biology, comprising 7,677 specimens of dried and fluid-preserved 
seaweeds. E. Yale Dawson donated over 1,600 specimens of algae 
from his personal collections and more than 600 algal specimens were 
received on exchange from the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 
Paris. 

The Plitt lichen herbarium of 21,564 mounted specimens was trans- 
ferred to the Museum from the national fungus collections in Beltsville, 
Maryland. Mason E. Hale contributed 5,833 specimens of lichens 
resulting from his field work in Southeast Asia and the University of 
Iowa donated its lichen herbarium of 3,000 specimens. 

Under a research project supported in part by the National Science 
Foundation, Conrad V. Morton deposited 16,174 photographs of type 
specimens of ferns from European herbaria, greatly augmenting the 
fern type collections. An outstanding collection of 622 ferns of Assam, 
India, collected by Walter M. Koelz, was received on exchange from 
the University of Michigan. Added to the already rich collections of 
grasses from Brazil were 1,216 collected for the museum by Lyman B. 
Smith and 1,035 specimens received on exchange from the Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Kew, collected by the British agrostologist W. Derek 
Clayton. These grass collections from Brazil together with the others 
in the U.S. National Herbarium form part of the basis for Thomas R. 
Soderstrom's continuing research on the luxuriant grass flora repre- 
sented in this country. 

Recent botanical activities on the Island of Dominica in conjunction 
with the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey have resulted 
in the accessioning of 22,560 flowering plants collected by staff members 
Wallace R. Ernst and Dan H. Nicolson and by Grady L. Webster of 
Purdue University and Kenton L. Chambers of Oregon State Uni- 
versity. The Dominican plants form the basis, in part, for a forthcom- 
ing flora of the island being undertaken by staff members of the 
department of botany in collaboration with botanists at other insti- 
tutions. 



128 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Accessions of woods from the Juan Fernandez Islands represented 
many new taxa for the national collections, including Lactoris fernan- 
deziana, sole species of the Lactoridaceae, a family endemic on these 
Pacific islands. A rare, historically important collection of woods, 
received in exchange from the museum of the V. L. Komarov Botanical 
Institute, Leningrad, came from plants, grown in the former imperial 
botanical gardens of St. Petersburg, which were brought into cultivation 
through the efforts of early Russian plant explorers. Over half of the 
64 specimens represent plants for which there had been no previous 
examples in the wood collections of the Museum. A collection of 138 
wood specimens gathered by Kenton L. Chambers, Oregon State 
University, were the first to result from the Bredin-Archbold-Smith- 
sonian Biological Survey of Dominica. 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

As a gift from J. Harlan Johnson of the Colorado School of Mines, 
the division of paleobotany received 76 slides containing 18 primary 
and 80 secondary types of fossil algae from Guatemala. Fieldwork by 
Francis M. Hueber and James P. Ferrigno under support from the 
Roland W. Brown fund for paleobotanical research brought to the 
collections about 329 specimens of Lower Devonian plant fossils from 
the Beartooth Butte formation at Beartooth Butte and Cottonwood 
Canyon, Wyoming. Noteworthy specimens in the collection include 
a series of excellent examples of Bucheria ovata Dorf, Drepanophycus 
spinaeformis Goeppert and representative examples of Psilophyton wy- 
omingense Dorf. From fieldwork in eastern Canada, 1,255 specimens of 
Lower and Middle Devonian plant remains were added to the collec- 
tions. A large number of anatomically preserved plants comprise the 
significant element of this collection. 

Outstanding among accessions of fossil vertebrates is a collection of 
approximately 473 specimens of early Tertiary mammals from various 
localities in the Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming, princi- 
pally from the lower member of the middle Eocene Bridger formation, 
made by C. Lewis Gazin and Franklin L. Pearce under funds provided 
by the National Science Foundation. The collection is rich in remains 
of the smaller mammals, including the condylarth Hyopsodus; various 
primates, rodents, insectivores, and carnivores; and the ungulates 
Orohippus and Helaletes. Among the larger mammals represented are 
Tillotherium and the perissodactyls Hyrachyus and Palaeosyops. 

A particularly noteworthy acquisition, made by purchase through 
the Walcott fund, is an unusually well represented skeleton of a Miocene 
cetothere whale from the Choptank formation of Maryland. The 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 129 

specimen was collected by Richard Warren of Robert, Louisiana, from 
the Calvert Cliffs south of Flag Pond. In addition to skull portions, 
ribs, and chevrons, the specimen includes an articulated series of 20 
vertebrae from the first cervical to the first lumbar and 14 vertebrae 
from the eleventh lumbar to the twelfth caudal, only the second to 
tenth lumbars missing. Not only is the specimen remarkable for its 
completeness but it is the first cetothere to be discovered in the Chop- 
tank formation. 

Other notable accessions of vertebrate fossils include a collection 
of well over 100 specimens, principally fossil mammals, from a fissure 
filling near Ladds, in Bartow County, Georgia, acquired by purchase 
through the Walcott fund from Shorter College in Rome, Georgia, and 
approximately 100 specimens of late Pleistocene vertebrates from the 
Puebla Valley of Mexico collected by Clayton E. Ray, under funds 
provided in part by the National Science Foundation. 

The most notable addition to the invertebrate fossil collections was a 
gift of more than 30,000 specimens given by Johns Hopkins University. 
Included was a valuable identified, biologically arranged series of 
Tertiary mollusks, one of the most complete reference collections 
known of these organisms from the East Coast of North America. 
Many of the specimens were collected from localities no longer available 
because of construction activities. In addition, more than 500 type 
specimens previously deposited at the University were transferred to 
the Museum. 

The Walcott bequest provided funds for several other major addi- 
tions to the collections: Robert B. Neuman collected more than 1,000 
Cambrian and Ordovician specimens in Newfoundland; E. G. Kauff- 
man and N. F. Sohl collected an important silicified fauna from the 
Mesozoic of Trinidad and additional Tertiary and Mesozoic specimens 
from the West Indies. 

More than 15,000 Tertiary mollusks were accessioned from the 
American Museum of Natural History including the specimens on 
which a major study of Tertiary and Recent pectinids was based. 

A gift of Triassic brachiopods from the Academy of Sciences of the 
USSR is considered of great value. Arranged through A. Dagis of the 
Institute of Geology and Geophysics, the gift will provide reference 
information for distributional studies of several genera. 

Most of the accessions made during the year involved type specimens 
sent to the Museum, and a sizeable increase over previous years has 
been noted in the number of types deposited. 



130 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

MINERAL SCIENCES 

The past year has been an important one for the growth of the 
meteorite collection. Specimens were added from 26 meteorites not 
previously represented and an additional 1 7 new meteorites are now 
represented in the form of thin-sections. The total number of meteor- 
ites added to the collection was 137, and the total thin-sections was 
85. Over 1,800 tektite specimens from various localities were also 
added. The Carl Bosch collection of nearly 600 meteorites was 
acquired. A number of these will be important additions to the 
collection. 

The University of Minnesota agreed to place their meteorite collec- 
tion, comprising approximately 120 specimens, on deposit in the Mu- 
seum. Some are of great scientific value. In return an educational 
exhibition of representative meteorites will be prepared and put on 
display at the University. It is hoped that similar agreements can be 
reached with other universities possessing a few unrepresentative 
but scientifically important meteorite specimens. 

The rate of growth of the mineral and gem collections remained 
high. Quantities of scientifically important type specimens were 
obtained from various sources. Also, excellent specimens were ob- 
tained from all the newly discovered occurrences of any importance 
noted during the year. Considerable time and effort was spent in 
negotiating for and obtaining the Carl Bosch collection of minerals and 
meteorites (approximately 28,000 specimens including almost 600 
meteorites), which is the most important collection acquired since the 
Roebling and Canfield additions in 1926. The collection will be 
described more fully in the next annual report. It is estimated that it 
represents a 20 percent increase in the total mineral collection. 

Among several important gifts by individuals to the mineral col- 
lection were a fine large tourmaline crystal from Madagascar, presented 
by Randolph Rothschild; a superb specimen of torbernite from France, 
by the Lester Barrer family; an extraordinary specimen of the new 
mineral francevillite from Gabon, by Mr. Bernard T. Rocca; and an 
exquisite suite of fine specimens of Mexican agate, by Colonel E. M. 
Barron. Other fine specimen material and much research material 
was obtained, as usual, through exchange. Numerous new and rare 
species were added including dellaite, moctezumite, sonoraite, coaling- 
ite, rosenhahnite, sakuralite, marokite and gaudefroyite. 

The usual program of planned addition of specimens through 
use of the Roebling and Canfield endowments continued. The 
Roebling fund this year provided an extraordinarily beautiful specimen 
of vivianitc from near Richmond, Virginia; a large and striking speci- 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 131 

men of barite from the mines of southern Illinois; excellent specimens 
of vanuralite and francevillite from Gabon; arsenopyrite from Portugal; 
silver from Mexico: amethyst from Ontario; and epidote from Baja 
California. Outstanding among additions from the Canfield fund 
are specimens of rubellite from Brazil, large sphene and spinel crystals 
from Madagascar, arsenopyrite from Portugal, and an unusually 
large and rare classic twin crystal of cumengite from Baja California. 

As in all recent years, the gem collection has received additions of 
great value and importance. Chief among the gifts was a 138.7-carat 
star ruby. This magnificent gem, the largest and finest star ruby on 
record, came as a gift from Rosser Reeves. Two very large faceted 
gems of topaz purchased through the help of the Chamberlain fund: 
one, weighing 7,725 carats is golden yellow; the other, weighing 2,680 
carats, is colorless. Through the Roebling fund a 55-carat faceted 
and flawless gem of petalite, the largest of its kind on record, was 
obtained. The suite of carvings was enriched by a series of 13 jade 
carvings given by Mrs. Mildred Taber Keally and 9 carvings of various 
materials given by Sidney Krandall. 

Many interesting and described suites of rocks containing chemically 
analyzed specimens added to the petrology collections came from the 
U.S. Geological Survey, the British Museum, Cambridge University, 
and from several independent researchers through transfers, exchanges, 
and gifts. The number of oceanic rocks in the collections was greatly 
increased by a gift from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 
through Vaughn T. Bowen, of a large suite of rocks dredged from the 
Mid-Atlantic Ridge at lat. 22° N. 

Through Professor H. H. Hess of Princeton University was received 
the Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico, serpentinite core, one of the National 
Science Foundation's preliminary Mohole Project cores. The core is 
unique in furnishing a nearly 1,000-foot section of a serpentinite body, 
much of which has been unusually well described. 



Exhibits 



Although the new hall of physical anthropology was opened last year, 
work continued on some of its exhibits. The most important addition 
is a mural painted by Alton S. Tobey reconstructing in detail the 
performance of a prehistoric surgical operation, trephination, by the 
Incas in Machu Picchu. Reconstructions of varieties of australo- 
pithecines and of Oreopithecus by Jay Matternes are in preparation. 

The preparation of exhibit scripts by Gus W. Van Beek for the hall 
of Old World archeology, continued. The first of several murals 
planned for this hall — this one of Egyptian mourning women — was 
completed in the Egyptian alcove by artist Laurinda Gupta. A new 
mold and plastic cast was made from the plaster cast of the monumental 
statue of the Semitic storm-god Hadad for use in the Syro-Palestinian 
alcove. 

The African hall progressed significantly during the year with the 
completion, under the scientific direction of Gordon D. Gibson, of sev- 
eral exhibits on the cultures of Central and East Africa. A push-button 
program of African music was installed to illustrate with sounds several 
African instruments; the musical selections are correlated with color 
slides showing the manner in which the instruments are played. 
Additional units on East Africa and a section on southern Africa remain 
to be installed. 

Advice on the preparation of particular exhibits was received from 
several regional experts: Roger Summers, curator of the National 
Museum of Rhodesia at Bulawayo, consulted at length with the staff 
on the preparation of a diorama to represent the building of Zimbabwe; 
Barrie Reynolds, Director of the Livingstone Museum, Zambia, 
provided advice, pictures, and specimens for use in the preparation of 
a life group to illustrate an episode in an initiation ceremony; Alan 
Jacobs of the University of Illinois assisted very significantly in the 
preparation of plans for an exhibit on the Masai; Conrad Reining, 
Priscilla C. Reining, Walter Deshler, and Irving Kaplan advised with 
respect to several other exhibits dealing with East Africa; and the Voice 
of America staff assisted in supplying an appropriate recording for the 
Chinese opera exhibit in the East Asian hall. 

132 




The popular gem hall was remodeled to approximately twice its former size, 
most of the exhibits were redesigned, and new gems were added to the 
displays. 





The newly opened jade hall, adjacent to the gem hall, displays the Maude 
Monell Vetlesen jade collection of Chinese jade carvings of the 16th through 
19th centuries. 




MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY EXHIBITS 133 

In the department of vertebrate zoology the preparation of cases in 
the hall of osteology and of models and cases for the hall of cold- 
blooded vertebrates continued. 

Through the efforts of Joseph Britton, who joined the staff as an 
exhibits specialist during the year, development of exhibits for the hall 
of life in the sea progressed rapidly. The alcove on reproduction and 
parental care, illustrating the diversity of these activities in marine 
invertebrates, and a special exhibit featuring a random access slide 
projector designed to demonstrate a variety of marine organisms, 
neared completion. Specifications were completed for 32 models 
needed for other alcoves and 15 of these are in varying stages of pro- 
duction. Work continued on the coral reef group and on cases il- 
lustrating defense and methods of feeding. 

Considerable progress was made in the laboratory of vertebrate 
paleontology in the restoration and mounting of new skeletons and the 
remounting and repairing of previously displayed materials to be used 
in the new hall of Quaternary vertebrates. Mounts of the skeletons of 
the saber-tooth cat Smilodon, the four-horned antelope Stockoceras, and 
the dire wolf Aenocyon were completed, as were restorations and repairs 
to the previously displayed mastodon skeletons, and the Cumberland 
Cave wolverine Gulo was remounted. Mounting of the skeletons of 
the giant ground sloth Eremotherium from Panama and the smaller 
Paramylodon from Rancho La Brea, involving extensive use of heavy but 
essentially concealed steel supports, was well along toward completion. 

A diorama illustrating terrestrial life of the Triassic period, the first 
of four scheduled for the balcony of the dinosaur hall, was installed after 
completion of the background by Jay Matternes. 

The new exhibit hall of gems was completed and opened in September 
1965, and the new exhibit of the Maude Monell Vetlesen collection of 
carved Chinese jades of the 16th to 19th centuries was opened in 
January 1966. Paul E. Desautels wrote the scripts for these new 
exhibits and the design was by Mrs. Dorothy Guthrie. Construction 
work was completed and installation of cases was begun on the new 
exhibits of physical geology and meteorites. 

Further details concerning the construction of exhibits in the Museum 
of Natural History are to be found in the report of the U.S. National 
Museum, Office of Exhibits, pages 52-53. 



230-457 — 66 12 



Staff Publications 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

The Smithsonian Office of Anthropology in December 1965 inaugu- 
rated a new series, "Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology,'-' 
replacing the "Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins," which will 
be closed out with the appearance of numbers 196-200. The new 
series introduces a larger (quarto) size, double-column page, with 
higher quality printing and better reproduction of halftones and line 
drawings, and it has no geographical restrictions on subject matter. 

Angel, J. Lawrence (with Paul T. Baker). Old age changes in bone 
density: sex and race factors in the United States. Human 
Biology, vol. 37, pp. 104-121, 1965. 

Collins, Henry B. Pre-Eskimo cultures in Alaska. Pp. 374—396 in 
Japanese Archaeology, no. 1, Pre-Ceramic Age, Sosuke Sugihara, 
ed., Tokyo, 1965. (In Japanese.) 

. Foreword (as Chairman of Directing Committee) to volume 

12, Arctic bibliography, p. v, 1965. 

Crocker, William H. A preliminary analysis of some Canela re- 
ligious aspects. Revista do Museu Paulista, n.s., vol. 14, pp. 163— 
173, 1963. 

. Ethnology: South America. Pp. 112-152 in Handbook of 

Latin American Studies, no. 27. University of Florida Press, 1965. 

Evans, Clifford. The dating of Easter Island archeological obsidian 
specimens. No. 18 in Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological 
Expedition to Easter Island and the East Pacific, vol. 2: Mis- 
cellaneous reports. Monographs of the School of American 
Research and the Kon-tiki Museum, no. 24, part 2, pp. 469-495, 
1965. 

Evans, Clifford, and Meggers, Betty J. Cronologia relativa y 
absoluta en la costa del Ecuador. Cuadernos de Historia y 
Arqueologia, Ano XI, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 3-8, 1961. Casa de la 
Cultura Ecuatoriana, N video del Guayas, Guayaquil, 1965. 
— . Guia para prospeccao arqueologica no Brasil. Museu 
Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Guia no. 2, 57 pp., Belem, 1965. 

(contributing editors). Archaeology: South America. Pp. 



56-75 in Handbook of Latin American Studies, no. 27. University 
of Florida Press, 1965. 

134 



PUBLICATIONS ANTHROPOLOGY 135 

Ewers, John C. Artists of the Old West. Garden City, N.Y.: 
Doubleday & Co., 240 pp., 164 plates (35 in color), 1965. 

. The emergence of the Plains Indian as the symbol of the 

North American Indian. Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst, for 1964, 
pp. 531-544, 1965. 

. Last of the Buffalo Indians. The American West, vol. 2, 



no. 2, pp. 26-31, 1965. 

. Iroquois Indians in the Far West; Literate fur trader among 

the Upper Missouri tribes; and The Medicine Rock of the Marias. 
Chapters (pp. 129-136, 137-148, 165-168) in The Red Man's 
West, ed. Michael S. Kennedy. New York: Hastings House, 1965. 
. Plains Indian reactions to the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 



Montana, the Magazine of Western History, vol. 16, no. 1, 

pp. 2-12, 1966. 
. The museum historian as scholar. Smithsonian Year 1965, 

pp. 105-109, 1966. 
. Chiefs from the Missouri and Mississippi, and Peale's 



silhouettes of 1806. Smithsonian Journal of History, vol. 1, no. 1, 

pp. 1-26, 1966. 
Holland, C. G. Migration in a late archaic horizon. Quarterly 

Bulletin, Archeological Society of Virginia, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 

65-68, March 1965. 
. An archeological survey of the Oakley Reservoir. Illinois 

State Museum, Preliminary Reports, no. 5, 1965. 
Hoyme, Lucile E. The nasal index and climate: A spurious case of 

natural selection in man. Amer. Journ. Phys. Anthropol., n.s., 

vol. 23, pp. 336-337, 1965. 
Meggers, Betty J. Ecuador. Vol. 49 in Ancient peoples and places, 

220 pp., London and New York, 1966. 
Meggers, Betty J., and Evans, Clifford. A transpacific contact 

in 3000 B.C. Scientific American, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 28-35, 

January 1966. 
Meggers, Betty J.; Evans, Clifford; and Estrada, Emilio. Early 

formative period of coastal Ecuador: the Valdivia and Machalilla 

phases. Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, vol. 1 

(whole vol.), xxi-f- 234 pp., 196 pis., 115 figs., 30 tables, Decem- 
ber 1965. 
Metcalf, George S. The barbed wire fence. Corral Dust, vol. 10, 

no. 3, pp. 4-6, 1965. 
. Archeology: Western Hemisphere. Pp. 69-70 in Americana 

Annual, 1966. 
Riesenberg, Saul H. Table of voyages affecting Micronesian 

Islands. Oceania, vol. 36, no. 2; pp. 155-170, 1965. 



136 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Stewart, T. D. The problem of analyzing the height of the cranial 
vault. In Homenaje a Juan Comas en su 65 aniversario, vol. 2 
(Antropologia fisica), pp. 359-366. Mexico, 1965. 

■ . The scapula of the first recognized Neanderthal skeleton. 

Bonner Jahrbuch, vol. 164, pp. 1-14, 1964. 

Some problems in human paleopathology. Chapter (pp. 



43-55) in "Human Paleopathology," ed. Saul Jarcho. New 
Haven: Yale University Press, 1966. 

Sturtevant, William C. Report of the Book Review Editor. Amer- 
ican Anthropologist, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 768-771, 1965. 

. Preliminary annotated bibliography on eastern North 

American Indian agriculture. Proceedings of the 21st Southeastern 
Archaeological Conference, Southeastern Archaeological Confer- 
ence Bulletin no. 3, pp. 1-24, Cambridge, Mass., 1965. 

. Historic Carolina Algonkian cultivation of Chenopodium or 



Amaranthus. Ibid., pp. 64-65, 1965. 

— . Ethnographic details in the American drawings of John 
White, 1577-1590. Ethnohistory, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 54-63, 1965. 
. Couvade: Toward the resurrection of Father Schmidt's 



stillbirth. American Anthropologist, vol. 67, no. 5, p. 1287, 1965. 

. Ethnological collections and curatorial records. Museum 

News, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 16-19, 1966. 
. Duration of graduate study for the PhD. Fellow Newsletter 



(American Anthropological Assoc), vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 3-4, 1966. 



INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Bothma, J. du P. Preliminary identification manual for African 
mammals, pt. 1, Hyracoidea, 15 pp., 1965. 1 

Corbett, G. B. Preliminary identification manual for African mam- 
mals, pt. 2, Menotyphla, 10 pp., 1966. 1 

Gibbs, Robert H., Jr., and Weitzman, Stanley J. Cryptostomias 
psychrolutes, a new genus and species of astronesthid fish from the 
southwestern Pacific Ocean. Vidensk. Medd. Dansk. Naturh. 
Foren., vol. 128, pp. 265-271, 2 figs., 1965. 

and Wilimovsky, Norman J. Family Alepisauridae. In Fishes 

of the Western North Atlantic. Sears Found. Mar. Res., Mem. 1, 
pt. 5, pp. 482-497, 4 figs., 1966. 



1 These are the result of a part of the Smithsonian Institution's effort for the 
International Biological Program, and were instituted by H. W. Setzer. 



PUBLICATIONS INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 137 

Greenwood, P. Humphry; Rosen, Donn E. ; Weitzman, Stanley H.; 

and Myers, George S. Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes with 

a provisional classification of living forms. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., vol. 131, art. 4, pp. 341-455, 425 figs., April 1966. 
Handley, Charles O., Jr. [Review], Bats, by G. M. Allen. Atlantic 

Naturalist, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 165-166, 1965. 
■. [Review], Aves Brasileiras, by S. Frisch and J. D. Frisch. 

Auk, vol. 83, no. 1, p. 144, 1966. 
. [Review], Songs of Brazilian birds, by J. D. Frisch. Auk, 



vol. 83, no. 1, p. 144, 1966. 

A synopsis of the genus Kogia (pygmy sperm whales). In: 



Whales, dolphins, and porpoises, ed. K. S. Norris, pp. 62-69, 

1 fig. Berkeley: Univ. Calif. Press, 1966. 
Humphrey, Philip S. Auks, Murres, and Puffins. In A. Wetmore, 

et al., Water, prey, and game birds of North America. Washing- 
ton: National Geographic Society, 1965. 
Kanazawa, Robert H. The fishes of the genus Osteoglossum with a 

description of a new species from the Rio Negro. Icthyologica, 

the Aquarium Journal, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 161—172, 7 figs., May 

1966. 
Krueger, William H, and Gibbs, Robert H, Jr. Growth changes 

and sexual dimorphism in the stomiatoid fish Echiostoma barbatum. 

Copeia, no. 1, pp. 39^3, 4 figs., March 1966. 
Lachner, E. A. Family Echeneidae. In Fishes of the Marshall and 

Marianas Islands. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 202, vol. 3, pp. 74-80, 

pi. 131, March 1966. 
Paradiso, J. L., and Handley, Charles O., Jr. Checklist of mam- 
mals of Assateague Island. Chesapeake Sci., vol. 6, pp. 167-171, 

1 fig., 1965. 
Peters, James A. Miscellaneous notes on lizards from Ecuador. 

British Journ. Herp., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 195-197, 1965. 
. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien: Colubridae 

(Dipsadinae). Das Tierreich, lieferung 81, pp. 1-18, 1965. 
. A note on the concept of subspecies. Bull. Virginia Herp. 

Society, no. 45, pp. 3-4, 1965. 
and Robert Mullen. Electrocardiography in Caecilia guentheri 

(Peters). Physiological Zoology, vol. 39, pp. 193-201, 1966. 
Ripley, S. Dillon. Saving the nene, world's rarest goose. National 

Geographic Magazine, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 744-754, November 

1965. 



138 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

— — — . Le Martinet pale de Socotra (Apus pallidus berliozi). L'Oiseau 



et la Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie, vol. 35 (Berlioz Jubilee 
Number), pp. 101-102, April 6, 1966. 

— — . A notable owlet from Kenya. Ibis, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. ISO- 
IS?, January 1966. 
and Heinrich, Gerd H. Additions to the avifauna of Northern 



Angola II. Postilla no. 95, pp. 1-29, February 1966. 

. Comments on the avifauna of Tanzania I. Postilla no. 96, 

pp. 1-45, March 1966. 
— . Anatidae, parts 1, 2, and 3. In A. Wetmore, et al., Water, 



prey, and game birds of North Ameiica. Washington: National 

Geographic Society, 1965. 
Schultz, Leonard P. Pseudochalceus kyburzi, a new characid fish 

from Colombia. Ichthyologica, The Aquarium Journal, vol. 37, 

no. 1, pp. 25-30, 3 figs., January 1966. 
— . A new anemone fish, Amphiprion calliops from the Indo- 

Pacific Oceans. Ichthyologica, The Aquarium Journal, vol. 37, 

no. 2, pp. 71-76, 3 figs., February 1966. 
. Parapercis kamoharai (family Mugilodidae), a new fish from 



Japan with notes on other species of the genus. Smithsonian 
Misc. Coll., vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 1-4, 2 figs., May 1966. 

. Pseudorhegma diagramma, a new genus and species of 

grammistid fish with a key to the genera of the family and to the 

species of the subfamily Pseudogramminae. Ichthyologica, The 

Aquarium Journal, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 185-194, 4 figs., May 1966. 

— and Collaborators: Woods, Loren, P., and Lachner, Ernest 



A. Fishes of the Marshall and Marianas Islands. Families 
Kraemeriidae through Antennariidae. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 202, 
vol. 3, 176 pp., figs. 133-156, pis. 124-148, March 1966. 

Short, Lester L., Jr. Hybridization in the flickers (Colaptes) of 
North America. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 129: pp. 307^28, 
1965. 

— . Variation in West Indian flickers (Aves, Colaptes). Bull. 
Florida State Mus., vol. 10, pp. 1-42, 1965. 

. [Review], The silent sky, the incredible extinction of the 



passenger pigeon, by A. W. Eckert. Atlantic Nat., vol. 20, pp. 
245-246, 1965. 

- — . A melanistic pileated woodpecker specimen from Georgia. 
Wilson Bull., vol. 77, pp. 404-405, 1965. 
. Some spring migrant and breeding records from northern 



Nebraska. Nebraska Bird Rev., vol. 34, pp. 18-20, 1966. 
— . A new Pliocene stork from Nebraska. Smithsonian Misc. 
Coll., vol. 149, no. 9, pp. 1-11, 1 pi., 1966. 



PUBLICATIONS INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 139 

and Phillips, A. R. More hybrid hummingbirds from the 

United States. Auk, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 253-265, 1966. 

and Banks, R. C. Notes on the birds of northwestern Baja 



California. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 14, pp. 41-52, 
1965. 

and Burleigh, T. D. An intergeneric hybrid flycatcher 

{Contopus X Empidonax) from Idaho. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
vol. 78, pp. 33-37, 1965. 

and Simon, S. Additional hybrids of the slate-colored junco 



and the white-throated sparrow. Condor, vol. 67, pp. 438-442, 

1965. 
Slud, Paul. Report on the ornithological portion of the WNRE 

ecological investigation in Costa Rica. Chapt. 7, in Research on 

bioecological classification for military environments found in 

tropic latitudes, Wilson, Nuttall, Raimond Engineers, Inc., 

Chestertown, Maryland, 1965. 
Springer, V. G. Medusablennius chani, a new genus and species of 

blennioid fish from the Tuamotu Archipelago: its implication on 

blennioid classification. Copeia, no. 1, pp. 56-60, 3 figs., March 

1966. 
Suttkus, Royal D., and Taylor, William Ralph. Notarus munitus, 

a new species of madtom, family Ictaluridae, from southern 

United States. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 78, pp. 169-178, 

3 figs., October 1965. 
Watson, George E. et al. The families and genera of the petrels and 

their names. Ibis, vol. 107, pp. 401^05, 1965. 
. [Review], The birds of Kentucky, by R. M. Mengel. Atlantic 

Naturalist, vol. 20, pp. 244-245, 1965. 
. Pomarine jaeger near Lake Saranac. Kingbird, vol. 51, p. 

25, 1965. 
Weitzman, Stanley H., and Chan, Lai Lee. Identification and 

relationships of Tanichthys albonubes and Aphyocypris pooni, two 

cyprinoid fishes from South China and Hong Kong. Copeia, 

no. 2. pp. 285-296, 7 figs., 1966. 
Wetmore, Alexander (with other ornithologists). Water, prey, and 

game birds of North America. Pp. 464, 643 illus. Washington: 

National Geographic Society, 1965. 
. Foreword. In Johnson, A. W., The birds of Chile and adja- 
cent regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru, vol. 1, pp. 9-10, 

December 1965. 
— . The Birds of the Republic of Panama. Part I. — Tinamidae 

(tinamous) to Rynchopidae (skimmers). Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 

vol. 150, 483 pp., 73 figs., December 1965. 



140 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

. Aves. In Leaky, L. S. B., Olduvai Gorge 1951-61, vol. 1, 



pp. 71-72, 1965. 

. Additions to the list of birds of the Republic of Colombia. 

L'Oiseau et la Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie, vol. 35 (Berlioz 
Jubilee Number), pp. 156-162, April 1966. 



INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Barnard, J. Laurens. Marine Amphipoda of atolls in Micronesia. 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 3516, vol. 117, pp. 459-552, 35 figs., 

December 1965. 
. Marine Amphipoda of the family Ampithoidae from southern 

California. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 3522, vol. 118, pp. 1-46, 

28 figs., December 1965. 
Bowman, Thomas E. Cyathura specus, a new cave isopod from Cuba 

(Anthuroidea: Anthuridae). Stud. Fauna Curacao, vol. 22, no. 

85, pp. 88-97, 1965. 
. Xilitloniscus, a new genus for the Mexican troglobitic isopod, 

Cordioniscus laevis Rioja (Oniscoidea: Trichoniscidae). Proc. Biol. 

Soc. Washington, vol. 78, pp. 209-215, 1965. 
• ■ — ■ and Lancaster, L. J. A bloom of the planktonic blue-green 



alga, Trichodesmium erythraeum, in the Tonga Islands. Limnology 
and Oceanography, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 291-293, 1965. 
— -. Haptolana trichostoma, a new genus and species of troglobitic 
cirolanid isopod from Cuba. Internat. Journ. Speleology, vol. 2, 
no. 1, pp. 105-108, pis. 24-27, 1966. 

and Peterson, LaNelle W. Bibliography and list of new 



genera and species of amphipod crustaceans described by Clarence 
R. Shoemaker. Crustaceana, vol. 9, pt. 3, pp. 309-316, pi. 22, 
1965. 

Clark, A. M. Japanese and other ophiuroids from the collections of 
the Munich Museum. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), vol. 13, no. 2, 
pp. 39-71, 1965. 

and Owen, H. G. Eucidaris Pomal, 1883, Papula Bayle, 1878, 

Cidaris papillataconoidea Parkinson, 181 1, and Cidaris savignyi Audouin, 
1826, proposed suppression; coupled with validation of Eucidaris 
Doderlein, 1887, Stereocidaris Pomel, 1883, and Diadema savignyi 
Michelin, 1845. Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 237-242, 
1965. 

Cressey, R. F. A new species of Dentigryps Wilson (Copepoda, 
Caligoida) from Madagascar. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 
79, pp. 91-94, figs. 1-13, 1966. 



PUBLICATIONS VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 141 

. Bariaka alopiae n. gen., n. sp. (Copepoda, Caligoida), a 

parasite on the gills of a thresher shark. Bull. Mar. Sci., vol. 16, 
pp. 324-329, 1966. 

Gonzalez, Juan G., and Bowman, T. E. Planktonic copepods from 
Bahia Fosforescente, Puerto Rico, and adjacent waters. Proc.U.S. 
Nat. Mus., no. 3513, vol. 117, 21 figs., pp. 241-304, August 1965. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. A new crayfish from Alabama with observa- 
tions on the Cristatus section of the genus Cambarus (Decapoda, 
Astacidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 79, pp. 109-116, 
figs. 1-10, 1966. 

■ ■. Astacus oreganus Randall, 1840 (Crustacea, Decapoda): Pro- 
posed suppression under the Plenary Powers. Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 
vol. 22, pts. 5/6, pp. 351-354, 1966. 

. A new crayfish of the genus Cambarus from Tennessee with an 

emended definition of the genus (Decapoda, Astacidae). Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 78, pp. 265-273, 12 figs., 1965. 

and Bedinger, M. S. Observations of a new troglobitic cray- 



fish with notes on the distribution of troglobitic crayfishes in the 

Ozark region. Bull. Nat. Speleological Soc, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 

93-96, 1 fig., 1965. 
Manning, Raymond B. Stomatopoda from the collection of His 

Majesty, The Emperor of Japan. Crustaceana, vol. 9, pp. 249-262, 

pis. 11-12, figs. 1-2, 1965. 
. Stomatopod Crustacea from the Atlantic coast of northern 

South America collected by the Calypso in 1961. Ann. Inst. 

Oceanogr. Monaco, vol. 44, pp. 359-384, figs. 1-9, 1966. 
Morrison, Joseph P. E. New brackish water mollusks from Louisiana. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 78, pp. 217-224, figs. 1-9, 1965. 
. Notes on the genera of Hipponicidae. American Malaco- 

logical Union, Annual Reports 1965, pp. 33-34, 1965. 

On the families of Turridae. American Malacological 



Union, Annual Reports 1965, pp. 1-2, 1965. 
Pawson, David L. The bathyal holothurians of the New Zealand 

region. Zool. Publ. Victoria Univ., Wellington, no. 39, pp. 1-33, 

1965. 
. New records of echinoderms from the Snares Islands, to the 

south of New Zealand. Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand (Zool.), 

vol. 6, no. 25, pp. 253-260, 1965. 
. The distribution of echinoderms along the east coast of New 

Zealand. Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand (Zool.), vol. 6, no. 24, 

pp. 245-252, 1965 



142 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Pettibone, Marian H. Two new species of Aricidea (Polychaeta, 

Paraonidae) from Virginia and Florida, and a redescription of 

Aricidea fragilis Webster. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 78, 

pp. 127-140, 11 figs., 1965. 
. Revision of the Pilargidae (Annelida: Polychaeta), including 

descriptions of new species, and redescription of the pelagic 

Podarmus ploa Chamberlin (Polynoidae). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 

no. 3525, vol. 118, pp. 155-208, 26 figs., March 1966. 
Rice, Winnie H., and Kornicker, Louis S. Mollusks from the 

deeper waters of the northwestern Campeche Bank, Mexico. 

Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci., Univ. Texas, vol. 10, pp. 108-172, 16 pis., 

1965. 
Roberts, Henry B. Fossil decapod crustaceans from the Marshall 

Islands. Geol. Survey Prof. Pap. 260-HH, pp. 1127-1131, pi. 303, 

1964. 
Rosewater, Joseph. Studying living Tridacnidae in the Marshall 

Islands. American Malacological Union, Annual Reports 1965, 

pp. 18-19, 1965. 
Rutzler, Klaus. Substratstabilitat in marinen Benthos als 

okologischer Faktor, dargestellt am Beispiel adriatischer Porifera. 

Int. Revue Ges. Hydrobiol., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 281-292, 965. 
. Systematik und Okologie der Poriferen aus Litoral-Schat- 

tengebeiten der Nordadria. Z. Morph. Okol. Tiere, vol. 55, 

pp. 1-82, 1965. 
Schmitt, Waldo L. Crustaceans. In Ann Arbor Science Library. 

204 pp. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1965. 
Squires, Donald F., and Ralph, Patricia M. A new scleractinian 

coral of the genus Flabellum from New Zealand, with a new record 

of Stephanocyathus. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 78, pp. 

259-264, 1965. 

. Neoplasia in a coral? Science, vol. 148, pp. 503-505, 1965. 

. A new record for Leptopenus, a rare deep-water coral. Nature, 

207, pp. 878-879, 1965. 



ENTOMOLOGY 

Audy, J. R.; Nadchatram, M., Loomis, R. B.; and Traub, R. Trom- 
bicula minor Berlese (Acarina: Trombiculidae) : Designation of 
neotype with larval and post-larval stages from Malayan bats, and 
new name, Myotrombicula dilarami, for T. minor Cooreman 1960 nee 
Berlese, 1905. Acarologia, vol. 7 (suppl.), pp. 1-33, figs. 1—11, 
1965. 



PUBLICATIONS ENTOMOLOGY 143 

Blake, Doris H. More new galerucine beetles with excised middle 

tibiae in the male (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Proc. U.S. Nat. 

Mus., no. 3528, vol. 118, pp. 233-266, 35 figs., February 1966. 
. A review of the beetles of the genus Neobrotica and some 

closely related genera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Proc. U.S. 

Nat. Mus, no. 3529, vol. 118, pp. 267-372, 16 figs., April 1966. 
Carriker, M. A., Jr. A revision of the genus Furnaricola (Mallophaga) 

with descriptions of new species. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 118, 

no. 3532, pp. 405-432, 31 figs., 1966. 
Clarke, J. F. Gates. Microlepidoptera of the Juan Fernandez 

Islands. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 3508, vol. 117, pp. 1-106, 

111 figs., 1 pi., 1965. 
Delfinado, Mercedes D. The culicine mosquitoes of the Philippines, 

Tribe Culicini (Diptera: Culicidae). Mem. Amer. Ent. Inst., no. 

7, 252 pp., 275 fig., 1966. 
Drake, Carl J., and Hoberlandt, L. A revision of the genus Potamom- 

etra (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragae, vol. 36, 

pp. 303-310. 
and Maldonado Capriles, J. A new lacebug from Haiti 

(Hemiptera: Tingidae). Journ. Kansas Ent. Soc, vol. 38, pp. 317- 

319, July 1965. 
Duckworth, W. D. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, VIII. A review 

of the genus Falculina with descriptions of new species (Lepidoptera: 

Stenomidae). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 3531, vol. 118, pp. 391- 

404, 1 pi, 5 figs., February 1966. 
Emerson, K. C. Notes on some Mallophaga from Formosan mammals. 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 77, pp. 195-198, 1964. 
. A new genus and species of Mallophaga. Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist., ser. 13, vol. 7, pp. 383-384, 1964. 
. Three new species of Mallophaga from Dassies (Hyracoidea). 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 13, vol. 7, pp. 689-692. 1964. 
. A new species of Mallophaga from the Caracara. Florida 

Ent., vol. 49, pp. 49-51, 1966. 
and Stojanovich, C. J. A new species of Kelerimenopon (Meno- 

ponidae, Mallophaga) from the Philippine Islands. Florida Ent., 

vol. 48, pp. 117-119, 1965. 
Flint, Oliver S., Jr. Taxonomy and life-histories of the caddisflies 

of the Lesser Antilles. Amer. Philos. Soc, Yearbook 1964, pp. 

262-263, 1965. 
. New species of Trichoptera from the United States. Proc. 

Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 67, pp. 168-176, 11 figs., 1965. 
. The genus Neohermes (Megaloptera: Corydalidae). Psyche, 

vol. 72, pp. 255-263, 19 figs., 1965. 



144 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

. Notes on certain Nearctic Trichoptera in the Museum of 



Comparative Zoology. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., no. 3530, vol. 118, 
pp. 373-390, 4 figs., February 1966. 

Type disposition of some recently described Hemerobiidae 



(Neuroptera). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 68, p. 24, 1966. 
Hoogstraal, H., and Traub, R. The fleas (Siphonaptera) of Egypt: 

host-parasite relationships of cricetid rodents (Family Cricetidae, 

Subfamily Gerbillinae). Journ. Egyptian Public Health Assoc, 

vol. 40, pp. 141-175, 1965. 
Muesebeck, C. F. W. Two new braconid parasites of the spruce 
budworm (Hymenoptera). Ent. News. vol. 76, pp. 71-74, 

March 1965. 
. A new diapriid (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) from termite 

nests from South Africa. Journ. Ent. Soc. South Africa, vol. 27, 

pp. 188-190. 
rice, R. D., and Emerson, K. C. A new species of Machaerilaemus 

(Mallophaga: Menoponidae) from the red-plumed bird of para- 
dise. Ent. News, vol. 76, pp. 275-277, 1965. 
Snyder, T. E. Our native termites. Ann. Rep. Smithsonian Inst. 

for 1964, pp. 497-506, 1 fig., 1965. 
. Termite stowaways intercepted 1962-1966. PCO News, 

vol. 26, no. 4, p. 73, April 1966. 
Sp angler, Paul J. A new species of Derovatellus from Guatemala and 

a description of its larva (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). Coleopt. 

Bull., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-18. 
Stone, A.; Scanlon, J. E.; Bailey, D. L.; Delfinado, M. D.; and 

Bram, R. A. Preliminary keys to the mosquitoes of Vietnam. 

South East Asia Mosquito Project, 1st revised ed. (mimeogr. publ.), 

92 pp., 5 pis., 1966. 
Traub, R. Some opportunities and problems in medical entomology 

in the Asian-Pacific Region. Pacific Insects, vol. 7, pp. 21-28, 

1965. 

. A new subgenus of Ophthalmopsylla from Gilgit, West Pakistan, 

and a new Hopkinsipsylla from Libya (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae) 

Journ. Med. Ent., vol. 2, pp. 123-136, figs. 1-23, 1965. 
and Nadchatram, M. A revision of the genus Chatia Brennan, 



with synonymic notes and descriptions of the new species from 
Pakistan (Acarina: Trombiculidae). Journ. Med. Ent., vol. 2, 
pp. 17-37, figs. 1-24, 1965. 



PUBLICATIONS BOTANY 145 

BOTANY 

Cuatrecasas, Jose. Miscelanea sobre flora neotropica II. Ciencia 

(Mexico), vol. 24, no. 1, 2, pp. 121-124, June 1965. 
. Una Bombacacea nueva de Venezuela. Bol. Soc. Venezolana 

Cienc. Nat., vol. 24, no. 109, pp. 153-155, September 1965. 
. Some new Compositae from Peru. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 

vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 304-313, October 1965. 
. El genero Sorocea (Moraceae) en la costa occidental de 

Colombia. Ciencia (Mexico), vol. 24, pp. 185-188, February 1966. 
. Establecimiento de la "Organization pro Flora Neotropica." 

Ciencia (Mexico), vol. 24, pp. 267-270, February 1966. 
Dawson, E. Yale. An undescribed Afelocactus? in the Galapagos 

Islands. Cactus Succulent Journ., vol. 37, no. 5, p. 126, 1965. 
. Further studies of Opuntia in the Galapagos Archipelago. 

Cactus Succulent Journ., vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 135-148, 1965. 
. Time of my life, pt. 1, 2. Cactus Succulent Journ., vol. 38, 



pp. 15-18, 58-60, 1966. 
. Marine algae in the vicinity of Humboldt State College, 

Humboldt Co., California. Pp. 77. Humboldt State College, 

1965. 
. Intertidal algae. In An oceanographic survey of the southern 

California mainland shelf. State of California Water Quality 

Control Board, Publ. 27 and 27-Appendix, Chapt. 8, and Table 

IX, 1965. 
. Marine botany, an introduction. Pp. xii-J-371. New York: 

Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966. 
Ernst, Wallace R., et al. Documented chromosome numbers of 

plants. Madrono, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 122-126, October 1965. 
Eyde, Richard H. The Nyssaceae in the Southeastern United States. 

Journ. Arnold Arb., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 117-125, April 1966. 
Hale, Mason E., Jr. Parmelia subgenus Amphigymnia of Japan (in 

Japanese). Misc. Bryol. Lichenol., vol. 3, pp. 161, 162, 1965. 
. Vertical distribution of cryptogams in a red maple swamp in 

Connecticut. Bryologist, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 193-197, 1965. 
. Six new species of Parmelia from Southeast Asia. Journ. Jap. 

Bot., vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 199-205, 1965. 

Studies in the Parmelia borreri group. Svensk Bot. Tidskr., 



vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 38-48, 1965. 
King, Robert M., and Robinson, Harold. Generic limitations in 
the Hofmeisteria complex (Compositae : Eupatorieae). Phytologia, 
vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 465-476, 1966. 



146 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

McClure, Floyd A. The bamboos — A fresh perspective. Pp. xv 

+ 347, Harvard Univ. Press, 1966. 
Meyer, Frederick G., and Walker, Egbert H., eds., A flora of 

Japan (In English), by Jisaburo Ohwi. Pp. ix -f- 1067, 33 pis., 

18 figs., Smithsonian Institution, September 1965. 
Morton, Conrad V. A new generic name in the Saxifragaceae. 

Leafl. West. Bot. vol. 10, no. 11, p. 181, August 1965. 
— . Una Gesneriaceae nueva de Venezuela. Bol. Soc. Venezolana 

Ciena Nat., vol. 26, no. 109, pp. 156-158, September 1965. 
. Observations on cultivated ferns, VIII. Stenochlaena. Amer. 



Fern Journ. vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 164-166, January 1966. 

— . Varieties of Ballota nigra in the eastern United States. 
Rhodora, vol. 68, no. 773, pp. 93, 94, March 1966. 

— and Stern, William L. The United States National Her- 



barium. Plant Sci. Bull., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1-4, June 1966. 
Parker, B. C, and Dawson, E. Yale. Non-calcareous marine algae 

from California Miocene deposits. Nova Hedwigia, vol. 10, pp. 

273-295, 1965. 
Robinson, Harold E. A small collection of bryophytes from Kashmir. 

Bryologist, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 313-320, 1965. 
— . Notes on Oreoweisia and Hypnella from Latin America. 

Bryologist, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 331-334, 1965. 
— . Venezuelan bryophytes collected by Julian A. Steyermark. 



Acta Bot. Venezuelica, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 73-83, 1965. 

. New or little known mosses from the eastern United States. 

Bryologist, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 105-109, 1966. 
— . The status of the moss genus Rechingcrclla. Bryologist, 



vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 112, 113, 1966. 
Rudd, Velva E. The American species of Ormosia (Leguminosae). 

Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb., vol. 32, pt. 5, pp. 279-384, 6 pis., 15 

figs., September 1965. 
— . Another Mexican Dcsmarithus? Leaf!. West. Bot., vol. 10, 

no. 13, pp. 243, 244, February 1966. 
. Acacia cochliacantha or Acacia cymbispina in Mexico? Leafl. 



West. Bot., vol. 10, no. 14, pp. 257-262, May 1966. 
Seidenschnur, Christiane E., and Shetler, Stanwyn G. The 

botanical activities of Paul Bartsch (1871-1960). Proc. Biol. Soc. 

Washington, vol. 78, pp. 275-292, December 1965. 
Shetler, Stanwyn G., and Montgomery, Florence. Insectivorous 

plants. Smithsonian Institution Information Leaflet No. 447, 

pp. 1-23, 1965. 



PUBLICATIONS PALEOBIOLOGY 147 

Smith, Lyman B. [Letter.] Bromeliana (Greater New York Chapt. 

Bromel. Soc), vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 26-29, May 1965. 

. Herbarium notes, II. Phytologia, vol. 12, p. 249, July 1965. 

. Tillandsia's subgenus Phytarrhiza. Bromeliana (Greater New 

York Chapt. Bromel. Soc.), vol. 2, pp. 50-53, December 1965. 
— . Itinerary of Edouard Francois Andre in his expedition to the 

northern Andes 1875-76. Phytologia, vol. 12, pp. 401-413, 

December 1965. 
. The great bromeliad hoax. Bromel. Soc. Bull., vol. 16, 



no. 1, pp. 4, 5, January- February 1966. 

. Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXIII. Phytologia, vol. 13, pp. 

84-161, March 1966. 

and Downs, Robert J. Xiridaceas. In Flora ilustrada 



Catarinense, pt. 1, fasc. xiri, pp. 1-54, August 1965. 
Soderstrom, Thomas R. Gramineae. In The botany of the Guayana 

Highland— Part VI. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard., vol. 12, no. 3, 

pp. 1-7, 1965. 
. Preparing a rain forest exhibit for Smithsonian's new Hall of 

Plant Life. Plant Sci. Bull., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 1-3, 1965. 
. Phylogenetic position of Piresia, a grass of the tropical Ameri- 



can rain forest (Abstract). Amer. Journ. Bot., vol. 52, no. 6, pt. 2, 
p. 651, 1965. 

-, and Decker, Henry F. Allolepis: a new segregate of Distichlis 



(Gramineae). Madrono, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 33-39, 1965. 

Stern, William L. The scientific name of "pink ivory." Internat. 
Wood Coll. Bull, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 89, 90, June 1966. 

Steyermark, Julian A.; Aristeguieta, Leandro; and Wurdack, 
John J. Una neuva especie de Tapirira para Venezuela. Bol. 
Soc. Venezolana Cienc. Nat., vol. 26, no. 109, pp. 159-162, Sep- 
tember 1965. 

Wurdack, John J. Certamen Melastomataceis X. Phytologia, vol. 
13, no. 2, pp. 65-80, March 1966. 



PALEOBIOLOGY 

Adey, W. H. The genus Clathromorphwn (Corallinaceae) in the Gulf 
of Maine. Hydrobiologia, vol. 26, nos. 3-4, pp. 539-573, 1965. 

Benson, R. H. Designation of ostracode lectotypes. Journ. Paleon- 
tology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 745-747, 1965. 

and Kaesler, R. L. The Benson-Kaesler bolapipe dredge. 

Micropaleontology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 369-372, 1965. 



148 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Boardman, R. S. In Doumani, G. A., et al., Lower Devonian fauna 

of the Horlick Formation, Ohio Range, Antarctica, Bryozoa. 

Antarctic Research Series, vol. 6, pp. 248-251, pi. 1, figs. 1-4, 2 

tables, 1965. 
Buzas, M. A. The distribution and abundance of Foraminifera in 

Long Island Sound. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 149, no. 1, 89 

pp., 4 pis., 22 figs. 1965. 
, The discrimination of morphological groups of Elphidium 

(Foraminifera) in Long Island Sound through canonical analysis 

and invariant characters. Journ. Paleontology, vol. 40, no. 3, 

pp. 585-594, 1 text-fig., 2 pis., 1966. 
Cifelli, R. Late Tertiary planktonic Foraminifera associated with 

a basaltic boulder from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Journ. Marine 

Research, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 73-87, 1965. 
Cifelli, R.; Bowen, V. T.; and Siever, R. Cemented foraminifera! 

oozes from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature, vol. 209, no. 5018, 

pp. 32-34, 1965. 
Cooper, G. Arthur, and Phelan, Thomas. Stringocephalus in the 

Devonian of Indiana. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 151. no. 1, 

20 pp., 5 pis., 11 figs., 1966. 
Dane, C. H.; Cobban, W. A.; and Kauffman, E. G. Stratigraphy 

and regional relationships of a reference section of the Juana 

Lopez Member, Mancos Shale, in the San Juan Basin, New 

Mexico. U.S. Geol. Survey Bull. 1224H, Contr. to Strat., 5 pp., 

3 figs., 1966. 
Dunkle, David H., and Rahman, Habib-ur. On marine fishes from 

the Eocene of West Pakistan. Geological Survey of Pakistan, 

Prepublication Issue no. 10, June 1966. 
Dutro, T. J. Brachiopods, in Kummel, Bernhard, and Raup, David 

eds., Handbook of paleontologica! techniques, pt. 1, General 

procedures and techniques applicable to major fossil groups, 

pp. 44-48, San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1965. 
. [Review] Treatise of invertebrate paleontology. Science, \ 

vol. 152, no. 3721, pp. 494-495, 1966. 

and Payne, T. G. Geologic map of Alaska, in Geologic map !] 



of North America, E. N. Goddard, chairman. U.S. Geol. Survey 

Special Map, 1965. 
Gazin, C. Lewis. Animates prehistoricos localizados en Guatemala. 

Historia Natural y Pronatura, no. 2, pp. 4-6, 4 figs., 1965. 
. An endocranial cast of the Bridger middle Eocene primate, 

Smilodectes gracilis. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 149, no. 4, 14 

pp., 2 pis., 1965. 



PUBLICATIONS PALEOBIOLOGY 149 

— . Early Eocene mammalian faunas and their environment in 

the vicinity of the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Wyoming 

Geological Assoc. Guidebook, Symposium on Sedimentation of 

Late Cretaceous and Tertiary Outcrops, Rock Springs Uplift, 

19th Ann. Field Conf., pp. 171-180, 1 fig., 1965. 
Hibbard, G. W. ; Ray, C. E.; Savage, D. E.; Taylor, D. W.; and 

Guilday, J. E. Quaternary mammals of North America, hi H. E. 

Wright, Jr., and D. G. Frey (eds.), The Quaternary of the United 

States, pp. 509-525, 9 figs.), 4 tables. Princeton Univ. Press, 1965. 
Johnson, J. H., and Adey, W. H. Studies of Lithophyllum and related 

algal genera. Quart. Colorado School Mines, vol. 60, no. 2, 

pp. 1-105, 1965. 
Kauffman, E. G. Middle and late Turonian oysters of the Lopha 

lugubris group. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 148, no. 6, 92 pp., 

8 pis., 18 figs., 5 tables, 1965. 
. Taxonomic, ecologic and evolutionary significance of interior 

shell morphology in the Inoceramidae (Mesozoic Bivalvia) [Ab- 
stract], Geol. Soc. America, Ann. Meeting, 1 p., 1965. 
Kauffman, E. G., and McCulloch, D. S. Biota of a late glacial 

Rocky Mountain pond. Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 76, pp. 

1203-1232, 5 figs., 2 pis., 1965. 
Kellogg, Remington. Fossil marine mammals from the Miocene 

Calvert formation of Maryland and Virginia. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

Bull. 247, pts. 1 and 2, pp. 1-63, pis. 1-32, October 1965. 
Kier, P. M. Evolutionary trends in Paleozoic echinoids. Journ. 

Paleontology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 436-465, pis. 55-60, 26 text-figs., 

1965. 
and Grant, R. E. Echinoid distribution and habits, Key 

Largo Coral Reef Preserve, Florida. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 

vol. 149, no. 6, 66 pp., 16 pis., 15 figs., 1965. 
Pierce, J. W. Sedimentology Program at the Museum of Natural 

History, Smithsonian Institution. In Interagency Conference on 

Continental Research, U.S. Army, Coastal Eng. Res. Center, 

Misc. Paper 1-66, pp. 9-11, 1966. 
. Sediment budget of a part of the North Carolina coast 

[Abstract]. Program of 1966 Annual Meeting, Southeastern 

Section, Geol. Soc. of America. 
, and Good, Donald I. FORTRAN II Program for standard 

size analysis of unconsolidated sediments using an IBM 1620 

computer. Kansas Geol. Surv., Spec. Distrib. Publ. 28, 19 pp., 

1966. 



230-457—66 13 



150 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Rasetti, Franco. Upper Cambrian trilobites of the Pleasant Hill 

Formation in central Pennsylvania. Journ. Paleontology, vol. 

39, no. 5, pp. 1007-1014, pis. 119-120, 1965. 

— . New Lower Cambrian trilobite faunule from the Taconic 

Sequence of New York. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 148, no. 

9, 52 pp., 12 pis., 1966. 
Ray, Clayton E. A glyptodont from South Carolina. Charleston 

Mus. Leaflet no. 27, pp. 1-12, pis. 1-4, 1965. 
. A new chipmunk, Tamias aristus, from the Pleistocene of 

Georgia. Journ. Paleontology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1016-1022, 

1 fig., 1965. 
. Variation in the number of marginal tooth positions in three 



species of iguanid lizards. Mus. Comp. Zool. Breviora, no. 236, 
15 pp., 5 figs., 1965. 

Ray, Clayton E. The identity of Bison appalachicolus. Notulae 
Naturae, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia., no. 384, 7 pp., 2 figs., 
May 1966. 

Rorher, W. L., and Gazin, C. Lewis. Gray Bull and Lysite faunal 
zones of the Willwood Formation in the Tatman Mountain area, 
Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. In Geological Survey Research 1965, 
U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 525-D, pp. D 133-D 138, 1966. 

Ross, R. J., Jr., and Dutro, T. J. Silicified Ordovician brachiopods 
from east-central Alaska. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 149, no. 
7, 22 pp., 3 pis., 1 fig., 1966. 

Towe, K. M. Carbon films for electron microscopy: A reliable 
method for stripping from glass surfaces. Rev. Sci. Instruments, 
vol. 36, no. 8, p. 1247, 1965. 

and Cifelli, R. Aspects of wall ultrastructure in some hyaline 

foraminifera [Abstract]. Bull. Amer. Assoc. Petroleum Geol., 
vol. 49, no. 3, p. 638, 1966. 

Utgaard, John and Boardman, R. S. Heterotrypa Nicholson, 1879, 
and Peronopora Nicholson, 1881 (Bryozoa, Trepostomata) : Pro- 
posed designation of a type-species in conformity with generally 
accepted usage. Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol. 22, pt. 2, pp. 112-118, 
1965. 

MINERAL SCIENCES 

Buseck, P. R. ; Mason, B. ; and Wiik, H. B. The Farmington meteorite. 

Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 30, pp. 1-8, 1966. 
Clarke, R. S., Jr.; Wosinski, J. F.; Marvin, R. R.; and Friedman I. 

Potassium-argon ages of artificial tektite glass [Abstract]. Trans. 

Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 47, p. 144, 1966. 



PUBLICATIONS MINERAL SCIENCES 151 

Desautels, Paul E. Interaction between light and minerals. 
Natural History, vol. 74, No. 8, pp. 52-57, October 1965. 

Donnay, G.; Mason, B.; and Ingamells, C. O. Buergerite, a new 
species of tourmaline. Amer. Mineral., vol. 51, pp. 198-199, 1966. 

Fredriksson, K. Standards and correction procedures for micro- 
probe analysis of minerals [Abstract]. IV e Congres International 
sur l'Optique des Rayons X et la Microanalyse. Faculte des 
Sciences, Orsay, 1965. 

and Reid, A. A chondrule in the Chainpur meteorite. Sci- 
ence, vol. 149, pp. 856-860, 1965. 

Mason, B. The geochemical behavior of some elements in meteorites. 
Probl. of Geochemistry, pp. 72-80, 1965. 

. The enstatite chondrites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 

30, pp. 22-39, 1966. 

. Geochemistry and meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 



vol. 30, pp. 365-374, 1966. 
. Memorial to Mark Chance Bandy. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 



vol. 77, pp. 13-16, 1966. 

Melson, W. G. Phase equilibria in calc-silicate hornfels, Lewis and 
Clark County, Montana. Amer. Mineral., vol. 51, nos. 3 and 4, 
pp. 402-421, 1966. 

, Bowen, V. T. ; van Andel, Tj. H.; and Siever, R. Green- 
stones from the central Valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature, 
vol. 209, pp. 604-605, 1966. 

and Switzer, G., Plagioclase-spinel-graphite xenoliths in 



metallic iron-bearing basalts, Disko Island, Greenland. Amer. 

Mineral., vol. 51, nos. 5 and 6, 14 pp. 1966. 
Olsen, E., and Fredriksson, K. Phosphates in iron and pallasite 

meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 30, pp. 459-470, 

1966. 
Wine, H. B., and Mason, B. Analyses of eight iron meteorites. 

Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 29, pp. 1003-1005, 1965. 



National Zoological Park 

Theodore H. Reed, Director 




T7<or the National Zoological Park, the year ending June 30, 1966, 
-*■ was in many ways remarkable. The construction program moved 
ahead methodically, a scientific research department was established, 
additional emphasis was placed on conservation, and the breeding 
of exotic species added notably to the value of the animal collection. 
The collection continued to grow in zoological breadth and diversity. 
Gifts, births, purchases, and exchanges have enhanced public interest 
in and the scientific usefulness of the Zoo. The following summary of 
the animals on hand on June 30 shows the greatest number of species 
and of individual animals since the retirement of Dr. William M. 
Mann in 1956. 





STATUS OF THE 


COLLECTION 






June 30, 


1966 


Species or 




Class 


Orders 


Families 


subspecies 


Individuals 


Mammals 


13 


50 


257 


771 


Birds 


23 


80 


413 


1,306 


Reptiles 


4 


27 


209 


750 


Amphibians 


2 


14 


33 


107 


Fishes 


5 


11 


29 


198 


Arthropods 


2 


3 


4 


61 


Mollusks 


1 


1 


1 


30 


Totals 


50 


186 


946 


3,223 



153 



154 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Births 

For the first time in the Zoo's long history, a baby orangutan was 
born. Previously, two gorillas, numerous chimpanzees, and gibbons 
had been raised here, so it was gratifying to have the fourth species 
of great ape reproduce. The Zoo had long had a trio of orangutans — 
Butch, Susie, and Jennie — but perhaps because they had all been 
brought up together from childhood there may have been a sibling 
relationship — in any event they never bred. The Toronto Zoo had 
a magnificent specimen named Archie, 10 years old and a proven sire, 
which they offered to exchange for a young male gorilla. Accordingly 
Leonard, the second gorilla born here, was dispatched to Toronto, 
and the National Zoo acquired Archie, a dynamic personality, big, 
with great cheek callosities and masses of long red hair. On April 2 
Jennie gave birth to a fine healthy male, who has been named Atjeh 
for the province of northern Sumatra where wild orangs occur. Jennie 

Note: Certain tabulated, statistical, and other information previously given in the 
report of the National Zoological Park in Smithsonian Tear now appears as appendices 
to the Separate of this Report (available on request from the Director of the Na- 
tional Zoological Park). This information includes: 
Visitor statistics and other operational information. 

Report of the veterinary, augmented by case histories and autopsy reports. 
Complete lists of: (a) animals in the collection on June 30, 1966; (b) all births 
and hatchings during the year; (c) changes in the collection by gift, purchase, 
or exchange. 

has proved to be a good parent, and visitors enjoy watching mother 
and baby, although during its first months about all they could see as 
she cradled the baby in her arms, was its small coconut-like head with 
its sparse red hair. Susie is also believed to be pregnant. Butch, by 
the way, was loaned to the Boston Zoo, where he promptly mated with 
their female. 

The Zoo in previous years had good success in breeding Nubian 
giraffes, and offspring had been sent to other zoos; but the original 
breeding stock, brought to the Zoo in 1937 by the Smithsonian In- 
stitution — National Geographic Society Expedition, had died, and 
none had been born since January 1957. Consequently, a trio of 
young giraffes was ordered from Africa, and in 1962 two Masai giraffes, 
Myrt and Marg, arrived, the male having died at sea. Not until the 
following year was the Zoo able to obtain a male, named Michael- 
John after the young son of the collector, Tony Parkinson. Then 
began the long wait for the animals to attain maturity. On May 27 
Cecelia, the first offspring of the new herd, was born. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 155 

One of the season's unusual Zoo babies was a soulful-eyed California 
sea lion rejected by its mother, and in consequence hand-reared by 
Mrs. Jan Davis, medical technologist. For the first two days the baby 
was fed by stomach tube; on the third day Mrs. Davis persuaded it 
to accept a bottle. The formula used was — 

1 cup Esbilac, 

2 cups of water, 

4 chopped smelt (minus the heads). 
The mixture was run through a blender and then sieved to remove 
rough bits of skin or fin. The infant weighed 14 pounds at birth; 
at 2 weeks it had gained 4 pounds, 2 ounces, and the formula had been 
strengthened to — - 

1 cup Esbilac, 

\y 2 cups of water, 

8 chopped smelt (no heads), 

1 teaspoon cod liver oil. 
The mixture was still blended and sieved, and 4 drops of viDaylin T 
vitamin were added to the bottle. The little sea lion drank 18 ounces 
of it every two hours during the day but was not fed at night. Four 
sea lions have been raised in the National Zoo in the past, but this was 
the first time one had been bottle-raised. 

Baby sea lions must be taught to swim. They are born on land 
and the mother takes her offspring to a shallow tidal pool to introduce 
it to the water. The Zoo's baby, known as Loo-Seal, was given her 
first swimming lesson when she was four weeks old in the indoor 
hippopotamus pool scrubbed and filled with clean water for the lesson. 
When Dr. Gray and Mrs. Davis first took the young animal into the 
water, it promptly sank to the bottom, but in a surprisingly short 
fifteen or twenty minutes it got the idea, and swam swiftly if sometimes 
awkwardly back and forth between its foster parents with obvious 
enjoyment. The lessons were continued until Loo-Seal was completely 
at home in the water. 

The Africian lions Caesar and Princess produced their 24th cub in 
their eighth litter. The parents are now growing old ; they have been 
here since 1953 and their age is estimated to be 15 years. The Zoo 
plans to keep the new little lion and eventually to use him for breeding, 
hence he has been named Augustus, a fitting name for a successor to 
Caesar. 

The Zoo has long enjoyed a good record for breeding pygmy hippo- 
potamuses. The male, Totota, has sired 1 1 offspring since his arrival in 
1960, the most recent being born to a female sent here from another zoo 
to be bred. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature 
puts the pygmy hippo on the endangered species list, and every effort 



156 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

is being made to continue the reproduction of the species in captivity. 

Nile hippopotamuses, a bighorn sheep, and brindled gnus were also 
born during the year. In the bird department, a second-generation 
pair of kookaburras reared their young, and black-necked swans were 
hatched. A Brazilian tapir, the first born here in many years, arrived 
in October in an outside enclosure. Looking something like an 
animated watermelon in her black and white stripes, she was soon to be 
seen waddling happily in the erstwhile beaver pond. 

Mohini, the white tiger, had her second litter — one stillborn cub, one 
healthy, both of the normal orange color, but a tragic outbreak of 
panleukopenia (feline distemper) in the lion house in August caused 
the death of two of Mohini's first three cubs, including the white one, 
before it could be brought under control. 

Through a grant from the National Institutes of Health, the Zoo 
obtained additional closed-circuit television equipment and a TV tape 
recorder, and was able to record the births of Mohini's cubs, the 
giraffe, and the Nile hippopotamus. The tapes will be valuable in 
future studies of animal behavior. 

Throughout the year efforts were made to obtain animals to pair 
with single ones in the collection. Mates were obtained for 25 mam- 
mals and birds, five of which are on the endangered species list. 

Exchanges 

In October 1965 zoologist Marion P. McCrane personally escorted 
a male pygmy hippopotamus and four Virginia white-tailed deer to 
the National Zoological Gardens in Pretoria, South Africa. While in 
South Africa she had an opportunity to visit zoos, museums, aquariums, 
game reserves and national parks. She returned with animals given in 
exchange by the Pretoria Zoo: a pair of aardwolves, the first at the 
Zoo in 35 years; a male serval to mate with two females already in the 
collection (seven kittens have been born since his arrival); a caracal; 
a pair of black-footed cats, the first ever exhibited here; suricates; 
flightless rails, and two rare species of parrot — Meyer's and the Cape 
parrot, never exhibited here before. 

Gifts 

An unusually welcome gift came from Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, who 
on January 12 received the Distinguished Service Award of the Na- 
tional Wildlife Federation. The award was accompanied by a check 
for $1000, which she graciously gave to the National Zoological Park 
for the bcautification of the Connecticut Avenue vehicular entrance. 




At her first peek at the big hippo pool, 
Loo-Seal gets encouragement from veteri- 
narian Clinton W. Gray. 




an eager pupil and takes to water 
a — sea lion. 




A DAY IN THE LIFE 

OF A BABY SEA LION 







Some buoying up. more encouragement 




}v£ftg^JL 



-*- 




and she's soloiiw on her own 



-*v 




ops! 



'hi eh rales an affectionate "Well done/" from 
Mrs. Davis. (Photos in left column by Frank 
Hoy, Washington Post; right column by Randolph 
Routt, \ Washington Evening Star.) 




IPPUpqipniH 






Top left: Black-footed cat (F^/u 
nigripes) of South Africa, one of the 
smallest and rarest felines. The pads 
of its feet are jet black. Left center: 
Aardwolf {Protcles cristatus), one of a 
pair from the National Zoological 
Gardens of South Africa, in Pretoria. 
The bushy tail and back crest of this 
member of the hyena family caused 
the Boers to call it the "maned 
jackal." Lower left: Cecelia, female 
Masai giraffe, is the first giraffe born 
at the Zoo since 1957. Above: One 
of three serval kittens hand-reared by 
Mrs. Janet Davis, medical technolo- 
gist in the animal hospital, sits on top 
of the new closed-circuit TV tape- 
recording equipment. 






New animals from Madagascar. Top: Ring-tailed mongooses {Galidia eiegans), 
or vontsiras, the first of these rare viverrines ever exhibited here. Above left: 
A pair of rare fanalokas (Fossa fossa), the Zoo's first, are found only on the 
island. They were acquired along with other prized Madagascar fauna by 
resident scientist John Eisenberg. Above right: Gloves protect hands from 
the sharp prickly spines of this large Madagascar hedgehog (Setifer setosus). 
Below: A lesser Oriental civet (Viverricula indica), introduced on the island 
many years ago. 



S****3fK .***■-■ 




-' : 




Top left: Caroline, first Brasilian tapir 
(Tapirus terrestris) born at the Zoo in many 
years. It was named for Miss Caroline 
Jarvis of the Zoological Society of London, 
editor of the International Zoo Yearbook 
(photo by Tom Kelley, Washington Post). 
Top right: One of the smaller Madagascar 
chameleons {Chamaeleo lateralis). Right: First 
orangutan born in the National Zoo and 
mother Jennie. Named Atjeh by Smith- 
sonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley for a 
province in Sumatra where orangutans 
occur. The Zoo has now successfully bred 
all four kinds of great apes — -gibbons, 
orangutans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. 



if ■ ! 




Below: The Zoo's nucleus herd of sitka deer in one of eight shady paddocks 
in the Deer Area, near the Connecticut Avenue pedestrian entrance. Com- 
pleted in November 1965, the area is gradually being stocked. 




NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 157 

Mrs. Johnson visited the Zoo and consulted with the director, the 
engineer, and the head gardener. The planting at this entrance has 
now been completed. 

The largest gift of the year was a collection of tropical birds from 
Woodward & Lothrop, a Washington department store. The birds, 
collected in Central and South America and West Africa by Kerry 
Muller, manager of the Zoo's bird division, and George Payne, dis- 
play manager for the store, were used for a month-long "fashion on 
the wing" display. Crowds came to see the brightly lighted store 
windows, where stately flamingos, roseate spoonbills, iridescent sun- 
birds, and sugar birds appeared in natural-habitat settings. At the 
end of the month the whole collection, including many rare species and 
numbering 436 birds, was presented to the National Zoo. 

Another spectacular collection, consisting of 65 birds of 42 species, 
was given to the Zoo by the artist Edward Marshall Boehm, noted for 
his ceramic figures of birds. All were valuable, but outstanding were 
the dusky lory, Vaal River white eye, Australian fairy blue wren, 
pavonine trogon, and Coleto starling. 

A magnificent hyacinthine macaw named "Gainsborough" was 
given the Zoo by Princess Belosselsky of New York. This species of 
macaw had not been exhibited here for many years. 

The gifts of birds mentioned above were especially appreciated in 
view of the recently remodeled bird house and the great outdoor flight 
cage opened to the public on July 18, 1965. This soaring, imaginative, 
walk-through aviary has been extremely popular with visitors, who 
now can stroll past splashing waterfalls and landscaped shrubbery 
while they watch the birds close at hand, with no barriers between 
people and the flash of wings. 

The U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit no. 3 in Cairo, Egypt, 
through the efforts of Dr. Harry Hoogstraal, a long-time friend of the 
Zoo, collected and shipped a number of interesting reptiles and other 
animals. 

Research 

Recognizing the importance of the original Congressional mandate 
establishing the National Zoological Park "for the advancement of 
science," the Zoo throughout its history has made many contributions 
to scientific knowledge. The emphasis on science was strengthened 
by the formal organization last year of a division of research and by 
the appointment on September 1, 1965, of Dr. John F. Eisenberg as 
resident scientist. The staff of the research division also includes 
Mrs. Wyotta Holden as secretary and Eugene Maliniak as assistant. 
The latter has been for many years in charge of the small mammal house 



158 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

and has a keen interest in small mammals. Temporary research 
facilities have been constructed in the basement of the lion house. 

Eisenberg also serves as research associate professor at University 
of Maryland department of zoology, which is headed by Dr. George 
Anastos, and there he offers graduate courses and supervises a graduate 
research program. 

During the past year Eisenberg presented research papers at the 
International Ethological Congress in Zurich, at the University College 
at Nairobi, and at the 1 966 meeting of the American Society of Mam- 
malogists. He submitted for publication two research papers: "The 
Behavior of Ateles geoffroyi and Related Species" and "Notes on the 
Ecology, Behavior, and Reproduction of Some Tenrecoid Insectivores." 

From January through April 1966, Eisenberg participated as co- 
investigator with Edwin Gould of Johns Hopkins University in an 
ecological and behavioral study of the tenrecoid insectivores of 
Madagascar. From his field camp there he was able to send to the 
Zoo a number of fine specimens, including a fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), 
the second of the only two specimens ever exhibited in the United 
States, both at the National Zoo. The new acquisition is thought to 
be the only one now on exhibit in any zoo in the world. Other valuable 
additions to the collection are a pair of fanalokas (Fossa fossa) and three 
vontsiras, or Madagascar ring-tailed mongooses (Galidia elegans), which 
have never been seen in the Zoo before. All of these are members of the 
family Viverridae. In addition, 25 living specimens of tenrec of 7 
different species were sent back to the Zoo. Most of them will be kept 
in the research division for further studies. This field work has resulted 
in the first basic ecological data for several genera of tenrecs, including 
the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), the lowland streaked tenrec 
(Hemicentetes semispinosus), and the highland streaked tenrec (H. nigriceps). 
In addition, range extensions for Fossa fossa and H. nigriceps were 
established. 

For the murine opossum {Marmosa sp.) and the hedgehog tenrec 
(Echinops telfairi) the gestation period, on the basis of three pregnancies, 
was determined by Maliniak and Eisenberg to be less than 17 days for 
the opossum and 62 to 68 days for the tenrec. The tiny murine 
opossum, unlike the common opossum, has no pouch, and the numerous 
young, as many as 18 in a litter, can be seen hanging to the mother 
like a bunch of grapes. 
Current research projects at the National Zoological Park are : 

1 . Studies of thermoregulation and hibernation in the tenrecs of 
the genera Microgale, Hemic entetes, Setifer, Echinops, and Centetes (with 
E. Maliniak). 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 159 

2. Social behavior of microtine rodents under varying population 
densities (with G. McKay). 

3. Studies of social behavior and communications in the marmoset 
species Saguinus oedipus and S. geoffroyi (= spixii) (with Miss N. Mucken- 
hirn) . 

4. Studies on the social behavior and on the ontogeny of behavior 
among selected species of Caviomorph rodents (with N. Smythe). 

5. Basic studies on the behavior of mammals during parturition 
(in conjunction with Dr. Clinton W. Gray). 

Information and Education 

The information and education section, continuing its sign and label 
making program, completed 437 animal identification labels, 167 sup- 
porting signs (safety, building and construction signs, etc.), and 
232 other visual information projects. Natural history and Park 
information were disseminated by telephone and correspondence. 
Guided tours were conducted for groups of handicapped children, 
for classes from schools and colleges, personnel from other zoos, and 
for special guests and dignitaries. 

In addition to these activities, the section handled public relations 
(press, radio, television, etc.), prepared articles and literature Re- 
publication and distribution, and provided liaison between the Zoo 
and volunteer groups interested in aiding it. 

The information and education section and the veterinary section 
collaborated with the National Educational Television Association in 
the production of a 30-minute educational TV program on zoo veteri- 
nary medicine, to be aired in late summer or early fall, 1966. 

Friends of the National Zoo 

The Friends of the National Zoo continued their interest and 
helpfulness. Their education committee, with the assistance and 
cooperation of the Zoo's section on information and education, pre- 
pared an information brochure on the Zoo and an educational aid 
packet for distribution in the District school system and to all interested 
groups. This was something the Zoo had long needed and has met 
with a welcome response from teachers in District of Columbia elemen- 
tary public schools. 

The Friends were invited to a preview of the great flight cage on 
the evening of July 17, and held their annual meeting and election of 
officers in the Zoo cafeteria on April 28. 



160 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Construction and Improvements 

In fiscal year 1966 the Smithsonian Institution Appropriation Act 
contained an item of $1,539,000 for capital improvements at the 
National Zoological Park, including a hospital-research building and 
service buildings (mechanical shop, automotive garage, property supply 
building, and greenhouse). 

A landscape architect was engaged last year at the recommendation 
of the Fine Arts Commission to restudy the entire master plan, and 
design and construction of the hospital-research-service area have been 
delayed until preliminary phases of the restudy are completed. The 
designs for these buildings, completed by architect Alan Jacobs, have 
been approved by the Fine Arts Commission and the National Capital 
Planning Commission, and construction is expected to begin in late 
fall 1966. 

On the recommendation of the Fine Arts Commission, the area 
south and east from the location of the proposed giraffe house (the 
present artificial "sheep mound") to Rock Creek is to be designed as 
a unified plan, including landscaping and exterior architecture. 
Upon approval of preliminary (feasibility) plans, the detailed plans and 
construction designs of the multiclimate house for this area will proceed. 

On June 13 the President of the United States, using his authority 
under the Reorganization Act, sent to Congress Reorganization Plan 
No. 4 of 1966, in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949. 
This plan will transfer the responsibility for construction within the 
Zoo from the District of Columbia to the Smithsonian Institution. 

In preparation for this transfer the General Services Administration 
has, at the request of the District of Columbia, already taken over 
the administration of the present design contract and will in the future 
supervise construction in the Zoo. 

Construction continues within the Zoo. The great flight cage was 
completed and opened to the public on July 18. Almost a third of the 
exhibition area has been under construction. Parking lot F, near the 
waterfowl pond, was completed and was accepted on September 16, 
1965. It accommodates 260 automobiles and 24 buses. The new 
electrical transformer station was completed, and installation of the 
electrical switch gear is underway. The new gas-fired boiler at the 
bird house was completed and placed in service. 

The trunk sewers and retention basin, authorized under the Phase II 
program, were started on January 4, 1966, and will undoubtedly be 
completed on schedule. The present exhibition of sea lions and canines, 
the beaver pool, and the silver gull cage have been withdrawn from 
public exhibition during the sewer construction. 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 161 

The deer area, consisting of 6 exhibition paddocks and 2 reserve 
paddocks, served by 5 houses, was completed and accepted in 
November. There was some work to be completed by the Zoo staff 
and because of inclement weather animals were not moved in until 
early spring. Dedication will take place at the same time as the hoofed- 
stock areas. This area, with its large trees, shady hillsides, and wander- 
ing paths gives a most pleasant effect of a private deer park. Because 
of the hilly terrain, moats could not be used, but overlooks are placed 
along the path where visitors may look out and down over the deer. 
In cases where fencing was necessary, a special, inconspicuous wire 
mesh was used. Construction continued on the hardy and delicate 
hoofed-stock areas. 

The Department of the Interior, National Capital Parks, Rock 
Creek Parkway project (which includes the Zoo by-pass, the tunnel 
under Administration Hill, the Harvard Street overpass into the Zoo, 
and the North Parking lot) are nearing completion and are scheduled 
to be completed early in fall 1966. 

Beautification of the Zoo grounds, under the direction of head 
gardener John Monday, continued with the planting of 20 trees, 2300 
evergreens, 50 shrubs, 3000 bulbs, and 3500 annuals and perennials. 
The inside of the new flight cage and the new parking lot "F" were 
landscaped with evergreens. Bulbs, annuals and perennials were used 
in flower beds throughout the Park, giving them color for most months 
of the year. Many bare areas in the Park were seeded, and 400 yards 
of sod put in where seed would have been impractical. 

The work of the department also included a constant watch for dead 
wood that might be dangerous to visitors, employees or animals; felling 
dead trees and trimming others; cutting perches for birds and animals 
and supplying browsers with foliage. 



230-457— GO 14 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Martin H. Moynihan, Director 




'""T'he new name "Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute," replacing 
•*■ the previous "Canal Zone Biological Area," indicates how the 
activities and responsibilities of the bureau are increasing and becoming 
broader in scope. This development, begun some years ago, in 1966 
was marked by the inauguration of several new major programs. The 
Institute is now fully engaged in both research and in education and 
training, as well as in certain aspects of conservation. 

Facilities 

The opening of two marine biology laboratories, one on Naos Island 
(Fort Amador) on the Pacific coast and the other on Galeta Island on 
the Atlantic coast, certainly was the outstanding event of the past year. 
The Naos Island facilities include the "bunker laboratory" and another 
large building (provisionally referred to as "building T-332"). The 
bunker laboratory is completely operational, with a running salt-water 
system, series of small aquaria, and equipment for behavioral and 
ecological studies of small to medium size marine organisms. Work is 
still in progress on building T-332, in which is a series of large tanks, 
29' x 23' x 8' deep, that will be provided with running sea water and 
will be used for studies of large and/or pelagic organisms. The Galeta 
Island building, also being remodelled, will eventually provide much 
the same range of facilities as the bunker laboratory. These new 

163 



164 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

marine facilities are available for use by visiting scientists and students 
in the same way as the Barro Colorado laboratory. 

The existing living accommodations and laboratory were improved 
during the year, and some additional living quarters are being con- 
structed. The Tropical Research Institute also acquired title to 
Orchid Island and two small islets off Buena Vista Point, near the 
shore of Barro Colorado. It is planned to preserve the native fauna 
and flora of these islands ; but they will also be used for certain experi- 
mental programs such as the introduction of certain exotic species of 
mammals from other parts of the tropics. 

Research and Publication 

Most of the subjects investigated by scientists of the Tropical Research 
Institute staff (permanent resident scientists and graduate student 
interns) fall into the fields of evolution, social behavior, communication, 
species diversity, and zoogeography. Unless specifically noted other- 
wise, this research was supported from federal funds appropriated to 
the Smithsonian Institution. 

A. Stanley Rand's studies of the ecology and behavior of iguanid 
lizards are providing information on the various ways in which species 
can partition environmental resources. Among the special topics he 
investigated were nest site competition in Iguana iguana, selective forces 
affecting egg type and clutch size in tropical reptiles in general, 
patterns of distribution of West Indian anoles on small islands, and the 
social organization and spatial distribution of Anolis lineatopas in 
Panama. Rand also expanded his investigation of vocal communica- 
tion in the frog Engystomops pustulosis. The repertory of the species 
has been cataloged, and considerable progress has been made in 
identifying the information encoded in the system. In a paper 
presented at the Symposium on the Biota of the Amazon, held in 
Belem, Brazil,* Rand presented a double hypothesis which may help to 
explain in part the extreme species diversity in the tropics. He sug- 
gested that the formation of search images by predators, in the prey 
recognition process, produces selection pressure in favor of diversity of 
appearance in prey species, and that this pressure is maximal in complex 
environments with many species of both predators and prey. 

Neal G. Smith studied the evolution of adaptations to brood para- 
sitism by certain species of cuckoos, cowbirds and flycatchers, and the 
counter-adaptations of their hosts. These adaptations may include 



*His travel was partly supported by the Association for Tropical Biology. 



TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 165 

elaborate egg mimicry, and behavioral, morphological, and physio- 
logical polymorphism, and must be due to a delicate balance of 
conflicting selection pressures. Progress has been made in identifying 
some of the selective forces involved. He also is making an experi- 
mental analysis of the factors governing the diversity of bird species in 
tropical grasslands. 

Many species of cuckoos are divided into distinct infra-specific 
li egg clans" called "gentes." The females of each subgroup lay eggs 
which differ in appearance (size, shape, color) from those of other 
subgroups of the same species. In the cuckoos that Smith is studying, 
females of a particular gens place their distinctive eggs in the nests 
of hosts which lay eggs of similar size, color, and pattern. During 
the past year, Smith was able to elucidate one of the major proximate 
factors governing egg color discontinuity. The color differences are 
the result of the length of time that the egg remains in the uterus. 
This, in turn, is controlled by a hormone similar to oxytosin. By 
appropriate administration of this hormone and other compounds, 
Smith was able to induce marked changes in the color of the eggs laid 
by free-living cuckoos. This technique has proved useful in determin- 
ing the perceptual limitations which influence a host's ability to dis- 
criminate between its own eggs and those of other species. 

Ira Rubinoff continued studies of the development of reproductive 
isolating mechanisms between allopatric species of Bathygobius from 
the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Panama. He began an experimental 
program, partly supported by a grant from the National Science 
Foundation to Harvard University, that includes attempts at inter- 
specific forced matings as well as controlled artificial hybridization of 
species which have been geographically separated for 6 to 8 million 
years. He presented a paper on geminate species of marine fishes at the 
meetings of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 

In order to trace the movements of species from ocean to ocean and/ 
or from marine waters into Gatun Lake, Rubinoff, assisted by various 
members of the staff, collected fishes stranded in the Gatun Locks of 
the Panama Canal when the locks were drained for overhaul. There 
have been remarkably few studies of this subject in previous years, and 
Rubinoff intends to continue sampling the fishes in the locks whenever 
opportunities arise. 

Director Martin Moynihan continued his study, largely supported 
by a grant from the National Science Foundation, of geographic 
variation in social behavior among Andean birds. Observations over 
the last five years have revealed that different populations of the same 
species of birds have very different social reactions in different parts 



166 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

of the Andes. These variations, certainly not random, are strictly 
correlated with geographic parameters of the regions inhabited. Dif- 
ferent species have adapted (or reacted) to the same parameters in 
different ways. The study of these phenomena is beginning to yield 
a considerable amount of new information about the basic advantages 
and disadvantages of different types of social systems. It should 
increase our understanding of both the distribution of species and the 
natural regulation of population size. 

Moynihan also continued his comparative study of communication 
(acoustic, visual, olfactory, and tactile) in the monkeys, tamarins, 
and marmosets of tropical America. These closely related species, 
a relatively small group, are remarkable in occupying a great variety 
of ecological niches and in using very different types of "language." 
The functional significance of these different types is being elucidated 
by detailed analyses of the structures of the patterns used in the lan- 
guages and their correlation with different environments and ways of 
life. The results contribute to an understanding of the philosophical 
and logical aspects of communication in general, and the evolution 
of communication systems in all primates, including man. 

Robert L. Dressier, on leave for most of the past year, served as 
executive director of the central office of the Association for Tropical 
Biology. In spite of his heavy administrative duties (including 
organization of the Symposium on the Biota of the Amazon), he 
continued research, supported by a grant from the National Science 
Foundation, on pollination relationships in the Orchidaceae, especially 
the relations between orchids of the subtribe Stanhopeinae and bees of 
the tribe Euglossini. Male bees of this tribe, attracted by odor, visit 
the orchids in order to gather some substance from the surface of the 
flowers. Little is known, however, about the nature of the substance 
gathered, or its role in the biology of the bees (although there is some 
evidence that the male bees die if deprived of it for approximately 1 2 
days). That the bees are the exclusive pollinators of the orchids has 
been definitely established. They also are highly specific in their 
visits; most species of orchids are visited by only one or a few species 
of bees. Thus, the adaptations which the orchids have evolved to 
attract the "correct" kind, or kinds, of bees supply the principal 
isolating mechanism between sympatric congeneric species. This 
type of breeding system has the advantage of favoring out-crossing, 
even when individual plants are widely scattered- 
Michael H. Robinson analysed the antipredator adaptations of some 
1 5 species of stick-and-leaf mimicking insects. Among the adaptations 
studied were special protective resemblances (homotypy), startle 
displays, the production of repellent secretions, and generalized escape 



TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 167 

behavior. The efficacy of these devices was tested by using captive 
tamarins (Saguinus geqffroyi) as experimental predators. The curious 
"rocking movements" made by many stick-and-leaf mimicking insects 
have been considered to be a challenge to selection theory, since they 
may render an otherwise concealed insect highly conspicuous to a 
human observer. Robinson's experiments suggest that these move- 
ments are really a behavioral extension of the morphological mimicry, 
and that predators hunting in a natural environment do not respond 
to them because they resemble the passive wind-induced movements 
of non-edible objects, such as twigs and leaves. In the course of his 
experiments, Robinson also collected information on the behavior of 
the tamarins with respect to prey-recognition, searching patterns, and 
methods of prey-capture and eating. 

Nicholas D. Smythe began a study of the ecology and behavior 
of the large caviomorph rodents inhabiting tropical forests. These 
animals are particularly interesting because they are similar in some 
aspects of morphology and ecology to such small ungulates as the 
Old World chevrotains and the small forest antelopes of Africa. (They 
also bear a remarkable superficial resemblance to some primitive and 
extinct forms, such as Eohippus.) Different species of these caviomorphs 
have rather different types of social systems, and Smythe hopes to be 
able to explain the functional significance of these differences by de- 
termining their correlations with particular features of the ecology 
of the species concerned. He has been paying special attention to the 
agouti Dasyprocta punctata and the paca Agouti paca, both of which are 
common on Barro Colorado Island and in many other parts of the Canal 
Zone and the Republic of Panama. He observed their behavior in the 
wild (recording with automatic cameras many intra- and inter-specific 
encounters), and began experimental investigation of some reactions in 
the laboratory. He also made a special study of the fruits eaten by these 
species, the effects of different distributions of fruiting trees and fruiting 
times upon the movements of the rodents, and the possible "reciprocal" 
effects of the activities of the rodents on the distribution of the trees. 

Eugene Morton, was primarily concerned with the environmental 
factors affecting the evolution of acoustic communication in birds. He 
recorded the calls of individual species characteristic of mature forest, 
dense "edge" and second-growth forest, grasslands, and the environs of 
rapid-flowing streams, analyzed the physical characteristics of these 
sounds, and then determined their function as signals. He also 
recorded ambient background sounds for use in signal-to-noise ratio 
calculations that will enable him to identify the frequencies most 
conveniently available for communication purposes. In his study of 
the general sound propagation characteristics of the four environments 



168 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

cited above, he is using pure tones and random noise bands at ^-octave 
intervals up to 15 kc. to determine sound attenuation per unit distance 
from the sound source. This will be compared with attenuation of 
sound under "standard" conditions of air density, temperature, etc. 
(One rather surprising result has already emerged: certain ranges of 
frequencies have been found to attenuate less in nature than under 
ideal laboratory conditions, apparently due to environmental 
resonance.) During this last phase of the project, Morton will seek to 
determine the amplitude of natural sounds at their sources. 

When the results of all this work are available, it should be possible 
to distinguish between many of the aspects of bird sounds which are 
purely or primarily adaptations to the "conducting" properties of the 
environment (devices to ensure that the signal reaches potential re- 
ceivers) and those designed to produce correct responses by receivers 
(that encode all or most of the relevant information in the signal). 

John Oppenheimer recently began a study of the white-faced monkey 
Cebus capucinus on Barro Colorado. Monkeys of the genus Cebus are 
particularly interesting because they are convergent toward the best 
known monkeys of the Old World (genus Macaco) in many aspects of 
behavior, structure, and ecology; they are highly gregarious; some of 
their social reactions appear to be unusually complex under the 
conditions of captivity (although not necessarily in the wild); and 
because they have been found to be remarkably "intelligent" in solving 
certain types of problems and in tool-using. Oppenheimer is paying 
special attention to such subjects as the structure of groups, intra- 
and inter-specific reactions, diet, and predator evasion tactics. 

Begun late last year was a study by Martin G. Naumann of the 
bionomics of three closely related species of wasps of the genus Pro- 
topolybia. Although social wasps are a conspicuous and particularly 
impressive part of the fauna of the Neotropical region, relatively little 
is known about them. Many earlier observations of them were brief 
and casual, and our knowledge of their seasonal activities and nesting" 
cycles is most incomplete. 

Naumann seeks to measure seasonal fluctuations in nesting activity 
and population size, with special attention to the effects of brood pro- 
duction and caste composition upon the development of the social 
organization of nests. Initial surveys were made on Barro Colorado 
and neighboring areas of the mainland, and within one nest of Proto- 
polybia pumila oviposition, larval development, and queen-worker inter- 
actions were studied by the use of transparent insertions in the nest 
covering. 

The number of visiting scientists and students using facilities of the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute increased last year to over 134. 





Top: Laboratory-library building at Barro Colorado Island with main 
animal house, right, and animal cage, left. Center: A laboratory room. 
Below: Part of the library. 



A-*?5 jffl 


Ifc 






. 



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i 


W ' 


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'■■' -«•-." 


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Top: Grassy habitat on western bank of Canal Zone near Pedro Miguel locks. 
Center: Second-growth forest near Gamboa. Below: Hillside NNE. of 
laboratory clearing. Flowering and fruiting times of all trees on this slope 
are beinar recorded. 




TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 169 

Mention of a few of their projects illustrates the range of activities 
which the Institute has been able to facilitate, encourage, or support. 

Theodore Bullock and Alan Grinnell, of the University of California 
at Los Angeles, during an entire summer on Barro Colorado, set up a 
temporary but rather sophisticated neurophysiological laboratory to 
study the peculiar electric signals emitted by knife-fishes of the family 
Gymnotidae, which live in rather murky habitats where visibility 
tends to be poor. The experiments indicate that at least some of the 
electric signals are used in social communication. 

Eric Davidson of Rockefeller University collected anurans for use 
in his studies of gene activity in oogenesis. Examination of such species 
as Bufo typhonius, Phyllomedusa calladryas, Engystomops pustulosus, and 
Leptodactylus pentadactylas, found to provide particularly useful and 
convenient material, is yielding new information about relative rates 
of RNA synthesis in oocyte nucleoli and lampbrush chromosomes, and 
has suggested new experiments on possible DNA synthesis in the nu- 
cleoli (which would be partial genomic replication, and a rather novel 
phenomenon). 

T. C. Schneirla of the American Museum of Natural History and 
Ralph Buchsbaum of the University of Pittsburgh were involved in a 
dual field project. Schneirla continued his studies (begun in the 1930 7 s) 
of army ants on Barro Colorado Island. With Buchsbaum and their 
associates, he also made a film for the educational division of the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Other scientists also returned to continue or resume long-term 
investigations begun in earlier years. Charles F. Bennett, Jr., and 
E. O. Willis, of the American Museum of Natural History, may be 
cited as examples. Bennett collected various kinds of microclima to- 
logical data on Barro Colorado Island. This work is part of a major 
study of the evolution of neotropical forests (including the effects of 
different human societies upon both the forests and the animals 
inhabiting them) which is providing new information and insights for 
both biologists and workers in other disciplines. Willis continued his 
observations of forest birds, especially the species which follow army 
ants. The complex of relations among these species, between the birds 
and the ants, and between both birds and ants and other species more 
or less frequently associated with ant columns, provides unusually 
favorable opportunities for quantitative as well as qualitative analyses 
of ecology and behavior. 

The broad subject which attracted the largest single group of visitors 
with similar interests was, not unexpectedly, species diversity. Among 
the scientists concentrating on this problem were Robert H. MacArthur 
of Princeton, Peter Klopfer of Duke, Martin Cody of the University of 



170 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Pennsylvania, and Joseph Connell of the University of California at 
Berkeley. MacArthur and Cody censused bird populations in a 
variety of habitats in order to test the predictive validity of hypotheses 
derived from earlier studies in the middle latitudes. Klopfer studied 
several aspects of bird behavior in the hope of detecting widespread, 
general differences between tropical and temperate species which might 
help to explain variations in diversity. Connell studied diversity 
among forest trees and the invertebrates of the coral reef near the 
Galeta Island marine laboratory. 

A comprehensive over-all plan for the future research activities of the 
Tropical Research Institute, now being discussed with scientists both 
inside and outside the Smithsonian, envisages a gradual expansion of 
research, largely along lines already established, but with some changes 
of emphasis. The problem of the relationship between species diversity 
and evolutionary success is to be attacked by means of a relatively 
large number of coordinated research projects. Special efforts to 
encourage investigations of groups of organisms previously ignored will 
result next year in studies of land crabs and cephalopods. And the 
program of collecting basic information on the physical environment 
is to be expanded by monitoring a greater variety of parameters. 

Staff Publications 

Publications by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute staff 
are only a small part of the literature based wholly or partly upon the 
results of research at the Institute facilities. Smithsonian Information 
Leaflet 281 (rev. August 1965), "Bibliography of Papers pertaining to 
the Natural History of Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone," lists 
most of the earlier publications based on such work, and a bibliography 
of the more recent work is in preparation. Both are available on 
request. 
Moynihan, M. Display patterns of tropical American "nine- 

primaried" songbirds. IV. The yellow-rumped tanager. Smith- 
sonian Misc. Coll., vol. 149, no. 5, 34 pp., 1966. 
Rubinoff, I. Mixing oceans and species. Natural History vol. 74, 

pp. 69-72, 1965. 
. Gymnothorax galetae, a new moray eel from the Atlantic coast 

of Panama. Breviora no. 242, pp. 1-4, 1966. 
. Distributional and ecological relationships of Panamanian 

shore fishes. Yearbook Amer. Phil. Soc. (1965), pp. 346-349, 

1966. 
and Mead, G. W. Avocettinops yanot, a new nemichthid eel 

from the southern Indian Ocean. Breviora, no. 243, pp. 1-7. 

1966. 



TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 171 

Smith, N. G. Adaptations to cliff -nesting in some arctic gulls. Ibis, 

vol. 108, pp. 68-83, 1966. 
. Evolution of some arctic gulls (Larus) : an experimental study 

of isolating mechanisms. Amer. Ornith. Union, Monogr. Ser. 

no. 4, pp. 1-99, 1966. 

Staff Changes 

Dr. Ira Rubinoff joined the Tropical Research Institute staff in July 
1965. He is continuing his long-term research on Panamanian inshore 
marine fishes (see below), and has taken charge of the marine lab- 
oratories. 

A number of scientists interested in various aspects of the tropics 
have been made honorary research associates of the Tropical Research 
Institute, with the expectation that they will act as a panel to provide 
expert advice and assistance in developing new research projects and 
programs. The group includes Professor Ernst Mayr, Director of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University; Dr. Martin 
Young, Director of the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory; Dr. Robert H. 
Mac Arthur, of the Department of Biology, Princeton University; Dr. 
Giles W. Mead, Curator of Fishes, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Harvard University; Dr. Charles F. Bennett, Jr. of the Department of 
Geography, University of California at Los Angeles; Dr. W. John 
Smith of the Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania; and 
Mr. C. C. Soper, former Director of the Eastman Kodak Tropical 
Laboratory. It is planned to enlarge this group to include distinguished 
Latin American scientists. 

Education and Training 

The cooperative fellowship program established by the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute and the Scientific and Educational Divi- 
sion of the Organization of American States became operational last 
year. The first Fellows appointed were Mr. Maximo Galvez of Peru 
and Mr. Estanislau da Silveira of Brazil. Stationed on Barro Colorado 
Island, they are learning modern techniques, of field biology under 
the guidance of the resident members of the Institute staff. 

Arrangements were made with the Organization for Tropical Studies* 
to provide working space, some services, and other forms of assistance 



*A consortium of the University of Costa Rica and the following North American 
Universities: California, Florida, Georgia, Harvard, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana 
State, Miami, Michigan, Southern California, Texas A & M, and Washington. 



172 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

(including some teaching) for an introductory course in tropical biology. 
Increasingly close cooperation with the University of Panama is being 
planned. Dr. Rubinoff has been appointed consultant in marine 
biology in the University of Panama - cooperative Central American 
training program. 

The senior members of the Institute's scientific staff are assisting, 
and to some extent directing the work of, the graduate student interns. 
They also provide occasional, informal guidance to visiting students 
from other institutions. 

Conservation 

Effort to prevent poaching and disturbance of the forest on Barro 
Colorado Island should be further helped next year when the staff of 
wardens will be augmented. 

The few species of animals which disappeared from Barro Colorado 
before it was set aside as a reserve are being re-introduced whenever 
possible. A program for the protection of the coral reef and other 
marine organisms near Galeta Island has been instituted with the 
cooperation of the U.S. Navy. 

Members of the bureau staff also are providing advice and technical 
assistance, when requested, to Latin American governments and 
public authorities developing plans for biological reserves and national 
parks. 

Acknowledgments 

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute can operate only with 
the excellent cooperation of the Canal Zone Government and the 
Panama Canal Company, the U.S. Army and Navy, and the govern- 
ment authorities of the Republic of Panama. Thanks are due especially 
to Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone Paul M. Runnestrand and 
his staff; the customs and immigration officials of the Canal Zone; 
the dredging division and police division of the Panama Canal Com- 
pany; Major General James D. Alger, Commander, U.S. Army Forces 
Southern Command; the late Rear Admiral Louis A. Bryan, Com- 
mander, U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command; Lt. Col. William 
Barron, Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4; Lt. Commander K. L. Robinson, 
Commanding Officer Naval Security Group; Mr. Thomas P. McGann, 
supervisor engineering technician, Navy Public Works Department: 
Mr. Martin J. Hayes, Army Assistant Post Engineer; the U.S. Army 
Maintenance Division; and the Eastman Kodak Company. 



Radiation Biology Laboratory 

W. H. Klein, Director 




All biological systems, from the unicellular through the spectrum 
of multicellular organisms to entire ecosystems, or for that matter 
the biosphere itself, can be thought of as open-ended thermodynamic 
systems through which energy flows. The primary source of all energy 
for these diverse biological systems is, of course, solar radiation. 

During the past year the Radiation Biology Laboratory has con- 
tinued to direct its research efforts toward understanding the 
mechanisms by which radiant energy is absorbed, converted to potential 
chemical energy, and then utilized by cells for growth and differentia- 
tion. Within this general framework the current research of the labo- 
ratory is in four general areas: 

1. Regulatory biology — physiology of photomorphogenic re- 

sponses, 

2. Regulatory biology — biochemical mechanisms, 

3. Measurement of solar radiation, and 

4. Carbon dating — measurements and research techniques. 

Physiology of Photomorphogenic Responses 

In the general area of photomorphogenesis, chloroplast differentiation 
is being studied with particular reference to protein synthesis. Chloro- 
plasts of etiolated leaves increase in protein content when the leaves 
are placed in the light. There is good reason to believe that this in- 

173 

230-457—66^—15 



174 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

crease in chloroplast protein is catalyzed by the chloroplast itself. 
A routine preparative procedure for chloroplasts has been developed 
for isolating bean-leaf plastids which are undergoing light-dependent 
development and thus are carrying out synthesis of protein. The 
plastid-containing homogenate is essentially cell-free and incorporates 
radioactive amino acids into cold trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material. 
This incorporation, which may partly represent incorporation into 
protein, undoubtedly is partially due to formation of amino-acyl RNA. 
However, the 1000 x g pellet fraction accounts for only a lesser part of 
the incorporating activity of the homogenate fractions, although it has 
the highest specific activity. The incorporation by this fraction is 
highly dependent on the presence of an ATP generating system. 

Radioactive amino acid (leucine) is incorporated into the 1000 x g 
pellet fraction even when TCA-precipitable material is extracted with 
hot TCA. Some of the radioactivity precipitated by cold TCA is 
removed by this treatment, indicating formation of both protein and 
amino-acyl RNA. The incorporation of radioactivity into precipitates 
extracted with hot TCA usually stops after 30 to 60 minutes. Incorpo- 
ration is not carried out in heated chloroplasts. Rates of 5 to 50 
m/x mole leucine/mg protein/hour have been obtained, calculated from 
the specific activity of the leucine supplied. 

The 1000 x g fraction contains numerous chloroplasts. In addition, 
starch grains and particles about 1^ in length, the latter probably 
mitochondria, are also present, both being more numerous than 
chloroplasts. Wall fragments and whole cells are present as minor 
contaminants; nuclei have not been seen. 

Bacteria account for only a small portion of the observed incorpora- 
tion activity. Experiments with Triton x 100 indicate that most of the 
activity is in the supernatant after centrifugation at 6000 x g. If the 
label had been incorporated into bacterial protein, it would have been 
recovered in the pellet. 

Similarly, in experiments in which the reaction mixture is centrifuged 
in a density gradient, little incorporated activity is found in the region 
where nuclei would be expected. Ribosomes are probably not respon- 
sible for the observed incorporation, since the specific activity of the 
chloroplast-containing fraction with regard to incorporating activity is 
higher than that of the ribosome fraction, and incorporation by the 
chloroplast-containing fraction is insensitive to RNAase. The distri- 
bution of incorporated radioactivity follows the distribution of chloro- 
phyll. Further, when chloroplasts are fixed after incorporation and 
are autoradiographed, the chloroplasts produce a higher grain count 
than chloroplasts fixed before incorporation. Tims, the preliminar) 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 175 

conclusion is reached that the incorporation into protein of radioactive 
leucine by the chloroplast-containing fraction is associated with the 
chloroplasts. The extent of chloroplast involvement in the incorpora- 
tion of amino acid is being determined. 

Biochemical Mechanisms 

Work has continued on the detection of early biochemical changes 
that may be correlated with photomorphogenic stimulation. One of 
the observations made during the survey of tracer distribution in 
various metabolite fractions obtained from light-treated corn-leaf 
tissue, was an indication of a light-stimulated utilization of phosphate. 
Experiments were performed in which corn leaf sections were first 
irradiated, then immediately transferred to a solution of glucose and 
phosphate (P 32 ) substrate, and the specific activity of organic phos- 
phates in extracts were determined at various times. A consistently 
higher specific activity was found at all points on the time course in 
light-treated samples. However, technical difficulties have prevented 
a conclusive demonstration of an early phytochrome-associated increase 
in phosphate turnover rates. Experiments are continuing to elucidate 
the nature of this response. 

Phytochrome, a protein common to many plants, is known to be the 
pigment involved in photomorphogenesis. Although phytochrome has 
been partially purified from Avena by other laboratories, it was not 
completely purified from any source, and consequently, very little was 
known about the physical and chemical characteristics of the molecule. 
A successful method for the isolation of pure phytochrome has been 
developed in our laboratory and, in collaboration with Edward 
Steers, Jr., and J. R. Suriano of the National Institutes of Health, data 
have been obtained on pure phytochrome. 

The pigment is extracted from 4-day-old, etiolated annual rye shoots, 
and purified 200-fold by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chro- 
matography on calcium phosphate and DEAE-cellulose. The final 
product sedimented in a Spinco Model E ultracentrifuge as a single 
boundary with an S 20 w of approximately 9.5. Treatment with 
sodium dodecylsulfate resulted in the formation of monomers with a 
tentative S value of 1.8 and a molecular weight of approximately 
36,000. No free sulfhydryl or disulfide groups were found by amino- 
acid analyses, indicating that the monomers comprising the native 
aggregate are held together through noncovalent bonds. There are 
about 100 trypsin-sensitive bonds (lysine-farginine) per 100,000 
molecular weight units, or about 36 per subunit. Phytochrome also has 



176 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

an excess of dicarboxylic amino acids over basic amino acids. It is 
not known how many of these carboxyl groups are amidated, but it is 
likely that phytochrome has a net negative charge at pH 7. 

Phytochrome is completely excluded by Sephadex G— 100 (exclusion 
limit: 100,000) and it is not excluded by G-200 (exclusion limit: 
200,000). Sephadex G— 150 almost completely excludes phytochrome. 
This would indicate that phytochrome has a molecular weight near 
150,000 if it does not interact with the dextran and if it is a perfect 
hydrodynamic sphere. 

The purified phytochrome, after saturation irradiation at 730 rmx, 
had an E|* of 6.9 at 277 m M , 0.87 at 376 m/z, and 2.2 at 662 m M . 
This form, excited at 290 m/x, fluoresced at 340 m/z and at 672 m/z. 
Excitation at 370 m/z produced fluorescence at 672 m/z. After saturation 
irradiation at 660 m/z, phytochrome had an E le L of 6.9 at 277 m/z, 
0.72 at 386 m/z, and 1.15 at 730 m/z. 

A study of growth and phototropism of moss protonema has been 
initiated in our laboratory. The interest in a protonemal system lies 
in the fact that the stimulus and response take place in a single uni- 
nucleate cell. Potentially, it may be a simpler system than the multi- 
cellular or coenocytic cells commonly used in studying photogrowth 
responses. 

Preliminary experiments have been initiated to determine action 
spectra for photogrowth and phototropism. Protonemata of the 
clone of Physcomitrium pyriforme do not grow in darkness when supplied 
adequate carbohydrate substrates. All visually detectable growth 
ceases within a few minutes after removal from the light and resumes 
within a few minutes after reexposure. Growth of the protonema is 
apical, and switching from diffuse equilateral to unilateral light resulted 
in a sharp elbow-like bend as the filament continued its growth toward 
the light source. This behavior implies that phototropism of the 
protonema involves a shifting of the whole apical growing zone to a 
new lateral region rather than causing a differential growth between 
the two sides, as is commonly observed in fungi. 

Both growth and tropism in this moss are supported by red light in 
a broad spectral region from 610 to 730 m/z. Detailed action spectra 
for both responses are being determined. Physcomitrium differs in its 
phototropic response in that there appears to be little or no activity 
in the blue region of the spectrum. The action spectra for growth 
and tropism are similar. 

Spectrophotometric measurements of the light-sensitive sporangio- 
phores of Phycomyces have continued and the absorption maxima for 
light and dark adapted sporangiophores have been found to be sur- 
prisingly constant (near 0.14 O.D. at 475 m/z) during and following 




Radiation Biology Laboratory: David L. Correll collecting fractions of 
nucleic acids from marine viruses. Below: Franco Parenti, Visiting Re- 
search Associate from the University of Milan, performing a spectrophoto- 
metric analysis of protein from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) chloroplasts by the 
Folin-Ciocalteau method. 





Radiation Biology Laboratory: Austin Long with electronic counter, carbon- 
dating laboratory. Below: Bernard J. Nebel determining orientation of 
growth of Physcomitnum sp. as influenced by exposure to two unilateral light 
sources. 




RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 177 

various light stimuli. To date, no absorption shifts (±0.001 O.D.) 
following saturating pulse or step-up light stimuli have been observed, 
even though these same stimuli produced well-defined growth responses 
in the sporangiophores being measured. 

The temperature characteristics for the phototropic response to 
continuous unilateral stimuli and growth responses to pulse stimuli 
have been determined. The temperature optimum for both responses 
occurs at 20±1°C while the maximum growth rate occurs between 
15 and 20°C. Well-defined growth responses occur over the tempera- 
ture range of 5° to 25°C with no marked temperature dependence. 
However, the responses as well as growth disappear rapidly at tempera- 
tures of 30°C or higher. 

Ribonucleic acids isolated from a variety of organisms have been 
shown to contain 2 / -0-methylribonucleotides. The functional role of 
such 0-methyl derivatives is not known. An attempt has been made 
to study the biosynthesis of the 2'-0-methyl group of the RNA con- 
tained in a ribonucleoprotein particle produced by Saprospira grandis. 
This organism is a saprophytic marine flexi-bacterium which produces 
large amounts of a rod-shaped, virus-like particle currently called the 
rhapidosome. The RNA of rhapidosomes is at least 85% 2'-0-methyl- 
ated. This fact, coupled with the large amount of rhapidosomes 
produced and their ease of isolation, makes it an ideal system for the 
study of 2'-0-methyl-RNA. 

Utilizing radioactive substrate precursors, which the saprophyte 
Saprospira would be expected to incorporate, cells grown on 14 C-methyl- 
methionine for many generations released rhapidosome particles which 
were highly radioactive. However, the radioactivity was almost 
entirely in the protein portion. Similarly, using 14 C-methyl-betaine 
and 14 C-methyl-choline, no incorporation into 2 / -0-methyl group was 
found. 

In vivo incorporation of 14 C0 2 , 14 C-Formate and 14 C-formaldehyde 
was tested. These compounds are potential precursors of one carbon- 
N 5 -derivatives of tetrahydrofolic acid at various oxidation states. No 
incorporation into the 2 / -0-methyl group was found with formate or 
formaldehyde, but tentative evidence of C0 2 incorporation was found. 
Thus, it is indicated that C0 2 can penetrate the cell and is utilized, 
perhaps via formate or formaldehyde which are normally excluded by 
the host cell, in the synthesis of rhapidosome RNA. 

Solar Radiation 

Measurements of total sun and sky radiation have continued, using 
an automatic system sampling once every three minutes for 100 m/z 



178 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

band widths from 0.29 to 2.5 p. Values of each spectral band have 
been obtained, accurate to ±5%. However, it has been consistently 
observed that the calibration factors for the present Hoover detectors 
deviate markedly for early morning and late afternoon readings. A 
comparison Eppley radiometer was installed this year and comparison 
runs were made at all times of day and under variable sky cover 
conditions. Reduction of these data indicates that an independent 
electrical check system must be installed in each of the detectors. 
Therefore, pyranometers which can be directly calibrated against an 
electrical signal are being installed for each band-pass filter system. It 
is anticipated that the accuracy of the measuring systems can be in- 
creased to ±1% by this modification. 

Normal incidence readings for clear-sky days were reduced to the 
top of the atmosphere and a calculation of the solar constant made. 
Within the band pass of the quartz hemisphere the number of langley/ 
min was found to be 2.03 ±0.02. If the radius vector correction 
(a normalized value for the distance from the sun to the earth) was 
applied, the value becomes 2.07 ±0.02. 

On a daily total energy basis, the present automatic data reduction 
system indicates that the red/far-red ratio remains fairly constant, even 
with extremely hazy sky conditions. 

Carbon Dating 

The carbon-dating section of the laboratory has designed and placed 
in service a new 14 C detector which will double the analytical proc- 
essing capability of the laboratory. Also under construction is a new 
methane preparation system that will operate at higher pressures and 
allow faster and more efficient preparation of methane required for 
counting purposes. During the past year more than 80 samples were 
dated. 

Field studies carried on in Arizona, including investigations of the 
Willcox playa in southeastern Arizona, show ancient Lake Cochise to 
have had a much greater extent than previously recognized. The 
carbon-dating section also participated in a tree-ring project with the 
University of Arizona. Analyses of bristlecone pine specimens have 
been made and the dendrochronology has been extended to earlier 
than 4300 B.C. 

During the past year extensive renovations of the Radiation Biology 
Laboratory facilities were made. Several new laboratory areas were 
added, including new dark-room facilities, cold room, chemical 
laboratories, and staff offices. The main laboratory offices were con- 
solidated near the center of the lab, the older sections were repainted, 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 179 

and electrical services were modernized. The shops were moved to 
larger, modernized rooms. At the same time new lighting systems for 
precision control and higher intensity capacity were installed in two 
of the greenhouse environmental-control rooms. With these new 
systems it is anticipated that it will be possible to vary the light intensity 
continuously in a fashion analogous to natural daylight fluctuations, 
while maintaining the spectral quality of the radiation at any predeter- 
mined value. It is expected that these control-room facilities will be 
in operation by the middle of next year. 

Staff Publications 

Correll, David L. Ribonucleic acid-polyphosphate from algae. 
III. Hydrolysis Studies. Plant and Cell Physiol., vol. 6, pp. 
661-669, 1965. 

. Pelagic phosphorus metabolism in Antarctic waters. Limnol. 

Oceanog., vol. 10, pp. 364-370, 1965. 

— . Imidonitrogen in Chlorella "polyphosphate." Science, vol. 



151, pp. 819-821, 1966. 
Damon, Paul E.; Long; Austin; and Grey, Donald C. Fluctuation 

of atmospheric C 14 during the last six millennia. Journ. Geophys. 

Res., vol. 71, pp. 1055-1063, 1966. 
Long, Austin. Smithsonian Institution radiocarbon measurements 

II. Radiocarbon, vol. 7, pp. 245-256, 1965. 
and Mielke, James E. Smithsonian Institution radiocarbon 

measurements III. Radiocarbon, vol. 8, pp. 413-422, 1966. 

-. Techniques of methane production for radiocarbon dating. 



In Proceedings of the Sixth International Radiocarbon and 
Tritium Dating Conference, pp. 666-777, 1966. 

Mitrakos, Konstantinos; Klein, W. H., and Price L. Soluble 
sugar changes in etiolated corn leaf tissue as influenced by red- 
light treatment. Planta, vol. 66, pp. 207-215, 1965. 

Price, Leonard; Mitrakos, K.; and Klein, W. H. Some kinetical 
aspects of light-induced carbohydrate utilization in etiolated leaf 
tissue. Physiol. Plant., vol. 18, pp. 540-549, 1965. 

Shropshire, W., Jr., and Gettens, Rebecca H. Light-induced 
concentration changes of adenosine-triphosphate in Phycomyces 
sporangiophores. Plant Physiol., vol. 41, pp. 203-207, 1966. 

Other Activities 

In August, at the American Institute of Biological Sciences meetings, 
plant physiologist A. M. Steiner presented a paper, "The Influence of 



180 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Red Light on the Distribution of C-14 in Etiolated Corn Leaf Sec- 
tions." Biochemist M. M. Margulies, at the symposium on "Croissance 
et Viellissement des Chloroplasts" in Gorsem, St. Trond, Belgium, 
presented a communication, "Effects of Chloramphenicol on Light- 
dependent Formation of Structure and Proteins of Chloroplasts of 
Phaseolus vulgaris." Assistant Director W. Shropshire in October 
presented a lecture on "Sensory Systems of Phycomyces" to the Bio- 
logical Division of Purdue University, and in December gave two 
lectures and laboratory demonstrations on "Biophysical Methods 
Applicable to Stimulus-Response Systems" at the University of 
Maryland. 

In the proceedings of the annual meetings of the Federation of 
American Society for Experimental Biology (25:3086, 1966) was pub- 
lished an abstract: "Phytochrome: Isolation and Partial Characteriza- 
tion," by David L. Correll, Edward Steers, Jr., J. L. Edwards, J. R. 
Suriano, and W. Shropshire, Jr. 

In May 1966 biochemists F. Parenti and M. M. Margulies presented 
a paper, "Amino Acid Incorporation by a Chloroplast Containing 
Fraction from Developing Bean Leaves," to the Washington Section 
of the American Society of Plant Physiologists at Goucher College, 
Maryland. 

Staff Changes 

Scientists who joined the staff during the year are cytogeneticist 
Te-Hsiu Ma and plant biochemist Robert L. Weintraub. Biochemist 
Francesco Parenti, visiting from the University of Milano, Italy, 
joined the laboratory in October 1965 to work on protein synthesis in 
chloroplasts. A. M. Steiner returned to the Botanical Institute, Uni- 
versity of Freiburg, Germany, in November; Konstantinos Mitrakos 
returned to Greece as Director of the Botanical Institute of the Univer- 
sity of Athens in January 1966; and cytogeneticist Robert W. Rogers 
resigned in May 1966. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Fred L. Whipple, Director 




TT'or the Astrophysical Observatory, 1966 was an anniversary 
■*■ year. Participating in the Bicentennial of James Smithson's birth, 
the Observatory was represented by the Director, who was one of 
the invited lecturers. His paper, "Knowledge and Understanding of 
the Physical Universe as Determinants of Man's Progress," discussed 
the philosophical and sociological factors in science today, presenting 
evidence to support Smithson's thesis "it is in his knowledge that man 
has found his greatness and his happiness." The Observatory also 
commemorated anniversaries — its own 75th and its 10th in Cam- 
bridge — by holding two international symposiums, the Symposium on 
Meteor Orbits and Dust,* 1 and the Aeronomy Symposium on Upper 
Atmosphere Density and Composition (under the auspices of the Inter- 
national Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy). 2 

A milestone was passed by the Observatory with the announcement 
of the Smithsonian Standard Earth. 3 This accurate measure of the 
earth's size and gravitation is the first to incorporate transoceanic 
distances determined with precision on the order of 10 meters. 

A major contribution in the field of positional astronomy is the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog. 3 Compiled and up- 
dated from the best available sources, the data contained in the 
Catalog give positions and motions for a quarter million stars. The 
2600 pages of data were composed in 1 % seconds each by computer, 
thereby avoiding errors and the monstrous task of hand typesetting 
and proofreading. 

*Unless otherwise noted, research is supported from Federal funds appropriated 
to the Smithsonian Institution. The Observatory, by paying scientists' salaries, 
shares in the support of all research. Support from outside sources is detailed in 
notes 1-35 on page 212. 

181 



182 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Meteors and Comets 

Astronomically, it was the year of the Great Comet, Ikeya-Seki. 
A spectacular early morning object, the comet rivaled Halley's and 
was the fourth longest comet ever recorded. Discovered on Septem- 
ber 18, 1965, by two Japanese observers, K. Ikeya and T. Seki, the 
new object, of 8th magnitude, was moving slowly through the con- 
stellation Hydra. 

Its discovery was immediately confirmed on Baker-Nunn photographs 
made by the Smithsonian network of Astrophysical Observing Stations, 
and announced to the world by the Central Bureau for Astronomical 
Telegrams at SAO. 4 A preliminary orbit computed from a series 
of early observations enabled the Director to identify the new comet 
as a member of the "sun-grazing" family that has been producing spec- 
tacular comets from time to time since the 1 7th century. Owen J. Gin- 
gerich, director of the Central Bureau, and Brian G. Marsden quickly 
adapted an existing program to compute orbits and ephemerides. 

With daily predictions computed in Cambridge, the Baker-Nunn 
cameras continued to photograph the comet as it came closer to the 
sun. Brightening steadily, it was visible to the unaided eye during 
the afternoon of October 20 and again the following day. About a 
week later, the comet had developed a tail some 30° long and was a 
brilliant sight in the morning sky. 

Soon after it passed the sun, Comet Ikeya-Seki was observed to have 
broken into several pieces. Shortly before, the Director and Robert P. 
Stefanik had published a new concept of the icy-conglomerate comet 
nucleus to explain this splitting of some comets near perihelion. 
They suggested that early, short-lived radioactivity within such comets 
causes the most volatile materials, such as methane, to move from 
the central area to an outer shell, where they refreeze. This would 
make new comets rather brittle shells, subject to heat shock and 
possible breakage when they first enter the inner parts of the solar 
system and are heated by solar radiation. 

By the end of January, when Comet Ikeya-Seki had grown too faint 
to photograph, the Observatory had secured 998 observations. They 
are now being reduced and analyzed. Richard B. Southworth is 
measuring photographs of Comet Ikeya-Seki and others in two spectral 
regions. 3,5 

Observations of Ikeya-Seki were part of a broader program of 
participation in the International Year of the Quiet Sun. For that 
program, the Observatory is conducting a study of comet brightnesses 
in search of information on the relation between solar radiation and 
cometary phenomena. Although direct correlations of cometary 



METEORS AND COMETS 183 

brightnesses with solar activity are not generally established, the Di- 
rector and Diarmaid H. Douglas-Hamilton have found that observed 
appearances of the nucleus or tail of Comet Encke correlate positively 
with the level of solar activity. This suggests a triggering effect. 
They have also been investigating the slow decay of periodic comet 
brightnesses, particularly that of Comet Encke over the last 180 years. 
This comet appears to be dying slowly and may conceivably disappear 
by the end of the century. 

The Director assisted in the organization and was chairman of the 
Symposium on Nature and Origin of Comets held in Liege, Belgium, in 

July. 

At the Symposium on Meteor Orbits and Dust, 1 the meteorite 
content of the space surrounding the earth was discussed in detail. 
The conference was sponsored jointly by SAO and NASA; Gerald S. 
Hawkins served as chairman. The Observatory presented findings 
from its meteor research program. 6 Based on both radar and optical 
observations, the program is coordinated by Hawkins, with Southworth 
and Richard E. McCrosky as chief investigators. With I. I. Shapiro 
of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Giuseppe Colombo and Don 
A. Lautman presented a study of the forces affecting the motion of 
small dust particles in interplanetary space. They analyzed factors 
that might concentrate dust around the earth, such as gravitational 
focusing, ejection of dust from the moon by meteor impact, and capture 
of dust particles in the earth's gravitational field. They found no 
mechanism that should produce a large concentration of dust near the 
earth. 

The Meteor Radar at Havana, Illinois, was completely refur- 
bished during the year. 7 A new, phase -coherent, 8-station radar 
network has been assembled. More than 200 hours of observations 
have been made with the new system, and some of the data have 
already been reduced. 8 Franco F. Verniani completed a theoretical 
study of the feasibility of measuring atmospheric density and tempera- 
ture at heights between 80 and 100 km through the amplitude decay 
of radar echoes from meteors. Mario D. Grossi, who was responsible 
for the coherent system, is using it for measuring winds continuously 
in the upper atmosphere between 80- and 100-km altitude. 9 

At Wallops Island, two artificial meteors carried aloft by rockets 
were fired into the atmosphere and, for the first time, one was success- 
fully observed by both optical and radar systems. Data from this test 
are being analyzed by McCrosky and Southworth. 

Under the supervision of McCrosky, the Prairie Network has con- 
tinued to operate with increased efficiency during the past year. 10 Over 
300 meteors were photographed simultaneously by two or more of the 



184 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

16 camera stations, a requisite for the determination of the atmospheric 
trajectory and mass of a meteoroid. Approximately a third of the 
meteors were of sufficient duration to allow computation of an accurate 
heliocentric orbit for the body. 

Meteoroids are known to originate from both comets and asteroids. 
A primary purpose of the Network is the observation of extremely 
bright objects that were thought to originate primarily from the 
asteroidal source. These meteroids, consisting of material of relatively 
well-known composition and structure, could supply the needed cali- 
bration to improve our understanding of the corresponding character- 
istics of the cometary matter entering the atmosphere as meteors. 

Orbital information obtained from Prairie Network meteors suggests 
that perhaps a quarter of the brightest objects are of asteroidal origin. 
However, analysis of the trajectory of these bodies suggests with equal 
force that their structure, in many cases, is remarkably like that of the 
fragile, low-density material generally associated with cometary objects. 
The solution of this apparent dilemma is an immediate goal of 
the project. 

Meteorites and Cosmic Dust 

The physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of mete- 
orites are under intensive investigation at the Observatory. Being of 
extraterrestrial origin, meteorites yield valuable data on historical 
conditions and processes elsewhere in the solar system. 

Introducing a new idea to this field, the Director suggested that 
chondrites, the tiny, sometimes glassy spheroids in stony meteorites, 
may have been created by lightning in the primitive solar nebula 
either before or as the asteroidal bodies that produce meteorites were 
formed. To test this suggestion Winfield VV. Salisbury is assembling 
a laboratory system for approximating primordial conditions of pres- 
sure, temperature, and electrical discharge in small quantities of 
meteoritic dust. 11 John A. Wood is collaborating in manufacturing 
artificial "primitive" dust. In regions where dust-particle density is 
sufficient to produce frequent collisions, enough electrostatic charge 
separation may take place to produce a nearly continuous lightning 
discharge. (This effect is observed in terrestrial dust storms and 
volcanic dust clouds.) These discharges may agglomerate dust particles 
into particles of meteoric size, and account for the temperature and 
flocculation necessary to produce the chondrules observed. 

In collaboration with Edward L. Fireman, the Director continued 
research on the problem of immediate supply and destruction factors 
for meteorites. It appears that some are chipped off the Apollo-type 
asteroids whose orbits cross that of the earth, and that their etching 



METEORITES AND COSMIC DUST 185 

rates are appreciable; both effects are caused by collisions with inter- 
planetary materials. The Apollo asteroids are constantly being 
eliminated by gravitational and collisional interaction with the earth, 
and are probably supplied from Mars-crossing orbits, as Opik suggested. 

In an attempt to determine relative erosion rates of different meteorite 
types, Matthias F. Comerford exposed a number of terrestrial and 
meteorite specimens to a simulated space environment in the shock 
tube at NASA's Lewis Research Center. Results show that dense, 
brittle materials suffer a linear weight loss of about 1 mg per joule of 
impact energy, while the losses of tougher, metallic materials are 
barely measurable. The greater weight loss suffered by brittle materials 
was predicted, but the difference in rate may be more than expected. 

Absence of some constituents such as aluminum-26 from the particles 
recovered from the Greenland icecap led Fireman, Robert H. 
McCorkell, 12 and James C. DeFelice to suspect that some of the 
original meteoritic material trapped in glacial ice might go into solu- 
tion when the ice is melted to collect the residual dust. To recover 
this dissolved material, Fireman and McCorkell have been using an 
ion-exchange column; other material in colloidal suspension was 
recovered by natural sponges coated with iron hydroxide. In all, some 
million gallons of water were pumped through the system. 

Fireman and James C. D'Amico continued to measure isotope 
ratios in various meteorites, dust, a ad sea sediments. From such 
ratios in the 70-ton Hoba West meteorite, McCorkell has established 
that the meteorite fell between 80,000 and 200,000 years ago. 

In a search for specific differences between spherules of terrestrial 
origin and cosmic particles, Frances W. Wright and Fred A. Franklin 
are determining densities of individual spherules of possible extra- 
terrestrial origin, using samples between 8 and 50 microns in radius. 
They have also measured densities of individual volcanic spherules 
and test samples of known composition. The results indicate that 
samples collected in Greenland and at the South Pole have densities 
at least 25% greater than those of similar specimens of volcanic origin. 

Frances W. Wright and Paul W. Hodge continued chemical analyses, 
with the electron-probe microanalyzer, of microscopic , spherules of 
possible extraterrestrial origin. As a check on these studies, they 
analyzed 12 spherules from recent volcanic eruptions. They also 
studied abundance anomalies of artificial meteoritic spherules pro- 
duced by melting both iron and stony-iron meteorites. The iron/ 
nickel ratio is highly variable for iron meteorite particles, and spherules 
from stony-iron meteorites vary greatly in composition. 

David Tilles calculated the expected abundance of solar-flare rare- 
gas ions implanted in fine-grained dust in space. He found that the 



186 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

calculated argon abundance agrees, within an order of magnitude, 
with the minimum amounts of excess argon-36 and argon-38 released 
at high temperatures from fine-grained concentrates from the Pacific 
Ocean and Greenland. Presumably, these ocean sediments are rich 
in extraterrestrial dust. He also investigated the planetary atmospheric 
source mechanism of solar-wind embedment in cometary interplanetary 
dust. 

Ursula B. Marvin is studying spherules of probable cosmic origin 
that are found in beach sands. These are black magnetic spherules 
of the type found in polar ice, Pacific clays, and other environments 
relatively free of industrial contamination. The spherules consist 
of magnetite, wiistite, and hematite, and range in size from 40 to 600 
microns. Mrs. Marvin is mapping the distribution of these spherules 
in both Pleistocene and Recent beaches. 

By studying the distribution of nickel in the metal alloys taenite 
and kamacite found in meteorites, Wood has been able to determine 
the rate at which the bodies initially cooled. He has applied this 
technique to 10 octahedrites (iron meteorites) and a similar number 
of chondrites (stony meteorites). Most of these meteorites cooled 
from 600°C to 400°C at rates ranging from 1°C to 10°C per million 
years. Such slow cooling through this range indicates that they were 
buried under layers of insulating rocky material, tens of kilometers 
thick, inside their parent planets. 

With the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Comerford is 
investigating the effects of high pressure on the annealing rates of 
metallic meteorites. Many of the microstructural changes observed in 
metallic systems do not necessarily involve changes in chemical com- 
position; some involve only changes in lattice defects. 

In her study of the diamonds of the Canyon Diablo meteorite, with 
Clifford Frondel of Harvard University, Mrs. Marvin observed two 
types of diamond. 13 One, occurring in irregular masses of black fine- 
grain diamond, has been interpreted as metastable products of impact 
shock. The other type possesses the outward form of isometric single 
crystals, but the internal structure of polycrystalline aggregates. 
X-ray patterns of these diamonds display a pairing or tripling of the 
strongest reflections, an effect suggestive of radiation damage. This 
type may prove critical in the controversy over the origin of meteoritic 
diamonds. 

Planetary Studies 

Culminating 10 years of active research, the Observatory presented 
the Smithsonian Standard Earth 3 at the COSPAR Space Science 



PLANETARY STUDIES 187 

Symposium in Vienna, Austria, in May 1966. The delegation of SAO 
scientists was headed by the Director. 

The refined station coordinates were obtained by a combination of 
dynamical and geometrical methods. 14 Based on original work by 
the late Imre Izsak, the dynamical method has been extensively re- 
worked and improved by Edward M. Gaposchkin. George Veis is 
chiefly responsible for the geometrical method. The complex combi- 
nation of the two was performed in large part by Walter J. Kohnlein. 

For the 12 stations in the SAO network, the agreement between the 
two independent methods supports the conclusion that the station co- 
ordinates are indeed accurate to some 15 meters. Values for all the 
tesseral harmonic coefficients with indexes through 8, have also been 
obtained. Coefficients for still higher terms have been determined 
for those that have an effect of more than 5 meters on the orbit of any 
of the 13 satellites used. The Standard Earth also incorporates coeffi- 
cients for the zonal harmonics derived by Yoshihide Kozai and reported 
in Smithsonian Tear 1965. Charles A. Lundquist was responsible for 
the coordination and comparison of the calculations leading to the 
Standard Earth. 

Until now, the determination of the earth's gravitational field has 
had insufficient resolution to be tested significantly against surface 
gravity observations. However, William E. Strange has shown that the 
resolution is now fine enough that reasonable correlations are beginning 
to emerge. 15 

Chi- Yuen Wang has been concerned with interpretation of geo- 
potential data derived from satellite observations in terms of the 
interior structure of the earth. 3 The interpretation involves correlations 
with other geophysical data such as velocity of seismological waves. 
Consequently, he has been measuring the velocity of compressional 
waves in some possible mantle rocks such as dunite, eclogite, and 
peridotite. 

With the adoption of the Standard Earth, the reduction of satellite 
data is now approaching an accuracy comparable to that of the 
observations made by the Baker-Nunn cameras, so the Observatory is 
exploring new techniques for satellite observation. The prime effort 
is being devoted to refinement of a laser tracking system. 3 An engi- 
neering model is now being tested under the direction of Carlton G. 
Lehr, Leonard A. Maestre, and Peter H. Anderson at the New Mexico 
Astrophysical Observing Station. Early evidence suggests that tracking 
accuracy may be improved by an order of magnitude. Lundquist and 
Henry D. Friedman have initiated a review of new scientific horizons 
attainable from more accurate satellite tracking by lasers or other 
means. 

230-457—66 16 



188 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Luigi G. Jacchia, in collaboration with Jack W. Slowey, Max 
Roemer, and Franco F. Verniani, continued his investigations of 
upper-atmosphere structure and variations through the analysis of the 
drag on artificial satellites. 3 Recently these studies were significantly 
advanced by two balloon satellites (Explorer 19 and Explorer 24) 
specifically launched for Smithsonian's drag-analysis project. Obser- 
vations of the two Explorer balloons have yielded particularly inter- 
esting results. It appears that, at the perigee height of the two satellites 
(500-700 km), the diurnal bulge is elongated in the north-south 
direction and is centered on the equator rather than migrating with the 
subsolar point as previously supposed. The resulting temperature 
distribution in the exosphere is reminiscent of the electron-density 
distribution in the F2 layer. Since the latter also exhibits a semiannual 
variation in phase with that observed in the neutral-gas temperature, 
one is led to suspect that ions, whose motion is partly governed by the 
earth's magnetic field, play a much more important role in controlling 
upper atmospheric temperatures than had hitherto been assumed. 

In cooperation with the Argentinian Space Research Council, 
Mario D. Grossi has designed equipment for investigating the forma- 
tion of field-aligned shells of thermal electrons in the magnetosphere. 
A high-powered HF transmitter has been borrowed from the U.S. 
Army and installed at the Astrophysical Observing Station in Jupiter, 
Florida. Receiving equipment is being set up at Usuhaia, Tierra del 
Fuego, roughly at the conjugate point of Jupiter. Radio waves trans- 
mitted from Jupiter and guided in the magnetosphere along the 
L=1.8 shell will be sought by a receiver at Usuhaia. Analysis of the 
received signals will provide data on the electron content and gradients 
in the magnetospheric shells, the time dependence of basic shell 
characteristics, and correlations between the latter and phenomena 
related to solar activity. 

Nathaniel P. Carleton, with Charles H. Dugan, has been investigating 
excitation and de-excitation of metastable oxygen atoms (especially 
the *D level) in an electric discharge, and the processes by which fast 
photoelectrons convey their energy to the ionosphere. 16 He finds that 
X D oxygen atoms react very rapidly with nitrogen molecules, so that 
most of them will be destroyed before radiating, if they are created in 
the atmosphere below about 150-km altitude. Anthony R. Lee has 
been preparing a laboratory study of inelastic electron-ion collisions, 
in which he will observe light radiated from the region of intersection 
of crossed electron and ion beams. Costas Papaliolios is making a 
careful measurement of the lifetime of the lowest excited state of the 
CO molecule by observing the absorption spectrum of the molecule 
at high resolution. In his photoelectron work, Carleton hopes to 



PLANETARY STUDIES 189 

explain the intensity and variability of the radiation from *D atoms in 
the upper atmosphere observed at the Blue Hill Observatory. 

Jacchia's static diffusion models of the upper atmosphere with empiri- 
cal temperature profiles and their associated variation models have 
been adopted by the U.S. Committee on Extension of Standard 
Atmosphere and will be incorporated in the forthcoming U.S. Supple- 
mental Atmospheres. 

Basing his work on these atmospheric models, Ladislav Sehnal 12 has 
developed a technique for computing short-periodic perturbations of 
artificial-satellite orbits, caused by atmospheric drag. The disturbing 
function is constructed by computer; the effects of the diurnal bulge are 
included. 

In a theoretical study, Manfred P. Friedman has developed a set 
of equations to describe the structure of the upper atmosphere between 
120 and 1000 km, the altitude range containing nearly all artificial 
satellites. 3 These equations have been solved on a digital computer and 
predict concentrations of five major atmospheric constituents (0 2 , N 2 , 
O, He, H) and the temperature distribution all around the earth. 

A particularly exciting advance in the study of the solar system is the 
availability of closeup photographs of the surface of the moon obtained 
by the Ranger series of NASA. Donald H. Menzel has reviewed the 
various theories relating to the surface characteristics of the moon. 17 
He suggested that radioactivity kept the moon liquid during the early 
part of its life and that a porous crust with pockets of gas floated on the 
surface. Meteoritic impacts and volcanism caused the old craters, and 
successive lava flows created the maria and ghost craters. 

Using theoretical techniques, Professor Prabhu L. Bhatnagar of 
Bangalore, India, has studied the surface structure of the moon. 

An invited paper, "The Meteoritic Environment of the Moon," 
was presented by the Director at a lunar symposium sponsored by the 
Royal Society of London and will appear in their publication. It 
concerns meteoritic impact rates and crater formation on the moon and 
shows that the larger craters fit expectations for large-body impact, 
whereas the small impact craters are less numerous than expected. 

Looking to the future, Winfield W. Salisbury has proposed using 
the subsurface materials in the lunar lithosphere as a propagation 
medium for communications on the moon. Its small diameter and lack 
of an ionosphere will make usual methods of radio communication 
between stations on the moon's surface impossible or impractical. 
The low thermal conductivity and water content of lunar-surface 
materials suggest that they may be an appropriate transmission 
medium. 



190 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Studying the rotational motions of the moon and planets, Giuseppe 
Colombo has developed a simple model that provides further under- 
standing of their mechanics. 3 With it he has shown that the moon's 
rotational variations minimize the dissipation of energy by internal 
friction in the earth-moon system. 

A particularly striking discovery has been made by Colombo. He 
pointed out that Mercury's rotation period, as determined from 
radar observations, is exactly two-thirds of its orbital period, indicating 
a "locking-in" process. With Shapiro he made a detailed analysis of 
the gravitational and tidal forces acting on the planet and found that 
such a locking in of Mercury's rotation should be expected. 

Ralph F. Baierlein 12 has been calculating the general relativistic 
corrections to the lunar motion. Extending Brumberg's results by 
including the influence of the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, his 
results may be used with laser ranging measurements of the earth-moon 
distance to test the theory of general relativity. 

Allan F. Cook and Fred A. Franklin have accounted for the observed, 
but perplexing, fact that the thickness of Saturn's rings is much greater 
than the diameter of the particles of which they are composed. By 
assuming that electrostatic forces are responsible for keeping the 
particles in the rings well separated, they have shown that the particle 
radii must be less than about one millimeter. This size is consistent 
with all present observations and implies that the total extent of the 
rings is about one meter. 

Jean Meffroy introduced Von Zeipel's method in general planetary 
theory. He eliminated the short-periodic terms of a first-order theory, 
and he is currently investigating the elimination of the long-periodic 
terms. 3 

With E. Lippincott of the University of Maryland and R. E. Eck 
and M. O. Dayhoff of the National Biomedical Research Foundation, 
Carl Sagan has made an IBM-7094 analysis of the expected thermo- 
dynamic-equilibrium composition of the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, 
Venus, and Jupiter. 18 They find that except for trace compounds 
produced by biological activity, lightning, radiation, and volcanism, 
the terrestrial atmosphere is close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The 
atmosphere of Venus is inconsistent with the possibility of hydrocarbons 
either on the surface or in the clouds. For Mars, Venus, and Jupiter 
there are no molecular species of large predicted equilibrium abundance 
and spectroscopically accessible absorption features that have not 
already been identified. However, at high temperatures, such as would 
be produced by lightning discharges, simple hydrocarbons and cyanides, 
polycyclic aromatics, and a variety of nitrogen compounds would be 
expected on Jupiter. Some of these compounds arc brightly colored 



FLIGHT EXPERIMENTS 191 

and may contribute to the variable colorations observed on Jupiter. 

Sagan 19 and James B. Pollack have devised a comprehensive model 
of the surface environment of Mars. They show that the reasons for 
elevations being colder on Earth do not apply to Mars and that the 
seasonal growth and recession of the Martian polar caps point to the 
dark areas being highlands. 

In conjunction with R. M. Goldstein of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
they have analyzed the radar Doppler spectra of Mars, obtained at 
JPL's Goldstone tracking facility during the 1963 and 1965 oppositions. 
They find, both from the total power as a function of longitude and 
from the details of the Doppler spectra, that Martian dark areas are 
indeed at higher elevations than the bright areas. Regions undergoing 
marked secular changes have shallow slopes, suggesting that the secular 
changes are due to drifting dust. Such elevation differences permit 
the construction of an inorganic model of Martian seasonal phenomena, 
in which smaller, more highly reflecting particles are blown off the 
highlands during spring, and then redistributed back on the highlands 
by the greater winds of late fall and winter. 

Sagan's laboratory for prebiological organic chemistry has been 
concentrating on nucleotide-amino acid interactions in simulated 
primitive terrestrial environments and near-ultraviolet production of 
amino acids from the simulated primitive atmosphere, using cosmically 
abundant untraviolet-photon acceptors. 18 

William M. Irvine continued his theoretical study of light scattering 
and radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres. 20 The effect of multiple 
scattering on absorption features was investigated with the aid of a 
probability distribution of photon optical paths in the medium. The 
usual theory of radiative transfer breaks down when the scattering 
particles are large enough and their density is great enough so that 
they shadow one another. This "shadowing effect" was studied in 
detail and the appropriate correction to the equation of transfer 
derived. 

Flight Experiments 

On May 29, a 250-foot polyethylene balloon carried SAO's gamma- 
ray spark chamber, designed and built by Giovanni G. Fazio and 
Henry F. Helmken, into the dawn sky. 21 From the National Balloon 
Launch Facility in Palestine, Texas, the balloon took about 2 hours 
to climb to its ceiling of 125,000 feet, where it floated for 7 hours. The 
instrument telemetered television pictures of gamma-ray events in the 
spark chamber while the balloon rose in the atmosphere. As it hung 
at maximum altitude, the spark chamber scanned the Crab Nebula, 
Sun, Milky Way, and several radio sources. Reduction of the data, 



192 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

now going on, will reveal whether the equipment detected gamma 
radiation from any of these possible sources. 

Frances W. Wright and Paul W. Hodge are continuing their program 
of collecting meteoritic dust particles of microscopic size. Two clam- 
shell-type collectors have been built for balloon nights to 110,000 feet. 

Robert J. Davis has established an accurate standard of spectro- 
photometric sensitivity between 1,000 and 3,000 angstroms. Referred 
to a National Bureau of Standards total radiance standard by means 
of a thermal detector, Davis' standard is for use in Project Celescope. 22 
Designed for ultraviolet observations from an orbiting astronomical 
observatory, the Celescope package is now undergoing final cali 
brations and its sensitivity is being measured. Toward this end, 
Davis has confirmed the index of refraction of lithium fluoride and is 
working on the measurement of the index of refraction of magnesium 
fluoride, these substances being used in the optical parts of the 
instrument. 

Fazio, Joseph F. Dolan, and Matthias F. Comerford have completed 
a laboratory investigation showing that the Borrmann effect (anomalous 
transmission of polarized X-rays through single crystals) can be used 
to measure X-ray polarization. Experimental results and calculations 
indicate that satisfactory statistics can be obtained with exposure 
times on the order of a day for very weak celestial sources of X-rays 
and as little as a few seconds for a solar flare. 

Theoretical Astrophysics 

Progress in theoretical astrophysics proceeded along three major 
fronts: stellar atmospheres, relativity and cosmology, and high-energy 
physics. 

The stellar-atmospheres group under the general guidance of Charles 
A. Whitney continued its investigations of the theory of model atmos- 
pheres, the analysis of stellar spectra, and the theory of spectral-line 
formation in astrophysical plasmas. 23 

Whitney pursued his study of the interplay between gas-dynamic 
and radiative-energy exchange in a pulsating stellar atmosphere, and 
developed a simple formalism for studying the theory of temperature 
inversions in the superficial layers of stellar atmospheres. 24 

George B. Rybicki developed a theory of radiative transfer that is 
applicable to the material in a turbulent state and applied this theory 
to the observed fluctuations in the solar atmosphere. 

Several members of the group continued their collaborative study 
of the effects of departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium 
on the structure of stellar atmospheres. They find that the results 



THEORETICAL ASTROPHYSICS 193 

for hot main-sequence stars are quite sensitive to the values of the 
collision cross sections for atomic hydrogen, and they conclude that 
such departures may have a significant influence on atmospheric 
structure. This work is now being extended to the solar atmosphere. 

Two studies of the influence of absorption lines on the structure of 
stellar atmospheres, under the direction of Stephen E. Strom and 
Owen J. Gingerich, have achieved significant progress in refining the 
calculation of temperature distributions. Examination of the solar 
spectrum has empirically verified these calculations. 

Gingerich, with David W. Latham and Jeffrey L. Linsky, is now 
pioneering the computation of model atmospheres for very cool stars, 
in the temperature range 1500°K to 4500°K. 25 The construction of 
these models presents several interesting difficulties, and continued 
sophistication of the analytical and numerical procedures is required 
to cope with the enormous variations of opacity with wavelength and 
with the preponderance of Rayleigh scattering. Willard R. Chappell 
investigated the fundamental theory of the interaction of radiation 
with plasmas, with the purpose of obtaining kinetic equations to 
describe the approach of such systems to equilibrium. 

Several members of the group, principally Strom and Gingerich, 
have continued their extensive empirical studies of stellar spectra with 
the aim of determining atmospheric parameters and chemical abun- 
dances. The precision and scope of this work make it unique. The 
initial studies have concentrated on several normal main-sequence 
stars, some stars whose very low metal abundance indicates their great 
age, members of several galactic star clusters, and the eclipsing star 
Beta Aurigae. The data for these studies have been obtained by visits 
to several western observatories. 

Leo Goldberg has carried out a number of theoretical investigations 
concerning astrophysical implications of auto-ionization, the intensities 
of hydrogen recombination lines, and the interpretation of the solar 
spectrum. 26 The theoretical intensity of the autoionizing calcium 
triplet near 6350 A was calculated as a function of spectral class and 
luminosity, and was found to agree with observation for stars hav- 
ing the same calcium/hydrogen abundance. Theoretical intensities of 
hydrogen recombination lines, emitted at radio frequencies by H II 
regions, have been found to be sensitive to small departures from 
equilibrium in the populations of highly excited levels. These de- 
partures act to enhance stimulated emission and therefore reduce the 
apparent discrepancy between electron temperatures derived from 
radio and optical observations, respectively. 

Theoretical calculations by Gingerich and Robert W. Noyes indi- 
cated the importance of infrared measures of the extreme solar limb 
and have led to the latter's preparation for an eclipse expedition. 



194 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Gingerich, in collaboration with John Rich of the Harvard Observa- 
tory, reports the discovery of the absorption edge due to the first ex- 
cited state of silicon in the solar ultraviolet. Their studies of limb 
darkening in this ultraviolet region have led to important conclusions 
concerning the structure of the lower solar chromosphere, which have 
been confirmed in collaborative studies by Noyes on the infrared. 

Predicting the formation of spectrum lines under rather general 
conditions of density and temperature is a problem of amazing com- 
plexity, and the investigations rely heavily on numerical experiments 
to be examined with analytical theories. Investigations of the transfer 
of line radiation by multilevel atoms, principally carried out by 
Eugene H. Avrett and Wolfgang Kalkofen in collaboration with 
Rybicki, have broken important new ground in the interpretation of 
stellar spectra. An example of the exciting results to be expected from 
this program is the fact that Linsky and Avrett have, for the first time, 
performed sufficiently accurate computations of the profiles of the 
chromospheric calcium emission lines to permit their use in a direct 
study of chromospheric structure. Many other problems, hitherto 
unassailable, will be attacked with these methods. 

In the area of relativity and cosmology, Giovanni G. Fazio and 
James P. Wright with Floyd W. Stecker have investigated X-ray and 
gamma-ray production by the interaction of cosmic ray electrons with 
the 3.5°K universal blackbody radiation field. They concluded that, 
if the universal radiation field actually exists, the intergalactic cosmic- 
ray electron intensity must be lower than that observed at the earth. 
Henri E. Mitler and Stecker have initiated a program to investigate the 
formation of helium and deuterium at the beginning of a universal 
big-bang. It is hoped that the helium- 3 and helium-4 abundances and 
the universal blackbody radiation as now observed will emerge as 
byproducts of these calculations. 

Mitler has extended his work on the neutron flux in meteoroids to 
be expected from galactic cosmic rays and from solar flares; this work 
should give useful information concerning the amount of neutron 
activity to be expected in meteoroids in space. 

With the hope of understanding the discrete X-ray sources that have 
recently been discovered by rocket flights, Sachiko Tsuruta has con- 
tinued her studies of neutron stars, relativistic assemblies of matter 
with densities up to 10 15 grams per cubic centimeter. She and 
James Wright have examined the vibrational periods for such stars, 
finding them to be less than 1/1000 of a second! Wright has shown 
that relativistic effects place a lower limit on the possible pulsation 
period of such stars. 



RADIO ASTRONOMY 195 

Myron Lecar continued his theoretical studies of stellar motions in 
an idealized galaxy. He has obtained an exact solution for a class of 
stellar orbits in a time-varying gravitational field that has permitted 
him to demonstrate that a slowly collapsing galaxy could provide the 
observed high eccentricities of the older stars. He pursued an extensive 
computational investigation of the motion of the stars perpendicular 
to the plane of the galaxy and demonstrated the validity of neglecting 
close encounters in studying the long-time behavior of this model. 
This important work promises to provide new techniques for studying 
the evolution of the Galaxy. 

Lecar also initiated, in collaboration with the Yale Observatory, 
a series of numerical experiments on the dynamical structure of 
globular star clusters. 

William M. Irvine studied the early conditions in an expanding 
universe, and the fluctuations of density that may arise at such a stage, 
in order to examine the early stages in the formation of galaxies and 
other astronomical systems. 

Work in high-energy physics has progressed with Mitler's calculation 
of the total number of elementary particles of various species evaporated 
from excited nuclei, and he developed a new approximation for the 
partition function of hydrogen. Joseph F. Dolan and Giovanni G. 
Fazio have completed an extensive study of the polarization to be 
expected from various types of sources of celestial X-rays, and they 
conclude that measurements of linear polarization would be an 
important means of diagnosing the mechanism of X-ray production. 
Stecker investigated cosmic-ray particle acceleration by low-frequency 
plasma waves and radio waves and has evaluated the energy spectra 
to be expected from various models of cosmic-ray sources. 

Donald H. Menzel is continuing several programs in theoretical 
astrophysics that he started at Harvard College Observatory. 27 He is 
investigating complex sunspots and associated instabilities, magnetic 
stars such as the sun that are pumping hydrogen into the external 
magnetic regions, and the origin of planetary systems. 28 

Many SAO activities depend upon facile use of computers, which in 
turn depend on special mathematics dealing with computer logic. 
Theoretical study by Henry D. Friedman of a mathematical concept 
called linear graphs is an example of this science. 3 

Radio Astronomy 

The Observatory is making a strong entry into the field of radio 
astronomy. An 85-foot "dish" antenna with a precision surface has 
been acquired and will be installed on a mount owned by Harvard 



196 SMITHSONIAN YEAR. 1966.— ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

College Observatory. The resulting jointly owned radio telescope 
will be used by staff scientists of both institutions under the direction 
of A. Edward Lilley. 

To study the design for a large fully steerable radio antenna, the 
Cambridge Radio Observatory Committee (CAMROC) has been 
established by S. Dillon Ripley, President J. A. Stratton of Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, and President Nathan M. Pusey of 
Harvard University. The Committee is investigating all aspects of 
construction and operation of a facility with a paraboloidal antenna 
having a nominal 400-foot diameter. 

Representing SAO on the committee are Fred L. Whipple, Charles 
A. Lundquist, and A. Edward Lilley; Mario D. Grossi, Carlton G. 
Lehr, Thomas E. Hoffman, and Carlton W. Tillinghast are scientific 
and administrative associates. 

The objectives of CAMROC are threefold — scientific, educational, 
and technological. The number of significant astrophysical problems 
now susceptible to investigation by radio and radar astronomy has 
expanded rapidly, but the number of available instruments suitable for 
these studies has not increased apace. CAMROC is considering an 
instrument with great versatility to accommodate diverse scientific 
programs. There is an acute need for more professionals in both radio 
and radar astronomy. A facility of the sort being studied, if located in 
or near an academic community, would provide an opportunity for 
research and graduate training that does not exist today. Such a 
facility would also be applicable to programs other than purely astro- 
nomical studies. It would pave the way for design of larger facilities 
and could be used as an emergency backup in national and international 
space programs. 

Lilley and Donald H. Menzel are studying the theory of hydrogen 
emission at radio wavelengths. 29 New and simple expressions have 
been developed for the intensities of the hydrogen lines of high-series 
members. Various theories of line broadening were reviewed and 
improved insults were obtained. Further analysis will apply to the 
continuous background produced by bound-free and free-free emissions. 

Optical Astronomy- 
Even with the great strides taken in space and radio astronomy, 
the fundamental tool of the astronomer is still the ground-based optical 
telescope. Data provided by telescopic observations are critical to 
virtually all branches of astronomy. Even the theoretician must have 
observations against which to test his theories. Because there are 
too few telescopes and too little observing time available to satisfy 



vrx Phoenix 






ARIZONA 




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Kitt Peak _ 
^^^^^^^^ M/ Hopkins. 




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Tombstone 


MEXICO 


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50 MILES 







Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's new multipurpose Southwest 
Observatory will be located to the east of the 8572-foot peak of Mt. Hopkins 
(center). It will house at least three major instruments, including a Baker- 
Nunn satellite-tracking camera, the world's largest gamma-ray collector, 
and a good-size conventional telescope particularly suited to spectroscopy. 
The new facility will join the nearby Kitt Peak National Observatory and 
the University of Arizona's Lunar-Solar Laboratory in making Tucson one 
of the leading astronomical areas of the world. 





Smithsonian-built gamma-ray detector is a spark chamber connected to a 
closed-circuit television system, by which a spark pattern can be registered 
and telemetered back to earth. Launched from Flight Station of the National 
Center for Atmospheric Research at Palestine, Texas, May 28, 1966, it was 
carried 120,000 feet aloft in an 8J^-hour flight. Data analysis is underway. 



OPTICAL ASTRONOMY 197 

the needs of modern astronomy, the Astrophysical Observatory is 
establishing a new observing station. 

After an extensive search, the Observatory selected what is regarded 
as the finest site available in North America. Mount Hopkins, in 
the Coronado National Forest of southern Arizona, appears to offer 
excellent observing conditions and is close to Tucson, a rapidly de- 
veloping astronomical center. The National Forest provides a natural 
buffer precluding encroachment of urban areas with their sky-spoiling 
lights and smoke. Near by are Kitt Peak National Observatory and 
the observing facilities of the University of Arizona. 

Immediate plans call for installation of a large light collector to 
observe Cerenkov radiation generated by gamma rays hitting the 
upper atmosphere, a medium-sized astronomical telescope for spec- 
trometry, and a Baker-Nunn camera and laser tracking equipment 
for observing artificial satellites. Charles A. Tougas has been named 
Field Manager and will be in charge of site development. 

During the past year, Giovanni G. Fazio and Henry F. Helmken 
have been searching at night for Cerenkov light from very high-energy 
gamma rays with the solar furnace at the U.S. Army Quartermaster 
Corps in Natick, Massachusetts. High-speed counting equipment 
has improved the electronic stability of the system, but the major 
limitation still remains the high background light in the night sky 
from Boston and surrounding communities. This problem will be 
overcome with establishment of the new light collector on Mount 
Hopkins. 

Today, supported by modern high-speed computers, the Observa- 
tory's theoretical astrophysicists have pushed the frontiers of theory 
to the limit, and badly need confirming observations. For this purpose, 
David W. Latham and Stephen E. Strom twice visited Mount Wilson 
Observatory to use the Coude spectrograph of the 100-inch telescope. 
They exposed 20 plates on Alpha Lyra, covering wavelengths between 
3200 and 6500 angstroms with dispersions between 1 and 3 A/mm. 
The plates will be used to improve their analysis of this fundamental 
standard star. Strom and Latham also obtained photoelectric H7 
profiles with a resolution of one angstrom for abundance analyses 
of nine stars — Alpha Canis Majoris, Gamma Geminorum, Alpha 
Canis Minoris, 63 Tauri, 64 Tauri, 68 Tauri, 8 Comae, HD73666, 
and Iota Herculis. Combined with photoelectric scans, these measure- 
ments will be analyzed for accurate values of the surface gravity and 
effective temperature for these stars. 

A central effort in this empirical program is Latham's development 
of a photoelectric spectrophotometer for measuring stellar-energy 
distributions in the range 3000 to 8000 angstroms. This equipment is 



198 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

now being tested on the 61 -inch telescope of the Harvard College 
Observatory. Latham also continued his fundamental work on the 
factors that limit the accuracy of high-dispersion photographic spectro- 
photometry. 

In the continuing flare-star observing program 3 reported last year, 
Leonard H. Solomon has reduced 115 hours worth of data to light 
curves. 30 With Sir Bernard Lovell, University of Manchester, England, 
he deduced a mean light-radio curve for UV-Ceti outbursts. He 
was unable to find any periodicity for UV-Ceti flares. 

An image sheer allowing spectrograms to be obtained simultaneously 
for two heights in the solar chromosphere has been used by Robert W. 
Noyes at the Sacramento Peak Observatory. The data contain 
information on the dynamics of chromospheric spicules. With J. M. 
Beckers of Sacramento Peak Observatory, Noyes has started infrared 
observations of the sun between 10 and 30 microns; and with the Lunar 
and Planetary Laboratory of the University of Arizona, he has made 
observations of the center-to-limit variations of the solar continuum 
flux at wavelengths out to 25 microns. These show that the current 
descriptions of the vertical temperature structure of the solar atmos- 
phere place the temperature minimum too deep. 

With David Morrison, Carl Sagan, and James B. Pollack, Thomas E. 
Hoffman has designed a camera capable of very fine focusing. It will 
be used for infrared planetary photography on hypersensitized plates 
at wavelengths up to 1 micron. The completed camera is now being 
tested. 18 

Fred A. Franklin has observed the earth-lit portion of the moon in 
two colors to obtain the albedo and phase function of the earth. 31 
This study, undertaken to resolve the discrepancy between visual 
observations and satellite measurements, indicates that the average 
Bond albedo of the earth is about 0.36 in yellow light and some 20% 
higher in the blue. 

Paul W. Hodge and Frances W. Wright have completed work on 
their Atlas of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A preliminary edition was 
printed in June for distribution to some 25 observatories carrying on 
major programs in Magellanic Cloud research. A formal edition will 
be published later. 

Thornton L. Page 12 has been preparing to make spectroscopic obser- 
vations of southern galaxies at the National Astronomical Observatory, 
Cordoba, Argentina. He will be determining red shifts and internal 
motions of objects in de Vaucouleur's catalog, quasi-stellar objects, and 
peculiar galaxies. Extensive modernization of the 61 -inch telescope 
has been necessary before the observations could be undertaken. 



HISTORICAL ASTRONOMY 199 

A new type of satellite-tracking camera built by the Observatory 
for geodetic measurements is now in operation near Athens, Greece, 
under a cooperative agreement with the National Technical University 
of Athens. 3 A modified K-50, the camera is the first of three to join 
the Smithsonian's network of Astrophysical Observing Stations. The 
others will be located at Curacao, in the Netherlands Antilles, and in 
Shiraz, Iran. The lens system, originally designed for aerial pho- 
tography by James G. Baker of Harvard College Observatory, has 
been mounted by Observatory engineers on a pedestal suitable for 
satellite tracking. 

The network of Astrophysical Observing Stations was improved 
by the installation of new precision time standards. 3 Nine stations now 
have the new EECO clocks in operation, thereby increasing potential 
observing accuracy from 1 millisecond to 0.1 millisecond. 

In addition to their routine satellite-tracking assignments, the stations 
were able to secure several particularly significant series of photographs. 3 
Early this year, the South Africa station photographed part of the 
Gemini 5 rocket as it reentered the atmosphere and disintegrated. 
Later, the same station observed the injection and inflation of the 
PAGEOS geodetic balloon satellite. In December, the Argentina 
station caught Gemini 6 and Gemini 7 as they made their historic 
rendezvous in space. 

Historical Astronomy 

Charles A. Whitney prepared an article tracing the development of 
the astronomical concept of the universe through Herschel's discovery 
of nebulosity, to Hubble's proof that spiral neublae are extragalactic 
systems, to the recent identification of quasars. The article delineates 
the substantial revolution in astronomical thought following each of 
these identifications of a specific and a new kind of astronomical object. 
He also initiated a study of Laplace's nebular hypothesis, its relation 
to the theoretical work of Kant and the observational work of Herschel, 
and the evolution of Laplace's expression of this hypothesis through 
the six editions of his work published from 1795 to 1835. Whitney 
collected material to prepare a variorum edition of Laplace's Systems of 
the World. 

Owen J. Gingerich recomputed the planetary section of Kepler's 
Rudolphine Tables; a remarkably high internal accuracy, as well as 
excellent predicting ability for planetary positions, had been displayed. 
He translated several chapters of the Rudolphine Tables and has begun 
a full-scale translation of Kepler's Astronomia Nova. This project is 
assisted by a Latin transduction computer program, the dictionary of 



200 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

which currently contains 2800 Latin roots actually used in Kepler's 
writing. Gingerich is continuing investigations of Kepler's lunar 
tables and a study of 13th-century Alphonsine Tables? 2 

Hawkins obtained stereoscopic aerial surveys of Stonehenge in 
southern England and of Callanish in Scotland. 33 From these surveys 
accurate plans have been drawn that are superior to those previously 
available. These plans have been used to confirm the sun and moon 
alignments found between the stones and post holes at these monu- 
ments. 34 

Central Bureaus 

The Central Bureau for Satellite Geodesy, under the guidance of 
executive director Jan Rolff, has strengthened international cooperation 
in satellite geodesy. 35 The Bureau was instrumental in arranging 
cooperation between SAO's satellite-tracking program and foreign 
stations, particularly in eastern and western Europe. 

The Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, 4 under the direction 
of Gingerich, distributed 47 Circulars carrying information about 
supernovae, comets, asteroids, and unusual stars. The most extensive 
activity resulted from the spectacular sun-grazing comet Ikeya-Seki, 
for which 1 1 Circulars were issued in a period of 6 weeks. In addition 
to the postcard Circulars distributed to about 625 subscribers in 50 
countries, the Bureau sent over a dozen "telegram books" to various 
of its 120 subscribers in 40 countries. Most of the foreign subscribers 
are serviced by the AGIWARN system of the International Ursigram 
and World Days Service. Richard B. Southworth and Brian G. 
Marsden served as associate directors of the Bureau. 

Staff Changes 

One of the Observatory's distinguished scientists, Leo Goldberg, 
resigned upon his appointment as the new director of the Harvard 
College Observatory. His predecessor in that position, Donald H. 
Menzel, joined the SAO staff. 

The scientific staff of the Astrophysical Observatory was increased 
during the year by physicists Willard R. Chappell and Costas 
Papaliolios; astrophysicist Myron Lecar; geologist John A. Wood; 
astronomers Guiseppe Forti and Brian G. Marsden; celestial mechani- 
cians Salah E. Hamid and Jean Meffroy. Richard W. McCarthy joined 
the staff as personnel manager, and Henry D. Friedman as manager of 
the data processing department, which now includes a new computer 
division under the supervision of Lauri E. Kujanpaa. 

Consultants to the Observatory during the year were Giuseppe 
Colombo, Giorgio Fiocco, Yusukc Hagihara, David G. Hummer, 



PAPERS PRESENTED OR PUBLISHED 201 

William M. Kaula, Colin S. L. Keay, Czeslaw P. Kentzer, Yoshihide 
Kozai, A. Edward Lilley, Irving Michelson, Eduardo O. Patino, A. E. 
Ringwood, Juan Roderer, Winfield W. Salisbury, Mario R. Schaffner, 
William E. Strange, Bhuwan M. Tripathy, Francis X. Tuoti, V. 
Vanysek, and George Veis. 

In 1965, the Observatory initiated in cooperation with the National 
Academy of Sciences/National Research Council its postdoctoral 
fellowship program for research associates. The first four appointees 
were Thornton L. Page, director of the Wesleyan University Observa- 
tory, Robert H. McCorkell of M.I.T.; Ralph F. Baierlein of Jefferson 
Laboratory, Harvard University; and Ladislav Sehnal of the Astro- 
nomical Institute of Czechoslovakia. Richard Haefner and Franco 
Verniani resigned. 

Staff Papers 

Presented or Published 
July 1965 through June 1966 

Anderson, P. H., Lehr, C. G., Maestre, L. A., Halsey, H. W., and 
Snyder, G. L. The two-way transmission of a ruby-laser beam 
between earth and a retro-reflecting satellite. Proc. IEEE, vol. 
54, p. 426, 1966. 

Avrett, E. H. Source function equality in multiplets. Astrophys. 
Journ., vol. 144, pp. 59-75, 1966. 

and Hummer, D. G. Non-coherent scattering II: Line 

formation with a frequency independent source function. Monthly 
Notices, Roy. Astron. Soc, vol. 130, pp. 295-331, 1965. 

Beckers, J. M., Noyes, R. W., and Pasachoff, J. M. New observa- 
tions of solar chromospheric spicules [abstract]. Astron. Journ., 
vol. 71, p. 155, 1966. 

Briggs, R. E. See Jacchia, Verniani, and Briggs. 

Chappell, W. R. See also Glass and Chappell. 

and Brittin, W. E. Quantum kinetic equations for a multi- 
component system of charged particles and photons. Phys. Rev., 
vol. 146, pp. 75-91, 1966. 

, Brittin, W. E., and Glass, S. J. The interaction of radiation 

with charged particles I. Nuovo Cimento, vol. 38, pp. 1186- 
1191, 1965. 

and Swenson. R. J. Guessing kinetic equations. Phys. Fluids, 

vol. 8, pp. 1195-1197, 1965. 

Colombo, G. See also Shapiro, Lautman, and Colombo. 

230^157 — 66 17 



202 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Colombo, G. Rotation period of the planet Mercury. Nature, vol. 
208, p. 575, 1965. 

— . Recent developments in the theory of rotation of Mercury 
and Venus. Presented at NATO Advanced Study Institute, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, April 1965. 

Comerford, M. F., and Thomas, D. A. Substructure and mechanical 
properties of a drawn and annealed iron-silicon alloy. Trans. 
Met. Soc. AIME, vol. 233, pp. 1236-1243, 1965. 

Cook, A. F., and Franklin, F. A. Rediscussion of Maxwell's Adams 
prize essay on the stability of Saturn's rings, II. Astron. Journ., 
vol. 71, pp. 10-19, 1966. 

Davis, R. J. The Celescope optical system for the orbiting astronomical 
observatory. Presented at the Conference on Optics in Space, 
University of Southampton, Southampton, September 1965. 

. The use of the Uvicon-Celescope television system for ultra- 
violet astronomical photometry. Presented at the Symposium on 
Photo-electronic Image Devices as Aids to Scientific Observation, 
Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, 
London, September 1965. 

Factors affecting the transmittance of lithium fluoride and 



barium fluoride in the vacuum ultraviolet. Journ. Opt. Soc. Amer,, 

vol. 56, pp. 837-839, 1966. 
Dodd, R., Van Schmus, R., and Marvin, U. Merrihueite, a new 

alkali-ferromagnesium silicate from the Mezo-Madaras chondrite. 

Science, vol. 149, pp. 972-974, 1965. 
Dolan, J. F. Stellar molecular abundances: I. Polyatomic molecules. 

Astrophys. Journ., vol. 142, pp. 1629-1632, 1965. 
— . An experimental method of determining the polarization of 

celestial x-rays [abstract]. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, p. 160, 1966. 
Fazio, G. G. See also Helmken and Fazio. 
, Stecker, F. W., and Wright, J. P. Cosmic blackbody 

radiation, high-energy electrons, and the origin of isotropic x-ray 

and gamma radiation. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 144, pp. 611-614, 

1966. 
Fireman, E. L. Evidence for extraterrestrial particles in polar ice. 

Presented at the Symposium on Meteor Orbits and Dust, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, August 1966. 
. Neutron exposure ages of meteorites. Zeitschr. fur Naturf., 

vol. 21 A, pp. 1138-1146, 1966. 
Fleischer, R. L., Naeser, C. W., Price, P. B., Walker, R. M., and 

Marvin, U Fossil particle tracks and uranium distributions 

in minerals of the Vaca Muerta mesosiderite. Science, vol. 148. 

pp. 629-632, 1965. 



PAPERS PRESENTED OR PUBLISHED 203 

Frankljn, F. A. See Cook and Franklin. 

Gaposchkin, E. M. A new determination of tesseral harmonics of 
the geopotential and station coordinates from Baker-Nunn ob- 
servations. Presented at the AGU meeting, Washington, D.G., 
March 1966. 

. A dynamical solution for the tesseral harmonics of the 

geopotential, and station coordinates using Baker-Nunn data. 
Presented at Vllth COSPAR International Space Science Sym- 
posium, Vienna, May 1966. 

Gingerich, O. Lunar visibilities in ancient Babylon. Isis, vol. 56, 
p. 69, 1965. 

. Eleven-digit regular sexagesimals and their reciprocals. 

Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 55, pt. 8, 1965. 

. The great comet of 1965. Atlantic Monthly, vol. 217, pp. 

57-62, 1966. 

. Limb darkening for a grid of model stellar atmospheres. 



Astrophys. Journ., vol. 144, pp. 1213-1215, 1966. 

and Rich, J. C. Metallic continuous absorption coefficients in 



the solar ultraviolet [abstract]. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, p. 161, 
1966. 

Glass, S. J., and Chappell, W. R. The interaction of radiation with 
charged particles II. Nuovo Cimento, vol. 38B, pp. 79-88, 1966. 

Goldberg, L., Newson, G., Parkinson, W. H., and Reeves, E. M. 
A study of broad absorption features in the solar spectrum. Pre- 
sented at the AAS meeting, Ann Arbor, Michigan, August 1965. 
[Abstracted in Astron. Journ., vol. 70, p. 676, 1965.] 

Grossi, M. D. Preliminary results from a VHF meteor radar system 
for the measurement of 3-dimension wind velocities in the lower 
ionosphere. Presented at the 2nd Conference on Direct Aeronomic 
Measurements in the Lower Ionosphere, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, 
September 1965. 

. Guided propagation in the ionosphere and its potential use 

for global communications. Electronic Progress, vol. 9, no. 2, 
pp. 1-12, 1965. 

and Barker, J. I. Guided propagation modes in the lower 

ionosphere and satellite-to-satellite HF-VHF communication ex- 
periments. Presented at 2nd Symposium on Radio-Astronomical 
and Satellite Studies of the Atmosphere, Boston, October 1965. 

• and Smith, B. M. Computer simulation of HF and VHF 

waveguidance phenomena in the lower ionosphere. Presented at 
fall URSI meeting, Hanover, New Hampshire, October 1965. 



204 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Hawkins, G. S. See also Wolfe, Battan, Fleming, Hawkins, and Skornik. 

. Callanish, a Scottish Stonehenge. Science, vol. 147, pp. 

127-130, 1965. 
. Sun, moon, men and stones. Amer. Scientist, vol. 53, pp. 



391-408, 1965. 

. Stonehenge physics. Physics Today, vol. 19, pp. 38-42, 1966. 

. Stonehenge. In Book of knowledge annual yearbook, p- 

333. New York: Grolier, 1966. 

and Moore, J. F. The life of a star. New York: Holt, 



Rinehart, and Winston, 1965. 32 pp. 

and White, J. B. Stonehenge decoded. New York: Double- 



day and Co., 1965. 194 pp. 
Helmken, H. F., and Fazio, G. G. Vidicon spark chamber detector 

for gamma-ray astronomy. IEEE Trans, on Nuclear Science, vol. 

NS-13, pp. 486-492, February 1966. 
Hodge, P. W. See also Wright and Hodge. 
. The location of star formation in galaxies. Science, vol. 150, 

pp. 374-375, 1965. 
. The mass of the galaxy. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, vol. 78, 



pp. 72-74, 1966. 

— . Newly-discovered clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud 
[abstract]. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, pp. 164-165, 1966. 
. Surface photometry of the Sculptor Dwarf Galaxy. Astron. 



Journ., vol. 71, pp. 204-205, 1966. 
and Brownlee, D. E. Photographic isophotometry of galaxies. 

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, vol. 78, pp. 125-131, 1966. 
and Hitchcock, J. L. Three-dimensional shape of irregular 



galaxies. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, vol. 78, pp. 79-80, 1966. 

and Wright, F. W. New variable stars in the Large Magel- 
lanic Cloud. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, pp. 131-132, 1966. 

. On the chemical compositions of the interiors of possibly 



cosmic particles and the problem of the origin of naturally occurring 
iron-rich spherules. Presented at the Symposium on Meteor Orbits 
and Dust, Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 1965. 

Irvine, W. M. Multiple scattering by large particles. Astrophys. 
Journ., vol. 142, pp. 1563-1575, 1965. 

. The distribution of photon optical paths in a scattering 

atmosphere [abstract]. Astron. Journ., vol. 70, p. 679, 1965. 
— . Multiple scattering by large particles [abstract]. IUGG 



Monogr. no. 28, p. 11, 1965. 



PAPERS PRESENTED OR PUBLISHED 205 

. Infrared optical characteristics of ice spheres. Presented at 

the Symposium on Meteor Orbits and Dust, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, August 1965. 

Diffuse reflection and transmission by clouds and haze layers 



[abstract]. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 47, p. 13, 1966. 
Jacchia, L. G. Atmospheric structure and its variations at heights 

above 200 km. In CIRA 1965, COSPAR International Reference 

Atmosphere, pp. 293-313, Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co., 

1965. 
. Remarks on a paper by L. Broglio. Nuovo Cimento, vol. 

40B, pp. 314 and 317, 1965. 
. Solar plasma velocity, exospheric temperature, and geo- 



magnetic activity. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 70, pp. 4385-4386, 
1965. 

. [Review] Space physics with artificial satellites, by Ya. L. 

Al'pert, A. V. Gurevich, and L. P. Pitaevskii. Science, vol. 150, 
pp. 875-876, 1965. 
. Density variations in the heterosphere. Ann. de Geophys., 



vol. 22, pp. 75-85, 1966. 
. Verniani, F., and Briggs, R. E. Selected results from 



precision-reduced Super-Schmidt meteors. Presented at the Sym- 
posium on Meteor Orbits and Dust, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
August 1965. 

Kalkofen, W. See Strom and Kalkofen. 

Kohnlein, W. Corrections to station coordinates and to nonzonal 
harmonics from Baker-Nunn observations. Presented at Vllth 
COSPAR International Space Science Symposium, Vienna, May 
1966. 

Lautman, D. A. See Shapiro, Lautman, and Colombo. 

Lecar, M. Validity of the Vlasov equation for a one-dimensional 
self-gravitating gas. Presented at the 14th International Astro- 
physical Symposium, Liege, June 1966. 

Lehr, C. G. See Anderson, Lehr, Maestre, Halsey, and Snyder. 

Liller, M. H., Welther, B. L., and Liller, W. Angular expansion 
of planetary nebulae. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 144, pp. 280-290, 
1966. 

Loeser, R. See Avrett and Loeser. 

Lovell, B., and Solomon, L. H. Correlation of radio emission with 
the optical flares on UV Ceti. Obs., vol. 86, pp. 16-18, 1966. 

Lundquist, C. A. Satellite geodesy at the Smithsonian Astrophysical 
Observatory. Presented at the American Society for Surveying 
and Mapping and the American Society of Photogrammetry 
Convention, Washington, D.C., March 1966. 



206 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Lundquist, C. A. Standard earth parameters for use in orbit determina- 
tion. Presented to the Seminar on Guidance Theory and Trajectory 
Analysis, NASA Electronics Research Center, Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts, June 1966. 

Maestre, L. A. See Anderson, Lehr, Maestre, Halsey, and Snyder. 

Marsden, B. G. Revision of the astronomical constants. Handbook 
British Astron. Assoc, vol. 66, pp. 64—65, 1965. 

. The great comet of 1965. Sky and Telescope, vol. 30, pp. 

332-337, 1965. 

and Cameron, A. G. W., eds. International Conference on 



the Earth-Moon System. New York: Plenum Press, 1966. 

Marvin, U. See also Dodd, Van Schmus, and Marvin; and Fleischer, 
Naeser, Price, Walker, and Marvin. 

, Fleischer, R. L., Price, P. B., and Walker, R. M. Studies 

of iron and stony-iron meteorites by nuclear particle track analysis. 
Presented at the XXth International Congress of Pure and Ap- 
plied Chemistry, Moscow, July 1965. 

and Marvin, T. C. A re-examination of the crater near 



Crestone, Colorado. Meteoritics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-10, May 1966. 
Merrihue, C. M. Meteoritic trace element determinations by mass 

spectrometry of neutron-irradiated samples. Presented at the 

XXth International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 

Moscow, July 1965. 
. The origin of anomalous Xe 129 in meteorites. Zeitschr. 

fur Naturf., vol. 20A, pp. 961-962, 1965. 

Xenon and krypton in the Bruderheim meteorite. Journ. 



Geophys. Res., vol. 71, pp. 263-313, 1966. 

Noyes, R. W. See Beckers, Noyes, and Pasachoff. 

Nozawa, Y. A digital television system for satellite-borne ultraviolet 
photometer. Presented at the Symposium on Photo-electronic 
Image Devices as Aids to Scientific Observation, Imperial College 
of Science and Technology, University of London, London, Sep- 
tember 1965. 

Ohring, G., Sagan, C, et al. Meteorological experiments for manned 
earth orbiting missions. Geophysics Corporation of America 
Tech. Rep. No. 66-1 0-N, 1966. 

Pollack, J. B. See also Sagan and Pollack. 

and Sagan, C. The infrared limb-darkening of Venus. 

Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 70, pp. 4403-4426, 1965. 

Sagan, C. See also Ohring and Sagan; Pollack and Sagan; Shklovskii 
and Sagan; Swan and Sagan; and Walker and Sagan. 



PAPERS PRESENTED OR PUBLISHED 207 

. Primordial ultraviolet synthesis of nucleoside phosphates. 

In The Origins of Prebiological Systems, ed. by S. W. Fox, pp. 207- 

219. New York: Academic Press, 1965. 
. High-resolution planetary photography and the detection of 



life. In Proceedings of the Caltech-JPL Lunar and Planetary 
Conference, ed. by H. Brown, G. J. Stanley, D. O. Muhleman, and 
G. Munch, pp. 279-287. California Institute of Technology and 
JPL Publ., 1966. 

. Review of Mars, by R. S. Richardson. Amer. Scientist, 

vol. 53, pp. 478A-480A, 1966. 

. On radiative transfer in the atmosphere of Jupiter. Trans. 



Int. Astron. Union, vol. 12B, p. 215, 1966. 

. Mariner IV observations and the possibility of iron oxides 

on the Martian surface. Icarus, vol. 5, pp. 102-103, 1966. 
. The photometric properties of Mercury. Astrophys. Journ., 



vol. 144, pp. 1218-1220, 1966. 

. Planetary environments and biology. Astronaut, and Aero- 
naut., vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 12-22, 1966. 

. [Extensive contributions (chaps. 3, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 

28 authored singly or with others) to Biology and the exploration 
of Mars, ed. by C. Pittendrigh, W. Vishniac, and P. Pearman.] 
Nat. Acad. Sci. Nat. Res. Council Publ. 1296, Washington, D.C., 
516 pp. 1966. 
Hanst, P. L., and Young, A. T. Further remarks on Martian 



N0 2 . Planetary and Space Science, vol. 13, pp. 1003-1004, 1965. 

, Kilston, S. D., and Drummond, R. R. A search for life on 

earth at kilometer resolution. Icarus, vol. 5, pp. 79-98, 1966. 

and Leonard, J. Planets. Time-Life Science Book, 1966. 

and Pollack, J. B. An analysis of microwave observations of 



Venus. Journ. Res. NBS, vol. 69D, pp. 1583-1584, 1965. 

and Pollack, J. B. Properties of the clouds of Venus. In 

Proceedings of the Caltech-JPL Lunar and Planetary Confer- 
ence, ed. by H. Brown, G. J. Stanley, D. O. Muhleman, and G. 
Munch, pp. 155-163. California Institute of Technology and 
JPL Publ., 1966. 

. Radio and radar evidence on the structure and composition of 

the Martian surface [abstract]. In Proceedings of the Caltech-JPL 
Lunar and Planetary Conference, ed. by H. Brown, G. J. 
Stanley, D. O. Muhleman, and G. Munch, pp. 255-256. Cal- 
ifornia Institute of Technology and JPL Publ., 1966. 

■. On the nature of the clouds and the origin of the surface tem- 
perature of Venus [abstract]. Astron. Journ. vol. 71, p. 178, 1966. 



208 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Sagan, C. and Walker, R. G. The infrared detectability of Dyson 
civilizations. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 144, pp. 1216-1218, 1966. 

Salisbury, W. W. Generation of infrared and visible light by free 
electrons. Presented at Boulder Millimeter Wave and Far Infrared 
Conference, Estes Park, Colorado, August 1965. 

. Visible light from free electrons in vacuum. Presented at 

Technical Symposium, General Motors Defence Research Labo- 
ratories, Santa Barbara, California, October 1965. 

Shapiro, I. I., Lautman, D. A., and Colombo, G. Dynamics of 
orbiting dust particles. Presented at the Symposium on Meteor 
Orbits and Dust, Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 1965. 

Shklovskii, I. S., and Sagan, C. Intelligent life in the universe. 
San Francisco: Holdenday, Inc., 1966. 

Solomon, L. H. See Lovell and Solomon. 

Stecker, F. W. See Fazio, Stecker, and Wright. 

Strom, S. E., and Kalkofen, W. The effect of departures from LTE 
on stellar continuum fluxes in the spectral-type range B5-A0. 
Astron. Journ. vol. 144, pp. 76-87, 1966. 

Swan, P. R., and Sagan, C. Martian landing sites for the Voyager 
mission. Journ. Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 2, pp. 18-24, 1965. 

Tilles, D. Searches for noble gas evidence of cosmic dust. Presented 
at the XXth International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 
Moscow, July 1965. 

. Some studies of separated fractions of low accumulation-rate 

dust. Presented at the Symposium on Meteor Orbits and Dust, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 1965. 

Atmospheric noble gases for extraterrestrial dust [Reply to 



comments of R. A. Schmidt]. Science, vol. 151, p. 1015, 1966. 
Tsuruta, S. Lack of homology in the oscillations of neutron stars. 
Nature, vol. 207, pp. 470-472, 1965. 

and Cameron, A. G. W. Cooling of neutron stars. Nature, 

vol. 207, pp. 364-366, 1965. 

and Cameron, A. G. W. Composition of matter in nuclear 



statistical equilibrium at high densities. Canadian Journ. Phys., 

vol. 43, pp. 2056-2077, 1965. 
Verniani, F. See also Jacchia, Verniani, and Briggs. 
. Comments on Ceplecha's paper "Classification of meteor 

orbits.'' 1 Presented at the Symposium on Meteor Orbits and Dust, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 1965. 
Walker, R. G., and Sagan, C. The ionospheric model of the Venus 

microwave emission: An obituary. Icarus, vol. 5, pp. 105-123, 

1966. 



PAPERS PRESENTED OR PUBLISHED 209 

Wang, C.-Y. Some geophysical implications from gravity and heat 
flow data. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 70, pp. 5629-5634, 1965. 

. On the calcite transitions to 20 kilobars [abstract]. Trans. 

Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 47, p. 178, 1966. 

. Earth's zonal deformations. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 71, 



pp. 1713-1720, 1966. 

Welther, B. L. See Liller, Welther, and Liller. 

Whipple, F. L. Knowledge and understanding of the physical universe 
as determinants of man's progress. Presented at the Bicentennial 
Celebration, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Septem- 
ber 1965. 

— . Comets. In Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, vol. 

19, ed. by G. W. Morganthaler and R. C. Morra, Amer. Astro- 
naut. Soc, Washington, D.C., pp. 119-134, 1965. 

. Chondrules: Suggestion concerning the origin. Science, 



vol. 153, pp. 54-56, 1966. 
. On the satellite geodesy program at the Smithsonian Astro- 



physical Observatory. Presented at the Vllth COSPAR Inter- 
national Space Science Symposium, Vienna, May 1966. 

White, J. B. See Hawkins and White. 

Whitney, C. A. Physical basis for the interpretation of the continuous 
spectra of pulsating variable stars. Presented at the 5th Sym- 
posium of Cosmical Gas Dynamics, September 1965. 

Wolfe, W. C, Battan, L. J., Fleming, R. H., Hawkins, G. S., and 
Skornik, H. Earth science and space science. Boston: D. C. 
Heath Publ. Co., 1966. 

Wood, J. A. Meteorites and asteroids. In Advances in the astro- 
nautical sciences, vol. 19, ed. by G. W. Morganthaler and R. C. 
Morra, pp. 99-118. Washington, D.C.: Amer. Astronaut. Soc, 
1965. 

. Metal grains in chondritic meteorites. Nature, vol. 208, 

pp. 1085-1086, 1965. 

Wright, F. W. See also Hodge and Wright. 

and Hodge, P. W. Studies of particles for extraterrestrial 

origin. 4. Microscopic spherules from recent volcanic eruptions. 
Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 70, pp. 3889-3898, 1965. 

Wright, J. P. See also Fazio, Stecker, and Wright. 

. Pulsation periods of general relativistic objects. Nature, vol. 

208, p. 65, 1965. 

Special Reports 

Special Reports of the Astrophysical Observatory distribute catalogs 
of satellite observations, orbital data, and preliminary results of data 



210 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

prior to journal publication. Numbers 181 through 215, issued during 
the year, contain the following material: 

181 (August 9, 1965). Brightness changes in periodic comets, by 
F. Whipple and D. Douglas-Hamilton. 

1 82 (August 11, 1 965) . On the physics and splitting of cometary 
nuclei, by F. Whipple and R. Stefanik. 

183 (September 14, 1965). Catalog of precisely reduced simultaneous 
observations (No. S-l): Satellite 1960 Iota 2 (Echo 1 rocket body) 
for Nov. 17 and Dec. 28, 1964; Satellite 1961 Delta 1 (Explorer 9) 
for June 5-Aug. 6, Oct. 1 and Dec. 6, 1961, and Feb. 9-Mar. 1, 
1962; Satellite 1961 Alpha Delta 1 (Midas 4) for May 30-July 14, 
1962, June 11-28, July 1-Aug. 6, Oct. 26-29, and Nov. 2-28, 1963, 
and Feb. 9-Dec. 5, 1964; Satellite 1962 Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1) 
for Oct. 30-31, 1962, and Aug. 14-24, 1963; Satellite 1962 Beta 
Mu 1 (Anna IB) for Nov. 17-21 and Dec. 19-21, 1962, Feb. 28, 
Apr. 22, Sept. 14, Nov. 22, and Dec. 9-21, 1963; Satellite 1963 
30Afor Dec. 6-25, 1964; Satellite 1963 30D (Balloon) for Jan. 12- 
Feb. 8, Apr. 4-June 13, and Sept. 13-Dec. 30, 1964; Satellite 1963 
53 A (Explorer 19) for Nov. 15-25, 1964; and Satellite 1964 38A 
(Elektron 3) for Dec. 6 and 8, 1964, prepared by R. Wells. 

184 (September 20, 1965). Density variations in the heterosphere, by 
L. Jacchia. 

185 (September 3, 1965). Catalog of precisely reduced observations 
(No. P-14): Satellites 1959 Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2), 1959 Eta 1 
(Vanguard 3), 1960 Iota 2 (Echo 1 rocket body), 1961 Delta 1 
(Explorer 9), 1961 Omicron 1 (Transit 4A), 1961 Omicron 2 
(Injun Solar Radiation 3), 1961 Alpha Delta 1 (Midas 4), 1962 
Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1) for Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1963; Satellite 1962 
Beta Upsilon 1 (Relay 1) for Dec. 16, 1962-Mar. 31, 1963. 

186 (September 6, 1965). Determination of the absolute space direc- 
tions between Baker-Nunn camera stations, by L. Aardoom, A. 
Girnius, and G. Veis. 

187 (October 11, 1965). Transmission coefficient of the Baker-Nunn 
optical system, by F. Young and K. Hebb. 

188 (October 13, 1965). The rotation of the planet Mercury, by G. 
Colombo and I. Shapiro (Revised November 15, 1965, and pub- 
lished as No. 188R). 

189 (October 20, 1965). Determination of station coordinates from 
optical observations of artificial satellites, by W. Kohnlein. 

190 (October 21, 1965). Some recent accurate laser satellite-range 
measurements, by P. Anderson, C. Lehr, and L. Maestre. 

191 (October 22, 1965). Observation of the GT-5 rocket-body re- 
entry — preliminary analysis, by L. Solomon. 



PAPERS PRESENTED OR PUBLISHED 211 

192 (November 8, 1965). Aanlysis of artificial meteoritic spherules, 
by F. Wright and P. Hodge. 

193 (November 12, 1965). Atmospheric densities and temperatures 
from the drag analysis of the San Marco satellite, by L. Jacchia 
and F. Verniani. 

194 (November 15, 1965). On the accuracy of the gravitational po- 
tential as derived from camera observations of artificial satellites, 
by W. Kohnlein. 

195 (December 10, 1965). Statistical evidence of the masses and 
evolution of galaxies, by T. Page. 

196 (December 14, 1965). Radiation spikes in H II regions, by T. 
Page. 

197 (January 24, 1966). Fluctuations and correlations in the expand- 
ing universe, by P. Eltgroth. 

198 (January 28, 1966). Geometric structure of the earth's gravita- 
tional field as derived from artificial satellites, by W. Kohnlein. 

199 (February 3, 1966). Atmospheric densities and temperatures 
from precisely reduced observations of the Explorer IX satellite, 
by M. Roemer. 

201 (February 18, 1966). Kernel representations in the solution of 
line-transfer problems, by E. Avrett and R. Loeser. 

202 (February 21, 1966). Observations of Gemini 6-Gemini 7 
rendezvous, by J. Latimer. 

203 (March 4, 1966). Cassini's second and third laws, by G. Colombo. 

204 (March 11, 1 966) . Particle evaporation from excited nuclei, 
by H. Mitler. 

205 (March 25, 1966). Photographic measurements of the energy 
distribution in the beam of a ruby laser, by C. Lehr, L. Maestre, 
and P. Anderson. 

206 (March 28, 1966). A suggestion as to the origin of chondrules, 
by F. Whipple. 

207 (April 1, 1966). The shape and location of the diurnal bulge 
in the upper atmosphere, by L. Jacchia and J. Slowey. 

208 (April 4, 1966). Satellite orbital data: Satellites 1958 Alpha 
(Explorer 1), 1959 Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2), 1959 Eta 1 (Vanguard 
3), 1960 Iota 1 (Echo 1), 1960 Xi 1 (Explorer 8), 1961 Delta 1 
(Explorer 9), 1962 Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1), 1962 Beta Mu 1 
(Anna IB), 1962 Beta Tau 2 (Injun 3), 1962 Beta Upsilon 1 (Re- 
lay 1), 1963 13A (Telstar 2), 1963 26A (Geophysical Research), 
and 1963 30D for Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1964; Satellite 1963 53A 
(Explorer 19) for Dec. 19, 1963-Mar. 31, 1964; Satellite 1964 
4A (Echo 2) for Jan. 29-Mar. 31, 1964; and Satellite 1964 5A 



212 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

(Saturn 5) for Jan. 30-Mar. 31, 1964, prepared under the super- 
vision of B. Miller. 

209 (April 5, 1966). Satellite orbital data: Satellites 1958 Alpha 1 
(Explorer 1), 1959 Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2), 1959 Eta (Vanguard 3), 
1960 Iota 1 (Echo 1), 1960 Xi 1 (Explorer 8), 1962 Alpha Epsilon 
1 (Telstar 1), 1962 Beta Mu 1 (Anna IB), 1962 Beta Tau 2 (Injun 
3), 1962 Beta Upsilon 1 (Relay 1), 1963 13A (Telstar 2), 1963 
26A (Geophysics Research), 1963 30D, 1963 53A (Explorer 19), 
1964 4A (Echo 2), and 1964 5A (Saturn 5) for Apr. 1-July 1, 1964, 
prepared under the supervision of B. Miller. 

210 (May 12, 1966). A study of flare stars, by L. Solomon. 

211 (May 13, 1966). Measurements of satellite range with a ruby 
laser, by C. Lehr, L. Maestre, and P. Anderson. 

212 (May 20, 1966). The polarization of celestial x-rays, by J. Dolan. 

213 (May 27, 1966). Some new algorithms for stellar structure, by 
P. Usher. 

214 (June 10, 1966). The decay of Satellite 1965 79A, by W. Hirst. 

215 (June 20, 1966). Satellite tracking with a laser, by C. Lehr. 



NOTES 

[For explanation of notes, see footnote, page 181.] 

1 Supported in part by grant NGR 09-015-021 from the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration (NASA). 

2 Supported in addition by the grant AF 65-531 from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) 
and by the Smithsonian Institution Hodgkins Fund. 

3 Supported by NASA grant NsG 87. 

4 Supported in part by the International Astronomical Union. 

5 Supported by grant GP-2999 from the National Science Foundation (NSF). 
"Supported by NASA grant NsG 536 and NASA contract NSR-09-01 5-033. 

7 Supported in part by NASA contract NASr-158 and by National Bureau of 
Standards agreement CST-7332, both with Harvard University. 

8 Supported in part by NASA contract NAS 9-4873. 

9 Supported by USAF contract AF 19(628)-3248. 
io Supported by NASA grant NsG 291-62. 

11 Supported in part by NASA grant NsG 460 to Harvard University. 

12 Supported by the National Academy of Sciences. 

is Supported in part by NASA grant NsG 282-63 to Dr. Frondel of Harvard. 
u Supported by NASA grants NGR 09-015-025 and NsG 87. 



NOTES 213 

15 Supported in part by the University of Hawaii, Institute of Geophysics. 

is Supported by USAF contract AF 19(628)-4203 from the Office of Aerospace 
Research. 

17 Supported in part by NASA grant NsG 64-60 to Harvard University. 

is Supported by NASA grant NsG 09-015-023. 

1 9 Supported in part by a grant from the Alfred P. Sloane Foundation. 

20 Supported in part by NASA grant NsG 89-60 to Harvard University. 

21 Supported in part by NASA contract NSR 09-015-022. 

22 Supported by NASA contract NAS 5-1535. 

23 Supported in part by NSF grant GP-4318. 

24 Supported in part by USAF contract AF 19(628)-3877 with Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

25 Supported in part by the National Science Foundation. 

26 Supported in part by NASA grant NsG 438 to Harvard University. 

27 Supported in part by USAF contract AF 19(628)-3322 with Harvard Uni- 
versity. 

28 Supported in part by the Advance Research Laboratory of Douglas Aircraft 
Company. 

29 Supported by NSF grants GP-3866 and GP-5791 to Harvard. 

30 With the cooperation of Jodrell Bank Experimental Station, and CSIRO of 
Australia; Cornell University. 

3i Supported by NASA grant NGR 09-015-025. 

32 Supported in part by Harvard University. 

33 Supported by a grant from the National Geographic Society. 

34 Supported in part by Boston University Department of Astronomy. 

35 Supported in part by the International Association of Geodesy. 



Science Information Exchange 

Monroe E. Freeman, Director 



i 



nnHE science information exchange performs a unique service for 
-!■ the national research community by providing a reasonably com- 
prehensive source of pre-publication information about research that 
is planned or actually in progress. Under the leadership of the 
Smithsonian Institution since 1953, this program has attracted the 
participation and cooperation of research organizations throughout 
the country. The number of participating agencies has risen steadily, 
and now includes most of the Federal research programs, as well 
as those of a substantial number of private foundations, universities, 
industries, and state and city governments. Interest in the registration 
of foreign research is growing, and new sources of information are 
steadily added as SIE progresses towards its goal of a comprehensive, 
and eventually complete, collection of currently active research 
information. 

As the registration of the Federal research programs has come closer 
to completion in 1966, more attention is being directed towards the 
non-Government sources. Growth of the inventory is expected to 
continue steadily, but at a slower rate in future years. 

Many potential users throughout the scientific community are as 
yet unaware of the advantages of the role SIE plays in the free flow 
of scientific information exchange in the pre-publication phase, so that 
an equally important objective has been to encourage the use of SIE 
by all members of the scientific community. A continuing effort has 

215 



216 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

been to make these services better known, and readily available to all 
research scientists. Over 100 articles and news notes about SIE services 
have appeared in scientific journals and other news media during the 
year, many written or prepared by staff members. SIE staff members 
have responded to invitations to speak at professional meetings, in- 
formal conferences, symposia, and the annual meetings of such organi- 
zations as the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, The Special 
Libraries Association, the American Chemical Society, and others. 

Some 20,000 descriptive brochures were distributed to potential 
users, information display booths were set up at a number of profes- 
sional society meetings, and almost a thousand visitors came to the 
Exchange during the year, many from overseas, to learn more about 
the Exchange, and how its services could be adopted to their needs. 

Although the primary mission of SIE is to serve research scientists, 
SIE has undertaken a number of investigations on the effectiveness 
and efficiency of information systems. Studies have dealt with such 
problems as the level of professional training and experience required 
for effective information handling, new techniques for selective subject 
indexing, the organization of information for research management, 
a study on relevance and recall as the basic factors of effectiveness, 
and detailed cost and productivity analyses as a prerequisite for 
standards of efficiency and effectiveness. Six reports were presented 
at the Congress of the International Federation of Documentation; 
others have been published in various professional journals. A 
thesaurus of 4,000 commonly used terms in the field of water resources 
research was prepared for the Office of Water Resources Research. 
This will be printed and distributed by the Department of Interior. 
Other projects of increasing interest and activity at SIE are the mod- 
ernization of computer files to inverted files and the conversion of 
selected linear tape files to random-access disc storage. Another 
project intended to increase efficiency and economy is the develop- 
ment of a unique last-term system with generic relationships automati- 
cally handled by computer programming. A project is being drawn 
up to establish a remote interrogation real time system for handling 
scientific subject matter on a cost-benefit basis comparable with estab- 
lished methods. The extensive experience of SIE in information 
handling, as well as its broad scope of subject interest, offers unusual 
opportunities for research. The research program is considered 
second only to the primary mission of service. 

For most of the year, SIE was intensively studied by a survey team 
of the Battelle Memorial Institute. The survey of users and potential 
users clearly indicated general satisfaction with the information services, 



SCIENCE INFORMATION EXCHANGE 217 

but pointed out the need for comprehensive coverage and the need 
to make its services better known throughout the nation. 

While the collection of research records has steadily climbed to 
over 100,000 records annually, the demand for services has increased 
even more rapidly (approximately 25 percent over 1965). About 
50,000 reports of all kinds were requested. These vary from simple 
requests for a single document to the preparation of catalogs that 
include thousands of records covering broad subject fields. SIE is 
the national research cataloging center for water resources investi- 
gations and has initiated, upon request from several federal sources, 
the collection and organization of information about current studies 
related to urban problems. Dr. Scott Keyes, University of Illinois, 
will spend six months at SIE assisting in the organization of this 
program. 

It is noteworthy that increasing interest in SIE has come from many 
foreign countries. Besides the many visitors from overseas, there have 
been increasing numbers of foreign research records voluntarily 
offered for registration. Information services are provided to overseas 
inquiries to the extent that they do not interfere with SIE's responsi- 
bilities to the Federal research agencies and the American research 
community. 

Publications 

The following papers by staff members of the Science Information 
Exchange were published: 

Davis, W. F., Jr. The Science Information Exchange: Communica- 
tion, storage and retrieval of scientific information. Poultry Science 
(30 September 1965), vol. 44, no. 5. 

Fitzpatrick, William H. and Freeman, Monroe E. The Science 
Information Exchange: The evolution of a unique information 
storage retrieval system. Libri (fall 1965), vol. 15, no. 2. 

Foster, W. R. and Hersey, D. F. Indexer requirements for the 
recognition of scientific content and context. 1965 Congress, 
International Federation for Documentation (FID) Abstracts, 
October 10-15, 1965. 

Freeman, Monroe E. Determining cost of information systems. 1965 
Congress International Federation for Documentation (FID) 
Abstracts, October 10-15, 1965. 

. A national inventory of research in progress. The Chemical 

Bulletin, October 1965. 

230-457—66 18 



218 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Freeman, Monroe E. The use of current scientific research informa- 
tion for administrative purposes. 1965 Congress International Fed- 
eration for Documentation (FID) Abstracts, October 10-15, 1965. 

. Water resources research and information retrieval. Pro- 
ceedings of the 10th Annual Conference, November 22-23, 
1965, Texas A&M. University. 

. The role of Science Information Exchange in the management 



of current research. The Chemist (December 1965), vol. 42, no. 12. 
. The role of Science Information Exchange in the manage- 
ment of current research — conclusions. The Chemist (February 
1966), vol. 43, no. 2. 
, Kohn, Edward H.; Foster, W. R.: Hersey, David F.; and 



Roth, Helga. Information problems related to urban research. 
Conference Proceedings, 11 October 1965, sponsored by The 
Advisory Commission on International Relations, the Department 
of Housing and Urban Development, Science Information Ex- 
change. 

Kreysa, F. J. and Foster, W. R. A retrieval profile for current 
research information. 1965 Congress International Federation for 
Documentation (FID) Abstracts, October 10-15, 1965. 

Long, B. L., and Hersey, D. V. A current awareness program for the 
field of water resources. 1965 Congress International Federation 
for Documentation (FID) Abstracts, October 10-15, 1965. 

Marron, H., and Snyderman, M. On the economics of computer 
storage and retrieval. 1965 Congress International Federation 
for Documentation (FID) Abstracts, October 10-15, 1965; American 
Documentation (April 1966), vol. 17, no. 2. 

Summers, R. W., and Freeman, M. E. Development of a program- 
matical technical index for the Office of Aerospace Research. 
1965 Congress International Federation for Documentation (FID) 
Abstracts, October 10-15, 1966. 



Smithsonian Activities 
History and Art 



Museum of History and Technology 

Robert P. Multhauf, Director 




T tistorical museums are conventionally — and appropriately— com- 
■*■ ■*■ posed of collections of familiar objects worthy of preservation 
either as exotic or archaic examples of the artifacts of daily life or as 
examples of things the collection of which is traditional. The visitor 
can hardly be surprised by the kind of things he finds in a museum; he 
can and should, however, find the unexpected in the individual object. 
This involves not only its quality, but innovations in display methods 
and in novel exploitation of these objects through the research activ- 
ities of the museum. The activities of the Museum of History and 
Technology in utilizing collections which are otherwise conventional 
are well illustrated in the following account of the recent accomplish- 
ments and future plans of our division of numismatics. 

Numismatics at the Smithsonian 

Numismatics, a scholarly discipline at least since the 13th century, 
often suffered in prestige because of its early methods, which tended to 
be largely descriptive. It has emerged in recent times as an inter- 
pretive science in which the application of established data became the 
basis for broader research. 

The Smithsonian Institution has been conducting a widely traced 
survey of numismatic cabinets and research groups within the frame- 
work of the general reappraisal of numismatics as a science. A product 
of this work is Elvira Clain-Stefanelli's review of past and present 
trends in numismatic research published in her Numismatics — An Ancient 
Science (1965). 

Through years of research in numismatic cabinets throughout the 
world, the following general new trends have been noted: 

221 



222 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

1 . Concentrated activities in the research and publication of source 
material: catalogs of coins of certain periods accompanied sometimes 
by introductory studies, such as those conducted by the British Museum, 
and numismatic cabinets in Copenhagen, Paris, Glasgow, Cambridge, 
Oxford, New York, and Boston. 

2. Activities devoted to the registration, publication and some- 
times interpretation of hoard finds, such as has been done in Stockholm, 
Hamburg, Paris, Vienna, Munich, Prague, Sofia, Bucharest, and 
Leningrad. 

3. The publication of monographs on subjects which range the 
Orient and Occident from ancient to modern coins, and from historical 
medals to decorations, such as has been done in New York, Leningrad, 
Vienna, Prague, Tel Aviv, and elsewhere. 

The Smithsonian's numismatists are participating in this compre- 
hensive endeavor through a numismatic survey of Israel, begun in 
1 966, with particular reference to enlarging knowledge of the history 
of Israel's ancient money economy. This entails a gradual inventory of 
collections, drawing on materials found on or near ancient sites. 
Scatter finds and hoards are both of great significance, and local 
collections often provide excellent cross-sections of circulating media 
from the areas where they were assembled. A goal of this survey is 
to produce fully illustrated catalogs of collections which would make 
available to students material otherwise practically inaccessible for 
research, and would at the same time contribute to knowledge of 
monetary circulation patterns. 

The purpose of the division of numismatics at the Smithsonian 
Institution is to accomplish a double-fold mission: to try to bring the 
great wealth of historic and artistic elements of numismatics to the 
attention of the general public, and to serve the advancement of the 
discipline through a well-planned activity of research and publications. 

The search into the history of all forms of money — attempting to 
explain their origin, evolution, appearance, intrinsic qualities, and 
relation to economics, and their social and cultural history — is the 
real scope of numismatics as a scientific and historical discipline. 
This viewpoint has been taken by Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli in his 
forthcoming history of the national numismatic collections. 

When the modern researcher examines the economic function of 
money, many new factors — such as cross-cultural valuation practices 
and distributive processes — enter his field of vision. Accordingly, 
numismatics has had to broaden its scope from that of a study restricted 
to metallic and paper currency to the science of all forms of exchange — 
including primitive media, money substitutes, and documents of value. 
Accordingly, the exhibit of numismatics in the Smithsonian Institution 




Renaissance coin collector holding Sestertius of Nero (A.D. .54-68), by Hans 
Memling (1430-1494), photo courtesy Musee Royal, Antwerp. Below: 
New hall of numismatics. 




RISE OF MODERN AMERICA, 1873-1900 




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Above: Typical display in new hall of numismatics, tracing history of money 
in the United States. Below: X-ray diffraction patterns of two coins: A 
struck silver stater (left), 6th century B.C., of Aegina (Greece) and a modern 
cast imitation, also silver, of the same coin. Clearly defined lines of right- 
hand pattern indicate the relatively undistorted crystalline structure of a metal 
casting; diffuse and broadened lines of the left indicate the distorted crystal- 
line lattice of a cold-worked metal. Area represented is approximately 
0.5 mm. in diameter, depth of X-ray penetration is on the order of 0.1 mm. 




MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION 223 

arranges displays of coins, tokens, and paper currencies in their his- 
torical and cultural context, rather than by the conventional catalog 
classification. The exhibits not only show the evolution of money 
by means of characteristic examples selected from crossroads of history, 
they also convey the spirit of various periods through the use of 
illustrations, background material, and reproductions of typical 
artifacts. 

The history of art also offers a close and pertinent relationship with 
the field of numismatics; indeed, aesthetic qualities of coins have 
probably been until recently a most powerful inducement to collecting. 
Elvira Clain-Stefanelli's Italian Coin Engravers Since 1800 (1965) — her 
most recent contribution to the elucidation of this field — is innovative 
in the study of the work of these Italian artists. 

To the trained eye of the archeologist, coins may reveal aspects of 
civilizations which have disappeared and left few or no records. In 
many cases c fins can help to date ancient monuments, the composition 
of coin hoards may serve as circumstantial evidence in tracing migra- 
tions, army encampments, trade routes, or tides of colonization and 
national expansion. 

An example of pure research directed toward the specialist is X-ray 
diffraction analysis in numismatics to determine the crystal structure 
and spatial arrangement of atoms in the crystalline lattice of coins. 
This non-destructive method reveals significant information about coin 
manufacturing — whether struck or cast, and if struck, whether hot or 
cold struck. Thus we gain a better knowledge concerning coining 
methods of the past and in this way it is frequently possible also to 
distinguish between genuine and counterfeit coins. 

Future plans of our division of numismatics call for the exploitation 
of all these avenues for the benefit of the National collections. The 
cooperation of all pertinent departments and museums of the Smith- 
sonian Institution will be sought in the accomplishment of this purpose. 

Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, Curator 
Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, Associate Curator 
Division of Numismatics 



Research and Publication 
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

With the appointment of Robert P. Multhauf to the Directorship of 
the Museum of History and Technology, Walter F. Cannon took over 
as chairman of the department on May 31, 1966. Cannon is also editor 
of The Smithsonian Journal of History, the first issue of which was pub- 
lished in the spring of 1966. To fill the vacancy in the curatorship of 
tools caused by the promotion of Silvio A. Bedini to Assistant Director 
last year, Monte A. Calvert joined the staff this year. Calvert was 
formerly the curator of the Archives of Industrial Society at the Univer- 
sity of Pittsburgh, and has a book-length study, The Professionalization 
of the American Mechanical Engineer, 1830-1910, accepted for publication 
by The Johns Hopkins Press. 

Melvin H. Jackson, formerly associate curator in the division of naval 
history, joined the department in April as associate curator in the sec- 
tion of marine transportation. Jackson is continuing his researches in 
oceanic history and affairs. 

The new cooperative graduate-teaching program with the University 
of Pennsylvania was initiated in January when Cannon went on leave 
to become the first Smithsonian visiting professor in the University's 
Department of the History and Philosophy of Science. He taught an 
advanced graduate course on "Physical Science from Young to Planck." 
Several students came to Washington to consult with our staff; Uta C. 
Merzbach and Calvert went to Philadelphia for individual class sessions 
and Ph.D. qualifying examinations. Standards for the M.A. and Ph.D. 
degrees were mutually agreed upon, and plans were made for next 
year, when Merzbach in the fall semester and Calvert in the spring 
will be visiting professors in Philadelphia. 

Two curators were honored by professional bodies for their scholar- 
ship. In April Sami K. Hamarneh was the recipient of the Edward 
Kremers award for distinguished pharmaco-historical writing of the 
American Institute of the History of Pharmacy. He was cited at its 
25th-anniversary symposium "for his meticulous scholarship and im- 
portant revisionary interpretations concerning the history of pharmacy 
in Islamic culture." He has also been elected secretary of the section 
on historical pharmacy, and a member of the committee on awards of 

224 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 225 

the Institute. Multhauf's article, "Sal Ammoniac: A Case History in 
Industrialization," published in Technology and Culture, won the Usher 
prize of the Society for the History of Technology. 

John H. White's book length monograph, Cincinnati Locomotive 
Builders 1845-1868, was published as a Museum bulletin. Three other 
books completed by the staff are in process of publication: Howard I. 
Chapelle, Search for Speed Under Sail in North America, 1700-1855; John H. 
White, Jr., Representative American Locomotives Before 1880; Bernard S. 
Finn, Source Book on Thermoelectricity. 

Silvio A. Bedini completely revised and substantially enlarged 
his Early American Scientific Instruments and Their Makers, now out of 
print, and will republish it as Scientific Instruments in 18th-Century 
America, part two of a 3-volume work; his research is substantially 
advanced on the other parts — Colonial American Scientific Artifacts and 
19th-century American Instrument Makers and Dealers. His monograph 
on the 17th-century Italian astronomer de Dondi, "Mechanical 
Universe," is to be published by the American Philosophical Society 
in the fall; and his book-length history of planetaria is in progress. 

Robert M. Vogel completed a detailed industrial-archeological 
survey of the G. P. Bradway Machine Works of West Stafford, 
Connecticut, in cooperation with the Historic American Buildings 
Survey of the U.S. Department of the Interior. Under a Smithsonian 
research grant, Vogel obtained complete drawings, photographs, 
interviews, and written accounts of this small water-turbine factory, 
most of the machinery of which is largely unchanged since it was in- 
stalled in 1890. The results give an unusually accurate view of the 
equipment and operational techniques of a specialized machine works 
of the period. Copies of the survey report have been deposited in 
the division's archival collections and in the HABS collection at the 
Library of Congress; a scholarly article describing the methods of the 
survey and its principal results is being prepared. Vogel also took 
part in a project to ensure the permanent preservation of a historical 
Bollman- truss bridge at Savage, Maryland, the last surviving example 
of the first system of iron trussing used by an American railroad, and he 
continued his cooperative work with the American Society of Civil 
Engineers on the location and preservation of historic sites and 
documents. 

Edwin A. Battison continued to supervise the translation of Russian 
books through the National Science Foundation-Smithsonian 
Institution cooperative program. The third of the series is V. V. 
Danielevskii, Nartotfs Theatrum Machinarum. The books have a tech- 
nical introduction by Battison. He also continued preparation of an 
edition of Jacques Besson's Theatrum Instrumentorum et Machinarum. 



226 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

Battison's investigation of the origin of the milling machine in America 
produced an article, "Eli Whitney and the Milling Machine," to be 
published in the second issue of The Smithsonian Journal of History. 
He continued to work with the group hoping to preserve as a museum 
the Robbins & Lawrence armory at Windsor, Vermont. 

Monte A. Calvert completed the first draft of a book on American 
mechanical technology at world fairs, 1851-1876; and began a study 
of the American municipal engineer. 

Bernard S. Finn continued his re-creation of the early history of 
the telephone through experiments with primitive telephone apparatus, 
in an attempt to understand Alexander Graham Bell's problems as 
he performed his experiments in the 1870s. The first results were 
given in a paper to the Society for the History of Technology at its 
annual meeting in December, and will be published in the third issue 
of The Smithsonian Journal of History. At the Eleventh International 
Congress of the History of Science, in Warsaw, Finn gave a paper on 
electron theories in the 19th century. He continued to serve as 
managing editor of Isis, the journal of the History of Science Society. 

Howard I. Chapelle in October resumed his studies of the admiralty 
collection of draughts at the National Maritime Museum, London, then 
attended the World Fishing Boat Congress in Goteborg, Sweden. He 
also studied marine collections in Museums there and in Bergen, Oslo, 
Copenhagen, and Barcelona. He brought near to conclusion his search 
in the Public Records office, London, on 17th-, 18th-, and early- 19th- 
century American ship building. 

White's article on the use of locomotive advertising lithographs as 
detailed technical evidence, "Locomotives on Stone," was published in 
the first issue of The Smithsonian Journal of History, with four of the litho- 
graphs reproduced in full color. On a field trip to Copiapo, Chile, he 
studied and sketched a Norris locomotive of 1850; work that provided 
the Museum with a set of engineering drawings of this unique American 
locomotive. 

Uta C. Merzbach continued her research on Liebnitz, delivering a 
paper on "Leibniz's Mathematical Contributions in the Context of his 
Time" at the Leibniz symposium held at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute 
in spring 1966, and one on "The Interrelationship of Mathematics and 
Geographical Discovery" at the annual meeting of the Society for the 
History of Discoveries at the University of Indiana. 

Deborah J. Warner published in the American Scientist a detailed study 
of the work of George Willis Ritchey, the American astronomer re- 
sponsible for the development of the large photographic reflecting tele- 
scope, culminating in the 100-inch reflector on Mount Wilson. 




Hall of physical sciences: Diorama showing Andrew Ellicott (right) and one 
of his assistants, Benjamin Banneker, taking a break from their work of 
surveying the boundary of the District of Columbia in 1791. They are 
shown on the Virginia bluffs overlooking the Potomac River near Litde 
Falls with some of the instruments that they actually used. (In 1 792, when 
Major Pierre L'Enfant— originally appointed planner of the City of Washing- 
ton — was discharged after a quarrel with the commissioners for the city, 
Ellicott completed the job.) 




Hall of physical sciences: Instruments used to lay out the Nation's Capital 
and for other precise surveying in the late 18th century. Some of these were 
used by Andrew Ellicott. On the right is the 6-foot zenith sector built by 
David Rittenhouse of Philadelphia, with additions by Ellicott. It was the 
most accurate scientific instrument built in this country in the 18th century. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 227 

ARTS ANDiMANUFAGTURES 

Curator John T. Schlebecker has in progress a scientific and technical 
history of American agriculture. With the assistance of a summer in- 
tern, this project should be accelerated in the coming year. His long- 
term study of American farm life in its socioeconomic aspects, begun in 
1964, is also in progress, with publication not expected before 1969. 
Schlebecker is collaborating with Homer Socolofsky of Kansas State 
University in the preparation of a history of Nebraska agriculture in 
anticipation of the centennial of that state in 1967. 

Schlebecker and the department chairman collaborated with Wayne 
Rasmussen, historian of the Department of Agriculture, and an ad hoc 
committee of the Departments of Agriculture and Interior to examine 
a proposal for a series of "Living Historical Farms." Suggested by 
Marion Clawson of Resources for the Future, Inc., these farms would 
be operated under conditions and with the crops typical of various 
time periods in the growth of American agriculture. A proposal for 
financing the detailed preliminary study, prepared by the Museum of 
History and Technology representatives, is now before the Secretaries 
of Agriculture and Interior. It is expected that the division will 
continue to work with the committee in an advisory capacity. 

Museum technician Thomas Wessel, under the direction of the cura- 
tor, is working on a history of the shelterbelts of the Great Plains, 
1874-1967. 

In the division of ceramics and glass, compilation of the catalog of 
the Hans Syz collection continued, involving research by curators 
Paul V. Gardner and J. Jefferson Miller II in some fifteen private and 
museum collections and correspondence with many European col- 
lectors and museums. Dr. Hans Syz, donor of the collection, spent 
several days on this project each month at the Smithsonian and addi- 
tional time in Europe and Westport, Connecticut. 

Gardner's biography of Frederick Carder is scheduled for comple- 
tion in fall 1966. During the year he completed a definitive compila- 
tion of Steuben designs, and continued work on a catalog of the 
International Congress on Glass Exhibit, 1962, and a Museum hand- 
book on millifiori glass at the Smithsonian Institution. 

Noteworthy among the six lectures given during the year by Gardner 
were "The Hans Syz Collection of 18th Century European Porcelain 
at the Smithsonian Institution," at the Antiquarian Society of The 
Art Institute of Chicago, November 23, 1965; and "Eighteen-Century 
Chinese Export Porcelain," at the National Society of Arts and 
Letters, Washington, D.C., March 1, 1966. 



228 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

In addition to his work on the catalog on the Hanz Syz collection 
associate curator J. Jefferson Miller began studies of ceramic artifacts 
recovered in archaeological excavations at Alexandria, Virginia, and 
Fort Michilimackinac, Michigan. His eight lectures during the year 
included one on "English Porcelain of the 18th Century," at the 
Washington Antique Show, January 1966. In September 1965 
Miller chaired a 3-day session on ceramics at the Pennsylvania Histori- 
cal and Museum Commission annual Americana Forum at Penns- 
bury Manor. He will conduct the ceramic seminar again in October 
1966. In May 1966, Miller was elected a Trustee of the Wedgwood 
International Seminar. 

Curator Jacob Kainen completed a study of the etchings of Antonio 
Canal, called Canaletto (1697-1768). Now in press, the study will 
include illustrations of all of Canaletto's etchings. Kainen also con- 
tinued work on his study of the prints of Hendrick Goltzius, contributed 
several articles to the New Catholic Encyclopedia, and served on the ed- 
itorial board of The Smithsonian Journal of History. 

Associate curator Peter Morse published a paper on Rembrandt's 
etching technique, using as an example an etching from the Smith- 
sonian's graphic arts collection. He began research for a catalogue 
raisonne of the prints of John Sloan. 

Kainen served as panelist for a symposium, "Originality in Prints," 
held February 15, 1966; and as judge for the Scholastic Art Awards 
Competition, the Winston-Salem Gallery of Fine Arts Annual Show, 
and the All- Army Photographic Exhibition. He lectured to the 
B'nai B'rith Youth Organization on contemporary Israeli prints and 
to the Washington Print Club on contemporary Japanese prints; 
and he presented a series of lectures on modern industrial printing 
to a group of F.B.I, document inspectors, to help in determining fraud 
and forgery. In addition, he had an exhibition of his own paintings 
at the Roko Gallery in New York in March 1966. Kainen and Morse 
visited New York in October 1965 to study modern printmaking 
techniques and to obtain new prints for exhibition. Morse was a 
juror for an art exhibition sponsored by the Internal Revenue Service 
and served throughout the year as first editor of the Washington 
Print Club Newsletter. 

Associate curator Eugene Ostroff was awarded a 3-year research 
grant to continue his work, started last year, on the preservation and 
restoration of photographs, and he prepared interim reports for 
publication. 

In the Smithsonian collection Ostroff uncovered the earliest extant 
example of W. H. Fox Talbot's experiments with light-sensitive ma- 
terials, a picture made in 1835 that predates his first photographic 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 229 

negative invented in 1839. The example consists of a paper print 
made from an artifically created negative. Talbot coated a sheet of 
glass with a darkened varnish through which he scribed lines. Paper 
coated with a light-sensitive solution was placed in contact with this 
negative and exposed to light. In cooperation with Kodak Research 
Laboratories, Rochester, New York, Ostroff examined the faded print 
with self-emission and low- voltage X-ray photography, direct infrared 
and ultra-violet photography, infrared luminescence photography, and 
photographic contrast enhancement. These tests revealed the written 
message "June 20th 1835, written with a pencil of tin, Lacock Abbey, 
Wilts." and the alphabet from A-Z. 

In cooperation with Kodak Research Laboratories, chemical analyses 
were also conducted on the early Fox Talbot experimental material 
uncovered by Ostroff during his 1965 European field trip. The results 
are being analyzed and the findings are being prepared for publication. 

Ostroff visited paper mills which manufacture photographic bases to 
survey quality-control techniques. Laboratory test procedures were 
established for investigating photographic image fading and the appro- 
priate investigations were started. 

Museum technician David Haberstich assisted Ostroff in his re- 
search related to the preservation and restoration of photographs. 
Applying optical restoration procedures wherever necessary, Haber- 
stich photocopied a large group of important early photographic 
experiments by Fox Talbot and he assisted in the regulating and 
standardization of new laboratory research equipment. 

Curator Grace R. Cooper continued her research on the spinning 
wheel in America in the 1 7th through 1 9th centuries. She has 
completed an initial survey of private and public collections in 29 
states. Completion of this project is scheduled for the coming year. 
As a senior technical editor for Encyclopaedia Britannica, Mrs. Cooper 
reviewed a number of new textile articles for technical content, and 
she outlined and recommended the reorganization of several existing 
articles. 

Associate curator Rita J. Adrosko continued her research on the 
use of natural dyes in 18th- and 19th-century American textiles. 
The results will be included in an I COM report on "Dyestuffs Used 
in the Past for Dyeing of Textile Materials in America." Her in- 
vestigations of Jacquard-woven silk pictures and Jacquard imitation 
tapestries continued. She also began research on 19th-century French 
shawls; extensive information on this subject was gathered during 
October and November 1965 when she visited various textile centers 
in France and also attended the biannual meeting and technical 

230-457— 6G 19 



230 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

sessions of the Centre International d' Etudes des Textiles Anciens, 
October 14-26. 

Museum specialist Doris Bowman continued her study of early 
machine-made nets. Additional examples were located and identified. 
A monograph of this research is in preparation. 

Acting curator Philip W. Bishop presented a paper at the annual 
meeting of the Society for the History of Technology on the growth of 
the American iron industry in relation to the development of the 
American economy through 1865. Using the techniques employed in 
the study of developing economies as evolved in recent years, the paper, 
which is being expanded for publication, involves a new approach to 
the technological history of the first half of the 19th century in America. 
Considerable research has been done in connection with the introduc- 
tion of rolled iron and steel beams, arising out of a paper presented in 
preliminary form by Robert A. Jewett of the School of Engineering 
of the University of Illinois. Bishop also continued research into the 
origins of drilling methods employed in the United States. This in- 
volved collaboration with J. Edward Brandy, who is working on a 
definitive history of drilling for the American Petroleum Institute. 

The coal research activities of associate curator John N. Hoffman were 
concentrated on the development of a suitable script for the hall of 
coal. He has been working closely with representatives of the coal 
industry. The history of the mechanization of the bituminous coal 
industry and the relation of the development of American anthracite 
resources to the evolution of transportation methods in the early 19th 
century were studied, and a number of contemporary archives were 
discovered. 

All members of the department gave lectures in the graduate courses 
in American civilization organized by the department of American 
studies in collaboration with The George Washington University. 

The department has been host to three Smithsonian Fellows: Eliza- 
beth Harris of the University of Reading, England, who studied the 
development of early photomechanical printing methods, using the 
Museum's large collection in this field; James H. Brewer of North Caro- 
lina State University, who studied the contribution of the Negro artisan 
to the Confederate war effort; and Henry J. Kauffman of Millersville 
State College, Pennsylvania, who is preparing a history of technology 
for the use of the undergraduate. All have profited from access to the 
collections and the curators of the Museum, and have amply demon- 
strated the value of the fellowship program to the scholar and his host. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION CIVIL HISTORY 231 

CIVIL HISTORY 

The increasing interest in historic archeology as a scientific tool in the 
study of history was reflected in a 3-day seminar on the role of historic 
archeology, of which C. Malcolm Watkins, curator of cultural history, 
was chairman. Participants, who ranged from classical archeologists 
and anthropologists to historians and curators, were drawn from univer- 
sities and museums extending from Exeter, England, to San Francisco. 

An application of the role of the historic archeologist was demon- 
strated as a result of a request by the Urban Renewal Agency of 
Alexandria, Virginia, for assistance in salvage archeology in the Gadsby 
Urban Renewal area of downtown Alexandria. Archeological aid 
Richard J. Muzzrole, of the division of cultural history, was assigned 
to this task. He worked under dramatically adverse conditions, be- 
tween the motions of bulldozers and piledrivers, to salvage rich material 
evidence of urban life in a Federal-period town. Many hundreds of 
artifacts recovered from wells and privy pits that had been filled be- 
tween 1790 and 1835 provided a detailed picture of the ceramics, 
glass, and other objects that belonged to merchants, shop-owners, and 
inn-keepers of the time. This type of cooperation between the city of 
Alexandria and the Smithsonian Institution could well be a model for 
collaboration between urban renewal administrators and archeologists 
wherever historic areas are about to be disturbed and opportunity can 
be seized to secure knowledge and preserve evidence of the historic past. 
In furtherance of the effort to develop research in the field of political 
campaigning, associate curator Keith E. Melder, in charge of the 
division of political history, organized a conference June 2-3, 1966, on 
needs and opportunities in the study of political campaigning. A 
panel of historians, political scientists, and representatives of the com- 
munications media discussed the scholarly neglect of campaigning, the 
20th-century revolution in campaigning, and campaign collections and 
resources for their study. 

Chairman Richard H. Howland, devoting a considerable part of his 
time to special assignments, continued to serve as chairman of the 
managing committee of the American School of Classical Studies, at 
Athens. He made three brief trips to the School, in October, January, 
and June, in connection with the initiation of a major excavation 
campaign in the ancient Agora of the city of Athens. He continued as 
a member of the 12-man U.S. National Committee of ICOMOS (In- 
ternational Council of Monuments and Sites), representing this com- 
mittee and the United States at the annual meeting in Vienna of IBI 
(Internazionales Burgen Institut), and he read a paper at the joint 
meetings of IBI and the Oesterreichische Burgenverein. 



232 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

Curator V. Clain-Stefanelli, of the division of numismatics, par- 
ticipated in Treasury Department hearings concerning the importation 
of certain gold coins, and continued his co-operation with the Treasury 
Department's Office of Domestic Gold and Silver Operations, in con- 
nection with establishing the status of gold coins and medals. He is 
engaged in developing practical procedures regarding the authenti- 
cation of gold bars. He also conducted a survey of numismatic 
museums in Istanbul, Athens, Sofia, Bucharest, Moscow, and 
Leningrad, part of a long-range project that also includes a numismatic 
survey of Israel. 

Associate curator Elvira Clain-Stefanelli addressed the Congress 
of the International Federation of the Medal in Athens, Greece, as 
United States delegate. For this occasion she prepared a special 
exhibit of contemporary United States medals. Mrs. Clain-Stefanelli 
was re-elected a member of the Central Bureau of the International 
Congress of the Medal. 

John Fesperman, newly appointed to supervise performance activ- 
ities in the division of musical instruments, arranged for concerts by 
invited musicians who used the Smithsonian's 18th-century German 
clavichord, the Barak Norman gamba, and the Shudi and Dulcken 
harpsichords. Museum specialist Scott Odell spent several days in 
southwestern Virginia searching for and interviewing traditional 
dulcimer players. Several were found and tape recordings made of 
their playing in preparation for a record documenting this neglected 
and fast-disappearing folk tradition. 

Extensive progress on the development of the iconographic file of 
illustrations of musical subjects represented in art was made by 
museum technician Helen Hollis. This archive, now numbering about 
850 items will provide the Smithsonian with a valuable source of 
research information about the history of the construction and use 
of musical instruments. 

Professor George E. Hargest of Clark University completed a survey 
and historical interpretation of 237 pieces of transatlantic mail in the 
collection of the division of philately and postal history. The work 
resulted in an important record of mail carried before the reform -and 
standardization of international postal rates under conventions of the 
Universal Postal Union, effective in 1875. Professor Hargest's 
manuscript not only documents the holdings of the division with respect 
to this type of mail, but summarizes and interprets the various 19th- 
century postal treaties between the United States and foreign countries. 

Associate curator Carl H. Scheele, in charge of the division of 
philately and postal history, completed a manuscript dealing with the 
general field of postal history, surveying postal services abroad from 



Hall of medals and decorations: 
American eagle sculptured 
in wrought iron marks en- 
trance to section of the hall. 
Below: Portion of series of 
halls illustrating U.S. armed 
forces history through the 
Civil War, opened this year 
along with hall of ordnance. 






Hall of ordnance: Two of a series of exhibits illustrating the development of 
small arms. 




RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ARMED FORCES HISTORY 233 

ancient times to the 19th century, and American postal services from 
Colonial times to the present. 

ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

Underwater exploration and research into its methods and pro- 
cedures continued as the major project of chairman Mendel L. 
Peterson. 

An expedition to Bermuda during July and August explored wreck 
sites dating from the late 16th through the 19th centuries. A major 
accomplishment was the removal of a midship section of a large, as 
yet unidentified, Spanish ship believed to date from the late 16th 
century. This section is being preserved and will form an important 
element in a reconstructed site in the hall of underwater exploration. 
The section was removed by hand sawing with a crosscut saw and 
involved a considerable amount of physical exertion. The inner 
planking, floor timbers, futtocks, and sheathing of the ship were all 
carefully numbered as they were removed and will be reassembled 
exactly as found. In sectioning the ship a gunport cover was found, 
a discovery that gave additional information on the above-deck ap- 
pearance of the vessel. Other areas under the remaining timber 
of the ship remain to be explored and are expected to yield additional 
artifacts which may be useful in establishing the exact identity of 
the ship. 

Another site, potentially of importance to the history of the glass 
trade, was a site with an associated date of 1783 which yielded a 
large quantity of fragments of table glass. Over forty distinct forms 
were recognized in the many hundreds of specimens recovered. This 
cargo may have originated in England but a thorough search of the 
Bermuda Archives failed to identify the site definitely. It is possible 
that the cargo contains American as well as English glass and that 
it was transshipped, a fact which would add to the difficulties of exact 
identification. Even if not associated with a particular ship, however, 
the collection is important since it represents a precisely dated cargo 
which will be important in dating other table glass found in collections 
ashore. 

Several other wreck sites which warrant further exploration included 
the General Armstrong, a sailing vessel of the Civil War period, the Minnie 
Brassier, a Confederate blockade runner, and an unidentified Spanish 
ship of the late 17th or early 18th centuries. 

Museum specialist Alan B. Albright continued an investigation into 
the preservation of water-logged wood with polyethylene glycol, the 



234 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

use of ultrasonics in the cleaning of encrusted objects, and the vacuum 
impregnation of wet organic materials. 

The addition of a museum technician to the staff gives additional 
stimulus to the program for the preservation of materials recovered 
from underwater sites. Thaddeus S. Moore, who joined the staff in 
January 1966, is restoring several significant ceramic vessels dating 
from the 16th through the early 19th centuries. Much of the work of 
the laboratory now concerns itself with the preservation of the large 
section of ships' timber removed from the late 16th-century wreck 
site in Bermuda. 

Chairman Peterson completed two papers relating to ordnance re- 
covered from underwater sites: "Ordnance Materials Recovered From 
a Late Sixteenth Century Shipwreck Site" and "Wired Ball for Small 
Arms 1594-1715." Both of these papers will appear in Military Col- 
lector and Historian, Journal of the Company of Military Historians. He 
delivered some thirty lectures on the underwater exploration program 
during the year to professional and lay groups. 

Curator Edgar M. Howell and museum specialist Donald E. Kloster 
accelerated work on a comprehensive, descriptive, critical, and docu- 
mentary catalog of United States Army dress to include uniforms, 
headgear, and footwear. The first volume of this project, covering the 
subject of headgear through 1854, is complete and ready for editing. 
Much of the research for the second volume, that on uniforms through 
1854, is complete, and work is continuing. This research is being 
performed in conjunction with a comprehensive recataloging and doc- 
umenting of the uniform collections, a particularly significant project 
in that these, comprising more than 1,200 American uniforms plus a 
large number of foreign ones, are the most comprehensive in existence. 

Howell has greatly expanded his efforts to locate original graphic 
material illustrative of the role of the United States Army in the opening 
and development of the West, publishing a third monograph and 
working on a fourth and fifth on the subject. This is a long-range and 
continuing project. 

Kloster has completed most of the research on a monograph' on 
Quartermaster General Montgomery C. Meigs' first attempt to publish 
specifications for clothing and equipage in his efforts to establish and 
maintain rigid standards for these types of materiel procured by the 
Army. The monograph, which will be illustrated, will include here- 
tofore unpublished specifications, with documentation, for the period 
from the Civil War through 1872. 

Between June 1 and July 4, 1966, associate curator Craddock R. 
Goins, Jr., participated in the Fourth International Congress of 
Museums of Arms and Military History in Moscow, and examined 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION ARMED FORCES HISTORY 235 

weapons collections in Stockholm, Moscow, Leningrad, Vienna, 
Paris, Brussels, and London. His studies were directed toward iden- 
tifying and documenting European arms in the collections of the 
Smithsonian Institution for publication in a catalog of the collections. 

Colonel B. R. Lewis, USA (Ret.), consultant to the division, com- 
pleted his manuscript "Small Arms Ammunition Displayed at the 
International Exposition, Philadelphia, 1876, Prepared by the 
Frankford Arsenal." In addition to being an excellent catalog of 
the display, which is now part of the Museum collections, Colonel 
Lewis' manuscript is a valuable study of the development of small-arms 
ammunition during the first three quarters of the 19th century. 

Curator Philip K. Lundeberg revised for publication in two forth- 
coming issues of the Smithsonian Journal of History his study on the 
impact of undersea warfare upon Allied strategy during World 
War I. In this revision he examined more closely the technological, 
diplomatic, and geographical factors that discouraged Great Britain 
from undertaking the celebrated "Baltic Project," an amphibious 
thrust through the Danish Straits against the Baltic coast of Germany. 

During the year Lundeberg conducted research at Philadelphia and 
Washington on the Continental gondola Philadelphia, publishing thereon 
a brief survey pamphlet entitled "The Continental Gunboat Philadel- 
phia and the Northern Campaign of 1776," which includes an illustrated 
account of the Battle of Valcour Island, as well as a description of the 
raising and preservation of the Philadelphia. Final revisions and addi- 
tions were made by Lundeberg to the American contribution to the 
Bibliography of the Great Sea Routes sponsored by The International Com- 
mission on Maritime History of UNESCO. A final report on this ma- 
jor international bibliographic enterprise was presented by Dr. Lunde- 
berg in November 1965 at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the 
History of Discoveries held at the University of Indiana. Work con- 
tinued on the catalog of United States warship models, and a special 
study of the 44-gun British ship-of-the-line America (1749) was well 
advanced by Merritt A. Edson, Jr., of Washington, D.C. 

During the year associate curator Melvin H. Jackson continued his 
survey of cannon produced by Jan and Pieter Verbruggen between 
1751-1782 as part of his study on fifty foundry drawings of Pieter 
Verbruggen. In addition Jackson continued his research on the history 
of the American privateer Prince of Neufchatel. Material secured from 
British Admiralty archives, records of the Port of Brest, France, the 
United States National Archives, and the records of the New York 
Surrogate Court revealed much new information on the owners and 
fighting career of this celebrated privateer of the War of 1812. 



236 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

During the year exhibits specialist Howard Hoffman prepared de- 
tailed plans of the Continental gondola Philadelphia, including drawings 
of her ordnance, anchors, and deck furniture, based on his detailed 
survey of that historic vessel. In addition, Hoffman prepared detailed 
plans for the gun carriage of a late- 18th-century carronade and a 
privateer's deck section appropriate for its exhibition. 

In association with the Naval Historical Foundation, the division of 
naval history continued a series of lectures on naval and maritime 
history. On October 14, 1965, Rear Admiral John B. Heffernan, for- 
mer Director of Naval History, Department of the Navy, lectured on 
"The Union Blockade, 1861-1865," illuminating that critical maritime 
aspect of the Civil War by distinguishing between the concept of an 
effective and an efficient blockade. In addition, the division sponsored 
an illustrated lecture on February 17, 1966, by the noted British mari- 
time historian, Commander David W. Waters, on "Convoy in the Age 
of Sail and Today." 



AMERICAN STUDIES 

Late in December 1965, a department of American studies was set 
up in the Museum of History and Technology and Wilcomb E. Wash- 
burn, formerly curator of the divison of political history, was appointed 
its chairman. 

The principal function of the department is to carry on an American 
Studies Program in cooperation with universities throughout the 
country. An orientation seminar in the material culture of the United 
States, designed to acquaint graduate students in the local universities 
with the resources and with the scholars of the Museum, was offered 
during the spring semester of 1966. George Washington University 
was the only university administratively able to participate in the 1966 
program, but the University of Maryland and other local universities 
are scheduled to participate when the Seminar is given again in spring 
1967. Reading courses with individual members of the staff of the 
Museum and thesis direction are also available under the Program, 
and the first doctoral candidate was accepted. He will work under 
the joint supervision of Washburn and the chairman of the department 
of history at the University of Delaware on the development of museum 
education at the Smithsonian in the period of Spencer F. Baird and 
G. Brown Goode. As knowledge of the program spread, inquiries 
were received from department heads throughout the country, and 
tentative arrangements for advanced research by other graduate stu- 
dents were discussed. The program is expected to open up many 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION GROWTH OF THE U.S. 237 

unexploited areas of research in material culture to doctoral students 
in American universities. 

A second responsibility of the department of American studies is 
to plan a proposed Historical Studies Center, that will involve a 
historic sources survey, a historic sites survey, and other programs 
designed to make museum resources in the United States better 
known and more effectively exploited. 

In August 1965 Washburn attended the International Congress 
of the History of Science at Warsaw and at Cracow, Poland; and 
in August-September 1965 the International Congress of Historical 
Sciences at Vienna, Austria, where he represented the Society for 
the History of Discoveries at the meetings of the International Com- 
mission on Maritime History. He prepared papers for the annual 
meeting of the American Indian Ethnohistoric Conference in Tucson, 
Arizona, on "Philanthropy and the American Indian"; and for the 
North American Fur Trade Conference, St. Paul, Minnesota, on 
"Symbol, Utility, and Aesthetics in the Indian Fur Trade." In 
November 1965 he presided at the annual meeting of the Society 
for the History of Discoveries at the University of Indiana. 

Lectures were delivered by Washburn in March 1966 at the National 
Bureau of Standards on "The Evolution of Government Science 
Policy in the Nineteenth Century," with special reference to the 
Smithsonian Institution; and in June 1966, at the Foreign Service 
Institute, Department of State, on "Values in United States History." 



GROWTH OF THE UNITED STATES 

Curator Peter C. Welsh continued his work on the Harry T. Peters 
lithography collection, the Van Alstyne folk art collection, and upon 
various aspects of technological history, principally, the implements 
of the handcrafts. The principal work completed this year has been 
the manuscript, "Track and Road," a history of the American trotting 
horse based upon the visual record preserved in the Peters lithography 
collection. The principal publications by this curator have been 
American Folk Art: The Art and Spirit of a People, published by the 
Smithsonian Institution, and the article "The Metallic Woodworking 
Plane" which appeared in Technology and Culture, January 1966. 

Assistant curator Anne Castrodale prepared the catalog entries 
for about 150 objects from the Eleanor and Mabel Van Alstyne Folk 
Art collection included in American Folk Art: The Art and Spirit of a 
People, by Peter C. Welsh. She completed the editing of the journal 
of William Wood Thackara, a volunteer from Philadelphia in the 



238 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

War of 1812, and continued her study of the life and work of the 
18th-century Philadelphia cabinetmaker Daniel Trotter. 

Museum technician Robert R. Macdonald has been researching the 
history of the Benjamin Franklin press, and also tanning in the United 
States during the later half of the nineteenth century. He assisted 
in the preparation of a proposed exhibition on the Victorian woman 
and prepared the bibliography for it. 




Laboratory of about 1 790 in hall of chemistry. Nearby is an exhibit depicting 
a chemistry laboratory of the 1890s. Below: 1890 American pharmacy in 
hall of medical sciences. The fixtures were, until 1958, part of a drug store 
located in southeast Washington, D.C. 





Starting late in spring 1966, lecture-demonstrations on the effect of nuclear 
radiation on plants, animals, and foods were given by staff members of the 
Oak Ridge Institute for Nuclear Studies, which sponsored the project. 
The exhibit also illustrated the use of radioisotopes in medicine. 




The Collections 
CARE AND CONSERVATION 



SPECIMENS ACCESSIONED, IDENTIFIED, AND 

FISCAL YEAR 1966 



Accessions 
{transac- 
tions) 
1966 
Departments {new) 

Science and 

Technology 191 

Arts and Man- 
ufactures 225 

Civil History 675 

Armed Forces 
History 1 14 

Total 1,205 



DISTRIBUTED— 



Received 
on loan 


Exchanged 
with other 
institutions 


Trans- 
ferred to 
other Gov- 
ernment 
agencies 


Lent for 
study to 

investigators 
and other , 

institutions 


Specimens 
identified 


373 


1 


1 


98 


10 


66 


1 





199 


1,986 


123 





1 


1,011 


146, 505 


5 





1 


3 


1,788 



567 



1,311 150,289 



As halls become completed, more staff time can be devoted to rear- 
rangement of reference collections and up-dating of catalogs and files. 
This has begun in the division of electricity and in the growing archives 
of mechanical and civil engineering. Unpacking and storage of the 
very large James Arthur watch and clock collection is being carried out 
so as to eliminate later rearranging and recataloging. 

In addition to the usual restoration work, we have a growing program 
of returning objects to operational status, both for making up more 
interesting displays and for facilitating research into the acutal utility 
and accuracy of the objects. Thus a number of internal combustion 
engines to be shown operating in the hall of heavy machinery were 
restored under the direction of technician William K. Henson, and 
the difficult task of restoring early television sets was undertaken by 
technician Roy V. LaRoche. Operating exhibits interest the public 
very much, but require much maintenance; thus many of the clocks in 
the timekeeping hall have required cleaning, lubrication, and the 
replacement of worn elements this year. 

A survey of the entire agriculture and forest products collection is in 
progress to determine the need to eliminate redundant material, and 



239 



240 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

the collection of approximately 2,000 photographs on farm machinery 
implements and processes is being organized and cataloged. 

Transfer of the reference collections of ceramics and glass to the 
Museum of History and Technology was completed, and plans were 
made to arrange, inventory, and index them. The move was greatly 
expedited by the assistance of Museum Specialist Abraham Richards 
and Technicians John Carter and Francis Gadson of the division of 
manufactures and heavy industry. Twelve important pieces in the 
Hans Syz collection were repaired during the year. 

Research fellow Elizabeth M. Harris and museum technician 
James W. Norwood have undertaken a complete re-arrangement of the 
important collection of photomechanical prints in the division of 
graphic arts. Dr. Harris identified and documented numerous items 
hitherto undescribed, and with the help of Norwood made much- 
needed repairs on damaged specimens. Associate curator Eugene 
Ostroff treated a small selection of the collection's most valuable photo- 
graphs with the new technique, devised by him, for restoring faded 
photographs though neutron irradiation. Museum specialist Elliott 
Hawkins continued a long-range project of verifying equipment speci- 
mens with catalog cards, and he is systematically arranging the 
collection. 

The textiles laboratory completed the technical analysis and wet- 
cleaning of 86 items. Especially challenging were three bagpipe covers 
from the musical instrument collections, each of which had an outer 
leather cover and a separate inner lining that had obsorbed the sugary 
compound used to soften the leather of the bag. This compound was 
successfully removed by museum technician Maureen Collins, who is 
responsible for the cleaning work of the laboratory. 

Several large specimens, attempted for the first time, including a 
large white embroidered counterpane, an embroidered shawl, and a 
hand-woven blanket, all needed for the new textile exhibit hall. Care 
in rinsing is of great importance in handling large items. A short, 
illustrated paper on the "How to Wet-Clean Undyed Cotton and 
Linen" submitted for publication by Miss Collins, covers the methods 
judged best by the division after the cleaning of over 500 articles in the 
laboratory during the past 4 years. 

The musical instruments reference collections and restoration labo- 
ratory were provided with a constant and closely regulated relative 
humidity of 50 ±2 percent. The improvement in stability of the speci- 
mens, especially of the restored keyboard instruments, has been 
noticeable. Robert Sheldon who joined the staff as a museum tech- 
nician, is restoring to playing condition several wind instruments, 
including an early 19th-century serpent. 



THE COLLECTIONS CARE AND CONSERVATION 241 

Work has begun on the complete documentation of every dress in the 
First Ladies collection. A professional pattern maker is preparing a 
pattern of each dress, making a muslin copy, and providing a set of 
instructions for its construction, accompanied by a water color drawing 
of the dress. 

A long-range project was started to arrange systematically the entire 
study collection of coins, tokens, and medals in individual boxes of 
adequate sizes placed on shallow metal trays. The trays are all inter- 
changeable and are arranged in metal cabinets, each provided with 
79 sliding slots for the individual trays. 

The restoration of numerous leather, paper, metal and wooden 
specimens, completed in preparation for use in the growth of the 
United States exhibits, was done in cooperation with the conservation- 
analytical laboratory (see p. 52). 

Precautions against damage to specimens by all types of light were 
taken throughout the entire armed forces history exhibit area with the 
installation of filters, diffusers, and blackout curtains. 

In the division of military history, emphasis was placed on reorganizing 
and cataloging collections in the new storage areas, and placing them 
in new types of storage containers. Restoration of flags continued, 
and research in this area was carried out in conjunction with the 
division of textiles, with whose help considerable work also was done 
on cleaning and restoring of some of the more fragile uniforms. 

Approximately a third of the weapons in the reference collections 
were disassembled, cleaned, and treated for preservation by museum 
aid Zeb Spencer. A commercial rust inhibitor, Formula 3-36, pre- 
pared by the Corrosion Reaction Consultants, Dresher, Pennsylvania, 
has been most effective in protecting metal objects from moisture and 
toxicity. 

Consultant Colonel B. R. Lewis examined the small arms ammunition 
collections and recommended a method of treating metallic coatings 
to prevent corrosion and oxidation of lead. Experiments are being 
made and the results will be published. Colonel Lewis also examined 
and identified all the specimens of small-arms ammunition, made 
recommendations for their arrangement in the reference collections, 
and suggested sources for obtaining additional specimens needed. 

The division of naval history bent special efforts toward securing 
stable temperature and humidity conditions in exhibition halls and 
reference collection areas, with particular attention being given to the 
Continental gondola Philadelphia. Through the skillful efforts of 
conservator Charles Olin, a mutilated mid- 19th-century oil painting 
of United States naval operations off Canton was completely restored 
and made available for exhibition. All printed material in the P.V.H. 

230-457—66 20 



242 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

Weems Memorial Library was cataloged and a large number of manu- 
scripts relating to the history of modern navigation were microfilmed 
for use by scholars. 



GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 

SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL COLLECTIONS MAY 31, 1966 

Department of Science and Technology 103, 307 

Physical Sciences 4, 539 

Mechanical and Civil Engineering 12, 315 

Electricity 7, 452 

Transportation 42, 981 

Medical Sciences 36, 020 

Department of Arts and Manufactures 151, 572 

Textiles 35, 467 

Ceramics and Glass 17, 448 

Graphic Arts 52, 485 

Manufactures and Heavy Industries 35, 561 

Agriculture and Forest Products 10, 611 

Department of Civil History 10, 305, 667 

Political History 48, 693 

Cultural History 24, 260 

Philately and Postal History 10, 032, 967 

Numismatics 199, 747 

Department of Armed Forces History 54, 922 

Military History 41 , 969 

Naval History 12, 953 

Total 10, 615, 468 



SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

As is usual, important accessions included both large scale collections 
and individual items of outstanding interest. Examples of the former 
were the acquisition of the Thomas Norrell railroad collection of some 
12,000 prints, books, and negatives, the result of a lifetime of dis- 
criminating collecting, and 119 linen and eggshell-paper drawings of 
early locomotives and cars, donated by the Reading Company; an 
example of the latter was the gift by Marion M. Emery of a delicate 
racing sulky of about 1870. 

An item of considerable public interest was the first Atlas ground 
guidance computer, Mod I, retired to us by the U.S. Air Force from 
its duties at Cape Kennedy. The computer, however, has a long his- 
tory, and we were fortunate to be able to obtain one of the early 
attempts at a useful computing machine, that of de Lepine in 1 725, as 



THE COLLECTIONS CARE AND CONSERVATION 243 

well as the first practicable commercial calculating machine, the 1820 
model of Charles X. Thomas. 

Not all instruments age so swiftly; we received from the Bureau of 
Standards the Meggers infra-red spectroscope with which precision 
spectroscopy in this country was initiated by Dr. Meggers in 1914. 
The instrument, although in some ways outmoded, still holds the record 
for long-wave measurements in the far infra-red. And a large 18th- 
century copper still, marked "R. Bush, Bristol, 1787," was obtained 
from the U.S. Department of Internal Revenue. 

The division of mechanical and civil engineering received a large 
group of documents related to the career of William Rich Hutton 
(1826-1901). It consists, apparently, of every piece of paper used by 
Hutton in his work as assistant engineer on the Washington, D.C., 
water supply system of 1857-1859 and as chief engineer of the C&O 
Canal through the 1870s, of the steel arch bridge over the Harlem 
River in New York, of the first Hudson River tunnel in 1888-1890, and 
of many lesser projects. It may well be the most comprehensive doc- 
umentation of the work of any single civil engineer of the latter 1 9th 
century. From Brown University came a unique collection of models 
connected with George Corliss. Other accessions include a number of 
sundials; an important clock made by Whitehurst of Derby; and an 
1876 Gleason bevel-gear planer, the first commercially successful bevel- 
gear cutter, which will go on display in the hall of tools. 

The medical sciences collections received 40 Limoges apothecary 
jars, a gift from Smith Kline & French Laboratories; and an 1896 
syrup dispensing urn, donated by the Coca-Cola Co. Two 17th- 
century Italian majolica drug jars, a 13th-century Persian glazed- 
pottery mortar, and a 12th-century Persian pottery jar were purchased 
through the Squibb fund. The dental collections of Dr. Charles H. 
Land was donated by Columbia University. 

The division of electricity received four major donations: A 200- 
kilowatt Alexanderson alternator, dating from 1921, marking the cul- 
mination of the alternator method of producing radio waves; apparatus 
used in the first commercial microwave communications system of 1945 
between New York and Philadelphia; an alternating current generator 
and a transformer of the mid- 1880s, donated by Sebastian de Ferranti, 
grandson of the inventor, representing unique early design in alter- 
nating current; and photomicrographs taken by Ladislaus Marton 
with his first three electron microscopes. 

The marine transportation section received from the Socony Oil Co., 
a model of a Mobil-Socony tanker and from the Luckenbach Lines a 
sectionalized model, on %-inch scale, of a large freight steamer. 



244 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 

A model of a Swedish gang mill was acquired from the Soderhamn 
Machine Manufacturing Company of Talladega, Alabama. Also 
acquired were a partially framed model of the ship Ocean Monarch, 
constructed by Boucher Lewis Precision Models, Inc., New York; 
and an operating model of a dry kiln made by the Moore Dry Kiln 
Company of Jacksonville, Florida. All these models will be in- 
corporated in forest products hall. 

Raymond Stout of Washington, D. C, presented a 1901 Hubei 
model steam tractor. An excellent collection of barbed wire was 
lonated by Frank Horsfall, Department of Horticulture, Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia. K. E. Clark of Los 
Angeles, California, gave a cast iron seat to complete the one-horse, 
front-cut mowing machine of 1880 now in the farm machinery hall. 

Many of the 291 pieces of ceramics and glass accessioned during 
the year came from donors who over the years have demonstrated a 
continued interest in building a strong and diverse collection. Mrs. 
Florence E. Bushee gave 42 rare 19th century paperweights. Mrs. 
William A. Sutherland gave 14 pieces of 18th-century English porcelain, 
including a very rare pair of Bow sauceboats and a fine pair of Bow 
figures. Mr. and Mrs. George W. Ware presented 1 1 pieces of antique 
German glass; several were types previously unrepresented in the 
collections. Mr. and Mrs. L. Wagner gave 1 1 pieces of early Steuben 
glass; a welcome addition to the division's strong collection of Steuben 
glass. And Dr. Hans Syz gave 15 pieces of 18th-century German and 
English porcelain; included among these were an important Meissen 
tureen and an extremely fine Derby sweetmeat stand. 

Four pieces of 19th-century American Tucker porcelain were 
purchased through the Joanne Toor Cummings Fund. Mr. and 
Mrs. Mayer Greenberg established a fund from which was purchased 
7 pieces of contemporary pottery from the studio of Otto and Gertrud 
Natzler. The A. D. Alpine Company presented an electric kiln 
which will be used in live demonstrations of the potter's art. 

The significant acquisition of the division of graphic arts was the 
Harris Model S4L offset press, serial no. 101, now on display. Built in 
1906, it was the first commercially successful offset press and marked 
the beginning of the large and growing industry of offset lithography. 
It was a gift from the Harris-Intertype Corporation. 

The most important print accession was Kaethe Kollwitz's lithograph, 
Saaljruchte sol/en nicht vermahlen werden, her last print and one of only 
three known copies. This print was obtained with the help of a 
generous gift from Dr. Otto Kallir. The German Expressionist^ print 




Lithograph by Kaethe Kollwitz, Saatfrikhte sollen nicht vermahlen werden, recently 
acquired for the print collection. Below: Briefcase and other personal 
possessions of the late Adlai E. Stevenson, used by him when he was the 
U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, °ift of Mrs. Ernest L. Ives. 



® 



^ 




Early attempt at a useful computing machine, made by de Lepine in 1725. 
Below: The Atlas guidance computer Mod I set up as a special operating 
exhibit in the hall of chemistry, September 1965. 





THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 245 

holdings were strengthened by the addition of works by Karl Schmidt- 
Rottluff and Lovis Corinth. Original blocks and prints by Uniichi 
Hiratsuka and George O'Connell were gifts of the Washington Print 
Club. Other important accessions were Edouard Manet's color litho- 
graph, Polichinelle, John Baptist Jackson's Descent from the Cross, and 
important works by American artists, including Edward Hopper's 
Night Shadows, five posters by John Sloan, and prints by Bellows, 
Hartley, Lasansky, Frasconi, Kohn, and Baskin. Examples of con- 
temporary printmaking techniques were enriched by the acquisition of 
original plates and prints by Michael Ponce de Leon and Andrew 
Stasik. Twenty-five old manuscripts were given by the University of 
Montana. 

A number of accessions of significance to the history of photography 
were received. The Bell Telephone Laboratories presented the proto- 
type and the earliest production model of the Fastax, the first com- 
mercially successful high-speed motion-picture camera, first man- 
ufactured in 1943. C. F. Carlson and the Xerox Corporation 
presented Carlson's laboratory experimental materials leading to the 
development of the Xerographic process, and the apparatus built 
by Carlson to demonstrate the practicability of automating his image 
duplicating process. Richard Avedon donated 100 of the original 
negatives (with prints) used in his books, Observations (1959) and 
Nothing Personal (1964). Graflex, Inc. donated 16 early examples 
of their cameras. The Technicolor Corporation gave their first two 
color motion-picture camersa which, with the two received last year, 
provide the section with a thorough technological documentation 
of that process from 1916 to the present time. The Johns Hopkins 
University has made available four early rocket-borne cameras, 
including the first cameras to take pictures from a rocket above the 
earth's atmosphere. This historical event took place in 1946 when 
the photographic equipment was carried in a captured V-2 rocket 
to an altitude of 70 miles over New Mexico. The U.S. Navy prepared 
and presented the world's longest panoramic photograph, a single 
color transparency 175 feet long that covers a 4-mile section of the 
United States from the east to the west coast. 

An interesting late- 17th-century tapestry was presented by Gerson 
Nordlinger. A handsome brocaded silk fabric of the first half of the 
18th century was given by Lt. Col. Kibbey M. Home, U.S.A. This 
example from France is especially fine because of the rich use of gold 
and silver threads and the fine condition of the richly colored silk yarns. 

An important early Jacquard woven picture of 1844 was received. 
The woven design commemorates the visit of the Due d'Anmale to 
the atelier of M. Carquillat, the weaver of the picture. An excellent 



246 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

detailed rendering of a Jacquard loom is included in the design. Eight 
outstanding examples of lace and embroidery of the 17th through 
the 19th centuries were presented by Mrs. Hugh Bullock and Mrs. 
Robert Goetz. Included in this group is a deep flounce of beautiful 
17th-century Gros Point de Venise lace. Mrs. Frank D. Edgington 
presented a poignant mourning picture, painted in 1828 on cotton 
velvet by Hannah Converse, grandmother of Mark Hanna. An 
indigo-blue wool quilted counterpane, ca. 1800, gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Wilbur James Fraser, was added to the collection of bed coverings. 

For the hall of petroleum a number of items were acquired. Baroid 
Division of the National Lead Company prepared, in cooperation with 
the curator, an exhibit explaining the use of drilling muds. Cameo 
Inc. gave two working models of gas-pumping methods; an original 
Amerada bottom hole pressure gauge came from the Geophysical Re- 
search Corporation; while the French Atomic Authority provided an 
elegant model of Deca II, their experiment in thermonuclear fusion. 
The Shell Development Company collaborated with the curator in the 
design of a demonstration of underwater completion methods. The 
Museum acquired the Dunning cyclotron and arranged to take the 
McMillan synchrotron; both are pioneer acceleration machines impor- 
tant in the history of nuclear physics. Kenneth Jewett presented to 
the national collections a further installment of his collection of tinware. 

CIVIL HISTORY 

Of architectural interest is the generous gift of Bruce and Calderon 
Howe of several mantels, stair rails, doors, and other elements from 
their now dismantled H Street, NW., house in Washington. Mrs. Van 
Horn Ely gave two fine side chairs made in New York, ca. 1830. An 
example of frontier folk life is a chair made about 1870 on a ranch in 
Mendocino, California, the gift of Mr. and Mrs. Eaton L. Grimes. 
An inevitable phase of 19th-century life was a horse-drawn hearse; a 
good example was given jointly by the Litchfield Historical Society 
and the Torrington Historical Society, both of Connecticut. Some 
fifty pieces of American furniture, dating from the third quarter of the 
19th century, have been acquired for the offices and conference rooms 
of the original Smithsonian Institution building, designed by James 
Renwick. The principal rooms will gradually be furnished with ma- 
terial reflecting the early decades of the building's use and the Institu- 
tion's growth. 

As a result of the collecting activities of Scott Odell, of the division 
of musical instruments, in the southern mountains, notable additions 
were made to the collections of traditional American musical instru- 
ments: These include several Appalachian dulcimers, two frettless 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 247 

banjos from Virginia and Tennessee, and two fold violins. The col- 
lections also were augmented by a cello made by Abraham Prescott, a 
cello-shop sign of the late 18th century, and a Rhythmicon, an elec- 
tronic device used in the teaching of rhythmic counterpoint by Joseph 
Schillinger, author of The Mathematical Basis of the Arts, generously 
donated by Mrs. Joseph Schillinger. Several exceptional musical in- 
struments of European origin were also acquired: A French harpsi- 
chord made by Benoist Stehlin in Paris in 1 760, one of the few French 
harpsichords still in existence; a fine 4-keyed bassoon made by Milhouse 
in England in the 18th century; and a rare bassoon tutor. 

Significant association objects acquired during the past year, include 
a sack suit worn by Dwight D. Eisenhower during his term as President, 
and other personal items, gifts from General Eisenhower. The First 
Ladies collection was enriched by a sequined ball gown and wrap worn 
by Mrs. Warren G. Harding. A briefcase and personal items of Adlai 
Stevenson, used during his tenure as Ambassador to the United Nations, 
were the gifts of Mrs. Ernest L. Ives, his sister. Among the additions 
to the collections of political Americana were a banner representing the 
candidates Polk and Dallas from the campaign of 1844, a gift of 
Robert Cochran, and a portrait of Henry Clay by J. W. Dodge, 
painted in 1843, the gift of Mrs. Randolph Kidder. 

A large number of foreign banks and financial institutions, repre- 
senting more than 40 countries, contributed to the growth of the 
numismatic collections. Many additions of ancient coins, mainly 
Greek bronzes, came from Mr. Harvey Stack and from Mr. and Mrs. 
Mortimer Neinken, who also donated a comprehensive collection of 
paper currencies of the Austrian Empire. The series of medieval coins 
was increased through donations received from Mrs. Milton Holmes. 
Remarkable additions were received in the field of United States paper 
currencies, among them an extremely rare 3-penny note issued by 
the Colony of Massachusetts in 1722, given by B. M. Douglas, and a 
unique $10,000 United States Treasury Note (1862) donated by 
Grover Criswell. An historically significant group of designs and 
engravings by Christian Gobrecht, one of the foremost United States 
Mint engravers of the first half of the 19th century, was received from 
Max J. Humbert, James Harper, Frank Darner, and Clark A. Keyser. 
The collections of foreign medals were increased particularly by 302 
Latin-American medals and tokens contributed by the Hon. and Mrs. 
R. Henry Norweb. 

The rare Sullivan's Dispatch Post stamp of 1853, affixed to a 
magazine mailed in Cincinnati, was received as a gift from an anony- 
mous donor in memory of the late George B. Sloane, a writer 
well known for his philatelic scholarship. The stamp is one of two 



248 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 MUSEUM OF HISTORY & TECHNOLOGY 

known copies preserved on an original cover. A letter of 1769, sent 
from Dinwiddie County, Virginia, to Ayr, England, in 1769 and 
containing interesting references to discussions in the House of 
Burgesses, was purchased through the Milton A. Holmes Memorial 
fund. Rare airmail stamps and souvenir sheets of Korea were pur- 
chased through the Charles and Rosanna Batchelor Memorial fund. 
Mrs. Renee R. Bowden donated an outstanding group of 19th- 
century stampless covers and folded letters of Thurn & Taxis, Bavaria, 
Hanover, Prussia, Saxony, and Wurttemberg. Mr. and Mrs. Robert 
O. D. Hopkins donated additional drawings, models, essays, proofs, 
and stamps of China and a significant collection of stamp-engraving 
tools. 

ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

A collection of several hundred glass fragments from a wreck site with 
an associated date of 1 783 may prove to be of great significance to the 
student of glass, as it is possible that a number of the fragments are 
from the Amelung Glass Works. 

A large collection of ordnance materials from VHerminie, 1838, was 
added to the already substantial finds from that site. 

Several brass engine-room fittings from the Marie Celeste, a Confed- 
erate blockade runner sunk in Bermuda waters, has given the collec- 
tions a group of significant materials not hitherto represented. 

A rare Colt Texas Patterson revolver was received from Charles M. 
Williams, and a rare and unusual engraved powder horn of the period 
of the French and Indian War was received from Lewis Allen. General 
Nathan Twining, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, pre- 
sented his entire collection of uniforms, including a unique dress uni- 
form designed by himself. A large collection of interesting Civil War 
material, including a number of rare specimens, was acquired as a gift 
from Mrs. Florence Wieland. 

Among donations related to naval history particularly notable was 
an original manuscript copy of Francis Drake's famous letter announc- 
ing his daring attack on the Spanish Fleet at Cadiz on April 19, 1587, 
presented by James G. Stahlman of Nashville, Tennessee. This his- 
toric document, recording an event that significantly contributed to 
the defeat of the Armada and the emergence of British sea power, 
represents a superb element of the colonial exhibits introductory to the 
halls of the Armed Forces of the United States. Also outstanding was 
the donation by John A. Foard of two pigs of lead ballast founded at 
Liverpool during the Civil War and recently recovered from the wreck 



THE COLLECTIONS GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 249 

of the Confederate blockade runner Modern Greece off Wilmington, 
North Carolina. 

A handsomely wrought model of the American privateer Prince de 
Neufchatel, which had a distinguished fighting career during the War of 
1812, was completed and placed on display. The model of another 
celebrated American commerce raider, the Confederate cruiser Ala- 
bama, also was received, as was a model of the USS dishing, first of the 
United States Navy's commissioned torpedo boats and an important 
precursor of the modern destroyer. 



Exhibits 

Two Science and Technology halls were opened in part. The sec- 
tion of the hall of physical sciences devoted to classical physics, plus all 
of mathematics and two period rooms in chemistry, were available for 
viewing at the 50th Anniversary Meeting of the American Optical 
Society in March, and were opened to the public on April 1 . Sections 
on modern physics and on chemistry remain to be completed. The 
hall of medical sciences was open to the public in May, although the 
hall of health is still incompleted. 

A special exhibit of the Atlas ground guidance computer Mod I, 
planned by associate curator Uta Merzbach, was opened in the hall of 
physical sciences and will be on display through the first half of 1967. 
The Burroughs Corporation, manufacturers of the computer, assisted 
in making it operational, and daily lecture-demonstrations are being 
given by museum technicians George A. Norton and Charles E. 
Dennison. The exhibit includes a film of the computer at work guiding 
rockets from Cape Kennedy. Dr. Merzbach also prepared a special 
exhibit of ruling and dividing engines for the American Optical Society 
meeting, and this will continue to be on view throughout the year in 
the special exhibits area of the hall of physical sciences. The exhibit 
features equipment by Nobert, Fasoldt, Rogers, Rutherfurd, and Row- 
land, to complement the classic machines by Ramsden and Michelson 
on display in the permanent exhibit. 

A special show of fine prints from the civil engineering collection was 
assembled for the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Serv- 
ice. Two special exhibits of watches were held: one, featuring the 
Zale collection from Dallas, consisted of finely enameled and richly 
decorated pieces, and the other, watches and chronometers from the 
newly acquired James Arthur collection. A dental exhibit of 19th- 
century office furnishings and instruments was prepared and loaned to 
the District of Columbia Dental Society for display and lecture-dem- 
onstrations were begun by technician Elliot Sivowitch in the hall of 
electricity and by technician Marion Jarboe, in the 1855 machine 
shop in the hall of tools. 

The popular beehive exhibit is again on public view in the farm 
machinery hall, a new hive having been furnished by the Department 
of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland. A feeding station to supplement 

250 




Hall of physical sciences: Telescope and other equipment for a 19th-century 
observatory. In the exhibit of telescope lens and mirrors (left) is the glass 
for a 62-inch reflecting telescope mirror cast and polished in the 1890s. 
Never used, it was for years the largest ever made in the United States. 
Below: Shop front of 19th-century optician and walk-in exhibit. 





Repairing an early- 19th-cen- 
tury ophicleide in the music 
restoration laboratory (photo 
courtesy Washington Post) . 



Hall of everyday life in the 
American past: Library of 
about 1 890 from the house of 
B. B. Comegys of Phila- 
delphia, re-erected as a 
period-room exhibit. Most 
of the original furnishings 
and books of this library, 
which is sheathed in wood, 
have been recovered. 




MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 251 

the nectar available in the area was established on the roof of the 
Museum. A model of a 1901 Huber steam tractor was put on display 
in September, as was a temporary exhibit of the Frick steam engine. 
The hall of ceramics and gallery of glass were formally opened on 
April 22, 1966, in the presence of a distinguished company of donors 
and collectors. Three special exhibitions were held during the year. 

The 10th International Exhibition of Ceramic Arts, sponsored by the 
Kiln Club of Washington, D.G., was on view from October 29 to 
December 13, 1965. 

Glass in Germany, illustrating German glass from ancient times to 
the present and sponsored by the German Arts Council in cooperation 
with the National Carl Schurz Association, was on view January 1 to 
February 20, 1966. 

Ceramic Arts — U.S.A. — 1966, presenting the latest work of a number 
of important contemporary American ceramic artists and sponsored 
by the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, was on view 
May 2 to June 30, 1966, and will be circulated nationally by the 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

Completion of wall cases for the graphic arts gallery provided needed 
space for special exhibitions. The following shows were presented: 

The Etchings of Canaletto, September 15 to November 15, 1965. 

Making Faces, caricatures by Aline Fruhauf, November 1 6, 1 965 to 
January 16, 1966. 

Old Master Prints from the Collections, December 8, 1965 to May 2, 
1966. 

German Expressionist Prints, January 17 to May 2, 1966. 
Preparatory work was done for a major exhibition, Australian Prints 
Today, to open July 15, 1966, that will be the first full showing of 
Australian prints in the United States. 

The special print display program of the new gallery of photography 
was inaugurated, June 17- August 1, 1965, with the show originally 
produced for the 1965 White House Festival of the Arts. It featured 
work by American photographers, selected from the collections of the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of the City of New York, 
Museum of Modern Art, Library of Congress, and the Smithsonian 
Institution. Other exhibitions were: 

Children of the World, a one-man show of photographs by Ken Hey- 
man, one of America's notable young photographers, September 15 to 
December 8, 1965. 

Twenty Tears of News Photography, selected from the files of the AP 
and the UPI news agencies, and including all the Pulitzer prize-winning 
news photographs, 1942-1966, May 12 to July 15, 1966. 



252 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

To test the feasibility of exhibits for the blind, curator Grace R. 
Cooper selected objects from the reference collections that would best 
illustrate the textile subjects to be discussed in two half-hour sessions. 
These included the basic fibers cotton, wool, flax, silk, and man-made 
fibers, and the basic processes of ginning, carding, spinning, and 
weaving. A 4-harness loom with examples of plain, patterned, bro- 
caded, tapestry, and related fabrics was provided, and three docents 
were trained to conduct sightless persons on tours of the exhibit. This 
special project was run in conjunction with a NASA exhibit on the 
history of flight, also designed for the blind, and together they gave 
experience of great value to the division of vocational guidance, U.S. 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, which had supported 
the project with a grant. The weekly weaving demonstrations, dis- 
continued to permit restoration of the wood frame of the loom, were 
replaced by weekly demonstrations of handspinning by associate cura- 
tor Rita Adrosko and museum technician Lois Vann. Miss Adrosko 
also explained the art of handspinning on TV Channel 26 in Window 
on Our World, an educational program designed for Metropolitan 
Washington school children. A temporary exhibit of Victorian Needle- 
work is being prepared for initial showing in the Museum, after which 
it will be circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibi- 
tion Service. 

Important recent acquisitions are being incorporated into the new 
textile hall in the Museum of History and Technology now being pre- 
pared for opening in 1967. 

Active installation of the hall of petroleum has begun. The mural to 
be installed at the entrance to the hall was shown to the visitors to the 
International Petroleum Exposition at Tulsa, Oklahoma. Designed 
to be a guide to the hall as well as a realistic summary of oil technology 
and skills, it was painted by Delbert Jackson, staff artist of the Pan 
American Oil Corporation under the sponsorship of a group organized 
by Helmerich and Payne of Tulsa. Plans for the hall of nuclear energy 
were virtually completed, as were those for hall of iron and steel. 
Substantial gifts for the construction of models were received from the 
Ford Motor Company fund and from the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion, and four fine models prepared by Bethlehem Steel Company, 
among the recent deliveries, were placed on temporary exhibition. 

The division of manufactuers and heavy industries acting as host to 
the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, provided space for and assisted 
in the installation of a life sciences radiation laboratory as a temporary 
exhibit. Manned by LASL staff members with the assistance of local 
students, it provided live demonstrations of the uses of radiation in 
modern life and has been of exceptional interest to the public. W 1 1 1 i 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY EXHIBITS 253 

the completion of the installation of the Tuve Van de Graaff accelerator 
by museum specialist Abraham Richards and museum technicians 
John Garter and Francis Gadson, the opportunity was taken to set up 
a small exhibit of nuclear energy material, including the Spitzer 
Stellarator, the "pickle barrel" reactor, and the Dunning cyclotron. 

An additional period room was opened in the hall of everyday life 
in the American past, the private library of Benjamin B. Comegys, 
originally added to his Philadelphia house about 1880. Through 
Comegys' relatives and with the assistance of Hubert H. Howson, who 
administered his estate, many of the original furnishings and most of 
the books were recovered. Numerous photographs taken between 
1880 and 1900, some of which were published in Comegys' book 
A Tour Around My Library, made it possible to re-create the room very 
nearly as it was lived in — an example of the taste and customs of a 
prosperous Philadelphian of the late 19th century. 

In conjunction with the Smithsonian conference on the role of 
historic archeology, an exhibit ot artifacts recoverea in salvage arche- 
ology in the Gadsby Urban Renewal project in Alexandria, Virginia, 
was displayed in the first-floor rotunda. 

An exhibition of keyboard instruments in honor of the Smithsonian 
Bicentennial was opened in the hall of musical instruments for Sep- 
tember 1965. During this month museum technician Helen Hollis 
gave daily lecture-recitals for museum visitors on and about the restored 
keyboard instruments. 

A special security case for historic jewelry placed in the hall of 
American costume, holds the Napoleon necklace, Marie-Antoinette 
earrings, and Empress Eugenie blue diamond, all presented by Mrs. 
Merriweather Post, as well as fine jewels of the 20th century, including 
important examples made by Harry Winston. 

A special display featuring Smithsonian Institution award medals, 
arranged by associate curator Elvira Clain-Stefanelli on the occasion 
of the James Smithson Bicentennial, contained original models and 
bronze strikings of the new Hodgkins medal, designed in 1965 by 
Albino Manca, and the Smithsonian Award medal by Paul Vincze. 
The latter, presented for the first time to The Royal Society of London, 
shows on the obverse a portrait of James Smithson and on the reverse 
the Smithsonian's first building on the Mall. 

United States and foreign gold coins and medals from the F. A. Hauck 
donation were selected for a display arranged in a semiautomatic ex- 
hibit case containing 30 trays, each with an average of 14 coins. The 
trays are suspended on a continuous chain device driven by an elec- 
trical motor, and two command buttons enable the visitor to select 

230-J57— 66 21 



254 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — HISTORY AND ART 

and move into view the tray he wishes to examine. Electronic devices 
prevent unauthorized access to the material on display. 

The plaster-of-paris mannequins in the First Ladies hall are being 
replaced with identical mannequins of light polyester resin, which 
are easier to handle and aid the technical staff in preserving the dresses 
when they must be moved. 

A revised exhibit, installed in the hall of philately and postal history 
to coincide with the opening of the Sixth International Philatelic Ex- 
hibition, was especially designed to show portions of the collection 
never previously exhibited or representative of materials generally 
held in the reference collections. 

During the year the department of armed forces history opened halls 
illustrating U.S. armed forces history through the Civil War, the hall 
of medals and decorations, the hall of ordnance, and the exhibit of 
gondola Philadelphia. Installation of individual exhibits in these halls 
is continuing. 

Curator Peter C. Welsh organized two special exhibits, each accom- 
panied by a publication: "The Trotter in America," designed by 
Nadya Kayaloff, a study of America's first sports hero based on 19th- 
century prints from the Harry T. Peters lithography collection, supple- 
mented by a selection of related objects from the Museum collections; 
and "The Art and Spirit of a People," designed by Robert Widder, a 
continuing special exhibit in which approximately 150 objects from the 
Eleanor and Mabel Van Alstyne folk art collection are used to illustrate 
values, attitudes, and interests prevalent in 19th-century America. 
Plans were made for a temporary exhibit of lithographs and objects 
relating to the genteel female of the Victorian era. 

Two major installations were completed for permanent exhibits in 
the growth of the United States halls being designed by Mrs. Deborah 
Bretzfelder: the wheels and gearing from a 1774 grist mill in Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, and a house frame from Ipswich, Massachusetts, 
dating from the 1690s and the 1750s. 

Further details concerning the construction of exhibits for the Mu- 
seum of History and Technology are to be found in the report of the 
U.S. National Museum, Office of Exhibits, pages 47-50. 




Special exhibit honoring Jawaharlal Nehru, showing scenes from his life and 
containing objects illustrating the culture of India. Below: Hall of ceramics 
which, with the nearby hall of glass, was formally opened in April 1966. 





Possibly the earliest American-made carriage in existence, this 18th-century 
chaise, recently restored, is exhibited in the vehicle hall. Below: The 
Trotter in America, a special exhibit based on prints in the Harry T. Peters 
lithography collection, also contained equipment used in this sport, which 
rose to popularity in the 19th century. 




Staff Publications 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

Battison, Edwin A. 100 years of machine tool progress. Metal- 
working Magazine (September 1965), pp. 1-8. 
— • — — . Stone-cutting and polishing lathe by Jacques Besson. 

Technology and Culture (Spring 1966), vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 202-205. 
Bedini, Silvio A. Lens-making for scientific instrumentation in the 

seventeenth century. Applied Optics (May 1966), vol. 5, no. 5, 

pp. 687-694, 12 figs. 
. The makers of Galileo's scientific instruments. In Atti del 

Simposio su "Galileo Galilei nella storia e nella filosofia delta sdenza" 

(Florence, 1966), pp. 1-27, 8 figs. 
Cannon, Walter F. History at the Smithsonian. Smithsonian Journal 

of History (Spring 1966), vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 65-72. 
Chapelle, Howard I. The Chesapeake Bay. Popular Boating (July 

1965), vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 4-6. 
Finn, Bernard S. Controversy and the growth of the electrical art. 

IEEE Spectrum (January 1966), vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 52-56. 
Hamarneh, Sami K. The first independent treatise on cosmetology 

in Spain. Bulletin of the History of Medicine (July-August 1965), 

vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 309-325. 
. Smithsonian exhibits on pharmaceutical history. Journal 

of the American Pharmaceutical Association (August 1965), vol. n.s.5, 

no. 8, pp. 434-^r35, 438. 

Al-Kindi, a ninth-century philosopher, physician, and 



scholar. Medical History (October 1965), vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 328-342. 

Jackson, Melvin H. Greenland and the "Vinland Map." Car- 
tographer (June 1966) (in press). 

Multhauf, Robert P. Sal ammoniac: a case history in industrial- 
ization. Technology and Culture (Fall 1965), vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 569- 
586. 

. What is a metal? In The Sorby centennial symposium on the 

history of metallurgy, ed. C. S. Smith. New York: Gorden and 
Breach, 1965, pp. 139-144. 

Warner, Deborah J. George Willis Ritchey and the development 
of celestial photography. American Scientist (March 1966), vol. 54, 
no. 1, pp. 64-94. 

White, John H. Cincinnati locomotive builders 1845-1868. (U.S. 
National Museum Bulletin 245), 167 pp., 56 figs., 1965. 

255 



256 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — HISTORY AND ART 

American high wheel singles. Railway and Locomotive His- 



torical Society Bulletin, no. 114 (April 1966), pp. 27-36, 6 figs. 

Locomotives on stone. Smithsonian Journal of History (Spring 



1966), vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 49-60, 14 figs. 

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 

Bishop, Philip W. [Review] Iron and Steel in Nineteenth Century 

America, by Peter Temin. Isis, vol. 56, pt. 4, p. 483. 
Cooper, Grace R. Quilting. Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 18, 

pp. 965-966, 1966. 
— . The carpet-bag. Spinning Wheel, a National Magazine About 

Antiques (July-August 1966), vol. 22, no. 7-8, pp. 14-16, 37. 
Gardner, P. V. Meissen and Other German Porcelain in the Alfred Duane 

Pell Collection. Smithsonian publ. 4256 (1956) revised (Wash- 
ington: Smithsonian Institution, 1966), pp. 68. 
. Eighteenth-century porcelain at the Smithsonian. Antiques 

(September 1965), vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 336-340. 
Haberstich, David E. Which history of photography is best? 

Popular Photography, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 75, 122-125, 1966. 
Miller, J. Jefferson II. The Larsen and McCauley collections 

at the Smithsonian Institution. Antiques (October 1965), vol. 87, 

no. 4, pp. 522-525. 

. The Washington Monument in Baltimore. Baltimore: Peale 

Museum, January 1966, pp. 16. 
Morse, Peter. Rembrandt's etching technique: an example, 

Paper 61 in Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology 

(U.S. National Museum Bulletin 250), pp. 93-108, 1966. 
Ostroi-f, Eugene. Early Fox Talbot photographs and restoration by 

neutron irradiation. Journal of Photographic Science, vol. 13, no. 5, 

pp. 213-227, 1965. 
Schlebecker, John T. The Great Holding Action: The NFO in 

September, 1962. Agricultural History (October 1965) pp. 204-213. 

CIVIL HISTORY 

Brown, Howard Mayer. Instrumental music printed before 1600. 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1965, 559 pp. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. Italian coin engravers since 1800. Pa- 
per 33 in Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology 
(U.S. National Museum Bulletin 229) 68 pp., illus., 1965. 

— . Numismatics — an ancient science. Paper 32 in Contributions 

from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National Museum 
Bulletin 229), 102 pp., illus., 1965. 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY PUBLICATIONS 257 

Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir. Money. In The World Book Encyclo- 
pedia, pp. 588-598d, 1965. 

• — . Historical notes on coinage metals. Coins, pp. 32-36, 50-53, 

1965. 

• • — . Monetary history and medallic art at the Smithsonian Institu- 



tion. Numisma, no. 75, pp. 31-4-8, 1965. 
— — . An application of physics in ancient numismatics: detection 



of certain counterfeit Aegina staters through X-ray diffraction 

analysis. American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 70. p. 185, 1966. 
Collins, Herbert R. Original panels from Jackson's phaeton found. 

Carriage Journal (Autumn 1965), vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 73-75. 
•- — ■ — ■ — . White House stables and garages. Records of the Columbia 

Historical Society, Washington, D.C., 1966. 
Fesperman, John. Music for a small organ. Journal of Church Music 

(July-August, 1966), vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 6-11. 
Howland, Richard H. Icomos in Poland. Newsletter of The Society 

of Architectural Historians (September 1965), vol. 9, no. 4, p. 2. 
• — ■ — — . The American school of classical studies in Athens. Bulletin 

of the Archaeological Institute of America (November 1965), vol. 56, 

p. 21. 

Travelers to Olympus. Pp. 147-150 in With heritage so rich 



(A Report of a Special Committee on Historic Preservation, Albert 
Rains, Chairman). New York: Random House, N.Y., 1966. 

Klapthor, Margaret Brown. Presentation Pieces in the Museum 
of History and Technology. Paper 47 in Contributions from the 
Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National Museum Bul- 
letin 241), pp. 81-108, 1965. 

• — ■ — — . Benjamin Latrobe and Dolley Madison decorate the White 
House, 1809-1811. Paper 49 in Contributions from the Museum of 
History and Technology (U.S. National Museum Bulletin 241), 
pp. 153-164, 1965. 

Melder, Keith E. Angel of mercy in Washington: Josephine Grifnng 
and the Freedmen, 1864-1872. Records of the Columbia Historical 
Society, Washington, D.C., 1966. 

Scheele, Carl H. Pneumatic tube mail service in the United States. 
Society of Philatelic Americans, Journal (May 1966), vol. 28, no. 9, 
pp. 639-648, 4 figs. 

. The Smithsonian's philatelic and postal history exhibits. 

Stamps (May 14, 1966), vol. 135, no. 7, pp. 330-331, 2 figs. 

. Smithsonian's philatelic and postal history holdings grew 



from 1,733-stamp gift in 1888. Linn's Weekly Stamp News (May 16, 
1966), vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 36-37, 3 figs. 



258 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

Howell, Edgar M. Harvey Dunn: the searching artist who 

came home to his first horizon. Montana, The Magazine of Western 

History, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 41-56, 27 pis., 1966. 
Lundeberg, Philip K. The continental gunboat Philadelphia and the 

northern campaign of 1776. pp. 20, 1966. 
Peterson, Mendel. Underwater thesaurus. Antiques (September 

1965), vol. 88, pp. 319-324. 

AMERICAN STUDIES 

Washburn, Wilcomb E., The museum and Joseph Henry. Curator 

(May 1965), vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 35-54. 
. Law and authority in Colonial Virginia. Chapter in Law 

and authority in Colonial America, edit. George A. Billias (Barre, 

Mass., 1965), pp. 116-135. 
. Virginia's first families and the first families of Virginia. 



Chapter in Exploring Virginia's human resources, edit. Roscoe D. 
Hughes and Henry Leidheiser, Jr. (Charlottesville: University 
of Virginia Press, 1965) pp. 8-18. 
— . A proposal concerning a war game involving guerrillas, 
counter-guerrillas, and civilians. Background, the Journal of the 
International Studies Association (August 1965) pp. 147-153. 
(ed.) The great design: Two lectures on the Smithson bequest 



by John Cniincy Adams. Washington, D. C: Smithsonian Institution, 
1965, pp. 100. 

GROWTH OF THE UNITED STATES 

Welsh, Peter C. American folk art: The art and spirit of a people. 

Washington, 1965. 100 pp., 65 illus. 
. The trotter in America. Washington: Smithsonian Institution 

(publ. 4637), 1965. 20 pp., 30 illus. 
— . The Van Alstyne American folk art collection Antiques (Au- 



gust 1965), vol. 88, pp. 208-211, 15 illus. 

. The metallic woodworking plane. An American contribu- 
tion to hand-tool design, Technology and Culture (January 1966, 
Winter), pp. 38-47. 

Woodworking tools 1600-1900. Paper 51 in Contributions 



from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National Museum 
Bulletin 241), pp. 178-228, 65 illus., 1966. 



National Air and Space Museum 

S. Paul Johnston, Director 




Legislation authorizing construction of a National Air and Space 
J Museum was cleared by both Houses of Congress late in June 1966, 
after several years of consideration by the 88th and 89th Congresses. 

During this period of legislative consideration, plans and programs 
for the proposed facility and its exhibits had gone forward as rapidly 
as current personnel and budgetary limitations permitted. All such 
activities conducted throughout the fiscal year were consistent with 
the master operational plan approved by the Secretary in August 1965. 

Resume of Legislative Action 

S. 2602 of the 88th Congress, "The National Air Museum Amend- 
ments Act of 1964," passed the Senate on July 23, 1964, following an 
extended hearing in the Subcommittee on the Smithsonian Institution 
of the Committee on Rules and Administration. That Committee 
reported S. 2602 to the floor of the Senate on July 22, 1964. The 
House did not complete favorable action on this bill before adjournment, 
thus it was necessary to reintroduce the legislation during the 89th 
Congress. H.R. 6125 of the 89th Congress, "The National Air Museum 
Amendments Act of 1965," was reported from the Committee on House 
Administration on September 21, 1965, and was passed by the House 
of Representatives on February 7, 1966. It was then referred to the 

259 



260 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, which reported it to 
the floor of the Senate on June 28, 1966. The Senate passed this 
legislation on June 29, 1966, thus finalizing Congressional action on 
legislation to authorize a suitable museum for the national air and 
space collections, a project initiated nearly 20 years ago.* Funds to 
construct this Museum remain to be appropriated by the Congress. 

New Facility Planning Program 

Staff planning for the distribution of floor space and the development 
of specific exhibits in the new facility have been under study contin- 
uously throughout the year. An analysis of the Air Museum's role 
and missions, both with respect to the Smithsonian Institution and to 
its own internal programming, is continuously under review. From 
such considerations a clearer picture is beginning to emerge as to how 
the large and complicated structure designed by Gyo Obata can best 
be adapted to serve the needs of the millions of Americans who are 
expected to stream through its halls annually. 

As an aid to such planning, a relatively large scale (1 in. = 6 ft.) 
model of the building has been procured. The scale was selected to 
match the scale of a large collection of aircraft and spacecraft models 
now on hand. Strictly a planning tool, it has been designed to be 
completely demountable, both vertically and horizontally, so that every 
part of the building can be exposed for detail study and for the correla- 
tion of all its elements. The model, presently on display, will eventually 
be moved into the exhibits planning department. 

Organizational Changes 

Certain changes in personnel alignment were carried out in ac- 
cordance with the master plan, approved in August 1965, which 
establishes five major departments in the museum: Aeronautics, 
astronautics, education and information, exhibits, and administration. 
Considerable assistance was rendered during this year to the education 
and information department by an outside consultant, and progress 
was made in analyzing the problem involved in the establishment of 
an NASM Research Center. This problem involved sorting out, 
segregating, rearranging, and indexing the vast amount of specimen 
and research material which had accumulated over the years at the 
Silver Hill facility. 



*On July 1 9, 1 966, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Bill into law. 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 261 

As a first step toward defining the problem and developing corrective 
procedures, a rough screening process for all NASM material at Silver 
Hill was inaugurated and all items were separated and relocated as 
follows : 

1. Full-scale flightcraft, engines, and ancillary equipment remain 
at Silver Hill. 

2. Aircraft models, miscellaneous art, and memorabilia were 
removed to the 24th Street facility. 

3. All library material, books, pamphlets, reports, drawings, etc., 
were removed to designated sorting areas in the A&I Building. 

Exhibits Department Established 

A principal feature of the master plan was the establishment on 
April 1, 1966, of an integrated exhibits department to include not 
only the normal exhibit design and display function, but also the 
responsibility for storage, restoration, and preservation of the Museum's 
aeronautical and astronautical specimens. Headed by James Mahoney 
as assistant director (exhibits), the department includes three elements: 
the preservation and restoration division at Silver Hill with Donald 
Merchant in charge; the model shops and storage area at the 24th 
Street facility, under the supervision of Winthrop Shaw; and the 
visual presentation division (Harry Hart, chief) in the Arts and 
Industries building. It also includes an office of quality control 
under Walter Male, formerly superintendent of the preservation and 
restoration division at Silver Hill and one of the most knowledgeable 
men in the country in aircraft and engine preservation and restoration 
techniques. 

Working closely with the curators, the quality control officer will 
establish specifications and requirements for preservation and restora- 
tion of aircraft, engine, and accessory specimens, and will recommend 
contractors capable of doing the special jobs that the specimens require. 
He will also keep in touch with the work as it progresses, both in our 
own shops and in outside shops, to insure that it is done in accordance 
with the high standards required. 

Plan for Silver Hill Facility 

Because the physical conditions at the Silver Hill facility leave 
something to be desired, despite the opening of a new building (build- 
ing 20), restudy of the operations was undertaken. As a result, a 
long-term plan was set up for rearranging the storage and shop areas 
there, and a step-by-step program for physical rearrangement of 



262 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

specimens both indoors and out. With the cooperation and help of 
the buildings management department, certain areas are being leveled 
and gravelled so that aircraft in outdoor storage are readily available 
as study material, and similar rearrangement of specimens stored 
indoors is also under way. Studies have also been made with respect 
to size and location of new buildings, if and when they may become 
available. The objective is to put the Silver Hill facility on a par with 
the best aircraft storage and restoration activity in the country. 

Model Collection Reorganized 

The Museum has in its collections somewhere between 750 and 1000 
models of aircraft that vary widely as to scale, quality, and physical 
condition. A program of model evaluation, repair, and/or disposition 
was inaugurated under which models of unquestioned importance 
are to be put into exhibitable condition and preserved properly in 
individual, well-marked containers; models of less importance are to 
be properly preserved, but not necessarily in exhibitable condition; and 
models of no importance are to be disposed of. Winthrop Shaw is 
custodian of the model collection, and as soon as conditions permit, 
model makers will be added to the staff and a model shop equipped. 

Reference Files Reorganized 

The library and other reference material stored at Silver Hill in- 
clude a vast collection of unsorted, uncataloged reference items, and 
after extensive study by an outside consultant, E. W. Robischon, 
plans were evolved for screening, cataloging, and organizing it as a 
nucleus for the eventual Research Center in the new Air and Space 
Museum. The entire collection has been brought into the Arts and 
Industries building, where a sorting center was established adjacent 
to the present research facility and a beginning was made in the task 
of sorting and indexing. 

Meanwhile, with the cooperation of a number of other government 
and outside agencies, studies are going forward which will lead to the 
ultimate selection of a modern system, compatible with other systems 
in use by government agencies, of storage and retrieval of technical 
information for the maximum convenience of historical or technical 
researchers. 

Scholarly Accomplishments 

The Museum's small professional staff, although primarily occupied 
with internal reorganization and reorientation during the year, has 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 263 

accomplished a certain amount of research in addition to supplying 
day-to-day responses to outside inquiries in their several fields of 
interest. Work has continued on 19th-century war rockets, U.S. and 
European, and Goddard's early research in rocketry and on electric 
propulsion and associated fields (Durant); on the Balzer-Manley con- 
tribution in early engine development for the Langley aerodromes and 
the development of the Liberty engine of World War I (Meyer); on 
the Wright brothers' methods of aircraft control and the history of 
U.S. Air Mail Service, 1918-1927 (Garber); on Curtiss aircraft develop- 
ments, research in development of amphibious aircraft, and research 
in operational aspects of air cargo, military and commercial (Casey) ; 
on experimental research in para-wing kites and gliders (Newland) ; and 
also on a group project developing a definitive biography of Samuel 
P. Langley. 

Special Activities and Events 

An aerospace art gallery was opened in the Arts and Industries 
building with special showings of NASA art; an exhibit of creative 
drawings and paintings on "space" subjects by young children (opened 
April 1); an experimental exhibit, "Enlightenment for the Blind," 
developed by NASA in cooperation with the Smithsonian Office of 
Education and Training; and a permanent exhibit of the Guggenheim 
aeronautical print collection. 

In October 1965 an Experimental Aircraft Association Exhibit was 
held. On February 17, 1966, the third Edwin A. Link lecture, "The 
Apollo Program — A Mid-Stream Appraisal," was given by George M. 
Low of NASA. On April 4-5, 1966, was held the first international 
meeting of air and space museum directors and curators, organized 
and programmed by the Museum staff. 

Exhibits including Gemini-4 and associated materiel were produced 
for Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey's "Washington Briefing for 
Young Americans," May 3-12, 1966; and topical displays of current 
public interest included Mariner-4 equipment and pictures; Surveyor- 1 
equipment and pictures; Apollo Program equipment; Gemini-4 space- 
craft and associated equipment, including Colonel White's space suit 
"umbilical" and maneuvering unit used for the first U.S. space walk; 
and the Thor rocket inertial guidance system (A/C) and related 
components. 

Formal presentations of new specimens included a sounding rocket 
(ARCAS); fuel cell for Gemini (General Electric Co.); turbo-jet engine 
cutaway model (United Aircraft Corp.); components of a B-17 re- 
covered after 25 years in arctic ice (Sperry Corp., Vickers Division); 
solid fuel rocket mock-up (UTC/United Aircraft Corp.). 



264 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Other additions to the National Air and Space collections are listed 
below. 

Alan Shepard's Mercury spacecraft Freedom- 7 was loaned to the 
Science Museum, London, and to the Royal Scottish Museum, Edin- 
burgh, for display during fall 1965 and spring 1966. 

A new exhibit, "from supercharger to turbo-jet engine," was designed 
and installed in the new aircraft propulsion hall, and a complete nose 
section of a Douglas DC- 7 transport airplane was installed in the west 
hall. 

The Museum staff rendered assistance and consulting services on 
request to members of Congress, to other government agencies (includ- 
ing NASA, FA A, Library of Congress, National Archives), to various 
Departments of the Government, to technical associations, and to 
many companies in the aerospace industry. Educational assistance 
was rendered to radio and television programs. Curator Paul Garber 
made 41 lectures on flight history before various historical bodies 
during the year. And individual staff members served on numerous 
advisory committees and awards committees (Collier Trophy, Wright 
Trophy, Brewer Trophy, White Trophy, etc.). 

New Advisory Board Members 

Durng the year two changes in the personnel of the NASM Advisory 
Board occurred: Major General Rollen H. Anthis, Commander, Head- 
quarters Command, USAF, was designated by the Chief of the Air 
Staff a member vice Major General Brooke E. Allen, USAF (Ret.); 
and the President appointed Colonel John H. Glenn, Jr., USMC 
(Ret.), to serve in place of General James H. Doolittle, who resigned 
in January 1965. 

Additions to the Collections 

Additions to the national aeronautical and space collections, received 
and recorded during the fiscal year 1966, totaled 223 specimens in 59 
separate accessions, as listed below. Those from Government depart- 
ments are entered as transfers unless otherwise indicated; others were 
received as gifts or loans. 

Am Force, Department of the: Mercedes-Benz DB 601-1 E (1944), inverted, in 
line engine, 1375 hp. (NAM 1636); Wright-Patterson AFB: Air Force models, 
Douglas A-20, A- 26, C-47, C-54, C-118, C-124, C-133, B-66 1 :48 size, (NAM 
1667); Scott AFB: 45 aircraft hydraulic component units formerly from training 
devices board (cutaways) (NAM 1637). 

American Airlines, Maintenance and Engineering Center: Wright turbo-cyclone IB 
R-3350-TC (1954) engine, 3500 hp., (NAM 1598). 




National Air and Space Museum Advisory Board Member John H. Glenn, 
on a tour of the Museum with Assistant Director Frederick G. Durant (left) 
and Director S. Paul Johnston, pause at Glenn's Friendship-7 space capsule 
to greet a young visitor. Below: Inspecting new model of Museum building 
are Smithsonian Regents J. William Fulbright, Clinton P. Anderson, 
Crawford H. Greenewalt, John Nicholas Brown, and Robert V. Fleming. 





Special exhibit "Lollypops and Launch Pads," illustrating children's impres- 
sions of space technology, intrigues young visitors. Below: Normal summer- 
day crowd waits to inspect the Gemini-4 space capsule. 




NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 265 

American Bosch Arma Corp.: Full-scale guidance system mock-up for Atlas 
ICBM (NAM 1677). 

American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics: 3 liquid-propellant rocket 
motors and 1 cast-aluminum blank used by American Rocket Society Experi- 
mental Committee, 1932-34 (NAM 1679). 

Atlantic Research Corp.: ARCAS meteorological sounding rocket and in- 
strumentation package (NAM 1657). 

Bell Helicopter Co.: Model, Bell UH-1F, 1:32 size (NAM 1646). 

Bensen Aircraft Corp.: First Bensen gyroglider, fabricated from readily avail- 
able hardware and components (NAM 1609). 

Bitsko, Maj. Leslie P.: 2 WW-II navigational instruments (NAM 1660). 

Black, Archibald: Man's Elgin pocket watch used by donor in timing altitude 
flight of 18,200 ft. with first 8-cyl. Liberty engine, Aug. 31, 1918 (NAM 1654). 

Commerce, Department of, U.S. Weather Bureau: Contemporary Russian Radio- 
sonde (NAM 1661). 

Donald, Jack: Two Australian native-made boomerangs (NAM 1665). 

Douglas Aircraft Co.: Model of Douglas DC-7C transport, 1:50 size (NAM 
1644). 

General Electric Company: Fuel-cell battery developed for NASA Gemini 
spacecraft, cutaway model (NAM 1672). 

Goddard, Mrs. Robert H.: Bronze reproduction of Daniel Guggenheim Medal 
awarded to Dr. Robert H. Goddard (NAM 1671). 

Griffin, Lt. Col. Thomas P.: WW-II German Air Force pilot's helmet (NAM 
1650). 

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp.: Model, Grumman C-2A, carrier on- 
board delivery aircraft (transport), 1:16 size (NAM 1652). 

Hartman, A. J.: Roberts 4X (ca. 1912) in-line engine, 50 hp. (NAM 1612). 

Ide, Mrs. John J.: Collection of medals and award (NAM 1664). 

Johnston, S. Paul: 2 aviation magnetic compasses, WW-II, 1 German, 1 Japanese 
(NAM 1663). 

Kirk, Preston: Bentley B. 2, rotary, 9e-cyl., WW-II British engine, 250 hp. (NAM 
1570). 

Kuhn, Kenneth J.: Control-line model of Smith miniplane (NAM 1647). 

L. L. Walker Co.: Curtiss OXX-6 (ca. 1916), in-line, engine, 100 hp. (NAM 
1601); Hall-Scott A-7-A (1916), in-line engine, 110 hp. (NAM 1595). 

Laskowitz, L. B.: Powered, scale model of helicopter rotor system, ca. 1945 
(NAM 1640); 2 models of helicopter rotor systems and 20x33-in. wind tunnel 
(NAM 1674). 

Loening, Grover: Model, Loening OA-1A (NAM 1656). 

Martin Company: Model, Glenn L. Martin 1909 airplane (NAM 1649). 

McDonnell Aircraft Co.: Model, McDonnell RF-4C in camouflage of Viet 
Nam war, 1966 (NAM 1645). 

Munroe, Kenneth H.: Rubber stamp used in 1955 in ballistic missile program 
(NAM 1680). 

Mussey, Robert: Model, of the Hannoveraner CL III, WW-I German 2-place 
biplane, 1:16 size (NAM 1655). 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center: Models 
aircraft and rocket-powered aircraft used for test purposes (NAM 1666). 

Navy, Department of The, Bureau of Aeronautics: Model, Vought F8U-1 Crusader, 

single-place turbo-jet monoplane fighter 1:16 size (NAM 1639); Pratt & Whitney 

R4360-4A (ca. 1948), cutaway, radial ca. 28-cyl. engine, 3500 hp. (NAM 1616); 

Curtiss OX-5 (1917), water-cooled, V8 engine, 90 hp. (NAM 1613); Wheel of 

230-457—66—22 



266 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

B-36 airplane, weight 5500 pounds (NAM 1600); Allison XT40-A-4B (1950), 

turbojet prop engine and propeller, drive shaft, and gearing, 5500 E.S.H.P. (NAM 

1597); Junkers "Jumo" 207 (1943), in line diesel engine, 1000 hp. (NAM 1568); 

Turbo-supercharged Liberty 12A (1922), in line liquid-cooled, V— 12 engine, 

405 hp. (NAM 1590); model, Martin XP6M2 Sea Master, 1:57 size (NAM 

1648); model, Convair XFY1 Pogo, 1:22 size (NAM 1643); model, Piasecki 

HRP-2 helicopter 1:21 size (NAM 1642); high-wing twin tail, pulse-jet powered, 

pilotless, monoplane recovered by parachute, mfg. 1950 (NAM 1669); complete 

dummy SUBROC missile and handling dolly (NAM 1678); color photograph 

of Astronaut Edward White (NAM 1672). 
Peaslee, Colonel Jesse C: WW-II leather flight jacket used by donor as pilot 

in 9th Fighter Sq., 49th Fighter Gp. (NAM 1676). 
Pratt and Whitney Aircraft: Model of JT3C turbojet engine, J^ scale (NAM 

1564). 
Republic Aviation Division (Fairchild-Hiller Corp): Wind tunnel models of the 

Republic P-43, and P-47 aircraft, 1:10 size (NAM 1668). 
Robert Bosch Corp.: 1 Bosch (gasoline) fuel-injector pump used on Mercedes 

DB-601 engine which powered Messerschmitt ME113R to a world's record 

481.4 mph in 1939 (NAM 1638). 
Sedell, C. J.: Parts for Hispano-Suiza Curtiss OX5, and Liberty engines; also 

parts for Dixie magneto (NAM 1634). 
Smith, J. C: Model of L.W.F. biplane with 8-cyl. Liberty engine and model of 

Wright H-1914 airplane, 1:16 size (NAM 1662). 
Tucker, Roy: Model of Northrup XV35 flying wing, 1:22 size (NAM 1659). 
United Technology Center (Division of United Aircraft Corp.): Full-scale 

reproduction of P— 1 solid-propellant rocket motor (NAM 1681). 
Van Dresser, Peter: Rocket motor nozzle from experimental tests of American 

Rocket Society in early 1930's (NAM 1670). 
Vickers Inc. (Division of Sperry Rand Corp.): B-17 accessory items — -10 in. 

accumulator and electric hydraulic servo-transmission for operating gun turret, 

recovered from wreck of B-17 My Gal Sal which crashed on the Greenland ice 

cap in June 1942 (NAM 1641). 
Wilkinson, Mrs. Mary Reilly: Admission card to Lindbergh Day Celebration, 

June 11, 1927, for seating on Senate steps, East Front of Capitol (NAM 1651). 
Wolf, Alfred L.: Berling magneto type D-81— 2 used on Curtiss OX-5 engine 

(NAM 1635). 
Zinn, Dr. (House of Representatives) : Model collection, manufacturers desk-type 

models, various scales (NAM 1675). 

The Museum's Historical Research Center was greatly enriched 
during the year with valuable research materials. The cooperation of 
the following persons and organizations in providing this material is 
sincerely appreciated and gratefully acknowledged: 

Aero Publishers, Inc. Bledsoe, John F., Jr. 

Alderman, A. K. Brooks, A. Raymond 

Allen, William S. California Institute of Technology, Jet 

American Airlines Propulsion Laboratory 

Berlstein, Chris Casey, Louis S. 

Bendix Corp. Ciesla, Chester 

Blaisdell, Lee Coanda, Henri 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 



267 



Connecticut Aeronautical Historical As- 
sociation 

Cox, W. G. 

Crotzer, Allan 

Currie, James A. 

Denehie, William A. 

Dietrichson, P. W. K. 

Dupont, Henry C. 

Durant, F. C. Ill 

Engel, Rolf 

Experimental Aircraft Association, 
Chapter 190 

Fahey, James C. 

Field Enterprises Educational Corp. 

General Aniline and Film Corp. 

Glass, Richard 

Gratz, Charles Murray 

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. 

Hardie, George Jr. 

Hatch, Fred 

Hirsch, Robert S. 

Hutchinson, J. D. 

Huff, Marvin L. 

Ide, Mrs. John Jay 

Irvin, Leslie L. 

Jablonski, Edward 

Jacobs, J. W. 

Jones, Mrs. L. Frances 

Jordan, Richard D. 

Kause, Selma 

Kerley, Robert V. 

Klingler, E. B. 

Koch, Mrs. Alfred S. 

Korn, Edward, A. 

Martin-Baker Co. Ltd. 

Martino, Joseph 

Massin, Alex 

Matt, Paul R. 

McCarthy, Charles J. 



McCay, Robert P. 

Moore, Robert L. 

Mongin, Alfred 

Morales, Donald K. 

National Aeronautic Association 

National Museum of Canada, National 

Aviation Museum 
Nye, Willis L. 
Page, George Jr. 
Page, Mrs. Stanley 
Peasley, Jesse C. 
Robischon, E. W. 
Sanger-Bredt, Frau Dr. Irene 
Sayler, James 
Shaw, Winthrop 
Shepard, Alan B. Jr. 
Shepard, Morton B. 
Smith, W. E. 

Sperry-Rand Corp. Vickers, Inc. Div. 
Stine, G. Harry 
United Air Lines 
U.S. Air Force 
U.S. Air Force Museum 
U.S. Library of Congress 
U.S. National Bureau of Standards 
U.S. National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration, Goddard Space 

Flight Center 
U.S. Navy 

U.S. Navy, Office of Aviation History 
Vaeth, J. Gordon 
Van Dresser, Peter 
Van Hoorebeeck, A. 
Van Zandt, J. Parker 
Velkas, C. Frank 
Western Airlines 
Westland Aircraft Limited 
Wigton, D.C. 
Wright, Mrs. Burdette 



National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board 

Colonel John H. Magruder III USMG, Director 




Recommendations regarding an alternate site plan for the National 
* Armed Forces Museum Park were submitted to the Board of 
Regents by the National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 
at its fifth annual meeting, January 11, 1 966. These had been de- 
veloped as a result of opposition to the site plan submitted in January 
1965, which proposed exclusive use of Fort Washington, Maryland. 
Working in conjunction with the National Park Service and the staff 
of the National Capital Planning Commission, the Advisory Board 
devised a site plan entailing location of the major museum elements 
in the so-termed Fort Foote-Smoot Bay area of Prince Georges County, 
Maryland. Here would be sited the large majority of the outdoor 
exhibits and reconstructions, the ship basin, and the combined visitor 
center and exhibit building proposed in the Advisory Board's report 
of January 12, 1965. Certain facilities at Fort Washington would be 
shared by the National Park Service with the Smithsonian for develop- 
ment as the coast defense exhibits of the Museum Park. 

The specific recommendations submitted by the Advisory Board on 
January 24, 1966, were: 

1. The Smithsonian Institution seek legislative authority to acquire, 
both by transfer from the National Park Service and by purchase, 
such lands in the Fort Foote-Smoot Bay area of Prince Georges County, 
Maryland, as are necessary for establishment of a National Armed 
Forces Museum Park. 



269 



270 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

2. The Smithsonian Institution negotiated with the Department of 
the Interior a joint use agreement permitting development of certain 
facilities at Fort Washington, Maryland, viz., the old masonry fort, 
Batteries Decatur and Many, and two supplemental water batteries, 
as elements of the overall National Armed Forces Museum Park. 

Throughout the year the Board staff, in addition to implementing 
the decisions of the Advisory Board with regard to site planning and 
related matters, conducted negotiations with various agencies of the 
Armed Forces and the General Services Administration with a view 
to acquiring military and naval objects appropriate for the collections 
of the proposed Museum Park. In consequence a large and varied 
number of objects either were received during the year or were set 
aside by owning agencies for retention and eventual transfer to the 
Smithsonian. For example, there were acquired from the Depart- 
ment of the Army numerous components of the ENIAG, the first 
modern electronic digital computer, product of Army-sponsored 
research during World War II; and from the Department of the Navy 
the last operational Regulus II missile, complete with records chroni- 
cling its noteworthy career as a fleet weapon and, subsequently, a 
supersonic target drone. Designated for eventual transfer to the 
Smithsonian by the Department of the Air Force and the U.S. Marine 
Corps, respectively, were a mighty Titan I missile silo complete and 
a unique collection of 20 tracked landing vehicles reflecting develop- 
ments in the field of amphibious warfare from early in World War 
II up to the middle 1950s. And from the General Services Adminis- 
tration the Smithsonian acquired title to the sunken U.S.S. Tecumseh, 
a monitor of the Ericcson type, lost in the battle of Mobile Bay, 
August 5, 1864. 

In cooperation with the Smithsonian Library the staff continued to 
acquire from Armed Forces historical agencies and elsewhere publica- 
tions in the field of military and naval history both to serve the im- 
mediate needs of staff members and to form the nucleus of the study 
center library of the National Armed Forces Museum Park. 



Freer Gallery of Art 

John A. Pope, Director 




hphe gallery is concerned largely with the study of the civilizations 
■*• of the East and with the promotion of the highest ideals of beauty. 
In accordance with the terms of the will of founder Charles Lang 
Freer, these two very broadly phrased conditions serve as guidelines 
for the work of all members of the staff. In general, each member of 
the staff has pursued individual research projects, depending on his 
specialty, in the fields of Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Persian, and 
Arabic art. This work is carried on in the Gallery and in other 
museums, libraries, and collections both in this country and abroad 
In addition to these activities, staff members have been concerned 
during the past year with the study of objects contemplated for pur- 
chase and with the further study and cataloging of those objects which 
have been added to the collection. Considerable time has also been 
spent preparing reports on objects submitted for examination. 

The Freer Gallery received a number of grants during the year. 
Among these was an important one from the Kevorkian Foundation, 
to be used over a five-year period in assisting the library to expand its 
Near Eastern holdings, and for the publication of the Gandhara frieze 
(49.9). Another sizeable grant came from the JDR 3rd Fund, to be 
used by Professor Yukio Yashiro, the recipient of the Freer Medal. 
The National Geographic Society gave financial assistance to support 
the publication of the IIC Abstracts; and an unrestricted gift was 
received from Harold B. Cahn and Associates. The Felix and 
Helen Juda Foundation and the Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 
supported the purchase of important additions to the library. 



271 



272 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — HISTORY AND ART 

Staff Changes 

A great loss to the Freer Gallery was the death of Miss Katharine N. 
Rhoades in New York on October 26th. Associated with the Gallery 
from its beginning, she had been a close personal friend of the founder, 
Charles Lang Freer, and had been instrumental in helping with the 
cataloging of the collection. She was mentioned by Mr. Freer in his 
will as a friend and advisor of the gallery and continued in active 
service as honorary consultant until the time of her death. 

The Gallery regretfully accepted the resignation, July 1, 1965, of 
Dr. James F. Cahill, curator of Chinese art, who is now with the 
University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Cahill had first come to the 
Gallery as a Hackney Scholar (American Oriental Society) in 1950 
and studied in that capacity for approximately one year. In 1956 he 
returned as a Freer Fellow from the University of Michigan for another 
year, at the end of which time he became a regular staff member. 

The end of 1965 saw the retirement of Mrs. Lnor O. West, adminis- 
trative assistant, after 20 years of service with the Freer. In June 
Mrs. Constance B. Olsen resigned as librarian, and her place has been 
filled by Mrs. Priscilla P. Smith. Mr. William Thomas Chase III, 
assistant in the technical laboratory, resigned temporarily to return to 
the Gallery in the fall of 1966. His place was filled for the summer 
by Mrs. Meryl Johnson, chemist, from the University of Michigan. 

Two volunteer summer interns served during the summer of 1965: 
Miss Barbara Bernhard (Oberlin College) and Miss Susan Lyles 
(Mary Baldwin College). Miss Masako Saito of the Conservation 
Center, Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, returned for 
another period of three weeks to study Mr. Sugiura's methods of 
restoring and mounting Oriental paintings. Miss Priscilla Parsons 
completed several months of study during the summer of 1965 in the 
Near Eastern field under a grant from New York University. In 
October, Mrs. Ellen Johnston Laing of the University of Michigan 
came to the Gallery as a Freer Fellow to do research in the field of 
Chinese art in preparation of her doctoral thesis. In January and 
February of 1 966, Miss Thea Comins, a student at Bennington College, 
worked for Dr. Ettinghausen under the Smithsonian Institution's 
academic year research assistance program. On May 12, 1966, Miss 
Vicki Weinstein reported for duty as a Hackney Scholar from Cornell 
University; and in June, Miss Mary Watkins (Mount Holyoke College) 
and Miss Susan Frankel (Cornell University) reported for duty as 
summer interns. 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 273 

The Collections 

The Freer Gallery of Art acquired a total of 36 objects during the 
year, including two exceptional pieces of Persian metalwork: a Sasanian 
silver and gilt bust of a king, probably Khosrow I, dated mid-6th 
century (66.23), and a Parthian head of a lady (66.24); this latter is 
approximately 2,000 years old The Japanese collection was enriched 
by the purchase of several outstanding paintings: a pair of Namban 
(foreigners) screens of the Momoyama period, 16th century, depicting 
harbor scenes (65.22-23); a landscape screen by the artist Sesson 
(1504-1589), from the Ashikaga period (66.3); a pair of hanging 
scrolls, the Ryokai Mandara, early Buddhist paintings of the late Fujiwara 
or early Kamakura periods (66.4-5) ; and a pair of handscrolls entitled 
Kobo Daishi £aito, or Life of the Priest Kobo, of the Kamakura period 
(66.9-10). To the Indian section was added a very fine bronze, a 
shrine of Vishnu, dating to the Pala dynasty, 11th/ 12th century 
(66.15). 

Other purchases consisted of: 

BRONZE 

Chinese, Han, 3rd/2nd century B.C.; vase with tall, cylindrical neck; 

incised decoration. (66.14) 
Japanese, Kamakura, 13th century; Suibyo — water pot, seated lion on 

cover. (65.26) 

LACQUER 

Chinese, Ming, 15th century (early); round covered box, red lacquer 
carved in relief; chH-lin and peonies; three-character inscription; 

Tang mao tsao. (65.25) 

METALWORK 

Persian, Sasanian, early 4th century; silver and gilt bottle with repousse 

reliefs of Dionysiac figures separated by fluted columns topped by 

bird figures. (65.20) 
Persian, Sasanian, 4th century; silver and gilt bottle with repousse 

reliefs of musicians and dancers, each with a child; Pehlevi inscription. 

(66.1) 
Persian, Sasanian, 3rd-7th century; gold necklace of biconical beads 

of twisted wire and disc-shaped beads of granulated fretwork; square 

pendant. (66.6) 
Persian, Seljuk, 12th century; gold necklace of openwork elements 

made of twisted wire and small grains. (66.7) 
Persian, Seljuk, 12th century; gold necklace of wire and granulation 

work, some beads inlaid with turquoise. (66.8) 



274 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

PAINTING 

Chinese, Ch'ing, 18th century, by Ch'en Mai; figures in a wooded 

landscape. (65.24) 
Indian, Deccani, early 17th century, Bijapur; barefoot warrior with 
round shield and straight-bladed sword. (65.21) 
Indian, Mughal, mid- 17th century; shepherd with goat, in a stylized 

landscape. (66.22) 
Japanese, Edo, Ukiyoe, by Kaigetsud5 Ando, early 18th century; 

figure of a courtesan. (66.2) 
Japanese, Ashikaga, Muromachi Suiboku, att. to Sekkyakushi (14th/ 

15th century); boy on a water bufl'alo. (66.16) 
Japanese, Edo, early 17th century, Tosa School; Tsuru no Monogalari 

(Tale of the Crane), handscroll. (66.18) 
Persian, Isfahan (1082 H./A.D. 1672), by Mum Mosawvir; line 

drawing of monkey riding on a lion. (66.13) 

POTTERY 

Egyptian, Fatimid, llth-12th century; white glazed bowl with red 

luster design of leaves and arabesques. (66.26) 
Japanese, Momoyama, Seto ware, Sobokai; reddish brown stoneware 

jar, four loops on shoulder; Sobokai tsukaru incised on base. (66.17) 
Japanese, Edo, 17th century, Kutani ware; porcelain dish decorated 

with overglaze enamels in yellow on green, with blackish-brown 

diaper patterns. (66.19) 
Persian, Transoxania or eastern Iran, 10th century, Afrasiyab ware 

(so-called); small platter with black and brown floral designs, Kufic 

inscription. (65.27) 
Persian, Kashan, early 13th century; deep bowl with radial pattern of 

Naskhl writing, floral designs, and birds in cobalt blue and black on 

white. (65.28) 
Persian, Samarra ware, 9th century; grayish bowl with originally 

white glaze and design of blue. (66. 1 1) 
Persian, Kashan, early 13th century; vase with 8-sided body, decorated 

with leafy scrolls, plants and fishes in black under bluish glaze; 

iridescent. (66.20) 
Persian, Nishapur, 10th century; deep bowl with luster design of pea- 
cock holding fish in its beak. (66.27) 
Turkish, Iznik ware III, 17th century; square tile with design of two 

parrots; blue, green and red on white. (66.12) 
Turkish, Iznik ware III, 16th century; plate with central leaf and floral 

design on coral red ground. (66.21) 




Third presentation of the Freer Medal, September 15, 1965. Professor Yukio 
Yashiro receives Medal from Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley. 
Seated left: Freer Gallery of Art Director John A. Pope. 




Princess Margaret, accompanied by Director John A. Pope and Secretary 
S. Dillon Ripley, as she signs Freer Gallery guest book November 18, 1965. 




Left: Silver bust. Persian metalwork. 
Parthian, 1st century B.C.- 1st cen- 
tury A.D. (?). 66.24, Freer Gal- 
lery of Art. 



Below: Silver and gilt bust of a king, 
probably Khosrow I. Persian metal - 
work, Sasanian, mid-6th century. 
66.23, Freer Gallery of Art. 




Shrine of Vishnu. Indian bronze, Pala dynasty, 11th/ 12th 
century. 66.15, Freer Gallery of Art. 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 275 

Turkish, Iznik ware III, 16th century; plate with floral design around 
central cypress tree; blue, green, red and black on white ground. 
(66.25) 

Library 

During the year, 2 1 9 items were incorporated by purchase, exchange, 
and gift into the library collection, which has been well used, both by 
the staff" and by a total of 577 university students and other scholars 
doing reference work, including casual visitors wanting less scholarly 
material on the objects displayed in the galleries. In addition, over 500 
photographs were added to the study files, and the slide collection has 
been greatly expanded with the acquisition of 2,263 slides. 

The Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation made it possible to purchase, 
in addition to other titles, the following outstanding books: 
Cadiare, L., L'art a Hue (Hanoi, ca. 1920). 
Ecke, G., Chinese painting in the Honolulu Academy of Arts and in private collections 

(Honolulu, 1965). 
Shang-hai po-wu-kuan ts'ang cli ing-tung-chi (Shanghai, 1964). 

Care of Collections 

Care of the works of art was shared by several of the staff members. 
The technical laboratory examined, cleaned and/or repaired, as 
necessary, a total of 27 objects and made 75 identifications by X-ray 
diffraction analysis, etc.; in addition, 48 objects were examined which 
were either contemplated for purchase or had been submitted for 
authentication by other museums or private owners. Ben B. Johnson, 
consultant on conservation work, under contract to the Gallery, 
examined and worked on 61 oil paintings in the American collections. 
Takashi Sugiura, with the help of two trainees (his daughter Kumi 
and Makoto Souta, who has been brought from Japan to serve his 
apprenticeship under Mr. Sugiura), cleaned, retouched and remounted 
a total of 19 Chinese and Japanese paintings. Illustrator Frank A. 
Haentschke rematted 43 Arabic, Indian and Persian paintings. 

All the necessary equipment for the 204 exhibition changes 
made during the year was provided by the cabinet shop under the 
direction of superintendent Russell C. Mielke, who also maintained the 
building in the usual immaculate and sound condition, and supervised 
completion of the new storage facilities for the Oriental paintings. 

Curatorial Activities 

Director John A. Pope carried on extensive research on the ancient 
Chinese bronzes in the collection, in collaboration with Rutherford 



276 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

J. Gettens head of the Freer technical laboratory, and other scholars, 
toward the publication of this material in the revision and enlargement 
of the Gallery's Catalogue of Chinese Bronzes (1946). A large part of 
this was carried on in conjunction with the technical laboratory, and 
is reported on page 278. He has also continued his research in the 
fields of Chinese and Japanese ceramics; in conjunction with this, he 
is at present on an extended journey which is taking him to several 
European countries, the Near East, India, Taiwan, and Japan. 

During the year, he gave the following lectures: 
"Chinese Porcelains in Early America," at George Washington 
University and at a meeting of the Trustees of the Frick Collection, 
New York City. 

"Ancient Chinese Bronzes in the Freer Gallery of Art," at a 
meeting of the Society of Non-Destructive Testing in New York City. 
"Art Collectors and Collections in Old China," at the University 
of Michigan and at the Cosmos Club. 

"A Miracle of Rare Device," at Asia House Gallery, New York 
City. 

Assistant Director Harold P. Stern continued research on Japanese 
Ukiyoe and Tamatoe paintings, including the study of numerous paint- 
ings of these schools while conducting a tour of the Archives of American 
Art (a group of 106 members) through the Far East. The group 
received briefing lectures in addition to being guided through such 
centers of Oriental art as Tokyo and Kyoto in Japan, Hong Kong, 
Thailand, and Taiwan. 

In January, he assisted in the planning and presenting of the Sym- 
posium on Japanese Art held in connection with the Japanese Govern- 
ment's loan exhibition, "Art Treasures from Japan." At the same 
time, in conjunction with photographer Raymond A. Schwartz of 
the Freer Gallery of Art, Stern arranged and carried out the complete 
photographing and documentation of the objects in this exhibition, 
making slides (approximately 40,000) available through the Freer 
Gallery to other museums and educational institutions. 

He continued serving in the honorary posts and duties assumed in 
previous years, and he supplied the introductory comments for two 
shows in the Washington area: the exhibition of works by Uinichi 
Hiratsuka at the Museum of Modern Art, and the exhibition of Con- 
temporary Japanese Prints at the Cleveland Park Library, both 
sponsored by the Washington Print Club. 

During the year, Stern gave the following lectures: 
"Characteristics of Japanese Art," at the opening of the Japanese 
Government's loan exhibition at the Los Angeles County Museum of 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 277 

Art and also at the Detroit Institute of Art and the Philadelphia 
Museum of Art when the exhibition was being held at those institutions. 

"Narrative and Genre Aspects of Japanese Art," at the symposium 
held at the Detroit Institute of Art during the exhibition of treasures 
from Japan and also at the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto when 
the exhibition was held there. 

"Japanese Narrative Handscroll Painting," at the annual dinner 
of the Smithsonian Institution's Regents. 

"Popular Painting of Tokugawa Japan," at the Andrew Dickson 
White Museum of Art, Cornell University. 

Richard Ettinghausen, head curator of Near Eastern Art, engaged in 
exploratory research at historical and archaeological sites in Turkey 
during the summer of 1965, and subsequent research in libraries and 
museums in that country and in Europe. This work was preparatory 
to writing a history of Turkish art from the late 12th to the 17th 
centuries, the text to be published by A. Skira in Geneva under the 
title, Art Treasures from Turkey. 

He continued research on early Indo-Muslim painting of the Sul- 
tanate period, and made background studies for new acquisitions by 
the Gallery. In addition to his previously held honorary posts, he 
became a member of the Advisory Board of the Near Eastern Art 
Research Center, Inc., New York; a member of the Sub-Committee 
on Finds, American Research Center in Egypt, Inc. ; and a correspond- 
ing member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris. 
During the year, he gave the following lectures: 

"Prayer Rugs," for the Rug Society of Washington, D.C. 

"Iranian Art in the Islamic Period: Tradition and Changes," at 
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. 

"Persian Miniatures and Drawings," for the Graphic Arts Council 
of the Los Angeles County Museum. 

"God, Man and Nature in Islam," at the University of Penn- 
sylvania. 

"Art and Architecture of Islam," at Harvard University. 

"Dionysiac Motives in Persian Art," at the Institute of Fine Arts of 
New York University, Columbia University, and at Pennsylvania 
State University. 

"The Constant Elements in Persian Art," at the J. B. Speed 
Museum in Louisville, Kentucky. 

"Old and New Teheran," at the Iranian Embassy for a group of 
students from George Washington University. 

"An Introduction to Persian Art," for the International Council of 
Women in the United States at the Junior Museum of the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art. 

230^157—66—23 



278 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — HISTORY AND ART 

"7,000 Years of Persian Art," at Pennsylvania State University. 

"Famous Iranian Cities" and "Iranian Art," for the Peace Corps 
School for International Training at Brattleboro, Vermont. 

"Persian Miniatures," for the Municipal Art Society of Baltimore 
City. 

"Art Treasures from Turkey," for the Congressional Club at the 
National Gallery of Art. 

During the year, the work of the technical laboratory, under 
Rutherford J. Gettens, was largely devoted to the study of Chinese cere- 
monial bronzes in preparation for the forthcoming publication on 
that subject. This was the culmination of many years of research in 
this field. All the scientific techniques available have been used: 
microscopy, metalography, spectrographic and wet-chemical analysis, 
analysis by X-ray diffraction, plus the study of the objects by ultra- 
violet light and, in some cases, by radiography. The purpose of this 
research has been to find out everything possible about the physical 
and chemical properties of the alloys and about the methods by which 
the vessels were made. 

Head curator Gettens also continued his studies on corrosion products 
of ancient metal objects and his study of Japanese pigments, particularly 
a modern type — a form of glass matrix in which pigment particles are 
embedded; this latter project will aid in the identification of Japanese 
forgeries. With the issuance of volume 5, number 4, of HC Abstracts 
Gettens relinquished editorship of this publication, which hereafter 
will be edited at the new office of the Conservation Center of the 
Institute of Fine Arts, New York University. 
During the year, he gave the following lectures: 

"Joining Methods in the Fabrication of Ancient Chinese Bronze 
Ceremonial Vessels," at the William Young Symposium held by the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, at Asia House for the Chinese Art Society 
of New York, and at the Fourth National (International) Sculpture 
Casting Conference, University of Kansas. 

"Some Observations of the Techniques Employed in the Fabrica- 
tion of Ancient Chinese Bronze Ceremonial Vessels," at the conference 
last named above. 

"Microscopy at the Freer Gallery of Art," at the New York 
Microscopical Society at the American Museum of Natural History. 
Associate curator of Chinese art William B. Trousdale continued 
research on his studies of Chinese jade and archaic bronze weapons. 
In March, he joined with the University of Michigan's archaeological 
excavations and survey of sites in Syria and Afghanistan, a project that 
is expected to keep him in the field for a period of approximately five 
months. 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 279 

Publications 

"James McNeill Whistler, A Biographical Outline Illustrated from 
the Collections of the Freer Gallery of Art," by the late Burns A. Stubbs 
{Freer Gallery of Art Occasional Papers, vol. 1, no. 4, July 9, 1965), was 
revised and reprinted. Considerable time was given to the prepara- 
tion of volume 6 of Ars Orientalis and to the first two volumes of the 
Catalogue of Chinese Ceremonial Bronzes, now in publication; the latter 
supersedes and enlarges upon the Freer Gallery "Descriptive and Illustra- 
tive Catalogue of Chinese Bronzes Acquired During the Administration of 
John Ellerton Lodge," by J. E. Lodge, A. G. Wenley, and J. A. Pope 
(1946). 

Publications by staff members were as follows: 

Ettinghausen, Richard. "In Honor of Rudolf Berliner, April 14th, 
1966, on the Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday," in Rudolf 
Berliner: Bibliographic. Munich, 1966, pp. 11-14. 

. "The Islamic Period," in Art Treasures of Turkey, Circulated 

by the Smithsonian Institution, 1966-1968. Washington: Smith- 
sonian Institution, 1966, pp. 47-66. 

Trousdale, William. [Review of] Fouilles d'Amri, by Jean-Marie 
Casal (Publications de la Commission des Fouilles Archeologiques, 
Fouilles de Pakistan), American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 70, 1966, 
p. 75. 

Public Services 

The total number of visitors to the Gallery, which was open to the 
public from 9:00 to 4:30 every day except Christmas Day, was 222,322, 
an increase of more than 11,000 over that of the previous year. The 
highest monthly attendance, in August, was 38,235. Of the total, 
2,853 came to see staff members, to submit objects for examination, to 
study in the library, or to see objects in storage. In all, 8,152 objects 
and 2,362 photographs were examined, and 655 Oriental language 
inscriptions were translated for outside individuals and institutions. 
Docent service in the exhibition galleries was given by staff members, 
to 35 groups totaling 628 persons, and in the storage rooms to 7 
groups totaling 73 persons; in addition, 457 individuals were also 
shown objects in storage. Among the visitors were 224 distinguished 
foreign scholars or persons holding official positions in their own 
countries, who came here to study museum administration and prac- 
tices in this country. 

On September 15, 1965, ceremonies were held for the presentation 
of the Charles Lang Freer Medal to Professor Yukio Yashiro, "for 
distinguished contribution to the knowledge and understanding of 



280 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Oriental civilizations as reflected in their arts." The presentation was 
made by Secretary Ripley, and Dr. Pope spoke on the career of 
Professor Yashiro, one of the world's outstanding specialists in the arts 
of the Far East and also an authority on the Italian painter Sandro 
Botticelli and his school. The recipient in his speech of acceptance 
commented on Mr. Freer and American pioneer collectors in the 
field of Oriental art. In particular, he stressed Mr. Freer's early 
association with Japan. Professor Yashiro's address was followed by 
a reception. 
The series of illustrated lectures was continued as follows: 

"Dionysiac Motives in Iranian Art," Dr. Richard Ettinghausen 
Freer Gallery of Art (October 12, 1965). 

"Chinese Painting and Abstract Art," Professor Martie W. Young, 
Cornell University (November 9, 1965). 

"Portraiture in Japan," Professor John Rosenfield, Harvard Uni- 
versity (January 11, 1966). 

"Decoration and Monumentality in the Momoyama," Father 
Harrie A. Vanderstappen, University of Chicago (February 8, 1966). 

"Taoist Wall Painting and the Chinese Tradition," Laurence 
Sickman, William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art (March 22, 1966). 

"Art and Archaeology in South Arabia," Dr. Gus W. Van Beek, 
Smithsonian Institution, Division of Cultural Anthropology (April 19, 
1966). 

The auditorium was used by 1 3 outside organizations for 30 meetings, 
with a total attendance of 4, 187. 

The photographic laboratory made a total of 15,164 items during 
year, including negatives, photographs, color slides, color sheet films, 
and polaroid prints; these included both Freer Gallery objects and 
objects submitted from other sources. 

At the sales desk, 110,768 items were sold, comprising 5,821 publi- 
cations and 104,947 reproductions (including postcards, slides, photo- 
graphs, reproductions in the round, etc.). 

These figures indicate an increase of approximately 50 percent in the 
work of both the photographic laboratory and the sales desk over that 
of previous years. 



National Collection of Fine Arts 



David W. Scott, Director 




Significant progress toward fulfillment of its goals and mission 
has been made during the year by the National Collection of Fine 
Arts. These were formulated in the legislation of May 17, 1938, that 
instructed the NCFA "to encourage the development of contemporary 
art and to effect the widest distribution and cultivation in the matters 
of such art" and in the subsequent architectural program that advised 
the bureau "to consider its province to be the cultural life of the 
community all over the United States and ... its obligation to be the 
encouragement of a high standard of quality among artists in the fields 
of both the fine and practical arts." 

As the move into new quarters in the renovated Patent Office build- 
ing approaches, accelerated growth toward a full-scale museum opera- 
tion becomes imperative. Among the activities toward this end, made 
possible by an increased budget, are intensive review and refinement of 
plans for the new quarters; enlargement of the collections and their 
documentation and restoration; expansion and specialization of library 
services; improvement in the quality and diversity of exhibitions; and 
a great increase in public services offered, in the form of seminars, lec- 
tures, films, and publications. 

Most gratifying has been the success of exhibitions and other national 
services in meeting recognized needs and achieving the highest pro- 
fessional standards. Public appreciation and awareness of the Collec- 



281 



282 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

tion's goals and purposes have been evidenced not only by widespread 
interest but also by increased donations of works of art, contributions 
of funds for purchases of art works and developmental activity, and 
offers of support for the program generally. 

The dynamic growth of the National Collection of Fine Arts has 
prompted requests for the bureau to undertake further projects. In 
addition to the task of creating in the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries 
(the old Patent Office building) a representative survey of American 
art, a second gallery project is being developed as the NCFA formulates 
a program for the old Court of Claims building (the original Corcoran 
Gallery) now assigned to the Smithsonian Institution and conceived 
as a gallery of art and design. The Patent Office and Court of Claims 
planning involves both architectural and operational considerations. 
Other program proposals are being developed, including assistance 
for the Cooper Union Museum, and art exhibits for the John F. 
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Community and educational 
exhibit proposals inaugurated early in the fiscal year unfortunately 
were interrupted by the resignation of curator of education George V. 
Gallenkamp in April 1966. 

Other events of the year included the transfer of the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service to the U.S. National Museum 
and the retirement of Thomas M. Beggs, former NCFA director and 
recently special assistant to the Secretary for fine arts. 

Increased selectivity in the planning of the year's program of 1 1 
exhibitions was demonstrated not only by the high quality of objects 
exhibited but by the balance in choice of subject matter: six exhibitions 
(five of major dimension) were drawn from American art — two from 
the most immediately contemporary art of our country and four his- 
torically oriented; and five presented the arts of other nations — again, 
of both past and present periods. Of all these, five were created by 
NCFA staff members. 

Elsewhere, the NCFA enjoyed the felicitous cooperation of other 
segments of the art world. The Knoedler Galleries in New York 
City held a mid-winter benefit exhibition for the NCFA of the work of 
American artist Mary Cassatt, and for the first time in many years 
substantial private support was received, which will allow for the 
purchase of works of art and for other developmental activity. The 
IBM Gallery, next door to Knoedler's, presented an exhibition of 
miniatures in the collection, and generously donated leaflets on the 
NCFA and its miniatures. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 283 

Staff Changes 

In November 1965, the staff was augmented by the "detail" to the 
NCFA of the International Art Section of the USIA, under the super- 
vision of Miss Lois Bingham. The NCFA assumed responsibility for 
U.S. representation in the international art exhibits at Sao Paulo and 
Venice with the conviction that it must demonstrate our country's 
concern for cultural values and its continuing major achievements in 
the arts. 

Other additions to the staff included Farnham Blair, museum tech- 
nician; Susan Bratley, museum curator; Ruth Carlson, librarian 
(cataloging); John Latham, assistant for special services; and Lynne 
Kolarsey, assistant to the registrar. 

Smithsonian Art Commission 

A special meeting of the Executive Committee of the Smithsonian 
Art Commission was held on November 10, 1965, to review works 
offered since the 42nd annual meeting in December 1964, and the 
43rd annual meeting of the Commission was held in Washington on 
Tuesday, December 7, 1965. 

Recommendations were made for the reappointment of Wilmarth S. 
Lewis, Henry P. Mcllhenny, Paul Mellon and Ogden M. Pleissner for 
the usual 4-year term. The following officers were re-elected: Edgar 
P. Richardson, Chairman; Gilmore D. Clarke, Vice-Chairman; and 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary. The following were re-elected to the Execu- 
tive Committee: David E. Finley, Chairman, Mr. Clarke, Mr. Pleissner, 
Mr. Mcllhenny, Mr. Richardson (ex officio) and Mr. Ripley (ex 
officio). 

Commission members reviewed works submitted and recommended 
the acceptance or rejection of those works as part of the Collection. 
These items are reported under Accessions. 

A special meeting of the Executive Committee was called on January 
20, 1966, to consider recommendations concerning NCFA needs, and 
it was the sense of the Committee that an ad hoc committee should 
be set up to help meet these needs. 



The death of Paul Manship on January 30, 1966, ended this great 
artist's long and fruitful association with the National Collection and 
the Smithsonian. Mr. Manship had been a member of the Smithsonian 
Art Commission since 1931, serving as Chairman from 1944 to 1964. 
To this service, he brought great warmth and goodwill and he donated 
to the Collection many excellent examples of his work. By the terms of 



284 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

his will, the approximately 500 pieces of sculpture and drawings that 
remained in his studios were to be divided between the National 
Collection and the St. Paul Art Center. These institutions are presently 
planning a memorial exhibition to be held during the later summer and 
fall of 1966. 

The Collections 

Among the important gifts to the Collection during the year were 
43 pieces of sculpture by Paul Manship given by the artist shortly 
before his death. In addition, the Collection was enriched by his 
magnificant bequest of 102 pieces of sculpture, 200 drawings and 
sketches, and 1 painting. Excluding the Manship objects, which 
will be reported in the next annual report, 390 works were received 
into the collections. Most noteworthy was the group of 105 works 
(paintings, watercolors, drawings, and graphics) executed under the 
Works Progress Administration during the 1930's, transferred from 
the National Park Service, U. S. Department of the Interior. Among 
this group are studies for murals by Reginald Marsh and William 
Gropper, and paintings by Millard Sheets, Peter Blume, and Eugene 
Higgins. 

Important individual works received included a painting, Cotopaxi, 
dated 1855, by the Hudson Piver painter Frederic Edwin Church, 
given by Mrs. Frank R. McCoy; The Hills, by Preston Dickinson, 
given by Mrs. Robert F. Shawan; Phenomena Off From Shore, by Paul 
Jenkins, given by the artist; and a watercolor, Outdoor Cafe, by Maurice 
Prendergast, given by Dr. R. A. Kling. 

Purchases included an oil study for a large work, never executed, 
entitled The Vision, by the Hudson River painter Thomas Cole; 
Mountain Lake, Near Piedmont, Maryland, by the mid- 19th century 
painter William E. Sonntag, and a small Landscape by the Japanese- 
born American artist Yasuo Kuniyoshi. 

A total of 1 ,900 works were loaned to the NCFA by 1 1 7 lenders. 
These included 543 weather vane molds loaned by Mrs. Edith Halpert, 
and 1 70 20th-century paintings and drawings loaned by Mr. Olin Dows. 
Of the 1 ,900 works, 1 ,030 were for lending programs, including items for 
display in the White House. 

The NCFA lent to museums and educational institutions throughout 
the United States 360 paintings from its collections. An exhibition 
of 158 of its most important miniatures was held at the International 
Business Machines Corporation in New York City. The Wadsworth 
Atheneum exhibited 1 1 1 Catlin paintings in a George Catlin exhibition 
in Hartford. And 510 works were lent to offices of the Federal Govern- 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 285 

ment, including 144 within the Smithsonian Institution and 127 
to the White House. 

Sixty-five paintings belonging to the National Collection were trans- 
ferred to the National Portrait Gallery. The 24th Street staging 
area was organized to accommodate approximately 2,000 objects 
in the NCFA collections for storage, repair, and study prior to their 
removal to the new quarters in the old Patent Office building; and 
67 paintings and 2 works of sculpture were restored. In connection 
with the NCFA's concern for government-owned art and for gathering 
archival material, a survey was initiated on the study and documenta- 
tion of public sculpture existing in the District of Columbia. Washing- 
ton sculptor Bruce Moore served as consultant. 

Additions to the library, a facility which in the new building will be 
shared with the National Portrait Gallery, have come by the exchange 
distribution of catalogs issued by the NCFA and by gifts. Of the 
many received since July 1 965, only a few of the donors can be men- 
tioned here: Mr. Richard Dannenberg, Director of the American 
Contemporary Art Gallery, New York; Mrs. Daphne Foskett, Edin- 
burgh, Scotland; Mr. David C. Huntington, of Olana Preservation, 
Inc., New York; Mr. Alexander Ince, New York; the Freer Gallery 
Library; Mr. Andrew Oliver, New York; the Embassy of the Ruman- 
ian People's Republic, Washington, D.C. ; Mrs. John Sloan and Mr. 
Charles Nagel, Washington, D.C. 

Important collections of books and papers were also received from the 
American Federation of Arts, New York; the Bollingen Foundation, 
New York; the Corcoran Gallery, Washington; Mrs. Anthony de 
Francisci, New York; Mrs. Edith Halpert, New York; the Martha 
Jackson Gallery, New York; Mrs. Haven Parker, Boston; the Tate 
Gallery, London; and others. The NCFA is grateful for this very 
necessary support of the library collections. 

Exhibitions 

During the past year, the number of exhibitions was reduced (11 
against 19 of the previous year), and their size and duration extended. 
Greatly increased effort was put into selection and presentation in order 
to provide exhibitions of national and international significance. 

George Catliri's Indian Gallery (July 19 through September 19, 1965). 
The Smithsonian Institution's collection of Catlin's paintings of the 
American Indian is unique and world-famous. This exhibition was 
the first occasion in over 50 years that the entire collection of more 
than 400 paintings and prints was on public view, exhibition mounted 



286 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — HISTORY AND ART 

in a setting and manner approximating Catlin's own gallery of the 
mid- 19th century. 

Treasures From the Plantin-Moretus Museum (July 24 through August 1 5, 
1965). This small exhibition of fine 16th- and 17th-century printing 
and printing equipment from the Plantin-Moretus press of Amster- 
dam was circulated by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service. 

American Prints of the Sixties (September 4 through September 26, 1 965) . 
In a less comprehensive form, this was initially organized by NCFA 
for a special July 4th showing at the Department of State. 

The Preservation of Abu Simbel (September 11 through October 17, 1965). 
Comprised of photographs and a model showing the ancient monu- 
ments to be disastrously affected by Egypt's High Aswan Dam 
project. 

Romanian Tapestries (October 14 through November 14, 1965). The 
exhibition was presented by NCFA in cooperation with the U.S. 
Department of State cultural exchange program; 51 tapestries and 
14 ceramics, all contemporary, were shown. It was the first showing 
in the U.S. of Romania's recently revitalized art of tapestry. 

Roots of Abstract Art in America: 1910-1930 (December 2, 1965 through 
January 9, 1966). Paintings and sculpture by 41 artists were 
assembled to give a broad view of the formative period of con- 
temporary abstract art in this country. 

United States Exhibition, VIII Sao Paulo Bienal (January 27 through 
March 6, 1966). The work of seven of our most progressive artists 
represented the U.S. in the eighth biennial exhibit held in Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, one of the two great international forums of contemporary 
art. Reassembly of this exhibit at the Smithsonian marked the first 
home presentation within recent years of the American section. 
In conjunction with this exhibition lectures were given by Henry 
Geldzahler, associate curator of American painting and sculpture, 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, on "Current Abstraction and its 
Sources," and by Lawrence Alloway, curator of the Guggenheim 
Museum, on "Barnett Newman." 

Frederic Edwin Church (February 10 through March 13, 1966). Frederic 
Church is one of those 19th century American artists who is included 
in textbooks but otherwise generally ignored. This exhibition, 
which included almost all of his major paintings and a large number 
of sketches, provided the first thorough survey of his work and the 
perspective from which to evaluate it. Organized by the NCFA, 
the exhibition was subsequently shown at the Albany Institute of 




Atlantic Liner in Harbor with Tug (study for mural), by Reginald Marsh (Ameri- 
can 1898-1954). Tempera on masonite, 18 X 23 inches. Transfer from 
National Park Service. 1965.8.102 NCFA. 



Entrance to Church exhibition in Foyer Gallery. Draperies and bronze 
sculptures were brought from Church's home "Olana," and the arch is a 
near duplication of the entrance to its great hall. 




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United States exhibition of contemporary American Negro artists, organized 
by International Art Program of NCFA for the First World Festival of 
Negro Arts at the Palais de Justice, Dakar, Senegal. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 287 

History and Art and at M. Knoedler and Company in New York 
City. 
American Landscape: A Changing Frontier (April 28 through June 19, 
1966). Organized by NCFA in commemoration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of the U.S. National Park Service, this exhibition 
showed the pursuit of unspoiled nature by our artists from the 18th 
through the 20th centuries. 

In connection with this exhibition, a series of six lectures on U. S. 
parks was given by officials of the National Park Service. 
Ancient Art From Afghanistan — Treasures of the Kabul Museum (June 30 
through August 23, 1966). Opportunity to exhibit antiquities of 
high aesthetic quality and from a little known culture is rare. The 
NCFA was fortunate to be one of the three museums permitted to 
offer this exceptional artistic event in America. In conjunction with 
the exhibition, M. Karim Barakzai of the Kabul Museum spent 
several weeks in Washington as guest curator. 
Rugs of Afghanistan (June 30 through July 31, 1966). This exhibition 
of 34 examples of weaving by the nomadic tribes of Afghanistan 
presented as a complement to the showing of the ancient treasures of 
that country, was arranged through the courtesy of Mr. H. McCoy 
Jones. 

In addition to the special exhibitions in New York City mentioned 
above, the NCFA presented or assisted with the following special 
exhibitions in the Washington, D.C., area: OP and the Abstract, print 
show, in the East Wing of the White House; The Image, contemporary 
American prints, in the East Wing of the White House; Indiana Artists 
of Today, the first exhibition in the Senate Caucus Room; Modern 
American Painting, an Art-in-the-Embassies exhibit at the National 
Collection; Oil Reportage by J. S. Churchill, in the National Collection; 
and Georgia Artists, the first art exhibition in the House of Representa- 
tives Caucus Room. 

International Art Program 

The International Art Program, formerly a part of the United States 
Information Agency, joined the National Collection of Fine Arts in 
November 1965. Under the NCFA, the mission of the International 
Art Program (IAP) has remained the same — to plan, assemble, and 
send overseas exhibits of American art, and it continues to work with 
the overseas posts of the USIA in setting up itineraries for its exhibits. 

The biggest and most important project during the reporting period 
was the organizing of the American representation at the xxxm Venice 
Biennale. After the works were selected by U.S. Commissioner Henry 



288 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Geldzahler, the IAP coordinated the assembling, packing and shipping 
of the works and the production of the catalog. NCFA staff members 
oversaw the installation in Venice and participated in the multifarious 
activities of the opening week. 

Another large exhibition, that of contemporary American Negro 
artists, was prepared for the First World Festival of Negro Art in Dakar, 
Senegal. Ten artists were represented and one of them, William 
Majors, won first prize in graphics. The President of the Republic of 
Senegal complimented the American exhibit and was especially pleased 
with the catalog. 

Other shows prepared and circulated by IAP during the period 
included seven different contemporary print exhibitions showing the 
various aspects of graphic arts in the U.S. today; a retrospective show 
of Stuart Davis' work for Paris, Berlin and London; two shows of 
American Indian art; four craft shows (one of contemporary textiles, 
one of Appalachian folk art, and two of general contemporary crafts) ; 
and a selection of 16 paintings by contemporary New York artists for 
showing in Latin America. These exhibits were, in most cases, 
sponsored overseas by the U.S. Information Service, which was re- 
sponsible for local exhibition costs, such as the preparation of catalogs 
and internal shipping. 

The USIA continued to provide financial assistance to the IAP during 
this period for projects begun before the transfer to the Smithsonian 
was effected. On July 1, 1966, the National Collection of Fine Arts is 
to assume full responsibility for this program. 

Special Projects and Events 

During the past year, at the request of and with the assistance of the 
Economic Development Administration, it engaged Charles Counts, a 
nationally recognized craftsman-designer from Georgia, as crafts 
consultant to evaluate specific crafts projects that had been submitted 
to the EDA. He also made a four months' survey and wrote a report 
which considered the economic and design problems of contemporary 
crafts, along with guidelines for the evaluation of craft project proposals. 
This report, "Encouraging American Handicrafts: What Role in 
Economic Development?" published by the EDA, provides a basis for 
further studies and activities in support of American handicrafts. 

The Art-in-the-Embassies Program continues to grow under the 
supervision of Mrs. Nancy P. Kefauver, and the NCFA serves as a 
repository for the over 1,376 works of art involved. These works are 
registered and cared for in new storage facilities and shipped by the 
State Department to American Embassies in all parts of the world. 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 289 

The White House Changing Exhibitions Program continues to 
grow with over 300 works of art involved, changing on a rotating basis 
every six to eight months. The program is a means by which the 
President can directly encourage American art of today. Each work of 
art on loan to the White House offices is accompanied by a letter with 
biographical information about the artist. The works of art, displayed 
individually or in small changing exhibits, hang in the East and West 
Wing halls, offices and reception areas, as well as in the Executive 
Office building. 

The first annual White House Fellows' Seminar on American Art, a 
series of six informal lectures, was developed especially for the White 
House Fellows, members of the White House Staff, and the Cabinet. 
This survey of American art, with emphasis on the period since 1900, 
was presented by NCFA staff members and guest speakers Lloyd Good- 
rich, Director of the Whitney Museum of American Art, and Edgar P. 
Richardson, Director of the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur 
Museum. 

Staff Activities 

Director David W. Scott represented the Smithsonian Institution 
and the NCFA at the Venice Biennale. He served on the Decorative 
Arts Committee of the American Federation of Arts, as well as on the 
Executive Council of the Art-in-the-Embassies Program. He also 
served as advisor to the Fine Arts panel of the National Council on the 
Arts, and on the Fine Arts Committee of the D.C. Recreation Board. 
He lectured to the NCFA White House Fellows' Seminar on various 
aspects of American Art and on the Landscape Show, and before the 
Art Association of Indianapolis on "The Arts in the Great Society." 
In Atlanta, Georgia, he juried the crafts section of the Arts Festival of 
Atlanta. 

Richard P. Wunder, curator of painting and sculpture, represented 
the U.S. Government at a 5-day conference held at UNESCO head- 
quarters in Paris concerning long-term loans between museums of 
different nations and the reconstitution of dismembered works of art. 
Also during the year he assisted in matters pertaining to the Cooper 
Union Museum. He served as Director of the Drawing Society, and he 
represented the NCFA at the openings of the Church exhibition at 
Albany and New York City. He also assembled an exhibition of 50 
17th- and 18th-century drawings to be exhibited during the forth- 
coming year at the National Gallery of Art, and subsequently to be 
circulated by the American Federation of Arts. 

230-457 — 66 24 



290 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Harry Lowe, curator of exhibits, served as Vice Commissioner at the 
United States Pavilion of the xxxm biennial international art 
exhibition in Venice, Italy. He delivered two lectures and partici- 
pated in the seminar discussion on exhibits and installation design at 
the National Trust for Historic Preservation Seminar for Historical 
Administrators in Williamsburg, Virginia, and he lectured at the 
White House Fellows' Seminar. He also served on the panel of three 
judges for the Third Annual Art Exhibit of the National Association of 
Industrial Artists, Inc. In an advisory capacity, he attended the 
Conference on Arts and Humanities in the Southeastern Region held at 
the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 

Donald McClelland, assistant to the director, lectured at the Chicago 
Institute of Art; at St. Alban's School and at the Taft School; for the 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution; for the D.C. Chapter of the 
D.A.R.; for "Operation Headstart" at the D.C. Public Auditorium; 
at the White House Fellows' Seminar; and he presented a series of 9 
lectures for the Heights School, D.C. In other activities, he juried 
1 1 exhibitions, among which were the National Armed Forces show 
in Washington, the Petersburg (Virginia) Arts Festival, Fairfax County 
Art Association, and the Plains (Virginia) Art Exhibition. 

Stefan P. Munsing, special consultant, organized a Jasper Johns 
drawing show (to coincide with the presentation of the Drawing 
Society National Exhibition in September 1966). He supervised 
arrangements for the presentation of several films: "The Ivory Knife" 
(color film on the artist Paul Jenkins, with music by Irwin Bazelon), 
"Henry Moore, London, 1940-42," "Five British Sculptors Work and 
Talk," and "Sculpture by Lipton." He also lectured at the White 
House Fellows' Seminar and served as advisor to the Archives of 
American Art 7th airlift tour to Eastern and Western Europe, recom- 
mending the itinerary of museums, gallaries, and private collections. 

Special consultant Adelyn D. Breeskin sent a representative group 
of American contemporary prints to New Delhi for the International 
Exhibition held at the All India Institute of Arts and Crafts; helped 
choose exhibition material for the Edinburgh (Scotland) Fesitval; art 
for an exhibition of Old Lyme painters shown at the Institute of 
Contemporary Arts; and material for the Mary Cassatt exhibition at 
Knoedler Galleries, New York. She gave two lectures in the White 
House Fellows' Seminar on American Art. She lectured to the U.S. 
Foreign Service Officers, to members of the Jewish Educational 
Alliance of New York City, the National Council of Jewish Women, 
to the "Friends of Pakistan," to a group in Lincoln, Nebraska, to the 
Smithsonian Associates, and to the White House Fellows' Seminar, 
and she assisted in a symposium for the Washington Print Club. She 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 291 

juried the Library of Congress Biennial Print Show; the Annual Art 
Exhibition in Birmingham, Alabama; a United Nations exhibition; 
the 16th Mid- America Annual Exhibit in Kansas City; and served as 
one-man jury for the annual exhibition in Huntington, West Virginia. 
She pursued her research for compiling a catalogue raisonne of the 
paintings, pastels, watercolors and drawings of Mary Cassatt. This 
took her in June to Europe, where she lectured in Munich and did 
research on Cassatt in several countries. Mrs. Breeskin received 
honorary degrees from Hood College, Frederick, Maryland, and 
Morgan State College, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Librarian William Walker was actively engaged in a project with the 
Library of Congress subject cataloging division to revise the Library of 
Congress "N" classification schedule for books on the fine arts. Moti- 
vation for the undertaking was primarily the benefit of this library, but 
it is believed by the Library of Congress staff that the proposed changes 
and improvements submitted by Walker will, if published, be of value 
to all art libraries using this classification system, including the Library 
of Congress itself. 

He was principally engaged in developing a strong library facility 
to serve the NCFA, while radically expanding that aspect supporting 
the National Portrait Gallery, which will share use of the facility in the 
new building. In anticipation of increased space and library use 
in the new quarters next year and reduced accessibility to the Smith- 
sonian Library's main reference facilities now close by, concentration 
has been on acquiring necessary reference works, including multi- 
volume sets, such as encyclopedias, library catalogs, and serial indexes. 

John Latham, assistant for special services, joined the staff in October 
to develop public service programs and to advise the art world and the 
general public of the objectives, needs, and services of the NCFA. In 
connection with this mission, he was in charge of public information 
for the American Section in Venice before the opening of the Biennale 
on June 18. 

This year an unprecedented number of university students and 
internes were in attendance for 10- or 12- week periods. This amounted 
to a great extension of the bureau's educational program. Ten 
students or internes were at work during the year, not including 
those of the 1 965 summer program. 

Among the conservators and consultants, in addition to those already 
mentioned, who assisted the program were Joseph Andrews, Thomas 
Carter, Sheldon Keck, Philip Vickers, Bruce Moore, and Marvin 
C. Ross. Continuing support was provided by Bayard Underwood, 
Harold Cross, Henri Courtais, Henry Heydenryk, Stewart Treviranus, 
Janice Hines, Ben Johnson, Istvan Pfeiffer, and H. B. Colborn. 



292 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Publications 

Bolton-Smith, Robin. Miniatures in the National Collection of Fine Arts, 

Smithsonian Institution. New York: IBM Gallery, 1966. 
Breeskin, Adelyn D. [Introduction to] Mary Cassatt. New York: 

Knoedler Galleries, 1966, 56 pp., 42 illustr. 
. [Introduction to] Roots of Abstract Art in America, 1910-1930. 

Washington: Smithsonian Institution, publ. 4655, 1965, 93 pp., 

47 illustr. 
— . Matisse in America. Harpers Bazaar (December 1965), 2 



pp., 1 illustr. 
Lowe, Harry. [Introduction to] The Josephine and Phillip A. Bruno 

Collection. New York: Finch College Museum of Art, 1965. 
Scott, David W. [Introduction to] American Landscape: A Changing 

Frontier. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, publ. 4671, 1966, 

42 pp. 
. [Introduction to the Catalogue of the Exhibition] XXXIII 

International Biennial Exhibition of Art, Venice 1966, United States of 

America. October House, Inc., 1966. 
. America's Role in the Biennale. Art Gallery (June 1966), 



vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 11-14. 

Wunder, Richard P. In Memoriam: Michel Nicholas Benisovich 
(1891-1963) [includes bibliography, "The Art Historical Writings 
of Michel N. Benisovich"]. Art Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 2, 1964 (pub- 
lished 1965), pp. 196-199. 

. [Preface to] Frederic Edwin Church. Washington: Smithsonian 

Institution, publ. 4657, 1966. 



National Portrait Gallery 

Charles Nagel, Director 




Touring these first years of its existence — this is but its third 
■*-' annual report — the National Portrait Gallery has been in minimal 
temporary quarters and might almost be said to have been a museum 
in a filing case. The time, however, has been time well invested; the 
Gallery has had the opportunity to gather its forces for two activities 
that are of the utmost importance — to plan its future program and to 
attend to its housekeeping. 

In order to plan, the Gallery had first to assemble the nucleus of a 
staff. This has now been done; the growing staff can be regarded with 
satisfaction and its work in planning for the future with hope and 
confidence. 

As to housekeeping these months have made it possible to assure 
that each portrait in the collection is looking its best, and is in the 
best possible structural condition — matters too often neglected and 
all too often misunderstood or ignored by the public. But when the 
Gallery moves to its new quarters in the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries 
(the old Patent Office building) the collection as a whole will have 
received the expert care it deserves. With the air conditioning that 
will be part of the equipment of the building, the work that has been 
done may confidently be expected to last many a year. 

Renovation of the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries building was 
about eighty percent completed in June 1 966, and as finish materials 
begin to be applied, the building begins to reveal the character and 
dignity that stamp it as a distinguished work of architecture of its 

293 



294 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

period. The move into new quarters early in 1967 is anticipated 
eagerly, for it will permit the initiation, in greatly increased space, of 
a more complete professional program for the National Portrait Gallery, 
a program which will make it favorably known as the nation's repository 
for whatever treasures of American portraiture may be available. 

The Collections 

A National Portrait Gallery is not, after all, just another art museum; 
it is something new in America, a gallery devoted only to one thing: 
the likenesses in all media of those who in every walk of life have made 
a significant contribution to the development and culture of our country. 
It is a museum whose first consideration is the sitter. In short, it is the 
visual history museum for the Nation in terms of portraits of distin- 
guished individual citizens. 

In the course of the year the Gallery added to its still small collection 
102 accessions by transfer, gift, or purchase. For the transfers the 
Gallery is beholden to the National Collection of Fine Arts, for the 
gifts, to a variety of donors — institutional and individual, and from all 
sections of the country. For the purchases, the Gallery is most grateful 
that its funds for purchase, though limited, have given it che rare 
privilege of selecting what seemed to be most important of the objects 
that have come upon the market. 

Since these accessions are of the utmost importance to the Gallery, a 
full list is appended. A brief discussion of some will give an idea of the 
spread in time and the personality of the individuals represented. 

Paul Wayland Bartlett (1865-1925), a portrait by Charles Sprague 
Pearce, came as a gift from Mrs. Armistead Peter, Jr. It shows Bartlett, 
a Yankee born but trained as an artist in France, in full profile and in 
the costume of the turn of the century. Among many other works he 
is responsible for the sculptured pediments of the House of Representa- 
tives. Bartlett was a handsome man and as a successful artist could 
not help but know it. All this is honestly shown with such faithfulness 
and conviction by his slightly older contemporary Charles Pearce that 
it is one of the most popular portraits in the collection. It is a transfer 
from NCFA. 

Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) by Luella V. Serrao. This fine 
marble bust of the founder of the Christian Science Church was pre- 
sented as a gift to the Gallery in May 1966 from Mrs. Frances Thompson 
Hill and Calvin C. Hill on the occasion of the hundredth anniversary 
of the founding of the church. 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 295 

Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), a portrait by Samuel B. Waugh, 
was the gift of the International Business Machines Corporation. 
Another transfer from NCFA, it is a bust portrait that shows, beyond the 
rough force that is such a familiar aspect of Grant, a kind of sensitivity 
that explains the honesty and integrity with which he met gallantly the 
disasters of his later life. 

Michael Gratz (1740-1811), by William Edward West, is an ex- 
cellent, unusually large, pastel portrait of the man who with his brother 
Bernard did so much to support the American cause in the Revolution. 
It was the gift of Richard N. Tetlie. 

Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910), a portrait by her son-in-law John 
Elliott, was the gift of Mrs. John Elliott and was a transfer from 
NCFA. It is of unusual interest as it shows Mrs. Howe as the young 
woman who was inspired to write the "Battle Hymn of the Republic" 
for which she received $4 from the Atlantic Monthly and the undying 
devotion of her fellow Americans. 

John J. Pershing (1860-1948), a full length portrait by Douglas 
Volk of the famous leader of the American troops in France is a transfer 
from NCFA, and was originally presented by the National Art Com- 
mittee, which was responsible for the recording of many outstanding 
figures both civil and military associated with World War I. 

William Howard Taft (1957-1930), by Robert MacCameron, was 
presented by the artist's son and daughter, Robert, Jr., and Marguerite 
MacCameron. It is an unusually vigorous and convincing likeness, 
taken at the height of his powers, of the only man to have been both 
President and Chief Justice of the United States. 

John Bartram (1699-1777), by John Wollaston, purchased by the 
Gallery. Bartram, the first great native American botanist, laid out 
a botanic garden on the Schuylkill and began the first hybridizing 
experiments in America. He was called by Linnaeus "the greatest 
natural botanist in the world." 

Albert Einstein (1879-1955), by Joseph Scharl, purchased by the 
Gallery. This portrait of one of the most noted of modern scientists, 
is thoroughly contemporary in its approach. Yet, despite the abstract 
expressionist manner in which it is executed, it is a thoroughly recog- 
nizable likeness of Einstein by one of his close friends, and hence a 
remarkably fine document of our own time. 

Edwin Forrest (1806-1872), by Edwin Agate, purchased in 
memory of Alexander Sandor Ince from the gift made by the Kathryn 
and Gilbert Miller Fund. This portrait of our earliest American-born 
actor of first rank shows him in the Indian role of "Metamora" which 
he made famous. 



296 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Alexander Hamilton (1755 or 57-1804) by Guiseppi Ceracchi, 
purchased by the Gallery. A bust in white marble, one of the famous 
portraits of Hamilton executed by this Italian sculptor. 

Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828), by an unknown painter, purchased 
by the Gallery. This small portrait of one of America's earliest native 
born painters is a fine likeness and a most valuable record. 

In addition to the funds appropriated by the Congress for the support 
of the program of the National Portrait Gallery, gifts of SI 0,000 were 
received from Kathryn and Gilbert Miller Fund and $5,000 from the 
Kauders Foundation. A gift of two extremely handsome pieces of 
furniture for the Gallery executive offices was made by Victor Proetz — 
a tall book-case veneered in blond European elm and en suite a low 
case for oversize volumes. Each of these pieces is one of a pair, the 
other of which will eventually come to the Gallery. They set a standard 
of style and distinction for whatever additional furniture is later 
acquired. 

In honor of Einstein week, March 14 to 21, the portrait later purchased 
for the collection and a drawing, both by Joseph Scharl, were placed 
on exhibition along with several portrait photographs. On April 9, 
the third anniversary of the conferring upon him of honorary United 
States citizenship, the portrait of Sir Winston Churchill by Douglas 
Chandor was put on exhibit. On April 28, a portrait of President 
Calvin Coolidge by Joseph Burgess was presented by the Phi Gamma 
Delta Fraternity and accepted for the permanent collection. On May 
28th the portrait bust of Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Christian 
Science Church, by Luella Varney Serrao presented by Frances 
Thompson Hill and the late Calvin C. Hill was placed on exhibition 
on the occasion of the celebration of the one-hundredth anniversary 
of the founding of Christian Science. 

Staff Activities 

Director Charles Nagel, worked with historian Daniel John Reed 
and curator Robert G. Stewart on planning for the future of their 
departments. He served as ex-officio member of the important 
Acquisitions Committee, addressed the New England Conference of 
the American Association of Museums in New Haven, and wrote 
articles on the Gallery for Antiques Magazine and Chronique des Arts. 
A most helpful outcome of his address in New Haven was an article on 
the gallery by Russell Lynes in the June 1966 Harper's Magazine en- 
titled "Public Faces" in which some of the difficulties and opportun- 
ities of the gallery were delightfully set forth. 



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John Bartram (1699-1 777), attributed to John Wollaston. Purchased through 

Museum fund. 




Julia Ward Howe (1819-1910), by her son-in-law John Elliott. Gift 
Mrs. John Elliott (transfer from National Collection of Fine Arts). 



of 




Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910), by Luella V. Serrao. Gift of Mrs. Frances 
Thompson Hill, who stands beside the bust. 




Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), by Joseph Burgess. Gift of the Phi Gamma 

Delta Fraternity. 




Bernard M. Baruch (1870-1965), by Douglas Chandor. 
Gift of Mr. Baruch. 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 297 

He also worked with the architects, Faulkner, Stenhouse, Fryer, and 
Faulkner and with Mr. Victor Proetz on the remodelling and fur- 
nishing of the NPG quarters in the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries 
building, and represented the Smithsonian Institution at various 
meetings related to the International Cooperation Year. 

Early in the year Daniel John Reed, formerly assistant chief of the 
manuscript division of the Library of Congress, assumed the duties of 
historian in the gallery. Since his arrival he has devoted most of his 
time to building up the library and the print collection and to planning 
and inaugurating a research and publication program. Basic to any 
program for the study of American portraiture is a national inventory 
of portraits of citizens of historical significance ; this was started under 
his direction. In it he was assisted by John Frazer, who has continued 
to search the records of the Frick Art Reference Library in New York 
for material to be included in what is to be called the Catalog of 
American Portraits. Information in the catalog is being extensively 
indexed and will be available to scholars and other galleries and 
museums. 

Curator Robert G. Stewart, directed a two-pronged program of 
conservation of the portraits in the collection and of research on their 
history, authenticity and authorship. He has successfully reattributed 
artists, has identified the artist or the subject, and, in some cases, has 
obtained for the collection portraits brought in for examination. 
In the course of this research, two portraits in the collection have 
been proved entirely fictitious and a number have proved to be by 
artists other than those to whom they had been assigned. 

Mr. Stewart arranged the Gallery's first exhibition "Nucleus for a 
National Collection,'"opened in the Arts and Industries building for 
the Bicentennial of James Smithson's birth. This exhibition of 65 
portraits by 52 artists in painting, engraving, drawing, sculpture, and 
photography, represented a cross section of the various media in the 
collection. A catalogue of the exhibition, Nucleus for a National Collec- 
tion (Washington: Smithsonian Institution, publ. 4653, 1966, unpaged 
[30 pp.], illus.), was compiled by Mr. Stewart. 

Under the direction of Mrs. Genevieve A. Kennedy a program has 
been instituted to photograph for the gallery's archival file all portraits 
on loan or brought in for study. To date 200 black and white photo- 
graphs and 46 color transparencies have been made. The print 
collection of some 21,287 pieces has been alphabetized and biograph- 
ically identified by Mrs. Kennedy, who was greatly assisted in this work 
by student aides Richard L. Tyner and Joyce A. Keener. 

Librarian William Walker worked diligently with Dr. Reed in 
building up the library, which in its new quarters will serve both the 



298 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 



National Portrait Gallery and the National Collection of Fine Arts, and 
every effort has been made to avoid duplication while making the 
collection useful to both. Concentration has been on necessary refer- 
ence works, including multi-volume sets such as encyclopedias, library 
catalogues and serial indexes. 

Additions to the Collections 



Subject 
*Abbot, Charles Greely 
*Agassiz, Jean Louis 

Rodolphe 
*Agassiz, Jean Louis 

Rodolphe 
*Bartlett, Paul Wayland 
Bartram, John 
Baruch, Bernard M. 
Benton, Thomas Hart 
*Bliss, Tasker 
Brookings, Robert 
*Bryant, William Cullan 
*Byrnes, James Francis 
Carson, Rachel L. 
Carver, George 
Washington 

*Chase, Salmon P. 

Churchill, Winston S. 

Churchill, Winston S. 
*Clay, Henry 

Clemens, Samuel L. 

(Mark Twain) 
Compton, Arthur Holly 
Coolidge, Calvin 

Corcoran, William 
Wilson 
*Crosby, John S. 
Dahlgren, J. A. B. 

*Delafield, Richard 
*Delano, Jane A. 

*DuPont, Samuel F. 

Eddy, Mary Baker 

*Edison, Thomas 
Einstein, Albert 



Artist 
John N. Brewer 
W. Ingalls 

Louis Mayer 

Charles Sprague Pearce 
John Wollaston 
Douglas Chandor 
Ferdinand T.L. Boyle 
John C. Johansen 
Janet Gregg Wallace 
Henry Kirke Brown 
Alfred Jonniaux 
Una H anbury 
Betsey Graves Reyneau 



James R. Lambdin 
Bryant Baker 
Douglas Chandor 
Attributed to 

Rembrandt Peale 
Eulabee Dix 

Janet Gregg Wallace 
Joseph Burgess 

G. P. A. Healy 

Alfonse Jongers 
"McC" after Joseph 

Cotton 
Charles C. Curran 
Bjorn Egeli 

Daniel Huntington 

Luella V. Serrao 

A. A. Anderson 
Josef Scharl 



Donor or Fund 
Nicholas R. Brewer 
Unknown 

Unknown 

Mrs. Armistead Peter Jr. 
Museum fund 
Bernard M. Baruch 
Museum fund 
Anonymous Donor 
Janet Gregg Wallace 
H. K. Bush-Brown 
Robert C. Vose Jr. 
Museum fund 
The George Washington 

Carver Memorial 

Committee 
Anonymous Donor 
Bryant Baker 
Bernard M. Baruch 
International Business 

Machines Corporation 
Museum fund 

Janet Gregg Wallace 
Fraternity of Phi Gamma 

Delta 
Mrs. David E. Finley & 

Mrs. Eustis Emmit 
Unknown 
Mrs. J. V. Dahlgren 

Albert Delafield 

Jane A. Delano Post of 

American Legion 
Mrs. May DuPont 

Saulsbury 
Mrs. Francis Thompson 

Hill, Calvin C. Hill 
Dr. Eleanor A. Campbell 
Museum fund 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



299 



Subject 
*Ericsson, John 



*Ericsson, John 

*Espy, James Pollard 
Evans, Robley D. 
Forrest, Edwin 

Franklin, Benjamin 
(2 portraits) 
*Fuller, George 
*Garfield, James A. 

Glover, Charles 
*Grant, Ulysses 

Gratz, Michael 
Hackett, James K. 

*Halsey, William F. 

Hamilton, Alexander 
*Hammerstein I, Oscar 



Harding, Warren 

Gamaliel 
*Hare, Robert 

Harriman, Averill 

Harris, Townsend 
*Henderson, John Brooks 

Henderson, Mrs. John 

Brooks 
*Henry, Joseph 
*Hodgkins, Thomas G. 
*Hooper, Reverend 

William 



"Hoover, Herbert 
"Howe, Julia Ward 
"Hull, Cordell 

"Kellogg, John Harvey 
Kennedy, John 

Fitzgerald 
Key, Phillip 



Artist 
Arvid F. Nyholm 

A. Saint-Gaudens 

Thomas Sully 
August Franzen 
Edwin Agate 

Giovanni B. Nini 

Edward T. Billings 
Ole P. H. Balling 

John McLure Hamilton 
Samuel Waugh 

William West 
Albert d'Andrea 

Albert K. Murry 

Guiseppi Ceracchi 
Unknown 



*Hammerstein II, Oscar Abby Altson 



Margaret Lindsay 

Williams 
Alvin Clark 
Gilbert Early 
Albert d'Andrea 
J. J. Benjamin-Constant 

J.J. Benjamin- Constant 

W. Ingalls 
Robert G. Hardie 
After John Smibert 



Edmund Tarbell 
John Elliott 
Gregory C. Stapko 

Emil Fuchs 
William Draper 



Donor or Fund 
Swedish-American Re- 
publican League of 
Illinois 
Georgiana Wills 

Sargent 
The Espy Family 
Horatio S. Rubens 
Kathryn and Gilbert 

Miller fund 
Museum fund 

Catherine Ames 
International Business 

Machines Corporation 
Charles C. Glover 
International Business 

Machines Corporation 
Richard N. Tetlie 
The City College of 

New York 
International Business 

Machines Corporation 
Museum fund 
Mrs. Oscar Hammerstein 

II 
Mrs. Oscar Hammerstein 

II 
Museum fund 

Unknown 

Gilbert Early 

City College of New York 

Heirs of Mrs. J. B. 
Henderson 

Mrs. John Brooks 
Henderson 

W. Ingalls 

Unknown 

Transfer from United 
States National 
Museum — G. Brown 
Goode Collection 

National Art Committee 

Mrs. John Elliott 

International Business 
Machines Corporation 

Dr. Edward Kellogg 

Museum fund 



Charles Willson Peale Charles van Ravenswaay 



300 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 



Subject 
*King, Ernest J 

*Kinkaid, Thomas C 

*Lane, Franklin K. 
*Lea, Isaac 
Lee, Robert E. 
*Lockwood, Belva Ann 

MacArthur, General 
Douglas 
*McClellan, George B. 

*McKean, Thomas 



McKinley, William 
McNamara, Robert 
Madison, Dolly 

*Mann, James R. 

*Mansfield, Richard 



Artist 
Albert K. Murray 

Robert Sloan 

Ossip Perelma 
Bernard Uhle 
H. G. Matthews 
Nellie M. Home 

Rodolphe Kiss 

Julian Scott 

Charles Willson Peale 



Charles A. Whipple 

Gilbert Early 

Unknown 

J. Gari Melchers 

Orlando Rouland 



*Marshall, George Catlett J. Anthony Wells 



"Maynard, Edward 
Meyer, George von L. 



Morgan, John Pierpont 
*Mitscher, Marc Andrew 

*Morrill, Justin Smith 
Motley, John Lothrop 
*Nimitz, Chester W. 

*Noyes, Frank B. 
Osceola 

Pershing, John J. 
*Pershing, John J. 
*Polk, Frank L. 
*Polk, James Knox 

*Ranger, Henry Ward 
Read, Thomas Buchanan 
Roberts, Robert Richford 

*Roosevelt, Franklin 
Delano 

*Rush, Richard 
Salk, Jonas Edward 

*Scott, Winfield 



George W. Maynard 
Julian Story 



Adrian Lamb 
Albert K. Murray 

Preston Powers 
H. G. Matthews 
Albert K. Murray 

Ossip Perelma 
Lewis C. Gregg 

Moses W. D. Dykaar 
Douglas Volk 
John C. Johansen 
Max Westfield 

Alphonse Jongers 
H. A. Root 
John Neagle 
Henry S. Hubbell 

Thomas W. Wood 
Edward Amateis 
Henry Kirke Brown 



Donor or Fund 
International Business 

Machines Corporation 
International Business 

Machines Corporation 
Frank B. Noyes 
Mrs. Lea Hudson 
Museum fund 
Committee on Tribute to 

Belva A. Lockwood 
Mrs. Elisha Gee Jr. 

Mrs. Georgiana L. 
McClellan 

Mrs. Francis T. Redwood 
(part of the George 
Buchanan Coale Col- 
lection, Baltimore) 

Mrs. Mary E. Kreig 

Gilbert Early 

Miss Eunice Chambers 

Mrs. James R. Mann 

H. H. Flager 

International Business 
Machines Corporation 

Unknown 

Donna Julia Brambilla 
and Mrs. Phillip O. 
Coffin 

H. S. Morgan 

International Business 
Machines Corporation 

Dr. Charles L. Swann 

Museum fund 

International Business 
Machines Corporation 

Ossip Perelma 

Mrs. Lewis C. Gregg, 
Miss Emma Gregg 

Estate of George Owen 

National Art Committee 

Anonymous Donor 

James Knox Polk 

Memorial Foundation 

James E. Fraser 

Miss Eunice Chambers 

Museum fund 

Henry S. Hubbell 

Unknown 
Edward Amateis 
H. K. Bush-Brown 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



301 



Subject 
*Seward, William H. 
Sheridan, Philip 
*Sherman, William T. 
*Signing of the Treaty of 

Versailles 
*Sims, William S. 
*Smithson, James 
*Stanton, Edward 

McMasters 
Stuart, Gilbert 
Taft, William Howard 



Torbert, Alfred T. A. 

Washington, George 
*West, Benjamin 
*White, Henry 
*Woodrow Wilson 

Woodrow Wilson 
*Woodrow Wilson 



Artist 
Giovanni Benzoni 
Thomas B. Read 
G. P. A. Healy 
John C. Johansen 

Irving Wiles 
Hattie Burdette 
Henry Ulke 

Unknown 

Robert McCameron 



Mathew Brady 
Joseph Hiller 
Frank Wilkins 
John C. Johansen 
John C. Johansen 
Bryant Baker 
Edmund Tarbell 



Donor or Fund 
Mrs. Sara Carr Upton 
Benjamin Bell 
Tecumseh Sherman 
National Art Committee 

National Art Committee 

Unknown 

Miss Sofie Stanton 

Museum fund 

Robert MacCameron Jr., 

Marguerite 

MacCameron 
Dorothy B. Webb 
Unknov/n 
Mrs. Mabel Wiles 
Anonymous Donor 
Anonymous Donor 
Bryant Baker 
Anonymous Donor 



*Portraits marked with an asterisk are transfers from the National Collection 
of fine Arts. 



230-^57—66- 



-25 



National Gallery of Art 

John Walker, Director 




Sir : I have the honor to submit, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, the 
29th annual report of the National Gallery of Art for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1 966. This report is made pursuant to the provisions 
of section 5(d) of Public Resolution No. 14, 75th Congress, 1st session, 
approved March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51), U.S. Code, title 20, sec. 75(d). 

Organization 

The National Gallery of Art, although technically established as a 
bureau of the Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and separately 
administered organization and is governed by its own Board of Trustees. 
The statutory members of such Board of Trustees are the Chief Justice 
of the United States, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, and the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. The 
four General Trustees continuing in office during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1 966, were Paul Mellon, John Hay Whitney, Dr. Franklin D. 
Murphy, and Lessing J. Rosenwald. On May 5, 1966, Paul Mellon 
was reelected by the Board of Trustees to serve as President of the 
Gallery, and John Hay Whitney was reelected Vice President. 

The executive officers of the Gallery as of June 30, 1 966, were as 
follows: 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren, Chairman. 

Paul Mellon, President. 

Ernest R. Feidler, Secretary-Treasurer. 

303 



304 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

John Walker, Director. 
E. James Adams, Administrator. 
Ernest R. Feidler, General Counsel. 
Perry B. Cott, Chief Curator. 
J. Carter Brown, Assistant Director. 
The three standing committees of the Board, as constituted at the 
annual meeting on May 5, 1966, were as follows: 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren, Chairman. 

Paul Mellon, Vice Chairman. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. 

John Hay Whitney. 

Dr. Franklin D. Murphy. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Secretary of the Treasury, Henry H. Fowler, Chairman. 
Paul Mellon. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. 
John Hay Whitney. 

ACQUISITIONS COMMITTEE 

Paul Mellon, Chairman. 
John Hay Whitney. 
Lessing J. Rosenwald. 
Dr. Franklin D. Murphy. 
John Walker. 

Personnel 

At the close of fiscal year 1966, full-time Government employees on 
the permanent staff of the National Gallery of Art numbered 314. 
The United States Civil Sendee regulations govern the appointment of 
employees paid from appropriated funds. 

Appropriations 

For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1966, the Congress of the United 
States, in the regular annual appropriation, and in a supplemental 
appropriation required for pay increases, provided $2,531,000 to be 
used for salaries and expenses in the operation and upkeep of the 
National Gallery of Art, the protection and care of works of art acquired 
by the Board of Trustees, and all administrative expenses incident 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 305 

thereto, as authorized by the basic statute establishing the National 
Gallery of Art, that is, the Public Resolution No. 14, 75th Congress, 
1st session, approved March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51), U.S. Code, title 
20, sees. 71-75. 
The following obligations were incurred: 

Personnel Compensation and Benefits $2, 214, 400. 00 

All other Items 315, 669. 1 1 



Total Obligations 2, 530, 069. 1 1 

Attendance 

Visitors to the Gallery during fiscal year 1966 were 1,577,108, an 
increase of 324,006 over the 1965 attendance. From July 1 through 
Labor Day, 1965, and April 1 through June 30, 1966, the Gallery was 
open to the public from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. on weekdays and from noon 
to 10 p.m. on Sundays. For the remainder of the year the Gallery 
was open to the public every day save Christmas and New Year's Day 
on a schedule of 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. on weekdays and 2 to 10 p.m. on 
Sundays. Visitors during the additional hours in the summer of 1965 
and the spring of 1966 numbered 154,911. The average daily attend- 
ance for year was 4,345. 

Accessions 

There were 2,835 accessions by the National Gallery of Art as gifts, 
loans, or deposits during the fiscal year. This represents an increase of 
1,113 accessions over those of fiscal 1965. 

Gifts 

Three hundred and fifty-one paintings by George Catlin were 
received as a gift from Paul Mellon. In addition, the following works 
of art were received as gifts or bequests accepted by the Board of 
Trustees or were purchased pursuant to action by the Board of Trustees 
from funds given or bequeathed: 

PAINTINGS 

Donor Artist Title 

Avalon Foundation, Church Morning in the Tropics 

New York, N.Y. 

Copley Eleazer Tyng 



306 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 



paintings — continued 



Donor 


Artist 


Title 


Charles Ulrick and 


Vigee- 


The Marquise de Peze 


Josephine Bay Founda- 


Lebrun 


and the Marquise de 


tion 




Rouget with Her Two 
Children 


Mrs. Julia Feininger 


Feininger 


Zirchow VII 


Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 


Earl 


Dr. David Rogers 


W. Garbisch, New 


5) 


Martha Tennent Rogers 


York, N.Y. 




and Her Daughter 


55 


Field 


Deacon Harlow A. Pease 


55 


55 


Mrs. Harlow A. Pease 


55 


Attrib- 


Staunch Gentleman 



Harry Waldron Have- 

meyer and Horace 

Havemeyer, Jr. 
National Gallery of Art, 

Ailsa Mellon Bruce 

Fund 



National Gallery of Art, 
Adolph Caspar Miller 
Fund 



Attrib- 


Staunch Gentleman 


uted to 




Jeremiah 




The us 




55 


Devout Lady 


Sheffield 


Connecticut Sea 




Captain 


55 


Wife of Connecticut Sea 




Captain 


Unknown 


Dennison Hill, South- 




bridge, Massachusetts 


Vermeer 


A Lady Writing 


Corneille de 


Portrait of a Man 


Lyon 




Ercole 


The Wife of Hasdrubal 


Roberti 


and Her Children 


Rubens 


Daniel in the Lions' Den 


Rogier 


Saint George and the 


van der 


Dragon 


Weyden 




La Farge 


Afterglow, Tautira 




River, Tahiti 




Saint George and the Dragon, by Rogier van der Weyden (Flemish, 1399/1400- 
1464). Wood, 6 X 4 5 / 8 inches. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. National 
Gallery of Art. 




The Wife of Hasdrubal and Her Children, by Ercole Roberti (Ferrarese, c. 1456- 



1496). Wood, 
Gallery of Art. 



18}£ X 12 inches. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. National 



Portrait of a Man, by Corneille de 
Lyon (French, active 1534- 
1574). Wood, 6% X 5% 
inches. Ailsa Mellon Bruce 
Fund. National Gallery of 
Art. 



Daniel in the Lions' Den, by Peter 
Paul Rubens (Flemish, 1577- 
1640). Canvas, 88# X 130>S 
inches. Ailsa Mellon Bruce 
Fund. National Gallery of 
Art. 




* ■ 




I 



Saskia Lying in Bed, by Rembrandt van Ryn (Dutch, 1606-1669). Pen and 
brush drawing, about 1638. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. National Gallery 
of Art. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 



307 



Donor 
William Benton, New 

York, N.Y. 
Chester Dale 



Mrs. Snowden A. 

Fahnestock, Washimg- 

ton, D.C. 
National Gallery of Art, 

Ailsa Mellon Bruce 

Fund 



GRAPHIC ARTS 

Artist 
Reginald 
Marsh 
Bellows 
Lurcat 
Drian 
Leger 



Title 
Merry-Go-Round 

Three Pencil Sketches 
Maud Dale 
Maud Dale 
Hands and Foot 
Fragonard La Voile des Armours 



Master of Satyrs with a Bacchante 
1515 

Rembrandt Saskia Lying in Bed 



WORKS OF ART ON LOAN 

The following works of art were received on loan, or were continued 
on loan, by the Gallery: 

Artist 
Rembrandt 



Donor 
The Fuller Foundation, 

Boston, Mass. 
Jerome Hill, New York, 

N.Y. 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul 
Mellon, Upperville, 
Virginia 



Private Collection 

55 

The Norton Simon 
Foundation, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 



Delacroix 



Desras 



Stubbs 

55 

Various 
French 
Artists 
Raphael 
Veronese 



Title 

Portrait of a Man in a 

Fur-lined Coat 
The Arab Tax 

Lion Devouring a Goat 
14 Wax Sculptures 



Lion Attacking a Deer 
Lion Attacking a Horse 
68 Paintings 



The Madonna of Loreto 
Self-Portrait 
Rembrandt Portrait of the Artist's 
Son Titus 



308 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 



WORKS OF ART ON LOAN RETURNED 



The following works of art on loan were returned during the fiscal 
year: 

To Artist Title 

The Fuller Foundation, Rembrandt Portrait of a Man in a 

Boston, Mass. Fur-lined Goat 

Colonel and Mrs. Edgar S. J. 

W. Garbisch, New York, Johnson 

N.Y. 



Picking Grapes in an 
Orchard 



National Collection of 
Fine Arts, Smithsonian 
Institution 

Private Collection 

55 

The Putnam Foundation, 
San Diego, Calif. 



Landis 


Adam and Eve 


Pelton 


Jephthah Regrets His 




Vow 


Prior 


Little Girl Holding 




Apple 


Unknown 


Adeline Howard 


55 


Woman with Butterfly 




Tie 


55 


Woman with Jagged 




Collar 


55 


Fruit in Bowl 


55 


Man with Blue Eyes 


55 


Lady with Brown Eyes 


55 


Birds 


55 


Pigeons 


Willson 


The Prodigal Son 




Taking Leave of His 




Father 


55 


The Prodigal Son Wasted 




His Substance 


55 


The Prodigal Son in 




Misery 


55 


The Prodigal Son Re- 




claimed 


Homer 


High Cliffs, Coast of 




Maine 


Raphael 


The Madonna of Loreto 


Veronese 


Self-Portrait 


Bruegel 


Parable of the Sower 



Christus 



The Death of the Virgin 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 



309 



To 

The Putnam Foundation, 
San Diego, Calif. 



The Norton Simon 
Foundation, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

J. H. Whittemore Com- 
pany, Naugatuck, Conn. 



[ loan returned — continued 


Artist 


Title 


Corot 


View of Volterra 


Murillo 


Christ on the Cross 


Rembrandt 


St. Bartholomew 


Veronese 


Virgin and Child 


Rembrandt 


Portrait of the Artist's 




Son Titus 


Whistler 


The Dancer — Green 




and Blue 


Manet 


Portrait of an Actor- 




Buffoon of Philip IV 



WORKS OF ART LENT 

The following loans were made during the fiscal year: 

To 
Connecticut Historical 
Society, Hartford, Conn. 



Museum of Early Amer- 
ican Folk Art, New 
York, N.Y. 

Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, New York, N.Y., 
and Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston, Mass. 



Artist 


Title 


Phillips 


Joseph Slade 


" 


Alice Slade 


Field 


"He Turned Their 




Waters Into Blood" 



Copley 



Gallery of Modern Art, 
New York, N.Y. 

Munson-Williams Proc- 
tor Institute, Utica, N.Y. 



Hassam 
Quid or 



Eleazer Tyng 



Sir Robert Graham 
The Red Cross Knight 
Jane Browne 
The Death of the Earl 

of Chatham 
Epes Sargent 
The Copley Family 
Watson and the Shark 
Allies Day, May 1917 

The Return of Rip Van 
Winkle 



310 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — HISTORY AND ART 



works of art lent — continued 



To 


Artist 


Title 


National Collection of 


Church 


Morning in the Tropics 


Fine Arts, Smithsonian 






Institution 






Old Salem Museum, 


Stuart 


George Washington 


Winston-Salem, N.C. 




(Vaughan-Sinclair) 


Smithsonian Institution, 


Jarvis 


Commodore John 


Museum of History and 




Rodgers 


Technology, Presidential 






Reception Room 






55 


5? 


DeWitt Clinton 


55 


Healy 


Daniel Webster 


55 


Peale 


Robert Coleman 


55 


Sully 


Major Thomas Biddle 


University of Nebraska 


Henri 


Young Woman in Whit 



Art Galleries 
University Art Museum, 
Austin, Texas 



Inness 



Other Gifts 



The Lackawanna Valley 



In the fiscal year 1966 gifts of money were made by the Avalon 
Foundation, Frelinghuysen Foundation, J. I. Foundation, Samuel H. 
Kress Foundation, Old Dominion Foundation, Eugene and Agnes E. 
Meyer Foundation, Lila Acheson Wallace Fund, Inc., and Mr. Paul 
Mellon. 

Mrs. Ailsa Mellon Bruce contributed additional money and securities 
for the purchase of works of art for the National Gallery of Art and for 
educational purposes related to works of art. 



Exhibitions 

The following exhibitions were held at the National Gallery of Art 
during the fiscal year 1966: 

The Chester Dale Bequest. Continued from previous year. 

Graphic Arts from the Chester Dale Collection. Continued from the previous 

year through August 1 8, 1 965. 
Exhibition Illustrating Richard Bales' Index of American Design Suite No. 4. 

Continued from previous year through August 6, 1965. 
Rembrandt's Portrait of the Artist's Son Titus, on loan from the Norton 

Simon Foundation. Continued from previous year through December 

5, 1965. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 311 

Sketches by Constable from the Victoria and Albert Museum. Continued from 

the preceding year through July 5, 1 965. 
White House Festival of Arts Exhibition. Continued from previous year 

through July 11, 1965. 
19th and 20th Century European Drawings. July 1 1 through August 29, 

1965. 
19th and 20th Century Prints. August 6 through November 4, 1 965. 
British Mezzotints from the 18th and Early 19th Centuries. September 18 

through October 31,1 965. 
John Singleton Copley: A Retrospective Exhibition. September 19 through 

October 31, 1965. 
Treasures of Peruvian Gold. October 14 through November 28, 1965. 
Christmas Prints. November 5, 1 965 through January 1 2, 1 966. 
Durer and His Time. November 14 through December 12, 1965. 
Modern French Prints from the Rosenwald Collection. December 11, 1965 

through March 9, 1966. 
Fifteenth-Century Woodcuts and Metalcuts from the Collection of the National 

Gallery of Art. December 19, 1965 through January 30, 1966. 
Bruegel Prints from the Rosenwald Collection. January 13 through March 8, 

1966. 
French 18th Century Prints from the Widener Collection. March 9 through 

July 1, 1966. 
Etchings by Rembrandt in the Collection of the National Gallery of Art. March 

11 until after July 1, 1966. 
Drawings from the Collection of the National Gallery of Art. February 5 

through April 17, 1966. 
French Paintings from the Collections of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon and 

Mrs. Mellon Bruce. March 17 through May 1, 1966. 
Twenty-five Tears of National Gallery Publications. March 17 through 

May 1, 1966. 
Art Treasures of Turkey, June 5 through July 17, 1966. 

Exhibitions of recent accessions: The W^ife of Hasdrubal and Her Chil- 
dren by Ercole Roberti, Elizabeth Throckmorton by Largilliere, and 
Portrait of a Man by Corneille de Lyon from August 10, 1965, through 
October 25, 1965; The Marquise de Peze and the Marquise de Rouget with 
Her Two Children by Vigee-Lebrun from November 9, 1965, through 
January 12, 1966; Daniel in the Lions' Den by Rubens from January 12, 
1966; St. George and the Dragon by Rogier van der Weyden from May 6, 
1966; and A Lady Writing by Vermeer from May 20, 1966. 



312 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Graphic Arts 

Graphic Arts from the National Gallery of Art collections were in- 
cluded in 8 traveling exhibitions, and special loans were made to 32 
museums, universities, schools, and art centers in the United States and 
abroad. There were 235 visitors to the Graphic Arts Study Room. 

The material in the Index of American Design was used during the 
year by 304 persons. Their interests included securing slides and 
exhibits, doing special research and designing, and gathering illustra- 
tions for publications. 

Curatorial Activities 

Under the direction of chief curator Perry B. Cott, the curatorial 
department accessioned 377 gifts to the Gallery during the fiscal year 
1966. Advice was given with respect to 1,669 works of art brought to 
the Gallery for expert opinion, and 36 visits to collections were made by 
members of the staff in connection with offers of gifts. The registrar's 
office issued 220 permits to copy and 118 permits to photograph 
works of art in the Gallery's collections, About 6,771 inquiries, many 
of them requiring research, were answered verbally and by letter. 

Assistant chief curator William P. Campbell served as a member of 
the Special Fine Arts Committee of the Department of State and as 
judge of a YWCA exhibition of the work of Washington artists. 

Curator of painting H. Lester Cooke continued as consultant to 
NASA with duties of organizing and supervising artists doing paintings 
relating to the Space Program. He also acted as judge for exhibitons 
of the Atlanta Southern States, 1965; Peoria, Illinois, Mid- West Area, 
1966; Richmond, Virginia Area; and for four local exhibitions. 

Museum curator Michael Mahoney acted as judge for the Internal 
Revenue Service Art Exhibition, September 1965. 

Assistant registrar Diane Russell taught a course on North European 
medieval art at The American University in the 1966 spring term. 

The Richter Archives received and catalogued 621 photographs on 
exchange from museums here and abroad; 902 photographs were pur- 
chased and about 200 reproductions have been added to the Richter 
Archives. Five hundred photographs have been added to the Icon- 
ographic Index. 

Restoration 

Francis Sullivan, resident restorer of the Gallery, made regular and 
systematic inspection of all National Gallery of Art works of art in 
Washington. He relined, cleaned, and restored 9 paintings and gave 




A Lady Writing, by Jan Vermeer (Dutch, 1632-1675). Canvas, 17% X 15% 
inches. Gift of Harry Waldron Havemeyer and Horace Havemeyer, Jr., 
in memory of their father Horace Havemeyer. National Gallery of Art. 



230-457—66- 



-26 




The Marquise de Peze and the Marquise de Rouget with Her Two Children, by Elisabeth 
Vigee-Lebrun (French, 1755-1842). Canvas, 48% X 61% inches. Gift 
of the Bay Foundation in memory of Josephine Bay Paul and Ambassador 
Charles Ulrick Bay. National Gallery of Art. 




Eleazer Tyng, by John Singleton Copley (American, 1738-1815). Canvas, 
49% X 40}£ inches. Gift of the Avalon Foundation. National Gallery of 
Art. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 313 

special treatment to 32. Twenty-three paintings were X-rayed as an 
aid in research. He continued experiments with synthetic materials as 
suggested by the National Gallery of Art Fellowship at the Mellon 
Institute of Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pa. Technical advice 
was given in response to 220 telephone inquiries. Special treatment 
was given to works of art belonging to Government agencies, including 
the Capitol, Treasury Department, the White House, the Coast Guard 
Academy, and the Freer Gallery of Art. 

Publications 

La Galeria National de Washington by H. Lester Cooke was published 
by the Aquilar Press, Madrid. Mr. Campbell wrote an introduction 
to a new edition of Dunlap's History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of 
Design in the United States. Miss Katharine Shepard wrote two reviews 
for the American Journal of Archaeology. An article written by 
Michael Mahoney entitled "Salvator Rosa Provenance Studies: 
Prince Livio Odescalchi and Queen Christina" was published in 
Master Drawings, III, 4, 1966. 

The catalogue Fifteenth-Century Woodcuts and Metalcuts from the 
Collection of the National Gallery of Art was prepared by Richard S. Field. 
This will constitute part of the definitive catalogue of the Gallery's 
collections. 

The curatorial staff prepared for publication the Summary Catalogue 
of European Paintings and Sculpture. 

Publications Service 

During the fiscal year 1966, the Publications Service, under the 
supervision of Mrs. Ruth Dundas, placed on sale seven new publica- 
tions: La Galeria National de Washington (in Spanish) by H. Lester 
Cooke; National Gallery of Art Summary Catalogue of European Paintings 
and Sculpture; A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art, edited 
by Huntington Cairns and John Walker; Dutch Landscape Painting of 
the 17th Century by Wolfgang Stechow; John Singleton Copley by Jules D. 
Prown; Renaissance Bronzes by John Pope-Hennessy; and The Smith- 
sonian Institution by Walter Karp. 

Over 300 new subjects in 2"x 2" original color slides were added 
to the items sold to the public, and a slide catalogue, listing 427 sub- 
jects, was published. 

For the first time black and white gravure prints, ll"xl4" size, 
were made from the Gallery's graphic arts collection. Eight subjects 
were produced in this form. Six new subjects in \\"x\A" color 



314 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — HISTORY AND ART 

reproductions were published to make a total of 284 now available to 
the public, and 15 new subjects were published in color postcards for 
a total of 239. Twelve new large color reproductions were published 
with Gallery assistance. 

Educational Program 

From June through December 1 965 the program of the educational 
department was carried out under the direction of Dr. Raymond S. 
Stites, curator in charge, and his staff. On January 1, 1966, Dr. Stites 
became Assistant to the Director for Educational Services, and Dr. 
Margaret Bouton, formerly associate curator, became curator in 
charge of educational work. In addition to these changes, four em- 
ployees were transferred from the publications office to the educational 
department when the latter department took over responsibility for 
the reception desks in the lobbies. 

The educational department continued its series of lectures, con- 
ducted tours, and special talks on the works of art in the Gallery's 
collection. Attendance for the 741 general tours was 20,144. This is 
an increase of 1,239 over last year. Attendance for all regularly 
scheduled general tours, tours of the week, and picture of the week talks 
amounted to 40,123 — an increase over last year of 3,280. 

Special tours, lectures, and conferences (a total of 610) were arranged 
to serve 20,888 persons. This is an increase of 4,578 over last year. 
These included special appointments made for other government 
agencies and bureaus such as the Department of State, Foreign Service 
Institute, Foreign Students Service Council, and the Armed Forces. 
Tours, lectures, and conferences were also arranged for many club and 
study groups, members of the United States Congress, educators (both 
American and foreign), museum officials, representatives from hos- 
pitals (with patients), members of national and local chapters of 
women's organizations, and groups of professional men and women 
attending conventions in Washington. These special services were also 
given to school groups coming from all areas of the country. 

The program of training volunteer docents was continued, and the 
department gave special instruction to 159 women from the Junior 
League of Washington, D.C., and from the American Association of 
University Women. By arrangement with the public and private 
schools in the District of Columbia and surrounding counties of Mary- 
land and Virginia, these two organizations conducted 2,814 classes 
from the metropolitan area of Washington on tours, totaling 80,623 
children. This is an increase of 160 classes and 4,689 children over 
last year when 2,654 classes visited the Gallery. The volunteers also 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 315 

guided 744 Safety Patrol girls from Atlanta, Georgia, on tours of the 
Gallery. 

Fifty lectures were given in the auditorium on Sundays with slides or 
films. The attendance at these lectures was 14,975 persons, represent- 
ing an increase over last year of 2,406. Twenty-nine of these lectures 
were given by guest lecturers. The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine 
Arts, given in 1966 by Lord David Cecil of Cambridge University, 
constituted a series of six and bore the title "Dreamer or Visionary — 
A Study of English Romantic Painting." Fifteen lectures were given 
by members of the staff of the educational department. 

The slide library of the educational department has a total of 49,648 
slides in its permanent and lending collections. During the year 697 
slides were added, and 2,308 slides were recatalogued. A total of 
8,922 slides was lent to 292 persons, and it is estimated that these were 
seen by 16,990 viewers. 

Members of the staff participated in outside activities which included 
lecturing to various club and school groups, and to other government 
agencies. One staff member was responsible for the LecTour re- 
cordings, which included the processing of 92 tapes. 

Staff members prepared and recorded 30 ten-minute radio talks 
which were broadcast over radio station WGMS in Washington, D.C. 
They also participated in the Widening Horizons Program, which is 
designed by various government agencies to introduce area high school 
students to the career opportunities offered in Washington. In this 
program staff members prepared and delivered eight briefing lectures 
and gave six special tours for volunteers. These lectures were attended 
by 130 persons. 

A printed calendar of the programs and events of the Gallery was 
prepared for monthly distribution to a mailing list of approximately 
9,600 names, an estimated increase of 2,100. 

Total public response to the educational program, excluding slide 
viewers, was 166,209, which is an increase of 17,053 over last year. 

Extension Services 

The Office of Extension Services, under the direction of Dr. Grose 
Evans, circulated to the public, traveling exhibitions, films, slide 
lectures with texts, film strips, and other educational materials. 

Traveling exhibitions are lent free of charge except for shipping 
expenses. The total number of exhibits was 149, and these were 
circulated in 1,122 bookings. This represents an increase over last 
year of 278 bookings. 

In addition there are 12 exhibits on loan to two organizations which 



316 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

are circulating them. A large panel exhibition Color and Light in 
Painting was completed and will be circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

Fifty prints of three films on the National Gallery of Art and its 
collections were circulated in 417 bookings; an increase in bookings 
over last year of 101. 

A total of 2,160 slide lecture sets was circulated in 6,872 bookings, an 
increase of 1,155 bookings over last year. Ten slide sets are now 
being circulated with records, and Dr. Evans prepared a new slide 
lecture "Painting in Georgian England" based on paintings in the 
collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon. Two hundred copies will be 
circulated by the Extension Services. 

Based on the conservative average estimates per booking used in the 
past, the audience served by the traveling exhibitions circulated by the 
National Gallery was approximately 561,000 viewers; for the special 
exhibitions being circulated by two other organizations, 72,014 viewers, 
for the three films the estimated audience was 125,100 and for the 
slide lectures and film strips, the audience was estimated to be 412,320. 
It is estimated, therefore, that the Extension Services reached approxi- 
mately 1,170,434 people — an increase of 199,371 over last year. 

A new system of direct reporting of audience size by borrowing 
institutions has led to a revision of audience accounting methods in 
the interest of greater accuracy. The improved method, which is 
still under study, indicates a decrease in the estimated audience in one 
category and varying increases in the other two. Calculated on the 
new basis, the total number of people recorded in fiscal 1965 is esti- 
mated to have been 1,418,684. 

In an effort to increase the circulation of the Extension Services 
materials and to keep abreast of new developments in the audio-visual 
field, Dr. Evans and his assistants traveled to various states attending 
12 meetings and conventions, at which examples of the Extension 
Services materials were exhibited. 

Dr. Evans also assisted in the organization of a pilot research teachers 
training program to be conducted at the National Gallery of Art by the 
George Washington University. Forty teachers chosen by the Uni- 
versity from applications received form all parts of the country will be 
given a 6-week program from July 5 to August 12, 1966. 

Library 

During the year the library accessioned 3,355 publications by gift, 
exchange with other institutions, or by purchase. A total of 1,600 
publications was processed; 5,551 cards were filed in the main catalogue 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 317 

and the shelflist. Library of Congress cards were used for 390 tides; 
original cataloging was done for 365 titles. 

There were 3,136 periodicals recorded, received by gift, purchase, 
or exchange. A total of 7,552 periodicals was circulated, and 4,145 
books were charged to the staff. There were 6,524 books shelved in 
regular routine. 

During the year the library distributed 1,625 National Gallery of 
Art publications under its exchange program and in response to 
individual requests. 

In this fiscal year the library borrowed 1,015 books, 946 of them 
from the Library of Congress. 

The library is the depository for black and white photographs of 
works of art in the Gallery's collection. These are maintained for 
use in research by the staff, for exchange with other institutions, for 
reproduction in approved publications, and for sale to the public. 
Approximately 6,581 photographs were added to the stock in the 
library during the year, and 1,571 orders for 7,890 photographs were 
filled. There were 472 permits for reproduction of 1,283 subjects 
processed in the library. 

Index of American Design 

Under the supervision of Dr. Grose Evans, the Index of American 
Design, circulated 31 traveling exhibitions for 65 showings in 21 
states and one foreign country. The Index also circulated 135 sets of 
color slides throughout the United States, and 432 photographs of 
Index subjects were used for exhibits, study, and publication. The 
photographic file was increased by 102 negatives and 328 prints; 
14 permits were issued to persons wishing to reproduce 254 subjects. 
The Index material was used by 304 persons, for the purpose of securing 
slides, exhibits, doing special research and design, and gathering 
illustrations for publications. 

A number of special exhibitions of Index materials were arranged 
for showing in museums devoted to folk art; and an exhibition honoring 
the Christmas stamp issued by the Post Office Department in 1965 and 
based on an Index subject was assembled and circulated throughout 
the year. 

Operation, Maintenance, Activities, and Protection 

The Gallery building, mechanical equipment and grounds were 
maintained throughtout the year at the established standards. 
Renovation of the skylight on the east wing of the building last 



318 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — HISTORY AND ART 

summer completes the entire resealing of the more than two and one- 
half acres of roof area. 

The Gallery greenhouse continued to produce flowering and foliage 
plants in quantities sufficient for all decorative needs of special openings 
and day to day requirements of the Garden Courts. 

Ultrasonic protection was installed in seven exhibition cases of 
Renaissance jewelry and other decorative art objects. Also, the same 
type of security system was installed in a vitrine in which the recently 
acquired Saint George and the Dragon is exhibited. 

LecTour 

During the fiscal year 1966 LecTour, the Gallery's electronic guide 
system, was used by 71,811 visitors — an increase of 13,690 users over 
fiscal year 1965. 

Music Program 

Under the supervision of Richard H. Bales, assistant to the director 
in charge of music, the program continued and forty concerts were 
given during the fiscal year in the East Garden Court. Thirty-nine of 
these concerts were played on Sunday evenings and one on Thursday 
evening. The latter was played during the 25th Anniversary celebra- 
tion of the National Gallery of Art. Thirty-two of these Sunday con- 
certs were made possible by funds bequeathed to the National Gallery 
of Art by Mr. William Nelson Cromwell; the 23rd American Music 
Festival of seven concerts between May 1 and June 12, 1966, was 
sponsored by the J. I. Foundation. The Gallery orchestra, conducted 
by Mr. Bales, played 12 concerts. Two of these orchestra programs 
were supported in part by a grant from the Music Performance Trust 
Fund of the American Recording Industry. 

All concerts, except the 25th Anniversary Concert, were broadcast 
by WGMS-AM and FM. Music critics of the Washington papers 
continued their regular coverage of the concerts. 

Intermission talks during the Sunday evening broadcasts featured 
members of the staff of the educational department speaking on various 
art topics, and there were occasional interviews with guest lecturers. 
Mr. Bales gave program notes during the intermissions of these broad- 
casts. 

Mr. Bales was in residence at the University of Rochester during 
July and early August 1965, and conducted concerts and lectured on 
conducting at the Eastman School of Music. He received the first 
Distinguished Service Award from the Sons of Confederate Veterans 
in recognition of his work in Civil War music. 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 319 

Two one-hour television programs by the National Gallery orchestra 
with Mr. Bales conducting were taped by WTOP-TV, and these with 
a previously taped program were telecast during the fiscal year. 
Paintings from the National Gallery of Art collection were shown during 
these concerts. In September 1965 a previous telecast by the National 
Gallery of Art orchestra won a local "Emmy" award. 

Mr. Bales appeared several times as a guest conductor and lecturer; 
a number of his compositions and arrangements were performed by 
other orchestras. 

During May the National Gallery concerts and Mr. Bales received 
their fourth award from the American Association of University Women 
for a cultural contribution to the community through their television 
concerts. 

During April 1 966 Mr. Bales served as Chairman of the Instrumental 
Music Panel of the Arts Advisory Committee of the District of Columbia 
Recreation Board. 

Other Activities 

In commemoration of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the National 
Gallery of Art, twenty-five medals were struck and awarded "For 
Distinguished Service to Education in Art." The recepients were 
flown to Washington for the Twenty-fifth Anniversary celebrations and 
were awarded the medals by Mrs. Johnson in the East Room of the 
White House on March 17. The obverse of the medal was designed 
by the sculptor and graphic artist, Leonard Baskin, and the reverse 
by the calligrapher and stone-carver, John Everett Benson. The 
recepients of the medals also received a cash honorarium. 

Director John Walker, served as chairman of the committee to make 
arrangements for the visit to Washington of more than 500 directors 
curators from sixty nations who had come to America for the first 
meeting outside Europe of the International Council of Museums. 
Bus tours and hospitality for ICOM delegates were made possible 
through a donation to the Gallery by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. 
On Saturday, September 18, a luncheon for visiting art museum repre- 
sentatives was given before the opening of the John Singleton Copley 
exhibition. 

The Gallery provided facilities for the ceremony held by the Post 
Office Department on September 17, 1965, in honor of the first day 
issue of a stamp in the Fine Arts Series. The stamp is based on a detail 
from The Copley Family, by John Singleton Copley, in the National 
Gallery's collection. 



320 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Henry Beville, head of the photographic laboratory, and his assistants 
processed 61,037 items which included negatives, prints, slides, color 
transparencies, and color slides. 

Audit of Private Funds of the Gallery 

An audit of the private funds of the Gallery will be made for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1966, by Price Waterhouse and Co., public 
accountants. A report of the audit will be forwarded to the Gallery. 



John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts 

Roger L. Stevens 
Chairman, Board of Trustees 







'"pHIS YEAR OF EFFORT AND ACCOMPLISHMENT Saw the Start of COnstrUC- 

■*■ tion on the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 
Property rights to the site were cleared. The Watergate Inn, a restau- 
rant on the original site, is being preserved as a headquarters for the 
builders and as an exhibition area for the Center during construction. 
But all other buildings were removed and excavation is nearly finished. 
Relocation of the Rock Creek Potomac Parkway will be completed late 
this fall. Invitations to bid on the general contract were issued in 
June. The doors of the Center should open in 1969. 

The Metropolitan Opera National Company, co-sponsored by the 
Center and the Metropolitan Opera Association, completed its in- 
augural tour of 70 North American cities. Congress granted the Center 
distribution rights to the United States Information Agency film, John 
F. Kennedy: Tears of Lightning — Day of Drums, and it was seen by 1 50,000 
people to date. It will begin its regular run throughout the country in 
fall. The Friends of the Kennedy Center was formed as a volunteer 
organization to promote nationwide interest in the Center and its 
operations. Leonard Bernstein, music director of the New York Phil- 
harmonic Orchestra, agreed to compose a major work for the Center's 
opening in 1969. Activity, interest, and progress in all aspects of the 
Center should increase in the next 12 months. 

321 



322 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Organization 

Three Presidents have played a direct, personal role in the John F. 
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. The Center was authorized 
originally as the National Cultural Center by an Act of Congress signed 
into law by President Eisenhower in September 1958. The law speci- 
fied that money for the Center's construction was to be raised within 5 
years by voluntary contribution. Congress authorized a nationwide 
fund-raising campaign for this purpose. The Act was extended 3 more 
years during the Kennedy administration. 

Following the death of President Kennedy, a spontaneous movement 
developed to make the Cultural Center, in which he had taken such a 
close personal interest, his sole official memorial in the Nation's capital. 
President Johnson incorporated this sentiment in an Administration 
request to Congress in December 1963. The measure was passed with 
bipartisan support and signed into law by the President on January 23, 
1964 (Public Law 88-260). At the same time, Congress authorized a 
grant of $15.5 million to match private contributions toward the cost of 
construction. The matching funds were subscribed or in the bank 
prior to the statutory deadline of June 30, 1965, insuring that the 
Center would become a reality. 

Board of Trustees 

Pursuant to the John F. Kennedy Center Act, the Board of Trustees 
of the Center is made up to 15 members who serve ex officio, and 30 
"general trustees." As of June 30, 1966, the Trustees of the Center 
were as follows : 

Appointed by the President of the United States 

Richard Adler Erich Leinsdorf 

Howard F. Ahmanson Sol Myron Linowitz 

Floyd D. Akers George Meany 

Robert O. Anderson Edwin W. Pauley 

Ralph E. Becker Arthur Penn 

K. LeMoyne Billings Richard S. Reynolds, Jr. 

Mrs. Thomas W. Braden Frank H. Ricketson, Jr. 

Edgar M. Bronfman Richard Rodgers 

Mrs. George R. Brown Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. 

Ralph J. Bunche Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Mr. Justice Fortas Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 

Mrs. George A. Garrett Roger L. Stevens 

Leonard H. Goldenson Edwin L. Weisl, Sr. 

Senator Robert F. Kennedy Robert W. Woodruff 
Mrs. Albert D. Lasker 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 323 

President Johnson reluctantly accepted the resignation of Mr. Ernest 
R. Breech as Trustee on March 17, 1966. 

Appointed by the President of the United States Senate 
Senator Joseph S. Clark Senator J. William Fulbright 

Senator Leverett Saltonstall 

Appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives 
Representative Charlotte T. Reid Representative Frank H. Thompson, 

Representative James C. Wright, Jr. Jr. 

Members Ex Officio Designated by Act of Congress 

Charles Frankel S. Dillon Ripley 

George B. Hartzog, Jr. Walter N. Tobriner 

Harold Howe, II William Walton 

John William Gardner William H. Waters, Jr. 

L. Quincy Mumford 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, Mrs. John F. Kennedy, and Mrs. Dwight D. 

Eisenhower continue to serve" as honorary co-chairmen of the Center. 
The Trustees met on February 7, 1 966, and elected the officers of the 

Center. They are as follows: 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman Kenneth J. Birgfeld, Assistant Treas- 

Robert O. Anderson, Vice Chairman urer 

Sol M. Linowitz, Vice Chairman Paul J. Bisset, Assistant Treasurer 

Ralph E. Becker, General Counsel Herbert D. Lawson, Assistant Treas- 

Daniel W. Bell, Treasurer urer 

K. LeMoyne Billings, Secretary L. Corrin Strong, Chairman Emeritus 

Philip J. Mullin, Administrative Offi- 
cer and Assistant Secretary 



Site and Construction Progress 

Immediately after the announcement of the completion of General 
Accounting Office auditing of the certification of funds for matching 
purposes, another flurry of opposition to the location of the Center 
arose. For several weeks the Chairman, the General Counsel, and 
other officers were occupied in answering criticisms of the Potomac 
River site. The officers of the Center were strongly supported by the 
Senatorial and Congressional members of the Board of Trustees. 

The closing of streets and alleys in the Center site occasioned another 
outbreak of opposition. Objections lodged by Watergate Development 
to the closing of streets in the Center site were withdrawn after meetings 
of persons concerned were arranged by the General Counsel. The 
Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia ordered the closing 
after extensive public hearings, at which the Center was represented by 



324 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

its General Counsel. An opinion by the Solicitor of the Department of 
the Interior, concurred in by the Attorney General, supported the 
Center's stand that land, including closed streets and alleys, outside the 
statutory site could be used for park setting purposes. 

In the meantime, the Department of Justice reached an agreement 
with the Watergate Inn on a condemnation price of $650,000 for the 
restaurant and land. This marked the end of more than 2 years of 
negotiations and completed the acquisition of private property for the 
Center. An opinion is now being awaited from the Attorney General 
that all land in the Center site is property of the United States. Plans 
are underway for the transfer of jurisdiction over the various parcels 
among the governmental agencies concerned. The last legal require- 
ment imposed by the John F. Kennedy Center Act was met when the 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution found formally that the Center 
had sufficient funds for construction. 

The Comptroller General of the United States authorized General 
Services Administration to solicit bids for the general construction 
contract on a selective basis, following a determination by the Ad- 
ministrator of GSA and the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the 
Center that advertised competitive bidding was not practicable. Nine 
firms, selected on the basis of such considerations as reliability and 
experience with similar projects, were invited to submit bids in June. 
They were: George Hyman Construction Company and Charles H. 
Tompkins Company, of Washington, D.C. ; McCloskey and Company 
and John McShain, Inc., of Philadelphia; J. W. Bateson Company of 
Dallas; Turner Company, George A. Fuller Construction Company, 
and Paul Tishman Company, of New York; and Pashen-Kiewit of 
Chicago and Omaha. 

The Board of Trustees passed a resolution opposing the erection of 
Watergate Development Building No. 1 to any height not substantially 
lower than the Center. To protect its interests, the Center has been 
represented at hearings before the Board of Zoning Appeals on matters 
raised by Watergate. 

Contracts were awarded for demolition of the buildings on the 
Center's site, for excavation, and for the relocation of the Rock Creek 
Potomac Parkway. A fence was constructed around the site and signs 
erected. Electric display panels describing the Center are being 
prepared. 

During the last month of the fiscal year, Colonel William F. Powers 
(U.S. Army, retired) was retained as Executive Director of Engineering. 
Colonel Powers, who served 28 years in the Corps of Engineers, will 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 325 

join the Center's staff on completion of his duties as Vice President of 
Engineering for the Lincoln Center. In his New York assignment he 
supervised the construction of all the buildings in the new performing 
arts center. 

The insurance requirements of the Center were almost unique. In a 
major administrative action, unusual specifications were planned to 
permit adequate insurance coverage during the construction phase 
and beyond. 



JFK Center-GSA Liaison Committee 

The General Services Administration is the Center's agent for design 
and construction and will continue in this capacity through the con- 
struction phase. A special liaison committee, made up of five Trustees 
and representatives of GSA and the architect will be responsible 
for the final plans and specifications on all phases of construction. 
The Trustee members of this committee are Chairman Stevens, Mrs. 
Jouett Shouse, S. Dillon Ripley, George B. Hartzog, Jr., and Ralph 
E. Becker. The Director of Engineering will join the Administrative 
Officer as an ex officio member of the committee. 

Several architectural changes in the Center's interior were recom- 
mended by the JFK-GSA Liaison Committee in accordance with 
suggestions by the Program Committee. The following changes were 
then approved by the Liaison Committee, the Executive Committee, 
and the Board of Trustees: elimination of a special "public reception 
center" (including a small cinema, reception room, and mezzanine), 
the addition of access doors to the stages of the Opera and the Theater, 
additional dressing facilities, addition of a director's suite, reduction of 
the opera stage apron, provision for hidden television camera locations, 
reservation of unallotted space for possible extra rehearsal areas and 
office space, alterations in the roof terrace restaurant facilities, and an 
increase in the window area on the roof terrace. These changes were 
incorporated in the final plans sent out for bids. 

As a result of studies and recommendations by the Liaison Com- 
mittee, an arrangement was made with Potomac Electric Power Com- 
pany for equipping the Center as an all-electric building. All the 
energy needs, including heating and air conditioning, will embody 
concepts developed by the architect in close coordination with PEPCO 
engineers. The arrangement with PEPCO will result in substantial 
savings in construction costs. 



230-457—66 27 



326 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

Program Committee 

The Program Committee, under the chairmanship of Arthur 
Schlesinger, Jr., has held seven meetings in the past year. The members 
of this committee include: 

Mrs. Thomas W. Braden Goddard Lieberson 

Harold E. Clurman Sol M. Linowitz 

Mr. Justice Fortas S. Dillon Ripley 

Richard N. Goodwin Oliver Smith 

August Heckscher George Stevens, Jr. 

Mrs. John F. Kennedy Roger L. Stevens (ex officio) 

The committee consulted with outstanding professionals in the performing 
arts to study the most effective use of the Center's facilities. On the 
basis of the original Congressional mandate, the committee has studied 
theories and formats of artistic management, possible establishment 
of resident companies, the potential for the use of private and public 
television to extend the Center's range of activity, and various educa- 
tional opportunities. The committee recommended that priority be 
given to the selection of the artistic management staff and that the 
final statement of program policy be deferred in order to permit the 
artistic director and his staff to praticipate in establishing the policy. 

Because of the substantially increasing interest and activity in the 
performing arts throughout the country since the original concept of 
the Center was formed a decade ago, several changes were recom- 
mended in the interior plans. The changes were intended to make the 
facilities of the Center more flexible and to extend the educational 
possibilities within the Center. 

On June 23, it was announced that Leonard Bernstein, the eminent 
and versatile composer and music director of the New York Phil- 
harmonic Orchestra, had agreed to compose a major dramatic work 
for the Center's opening. Mr. Bernstein, in accepting the commission, 
recognized the national significance of the Center and expressed deep 
appreciation of the cultural interests of President Kennedy. 

Memorial Committee 

The River Terrace of the Center, overlooking the expanse ol the 
Potomac, is being considered as a site for a special memorial to 
President Kennedy. The committee and Edward Durell Stone, the 
Center's architect, have reviewed several ideas and expect to make 
their recommendation in the coming year, subject to approval by the 
Center's Trustees, the Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, and 
Congress. 




■i! 












1 


1 J 










i 




y '-■ 

iHBi 
- 1 


















Wt^ ■ \ -*•• 




|H^ 







New model of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts soon to 
be put on display at the visitors' center (formerly the Watergate Inn) on 
the site. Above: Entrance. Below: River terrace above Rock Creek Park- 
way, overlooking Potomac River. 



aftrtt.tff 



JbaX.. m 



ill JL.JI 





The Opera, central hall of the Center, will seat 2,200. The stage will be 
60 feet wide, 100 feet deep. 



Mk 



YX 1 ?- 









"4 . «f v 



v.?'«-F 



'v.-i- 





Eg.- 

WL>k 







The Theater (above) will seat 1,100 and the Concert Hall (below) will 
seat 2,700, both are on the main level, flanking the Opera. 






The Studio Playhouse, above the Theater on the roof-terrace level, can be 
used as a conventional theater, or with a thrust stage (top), for theater-in- 
the-round (center), or as a film theater (below). 




KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 327 

Friends of the Kennedy Center 

Early this year the Trustees passed a resolution creating the Friends 
of the Kennedy Center, a self-supporting volunteer organization, to 
aid the Center in establishing its national scope. The first meeting 
of the National Council of the Friends of the Kennedy Center was held 
on June 27, and the following officers were elected: 

Mrs. Frank G. Wisner, Chairman Murray Preston, Treasurer 

Mrs. Polk Guest, Vice Chairman Mrs. Llewellyn E. Thompson, 

George Stevens, Jr., Vice Chairman Member-at-Large 
Mrs. David Ginsburg, Secretary 

Representing the Center's Board of Trustees on the National Council 
are the officers and Mrs. George Garrett, Mrs. Albert Lasker, and 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse. 

Mrs. Thomas W. Braden of California and Douglas Dillon of New 
Jersey were named co-chairman of the National Membership Drive, 
currently under way. 

The purpose of the National Committee of the Friends of the Kennedy 
Center is to develop activities and programs to bring attention to the 
Center, its purposes and plans; and to enlist the active support of the 
Center by members of the National Committee. Specific objectives 
of the National Committee will be developed by the National Council 
from time to time, subject at all times to approval of the Trustees of 
the Center. 

Fund-Raising and Gifts 

Active fund-raising efforts for the Center were curtailed after the 
$15.5 million Federal grant was matched, as required by law, by 
June 30, 1965. The Development Committee, however, under 
the chairmanship of Robert O. Anderson will continue to assess the 
immediate and future needs and to solicit foundations and individuals 
for additional major contributions. Fortunately, with the addition 
of several small contributions the interest income substantially exceeded 
the operating expenses for the year. 

Since the above statutory deadline, several months have been lost 
because of procedural delays, plan reviews, and revisions. There has 
been some increase in wage scales and in materials and other costs. 
It is hoped, nevertheless, that the building can be completed at a cost 
close to present estimates and without the need for changes, deletions, 
or more funds. 

Models of the sculptured bronze panels given by the German Govern- 
ment for the two main entrances to the Center were unveiled at a 



328 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

ceremony at the German Embassy in January. Designed by the 
distinguished young German sculptor, Jurgen Weber, each panel 
will measure 40 feet long and 8 feet high. The panel leading into the 
Hall of States will have a theme based on the ideals of President 
Kennedy. The theme of the panel over the entrance to the Hall of 
Nations will deal with the performing arts as contributants to peace. 
The weaving of the Opera House curtain, a gift from the Government 
of Japan and the America-Japan Society of Tokyo, is under way 
The Japanese are making a 16-mm. film of this unique gift as the 
craftsmen progress. The Center's architect has been working with the 
designers of the Norwegian gift of crystal chandeliers and the Danish 
gift of furniture. Sketches of the Waterford crystal chandelier, a gift 
of the people of Ireland, have been submitted to Mr. Stone for approval. 

Contracts have been signed for the quarrying and cutting of the 
marble donated to the Center by the Italian Government. The three 
companies chosen by the architect after extensive testing and sampling 
are Bufalini, Henraux, and Montecatini. All the marble is being 
quarried in the vicinity of Carrara, some of it coming from the same 
quarry used by Michelangelo for many of his statues. These contracts 
were drafted to assure that sufficient marble will be available for 
construction when needed. Special insurance coverage was planned. 
Shipments of marble will be coming from the port of Leghorn in late 
fall, and will be transported without charge to Baltimore as a gift from 
the American Export-Isbrandtsen Lines. 

Many other foreign nations have expressed an interest in presenting 
a gift to the Center and negotiations are being carried on with them. 

The Fine Arts Accessions Committee held meetings to consider various 
gifts offered to the Center. Gifts recently accepted include a Japanese 
Byobu two-panel screen, from a group of Japanese ladies, and a Salt 
Glaze Planter executed by Kenneth Ferguson, from the Kiln Club 
of Washington. The Planter received a Kiln Club award at the Tenth 
Annual Exhibition of Ceramic Art held at the Smithsonian Institution 
last fall. 

The John Philip Sousa Memorial Committee, appointed by the 
American Bandmasters Association, has continued its campaign for a 
$100,000 endowment to provide the stage and acoustical sound re- 
flectors in the Concert Hall. The committee reported that 71 percent 
of the goal has been reached and that it anticipates 100 percent success 
during the school term beginning in September. The stage will be 
named in honor of Mr. Sousa. 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 329 

Consultants 

Final plans for the Center, on which construction bids were received, 
required expert assistance in many areas. In addition to the resources 
of Edward Durell Stone, architect and his associates, the following were 
engineering consultants to the architect: Syska & Hennessy, Inc., 
mechanical and electrical engineers; Meuser, Rutledge, Wentworth 
and Johnston, foundation engineers; Donald Oenslager, Mr. Stone's 
stage-design consultant; Abe Feder, lighting consultant; Ben Schlanger, 
seating consultant; and Olaf Soot, stage machinery consultant. Dr. 
Cyril Harris, acoustics consultant, designed the Center's acoustical 
systems. Edward D. Stone, Jr., is landscape architect and Sasaki, 
Walker, and Associates serve as landscape consultants. 

Numerous members of the staff of the Public Buildings Service of the 
General Services Administration have participated in the design de- 
velopment of the John F. Kennedy Center. Among them special 
recognition is appropriate for Karel Yasko, Assistant Commissioner 
for Design; L. Anthony Ziernicki, Assistant Commissioner for Construc- 
tion; J. Rowland Snyder, Director, Architectural Division; Robert R. 
Jones, Director, Mechanical and Electrical Division; Arthur Westrich, 
Director, Structural Division; James Francis, Director, Specifications 
Division; James H. Jones, Project Coordinator; Ray Whitley, Chief, 
Elevator Branch; Harry Kay, Estimator, Estimates Division; Edward 
Kearney, Chief, Electrical Estimates Branch. Dr. Vern O. Knudsen 
reviewed the Center's acoustical design. 



Special Projects 

The Metropolitan Opera National Company, co-sponsored by the 
Center and the Metropolitan Opera Association, completed its in- 
augural tour on June 12. The tour began at Clowes Memorial Hall 
in Indianapolis, Indiana, last September 20. When the tour ended in 
Guadalajara, Mexico, the company had performed in 71 cities on the 
North American continent. The four operas presented were Bizet's 
Carmen (in French and English), Puccini's Madama Butterfly (in Italian 
and English), Carlisle Floyd's Susannah, and Rossini's Cinderella (in 
English). 

During the tour auditions were held in various regions of the country. 
New singers, including two from Washington, D.C., were signed for 
next year's tour. 



330 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 HISTORY AND ART 

The company's second tour will begin on September 15, in Indian- 
apolis, where it opened last year. Many new cities have been added to 
the itinerary. The repertory for the second season will be Puccini's 
La Bo/ieme, Verdi's La Traviata, Mozart's Marriage of Figaro and Benja- 
min Britten's Rape of Lucretia. Because of the nature of the Center's 
agreement with the Metropolitan Opera Association in establishing the 
National Company, all financial obligations of the Center were dis- 
charged in the first season, and there are no continuing financial 
obligations. 

Ordinarily films produced by the United States Information Agency 
can be shown only in foreign countries. By special legislation, however, 
Congress authorized the Center to distribute domestically the USIA 
film John F. Kennedy: Tears of Lightning — Day of Drums, believing that 
this particular film should be available to all Americans. 

A Congressional resolution approved on October 7, provided for the 
purchase of the film by the Center from the USIA for $122,000. The 
resolution directed that the proceeds from all commercial showings of 
the film would accrue to the Center. Congress also made clear its 
intent that there should be no showing of the film which would serve a 
partisan political purpose, and that when the film was made available 
to educational and other nonprofit groups, it would be at no profit to 
the Center. 

On January 3, the Trustees entered into a contract with Embassy 
Pictures Corporation for the commercial theatrical distribution of the 
film. Embassy Pictures Corporation agreed to waive all distribution 
fees. Negotiations have been initiated for eventual release of the film 
to nonprofit organizations as agreed with Embassy Films. An agree- 
ment was also reached with Capitol Records to permit the marketing of 
the film's soundtrack as an LP record from which royalties will be paid 
to the Center. The Center received an advance of royalities of $50,000 
from Capitol Records. 

John F. Kennedy: Tears of Lightning — Day of Drums opened at the 
Lincoln Art Theatre in New York City on April 10. The film was 
shown on a continuous performance basis through mid-June. Because 
of public demand it was shown also at the Cinema I Theater in New 
York City and had a successful 9-week run there. The film has sub- 
sequently been shown in Boston and Chicago and is scheduled this fall 
for showing in commercial theaters in all 50 states. 

The Tom Sawyer Project involves a wooden fence surrounding the 
construction site. The fence, erected last spring, has 250 panels, each 8 
feet by 8 feet. These inspired a local organization to conceive the idea 
of having boys and girls decorate the panels with murals. Plans were 
made to have children in the District of Columbia's Widening Horizons 



KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 331 

project paint 17 of the panels, after first receiving basic instruction from 
Roger Selby, curator of education at the Corcoran Gallery of Art. 
Plans are also under way by the Friends of the Kennedy Center to 
expand the project. 

The Year Ahead 

The construction of the building will be well advanced during the 
coming 12 months. As construction proceeds and problems relating 
to it are met and solved, the attention of the Trustees will be turned to 
the artistic management of the Center and to the development of 
artistic concepts and programs in greater detail. As the policies of the 
Center in this sphere are developed, so will be developed promotional 
and financial programs to implement these policies. While the stone, 
steel, and mortar give physical shape to the Center, the Trustees will be 
pressing ahead to shape its intellectual and cultural dimensions for the 
realization of the bright future that the John F. Kennedy Center holds 
for the nation. 



Other Smithsonian Activities 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Mary A. Huffer, Acting Director 



K 



'"T'he Smithsonian institution libraries continue to develop under 
■*~ the enthusiastic revitalizing encouragement of the Secretary and 
the unstinting support of the scientists and historians of the Institution. 
The Office of the Director of Smithsonian Institution Libraries was 
established in December 1965. Library service within the Institution 
is rendered through a complex network of bureau, branch, depart- 
mental, and divisional libraries. Acquisitions and cataloging of all 
materials for the various units are performed by the central library. 
Most special subject collections are located in the immediate vicinity of 
the object collection to which they pertain, but general reference and 
bibliographic tools, together with extensive interdisciplinary, periph- 
eral, and less immediately needed materials, are kept in the Central 
Library collection. 

Central Library 

An extension of library service for Smithsonian staff was carried out 
by the Smithsonian liaison librarian at the Library of Congress. 

Material for translation amounting to 4,342 pages was submitted 
during fiscal year 1966 on the Special Foreign Currency Information 
Program and 5,077 pages were prepared for submittal in fiscal 1967. All 
of these represent Russian literature to be translated into English in 
Israel under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. Progress 
continues on translation of the Russian Academy of Sciences Flora 
USSR, with 6 volumes of the 30 volume set in process or completed. 
Four more volumes of the multivolume Keys to the Fauna USSR and 

335 



336 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

2 more of the Fauna USSR were submitted. Greater emphasis has 
been put on translation of material on the history of science and 
technology, with 6 volumes now slated for translation. 

In the acquisitions section, the advent of automation and a sharp 
increase in gifts and exchanges mark the fiscal year just ended. 

Electronic data processing is an innovation that will have a signifi- 
cant long-range impact on operation of the library. Late in June 1965, 
an IBM-29 key punch was installed in the acquisitions section, and 
during fiscal 1966 all purchase orders were printed on the computer in 
the Smithsonian's data processing unit. The ADP program now pro- 
vides computer-printed purchase orders, bi-weekly reports on the 
status of various accounts, receiving cards, book labels, Library of 
Congress card order slips, and temporary catalog cards. 

Cataloging the large collection of materials transferred from the 
Patent Office was completed during the year. The number of volumes 
cataloged during the year has not quite kept abreast of incoming vol- 
umes for the year: 10,097 cataloged to 11,201 received, therefore 
leaving the backlog untouched. This is even more serious than it 
seems, because material requiring original cataloging has been relegated 
to the backlog while more easily handled literature (i.e., for which 
Library of Congress cards exist) has been done as received or pulled 
from the reserve supply in '"control" (or backlog) in order to get a 
greater number of volumes moving through the department. Publi- 
cations not already cataloged by the Library of Congress are probably 
not owned by them or any other large research library; postponing 
their cataloging, therefore, is a dubious expediency, but space problems 
alone preclude deferment and consequent accumulation of large 
amounts of material while catalogers spend extra time on original work. 

Simplified and reduced forms for statistics have been prepared for 
use during the coming fiscal year. In October, Miss Clarice M. Barker, 
who had been acting chief of the catalog section since December 1964 
and serials cataloger for the library since July 1960, retired. 

Because this year's contractor for binding had difficulties in meeting 
contract specifications, and major portions of most shipments had 
to be reworked, the library's binding program suffered a serious set- 
back. The binding unit moved into new, larger and brighter quarters 
on the ground floor of the West Range of the Natural History building 
in August. 

Branch Libraries 

As adequate space and equipment becomes available the library is 
continuing to consolidate and reorganize many of the special and 



SMITHSONIAN LIBRARIES 337 

departmental collections. This year the Museum of Natural History 
branch library, with the help of the botany department staff, completely 
reorganized the botany library. Materials formerly housed in six 
different locations are now shelved in the botany library on the fourth 
floor of the west wing of the Natural History building. A temporary 
card catalog was made by copying cards from the shelflist in the central 
library. Review and weeding of the collection is now in process. In 
April 1966, Dr. John A. Stevenson presented his mycological library to 
the Institution. 

Preliminary work on reorganizing the paleobiology collections has 
begun. A small reference collection was established and housed in the 
Cooper reading room in the department, and all other materials were 
transferred into the main natural history collection. 

Mrs. Gloria A. Mauney returned to the library after a year's absence 
to take charge of the entomology library. A systematic review of all 
serials in this collection is underway. 

In fall 1965 new stacks were installed in the anthropology library 
quarters on the third floor of the east wing of the Natural History building. 
This equipment allowed for the transfer of the former Bureau of 
American Ethnology library to the new location, thus bringing into 
one facility all the anthropological collections. This transfer involved 
moving approximately 35,000 items from the Smithsonian building. 
Prior to this move the library collections of the various divisions of the 
former department of anthropology were combined and moved to the 
new location. 

The card catalog was completely revised in the Museum of History 
and Technology branch library: both the old and the new catalogs 
were separated into author-title catalogs with separate subject catalogs. 
The old shelflist was split to separate the trade literature shelflist from 
the old shelflist for Dewey-classed books. These changes have made 
the catalog considerably easier to use. 

During the past year, efforts have continued to develop a strong 
facility to serve the National Collection of Fine Arts, while radically 
expanding that aspect of the work supporting the National Portrait 
Gallery, in anticipation of the move to the Fine Arts and Portrait 
Galleries building (the renovated Old Patent Office building) next 
year. William Walker, the branch librarian, is engaged in a project 
with the Library of Congress subject cataloging division, to revise the 
Library of Congress "N" classification schedule for books on fine arts. 
In January Miss Ruth Carlson joined the staff as senior cataloger for 
fine arts. 



230-457—66 28 



338 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

In the National Air and Space Museum branch library work con- 
tinued on the preliminary sorting of the large bulk of materials accumu- 
lated over the years and stored at the Silver Hill facility. A member of 
the Museum staff spent one-half day a week in the catalog section for 
training in library cataloging procedures and to assist in expediting the 
processing of materials for that library. 

Staff Activities 

At the December meeting of the Society of Systematic Zoology in 
Berkeley, California, an informal paper "Data Processing, the Natural 
History Library and the Future," by Mary A. Huffer and Jean Chan- 
dler Smith was presented by Mrs. Huffer. 

On April 27th the Federal Library Committee invited the Smith- 
sonian to fill a vacancy in its membership for an unexpired term of two 
years ending June 1967. The Acting Director of Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Libraries was designated to represent the Institution on the Com- 
mittee. Mrs. Huffer also continued to work with the Federal Library 
Committee Task Force on Acquisitions of Library Materials and 
Correlation of Federal Library Procedures. 

Informal lectures and tours of the Smithsonian Libraries were 
given several times during the year for groups of foreign visitors and 
library graduate students. Various library staff members took an 
active part in training enrollees of the Neighborhood Youth Corps as 
library assistants and aides throughout the year. 

Jean Chandler Smith continued work on the Bibliography on the 
Chemical Composition and Nutrition of Endoparasites at the request of the 
American Society of Parasitologists. 

The following papers by a library staff member appeared in various 
journals: 

Goodwin, Jack S. Current bibliography in the history of technology 
(1964). Technology and Culture (Spring 1966), vol. 7, pp. 268-300. 

. [Review of] Bibliography of the history of medicine in 

the United States and Canada, 1939-1960 (Baltimore: Johns 
Hopkins Press, 1964). Technology and Culture (Fall 1965), vol. 6, 
pp. 690-691. 

. [Review of] Sources of business information, by Edwin T. 

Coman (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1964). Technology 
and Culture (Winter 1966), vol. 7, pp. 123-124. 

. [Review of] Merchants and scholars, edit. John Parker 



(Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1966). Society for the 
History of Discoveries, Newsletter (May 1966), p. 9. 



International Exchange Service 

J. A. Collins, Director 




r T~'HE international exchange service moved to new quarters in 
-*- the Arts and Industries building during the fiscal year. The new 
work area provides better facilities for the processing of publications 
received for transmission. The total weight of publications processed 
during the past year was the largest ever handled. Publications were 
received from approximately 400 different organizations, institutions, 
Government bureaus, Congressional committees, agricultural experi- 
ment stations, and individuals for transmission to more than 100 
different countries. Ocean freight rates were increased approximately 
ten percent during the year, and the cost of materials and supplies 
increased. A strike by the Maritime unions against some of the 
steamship lines delayed the forwarding of publications to many 
countries during the months of July, August, and September. 

Official United States publications were transmitted to 105 libraries 
in other countries. Full sets were received by 59 libraries and partial 
sets by 46. The only change during the year in the recipients of the 
official publications was the addition of the Haile Sellassie I University, 
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to receive a partial set. Daily issues of the 
Congressional Record and the Federal Register were mailed to 134 
foreign depository libraries. 

President Johnson in his address at the Smithsonian Bicentennial 
stated that, "we must embark on a new and a noble adventure: First 

339 



340 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 



PACKAGES RECEIVED FOR TRANSMISSION FROM FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC SOURCES, FISCAL YEAR 1966 



Classification 



For transmission abroad 
by the Smithsonian 



Number of 
packages 



Weight in 
pounds 



Received by the 

Smithsonian for 

distribution in the 

United States 



Number of 
packages 



Weight in 
pounds 



U.S. parliamentary documents re- 
ceived for transmission abroad . 

Publications received from foreign 
sources for U.S. parliamentary 
addressees 

U.S. departmental documents re- 
ceived for transmission abroad . 

Publications received from foreign 
sources for U.S. departmental 
addressees 

Miscellaneous scientific and 
literary publications received 
for transmission abroad 

Miscellaneous scientific and 
literary publications received 
from abroad for distribution in 

the United States 

Total 

Total packages received . . . 
Total pounds received 



920,015 



310,488 



354, 295 



326, 704 



10, 246 



7,060 



157,819 



1, 388, 322 
1,461,720 



237, 343 



918, 342 



12,664 



18, 356 



56, 


092 


92, 


130 


73 


398 


123, 


150 






1,041, 


492 



to assist the education effort of the developing nations and the develop- 
ing regions." 

During the past year over one hundred schools, colleges, and univer- 
sities in the United States transmitted publications through the Inter- 
national Exchange Service to libraries in other countries. Medical 
and dental textbooks and journals were transmitted for a number of 
medical and dental organizations to libraries and schools in other 
countries, and textbooks were forwarded to schools in which Peace 
Corps Volunteers were teaching. 

The Smithsonian Institution through the work of the International 
Exchange Service has been able to carry out in a substantial way, the 
request of the President. It also serves as a means of developing and 
executing in part the broad and comprehensive objective, "the diffusion 
of knowledge." 



Administrative Support Services 

A number of administrative divisions, operating behind the scenes, 
serve the Smithsonian Institution by providing the technical assistance 
and resources and other support that enable the bureaus and other 
program activities to work productively and efficiently. In carrying 
out this responsibility, these divisions directly share in the Institution's 
accomplishments in research, exhibits, education, and public service. 
The following brief statements highlight some of their activities and note 
the more significant staff changes during this past year. 

An Office of Programming and Budget was established under the 
Assistant Secretary to work closely with the Institution's museums and 
scientific bureaus in studying their objectives, analyzing their programs, 
and translating their essential requirements into sound budgets. In 
April 1966, Edward H. Kohn, formerly executive officer of the Smith- 
sonian's Science Information Exchange, was appointed director of this 
new office. 

The supply division continued its efforts in the market place to pro- 
cure the supplies, materials, and services needed in the many and 
varied Smithsonian activities. Over 6,000 purchase orders were 
issued for such diverse items as dehydrated fire-fly tails, lifesize manne- 
quins, hardwood sawdust, and a newsboy's bag to be used by a scientist 
to carry traps while in Africa. 

The Smithsonian benefitted from the highly effective property 
utilization program of the General Services Administration. By 
means of this program, material and equipment are transferred from 
Government agencies where they are no longer required to other 
agencies where they can be put to productive use, and thus additional 
purchases are avoided. One million dollars worth of this property was 
acquired by the Institution this year. It included $100,000 worth 
of office furniture and equipment, and, for the the collections, a proto- 
type Hawk missile launcher and the 29-foot, 6-ton U.S. Navy ex- 
perimental hydrofoil craft Sea Legs, which will be placed on exhibit. 

In December 1965, after 47 yeai s of service to the Institution, Anthony 
W. Wilding retired as chief of the supply division and in March 1966, 
Fred G. Barwick was appointed chief. Mr. Barwick had previously 
been a contract specialist with the Bureau of Ships, Department of 
the Navy. 

341 



342 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

To meet the workload imposed by the payroll and other accounts 
of the Institution, the fiscal division made increased use of automatic 
data processing equipment, with its capability of fast and accurate 
computations. 

As is evident by the preceding pages of this report, much of the 
Institution's work is conducted overseas, so that foreign exchange rates 
and overseas accounts add an international dimension as well as 
challenging problems to the staff of the fiscal division. In this aspect 
of the work, they were assisted greatly by the U.S. Treasury Depart- 
ment and private banking concerns in Washington, D.C. 

The personnel division, in addition to processing over 3,200 person- 
nel actions, conducted an active Incentive Awards Program, under 
which 58 employees received cash awards totaling $5,230. Of par- 
ticular significance was the suggestion to establish the Smithson 
Medal for Scientific and Curatorial Excellence. Also, during this 
period the Secretary approved the design for the new Henry Medal, 
to be used by the Board of Regents to recognize distinguished service 
or achievement. With the cooperation of its various bureaus, the 
Institution provided practical training opportunities for disadvantaged 
youth in the Metropolitan Area under the President's Youth Oppor- 
tunity Program. Much of the credit for successful staffing and train- 
ing programs can be given to the efforts and assistance of the Civil 
Service Commission. 

With the general increase in exhibits, research, education, and 
public services throughout the Smithsonian, the workload of the 
photographic services division increased substantially. Approximately 
184,000 black and white prints, color slides and other color photog- 
raphy items, an increase of 45,000 over the previous year, were pro- 
duced, as well as 21,000 feet of motion picture film. A particularly 
important job performed by the photographers was the coverage 
of the colorful Smithson Bicentennial. The resulting photographs, 
slides, and motion pictures, which received wide distribution, provided 
an exceptionally complete documentary of this significant and historic 
occasion. 

Plans for constructing a photographic laboratory to service the 
Oceanographic Sorting Center were approved, and this facility is 
expected to be in operation during the coming fiscal year. 

The tasks assigned to the Smithsonian's buildings management 
department are both large and particularly significant to the successful 
meeting of the Smithsonian's goals. To this department is assigned 
the broad responsibility of maintaining, operating, and improving the 
buildings and associated equipment and other facilities, and of pro- 
tecting these buildings, their irreplaceable contents, and the visiting 



ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT 343 

public. Much of this work is on an around-the-clock basis. An indi- 
cation of its scope is provided by a few statistics: six monumental 
buildings on the Mall and other significant properties in and around 
Washington to be repaired, improved, and kept presentable; some 60 
million objects of natural history, art, and scientific, technological, 
and cultural significance to be protected; and over 13 million visitors 
this year to be safeguarded and assisted. 

The department also participated in the installation of exhibits; 
repaired and refurbished furniture, equipment, and museum objects; 
it provided necessary supporting services for the curatorial, research, 
and public sendee activities; and it conducted safety programs. 

Automatic data processing equipment holds a tremendous potential 
for assisting in the curatorial and scientific areas as well as in certain 
administrative areas. The full value of the information documenting 
the collections cannot be realized until it can be captured, correlated, 
and retrieved by means other than traditional manual methods. An 
information systems division was established this year to design and 
program the systems to meet these needs effectively and efficiently. 
Nicholas J. Suszynski, Jr., who was appointed in November 1966 to 
head this new division, brings to it ten years of ADP experience in a 
variety of business management and scientific assignments. 

Other staff activities in the Office of the Secretary provided valuable 
advisory and management assistance: The office of the general counsel, 
the contracts office, the organization and methods division and the 
internal audit office. The last named was established this year to 
support the Smithsonian's continuing efforts to assure sound financial 
management in all its aspects, and in March 1966 Douglas Martin 
was appointed to implement this program by means of on-site reviews 
and other techniques of fiscal analysis. 



Appendix 



1. REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS 

OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 
1966 

2. SMITHSONIAN FOREIGN CURRENCY PROGRAM GRANTS AWARDED, FISCAL 

YEAR 1966 

3. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN PRESS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 

JUNE 30, 1966 

4. MEMBERS OF THE SMITHSONIAN COUNCIL, JUNE 30, 1966 

5. RESEARCH PARTICIPATION PROGRAMS, APPOINTMENTS 1965-1966 

6. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, JUNE 30, 1966 

345 



1. 

Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 

For the Tear Ended June 30, 7966 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following report 
in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution, together with a 
statement of the appropriations by Congress for the Government bu- 
reaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 

Parent Fund 

The original bequest of James Smithson was £104,960 8s 6d 
($508,318.46). Refunds of money expended in prosecution of the 
claim, freight, insurance, and other incidental expenses, together 
with payment into the fund of the sum of £5,015, which had been 
withheld during the lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought the 
fund to the amount of $550,000. 

The gift of James Smithson was "lent to the United States Treasury, 
at 6 per centum per annum interest" (20 U.S.C. 54) and by the Act 
of March 12, 1894 (20 U.S.C. 55) the Secretary of the Treasury was 
"authorized to receive into the Treasury, on the same terms as the 
original bequest of James Smithson, such sums as the Regents may, 
from time to time see fit to deposit, not exceeding, with the original 
bequest the sum of $1,000,000." 

The maximum of $1,000,000 which the Smithsonian Institution 
was authorized to deposit in the Treasury of the United States was 
reached on January 11, 1917, by the deposit of $2,000. 

Under the above authority the amounts shown on the following page 
are deposited in the United States Treasury and draw 6 percent interest. 

In addition to the $1,000,000 deposited in the Treasury of the United 
States there has been accumulated from income and bequests the 
sum of $7,314,088.20 which has been invested. Of this sum, 
$6,232,813.25 is carried on the books of the Institution as the Con- 
solidated Fund, a policy approved by the Regents at their meeting 
on December 14, 1916. The balance is made up of several small 
funds. 

347 



348 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 



Sources: Smithsonian Fund Deposited in 

Unrestricted 
Donor funds 

James Smithson $727, 640 

Avery 14,000 

Habel 500 

Hamilton 2, 500 

Hodgkins (General) 1 16, 000 

Poore 26, 670 

Rhees 590 

Sanford 1, 100 

Restricted 

funds 

Hodgkins (Specific) $100, 000 

Reid 11,000 



U.S. Treasury 




Income 




1966 




$43, 658 




840 




30 




150 




6,960 




1,600 




35 




66 


$889, 000 


$53, 340 




6,000 




660 


111,000 


6,660 


$1,000,000 


$60, 000 



Consolidated Fund 

[Income for the unrestricted use of the Institution] 

Investment 

Fund 1966 

Abbott, W. L., Special $24, 792 

* Avery, Robert S., and Lydia 65, 715 

Forrest, Robert Lee 1, 857, 275 

Gifts, royalties, gain on sale of securities 459, 354 

Goddard, Robert, Memorial Fund 15, 035 

Hachenberg, George P., and Caroline 6, 602 

*Hamilton, James 672 

Hart, Gustavus E 810 

Henry, Caroline 2, 012 

Henry, Joseph and Harriet A 81, 560 

Higbee, Harry, Memorial Fund 19, 459 

*Hodgkins, Thomas G. (General) 50, 397 

Morrow, Dwight W 128, 656 

Olmsted, Helen A 1, 333 

*Poore, Lucy T. and George W 270, 832 

Porter, Henry Kirke 476, 465 

*Rhees, William Jones 787 

*Sanford, George H 1, 481 

*Smithson, James 34, 61 1 

Taggart, Gansen 598 

Witherspoon, Thomas A 214, 697 

Total $3, 713, 143 



Income 
1966 

$1,449 

3,777 

78,521 

26, 385 
137 

41 

41 

46 

118 

4,708 

937 

2,897 

7,413 

76 

15, 802 

27, 368 

45 

85 

2,379 

43 

12. 331 

; 184, 599 



*In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 



report of the executive committee 349 

Consolidated Fund 

[Income restricted to specific use] 

Investment Income 

Fund 1966 1966 

Abbott, William L., for investigations in biology $173, 441 $9, 962 

Armstrong, Edwin James, for use of Department of 
Invertebrate Paleontology when principal amounts 
to $5,000.00 2, 518 

Arthur, James, for investigations and study of the sun 

and annual lecture on same 66, 537 

Bacon, Virginia Purdy, for traveling scholarship to 
investigate fauna of countries other than the United 
States 83, 352 

Baird, Lucy H., for creating a memorial to Secretary 

Baird 60, 975 

Barney, Alice Pike, for collection of paintings and pastels 
and for encouragement of American artistic en- 
deavors 47, 7 1 6 

Barstow, Frederick D., for purchase of animals for 

Zoological Park 1, 663 

Brown, Roland W., endowment fund — study, care, and 
improvement of the Smithsonian paleobotanical 
collections 54, 063 

Canfield collection, for increase and care of the Canfield 

collection of minerals 63, 774 

Casey, Thomas L., for maintenance of the Casey collec- 
tion and promotion of researches relating to Cole- 
optera 20, 853 

Chamberlain, Francis Lea, for increase and promotion 

of Isaac Lea Collection of gems and mollusks 46, 850 

Division of Mammals Curators Fund, for support of 

scientific purposes 3, 308 

Dykes, Charles, for support in financial research 71, 627 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort, for preservation and 
exhibition of the photographic collection of Rudolph 
Eickemeyer, Jr 18, 083 1, 038 

Guggenheim, David and Florence, Foundation for a 
commemorative Guggenheim Exhibit, an annual 
Daniel Guggenheim Lecture, and annual Guggen- 
heim Fellowships for graduate students for research 
at the National Air Museum 50, 539 1, 121 

Hanson, Martin Gustav and Caroline Runice, for some 
scientific work of the Institutian, preferably in 
chemistry or medicine 14, 790 850 

Higbee, Harry, income for general use of the Smith- 
sonian Institution after June 11, 1967 977 20 

Hillyer, Virgil, for increase and care of Virgil Hillyer 

collection of lighting objects 10, 934 628 

Hitchcock, Albert S., for care of the Hitchcock Agro- 

stological Library 2, 626 153 

230-457— 66— —29 





122 


3, 


825 


4, 


790 


3 3 


419 


2, 


741 




96 


2, 


614 


4, 


214 


1, 


199 


2, 


691 




31 


4, 


113 



350 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Consolidated Fund — Continued 

Investment Income 

Fund 1966 1966 

Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie, to further researches in 

physical anthropology and publication in connec- 
tion therewith $100, 812 $4, 812 

Hughes, Bruce, to found Hughes alcove 31, 845 1, 831 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore, research in underwater 

photography 13, 927 

Loeb, Morris, for furtherance of knowledge in the 

exact sciences 145, 031 

Long, Annette and Edith C, for upkeep and preservation 

of Long collection ot embroideries, laces, and 

textiles 904 

Maxwell, Mary E., for care and exhibition of Maxwell 

collection 32, 632 

Myer, Catherine Walden, for purchase of first-class 

works of art for use and benefit of the National 

Collection of Fine Arts 33, 605 

Nelson, Edward W., for support of biological studies. . . 39, 559 

Noyes, Frank B., for use in connection with the collection 

of dolls placed in the U.S. National Museum through 

the interest of and Mr. Mrs. Noyes 1, 600 

Pell, Cornelia Livingston, for maintenance of Alfred 

Duane Pell collection 12, 333 

Petrocelli, Joseph, for the care of the Petrocelli collection 

of photographic prints and for the enlargement and 

development of the section of photography of the 

U.S. National Museum 12, 334 

Rathbun, Richard, for use of division of U.S. National 

Museum containing Crustacea 17, 696 

*Reid, Addison T., for founding chair in biology, in 

memory of Asher Tunis 29, 592 

Roebling Collection, for care, improvement, and increase 

of Roebling collection of minerals 200, 785 

Roebling Solar Research 41, 668 

Rollins, Miriam and William, for investigations in 

physics and chemistry 259, 965 

Smithsonian employees' retirement 5, 525 

Smithsonian Institution and THF 7, 623 

Sprague Fund for the advancement of the physical 

sciences 1 , 780, 760 

Springer, Frank, for care and increase of the Springer 

collection and library 29, 834 

Stevenson, John A., Mycological Library Fund, for care, 

maintenance, and additions to the library 10, 002 

Strong, Julia D., for benefit of the National Collection 

of Fine Arts 16, 635 

Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, for development 

of geological and paleontological studies and 

publishing results of same 932, 217 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 351 

Consolidatfe Fund — Continued 



Fund 
Walcott, Mary Vaux, for publication in botany. . . . 
Zerbee, Francis Brinckle, for endowment of aquaria . 



Investment 


Income 


1966 


1966 


$96, 251 


$5, 335 


1,578 


91 



Total $4, 649, 339 $1 74, 548 



*In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 



Freer Gallery of Art Fund 

Early in 1906, by deed of gift, Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, gave to 
the Institution his collection of Chinese and other Oriental objects of 
art, as well as paintings, etchings, and other works of art by Whistler, 
Thayer, Dewing, and other artists. Later he also gave funds for con- 
struction of a building to house the collection, and finally in his will, 
probated November 6, 1919, he provided stocks and securities to the 
estimated value of $1,958,591 as an endowment fund for the operation 
of the Gallery. The fund now amounts to $11,605,036. 

Summary of Endowments 

Invested endowment for general purposes $5, 879, 442 

Invested endowment for specific purposes other than Freer endow- 
ment 5, 100, 950 

Total invested endowment other than Freer 10, 980, 392 

Freer invested endowment for specific purposes 11,605,036 

Total invested endowment for all purposes $22, 585, 428 



Classification of Investments 

Deposited in the U.S. Treasury at 6 percent per annum, as authorized 

in the U.S. Revised Statutes, sec. 5591 $1,000,000 

Investments other than Freer endowment (cost or market value at 
date acquired) : 

Bonds $3, 570, 000 

Stocks 4,517,280 

Real estate and mortgages 1,614,588 

Uninvested capital 278, 524 9, 980, 392 

Total investments other than Freer endowment . 10, 980, 392 



352 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Investments of Freer endowment (cost or market value 
at date acquired) : 

Bonds $6, 720, 045 

Stocks 4, 884, 784 

Uninvested capital 207 $11,605,036 



Total investments $22, 585, 428 



Gifts, Grants, and Bequests 
The Smithsonian institution gratefully acknowledges gifts, grants, 
and bequests from the following : 

American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc.: Grant to create and publish a series of 

books under the overall title of the Smithsonian Library. 
American Petroleum Institute : Grant for research entitled The Crustose Corallines 

of the North Atlantic. 
Anonymous donor : Gift for the American Association of Physical Anthropologists 

Conference at Berkeley, California. 
Anonymous donor: Gift for the department of botany. 
Archbold Foundation: Grant for the support of research entitled Biological 

Survey of Dominica Project. 
Atomic Energy Commission : Additional grant for research entitled A Study of the 
Biochemical Effects of Ionizing and Nonionizing Radiation of Plant Metabolism During 
Development. 
Charles and Rosanna Batchelor Memorial Inc. : Gift for the purpose of 

improving the Emma E. Batchelor stamp collection. 
Buffalo Bill Memorial Association: Gift to help support the Smithsonian In- 
stitution-National Park Service-Whitney Gallery excavations at Mummy Cave, 
Wyoming. 
Hardy Jefferson Bowen: Grant entitled Bowen Andros Expedition. 
Bredin Foundation : Grant for the support of research entitled Biological Survey of 

Dominica Project. 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Campbell: Gift to the Zoo Animal Fund. 
Coca-Cola Company : Gift to the division of medical sciences. 
Conservation Foundation: Grant to support Conference on Avifauna of North- 
ern Latin America. 
Joanne T. Cummings : Gift for the purpose of acquiring ceramics and glass. 
Charles Darwin Foundation : Gift for the support of research and conservation in 

the Galapagos Islands. 
Department of the Air Force : Grant for research entitled Chemical Analysis of 
Chrondrite Meteorites. 
Additional grant for studies directed toward the development of a technique for 
measuring wind speed and direction at heights using ionized paths generated 
by meteors. 
Additional grants for the support of research entitled Researches — Molecular 

Collisions. 
Additional grant for research directed toward the study of stellar scintillation. 
Additional grant for the study of Atmospheric Entry and Impact of High Velocity 
Meteorites. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 353 

Additional grant for research directed toward the studies of rate of accretion of 

interplanetary matter by the earth. 
Additional grant for research directed toward providing a program for deter- 
mination of satellite density data. 
Department of Army: Grants for the support of research entitled Potential Vectors 
and Reservoirs of Disease in Greece and Central and South Africa; Gold Flash; and 
Ecology and Distribution of Mammalian Ectoparasites, Arboviruses, and Their Hosts in 
Venezuela. 
Additional grants for the support of research entitled Studies of the Mosquitoes of 
Southeast Asia and Potential Vectors and Reservoirs of Disease in Strategic Overseas 
Area; also for support of research on the analysis of bird migration in the 
Pacific area and the study of the ecology of birds and mammals on one or 
more Pacific Islands. 
Department of Commerce: Grant to identify and develop economic opportunities 

and employment potential in craft industries. 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: Grant for planning experi- 
mental museum exhibits for the blind. Grant for study of parasites of Philippine 
fishes. 

Department of the Interior: Grants for support of research entitled Indexing 
Vocabulary for Publication by the Office of Water Resources Research and Sorting of 
Plankton Samples from Geronimo; and to provide services to sub-sample plankton 
samples from the International Indian Ocean Expedition. 
Additional grants for the support of research entitled Tropical Fishes and Con- 
tinuation of a Review of the General and American Species of the Shrimp Family 
Penaeidae; also for the purpose in the preparation of camera-ready copy of 
research data suitable for photocopying and printing as a current Water 
Resources Research Catalog. 
Department of State: Grant for Mr. Joseph F. K. Acquaye, assistant curator 

of the Ghana National Science Museum. 
Ford Foundation: Grant to purchase land on the Chesapeake Bay known as 

Ivy Neck. 
Ford Motor Company: Gift in support of the model foundry for the iron and steel 

hall. 
General Precision, Inc. : Gift to the Link Prolonged and Deep Submergence 

Study Program Fund. 
Julius W. Gilbert: Gift to the Joanne Toor Cummings Fund. 
C. M. Goethe: Gift to the Barro Colorado Island Fund. 
Mayer and Ruth Greenberg Foundation: Gift to the division of ceramics and 

glass. 
Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation: Addition to the grant for the 
establishment of a Commemorative Guggenheim Exhibit, an Annual Guggen- 
heim Lecture, and Annual Guggenheim Fellowships for graduate students, for 
research at the National Air Museum. 
Harvard University: Grants for the engineering services to Harvard University 
and for the support to Harvard University for the transportation of an 84-foot 
radiotelescope. 
Humble Companies Charitable Trust: Gift for reconstructing the fluid catalytic 

cracking unit model for the hall of petroleum. 
International Business Machines Corp.: Gift to cover expenses on Smithsonian 

Film. 
Felix and Helen Juda Foundation: Gift to the Freer Gallery of Art for the pur- 
chase of collections. 



354 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Otto Kallir : Gift for the purchase of the lithograph Seeds for Sowing May Mot 
be Milled. 

Kaudus Charitable Trust: Gift to further the work of the National Portrait 
Gallery. 

Kevorkian Foundation: Gifts to the Freer Gallery of Art Library; to the Freer 
Gallery of Art for the publication of Ganhara frieze in the form of a picture 
book; and to the Freer Gallery of Art Library for purchasing books dealing with 
Near Eastern art. 

Elsie and William Knight Foundation: Grant to the Stazione Zoologica. 

Dorothy V. Lee : Gift for the support of research and conservation in the Galapa- 
gos Islands. 

Link Foundation: Gift for the 1966 Edwin A. Link Lecture. 

Marilyn C. Link : Grant to support the publication of a biographical booklet on 
James Smithson. 

Eugene and Agnes E. Meyer Foundation : Gift toward the costs of the program 
to provide for greater use of Smithsonian museum exhibits in the District schools. 

National Academy of Sciences: Gift to defray travel expenses to Monks Wood, 
England. 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Grants for the support of 
research projects entitled: Symposium on Meteoritic Orbits and Dusts; Exobiology and 
Origin of Life; Photoelectric Techniques for Measurement of Earthshine; Data Analyses 
in Connection with the National Geodetic Satellite Program; A Survey of the Influx Rates 
of the Major Meteor Streams; and High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy Experiment for 
High-Altitude Balloons. 
Additional grants for the support of research entitled Optical and Radar In- 
vestigation of Simulated and Natural Meteors; Textures of Meteorites; and Optical 
Satellite Tracking Program; also for research of the systematic recovery of 
meteorites and the photography of meteorites in flight; for an investigation 
and collection of meteorites, tektites, and related materials; and for the 
scientific and engineering study for instrumenting and orbiting telescope. 

National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities : Grant for organizing and to 
present a major display representative of contemporary American painting. 

National Geographic Society: Grants for support of research entitled Bermuda 
Underwater Archeological Expedition; also for the study of Mollusks on Polynesia 
and Melanesia and for the Seabird Colonies project. Gift to Freer Gallery of 
Art for publications. 

National Science Foundation: Additional grants for the support of research 
projects entitled: Early Tertiary Mammals of North America; Mammals of the South- 
eastern United States; Botanical Exploration on Southern Brazil; Revisionary Study of 
Blattoidea; Morphology and Paleoecology of Permian Brachiopods of the Glass Mountain, 
Texas; South Asian Microlepidoptera, particularly the Philippine Series; Taxonomy of 
Bamboos; Lower Cretaceous Ostracoda of Israel; Marine Mollusks of Polynesia; Tertiary 
Echiniods of the Eastern United States and the Caribbean; Zoogeography of Southern Ocean 
Sclearactinian Coral Faunas; The American Commensal Crabs of the Family Pinnotheridae; 
Indo- Australian Vespidae sens. lat. and Specidae; Revision of Genera of Paleozoic Bryozoa; 
Monographic Studies of the Tingidae of the World; Study of Type Specimens of Ferns in 
European Herbaria; Polychaetous Annelids of New England; The Phanerogams of Colombia; 
Revision of Scarab Beetles of the Genus Ataenius; Geographic Variation in the Inter- 
specific Relations among certain Andean Passeriformes; Systemic Studies of the Archidaceae, 
Subtribe Epidendrinae; A Monograph of the Stomatopod Crustaceans of the Western Atlantic; 
Recording of Data for Specimens Collected during the U.S. Antarctic Program; Distribution 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 355 

of North America Calanoid and Harpacticoid Copepoda; Collection of Meteorites and Tek- 
tites in Australia; Installation of Power Line to Barro Colorado from Mainland; Upper 
Cretaceous Inoceraminae in North America and Western Europe; Environment of Permo- 
Triassic Reptiles of the Order Therapsida in South Africa; Taxonomic and Biological 
Studies of Neotropical Water Beetles; Evolution and Distribution of Parmelia in Eastern Asia 
and Pacific; Taconomic Studies of the Family Stenomidae in Neotropical Region; Pre- 
Industrial System of Water Management in Arid Region; Revisionary Stiudies in the Chilopoda; 
Photographic Investigation of Comets; Purchase of the Hood Collection of Thrips, Archaeo- 
logical Survey of Southwestern Kansas; Science Information Exchange; Taxonomic and 
Biological Studies on Central American Caddisflies; Identification Guide to Antarctic Birds; 
Ostracoda of the Indian Ocean; Sorting of Collection from the U.S. Antarctic Research 
Program; Sorting of Collections from the International Indian Ocean Expedition; Systematic; 
of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Gemmaridean Amphipods; Eltanin Cruise Participations; 
Stellar Atmospheres; Comparative Study of Molluscan Faunas of Tertiary Stages; The 
Mammals of Panama; Systematics of Stomiatoid Fishes; Cooperative Systematics Studies in 
Antarctic Biology; Undergraduate Research Participation Program; Purchase of the Carl 
Bosch Research Collection of Minerals and Meteorites; and Bibliography of Termites. 

Office of Naval Research: Additional grants for the support of research entitled: 
Information of Shark Distribution and Distribution of Shark Attack All Over the World; 
Conduct Research on the Medusae and Related Organisms From the Indian Ocean Collec- 
tion; Studies of the Ecology, Distribution and Classification of South American Birds; 
Distribution of Formaminifera in the Eastern Tropical Atlantic; and The Formation of 
Spectrum Lines. Also, to provide expert consultants to advise the Navy Advisory 
Committee, and to perform psychological research studies. 

Marjorie Merriweather Post: Gift to defray travel expenses of Marvin Ross. 

Rosser Reeves, Ted Bates and Company: Gift for the purchase of insurance for 
the Rosser Reeves Ruby. 

Dorothy B. Rothschild: Gift to the Joanne Toor Cummings Fund. 

Shirley Latter Schlesinger: Contribution to the National Collection of Fine 
Arts to be entitled "Cassatt Research Fund." 

Ansel Schoeneman: Gift for the purchase of an 18th-century, earthenware, 
English figure of the Duke of Cumberland. 

St. Petersburg Shell Company: Grant for the St. Petersburg Shell Company 
Fund. 

Society for a More Beautiful National Capital Inc. : Gift for landscaping the 
entrance to the National Zoo. 

Spraque Fund : Bequest of the late Joseph White Spraque to establish a fund for 
the advancement of the physical sciences. 

E. R. Squibb and Sons: Gift to the division of medical sciences. 

John A. Stevenson: Gift of the John A. Stevenson Mycological Library and a gift 
for care and maintenance and making additions thereto. 

Sydney Printing and Publishing Company: Grant for the purchase of U.S. coins. 

United States Information Agency: Grant to undertake complete responsibility 
of the Agency's Fine Arts exhibits activity. 

United States Steel Corp.: Grant to defray the cost of a model of an integrated 
steel plant. 

University of Michigan: Gift to Freer Gallery of Art for the Ars Orientalis Fund. 

G. Unger Vetlesen Foundation: Grant to assist in studying flora and other 
terrestial and marine fauna in Australia. 

Lila Acheson Wallace: Contribution for expenses in connection with Sym- 
posiums for Department of Civil History. 



356 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Washington Biologists' Field Club: Grant for the purpose of defraying the 

costs of the publication of the work Trapnesting Wasps and Bees. 
Washington Fashion Group: Gift to the Historic Dresses Fund. 
Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation: Gift to the Freer Gallery of Art for the 

Library Fund. 
Wenonah Development Company: Contribution to the Kathryn and Gilbert 

Miller Fund. 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution: Grant for participation of five 

Smithsonian staff members in cruises of the Anton Bruun in the Eastern Pacific 

Ocean. 
Charles M. Wormser: Gift to the Moritz Wormser Memorial Collection. 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts, for the 
special purposes indicated, from the following: 

For the Carl Bosch Collection Fund: 

Gem Lapidary and Mineral Society of Standard Oil Company of New Jersey 

Montgomery County. American Metal Climax Foundation 

Mineralogical Society of the District of Incorporated 

Columbia. Foundation of Litton Industries 

Yale University Consolidation Coal Company 

Franklin Ogdensburg Mineralogical Lockheed Aircraft Corporation 
Society 

Xerox Fund 

For the Division of Mammals Curators Fund: 

David H. Johnson Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. 

Remington Kellogg 

For the purpose of the S. D. Heron Memorial Fund: 

Anonymous donor Harold S. Morehouse 

A. E. Felt J. H. Stern 

For the purpose of the Smithsonian Bicentennial Ceremony: 

Burlington Industries Foundation Wilmarth S. Lewis 

W. R. Burgess Martha I. Love 

Austin B. Chinn Charles Nagel 

Ben Gray Marjorie Merriweather Post 

For the purpose of the Smithson Bicentennial Celebration: 

Anonymous Eastern Airlines, Inc. 

Bethlehem Steel Corp. Eastman Kodak Co. 

Bibb Manufacturing Co. The Equitable Life Assurance Society 

Burrough Corp. Evening Star 

Carrier Corp. Electro-Optical Systems 

Certain-teed Products Corp. Ex-Cell-O-Corporation 

Connecticut Printer Fisher Scientific Co. 

John Deere Foundation General Aniline and Film Corp. 

R. R. Donnelly and Sons Co. General Dynamics Corp. 

Douglas Aircraft General Precision Equipment Corp. 

Dumbarton Oaks Goodwill Ambassador 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



357 



Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp. 

I. B. M. Corp. 

William W. Johnson 

C. O. Kienbusch 

Kresge Foundation 

Link Foundation 

Lockheed Aircraft Corp. 

David McKay 

Martin Co. 

The Magnavox Co. 

The Maytag Co. 

Majorie Merriweather Post 



The Merck Company Foundation 

Philadelphia Inquirer 

Reader's Digest 

Revell, Inc. 

Scholastic Magazine, Inc. 

Southern Railway System 

Alfred P. Sloan 

Time, Inc. 

United Aircraft Corp. 

United States Steel Foundation, Inc. 

Washington Post 

Westinghouse Electric Corp. 



For the purpose of the Venice Biennale Fund: 



Mrs. Dean Acheson 

Mrs. Philip Barry 

Mr. Harvey Baskin 

Mrs. and Mrs. John Begg 

Mr. and Mrs. Melvin Belman 

Dr. and Mrs. Edgar F. Berman 

Mr. Leo M. Bernstein 

Mr. and Mrs. Norman Bernstein 

Mr. William McCormick Blair 

Mr. Jacob Blaustein 

Mr. and Mrs. Huntington Block 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Borwick 

Mrs. Edith Bralove 

Mr. and Mrs. Abner Brenner 

Dr. Iving Brotman 

Mr. J. Carter Brown 

Mr. John Bucknell 

Mrs. Douglas Burden 

Mr. and Mrs. S. Carter Burden 

Mr. William A. M. Burene 

Mrs. Morris Cafritz 

Mrs. Calvert Carey 

Mr. Aldus Chapin 

Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Chapman 

Mr. and Mrs. Marcus Cohn 

The Honorable and Mrs. John T. 

Connor 
Miss Edith Newman Cook 
Mr. Gardner Cowles 
Crown-Zellerbach Foundation 
Mrs. Gertrude d'Amecourt 
The Honorable and Mrs. C. Douglas 

Dillon 
Miss Barbara Donald 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Eichholz 
Mr. Milton Elsberg 
Dr. and Mrs. Richard Ettinghausen 
Mr. and Mrs. David E. Finley 



Mr. and Mrs. Lawrence A. Fleischman 

The Honorable and Mrs. Clifford Folger 

Forage Foundation, Inc. 

Mrs. Elizabeth J. Foy 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl M. Freeman 

The Honorable and Mrs. Peter H. B. 

Frelinghuysen 
Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Friedman 
Mrs. J. William Fullbright 
Mr. Richard E. Fuller 
Mr. Wreathan E. Gathright 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Geldzahler 
Mr. Ira Gershwin 
Mr. Roland Gibson 
Mr. and Mrs. Mackensie Gordon 
Mrs. Philip L. Graham 
Miss Jacqueline Greber 
Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Hahn, Jr. 
Mrs. W. Averill Harriman 
Mr. E. David Harrison 
Mr. and Mrs. John Hechinger 
Mr. Henry H. Hecht, Jr. 
Mr. Ernest Hillman, Jr. 
Mr. Barnet Hodes 
Mrs. Arthur U. Hooper 
Mr. and Mrs. David Jay Hyman 
Dr. and Mrs. John M. Ide 
I. F. A. Galleries, Inc. 
Industrial Union Department 
AFL-CIO 
Dr. H. W. Janson 
Mr. and Mrs. Maxey Jarman 
The Honorable Jacob K. Javits 
Mrs. J. Lee Johnson, III 
Captain and Mrs. Francois C. B. 

Jordan 
Mr. Garfield I. Kass 
Mrs. Estes Kefauver 



358 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 



Mrs. Fenwick Keyser 

Mrs. Robert Kintner 

Mrs. GraemeKorff 

Mr. and Mrs. David Lloyd Kreeger 

Mr. Sigmund Junstadter 

Mr. Irving Levick 

Dr. and Mrs. Alec C. Levin 

Mr. and Mrs. Jerome P. Lewis 

Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Lewis 

Mr. John L. Loeb, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter C. Louchheim, Jr. 

Mr. Georg S. T. Maisel, III 

Mr. Stanley Marcus 

Mr. Henry A. Markus 

Mr. Morton May 

Mr. Robert B. Mayer 

Mr. Stephen Mazoh 

Mr. and Mrs. William S. McCornick 

Mr. Henry P. Mcllhenny 

The Honorable and Mrs. Robert S. 

McNamara 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 
Mr. and Mrs. Cord Meyer, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. MeyerhofF 
Mrs. Paul Moore 
The Honorable and Mrs. William S. 

Moorhead 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward P. Morgan 
Philip Morris International 
Mr. Charles Nagel 
Mrs. David Halle 
Mr. and Mrs. Roy R. Neuberger 
Mr. Gerson Nordlinger, Jr. 
Miss Anna Belle O'Brien 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Ottenstein 
Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell Oxman 
Mrs. Tompkins Parker 
Mr. Robert E. Phinney, Jr. 
Mr. Abe Pollin 
Mrs. S. Prentice Porter 
Mrs. Merriweather Post 
Mr. Gustave Ring 
Mr. Laurance S. Rockefeller 



Samuel and David Rose Fund, Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Ross 

Mr. William M. Roth 

Mrs. Seymour J. Rubin 

Mrs. Henry P. Russell 

Mrs. Serge Sacknoff 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Salant 

Dr. and Mrs. Stanley J. Sarnoff 

Rita and Taft Schreiber Foundation 

Mrs. John Farr Simmons 

Skidmore, Owings and Merrill 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert H. Small 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Smith 

Mr. L. M. C. Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 

Miss Laura Steinbach 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip Stern 

Mrs. Donald B. Straus 

Mrs. Madeleine S. Sundlun 

Mr. and Mrs. Carleton Byron Swift 

Mrs. Fredrika M. Tandler 

Walter Dorwin Teague Associates 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Russell True, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bayard Underwood 

Mr. and Mrs. T. Graydon Upton 

Mr. and Mrs. Julius Wadsworth 

Mrs. C. Law Watkins 

Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 

Mrs. Vanderbilt Webb 

Dr. and Mrs. Paul S. Weisberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Eric Wentworth 

Dr. and Mrs. Sidney Werkman 

Mr. and Mrs. Kurt Wiener 

Mrs. J. Burke Wilkenson 

Mrs. Earle Kress Williams 

Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Wilson 

Mr. Howard Wise 

Mrs. Frank G. Wisner 

The Honorable and Mrs. Stanley 

Woodward 
Xerox Corporation 
Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Zettlin 
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney S. Zlotnick 



report of the executive committee 359 

Funds and Federal Appropriations 

The following appropriations were made by Congress for the Govern- 
ment bureaus under the administrative charge of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the fiscal year 1966: 

Salaries and Expenses $18,921,000 

National Zoological Park $1,832,000 

The appropriation made to the National Gallery of Art (which is a 
bureau of the Smithsonian Institution under a separate Board of 
Trustees) was $2,531,000 

The Institution also received appropriations to continue the 12-year 
capital improvement program at the National Zoological Park 
($1,539,000); and for the restoration and renovation of buildings 
($2,248,000). 

For fiscal year 1966, the Smithsonian was granted an appropriation 
of $1,300,000 in foreign currencies for museum programs and related 
research. 

In addition, funds were transferred from other Government agencies 
for expenditure under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution as 
follows : 

Working funds, transferred from the National Park Service, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, for archeological investigations in river basins 
throughout the United States $221,000 

The Institution also administers a trust fund for partial support of the 
Canal Zone Biological Area, located on Barro Colorado Island in the 
Canal Zone. 

Audit 
The report of the audit of the Smithsonian Private Funds is attached. 



Respectfully submitted: 

Robert V. Fleming 
Caryl P. Haskins 
Clinton P. Anderson 
Executive Committee. 

Washington, D.C., October 7, 1966 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 361 

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS 

1730 M STREET, NW. 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 

THE BOARD OF REGENTS, 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smithsonian Insti- 
tution as of June 30, 1966, and the related statements of changes in funds 
for the year then ended. Our examination was made in accordance with 
generally accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests of 
the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we considered 
necessary in the circumstances. 

Except for certain real estate acquired by gift or purchased from proceeds 
of gifts which are valued at cost or appraised value at date of gift, land, build- 
ings, furniture, equipment, works of art, living and other specimens and certain 
other similar property are not included in the accounts of the Institution; 
the amounts of investments in such properties are not readily determinable. 
Current expenditures for such properties are included among expenses. 
The accompanying statements do not include the National Gallery of Art, the 
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts nor other departments, 
bureaus and operations administered by the Institution under Federal Appro- 
priations. The accounts of the Institution are maintained on the basis of cash 
receipts and disbursements, with the result that the accompanying statements 
do not reflect income earned but not collected or expenses incurred but not paid. 

In our opinion, subject to the matters referred to in the preceding paragraph, 
the accompanying balance sheet of private funds and the related statements of 
changes in funds present fairly the assets and funds principal of Smithsonian 
Institution at June 30, 1966 and changes in fund balances resulting from cash 
transactions of the private funds for the year then ended, on a basis consistent 
with that of the preceding year. 

PEAT, MARWICK, MITCHELL & CO. 

October 7, 1966 

In the Auditor's report, the following statement precedes schedules 1 
and 2: 

Accountants'' Report on Supplementary Data 

We have reported separately herein on the basic financial statements of pri- 
vate funds of Smithsonian Institution. The current year's supplementary data 
included in Schedules 1-2 were subjected to the same auditing procedures and, 
in our opinion, are stated fairly in all material respects when considered in 
conjunction with the basic financial statements taken as a whole. 



362 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 



Smithsonian 
BALANCE SHEET OF PRIVATE 

Assets 
Current funds: 
General : 
Cash: 
United States Treasury current 

account $334, 369 

In banks and on hand 336, 881 



671, 250 

Investments — stocks and bonds 

(quoted market value $2,709,- 

440.00) (note 1) 2,863,780 

Contract reimbursements due 556, 951 

Travel and other advances 70, 777 



Total general funds 4, 162, 758 

Restricted : 

Cash: 

United States Treasury current 
account $670,413 

In banks 147, 007 

Due from general fund 999, 279 

Due from Freer endowment fund 2, 076 



Total restricted funds 1,818,775 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 363 

EXHIBIT A 

Institution 

FUNDS, JUNE 30, 1966 

Fund Balances 
Current funds: 
General : 
Due to restricted funds $999, 279 

Unexpended funds — unrestricted 

(Exhibit B) 3,163,479 



Total general funds 
estricted (Exhibit C) : 
Unexpended income from 


endow- 






4, 162, 758 


ment: 
Freer 
Restricted 




$380, 032 
642,813 


$1,022,845 
795, 930 




Funds for special purposes: 
Gifts 
Grants 
Contracts 


505, 550 

98, 972 

191,408 




Total restricted funds 






1,818,775 



364 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 

Assets — Continued 

Total current funds $5,981,533 

Endowment funds and funds functioning 
as endowment: 
Freer Gallery of Art Fund: 
Cash $207 

Stocks and bonds (quoted market 

value $17,009,713.00) (note 1) 11, 604, 829 



Total Freer Gallery of Art fund 1 1, 605, 036 

Other funds: 
Cash $278, 524 

Stocks and bonds (quoted market 

value $9,139,617.00) (note 1) 8, 083, 958 



8, 362, 482 
Loan to United States Treasury 1, 000, 000 

Other stocks and bonds (quoted 

market value $ 1 2,404.00) (note 1 ) 3,322 

Real estate (note 2) 1, 614, 588 



Total other funds 10, 980, 392 



Total endowment funds and 
funds functioning as endow- 
ment 22, 585, 428 



$28,566,961 



See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



365 



Fund Balances — Continued 



Total current funds 
Endowment funds and funds function- 
ing as endowment (Exhibit D) : 
Freer Gallery of Art fund : 
Due to Freer restricted fund 
Principal of fund 
(Exhibit D) 
Total Freer Gallery of Art 
fund 
Other funds: 
Mortgages payable (note 2) 
Principal of funds 
(Exhibit D) : 
Restricted $4, 878, 667 

General 5, 879, 442 



$5, 981, 533 



$2, 076 
11,602,960 



11,605,036 



$222, 283 



10, 758, 109 



Total other funds 

Total endowment funds and 
funds functioning as endow- 
ment 



10, 980, 392 



22, 585, 428 
$28, 566, 961 



230-457 — 66- 



-30 



366 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 



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EXHIBIT D 

Smithsonian Institution 

PRIVATE FUNDS 

STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN PRINCIPAL OF ENDOWMENT FUNDS 

AND FUNDS FUNCTIONING AS ENDOWMENT 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1966 

Balance at beginning of year $19, 659, 589 

Add: 

Gifts and bequests 2, 009, 451 

Income added to principal as prescribed by donor 20, 890 

Transfer from gifts for investment 350, 899 

Net gain on investments 320, 240 



Balance at end of year 22, 361, 069 



Balance at end of year consisting of: 

Freer Gallery of Art 11, 602, 960 

Other : 

Restricted 4, 878, 667 

General 5, 879, 442 



$22, 361, 069 



Smithsonian Institution 
NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 
JUNE 30, 1966 

(1) Investments are stated at cost or appraised value at date of gift. 

(2) During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1966, the Institution acquired by gift, 
bequest or purchase, property subject to existing mortgages. At June 30, 1966 
there were three parcels of property pledged as security for mortgages with unpaid 
balances totaling $222,283. 



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 



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2. 

Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants 

Awarded Fiscal Year 1966 

Archeology and Related Disciplines 



American Institute of Indian Studies, Philadelphia, Pa. To es- 
tablish American Academy at Benares, India, an institution for 
research in art history and archeology. 

American Research Center in Egypt, Boston, Mass. To support a 
program of research and excavation in Egypt: a, Excavation of the 
early Medieval Arab town of Fustat; b, Excavation of a fortified 
town in Nubia (Gebel Adda); c, Epigraphic and architectural 
survey at Luxor; d, Excavation of a stratified Pharonic site at Mendes 
in the Nile Delta; e, Field project for recording and preserving the 
treasures of St. Catherine's Monastery, Mt. Sinai; f, Study of ancient 
glass found at Fustat; g, Operation of Center facilities at Cairo; 
h, Survey of opportunities for restoration of monuments and sites; 
i, Excavation of ancient city of Hierakonpolis. 

Brooklyn Museum. To support three projects: a, Construction of 
scale models of Egyptian monuments, b, Study of ancient Egyptian 
goldwork; c, Photographic survey of ancient sites. 

Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, 
Berkeley. To test utilization of cosmic rays to "x-ray" the Egyptian 
pyramids in search of presently unknown chambers. 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. To exca- 
vate a Philistine city at Ashdod, Israel. 

University of Colorado. To prepare a proposal to study prehistoric 
archeological and paleontologic remains in Tunisia. 

Jerusalem School of Archeology of the Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. To excavate an archeological site at Gezer, 
Israel, and to conduct a Summer Institute on Near Eastern Civiliza- 
tions. 

Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey. To study 
and document Bronze and Iron age materials in Yugoslavia. 

375 



376 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — APPENDIX 

Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan. To develop 
a program for research and training in prehistoric archeology in 
Israel. 

Curators of the University of Missouri. To investigate ancient 
Phoenician glass manufacturing sites in Israel. 

Institute of International Studies and Overseas Administration, 
University of Oregon. To conduct research into the history of 
ancient civilizations of Guinea. 

University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. To excavate the 
archeological site at Mohenjo-daro in the lower Indus Valley, Pak- 
istan. 

University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. To study remain- 
ing stones of the Temple of Akhnaten at Luxor, Egypt. 

Smithsonian Institution, Office of Anthropology. To study 
ancient urban technology in Pakistan and India. 

Southern Methodist University. To study prehistory of the area 
around Sibaiya, Egypt. 

Southern Methodist University. To complete excavations near 
Tushka, Egypt, of an archeological site to be inundated by water 
rising behind the Aswan Dam. 

American Museum of Natural History, University of Washington, 
Seattle. To study and excavate prehistoric and early historic 
sites in East and West Pakistan. 

Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University. To ex- 
cavate the Oligocene and Miocene deposits of Egypt to enlarge 
knowledge of the primitive ancestors of man in Egypt. 



3. 

Publications of the Smithsonian Press 
For the Tear Ended June 30, 1966 



SMITHSONIAN SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS 

NATURAL HISTORY 

Flora of Japan, by Jisaburo Ohwi. ix-j- 1067 pp., 33 pis., 18 figs. 
Publ. 4542, September 20, 1965. ($25.) 

Gems in the Smithsonian Institution, by Paul E. Desautels. 74 pp., 
46 pis., 18 figs. Publ. 4608, December 14, 1965. ($1.25.) 

The United States and the world ocean, by Lt. Comdr. Don Walsh, 
USN. 28 pp., 13 pis. Publ. 4650, December 3, 1965. (25 cents.) 

The Philippine Bureau of Science Monographic Publications on Fishes: 
No. 1, Check-list of the species of fishes known from the Philippine 
Archipelago, by David Starr Jordan and Robert Earl Richardson, 
78 pp. 1910. No. 23, Gobies of the Philippines and the China 
Sea, by Albert W. Herre, 352 pp., 1-30 pis., 6 figs., 1927. No. 24, 
Pomacentridae of the Philippine Islands by Heraclio R. Montalban, 
117 pp., 19 pis., 1927. September 1, 1965. (tfh fund reprint: 
$5.50.) 

SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog. Four volumes, 

unpaged. Publ. 4652, March 18, 1966. ($20.) 
Lighthouse of the skies — The Smithsonian Observatory: Background 

and history, 1846-1955, by Bessie Zaban Jones. 399 pp., 32 pis. 

Publ. 4612, September 16, 1965. ($5.) 

NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

Roots of abstract art in America, 1910-1930; introd. by Adelyn D. 

Breeskin. 93 pp., illustr. Publ. 4655, 1965. ($3.65.) 
Frederic Edwin Church; preface by Richard P. Wunder. 86 pp., 

illustr. Publ. 4657, 1966. ($3.95.) 
American landscape: A changing frontier; introd. by David W. Scott. 

42 pp., illustr. Publ. 4671, 1966. ($2.25.) 

377 



378 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 APPENDIX 

SMITHSONIAN TRAVELING EXHIBITION SERVICE 

Early monuments and architecture of Ireland. 4 pp. Publ. 4642, 

1965. 
Durer and his time. 252 pp., illustr. Publ. 4647, 1965. ($4.25.) 
Rugs from the Joseph V. McMullan collection. 57 pp., illustr. Publ. 

4660, 1966. (SI. 50.) 
Art treasures of Turkey, introductions by Rodney S. Young and 

Richard Ettinghausen. 217 pp., illustr. Publ. 4663, 1966. 

($3.65.) 
Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service catalogue, 

1966-1967. 60 pp., illustr. Publ. 4668, 1966. 
New names in Latin American art, introduction by Jose Gomez-Sicre. 

14 pp., illustr. Publ. 4672, 1966. (35 cents.) 

HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

Meissen and other German porcelain in the Alfred Duane Pell collec- 
tion, by Paul Vickers Gardner. 68 pp., illustr. Publ. 4256, 1966. 

($2.) 
American folk art from the Eleanor and Mabel Van Alstyne collection, 

by Peter C. Welsh. 97 pp., 65 pis. Publ. 4615, 1965. ($3.) 
The trotter in America Prints from the Harry T. Peters America on 

stone lithography collection, Smithsonian Institution, by Peter C. 

Welsh. 17 pp., 14 pis. Publ. 4637, August 16, 1965. (50 cents.) 
Exterior inscriptions — Museum of History and Technology. 3 pp. 

Publ. 4639, July 21, 1965. 
The First Ladies hall, by Margaret W. Brown Klapthor. 14 pp., illustr. 

Publ. 4640, September 6, 1965. (50 cents.) 
The Dolls' house, by Faith Bradford. 29 pp., illustr. Publ. 4641, 

September 28, 1965. (50 cents.) 
The great design — two lectures on the Smithson bequest by John 

Quincy Adams, edited, with an introduction, by Wilcomb E. 

Washburn. 95 pp., 8 pis. Publ. 4643, September 16, 1965. ($5.) 

AMERICAN HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION 

Annual report of the American Historical Association for the year 1959. 

Vol. II, Writings on American History, 1957. xv + 698 pp. 

July 12, 1965. 
Annual report of the American Historical Association for the year 1 964. 

Vol. I, Proceedings, xxix + 83 pp. November 3, 1965. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Brief guide to the museums in the Washington area. 39 pp., 31 pis. 

Publ. 4528, September 27, 1965. (25 cents.) 
Smithsonian research opportunities — science, fine arts, history, 1966— 
1967. 64 pp. Publ. 4645, September 21, 1965. (50 cents.) 



PUBLICATIONS OF SMITHSONIAN PRESS 379 

Smithsonian publications 1848-1965. 16 pp. Publ. 4646, September 
16, 1965. 

SMITHSONIAN SERIES 

Smithsonian Annual Reports 
Smithsonian year 1965. 439 pp., illustr. Publ. 4648, January 27, 

1966. 
Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, 
1964. xiii-f 553 pp. Publ. 4613, December 30, 1965. 
The general appendix contained the following papers, which were 
published separately (Publ. 4618-4636), as follows: 
The quest for life beyond the earth, by Carl Sagan. 
The secret of Stonehenge, by Gerald S. Hawkins. 

The Smithsonian's satellite-tracking program: its history and organiza- 
tion. Part 3, by Nelson Hayes. 
How mountains are formed, by R. A. Lyttleton. 
The future of oceanography, by Athelstan Spilhaus. 
Search for the Thresher, by F. N. Spiess and A. E. Maxwell. 
Recent events in relativity, by Milton A. Rothman. 
The edge of science, by Sanborn C. Brown. 
Anatomy of an experiment: An account of the discovery of the neutrino, 

by Clyde L. Cowan. 
Fracture of solids, by J. E. Field. 

Man-made diamonds: A progress report, by C. G. Suits. 
How do microbes "fix" nitrogen from the air? by D. J. D. Nicholas. 
The unity of ecology, by F. Fraser Darling. 
Venomous animals and their toxins, by Findlay E. Russell. 
How insects work in groups, by John Sudd. 
Our native termites, by Thomas E. Snyder. 
The phenomenon of predation, by Paul L. Errington. 
5,000 years of stone age culture in Borneo, by Tom Harrisson. 
The emergence of the Plains Indian as the symbol of the North American 
Indian, by John C. Ewers. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics 
volume 8 
9. Static diffusion models of the upper atmosphere with empirical 
temperature profiles, by Luigi G. Jacchia. pp. 215-257, 4 figs., 
2 tab. December 27, 1965. 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 
volume 148 
6. Middle and late Turonian oysters of the Lopha lugubris group, by 
Erie G. Kauffman. 92 pp., 8 pis., 18 figs. Publ. 4602, October 6, 
1965. 



380 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 APPENDIX 

7. An account of the Astropysical Observatory of the Smithsonian 

Institution, 1904-1953, by G. G. Abbot. 16 pp., 4 figs. Publ. 
4656, February 24, 1966. 

8. Forecasting from harmonic periods in precipitation, by C. G. 

Abbot. 16 pp., 8 figs. Publ. 4659, March 23, 1966. 

9. New Lower Cambrian trilobite faunule from the taconic sequence 

of New York, by Franco Rasetti. 52 pp., 12 pis. Publ. 4662, 
May 23, 1966. 

VOLUME 149 

4. An endocranial cast of the Bridger middle Eocene primate Smilo- 

dectes gracilis, by C. Lewis Gazin. 14 pp., 2 pis. Publ. 4616, July 1, 
1965. 

5. Display patterns of tropical American "Nine-Primaried" songbirds. 

IV. The yellow-rumped tanager, by M. Moynihan. 34 pp., 6 
figs. Publ. 4644, January 27, 1966. 

6. Echinoid distribution and habits, Key Largo coral reef preserve, 

Florida, by Porter M. Kier and Richard E. Grant. 68 pp., 16 pis., 
15 figs. Publ. 4649, October 22, 1965. 

7. Silicified Ordovician brachiopods from east-central Alaska, by 

Reuben James Ross, Jr., and J. Thomas Dutro, Jr. 22 pp., 3 pis., 
1 fig. Publ. 4654, March 4, 1966. 

8. Bartolome Bermejo's "Espiscopal Saint." A study in medieval 

Spanish symbolism, by Herbert Friedmann. 21 pp., 11 pis. Publ. 
4658, April 4, 1966. 

9. A new Pliocene stork from Nebraska, by Lester L. Short, Jr. 1 1 pp., 

1 pi. Publ. 4661, May 26, 1966. 

VOLUME 150 

[Whole Volume.] The birds of the Republic of Panama. Part 1. — 
Tinamidae (tinamous) to Rynchopidae (skimmers), by Alexander 
Wetmore. 483 pp., 73 pis. Publ. 4617, December 27, 1965. ($6.) 

VOLUME 151 

1. Stringocephalus in the Devonian of Indiana, by G. Arthur Cooper and 
Thomas Phelan. 20 pp., 5 pis., 2 figs. Publ. 4664, May 23, 1966. 

4. Parapercis kamoharai (family Mugiloididae), a new fish from Japan 
with notes on other species of the genus, by Leonard P. Schultz. 
4 pp., 1 pi. Publ. 4669, May 18, 1966. 

United States National Museum Bulletins 
museum of natural history 

202, vol. 3. Fishes of the Marshall and Marianas Islands, by Leonard 
P. Schultz and collaborators: Loren P. Woods and Ernest A. 
Lachner. vii+176 pp., 25 pis., 18 tab., 22 figs. March 9, 1966. 



PUBLICATIONS OF SMITHSONIAN PRESS 381 

246. Catalog of living whales, by Philip Hershkovitz. 259 pp. Feb- 
ruary 28, 1966. 

247, parts 1 and 2. Fossil marine mammals from the Miocene Calvert 
formation of Maryland and Virginia, by Remington Kellogg. 63 
pp., 32 pis., 31 figs. October 15, 1965. 

MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

229. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology: 
Papers 31-33, on numismatics. 

32. Numismatics: an ancient science — a survey of its history, by 
Elvira Eliza Clain-Stefanelli. 102 pp., 47 figs. December 30, 
1965. 

33. Italian coin engravers since 1800, by Elvira Eliza Clain- 
Stefanelli. 68 pp., 138 figs., December 13, 1965. 

241. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology: 

Papers 45-51, on cultural history. 

47. Presentation pieces in the Museum of History and Technology, 
by Margaret Brown Klapthor. pp. 81-108, 22 figs. Sep- 
tember 20, 1965. 

49. Benjamin Latrobe and Dolley Madison decorate the White 
House, 1809-1811, by Margaret Brown Klapthor. pp. 153-164, 
10 figs. November 3, 1965. 

51. Woodworking tools, 1600-1900, by Peter C. Welsh, pp. 177- 
227, 66 figs. June 7, 1966. 

245. Cincinnati locomotive builders, 1845-1868, by John H. White. 
167 pp., 56 figs. December 30, 1965. 

249. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology: 
Papers 52-58, on historic sites archeology. 

52. Excavations at Clay Bank in Gloucester County, Virginia, 
1962-1963, by Ivor Noel Hume. pp. 1-28, 16 figs. January 
18, 1966. 

53. Excavations at Tutter's Neck in James City County, Virginia, 
1960-1961, by Ivor Noel Hume. pp. 29-72, 20 figs. June 3, 
1966. 

250. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology: 
Papers 59- , on cultural history. 

61. Rembrandt's etching technique: An example, by Peter 
Morse, pp. 93-108, 16 figs. May 4, 1966. 

Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins 

194. Hidatsa social and ceremonial organization, by Alfred W. Bowers. 
xii + 528 pp., 12 pis., 12 figs., 5 maps, 14 charts, 4 tab. 1965. 

230-457—66 31 



382 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 APPENDIX 

195. The Ponca tribe, by James H. Howard, xii-f- 191 pp., 24 pis., 
8 figs., 1 map. 1965. 

196. Anthropological papers, nos. 75-80. iii-j-470 pp., 4 pis., 14 figs., 
2 maps, 26 tab. 1966. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 

volume 1 

[Whole volume.] Early formative period of coastal Ecuador: The 
Valdivia and Machalilla phases, by Betty J. Meggers, Clifford 
Evans, and Emilio Estrada. xxi-|-234 pp., 196 pis., 115 figs., 
30 tables. December 20, 1965. 

Contributions from the National Herbarium 

volume 32 

Part 5. The American species of Ormosia (Leguminosae), by Velva E. 
Rudd. pp. 279-384, 6 pis., 15 figs. September 17, 1965. 

VOLUME 37 

Part 2. Mosses of the Eastern Highlands, New Guinea, from the 6th 
Archbold Expedition, 1959, by Edwin B. Bartram. pp. 1-66. 
September 21, 1965. 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum 

VOLUME 1 1 6 

Title page, table of contents and index, pp. v + 557-586. January 
13, 1966. 

VOLUME 1 1 7 

3508. Microlepidoptera of Juan Fernandez Island, by J. F. Gates 
Clarke, pp. 1-106, 1 pi, 111 figs. July 13, 1965. 

3509. Neotropical Hemerobiidae in the United States National 
Museum, by Waro Nakahara. pp. 107-122, 2 pis., 5 figs. July 30, 
1965. 

3510. Hermatobates, a new generic record for the Atlantic Ocean, 
with descriptions of new species (Hemiptera: Gerridae), by Jon L. 
Herring, pp. 123-130, 4 figs. July 6, 1965. 

3511. Benthic polychaetous annelids from Bering, Chukchi, and 
Beaufort Seas, by Donald J. Reish. pp. 131-158, 1 tab, 3 figs. 
August 25, 1965. 



PUBLICATIONS OF SMITHSONIAN PRESS 383 

3512. Haustoriidae of New England (Crustacea: Amphipoda), by 
E. L. Bousfield. pp. 159-240, 31 figs. August 17, 1965. 

3513. Planktonic copepods from Bahia Fosforescente, Puerto Rico, 
and adjacent waters, by Juan C. Gonzalez and Thomas E. Bowman, 
pp. 241-304, 21 figs. August 24, 1965. 

3514. Revision of the milliped genera Boraria and Gyalostethus 
(Polydesmida: Xstodesmidae), by Richard L. Hoffman, pp. 305- 
348, 26 figs. August 17, 1965. 

3515. Revision of Diaperini of America north of Mexico with notes 
on extralimital species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), by Charles A. 
Triplehorn. pp. 349-458, 7 pis., 3 figs. November 16, 1965. 

3516. Marine Amphipoda of Atolls in Micronesia, by J. Laurens 
Barnard, pp. 459-552, 11 tab., 35 figs. December 14, 1965. 

3517. Hedgehogs and shrews of Turkey, by Dale J. Osborn. pp. 553- 
566, 4 figs. December 3, 1965. 

3518. Systematic significance of breeding tubercles in fishes of the 
family Percidae, by Bruce B. Collette. pp. 567-614, 3 tab., 7 figs. 
December 7, 1965. 

3519. Land snails of the genus Amphidromus from Thailand (Mollusca: 
Pulmonata: Camaenidae), by Alan Solem. pp. 615-629, 2 pis. 
December 3, 1965. 

3520. A review of the genus Haimbrachia Dyar with descriptions of 
new species (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), by Hahn W. Capps. 
pp. 629-653, 6 figs. December 13, 1965. 

3521. Genus Lexiphanes of America north of Mexico (Coleoptera: 
Chrysomelidae), by Edward U. Balsbaugh, Jr. pp. 655-680, 8 figs. 
January 18, 1966. 

VOLUME 118 

3522. Marine Amphipoda of the family Ampithoidae from southern 
California, by J. Laurens Barnard, pp. 1-46, 28 figs. December 
30, 1965. 

3523. Species of Oedemeridae of the Big Bend region of Texas, by 
Ross H. Arnett, Jr. pp. 47-55, 6 pis., 3 figs. December 17, 1965. 

3524. Copepod crustaceans parasitic on elasmobranch fishes of the 
Hawaiian Islands, by Alan G. Lewis, pp. 57-154, 40 figs. April 
12, 1966. 

3525. Revision of the Pilargidae (Annelida: Polychaeta), including 
descriptions of new species, and redescription of the pelagic 
Podarmus ploa Chamberlin (Polynoidae), by Marian H. Pettibone. 
pp. 155-208, 26 figs. March 31, 1966. 

3526. Descriptions and records of West Indian Cerambycidae (Cole- 
optera), by John A. Chemsak. pp. 209-220. February 8, 1966. 



384 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — APPENDIX 

3527. Neotropical Microlepidoptera VII, new genus Pseudomeritastis 
and its species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by Nicholas S. 
Obraztsov. pp. 221-232, 6 pis., 2 figs. February 23, 1966. 

3528. More new galerucine bettles with excised middle tibiae in 
the male, by Doris H. Blake, pp. 233-266, 35 figs. February 
23, 1966. 

3529. A review of the beetles of the genus Neobrotica and some closely 
related genera, by Doris H. Blake, pp. 267-372, 16 figs. April 
14, 1966. 

3530. Notes on certain nearctic Trichoptera in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, by Oliver S. Flint, Jr. pp. 373-390, 4 figs. 
February 23, 1966. 

3531. Neotropical Microlepidoptera VIII, a review of the genus 
Falculina with descriptions of new species (Lepidoptera: Steno- 
midae), by W. Donald Duckworth, pp. 391-404, 1 pi., 5 figs. 
February 10, 1966. 

3532. A revision of the genus Furnaricola (Mallophaga) with descrip- 
tions of new species, by M. A. Carriker, Jr. pp. 405-432, 31 figs. 
March 9, 1966. 



4. 

Members of the Smithsonian Council 
June 30, 1966 



Ralph E. Alston. Professor of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, 
Texas. Born 1925. B.S. College of William and Mary, Ph. D. 
University of Indiana, 1955. Author of Biochemical Systematics 
(1963). Research interests include plant physiology and genetics. 

H. Harvard Arnason. Vice President for Art Administration of the 
Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1071 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City. Born 1909. B.S. and A.M. Northwestern University, 
M.F.A. Princeton University, 1939. Worked with O.W.I. 
1942-1945 and the State Department, Office of International 
Information and Cultural Affairs, 1945-1946; from 1947-1961 
served as professor and chairman of the Department of Art at 
the University of Minnesota; appointed to present position in 
1961. Member of the Art in America editorial board as well as 
many professional organizations. Author of numerous articles 
on medieval and modern art, Modern Sculpture (1962), and 
Conrad Marca-Relli (1962). 

Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. Association Librarian, American Philo- 
sophical Society, 105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania. Born 1914. A.B. Dickinson College, Ph. D. University 
of Pennsylvania, 1947. Associated with Dickinson College 
1937-1954; assistant and then associate editor of the Papers 
of Benjamin Franklin 1954-1961; and from 1961 Association 
Librarian of APS. Editor of Bibliography of the History of Medicine 
in the U.S. and Canada (1948-1953) and Mr. Franklin (with L. W. 
Labaree) (1956). Author of Needs and Opportunities for Research 
in the History of Early American Science ( 1 955) . 

Fred R. Egg an. Professor of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 
1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, Illinois. Born 1906. Ph. B. 
University of Chicago, Ph. D. University of Chicago, 1933. 
Has been with the University of Chicago since 1 934 (Chairman 

385 



386 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 APPENDIX 

of the Department of Anthropology since 1961 and Director 
of the Philippine Studies Program since 1953). Has served 
as the U.S. official delegate to the Pacific Science Congresses 
in Manila (1953), Bangkok (1957), and Honolulu (1961). 
Research centers on the Indians of western United States and 
the tribes of the Philippines. Author of Social Organization of 
the Western Pueblos (1959). Editor of Social Anthropology of North 
American Tribes (1937 and 1955). 
Donald S. Farner. Chairman, Department of Zoology, University 
of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Born 1915. B.A. Hamline 
University, Ph. D. University of Wisconsin, 1941. With the 
Washington State University 1947-1966 (Dean of the Graduate 
School 1960-1966). Author of The Birds of Crater Lake National 
Park (1952) and contributor to many scientific publications, 
mainly on the subject of ornithology. 
Anthony N. B. Garvan. Chairman, Department of American 
Civilization, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania. Born 1917. B.A. and M.A. Yale University, Ph. D. 
Yale University, 1948. Has been with the University of Pennsyl- 
vania since 1951, except three years (1957-1960) as Head Curator 
of the Department of Civil History at the Smithsonian Institution 
(Chairman of the Department of American Civilization since 
1960). Editor of the American Quarterly 1951-1957. Author of 
Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial Connecticut (1951), Index 
of American Cultures (1953). 
G. Evelyn Hutchinson. Sterling Professor of Zoology, Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut. Born 1903. University of Cam- 
bridge. Has been at Yale since 1928. Author of The Clear 
Mirror (1936), The Itinerant Ivory Tower (1953), A Treatise on 
Limnology, vol. 1 (1957), A Preliminary List of the Writings of Rebecca 
West 1912-1951 (1957), The Enchanted Voyage (1962), The Ecological 
Theater and the Evolutionary Play (1965), and many scientific papers. 
Studies lie in the fields of oceanography and limnology, ecology, 
population biology, and biology in the development of literature 
and the fine arts. 
Clifford L. Lord. President, Hofstra University, Hempstead, Long- 
Island, New York. Born 1912. A.B. and A.M. Amherst College, 
Ph. D. Columbia University, 1943. Was Director of the New 
York State Historical Association 1941-1946; organized the 
Farmers' Museum in Cooperstown, New York, in 1942; Honorary 
Director of Circus World Museum (Director 1955-58); Vice 
President of the National Railroad Museum 1956 — ; Dean of the 



MEMBERS OF SMITHSONIAN COUNCIL 387 

School of General Studies and Professor of History at Columbia 
University 1958-1965. Member of many historical associations. 
Author of History of U.S. Naval Aviation (1949). 

Charles D. Michener. Watkins Distinguished Professor of Entomol- 
ogy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. Born 1918. 
B.S. University of California at Berkeley, Ph. D. University of 
California at Berkeley, 1941. Has been with the University of 
Kansas since 1948 (Watkins Distinguished Professor since 1959). 
Served as State Entomologist 1949-1961. Author of American 
Social Insects (with Mary H. Michener) (1951), Nest Architecture 
of the Sweat Bees (with S. F. Sakagami) (1962), and approximately 
200 technical works, mainly on bees. Work in taxonomy reflects 
his interests in concepts of numerical taxonomy, behavior, and 
ecology. 

Peter M. Millman. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa 
2, Ontario, Canada. Born 1906. B.A. Toronto, Ph. D. Harvard 
University, 1932. President of the Royal Astronomical Council 
of Canada. A meteoritic specialist whose studies include those 
of the upper atmosphere with planetary and space research; also 
interested in the culture of Japan and international exchanges. 

Robert Motherwell. 173 East 94th Street, New York City. Born 
1915. A. B. Stanford University, 1937. A well-known artist who 
has exhibited nationally and internationally and contributes to 
American and foreign magazines. Editor of The Documents of 
Modern Art 1944-1952. 

Norman D. Newell. Chairman, Department of Fossil Invertebrates, 
American Museum of Natural History, New York City. Born 
1909. B.S. and A.M. University of Kansas, Ph. D. Yale Uni- 
versity, 1933. Since 1945 has been a professor at Columbia 
University as well as curator of invertebrate paleontology at the 
American Museum of Natural History. Author of The Nature of 
the Fossil Record (1959), Organism Communities and Bottom Fades, 
Great Bahama Bank (1959) and is the organizer of the pelecypod 
volume of the Treatise on Paleontology. Coeditor of the Journal of 
Paleontology (1939-1942). Has visited all parts of North America, 
Europe, Australia, and Asia in the study of the Permian of the 
world. Other major field of interest is pelecypods. 

Norman Holmes Pearson. Chairman of the Department of American 
Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Born 1909. 
A.B. Yale University, Ph. D. Yale University, 1941. Has been 
with Yale University since 1941 and in his present position since 
1958. Editor of Complete Novels of Hawthorne (1937), The Oxford 



388 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 APPENDIX 

Anthology of American Literature (with W. R. Benet) (1938), 
Walden (1948), Poets of the English Language (with W. H. Auden) 
(1950), and The Pathfinder (1952). 

Frederick Seitz. President, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 
Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C. Born 1911. 
A.B. Leland Stanford Jr. University, Ph. D. Princeton, 1934. 
Has taught physics at University of Rochester, University of 
Pennsylvania, Carnegie Institute of Technology, and University 
of Illinois (Head of Department of Physics 1957 — Dean of 
Graduate College and Vice President for Research 1964—1965). 
Was Chairman of Governing Board of the American Institute of 
Physics 1954-1959. President, NAS since 1962. Author of 
Modern Theory of Solids (1940), The Physics of Metals (1943). 

Cyril Stanley Smith. Institute Professor, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Born 1903. B.S. Uni- 
versity of Birmingham, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, 1926. Has been with M.I.T. since 1945 (Institute 
Professor since 1961). Was a member of the President's Science 
Advisory Committee in 1959. Coauthor of Structure and Proper- 
ties of Solid Surfaces (1953), Reaumur'' s Memoirs on Steel and Iron 
(1956), Treatise on Divers Arts by Theophilus (1963). Author of 
A History of Metallography (1960). A primary interest is the 
historical interaction between science and technology, and he is 
a frequent consultant to the Freer Gallery of Art and the Smith- 
sonian Office of Anthropology. 

John D. Spikes. College of Letters and Science, University of Utah, 
Salt Lake City, Utah. Born 1918. B.S. California Institute of 
Technology, Ph. D. California Institute of Technology, 1948. 
Has been with the University of Utah since 1948 (except for a 
period on leave as Cell Physiologist of the Division of Biology 
and Medicine of the Atomic Energy Commission). Author of 
numerous publications in scientific journals, bulletins, etc. 
Major research is in biophysics, especially photobiology. 

Stephen E. Toulmin. Department of the History and Philosophy of 
Science, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts. Born 
1922. B.A. King's College, Ph. D. King's College, 1948. Has 
taught at Oxford, University of Melbourne, University of Leeds, 
New York University, Stanford University, and Columbia 
University, and from 1960-1966 was Director of the Nuffield 
Foundation Unit for History of Ideas. Author of The Place of 
Reason in Ethics (1950); The Philosophy of Science, an Introduction 



MEMBERS OF SMITHSONIAN COUNCIL 389 

(1953); Metaphysical Beliefs (author of one of three essays) (1957); 
The Uses of Argument (1958); Foresight and Understanding (1961); 
"The Ancestry of Science": vol. 1 {The Fabric of Heavens) (1961), 
vol. 2 {The Architecture of Matter) (1962), vol. 3 {The Discovery of 
Time) (1965); Night Sky at Rhodes (1963). 



5. 

Appointments 1965-1966 
Research Participation Programs 

Post- Doctoral, Graduate, Undergraduate 

POST-DOCTORAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATES 

Ralph F. Baierlein, Harvard University: General relativistic analysis of 

rotating astrophysical systems. 
John H. Beaman, Michigan State University: Study of the alpine flora of 

Mexico and Guatemala. 
James H. Brewer, North Carolina College (Durham) : The Confederate Negro: 

the ambivalent rebel in Virginia. 
William A. Gosline, University of Hawaii: Classification and relationships of 

perciform fishes. 
Charles W. Harper, Jr., University College of Swansea (G.B.): Investigation 

of Upper Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian brachiopod collections in 

USNM. 
Henry J. Kauffman, Millersville State College (Pennsylvania): Development 

of technology in America. 
Peter B. Leavens, Harvard University: Mineralogy and geochemistry of the 

Fe-Mn phosphates and the paragenesis of secondary phosphates in 

pegmatites. 
Frank J. S. Maturo, University of Florida: Systematic study of the Ectoprocta 

collected by the Atlantic Continental Shelf and Slope Survey (Hudson 

Canyon to Key West). 
Robert H. McCorkell, University of Manitoba: Study of extraterrestrial 

materials in sea sediments by means of cosmic ray produced radio- 
isotopes. 
Thornton L. Page, Wesleyan University: Evolution of galaxies. 
Francesco Parenti, Universita degli studi di Milano: Effect of previous 

photoperiodic treatment of leaves on biosynthetic capacity of isolated 

chloroplasts. 
Ladislav Sehnal, Astronomical Institute, Ondrejov, Czechoslovakia: Solar 

radiation pressure effects in the motion of satellites. 

391 



392 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — APPENDIX 

GRADUATE RESEARCH PARTICIPATION PROGRAMS 

(*Denotes Pre-Doctoral Internship) 

Susan E. Bratley, University of Michigan: Basic reorganization of the 
National Collection of Fine Arts/National Portrait Gallery Library 
morgue (separating subject material from artist and institution files, 
and setting up an American portrait file). 

Joseph C. Britton, Jr., Texas Christian University: Sorting, cataloguing, 
and identifying a portion of material collected in conjunction with the 
Indian Ocean Expedition in 1963. Collection contains some 2,400 lots 
of mollusks representing 9143 specimens. 

* Everett D. Cashatt, Catholic University of America: Continuation and 
expansion of project on consolidation and rearrangement, according to 
latest revisionary study, of USNM collection of N. A. Chrysauginae. 
Also, distribution and taxonomy of Oidaemathophorus balanotes 
Meyrick were examined, resulting in description of two new species. 

Anthony G. Coates, University of the West Indies: Conducted studies on 
Mesozoic Caribbean fossil collection, especially the coral fauna. 

George T. Farmer, Jr., University of Cincinnati: Continuation of studies 
begun in 1961, completing preparation of specimens and studying 
techniques to be used in the systematic part of the study, which will follow. 

Robert D. Gordon, North Dakota State University: Revision of the niger- 
tenebrosus group of the genus Hydroporus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), 
involving putting into practice the standard procedures of systematists 
in the study of insect classification. 

*Elizabeth M. Harris, University of Reading (G. B.) : Study, classification, 
and cataloguing of the Division of Graphic Arts' collection of prints. 

Sister Mary Victoria Hayden, St. Louis University: Survey of families of 
seed plants represented on Barro Colorado Island, evaluation of her- 
barium there and the system of filing used, study of the Rubiaceae, 
microscope examination of seed coats of Psychotrieae, assistance in 
observation of bees which frequent orchids. 

Henry L. Hull, Georgetown University: Study of the objects in the collec- 
tion of Captain P. V. H. Weems U.S.N, (retired), and an attempt to 
gain information on the historical background of the collection's instru- 
ments on navigation in general. 

*Charles J. LaRue, Jr., University of Maryland: Variation and functional 
interrelations of the major components of the bird skull. 

Robert F. Magnus, Columbia University Teachers College: Assisted in 
installing and removing various exhibits; assisted in aspects of paper 
work involved in exhibitions; designed signs used in several exhibitions; 
made up model of art hall to be used for useful visualization of future 
exhibits. 

Walker B. Moore, Jr., Howard University: Study of Eskimo and Aleut 
juvenile skulls, involving suture closure and tooth eruption, and tabula- 
tion of data on IBM processing cards. 



RESEARCH PARTICIPATION PROGRAMS 393 

*Eugene S. Morton, Cornell University: Ecology of avian sound; the forces 
of the physical and biological environments selecting for or against 
certain sound characteristics. 

*Martin G. Naumann, University of Kansas: Investigation and observation 
of wasps in the field; making descriptions of nests and analyses of nest 
populations. 

Dolores Newton, Harvard University: Assisted in research on the material 
culture of the Seminole Indians of Florida; tabulated and organized 
pictorial and photographic information to be used, and explored pos- 
sibilities in categorizing design strips. 

Osborn B. Nye, Jr., University of Cincinnati: Learned techniques involved 
in thin sectioning cyclostome bryozoans, and defining specific problems 
for future work. 

Herbert H. Odom, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

F. Paul Prucha, S.J., Marquette University: Study of the origin, development 
and use of the Indian Peace Medal in the United States. 

* John R. Oppenheimer, University of Illinois: Ethology of Cabus capucinus. 
*Carmen Perilliat, University of Mexico: Study of USNM's collection of 

Miocene mollusks. 

Patricia E. Putnam, Emory University: Identifying fern collections from 
India, Mexico, Honduras, Michigan and Dominica; general herbarium 
work, including refiling and demounting of returned specimens, labelling 
and rearranging collections to conform with orders of genera in the fern 
herbarium. 

*Gary L. Ranck, University of Utah: Study of the rodents of Libya. 

*Michael H. Robinson, University College of Swansea: Research and field 
studies on insect antipredator behavior. 

Lawrence E. Schaad, University of Illinois: Description of avian and mam- 
malian quarantine procedures at the National Zoological Park to explain 
procedures of keeping accurate records on medical condition of accessions 
of these species from all over the world; feeding routines, exams for 
parasitic infestation, medication for control of observed parasites, and 
preparation for conditions other than those caused by parasites. 

Kenneth W. Shipps, Yale University: Inquiry into the development and 
prevalence of political campaign music in the U.S. from earliest traces in 
Jefferson's campaign through 1860. 

Harold K. Skramstad, Jr., George Washington University: Devising system 
for organizing, describing, and storing the archival and manuscript 
collections of the Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering; preparing 
illustrated booklet on the archival collections; working out a system of 
archival control, which might be adaptable to future acquistions. 

* Nicholas D. Smythe, University of Maryland: Reconnaissance of habitat 

and population density in order to establish basic data on ecology of the 
Agouta. 
Betty I. Strauss, University of Delaware: Iconography of George Washington. 

* William L. Taylor, Brown University: Traced growth and development of 

the port of Baltimore; analyzed evolution of the size and types of ships 



394 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — APPENDIX 

employed in trade and commerce; began dissertation on the gradual 
domination during latter half of 19th and early 20th centuries of coastwise 
steamship lines along the New England coast by the railroads of New 
England. 
Jane C. Wheeler, Cambridge University: Prehistoric hunting patterns in the 
Iranian paleolithic sites. 

UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH PARTICIPATION PROGRAM 

Diane H. Alexander, University of Maryland: Identification by fiber content 
and basic weave of a large collection of fabrics collected by U.S. con- 
sulates from various countries during the late 19th and early 20th 
centuries, for the organization of a fabric sample file by country. 

Ronald A. Anderson, Ferris State College: Fitting additional families into the 
zocae key as a supplement to D. I. Williams (1957) key, which covered 
approximately 13 families including all major sections of Decapoda. 

Oran W. Atkinson, Howard University: Bibliographical research, measure- 
ment, and study of skeletal elements associated with hind limbs in 
different genera, specimen sorting, and classifying specimens for pur- 
poses of recording information on punch card files. 

Colles A. Baxter, Wheaton College: Verifying information and making out 
reference cards, carrying out preliminary research on various collections 
or paintings and labeling photographs and furniture. 

Denton F. Blair, Yale University: Assembling, preparing, and organizing 
various collections and paintings for storage or exhibit, with particular 
attention given to the Gellatly Collection. 

Daniel C. Church, Yale University: Study of the manifestations of the 
American romantic movement in objects of material culture in connec- 
tion with the Gothic and Italianate revivals. 

The A B. Comins, Bennington College: Helping to prepare catalogue for 
Turkish exhibition; cataloguing new acquisitions; augmenting previous 
catalogue entries. 

William D. Crosby, Jr., Yale University: Collecting parts of the story of the 
history of rocketry through the year 1945 and compiling an outline and 
analysis on the historical events. Assisted in taking inventory of the 
Silver Hill warehouse facilities, including the identification and catalogu- 
ing of pieces in this collection. 

Barbara B. Davenport, Bennington College: Preparing specimens for exhibit; 
research pertaining to ceramic imports into the U.S., 1800-1825; 
mounting slides. 

Arthur B. Davis, North Carolina State University: Work in the quantitative 
analysis laboratory involving standard quantitative preparations and 
procedures; running emission spectograph for qualitative analyses and 
spectrophotometer for quantitative analyses: maintenance of meteorite 
reference-filing system. 

Carolyn R. Fawcett, Radcliffe College: Transcribing and translating from the 
notebook of Lorenzo della Volpaia, a contemporary of Cellini, da 



RESEARCH PARTICIPATION PROGRAMS 395 

Vinci, and Poliziano, with particular attention to the planetary clock 
and scientific instruments designed and executed by della Volpaia. 

Jack B. Fisher, Cornell University: Field assistant in the Bredin-Archbold- 
Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica; in the Botany Herbarium, 
identified pressed material collected on Dominica last year and made 
keys to genera and species for those families identified. 

Madeline E. Gerken, Cornell University: Work on the extraction of phyto- 
chrome from green plants. 

Daniel D. Gibson, University of Alaska: In cooperation with the Oceano- 
graphic Sorting Center and the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, con- 
ducted study of seabird habits based on material on hand in the Division 
of Birds from four Atlantic cruises, including one made by the participant. 

Jerold L. Grashoff, Michigan State University: Comparative anatomical 
study of olyroid grasses. 

Robert K. Hitch, University of Tennessee: Typing Antarctic plankton down 
to genus and making up a reference sample for the Lamont Geological 
Laboratory. 

Judith A. Holland, Pennsylvania State University: Work on the classification 
of the family Scarabaeidae of North America. 

Richard S. Hopkins, Harvard College: Work on reclassification of the mineral 
study collection according to the seventh edition of Dana's "System of 
Mineralogy" and addition to the existing files of new x-ray standards 
of absolute accuracy, in large part for those same minerals that were being 
reclassified. 

Dee Anne F. Houston, George Washington University: Analysis of living 
reef-associated Bivalvia and their reflection in fossil reef assemblages. 

Marilyn R. Johnstone, Bard College: An evaluation of the journals of Charles 
D. Walcott, 1870-1921. 

Joyce A. Keener, Bennington College: Helping to organize two print collec- 
tions; outlining a procedure for identifying engravings and other graphic 
works according to media. 

Richard H. Kessin, Yale University: Work on the isolation of RNA poly- 
phosphates. 

Saul J. Krotki, University of Utah: Engaged in x-ray crystallographic analysis 
of garnet. 

Mary F. Kundahl, George Washington University: Research on the Hans 
Zyz Collection of 18th century Oriental and European porcelain; 
involved revision of the Collection Catalogue, expansion of the catalogue 
files, and assistance in processes necessary for displaying the collection. 

Richard S. Laub, Queens College, University of the City of New York: 
Study of morphological variations found in horizontal and vertical 
trending populations of the fossil coral Turbinolia pharetra. 

Barbara M. K. Lawrence, Bennington College: Compiled photofile books for 
exhibitions; checked photographs in former Bureau of Ethnology files 
against their negatives to determine if negatives could still be printed or 
were still extant, or properly catalogued. 



396 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — APPENDIX 

Jeffrey A. Levy, Bard College: Morphometric study of copepoda ectoparasitic 
on sharks. 

James A. McKenney, University of Maryland: Participated in initiation of 
proposed Smithsonian catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata, confining 
work to literature available on lizards known to occur south of Mexico. 

Russell B. Merrill, University of Kansas: Assisting in the illustration, descrip- 
tion, and population analysis of part of the ostracode fauna of the 
western Indian Ocean. 

Susan E. Mintz, Bennington College: Learning techniques of conservation and 
preservation of ethnological and archeological specimens. 

Maria C. Novoa, Mount Marty College (South Dakota): Studying evolu- 
tionary trends of asteroids. 

Martha S. Ray, University of Connecticut: Research on distinguishing 
between mysids and euphausids. 

Charlotte Rundles, Duke University: Engaged in anatomical research on 
the freshwater mollusks of Thailand, some of which are of medical im- 
portance. Reassigned: Study of the cranial and facial measurements of 
Eskimo and Aleutian children. 

Stephen L. Schilling, College of William and Mary: Compiling an annotated 
bibliography on animal-sediment relationships, writing a report on 
benthic animals found in marine sediments, and assisting in setting up 
the Division of Sedimentology. 

Elizabeth E. Scull, Bennington College: Survey of National Collection of 
Fine Arts' American art paintings suitable for exhibit; initiating survey of 
American art course offerings in U.S. 

Christiane E. Seidenschnur, Michigan State University: Study and prepara- 
tion of a large collection of Virginia-Maryland plants for deposit in the 
National Herbarium and distribution as exchange. 

Priscilla A. Sherwin, Pomona College: Vascularization of aroid flowers, 
of which the Department has a large collection, preserved following 
collecting trips. 

Dorman H. Smith, University of California: Carrying out preliminary research 
on instruments in the collection, then cataloguing and storing them; 
research and presentation of a paper to the Division staff on enharmonic 
keyboard instruments. 

Shari B. Taylor, Wheaton College (Massachusetts): Studying the Jurassic 
Formaninifera of the western interior of the United States. Reas- 
signed: Study of the size of Wilson's petrel related to its geographic distri- 
bution. 



6. 



Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 



June 30, 1966 



Office of the Secretary 



Office of the Assistant Secre- 
tary (Administration) 

Office of the Assistant Secre- 
tary (Science) 

Fine Arts Special Project 
Office of Education and 

Training 
Office of International 

Activities 
General Counsel 
Public Information 
Smithsonian Press 
Smithsonian Libraries 



Smithsonian Museum Service 
Smithsonian Associates 



Fiscal 

Organization and Methods 
Programming and Budget 
Contracts 
Internal Audit 
Information Systems 



Theodore W. Taylor, Assistant to the Secre- 
tary 

Philip G. Ritterbush, Special Assistant to the 
Secretary 

Robert W. Mason, Executive Assistant 

Robert N. Cunningham, Development Officer 

Samuel T. Suratt, Archivist 

John Whitelaw, Executive Assistant 

Otis O. Martin, Financial Management 
Adviser 

Harry Hyman, Special Assistant for Science 
Resources Planning 

Michael A. Stahl, Administrative Officer 

Thomas M. Beggs 

Charles Blitzer, Director 

William W. Warner, Director 

Peter G. Powers 

B. Richard Berg, Director 

Anders Richter, Director 

Mrs. Mary A. Huffer, Acting Director 

Ruth E. Blanchard, Library of Congress 
Liaison 

Meredith Johnson, Acting Director 

G. Carroll Lindsay, Acting Executive Secre- 
tary 

Mrs. Lisa M. Suter, Program Manager 

Mrs. Betty J. Morgan, Assistant Treasurer 

Ernest A. Berger, Assistant Treasurer 

Mrs. Ann S. Campbell, Director 

Edward H. Kohn, Director 

Eld ridge O. Hurlbut, Contracting Officer 

Douglas R. Martin 

Nicholas J. Suszynski, Director 

397 



230-457 — 66- 



-32 



398 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — APPENDIX 



Personnel 

Buildings Management 
Supply 
Photographic Services 



J. A. Kennedy, Director 
Andrew F. Michaels, Jr., Director 
Fred G. Barwick, Chief 
O. H. Greeson, Chief 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Director 

Registrar 

Office of Exhibits 

Natural History Laboratory 

History and Technology 

Laboratory 
Exhibits Labels Editor 
Conservation Research Labora- 
tory 
Traveling Exhibition Service 

Exhibits Coordinators 



Frank A. Taylor 

Helena M. Weiss 

John E. Anglim, Chief 

A. Gilbert Wright, Assistant Chief 

Julius Tretick, Production Supervisor 

Benjamin W. Lawless, Chief 

William M. Clark, Jr., Production Supervisor 

George Weiner 

Charles H. Olin, Chief 

Mrs. Jacqueline S. Olin, Chemist 

Mrs. Dorothy Van Arsdale, Chief 

Mrs. Nancy Curtis Padnos, Assistant Chief 

Frances P. Smyth, Mrs. Erika Passantino, 

Barboura C. Flues, Mrs. Jean Taylor, 

Mrs. Genie Rice 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Director 

Deputy Director 

Assistant Director for Oceanog- 
raphy and Limnology 
Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center 

Assistant Director for Ecology 
Research Biologist 

Special Assistant for Tropical 
Biology 

Director, Chesapeake Bay 
Field Station 

Administrative Officer 

Smithsonian Office of 
Anthropology 



Cultural Anthropology 



Richard S. Cowan 
Donald F. Squires 
I. Eugene Wallen 

H. Adair Fehlmann 

Helmut K. Buechner 

Lee M. Talbot 

F. Raymond Fosberg 

Kyle R. Barbehenn 

Mrs. Mabel A. Byrd 
Richard B. Woodbury, Chairman 
T. Dale Stewart, Senior Scientist 
Waldo R. Wedel, Senior Scientist 
John C. Ewers, Senior Scientist 
Henry B. Collins, Senior Scientist 
Mrs. M. Blaker, Archivist 
Joseph Andrews, Exhibit Specialist 
Saul H. Riesenberg, Curator in Charge 
Gordon D. Gibson, Associate Curator 



STAFF 



399 



Physical Anthropology 

River Basin Surveys 
Vertebrate ^oology 

Fishes 



Reptiles and Amphibians 
Birds 

Mammals 
Invertebrate ^oology 

Crustacea 

Echinoderms 
Worms 

Mollusks 

Entomology 

Neuropteroids 



Eugene I. Knez, Associate Curator 
Clifford Evans, Jr., Curator 
William H. Crocker, Associate Curator 
Gus W. Van Beek, Associate Curator 
Kent V. Flannery, Associate Curator 
William C. Sturtevant, Associate Curator 
Robert M. Laughlin, Associate Curator 
J. Lawrence Angel, Curator in Charge 
Lucile E. Hoyme, Associate Curator 
Robert L. Stephenson, Anthropologist 
Philip S. Humphrey, Chairman 
Leonard P. Schultz, Senior Scientist 
Ernest A. Lachner, Curator in Charge 
Victor G. Springer, Associate Curator 
William R. Taylor, Associate Curator 
Stanley H. Weitzman, Associate Curator 
Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., Associate Curator 
Doris M. Cochran, Curator in Charge 
James A. Peters, Associate Curator 
George E. Watson, Curator in Charge 
Richard L. Zusi, Associate Curator 
Paul Slud, Associate Curator 
Charles O. Handley, Jr., Curator in Charge 
Henry W. Setzer, Associate Curator 
David H. Johnson, Research Curator 
Joseph Rosewater, Acting Chairman 
Fenner A. Chace, Jr., Senior Scientist 
Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., Senior Scientist 
Joseph Britton, Systematic Zoologist 
Raymond B. Manning, Curator in Charge 
Thomas E. Bowman, Associate Curator 
J. Laurens Barnard, Associate Curator 
Louis S. Kornicker, Associate Curator 
Roger F. Cressey, Jr., Associate Curator 
David L. Pawson, Curator in Charge 
Klaus Rutzler, Associate Curator 
Meredith L. Jones, Curator in Charge 
Marian H. Pettibone, Associate Curator 
W. Duane Hope, Associate Curator 
Mary E. Rice, Associate Curator 
Joseph Rosewater, Curator in Charge 
Joseph P. E. Morrison, Associate Curator 
Harald A. Rehder, Research Curator 
Karl V. Krombein, Chairman 
J. F. Gates Clarke, Senior Scientist 
Oliver S. Flint, Jr., Curator in Charge 



400 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 APPENDIX 



Lepidoptera 



Coleoptera 

Hemiptera 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 
Botany 

Phanerogams 



Ferns 

Grasses 
Cryptogams 



Plant Anatomy 
Fungi 



Paleobiology 

Invertebrate Paleontology 



Vertebrate Paleontology 



Donald R. Davis, Curator in Charge 
W. Donald Duckworth, Associate Curator 
William D. Field, Associate Curator 
Oscar L. Cartwright, Curator in Charge 
Paul J. Spangler, Associate Curator 
Richard C. Froeschner, Curator in Charge 
Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., Curator in Charge 
William L. Stern, Chairman 
Lyman B. Smith, Senior Scientist 
John J. Wurdack, Curator in Charge 
Wallace R. Ernst, Associate Curator 
Dan H. Nicolson, Associate Curator 
Velva E. Rudd, Associate Curator 
Stanwyn G. Shetler, Associate Curator 
Conrad V. Morton, Curator in Charge 
David B. Lellinger, Associate Curator 
Thomas R. Soderstrom, Curator in Charge 
Mason E. Hale, Jr., Curator in Charge 
E. Yale Dawson, Curator* 
Paul S. Conger, Associate Curator 
Harold E. Robinson, Associate Curator 
William L. Stern, Acting Curator in Charge 
Richard H. Eyde, Associate Curator 
Chester R. Benjamin, Honorary Curator 
John A. Stevenson, Honorary Curator 
John L. Cunningham, Honorary Curator 
Marie L. Farr, Honorary Curator 
Paul Lewis Lentz, Honorary Curator 
Francis A. Uecker, Honorary Curator 
G. Arthur Cooper, Chairman 
Richard S. Boardman, Curator in Charge 
Porter M. Kier, Associate Curator 
Richard Cifelli, Associate Curator 
Erle G. Kauffman, Associate Curator 
Martin A. Buzas, Associate Curator 
Richard M. Benson, Associate Curator 
Kenneth M. Towe, Associate Curator 
Thomas R. Waller, Associate Curator 
Richard A. Robison, Associate Curator 
C. Lewis Gazin, Curator in Charge 
David H. Dunkle, Associate Curator 
Nicholas Hotton III, Associate Curator 
Clayton E. Ray, Associate Curator 



*Deceased June 23, 1966. 



STAFF 



401 



Paleobotany 

Sedimentology 
Mineral Sciences 
Meteorites 



Mineralogy 
Petrology 



Francis M. Hueber, Curator in Charge 
Walter H. Adey, Associate Curator 
Jack W. Pierce, Curator in Charge 
George S. Switzer, Chairman 
Kurt Fredriksson, Curator in Charge 
Edward P. Henderson, Curator 
Roy S. Clarke, Jr., Chemist 
Paul E.Desautels, Associate Curator in Charge 
William G. Melson, Associate Curator in 
Charge 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Office of the Director 



Associates in Ecology 



NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 
T. H. Reed 
John Perry, 

Travis E. Fauntleroy, Assistant to the Direc- 
tor 
John Eisenberg, Resident Scientist 
Donald R. Dietlein, Manager of the Animal 

Department 
Clinton W. Gray, Veterinarian 
Marian P. McCrane, Zoologist 
Helmut K. Buechner, Lee M. Talbot 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 

Director Martin H. Moynihan 

Biologists Robert L. Dressler, A. Stanley Rand, Neal 

G. Smith 



RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 

Director William H. Klein 

Assistant Director Walter A. Shropshire, Jr. 

Biochemists David L. Correll, Maurice M. Margulies, 

Francesco Parenti, Robert L. Weintraub 

Cytogeneticist Te-Hsiu Ma 

Geochemist Austin Long 

Physicist Bernard Goldberg 

Plant Physiologists Victor B. Elstad, Bernard Nebel, Leonard 

Price 

Electronic Engineer Junius H. Harrison 

Instrument Engineering Darnel G. Talbert 
Technician 



402 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 APPENDIX 



ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Director Fred L. Whipple 

Assistant Director (Science) Charles A. Lundquist 

Assistant Director (Management) Carlton W. Tillinghast 



Scientific Staff 



Consultants 



Research Associates 



Leendert Aardoom, Eugene H. Avrett, 
Nathaniel P. Carleton, Willard R. Chap- 
pell, Giuseppe Colombo, Matthias F. Co- 
merford, Allan F. Cook, Robert J. Davis, 
James C. deFelice, Charles H. Dugan, 
Giovanni G. Fazio, Edward L. Fireman, 
Enrichetta E. Forti, Giuseppe Forti, 
Fred A. Franklin, Manfred P. Friedman, 
Edward M. Gaposchkin, Owen J. Ginge- 
rich, Antanas Girnius, Mario D. Grossi, 
Salah E. Hamid, Gerald S. Hawkins, 
Henry F. Helmken, Paul W. Hodge, 
William M. Irvine, Luigi G. Jacchia, 
Wolfgang Kalkofen, Walter J. Kohn- 
lein, Yoshihide Kozai, Myron Lecar, 
Anthony R. Lee, Carlton G. Lehr, 
A. Edward Lilley, Brian G. Marsden, 
Ursula B. Marvin, Richard E. McCrosky, 
Jean Meffroy, Donald H. Menzel, Henri 
E. Mitler, Robert W. Noyes, Costas 
Papaliolios, Cecilia H. Payne-Gaposchkin, 
Douglas T. Pitman, James B. Pollack, 
Annette G. Posen, George B. Rybicki, 
Carl Sagan, Jack W. Slowey, Leonard 
H. Solomon, Richard B. Southworth, 
Stephen E. Strom, David Tilles, Sachiko 
Tsuruta, Chi- Yuen Wang, Charles A. 
Whitney, John A. Wood, Frances W. 
Wright, James P. Wright. 

Giorgio Fiocco, Yusuke Hagihara, David 
G. Hummer, William M. Kaula, Colin 
S. L. Keay, Czeslaw P. Kentzer, Irving 
Michelson, Eduardo O. Patino, A. E. 
Ringwood, Juan Roderer, Winfield W. 
Salisbury, Mario R. Schaffner, William 
E. Strange, Bhuwan M. Tripathy, Fran- 
cis X. Tuoti, George Veis 

Ralph F. Baierlein, Robert H. McCorkell, 
Thornton L. Page, Ladislav Sehnal 



STAFF 

Central Bureau for Satellite Jan Rolff, Executive Director 

Geodesy 
Central Bureau for Astronomical Owen J. Gingerich, Director 

Telegrams 



403 



SCIENCE INFORMATION EXCHANGE 



Director 

Deputy Director 
Associate Directors 



Executive Officer 



Monroe E. Freeman 

David F. Hersey 

Willis R. Foster, Life Sciences 

Frank J. Kreysa, Physical Sciences 

Harvey Marron, Operations 

V. P. Verfuerth 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Liaison Editor 
Administrative Officer 
Science and Technology 

Physical Sciences 



Mechanical and Civil 
Engineering 



Electricity 
Transportation 



Medical Sciences 



Robert P. Multhauf 

Silvio A. Bedini 

Roger Pineau 

Virginia Beets 

Walter F. Cannon, Chairman 

Mrs. Deborah J. Warner, Assistant Curator 

Walter F. Cannon, Acting Curator; in charge 
of Sections of Astronomy, Chemistry, Mete- 
orology, and Physics 

Uta C. Merzbach, Associate Curator, Sec- 
tions of Mathematics and Antique Instru- 
ments 

Robert M. Vogel, Associate Curator in 
Charge; Sections of Heavy Machinery and 
Civil Engineering 

Edwin A. Battison, Associate Curator; Sec- 
tions of Light Machinery and Horology 

Monte A. Calvert, Associate Curator, Sec- 
tion of Tools 

Bernard S. Finn, Curator 

Howard I. Chapelle, Curator 

Melvin H. Jackson, Associate Curator, Section 
of Marine Transportation 

John H. White, Jr., Associate Curator, Sec- 
tion of Land Transportation 

Sami K. Hamarneh, Curator; in charge of 
Sections of Medical and Dental Histoiy and 
Pharmaceutical History and Health 



404 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — APPENDIX 



Arts and Manufactures 

Manufactures and Heavy 

Industries 
Agriculture and Forest 

Products 
Textiles 

Ceramics and Glass 

Graphic Arts 



Civil History 

Political History 



Cultural History 



Philately and Postal History 
Numismatics 



Armed Forces History 
Military History 

Naval History 

American Studies 

Growth of the United States 



Philip W. Bishop, Chairman 
Philip W. Bishop, Acting Curator 
John N. Hoffman, Associate Curator 
John T. Schlebecker, Curator 

Mrs. Grace Rogers Cooper, Curator 

Rita J. Adrosko, Associate Curator 

Paul V. Gardner, Curator 

J. Jefferson Miller II, Associate Curator 

Jacob Kainen, Curator 

Peter Morse, Associate Curator 

Eugene Ostroff, Associate Curator; Section 

of Photography 
Richard H. Howland, Chairman 
Keith E. Melder, Associate Curator in Charge 
Mrs. Margaret B. Klapthor, Associate 

Curator 
Mrs. Anne W. Murray, Associate Curator 
Herbert R. Collins, Assistant Curator 
Mrs. Claudia B. Kidwell, Assistant Curator 
C. Malcolm Watkins, Curator 
Richard E. Ahlborn, Associate Curator 
John T. Fesperman, Jr., Concert Director 
Mrs. Cynthia A. Hoover, Associate Curator 
Rodris C. Roth, Associate Curator 
Carl H. Scheele, Associate Curator in Charge 
Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, Curator 
Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, Associate 

Curator 
Mendel L. Peterson, Chairman 
Edgar M. Howell, Curator 
Craddock R. Goins, Jr., Associate Curator 
Philip K. Lundeberg, Curator 
Wilcomb E. Washburn, Chairman 
Peter C. Welsh, Curator 
Ann Castrodale, Assistant Curator 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 



Director 

Assistant Director {Astro- 
nautics) 

Assistant Director {Education 
and Information) 

Visual Information Officer 



S. Paul Johnston 
Frederick G. Durant 

Paul E. Garber 

James A. Mahoney 



STAFF 



405 



Flight Craft 
Flight Materiel 
Flight Propulsion 
Presentation and Restoration 



Louis C. Casey, Curator in Charge 
Kenneth E. Newland, Curator in Charge 
Robert B. Meyer, Curator in Charge 
Walter M. Male, Facilities Manager 



NATIONAL ARMED FORCES MUSEUM ADVISORY BOARD 



Director 

Assistant Director 
Museum Specialist 
Advisory Board 
Members 



Ex Officio 



Col. John H. Magruder III 

James S. Hutchins 

Col. Robert M. Calland 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

Chief Justice of the United States, Secre- 
tary of Army, Secretary of Navy, 
Secretary of Air Force, David Lloyd 
Kreeger, Henry Bradford Washburn, 
Jr., William H. Perkins, Jr., James H. 
Cassell, Jr. 

Secretary of Defense, Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 



Director 

Assistant Director 

Head Curator {Near Eastern 

Art) 
Associate Curator {Chinese Art) 
Head, Technical Laboratory 



John A. Pope 
Harold P. Stern 
Richard Ettinghausen 

William Trousdale 
Rutherford J. Gettens 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 



Director 

Assistant to the Director 
Assistant for Special Services 
Special Consultants {Art) 

Curator {Painting and Sculp- 
ture) 

Curator {Exhibits) 

Curator {Information and 
Lending) 

Chief, International Art Pro- 



gram 



Librarian 



David W. Scott 

Donald R. McClelland 

John Latham 

Mrs. Adelyn Dohme Breeskin, Stefan P. 

Mu.NSING 

Richard P. Wunder 

Harry Lowe 
Rowland Lyon* 

Lois Bingham 

William Walker 



*Deceased October 21 1966. 



406 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 — APPENDIX 



Administrative Officers 
Smithsonian Art Commission 

Members 



Members Emeritus 



Harry W. Zichterman, Mrs. Louise VV. 

Robinson 
Edgar P. Richardson, Chairman 
Gilmore D. Clarke, Vice Chairman 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 
Page Cross, David E. Finley, Lloyd Good 

rich, Walker Hancock, Bartlett H. 

Hayes, Jr., Wilmarth S. Lewis, Henry P. 

McIlhenny, Paul Mellon, Ogden M. 

Pleissner, Charles H. Sawyer, Stow 

Wengenroth, Andrew Wyeth 
Leonard Carmichael, Alexander Wetmore 



Director 

Historian 

Curator 

Assistant Historian 

Librarian 

Design Consultant 

Assistants 



Commission 



Ex Officio 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Charles Nagel 
Daniel J. Reed 
Robert G. Stewart 
Mrs. Virginia Purdy 
William Walker 
Victor Proetz 

Mrs. Genevieve A. Kennedy, Museum Special- 
ist 
Mrs. Marcia Simon, Research Assistant 
Mrs. Pamela Christoffel, Research Assistant 
Lewis T. McInnis, Museum Technician 
John Nicholas Brown, Chairman, Catherine 
Drinker Bowen, Julian P. Boyd, Lewis 
Deschler, David E. Finley, Edgar P. 
Richardson, Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis, 
Richard H. Shryock, Col. Frederick P. 
Todd 
Chief Justice of the United States 
Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 
Director, National Gallery of Art 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 



Trustees 



Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United 
States, Chairman 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State 

Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smith- 
sonian Institution 

Paul Mellon, John Hay Whitney, John N. 
Irwin II, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Franklin 
D. Murphy 



STAFF 407 

President Paul Mellon 

Vice President John Hay Whitney 

Secretary-Treasurer Ernest R. Feidler 

Director John Walker 

Administrator E. James Adams 

General Counsel Ernest R. Feidler 

Chief Curator Perry B. Cott 

Assistant Director J. Carter Brown 

JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER FOR THE PERFORMING ARTS 

Chairman Roger L. Stevens 

Officers Robert O. Anderson, Vice Chairman 

Sol M. Linowitz, Vice Chairman 
Ralph E. Becker, General Counsel 
Daniel W. Bell, Treasurer 
K. LeMoyne Billings, Secretary 
Philip J. Mullin, Assistant Secretary and 

Administrative Officer 
Herbert D. Lawson, Assistant Treasurer 
Kenneth Birgfeld, Assistant Treasurer 
Paul Seltzer, Assistant Treasurer 
L. Corrin Strong, Chairman Emeritus 

INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE SERVICE 

Chief J. A. Collins 



Honorary Smithsonian Fellows, Associates, Collaborators, 
Custodians of Collections, and Honorary Curators 

NATURAL SCIENCES 

Anthropology John M. Campbell (Archeology), Sister Inez 

Hilger (Ethnology), C. G. Holland (Arche- 
ology), Neil M. Judd (Archeology), Olga 
Linares de Sapir (Archeology), Betty J. 
Meggers (Archeology), Frank H. H. Rob- 
erts, Jr. (Archeology),* Matthew W. 
Stirling (Archeology), William J. Tobin 
(Physical Anthropology), Douglas Taylor 
(Ethnology), Theodore A. Wertime (Arche- 
ology), Nathalie F. S. Woodbury (Arche- 
ology) 

*Deceased February 23, 1966. 



408 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1966 APPENDIX 



Vertebrate ^oology 



Invertebrate ^oology 



Entomology 



Botany 



Paleobiology 



Mineral Sciences 



John W. Aldrich (Birds), Oliver L. Austin, 
Jr. (Birds), Leonard Carmichael (Psychol- 
ogy and Animal Behavior), Herbert G. 
Deign an (Birds), Robert W. Ficken (Birds), 
Herbert Friedmann (Birds), Laurence 
Irving (Birds), E. V. Komarek (Mammals), 
Richard H. Manville (Mammals), 
Edgardo Mondolfi (Mammals), Robert 
B. Paine (Birds), Michael Palmieri (Birds), 
Dioscoro S. Rabor (Birds), Lester L. 
Short (Birds), Alexander Wetmore 
(Birds), John G. Williams (Birds) 

Willard W. Becklund (Helminthology), 
J. Bruce Bredin (Biology), Maybelle H. 
Chitwood (Worms), Ailsa M. Clark 
(Marine Invertebrates), Elisabeth Deich- 
mann (Echinoderms), Waldo L. Schmitt 
(Marine Invertebrates), Frank R. Schwen- 
gel (Mollusks), Gilbert L. Voss (Mollusks), 
Mrs. Mildred Stratton Wilson (Copepod 
Crustacea) 

William H. Anderson (Coleoptera), Doris H. 
Blake (Coleoptera), Frank L. Campbell 
(Insect Physiology), Domiciano Dias 
(Insect Ecology), K. C. Emerson (Malloph- 
aga), Frank M. Hull (Diptera), William 
L. Jellison (Siphonaptera, Anoplura), Carl 
F. W. Muesebeck (Hymenoptera), Thomas 
E. Snyder (Isoptera), Robert Traub 
(Siphonaptera) 

Jose Cuatrecasas (Flora of Tropical South 
America), Elbert L. Little, Jr. (Den- 
drology), Floyd A. McClure (Bamboos), 
Kittie F. Parker (Compositae), Egbert H. 
Walker (Myrsinaceae, Eastern Asian Floras) 

C. Wythe Cooke (Intertebrate Paleontology), 
J. Thomas Dutro (Invertebrate Paleon- 
tology), Remington Kellogg (Vertebrate 
Paleontology), Axel A. Olsson (Inverte- 
brate Paleontology), Franco Rasetti (In- 
vertebrate Paleontology), Wendell P. Wood- 
ring (Invertebrate Paleontology) 

Edward P. Henderson (Meteorites), John B. 
Jago (Mineralogy), Gunnar Kullerud 
(Meteorites), Rosser Reeves (Mineralogy), 
Harry Winston (Mineralogy), Waldemar 
T. Schaller (Mineralogy) 



STAFF 



409 



National Zoological Park 

Smithsonian Astrophysical 

Observatory 
Smithsonian Tropical Research 

Institute 



Exhibits 

Science and Technology 
Arts and Manufactures 
Civil History 



Armed Forces History 
Freer Gallery of Art 
National Air Museum 
Smithsonian Press 



Jean Delacour, E. P. Walker, Constance 

Warner 
Charles G. Abbot 

Charles F. Bennett, Jr., Robert H. Mag- 
Arthur, Ernst Mayr, Giles W. Mead, 
W. John Smith, C. C. Soper, Martin 
Young 

W. L. Brown (Taxidermy) 

Derek J. de Solla Price 

Hans Syz (Ceramics) 

Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood (Cultural 
History), Elmer C. Herber (History), 
Ivor Noel Hume (Cultural History), Fred 
W. McKay (Numismatics), Mrs. Emery 
May Norweb (Numismatics), R. Henry 
Norweb (Numismatics), Mrs. Joan Pear- 
son Watkins (Cultural History) 

William Rea Furlong, Frederic C. Lane, 
Byron McCandless 

Oleg Grabar, Max Loehr, Katherine N. 
Rhoades 

Frederick C. Crawford, Alfred V. Ver- 
ville 

Paul H. Oehser