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Smithsonian Year 



Washington 1967 


The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846, 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, of England, 
who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America 
"to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men." In receiving the property and accepting the trust, 
Congress determined that the Federal Government was without 
authority to administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted 
an "establishment," whose statutory members are "the President, 
the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive 

The Establishment 

Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States 

Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the United States 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State 

Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury 

Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense 

Ramsey Clark, Attorney General 

Lawrence F. O'Brien, Postmaster General 

Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of Interior 

Orville L. Freeman, Secretary o" Agriculture 

Alexander B. Trobridge, Secretary of Commerce 

W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary of Labor 

John W. Gardner, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

Robert C. Weaver, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

Alan S. Boyd, Secretary of Transportation 

Board of Regents and Secretary 

June 30, 1967 

Presiding Officer ex officio 


Regents of the Institution 

Executive Committee 

Assistant Secretaries 

Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the 

United States 
Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the 

United States 
Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the 

United States, Chancellor 
Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President 

of the United States 
Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the 

J. William Fulbright, Member of the 

Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 
Frank T. Bow, Member of the House of 

Michael J. Kirwan, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
George H. Mahon, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode 

William A. M. Burden, citizen of New 

Robert V. Fleming, citizen of Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of 

Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington, 

Jerome C. Hunsaker, citizen of Massa- 
Robert V. Fleming, Chairman, Clinton 

P. Anderson, Caryl P. Haskins 
S. Dillon Ripley 
James Bradley, Assistant Secretary 
Sidney R. Galler, Assistant Secretary 


A listing of the professional staff of the Smithsonian Institution, its 
bureaus, and its offices, appears in Appendix 7. 

H^ M 

The annual report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution appears 
under the general title Smithsonian Year. 

It contains the reports of the bureaus and branches of the Institution, including 
that of the United States National Museum. This report on the activities of its 
component Museums of Natural History and of History and Technology, 
was last issued as a separate publication for fiscal year 1964, appearing in 1965. 
Issuance of the annual report of the Secretary is no longer followed by appear- 
ance of a greenbound volume containing a General Appendix of articles in 
the sciences and the arts. The last of the old series is that for 1964. 
Reprints of each of the bureau reports are available. To some of them are 
appended tabulated, statistical, and other information of primary interest to 
those concerned with the particular field covered, and which for reasons of 
space can no longer be carried in this volume. 




The Establishment ii 

The Smithsonian Institution iii 

Statement by the Secretary 1 

Smithsonian Activities — Natural Sciences 43 

Office of Ecology 45 

Office of Oceanography and. Limnology 63 

Museum of Natural History 73 

Research and Publication 77 

Systematics 77 

Anthropology 78 

Botany. . • 87 

Entomology 90" 

Invertebrate Zoology 93 

Mineral Sciences 96 

Paleobiology 99 

Vertebrate Zoology 104 

The Collections 109 

Exhibits 125 

Staff Publications 129 

National Zoological Park 155 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 171 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 183 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 193 

Optical A c tronomy 193 

Radio Astronomy 195 

Gamma Ray Astronomy 196 

Theoretical Astrophysics 198 

Planetary Studies 202 

Flight Experiments 206 

Meteorites and Cosmic Dust 207 

Comets and Meteors 211 

Historical Astronomy 212 

Central Bureaus 212 

Staff Changes 213 

Staff Papers 214 


Smithsonian Activities — History and Art 229 

Museum of History and Technology 231 

Research and Publication 237 

Science and Technology 237 

Arts and Manufactures 241 

Civil History 246 

American Studies 251 

Armed Forces History 254 

The Collections 259 

Exhibits 271 

Staff Publications 277 

National Air and Space Museum 283 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 293 

Freer Gallery of Art 297 

National Collection of Fine Arfs 307 

National Portrait Gallery 325 

National Gallery of Art 337 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 357 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 375 

Other Smithsonian Activities, Programs, and Services 379 

United States National Museum 381 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 383 

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 388 

Office of Exhibits 389 

Office of the Registrar 396 

International Exchange Service 399 

Science Information Exchange 401 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 405 

Smithsonian Institution Press 409 

Office of International Activities 413 

Office of Education and Training 427 

Office of Public Affairs 431 

Smithsonian Museum Service ! 433 

Smithsonian Associates 435 

Administrative Support Services 439 

Appendix 443 

1 . Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents . . 445 

2. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants 471 

3. Publications of the Smithsonian Press 475 

4. Smithsonian Associates 487 

5. Members of the Smithsonian Council 489 

6. Research Participation Programs, Appointments 495 

7. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 501 

Statement by the Secretary 

Statement by the Secretary 
S. Dillon Ripley 

Come years ago, in conversation, the late Robert Oppen- 
heimer remarked to me that he felt that men in the future 
would find the single area of greatest discovery in biology. 
Oppenheimer was of course thinking primarily of the then ex- 
citing discoveries in molecular biology, the end effects of which, 
while perhaps inevitably upon us, will not be revealed for many 

As a biologist, one might now question whether there is 
not another area where discoveries rather than refinements 
await us. To me it seems that the single area which needs the 
greatest amount of attention from discoverers is that uncharted 
and almost unknown field which might be called social biology. 
The field is unknown and uncharted because it is not a specialty, 
and today most scientists are trained for narrow specialties. 
Biologists are concerned primarily with laboratory or field 
studies of animal and plant species. Sociologists are concerned 
primarily with the study of the origins and history and constitu- 
tion of human society. In universities the departments of the 
two disciplines are usually in separate buildings, and in libraries 
the books they use tend to come from different parts of the 

In fact, sociologists labor under the disadvantage of being 
somewhat luxated; are they scientists or are they humanists? 
It is a symbol of the age that they should feel thus dislocated. 
It is of course unnecessary. Similarly, some thoughtful biologists 
tend today to feel slightly uncomfortable about being scientists. 
Science in the public mind has come to be associated almost 
exclusively with the physical sciences or with medicine. Scien- 
tists are white-coated men, either possessed of a Batman-like 
syndrome, about to fly off into space, or else all-knowing, wise 
versions of Dr. Kildare. In any case, biologists who have to do 



with physico-chemical processes involving the components of a 
single cell, or those who are involved with medical science, can 
perhaps feel closer to the physical scientists and to medicine. 

But biologists associated with natural phenomena in gross, 
external terms, with population biology and the dynamics of 
large systems, and with much of what is today called ecology 
(a badly misused word in most cases) as well as paleobiologists 
and evolutionists — many of these sorts of biologists find them- 
selves somewhat dislocated. Perhaps they are in danger of be- 
coming humanists? Perhaps indeed the scientific sociologists and 
the humanist biologists are approaching each other, figures on a 
darkened and uncharted stage. 

When one says that there is an area here which perhaps 
contains the single, greatest problem that man faces today, one 
is referring to problems of human survival and of morality. 
Here it must be said that many scientists are greatly troubled 
about the responsibilities and the integrity of science. Scientists 
and sociologists alike work in disciplines where study brings 
them a knowledge of the social consequences of the discovery 
of new technologies and of new principles about behavior. By 
training, however, most scientists tend to be cautious about 
ascribing broad implications to the results of narrowly defined 
and controlled experiments. Science-minded sociologists tend to 
have kindred feelings, and often prefer to remain aloof from the 
dangerous area where theoretical results are correlated with non- 
controlled situations. 

And yet there is a responsibility to speak out. As the condi- 
tions of the environment deteriorate, as the social disorders of 
the age deepen, the special relationship between the scientist's 
social responsibilities and his general duties of citizenship grows 
critical. As Commoner says, "If the scientist, directly or by infer- 
ences from his actions, lays claim to a special responsibility for 
the resolution of the policy issues which relate to technology, 
he may, in effect, prevent others from performing their own 
political duties. If the scientist fails in his duty to inform citizens, 
they are precluded from the gravest acts of citizenship and lose 
their right of conscience."* 

''Barry Commoner. Science and Survival. New York, 1 966, p. 1 30. 


In 1847 Joseph Henry, meditating upon the course of the 
Smithsonian Institution, wrote: "To effect the greatest amount 
of good, the organization should be such as to enable the Institution 
to produce results in the way of increasing and diffusing knowl- 
edge, which cannot be produced by the existing institutions in 
our country." What is there that we in the Smithsonian can 
think upon which would illumine the basic problems confronting 
social biology? 

There are certainly three paths along which we might travel 
toward illumination : one leads to the study of terrestrial environ- 
ment, another to the study of our social environment, and the 
third to the study of man as an evolving species. 

The disorder of our age is graphically illustrated by the slow 
degrading of man's terrestrial environment. There is something 
inherently wrong with man's relations with his environment. 
Nature suffers continually in an undeclared war. Man, animated 
by hunger for profit or for spectacular action, continually erodes 
our landscape. Many feel indeed that this is appropriate, that 
man and nature can never live in harmony. Thomas Hardy said, 
"nature and man can never be friends." Must we then kill off 
our enemy and in so doing kill off ourselves? 

Biologists have a social duty to alert citizens to the inescap- 
able results of such mass suicide. In this Institution we have in 
particular one great scientific resource to bring to bear upon 
this problem. Our sorts of biologists are concerned with the 
quality of the environment, for they are concerned with sys- 
tematics, with setting into categories organisms that are inescap- 
ably a part of the particular environments within which they, 
as species, live. The assembled data about species in relation to 
their environments assumes an historic and important relevance 
to the environment as it is today. That is, the recordings of sys- 
tematists become a series of benchmarks against which modern 
environments can be gauged. To put it in crude terms we know 
for example that the American mountain lion was exterminated 
from all the eastern seaboard States by the late 1800s, except 
for the fastnesses of Florida and parts of West Virginia and Ver- 
mont. Today the principal population of mountain lions survives 
precariously only in parts of the Sierra Nevada and the high 
mountains of the West. We also know why. We know the food 
habits, the predator-prey food chain, the range requirements, 


the amount of "leaving alone" which a mountain lion requires 
in order to live and reproduce its kind. In a similar way we know 
the requirements of a whole series of animal and plant species, 
and what happened to them when these requirements were not 

All these situations are similar in that a certain formula is 
involved. A proportion of one or another sets of conditions is 
required, without which a certain species will not occur. The 
declining ratio of natural to man-made conditions over the con- 
tinent creates multiple effects which can be measured or simu- 
lated through models. The results, when arrayed against the 
resources of the planet, surely could tell us much of the ability 
of various species to survive. The results also tell us something 
of man's plasticity and tolerance, and of his ability to survive 
the changes he is introducing into the environment. 

One of the keys to American success in foreign aid and indeed 
in foreign relations will be the degree to which American plan- 
ners pay attention to the knowledge of environmental problems 
already possessed by American scientists. At present there is 
little if any indication that aid planners or foreign policy planners 
have ever heard of ecology or would know how to talk to a 
systematic biologist if they met one. And yet in areas of the 
tropical world today ecologists and systematists are far more 
capable of predicting the effects of change in the environment 
than are engineers and dam builders or agriculturists. The 
proposed International Biological Program — unknown to most 
planners or policy makers — has within it the capacity of mobiliz- 
ing field biologists into a concerted effort to understand the 
present state of our terrestrial environment all over the world. 
The resulting information could be utilized in a way which 
might provide vital criteria, real benchmarks against which to 
set our standards for survival for the future. Our traditional 
economic and political aims, keyed to commercial development 
and the promotion of consumer consciousness, have blinded us to 
our own survival. 

Another disorder of this age is graphically illustrated by the 
decline of social and moral values in our cities. The problems of 
deteriorating environment and of social disorder are related. 
As the landscape suffers, man becomes less humane. As Hoffer, 
speaking of our increased command over nature, says, "In many 


parts of the world the taming of nature by rapid industrialization 
gave rise to degrees of social barbarization."* If man cannot live 
in cities as a humane individual, then he cannot survive. Thus 
social biologists have a duty to alert citizens to the inescapable 
results of urbanization. 

In this Institution, a world center for anthropology, there 
should be a whole series of benchmarks which, interpreted by 
social anthropologists, could produce models of stress, crowding 
phenomena, aggression and hostility. Our view derived from 
these data could be of great use, indeed ensynoptic. 

The Institution contains within it the national archives for 
anthropology. It is the greatest actual repository of data on 
American Indians. It should be the home for urgent anthropol- 
ogy activities throughout the world, the salvage of ethnographic 
and linguistic records before they become extinct. We are 
answering Professor Levi-Strauss' challenge to us at our Bi- 
centennial Seminars in 1965. Already the Wenner-Gren Foun- 
dation for Anthropological Research has responded with a 
grant to the Institution for commencing these studies. Within 
these materials lie the seeds of invaluable comparative research 
on man's ability to survive the disorders of this age. 

It may be germane here to refer to the fact that the Smith- 
sonian's Office of Anthropology is emerging as a center of inter- 
national anthropology through its organization of imaginative 
new programs. In the past two years the consolidation of the 
former Department of Anthropology and the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology has been accomplished. A survey, in consultation 
with a distinguished panel of anthropologists, has helped us 
establish urgent tasks and set guidelines for the future. With 
the help of Professor Sol Tax, special advisor for anthropology, 
the chairman of the Office- — Richard Woodbury until early 
this year, now Saul Riesenberg — -and the curators have been 
planning three basic programs. One of the most fundamental 
of these programs is that already mentioned, in urgent anthro- 
pology. A second is a new, badly needed, cooperative project, 
the revised Handbook of North American Indians, which will 
require perhaps ten years to complete and may run to fifteen 
volumes. A third and unique program is in ancient technologies. 

*Eric Hoffer. The Temper of Our Time. New York, 1967. 


Using modern scientific techniques in the study of such crafts 
as metal working, textile manufacture, and pottery making, 
and working in conjunction with laboratories such as the Battelle 
Memorial Institute as well as our own Conservation-Analytical 
Laboratory, we hope for great increases in our ability to learn 
from archeological finds. 

As an archive for anthropological science, the Smithsonian 
must mobilize every resource to support anthropological in- 
formation exchange, cooperative teaching, and the coordination 
of our basic understanding of man's place in the world. In this 
connection we should review the possibility, raised over the 
years by our leading anthropologists, of creating a modern 
Museum of Man. The emergence of new nations, as Professor 
Tax has pointed out, signals the end of the era when there was 
"civilized man" who ruled another kind of man called "natural 
man," and often displayed him in a museum along with precious 
jewels, rocks, and dinosaurs. All cultures and all humans should 
be accorded equal dignity and respect, and for this they deserve 
a museum of their own. 

Man has not changed genetically in fifty thousand years. 
Man is, however, extraordinarily plastic and tolerant in his 
individual response to life itself. The key to much of this occurs 
in the experience of the maturing individual. Here again this 
Institution has an enormous untapped resource, our visitors, 
who each year devotedly come in their millions, bringing their 
children. None of us has successfully discerned the way toward 
asking the questions of our visitors which might teach us of their 
inherent or innate interests. Here lie seeds for a fertile study 
which we intend to pursue. From it perhaps we may learn 
something of the processes of conceptualization and synthesis 
that lie at the very heart of the problem of the use of knowledge. 

Ultimately, if we are to increase knowledge, it must be dif- 
fused. This year marks the renaissance of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press as an earnest of our intent to adhere to first princi- 
ples. As Professor Henry envisaged, the Institution should publish 
treatises consisting "of valuable memoirs translated from foreign 
languages, or of articles prepared under the direction of the 
Institution, or procured by offering premiums for the best ex- 
position of a given subject." The state of knowledge of social 


biology will be enhanced this year, we hope, through the pub- 
lication of the second Smithsonian Annual, the results of the 
February 1967 conference on "The Quality of Man's Environ- 
ment," partially supported by grants from the Ford Foundation 
and the Taconic Foundation. The first catalog of publications 
of the Smithsonian Institution Press has just been issued. 

Last summer, in August 1966, under the innovative leader- 
ship of Charles Blitzer, Director of the Smithsonian programs 
in education and training, a conference, supported by a grant 
from the U.S. Office of Education, was held by the Institution 
on the subject of museums and education. The results, edited 
by Professor Eric Larrabee, will be published shortly by the 
Smithsonian's Press. Meanwhile, a suggestion emanating from 
discussions at that conference is about to be put into effect. 
One's concern with museums is partly directed toward the prob- 
lem of who goes to see them. Most people go to museums be- 
cause they are already won over to the proposition that a visit 
is worthwhile. Many go in classes. Still others go because it is 
a social duty or, like taking a vitamin pill, a nostrum for culture. 
But many people who could be greatly benefited by going to 
museums — who could have latent interests aroused or who would 
be ripe for open education, undidactic, unstressed — never get to 
museums. Some live in poor neighborhoods out of which they 
do not travel. Some are inherently hostile toward marble pal- 
aces. The suggestion is, then, that we help a local committee 
in some urban area plan a neighborhood museum. 

With the stimulating aid of grants from the Carnegie Cor- 
poration of New York, the Meyer Foundation of Washington, 
and the Richardson Fund of Connecticut, we are helping a 
neighborhood council to create the Anacostia Neighborhood 
Museum in southeast Washington. Already plans for exhibits 
and participation programs have been advanced by the Neigh- 
borhood Museum Committee and the Director, John Kinard. 
These seem full of promise and interest, and the Museum is 
opening officially September 15, 1967. 

Another important experiment in education is that of an 
exhibit for the blind, or, as the term is, sightless persons. With the 
aid of a planning grant from the Vocational Rehabilitation 
Administration, Mr. Blitzer has been working with Dr. Brian 


O'Doherty in planning an exhibit which will be stimulating 
not only to sightless but also to sighted persons. 

As Professor Derek Price has recently stated, in the field of 
the history of science the Institution is preeminent for its re- 
sources in objects and in skilled research staff. Among its greatest 
treasures is a notable collection of letters and manuscripts of 
Joseph Henry, who was selected by the National Historical 
Publications Commission of the National Archives as the first 
scientist whose papers should be published under national 
auspices. It is appropriate, therefore, that the Smithsonian, in 
happy conjunction with the American Philosophical Society 
and the National Academy of Sciences, should have determined 
to publish the papers of Joseph Henry. Aided by a vital grant 
from the National Science Foundation, this project has now 
commenced under the editorship of Dr. Nathan Reingold. A 
guiding committee of associated specialists has been formed. In 
this connection, it has also been heartening to observe the 
progress made by the Institution's talented archivist Samuel T. 
Suratt in developing our manuscript collections for use by 
historical scholars. 

Members of the staff of the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology themselves continue to produce important work, such 
as Robert Multhauf's The Origins of Chemistry (Oldbourne, 1966). 
In addition, work at the forefront of modern technology con- 
tinues with a comprehensive study aimed at documenting the 
development of the art of the computer through interviews with 
scientists and inventors, as well as through collecting printed 
and manuscript material relating to the subject. 

Additional monographs of our historians include Walter 
Cannon's Social History of Science in Victorian England (to be 
published by Routledge and Kegan Paul) ; Bernard Finn's 
Sources of Thermoelectricity (to be published by Johnson) ; and 
Sami K. Hamarneh's Catalogue of Arabic Pharmaceutical Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum; as well as Monte Calvert's The 
Mechanical Engineer in America, 1830-1910 (The Johns Hopkins 
Press) . 

The Smithsonian Institution has been asked on numerous 
occasions this year to join in planning for the bicentennial 
observances of the American Revolution in 1976. The Secretary 
is a member of the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities, 



Photo Courtesy W. H. Watkins 

Secretary of Transportation Alan S. Boyd (below, left) and Mrs. George H. 
Mahon, wife of the Smithsonian Regent, and acting Secretary James Bradley 
(fourth left) chat with Bill Suitor of Bell Aerosystems Company, who demon- 
strated (above) a rocket belt on the Mall, April 1, 1967, during the Pageant 
marking the establishment of the new Department of Transportation. 




Photo Courtesy W. H. Watkins 

At the Pageant of Transportation, Don Piccard ascended in a 50-foot hot-air 
balloon as Suitor demonstrated the rocket belt, and (below) the Porter Family 
Puppeteers entertained young people. 

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The Smithsonian's 1 880 hotel omnibus (below) and the autos of the National 
Capital Region Antique Automobile Association represented stages in the 
progress of transportation. 



The U.S. Air Force Bagpipe Band marched, and (below) the Bell Aerosystems 
Company air cushion vehicle Hydroskimmer was demonstrated at the Pageant 
of Transportation. 

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charged by the Congress to plan for national celebrations of an 
historic nature. In addition the Secretary is a member ex officio 
of the President's "American Revolution Bicentennial Com- 
mission." In its April 21, 1967, report, the House Appropriations 
Committee reiterated its desire and intent that the Smithsonian 
Institution shall take an active part in the celebration of the 
bicentennial of the American Revolution. 

There are two central physical frames of reference for the 
Institution's participation, one the new Museum of History and 
Technology on the Mall, the other the authorized but still 
unconstructed Armed Forces Museum and Park. In the first, a 
series of exhibits and commemorative publications over the next 
eight years will gradually document the coming of the Revolu- 
tion. Already, two years ago, a first exhibit was held commem- 
orating the Stamp Act, and this year an exhibit on George 
Mason and the Bill of Rights was prepared. Next year an 
exhibit covering the Townshend Acts of 1 767 and the arrival of 
the British Customs Commissioners will be shown. In this way, a 
gradual procession of special exhibits relating to the development 
of the Revolution will be constructed. In addition it is hoped 
that Congress will authorize the construction of two small special 
pavilions to encompass additional historic exhibits of the greatest 
importance for the Bicentennial year. 

The National Armed Forces Museum and Park could in 
itself be a valuable adjunct to the visitor's traversing of the 
eastern seaboard from Boston to Williamsburg for the commem- 
oration of the events of 1776. On the road from Washington via 
the Woodrow Wilson Bridge to Mount Vernon and on to 
Williamsburg, the Park, to be situated near Fort Foote, would 
be a valuable intermediate point. It is hoped that a series of 
important discussions on the causes of war and peace can be 
held during the next year which might help to set the themes of 
this Congressionally authorized museum. 

In the coming year two events of artistic and historic im- 
portance will occur in Washington. The first, in the spring of 
1968, will be the reopening in new quarters in the old Patent 
Office building of the National Collection of Fine Arts. This 
should be a momentous event. Moving operations, commenced 
in early 1967, will have consumed a year. Meanwhile, because of 


the energetic work of Director David W. Scott and his staff, and 
because of enhanced public understanding of the role of this 
important art gallery, substantial augmentations to the collection 
have been made, most notably the S. C. Johnson Wax Company 
collection of contemporary American artists' works, valued at 
approximately a million dollars, and the Paul Manship collec- 
tion, as well as many individual gifts. The National Collection 
of Fine Arts, now to be finally in a home of its own, will create 
a major new artistic influence in the life of the capital. 

In the latter part of 1968 an event of historic importance 
will be the opening of the United States' first National Portrait 
Gallery. This is still an organization in its infancy, but given 
handsome and stylish quarters and its nucleus of important 
paintings and sculptural likenesses, it is the earnest hope of the 
National Portrait Gallery Commission, endorsed by the Regents, 
that the Gallery will attract gifts as well as Congressional interest 
appropriate to its nascent stature and central importance as a 
repository for historical and biographical iconography. 

The work of the U.S. National Museum under its Director, 
Frank Taylor, is central to some of the critical problems of our 
age. Never before have museums enjoyed such a wealth of 
opportunities or faced such trials as those contained in the 
worldwide crisis in education and the bewildering search for 
life values and standards. Educators are beginning to recognize 
that museums provide much of the reality— lacking in classroom 
and books- — needed to stimulate curiosity and the will to learn. 
Museums provide opportunities for people of all ages and con- 
ditions to continue to grow with the inspiration of the works of 
great artists, scholars, and patriots, the products of past and 
present civilizations, and the physical evidence of the wonders 
of nature. 

On June 20, 1967, President Johnson wrote to the Secre- 
tary — in his capacity as Chairman of the Federal Council on the 
Arts and Humanities — requesting the Council to study the 
status of American museums and to recommend ways to support 
and strengthen them. The President's letter, which showed his 
awareness of both the problems and the potentialities of museums, 
presents us with an immensely exciting challenge : 

America's five thousand museums are among our most precious 
cultural and educational resources. Their collections, their trained 


staffs, and their facilities contribute immeasurably to the enrich- 
ment of the nation's life and to educational advancement at every 

Not only do imaginative museum exhibits excite the curiosity 
of millions ; many scholars — in science, in the arts and the humani- 
ties — rely upon museum collections for their raw material. 

Attendance at U.S. museums has already passed 300,000,000 
visits a year. In many places, inadequate museum budgets and 
facilities are under severe strain. In the future, the nation's museums 
will be expected to reach and serve additional millions. Accelerated 
research programs will cause more and more scholars to seek access 
to museum collections. 

Our museums have shown their willingness to join with other 
institutions to promote the "increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men." Certainly they should have the wherewithal to do 
that great work effectively. 

We are eager to respond to this challenge. 

For 125 years the Smithsonian has shared its experience and 
resources with museums of the United States and abroad. In the 
past year an entirely new volume and quality of museum assist- 
ance was reached. A start was made to investigate the funda- 
mentals of the interaction between the museum visitor and 
exhibited objects, and to reach, through neighborhood museums 
and traveling exhibits, those people who do not visit museums. 
Evaluation of the museum experience, experimentation with 
communication through senses other than sight, and a study of 
museum audiences and their needs, were undertaken. 

The National Museum Act of 1966, passed by the Congress 
and approved by the President in October 1966, reaffirmed the 
Smithsonian's role of assistance to museums and authorized 
appropriations to meet needs and to study problems common to 
all museums. In the Act, Congress recognized that museums are 
important elements of the cultural and educational development 
of the United States. 

Though no appropriations have yet been made under the 
Act, it has stimulated requests for aid from every State and a 
score of nations. In the spirit of the Act, the Smithsonian has 
entered into agreements with other museums to train science- 
museum technicians, has participated in the first Museum Con- 
ference for Small Museums, in Texas, and has provided many 
on-the-spot consultative services ranging from the direction of 




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Secretary Ripley presents photographs of Korean exhibits in the Museum of 
Natural History to His Excellency II Kwon Chung, Prime Minister of Korea, 
at a reception in his honor in the Museum of History and Technology. 

the planning of acquisitions and interpretation for a large 
museum department (at Oakland, California) to the structuring 
of a workshop on exhibits preparation for a community (in 
Charleston, West Virginia) of small museums which are con- 
ducted largely with volunteer services. 

In cooperation with officers of the American Association of 
Museums representations have been made to Government 
agencies justifying direct Federal aid for the construction of 
museum facilities on the basis of the increased demands made 
upon museums by educational institutions stimulated by the 
Federal aid available to schools. In addition new Federal aid 
has prompted schools to take advantage of museums as supple- 
mentary teaching centers and to use them for curriculum 
improvement and enrichment. 

At the request of the Minister of Education of the Republic 
of Korea and of the Director of the Pacific Science Board of the 
National Academy of Sciences, the Smithsonian participated 
in the Symposium on a Korean National Science Museum 
and supported the attendance at Seoul of a number of museum 
professionals from other institutions. The report of the Sym- 


posium recommended a planning study for which the Korean 
Government has since appropriated the equivalent of $25,000. 
A newly formed foundation, The American Friends of the 
Korean National Science Cultural Center, under the direction 
of Joseph A. Patterson, former Director of the American Asso- 
ciation of Museums, is endeavoring to obtain the balance of 
the support required for the study. 

The attendance of the Chairman of the United States 
National Committee of the International Council of Museums 
at the I COM Cairo Conference on Museum Exhibition was 
supported. Progress in the planning for a regional laboratory 
to produce exhibits on science and technology for developing 
countries was set back by the war in the Middle East. The 
Secretary of the Smithsonian is now a member of the ICOM 
Executive Committee and one of its Vice Presidents. 

The cooperative publishing program with the American 
Association of Museums was continued, with the Smithsonian 
Institution Press undertaking distribution of the Museums 
Directory of the United States and Canada and with an agreement 
to share the cost of the publication of the revision of 
the manual, Museum Registration Methods, by Dorothy H. 
Dudley and Irma Bezold. A more substantial share was assumed 
in the work of tabulating the returns from the questionnaire on 
museum education which was sponsored jointly by the American 
Association of Museums, the United States Office of Education, 
and the Smithsonian Institution. 

One year of use of the series of teaching exhibits on the 
elementary physics of light for 4th- to 6th-grade students was 
completed in three schools of the Fairfax (Virginia) County 
School System. The results obtained from these exhibits were 
universally approved by the teachers and principals who 
observed them. Many side effects resulted from the experiment, 
such as increasing the self-reliance of students who had their 
first learning experiences as individuals away from the classroom, 
and the stimulation of determined nonreaders to learn to read. 
The Prince William County Schools have requested the exhibits 
for next year and have undertaken to provide a thorough and 
credible evaluation test as part of the County's program under 
Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 


The Smithsonian Council assembled twice, in October and 
again in March, for discussions with the Secretary and members 
of the professional staff. Dr. Ralph E. Alston, one of the initial 
Council members from the University of Texas, died February 
17, 1967. Jan LaRue, Professor of Music at the Graudate 
School of Arts and Sciences of New York University, and Elting 
Morison, Acting Master of Ezra Stiles College at Yale Univer- 
sity, joined the Council during the year. 

At the October meeting members discussed the development 
of a center for scholars in Washington and the relations of such 
a center to the consortium of local universities. Subcommittees 
met with members of the department of science and technology 
and heard reports of current Smithsonian activities from the 
National Portrait Gallery and the staff of the Office of Anthro- 
pology. Among other subjects treated by the Council were: the 
problem of managing special exhibits and public service projects, 
the selection of post-doctoral research associates, the possibility 
of forming a union library catalog within the center for scholars, 
and the extent to which museum staff members should engage 
in graduate -level teaching. The Secretary led a discussion of the 
attributes of museum scholars compared to their university 
colleagues and the problem of the place of museum objects in 

At the second meeting there was further discussion of the 
Smithsonian libraries and of the proposal for a union catalog 
serving all Washington libraries. The Council heard reports 
from Eugene Wallen on Smithsonian oceanographic activities 
and from Peter Farb, designer of the hall of insects for the 
Museum of Natural History. Frank Taylor presented a report 
on recent experiments in museum practices and the organiza- 
tional changes indicated by a modernized exhibits program. At 
the dinner concluding the meetings, Mrs. Adelyn Breeskin, our 
distinguished consultant in modern art and education, spoke on 
the present role of our galleries and museums in fostering an 
appreciation of art. 

The long continuing effort of the Smithsonian Institution 
and other institutions and individuals to effect United States 
membership in the International Centre at Rome for the Study 
of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property has 
made notable progress. The Department of State has said that 


it will support United States membership in the Centre (which 
is an international organization of member states) and sug- 
gested that the Smithsonian undertake to obtain the legislation 
authorizing the membership. To this end the Smithsonian held 
a number of meetings of representatives of interested institutions 
and agencies who have indicated a uniform support of U.S. 
membership. The legislation necessary to authorize membership 
has been drafted for introduction in Congress during the current 
session. Both the United States and the Centre would gain from 
U.S. membership and the worldwide task of preserving cultural 
objects and paintings would be greatly aided by an increase of 
research, training, consultation, and the dissemination of knowl- 
edge of advances in scientific conservation. 

A start has now been made in developing the Arts and 
Industries building as the renamed Smithsonian Exposition 
Hall. Exhibits which are outside the scope of the interests of 
particular Smithsonian elements but which have substantial 
social interest were held : the exhibit of work of the young men 
and women of the Job Corps was one ; another was the collection 
of present day appliqued molas produced for sale by the San 
Bias Indians. 

The Smithsonian Institution's Traveling Exhibition Service 
has circulated 108 exhibitions during the year, including the 
tremendously successful "Art Treasures of Turkey." Among its 
innovative projects, the Service has implemented an art program 
for District of Columbia schools on a matching-fund basis with 
with the National Endowment for the Arts, through the D.C. 
Recreation Department. Seven schools were involved, with 
seven exhibitions redistributed five times. 

The general public's insatiable quest for information on 
every subject was reflected again this year in letters of inquiry 
and letters transmitting items for identification. These communi- 
cations, coming particularly from elementary and secondary 
students and numbering 250 to 275 a week, were received and 
processed through the Office of the Registrar. Dinosaurs re- 
mained the most popular subject, with American Indians run- 
ning a close second, followed by Stradivarius violins, coins, and 
requests for information on early Americana. The NBC Smith- 
sonian television series generated a sizable influx of questions 
relating to the subject matter of the programs. Typically, one 


young man wrote, "I love your television shows but I like the 
one on meteorites best. Please send me . . . ." 

The shipping office completed a most active year, having 
processed 14,947 incoming and outgoing pieces, totaling 
1,079,702 pounds. Among the interesting and significant types 
of cargo handled were 16,000 pounds of whale bones and skulls 
carried by motor freight from California; the 15,000-pound El 
Taco, Campo del Cielo meteorite, shipped back to the Smith- 
sonian from Germany after cutting, and later, by special arrange- 
ment, returned to Argentina together with a model of the original 
specimen; and a collection of Mexican coins weighing 4,000 
pounds that was successfully moved by combined air and 
armored car service on a rigid schedule and security basis. 
Valuable pieces of art for the National Collection of Fine Arts' 
special shows, a 25,000-pound McMillan synchrotron, a chariot 
dated 1825, and a fragile Flemish marquetry cabinet were also 
transported through careful and painstaking efforts of the staff. 

Maintaining the high quality and level of exhibits produc- 
tivity of the past several years, the Office of Exhibits of the United 
States National Museum opened six new permanent exhibition 
halls to the general public during the year— including the first 
two halls of the Institution's unique Growth of the United States 
exhibition in the Museum of History and Technology, a com- 
prehensive visual survey of every aspect of United States history. 
In addition, the Office completed supplementary portions of 25 
other permanent exhibition halls and produced 29 temporary 
and special exhibits — some of them of major national and inter- 
national importance, such as the special exhibit on Chile, in 
conjunction with that country ; the large-scale Alaska Centennial 
exhibit; the World Exposition of Photography exhibit; the 
Vinland Map exhibit, which with its accompanying symposium 
drew scholars from all over the world; and the breathtaking 
Wedgwood exhibit, produced in conjunction with the 1967 
Wedgwood International Seminar. 

Continuing in its role of service for the development and 
application of exhibition techniques throughout the museum 
world, the Office of Exhibits received into its laboratories — for 
purposes of observation, instruction, and advice — more than 200 
professionals from museums all over the United States and more 
than a score of foreign countries. 


The Bill (H. R. 6125) authorizing the construction of a 
new Air and Space Museum building on the Mall was signed 
by President Johnson on July 19, 1966. This legislation expanded 
the name officially to National Air and Space Museum and, 
among other provisions, also expanded the membership of the 
Museum's Advisory Board to include all Federal and Defense 
Agencies dealing with aerospace activities. During the year the 
President appointed an additional civilian member, Mr. James 
Wilmot of Syracuse, New York. 

Since no construction funds have yet been considered by the 
Congress, budgets for current operations are being held at levels 
approximating those of prior years, seriously restricting efforts 
to build up the necessary professional staff and to improve the 
character and quality of current exhibits. Within the available 
dollar and manpower limitations, however, work has progressed 
toward sorting, preserving, and cataloging specimens for display 
and documentary material for inclusion in the growing histori- 
cal research center. The Museum has also acquired for its aero- 
space collections a number of new specimens of importance. 

An important step in this direction was taken in March 1967 
with the signing of a joint agreement between the Smithsonian 
Institution and the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration, as a result of which the historically important air and 
space artifacts developed by NASA will be transferred to the 
National Air and Space Museum after technical evaluation. To 
allow this program to get under way, NASA provided a $200,000 
fund on a nonrecurring basis. 

A number of nationally important aerospace award cere- 
monies were held in the Smithsonian during the year. These 
included two presentations of the Robert J. Collier Trophy; the 
1965 award to the late Dr. Hugh Dryden and Mr. James E. 
Webb, and the 1966 award to James McDonnell. The Smith- 
sonian's own Langley Medal was presented to Dr. Wernher 
von Braun on June 6, 1967. 

Central to the issue of the new Museum are two questions 
of importance to scholars of the future. The first revolves around 
the presentation of the exhibits, which must be creative and 
stimulating, revealing to the layman and the specialist alike new 
insights into man's quest for mastery of the air. At the same time 
the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum, if it is to be appropri- 

\ -'-. 

Kite-flying contest on the 
Mall, sponsored by Smith- 
sonian Associates and Na- 
tional Air and Space Muse- 
um, March 25, 1967. It was 
preceded by a lecture series 
and workshop conducted by 
curator Paul Garber, who 
described the national ori- 
gins of kites, their types, 
technical characteristics, and 
role in the development of 
the airplane. Exhibit in 
Museum of Natural History 
rotunda displayed kites — 68, 
of 20 different types from 18 
nations. Contest winners 
demonstrated their kites at 
the Pageant of Transporta- 
tion, April 1 . 

' % 1 


ately creative and innovative, must become a pioneer force in a 
new aspect of history, the history of air and space. Little is 
being done in the Nation at large, either with archives and rec- 
ords or with objects, to create such a branch of history — the 
history of aeronautics as a branch of the history of science 
and technology and of social history. In conjunction with other 
Smithsonian scholars, the Air and Space Museum staff should 
prepare for teaching and the publication of research in this new 
field. A tangible incentive to such activity has been the receipt 
this year of a most generous bequest from the estate of Mrs. 
Juanita Ramsay, late widow of Admiral DeWitt Clinton 
Ramsay, the income of which may be used to support publica- 
tions in the field of historical scholarship in aviation. Much 
more of this needs to be creatively attempted if the Air and 
Space Museum is to live up to its important obligations. 

In this year the Joseph H. Hirshhorn collection has formally 
come under the aegis of the Institution. A site on the Mall for 
this unique new museum and sculpture garden has already been 
authorized by Congress; the architect, Gordon Bunshaft, is at 
work; and funds for operation have already been appropriated 
by the Congress. Abram Lerner has been appointed Director 
of the new gallery and has continued his busy role as curator 
of the collection in preparing materials for loan, one of which, 
a collection of 53 pieces of sculpture, is currently on exhibition 
at Dartmouth College (see Sculpture in Our Century; selections 
from the Joseph H. Hirshhorn collection, 1967, Hopkins Center, 
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire). Mr. Hirshhorn 
is continually adding important works to the collection. Since 
the formal presentation of the collection to the United States, 
an abbreviated list of acquisitions includes works by Cassatt, 
Cornell, Stuart Davis, Ernst, Falguiere, Fontana, Sam Francis, 
George Grosz, Ipousteguy, Zoltan Kemeny, Moore, Nadelman, 
Nicholson, Olitski, Picasso, Pomodoro, Rauschenberg, Rodin, 
Sargent, Sheeler, and Frank Stella. Mr. Hirshhorn's continued 
enthusiasm and personal spirit and energy know no bounds. The 
Nation will long have cause to remember him. 

In some of the Institution's special science fields the past 
year has been one of notable achievement. In the work of the 
Radiation Biology Laboratory, a "first" has been the successful 
measuring of the relative sensitivity of the control of growth and 


bending responses of moss cells by various regions of the visible 
spectrum. These data, obtained by plant physiologist Bernard 
Nebel, indicate that light control occurs through continuous 
excitation of both absorbing forms of the well-known pigment 
system phytochrome. This role of phytochrome has not been 
reported previously, and may have general significance in under- 
standing plant development under natural environmental condi- 

Plants were grown under newly developed artificial light 
sources having a constant color quality but capable of mimicking 
natural daily variations in sunlight intensity and daylength. 
Normal daylength responses, such as time of flowering, known 
to occur in these plants, were greatly altered, depending upon 
the direction of incremental change in daylength. For example, 
the critical photoperiod to induce flowering could be changed 
by several hours depending upon whether the daily photoperiod 
was decreasing or increasing. Such data, obtained by Laboratory 
Director William Klein, assisted by plant physiologists Leonard 
Price and Victor Elstad, indicate that the concept of a specific 
critical photoperiod for any given species of plant may be in- 
correct, and these data may change entirely our present views of 
the mechanism of light control of flowering. 

During the winter a graduate-level seminar series of 13 
lectures in photobiology attracted an average of 1 60 participants 
weekly. Experts in the major areas of photobiology lectured and 
then informally answered questions and discussed their current 
research. The program was jointly supported by the Smithsonian 
and the Consortium of Washington Area Universities. Graduate 
credit was offered and new research interests of both students 
and professionals were greatly stimulated. 

At an ecology seminar held with a visiting group of ecologists 
from the University of Michigan, led by Professor Lawrence 
Slobodkin, biochemist David Correll of the Radiation Biology 
Laboratory suggested a new method for measuring gross primary 
productivity in aquatic ecosystems. The method involves the 
measurement of the rate of incorporation of 32 P-phosphate into 
imidodiphosphate compounds, which are the first products of 
photophosphorylation in algae. Combined with net primary 
productivity, as measured by H C-carbon dioxide incorporation 
or bomb calorimetry, an estimate of the efficiency of primary 


productivity could be obtained. The proposed determinations of 
productivity would be rapid and could be applied to streams, 
lakes or oceanic situations, a suggestion which should be of 
immediate value to the International B'ological Program. 

The appearance of Professor Slobodkin and his students 
for a week-long visit provided a welcome infusion of vigorous 
discussion into the Smithsonian laboratories. As he himself 
observed, "The Smithsonian, like almost all institutions con- 
cerned with pure research, stands permanently balanced 
between emphasis on intellectual quality, intellectual styles 
and social demands. With luck these three can be served simul- 
taneously. Sufficiently profound intellects create intellectual 
currency, both by refusing to become bogged down in trivial 
problems, and by refusing to deal with any problems in trivial 
ways. At the same time socially significant problems are typically 
difficult to solve and therefore constitute interesting challenges 
to important intellects." 

This Institution has been remarkably lucky to hold on to a 
talented staff. One of the increasingly difficult problems is the 
continued falling behind of laboratories, such as those of the 
Smithsonian, in the competition with the universities to hold 
distinguished intellects. Civil service salaries, while still roughly 
equivalent for certain categories of scientists, are woefully 
deficient in the area of the social sciences (which includes 
anthropology) as well as in the humanities. Government-salaried 
employees of the Smithsonian of faculty rank outside the 
scientific categories are treated like proverbial stepchildren 
under present Government regulations. The universities, in 
spite of their own financial difficulties, continue to beckon with 
important grants, surrounding facilities, and amenities ranging 
from guaranteed tuition support for scholars' children to the 
most extraordinary appeals to personal idiosyncrasies and 
desire for academic prestige. 

Above all there are the students, for better or worse, a 
constant lure and an intellectual stimulus. This Institution 
strives constantly to make our laboratories and field stations 
available to students at all levels, knowing how crucial such 
interactions can be not only for the staff but also for the students 
themselves, and our desire is to expose them to the specialties 


in science and related scholarly fields uniquely developed in 
the Institution. Last year some 86 students were brought to 
the Smithsonian for extended periods of research ; others visited 
in special groups such as the rewarding visit of the Michigan 
ecologists. Visiting research appointments were given to 19 
distinguished postdoctoral scientists and scholars. 

One of the great national resources of the United States is 
the National Herbarium, maintained in the Museum of Natural 
History. Since the days when it sponsored Asa Gray's classic 
Synoptical Flora of North America, the Smithsonian Institution 
has been an important contributor to our knowledge of indige- 
nous plants of North America. Now it is joining in a large inter- 
national project that will utilize its vast collection of dried 
specimens and library sources in a brand new effort to survey the 
American flora. When the American Society of Plant Taxono- 
mists on August 14, 1966, decided to organize the "Flora 
North America Project," Stanwyn G. Shetler was named 
executive secretary, and the Smithsonian Institution agreed 
to serve as headquarters for the Secretariat. In his new capacity, 
Mr. Shetler has spent considerable time during the year laying 
groundwork for the project. In January 1967 the first meeting 
of the nine-man editorial committee was held in the department 
of botany to establish the framework of the project and to 
appraise its financial and manpower requirements. The project, 
which is being sponsored and managed by the American 
Institute of Biological Sciences, will be a fifteen-year, cooperative 
effort by American and Canadian taxonomists to produce a 
four- volume manual of the 15-20 thousand native vascular 
plants of North America north of Mexico. In addition to the 
publication which will result, the project is expected to result 
in the training of many new taxonomists and to attract many 
potential young students in the field. With the completed 
Flora U.S.S.R. for the Soviet Union and the developing Flora 
Europeae, which together will cover all of Eurasia, this new 
North American treatise will fill the last gap in our knowledge 
of Boreal and Arctic floras of the world. 

Another of the great resources of the Natural History Mu- 
seum is its historic strength in marine biology collections, both 
recent and fossil. A study of the taxonomically difficult and very 


poorly known coralline red algae in the eastern North Atlantic 
has kept Walter H. Adey aboard ship for most of the year. This 
is part of a broader study of the systematics and ecology of 
these algae in the entire North Atlantic area from the Tropics 
to the Arctic. During the past year, Adey has worked in Iceland, 
Scandinavia, and the British Isles; he will next proceed south 
to the Canary and Cape Verde Islands, and thence westward 
to the tropical Caribbean area. 

Crustose corallines are the "dominant benthic organisms in 
shallow northern waters. In the Tropics, however, they are fre- 
quently prime contributors to reef formations. Being calcified, 
they are potential fossils, and as such they are potentially im- 
portant time-stratigraphic and paleoecological indicators. In the 
130 years since their plant nature was generally understood, the 
group has had only two major students — largely because of their 
heavy calcification and the difficulty of preparing them for study. 

The study includes data from investigations of the anatomy, 
cytology, and morphology, with conclusions being drawn on a 
population basis. In addition to demonstrating a number of 
hitherto unrecognized but important cytological, anatomical, 
and morphological characteristics, Adey has been able to obtain 
for the first time quantitative ecological data for crustose coral- 
lines and to show correlations with physical variables, especially 
temperature and substrate. In addition to the materials which 
he is obtaining from shipboard, he spent the winter months, 
when it was not practical to work at sea, studying type materials 
in Scandinavian museums. 

The Smithsonian Institution has long been concerned with 
the problems of classification and identification of nonhuman 
primates. The dramatic and still-increasing use of such animals 
in medical research and other scientific studies has exposed 
repeatedly the confusion and inadequacy of primate classifica- 
tion. In the latter part of 1967 the Smithsonian Institution will 
establish a center for the study of primate animals from the view- 
point of their morphology, anatomy, genetic constitution, pale- 
ontology, and behavior. Professor John R. Napier, from the 
University of London, has been invited to participate with the 
Institution in organizing such a program, which will benefit 
both European and U.S. institutions of higher learning, mu- 


seums, primate centers, and biomedical research units generally. 
As it is currently planned by Napier and curator Charles O. 
Handley of the Smithsonian, the proposed center would include 
both research and service functions; for example, a standard 
checklist of names and a preliminary guide to the identification 
of primates will be prepared as quickly as resources permit. At 
the beginning, systematic or taxonomic studies will be con- 
cerned with those nonhuman primates of most immediate con- 
cern to the various research centers in Europe and in the United 
States. In the future, studies will be undertaken of the compara- 
tive external structure of these animals, their behavior as it 
relates to taxonomic problems, breeding patterns, and such 
techniques as may be appropriate from physiology, serology, 
and cytology. Ultimately, a descriptive manual of the primates 
is anticipated. 

Under the direction of Dr. Handley, two field groups con- 
tinued the work of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project in the 
eastern and southern part of that country. They collected 
mammals, their ectoparasites, blood sera, and biological and 
ecological data. More than twenty scientists in six countries are 
participating in this project with the cooperation and support 
of several Venezuelan scientific organizations. 

Through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. William S. Cowles, 
who contributed their airplane and their time as pilots, it was 
possible for Handley to make an aerial ecological survey of 
Venezuela. Covering about 10,000 miles from the air, Dr. 
Handley studied variations in vegetation and terrain that might 
affect the distribution of mammals, as a means of further refine- 
ment of the Venezuelan project. 

The United States National Museum, beginning in 1964, 
has been attempting to pioneer the use of computer techniques 
for information retrieval as an aid in handling collections. During 
the past year curator James A. Peters has become actively 
concerned in the development of computer programs directly 
applicable to systematic research in the department of vertebrate 
zoology and in the Museum of Natural History generally. Three 
teletypes installed in the Museum permit direct access to a com- 
mercial computer located outside the Institution. Peters and 
others have written programs, permitting rapid calculation of 


standard statistical values, which have already made it possible 
to carry out analyses previously impossible because of the amount 
of time required. Peters is also developing a computer-key to 
the genera of snakes of Latin America, about 75 percent of which 
are already included. Insertion into the computer of basic data 
on a new collection results in a print-out of the correct generic 
name in less than four seconds by the use of the computer-key. 
In at least some areas of biology, keys of this kind may permit 
rapid sorting and preliminary identification of collections by 
research assistants. 

Along the same lines, the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey 
Program, in collaboration with the Smithsonian information 
systems division, has developed a data-processing program for 
the analysis of sea bird observations. The data base now includes 
more than 100,000 observations of sea birds in the Pacific, along 
with associated oceanographic and meteorological data. 

During the past few years the theory of sea-floor spreading 
and continental drift has received strong support from oceanic 
geophysical evidence, especially from magnetic surveys across 
the midocean ridges. This theory, long accepted by Southern 
Hemisphere geologists, is becoming for the first time widely 
accepted by geologists in the Northern Hemisphere. Samples 
collected by William Melson and colleagues at St. Paul's Rocks 
on the mid-Atlantic Ridge have been radiometrically dated by 
Stanley Hart at the University of California, La Jolla. The 
results indicate that St. Paul's Rocks is an exposure of an 
extremely young intrusion, and since sea-floor spreading entails 
constant formation of new oceanic crust along the mid-Atlantic 
Ridge, the zone at which rifting and spreading should occur, the 
young age of St. Paul's Rocks is clearly consistent with the theory 
of sea-floor spreading and of continental drift. This conclusion 
is a part of Melson' s study of the rocks from the mid-Atlantic 
Ridge, directed toward tracing the development of the oceanic 

In astrophysics the results of a comprehensive space-age 
survey of the world, using artificial satellites as triangulation 
points, have been published in a special report by the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory. The three-volume, 686-page 


report, "The Smithsonian Standard Earth,"* provides one of 
the most accurate representations of the earth's geometrical 
figure and gravitational potential ever made. The ten-year 
satellite geodesy project is the first to complete a circumferential 
measurement of the globe by means of simultaneous observa- 
tions of satellites. Intercontinental distances are determined with 
an accuracy of better than 50 feet, as compared with previous 
errors measured in hundreds of feet. Based on more than 40,000 
precise satellite observations made by the Observatory's net- 
work of Baker-Nunn tracking cameras, the research was done 
as part of the National Geodetic Satellite Program and was 
supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

The "Standard Earth" will serve as the foundation for all 
future geodetic research at the Observatory. Also, it will provide 
a basic reference book for scientists engaged in other inter- 
national programs of satellite geodesy. The data may be used 
for calculation both of distances between points on the surface 
of the earth and of irregularities in the earth's gravitational 
field. The geodetic reference points established by the "Stand- 
ard" also may help investigators studying the history and com- 
position of the earth's interior. 

In the 1966 Smithsonian Tear there is a brief discussion of the 
Institution's classic and historic interest in its own environment, 
the Washington Mall. This year has seen a continuation of the 
program of keeping that environment alive and vital. This we 
have attempted in the past two years in conjunction with the 
Master Plan for the Mall as well as the operations of overall 
stewardship being constantly undertaken by the National Park 
Service. It is important to recognize that buildings are not simply 
entities in themselves, set down haphazard in an alien environ- 
ment. Rather, if they develop a strong interplay with the land- 
scape, both are benefited, both come alive. 

One of the most interesting examples of this principle 
occurred over the July Fourth weekend of 1967, when the 
Institution — aided by the State Art Councils of Oklahoma, 

*Published as Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory, Research in 
Space Science, Special Report 200, edited by Drs. Charles A. Lundquist and 
George Veis, 1966. 


Arkansas, and Virginia; the State of New Mexico; Alaskan 
Airlines; the State of North Carolina Travel Council; the 
Southern Highland Handicraft Guild; the Navaho Tribal 
Council; and the Iowa Tourist Council — held a folk festival 
on the Mall adjacent to the Museum of History and Technology. 
As Congressman Thomas M. Rees of California said in the Con- 
gressional Record (July 20, 1967, H 9160-1), "For the first 
time, thousands of people, over 430,000, experienced a live 
museum which exhibited the art of American folklife and they 
loved every toe-tapping minute .... Basket weavers, pottery 
makers, woodworkers, carvers, doll makers, needleworkers, tale 
tellers, boat builders, and folk singers, dancers, and musicians 
from all over the country were brought to remind Americans of 
their heritage — still a living part of our nation. In this day of 
the frug and jerk Americans need to be shown what their own 
culture has produced and continues to produce." 

Within — in the Museum — the tools, the products of craft 
work, the musical instruments hang suspended in cases, caught 
in beautifully petrified isolation. Without, for the space of a few 
hours they came alive in the hands of specialists from all over 
America, many of them proponents of a dying or little-known 
craft or musical art. In all of this, the great sight was the quiet 
and immense satisfaction of the people who came to watch and 
listen, sitting around and taking it all in, while their children 
romped nearby on the grass. It was a moving spectacle and one 
that underscored the principle that a museum, to be a museum 
in the best sense of the word, must live and breathe both within 
and without. 

Folk Festival on the Mall: Mrs. Ambrose Roanhorse, Navajo rug weaver, 
Window Rock, Arizona; and (below) Mr. Bea Hensley, blacksmith, Spruce 
Pine, North Carolina. 

Mi : 




Folk Festival on the Mall: 
Mrs. Margaret Coochwytewa 
(far left), Hopi basketmaker, 
Second Mesa, Arizona; and (be- 
low) McGee Brothers, folk mu- 
sicians, Nashville, Tennessee. 

This page: Mr. Herman Ben- 
ton, scoopmaker, Livingston 
Manor, New York; Mr. James 
Miracle, chairmaker, Middles- 
boro, Kentucky; and Mr. 
Dewey Harmon, whitder, 
Boone, North Carolina. 



Folk Festival on the Mall: Freedom Quilting Bee, Tuscaloosa, Alabama; 
and (below) Mr. Norman Miller, potter, Sprott, Alabama. 



A number of senior positions throughout the Institution were filled 
during the year. Charles L. Clapp was appointed Assistant to the 
Secretary for problems concerned with development. He had been 
associated with the Institution for five years as the legislative assistant 
to Senator Leverett Saltonstall, a former Regent of the Smithsonian. 

Carl Fox joined the Institution as Director of the Museum Shops. 
During fifteen years as manager of the Brooklyn Museum sales shops, 
Mr. Fox became widely respected throughout the museum field for the 
excellence of his sales exhibitions. More recently he served as inter- 
national art curator for Hallmark, Inc. 

The Secretary appointed Abram Lerner to be the first Director of 
the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. Mr. Lerner 
has been the curator of the Hirshhorn collection for ten years and 
earlier he was associate director concurrently for two New York City 
museums : The American Contemporary Arts Gallery and the Artist's 

Dr. Donald Menzel, retiring Director of the Harvard Observatory, 
recently joined the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory as a senior 
physicist. The Observatory gained the services of another senior 
physicist, Dr. Winfield W. Salisbury from the Varo Manufacturing 
Company, Garland, Texas, who will work on applications of advanced 
electronic techniques to astrophysical problems. 

Dr. Brian Mason, after serving for twelve years as the chairman of 
the department of mineralogy at the American Museum of Natural 
History, joined the Museum of Natural History as research curator in 
the division of meteorites, in the department of mineral sciences. 

James R. Morris came to the Institution with a background in 
operatic singing and theatrical production to direct the division of 
performing arts. This new unit was formed to assist the existing per- 
formance activities of the museums, to develop new performance 
programs related to the museum collections and the subjects of scholarly 
investigation conducted by the curatorial staff. Outdoor performances 
on the Mall will be a special responsibility of this division. 

Mrs. Helen L. Hayes has joined the Assistant Secretary (Science) to 
serve as his special assistant. Before coming to the Smithsonian, Mrs. 
Hayes was Head of the Oceanographic Biological Program in the 
Office of Naval Research. 

Robert R. Engle came from the District of Columbia government to 
aid the Assistant Secretary with engineering and architectural review 
of plans for the Institution's many construction and renovation projects. 

After directing the Public Information Office since September 1965, 
B. Richard Berg resigned to accept the position of Vice President of 


Lindenwood College in St. Louis, Missouri. John Whitelaw was granted 
a ten-month leave of absence to accept a fellowship for study of Con- 
gressional operations awarded by the American Political Science 

During the year several members of the staff were lauded for their 
contributions to the Institution. James Bradley received the Excep- 
tional Service Award, the highest award bestowed by the Smithsonian. 
Special mention was made of his efforts on behalf of the National Air 
and Space Museum and the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculp- 
ture Garden. Frank A. Taylor was commended for his role as statesman 
of the museum world as a result of the enactment of the National 
Museum Act by which Congress has recognized the cultural and educa- 
tional importance of museums. 

Also deserving of special recognition are Charles Blitzer, for his 
direction of the experimental neighborhood museum, and William W. 
Warner, for his skillful negotiation of international research agreements 
in the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program. 

Three members of the staff who left the Institution for professional 
advancement last year should be mentioned. Dr. William L. Stern, 
chairman of the department of botany, has accepted an appointment 
to the department of botany, University of Maryland. Peter Morse, 
acting curator in the division of graphic arts, has joined the Honolulu 
Academy of Fine Arts. In September 1966, G. Carroll Lindsay left the 
Institution after serving for four years as the Director of Museum 
Services and more recently as Executive Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Associates. He has become the Director of Museum Services for the 
New York State Museum. 

Through retirement our professional staff has lost the valued services 
of Henry B. Collins, archeologist in the division of cultural anthro- 
pology; Paul S. Conger, associate curator, division of cryptogams, 
department of botany; and Richard Ettinghausen, head curator of 
Near Eastern art at the Freer Gallery of Art, who has joined the staff 
of the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University. 


The Smithsonian's Hodgkins Medal was awarded twice in 1967: on 
February 15 to J. Grahame Clark, Disney Professor of Archeology in 
the University of Cambridge; and on April 26 to Fritz W. Went, 
Professor of Botany at the University of Nevada Desert Research 

Professor Clark, who received the award "for outstanding contribu- 
tions to the knowledge of the physical environment bearing upon the 
welfare of man," was cited as one — 


Whose archeological studies of settlement and land use in Western Europe 

have illuminated the cultural influences of biological and physical factors 

in man's environment; 
Whose insights into the mute objects of prehistory have extended to the 

entire phenomenon of man; and 
Whose teaching and research have contributed to maintaining the unity 

of anthropology in all its aspects. 

Professor Went was cited as a scientist — 

Whose discovery of the photochemical transformation of plant volatiles 
led to an understanding of the phenomenon of blue haze, a form of 
atmospheric pollution observable in nature as well as in the landscapes 
of Leonardo da Vinci; 
Whose perfection of the phytotron for precise control of experimental 
environments increased our understanding of daily and seasonal rhythms 
in the life of plants; 
Whose research on growth substances contributed to the earliest knowledge 
of hormonal control of plant growth in relation to environmental vari- 
ables; and 
Whose enthusiasm and example have inspired generations of students and 

scientists of the environmental physiology and ecology of plants. 
The Smithsonian's Langley Medal was awarded on June 6, 1967, to 
Wernher von Braun, Director of the George C. Marshall Space Flight 
Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: "In recog- 
nition of his creative vision of the practical application of rocket power 
to space flight leading to the first U.S. satellite, and of his technical 
leadership in development of the Saturn class of large launch vehicles 
upon which the Apollo moon flight is based." 


The membership of the Board of Regents was changed upon the 
retirement of Senator Leverett Saltonstall in December 1966. The 
Board at the May 1966 meeting recorded its gratitude to Senator 
Saltonstall for his distinguished service as a Regent from January 1949 
to December 1966. The Members of the Board expressed their admira- 
tion for his dedication to the Nation through his many years of public 

Senator Hugh Scott of Pennsylvania was appointed as a Member 
of the Board of Regents on January 12, 1967. Senator Scott is a recog- 
nized expert on Chinese art and is a member of the Oriental Art 
Committee of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. 

The present membership of the Board is given on page iii. 

The annual meeting of the Board of Regents was held in the Presi- 
dential Room of the Museum of History and Technology on January 
25, 1967. After the meeting the Regents dined in the newly com- 



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pleted hall of the series depicting the growth of the United States. 
Curator of political history Keith E. Melder spoke on the American 
Revolution Bicentennial Commission and Director Robert P. Multhauf 
of the Museum of History and Technology spoke on the new hall. 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was held on May 24, 
1967, in the Regents' Room of the original Smithsonian Institution 
Building. At the conclusion of the meeting an informal dinner was held 
in the Great Hall. 


Federal funds appropriated to the Institution for its regular opera- 
tions for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1967, totaled $22,730,000 and 
were obligated as follows (Appendix 1 contains a report on the private 
funds of the Institution) : 

Astrophysical Observatory $1,638,000 

Education and Training 342,000 

Freer Gallery of Art 34,000 

International Activities 60,000 

International Exchange Service 128,000 

National Air and Space Museum 454,000 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 125,000 

National Collection of Fine Arts 677,000 

National Portrait Gallery 449,000 

Office of Ecology 1 1 8,000 

Office of Oceanography and Limnology 268,000 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 394,000 

Tropical Research Institute 304,000 

United States National Museum 7,504,000 

Research Awards 400,000 

Office of the Secretary 369,000 

Management Support 432,000 

Buildings Management Department 6,648,000 

Administrative Services 2,344,000 

Unobligated 42,000 


Visitors to the six buildings comprising the Smithsonian complex 
on the Mall this year totaled 13,312,586, of whom 4,079,450 came in 
July and August. The greatest number of visitors for a single day was 
98,847 on April 1, 1966. The tabulation on page 40 gives a summary 
of attendance records for the six buildings. The National Zoological 
Park had an estimated 4,937,615 visitors during the year. This figure, 
added to the attendance in the Institution's buildings on the Mall, 
and to the record 1,510,967 at the National Gallery of Art, brings the 
total Smithsonian attendance for fiscal 1967 to 19,761,168. 



The scientific papers of the secretary are listed on pages 5 1 (ecology) 
and 152 (ornithology). The following addresses and statements were 
made by him: 

Remarks on the occasion of receiving the Management Achievement 

Award from the Washington, D.C., Chapter of the Society for the 

Advancement of Management, June 9, 1966. 
Our people and their cities. Urban America Conference, September 

11, 1966. 
The research administrator: An intellectual barometer of our 

changing science. U.S. Civil Service Commission Seminar for 

Executives in Science Programs, September 19, 1966. 
Address to the Foreign Service Institute, October 5, 1966. 
Address to the Smithsonian Conference on Tropical Biology, November 

10, 1966, Panama City, Republic of Panama. 
The complexity of the environment. Smithsonian Symposium on 

The Quality of Man's Environment. February 18, 1967. 

Publications and speeches by members of the Secretary's staff in- 
cluded the following: 

Ritterbush, P. C. Institutions of science. Address, Science Policy 

Research Programme, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, September 

17, 1966. 
. Biology and the Smithsonian Institution. BioScience, vol. 17, 

no. 1, pp. 25-35, 1967. 
. Will science survive domestication? Scientific Research, 

vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 75-77, 1967. 
. Schaume sind Traume: Otto Biitschli and the foam model 

for protoplasmic structure. Third Atlantic Seminar in the History 
of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, April 1, 1967. 

Smithsonian Activities 

Natural Sciences 

Smithsonian Office of Ecology 

Helmut K. Buechner, Head 

Humanity is being jolted into a sharp awareness of its environment. 
We are concerned over the polluted air we breathe. We are con- 
cerned over the physiological effects of biocides in the food we eat 
and the accumulation of strontium-90 in our bones. We are concerned 
over the mental stresses that develop from living in overcrowded and 
deteriorating cities. As a result, we are entering a new era, scarcely 
imagined 25 years ago, in which society is facing the urgent need to 
adjust patterns of human culture to the physical and biological limita- 
tions of the earth's ecological systems. 

For the average citizen, ecology is fast becoming a household word, 
as increasingly it is being demonstrated to him that man is in nature 
and is a part of nature. No longer can he regard himself simply as a 

Ecology: from the Greek oikos, abode, dwelling; the study of inter- 
relationships among living organisms (as individuals, populations, and 
communities) and their environments. 

separate creation divinely appointed to manipulate nature at will. 
He now begins to understand that a human society with its total 
environment functions as an integrated whole in nature — that is, as 
an ecological system, or ecosystem. 

He sees, moreover, that with his modern technology man is capable 
of massive environmental manipulations that were unimagined even a 
few years ago; and because he is told that such changes are usually 
irreversible and can adversely affect the lives of future generations 
as well as his own, he now senses the importance of seeking scientifically 
valid means of predicting the consequences of any alteration in the 
ecosystems of the world. 

He begins to recognize, in short, that he must increase his scientific 
understanding of whole ecosystems, taking man as an essential com- 
ponent, if he is to establish a viable basis for the cultural and intellectual 
development of human society. Leading humanists, scientists, and 



Congressmen have for some time been keenly aware of this and of 
the adverse ecological changes occurring throughout the world today, 
and they express mounting concern lest the quality of human life 
deteriorate to an unbearable degree through improper management 
of the environmental systems which sustain it. 

We openly admit that between man and his total environment 
unstable relationships have formed, and that under the twin pressures 
of an expanding economy and of excessive self-constricting population 
growth, competition for the finite resources of the earth almost in- 
evitable results in their misuse. 

Having accepted the fact that human society is an integral part of 
the earth's ecosystems and that the resources of its environments are 
limited, what then must we do? If the critical problem facing humanity 
today is the ecological one of harmoniously relating human societies 
to sensitive environments of finite scope and potential, we are forced 
to conclude that the growth of human society must henceforth be 
measured mainly in terms of quality rather than of quantity. The 
problem, in its most restricted form, lies within the domain of the 
natural sciences. Indeed, from one point of view, we can regard 
ecology as the most recent scientific outgrowth of natural history. 
But in its most general form the problem involves all the dynamics 
of man-in-society. Here it is that ecological principles are confronted 
with those of economics, political theory, law, and education — indeed, 
with all the institutions and organized structures of knowledge that 
deal significantly with the social reality. Clearly, the problem is too 
intricate and too important for the ecologist alone to solve. 

Putting in perspective the present destructive influences of man 
on his environment, and ultimately on his own society, requires a new 
approach involving a synthesis of relevant knowledge from the humani- 
ties and behavioral sciences as well as from the natural sciences. 
Eminent contemporary intellectuals have already pointed out that 
we need a new science, ecologically oriented but not ecology in its 
traditional sense. The subject matter of the new science is human 
society and its total environment. If we think in terms of levels of 
biological integration — the molecular, cellular, organismal, popula- 
tion, community, and community-plus-environment levels — then we 
must regard the highest and most complex level as that dealing with 
the human dimension, where human society and its containing en- 
vironment exist as a functioning whole in nature. We have seen that 
in molecular biology, near the bottom of the spectrum, spectacular 
advances in our understanding of the genetic code have resulted from 
the integration of ideas found in chemistry, physics, mathematics, 


and biology. Can we expect anything less exciting and significant to 
grow out of our concentration upon the" highest levels of organization, 
at the other end of the spectrum, where the penalty of ignorance may 
well be irreversible and devastating change? 

The challenge is enormous and the difficulties immense. In view 
of the complexity that presents itself, even at the lower levels of 
biological integration, the task of building a conceptual structure that 
would enable us to deal effectively with the upper regions of the 
spectrum, and with the spectrum in its entirety, seems almost over- 
whelming. Some have remarked that the highest ecosystem level 
is not only more complex than we think it is, it is more complex than 
we can think. 

Yet the problem is often one of perspective; and if we are to face 
our work squarely, we must make every effort to rid ourselves of that 
form of cultural nearsightedness which obscures the total design of 
the canvas even while it brings the details into focus. For example, the 
cycling of radioactive particles or pesticides through plants and 
animals into man — who released these destructive contaminants in 
the first place — is an ecosystem phenomenon, the attributes of which 
involve decisions in the minds of men as well as the physical movement 
of these substances through the air, water, soil, and living organisms. 
Thus, recognizing that human values and the motivating forces of 
economics and politics can contribute directly to the structural and 
functional characteristics of ecosystems in which man is the dominant 
force, it is clear that one must direct thought and research toward 
searching out the unique and possibly controlling phenomena — in 
this case, man's cultural behavior — that operate at whatever level 
in nature is under study. 

Within this broad context of the search for solutions to contemporary 
ecological problems relevant to or embracing modern society, the 
Smithsonian program in ecology is evolving. Its primary goal is to 
advance basic ecological theory at all levels of biological integration, 
but its emphasis is upon the largely unexplored higher levels — on 
such areas as populations and communities of animals, on vegetation 
as a structure or pattern of plant communities, and on communities- 
plus-environments as total ecosystems. It seeks particularly to study 
ecosystems that are least modified by man. These are natural com- 
plexes and are self-maintaining when human interference does not 
intrude upon the regulatory processes enough to cause the system to 
deteriorate; they can therefore provide the means to understand and 
measure the effects of such interference. This type of undisturbed area 
is becoming increasingly rare in our day and, without protection from 
man's activities, it will soon disappear. 


The Smithsonian program of ecology also, therefore, encourages 
and practices conservation, which has two aspects — the aesthetic 
and the scientific. With the aesthetic aspect all are familiar — so 
familiar, in fact, that the arguments in favor of preserving unmolested 
the beauty of the land elicit something like a conditioned reflex, and 
we dutifully nod our approval. 

But with the other aspect — the scientific values of conservation — 
we are much less familiar. From a scientific point of view, conservation 
means preserving the capacity of ecosystems to support rich and 
varied forms of life. This is a matter of biological necessity if we are 
to maintain a diversity of environments in which it is not only possible 
to live but also in which it is worth living. The natural area, so-called 
because the works of man are not significant elements in its composition, 
is an outdoor laboratory and, as such, it is the only apparatus by which 
we can gauge the changes that occur in the regions dominated and 
modified by man. These reserves are the only frame of reference we 
have. In them we can make observations with a minimum of dis- 
turbance, or carry out controlled and carefully recorded environmental 
manipulations to determine how ecosystems actually function in 
nature. This sort of research contributes to our ability to predict 
the consequences of man's alteration of his environment. 

The Smithsonian Institution encourages, and aids where possible, 
the establishment of natural areas for research, education, and as a 
means of communicating ecological ideas to society. The Chesapeake 
Bay Center for Field Biology, under the administration of the Office 
of Ecology, reflects this interest and activity. Such areas must be 
under the best protection that society can provide through its laws 
and institutions; and the 120 years of Smithsonian tradition in pre- 
serving objects of cultural and scientific importance provides assurance 
that natural areas, which might be thought of as outdoor museums, 
will be saved in perpetuity for science and society. 

While emphasis is placed on the higher orders of biological integra- 
tion and on the conservation and study of natural ecosystems generally, 
the Smithsonian ecology program also includes species-oriented 
ecology, and the biological problems related to urban development 
are not excluded. And although research is given priority, the ecology 
program is also deeply committed to education and to the diffusion 
of sound ecological information throughout society. In this sphere its 
efforts are directed toward constructing a conceptual framework, 
drawing upon the humanities, the behavioral sciences and the natural 
sciences, that will enable man to deal purposively with his world on 
the level of human-society-plus-its-total-environment. To gather these 
strands together, research is being linked with university education at 


home and abroad, and contemporary ecological thought is being 
transmitted through lectures, seminars, and publications. 

If we accept the thesis that advancement of scientific theory about 
ecosystems and man's place in these systems is oriented primarily 
around the understanding of how they actually behave in nature, then 
with sufficient knowledge about how ecosystems work, we may be able 
to manage them in the best interests of society by manipulating the 
controlling (or regulatory) processes. Increasing our understanding 
of how an ecosystem works requires two general types of research. 

One type of research is concerned with basic descriptions ( 1 ) of the 
physical, chemical, and biotic components of the system; (2) of the 
structural and functional relationships of these components to each 
other and to the system as a whole ; (3) of the variations of the system 
in time and space; and (4) of the environmental relationships of the 
system to other ecological systems. The total systems approach, embrac- 
ing climate, soils, hydrology, vegetation, and animal life (including 
man), provides a foundation for studies of regulatory processes. These 
basic descriptions require a solid foundation in the taxonomy of the 
species components: precise identification of plants, animals, and other 
organisms is fundamental to the advancement of ecological theory. 
Basic descriptions also include preliminary interpretations. These 
concern, for example, the ecological interrelationships of the compo- 
nent populations, the cause and effect of changes in vegetation and 
its associated animal life through time, or the influence of upwelling 
ocean currents on the productivity of marine life — and in turn they 
often generate ideas for further studies on the functions and processes 
of ecosystems. 

As was pointed out earlier, ecology is sometimes said to be the 
scientific outgrowth of natural history. In the ecology program of the 
Smithsonian a strong foundation for research concerned with basic 
descriptions is provided by the vast collections and the enormous bank 
of taxonomic knowledge in its Museum of Natural History, a bank 
to which the Smithsonian has contributed for over 100 years through 
its expeditions into the virgin areas of the Western States, the Arctic 
regions, the Tropics, and elsewhere throughout the world. 

The massive task of curating the collections from these expeditions 
leads naturally into systematic and evolutionary biology, and as a 
consequence, taxonomists have often become so specialized in the 
systematics and biogeography of their own particular group of orga- 
nisms that they have had little time or inclination to explore the signifi- 
cance of ecological studies. Ecologists, on the other hand, have often 
tended to underestimate the importance of these basic descriptions 
and the significance of systematic biology and ecology at the species 


level. A related objective of the Smithsonian ecology program, there- 
fore, is to bridge the gap that has developed between systematists 
and ecologists and to renew the close relationships that formerly 
existed between these two disciplines. Obviously, such interdisciplinary 
integration is essential if we are to increase our knowledge of how 
ecological systems work in nature. 

The second type of research required to increase understanding of 
how ecosystems work is concerned with interpretive, ecosystem- 
oriented studies rather than basic descriptions. Examples of such 
studies would be ( 1 ) the role of social behavior, or the significance of 
predator-prey relationships in the numerical regulation of animal 
populations; (2) the principles of vegetation change; (3) the flow of 
energy through the system as expressed in rates and amounts of primary 
and secondary productivity; (4) the cycling of mineral nutrients; or 
(5) the consequences of man's environmental manipulations. These 
examples point the direction in which the new quantitative ecology 
is developing. These are the studies at the higher levels of biological 
integration, although usually below the level of human-society-plus- 
environment, that excite ecologists intellectually, even though they 
are often without direct consequence to society. 

To sum up : the Smithsonian program in ecological research embraces 
both basic descriptions and ecosystem-oriented studies. It emphasizes 
studies of significance to both ecological theory and to the under- 
standing of man's place in nature. Its aim is to form a small group of 
scholars, each of whom will advance knowledge significantly in his 
own specialty — be it vegetation science, animal behavior, the dy- 
namics of animal populations, or the energetics of ecosystems — and 
who will also help construct a new interdisciplinary framework that 
will enable us to assemble a broad spectrum of knowledge relevant 
to the current ecological problems of our society. By this means, 
it is hoped, a viable scientific basis can be established for maintaining 
and improving the quality of man's environment. 

In this challenging new era of multiple, competing demands and 
shifting perspectives, the Smithsonian Institution, as a privately 
endowed organization with strong governmental relationships, serves 
as an important focal point for both national and international 
programs in basic research and education in ecosystem-oriented 

Further ideas and additional information on the evolving program 
in ecology at the Smithsonian Institution may be found in the following 


articles, some of which were in press as this report was written. (Re- 
prints are available through the Smithsonian Office of Ecology.) 

Buechner, Helmut K., and Fosberg, F. Raymond. A contribution toward a 
world program in tropical biology. BioScience (August 1967), vol. 17, no. 8, 
pp. 532-538. There is an urgent need to study the energy-rich tropical 
ecosystems, both to evolve new ecological theory and to provide the founda- 
tion of knowledge required for sound management of the Tropics in man's 
best interest. This article is a report on a Conference on Tropical Biology 
held in Panama in November 1966. 

Ripley, S. Dillon. A perspective of the Smithsonian program in ecology- 
National Parks Magazine (October 1966), vol. 40, no. 229, pp. 10-13- 
This is the first published statement on the Smithsonian program in ecology. 

. The future of environmental improvement. In Environmental improve- 
ment (air, water, and soil), pp. 85-93. Washington: The Graduate School, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1966. The holistic concept of the ecosystem 
as an open-energy system, with human society as an integral component is 
examined in this article, along with other fundamental ideas relevant in 
this emerging era of environmental awareness. 

. The challenge of adapting human societies to arid environments- 

In Arid and semi-arid lands — a preview: A symposium held in conjunction 
with the inauguration of President Grover Murray as eighth president of 
Texas Technological College, October 31 -November 1, 1966, pp. 23-31. 
Lubbock, Texas: International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, 
publ. 1, 1967. In a context that views man, fire, and grasslands as evolving 
together, thoughts are focused on man's expansion of deserts through over- 
grazing, on the ecological problems of irrigation, and on programs of inter- 
national education and research. 

. Perspectives in tropical biology. BioScience (August 1967), vol. 17. 

no. 8, pp. 538-540. The compelling scientific reasons and the social re- 
sponsibilities for studying tropical biology are presented. 

Ripley, S. Dillon, and Buechner, Helmut K. Ecosystem science as a point 
of synthesis. Daedalus (fall 1967), vol. 96, no. 4, pp. 1192-1199, 1967. 
Ecosystem science is defined in terms of levels of biological integration and 
points of view, and the ecological viewpoint is suggested as an integrative 
theme for a new orientation of knowledge in the context of contemporary 
world problems. 


Surveys of opportunities for ecological research have been initiated 
in countries where Public Law 480 funds are available. The objective 
is to make initial contacts with scientists, with university and govern- 
ment officials, and with other relevant persons in the country to 


explain the Smithsonian program, obtain cooperation, and determine 
their interests in ecosystem-oriented ecology. Opportunities are 
sought for research in basic principles and concepts concerning the 
dynamics of animal populations, vegetation change, primary and 
secondary productivity, the cycling of nutrients, demography, numeri- 
cal regulation of populations with emphasis on social behavior, and 
ecological anthropology. 

Although emphasis is placed on ecosystem-oriented research, 
species-oriented ecology and environmental physiology are also 
included, and insofar as possible all research is in meaningful context 
to society. Through these preliminary surveys, programs of interrelated 
projects within and between countries can be developed. With this 
information at hand, scientists in U.S. institutions, including the 
Smithsonian, whose research interests echo the opportunities in the 
foreign countries, are sought out to develop specific research projects. 

Under the program of surveys of opportunities, Jagmohan Sing 
Maini, of the Canada Department of Forestry, visited his native India 
for six weeks in April and May; professor George A. Petrides of 
Michigan State University extended his attendance at the Interna- 
tional Conference on Tropical Ecology in New Delhi for preliminary 
talks with Indian scientists; and Kai Curry-Lindahl of the zoology 
department, Nordiska Museet and Skansen, Stockholm, Sweden, and 
Walter Leuthold, Zoological Institut, University of Zurich, Switzer- 
land, completed a survey during May and June in the Republic of 
the Congo (Kinshasa). Ecological research in the Congolese National 
Parks and equivalent reserves is of special high priority. Charles H. 
Wurster, Department of Biological Sciences, State University of 
New York, Stony Brook, Long Island; George M. Woodwell, Brook- 
haven National Laboratory, Long Island, New York: and George E. 
Watson visited Israel in early April to initiate arrangements for 
studies of the effects of pesticides on bird populations, with special 
attention to the movements of pesticides through selected arid and 
irrigated ecosystems in Israel. 

Preparations were completed for Robert L. Fleming, a postdoctoral 
student from Michigan State University, and Robert H. Horwich, a 
postdoctoral student from the University of Maryland, to spend one 
year in India as consultants to the Smithsonian Office of Ecology, 
during which time they will initiate long-term research in avian migra- 
tion and mammalian behavior. These studies are related to the interests 
of Smithsonian scientists. 

In Ceylon a three-year research project on the behavior and ecology 
of elephants has been initiated by John F. Eisenberg, resident scientist 


at the National Zoological Park, and Helmut K. Buechner, using 
Public Law 480 funds. This research is directed primarily toward basic 
principles in ethology, but it will also provide the scientific foundation 
for conservation practices that are compatible with the development 
of forestry and agricultural resources. A grant from the World Wildlife 
Fund provides for salaries and equipment not covered by Ceylonese 
currency, and a gift of two Land-Rovers by the Fauna Preservation 
Society of London solved the problem of transport. Field work was 
initiated in late January 1967 by Eisenberg and his predoctoral student 
George M. McKay, of the University of Maryland. Fred Kurt, a 
postdoctoral student from the University of Zurich, joined the project 
in March. 

A two-year research project on systematic botany, palynology, and 
vegetation was also initiated in Ceylon in January by F. Raymond 
Fosberg, special advisor on tropical biology. Field work is under way 
by Dieter Mueller-Dombois, a vegetation scientist from the University 
of Hawaii, and Peter Comanor, a postdoctoral student of palynology 
from Rutgers University, on a project complementary to that of the 
study of elephants, in that it provides a basis for studies of food habits 
and vegetational relationships of the elephant. 

An effort is being made to involve Ceylonese students in these studies. 
Excellent relationships have been established with the faculty at the 
University of Ceylon, with relevant Government agencies (wildlife and 
forestry), and with the Wildlife Protection Society of Ceylon. 

The studies in Ceylon are now being expanded by Eisenberg and 
research associate Suzanne Ripley of the National Zoological Park to 
include a comprehensive study of the biology of primates, with emphasis 
on behavior, and a study of the behavioral relationships of man to 
elephants. The latter study by Ripley, an anthropologist, is likely 
to be as significant in the conservation of elephants as the studies of 
their behavior and ecology. 

In Brazil, where there are no Public Law 480 funds, ecologically 
oriented, interdisciplinary investigations of the Amazonian biota are 
evolving rapidly under a cooperative program between the Smithsonian 
Institution and the Instituto de Pesquisas e Experimental ao Agropecu- 
arias do Norte (IPEAN) at Belem, Brazil, under the guidance of 
Philip S. Humphrey, chairman of the department of vertebrate zoology. 
This program was initiated by funds from the Office of Ecology, which 
continues to provide financial support. 

In Africa the Smithsonian Office of Ecology provides partial support 
for an ecologically oriented taxonomic survey of mammals being con- 
ducted under the direction of Henry W. Setzer, associate curator of 

Vegetation on eroded hills (above) surrounding a Korean village in the DMZ 
Study Area recovers remarkably after being protected from fuel-gathering for 
14 years. Normally 60 percent of the rainfall in Korea occurs during the 
growing season, favoring rapid recovery of vegetation on watersheds. 



Buechner, continuing his investigations on the territorial behavior, 
reproduction, and ecology of the Uganda kob, one of the African 
antelopes, has in preparation a major manuscript summarizing the 
results of earlier work. His paper, "A Preliminary Estimation of Energy- 
Flow in Uganda Kob," prepared jointly with Frank B. Golley of 
the University of Georgia, was presented at a conference of the 
International Biological Program in Warsaw, in late Summer 1966. 

In Korea, under a contract with the U.S. Air Force Office of Scien- 
tific Research, a long-range program of research has been initiated, 
using as an ecological baseline a study area immediately south of the 
demilitarized zone. This area has been rigidly protected over the past 
14 years, and provides a key to understanding man's impact on Korean 
environments. Following a visit to the DMZ study area by Buechner, 
Talbot, Fosberg, Smithsonian field representative Edwin L. Tyson, 
and Harold J. Coolidge of the Pacific Science Board, National Academy 
of Sciences, Tyson began working with scientists at various universities 
in Korea to prepare a five-year plan of research for presentation to 
granting agencies. 

Curator of insects Ke Chung Kim, of the University of Minnesota, 
spent January 1967 in Korea as a consultant for the Smithsonian Office 
of Ecology to assist with the development of the five-year plan. Tyson 
and Kim were able to draw together 55 project proposals that will 
form the basis for a unified program of research in the study area. 
This is the beginning of a 25-year program in ecosystem-oriented 
ecology, the objective of which is to acquire knowledge about environ- 
mental relationships of living organisms, including man, as a basis for 
achieving stable relationships between human societies and the 
natural resources of Korea. By providing the basic scientific informa- 
tion required to assist Korea in its efforts to become self-sufficient, the 
program has relevance to the preservation of our own natural resources 
here in the United States. 

In other countries, opportunities to conduct short-term research 
or planning studies for long-range investigations in environmental 
physiology and ecosystem ecology are provided under a contract with 
the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research. 

Thus there begins to emerge at the Smithsonian Institution an inter- 
national program in ecological research in which ecologists in the United 
States can collaborate with scientists abroad to develop ecological 
theory, to foster graduate studies, and to help construct a scientific 
foundation for the harmonious adjustment of human societies to the 
environments of which they are integral parts. 



The Johns Hopkins University and the University of Maryland 
have joined the Smithsonian Institution in establishing the Chesapeake 
Bay Center for Field Biology (CBCFB) for ecological research and 
the education of graduate students. This cooperative arrangement 
increases the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary research program 
by enlarging the pool of scientific talent. It is an open-ended con- 
sortium that may be joined by other universities as the program 

The Center is located about 7 miles south of Annapolis, Maryland, 
on the western shore of the Bay. Under Smithsonian ownership, it 
consists of about 700 acres of land, including over 10 miles of un- 
developed shoreline, that are preserved effectively for a program of 
studies extending indefinitely into the future. The abandonment of 
about half the area from agriculture more than two decades ago 
provides unusual opportunities to study changes in vegetation and 
associated animal life. With its relatively undisturbed areas of mature 
forest, salt marshes, eroding bluffs, sandy beaches, and shallow 
estuaries, the CBCFB constitutes an ecological baseline against which 
to compare other systems in this rapidly changing region, and offers 
a variety of opportunities for long-term ecological studies. The research 
information produced can be applied in the development of both 
environmental standards and the construction of models for deter- 
mining the effects of man's accidental or premeditated environmental 
manipulations in the vicinity of Washington. 

Populations of Foraminifera are being studied at the Center and 
elsewhere in Chesapeake Bay by Martin A. Buzas, associate curator 
of invertebrate paleontology. The purpose of these studies is to under- 
stand the factors influencing distribution, numbers, and the structure 
of recent populations of Foraminifera as a basis for interpreting the 
characteristics of fossil populations and reconstructing their environ- 
ments. The systematics of estuarine mollusks are being studied by 
Joseph B. Morrison, associate curator of mollusks. Other marine 
invertebrates collected with the mollusks are being preserved for 
other research workers. The effects of wintering waterfowl on mollusks 
and other bottom organisms of estuaries are being studied by Kyle R. 
Barbehenn, Director of the CBCFB. His principle study at the Center 
concerns the concepts of stability of populations and intercommunity 
interactions between the small mammals of a salt marsh and the 
adjoining forest. The social organization of the forest community of 
small mammals is apparently more integrated than that of the marsh 
community, and therefore more resistant to invasion and more 


moderate in annual fluctuation of numbers as compared to the 
mammalian community of the marsh. The marsh community of small 
mammals seems to be more strongly influenced by severe weather, 
while the numerical regulation of the forest community depends 
more on intrinsic behavioral mechanisms. 

George E. Watson, curator of birds, with the assistance of Jan Reese 
is conducting studies on the dynamics of populations of ospreys and 
great blue herons on Poplar Island. The determination of recruitment 
rate and mean annual adult mortality rate of these populations is 
particularly significant since these predators concentrate quantities of 
insecticides large enough to influence reproduction and mortality. 
Both birds are keys to evaluating the influence of man's activities in 
contaminating ecological systems with insecticides. 

Sedimentation, with emphasis on the estuaries, is being studied by 
Jack W. Pierce, curator of sedimentology, using remote-sensing 
techniques from aircraft and satellites as well as conventional methods. 

The archeology of the Center and vicinity is being studied by- 
Henry T. Wright, of the University of Michigan Museum of Anthro- 
pology, under the direction of Smithsonian curator of anthropology 
Clifford Evans. After a survey of sites, limited explorations will be 
made to determine the activities of early man in the region. 

The effects of the considerable increase in numbers of whistling swans 
on Chesapeake Bay are being studied by William J. L. Sladen of Johns 
Hopkins University. Apparently these swans feed extensively on soft- 
shelled clams and submerged aquatic plants. Movements of these 
swans within the Bay area and during their migrations back to the 
Arctic breeding grounds are being traced by means of color-marking 
with dyes, and it is hoped that biotelemetric techniques can be em- 
ployed. Studies of the estuarine ecology, including the distribution of 
submerged aquatic vegetation, water quality with respect to tempera- 
ture, salinity, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, and mineral 
nutrients, are being conducted by Charles H. Southwick and his 
students from Johns Hopkins University. The frequent luxuriant growth 
of milfoil and its sudden, unexplained disappearance is of particular 
interest and significance. The estuaries at the Center are being com- 
pared with other estuaries in Chesapeake Bay, especially those of Back 
and Middle Rivers near Baltimore, each of which seems to have its 
own particular character. 

Investigations being conducted by the faculty at the University of 
Maryland include Jack P. Hailman's investigations of the causes and 
mechanisms of change in bird populations in correlation with vegeta- 
tional change. Epidemiological studies of free-ranging and confined 

The Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology provides the only natural area 
on the western shore of Chesapeake Bay against which to measure man's 
influences on the estuaries and adjacent lands of the Bay region. 

The water's edge around Fox Point (opposite and below) frequently includes 
salt marsh. From Locust Point (above) the Chesapeake Bay can be seen 
across the Rhode River. 




populations of rodents and investigations of the parasites of catbirds 
are being conducted by Leo A. Jachowski, Jr. A survey of the insect 
fauna and studies on specific groups of insects are being conducted by 
Donald H. Messersmith and William E. Bickly. The behavior, and 
the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms thereof, of the turkey 
are being studied by Wolfgang M. Schleidt to clarify hypotheses on 
the innate behavior of birds. A major objective of this research is to 
determine how various behavioral elements are integrated into a 
system that serves to control social structure and its relation to the 

It is intended that the ecological systems at the CBCFB become 
taxonomically and ecologically among the best known in the United 
States, and that research conducted here will contribute toward under- 
standing both the mechanisms that underlie changes in vegetation and 
associated animal life and the processes that control populations and 
the stability of ecosystems. Such knowledge will not only have signifi- 
cance in ecological theory but also be of practical importance to the 
management of natural systems in man's best interest. 

The flora and fauna are being studied by Smithsonian systematists. 
Research is concerned with not only lists of plants and animals but 
also the genetic variability and ecologic relationships of the species 
present. An initial survey of the vascular plants has been completed 
by Daniel Higman under the direction of Stanwyn G. Shetler, associate 
curator of phanerogams, and the floristic survey is now being extended 
under the direction of Mason E. Hale, curator of cryptogams. Over 
1000 specimens, representing 520 species of plants, have been collected, 
and an ecologically annotated list with keys has been completed. The 
floristic studies provide the groundwork for research on the principles 
of vegetation change, knowledge of which is essential for the manage- 
ment of vegetation for forestry, wildlife production, control of water- 
sheds, landscaping highways and open spaces, and right-of-way 
maintenance. Sufficient evidence has been accumulated in the North 
Temperate zone over the past 25 years, particularly by Frank E. 
Egler, Director of Aton Forest at Norfolk, Connecticut, to challenge 
seriously the concept of a 3- to 5-stage pattern of succession in which 
one community creates an environment less favorable to itself and more 
favorable to the succeeding community. Egler is collaborating with 
the Smithsonian in testing his hypothesis of "Initial Floristic Compo- 
sition" at the CBCFB. According to this concept, vegetational change 
results primarily from the disseminules (fruits, seeds, roots, rhizomes) 
already present on the site at the time of a major change such as 
abandonment of cultivation. Vegetation at the Center lends itself well 
to these studies of the underlying mechanisms of change. 



The Smithsonian Institution is actively engaged in international 
conservation of nature and natural resources. Lee M. Talbot, Smith- 
sonian field representative for international affairs in ecology and 
conservation, is collaborating with E. M. Nicholson, convenor of the 
terrestrial conservation section of the International Biological Program 
(IBP), in the development of a worldwide program in conservation. 
Under this program an effort is being made to establish a world network 
of nature reserves and to evolve international cooperation in conserving 
natural resources. The Smithsonian Institution may ultimately be 
engaged in assisting with inventories of plant and animal components 
of these selected natural ecosystems and the necessary basic general 
descriptions of physical characteristics, vegetation, and animal life. 
The IBP provides opportunities for attracting funds to support such 
inventories, and to support research by systematists and ecologists in 
connection with descriptions of these sites. Smithsonian scientists have 
a tradition of devotion to conservation of natural resources, and they 
now lend their strong support to the world conservation effort under 
the IBP. 


A program in tropical biology is evolving under the guidance of 
special advisor Fosberg. In November a conference, in Panama, on 
tropical biology was sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution, support- 
ed by a grant from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, with the 
objectives of (1) drawing the attention of the scientific community 
and the public to the urgent need for providing a scientific foundation 
for the preservation of the productivity of the world's energy-rich 
tropical systems and (2) obtaining advice and guidance from scientists 
as to the role of the Smithsonian in helping to develop an effective 
world program in tropical biology. A report on this conference appeared 
in the August 1967 issue of BioScience, and some of the results are dis- 
cussed in the report of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
(p. 171). 


The Office of Ecology is concerned with education in ecology at 
American universities. As the United States emerges into its new 
awareness of the relevance of environmental relationships to man's 
future, we are caught in a critical shortage of ecologists at all levels 
of the subject matter. The formal consortium of the Smithsonian 
Institution, The Johns Hopkins University, and the University of 
Maryland for mutual cooperation in research and education at the 
CBCFB is one mechanism through which students are being attracted 
into the field of ecology. 


In a study of education and research programs in ecology at American 
universities the Office of Ecology is determining (1) how the Smith- 
sonian program in ecology can complement university research 
programs, (2) how to develop joint programs to attract young scientists 
to the field of ecosystem-oriented ecology, (3) what are the interests 
of both faculty and students that can be supported through the Smith- 
sonian Foreign Currency Program, and (4) how the resources (scien- 
tists, collections, and facilities) of the Smithsonian Institution can 
contribute to education in the field of ecology. With this information the 
Smithsonian can integrate its program in ecology effectively with 
those of universities. 


Several gifts and grants have helped greatly in the development 
of the CBCFB during FY 1967. Poplar Island (about 70 acres) was 
given to the Smithsonian Institution by Dr. William L. Elkins, a 
physician from Philadelphia. This island harbors one of the few large 
rookeries of great blue herons on Chesapeake Bay and nearly two dozen 
pairs of ospreys. The land acquisition program was facilitated by 
generous grants from the Research Corporation and the Max C. 
Fleischmann Foundation. The Old Dominion Foundation provided 
a highly important grant for initial laboratory facilities, living quarters, 
equipment, and other basic requirements of the Center. At this early 
stage of development all this assistance is particularly meaningful. 


Talbot, Lee M. Conservation spotlight on South-East Asia. Nature 
and Resources, UNESCO (Paris), vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 5-9, 1966. 

. Wild animals as a source of food. U.S. Fish and Wildlife 

Service, Special Scientific Report, Wildlife, no. 98. 16 pp., 1966. 
— . The Bangkok Conference. IUCN Bulletin (Morges Switzer- 
land), new ser. no. 19, pp. 1-2, 1966. 
— . Why care about the Javan tiger? Endangered species of 
wildlife. In The call of the vanishing wild, Boston, pp. 34—37, 1967. 
, and Swift, L. W. Productions of wildlife in support of human 

populations in Africa. In Proceedings, Ninth International Grass- 
lands Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil, January 1965, pp. 1355-1359, 

— — , and Talbot, Martha H. The tamarau Bubalus mindorensis 
(Heude): observations and recommendations. Mammalia (Paris), 
vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 1966. 
, and Talbot, Martha H. Conservation of the Hong Kong 

countryside. Government Printer, Hong Kong, 34 pp., 1966. 

Office of Oceanography and Limnology 

I. Eugene Wallen, Head 

The office of oceanography and limnology, which provides co- 
ordination and assistance to scientists of the Smithsonian in their 
diverse studies of organisms and sediments of the World Ocean, was 
established separately within the Office of the Assistant Secretary 
(Science) in June 1966. Dr. William I. Aron was appointed Deputy 
Head in March 1967. 

As part of its mission, the office is responsible for the operation of 
the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center and the newly estab- 
lished Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center. 

Research Activities 

An agreement has been reached whereby the Smithsonian research 
vessel Phykos will be jointly used with the Southern Maine Vocational 
Technical Institute in Portland. Under the initial one-year agreement 
Phykos will be used in Maine from Labor Day until November 15 and 
from March 15 through June 5. The Institute will maintain the vessel, 
and it will be available to the Smithsonian for the other seven months, 
whenever we can provide operating funds. The Institute can provide 
full support for short research cruises in that area during their pos- 
session of the ship and would assist in crewing the vessel during our 

The Coast and Geodetic Survey vessel Oceanographer is on an around- 
the-world cruise endorsed by the President. At the urging of the 
National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering Develop- 
ment, arrangements have been made for Richard Pieper (former 
General Motors associate of Dr. Aron) and Conrad E. Mahnken and 
Jack W. Jossi of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Laboratory in 
Miami to join the ship in Bombay and make comparative collections 
using the Hardy Plankton Recorder, the Indian Ocean Expedition Net, 
and the Tropical Atlantic Expedition Net. R. Glover of Edinburgh 
will process the Hardy samples in his Laboratory. 

To the National Council on Marine Resources and Engineering 
Development Secretary Ripley proposed that the United States set 



aside an atoll, an underwater tablemount, and a deep trench as pre- 
serves for scientific work. Investigation of possible areas centered on 
the naming of Rose Island in the American Samoa group, the 
Tonga-Kermadec Trench, and Capricorn Tablemount, adjacent to 
the Trench. This concept was approved by the President for 

About 50 dives have been made by 1 5 Smithsonian scientists in nine 
different submarine vehicles. Although most of the dives have been for 
familiarization, these vehicles are of interest to many Institution staff 
members for biological and geological research on the origin of under- 
sea canyons, the identity and behavior of echinoids and other bottom 
organisms, the identity and behavior of midwater organisms, the 
structure of the mid-Atlantic ridge, and many other projects. Edwin A. 
Link provided free use and support of his ship Sea Diver, his Sub- 
mersible Diving Chamber, his underwater house, and Ocean Systems' 
new vehicle Deep Diver for initial experiments in the south Florida- 
Bahamas area. 

Marine science activities under the Foreign Currency Program were 
initiated in Tunisia, Pakistan, India, Israel, Yugoslavia, and the United 
Arab Republic. Most projects have involved planning visits thus far, 
but firm programs have been developed in Israel and in Tunisia. 
Additional countries on the list are being considered as possible sources 
for the production of marine data. Cooperation with individual scien- 
tists has been arranged in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, New Zealand, 
Philippines, Ghana, Iran, Taiwan, Japan, Canada, Thailand, Great 
Britain, Dominica, Lebanon, and Antarctica. 

Support through the Smithsonian from the Vetlesen Foundation 
enabled Miss Julie Booth to spend the last 18 months on Fairfax Island 
of the Barrier Reef, off Australia. Miss Booth has assembled photo- 
graphs, notes on behavior, paintings, and specimens, most of which will 
come to the Smithsonian Institution. 


The Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center (SOSC) continues 
to act as a service organization to the scientific community by receiving, 
sorting, recording, and distributing marine biological, and geological 
specimens. It also processes material from such international expedi- 
tions as those to the Indian, Tropical Atlantic, and Antarctic Oceans. 
Research ships are provided with records forms to insure that specific 
categories of data are provided to the scientist in his evaluation of the 
sample. Preferred collection and preservation techniques are demon- 
strated by SOSC personnel aboard ships. Shipping containers and 
other supplies are furnished for shipboard use. 


Since SOSC began operations, 34,545 samples of marine organisms 
and sediments have been received. From 26,717 of these samples, 
15,256,659 specimens and 277,895 cc. of an estimated 2,000,000 shell 
fragments have been sorted to date. During the year, 6,885,151 
specimens were sorted. Shipments made totaled 276, including 3,675 
unsorted lots and 21,050 sorted lots, the latter containing 989,595 
specimens. A total of 1,000 shipments of marine specimens have been 
sent during the four and one-half years of SOSC existence. These 
shipments included 7,650 unsorted lots and 41,823 sorted lots, the 
latter including 5,542,631 whole specimens and 277,895 cc. of shell 

Approval by the seven Advisory Committees and/or by principal 
investigators has been given 254 specialists to receive biological and 
geological material processed at SOSC. Of these, 139 receive benthic 
and midwater-trawl invertebrates; 64 (50 duplicates) receive plankton 
groups, 80 (6 duplicates) receive fishes; 14 receive algae and 3, other 
plant groups; and 10 receive geological specimens. 

These authorized recipients have included specialists from the United 
States and from 26 foreign countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, 
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Cuba (displaced), Denmark, France, 
Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Italy, 
Malgache, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Puerto 
Rico, Singapore, Sweden, U.S.S.R., and West Africa. 

With the technical advice and assistance of a specialist in systems 
analysis, William R. Wheeler, an ADP system was prepared to meet 
the specific requirements of SOSC. Standard reports will be pro- 
grammed for rapid location of data on specific parameters, such as the 
determination of geographic areas in which given taxa have been 
present. Another report will list all taxa present in each sample proc- 
essed at SOSC. These reports will also include information on the 
present location of specimens either at SOSC or at other institutions 
for identification and study. 

With funds from the National Science Foundation, Office of Ant- 
arctic Programs (OAP), a centralized record is being assembled of all 
marine and terrestrial specimens collected by past and continuing 
U.S. expeditions in Antarctica, in accordance with provisions of the 
International Antarctic Treaty. A descriptive file is prepared and 
maintained of the ocean-bottom photographs taken from the NSF- 
funded Antarctic research ship Eltanin. Prints and negatives are 
duplicated and sent to scientists studying the topography and bottom 
communities of the ocean floor. A file of collecting permits issued by 
the International Cooperation and Information Program, OAP, is 
maintained at SOSC as a preliminary record of material removed from 


Under the Antarctic Records Project, two SOSC staff members 
visited Antarctic specialists in the University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles County Museum, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 
University of California at Berkeley, California Academy of Sciences, 
and Stanford University. Cataloged were small collections of Ant- 
arctic fishes, birds, and mammals at the California Academy of Sciences, 
deep-freeze fish collections remaining at the Stanford Museum, and 
various fungi now located at Berkeley. References to other collections 
in the West Coast area were recorded for future contacts. Under the 
same project, Betty J. Landrum and Harrison Sheng obtained data 
on Antarctic entomological collections from the Bernice P. Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu. 

Although much of the information on Antarctic and sub-Antarctic 
entomological collections has been distributed to interested specialists, 
the remainder of the material was quite voluminous and much of it 
was cataloged. The records included data on over 2,200 combina- 
tions of taxa samples. The uncataloged material was estimated to 
include over 1,200 slides, 25 jars of an unknown number of Acarina 
specimens, and a large volume of sub- Antarctic material. 

About 900 new black-and-white prints, 900 black-and-white nega- 
tives, and 59 color slides were received and processed during the year. 
For each of these, station data have been checked and recorded. The 
amount of material now processed and stored totals over 7,000 black- 
and-white prints, 7,000 black-and-white negatives, and 1,100 color 
slides from Cruises 2-27. From these more than 10,000 prints have 
been distributed to 22 scientists and institutions. 


Most of the many countries of the Mediterranean area have made or 
are presently making collections of marine plants and animals. Usually 
these countries have only a few marine specialists, and much of the 
knowledge that could be obtained from the specimens has, as a result, 
been lost to science. Also, the burden of maintaining taxonomic 
storage often has ultimately led to the disposal of much valuable 
material. This is especially unfortunate because of the expense of making 
the collections, the impossibility of duplicating the material, and the 
existence of specialists in other countries who would be willing to study 
the specimens. The cost of processing, moreover, has deterred most 
countries from sorting whole collections and distributing sorted speci- 
mens to foreign specialists. Exchange of specimens within the area has 
therefore been limited. 

Responding to the need implicit in these conditions the Smithsonian 
Institution established the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center 


(MMSC) at the Institut National Scientifique et Technique d'Oceano- 
graphie et de Peche, in Salammbo, Tunisia. 

Plans had been made in 1965 to create a facility that would provide 
sorting services in the Mediterranean-Red Sea region similar to those 
of the Smithsonian's Oceanographic Sorting Center in Washington, 
D.C. Several sites were available for the establishment of this regional 
center. Tunisia was chosen primarily for its location in the central 
Mediterranean and because of the enthusiasm shown by the scientists 
and Government of Tunisia to cooperate with the Smithsonian Insti- 
tution in this project. 

Representatives of the Smithsonian Institution met with Tunisian 
government officials in late 1965 and mid- 1966, and with the assistance 
of the Embassy of the United States, an agreement to establish the 
Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center was signed in September 1966. 
The Director of the host Institut, Dr. Z. Ben Mustapha, has, since the 
early planning stages, provided indispensable assistance and guidance. 
The Institut is situated on the Gulf of Tunis, twelve kilometers north 
of Tunis, at the traditional site of the important and ancient seaport 
of Carthage. 

The Center offers its services to marine scientists of all countries, 
especially in the Mediterranean area. New collections, or collections 
that have been partly worked, are processed by MMSC. These are 
sorted to specimen groups which are then distributed to specialists for 
study. Identified series of specimens ultimately return to MMSC, 
whence representative sets are returned to the country of origin and to 
recognized depositories around the world. 

A working principle of MMSC is that the collector owns the collec- 
tion. Generally a collector studies one group of specimens, and a few 
groups are sent to some of his colleagues, perhaps associated with his 
project. MMSC honors all such primary commitments, and distributes 
the committed portion of the collection according to the instructions 
of the collector. MMSC will, whenever appropriate, ask specialists to 
work on the uncommitted, sorted fractions of the collections. 

A series of Advisory Committees of recognized scientists of many 
nationalities reviews and approves the qualifications of specialists to 
receive MMSC specimens and do research on them. Besides sectional 
Advisory Committees which guide MMSC on these matters, a General 
Advisory Committee views MMSC in the broad framework of Medi- 
terranean research. This Advisory Committee, which had its first 
meeting January 17-19, 1967, includes members of international 
scientific bodies who are responsible for much of the policy and direction 
of the region's oceanographic activities. This Committee will meet 
regularly to provide MMSC with administrative and general guidance. 

At the 

Marine Sorting 



Documents for customs clear- 
ance of shipments to MMSC 
are prepared by Mrs. K. 

Newly arrived material is 
checked for preservation and 
label quality by M. Shili and 
S. Karaborni. 

Freshly caught orga- 
nisms are fixed accord- 
ing to specific require- 
ments by D. M. Dam- 
kaer and M. Shili. 

Plankton from the Gulf of 
Tunis is sorted by Mrs. N. 

Fishes from the Gulf of Tunis 
are identified by Mrs. A. Ben 
Alaya and S. Karaborni. Right: 
Vials of sorted plankton are 
packed by H. Zaoui and S. 
Karaborni for distribution to 

Departing for a shore-collecting 
trip are K. el Ghezail, Gayle A. 
Heron, H. Zaoui, and M. Shili. 


When samples are received at MMSC, the preservatives and the 
labels are immediately examined. If necessary, preservatives and con- 
tainers are replaced and new preservative-resistant labels are added. 
The sorting of samples is to a degree that effectively balances what 
specialists desire and what can be rapidly and accurately done by 
trained technicians. Fishes and algae are sorted to families or genera, 
but plankton and benthos are sorted to varying toxonomic levels, 
depending on the group. All specimens are distributed with copies of 
summarized collection data or field notes. 

A great many of the specimen groups are expected to be eagerly sought 
by specialists, especially when the new material supplements examples 
already at hand, provides specimens from areas to which the specialist 
has no access, or furnishes rare specimens. For some specimen groups, 
however, specialists are so few that they are already overwhelmed with 
study material. MMSC will indicate these shortages and encourage the 
training of new specialists. Also MMSC will emphasize the importance 
of certain collections, and try to persuade some scientists to study 
material which might otherwise be overlooked. Finally, there will be 
groups for which there are no specialists at all; here, too, MMSC can 
indicate the availability of study material, and the lack of qualified 

A second aspect of the distribution of specimens by MMSC is in the 
equitable apportionment of identified series of specimens resulting from 
the work of specialists. First priority for such series generally goes to 
the collector and his sponsoring institution. Suggestions are obtained 
from the Advisory Committees as to appropriate museums for deposi- 
tion of duplicate sets of identified specimens. Deposition will be en- 
couraged in museums throughout the world where important related 
collections are already housed, and where the material will have 
permanent care, and be readily available to scientists. 

For maximum efficiency, and to better cope with the variety of 
organisms and their techniques for processing, MMSC has been 
divided into four sections — vertebrates, plankton, benthic inverte- 
brates, and algae. Professional scientists are recruited, from Tunisia 
whenever possible, to supervise each section. 

At MMSC there is a strong atmosphere of working together. Frequent 
informal discussions about techniques and identification are held 
among the technicians and the Director of the Center, and ideas are 
freely exchanged. To continually improve the quality of specimen 
handling by learning new techniques, and to introduce the staff and 
associates of MMSC to a variety of experiences and training, MMSC 
will occasionally bring systematics specialists to Salammbo. The Ad- 


visory Committee members themselves have served as consultants for 
administrative and general scientific matters. 

The Center sorts collections of the Institut National d'Oceanographie, 
which has continuing sampling programs for fishes, benthos, and 
plankton. The sorting of this material will provide Institut specialists 
with certain groups for detailed study; other groups will then be 
available for distribution to other specialists. 

Mediterranean-Red Sea collections from many sources will be 
accepted by MMSC for processing and distribution. As demands 
increase, priorities will have to be placed on the sorting of collections 
from broader survey projects. Highest priority will generally be given 
projects which are international in character. 

Information about the Center will be given through contact with 
specialists, notices in scientific bulletins, and distribution of descriptive 
leaflets. MMSC seeks to obtain wide collection coverage, and at the 
same time encourages the participation of a maximum number of 
countries and specialists in research on the specimens. 

The Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center began operations 
November 2, 1966, when Director David M. Damkaer, who normally 
serves as supervisor for plankton at the Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center, reported to the Institut National d'Oceanographie 
et de Peche, in Salammbo, Tunisia. 

Two laboratories on the grounds of the Institut are used for fixa- 
tion and preservation of newly-collected organisms. A large room at 
the Institut houses the office and laboratory of the Director and his 
research associate. A villa has been rented 1000 feet from the Institut 
to triple the Center's working area. 

H. Adair Fehlmann, Supervisor of the Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center in Washington, D.C., worked at MMSC from March 
15-31, 1967. Fehlmann led two cruises and two shore-collecting 
trips in which all technicians were able to participate. M. DiGenova, an 
expert in preservation of marine organisms at the Stazione Zoologica 
in Naples, served as a consultant to MMSC for five weeks, and in- 
structed MMSC technicians in many aspects of specimen-handling, 
with particular emphasis on fixation and preservation. Fresh material 
was gathered on 10 shore field trips and during 13 daytime cruises. 

In FY 1967, Professor Jose Stirn, from the Institute for Sea Research 
at Portoroz, Yugoslavia, joined MMSC as supervisor for benthic 

An administrative assistant, five technicians, and two maintenance 
men complete the present MMSC staff. All except the latter two have 
had university studies in biology and speak some English; some have 
studied abroad. They have passed several months in training in every 


aspect of collection-handling. The technicians are imaginative, eager, 
and responsible. With the arrival at MMSC of large collections, the 
technicians will help in the training of additional technicians, as the 
demands for services increase. 

In addition to the collections which have been received from Tunisia, 
plankton samples have been sent to MMSC by the Stazione Zoologica 
in Naples. Quantitative benthos and sediment samples also have been 
received from a recent Yugoslavian-Tunisian survey of the Lake of 
Tunis, a brackish, eutrophic lagoon. 

The Institute for Sea Research at Portoroz, Yugoslavia, has sent 
MMSC 174 plankton samples from the northern Adriatic Sea. Three 
specimen groups (cladocerans, chaetognaths, and fish eggs and larvae) 
were committed by the Institute for Sea Research. MMSC has been 
asked to distribute the remaining groups to approved specialists. 
This plankton collection has more than ordinary value because of the 
detailed concurrent hydrographic data available. 

Museum of Natural History 

Richard S. Cowan, Director 

r"riHE systematic biologist, whether in a university or in a public 
■*- museum, daily faces the unpleasant fact that the cost of maintaining 
his essential and ever-growing collections rises continually, that space 
and staff seem to shrink vis-a-vis expanding research requirements, and 
that other, more glamorous scientific programs compete fiercely and 
all too successfully for the never adequate funds available. Small 
wonder, then, that he has sensed an alarming trend toward the down- 
grading of systematic studies in the United States. 

Is a reversal of this trend possible? In our view, it is both possible 
and, in view of the ecological problems man is creating for himself, 
obviously and urgently necessary. 

One recalls that in the last century natural history museums became 
inevitable as the private collector's "cabinet of curiosities" became 
inadequate to exhibit, or to contain, even a small part of the diversity 
of the world of nature. As private collections grew, their scope tended 
to lessen and the selectivity to increase, until only the choicest specimens 
could be retained. This condition, plus jealousies among private collec- 
tors and, oftentimes, the inaccessibility to science of their specimens, 
stimulated development of more generally available research collections 
in university centers and in public museums and botanical gardens. 
These institutions also became the repositories for biological vouchers 
obtained during the early days of exploring this continent, when the aim 
was simply to accumulate vast collections — often without critically 
assessing the data associated with the specimens or the representation 
thus obtained. 

Growth of our National Collections is typical of this. Aware of the 
need to amass a representation of the Nation's wealth of natural 



history and urged by the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, 
the Federal Government included zoologists, botanists, geologists, and 
anthropologists on early exploring expeditions. Agencies such as the 
Geological Survey in the Department of the Interior, the old Biological 
Survey and the Bureau of American Ethnology, and the Department of 
Agriculture all contributed heavily to the National Collections. In the 
areas represented by these agencies, the Smithsonian's Natural History 
Museum is by law the national repository. 

Today, for the reasons earlier noted, collectors in all biological 
disciplines throughout the country tend more and more to deposit in 
the Museum their types and rare specimens. The resulting increase in 
the Collections — they have nearly tripled in the last 20 years — has 
placed on the Museum staff an increased responsibility for preserving 
them. It is, perhaps, a prime reason for the restive concern among the 
systematic science community that growing emphasis on research in 
the Museum of Natural History may cause it to slight the curatorial 
responsibilities entailed in custody of the National Collections, even 
though the research is based upon these collections. 

To such expressions of concern, answer can be given swiftly and 
conclusively: over the past three years, the Museum staff has increased 
by forty percent its production of published research, yet in the same 
period the National Collections have on the whole become better 
housed, better cataloged, better maintained, more accessible, and more 
used than ever before. 

Custody of the National Collections, it is true, poses a challenge 
requiring constant innovation. As prime repository for documentation 
of the Nation's natural history, the Museum cannot limit the Collec- 
tions in scope or in numbers of specimens. At the same time it must 
heed the quality of the materials accepted, and carefully avoid com- 
peting with other centers in any way that would deter the growth of 
systematic biology in the United States. 

With 51 million specimens already in the Collections, how can their 
management improve and research output increase simultaneously? It 
is true that for decades the Collections grew so rapidly that a timely 
record of accessions often could not be kept by old-fashioned hand 
entries in catalogs and day books, and that sizeable backlogs of un- 
cataloged and unidentified material accrued. But with the advent of 
data processing, the Museum has in the past few years painstakingly 
and soundly developed improved techniques for cataloging specimens 
and for processing and manipulating the data associated with them. 

Today, cataloging is accomplished in less than half the time previously 
needed, it is many times more accurate, and the system adopted has a 


potential for further extensive savings. Data processing, moreover, after 
several years of planning has reached the stage where we have under 
way several pilot projects that involve collections of various groups of 
organisms representing a variety of curatorial problems. 

We have thus made a start toward the goal of freeing the staff biologist 
from routine curatorial tasks, so that he can function more nearly as a 
research scientist. And so that the specimens continue to be maintained 
in the best possible condition, "curators" demonstrating an all- 
consuming interest in the care of specimens have been advanced to the 
position of our first collections managers. Assisted by technicians and 
aids, they make a full-time profession of collections care, thus relieving 
the professional scientists for progressively greater research effort. 

Sound scientific judgments concerning the growth and manage- 
ment of the collections will always have to be provided by the profes- 
sional staff, but routine curation is to an increasing extent being 
handled by collection management teams. A program is being devel- 
oped to seek out and train qualified persons having the natural bent for 
collections management. It should in a few years assure a steady flow 
of such trained personnel into the entire museum community. 

What is the goal of the Museum of Natural History regarding its own 
use of the National Collections? To increase the size of the research 
staff obviously will not, indeed cannot, serve to keep pace with the 
enormous growth of natural history collections that must continue if 
man is to gain sufficient knowledge of his environment to manage it. 
Perhaps no more than a twenty-five percent increase in the size of 
professional staff should be expected : the fond but unrealistic dream of 
past generations of museum curators — to have a specialist for every 
group of organisms — is simply not achievable in any research center. 
Instead, a limited cadre of inspired, productive systematic biologists can 
and is being assembled. The work of this staff must, however, be com- 
plemented by a vigorous program of research in systematic biology 
throughout the country, and that program, in turn, must be strength- 
ened by ready access to the National Collections. 

Through expanding fellowship programs at the postgraduate and 
predoctoral levels, this access to the Collections is already being ac- 
corded for extended periods. Each scientific department in the Museum 
has, or is developing, facilities for further such research cooperation. In 
addition, loans of collections of all kinds have reached new peaks, and 
development of new packing and shipping techniques will enable us to 
match the increased number of loan requests expected in the future. 

In short, the Museum of Natural History reaffirms its mandate to 
care for and make available to all serious biologists the natural history 



collections the Nation has entrusted to it, to continue to describe the 
components of the world ecosystem and their interrelationships, and to 
serve systematic biology generally. 

Through joint educational programs, through long- and short-term 
loans of collections, and through cooperative research projects, we 
stand prepared to assist educational institutions in returning systematic 
biology to its central, integrative position in every university curriculum 
across the land. 

The Summer Institute for Systematics was characterized by lively discussion 
and differences of opinion. 

Research and Publication 

The most important accomplishment during the year was the staging 
of the first annual Summer Institute in Systematics, with the collabora- 
tion of the Society of Systematic Zoology and the American Society of 
Zoologists, and the support of the National Science Foundation and 
the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Ellis Yochelson, U.S. 
Geological Survey, and Robert Higgins, Wake Forest College, repre- 
sented the two zoological societies. They planned and carried out the 
program with R. S. Cowan, Head of the Office of Systematics. 

From 200 applicants the 25 participants were selected on the basis 
of the impact they would have on systematic biology on their return 
to their home universities; all were active researchers and teachers of 
zoological systematics. Each morning for three weeks the participants, 
with many members of the staff of the Museum of Natural History 
and from Federal science laboratories, gathered with an outstanding 
speaker to consider one of the several facets comprising systematic 
biology today. Afternoons were free for research in the national collec- 
tions, but discussions generated during the morning often continued 
into the afternoon and evening as well. A transcript of the speaker's 
remarks and the substantive parts of the discussions will be released 
as soon as it can be prepared. 

Planning for the Flora of North America project was materially 
advanced with the support of the Office of Systematics. Progress on 
this 15-year project is discussed on page 88. 

A project to develop a manual for neotropical squamata (reported 
under Vertebrate Zoology, p. 105), was initiated with support provided 
by the office of systematics for bringing Dr. Donoso-Barros from Chile 
to work with James Peters. 

In addition to these major projects, the office of systematics provided 
support and encouragement for field research, for the acquisition of 
shared computer time, for the translation of scientific papers and the 
preparation of scientific illustrations, and for equipment essential to 
the development of several staff research projects. 




With the assistance of professor Sol Tax from the University of 
Chicago, who serves as special advisor for anthropology, considerable 
progress was made in developing new research projects in which the 
staff participated jointly with many colleagues outside the Institution. 

One of these projects, the new Handbook of North American Indians, 
got under way with William C. Sturtevant serving as editor, assisted 
by Samuel Stanley who joined the Office in September 1966 as project 
coordinator. As a result of wide publicity by Sturtevant and Stanley, 
more than one thousand potential authors of sections of the handbook 
have responded. The 12,800 entries in the 1907-1910 Handbook of 
American Indians North of Mexico have been analyzed and sorted accord- 
ing to subject matter as a foundation for the effort to provide for this 
standard work a replacement which will incorporate the results of the 
last sixty years ol research on the subject. The publication is expected 
to occupy twelve or more volumes and is intended to be useful for 
audiences from scholars and students to school teachers and librarians. 
Geographically, the Handbook will cover Indians from northern Mexico 
to the Arctic; topically, it will include physical anthropology, ethnology, 
archeology, linguistics, and an assessment of the current condition of 
North American Indian societies. 

The long-standing commitment of the Smithsonian Institution to the 
study of native American cultures was reaffirmed in an International 
Conference on Changing Cultures in April 1966. In consequence, a new 
urgent anthropology project of international scope has been inau- 
gurated. Responses to the questionnaire distributed by the journal 
Current Anthropology, requesting anthropologists to list anthropological 
research known to be urgent and to name people to undertake it, have 
been analyzed. The analysis of these data and those from other sources 
will be published in a catalog of research projects on rapidly changing 

A Wenner-Gren Foundation grant for field work in rapidly changing 
cultures provides assistance to many anthropologists over the world 
who require small sums for urgent anthropological research. The aim 
is to stimulate field research in these areas of urgency and to assist in 
developing and strengthening professional anthropologists and anthro- 
pological institutions in those countries where cultures are subject to 
rapid modification. 

The ancient technology project, co-directed by Clifford Evans and 
Gus W. Van Beek, with the collaboration of the Battelle Memorial In- 
stitute, has initiated a study of ancient metal objects using metallo- 
graphic and spectrochemical techniques. Already laboratory tests of 


several hundred artifacts from Ecuador have been analyzed, revealing 
important information concerning aboriginal methods of working 
gold, copper, silver, and various alloys. As a part of this project, 
research associate Theodore Wertime spent two months in Iran as 
part of a team of archeologists and metallurgy historians studying 
ancient metal-smelting sites. 

With excess currencies and Smithsonian research funds, Hans 
WulfF, University of New South Wales, Australia, is conducting a study 
of ancient urban technology in Iran. In a joint expedition between 
his university and the Smithsonian, Wulff conducted field work for 
seven months, gathering data on the technology of pre-industrial crafts. 
Among the outstanding discoveries concerning present-day Iranian 
crafts is that of the method of making alkaline turquoise glaze, a sub- 
stance known since the fourth millenium B.C. and still used by local 
ceramicists lor the manufacture of small ornamental objects. Details of 
the process were recorded and sufficient raw materials were collected to 
conduct a series of experiments on the chemical and physical nature 
of the material. 

Senior ethnologist, John C. Ewers, completed the editing of a cen- 
tennial edition of George Catlin's O-kee-pa, A Religious Ceremony, and 
Other Customs of the Mandans, which will be published in fall 1967. He 
also completed a manuscript on the development of artistic conscious- 
ness of the American West in the 19th century, as his contribution to 
a textbook entitled The Artist in America. 

In preparation for completion of The Indians of Texas in 1830, Ewers 
examined collections of Southern Plains Indian artifacts and records. 
This volume involves the translation of a manuscript on the Indians 
of Texas written by Jean Louis Berlandier, biologist for the 1828- 
1830 Mexican border expedition. In the process of drawing together 
this information, he is also evaluating the watercolors which were 
prepared under Berlandier' s supervision to accompany his manuscript; 
the book will also include descriptions of the ethnological specimens 
collected by Berlandier. 

Editorial work for the projected volume on physical anthropology 
in The Handbook of Middle American Indians occupied T. Dale Stewart 
during most of summer 1966. He also presented a paper and chaired 
a program at the 37th International Congress of Americanists in 
Argentina. After the Congress, on the invitation of the University of 
Chile, he went to Santiago for a week to consult with the physical 
anthropology faculty and to review their research programs. 

In March, Stewart spent several days in Yucatan identifying and 
studying the human skeletal remains uncovered by E. Wyllys Andrews 
during his excavations in the Mayan site known as Dzibilchaltun. The 



numerous examples of cranial deformity and tooth mutilation were of 
particular interest. 

Through communication with John R. Groome of Grenada, W.I., 
Stewart obtained possession of the skeleton of a Negro with teeth 
mutilated in a manner known to have been practiced earlier in 
Cameroon, Africa. In a paper jointly authored by Stewart and Groome, 
a case is made for this having been one of the original African slaves, 
and, if so, this is only the second such example on record. 

Senior archeologist Waldo R. Wedel resumed his investigations of 
the so-called council circles of central Kansas. Long a puzzling feature 
in Plains archeology, the council circles each consist of a little earthen 
mound surrounded by a shallow ditch or a series of elongated depres- 
sions placed end-to-end to form a circular or subcircular pattern 100 

Prehistoric wooden carving, 
approximately one foot high, 
from Spiro Mound, Oklahoma, 
part of a large collection 
presented to the U.S. National 
Museum by Richard K. Meyer. 


to 200 feet across. Each is associated with a village complex and no 
village has more than one such circle; only five are on record, all 
within 20 miles of each other. The sites with which they are associated 
date from about A.D. 1500 to 1700, and are believed to represent a 
period of Wichita Indian occupancy. 

Of prime interest was the finding of human bones at every point 
where the archeological trench intersected the circle. Most of the bones 
were scattered randomly about the area and occurred essentially in the 
same levels as the refuse, bison, and other animal bones. Almost without 
exception, the bones were in poor condition, giving the impression of 
having lain a long time on the surface before finally being cast into a 
pit or trench along with other camp refuse. At or near the center of the 
mound which forms the heart of the circle complex, a large fireplace 
was uncovered. It seems possible that this was the site of a succession of 
large, perhaps ceremonial, fires, rather than a slow accumulation of 
ashes from household use over a long period of time. The position of the 
hearth near the center of a circle complex suggests that large fires may 
have been built as signals to other council circles in the area. 

Henry B. Collins, senior scientist, retired from Government service on 
December 30, 1966, and soon thereafter was appointed archeologist 
emeritus. In this capacity he will maintain his office and continue his 
research in Arctic anthropology. 

Paul H. Voorhis joined the anthropology staff as a language specialist 
in March. Already he has completed initial preparation of his doctoral 
dissertation on Kickapoo grammar, he has begun preparation of other 
texts for publication, and he has started to obtain a translation of 
Kickapoo documents long on deposit in the anthropology archives. 
These documents, previously incomprehensible to all but the Kickapoos, 
are now yielding both linguistic and ethnological data. 

Research on human ecological systems and prehistoric water systems 
continued to occupy Richard B. Woodbury who is completing a report 
on water-control systems in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico. Woodbury 
relinquished the chairmanship of the office of anthropology at the end 
of January in order to devote greater time to research. 

Museum specialist George E. Phebus, Jr., has discovered in the 
ethnological collections of the Northwest Coast, many objects that help 
explain other fragmentary artifacts found in that area. His own strati- 
graphic excavations during past years in Oregon and Washington have 
enabled him to identify and put in order the Museum's vast archeologi- 
cal collections from the Columbia River drainage. He is preparing 
several scientific papers and larger monographs based upon his research. 

Research associate C. G. Holland completed a monograph on the 
archeology of Southwestern Virginia. This study was conducted under 


auspices of the Museum of Natural History, under a National Science 
Foundation grant, and he has turned over all the specimens to the 
permanent collections of the Museum. 

A program of archeological survey in Brazil under the direction of 
Clifford Evans and research associate Betty J. Meggers began in 1965 
with funds from a Smithsonian research award and with the official 
collaboration of the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas of Brazil. During 
summer 1966, they undertook a tour of inspection of the archeological 
sites, checking field notes, film records, maps and data assembled 
by each field project* In addition to developing a considerable body 
of knowledge about Brazilian archeology, the program has served 
as the stimulus for archeology in Brazil. A grant from the Wenner- 
Gren Foundation provided opportunity for the Brazilian participants 
to attend the 37th International Congress of Americanists in Argentina. 
Following the Congress, Evans and Meggers formulated plans with 
an Argentine archeologist for the development of a coordinated 
archeological program similar to that which is so successful in Brazil. 
Professor Ramiro Matos M., professor of anthropology at the Univer- 
sidad Nacional de Centro del Peru, Huancayo, continued his training 
under Evans and Meggers in modern archeological methods of analysis 
and interpretation of artifacts, with the support of a fellowship from 
the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation. With Professor Matos 
they have also developed plans for a long-range, coordinated, research- 
training archeological program in Peru. 

The 37th International Congress of Americanists awarded a gold 
medal to Evans and Meggers for their outstanding contributions to 
South American archeology. They were also recognized by the Govern- 
ment of Ecuador, which conferred upon them the National Order 
"Al Merito," for their work in that country. 

Research associate Olga Linares de Sapir returned at the beginning 
of this year from archeologic and ethnographic field work in 
Southern Senegal, West Africa. Hers was the first stratigraphic arche- 
ology ever attempted in the area and it is hoped that the large number 
of charcoal samples collected will permit the development of an 
absolute dating sequence and a chronology based on artifact types 
and pottery. She also completed for publication a monograph on the 
cultural chronology in the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panama. 

The three-year project of interdisciplinary investigation into the 
prehistoric cultural ecology of the Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, continued 
under the direction of Kent V. Flannery. In addition to the discoveries 
reported last year concerning the geomorphology and ecology of the 
valley in Early Formative times, it is now known that habitation of 
the dry caves excavated by the expedition extends back to about 
7800 B.C. 


The archeologically later Early Formative period in the Valley of 
Oaxaca about 10 kilometers north of Monte Alban appears to be as 
rich and complex as any found in Mesoamerica. Deeply buried levels 
at one site yielded a series of packed-clay house floors with well- 
preserved post-moulds and fragments of wattle-and-daub walls and 
storage pits. A number of dry caves from the late phases of the Monte 
Alban sequence yielded thousands of cultivated plant specimens, as 
well as bits of nets, baskets, textile and sandal fragments, and fire drills. 

Future plans include mapping of all edible species in selected vege- 
tation areas, faunal studies, and more intensive study of the late pre- 
ceramic and Early Formative phases of the valley. 

"The most complete dictionary compiled since the 16th century for 
any American Indian language" describes the Tzotzil dictionary 
compiled by Robert M. Laughlin. Entries total about 25,000, and 
special attention has been given to the Tzotzil vocabulary pertaining 
to the plants and animals. With the assistance of Alexander F. Skutch 
for the native birds and Peter H. Raven and Dennis E. Breedlove of 
Stanford University for plant identification, several thousand native 
terms for organisms were recorded. 

Compilation of a Bibliography of Anthropological Bibliographies of 
Africa was completed during the year by Gordon D. Gibson, who also 
served as acting chairman of the office of anthropology from February 
to June. Although not exhaustive, this work attempts to provide the 
broadest possible coverage, and is expected, therefore, to be useful to 
all types of anthropological research on Africa. 

In his continuing study of Micronesian ethnohistory, Saul H. Riesen- 
berg, who in February became chairman of the Office of Anthropology, 
studied ships logs, journals, and other ethnohistorical materials in 
various marine depositories in New England. In February he joined 
Thomas Gladwin of the National Institutes of Health and Samuel 
Elbert of the University of Hawaii in a joint project at Puluwat in the 
Caroline Islands to study Micronesian navigation and sailing. Here 
the aboriginal methods of navigation are still practiced in voyages of 
up to several hundred miles across the open sea. Riesenberg is investi- 
gating the complex of ethnographic features — economic, social, and 
political — which center upon or are affected by the frequent long 
voyages of these people. 

Eugene I. Knez revisited Korea to gather additional data for his 
illustrated index of Korean material culture, preparation of which is 
nearing completion. While there he also participated in the inter- 
national conference to reestablish a Korean National Science Museum. 

William H. Crocker returned to Brazil to initiate a two-month 
comparative survey of the Apanyekra-Canela, closely related to the 
Ramkokamekra-Canela which he has been studying since 1957. 


Hajar Bin Humeid, the title of a work nearing completion by Gus W. 
Van Beek, presents a cultural cross section of a South Arabian farming 
town and trading center during the first millennium B.C. and the early 
centuries following. Of special interest is the pottery chronology, the 
first long-range, stratigraphically based chronology for southern 

Van Beek also visited Phoenician archeological sites in Tunisia and, 
with the staff of the Tunisian National Institute of Archeology and the 
Arts, developed plans for a long-range project to excavate ancient 
Carthage, the capital of the western Phoenician empire from 814 to 
146 B.C. While basically a conventional archeological excavation, 
this project is expected to be interdisciplinary, in that it involves the 
paleontological correlation of sea-level fluctuations, as revealed by 
microfossils, and closely dated artifacts of man's culture. This study 
will also involve examination of subsistence patterns in a complex 
historical site with special reference to man's use of his environment. 
It will also be cooperative in the sense that both American and Tu- 
nisian archeologists will participate in all stages of the field work and 

Some selective forces in human evolution are revealed for the first 
time in J. Lawrence Angel's study of the skeletal remains of an ancient 
population near Lerna, Greece. Combining evidences of marked 
contrasts in fecundity with evidence of greater fertility in family groups 
whose skull bones showed high incidence of thalassemia, a disease 
which protects against malaria, Angel concluded that thalassemia was 
a selective factor in ancient Greece. His monograph on Lerna puts 
great stress on the total ecological picture of the time and deals particu- 
larly with changes in population density and demography and changes 
in malaria which appears chronically to have affected the people of 
that area. 

Angel, with the collaboration of Donald J. Ortner and others, both 
within and outside" the Smithsonian, began a research program on 
development and aging in human bone, including the biochemical and 
micromorphological end results of aging processes. A laboratory for 
these studies has been completed and work will begin in the next 
fiscal year. 

Lucille St. Hoyme, accompanied Jane Phillips of Howard University 
on a two-week field trip to Jamaica. She continued work on her study 
of changing concepts of fossil man during the last 200 years. 

Katharine Luomala, professor of anthropology at the University of 
Hawaii, worked most of the year as a research associate on manuscripts 
concerned with Gilbert Islands culture and ecology. Gilbertese artifacts 
in the museum were studied, photographed, and described, particularly 
the shark-toothed weapons. 


River Basin Surveys 

In contrast with the recent past, only 50 percent of River Basin 
Surveys field projects were concerned with archeological problems 
within the Middle Missouri area of the Dakotas. This does not indicate 
the abandonment of an area long of prime interest; rather, it reflects 
the substantial completion of field investigations within the major 
reservoirs of the Missouri River. Field investigations will continue, but 
at a reduced level. Several areas not adequately sampled are endangered 
by shoreline erosion or by recreational developments, but future 
investigations here will be completed only as other projects become less 

A total of twelve field projects were undertaken during the field 
season— seven in North Dakota, three in South Dakota, and one each 
in Iowa and Wyoming: 

1 . The Durkin site, a small village of the Extended Middle Missouri 
horizon, situated in the upper Big Bend Reservoir of central South 
Dakota. The artifact inventory and house pattern are close parallels of 
those from the Thomas Riggs site but with a significant increment of 
rim sherds symptomatic of the Initial Coalescent horizon. 

2. The Ketchen site, in the upper Big Bend Reservoir, proved to be 
a close counterpart of the Durkin village and contained similar evidence 
of ceramic influences deriving from the Coalescent tradition. 

3. The Cattle Oiler site, immediately upstream from the Ketchen 
site. The occupation attributable to the Initial Middle Missouri 
horizon is closely related to the Anderson component of the Dodd site 
in the Oahe Reservoir to the north. In addition, there is good evidence 
of a Thomas Riggs component (perhaps no more than a peripheral 
development of the Ketchen village) only a short distance to the south. 

4. The South Cannonball site, an intensively occupied village in 
the upper Oahe Reservoir, central North Dakota. The site is repre- 
sentative of the Extended Middle Missouri horizon. A cursory examina- 
tion of the ceramic collection suggests close ties with Mississippian de- 
velopments in Minnesota, a matter of great significance in view of the 
long-standing problems, vis-a-vis the origins of the Middle Missouri 

5. The Larson site in the Oahe Reservoir in northern South Dakota. 
The site manifests a long sequence of occupations extending from late 
prehistory to the period of Euro-American contact. Although the 
village, at least in its late components, has been labeled as Arikara, 
much more work will be required to clarify the cultural situation. 

6. The Fort Manuel site, in the upper Oahe Reservoir, North 
Dakota. This important post was operated during 1812-1813 by the Mis- 


souri Fur Company for trade with the Arikara. The structures and 
palisaded defenses were completely excavated and much of the sur- 
rounding area was' cleared by means of earth-moving machinery. Both 
European and aboriginal artifacts of the early 19th century were re- 
covered but in relatively small numbers. Despite a diligent search, 
no evidence was uncovered that would shed light on the remains of the 
persons who died at the post during its brief use. 

7. The Fisher site, in the Bowman-Haley Reservoir of north- 
western South Dakota. The site contains five zones of occupation; 
only the two lowermost (both of McKean affinities) produced dis- 
tinctive cultural remains. 

8. The Red Fox site, also in the Bowman-Haley Reservoir, held a 
somewhat similar sequence of components. The lowermost is related to 
the McKean complex ; the uppermost representative of the Coalescent 
tradition of the Middle Missouri area. 

9. The Pipestem Reservoir, near Jamestown, North Dakota, was 
surveyed but with negative results. While apparently devoid of arche- 
ological features, it is possible that a few sites, masked by the heavy 
vegetation of late summer, were missed by the reconnaissance party. 

10. The lower Garrison Diversion Project of eastern North Dakota. 
The area was examined late in the season, thus adding more arche- 
ological sites to the growing number already recorded in the area. 

1 1 . The Saylorville Reservoir, along the Des Moines River in 
north-central Iowa was surveyed as a prelude to large-scale excavation. 
Of the 66 archeological sites recorded by the survey party, only 16 
were considered to warrant excavation. 

12. The Mummy Cave site, near Cody, Wyoming, was excavated 
as a joint project of the National Geographic Society - Whitney Gallery 
of Western Art- Smithsonian Institution. The deposits within the site 
contained some 38 occupational levels extending from before 7000 B.C. 
to the ethnographic period. The extensive collection of perishable 
objects from the dated McKean levels are deemed to be of particular 

In June of 1967, six additional projects were begun or continued by 
River Basin Surveys field parties; 

1. Continued investigation at the South Cannonball site to exploit 
areas of the village partially cleared by machinery during 1966. 

2. Continued work at the Larson site in the hope of adding to the 
fragmentary cultural sequence presently known. 

3. Excavation in portions of the Medicine Creek site in the Big 
Bend Reservoir now threatened by recreational developments. 

4. Excavation at sites threatened with immediate destruction by 
construction activity within the Garrison Diversion Project. 


5. An archeological reconnaissance of the Cottonwood Springs 
Reservoir, just west of the community of Hot Springs, South Dakota. 
With the beginning of the year, the River Basin Surveys initiated a 
new series, Publications in Salvage Archeology, to report the results of 
excavations completed under the broad aegis of the Inter-Agency 
Archeological and Paleontological Salvage Program. The series is 
edited by staff members of the River Basin Surveys and printed by 
modern offset press in editions of 1,500 copies. As of the end of the 
fiscal year, four numbers totaling about 500 pages have been printed 
and distributed. It is anticipated that others will follow at the rate of 
four issues per year. 


The development of broad concepts in systematic botany may be 
the culmination of a lifetime career in the study of one particular 
aspect of plant life or in the investigation of one particular group of 
plants. These concepts often result only after years of intense concen- 
tration on the taxa involved, and an understanding of the whole is 
something that follows only after a keen appreciation of the parts. 

Research associate F. A. McClure has spent a lifetime studying the 
bamboos, a most important group of plants which enter into the daily 
lives of so many persons in the tropics. From his early days as a teacher 
and plant collector in the Orient, through his work with the plant 
explorers of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, to his intensive 
studies of the preserved bamboo specimens in the U.S. National 
Herbarium and living plants in his personal garden, McClure has had 
his eye upon a single goal — a complete understanding of these plants. 

Since the appearance in 1887 of the last systematic revision of the 
bamboos, the number of validly published genera has nearly trebled 
and the number of species is now nearly eight times as great. A fresh 
perspective on the generic patterns currently discernible within this 
group of plants is now long overdue. His studies in progress have the 
objectives of exploring these patterns, providing revised and uniform 
descriptions of the tenable genera among the 60 or more which are 
validly published, redefining their boundaries, proposing new genera 
where necessary, providing plates to illustrate a typical species of each, 
and setting up keys to facilitate generic identifications. 

The service performed through the identification of plant specimens 
is often integrally associated with the research of the professional staff. 
Bryologist Harold Robinson has successfully combined the traditional 
service function of providing identifications with his research into the 
systematics of tropical mosses. Identification of over a thousand 


bryophyte specimens collected by Robert M. King and Jose Cuatre- 
casas in Colombia became the basis for a preliminary publication on 
the bryophytes of that country. While it is far short of being a Colom- 
bian bryophyte flora, it is the first major effort in over thirty years at 
offering a means of identifying these plants from that part of the world. 
Mosses collected by Julian Steyermark from Venezuela are expected 
to provide a foundation for a similar moss flora of that country. 

Since the days when it sponsored Asa Gray's classical Synoptical 
Flora of North America, the Smithsonian Institution has been active 
in research and publication on the indigenous plants of North America, 
and it will soon be involved in a new effort to survey the American 
flora. When the American Society of Plant Taxonomists decided in 
August 1966 to organize the "Flora North America Project," the 
Smithsonian was chosen as headquarters and Stanwyn G. Shetler was 
named executive secretary. The editorial committee met at the Smith- 
sonian in January and elected William L. Stern temporary chairman 
of the steering committee. The principal accomplishment was the 
preparation of a draft of the first grant proposal. 

Flora North America is a 15- year cooperative effort of American 
and Canadian taxonomists to produce a four-volume manual of the 
native vascular plants ol North America exclusive of Mexico. The 
project is expected to result in the training of many new taxonomists, 
and the resulting manual should benefit various economic research 
activities, as well as biology in general. At its completion, knowledge 
of the Boreal and Arctic floras of the world will be largely completed, 
since the Flora U.S.S.R., covering the Soviet Union, and Flora 
Europeae, covering all of Europe, are either complete or in preparation. 

Research activities on plant anatomy were expanded with the arrival 
of Edward S. Ayensu whose major interest is in the comparative 
anatomy and phylogeny of angiosperms, especially the monocotyledons. 
With senior botanist Lyman D. Smith, Ayensu is studymg the com- 
parative anatomy of the Velloziaceae, a plant family that is one of the 
most interesting and geographically puzzling links between the floras 
of tropical America and Africa. He will also continue his studies in the 
Dioscoreales, the order of true yams. 

Most of the time of Jose Cuatrecasas has been used in the completion 
of a monograph of the Brunelliaceae, a tropical family of 50 species 
distributed from southern Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, and the Caribbean 
Islands. It will be published as a part of the international project 
Flora Neotropica. Cuatrecasas also participated in a symposium on 
geoecology of the mountainous regions of the tropical Americas, held 
in Mexico City, and presented a paper on life forms in the paramos. 


In addition to continuing his research on the floral anatomy and 
evolutionary history of the dogwood family, Richard H. Eyde studied 
the floral anatomy of the Brunelliaceae for Cuatrecasas' monograph. 
His studies indicate that there is validity in the viewpoint of taxonomists 
who see an evolutionary link between this family, the Cunoniaceae, 
and the Rosaceae. 

An extensive paper by Conrad V. Morton on the subgenera and 
sections of the filmy fern family will serve to counterbalance and correct 
a radical and incomplete study on this family published about 30 years 
ago which, for want of a more suitable treatment, has been widely and 
uncritically adopted. He has also completed studies of other fern groups 
and of the Peruvian species of a genus of the African violet family. 

Subsequent to his three-month visit to study types and other historical 
collections in Western European herbaria and botanical gardens, 
Lyman B. Smith continued to refine his monographic study of the 
pineapple family, began a cooperative research project with Ayensu, 
completed a revision of the bamboos of Santa Catarina, Brazil, super- 
vised the preparation of two doctoral dissertations, and supervised the 
research of a former Smithsonian pre-doctoral student on the pineapple 
family in Ecuador. In January he was voted honorary citizenship by the 
City Council of Itajai, Brazil, for his valuable contributions to the 
knowledge of the flora of Santa Catarina. 

William L. Stern, who resigned as chairman of the department at the 
end of the fiscal year, concluded his research on the comparative 
anatomy of the vegetative structures of Columelliaceae, which resulted 
in a more natural taxonomic placement of this curious plant family. 
Detailed anatomical studies of the leaf node and xylem indicated clearly 
that this family is far more primitive than was supposed, and belongs in 
the Englerian concept of the Saxifragaceae. This family is usually 
treated by modern taxonomists as several families and Stern began 
studies of this complex to determine proper familial boundaries employ- 
ing the techniques of comparative anatomy. 

Excellence in research in systematic botany is associated very closely 
with the availability of adequate library resources. Until recent years 
the botany department library has been grossly neglected because of 
the sparsity of its holdings, the lack of a card catalog, absence of an 
organized program of accession, and scattered deposits through the 
offices of the department. With the guidance of several members of the 
department, Ruth F. Schallert, a professional librarian, with the 
dedicated assistance of research associate William A. Archer, has 
already made remarkable strides in providing Smithsonian botanists 
with the quality library they require. Although still incomplete, the 
various parts have been collected, and cataloging is well under way. 


Archer is putting in order and cataloging several hundred collectors' 
field notebooks, some dating from the beginning of the century, con- 
taining many important historical and geographical references, as well 
as plant observations. 


This has been a particularly significant year in terms of accomplish- 
ments for the department of entomology, including substantial field 
explorations, acquisition of important collections, improvement of 
curation of the collections, exhibits planning, educational activities, 
and the most productive research year since the founding of the 

The progress of current research and curatorial programs, as well as 
future goals and the resources to obtain them, were reviewed with an 
advisory committee of outstanding entomologists. An excellent report 
which has already had significant impact on future planning was 
signed by: E. Gorton Linsley, chairman (University of California, 
Berkeley), William L. Brown, Jr. (Cornell University), Kenneth W. 
Cooper (Dartmouth Medical School), and P. J. Darlington (Harvard 

Richard C. Froeschner completed a paper on the Galapagos species 
of lacebugs and made substantial progress on an illustrated manual of 
the world genera by evaluating morphological characters of 1,800 
species in 270 genera. His studies of certain hemipterous families from 
Dominica indicates that the Dominican fauna has its principal generic 
affinities with Tropical America but that there is considerable isolation 
at the species level. 

Opposite (top): Turtle Mountains in southern California, visited by Gerald I. 
Stage during his seven-week quest in the Colorado and Mojave Deserts for 
new information on the behavior of desert bees. 

Female melittid bee (center) takes nectar from a blossom of the desert- 
sunflower. The long paper tag is used to slow the bee and make it more 
conspicuous during flight so the observer has a better chance of tracking it 
to its nest. 

Male halictid bee (bottom, left) displaying its alert posture while watching 
for females from its perch inside a blossom of the ghost flower. Its massive 
gaping jaws are used against other males, which frequently intrude. 

Hapless honeybee (bottom, right) being devoured by a crab spider that 
ambushed it from inside a blossom of rock-netde. 

^ r -' -•;&*.. 


Karl V. Krombein, chairman, devoted most of his research time to 
getting into print two large publications, one a second supplement of 
the catalog of Hymenoptera of America North of Mexico, and the 
second, a large volume on the life histories, nests and associates of 
the trap-nesting wasps and bees. The latter work is already being 
hailed as a modern classic of insect natural history. 

Gerald I. Stage joined the entomology staff in November as a 
specialist on the systematics and behavior of wild bees. A monograph 
of one genus, emphasizing relationships between a phenetic and 
phyletic classification and biological data, was nearly complete and 
the study of the bees of Dominica was begun. 

J. F. Gates Clarke assembled the plates and completed the manuscript 
for volume 6 of his monumental study on the Meyrick types of 

Donald R. Davis nearly completed his revision of New World 
Carposinidae and he expanded his earlier project on New World 
Incurvariinae to include a general world survey at the generic level, 
in an attempt to understand more clearly the entire composition of 
this group of primitive lepidoptera. 

Field investigations in Colombia and Venezuela occupied much of 
the year for W. Donald Duckworth in his long-term study of neo- 
tropical Stenomidae. He also completed and published several papers 
during the year on genera of this family. 

The South East Asia Mosquito Project (SEAMP), a cooperative 
venture between the Smithsonian and the Department of the Army, 
continued its investigations of the mosquitoes of this strategically 
important area. Various members of the Project staff made trips to 
collect materials and to study specimens in other museums. In addition 
to publishing individual research papers, SEAMP issued a revision of 
its extremely useful "Preliminary Keys to the Mosquitoes of Vietnam." 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr., completed and published several papers during 
the year on the systematics of the larvae and adults of the New World 
caddis flies. An extensive field trip to Mexico and Central America 
provided much valuable new material for his studies of this family. 

Close collaboration between the Smithsonian Institution and the 
University of Maryland School of Medicine has continued, with 
research associate Robert Traub and a group of scientists studying 
ectoparasites collected in overseas programs on viral and rickettsial 
infections. Collections during the year were made in West Pakistan, 
Nepal, New Guinea, and Mexico. Taxonomic and ecological research 
on fleas and mites laid the basis for selecting areas for intensive micro- 
biological investigations. 



The reborn emphasis on research as a primary activity of the Museum 
and the stimulus provided by the Offices of Systematics and of Oceanog- 
raphy and Limnology are reflected in the diverse research programs of 
this department and of the numbers and kinds of publications issued 
by it during the year. Monographic studies and revisions continue to be 
a major interest, although a large portion of the departmental research 
program is concerned with more generalized investigations of the 
systematics and zoogeography of invertebrates. 

Under the impetus of the Antarctic Research Program, sponsored by 
the National Science Foundation, investigations of antarctic inverte- 
brates continued to be a focal point for many research activities. David 
L. Pawson continued his work on antarctic holothurians and echinoids, 
and completed charts of the distribution of the species of these groups, 
accompanied by an analysis of distribution patterns in relation to 
physical environmental factors. 

J. L. Barnard continued studies of antarctic amphipods and com- 
pleted a review of one genus. Mary Rice initiated studies of the 
sipunculid and echiurid worms collected in the Antarctic by the 
Eltanin expedition. Clyde F. E. Roper joined the staff in September and 
continued his studies of the systematics, biology, and distribution of the 
squids. His studies of Bathyteuthis abyssicola, the dominant squid in the 
Antarctic, included conclusions on the effect of water depth, oxygen 
content, and other oceanographic parameters on distribution and 
morphology of this animal. 

Studies of tropical organisms have attracted the attention of most 
members of the staff, many of whom conducted field expeditions to 
acquire new specimens and to observe the environmental conditions 
under which they have developed : Raymond B. Manning collaborated 
in West Pakistan on a study of the stomatopod crustaceans of West 
Pakistan, Mary Rice studied the biology and development of sipunculid 
worms in Puerto Rico, and Klaus Ruetzler studied sponges in the 
mangrove association in Puerto Rico and Bermuda. 

As a result of the study of collections of sharks in the Indian Ocean 
and eastern South Pacific, Roger F. Cressey has been able to show that 
a correlation exists between adult parasite copepod size and surface 
temperature at the collection station. This relationship has been 
demonstrated in free-living crustaceans but never before among 
parasitic forms. He also continued his study of the phylogeny of 
parasitic copepods on elasmobranch and scombroid fishes. 

J. L. Barnard spent most of the year as a Smithsonian Fellow in 
invertebrate zoology at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu. 


His studies of certain Hawaiian amphipods has shown a significant 
affinity between them and the warm-temperate North American 
fauna, a unique condition among marine invertebrates. He believes 
that this may reflect the abilities of amphipods to drift long distances 
on flotsam, as well as the relative isolation of Hawaii in relation to 
other shallow-water areas of the tropical Pacific. 

Studies on the biology of planktonic organisms have been continued 
by Thomas E. Bowman, who focused his attention on the pelagic 
decapod crustaceans, and completed a review of the distribution of 
Lucifer in the western North Atlantic. He also published the first report 
of self-luminescence in a pelagic gammaridean amphipod. 

The aim of Mary Rice's investigations of the development, systematics 
and zoogeography of Caribbean sipunculids, carried out in close 
cooperation with scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti- 
tution, is to ascertain the life history of members of several representative 
genera. Nothing is presently known of the developmental history of 
tropical forms. 

The studies on North American crayfishes and their ostracod sym- 
bionts by Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., included the preparation of a re- 
vision of the genus Procambarus which ranges from Canada to Gua- 
temala and Cuba. He has also completed a monograph of the Mexican 
and Cuban entocytherids. In collaboration with Perry C. Holt, Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute, and Margaret Walton, Mountain Lake Biological 
Station, Hobbs completed a study of the crayfishes and their epizootic 
associates from the Mountain Lake area. In addition to taxonomic 
accounts of these species, the authors included a discussion of the 
habitats of the species, population sizes and fluctuations, food habits, 
information on origin and distribution in the area, and a summary of 
data on elevations and drainage systems. 

The freshwater and terrestrial decapod crustaceans of the West 
Indies, with special reference to Dominica, have been the subject of a 
collaborative study by Fenner A. Chace, Jr., and Horton H. Hobbs, 
Jr. Materials were collected by Hobbs in Dominica under the auspices 
of the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica. 
The study promises to be the most comprehensive ever made on the 
non-marine West Indian decapods. 

Studies on ostracods from Hadley Harbor, Massachusetts, by Louis S. 
Kornicker led to the discovery of a high incidence of parasitism of one 
of the ostracods. Kornicker and Thomas E. Bowman have collaborated 
on a study of the host and parasite, both undescribed species. The 
incidence of parasitism is very high, with about one in 15 of the adult 
ostracods infested. The copepods have developed a host-deceiving 
egg-mimicry, and deposit their eggs in sacs, each with several eggs, 

J. L. Barnard, studying 
the gammaridean amphi- 
pods of the Hawaiian 
Islands, here is collecting 
amphipods from the 
algae in an intertidal 

Isaacs-Kidd Midwater 
Trawl (right), a high 
speed sampler used to 
collect pelagic animals, 
being used in southern 
waters aboard the El- 
tanin; most of the speci- 
mens of the squid Bathy- 
teuthis abyssicola Hoyle 
studied by Clyde F. E. 
Roper were taken with 
this gear. 

\ \ 


and of a size similar to that of the ostracod eggs, in the ostracod brood 

Using serial sections across the hinge area of representative species of 
several genera of myodocopid ostracods, Louis S. Kornicker traced 
the origin of the ligament, as well as the relationship of the ligament 
to the hinge and the shell. Knowledge of the placement of the ligament 
in living ostracods may help those working with fossil species to de- 
termine the ligament line, particularly in those forms lacking Recent 

Histological examination of the circulatory system of the polychaetous 
annelid Magelona, conducted by Meredith L. Jones, confirmed field 
observations that there is a heart-like pumping action intrinsic in the 
dorsal blood vessel. In addition, earlier observations of unusual seg- 
mentally arranged capillary beds were confirmed and a separate series 
of segmentally arranged valves in the posterior dorsal vessel was found. 


The most significant department-wide event during the year was a 
two-day meeting with an advisory committee of eminent specialists 
*in earth sciences — Felix Chayes, chairman (Geophysical Laboratory, 
Carnegie Institution of Washington), Clifford Frondel (Harvard 
University), Hans Suess (University of California, San Diego), and 
William Thurston (U.S. Geological Survey). The truly excellent report 
of this committee identified goals for the department and the resources 
required to attain them, as well as evaluating present research and 
service activities. 

Research in meteorites was concentrated on the chemical and minera- 
logical composition of stony meteorites; detailed studies, based on a 
careful review of the Museum's collection, were carried out on the most 
significant specimens. This broad program, involving some 30 indi- 
vidual projects, is being carried forward jointly with other institutions 
and universities both in this country and abroad with the support of 
grants and contracts from the National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, U.S. Air Force, National Science Foundation, National 
Geographic Society, and the Smithsonian Research Foundation. 

Several iron meteorites from Campos del Cielo, Argentina, particu- 
larly "El Taco" which contains large silicate inclusions, are also being 
studied in collaboration with scientists from the Max-Planck-Institut 
in Germany, the Lamont Geological Observatory, the California 
Institute of Technology, the Ames Research Center, and the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology. 

3 red 

cut frc 

4400 f. 


>lher meteorites and »moll 
craters have been found in the tornt area 

The dork inclusions or« silicates, with varying 
amounts of graphite, iron sulfide, and nickel-iron. The 
nickel content of (he metal h 6.7 percent, as in coarse 

The ossoootion of nickel-iron with the silicate min- 
erals that ore common in stony meteorites may indicate 
that iron and Stony meteorites ore interrelated and that 
the types were not completely separated in the mete- 
orite*' parent bodies. 

This tl>ce. which weighs about 200 pounds, wen cut 
at the Man Ptonck Instihrt, Maim, Germony. 


In the new hall of meteorites is featured a slice from the two-ton El Taco, 
Campo del Cielo, Argentina, meteorite. This specimen is playing a leading 
role in a cooperative international research program involving a number of 
centers of meteorite research. 

An investigation and review of meteoritic pyroxene was completed 
under Brian Mason, who also reviewed the pyroxene-plagioclase 
chondrites. A new chondrite, "Rupota," from Tanzania was studied 
in detail especially by Kurt Fredriksson in cooperation with R. O. 
Pepin from the University of Minnesota. It was found that this meteor- 
ite is a rather typical olivine-hypersthene (L-group) chondrite, and it 
is the first of this group which has been shown to contain primoridal 
rare gases. This finding contradicts a recent hypothesis that these 
meteorites may have come from Mars while the olivine-bronzite 
chondrites (H-group) should have originated on the moon. These 
projects benefited materially from the excellent chemical analyses 
made by Eugene Jarosewich, who also analyzed several mineral 
separates, iron meteorites, and terrestrial rocks. 

Robert F. Fudali joined the staff at the beginning of the year and has 
begun studies of phase equilibria in meteorites at relatively high 
temperatures and under controlled oxygen fugacity, as well as diffusion 
studies in olivine and in iron meteorites. Rather extensive studies on 
recrystallization of chondrites at temperature's in the range of 700° 
C. to 1000° C. are also in progress in cooperation with Dr. A. Reid, 
University of California. 


Research in petrology during the past year continued to focus on 
rocks from the mid-Atlantic Ridge and their use in tracing the develop- 
ment of the oceanic crust. These, and other studies, show that the crust 
may be viewed as a dynamic product of processes occurring in the 
upper mantle. Partial fusion of mantle material evidently has produced 
and is' producing vast quantities of basaltic magma, particularly 
beneath the mid-Atlantic Ridge. Eruption and piling up of this material 
and emplacement of possibly large basaltic intrusions, some of which 
cool sufficiently slowly to become gravity-differentiated, is probably the 
dominant manner in which the oceanic crust has formed, particularly 
in the undisrupted north-south trending zones of the mid-Atlantic 
Ridge, studied by William G. Melson and T. H. Van Andel at latitude 
22° N. 

At various places the normally undisrupted, north-south trending 
mid-Atlantic Ridge is displaced hundreds of kilometers along so-called 
"fracture" zones and in these, intrusion of partially serpentinized 
peridotite is evidently the major crust-forming process. These intrusions, 
based on evidence from studies of samples from St. Peter and St. Paul's 
Rocks by Melson and his colleagues at Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution, have had a remarkable origin. Evidently, when partial 
fusion begins in the sub-oceanic upper mantle, the magma normally is 
separated from a refractory, olivine-rich crystalline residua and moves 
upward, giving rise to formation of oceanic crust by volcanic eruption 
and intrusion, and leaving behind in the mantle a dense, olivine-rich 
residua. Beneath the fracture zones, however, the magma and solid 
residua evidently become mobilized together as a plastic, low-density, 
solid-plus-fluid mass which is rapidly displaced upward and eventually 
is emplaced in the oceanic crust and uppermost mantle. 

Studies of rocks from island and submarine outcroppings of the mid- 
Atlantic Ridge strongly suggest that the oceanic crust will not provide 
"primitive" mantle rocks, that is, mantle-derived rocks which are not 
the products of partial fusion or of some other sort of chemical dif- 
ferentiation. While oceanic rocks, particularly those from St. Paul's 
Rocks, may not provide examples of "primitive" mantle rocks, they 
may provide important clues about the details of magma generation in 
the mantle, and studies are in the planning stage to focus on this 
particular aspect. 

During the past few years the theory of sea-floor spreading and 
continental drift has received strong support from oceanic geophysical 
evidence, especially from magnetic surveys across the midocean ridges. 
This theory, long accepted by Southern Hemisphere geologists, is 
becoming widely accepted in the Northern Hemisphere for the first 


time. Samples collected by Melson and his colleagues at St. Paul's 
Rocks indicate that this is an exposure of an extremely young intrusion. 
Since sea-floor spreading entails constant formation of new oceanic 
crust along the mid-Atlantic Ridge — the zone in which rifting and 
spreading should occur — the young age of these rocks, which are on the 
mid-Atlantic Ridge, is clearly consistent with the theory of sea-floor 
spreading and continental drift. 

A new manganese iron phosphate mineral, switzerite, was described 
by John S. White and Peter B. Leavens from the Foote Mineral Com- 
pany Mine, Kings Mountain, North Carolina. 


In February, G. Arthur Cooper resigned as chairman of this depart- 
ment and was appointed senior paleobiologist in order to devote more 
of his time to his study on the Permian brachiopods of the Glass 
Mountains in Texas. The manuscript for this joint study with R. E. 
Grant is nearly completed and most of the diagrams have been made. 
During March and April, Cooper and Grant extended their field 
observations of the Permian from the Glass Mountains westward to the 
Del Norte Mountains and determined that an extension of some of the 
Glass Mountain formations reach into this area. 

Research on the morphology, anatomy and taxonomy of early 
Devonian land plants was continued by Francis M. Hueber. Research 
progress was reported in a paper on the genus Psilophyton and a second 
paper is in press. In addition, Hueber conducted field work in eastern 
Canada, northern Maine, and Australia during the year. 

The monographic study of the crustose coralline algae of the North 
Atlantic took Walter H. Adey to the coasts of Iceland and Norway, 
where he made extensive collections of living corallines for anatomical 
study and, at the same time, he conducted ecological studies of these 
poorly known organisms. By the end of the year, he had extended his 
shipboard research program as far south along the European coast as 
Great Britain. 

C. Lewis Gazin, who served as departmental chairman from February 
to July, completed a historical review and a statistical analysis of the 
Eocene species of the condylarthran mammal Hyopsodus from the view- 
point of their morphology, systematics, and paleoecology. 

Exceptional three-dimensional preservation of several fossil fish speci- 
mens from the Lower Cretaceous of Texas enabled David H. Dunkle 
to describe the cranial osteology that is so useful in systematic compari- 
son of Late Mesozoic orders of families of teleostean fishes. He also 


Off the Florida Keys, Porter M. Kier examines a starfish caught in the act 
of preying on a sea urchin in 12 feet of water, and (below) he photographs a 
group of long-spined sea urchins at a depth of 85 feet. 



continued his compilation of data on the stratigraphic distribution and 
correlation of the fish fauna of the Upper Devonian Ohio shales. 

A paper on functional morphology of the jaw in Emydops and Lystro- 
saurus has been completed for publication by Nicholas Hotton III with 
A. W. Crompton of the Peabody Museum at Yale University. Assisted 
by his wife Ruth O. Hotton, he is studying the petrology of the Beaufort 
sediments of South Africa from the viewpoint of heavy minerals, with 
the objective of working out the metamorphic history of the beds. 

Clayton E. Ray's research on Quaternary mammals, primarily 
those of the eastern United States, the Antilles, and the Galapagos 
Islands, resulted in the completion of a review of the fossil mammals 
from Saltville, Virginia, with D. M. Cooper and W. S. Benninghoff. 
Another manuscript surveying the mammalian fauna of the Pleistocene 
from Ladds, Georgia, was completed in collaboration with paleontolo- 
gists at Shorter College at Rome, Georgia. 

Research associate Remington Kellogg completed manuscripts on two 
new Calvert Miocene whalebone whales, and assembled supplementary 
data on a small, previously described Calvert cetothere. He also 
prepared a review of the types of Miocene Maryland and Virginia 
whalebone whales described by E. D. Cope. 

After having served several months as supervisor for the division of 
invertebrate paleontology, Porter M. Kier was appointed chairman of 
the department, effective July 1, 1967. He has continued his studies of 
fossil and living echinoids, and completed a monograph of the fossil 
echinoid order Oligopygoida. He undertook research on the evolution 
of the jaw apparatus on both fossil and Recent echinoids, and com- 
pleted a preliminary study of the morphology of this apparatus in four 
orders. He has also studied sexual dimorphism in fossil echinoids. In 
April, for his paper on "Evolutionary Trends in Paleozoic Echinoids," 
Kier received the Best Paper Award for 1966 from the Society of 
Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. 

By using morphological comparisons of scar patterns in the valves of 
Pleistocene ostracodes of Oklahoma, and Kansas and Nebraska, 
Richard H. Benson has been able to identify species which are signifi- 
cant to the geological search for ground-water deposits in these States. 
These fossil remains of animals, which lived in valleys and hollows in 
the landscape just after glaciation and before the deposit of windblown 
silts, help to identify these prehistoric depressions which now serve to 
trap water; their presence is difficult to predict without knowledge of 
ancient topography. In anticipation of deep-sea drilling and coring of 
the sediment of abyssal regions of the ocean basins of the world, Benson 
is studying ostracode faunas on a worldwide basis. These microfossils 
can be used to date the ages of strata penetrated, and to indicate for 


climatic and hydrologic interpretation the changes in bottom 

Martin A. Buzas completed a study on the population ecology of 
Foraminifera in the Choptank River of eastern Maryland. Three 
stations were sampled in replicate for 2 years to determine foraminiferal 
densities, with six environmental variables being measured at the same 
time; these data are now being analyzed by a multivariate technique. 
Another study concerning the special distributions of Foraminifera has 
just been completed and further investigations are under way to de- 
termine population size and special pattern of these distributions. 

A new member of the staff, Alan H. Cheetham, a specialist in post- 
Paleozoic Bryozoa, has begun the quantitative sorting, preparation, 
study, and photographing of fossil and Recent cheilostome Bryozoans 
in a new laboratory established for this purpose. Quantitative and 
numerical methods will be used in his study of the taxonomy, functional 
morphology, paleoecology, and evolution of distributional patterns in 
this group. 

The systematics, functional morphology, and evolution of the late 
Eocene to Recent genus Metrarabdotos have been studied by Cheetham, 
using multivariate analysis and numerical techniques, as well as 
anatomy and morphology, in order to interpret what appear to be 
major climatic fluctuations during late Tertiary and Quaternary time. 
This genus is at present restricted to the Tropics but ranged much 
farther north in both the West and East Atlantic during earlier periods 
of geologic history. Other similar genera are being studied as part of a 
quantitative paleoecological analysis of moundlike structures of 
earliest Tertiary age in southern Scandanavia. 

As part of a monographic treatment of all Caribbean inoceramids, 
Erie G. Kauffman, completed a study of the Jamaican representatives 
of the bivalve Inoceramus. This study established a refined Cretaceous 
faunal zonation for interisland correlation, as well as the first correla- 
tion with zones on the North American continent. Another study, on 
the paleoecology of macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Cretaceous 
Colorado group, was completed by Kauffman. Considerations of the 
distribution of individual faunal elements and community distribution 

Evolution in the bryozoan Metrarabdotos: 1, Unusually large colony of the 
Recent Metrarabdotos tenue taken at 50 fathoms northeast of Puerto Rico, X 2. 
2, well-preserved individuals of an Eocene colony of Metrarabdotos micropora 
from southwestern Alabama; the individual at center is modified for brooding 
larvae; X 50. 3, Individuals, one with brooding apparatus, of the Recent 
species Metrarabdotos unguiculatum taken at 22 fathoms off Accra, Ghana. 




were involved in the study, along with the construction of a model 
of sedimentation and formal recognition of the marine sedimentary 
cycles shown by the rocks of the area. 

Kenneth M. Towe completed a study of wall ultrastructure and 
cementation in the arenaceous Foraminifera and, in cooperation with 
Richard Cifelli, on the wall and problems of calcification in the cal- 
careous Foraminifera. In addition, Towe and his associate, G. H. 
Hamilton, are completing a paper on the ultra,structure of the macreous 
layer in some bivalve mollusks. 

As part of a cooperative project between the Smithsonian Institution, 
the National Oceanographic Committee of Argentina, and the George 
Washington University, J. W. Pierce, in a cruise on board the Environ- 
mental Science Services Administration vessel Oceanographer, obtained 
65 samples of sediments from the estuary of the Rio de la Plata. These 
samples have been analyzed for clay content and trace elements in an 
attempt to define the source of the bottom sediments of the estuary. 

Sediment dispersal patterns in submarine canyons are in the re- 
search interests of Daniel J. Stanley, who mapped ancient canyon de- 
posits in the French Maritime Alps and examined bottom profiles in 
cores collected in the Gully, the major modern canyon off Nova Scotia. 
Interpretation of morphology and sediment distribution of the coast in 
the continental shelf off Nova Scotia continues, and the effects of sea- 
level changes were examined in the vicinity of Sable Island on the 
Bermuda platform. Studies were completed on the color of sediments 
on the continental margin off the United States, and of large calcareous 
and phosphorite concretions of Miocene age on Georges Bank. 


Emphasis has been given in the department of vertebrate zoology 
to studies dependent on computers and automatic data processing. 
This has significance in the area of collection management, but its 
most exciting applications have been in systematic and ecological 

The systematics and zoogeography of two Indian Ocean stomiatoid 
fishes was the subject of a study recently completed by Robert H. 
Gibbs, Jr., with Barbara A. Hurwitz. He has also made considerable 
progress on the systematics of the scombroid fishes and in this con- 
nection he contributed to the development of plans for a worldwide 
cooperative monograph on the family Scombridae with the Food and 
Agriculture Organization Working Group on Tuna Taxonomy. 

Ernest A. Lachner conducted extensive field observations over the 
eastern half of the United States to collect specimens and observe 


breeding behavior of fishes of the genus Nocomis. With Martin L. 
Wiley he completed a study of hybridization among several species. 

In addition to studying beach-erosion control on the western shore 
of Chesapeake Bay and conducting studies of the biology of sea nettles, 
Leonard P. Schultz completed a revision of the serranid genus 

Considerable interest has developed with respect to studies dependent 
on computer and automatic-data-processing facilities. James A. Peters 
has been very active in the development of computer programs 
directly applicable to systematic research in the department and in 
the Museum. Through his efforts and the efforts of colleagues, three 
teletypes have been installed in the Museum with direct connection 
to a distant shared-time computer. Programs have been written which 
permit rapid calculation of standard statistical values and Peters is 
developing a computer key to the genera of snakes of Latin America. 
About 75 percent of the genera have now been included in the key, 
which requires less than four seconds to derive a generic name in 
response to a series of basic data supplied to the computer. It is possible 
that this kind of key will permit rapid sorting and preliminary identifi- 
cation of collections by nonprofessional technicians. Peters has also 
prepared a set of computer programs for one of the standard textbooks 
of biological statistics, making it possible for anyone to utilize any of 
the statistical techniques in the book simply by calling up the appro- 
priate program from the memory core of the central computer. 

Another application of data-proces ing techniques is in the Pacific 
Ocean Biological Survey Program under the direction of Philip S. 
Humphrey. The data base on sea-bird observation now includes more 
than 100,000 observations in the Pacific along with associated 
oceanographic and meteorological data. 

Stanley H. Weitzman completed papers on the osteology of the 
deep-sea stomiatoid fish family Astronesthieae, and on the origin and 
relationships of the oceanic fish suborder Stomiatoidei. These are 
particularly valuable contributions in that they clarify the evolu- 
tionary trends through which primitive teleosts gave rise to more 
advanced forms in that group. 

Using soft X-ray facilities to reveal skull structure in skins and 
skeleton, Richard L. Zusi studied the classification and relationships 
of finchlike birds. His work is expected to lead to a better under- 
standing of the limits of the cardueline finches and the probable 
relationship of the endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers to the carduelines. 

During the summer of 1966, with the support of the Smithsonian 
Foreign Currency Program and the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 
in Cairo, Egypt, George E. Watson began his studies of the migration 



of birds through northeastern Africa. Birds are obtained from Bedouins 
near Alexandria and are banded and released or sent to the NAMRU-3 
laboratories in Cairo for study. The United Arab Republic granted 
permission to band birds in November and more than 5,000 birds 
have now been marked with bands bearing code letters and a unique 

The Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program has now banded more 
than 1,500,000 birds on islands in the Central Pacific and on the 
Pribilofs in the Bering Sea in the study of the migration and movement 
of birds in the Pacific Ocean. 

Two field groups continued the work of the Smithsonian Venezuelan 
project in eastern and southern Venezuela under the direction of 
Charles O. Handley, Jr. They collected mammals, their extoparasites, 
blood sera, and biological and ecological data. More than twenty 
scientists (parasitologists, virologists, serologists, mammalogists, and 
ecologists) from six countries are participating in the project which 
has the cooperation and support of the Consejo de Bienestar Rural, 
Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Central de Venezuela, and 
the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas in Caracas. 
The project is supported by the Office of the Surgeon General, Depart- 
ment of the Army, and the Middle America Research Unit. 

Grass landing strip at remote Indian village of Belen, in extreme southern 
Amazonas Territory, where Charles Handley visited a Smithsonian field 
group working on the Venezuelan project (see text, above) ; Rio Cunucunuma 
is on the left, slopes of Cerro Duida on the right. 

y<* e »i> 


Below: The Helio Courier plane of Mr. and Mrs. William S. Cowles who 
piloted Handley on his 10,000-mile survey of Venezuela, on the landing strip 
at Belen; Cerro Huachamacari in the background. Above: Looking up the 
Rio Capanaparo near its mouth; llanos lie beyond the gallery forest near 
the river. 


Through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. William S. Cowles of 
Shelburne, Vermont, who contributed their Helio Courier aircraft 
and their time as pilots, it was possible for Handley to make an aerial 
ecological survey of Venezuela. In sixteen days of flying, covering 
about 10,000 miles, he studied variations in vegetation and terrain 
that might affect the distribution of mammals. 

One of the most interesting and significant developments in the 
department is the firm establishment of a cooperative program between 
Brazilian biologists and counterparts in the Museum of Natural History. 
This is the program of Area de Pesquisas Ecologicas do Guama (APEG), 
which is administered by the Instituto de Pesquisas de Experimentagao 
Agropecuarias do Norte and supported by subventions from the 
Smithsonian and a grant from the Army Research Office. The first 
annual report includes the information that the Mocambo and main 
APEG reserves have been surveyed and subdivided into numbered and 
staked quadrates, and basic studies of micrometeorology, soils, vege- 
tation, social insects, vertebrates, and epidemiology have been carried 
out. Cooperating with Philip S. Humphrey are a number of institutions 
and individuals in Brazil. The most active people are Drs. Domiciano 
Dias, Fernando Novaes, John P. Woodall, and Murc,a Pires. 

Henry W. Setzer, in addition to his field program for the collection 
of African mammals and their ectoparasites, continued the develop- 
ment of the "Smithsonian Institution Preliminary Identification Man- 
ual for African Mammals." Sections were completed and distributed 
on Rodentia: Sciuridae, Cetacea, Proboscidea, and Perissodactyla. 
Additional manuscripts are in hand and will be issued shortly. 

Dr. Roberto Donoso-Barros of the Universidad de Chile, Santiago, 
has been working with James A. Peters in the preparation of a manual 
of neo-tropical squamata. This project, as well as the African mammal 
manual, is an approved Smithsonian project for the International 
Biological Program. 

The Collections 



The processing laboratory, established in 1965 to catalog, accession, 
and store archeological and ethnological collections, added to its tasks 
the processing of physical anthropology materials. By streamlining 
some of the operations, and by assigning museum specialists and 
technicians to tasks heretofore performed by the curatorial staff, the 
large backlog of uncataloged and unaccessioned collections is being 
drastically reduced. The assignment of a full-time secretary familiar 
with accessioning, loan, and other procedures has also increased the 
efficiency of the Laboratory. 

In reworking the China, Philippine, and Northwest Coast eth- 
nological materials the collection data have been rechecked and the 
specimens stored in a tribal and regional classification system. Special 
storage racks for Asian musical instruments and Pacific Island weapons 
were designed and constructed, and plans are under way for adding 
special storage racks for spears and paddles. 

The conservation and restoration laboratory processed almost 2,000 
specimens during the year; the nearly 50 percent increase in volume 
is owing in part to special new conservation and restoration processes 
being carried out on a wide variety of materials. Museum technician 
Bethune M. Gibson experimented with various chemical reagents 
to remove stains from Greek pottery, tested various dessication pre- 
ventatives, and tried various kinds of waxes for the treatment of wood 
surfaces to prevent atmospheric changes in temperature and humidity 
which cause warping and cracking. One of the most important projects 
completed by the laboratory was the cleaning and restoring of the 
Museum's very valuable Northwest Coast ethnological collections, 
consisting of approximately 670 pieces, such as wood and bone carvings, 
model boats, wooden masks and dishes, and totem poles. 

The anthropology archives, under the management of Margaret 
C. Blaker, continues to serve the needs of anthropology by answering 
large numbers of inquiries and requests for photographs and reproduc- 
tions of anthropological manuscripts. Construction had begun on 
new quarters for the archives in the Museum of Natural History. 





-H 1 


■ , ? ' 

Portion of an Attic red figured kylix (cup) before and after cleaning in the 
anthropology conservation laboratory. 


A gift of archeological materials from the Spiro Mound in Oklahoma 
was made by Richard K. Meyer of Peoria, Illinois. Among the most 
important items in this large private collection are some 100 engraved 
conch shells, four human and two animal effigy pipes of stone, five 
finely carved and remarkably preserved wood effigies, copper beads, 
ear spools, and hair ornaments. The Spiro Mound contained numerous 
burials accompanied by elaborate ritual objects reflecting the complex 
religious systems which characterized the Southeastern United States 
in late prehistoric times. The objects also reveal the skilled craftsman- 
ship and economic wealth of the Oklahoma Indians. 

Unusually rich documentation of a collection of 150 Moroccan ethno- 
graphic specimens presented by Mrs. Elizabeth Bailey Wills of Bain- 
bridge Island, Washington, made it especially valuable for research 

Lawrence H. Robbins donated an assortment of household equipment 
from members of the Turkana tribe, who lived near the western shores 
of Lake Rudolph in Northern Kenya. The collection is especially 
valuable because of the rarity of such materials and it will be extremely 
useful for comparative studies. Robbins also excavated some mesolithic 
skeletons in the same area, and these have been sent by Richard Leakey 
to the division of physical anthropology for repair and analysis. 

Additions to the collections of physical anthropology include ten 
careful portraits of presumed unmixed Carib Indians, a Peruvian skull 
willed by Mrs. Clara Thompson; and two Caribbean skeletons of 
considerable interest. Both of these are Negro slave skeletons with 
tooth mutilation typical of that practied in Cameroon and South- 
eastern Africa. One is on deposit from the Government of Grenada, 
West Indies, and the other is from St. Croix, Virgin Islands, given by 
Lieutenant Commander J. J. Wachtel. 


The National Herbarium has historically concentrated on developing 
collections from the New World, but there is also a recognized need 
for representation of plants from the Old World. In the past year 
several significant additions of specimens from Australia and Papua 
were received through the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial 
Research Organization, Canberra, Australia, as well as Indonesian 
plants from the Herbarium Bogoriense, a valuable collection of ferns 
from remote parts of Thailand sent through Japan's Kyoto University, 
and several large collections of African grasses from the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, England. 

Additions to the New World collections included a large set of 
critically selected United States and Mexican plants from Stanford 






VV S Bl^^l, 


t-^, j -aI 



» 1 


. > 

I ►/? 

Thomas R. Soderstrom (left) and Reginald J. Sayre examine clumps of 
grasses for exhibit in new hall of plant life. 

Grasses, and the li- 
chens being inspected 
by Richard S. Cowan 
(left), were obtained 
by botany - exhibits 
expedition to the 
Colombian paramos 
in fall 1966, led by 


University, a set of specimens collected in the Brazilian planalto by 
Howard S. Irwin of the New York Botanical Garden, and a large 
collection of specimens from the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina made 
by Padre Raulino Reitz, a collaborator with Lyman B. Smith on the 
flora of that state. 

Staff additions to the collections included specimens from the West 
Indian island of Dominica made by William L. Stern and Dieter 
Wasshausen, the Colombian wood collections made by Jose 
Cuatrecasas, and Panamanian wood collections made by Stern and 
Richard H. Eyde. Noteworthy cryptogamic collections continued to 
arrive, including a large lot of algae received from Isabella Abbott 
of Stanford University, moss specimens from the Rijksmuseum in 
Leyden, and a collection of lichens' from the western and southern 
United States, from Mason Hale. 

Specialists on the grass family will be pleased to find the grass 
herbarium rearranged with the genera in alphabetical sequence. 
Previously they had been arranged by tribes and "phylogenetically" 
within the tribes. In addition, several thousand sheets which have been 
in storage will shortly become available to researchers. 

Through Dr. Chester Benjamin, 122 used metal herbarium cases were 
transferred to the herbarium from the national fungus collections at 
Beltsville, Maryland. The new storage space permitted the expansion 
of a large block of flowering plant families so that they are more easily 
used without risk of breakage. 

The collections were used by a large number of visiting scientists 
from the United States as well as from elsewhere in the world. Inter- 
national visitors included Syo Kurokawa, National Science Museum, 
Tokyo, who studied lichen collections for seven months; Brother 
Alain Liogier, Manhattan College, who studied herbarium specimens 
in preparation for his fieldwork on the Island of Hispaniola; Armando 
Dugand, Barranquilla, Colombia, who completed his term as a Guggen- 
heim Fellow working on the Catalpa family and on the flora of semiarid 
northern Colombia; and Julian Gonzales Patino (Brother Daniel), 
Rector of the Colegio de San Jose, Medellin, Colombia, who continued 
his investigations of the medicinal plants of Colombia and the flora 
of the Departmento de Antioquia. 


The addition to the staff of two museum technicians, Marc Roth 
and Ronald Faycik, permitted a small reduction in the enormous 
backlog of insect specimens awaiting processing. Gloria House sorted 
to family more than 270,000 specimens of Coleoptera from Bolivia. 


The addition of Glenn Taylor as a preparator of Hemiptera and of 
Gerald I. Stage as a specialist on Hymenoptera resulted in substantially 
reducing the large accumulation of unmounted, unlabeled, and un- 
sorted specimens of these orders, as well as their rearrangement for 
use by the staff and by visiting researchers. 

W. H. Rowe prepared, labeled, and sorted for distribution more 
than 36,000 specimens of Lepidoptera, sorted to family 190 museum 
drawers of butterflies, and assisted in arranging over 600 species of 
arctiid moths for photographing. William D. Field completed about 
75 percent of the task of reclassifying and rearranging the collections 
of I ndo- Australian Papilionidae. 

Mrs. Sophie G. Lutterlough, with Ralph Crabill, restored, relabeled, 
and rehoused great numbers of dried specimens of Myriapoda, in- 
cluding many unsuspected type specimens. 

Preparator Nancy Heath transferred the collection of papered Neo- 
tropical Odonata to new transparent plastic envelopes; previously 
these had been stored in any convenient container, resulting in a 
collection almost impossible to arrange or to use. In addition, she 
mounted and labelled more than 25,000 specimens, sorted and dis- 
tributed over 150,000, and carried forward reference work toward a 
catalog of Neotropical Trichoptera. 

Under a grant from the National Science Foundation, Mrs. Phyllis 
Spangler pinned, dissected genitalia, labeled, and sorted to genus 
10,500 aquatic beetles and recorded data from 9,000 identified speci- 
mens of the genus Tropisternus; she also completed cataloging one 
family and made considerable progress on cataloging three others, 
as well as rearranging the entire collection of aquatic beetles. 

The entomological collections continued to grow through gifts 
from generous donors, through field collections by staff members, 
by purchase, and by exchange of critical specimens with corresponding 
scientists and other museums. 

Almost 40,000 Neotropical beetles were accessioned, of which more 
than half were obtained by purchase. Among the notable donations or 
exchanges were some 7,500 collected by O. S. Flint, Jr., in Mexico 
and Central America; over 4,000 Brazilian beetles from M. Alvarenga; 
more than 500 aquatic beetles from the British Museum (Natural 
History), including critically important type material; and 23 paratypes 
from R. Mouchamps, Belgium. J. F. G. Clarke contributed more than 
3,000 specimens from Ceylon and Sarawak; P. J. Spangler, nearly 
9,000 from the United States; D. Owens, nearly 6,000 from Mississippi; 
A. Blanchard, 4,400 from Texas; and L. O. Warren, over 1,000 from 


A very generous gift of more than 88,000 Irish Hymenoptera, 
donated by A. W. Stelfox of Newcastle, County Down, is the first 
important acquisition of this group from the British Isles. Its value is 
greatly enhanced by the inclusion of holotypes of species described 
by Stelfox and of topotypic material from areas in which Haliday 
described numerous new species and genera. 

G. E. Ball enriched the collections of Myriapoda and Arachnida 
by donating more than 1,300 specimens of Mexican chilopods; through 
his efforts over a number of years, the national collections now have 
the finest extant collection of Mexican centipedes. O. S. Flint, Jr., 
working in the Antarctic, collected some 22,000 mites and 109,000 
Collembola and Mallophaga. 

As in previous years, Museum entomologists and U.S. Department 
of Agriculture colleagues were active in the Bredin-Archbold-Smith- 
sonian Biological Survey of Dominica in the West Indies. Through the 
efforts of O. S. Flint, Jr., A. B. Gurney, and R. J. Gagne, more than 
22,000 specimens from that Island were added to the collections. 

The Department of Agriculture transferred 59,056 specimens of 
insects and their allies to the Smithsonian, of which a number were 
of more than ordinary interest or value. They represented the choicest 
materials submitted to USDA and Museum specialists for identifica- 
tion and many represented species not previously in the national 
collections. Others were reared series consisting of immature and adult 

The collections were also enriched by the addition of thousands of 
mounted and labeled insects collected through Department of Agri- 
culture contracts with several universities and individuals, and USDA 
preparators sorted, mounted, and labeled many additional specimens. 

In addition to the use of the collections by the research staff of the 
Museum and the USDA, the collections were studied by nearly 400 
visiting scientists from universities and other museums in the United 
States and abroad. 

Invertebrate Zoology 

The diversity and extent of the Museum's holdings of invertebrate 
animals, other than insects, is reflected in the large number of investi- 
gates who visited the department of invertebrate zoology during the 
past year. More than 170 visitors, including graduate students and 
established researchers as well, from the United States and numerous 
foreign countries utilized the collections. Crustaceans, echinoderms, 
and mollusks were most attractive, because of their good systematic 
and geographic representation. 

Kjell B. Sandved, photographer for the Office of Exhibits, photographs living 
planktonic organisms aboard the Woods Hole Research Vessel, Atlantis II. 
More than a thousand color transparencies were made as reference materials 
for the hall of ocean life. 

Among the more significant additions to the crustacean collection 
during the year was the gift of an extensive collection of North Ameri- 
can freshwater amphipods accumulated over many years by Leslie 
Hubricht of Meridian, Mississippi. Also significant were a series of 
more than 34,000 ostracods from Texas, collected by L. S. Kornicker 
of the Museum staff; approximately 70,000 specimens of brackish 
water and marine mollusks from Louisiana, received from the estate 
of the late Percy Viosca, Jr.; and a collection of almost 25,000 marine 
mollusks from Polynesia, acquired as a result of Harald A. Rehder's 
field study there. 

In curatorial work, largely handled by a capable supportive staff, 
particular attention was paid to organizing the collections, reducing 
the backlog of unidentified and uncataloged holdings, and cataloging 
and filing, so that specimens and data were more readily available to 
the staff and to visitors as well. The Smith-Corona-Marchant Type- 
tronic machine, a partially automated typing system equipped with a 
microtypewriter, as well as a standard one, proved to be very effective 
in reducing cataloging time. With the machine, the specimen labels, 
in microtype, and all necessary data cards can be filled out in one 
operation. The machine, acquired last year, was put into full->time 
operation this year with the addition of a cataloger. 


Mineral Sciences 

Cataloging of the meteorites and minerals in the Carl Bosch collection 
continued through the year. Of the 587 specimens representing 305 
different meteorites, 24 were of particular importance to the collection 
because they were not previously represented. Specimens of 80 to 90 
other meteorites constituted important additions to the collection and 
the remaining specimens added much needed depth. The addition of 
28,000 specimens of minerals from this collection represents a 20 per- 
cent increase in the total holdings of such materials ; a large increment 
like this will require two to three years to integrate into the national 
collections. Already the Bosch collection has provided much valuable 
research material. 

Two important freshly fallen meteorites were obtained and made 
available to researchers in several laboratories studying shortlived 
radioisotopes. The Barwell, England, chondrite was obtained through 
the cooperation of the British Museum (Natural History). The St. 
Severin, France, amphoterite was obtained from Jacques Labeyrie, 
of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, with the coopera- 
tion of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. A specimen from the 
largest individual meteorite known, the Hoba, Southwest Africa, 
meteorite, was obtained through the cooperation of the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory. Other important specimens of meteorites 
obtained were the Nakhom Pathom, Thailand, meteorite; the Essebi, 
Congo, carbonaceous chondrite; and the Faucett, Missouri, and 
Social Circle, Georgia, meteorites. 

Among many important gifts by individual donors to the mineral and 
gem collection were a 265-carat, complexly twinned group of diamond 
crystals, by J. M. Wachtler; a set of 22 colored, irradiated diamonds, 
by Theodore and Irwin Moed, Inc.; and a white jade teapot of the 
Chien Lung period, by Mrs. Mildred Taber Keally. 

Through exchange many fine specimens were added, such as the 
largest and finest known crystal of kunzite, from a recent discovery in 
Brazil; a large and beautiful group of smoky quartz crystals from 
Goscheneralp, Switzerland; a specimen, with extraordinarily large 
crystals, of uvarovite garnet from Outokumpu, Finland; and a 91 1 -carat 
aquamarine, and a 1 72-carat tourmaline, both from Brazil. 

The collections were also enriched by the purchase of a very fine 
group of morganite crystal from the White Queen Mine, San Diego 
County, California; excellent specimens of apatite, wolfamite, and 
arsenopyrite from Panesqueria, Portugal; a very fine 178-carat mor- 
ganite from California; and an unusually good specimen of sphene 
from a new occurrence at Capelinha, Brazil. 


Other important additions were an oirtstanding series of eclogites 
from diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes, obtained as a result of George 
Switzer's trip to Africa last year; several described suites of rocks from 
the U.S. Geological Survey; and additional samples of oceanographic 
rocks, mainly from the mid-Atlantic Ridge. 

A pilot program for automatic information retrieval was begun on 
data attached to the rock collections, in order to answer the increasing 
demands by outside researchers for information on described specimens. 


The task of getting the fossil plant collections into usable condition 
continued with cleaning and sorting of specimens from the Tertiary 
and Pennsylvanian, checking of type specimens of Tertiary plants 
against the published literature and catalog data, and the reorganiza- 
tion of the collections in systematic order. 

Holotype specimens of the fossil fern Itopsidema vancleavei and the 
coniferous tree root Araucariorhiza joae were received as a transfer from 
the Museum of the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona. Professor 
J. Harlan Johnson of the Colorado School of Mines added other type 
specimens by his gift of four slides containing three primary and seven 
secondary types of fossil algae from the Mississippian of Alberta. 
Sixteen polished slabs of well-preserved petrified wood from Washing- 
ton, Oregon, and Nevada were prepared for use in the new exhibit 
planned for the paleobotanical section in the hall of fossils, with support 
of the Roland W. Brown fund. 

Near completion of covered storage racks now permits proper care 
and arrangement of the many rather large specimens of vertebrate 
fossils. This facility permits large slabs of fossil fish, portions of dinosaur 
skeletons and the collection of Oligocene titanothere skulls, many of 
which had been on display and a number of which are type specimens, 
to be arranged in accessible, protected storage. 

Teeth of Pleistocene mammoths and mastodons, and remains of 
Pleistocene walrus from as far south as New Jersey, were among the 
interesting collections of vertebrate fossils recovered by dredging opera- 
tions near the Atlantic seaboard. Some of these were contributed by 
private individuals but several came to the Institution from the Depart- 
ment of the Interior's Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 

Some exceptionally fine specimens of vertebrate fossils, to be featured 
in the hall of Pleistocene vertebrates, include a composite skeleton of 
the mammoth Mammuthus primigenius from frozen deposits near Fair- 
banks, Alaska, and several fine specimens of glyptodonts from the early 
Pleistocene of Arizona ; these specimens were obtained from the Frick 
Laboratories at the American Museum of Natural History either on 


open exchange or as a gift. Another outstanding acquisition, also to be 
featured in the Pleistocene exhibit, is a skeleton of the extinct ground 
sloth Megalonyx . from Blackstone Cave near Gate City, Virginia, which 
was purchased through the Walcott fund. 

Among the several specimens of marine mammals obtained during 
the year, principally from the Miocene beds in the Maryland- Virginia 
region, is an unusually good representation of a fossil whale (cetothere) 
from the Choptank Formation along the Potomac River in Westmore- 
land County, Virginia. The collection of this specimen, featured in one 
of the Smithsonian Institution television programs, was accomplished 
by Albert C. Myrick, Jr., of the vertebrate paleontology laboratory, 
Charles F. Buddenhagen of the U.S. Geological Survey, and William B. 
Sonntag of the Smithsonian buildings management department. 

Curatorial activities related to the collections of invertebrate fossils 
have been mainly involved with type specimens, of which more than 
4,000 were processed during the year. Each type has been checked 
against published literature, labeled, recorded, and placed in systematic 
order in the collections. The first chapter of the catalog of type speci- 
mens of invertebrate fossils was completed by Louis Purnell, and work is 
progressing on subsequent chapters that will ultimately result in a 
complete catalog of the Museum's invertebrate types. 

Using funds from the Walcott bequest, Richard A. Robison collected 
more than 5,000 invertebrate fossils of Early Ordovician age in the 
vicinity of Nochixtlan in southern Mexico. This collection is of partic- 
ular significance because faunas of unquestioned early Paleozoic age 
were unknown from rocks south of the northern border states of Mexico. 
The trilobites studied thus far are a mixture of genera containing ele- 
ments that have been reported from Asia, North America, South 
America, and Europe, a situation which will make the collection of 
great importance in making intercontinental correlations. 

The Walcott bequest also enabled Erie G. Kauffman to make a col- 
lection of 20,000 specimens from the Mesozoic of Jamaica and the 
Cretaceous of the Western Interior. These collections, together with 
the existing one, constitute the largest and best-documented Mesozoic 
faunal representation in the Western Hemisphere. 

Other noteworthy additions to the collections were more than 50,000 
sorted and labeled specimens of mollusks from the Tertiary of Maryland 
and Virginia, from Charles Buddenhagen; many lots of type specimens 
from the U.S. Geological Survey, including a collection of more than 
4,500 smaller foraminifera types; and a collection of several thousand 
identified specimens of cheilostome Bryozoa representing species of 
Cretaceous through Recent age from all over the world, donated by 
Alan Cheetham, who recently joined the Museum staff. 


Museum technician Albert C. Myrick, Jr., packaging in plaster and gauze 
for transport to the museum the skull and jaws of a cetotheriid whale from 
Miocene strata along the lower Potomac River at Westmoreland State Park, 
Virginia. Below: Skeleton of the extinct peccary Platygonus compressus from 
glacial deposits near Mosherville, Pennsylvania, presented to Smithsonian by 
Troy Community Junior High School and mounted for exhibition by museum 
technician Gladwyn B. Sullivan (U.S. Geological Survey photo). 


Cataloging the backlog of sediment samples accumulated over the 
years has absorbed most of the curatorial effort of the division of sedi- 
mentology. Using the cataloging system of the National Oceanographic 
Data Center the samples are being recorded so that collation of a speci- 
men in the collections can be made with the analytical data stored in the 
Data Center for that sample. 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography donated to the Institution all 
their cores and samples from the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of California ; 
the Marine Mineral Technology Center of the Bureau of Mines trans- 
ferred more than a hundred samples from Monterey and Carmel Bays, 
California ; and the Coast and Geodetic Survey transferred more than a 
hundred samples from Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. 

Vertebrate Zoology 

Collection management of bird specimens was streamlined by 
use of a Typetronic machine on which the operator simultaneously 
types the data on a label and generates punched-paper tape, which is 
then used to prepare additional labels and a permanent museum 
catalog page with no further manual labor. The tape is also available 
for incorporation into a Smithsonian-wide, automatic-data-processing 
system. George Watson has finished preliminary format and coding for 
the labels and catalog pages, and all curators are actively working on a 
definitive species list of birds of the world for use in processing the data. 
All new specimens will be cataloged by this system and it is anticipated 
that the entire seabird collection will soon be incorporated. 

The seabird skin collection is growing in importance. New dis- 
tributional records were incorporated, based on specimens from the 
central Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, western South America, and 
Macquarie Island. Large general collections of bird skins also came 
from North and South America, the Aegean Islands, Kenya, Rhodesia, 
Bechuanaland, and New Guinea. During the year 25 species and four 
genera new to the collections were added. 

The bird skeleton collection was improved by the addition of storage 
space, additional work surfaces, and new boxes designed to facilitate 
the use of the specimens and at the same time reduce the possibility of 
breakage of delicate skeletons. An index collection of skeletal elements 
of most avian families has facilitated identification of fossil and arche- 
ological material by visiting investigators. The anatomical collection 
of birds also continued its rapid growth with the addition of spirit 
specimens from the West Indies, Venezuela, Egypt, and the Pacific 


Museum technician Edgar N. Gramblin positioning fishes (groupers) under 
x-ray with a range of approximately 30 to 115 kilovolts. This machine is 
used in the study of large fish specimens. Another, ranging from about 5 
kilovolts upward, is used in the examination of small, delicate specimens. 

In an extensive program of improving the condition of the collections 
of fishes, the result of an energetic program of activity by the museum 
aides in the division of fishes, specimens in the small evaporation-prone 
ground-glass jars are being transferred to more secure clamp- top jars, 
and large collections of fishes previously unsorted and unidentified 
have been integrated into the regular collection. 

The collection of fish specimens grew considerably by the addition of 
approximately 5,000 specimens from the Peru-Chile Trench through 
the efforts of Robert H. Gibbs and Bruce B. Collette; about 10,000 
specimens from the Great Barrier Reef collected by Victor G. Springer; 
approximately 2,000 fish specimens from Brazil received from J. S. 
Dendy, Auburn University; 10,000 specimens from the southeastern 
United States donated by Frank J. Schwartz, Chespeake Biological 
Laboratory; and nearly 10,000 specimens from Lebanon, given by 
Carl J. George, American University of Beirut. 

Outstanding accessions of reptiles and amphibians include 417 collec- 
tions from the South Pacific made by Robert M. Roecker; nearly 240 
specimens of lizards from the Pacific Islands, collected by personnel of 
the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey; 640 specimens of reptiles and 


amphibians from Senegal and Gambia, collected by the Smithsonian 
African Mammal Project; over a hundred specimens of ring- neck 
snakes from the southeastern United States, collected by Bernard 
Martof; and 152 specimens of reptiles and amphibians collected in 
Venezuela by the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. 


Anthropology 1, 101, 720 

Cultural Anthropology 973, 891 

Physical Anthropology 37, 829 

Botany . 3, 288, 748 

Phanerogams 2, 044, 758 

Ferns 259,247 

Grasses 398, 957 

Cryptogams 539, 207 

Plant Anatomy 46, 579 

Entomology 17,834,090 

(Former Division of Insects total, 1963 15,978,513) 

(divisional totals are shown from this date) 

Coleoptera 392,806 

Hemiptera 384,799 

Lepidoptera 319' 126 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 431, 229 

Neuropteroids 327,617 

Invertebrate Zoology 12, 344, 181 

Crustacea 1,540,700 

Worms 659, 395 

Echinoderms 85, 198 

Mollusks 10,058,888 

Mineral Sciences 433, 820 

Mineralogy 124, 097 

Meteorites 10, 602 

Petrology 299, 121 

Paleobiology 13,393,582 

Invertebrate Paleontology 13, 337, 512 

Vertebrate Paleontology 49,561 

Paleobotany 4,601 

Sedimentology 1,908 

Vertebrate Zoology 2,918,212 

Mammals 352,890 

Birds 525,011 

Reptiles and Amphibians 169, 862 

Fishes 1,870,449 

Total Natural History Collections 51,224,353 







on loan 

with other 

ferred to 
other Gov- 

Lent for 
study to 

and other 



Anthropology . . 





21, 963 
42, 240 


Entomology . . . 




192, 114 

26, 648 

Zoology .... 
Mineral Sciences . 



1, 184 



27, 427 

Paleobiology . . 
Vertebrate Zool- 





49, 337 






33, 804 


2,114 17,188 48,168 

421 390,682 149,987 

The new meteorite hall was opened in December 1966. Wall cases contain 
descriptive and systematic exhibits. A Moon model is suspended from the 
ceiling, and a recorded talk discusses lunar features and their origins. 


The hall depicting the peoples of Africa neared completion during 
the year. A life group illustrating the making of poisoned arrows, 
bows, and ostrich-egg shell-beads by Bushmen of the northern Kalahari 
was essentially completed; a second life group depicting a domestic 
scene among the Hereros of southwest Africa, which will be displayed 
in a hut-shaped exhibit case, neared completion. The hall will be 
opened officially in the next fiscal year. 

The planning and writing of scripts for the future hall of Old World 
archeology made progress, with Mrs. Elly Dubinsky preparing exhibit 
units for the Greco-Roman alcove under the supervision of Gus W. 
Van Beek. 

In June an exhibition of Tunisian Mosaics was opened for public 
exhibition. This display, which had wide showing in Europe, will be 
exhibited in eleven museums of the United States and Canada in the 
next two years under the auspices of the Smithsonian Traveling 
Exhibition Service. Gus Van Beek arranged for the Washington 
exhibition, worked with designer Dorothy Guthrie in planning it, and 
assisted SITES in reviewing and editing the catalog. 

Two additions to the hall of physical anthropology, both dealing 
with cultural modifications of the human body, were made under the 
direction of T. Dale Stewart. One of these is a central glass case 
containing examples of mummifications, drying, and fat saponification 
of complete human bodies. The other is a large oil painting by New 
York artist Alton Tobey showing some of the more dramatic body 
alterations usually undertaken for aesthetic reasons — such as deformed 
heads and feet, patterns of tattooing and scarification, stretched necks, 
and pierced ears. 

Planning for the future hall of plant life was advanced by a field 
expedition to Colombia under the leadership of botanist Thomas R. 
Soderstrom, accompanied by Paul Marchand, master model-maker 
from the Science Museum in Buffalo; artist Jay Matternes; Smith- 
sonian photographer Kjell Sandved; and Smithsonian exhibits spe- 
cialist Reginald J. Sayre. Marchand made molds and models of 
plants from living specimens; Matternes set up his easel on the 
mountainside where the chilling winds and frequent rain made his 





In 1858 Baron Naosuke Ii, the first 
prime minister of modern Japan, con- 
cluded a treaty of friendship with the 
first United States minister to Japan. 
Townsend Harris. Two years later 
Prime Minister Ii was assassinated by 
opponents of his foreign policy as he was 
leaving the imperial palace grounds in 
Tokyo. Today Prime Minister Ii is gready 
honored in Japan as a courageous man 
who upheld a liberal and wise national 
policy at the cost of his life. Had it not 
been for his penetrating foresight and 
his resolute stand in opposition to popular 
opinion, Japan might have adhered 
much longer to the tradition of isolation 
which that nation had shared with the 
rest of the Orient. 

A life-size wooden statue of Prime Min- 
ister Ii, sculpted by Sekka Shima, was 
exhibited at the World's Columbian 
Exposition at Chicago in 1893 and then 
presented to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. There it remained in the Museum 
of Natural History until the late summer 
of 1966 when it was decided that this 
statue should be returned to Ii's home- 
land. About this same time Roger 
Pineau, of the Smithsonian Institution 
Press, received naval orders to temporary 
active duty to assist Admiral Samuel 
Eliot Morison with historical research in 
Japan. It seemed propitious to ask 
Admiral Morison — who is a member of 
the Smithsonian Journal of History board — 
to represent Secretary Ripley in the 
return of the statue, and the Navy 
Department arranged for its transpor- 

With the help of Mr. Walter Nichols, 
the American cultural attache in Tokyo, 
the statue was returned to Baron Ii's 
birthplace at Hikone in Omi Province. 


job extremely difficult; Sandved photographed more than 3,000 views 
of the high Andes, as well as many close-up photographs of the plants; 
and Sayre prepared for shipment back to the Museum plants that 
included dried grasses, the woody parts of shrubs, and many specimens 
preserved whole in formalin. The five- paneled panoramic view of the 
paramos made by Matternes will be used to prepare the background 
painting of the life group in the Museum. The photographs made 
by Sandved will be used in an automatic projection system which will 
accompany the exhibit. 

Insects and related groups will be presented in a future exhibit 
hall tentatively titled "The World of Insects and Their Allies." Pre- 
liminary discussions of the departmental staff determined that the 
underlying theme of the hall will be ecological, and planning was 
begun in December. Writer Peter Farb, as consultant, will act as 
liaison between the departmental staff and the Office of Exhibits in 
developing the hall outline and the eventual exhibit scripts. Joseph 
Shannon is the designer. 

Two new permanent exhibits were opened in the hall of life in the 
sea. The first of these demonstrates the variety of reproductive mechan- 
isms in marine invertebrates, while the second shows various examples 
of parental care among the marine animals. The case on reproduction 
has been used as the basis of a tour guide produced as a cooperative 
effort between the District of Columbia public schools, the Smith- 

The ancient castle and grounds of the Ii family — as well as the modern mu- 
seum in which the statue now stands (left, above) — are maintained as an 
important cultural property. 

The presentation took place on 16 November 1966 in the Hikone Public Hall, 
where the statue was accepted by Mayor Naoyoshi Ii, great grandson of 
Prime Minister Ii. The ceremony was attended by John L. Stegmaier, U.S. 
Consul-General for the Kobe-Osaka area, and Mr. Walter Nichols. 

The remarks of Admiral Morison and Mayor Ii were covered by Japanese 
press and television. After a tea and flower ceremony Mayor Ii took his 
visitors on a tour of the castle and museum, and hosted a dinner for them at 
the family estate. 

Mayor Ii — who was first shown this statue of his forebear in May 1954 at 
the Smithsonian (left) by Remington Kellogg, then Director, United States 
National Museum — is a leading authority on crustaceans. His recent Fauna 
Japonica Mysidae (Crustacea) is an outstanding contribution to the carcinological 


sonian's Office of Education and Training, and the Museum of Natural 
History's department of invertebrate zoology. It is intended that this 
experimental tour guide provide the necessary background information 
for making, a class trip to the Museum truly significant. 

The new hall of meteorites was opened in December. With scripts 
prepared by the curatorial staff of the division of meteorites and 
exhibit design by Dorothy Guthrie, it features displays illustrating 
phenomena of the fall of meteorites, their systematic classification, and 
their scientific study. A tektite exhibit and a large globe illustrating the 
moon's surface were also included. One display is centered around a 
section of the El Taco meteorite, a large individual from the Campo 
del Cielo meteorite area in Argentina. Four sections were obtained 
by the Smithsonian of this 4,400-pound specimen which has been the 
object of study in Germany, Argentina, and many laboratories in this 

Nine exhibits units have been installed in the introductory section 
of the physical geology hall. Noteworthy among these is a six-foot- 
diameter relief globe depicting the geology of the earth, and a mural 
by Pierre Meonde which illustrates one theory of the evolution of the 
solar system. Work on this hall is under the overall direction of Paul 
E. Desautels with the assistance on scripts of other members of the 
department and of the department of paleobiology; design is by 
Dorothy Guthrie. 

Work has progressed on the dioramas depicting vertebrate life of 
the Mesozoic era with the completion of the background painting by 
Jay Matternes for the Triassic period. The Jurassic and Cretaceous 
dioramas have been received from the contractor and now require only 
the background painting. Models for a fourth diorama, illustrating 
marine vertebrate life during the Cretaceous, have been approved. At 
completion, the four dioramas will be viewed on the balcony of the 
dinosaur hall. 

Construction of the new hall depicting vertebrate life during the 
Pleistocene has been completed this year and certain of the skeletons, 
such as the giant Panamanian sloth, three mastodons, and the Hager- 
man group of horses, have been installed. Mounting of several skeletons 
has been completed and several others have been remounted in 
different poses. 

The first part of the hall on cold-blooded vertebrates was opened 
during the year, and an excellent reproduction in the form of a life 
group depicting a niche in the Everglades environment is a feature 
attraction. This section also includes exhibits on amphibians and 
reptiles, intended to give a rather full picture of the total biology of 
these animals — their anatomy, ecology, and behavior. 

Staff Publications 


Angel, J. Lawrence. Porotic hyperostosis, anemias, malarias and 
marshes in the prehistoric Eastern Mediterranean. Science (Au- 
gust 12, 1966), vol. 153, pp. 760-763. 

. Human skeletal remains at Karatas. Amer. Journ. Archaeol. 

(July 1966), vol. 70, pp. 255-257. 

. Early skeletons from Tranquillity, California. Smithsonian 

Contributions to Anthropology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 1966. 

Effects of human biological factors in development of civili- 

zation. Amer. Phil. Soc. Yeaibook, 1966, pp. 315-317, 1967. 

Coe, Michael D., and Flannery, Kent V. Early cultures and 
human ecology in south coastal Guatemala. Smithsonian Contri- 
butions to Anthropology, vol. 3, 1967. 

Collins, Henry B. Foreword (as Chairman of Directing Committee) 
to vol. 13, Arctic bibliography, pp. v-vi. 1967. 

. Introduction. In J. L. Giddings, Ancient men of the Arctic, 

pp. xix-xxxi. Alfred A. Knopf, 1967. 

. John Reed Swanton. In Encyclopedia of the social sciences, 

edit. David L. Sills. 1967. 

. Long, long ago. Chapter in Birds in our lives, edit. Arnold 

Nelson and Alfred Stefferud, pp. -276-283. U.S. Dept. of the In- 
terior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1966. 

Crocker, William H., and Sorenson, E. R. Canela Pebye Festival 
Rites: northern Brazil, 1957. Research Cinema Film 57-CRO-l. 
In Archives for the Study of Child Growth and Development in 
Primitive Cultures, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 
1966. (Abstract in Pediatrics (January 1966), vol. 37, no. 1, pt. 2, 
p. 231.) 

. Canela Corn, Pepgahak and We'te Festival Rites; northern 

Brazil, 1958. Research Cinema Film 58-CRO-l. In Archives for 
the Study of Child Growth and Development in Primitive Cultures, 
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1966. (Abstract in 
Pediatrics (January 1966), vol. 37, no. 1, pt. 2, pp. 231-2.) 



. Canela Pep-gahak Festival Rites; northern Brazil, 1958. 

Research Cinema Film 58-CRO-2. In Archives for the Study of 
Child Growth and Development in Primitive Cultures, National 
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1966. (Abstract in Pediatrics 
(January 1966), vol. 37, no. 1, pt. 2, p. 232.) 
. Canela Ear Piercing and Khetuaye Festival Rites; northern 

Brazil, 1959. Research Cinema Film 59-CRO-l. In Archives for 
the Study of Child Growth and Development in Primitive Cultures, 
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1966. (Abstract in 
Pediatrics (January 1966), vol. 37, no. 1, pt. 2, p. 232.) 
Evans, Clifford. Introdugao. In Programa Nacional de Pesquisas 
Arqueologicas; Resultados Preliminares do Primeiro Ano, 1965- 
66, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Publicagoes Avulsas no. 6, 
pp. 7-13, Belem, 1967. 

, and Meggers, Betty J. Mesoamerica and Ecuador. Chap- 
ter 12 in vol. 4 (Archaeological frontiers and external connections), 
Handbook of Middle American Indians, pp. 243-264, 26 figs. 
University of Texas Press, 1 966. 
, and Meggers, Betty J. Transpacific origin of Valdivia phase 

pottery on coastal Ecuador. Actas y Memorias, XXXVI Congreso 

Internacional de Americanistas, Espaha, 1964, vol. 1, pp. 63-67, 

3 figs. Seville, 1966. 
Ewers, John C. Fact and fiction in the documentary art of the 

American West. Chapter in The frontier re-examined, edit. John 

Francis McDermott, pp. 79-95, plates 1^16. Urbana, Illinois: 

University of Illinois Press, 1967. 
. Foreword (pp. vii-x) to Two leggings, the making of a Crow 

warrior, by Peter Nabakov. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell 

Company, 1967. 
. Blackfoot raiding for horses and scalps. Chapter in Law and 

warfare: studies in the anthropology of conflict, edit. Paul Bohan- 
nan, pp. 327-344. American Museum Sourcebooks in Anthro- 
pology. Garden City, New York : The Natural History Press, 1967. 
. Was there a Northwestern Plains sub-culture? An ethno- 

graphical appraisal. Plains Anthropologist (Spring 1967), pp. 

Flannery, Kent V. The postglacial "readaptation" as viewed from 
Mesoamerica. American Antiquity, vol. 31, pp. 800-805, 1966. 

Laughlin, Robert M. Oficio de Tinieblas: Como el Zinacanteco 
adivina sus suenos. In Los Zinacantecos; un pueblo de los altos de 
Chiapas, edit. Evon Z. Vogt, pp. 396-413. 1966. 

Manville, Richard H., and Sturtevant, William C. Early speci- 
mens of the eastern wolf Canis lupus lycaon. Chesapeake Science, 
vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 218-220, 1966. 


Meggers, Betty J. Environmental limitation on the development of 
culture [complete reprint]. In Human ecology: Collected read- 
ings, edit. Jack B. Bresler, pp. 120-145. Reading, Massachusetts: 
Addison-Wesley, 1966. 

. Environmental limitations on the development of culture 

[condensation]. In Society today and tomorrow: Readings in 
social science, edit. Elgin F. Hunt and Jules Karlin, 2d ed., pp. 
69-74. New York: Macmillan, 1967. 

. Considera$6es Gerais. In Programa Nacional de Pesquisas 

Arqueolcgicas: Resultados Preliminares do Primeiro Ano, 1965-66. 
Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Publicagoes Avulsas no. 6, pp. 
153-158, Belem, 1967. 

. "Did Japanese fishermen bring the art of pottery making to 

Ecuador 5,000 years ago?" The Unesco Courier (May 1967), vol. 
20, no. 5, pp. 12-13. 

, and Evans, Clifford. Beginnings of food production in 

Ecuador. Actas y Memorias XXXVI Congreso Internacional de 
Americanistas, Espana, 1964, vol. 1, pp. 201-207. Seville, 1966. 
-, and Evans, Clifford. A transpacific contact in 3000 B.C. 

[Japanese translation of article in Scientific American, vol. 214, 
no. 1, pp. 28-35, 1966]. Japan- America Forum, vol. 12, 
no. 6, pp. 44-57, 1966. 

Metcalf, George. A Green River knife and sheath from the Southern 
Plains. Museum of the Fur Trade Quarterly (Summer 1966), vol. 
2, no. 2, pp. 4-6. 

. Archeology: Western Hemisphere. In The Americana An- 
nual, pp. 69-70. New York, 1966. 

. Archeology: Western Hemisphere. In The Americana An- 

nual, pp. 66-67. New York, 1967. 

and Flannery, Kent V. An Olmec "Were-Jaguar" from the 

Yucatan Peninsula. American Antiquity (January 1967), vol. 32, 
no. 1, pp. 109-111. 

Mortensen, Peder, and Flannery, Kent V. En af verden's aeldste 
landsbyer [The world's first farmers]. Nationalmuseets Arbejds- 
mark, 1966, pp. 85-96. Copenhagen: Danish National Museum, 

Ortner, Donald J. A recent occurrence of an African type tooth 
mutilation in Florida. Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 25, pp. 
177-180, 1966. 

Stewart, T. Dale. Chronometric dating and taxonomic relation- 
ships. In Time and stratigraphy in the evolution of man, Nat. 
Acad. Sci. - Nat. Res. Council, publ. 1469, pp. 17-21. Washing- 
ton, 1967. 


Sturtevant, William C. Seminole men's clothing. Proceedings of 

the 1966 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological 

Society, pp. 160-174, 1967. 

. Scalping. Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 19, p. 1135, 1967. 

Wedel, Waldo R. The council circles of central Kansas: Were they 

solstice registers: American Antiquity (January 1967), vol. 32, 

no. 1, pp. 54-63, 1967. 
. Salvage archeology in the Missouri River Basin. Science, vol. 

156, no. 3775, pp. 587-597, 1967. 
Woodbury, Richard B. Village agriculture toward the peripheries — 

the North American Southwest. Actas y Memorias, XXXVI 

Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Espana, 1964, vol. 1, 

pp. 219-228. Seville, 1966. 


Ayensu, Edward S. Aerosol OT solution — An effective softener of 

herbarium specimens for anatomical study. Stain Technol., vol. 

42, no. 3, pp. 155-156, 1967. 
Cowan, R. S. Rutaceae of the Guayana Highland. Mem. N.Y. 

Bot. Gard., vol. 14, pt. 3, pp. 1-14, April 1967. 
. Candolleodendron, a new genus of the Leguminosae (Caesal- 

pinioideae). Rhodora, vol. 68, no. 776, pp. 429-432, October- 
December 1966. 
Cuatrecasas, Jose. Banisteriopsis caapi, B. inebrians, B. rusbyana; 

description et clef de determination. Journ. d'Agric. Trop. et 

Bot. Appl., vol. 12, pp. 22-24, December 1965. 
. Estudios sobre plantas andianas, X. Caldasia, vol. 10, no. 

46, pp. 3-26, 1967. 
Culberson, W. L., and Hale, Mason E., Jr. The range of Norman- 

dina pulchella in North America. Bryologist, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 

365-367, 1966. 
Dawson, E. Yale. Marine algae in the vicinity of Puerto Pehasco, 

Sonora, Mexico. Gulf of California Field Guide Series no. 1, 

57 pp. Tucson: Univ. Arizona Press, 1966. 
— . The cacti of California. California Natural History Guides; 

18, 64 pp. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. California Press, 1966. 
. New records of marine algae from the Gulf of California. 

Journ. Arizona Acad. Sci., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 55-66, 1966. 
, and Neushul, M. New records of marine algae from Anacapa 

Island, California. Nova Hedwigia, vol. 12, nos. 1 and 2, pp. 

173-187, 1966. 


Ernst, Wallace R. The floral morphology and systematics of 

Platystemon and its allies Hesperomecon and Meconella (Papaveraceae: 

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25-70, March 1967. 
, and Thompson, H. J. Proposal to conserve the generic name 

Eucnida Zuccarini, 1844, against Microsperma W. J. Hooker, 1839 

(both Loasaceae). Taxon, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 77, 78, February 

Eyde, Richard H. Systematic anatomy of the flower and fruit of 

Corokia. Amer. Journ. Bot., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 833-847, September 

; Nicolson, Dan H.; and Sherwin, Priscilla. A survey of the 

floral anatomy in Araceae. Amer. Journ. Bot., vol. 54, no. 4, 

pp. 478-497, April 1967. 

-, and Teeri, James A. Floral anatomy of Rhezia virginica. 

Rhodora, vol. 69, no. 778, pp. 163-178, April-June 1967. 
Fosberg, F. R. Systematic notes on Micronesian plants. 2. Phy- 

tologia, vol. 13, pp. 233-241, 1966. 
. Scirpus americanus Persoon (Cyperaceae) in Costa Rica. 

Sida, vol. 2, pp. 347-348, 1966. 
. Studies in American Rubiaceae 1. New and noteworthy 

Costa Rican species. Sida, vol. 2, pp. 386-389, 1966. 
. Restoration of lost and degraded habitats. In Future envi- 
ronments of North America, edit. F. Fraser Darling and J. P. 
Milton, pp. 503-515. Natural History Press, 1966. 
. The oceanic volcanic island ecosystem. In The Galapagos, 

edit. R. I. Bowman, pp. 55-61. Univ. of Calif. Press, 1966. 
. The correct name of the horseradish [Cruciferae]. Baileya, 

vol. 14, p. 60, 1966. 
. Vascular plants. In Atlas for bioecology studies in Hawaii 

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Institution Press, Publ. 4680, November 1966. 
. The chukar partridge of St. Helena Island, South Atlantic 

Ocean. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 78, pp. 179-182, 

August 1966. 

-, and Amerson, A. Binion, Jr. Instructions for collecting bird 

parasites. Smithsonian Information Leaflet 477, 12 pp., March 

Weitzman, Stanley H., and Wourms, John P. South American 

cyprinodont fishes allied to Cynolebias with the description of a new 

species of Austrofundulus from Venezuela. Copeia no. 1, pp. 89-100, 

Wetmore, Alexander. Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (1875-1966). The 

Geographical Review, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 598-599, October 1966. 
Zusi, Richard L. The role of the depressor mandibulae muscle in 

kinesis of the avian skull. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3607, 

28 pp., 13 figs., 1967. 

National Zoological Park 

Theodore H. Reed, Director 

t tealthy growth and achievement in all areas again mark the 
*- *■ year for the National Zoological Park. No one event overshadows 
all others. In the animal department a third gorilla and a sloth bear 
were born. In the research division a field study of the Ceylonese 
elephant was started. The new hoofed-stock area was opened and 
occupied. And constant improvement in such aspects of the Zoo's 
work as education, nutrition, and beautification of the grounds contrib- 
uted to a very good year. 

In the interest of conserving endangered species of animals, two 
female pygmy hippopotamuses from other zoos were bred to the 
National Zoo's Totota. Word has also been received that our male 
orangutan, Butch, who was sent to the Boston Zoo last year* is now 
residing in Colorado Springs for breeding purposes. 

The Animals 

Through gifts, births, purchases, and exchanges, the collection has 
increased so that it now contains not only more individual animals, 
but a greater number of species than ever before in its history, greatly 
adding to the diversity of the exhibits. 

*See Smithsonian Year 1966, p. 154. 




June 30, 


Phylum : 




Species or 


Chordata : 































Totals 49 172 989 3,266 

To these figures should be added the 28 species, comprising 138 in- 
dividuals, of small mammals under the care of the research division 
and not always on exhibit, giving a grand total of 1,017 species and 
3,404 individuals. 

Increased interest of the scientific community in the history of 
captive animals has led the Zoo to improve with an easy-retrieval 
system its method of keeping animal records. 

Note: Certain tabulated, statistical, and other information formerly contained in 
the report of the National Zoological Park in Smithsonian Tear now appears as 
appendices to the Separate of this Report (available on request from the Director 
of the National Zoological Park). This information includes: 
Visitor statistics and other operational information. 

Report of the Veterinarian, augmented by case histories and autopsy reports. 
Complete lists of (a) animals in the collection on June 30, 1967; (b) all births 
and hatchings during the year; and (c) changes in the collection by gift, 
purchase, or exchange. 

In cooperation with the American Institute of Biological Sciences, 
the Smithsonian Institution sponsored an intensive course in bio- 
medical telemetry at the Natural History Museum auditorium, 
August 10 to 13. Special exhibits in connection with the course, held 
at the Zoo August 10 to 19, were: 

Caiman: This reptile swallowed a radio transmitter which senses 
temperature and telemeters it to an external receiver, whether the 
animal is in or out of the water. Visitors could detect the clicking 
signal and calculate the caiman's temperature for themselves. 

Four-day-old Inaki, lowland gorilla, the third offspring (and first female) 
born to Moka and Nikumba. 

Llama: A subcutaneous probe from an attached external trans- 
mitter sent pulses to a receiver for continuous recording. These indica- 
tions, which are useful in disease diagnosis, showed much smaller 
changes in this warm-blooded animal than in the caiman. 

Pronghorn : A transmitter carried externally by the animal emitted 
a pulsating signal which could be heard on a receiver with turnable 
antenna. Rotation of direction-finding receiver by the visitor allowed 
him to locate the animal in the paddock. 

These exhibits were set up by R. Stuart Mackay of the University 
of California, in cooperation with the Zoo staff. 

Moving the white rhinoceroses turned out to be one of the most 
elaborate engineering feats to be accomplished during the year. 
From their rather small cage and outdoor yard in the elephant house, 
which they had occupied ever since their arrival here on September 4, 
1956, Bill and Lucy were transferred to a moated hillside where 
they can be viewed without any obstructing bars. Their new home 
is in an area reserved for hoofed stock too delicate to winter outdoors, 
and it is an ideal spot in which to display these valuable and mag- 
nificent animals. 


Special ramps that would bear the weight of the rhinos (Bill weighs 
4,865 pounds, Lucy 3,630) were built by the mechanical department 
in order to have the animals walk onto the waiting trucks. With the 
aid of tranquilizers administered by Zoo veterinarian Clinton Gray, 
and with eleven stalwart keepers to push and tug, both animals made 
it safely. The distance traveled was about 500 feet — the time required, 
four hours. 

With completion of the new hoofed-stock area, the zebras and 
Mongolian horse were returned on September 2, 1966, to the Zoo, 
after having been boarded at a farm in Maryland. The first major 
birth in the area was that of a male Grant's zebra on April 12, 1967. 


Outstanding mammal births included a sloth bear, a brown lemur, 
golden marmoset twins, five serval kittens, two of the rare little South 
African black-footed cats, and two golden cats. As always, the excite- 
ment that surrounds the birth of a gorilla in captivity attended 
the birth to Moka, the Zoo's lowland gorilla, of her third infant and 
first female, on April 8, 1967. Inaki, as the youngster was named, is 
being reared by Mrs. Bernard Gallagher, who successfully reared the 
first two gorillas born at the National Zoo. The birth this year of 5 
Barbary apes, more than in any previous year, brings to 27 the colony 
which is being built up for the monkey island that is in the Zoo's future 
plans. Mating of the black rhinoceroses has been observed, and if the 
signs of pregnancy are reliable, a rhinoceros will be born during fiscal 
year 1968. 

Among the bird hatchings followed by successful raising were those 
achieved by crested green wood partridges (14), Hawaiian ducks (9), 
black-necked swan (1), kookaburras (5), Pentland's tinamou (2), and 
the bare-throated tree partridge ( 1 ) . The first emu chick to be hatched 
in the Zoo appeared, but perhaps the rarest of all was a tiny elf owl; 
so far as is known, the only other elf owls to be hatched in captivity are 
at the Sonora Desert Museum in Arizona, where conditions closely 
simulate their natural habitat and are not at all like those for our 
little pair behind glass in the bird house. Birds that had first nestings 
but were unsuccessful in hatchings were the rufous-thighed falconet, 
red-billed oxpecker, and collared forest falcon. 

Noteworthy reptile hatchings were those of the banded red snakes 
(2) and the eastern indigo snake (1). 


As usual, the Zoo was the recipient of numerous, much appreciated 
gifts. A complete list will be found in the Appendix (see note, p. 156). 



Moving a White Rhino 
Takes . . . 



hauling . 


and finally . . . 
the new quarters. 


Of particular interest were two baby cheetahs, presented by Woodward 
& Lothrop, which were part of a window display at the store in 
January. Dr. Harry Hoogstraal, at the time stationed in Cairo, sent 
the Zoo a North African banded weasel, eleven European hoopoes, 
other birds, and a number of interesting reptiles. John Archbold, of 
Upperville, Va., gave two river otters. Edward Marshall Boehm, of 
Trenton, N.J., presented 29 specimens of rare birds, and S. Dillon 
Ripley contributed 18 birds, mostly waterfowl, and a muntjac — a 
small species of Asiatic deer. An albino turtle from Thailand was a 
gift from the Dusit Zoo, Bangkok, to the National Zoo, and was 
accepted on the Zoo's behalf by Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, who visited 
the Dusit Zoo in October. 

A much appreciated contribution, received from Reader's Digest, was 
$500 ear-marked for the purchase of animals. 


Four Pere David's deer were purchased to start a National Zoological 
Park herd. These rare animals exist only in captivity, having been 
extinct in the wild for many years. All are young, and breeding is not 
expected for several years. 

One male greater kudu was received and females now in quarantine 
in Germany are expected to arrive in midsummer. 

Pure species gibbon colonies are hard to find in the United States, 
as these "species" readily crossbreed, but the Zoo has been fortunate in 
obtaining five crested gibbons, Hylobates concolor, sometimes called 
white-cheeked gibbons. 

New animals purchased and placed on exhibit this year include lesser 
pandas, Colobus monkeys, Sykes' monkeys, Asiatic pangolins, and 

Sixty eggs of Icelandic ducks were purchased and are being incu- 
bated; old squaw and red-breasted merganser are two of the several 
species bought. Also purchased and placed on exhibit were 2 rhinoceros 
hornbills from Malaya, known for their high, red-and-yellow casque 
curled upward at the front. 

In the bird house, on loan from the Baltimore Zoo; is a kagu, which 
is nocturnal and lives on the forest floor in New Caledonia. 


The Zoo continued its custom of exchanging surplus animals with 
other zoos and of receiving specimens in return, and a complete list 
of these will be found in the Appendix (see note, p. 156). In several 
such instances the Zoo obtained mates for solitary specimens in the 


National collection, among them a hyacinthine macaw from the 
Catskill Game Farm and a drill from the Dallas Zoo. From Pretoria, 
South Africa, came the largest exchange, which included a pair of 
spotted hyenas, four Stanley cranes, eight sacred ibis, and a number 
of rare reptiles. 


Saddest loss of the year was the death on November 26, 1966, of 
the Bengal tiger Samson, mate to Mohini the white tigress. Specialists 
called in consultation found it impossible to save the animal from a 
degenerative kidney ailment. Details of the terminal illness may be 
found in the Veterinarian's report in the Appendix (see note, p. 156). 
Ramana, Samson's son, a male of normal color from Mohini' s first 
litter, is now of breeding age and has been successfully introduced to 
his mother. Genetic makeup from this union should produce a litter 
of which half the cubs are white and half yellow. 

Because of a shortage of great ape quarters, the Zoo's pair of breeding 
chimpanzees, Maggie and Jiggs, were loaned to the Forest Park Zoo in 
Springfield, Massachusetts. On April 21, 1967, two days after their 
tenth baby was born, Jiggs escaped from his cage and had to be shot. 
Maggie and the baby remain in Springfield. 

Some losses in the collection were specimens that had been here for 
so many years that they may have established longevity records. 
"Granny," a red-faced macaque, received in 1942 as a gift from 
Harold Coolidge, in whose family it had been a pet since 1937, died 
March 1967 at the age of thirty. 


Research at the National Zoological Park has undergone rapid 
diversification during the past year. With the conversion of two rooms 
on the top floor of the reptile house into laboratories, facilities have 
been expanded, and the added area permits the accommodation of 
new predoctoral research students as well as visiting investigators from 
other institutions. 

In conjunction with H. K. Buechner of the Smithsonian Office of 
Ecology, and with F. Kurt and G. McKay, a research program was 
initiated on the behavior and ecology of the Ceylonese elephant, 
Elephas maximus, financed in part through the Smithsonian Foreign 
Currency Program and by a grant from the World Wildlife Fund. 
Preliminary studies on elephant behavior were conducted at the Zoo, 
but the current effort is concentrated in the Yala region on the south- 
east coast of Ceylon. 

Noteworthy Residents 
at the National Zoo 

Adult elf owls Micrathene 
whitneyi and their young, 
hatched at the Zoo in spring 
1967. These tiny 5H-inch 
owls, native to Mexico and 
the American southwest, 
seldom thrive in captivity, 
and as far as can be deter- 
mined the only other suc- 
cessful hatching has been at 
the Sonora Desert Museum 
(Photo Constance P. 

it I 

Linsang Prionodon linsang, a 
rare viverrine from southern 
Burma, Malay States, Su- 
matra, Java, and Borneo. 
Received April 16, 1958, it 
is the first of its kind ever 
exhibited at the National 
Zoological Park, and un- 
doubtedly now represents a 
longevity record for the 
species in captivity. 

Malayan pangolin Manis javanicus on exhibit in the small-mammal house. 



Two spotted hyena pups, 3 months 
old. Although not rare as a species, 
this pair is interesting because they 
were born by Caesarian section. The 
gravid mother was shot after being 
found in a poacher's snare near the 
Kruger National Park in South 
Africa, and a speedy operation pro- 
duced three pups with their eyes 
open and able to walk. One young 
died shortly after, but the other two 
were hand-reared at the National 
Zoological Gardens of South Africa 
in Pretoria and sent to the National 
Zoo on April 6, 1967. 

Male fossa Cryptoprocta ferox, one of 
the rarest viverrines and the largest 
Malagasy carnivore. This animal, 
the only fossa in the Western 
Hemisphere, was acquired by resi- 
dent scientist John F. Eisenberg on 
his first expedition to Madagascar 
in spring 1966. Only other fossa 
ever exhibited in the United States 
was at the National Zoo from 
October 6, 1954 to January 6, 1962. 

Female leopard cat Felis bengalensis and 
male young. This mother gave birth to a 
female kitten on January 27th which she 
refused. A second kitten was stillborn on 
January 28th, and this male was born on 
January 29th, accepted and successfully 
raised. The picture was taken on April 6th. 


During fall 1966 Paul Leyhausen of the Max Planck Institute at 
Wuppertal visited for two months and together with John Eisenberg 
initiated research on the behavior patterns of our captive viverrids. 
It is being continued by Christen Wemmer. 

In January Eisenberg left for Ceylon to initiate the elephant ecology 
program. Thence on January 30 he proceeded to Madagascar, where 
he joined Edwin Gould of Johns Hopkins University in a continuation 
of their studies on the insectivores of that island. Eisenberg's return 
in April was followed by three shipments of living mammals from 
Madagascar, including the mouse lemur Microcebus, the dwarf lemur 
Cheirogaleus, and tenrecs of the genera Tenrec, Hemicentetes, and Micro- 
gale. Eisenberg returned to Ceylon in May for an inspection of field 
work on the elephant. He presented a seminar at the University of 
Missouri and gave a lecture course in sociobiology during the fall 
semester at the University of Maryland. 

Other current research projects were : 

1 . Studies of thermoregulation and reproduction in the tenrecs of 
the following genera: Microgale, Hemicentetes, Tenrec, Setifer, and 
Echinops (with E. Gould). 

2. Studies of the ontogeny of vocalization in neotropical primates, 
the following species being currently under study: Saguinus oedipus, 
Leontocebus rosalia, Ateles fusciceps (with Miss N. Muckenhirn). 

3. Studies on the social behavior and on the ontogeny of behavior 
among selected species of Caviomorph rodents (with Mr. N. Smythe) . 

4. Studies on the prey-catching behavior of carnivorous mammals, 
including the Tenrecidae, Dasyuridae, and Viverridae (with P. 
Leyhausen and C. Wemmer). 

Visiting scientists using the facilities of the research division also 
included Theodore I. Grand, Oregon Primate Center; Muriele 
Bertrand, Johns Hopkins University; and Suzanne Ripley, University 
of Virginia. 

The following papers originating in the research division were 
published : 

Eisenberg, J. F. Nagetiere-Territorien und Wechsel. In Die Strassen 
der Tiere, edit. H. Hediger, pp. 83-101. Vieweg und Sohn, 1967. 

— , and Gould, E. The maintenance of tenrecoid insectivores 

in captivity. Int. Zoo Yearbook VII, pp. 194-196, 1967. 

— , and Kuehn, R. E. The behavior of Ateles geoffroyi and 
related species. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 151, no. 8, publ. 
4683, 63 pp., & 6 pi., 1966. 

, and Maliniak, E., 1967. The breeding of Marmosa in 

captivity. Int. Zoo Yearbook VII, pp. 78-79, 1967. 


Gould, E., and Eisenberg, J. F. Notes on the biology of the Ten- 
recidae. Journ. Mammal., vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 660-686, 1966. 


As conceived by Smithsonian Secretary Langley in 1888, the Na- 
tional Zoological Park was to be "a home and city of refuge for the 
vanishing races of the continent." In the years since then, North 
American wildlife has been brought under generally successful man- 
agement in hundreds of State and National parks, forests, and refuges. 
At the same time, however, wildlife in Africa, Asia, and South America 
has been so swiftly and drastically reduced that several hundred species 
are in imminent danger of extinction. Today the National Zoo's role 
in conservation has become international. 

Within the Zoo itself, the new orientation is expressed in manage- 
ment of the collection, and in public education. "Vanishing Animal" 
signs mark the threatened mammals and birds. Captive breeding has 




This symbol marks animal 
species now in danger of 
extinction in the wild. 

become a necessary safeguard against extinction for a number of 
species. The National Zoo has had outstanding success in propagating 
the pygmy hippopotamus. Other endangered species successfully bred 
at the Zoo include the golden marmoset, orangutan, dorcas gazelle, 
and Hawaiian duck. The Zoo has acquired a nucleus herd of Pere 
David's deer and is awaiting arrival of a trio of scimitar-horned oryx. 
The Director and the Assistant Director are closely affiliated with the 
work of such national and international conservation agencies as the 
International Union for the Conservation of Nature, the Wild Animal 
Propagation Trust, and the Committee on Conservation of the Ameri- 
can Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, which also has a 
Subcommittee on Endangered Species. A principal function of the 
latter is to help suppress the traffic in illegally captured and smuggled 
animals. Zoos considering purchase of species on the critical list are 
required by AAZPA policy to consult this Subcommittee, which 
verifies the required licenses and certificates. 


Day-to-day cooperation with foreign zoo associations, conservation 
groups, and public officials has virtually halted the trade in smuggled 
orangutans. In February 1967, in the first action of its kind, U.S. 
authorities seized a young orangutan at Dulles Airport. Pending final 
court action, "Dennis" has been housed at the National Zoo. Authori- 
ties have recommended that he be placed on deposit, for breeding 
purposes, in a zoo designated by the Wild Animal Propagation Trust. 
The Subcommittee has also helped suppress illegal traffic in monkey- 
eating eagles, Javan and Sumatran rhinoceroses, Galapagos and 
Aldabra tortoises, golden marmosets, and Zanzibar red Colobus 
monkeys, all gravely threatened species. 

A long-term objective of the Zoo is to establish a "survival center," 
a farm or ranch with more space for breeding groups of endangered 
species than an urban zoo can provide. A suitable farm owned by the 
Smithsonian Institution is available to the Zoo, provided funds can be 
obtained for improvements and operating costs. 

Information and Education 

The information-education section continued its signing and labeling 
program. It also provided graphic arts services and support, editorial 
assistance and copy writing for various activities, as well as assisting 
with press, radio and TV coverage of Zoo activities. Also continued was 
the dissemination of natural history and Park information by telephone 
and correspondence. The Zoo library was reorganized. The photo- 
graphic files are being completely reorganized. 

Some 38 guided tours were conducted for groups of handicapped 
children, visting schools and colleges, visitors from other zoos and 
museums, and special guests and dignitaries. The section also co- 
operated with the Friends of the National Zoo in various projects. 

Friends of the National Zoo 

Of prime importance to the Friends of the National Zoo is the 
realization of means to enable them to acquire financial support and an 
income for continuation of their educational aims and objectives. On 
November 6, 1966, the President signed P.L. 89-772, which permits the 
Friends of the National Zoo to operate concessions, the proceeds to be 
used for research and educational work for the benefit of the Zoo. On 
May 31, 1967, a contract was signed, authorizing the Friends to operate 
a sales kiosk near the clock in the center of the Zoo. 

The annual Zoo Night for members was held June 5. Members 
toured the new hoofed-stock area and the two new buildings for delicate 
hoofed stock. There were refreshments on the bird-house lawn and 
a guitar concert by Charlie Byrd. 



The official emblem and seal (line drawings of the white tigress, 
Mohini) were produced and copyrighted. These are used to identify the 
organization in numerous ways. Publication of the quarterly newsletter, 
Spots and Stripes, was continued. 

At the annual meeting on May 3 1 , new officers elected for the coming 
year were Timothy V. A. Dillon, president; Margaret W. Harlan, 
vice president; Frank Ridgdill, treasurer; and Warren Iliff, secretary. 
Outgoing officers were Malcolm C. Henderson, president; Timothy 
V. A. Dillon, vice president; Luis Corea, treasurer; Mary Ellen Grogan, 

The Friends cooperated with the Zoo in "operation preg. watch,' 
during which members generously volunteered their time for all-night 
vigils of closed-circuit TV monitoring — watching for parturition in the 
lioness Princess. The volunteer watching the monitor was instructed 
to turn on the film tape-recorder at first sign of the birth process and to 
notify veterinarian Clinton W. Gray. For a week Princess was watched 
by Zoo personnel by day and by Friends volunteers by night. The 
pregnancy unfortunately turned out to be a false one, but the watchers 
were eager to participate again at any future time to assist the Zoo in 
obtaining valuable footage on the behavior and birth processes of 
captive exotic animals. 

Construction and Improvements 

A long-sought project for a continuous 24-hour scenic park road in 
Rock Creek Valley to connect the Arlington Memorial Bridge and 
Potomac Parks with Rock Creek Park has become a reality. The Zoo 
bypass on the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, which provides the 
missing link by carrying parkway traffic around instead of through the 
Zoo, was dedicated on August 19, 1966. The project included a 400- 
foot tunnel under Administration Hill and a bridge over Rock Creek at 
Calvert Street. A parkway overpass at Harvard Street to accommodate 
Zoo traffic is nearing completion. 


The hardy-hoofed-stock complex was completed and occupied during 
the year. These quarters were designed for animals which require a 
minimum of shelter and protection from the Washington weather, such 
as the Cape buffalo, white-bearded gnu, zebra, Przewalski horse, and 
llama. The site is built on a 3 %-acre area, with four separate buildings 
laid out in a rectangular pattern. The area enclosed by the buildings is 
used as a holding, or off-exhibit area. The perimeter area is divided 
into six exhibit paddocks, all viewed across dry moats from the visitor 
walk which circumscribes the complex. Building design of each of the 
four shelters is the same, and the construction is similar to that used in 
the deer area — masonry block with flat roofs on exposed laminated 
wood beams. The loafing shed extends the full length of each shelter, 
and back of it is the building, divided into a bull stall and a loafing 
stall, the latter so arranged that it can be subdivided into three separate 
stalls each the size of the bull stall. Service is through an alleyway 
running along both axes of the complex. 

The delicate-hoofed-stock complex, opened to the public on June 6, 
1967, consists of two buildings, totaling 15,850 square feet, built on the 
upper part of the three-acre sloping site. Landscaping and grading are 
so designed that visitors can view the four delicate-hoofed-stock pad- 
docks from the promenade roofs of the two buildings, and then proceed 
via ramps and stairs to view the exhibits inside. This inside view is 
from a visitor corridor which runs the length of, and connects, the 
two buildings. Each building has three exhibit stalls, with the usual 
adjacent retiring stall and keeper and service rooms and access. The 
back (paddock) wall of each exhibit stall is a window wall that allows 
the visitor to view the inside as well as the outside area, and gives a 
feeling of spaciousness to the inside exhibit. 

The delicate-hoofed-stock buildings are of poured concrete con- 
struction with natural stone facing and trim on exposed surfaces. Since 
delicate-hoofed stock are considered to be those animals which, in the 
Washington area, require heated quarters in the winter and protection 
from the extreme summer temperatures, the heating system for these 
buildings is designed to provide a minimum temperature of 60° F. 
during the winter, and one of the buildings is air conditioned. Planned 
for exhibit in these buildings are dorcas gazelles, kudu, sable antelope, 
and scimitar-horned oryx. Since the Zoo has pairs of three different 
species of rhinoceros (white, black, and Indian) one of the enclosures 
was modified to accommodate the white rhinos. 

The trunk sewers and retention basin, started in January 1966, were 
completed in June 1967, and Beaver Valley has again been opened to 
the public. 



Most of the new construction completed to date centers at the north 
end of the Zoo between Connecticut Avenue (1) and the Elephant 
House (10). Earlier construction includes the remodeled bird house (5), 
great flight cage (6), deer paddocks (7), parking for 260 cars in lots 
A and B (3 and 4), and the perimeter vehicular road (2). The recendy 
opened hoofed-stock area is a 7-acre complex consisting of two perma- 
nent buildings for delicate stock (9) and four multi-stall shelters with 
eight yards for hardy stock (8). It is expected that 50 to 60 animals will 
eventually be accommodated in this area as the herds develop. (Blue 
Ridge Aerial Survey photo.) 


Plans for the hospital, research, service, and supply complex are 
completed and have been approved by the various reviewing agencies. 
Bids will be opened early in August and construction should start some 
time in fall 1967. 

The fiscal year 1967 Appropriation Act contained an item of 
$1,589,000 for improvements at the National Zoological Park, to 
include the multi-climate complex. Plans for this building were started 
by the architects after approval was obtained from the various review- 
ing commissions. Construction is expected to start in late spring 1968. 

Beautification of the Park continued under head gardener John 
W. Monday with the planting of 65 trees, 2000 evergreens, 4000 bulbs, 
and 5,100 annuals. Gifts of plants were received from Mrs. Lyndon 
B. Johnson, and also from the Arboretum, the D.C. Water Works, 
Botanical Gardens, Glendale Nursery, Glendale Hospital, and Walter 
Reed Hospital. An account of the work of the grounds department 
is contained in the Appendix (see note, p. 156). 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 
Martin H. Moynihan, Director 

A ctivities have continued to expand at the Smithsonian Tropical 
** Research Institute essentially along the same lines as in previous 
years, but with some slight changes of emphasis. Among these activi- 
ties — research by the staff and support of research by visiting scientists 
and students, education and training, and the encouragement and 
practice of conservation — it is the latter two that have shown the 
greatest relative increase. 

STRI scientists and students have begun long-term research on several 
biological processes or problems which are particularly conspicuous in 
the Tropics (e.g., the evolution of social behavior and social systems, 
and the relationship between species diversity and evolutionary "suc- 
cess")- We are beginning to get results from these studies. Unfortu- 
nately, however, some of these results are difficult to interpret, due 
largely to the fact that the studies have been confined to Central and 
South America. We have been able to identify some distinctive charac- 
teristics of organisms and biotas in these regions, but we do not know if 
they are typical of the Tropics as a whole or only of the New World. 
Thus, we badly need comparative data from other parts of the Tropics, 
and ideally, from the tropical parts of all the major zoogeographic 

During the latter part of the year, the staff of the Institute began to 
develop plans for research in the Old World Tropics and for coopera- 
tion with other scientific institutions in that area. In order to establish 
preliminary contacts, and to acquire the necessary background informa- 



tion, Rand and Robinson attended an international symposium on 
tropical biology at Varanasi, India, and then investigated possible 
research areas in Ceylon. Rand also visited Malaya. Moynihan subse- 
quently made a more extensive survey of research possibilities in 
Senegal, the Ivory Coast, the Congo (Kinshasa), Madagascar, Assam, 
Ceylon, Thailand, and the Territory of Papua-New Guinea. It is hoped 
that these efforts will produce practical results in the form of new 
research programs by the end of FY 1968 or the beginning of FY 1969. 
In November, the Smithsonian Institution held a conference on 
tropical biology in Panama City attended by more than 60 outstanding 
scientists from the U.S. and Latin America. In the course of the discus- 
sion, an attempt was made to determine the most urgent and important 
problems confronting biologists in the Tropics. Special attention was 
paid to the possible effects of a new sea-level canal joining the Atlantic 
and Pacific somewhere across Central America or northern Colombia. 
It was resolved that an urgent need exists to begin long-term ecological 
studies now, especially in the marine environments. Under present 
world conditions of exploding human populations and the limitations 
of the resources that support them, it is essential that any environmental 
manipulations as significant as the proposed Atlantic-Pacific sea-level 
canal be based on a comprehensive background of fundamental 

Research and Publication 

In terms of research in progress or completed at STRI, the study of 
tropical biology has provided and continues to provide results of both 
theoretical value and practical usefulness. From a purely scientific 
point of view, tropical biotas are interesting primarily because they 
are so rich and varied ; they include much larger numbers, and a greater 
diversity, of species than the biotas of any other regions of the world : 
and the ecological and behavioral relations among species are more 
complex, on the average, in the Tropics than anywhere else. Convincing 
evidence points to the Tropics as the place of origin and principal center 
of evolution of most groups of organisms. It would appear, too, that new 
and major types of adaptations to new ways of life are more likely 
to be evolved by tropical species than by species of other regions, and 
Tropical species seem to be more successful in invading other regions 
than are species of other regions in invading the Tropics. As a result 
of this combination of features, tropical biotas provide invaluable 
opportunities for the analysis of such fundamental biological processes 
as evolution, competition and cooperation among species and in- 
dividuals, animal communication (with its implications for the origin 
of human language), and the development of social organization. 


Within the Tropics, the Panamanian region is particularly interesting 
or several reasons. The isthmus itself is a bridge between two continents. 
It is the route by which species of northern origin move south, and 
southern species move north. Thus, it is a living laboratory for the 
study of zoogeographic change. The fact that the Atlantic and Pacific 
are only 50 miles apart in central Panama is also significant. Nowhere 
else in the world can the distinct floras and faunas of two oceans be 
compared as easily and under such favorable conditions. 

The practical implications of basic research in the Tropics are less 
obvious but not less important. The human societies of tropical regions 
are developing and expanding at breakneck speed. They will need to 
learn a great deal more about their environments, if they are to manage 
these environments successfully and thus attain the goals they have 
set for themselves. 

In view of all these facts, it is not surprising that the Panamanian 
region attracts more and more scientists and students. And there is 
every reason to believe that this increase will continue, or even ac- 
celerate, during the next decade. The following tabulation shows the 
number of visitors for whom the Institute provided appreciable 
support during the past year. 

Senior scientists 96 

Graduate students 1 38 

Undergraduate students 27 

Technical assistants 13 

Amateur biologists and members of natural history groups . 103 

Other 91 

Total 468 

Mention of a few of their projects may illustrate the range of activities 
which the Institute has been able to facilitate, encourage, or support. 

Owen J. Sexton, his associates, and graduate students from Wash- 
ington University continued their researches on the factors regulating 
reproduction in lizards, particularly anoles. Such studies are particu- 
larly significant for they are revealing endogeneous cycles in repro- 
ductive activity. This work was supported by the National Science 

John W. Smith of the University of Pennsylvania and his students 
investigated for several months the auditory communication patterns 
among birds, especially flycatchers. This approach to the study of 
animal behavior is rewarding, for it is demonstrating the various 
evolutionary pathways by which essential information is encoded and 

Barro Colorado 
Island: Wildlife 
and behavior 

4, Automatic camera 
shows that agoutis, ro- 
dents that resemble small 
forest deer, fight with 
their hind feet. 

1 , White-faced monkeys Cebus capucinus grooming. 

2, Fulgorid bug showing "eye spots" on hind 
wings. 3, Web-throwing spider. 


1 , John Oppenheimer 

2-8, Nicholas Smyth 

5, Corythophanes cristatus, 
one of the more than 22 
species of lizards on the 

6 and 7, Caught by automatic camera, a family 
of pacas feeding in the forest and a Jaguaroundi 
Felis yagouaroundi drinking from a forest pool. 8, 
Phyllomedusa callidryas is one of the more than 
30 species of frogs on the island. 

176 Smithsonian year 1967 

transmitted, and it also sheds light on the phylogeny of the organisms 

At the marine laboratories, Howard Winn of the University of 
Rhode Island and his graduate students recorded and analyzed the 
sounds produced by a variety of fishes, particularly marine catfishes. 
The large concrete tanks of the Naos Island facility proved most 
suitable for this research, which is supported by the Office of Naval 

Eric Davidson of Rockefeller University continued his experimental 
studies of gene activity in anuran oogenesis. One local species, Engy- 
stomops pustulosus, has proven particularly useful, and is yielding new 
information on possible extranuclear synthesis of DNA, and the specific 
roles of various cytoplasmic factors in repressing or activating portions 
of the genome during ontogeny. This research is supported by the 
American Cancer Society. 

Various aspects of the biology of ants were investigated by several 
researchers. Roger Akre, Washington State University, and his grad- 
uate students spent several months studing the factors involved in the 
movements of army ants (Eciton). Paul Kannowski, University of North 
Dakota, studied the mating-flight behavior of several ant species. The 
peculiar leaf-cutting ants (Atta) were studied by Bruce Haines of Duke 
and Paul Martin of Michigan Universities. Haines investigated the 
role that Atta plays in determining vegetational patterns. This is a 
two-sided effect, for although these ants defoliate many plants, they 
also fertilize the soil near their nests, adding phosphorus which is 
scarce in the poor tropical soils. In cultivating fungus in their leaf 
gardens, they manage to grow only one species to the exclusion of all 
other fungi. Martin, a chemist, seeks to know how this remarkable 
feat is accomplished. 

Most of the subjects investigated by scientists of the Institute staff 
(permanent resident scientists and graduate student interns) fall into 
the fields of evolution, social behavior, communication, species di- 
versity, and zoogeography. Unless specifically noted otherwise, the 
research was supported from federal funds appropriated to the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Martin Moynihan continued his studies of social behavior among 
Andean birds, supported by the National Science Foundation, and 
of communication in Neotropical primates. He presented two seminars 
at the University of Texas on the evolution of social and communica- 
tion systems. Also, he was awarded the William J. Walker prize by 
the Boston Museum of Science for outstanding achievements in biology. 


Robert L. Dressier, on leave for the past year, served as executive 
director of the Association for Tropical Biology. Despite heavy 
administrative duties, he continued his research on the pollination 
relationships between euglossine bees and orchids of the subtribe 
Stanhopeinae. The peculiar adaptations in structure, flowering time, 
and odor serve to attract the "right" kind, or kinds, of bees and 
thus to supply the principal isolating mechanisms between many orchid 
species. This relationship has been a major factor in orchid evolution. 

A. Stanley Rand's studies of the vocal communication in the frog 
Engystomops pustulosus have now reached the stage where the entire 
repertory has been cataloged. Experiments are in progress to detez'mine 
the information content and how this information is encoded. He also 
continued his work on the selective forces affecting egg type and clutch 
size in tropical reptiles in general. Rand became a member of the 
editorial committee of the journal Copeia. 

Michael H. Robinson, from Oxford University, joined the regular 
scientific staff last year. Using monkeys and spiders as predators and 
various insects as prey, he began a series of experiments investigating 
the complex adaptations evolved in such interactions. Among the 
many questions that he is posing is: do appendages common to all 
insects serve as cues for prey recognition? Initial results suggest that, 
like the marmoset Saguinus geoffroyi, predators can distinguish insect 
prey only be features which are often concealed by the behavior and 
morphology of cryptic insects. 

Ira Rubinoff continued his studies of the evolution of isolating 
mechanisms in certain species of Panamanian marine fishes. Working 
with Rubinoff on various problems of the complex Panamanian fish 
fauna was Richard Rosenblatt of the Scripps Oceanographic Institute, 
who spent several weeks as a special consultant on Panamanian marine 
fishes. Rubinoff presented a paper, "Measurement of Isolation Achieved 
Between Sympatric and Allopatric Combinations of the Genus Bathy- 
gobius in Panama," at a meeting of the American Society of Ichthyolo- 
gists and Herpetologists. He was appointed associate in ichthyology at 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. 

Neal Smith's continuing experiments on the evolution of adaptations 
for and against brood parasitism between several species of oropendolas 
(Icteridae) and the parasitic icterid Scaphidura revealed an unexpected 
result. Oropendolas who fail to discriminate eggs of Scaphidura from 
their own, and therefore raise the young parasites, usually do so to 
the detriment of their own offspring. Selection then favors increasing 
discrimination by the oropendolas, and better mimicry by the Scaphi- 
dura. Under certain conditions, however, selection may favor non- 


discrimination. In these cases, young oropendolas have a better chance 
of reaching the fledging stage when they are raised in the same nests 
with young Scaphidura, than when they are not. The balance between 
discrimination and nondiscrimination appears to be delicate, and the 
complex factors producing this unique situation are still being studied. 

Marcel Hladik's studies are showing an interesting parallel between 
Old and New World monkeys in the correlation betwen the kinds of 
food eaten and the microstructure of their digestive gut. Using light 
and electron microscopy, Hladik is finding that the intestinal mucosa 
very rapidly adjusts morphologically and histochemically to changes 
in the types of food consumed. This is an important adaptation to 
living areas where insect and fruit abundance may vary asynchronously. 

Martin Naumann continued his study of several species of social 
wasps (Protopolybia) . Unlike many wasps and bees, the size of the nest 
in these species is not indicative of the age of the nest, but rather of the 
size of the founding swarm and this, in turn, is a function of the number 
of queens present. 

Significant progress in analyzing the social behavior of the white- 
faced monkey Cebus capucinus was made by John Oppenheimer, whose 
observations of how new groups form and how territorial rights are 
established were of special interest. 

Using automatic cameras in the Barro Colorado Island forest, 
Nicholas Smythe has been able to obtain an almost complete record of 
the behavior and ecology of the large caviomorph rodents, the agouti 
Dasyprocta punctata, and the paca Agouti paca. Symthe's detailed work 
with these species show how the diverse social systems found in the 
caviomorphs can be considered specific adaptations to particular fea- 
tures of their environments. 

National Academy of Science Fellow Howard Wright studied the 
sexual behavior and other interactions of several species of grapsoid 
crabs. These poorly known crabs exhibit remarkable geographic varia- 
tion in certain features of their behavior which can be correlated with 
predator pressure. 

Estanislau da Silveira of Brazil, Organization for American States 
Fellow at the Institute, completed a catalog of the endoparasites of the 
anteater Tamandua. Jose Olazarri of Uruguay, another OAS Fellow, 
began his studies of the molluscan fauna of Barro Colorado and the 
behavior of the spiny rat Proechimys. He is also assisting Michael 
Robinson with his work on spiders. 

More than 20 papers by visiting scientists, based wholly or in part 
upon the results of research at Institute facilities, were published last 
year (a listing of earlier such works is to be found in Smithsonian 


Information Leaflet 281, rev. August 1965). Papers by the staff are 
listed on page 182. 

Educational and Related Programs 

Under the continuing fellowship program with the Science and 
Educational Division of the Organization of American States, the fellows 
are learning modern techniques of field biology under the guidance 
of the resident members of the Institute staff. Field classes of the 
Organization for Tropical Studies visited the Institute's facilities and 
conducted exercises at the marine laboratories, and a class of students 
from Harvard, under the direction of Giles Mead, curator of fishes 
at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, spent several weeks studying 
the marine and fresh-water organisms of the area. Senior members of 
the Institute staff are assisting and to some extent directing the work 
of the graduate student interns. They also provide informal guidance 
to visiting students from other institutions. 

A fellowship program sponsored by the U.S. Air Force was estab- 
lished to bring scientists to Panama and adjacent regions to investigate 
the feasibility of doing extensive research in the Tropics. The first are 
expected to arrive early next year. 

The past year was a period of major construction and renovation 
at the Barro Colorado Island laboratory. Ernest Hayden, formerly 
master sergeant, U.S. Army, was appointed station manager. A new 
building was finished which will serve as a residence for a staff scientist 
and as additional dormitory space for visiting scientists. Eastman 
Kodak's experimental facility was relocated and the old Kodak 
building was converted into a combination residence and laboratory 
area. A new house and a screened-in dining building were constructed 
for the labor staff. The station acquired the new 40-foot fiberglass- 
hulled vessel James ^etek II to supplement and eventually to replace 
the present wooden vessel which has been in service for many years. 
The boat dock area, which had been filling up with stream sediment 
for a number of years, was cleared and dredged. The library, possibly 
the best in the Neotropics, continued to expand and is now more than 
8000 volumes. Mrs. Alcira Mejia was promoted to full-time librarian, 
and Mrs. Nicholas Smythe was appointed library assistant. 

The marine laboratories, opened last year, were expanded and 
their facilities improved. Archibald Turner, formerly of the U.S. 
Army Tropic Test Center, was appointed manager of both stations. 
Construction was completed at the Galeta Island station, and now 
both marine laboratories are fully operational. The Naos Island 
station was enlarged to include another building, which will serve 


































106. 56 









123. 30 

104. 69 





105. 76 




101. 73 

105. 32 


105. 68 


122. 42 





143. 42 






108. 98 




124. 13 

110. 12 












140. 07 



109. 43 


100. 21 



108. 41 


100. 52 


111. 10 

108. 55 




120. 29 

109. 20 





109. 30 




120. 42 

109. 84 



[In inches] 






Years of 




excess or 

excess OT 













-0. 11 





1. 15 


+ 0.23 







+ 2. 12 








-o. : 


8. 13 




+ 5.52 







+ 1.52 





















+ 1.96 

+ 10. ! 




18. 16 










+ 18. ( 




106. 80 

+ 18.67 


Dry Season 



8. 18 

+ 2.69 

-1. 1 

Wet Season 




+ 15.98 

+ 5.t 



as laboratory and office space for resident and visiting scientists. 
Construction was completed on several concrete tanks, each 29' x 23' x 
8' deep, in the largest building of the Naos Island complex. The tanks 
now have running sea water and are being used for the study of large 
and pelagic organisms. The second floor of the original building, the 
"bunker laboratory," was remodeled to provide a seminar hall, office 
and laboratory space for visiting researchers, and an area for the storage 
of specimens. An 18-foot fiberglass outboard skiff and two 4-wheel- 
drive vehicles were other additions which have greatly facilitated 
field work. 

Dr. Peter Glynn, who was engaged to begin a marine invertebrate 
program, is expected to arrive early next year. Three new research 
associates were appointed: John Eisenberg of the National Zoo; 
Paulo Vanzolini of the Departmento de Zoologia in Sao Paulo, 
Brazil ; and Patricio Sanchez of the Catholic University of Chile. 


The Institute continued to preserve the areas under its control 
but because poaching pressure has increased, especially from boats, 
the legal limits of the Barro Colorado Island Preserve were extended 
to include a wide band of water around the island. The new boundary 
is being marked by signs. 

All physical facilities of the STRI are located in the Panama Canal Zone: 
Barro Colorado Island, with its laboratory for research on terrestrial and 
fresh-water organisms; marine biology laboratories on Naos Island and 
Galeta Island, both connected with the mainland by causeway; a tract 
in the Navy Pipeline Reservation; and an office in Ancon. 


The staff continued to encourage, both formally and informally, 
conservation practices in the Republic of Panama. Martin Moynihan 
was made a member of the Comision Nacional de Protection de la 
Fauna Silvestre. He also gave advice on the management of reserves 
in Madagascar and New Guinea. 

Guy A. Ramanantsoa, chief of the Forestry Bureau of the Malagasy 
Republic, visited Barro Colorado in order to make personal observa- 
tions of conservation practices. He also conferred with members of 
the Reforma Agraria on the types and extent of exploitation of Panama's 
natural resources. 


The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute can operate only 
with the excellent cooperation of the Canal Zone Government and the 
Panama Canal Company, the U.S. Army and Navy, and the govern- 
ment authorities of the Republic of Panama. Thanks are due especially 
to Gen. Robert W. Porter Jr., Commander, U.S. Armed Forces, 
Southern Command; Executive Secretary of the Canal Zone Paul M. 
Runnestrand and his staff; Lt. Col. Jack G. Null, Post Commander, 
Fort Amador, Canal Zone; the customs and immigration officials of 
the Canal Zone ; the dredging division and police division of the Panama 
Canal Company; Comdr. K. L. Robinson, Commanding Officer 
Naval Security Group; the 605th Air Commando Squadron, Howard 
Air Force Base; the U.S. Army Maintenance Division; and C. C. 
Soper of Eastman Kodak Company. 


Dressler, R. L. Nomenclatural notes on the Orchidaceae III. 

Taxon, vol. 15, pp. 241-242, 1966. 
. Some observations on Gongora. Orchid Digest, vol. 30, 

pp. 220-223, 1966. 
Moynihan, M. H. Communication in the titi monkey. Journ. 

Zool. Lond. 150: 77-127. 1966. 
Rand, A. S. The relation of size and distance jumped in Bufo marinus. 

Herpetologica, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 206-209, 1966. 
. Aspects of the ecology of the iguanid lizard Tropidurus 

torquatus at Belem, Para. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 151, no. 2, 

pp. 1-16, 1966. 
. Running speed of the lizard Basiliscus basiliscus on water. 

Copeia, 1967, no. 1, pp. 230-233. 

, and Rand, P. J. Field notes on Anolis lineatus in Curacao. 

Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands, 
vol. 8, pp. 112-117, 1967. 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 

W. H. Klein, Director 

The sun is the principal source of all energy required for life on the 
earth. Radiant energy from the sun is trapped by pigments and 
converted to potential chemical energy. Food produced by this process 
of photosynthesis is either stored or utilized immediately for the growth 
and development of biological systems. 

Organisms not only derive their energy supply from the process of 
photosynthesis, but also use signals from sunlight to regulate and con- 
trol their rates of growth and development. Most of these "regulatory" 
responses use short-duration or low-energy light signals in contrast to 
photosynthesis, in which large amounts of energy are captured and 

The research of the Radiation Biology Laboratory (RBL) is directed 
toward understanding the cellular and subcellular mechanisms and 
processes by which organisms utilize radiant energy from the sun for 
their growth and development. This research has been directed into 
four main areas: (1) Regulatory biology — physiology of developmental 
responses to light; (2) regulatory biology — biochemical processes of 
developmental responses to light; (3) measurement of solar radiation; 
and (4) carbon dating — measurements and research techniques. 

Regulatory Biology — Physiology 

Growing cells of the moss Physcomitrium turbinatum utilize light signals 
for regulating their growth rate as well as orienting the direction of 
their arowth axis. These moss cells are a potentially important tool for 



studying the mechanism by which light controls growth because single 
cells can be examined and their responses measured. 

Detailed action spectra, the determination of the relative sensitivity 
of different quality light stimuli, for both growth and oriented growth 
responses have been measured. Such action spectra measurements 
provide information about the nature of the pigments present which 
absorb light stimuli and regulate growth. For red wavelengths the 
growth action spectrum matches closely the in vivo absorption spectrum 
of a single moss filament. A major peak at 680 nanometer (nm) and a 
shoulder at 640 nm are characteristic of absorption by chlorophyll. 
For blue wavelengths, however, where there is appreciable chlorophyll 
absorption, there is no photogrowth response. 

Moss cells of Physcomitrium also exhibit a positive directional photo- 
orientation. An action spectrum determined by a null balancing method 
in which a filament grew between two light sources and indicated the 
relative effectiveness of the two beams, indicated maximum effectiveness 
in the far-red at 730 nm with a broad region of effectiveness extending 
from 600 to 800 nm. A significant fact is that the shape of the action 
spectrum determined for photo-orientation depends upon the quality 
of light being used as a reference beam. This fact suggests that probably 
two pigment systems are being utilized by the moss cells to regulate 
growth. It is postulated at present that these two pigment systems are 
chlorophyll and phytochrome which interact to regulate both growth 
and photo-orientation of growth. 

Pollen from higher plants can be germinated and grown under 
laboratory conditions and the elongation rate of the pollen tube as 
well as mitosis of the tube nucleus can be measured. The effect of 
light on the elongation growth of pollen tubes has not been studied 
previously. Pollen of flowering plants has an advantage for the study 
of light-controlled growth in that it is a one-celled structure which 
does not show the presence of a chloroplast or chlorophyll. Thus, it is 
a favorable material for the study of phytochrome-mediated responses 
without the complication of photosynthesis of chlorophyll-mediated 
responses. Pollen tubes grown on lactose-agar medium were exposed to 
red and far- red monochromatic irradiation. Growth measured after 3, 4, 
and 6 hours and compared to controls kept in the dark indicated that 
both red and far- red stimulate growth elongation, and that far- red was 
more effective in stimulating growth (dark 131 ±34 /x; red 196 ±36/*; 
far-red 308±59ju in 4 hours). 

Seeds of higher plants are also known to be sensitive to red and 
far-red light in controlling their germination. Some seeds require a 
red-light exposure before they will begin to grow even if all other 
environmental conditions are favorable for growth. This light sensi- 


tivity for germination is apparently determined by the relative amounts 
of red and far- red in the light to which the maturing seeds are exposed. 
Seeds of the mustard Arabidopsis thaliana have been grown to maturity 
under rigidly controlled environmental conditions exposed to either 
fluorescent lamps alone or fluorescent plus incandescent white lamps. 
Seeds grown under fluorescent lamps (relatively rich in red energy) 
appear to lose much of their light requirement and as high as 40% 
germinate in the dark; however, seeds matured under fluorescent plus 
incandescent lamps (rich in far-red) do not germinate in the dark for 
long periods of time. Similarly, it has been found that there is also a 
quantitative difference in light sensitivity in which much more energy 
is required to produce germination in fluorescent-grown seeds than in 
fluorescent- plus incandescent-grown seeds. The relative amounts of 
the two absorbing forms of phytochrome in the mature seeds are indi- 
cated as the controlling mechanism, and experiments are continuing 
to determine the effects of temperature, photoperiod, spectral quality 
and time of after- ripening upon the subsequent light sensitivity of the 

Regulatory Biology — Biochemistry 

The influence of light on phosphate uptake and incorporation in 
corn leaves was studied. Corn-leaf sections 2 cm. long grow and unroll 
when floated on aqueous solutions and exposed to red light. Radio- 
active phosphate can be added to these solutions and the incorporation 
of phosphate can be measured and compared with the physiological 
growth responses controlled by red light. Organic phosphate determined 
by colorimetric methods and P 32 counted electronically, for irradiated 
compared to dark sections, gave ratios of 1.03 ±0.16 for organic phos- 
phate and 1.04 ±0.11 for P 32 . Several factors which might influence 
the uptake and incorporation rates were tested. Among these variables 
were the developmental stages of the corn seedlings employed, hydra- 
tion status of the excised leaf segments prior to irradiation, and amend- 
ments to the H 3 P 32 4 solution including buffers, various salts, and 
sugars. No significant differences between irradiated and control plants 
were found and the average ratio (irradiation/control) for all experi- 
ments was 0.99 ±0.14. It is concluded that at the present time no 
significant effects of light on phosphate uptake and incorporation can 
be demonstrated. 

Chloroplast development and differentiation can be controlled by 
light and offers a good in vitro system for studying the mechanisms 
by which differentiation occurs. Ghloroplasts from developing bean 
leaves incorporate the radioactively labeled amino acid leucine into 


protein. During the past year it has been found that at the end of a 
one-hour incorporation period, half the radioactive protein formed is 
in a soluble fraction (100,000 X g for 60 minutes) and half is sedi- 
mented as an insoluble fraction. Only a small portion of the radio- 
activity in the insoluble fraction is sedimented with free ribosomes 
(30,000 to 100,000 X g for 60 minutes) while 75% can be sedimented 
at 6,000 X g for 30 minutes. Repeated washing with water removes 
only a portion of the radioactivity in the 6,000 X g fraction. The 
radioactivity remaining is associated with chlorophyll when centri- 
fuged in a sucrose density gradient. Also, the addition of unlabeled 
leucine to chloroplasts incorporating labeled leucine, followed by 
continued incubation under incorporation conditions does not remove 
radioactivity already incorporated into either the soluble or insoluble 
fraction. It is concluded that the in vitro protein synthesizing system 
is producing both soluble and lamellar chloroplast proteins. The data 
also suggest the existence of two separate incorporation sites since the 
soluble fraction does not act as precursor for the insoluble fraction 
and vice versa. 

Isolation and chemical characterization of pure phytochrome from 
dark-grown rye seedlings has continued, and improved yields and 
more reproducible extraction methods have been developed. The 
question of how many species of phytochrome subunits are present 
was resolved by fingerprinting the peptides released by trypsin; 34 to 
41 peptides were released. Amino acid analysis indicated that phyto- 
chrome contained 100 trypsin-sensitive bonds per 100,000 molecular 
weight units. Thus the chemical molecular weight of the subunit is 
34,000 to 41,000. This is in good agreement with the physical molecular 
weight, 36,000, which was determined by high-speed equilibrium 

Electron micrographs of bean chloroplast as it appears (top) when pieces of 
leaf are fixed and (middle) when a preparation of freshly isolated chloroplast 
is fixed. Freshly isolated chloroplasts such as this are used to study chloroplast 
protein synthesis. In these preparations the chloroplasts appear the same as 
those from intact leaves, except that they are slightly swollen. Protein synthesis 
by these chloroplasts is not prevented by an enzyme which degrades ribonucleic 

Fragments (bottom) of two chloroplasts from a preparation of isolated chloro- 
plasts which has been incubated at 25° C. for 1 hour before they were fixed 
show severe disruption when compared with chloroplasts in leaves, or with 
freshly isolated chloroplasts. Protein synthesis by these disrupted chloroplasts 
is prevented by an enzyme which degrades ribonucleic acid. 





centrifugation of the ultimate subunit. Thus, only one species of phyto- 
chrome subunit exists in the aggregate which was isolated. If two or 
more subunits existed then a multiple of 36 peptides would be expected. 

Electron microscopic examinations of pure phytochrome which had 
been prepared for examination in white light gave variable results. 
In some cases fibers and large symmetrical aggregates were observed. 
In other cases small five-membered rings of subparticles 20 angstroms 
in diameter could be observed. When phytochrome was prepared 
under green plus far-red light none of the five-membered small aggre- 
gates could be observed. If an aliquot of the same phytochrome solution 
was treated with red light, immediately before preparation for micro- 
scopy, many of the small five-membered aggregates could be seen. 
A tentative aggregation hypothesis has been constructed to explain 
these results. In the postulated system the subunit has a molecular 
weight of 36,000 and aggregates into pen tamers of 180,000 m.w. These, 
in turn, aggregate into tetramers (m.w. approx. 800,000) consisting of 
20 subunits. 

Many biological responses require a time-measuring system and it 
has been postulated that the dark reversion of the far-red absorbing 
form of phytochrome to the red absorbing form might be such a time- 
measuring device. For this reason the kinetics of the dark reversion of 
pure rye phytochrome in vitro have been studied. The absorption 
spectra of solutions initially in the far- red absorbing form were measured 
after various periods of time in the dark. The temperature was main- 
tained at 25° C. and the pH at 7.5 to 7.9, while in the presence of 
sodium chloride at concentrations of 0.005 to 0.5 M, and in the presence 
of air. Within one hour 50% of the maximum red absorption at 660 nm 
which could be obtained by driving the system with far- red irradiation, 
had reappeared, with a concomitant loss in the absorption at the 
far-red maximum (730 nm). The kinetics of this dark reversion suggest 
a system more complex than a first-order reaction. 

Solar Radiation Measurements 

Measurements of total sun and sky short-wave radiation have 
continued, using an automatic system sampling once every 3 minutes 
for 100-nm bandwidths from 0.29 to 2.5 p. Six new detectors, modified 
pyranometers, with an internal electrical heating current for calibra- 
tion, have been constructed and installed, along with new amplifiers. 
Data for daily and seasonal fluctuations of radiant energy are being 
collected with this system that are correct to ± 1% for the six 100-nm 
spectral bands being monitored. The sensitivity of the system has 
been increased to 0.01 Langley/minute. 

James E. Mielke (left) and Austin Long collecting water samples at Tuborg 
Lake on Ellesmere Island. Knudsen bottles are lowered with the hand winch 
through an 8-inch-diameter hole in the ice to the sampling depth, a messenger 
dropped along the line closes the bottle, and the sample is drawn up. At 
least 20 liters are collected from each depth. 

Correlative studies of plant growth are being made with several 
day-length sensitive plants in the greenhouse and control environment 
rooms. Responses occur in both vegetative and floral structures (such 
as internode length, pod formation, tillering or floral development) 
as a function of the direction of changing day length and the relative 
red to far-red energies present. 

Day neutral plants such as the Black Valentine bean, exhibit little 
sensitivity to red to far-red ratios under the experimental conditions 
employed. Flowering occurs in all three growth areas. Internode 
development appears to be sensitive to day length, in that the lower 
internodes are inversely related to the length of day, whereas the 
upper internodes are directly related to day length. 

In long-day plants such as Wintex barley, there appears to be a 
high degree of sensitivity to both red to far-red ratios, as well as to the 
direction of the changing day length. Tiller formation is comparable 
in all three growth areas. Node development and its associated floral 
maturation, however, are to be found only in those areas where there 
is an appreciable amount of far-red present. Floral maturation decreases 
very rapidly in these two areas as the day length diminishes. 


Carbon Dating 

The carbon-dating section of the laboratory has continued to provide 
age determinations of samples submitted. During the past year approxi- 
mately 80 samples were dated. 

Field studies were made on Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories, 
to determine the age of trapped seawater at the bottom of Lake 
Tuborg. Lake Tuborg, at the head of Greely Fiord, was formed when 
a glacier advanced across the fiord. At present, water of about 25 parts 
per million salinity lies in the bottom 60 meters while the upper 60 
meters is fresh water. Temperature and salinity profiles indicate no 
complete mixing since the time of lake formation. Carbon- 14/carbon- 12 
and carbon- 13/carbon- 12 ratios from analyses on dissolved bicarbonate 
from the lake and from a nearby fiord indicate that the salt water in 
the bottom of the lake has been trapped there for about 3,000 years. 

Staff Activities 

David L. Correll attended, as delegate, the Antarctic Oceanography 
Symposium in Santiago, Chile, in September 1966. 

Daring September and October 1966, William H. Klein was one of 
the eight lecturers at the five-day Solar Radiation Symposium at the 
National Physical Laboratory in Jerusalem, Israel, where he presented 
the paper, "Variation in Spectral Quality of Solar Radiation and 
Biological Responses," and discussed with Harry Z. Tabor, and 
officials of Hebrew University, the feasibility of setting up a solar radia- 
tion station in Israel to measure the spectral quality of daylight. 

At the Biology Department, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 
Ohio, in March 1967, Maurice M. Margulies gave a seminar, "Amino 
Acid Incorporation into Protein by Developing Chloroplasts." 

At the annual meeting of the Association of Southeastern Biologists 
in Columbia, South Carolina, in April 1967, Te-Hsiu Ma presented 
a paper, "The Red and Far-red Light Effects on the Pollen-tube 
Elongation and Pollen Germination in Tradescantia." 

In May 1967, Bernard J. Nebel and David L. Correll participated 
in the Symposium "Growth and Development — Form and Function" 
that officially opened the new Michigan State University - Atomic 
Energy Commission Plant Research Laboratory at East Lansing, 

Several visiting scientists were invited to present current results of 
their work. These included : 

N. K. Boardman, Division of Plant Industry, C.S.I.R.O., Canberra, 
Australia, was invited to come to Washington in October to consult 


with Margulies and to give a seminar on "The Photochemical Systems 
of Photosynthesis". 

David Dennison, Department of Biology, Dartmouth College, Han- 
over, New Hampshire, was invited to consult in February 1967 with 
the research staff of RBL and provide information for a bibliographic 
search of Phy corny ces research. 

Donald S. Berns, Division of Laboratories and Research, New York 
State Department of Health, Albany, New York, was invited to Wash- 
ington to present a seminar on phycobiliproteins in cooperation with 
the Washington area section of Plant Physiologists. 

W. Shropshire assisted with a summer workshop on photobiology 
at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory of Quantitative Biology during 

A significant teaching venture was initiated in cooperation with the 
Consortium of Washington Area Universities. A series of 13 lectures 
in photobiology was presented for which seminar credit was given to 
students. Approximately 200 persons attended each lecture. The 
speakers and their topics were: 

Orientation — What is Photobiology?, W. Shropshire, Radiation Biology 
Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution. 

The Molecular Basis of Human Vision, George Wald, The Biological 
Laboratories, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Comparative Structure of Photoreceptors, Jerome J. Wolken, Biophysical 
Research Laboratory, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, 

The Vertebrate Eye, George K. Smelser, College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, Columbia University, New York, New York. 

Information Flow in Photoreceptors, W. A. Hagins, Laboratory of Physical 
Biology, National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, 
Bethesda, Maryland. 

The Daily Photoperiod in the Control of Annual Cycles in Animals, Donald 
S. Farner, Department of Zoology, University of Washington, 
Seattle, Washington. 

Photoperiodism — Plants, Sterling Hendricks, Mineral Nutrition Labora- 
tory, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland 

The Photoreceptor Process in Lower Animals, Timothy Goldsmith, Depart- 
ment of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Phototaxis in Microbes, Roderick Clayton, Section of Genetics, Develop- 
ment and Physiology, Division of Biological Sciences, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York. 

Phototropism, George Curry, Department of Biology, Tufts University, 
Medford, Massachusetts. 


The Molecular Basis of Ultraviolet Inactivation and Photoreactivation, Jane 
K. Setlow, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 

The Energy Conversion Process in Photosynthesis, Daniel I. Arnon, Depart- 
ment of Cell Physiology, University of California, Berkeley, California. 

Evolution of Photoreceptors, Richard M. Eakin, Department of Zoology, 
University of California, Berkeley, California. 

A 30-minute color TV film, "Secrets of Life," describing the re- 
search activities of the laboratory was prepared by the RBL staff and 
Craig Fisher of NBC. The film was shown nationally several times and 
has resulted in many requests from interested students about the field 
of photobiology. 

Scientists who joined the staff during the year are Dr. Elisabeth 
Gantt, biologist, from Dartmouth Medical School, who will work on 
membrane and pigment structure of algae. Chemist Vicente Julio 
Medina, postdoctoral student from the University of Georgia, joined 
the laboratory in January to work on light effects on nucleic acid and 
nucleotide metabolism. Dr. Francesco Parenti, visiting postdoctoral 
from the University of Milano, Italy, continued his work on protein 
synthesis in chloroplasts this year. Director William H. Klein was 
detailed to the Biology Branch of the United States Atomic Energy 
Commission for one year beginning September 1 . During his absence, 
Walter Shropshire was Acting Director. 


Klein, W. H. ; Edwards, J. L. ; and Shropshire, W., Jr. Spectrophoto- 
metric measurements of phytochrome in vivo and their correlation 
with photomorphogenic responses of Phaseolus. Plant Physiol., 
vol. 42, pp. 264-270, 1967. 

Long, Austin, and Mielke, James E. Smithsonian Institution radio- 
carbon measurements III. Radiocarbon vol. 8, pp. 413-422, 1966. 

Margulies, Maurice M. Effect of chloramphenicol on formation of 
chloroplast structure and protein during greening of etiolated 
leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiol., vol. 41, pp. 992-1003, 

. Concerning the preparation of chloroplasts active in Hill and 

photosynthetic phosphorylation activities from leaves of Phaseolus 
vulgaris. Plant Physiol., vol. 41, pp. 1320-1322, 1966. 
. Effect of chloramphenicol on chlorophyll synthesis of bean 

leaves. Plant Physiol., vol. 42, pp. 218-220, 1967. 

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Fred L. Whipple, Director 

Work of the Astrophysical Observatory is reported in ten 
discrete sections, but the broad program of research now in 
progress is not easily divided. The Observatory strives to provide a 
balance to the forward thrust of science by actively pursuing areas 
that appear to be receiving too little attention elsewhere. In doing so 
it often cuts through interdisciplinary boundaries as it probes the 
frontiers of science. 

Optical Astronomy 

Site development at the Southwest Observatory on Mount Hopkins 
moved rapidly forward during the year. Surveying and preliminary 
layout for the access road were completed, and a pioneer road was cut 
through to the ridge where the first large instruments are to be erected, 
7600 feet above sea level. Thomas E. Hoffman, David W. Latham, 
Charles A. Lundquist, Leonard H. Solomon, Stephen E. Strom, and 
Robert W. Noyes prepared detailed specifications for a 60-inch photo- 
metric telescope to be placed on the mountain. 

With William Liller and Richard M. Goody of Harvard and F. L. 
Roesler of Wisconsin, Nathaniel P. Carleton and Ashok Sharma 
obtained a good absorption spectrum of Mars with a triple Fabry- 
Perot interferometer on the 61 -inch telescope at Agassiz station.* ' 
From the spectrum they are calculating an accurate value for the C0 2 
abundance on the red planet. This group also studied C0 2 line profiles 
on Venus for comparison with theoretical results. 

♦Unless otherwise noted, research is supported from Federal funds appropriated 
to the Smithsonian Institution. The Observatory, by paying scientists' salaries, 
shares in the support of all research. Support from outside sources is detailed in 
the notes on page 228. 



Using the Harvard collection of over 500 24-inch Bruce plates that 
provide almost continuous coverage from 1 898 to 1 950, Cecilia Payne- 
Gaposhkin completed a systematic study of variable stars in the Small 
Magellanic Cloud. A catalog and light curves of 1,592 stars were 
completed and published this year. 

In spring the Smithsonian Institution Press published a major work 
of the Observatory, an atlas and catalog of the Large Magellanic Cloud. 
Composed of 1 68 photographic charts and a 1 1 6-page text, The Large 
Magellanic Cloud by Paul W. Hodge and Frances W. Wright presents 
an historical survey, an identification atlas, reference tables, and a 
complete bibliography. 

Continuing his study of the Large Magellanic Cloud, Hodge dis- 
covered 457 new star clusters and is nearing completion of a survey 
of the ages of 1300 clusters. With F. Wright he studied 26 variables in 
the Large Cloud to refine the period-luminosity relation for that galaxy. 

In conjunction with his work at the University of Washington, Hodge 
used photographic, photoelectric, and narrow-band filter photometry 
techniques to survey H II regions in 90 galaxies. He investigated the 
structure of dwarf and normal elliptical galaxies, normal and peculiar 
irregular galaxies, and members of the local group to determine the 
nature of galactic evolution. 

An expedition to the Peruvian Andes resulted in successful observa- 
tions of the November 1966 solar eclipse. In collaboration with J. M. 
Beckers of Sacramento Peak Observatory and F. J. Low of the Uni- 
versity of Arizona, Noyes measured the intensity distribution of 22- 
micron, far-infrared radiation coming from the sun's limb. With a 
germanium bolometer on a 1 2-inch telescope, they discovered that the 
expected limb brightening does not occur. The data indicate that the 
temperature dip in the solar atmosphere is broader than was formerly 
believed, and occurs higher above the surface. 

The network of Baker-Nunn camera telescopes continued to yield 
an abundance of satellite-tracking data. In fiscal 1967, more than 
67,000 observations were made and reduced, and more than 30,000 
films were precisely reduced. The program of simultaneous observa- 
tions to tie together the geodetic datums to an accuracy of ten meters 
made new progress. The inflation of PAGEOS-A and the apogee burn 
of the Agena-D were photographed. The station in Shiraz, Iran, was 
moved to Debre Zeit, Ethiopia; that in Curasao, Netherlands Antilles, 
to Natal, Brazil; and that in Villa Dolores to Comodoro Rivadavia, 
Argentina. Modified K-50 cameras for geodetic observations were 
temporarily installed at the station sites in Iran and the Netherlands 


SAO's laser tracking system operated successfully throughout the 
year and produced about 1000 range observations of the three Ameri- 
can and two French satellites that are equipped with retrorefiectors. 2 
Carlton G. Lehr's analysis shows that the error in present range 
measurement is about one meter. This is one-tenth of the error associ- 
ated with the Baker-Nunn camera. The construction of a more powerful 
laser system that will permit daytime tracking was started. 3 It will be 
installed on Mount Hopkins. 

Barbara Kolaczek analyzed the possibility of timing the passages of 
artificial satellites in front of stars. The observed time of a star occulta- 
tion can give an accurate topocentric position of the satellite. With 
Lehr, she estimated the frequency of these phenomena for different 
satellites, and investigated observational equipment that could be used. 
Experiments have begun with the cooperation of Wright-Patterson Air 
Force Base. 

At the Cordoba Observatory in Argentina, Thornton L. Page ob- 
tained the spectra of 10 southern galaxies, using the fast spectrograph 
designed and built at Wesleyan University in 1961. The spectra of 17 
galaxies were observed with a cascade image tube and the same 
spectrograph. This technique increased the "speed" by a factor of 5 
to 10. The spectra cover the range from 3900 to 7900 angstroms — 
considerably farther into the infrared than is possible with photographic 

Cooperative flare-star work with Sir Bernard Lovell at University 
of Manchester, England, and O. B. Shea and C. S. Higgins at CSIRO, 
Australia, has been continued by Solomon and the Director. 4 Data 
from previous observing periods have been reduced to light curves, 
and several large flares correlated with radio events. To aid in this 
work, Solomon studied the limiting magnitude of the Baker-Nunn 
cameras and the effects of sky brightness. He also completed light 
curves of Nova Herculis 1963 and Nova Pyxidis, which were photo- 
graphed with Baker-Nunn cameras. 

Radio Astronomy 

To study the observable universe at longer wavelengths, the Observ- 
atory has been actively pursuing several promising programs in radio 
astronomy. A significant event in June was the formation of the 
Northeast Radio Observatory Corporation (NEROC), composed of 
Boston University, Brandeis University, Brown University, Dartmouth 
College, Harvard University, University of Massachusetts, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, University of New Hampshire, State 
University of New York at Buffalo, State University of New York 


at Stony Brook, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Yale University, 
and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The Director is 
a founding member of the Corporation. Formed to continue and 
strengthen the work of the Cambridge Radio Observatory Committee 
(CAMROC), the new corporation hopes to build a 440-foot paraboloid 
antenna as the heart of a major radio-radar observatory. Such an in- 
stallation would greatly enhance both the research efforts and the 
teaching potential of academic and research organizations in the 
eastern part of the United States. 

A special study panel, under the direction of Hoffman, studied 
methods for precisely surveying for CAMROC paraboloidal surfaces 
300 to 500 feet in diameter. The actual radio shielding of mountainous 
terrain was investigated in the field for CAMROC. 

Through an agreement for a joint Harvard-Smithsonian radio 
observatory, SAO is installing its 84-foot-diameter precision parabo- 
loid at Harvard's George R. Agassiz Station, to be operational in 
October 1967. A design for an equatorial mounting was selected by 
A. Edward Lilley and the SAO engineering department, and a flexible 
multiple-purpose spectral-line radiometer was constructed. 

Using the 60-foot radio telescope at the Agassiz station, Dale F. 
Dickinson and Ben M. Zuckerman have worked with Patrick Palmer 
and Hayes Penfield of Harvard College Observatory, under Lilley' s 
direction, in the area of recombination lines of highly excited states of 
hydrogen, helium, and other atomic species in the interstellar medium. 
Mario D. Grossi, working with G. Richard Huguenin of Harvard Col- 
lege Observatory, attempted to detect three recombination lines of 
hydrogen near 22 megahertz. A switched-frequency radiometer was 
developed by SAO for use in further observations. 

Giovanni G. Fazio and Zuckerman have estimated the possibility of 
successfully detecting interstellar quarks by means of a hyperfine line at 
280 megahertz. A quark is a hypothetical elementary particle in some 
fundamental physical theories. 

Donald H. Menzel investigated the theory of radio emission from 
transitions between high quantum levels in cosmic hydrogen. Deriving 
exact formulas for many of the physical parameters involved and 
extending Leo Goldberg's theory to take into account simulated 
emissions of negative absorptions, he continued with the quantitative 
application of this theory to observational data. 

Gamma-Ray Astronomy 

Continuing its pioneering investigations in gamma-ray astronomy, 
the Observatory has been analyzing data from the balloon flight 
reported last year, preparing equipment for new experiments, and 



The 84-foot steerable dish shown here being taken apart at Huntsville, 
Alabama, is now being installed at the Agassiz Station in Harvard, Mass., 
where it will replace the 60-foot one formerly at Agassiz and will sit on the 
same pedestal and be operated by the same machinery. 


making a theoretical prediction of the cosmic gamma-ray spectrum. 5 
Fazio and Henry F. Helmken analyzed more than four miles of 
16-mm. motion picture film exposed during last, year's high-altitude 
balloon flight. The film showed that the video transmission of the spark 
chamber tracks was excellent. Since no source of primary gamma radia- 
tion was detected above the experimental limit, a new upper limit to 
the flux of gamma rays from the Crab Nebula with energies above 100 
million electron volts was established at 3.1 X 10~ 5 photons per square 
centimeter per second per steradian. The flux observed from the quiet 
sun was less than or equal to 7.4 XlO -5 . A type-2 solar flare occurring 
during the flight produced a flux less than or equal to 6X 10~ 3 photons 
per square centimeter per second per steradian, which is also a new 
upper limit. The gamma-ray background flux at an altitude having 
four grams of atmosphere per square centimeter above the instrument 
and at 42° N. geomagnetic latitude was (1.9 ±0.2) XlO -3 photons per 
square centimeter per second per steradian, and the energy spectrum 
was measured in the region between 1.0 and 2.5 billion electron volts. 
Calculations by Fazio, Floyd W. Stecker, and Sachiko Tsuruta have 
indicated an important contribution to the cosmic gamma-ray spectrum 
above 100 billion electron volts from the decay of nuclear isobars and 

Construction is well advanced on a 34-foot-diameter light collector to 
be installed on the 7600-foot ridge at Mount Hopkins. Fazio, Helmken, 
and Trevor C. Weekes have estimated that the theoretical gamma-ray 
flux from the Crab Nebula in the energy range of 100 to 1000 billion 
electron volts is 10 times greater than the minimum sensitivity of the 

Theoretical Astrophysics 

In collaboration with Peter D. Usher, of the Harvard College 
Observatory, Charles A. Whitney formulated a model for stellar 
pulsation in terms of a one-dimensional nonlinear oscillator. 6 Their 
procedure simplifies the geometrical and mathematical treatment of 
the problem so that the interesting physical aspects can be considered 
in some detail. The prime motivation for undertaking this examination 
is to bridge the gap between earlier work on the quasi-adiabatic linear 
oscillations and elaborate numerical integrations. The former was 
inadequate to answer many important questions, while the latter 
incorporate nonlinearity but are too complex for physical interpretation. 

Whitney completed a preliminary investigation of the formerly 
pulsating star RU Camelopardalis and, in a qualitative discussion, 
showed that the cessation of pulsation in this star is characteristic 
of the phenomenon known as oscillational hysteresis. 


In his general studies of the effect of magnetic fields on stars and 
gaseous nebulae, Menzel found that magnetic forces play an important 
role in the ejection of matter from stars and are significant in the 
interpretation of certain kinds of variables, notably the long-period 
variable stars. 

Stephen E. and Karen M. Strom continued research in stellar 
atmospheres and abundances. During the fall of 1966, he was a guest 
investigator at the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories of the 
California Institute of Technology, where he used the 60-inch Casse- 
grain scanner to obtain spectrum scans of a large number of subdwarfs. 
By using the luminosities and the effective temperatures deduced by 
comparison of these scans with theoretical models, S. E. Strom was 
able to determine the value for subdwarf helium abundances from a 
comparison of the position of the subdwarfs in the H-R diagram with 
computed evolutionary tracks. 7 The observations and analyses all but 
rule out the total absence of helium in the primordial galaxy. If 
correct, this represents an important boundary condition in discussions 
of element production in the early stages of the galaxy or the universe 

In conjunction with Judith Cohen, S. E. Strom found that convec- 
tion plays an important role in determining the structure of subdwarf 
atmospheres. Moreover, in contradiction to previous results, they 
found an appreciable microturbulence for these stars. 

S. E. Strom and Peter Conti of the University of California at Santa 
Cruz found that for eight A stars in the Pleiades the strontium-to- 
scandium line ratio represents a means of detecting stars having 
metallic line characteristics even at temperatures near 10,000 degrees, 
where spectroscopic detection by ordinary criteria is quite difficult. 
Another interesting conclusion of this analysis was that the carbon 
abundance in the extreme metallic line stars is down compared to 
that in normal A stars, in analogy with the results for peculiar A stars. 

S. E. Strom and Wolfgang Kalkofen continued their investigation of 
departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in stellar 
atmospheres. 6 To test for departures from LTE in A and B stars they 
suggested a technique involving simultaneous measurement of the 
Paschen and Balmer discontinuities. 

Kalkofen studied the dependence of departures from LTE on effective 
temperature and surface gravity, and the influence of the departures 
on the continuous radiation of stars in spectral classes B to K. He finds 
that with the departures the continuum radiation causes the atmos- 
pheres to appear hotter and surface gravities higher than in LTE 


For G and K stars, S. E. Strom proposed that the ratio of fluxes in 
the hydrogen free-free continuum to fluxes in the hydrogen bound- 
free continuum would provide a sensitive test of departures from LTE. 

George Rybicki continued his studies of the mathematical problems 
associated with studies of stellar atmospheres. In collaboration with 
D. G. Hummer of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, 
Boulder, Colorado, he developed a computer program that determines 
stellar spectral line profiles under rather general conditions. He also 
investigated the effects of inhomogeneities in stellar atmospheres using 
primarily analytical techniques, and developed a method of correcting 
observed spectra for instrumental effects. 

Charles J . Bartlett developed a simplified model of a shock wave in 
a stellar atmosphere to study the interaction of the various collisional 
and radiative mechanisms. Extending the recently developed weak 
turbulence theories to account for the steep gradients and large ampli- 
tudes found in shock waves, he also studied strong plasma instabilities 
and the problem of shock waves in low-density plasmas such as the 
interplanetary medium. 

Jeffrey L. Linsky used the McMath solar telescope at Kitt Peak 
National Observatory to observe the H and K lines of calcium in the 
sun. Intensities of the calcium lines are being computed by solving the 
coupled radiative transfer equations for the line source functions. 

Eugene H. Avrett is analyzing the profiles of strong absorption lines 
in solar and stellar spectra to provide a diagnostic technique to deter- 
mine the thermodynamic and kinematic structure of solar and stellar 
chromospheres. In collaboration with Rudolf Loeser, he developed a 
computer program for the general calculation of line spectra produced 
by an atmosphere with specified properties. It was used for a detailed 
analysis of the lines of neutral sodium, where the sodium atom is 
represented by eight bound levels and a continuum. Full consideration 
is given to the individual processes that determine the populations of 
atomic energy levels. 

He is also studying the lines of neutral magnesium with Eric Chipman 
and of neutral helium with Deane Peterson. 

Studies of the silicon and metal absorption edges in the solar ultra- 
violet by Owen J. Gingerich and John Rich of Harvard demonstrated 
inadequacies of earlier models for the solar photosphere. In April, 
Gingerich attended an international study week near Arnhem, Holland, 
where he helped to formulate the new "Bilderberg Continuum Atmos- 
phere." His detailed investigation of the solar "windows" undertaken 
with Duane Carbon and Robert Kurucz showed that these spectrum 
regions are clear of absorption lines ; hence, the resolution of remaining 


discrepancies between the predicted and observed solar continua 
must be sought on other grounds. 

In collaboration with Linsky, Gingerich computed idealized model 
atmospheres for low effective temperatures; with the inclusion of a 
better approximation for water-vapor absorption this represents a 
step closer to realistic M-type stars. An important result is that the 
photospheres of these stars may exhibit temperature inversions at small 
optical depths even if there is no dissipation of mechanical energy in 
these regions. 

Henri E. Mitler made a careful survey of the literature in search of 
rate constants for all kinds of thermonuclear reactions. He investigated 
a new hypothesis for the origin of the light elements and, in conjunction 
with P. Mehta, continued the study of a possible model for supernovae 
involving the interaction between the members of an evolving binary 

Tsuruta, in collaboration with J. W. Truran, W. D. Arnett, and 
A. G. W. Cameron of NASA, studied the production of heavy elements 
in expanding supernova envelopes. They found that typical conditions 
estimated for these envelopes are very promising for element synthesis 
by neutron capture on a fast time scale. She continued her work on 
vibrating neutron stars and investigated the suggestion that some of the 
energy extracted by the URCA process would be converted into thermal 
energy to heat the star. She found that this heating does not significantly 
increase the cooling times of neutron stars. 

Myron Lecar investigated the dynamical evolution of galaxies 
described by the collisionless Boltzmann equation. With Leon Cohen of 
Hunter College of the City University of New York, he demonstrated 
that the probability distribution for the positions and velocities of the 
stars evolves to a distribution that is independent of time and depends 
only on the energies of the stars. Also, it is, in general, not the Maxwell- 
Boltzmann distribution. 

In collaboration with Carlos Cruz Gonzales, he also investigated 
the escape of stars from a cluster via two-body interactions. The third 
body, necessary for the dynamics of the escape, is provided by the 
remainder of the cluster. They have shown that high-velocity escapes 
are possible and may explain the observed runaway stars. Lecar has 
estimated that a significant fraction of the mass of the galaxy may be in 
the form of stars with masses less than y 10 that of the sun; these stars 
have very low luminosities during most of their lifetime. He points out 
that it may be possible to observe these "starlets" while they are still 
contracting from the interstellar gas. 


Planetary Studies 

Planetary investigations at the Observatory progressed along two 
broad fronts : investigations of the earth as a planet, and research deal- 
ing with the other major bodies in the solar system. 

Considerable effort is being devoted to analyses of the earth's atmos- 
phere. 2 Luigi G. Jacchia and his group are continuing their studies of 
the upper atmosphere based on the orbital analysis of artificial satellites. 
During this year, eight satellites have been tracked by the Baker-Nunn 
cameras specifically for this work, including the two atmospheric- 
density satellites Explorer 1 9 and Explorer 24, which were launched for 
Smithsonian's drag-analysis project and related studies elsewhere. 

The atmospheric-density variations that accompany geomagnetic 
disturbances were considered by Jacchia, Franco Verniani, and Jack 
Slowey. Using drag data derived from high-inclination satellites, they 
found that at high latitudes the heating is systematically greater and 
occurs with a smaller time delay than at low latitudes; there is no 
discernible difference in heating or time delay from this cause between 
the bright and the dark hemispheres. 

Jacchia and Slowey completed a study of the diurnal variation from 
1958 through 1966, covering a maximum and a minimum of solar 
activity. A previous suggestion that the diurnal bulge might be elon- 
gated in the north-south direction and anchored on the equator has 
been definitely disproved, and the model of the bulge proposed by 
Jacchia in 1964 was shown to be correct. The relative amplitude of the 
diurnal temperature variation was somewhat smaller at sunspot 
minimum and showed fluctuations that could not be accounted for 
by solar activity. A large seasonal variation at high latitudes, found in 
the drag of Explorers 19 and 24, was attributed to the formation of a 
polar helium bulge in winter, caused by a subsidence in the turbopause. 

Using radio techniques, Grossi is attempting to probe the ionosphere 
out to several earth radii. He is prepared to measure propagation times 
and path losses at several frequencies between 7.5 and 15 megahertz 
from stations at magnetic conjugate points in Jupiter, Florida, and 
Usahaia, Tierra del Fuego. 

In addition to this observational work being done in the field, the 
Observatory is conducting laboratory and theoretical investigations into 
atmospheric phenomena. 

Carleton continued his detailed study of the behavior of electrons in 
the ionosphere, aimed at better understanding of the ways in which 
energy originally vested in newly created photoelectrons finds its way 
into thermal energy of the atmosphere. His calculations yielded numeri- 


cal results that predict how the temperature of the bulk of the electrons 
depends on the input of new electrons, and how the excitation rates of 
various day-glow emissions may be related to the electron temperature. 
With Ronald F. Woodman, he studied the problems of obtaining data 
on the ionosphere through incoherent backscatter. Woodman has 
returned to Lima, Peru, where he will apply this work in analyzing 
results from the Jicamarca Radar Observatory. Tsuruta and Carleton 
have begun to investigate the transfer of energy from one hemisphere to 
the other by electron motions along the geomagnetic field lines. 

Costas Papaliolios is studying the metastable states of atmospheric 
gases. To determine electron impact excitation cross sections and life- 
times of the various excited states, he designed a large-aperture ultra- 
violet spectrometer of moderate resolution. He has also been working on 
a determination of the lifetime of the a 3 7r state of CO by absorption 

Using a crossed-beam technique under high vacuum, Anthony R. Lee 
is determining the cross section for the excitation of positive ions by 
electrons at near-threshold energies. He finished building his equipment 
and took preliminary data on the excitation of N 2 + ions by electrons, a 
case that is of considerable astrophysical interest. 

The influence of general relativistic effects on the orbits of satellites 
was considered by James P. Wright and Brian G. Marsden, who 
assumed an accuracy of one meter in the observations. In furtherance 
of this research, they also determined the periods of long-period 
comets, using Einstein's and Newton's theories, and found that the 
differences in the results depend on when the observations are made. 

The physical body of the earth is the object of intensive research by 
Observatory scientists. Using its network of astrophysical observing 
stations to supply observational data, the Observatory has developed a 
strong program in satellite geodesy. 2 Geodetic Parameters for a 1966 Smith- 
sonian Institution Standard Earth, announced last year, was edited by 
Charles A. Lundquist and George Veis and published as Special Report 
200. Veis, Antanas Girnius, Walter Kcihnlein, and Edward M. 
Gaposchkin continued their analyses of satellite- tracking data and reduc- 
tion methods. Improved observing techniques, using laser ranging 
devices, are expected to yield more accurate results that will be 
incorporated into an improved representation of the Standard Earth. 
In the coming year, considerable effort will be devoted to the com- 
parison of tracking systems. 

During summer 1966, a weekly seminar convened at the Observatory 
to review and explore the research opportunities offered by satellite 
tracking. Papers presented were published in Special Report 236, 
edited by Lundquist and Henry D. Friedman. This report showed that 

Operating console and tape drives of the CDC 6400 computer, one of the 
fastest calculating machines in the world, which was installed this year. 
Among its principal uses are in connection with satellite tracking and geodesy 
and with project Celescope. 

the Observatory, with its new digital computer, was prepared, through 
broadened capabilities and flexibility, to meet the challenge of ex- 
panding national and international programs. 

With Louisa Lam and Geraldine Mendes, Lundquist completed a 
preliminary design study of an experiment that would measure at- 
mospheric density and the departure from free-molecule flow at low 
altitudes by placing two or more spherical artificial satellites in es- 
sentially identical orbits. Lundquist also examined the relationships 
between orbit determination and satellite altimetry. 8 If the altitude of 
a satellite above the ocean surface is determined by, say, laser ranging 
from the satellite, this may be viewed as a measured relationship be- 
tween a point on an equipotential surface of the geopotential and a 
satellite position determined by the equations of motion derived from 
the geopotential. 

Other planets are also being investigated in detail by the Observa- 
tory. Continuing their analysis of radar doppler spectroscopy of the 
Martian surface, Carl Sagan and James Pollack have concluded that 
the broader Martian canals are ridges or chains of mountains 
transecting the bright areas. 9 From their studies of the physics 
underlying the observational results of Martian polarimetry, infrared 


spectrometry, and visible spectrophotometry, they conclude that a 
principal, although not necessarily exclusive, constituent of the surface 
material is ferric oxide polyhydrates. In a statistical analysis of Focas' 
photographic photometry of the Martian wave of darkening, they have 
concluded that biological models and windblown-dust models of the 
seasonal changes are each allowed by the observations, although some 
of the correlations found, such as that between the extent of darkening 
and proximity to a bright area, are suggestive of the windblown-dust 
model. Just those particles most likely to be moved by saltation on 
Mars are the ones that are required to be moved according to the 
windblown-dust model in order to explain the photometric and 
polarimetric data on the wave of darkening. 

With near-infrared spectral plates obtained in the 1965 opposition 
by Hyron Spinrad, they have attempted to detect elevation differences 
on Mars by differential carbon dioxide absorption, in order to test the 
hypothesis previously made, on radar and other evidence, that the 
dark areas have systematically higher elevations than the bright. The 
sensitivity of this method does not yet appear to provide a useful check 
of the elevation differences previously deduced. 

With Joseph Veverka, Sagan calculated the expected ionization of 
the Martian atmosphere due to the incidence of solar protons in the 
absence of a Martian magnetic field. Proton ionization sources were 
found to be comparable to those expected from solar ultraviolet and 
X-radiation, suggesting that the 95-km. subsidiary electron density 
maximum found in the Mariner-4 occultation experiment may be 
due to solar protons. In that case, the major 120-km. maximum must 
be an F 2 region. 

In the laboratory, Bishun N. Khare, Sagan, and Pollack investigated 
the possibility that water vapor condensing out of the Martian at- 
mosphere before sunrise liquefies for a short time each day before 
vaporizing. If this in fact occurs, it greatly enhances the prospects of 
indigenous life and of propagation of microbes carried to Mars by 

Sagan, David D. Morrison, and Pollack successfully tested an in- 
frared planetary camera, and began photographing the planets with the 
82-inch telescope of McDonald Observatory. One initial result is an 
excellent definition of the dark polar collar that follows the receding 
polar ice cap in the Martian spring. 

Pollack and Sagan have shown that the electric-discharge model 
of Venus microwave emission is inconsistent with the reliable fraction 
of the Mariner-2 microwave-experiment data. Sagan calculated the 
mean surface temperature of Venus, independent of passive microwave 
observations, from the difference between the radar and optical diame- 


ters of the planet, the cloud-top temperature, and the deduced at- 
mospheric temperature gradients, and came to a result of 700° ± 150°K. 
Using the Haystack facility of Lincoln Laboratory and the 140-foot 
telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Morrison and 
Sagan have been making observations of Venus designed better to 
determine phase and polarization values. 

Fred A. Franklin and Giuseppe Colombo employed the computer to 
obtain orbits of a particle of negligible mass moving under the attrac- 
tion of two other bodies of arbitrary mass, particularly in cases where 
resonances can occur. 2 This type of analysis is applicable to the problem 
of the gaps in the asteroid belt at certain fractions of the period of 
Jupiter, and to the gaps in Saturn's ring caused by perturbations of the 
satellite Mimas. Early results, with the perturber confined to a circular 
orbit, indicate many encouraging features, showing that resonances do 
indeed produce zones of instability at distances from the primary 
corresponding to 1/M times the period of Mimas. For the two cases 
mentioned, these investigators established the width of the gaps and 
how the width is related to the mass ratio of the two primary masses. 

Several times in the late fall of 1 966 when the earth passed through 
the plane of Saturn's ring, Franklin used the Cassegrain spectrograph 
at the Kitt Peak National Observatory to obtain spectra of certain of 
Saturn's satellites as they lay on the far side of the planet and their light 
skimmed over the ring plane on its way to the earth. Because several 
spectrograms revealed no enhancement of the solar lines for those 
elements that might conceivably have been present in the ring, he 
set upper limits to the density of gas surrounding the ring. These in 
turn gave limiting values of the density of charged particles sur- 
rounding the ring and hence will allow discrimination between 
several possible ring models in which electrostatic forces are called 
upon to stabilize the ring thickness at some finite value. 

Winfield W. Salisbury conceived a method for using the moon as a 
focusing device for radio waves and as a medium for translunar com- 
munications. He plans to test this hypothesis in the Apollo manned 
spaceflight program. 

Flight Experiments 

Two artificial satellite missions involving Observatory scientists, 
OGO 2 carrying a micrometeoroid experiment, and Gemini 12 with 
a dust-collecting slide aboard, were successfully launched this year. 
Several high-altitude balloon experiments and the OGO-D micro- 
meteoroid satellite reached final planning stages. The flight payload 
and ground support equipment for Project Celescope were completed 


and are now undergoing acceptance tests at NASA ; current plans call 
for launching in 1968. The Director has been active on a committee 
of the National Academy of Sciences that is considering the possibility 
of a large orbiting telescope. 

Robert J. Davis recalibrated Project Celescope's secondary spectro- 
photometric standard against a thermocouple standard. 10 He found 
that the sodium salycilate deposition technique yielded coatings with 
non-flat spectral response. Decreases in sensitivity at the shorter wave- 
lengths make it necessary to recalibrate the working standard every 
two to four months. 

Another high-altitude balloon experiment under the direction of 
Fazio and Helmken is ready for flight in September 1967 to search for 
high-energy solar neutrons with energy greater than 200 million 
electron volts, which may be the cause of the single-particle tracks 
detected in the spark chamber of the May 1 966 flight. 

Data from the OGO-2 micrometeoroid experiment were reduced 
and analyzed by Carl S. Nilsson. 11 He found no genuine impacts in 
over 700 hours of data. He therefore deduced that the number of 
micrometeoroids heavier than 10~ 12 gram in the vicinity of the earth 
must be less than 3XlO -2 particles per square meter per second 
per 2 pi steradians. Nilsson also completed preparations for the July 
launch of the micrometeoroid experiment of the OGO-D satellite. 

Frances W. Wright and Paul W. Hodge are analyzing data from a 
slide that was aboard Gemini 12. They have also completed tests on 
two settiing-plate collectors for use with balloons to collect dust at 
altitudes of 1 10,000 feet. This study was made in conjunction with the 
University of Washington. 

Meteorites and Cosmic Dust 

The Observatory is continuing its intensive investigations of matter 
from space. Coming to us in the form of meteorites and dust particles, 
these materials yield otherwise inaccessible information on past and 
present physical processes in the solar system. 

Studying the meteoritic content of interplanetary space, with em- 
phasis on the interaction among the different types of particles and the 
numerous dissipative processes that occur, the Director derived values 
for the lifetimes of particles from a few microns to kilometers in dimen- 
sion. It appears probable that comets can maintain the smaller material 
in quasi-stable equilibrium. He is now concentrating his attention on 
the physics of asteroidal bodies, with special regard to fragile, less 
developed asteroids and to the question of the origin of asteroids whose 
orbits cross that of the earth. 


Analyzing samples collected from 200-year-old Greenland ice, 
Edward L. Fireman and Robert H. McCorkell have found that the 
aluminum-26 and beryllium- 10 they contain are the result of cosmic- 
ray activity in the earth's atmosphere. 11 One possibility to account for 
the absence of signs of solar-flare activity is that before entering the 
atmosphere the particles coming from space must have been protected 
by several inches of material. The nickel and cobalt contents relative 
to that of iron indicate an influx to earth of 700,000 tons of material 
per year. 

Fireman analyzed the content of tritium, argon-37, and argon-39 
in a sample of the St. Severin meteorite, which fell on June 27, 1966, 
and found it to be similar to that of other freshly fallen meteorites. 

The ratios of Sodium-22 to Aluminum-26 due to cosmic rays in- 
tegrated over the meteoroid orbit in six recently fallen meteorites show 
that the eleven-year cosmic-ray variation is smaller at the average 
solar distance of most meteoroids than it is at the earth's distance from 
the sun. 

Using electron-microprobe techniques, John A. Wood determined 
the composition of igneous minerals in 1 of the 1 8 known carbonaceous 
chondrites of type II. These bodies are of interest because they seem 
to be samples of primordial planetary material in an almost perfectly 
preserved state. The presence of igneous minerals indicates that high- 
temperature events were associated with their formation; the mineral 
compositions measured in this study yield information on the composi- 
tion of the medium in which the high-temperature events occurred. 
Most of the minerals Wood examined would have been at equilibrium 
in a gas environment 10 to 20 times richer in oxygen than present 
solar gases. Therefore, if the chondrites were formed in a primordial 
gas nebula, a view held by many scientists today, oxygen must have 
been very abundant in some localities. Perhaps a settling or concentra- 
tion of primordial dust grains to the median plane of the early nebula 
concentrated oxygen there in the form of solid Fe 3 4 . A concentration 
about 5,000 times the mean would account for the measured mineral 

George H. Megrue analyzed the iso topic abundances of the light 
rare gases and the potassium content in three hypersthene achondrites 
and in olivine separates from six pallasite meteorites. He found that 
the achondrites crystallized more than 3.2 billion years ago and were 
never subjected to thermal metamorphism in the parent body. Neither 
were they subjected to prolonged heating during the last 21 million 
years, when they were exposed to cosmic rays. The pallasite meteorites, 
believed to be samples from a core-mantle boundary in a larger body, 
crystallized 4.2 billion years ago. These meteorites have been exposed 


to cosmic rays for different periods of time, ranging from 40 million 
to 300 million years. 

The rate of mass loss from a body exposed to high-velocity, micron- 
sized dust particles was investigated by Matthias F. Comerford. 12 He 
finds that brittle materials lose mass 100 to 1000 times faster than 
ductile materials. Comparison of these results with erosion data in 
the literature suggests that an increase in the size of the bombarding 
particles increases the erosion rate significantly when the average 
effective size of the projectile becomes comparable with the mean 
distance between defects in the target. This is true even if the kinetic 
energy remains constant. 

Iron meteorites are usually categorized according to their internal 
geometrical structure as hexahedrites, octahedrites, and ataxites. An 
X-ray and metallographic examination by Comerford showed that the 
distinction between several nickel-rich ataxites and octahedrites is 
somewhat artificial, since the structural characteristics and crystal- 
lographic orientation relationships are to a large extent carried over 
from one class to another. 

McCorkell and Comerford analyzed a 28-kilogram iron meteorite 
recovered by Samuel W. Tishler in Deelfontein, South Africa. It proved 
to be somewhat out of the ordinary since it is one of the few known 
meteorites containing appreciable quantities of an iron-nickel carbide 
called cohenite. 

To gain further insight into some of the microstructural aspects of 
metallic meteorites, Comerford is working with H. Posen of the Air 
Force Cambridge Research Laboratories on a study of annealing 
kinetics under high hydrostatic pressure. 13 Preliminary results indicate 
that pressure may enhance the rate of recrystallization. 

David Tilles investigated the mechanisms by which gas is lost from 
extraterrestrial dust. He also made a theoretical study of the con- 
centration of rare gases and interplanetary dust as a function of grain 
size for each of several possible source mechanisms. 

Continuing their search for differences between spherules of ter- 
restrial origin and cosmic dust particles, F. Wright and Franklin 
determined the mass densities of particles greater than 30 microns in 
diameter. They found a mean density of 2.75 for volcanic spherules, 
whereas for those from Canyon Diablo and Esterville (both known to 
be of cosmic origin) they found densities of 4.97 and 4.80, respectively. 
Since the average density of the polar spherules was 4.57, there is 
strong evidence that at least the majority of them are not of volcanic 


With Hodge, F. Wright derived tables of elemental abundances for 
interplanetary dust particles from old ice deposits in Greenland and 
near the South Pole. They found a remarkably good agreement with 
general cosmic abundances, with the exception of a few elements. 
Continuing their work with the electron-probe microanalyzer, reported 
last year, Wright and Hodge sectioned, polished, and analyzed 23 
spherules. This work showed that there is seldom any significant 
difference in composition between the surfaces and interiors of the 
volcanic spherules they are studying. 

Ursula B. Marvin collected concentrates of heavy minerals in beach 
sands of Miocene, Pleistocene, and Recent ages. From these she ex- 
tracted magnetic iron oxide spherules of three distinct chemical types. 
Type I, consisting of magnetite and wiistite, contains about 70% iron, 
5% nickel, 0.3% cobalt, and 0.2% chromium. These samples were 
found in a Pleistocene sand in Florida and a Recent one in Brazil. 
Their composition and distribution indicate that they are probably of 
extraterrestrial origin. The type-II spherules are mainly magnetite 
and hematite also containing about 70% iron but with 0.5% man- 
ganese. Found in Pleistocene and Recent beach deposits, polar ice 
caps, and many other environments, these spherules are of uncertain 
origin. Type-Ill spherules contain magnetite and glass and are rela- 
tively poor in iron but rich in silicon and aluminum. They are volcanic 
or industrial particles. Spherules of the first two types are being sepa- 
rated in quantity sufficient for isotopic analysis. The microprobe 
analyses were made by Marco T. Einaudi of Harvard University. 

With Clifford Frondel of Harvard University, Marvin has studied 
diamonds they extracted from the Canyon Diablo meteorite. 14 They 
have found both irregular masses and morphological single crystals. 
X-ray diffraction patterns show that both types of occurrence are 
fine-grained polycrystalline aggregates of diamond with a hexagonal, 
wurtzite-like polymorph that they have named lonsdaleite. They have 
attributed the random internal aggregation and the presence of the 
polymorphic form to shock. Further evidence of shock was revealed 
by Marvin's discovery that other minerals occur as polycrystalline 
aggregates in the specimens of Canyon Diablo that contain diamond 
and lonsdaleite but as single crystals in a large diamond-free specimen. 
This indicates that some specimens of the meteorite have been more 
severely shocked than others. 

The laboratory system for approximating primordial nebular 
conditions of pressure, temperature, and electrical discharge that 
Salisbury was working on last year has produced chondrule-like objects 
from granite dust. These tests are continuing, and objects from actual 
meteorite dust are to be compared with real chondrules. 


Comets and Meteors 

With Salah Hamid, the Director is searching for references to 
periodic Comet Encke in ancient Chinese records. If proof of such 
appearances can be found, it would provide extremely valuable infor- 
mation on the orbital history of this comet and the nature of physical 
decay of a large comet. The orbits of all the short-period comets (of 
more than one recorded apparition and periods less than 30 years) 
have been traced back for several centuries by Marsden using a digital 
computer. One of the difficulties of such calculations is that non- 
gravitational forces have long been suspected to act on comets. Now 
it is possible to investigate the basis for this suspicion. 

Hamid, Marsden, and the Director are studying the past motion of 
the periodic Comet Halley to establish limits on the mass of a possible 
comet belt near the plane of the planets, beyond Neptune. Preliminary 
results place the upper limit at less than one earth mass out to 50 
astronomical units from the sun. 

To shed more light on the physical properties of Whipple's icy 
conglomerate model of comet nuclei, Zuckerman and Douglas Pitman 
have been working on laboratory investigations of porous, icy systems 
under vacuum conditions. They have studied the thermal conductivity 
of vapor-grown dendritic snow crystals under various conditions of 
temperature and pressure. 

Both optical and radar observations of meteors continued during the 
year. 15 Experimental observations of artificial meteoroids, carried out 
jointly with NASA's Langley Research Center, were completed. The 
final test, on February 14, recorded the reentry of a one-gram iron 
pellet travelling at 16 kilometers per second. The equipment at Wallops 
Island is now being used to record optical data on natural meteors as 
faint as 10th magnitude. This faint limit is made possible by an image 
orthicon system on loan from the Naval Research Laboratory. It is 
now possible to observe the optical effects of meteoroids in the same 
size range that produce the majority of the meteor-radar observations. 
Thus, a direct cross-calibration of the two systems is, for the first time, 

Giuseppe Forti treated some 13,600 meteor orbits from radar 
observations made in Havana, Illinois, and is nearing completion of a 
search for major meteor streams and new meteor showers. Studying 
winds in the upper atmosphere, Forti and Richard B. Southworth are 
reducing data on observed meteor trails gathered by the Radio Meteor 
System with new automatic digital recording equipment. 

Plans were completed for precise calibration of the Havana Radio 
Meteor Network to provide more precise measurements of meteor in- 


flux. Mario R. Schaffner developed a new system for processing 
data gathered by the meteor radar equipment. 15 

Nilsson derived an empirical equation describing the cumulative 
influx of meteors with masses greater than 10 -6 gram. 

The Prairie Network obtained good data on more than 300 ex- 
tremely bright meteors. 16 Although four objects were suspected to have 
produced sizable meteorites, extended searches produced no recoveries. 
Richard E. McCrosky has developed improved methods for estimating 
meteor masses. With these methods the new data still suggest that the 
majority of bright fireballs have a structure that more nearly resembles 
material from comets than from asteroids. 

Historical Astronomy 

Gerald S. Hawkins, continuing his astro-archeological investiga- 
tions, visited megalithic structures in England and Scotland, including 
Callanish on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides. With Shoshana K. 
Rosenthal, he computed two catalogs giving star positions in prehistory. 
The first catalog covers the period since 2500 B.C.; the second catalog 
begins in 10,000 B.C. Both list the right ascension and declination of 
stars with apparent visual magnitudes brighter than +2.99. 

Computational studies of the 13th-century Alphonsine Tables per- 
formed by Gingerich show that they are essentially Ptolemaic in 
construction and that they form the foundation for most of the im- 
portant ephemerides until the time of Copernicus. This study is helping 
to destroy the myth that the Ptolemaic system underwent severe 
modification during the Middle Ages and finally collapsed under the 
weight of increasing complexity. Gingerich's computer investigations 
of the Prutenic Tables of 1 55 1 show that their underlying details slavishly 
follow certain Copernican idiosyncrasies. 

Central Bureaus 

During this fiscal year the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams 
distributed 59 Circulars carrying information about the comets 
discovered during this period, as well as supernovae, asteroids, and 
unusual stars. A record number of comets, 17, have been predicted 
to come to perihelion during 1967, but during the first half of the year 
the number of comet recoveries was not unusually high. In April 
Gingerich discussed the distribution of telegrams for Europe with 
Paul Simon at the Meudon Observatory. The departure of NATO 
from France has necessitated some changes in telegraph routing; 
consequently, we have begun to relay all telegrams to Meudon directly 
by Telex. 


The Central Bureau for Satellite Geodesy issued two more publica- 
tions this year. Contacts on an international level were increased to a 
total of 137 organizations or individual scientists in 38 countries out- 
side the United States. 

The Central Bureau was represented at international meetings on 
satellite geodesy held in Potsdam and Venice. Individual visits were 
made to optical tracking stations in the Federal Republic of Germany, 
Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands, and the 
United Kingdom. Discussions were held twice at the Headquarters of 
the Western European Satellite Triangulation Commission in England. 

Staff Changes 

The scientific staff of the Observatory welcomed, during the year 
physicists Bishun Khare and Ashok Sharma; astrophysicists Carl Nilsson 
and Max Roemer; astronomers William Deutschman, Barabara 
Kolaczek, Edward Lilley, and Cheng-yuan Shao; geologist George 
Megrue; chemist Robert McCorkell; and electronics engineer Mario 

Consultants to the Observatory during the year were Drs. Leon 
Cohen, Giuseppe Colombo, Dale Dickinson, Vichitra Gaur, Avram 
Hayli, Gustav Kistner, Yoshihide Kozai, Robert Lumatainen, David 
Parkin, Alan Title, and George Veis. 

During the year, the Observatory continued its program of post- 
doctoral fellowships in cooperation with the National Academy of 
Sciences — National Research Council. Appointees during the year 
were Drs. Charles Bartlett, Alan Title, Thornton Page, Trevor Weekes, 
and Richard Wattson. 

Resignations were received from Drs. William Irvine, Robert Briggs, 
Willard Chappell, Charles Dugan, Leo Goldberg, Donald Lautman, 
Jean Meffroy, Ellis Monash and Chi Wang. 

Staff Papers Presented or Published 
July 1966 through June 1967 

Anderson, P. H. See also Lehr. 

; Lehr, C. G.; Maestre, L. A.; and Snyder, G. L. Laser 

experiments for determining satellite orbits. IEEE Journ. Quant. 
Electron., vol. QE-2, pp. 215-219, 1966. 

Barker, J. I., and Grossi, M. D. Design of a satellite-to-satellite 
communications experiment to explore HF/VHF guided propaga- 
tion in the lower ionosphere. Radio Science, vol. 1 , pp. 1229-1 234, 

Cameron, A. G. W., and Tsuruta, S. Cooling and detectability of 
neutron stars. Can. Journ. Phys., vol. 44, pp. 1863-1894, 1966. 

, and Tsuruta, S. Some effects of nuclear forces on neutron- 
star models. Can. Journ. Phys., vol. 44, pp. 1895-1922, 1966. 

Carleton, N. P.; LeBlanc, F. J.; and Oldenberg, O. Transition 
probabilities of forbidden oxygen lines in a discharge tube. Journ. 
Chem. Phys., vol. 45, pp. 2200-2203, 1966. 

Cohen, L., and Lecar, M. Relaxation of a two-component self- 
gravitating gas. In Proc. of the Symp. on Computer Simulation of 
Plasma and Many-Body Problems, College of William and Mary, 
Williamsburg, Virginia, April 1967. 

Colombo, G. Cassini's second and third laws. Astron. Journ., vol. 7 1 , 
pp. 891-896, 1966. 

; Bellomo, E. ; and Shapiro, I.I. Theory of the axial rotations 

of Mercury and Venus. Acts of the Symposium on the Mantles of 
the Earth and Terrestrial Planets. Amsterdam: North-Holland 
Publ. Co., 1966. 

, and Shapiro, I. I. The rotation of the planet Mercury. 

Astrophys. Journ., vol. 145, pp. 296-307, 1966. 

J ; Shapiro, I. I.; and Lautman, D. A. The earth's dust belt: 

Fact or fiction? 1 . Forces perturbing dust particle motion. Journ. 
Geophys. Res., vol. 71, pp. 5695-5704, 1966. 

; Shapiro, I. I.; and Lautman, D. A. The earth's dust belt: 

Fact or fiction? 2. Gravitational focusing and Jacobi capture. 
Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 71, pp. 5705-5717, 1966. 



— ; Shapiro, I. I.; and Lautman, D. A. The earth's dust belt: 
Fact or fiction? 3. Lunar ejecta. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 71, 
pp. 5719-5731, 1966. 
; Shapiro, I. I.; and Lautman, D. A. The earth's dust belt: 

Fact or fiction? 4. Sunlight-pressure air-drag capture. Journ. 
Geophys. Res., vol. 71, pp. 5733-5741, 1966. 

Comerford, M. F. The morphology and crystallography of plessite in 
some nickel-rich ataxites. Presented at the AGU Meeting, Wash- 
ington, D.C., April 1967 [abstracted in Trans. Amer. Geophys. 
Union, vol. 48, p. 158, 1967]. 

; McCorkell, R. H. ; and Tishler, S. W. A new meteorite 

find in South Africa. Presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the 
Meteoritical Society, Washington, D.C., November 1966 [ab- 
stracted in Meteoritics, vol. 3, p. 106, 1967]. 

Cook, A. F., and Franklin, F. A. Particle sizes in Saturn's rings 
[abstract]. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, p. 851, 1966. 

Davis, R. J. The use of the Uvicon-Celescope television system for 
ultraviolet astronomical photometry. Adv. Electron. Electron 
Phys., vol. 22, pp. 875-884, 1966. 

. A comment on the stability of sodium salicylate spectro- 

photometric standards. Presented at the IAU Colloqium on Space 
Spectroscopy, Evanston, Illinois, May 1967. 

Dayhoff, M. O. ; Eck, R. ; Lippincott, E. R. ; and Sagan, C. Venus: 
atmospheric evolution. Science, vol. 155, pp. 556-558, 1967. 

DeFelice, J. C. See also Fireman. 

Dodd, R. T.; Van Schmus, W. R.; and Marvin, U. Significance of 
iron-rich silicates in the Mezo-Madaras chondrite. Amer. Min- 
eral., vol. 5, pp. 1177-1191, 1966. 

Fazio, G. G. See also Stecker. 

, and Hafner, E. M. The OSO 1 high-energy gamma-ray 

experiment. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 72, pp. 2452-2455, 1967. 

— ; Helmken, H. F.; Cavrak, S.; and Hearn, D. Search for 

cosmic gamma rays with a vidicon spark chamber. Bull. Amer. 
Phys. Soc, vol. 12, pp. 582-583, 1967. Presented at the 10th 
International Conference on Cosmic Rays, Calgary, June 1967. 

; Helmken, H. F.; Rieke, G. H.; and Weekes, T. C. An 

experiment to search for discrete sources of cosmic gamma rays in 
the 10 u - 10 12 -eV region. Presented at the 10th International 
Conference on Cosmic Rays, Calgary, June 1967. 

, and Zuckerman, B. On the possibility of searching for quarks 

by radio-astronomical techniques. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 147, 
pp. 1196-1199, 1967. 


Fireman, E. L. ; DeFelice, J. C. ; and Langway, C. C, Jr. Helium-3 

released at low temperature from Greenland dust [abstract]. 

Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 48, p. 158, 1967. 
Franklin, F. A. See also Cook. 
; Hodge, P. W.; Wright, F. W.; and Langway, C. C., Jr. 

Determination of the densities of individual meteoritic, glacial, and 

volcanic spherules. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 72, pp. 2543-2546, 

Frondel, C, and Marvin, U. Lonsdaleite, a hexagonal ploymorph 

of diamond. Nature, vol. 214, pp. 587-589, 1967. 
Gaposchkin, E. M. A dynamical solution for the tesseral harmonics 

of the geopotential and station coordinates using Baker-Nunn data. 

Pp. 685-693 in Space Research VII, ed. by R. L. Smith-Rose. 

Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co., 1967. 
. Determination of the earth's gravity field by use of optical 

observations. Presented at the CNES Symposium on Satellite 

Geodesy, Paris, May 1967. 
— — — . First-order worldwide geodetic triangulation network. Pre- 
sented at the CNES Symposium on Satellite Geodesy, Paris, 

May 1967. 

The motion of the pole and the earth's elasticity as studied 

from the gravity field of the earth by means of artificial earth satel- 
lites. Presented at the CIME Symposium on Modern Questions of 
Celestial Mechanics, Bressanone, Italy, May 1967. 

Gingerich, O. J. See also Noyes, Strom. 

— . Blanketing approximations for solar models. Journ. Quant. 

Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, vol. 6, pp. 609-617, 1966. 

— • The Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Pp. 32-38 

in Trans. Intl. Astron. Union, ed. by J.-C. Pecker. New York: 
Academic Press, 1966. 

. An essay review: Musings on antique astronomy. Amer. Sci., 

vol. 55, pp. 88-95, 1967. 

Goldfarb, T. D., and Khare, B. N. Infrared spectra of solid and 
matrix-isolated (CH 3 ) 3 N, (CD 3 ) 3 N and (SiH 3 ) 3 N. Journ. Chem. 
Phys., vol. 46, pp. 3379-3384, 1967. 

, and Khare, B. N. Infrared studies of dimethylsilylamine and 

methyldisilylamine by the matrix-isolation technique. Journ. 
Chem. Phys., vol. 46, pp. 3384-3388, 1967. 

Grossi, M. D. See also Barker. 

. The meteor wind radar network at Havana, Illinois. Pre- 
sented at the AFCRL Workshop on Methods of Obtaining Winds 
and Densities from Radar Meteor Trail Returns, Waltham, 
Massachusetts, August 1966. 


, and Lang worthy, B. M. Geometric optics investigation of 

HF and VHF guided propagation in the ionospheric whispering 
gallery. Radio Sci., vol. 1, pp. 877-886, 1966. 

Helmken, H. F. See also Fazio. 

Hodge, P. W. See also Franklin. 

— ■. Radii, orbital properties, and relaxation times of dwarf ellip- 
tical galaxies. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 144, pp. 869-874, 1966. 

. Galaxies and Cosmology. 1 79 pp. New York : McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., 1966. 

. An atlas and catalog of H II regions in galaxies. 127 pp. 

Seattle: Univ. of Washington, 1966. 

. H-alpha emission regions in irregular II galaxies. Astrophys. 

Journ., vol. 146, pp. 593-594, 1966. 

— ■ — - — -. A possible super-supernova remnant in NGC 6946. Publ. 
Astron. Soc. Pacific, vol. 79, pp. 29-32, 1967. 

. A survey of H II regions in galaxies. Astron. Journ., vol. 72, 

pp. 129-133, 1967. 

— . Photometry of the giant members of the fornax cluster of 

galaxies. Astron. Journ., vol. 72, pp. 303-304, 1967. 

, and Merchant, A. E. Photometry of SO galaxies II. The 

peculiar galaxy NGC 128. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 144, pp. 
875-885, 1966. 

, and Sexton, J. A. 457 new clusters of the Large Magellanic 

Cloud. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, pp. 363-368, 1966. 

, and Wallerstein, G. A suggested revision in the distance to 

the Hyades and its implications. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific, vol. 78, 
pp. 411-421, 1966. 

Wright, F. W. ; and Langway, C. C, Jr. Studies of particles 

for extraterrestrial origin. 5. Compositions of the interiors of 
spherules from arctic and antarctic ice deposits. Journ. Geophys. 
Res., vol. 72, pp. 1404-1406, 1967. 

Hummer, D. G., and Rybicki, G. B. Computational methods for non- 
LTE line-transfer problems. Pp. 53-127 in Methods in Compu- 
tational Physics, vol. 7. New York: Academic Press, 1966. 

Jacchia, L. G., and Slowey, J. The shape and location of the diurnal 
bulge in the upper atmosphere. Pp. 1077-1090 in Space Research 
VII, ed. by R. L. Smith-Rose. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. 
Co., 1967. 

; Slowey, J.; and Verniani, F. Geomagnetic perturbations 

and upper atmosphere heating. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 72, 
pp. 1423-1434, 1967. 


Jelley, J. V.; Charman, W. N.; Fruin, J. H. ; Graham, F.; Smith, 
F. G.; Porter, R. A.; Porter, N. A.; Weekes, T. C; and 
McBreen, B. Radio pulses from extensive air showers. Nuovo 
Cimento, vol 46a, pp. 649-669, 1966. 

Kalkofen, W. See also Strom. 

. Deviation from LTE in stellar atmospheres. Journ. Quant. 

Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, vol. 6, pp. 633-651, 1966. 

, and Strom, S. E. The effects of deviations from LTE and 

line blanketing on stellar atmospheres in the range B5 to A5. 
Journ. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, vol. 6, pp. 653-660, 

Khare, B. N. See also Goldfarb. 

. Exobiology and atmospheric simulation. Presented to North- 
eastern University Section of the American Institute of Physics, 
May 1967. 

Kohnlein, W. J. The variation of gravity on the earth's surface as 
deduced from satellite orbits [abstract]. Trans. Amer. Geophys. 
Union, vol. 48, p. 54, 1967. 

. Corrections to station coordinates and to nonzonal harmonics 

from Baker-Nunn observations. Pp. 694-701 in Space Research 
VII, ed. by R. L. Smith-Rose. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. 
Co., 1967. 

Krook, M., and Rybicki, G. B. Radiative transfer in fluctuating 
media. Presented at the American Mathematical Society Sym- 
posium on Transport Theory, New York, April 1967. 

Lecar, M. See also Cohen. 

. Stellar orbits in a time-varying gravitational field. Astron. 

Journ., vol. 71, pp. 706-708, 1966. 

and Cohen, L. Relaxation of a one-dimensional self- 

gravitating gas. In Proc. of the Symp. on Computer Simulation of 

Plasma and Many-Body Problems, College of William and Mary, 

Williamsburg, Virginia, April 1967. 
Lehr, C. G. See also Anderson. 
; Anderson, P. H.; and Maestre, L. A. Satellite range 

measurements with a laser at an astrophysical observing station. 

Pp. 723-734, in Space Research VII, ed. by R. L. Smith-Rose. 

Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co., 1967. 
; Maestre, L. A. ; and Anderson, P. H. Satellite ranging with 

a laser and the correction for atmospheric refraction. Presented 
at the International Association of Geodesy Meeting, Vienna, 
March 1967. 


Lilley, A. E. See also Palmer. 

; Palmer, P.; Penfield, H.; and Zuckerman, B. Radio 

astronomical detection of helium. Nature, vol. 211, pp. 174—175, 

Lippincott, E. R. ; Dayhoff, M. O. ; Eck, R. ; and Sagan, C. Thermo- 
dynamic equilibria in planetary atmospheres. Astrophys. Journ., 
vol. 147, pp. 753-764, 1967. 

Lundquist, C. A. See also Whipple. 

. The physics and astronomy of space science. 116 pp. New 

York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1966. 

. The interface between satellite altimetry and orbit determi- 

nation. Presented at the Third Seminar on Guidance Theory and 
Trajectory Analysis, NASA Electronics Research Center, Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, June 1967. 

Results from photographic and laser tracking systems. Pre- 

sented at the 27th International Astronautical Congress, Madrid, 

October 1966. 
Maestre, L. A. See also Anderson, Lehr. 
Marsden, B. G. Evolution of the great sun-grazing comet group 

[abstract]. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, p. 863, 1966. 
. Supplementary comet catalog. Mem. Brit. Astron. Assoc, 

vol. 40, no. 2, 1966. 
. One hundred periodic comets. Science, vol. 155, pp. 1207— 

1213, 1967. 
Marvin, U. B. See also Dodd, Frondel. 
. Magnetic black spherules in ilmenite sands. Presented at 

the 29th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, Washington, 

D.C., November 1966. 
■ . Shocked crystals of ureyite and sphalerite in the Canyon 

Diablo iron meteorite. Presented at the 48th Annual Meeting 

of the American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., April 

■ , and Einaudi, M. T. Black, magnetic spherules in Tertiary 

and Quaternary beach sands, Atlantic Coast of United States. 

Presented at the Northeastern Section Meeting of the Geological 

Society of America, Boston, March 1967. 
McCorkell, R. H. See also Comerford. 
Megrue, G. H. Rare gas chronology of calcium-rich achondrites. 

Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 71, pp. 4021-4029, 1966. 
Menzel, D. H. Annular eclipse of May 20 (on the Athens-Cape 

Sunion Road). Sky and Tel., vol. 32, pp. 81-82, 1966. 
, ed. Selected papers on the transfer of radiation. 269 pp. 

New York: Dover Publ. Inc., 1966. 


. The astronomer's stake in outer space. Pp. 45-53 in Man 

and Space, ed. by L. Hirsch. New York: Pitman Publ. Corp., 

. The surfaces of the moon, Mars, and Venus. In Moon and 

Planets, ed. by A. Dollfus. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co., 

. General conclusions. Firenze, vol. II, pp. 335-341 (HR I, 

743), 1966. 

and Shore, B. W. Magnetic fields and small-scale structure 

of the solar atmosphere. Atti del Convegno sui Campi Magnetici 
Solari e la Specttroscopia ad Alta Risoluzione, ed. by G. Barbera, 
Firenze, vol. II, pp. 308-318 (HR I, 742), 1966. 

Mitler, H. E. Origin of the rare light nuclides. Presented at the 
Symposium on High-Energy Processes in Astrophysics, Philadel- 
phia, January 1967. 

Nilsson, C. S. Some doubts about the earth's dust cloud. Science, 
vol. 153, pp. 1242-1246, 1966. 

— — — . Orbital distribution of meteors of limiting magnitude +6 
observed from the Southern Hemisphere. Presented at the 
Conference on Zodiacal Light and the Interplanetary Medium, 
Honolulu, January 1967. 

Noyes, R. W. Observational studies of velocity fields in the solar 
photosphere and chromosphere. Pp. 293-320 in Aerodynamic 
Phenomena in Stellar Atmospheres, International Astronomical 
Union Symp. 28. New York: Academic Press, 1967. 

; Beckers, J. M. ; Low, F. J.; and Davidson, A. W. Center- 
to-limb variations of the solar continuum in the far infrared and 
millimeter wavelength regions. Presented at the American Astro- 
nomical Society Meeting, Ithaca, New York, July 1966 [abstracted 
in Astron. Journ., vol. 71, p. 866, 1966]. 

; Gingerich, O. J.; and Goldberg, L. On the infrared 

continuum of the sun and stars. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 145, pp. 

344-347, 1966. 
Page, T. L. Starlight: What it tells about the stars. 337 pp. New 

York: Macmillan Co., 1967. 
, and Page, L. W., eds. Origin of the solar system. 336 pp. 

New York: Macmillan Co., 1966. 
, and Slettebak, A. The Earth Science Curriculum Project 

(ESCP) and the teaching of astronomy in U.S. high schools 
[abstract]. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, p. 394. 


Palmer, P.; Zuckerman, B.; Penfield, H.; Lilley, A. E.; and 
Mezger, P. G. Microwave observations of hydrogen, helium, 
and a new recombination line. Presented at the American Astro- 
nomical Society Meeting, Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, 
Wisconsin, June 1967. 

Papaliolios , C. Experimental test of a hidden- variable quantum 
theory. Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 18, pp. 622-625, 1967. 

Pitman, D. T., and Zuckerman, B. Effective thermal conductivity 
of snow at -88°C, -27°C, and — 5°C. Journ. Appl. Phys., 
May 1967. 

Pollack, J. B. See also Sagan. 

; Greenberg, E. ; and Sagan, C. A statistical analysis of the 

Martian wave of darkening and related phenomena. Planet. 
Space Sci., vol. 15, p. 817, 1967. 

and Sagan, C. Secular changes and dark area regeneration 

on Mars. Icarus, vol. 6, 434-439, 1967. 
Rybicki, G. B. See also Hummer, Krook. 
, and Hummer, D. G. Non-LTE line formation with spatial 

variation in the doppler width. Journ. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 

Transfer, vol. 6, pp. 661-671, 1967. 
, and Usher, P. D. The generalized Ricatti transformation as 

a simple alternative to invariant imbedding. Astrophys. Journ., 

vol. 146, pp. 871-879, 1966. 
Sagan, C. See also Dayhoff, Lippincott, Pollack. 
. Remarks on the lunar surface. Pp. 284-312 in The nature of 

the lunar surface, ed. by W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, and J. A. 

O'Keefe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966. 
. The Mariner IV mission to Mars. Leaflet No. 445, Astron. 

Soc. Pacific, 28 pp., 1966. 

. The saucerian cult: an astronomer's interpretation. Satur- 
day Review, vol. 49, p. 50, August 6, 1966. 

. Weather on the planets [book review]. Sky and Tel., vol. 32, 

p. 296, 1966. 

. Planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Industry, vol. 32, p. 60, 


. Current aspects of exobiology [book review]. Quart. Rev. 

Biol., vol. 41, p. 450, 1966. 

. Man on another world [book review]. Quart. Rev. Biol., vol. 

42, p. 101, 1967. 
. A new view of Mars. Tech. Rev., Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology, June, pp. 27-32, 1967. 

. Beyond the observatory [book review]. Boston Evening 

Globe, p. 50, June 1, 1967. 


; Dayhoff, M. O.; Lippincott, E. R.; and Egk, R. Organic 

molecules and the coloration of Jupiter. Nature, vol. 212, p. 273, 

; Kilston, S. D. ; and Drummond, R. R. La terra e disabitata. 

L'Europeo, Milan, vol. 22, pp. 65-68, 1966. 
, and Pollack, J. B. An inorganic model of Martian phenom- 

ena [abstract]. Astron. Journ., vol. 71, p. 178, 1966. 

, and Pollack, J. B. On the nature of the canals of Mars. 

Nature, vol. 212, pp. 117-121, 1966. 
, and Pollack, J. B. Anisotropic nonconservative scattering 

and the clouds of Venus. Journ. Geophys. Res., vol. 72, pp. 469- 
477, 1967. 

; Pollack, J. B.; and Goldstein, R. M. Radar doppler 

spectroscopy of Mars. I. Elevation differences between bright and 

dark areas. Astron. Journ., vol. 72, pp. 20-34, 1967. 
Salisbury, W. W. Generation of light from free electrons. Science, 

vol. 154, pp. 386-388, 1966. 
- . A method for translunar radio communication. Nature, 

vol. 211, pp. 950-951, 1966. 
Sharma, A. The true potential energy curves of X 2 2 and A 2 S states 

of the AlO molecule. Journ. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 

vol. 7, pp. 283-286, 1967. 
. The Franck-Condon factors and the r-centroids of the A 2 2- 

X 2 2 band system of AlO. Journ. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. 

Transfer, vol. 7, pp. 289-293, 1967. 
, and Padur, J. P. A spectroscopic study of the chemilumines- 

cent reaction of germanium tetrahydride with atomic oxygen. 
Proc. Phys. Soc, vol. 90, pp. 269-274, 1967. 

•; Padur, J. P.; and Warneck, P. The chemiluminescent re- 

actions of atomic oxygen with COS and H 2 S. Presented at the 
American Chemical Society Meeting, New York, September 

Silk, J., and Wright, J. P. The post-Schwarzschild effects of rota- 
tion on gravitational collapse. Presented at the American Astro- 
nomical Society Meeting, Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, 
Wisconsin, June 1967. 

Slowey, J. See also Jacchia. 

Solomon, L. H. On suspected flare activity in a B-type star. Irish 
Astron. Journ., vol. 7, p. 226, 1966. 

. An analysis of combinations of satellite observation systems. 

Presented at the 48th Annual Meeting of the American Geo- 
physical Union, Washington, D.C., April 1967. 


Southworth, R. B. The Havana, Illinois, system. Presented at the 
AFCRL Workshop on Methods of Obtaining Winds and Densities 
from Radar Meteor Trail Returns, Waltham, Massachusetts, 
August 1966. 

. Phase function of the zodiacal cloud. Presented at the 

Conference on Zodiacal Light and the Interplanetary Medium, 
Honolulu, January 1967. 

. Remarks on the lunar surface. Pp. 284—312 in The nature 

of the lunar surface, ed. by W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, and J. A. 
O'Keefe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966. 

. Space density of meteors. Presented at the Conference on 

Zodiacal Light and the Interplanetary Medium, Honolulu, Jan- 
uary 1967. 

. Wind measurements from radar-meteor observations. Pre- 

sented at the American Mineralogical Society Symposium on 
Meteorological Investigations above 70 kilometers, Miami, June 

Stecker, F. W.; Tsuruta, S.; and Fazio, G. G. The effects of the 
decay of nucleon isobars and hyperons on the cosmic gamma-ray 
spectrum. Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc, vol. 12, p. 584, 1967. 

Strom, S. E. See also Kalkofen. 

; Cohen, J. G.; and Strom, K. M. Analysis of F and G sub- 
dwarfs. I. The location of subdwarfs in the theoretical H-R 
diagram. Presented at the American Astronomical Society Meet- 
ing, Ithaca. New York, July 1966 [abstracted in Astron. Journ., vol. 
71, p. 873, 1966.]. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 147, pp. 1038-1049, 1967. 

— ; Gingerich, O. J.; and Strom, K. M. Studies in non-gray 

stellar atmospheres. III. The metal abundances of Sirius and 
Vega. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 146, pp. 880-913, 1966. 

, and Kalkofen, W. Deviations from LTE and their effect on 

stellar spectra in the range B5 to FO [abstract]. Astron. Journ., 
vol. 71, pp. 873-874, 1966. 

-, and Kurucz, R. L. A statistical procedure for computing 

line-blanketed model stellar atmospheres with applications to the 

F5 IV star Procyon. Journ. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 

vol. 6, pp. 591-607, 1966. 
Tilles, D. Implantation in interplanetary dust of rare-gas ions from 

solar flares. Science, vol. 153, pp. 981-984, 1966. 
. Gas loss from interplanetary dust: Sputtering and surface 

reactions of solar wind, and terrestrial oxidation [abstract]. Trans. 

Amer. Geophys. Union, vol. 48, pp. 157-158, 1967. 
Title, A. M. Selected Spectroheliograms. Pasadena: California 

Institute of Technology, 1966, 70 pp. 


Truran, J.; Arnett, D. ; Tsuruta, S.; and Cameron, A. G. W. Nu- 
cleosynthesis in supernova explosions. Presented at the Symposium 
sur POrigine et la Distribution des Elements, UNESCO and 
UISG, Paris, May 1967. 

Tsuruta, S. See also Cameron, Stecker, Truran. 

. Rotation of neutron stars. Nature, vol. 211, pp. 356-357, 


Van Schmus, W. R., and Wood, J. A. A chemical-petrologic classi- 
fication for the chondritic meteorites. Geochim. Cosmochim. 
Acta, vol. 31, pp. 747-766, 1967. 

Veis, G. Geodetic interpretation of the results. Pp. 776-777 in Space 
Research VII, ed. by R. L. Smith-Rose. Amsterdam: North- 
Holland Publ. Co., 1967. 

. Results from geometric methods. Pp. 778-782 in Space 

Research VII, ed. by R. L. Smith-Rose. Amsterdam: North- 
Holland Publ. Co., 1967. 

Weekes, T. C. See also Fazio, Jelley. 

. X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. Science Progress, Ox- 
ford, vol. 54, pp. 543-560,1966. 

Whipple, F. L. Before type I carbonaceous chondrites? [abstract]. 
Meteoritics, vol. 3, p. 135, 1966. 

. The meteoritic environment of the moon. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

A, vol. 296, pp. 304-315, 1967. 

. On maintaining the meteoritic complex. Presented at the 

Conference on Zodiacal Light and the Interplanetary Medium, 
Honolulu, January 1967. 

. On the satellite geodesy program at the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory. Pp. 675-684 in Space Research VII, ed. 
by R. L. Smith-Rose. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co., 1967. 

. The call of space. Presented at the Dedication of Lind- 

heimer Astronomical Research Center, Northwestern University, 
Evanston, Illinois, May 1967. 

-, and Lundquist, C. A. Tracking by the Smithsonian Astro- 

physical Observatory. Presented at the Royal Society Discussion 

Meeting on Orbital Analysis, London, October 1966. 
Whitney, C. A. The behavior of RU Camelopardalis as an example 

of oscillation hysteresis. Astrophys. Journ., vol. 147, pp. 1191- 

1193, 1967. 
. Physical basis for the interpretation of the continuous spectra 

of pulsating variable stars. International Astronomical Union 

Symposium, no. 28, pp. 198-206, 1967. 


Wood, J. A. See also Van Schmus. 

. Chondrites: their metallic minerals, thermal histories, and 

parent planets. Icarus, vol. 6, pp. 1-49, 1967. 
Wright, F. W. See also Franklin, Hodge. 
Wright, J. P. See also Silk. 
. General relativity and long-period comets. Presented at the 

American Astronomical Society Meeting, Yerkes Observatory, 

Williams Bay, Wisconsin, June 1967. 
Zuckerman, B. See also Fazio, Lilley, Palmer, Pitman. 

Special Reports 

Special Reports of the Astrophysical Observatory distribute catalogs 
of satellite observations, orbital data, and preliminary results of data 
prior to journal publication. Numbers 200 and 216 through 243, issued 
during the year, contain the following material: 

200 (1966). Geodetic parameters for a 1966 Smithsonian Institution 
standard earth, ed. by C. A. Lundquist and G. Veis, in 3 vols. 

Volume 1 : 

The reference system, by G. Veis. 

Data reduction, by R. Haefner and R. Martin. 

Geometric methods, by L. Aardoom, A. Girnius, and G. Veis. 

Orbit determination, by E. M. Gaposchkin. 

The orbital method, by G. Veis. 

Determination of zonal harmonic coefficients, by Y. Kozai. 

Determination of tessera! harmonic coefficients and station coordinates, by 
I. Izsak and E. M. Gaposchkin. 

Combination of geometric and dynamic methods, by W. Kohnlein. 
Volume 2: 

Geodetic connections of the stations, by A. Girnius and J. Rolff. 

Geometric results, by L. Aardoom, A. Girnius, and G. Veis. 

Results from the orbital method, by G. Veis. 

The zonal harmonic coefficients, by Y. Kozai. 

Tesseral harmonic coefficients and station coordinates from the dynamic 
method, by E. M. Gaposchkin. 

Combination of geometric and dynamic results, by W. Kohnlein. 
Volume 3: 

Geodetic interpretation, by G. Veis. 

Comparison with surface gravity, by W. Strange. 

The geometric structure of the earth's gravitational field ; and The accuracy 
of the geopotential and its gradient field, by W. Kohnlein. 

Relation with DSIF stations, by G. Veis. 

216 (July 1, 1966). On the gradient line of the earth's zonal gravita- 
tional potential, by W. Kohnlein. 

217 (July 15, 1966). A critical survey of upper-atmosphere density 
measurements by means of ionization gauges, by M. Friedman. 


218 (August 22, 1966). Geomagnetic perturbations and upper- 
atmosphere heating, by L. Jacchia, J. Slowey, and F. Verniani. 

219 (August 26, 1966). Meteor masses and luminosity, by F. Verniani. 

220 (August 31, 1966). The production of cosmic gamma rays in 
interstellar and intergalactic cosmic-ray collisions. I. The kinematics 
of p-p interactions and secondary meson and hyperon decay and 
the cosmic gamma-ray spectral source function, by F. Stecker. 

221 (September 6, 1966). Radar doppler spectroscopy of Mars. I. 
Elevation differences between bright and dark areas, by C. Sagan, 
J. Pollack, and R. Goldstein. 

222 (September 30, 1966). Satellite orbital data no. E-5: Satellites 
1959 Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2), 1960 Iota 2 (Echo 1 rocket), 1961 
Omicron 1 (Transit 4A), 1961 Alpha Delta 1 (Midas 4), 1962 
Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1), and 1962 Beta Upsilon 1 (A 15 Relay) 
for Jan. 1-June 30, 1963; Satellite 1959 Eta 1 (Vanguard 3) for 
Jan. 5-June 30, 1963; Satellite 1961 Delta 1 (Explorer 9) for Dec. 
31, 1962-June 30, 1963; and Satellite 1961 Omicron 2 (Injun 3) 
for Jan. 3-July 1, 1963. 

223 (October 3, 1966). The short-period drag perturbations of the 
orbits of artificial satellites, by L. Sehnal and S. Mills. 

224 (October 10, 1966). Elevation differences on Mars, by G. Sagan 
and J. Pollack. 

225 (October 20, 1966). Satellite orbital data: Satellites 1958 Alpha 1 
(Explorer 1), 1959 Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2), 1959 Eta 1 (Vanguard 
3), 1960 Xi 1 (Explorer 8), 1962 Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1), 
1962 Beta Mu 1 (Anna IB), 1962 Beta Tau 2 (Injun 3), and 
1962 Beta Upsilon 1 (Relay 1) for July 1, 1964-Jan. 1, ,1965, 
Satellite 1960 Iota 1 (Echo 1) for July 1-Dec. 31, 1964; and 
Satellite 1963 13A (Telstar 2) for July 1, 1964-Feb. 24, 1965. 

226 (October 28, 1966). Astro-archaeology, by G. Hawkins. 

227 (November 18, 1966). Catalog of precisely reduced observa- 
tions no. P-15: Satellites 1959 Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2), 1960 Iota 
2 (Echo 1 Rocket Body), 1961 Delta 1 (Explorer 9), 1961 Omicron 
1 (Transit 4A), 1961 Omicron 2 (Injun), 1961 Alpha Delta 1 
(Midas 4), 1962 Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1) for Apr. 1-June 30, 
1963; and Satellites 1959 Eta 1 (Vanguard 3) and 1962 Beta 
Upsilon 1 (A 15 Relay) for Apr. 2-June 30, 1963. 

228 (November 22, 1966). Electron-probe analysis of interiors of 
microscopic spheroids from eruptions of the Mt. Aso, Surtsey, and 
Kilauea Iki volcanoes, by F. Wright, P. Hodge, and R. Allen. 

229 (November 30, 1966). On Van Zeipel's method in general plan- 
etary theory, by J. Meffroy. 


230 (December 5, 1966). Probability of recording satellite images 
optically, by K. Lambeck. 

231 (December 6, 1966). Optimum station-satellite configurations for 
simultaneous observations to satellites, by K. Lambeck. 

232 (December 12, 1966). Publication of orbits derived from photo- 
reduced Baker-Nunn observations, by E. Gaposchkin. 

233 (December 14, 1966). Systematic corrections to reduce certain 
satellite positions to the FK4 system, by K. Haramundanis. 

234 (December 16, 1966). Note on expressions for second-order short- 
period perturbations, by Y. Kozai. 

235 (December 20, 1966). Lunisolar perturbations with short periods, 
by Y. Kozai. 

236 (December 30, 1966). Scientific horizons from satellite tracking, 
ed. by C. Lundquist and H. Friedman. 

Scientific horizons from tracking space objects, by C. A. Lundquist. 

Estimation of scientific parameters, by H. D. Friedman. 

Satellite tracking with a laser, by C. G. Lehr. 

The effect of the atmosphere on laser range determination, by H. G. Horak. 

Present and future research on the upper atmosphere at the Smithsonian 

Astrophysical Observatory, by L. G. Jacchia. 
Continental drift, by U. B. Marvin. 

Some geophysical implications of the satellite geopotential, by C. -Y. Wang. 
Determination of Love's number from satellite observations, by Y. Kozai. 
Relativistic investigations, by B. G. Marsden and J. P. Wright. 
The motion of the spin axis and the rotation of the earth, by G. Veis. 
Review of the rotation of the earth, by E. M. Gaposchkin. 
Introduction to the theory of the earth's motion about its center of mass, 

by G. Colombo. 
Interface with oceanography, by W. J. Kohnlein. 

Differential orbit improvement program for lunar orbiters, by G. Veis. 
The force function on a lunar satellite due to the oblateness of the moon, 

by S. E. Hamid. 
Interface of satellite tracking and planetary orbiters, by J. Meffroy. 

237 (March 20, 1967). Baker-Nunn photography of the Intelsat 
2-F2 apogee-motor firing, by Staff of the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory. 

238 (March 30, 1967). On the distribution of the Gibeon Meteorites 
of South-West Africa, by R. Citron. 

239 (June 2, 1967). Studies in interplanetary particles, by F. Whipple, 
R. Southworth, and C. Nilsson. 

240 (June 2, 1967). Model atmospheres for cool stars, by O. Gingerich; 
and Model atmospheres for late-type stars, by O. Gingerich, D. 
Latham, J. Linsky, and S. Kumar. 

241 (June 5, 1967). Design of a satellite experiment for atmospheric 
density and near-free-molecule-flow aerodynamics, by L. Lam, 
G. Mendes, and C. Lundquist. 


242 (June 6, 1967). Diurnal and seasonal-latitudinal variations in 
the upper atmosphere, by L. Jacchia and J. Slowey. 

243 (June 30, 1967). South- Africa Baker-Nunn photography of the 
PAGEOS-A inflation and apogee, burn of the AGENA-D, by 
W. Kirchhoff and J. Latimer. 

For explanation, see footnote, page 193.: 

1 Supported by grant NGR 09-015-047 from the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (NASA). 

2 Supported by NASA grant NsG 87. 

3 Supported by NASA grant NSR 09-015-039. 

4 Supported by grant NOOO 14-67-G0161 from the Office of Naval Research. 

5 Supported by NASA grant NSR 09-015-022. 

Supported by grant GP-4318 from the National Science Foundation (NSF). 

7 Supported by NASA grant NGR 22-024-001. 

8 Supported by NASA contract NSR 09-015-054. 

9 Supported by NASA grant NGR 09-015-023. 

10 Supported by NASA contract NAS 5-1535. 

11 Supported by NASA contract NAS 5-11007. 

12 Supported by NSF grant GA-855. 

13 Supported by contract DA 31-124-ARO-D-473 with the U.S. Army. 

14 Supported by NASA grant NsG 282-63 to Dr. Frondel of Harvard. 
'5 Supported by NASA contract NSR 09-015-033. 

'6 Supported by NASA grant NsG 291-62. 

Smithsonian Activities 
History and Art 


Infinity, in stainless steel, by American sculptor Jose de Rivera, rotates 
once each six minutes. Located on the Museum's Mall esplanade, its 16-foot 
polished stone base reflects the nearby Washington Monument. 

Museum of History and Technology 

Robert P. Multhauf, Director 

The significance of musical instruments lies in the sounds they 
are intended to make. This conviction, however furtively espoused 
by some museums, is firmly held at the Smithsonian. Ever since 1879, 
when G. Brown Goode, then Assistant Secretary in charge of the 
United States National Museum, classified instruments in the collec- 
tion as primarily sound-emitting devices, the ultimate direction has 
been established. Obviously, instruments may be studied as pieces of 
furniture or as examples in the history of technology or of mechanical 
design, but their essence remains musical sound. 

Like the proverbial sleeping giant, the Smithsonian's enormous 
collection of instruments lay dormant for many years. It grew through 
isolated gifts and through large bequests, such as a group of instru- 
ments from the Philadephia Centennial Exposition of 1876; a collec- 
tion of wind instruments, banjos, and music boxes from the New York 
music dealer J. Howard Foote, in 1882; and, most important, nearly 
two hundred keyboard instruments given by Hugo Worch of Wash- 
ington between 1914 and 1921. A small number of acquisitions is 
recorded from the 1920s until 1960, when the Cooper Union donated 
a collection of stringed and keyboard instruments. Now the division 
of musical instruments has responsibility for instruments from western 
cultures— these make up about one-third of the Smithsonian's total 
collection of over 4,000 musical instruments — and the office of anthro- 
pology in the Museum of Natural History houses the remainder of the 



Although Hugo Worch was honorary custodian of musical instru- 
ments from 1921 until his death in 1938, there was not any full-time 
staff member who was musically trained and responsible for the 
collection. The instruments were inadequately housed in the Museum 
of Natural History, for only the most minimal attempts at main- 
tenance or temperature and humidity control were possible. Almost 
no instruments were playable and the Smithsonian was rarely credited 
with being the great treasure house of musical objects that in fact it was. 

The renascence began in 1958, when John Shortridge, musician, 
historian, and instrument maker, joined the division of cultural 
history. With the encouragement of curator of cultural history 
C. Malcolm Watkins, he set about restoring the first instruments to 
playing condition. In the intervening years, the new Museum of 
History and Technology building, with its more favorable provisions 
for storage and exhibition, was opened; the staff was enlarged under 
the guidance of Cynthia Adams Hoover; and musical activity had 
greatly increased when, in July 1966, the newly created division of 
musical instruments began its first year of independent operation. 

The new division has now embarked on a comprehensive program 
which aims to extend in breadth and depth the Museum's contribution 
to the art of music and the history of musical instruments. This program 
is distinguished by its emphasis on the combination of disciplines, 
each made more meaningful by its relation to the others: those of the 
artist (performer), the craftsman (instrument maker), and the scholar 
(historian). Together, these three provide a focus for interpretation 
through research and publication, exhibits, restoration, seminars, 
performances, and recordings. How, in practice, these reinforce each 
other to form a whole which is uniquely greater than the sum of its 
parts is described in the following paragraphs. 

Performances sponsored by the division of musical instruments have 
an objective beyond that of the usual concert series, for the intent 
is not only to delight but also to enlighten the hearers by delineating 
artistic and historical contributions drawn from research in performance 
conventions or by the use of period instruments restored in the museum. 
On occasion, performances are made possible by the results of resto- 
ration work, as when a fine instrument, unheard for many years, is 
finally ready for use. For instance, a rare 18th-century French harpsi- 
chord is currently being restored by conservator Scott Odell. An 
inaugural concert has been arranged which will bring an eminent 
player to the Smithsonian in a performance of French music con- 
temporary with the instrument. An early American chamber organ, 
shortly due from its restorer, inspired plans for a concert of music 


for organ and strings, together with a seminar in early American 
organ building. 

Research can also lead to performances as well as to publication. 
A continually evolving study of performance conventions occupies 
considerable time on the part of the division staff. A concert of Christmas 
music of the Renaissance and early baroque resulted from investigation 
of music and performance conventions described by Michael Praetorius 
in his Syntagma Musicum of 1619. The creation of performance editions 
as well as the assembling of proper instruments and rehearsing of 
musicians is often required for a given concert. Ideally, a complete 
Smithsonian musical event entails the performance itself coupled with 
a demonstration lecture, a recording, as well as a publication and a 
related exhibition of musical objects appropriate to the period and 
place of the repertoire presented. 

The exhibit, "Music Making — American Style," on view during 
1966-1967, reflects concern for the objects themselves, their history and 
context, as well as for the sounds they make. In this instance, a tape of 
appropriate music was provided for each part of the exhibition. Also, 
a series of five live concerts was generated by its contents. These in- 
cluded programs of folk music, 19th-century band music using over- 
the-shoulder saxhorns from the exhibit itself, a New Orleans marching 
jazz band, and a program of chamber music known in America before 
1800. For this latter concert, research led to archives of 18th-century 
Moravia, to music at Mount Vernon, to records of colonial Boston, and 
to documents from Spanish New Mexico. This exhibition also inspired 
preparation of a publication dealing with the history of American 
music and American instrument making. 

The Smithsonian now possesses a superbly equipped conservation 
laboratory. The restoration program has so progressed that, in ad- 
dition to a clavichord and an 18th-century Viennese piano, seven 
harpsichords are maintained in playing condition. This, in turn, 
accounts for a generous proportion of harpischord music in the per- 
formance program. For the instrument maker or performer it also 
provides an opportunity to compare antique prototypes. 

Restored instruments not on public display are kept available for 
study by qualified visitors in the reference collection. Construction will 
shortly begin in the reference storage area which will make readily 
accessible many important instruments formerly consigned to over- 
crowded storage units and shelves. For the first time in any large 
collection, all the objects of special import will be visible behind 
glass doors and identified for the visitor by brief labels. 

Publications by the staff range from those dealing with the collection 



tlarold Dejan and his Olympia Band in an evening 
of New Orleans jazz on the Mall, August 24, 1966. 

Early 20th-century music making, American style: Advertising wagon carries 
a 6-piece jazz band. Right: Appalachian country musicians, made of wire. 


Hi 1 ™ 

1*. cE*^^few. ' Jfl 

r *' n^ m%% 

%|^A *- ^H^ ' 

Jacob and Daniel Melton, dulcimer makers of Carroll County, Virginia, 
tuning up for a recording session during a field trip made by Scott Odell of 
the division of musical instruments. 


SOf^ y ^^t~~m^ Mil 

II I * 

Seminar on 18th-century performance conventions held by Professor George 
Hunter of the University of Illinois, July 1966. 



Janos Scholz of New York trying 
the viola da gamba made by 
Barak Norman, London, 1718, in 
the collection of the division of 
musical instruments. 

itself to studies of early instruments and their use in performance to 
editions of early music. Now in press is the first complete listing of 
pianos, harpsichords, clavichords, and organs in the collection, pre- 
pared by Cynthia Hoover, Scott Odell, Helen Hollis, and others. A 
similar listing for wind instruments is being prepared by Robert 
Sheldon. Also in press is a facsimile, edited by John Fesperman, of 
1 8th-century keyboard music of William Boyce. 

A series of documentary recordings, planned by James Weaver, will 
begin in the cpming year. These performances on important Smith- 
sonian instruments will be accompained by extensive photographic 
and textual information about both the instruments and the music 

A 1966 seminar in performance conventions in early 18th-century 
music not only brought a group of experienced musicians to study 
at the Smithsonian and use its collection, but also expedited the for- 
mation of the Smithsonian Collegium Musicum. This continuing 
educational project involves the training of a small nucleus of musicians 
in early music and in the use of instruments from the collection. 

During the next few years, much of the new division's program will, 
of necessity, continue to be experimental. Thus, both arduous and 
exciting times can be expected. The work must be validated by the 
end it seeks — to allow the music of the past to speak more eloquently to 
modern ears. 

John T. Fesperman 
Division of Musical Instruments 

Research and Publication 

In May, Howard I. Chapelle, curator of marine transportation, was 
advanced to the newly created post of senior historian, in which he will 
continue his researches into the history of sailing vessels, with no ad- 
ministrative or curatorial responsibilities. John H. White, curator of 
land transportation, has been named curator in charge of the division 
of transportation. 

A noteworthy feature of the work of the department is the planned 
involvement with scholars and institutions outside of the Smithsonian, 
which is taking place under a number of programs and arrangements. 

Under the direction of Robert Vogel, the physical plant and ma- 
chinery of Dudley Shuttles, Inc., of Wilkinsonville, Massachusetts, was 
recorded in detail in July 1966, with the assistance of the Historic 
American Buildings Survey of the National Park Service, in whose 
archives the final records will be deposited. The Dudley works was 
chosen because much of the machinery used in making textile power- 
loom shuttles was built on the premises, and thus Dudley is an interest- 
ing example of a firm which filled its own needs for integrated produc- 
tion machinery not commercially available. 

A much larger survey was begun in June 1967; Vogel went to New 
England to conduct a survey of a group of early textile mill buildings 
before they disappear under pressures from urban renewal, highway 
construction, and other changing patterns of land and building use. 
Modern techniques, including aerial photography, are being used in 
this survey. The textile industry was selected as a starting point because 
it was the first American industry organized in a widespread fashion on 
the factory system. The program hopefully will be extended to other 
significant groups of early industrial buildings. 

In order to bring together persons interested in the subject to discuss 
means of coordinating efforts, Vogel in April arranged a one-day 
seminar in conjunction with a visit by Kenneth Hudson, a leading 
British practitioner of industrial archeology. 

The graduate teaching program in cooperation with the Department 
of the History of Science at the University of Pennsylvania continued. 



Uta Merzbach was in residence at Philadelphia during the fall semester, 
giving a seminar on 19th-century mathematics; and Monte Calvert 
in the spring semester gave one on American technology. The program 
is scheduled to continue next year, with Bernard Finn and Edwin 
Battison being the visiting lecturers at Pennsylvania. 

Several members of the staff participated in the teaching program of 
the department of American studies, and Calvert gave a directed 
reading course to doctoral students on the social relations of science and 
technology in America. Melvin Jackson cooperated with that depart- 
ment in preparing the exhibit for the Vinland Map Conference in 
November and presented a paper on medieval conventions of form and 
the Vinland map. 

Three visiting scholars worked in or with the department this year. 
Professor Carl Condit of Northwestern University made use of the 
archival collections in civil engineering to prepare a general survey of 
the subject. Professor Cecil Smith of the Drexel Institute of Technology 
conducted a comparative study of French and American engineering 
practices in the 19th century. Canadian scholar W. Knowles Middleton 
prepared a comprehensive illustrated catalog of the meteorological 
instruments in the Museum's collections; this is to be published by the 
Smithsonian Institution Press. Sami Hamarneh of the division of 
medical sciences compiled a catalog of Arabic manuscripts in medicine 
and pharmacy at the British Museum, which the British Museum will 

In autumn an iron Bollman-truss bridge near Washington was offi- 
cially declared a national historic engineering landmark by the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, and title to the structure was transferred 
to Howard County, Maryland, for permanent preservation. Vogel and 
the Smithsonian have been working for several years to ensure the 
preservation of this historic example of early American civil engineering. 

Two scholarly publications continued to be directed by members and 
a former member of the department. Robert Multhauf is editor and 
Bernard Finn is managing editor of Isis, the journal of the History of 
Science Society. Walter Cannon is editor of the Smithsonian Journal of 

Among publications from the department, most scholarly comment 
has been caused by Edwin Battison's article on Eli Whitney, which 
showed that there was no basis for attribution of the well-known 
"Whitney" milling machine to Eli Whitney, and made it appear un- 
likely that Whitney ever used a system of interchangeable parts in his 
arms manufacture. Battison is preparing a further study of the so-called 
"Whitney" machine to establish its original features and to assess its 
importance as the earliest milling machine known to have survived. 


Steam power for early electric generating plants. In the background, a Porter- 
Allen high-speed steam engine of 1881 drives an 1885 Edison bipolar direct- 
current generator, and, in the foreground, a Westinghouse compound engine of 
1 896 drives an alternating-current generator, the exciter for which is the small 
belt-driven machine in the center. Below: Reidler pumping engine driven by 
Pel ton turbine (left). All are new exhibits in the hall of power machinery. 


Bernard Finn has paid special attention to the history of television in 
an attempt to re-create some of the early systems. Use was made of the 
extensive files of the Federal Communications Commission in analyzing 
the development of color television and the reasons for acceptance of 
the current system. Finn also completed work on a study of thermody- 
namics and thermoelectricity. His article on Alexander Graham Bell's 
experiments with the variable-resistance transmitter will appear in the 
fourth issue of the Smithsonian Journal of History ; and he has given lectures 
at the College of William and Mary and Catholic University, and to 
the Government Patent Lawyers Association. Eliot Sivowitch began a 
study of wired broadcasting in Europe and the United States in the 
late 19th century. 

Hamarneh's paper on modem historiography and medieval Arabic 
pharmaceutical literature, read before the American Institute of the 
History of Pharmacy, is to be published in their Proceedings. In January 
1967 he went on a' sabbatical year's leave to study Arabic manuscripts 
in Cairo and other centers. 

Monte Calvert continued his documentation of tools, especially those 
involved in the current changes in the hall of tools. Under his super- 
vision a study of bearing technology is being undertaken by George 

Walter Cannon's study of science in 19th-century England, Science 
and Social History in Victorian England, was accepted for publication by 
Routledge & Kegan Paul. The chapters range from analysis of the work 
of individual men to a reinterpretation of the role of science as a whole 
in Victorian culture, which was delivered in March as the annual Sigma 
Xi lecture at the University of Pennsylvania. Cannon also began a 
comparison of the scientific accuracy of David Rittenhouse with that of 
his British contemporaries. 

Uta C. Merzbach completed the research for an edition of the 
mathematical publications of Leibniz. 

Deborah Warner completed a study of the famous American tele- 
scope makers, Alvan Clark and sons, coupled with a lengthy catalog of 
all known objective lenses made by the Clarks. 

The forthcoming publication of Howard Chapelle's Search for Speed 
Under Sail, J 700- J 855, will represent the culmination of some 40 years of 
research in this field; it contains 134 drawings, all produced by the 
author. Chapelle has also completed studies of the frigate Constellation 
and of the sloop De Braak. In January he addressed the Navy League of 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on the subject of building a replica of the 
Continental frigate Raleigh. 

John H. White's study, American Locomotives, 1830-1 880, was accepted 
for publication by the Johns Hopkins Press. White completed a paper 


on Baldwin's first locomotive and one on the business history of the 
Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company. He gave a paper on rationaliza- 
tion and standardization of locomotive design at the meeting of the 
Society for the History of Technology in December. 

Melvin Jackson's study of the operations of French privateers out of 
Charleston, South Carolina, during 1793-1796 is to be published by 
the Smithsonian Institution Press. Jackson is doing research on the 
pioneer Griffin Greene steamboat of 1796 and on the privateer Prince 
of Neufchatel in the War of 1812. At the invitation of the Royal Nether- 
lands Navy League of Curasao, Netherlands Antilles, Jackson gave 
three lectures on Dutch-American maritime relations in the Caribbean 
during the 18th century, at the celebration of the 60th anniversary of 
the League's founding. 

Don Berkebile completed a paper on the William T. Harris motor 
wagon of 1892, one of the early gasoline-propelled vehicles built in the 
United States, and he continued work on his carriage dictionary. 

William Geoghegan completed his chronology of events of the Civil 
War gunboats on the western rivers. 


With a grant from Resources for the Future, Inc., and the coopera- 
tion of the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Interior, the division 
of agriculture and forest products began a study of the possibilities of 
establishing a number of farms on which the conditions and crops 
representative of stages in American agricultural history will be repro- 
duced. The research report will be completed in November 1967. 
Research continues for a history of American agriculture 1607-1967. 

The curators of the division of ceramics and glass began the compila- 
tion of a catalog of the Hans Syz collection of 1 8th-century European 
porcelain. Paul Gardner's technical biography of Frederick Carder 
should be ready for publication in fall 1967. Work on the classification 
of ceramics from the archeological excavations at Fort Michilimackinac, 
Michigan, continued. In January the curators conducted a seminar 
on identification of unmarked 1 8th-century English porcelain, chaired 
by Robert J. Charleston, Keeper of the Department of Ceramics, 
Victoria and Albert Museum, London. It was attended by fifteen 
curators of ceramics from such museums as The Metropolitan Museum 
of Art, Henry Francis duPont Winterthur Museum, Colonial Williams- 
burg, the Art Institute of Chicago, and the William Nelson Rockhill 

The Twelfth Annual Wedgwood International Seminar convened 
at the Smithsonian Institution May 3 through May 6, 1967, under the 


Installation of the mural in the hall of petroleum, opened in June 1967. This 
57-foot picture in polymer tempera, a portion of which is shown above, por- 
trays the techniques of finding, producing, and distributing petroleum. Below: 
Early rotary drilling machine used at Spindletop oilfield in 1901. In the back- 
ground are examples of blowout preventers and, at right, of drilling bits. 


joint chairmanship of the curators. The 325 registrants from the United 
States, Canada, and Europe enjoyed a program which included 13 
illustrated lectures, evening study sessions, and tours of Hillwood and 
the White House. A special exhibition of Wedgwood was mounted in 
connection with this seminar. 

Jacob Kainen, curator of graphic arts since 1946, retired in September 
1966 to devote more time to his painting and research. He continued 
to serve the Smithsonian on the staff of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts as curator of prints and drawings. 

A catalogue raisonne of the etchings, lithographs, and posters of 
John Sloan and a study of his etching methods was completed by 
associate curator Peter Morse, who resigned, effective July 1, 1967, to 
join the staff of the Honolulu Academy of Fine Arts. 

Elizabeth Harris, who held a Smithsonian fellowship until October 
1966 and has continued as a consultant, completed a study of Sir 
William Congreve's compound-plate printing and is preparing a cata- 
log of the Museum's collection of photomechanical printing. 

Eugene Ostroff was awarded a one-year research grant to continue 
his work, started last year, related to the preservation and restoration 
of photographs. A paper on preservation of photographs, resulting 
from this work, will appear in The Photographic Journal. He visited 
Lacock Abbey, Chippenham, Wiltshire, England, the ancestral home of 
William Henry Fox Talbot, inventor of the photographic negative 
system used today for producing unlimited paper prints. An attempt 
to discover the remains of the inventor's laboratory shed, carried out in 
cooperation with the National Trust (Britain), failed to reveal meaning- 
ful artifacts, but six Talbot laboratory jars found in the attic were 
generously lent for display at the Smithsonian by Mrs. Katherine 
Burnett Brown, great-granddaughter of Fox Talbot. 

Opportunity was given to inspect Talbot's personal photographic 
collection, owned by Mrs. Burnett Brown; a catalog of the collection is 
being prepared by Ostroff, and the appropriate preservation measures 
applied to the prints. 

Research in the division of manufactures and heavy industries was 
principally concerned with preparations for the hall of nuclear energy 
and coal. The financial records of a major coal producer, given to 
the Museum, have greatly assisted curator John N. Hoffman in his 
continuing study of the early development of the Pennsylvania an- 
thracite region. Work on the development of the American economy 
through 1865 has continued. 

The staff of the division of textiles continued its research in textile 
subjects for the script for the new permanent hall and for scheduled 
special exhibits. A paper, "Natural Dyes in the United States," was 


Examples of Victorian needlework from the collections in the division of 




After a showing at the Museum, an exhibit of Victorian Needlework was 
circulated nationally by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (see pp. 274 and 385). 


submitted by Rita J. Adrosko for publication by the Smithsonian 
Institution Press. She continued her research on Jacquard-woven silk 
pictures in America and on 19th-century shawls, and Doris Bowman 
continued research on early machine-made nets. 


Many activities of the department this year reflect an increased 
interest in the Museum's relationships with foreign museums and 
collections, rapport with foreign colleagues, and strengthening ties 
with cultures parallel to our own. Richard H. Howland was elected 
secretary-treasurer of the United States National Committee of 
ICOMOS, the new UNESCO-sponsored international organization 
officially known as the Conseil International des Monuments et des 
Sites. At the invitation of UNESCO, he spent five weeks in Ethiopia, 
where he advised the Crown Prince and other government officials 
on the organization of a new Ethiopian Antiquities Administration. 

Curator C. Malcolm Watkins continued his work on the exciting 
Thompson letters, written from California before 1870, and was 
consulted on cultural and historical displays at the new municipal 
museum in Oakland, California. In April 1967 he began a year's 
sabbatical leave to investigate early American pottery. Research 
collaborator Joan Pearson Watkins contributed substantially both to 
studies of earthenware and of Western Americana. 

Rodris Roth correlated local deeds, early 19th-century house 
inventories, and genealogical records for a report ascertaining the 
history of, and furnishings for, an 1808 parlor from Martha's Vineyard 
in Massachusetts, soon to be displayed in the hall of everyday life. 
Richard Ahlborn completed research on two unique buildings used 
as oratories by a flagellant brotherhood in the Spanish-American 
villages of New Mexico. His illustrated monograph on the "Penitente 
Moradas of Abiquiu" is to be published by the Smithsonian Institution 

Mrs. Anne W. Murray completed research on her paper, "Sunshades, 
Parasols and Umbrellas," and continued investigation of certain 
aspects of the history of 18th- and early 19th-century American 
costume. For The Institute of Pennsylvania Life and Culture, June 21 
through June 24, she lectured and served as chairman of a seminar on 
historic American costume. 

Claudia B. Kidwell completed her paper, "Women's Bathing Dress 
and Customs in the United States," which is being published by the 
Smithsonian Institution Press, and continued research on dress of the 


Associate curator Cynthia A. Hoover continued research for an 
illustrated handbook, "Music Making — American Style," which will 
supplement the few published histories of American music through 
illustrations of musical objects, important musical documents and 
paintings, and contemporary accounts of American musical activities. 
She also completed an article, "Music at the Smithsonian," to appear 
in the fifth issue of the Smithsonian Journal of History. 

A total listing of the Museum's extensive keyboard collection was 
prepared by the staff of the division of musical instruments and edited 
by Cynthia Hoover with assistance from Scott Odell. Its detailed 
descriptions of the instruments were compiled by associate curator 
John Fesperman, museum specialist Helen Hollis, and by summer 
interns Theodore Grame (1962), Robert Falck (1963-1964), and 
Dorman Smith (1965-1966). It is intended as the first of a compre- 
hensive series of checklists and catalogs which will document the music 

Associate curator in charge John Fesperman prepared a facsimile 
edition with introductory notes of Ten Voluntaries for the Organ or 
Harpsichord by William Boyce, originally published in London, circa 
1785, and never reprinted in full since that date. He continued in- 
vestigations of early organ building in America by way of providing 
information about organs in the collection for the checklist of keyboard 
instruments. With Scott Odell, he traveled to Mexico to photograph 
and document 1 7th-century organ building in and around Mexico City. 
He also participated in performances of music of Praetorius, Byrd, and 
Monteverdi with other members of the Collegium. Research in per- 
formance conventions led to his preparation for program notes for 
concerts of "Music in America Before 1800" and for "Christmas 
Music of the Renaissance and Early Baroque." 

Associate curator Keith E. Melder pursued his study of women's 
status in the United States, and began investigating reforms in Ameri- 
can education during the first half of the 1 9th century. He participated 
in two orientation seminars in American material culture in the joint 
Smithsonian-George Washington University American Studies pro- 
gram. Margaret B. Klapthor, associate curator, continued research 
on various phases of White House history, concentrating on detailed 
studies of china from all the administrations. 

Assistant curator Herbert R. Collins' research on American political 
campaign bandannas and kerchiefs involved design patent records 
and a study of major collections in all parts of the country. Kenneth 
Shipps returned to the division of political history for his second 
summer as a research assistant studying Presidential campaign music 


in the United States and research assistant Isabel Davies accumulated 
valuable information on White House china and on World War I 

Curator Peter C. Welsh continued research on the implements of the 
hand crafts. He continued his work on the Harry T. Peters lithography 
collection and the Eleanor and Mabel Van Alstyne folk art collection. 
His manuscript "Track and Road," a history of the American trotting 
horse based upon the visual record preserved in the Peters lithography 
collection, was completed and is now in press. He lectured in the Coop- 
erstown Graduate Program, Cooperstown, New York; and in May 
discussed tools, construction, and the Ipswich House as part of Colum- 
bia University's graduate seminar in restoration and preservation. 

Assistant curator Anne Castrodale Golovin presented a paper 
"Daniel Trotter, Philadelphia Cabinetmaker," at the Annual Winter- 
thur Seminar on Connoisseurship at the Henry Francis duPont Winter- 
thur Museum. Her manuscript, "William Wood Thackera, Volunteer 
in the War of 1812," is now in press for the Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History and Biography. 

Museum technician Anne Marie Serio investigated the political 
caricatures in the Peters lithography collection and conducted a study 
of the 1 848 national convention of the Free Soil Party. 

A numismatic seminar consisting of eleven sessions was held by the 
division of numismatics from March 9 through May 18, 1967. Dr. and 
Mrs. Clain-Stefanelli developed the program as a survey of the science 
of numismatics and its aims, and it included a discussion of the most 
important numismatic references. Coins as documents of history and 
art in coinage formed the subject of two sessions. Two other sessions 
giving a survey of coining metals and of coining techniques provided 
the necessary basis for a presentation of special methods germane to 
numismatic research, such as the comparative study of dies in order to 
establish chronological sequences of coins. The application of scientific 
methods of investigation — particularly physics — in numismatics was 
the subject of another session. The concepts guiding the activity of 
numismatic museums throughout the world and a history of the Na- 
tional Numismatic Collections completed the series of seminars. In the 
review session, the curator emphasized the necessity for a continuous 
reappraisal of the scope of numismatics. 

Both the curator and associate curator lectured extensively on various 
numismatic subjects in Washington and other cities. 

Reidar Norby was appointed assistant curator of philately and postal 
history in August 1966. Editor of The Posthorn and the Scandinavian 
Scribe, and author of numerous publications on European stamps and 



The two halls opened in the growth of the United States series cover the period 
1640-1851. Construction methods used in 1690 and 1750 are illustrated by 
this house from Ipswich, Massachusetts. Below: Two-man pit saw used to rip 
out planks. 

Wheels and gears of a 1774 grist mill 
from Chester County, Pennsylvania, 
reconstructed and working. Nearby 
(left) ducks are penned in by a 
typical woven sapling fence. Below: 
Conestoga freight wagon of the type 
used in the Pennsylvania area, 1790- 


postal history, he began a study of postal communications between 
the United States and Scandinavia. 

Associate curator Carl H. Scheele, whose Postal Service — A Brief 
History is in press, continued research on mail-handling devices and 
airmail service. He was the principal speaker at the Combined Philatelic 
Exhibitions of Chicago and was appointed to the Council of the 
American Philatelic Congress. 

A system to retrieve information from United States covers is being 
developed by Scheele and museum specialist Francis E. Welch. 


The American studies program was carried on in cooperation with 
universities in the local area and tentative arrangements were made for 
cooperation with universities outside the local area. An orientation 
seminar in the material culture of the United States, given for the 
second consecutive year in the spring semester, was organized around 
the theme of technological innovation and was taught by staff members 
from each of the Museum's departments. Eleven graduate students 
from the George Washington University and the University of Mary- 
land participated. In addition six graduate students from the George 
Washington University took individual reading courses with members 
of the Museum staff. 

In November 1966 the chairman organized a conference on the 
recently discovered Vinland map in conjunction with a special 
exhibition of the map and related objects. No final conclusions about 
the map, either in terms of its authenticity or meaning, were reached, 
but much light was shed on the subject. The proceedings of the 
conference are being edited for publication. 

In July Dr. Wilcomb E. Washburn addressed the 1966 meeting of the 
Anglo-American Conference of Historians, London, England, speaking 
in behalf of the overseas historians in response to the welcome of 
C. V. Wedgwood, representing the English historians. He participated 
in a conference on the Discovery of America held at the Centre 
d' Etudes Superieures de la Renaissance de Tours, France, giving 
papers on the Vinland map and on the American Indian; in the 
organization meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology, 
Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas; and in a planning 
conference on American Indian history at the University of California 
at Los Angeles, where he spoke briefly on opportunities in the study 
of American Indian history. 

He also spoke at the Conference on Virginia History on problem 
areas in Virginia history; at the Conference on Early American 



The Vinland map was on exhibit in the Museum of History and Technology 
from November 1966 through June 1967. 

At the conference on the Vinland map, held November 15-16, 1966, the map 
is examined by Armando Cortesao of Coimbra University, Portugal; Alexander 
Orr Vietor of the Yale University Library; Peter Sawyer of England; Gwyn 
Jones of University College, Cardiff, Wales; and Thomas E. Marston of the 
Yale University Library. 



Einar Haugen of Harvard University, Raleigh Skelton of the British Museum, 
England, Alexander Orr Vietor of the Yale University Library, and lb Ronne 
Kejlbo of the Royal Library, Copenhagen, Denmark, examine a portion of 
the Vinland map exhibit. 

Graduate students in the orientation seminar in the material culture of the 
United States observe the installation of a block road (generally referred to, 
incorrecdy, as Belgian block) in an exhibit in the Museum of History and 
Technology. Museum specialist Donald H. Berkebile (extreme left) division 
of transportation, and (next to him) Wilcomb E. Washburn, chairman, 
department of American studies, conduct the discussion. 


History, meeting at the State University of New York, in Albany, 
on status in the historical profession; and at the Second Annual South- 
west Missouri Historian's Conference, on the cultural shock of 
discovery. He also addressed the Colloquium on Western Hemisphere 
Studies of the Catholic University of America, the History Club of 
Georgetown University, students of the Phillips Exeter Academy 
working as interns with members of the Congress, and a group of 
foreign students at the Conference of Asian Student Leaders, sponsored 
by The Experiment in International Living. He was reelected President 
of the Chesapeake Chapter of the American Studies Association, 
elected a Trustee of the Japan-America Society of Washington, and 
made a member of the Commandant's Advisory Committee on 
Marine Corps History. 


Research into methods of underwater exploration and in documents 
relating to sites explored continued to be the major project of Mendel L. 
Peterson. Grants from the National Geographic Society made possible 
the continued exploration of sites in Bermuda and a newly discovered 
site in the central Bahamas. During July and August the field party 
explored large areas of the western Bermuda reefs and Castle Harbor 
using a flux-gate magnetometer made available by Anthony F. 
Natale, Jr., of Philadelphia. Several new sites were located in this 

In spring 1966 a wreck was discovered by a party of skindivers 
fishing off Highborn Cay in the Exumas, central Bahamas. Photo- 
graphs of the site were submitted to the museum and it was determined 
that the wreck dated from the period before 1570. A preliminary 
examination was made in the fall and a thorough investigation of 
the site was made with the assistance of Edward B. Tucker during 
February and March 1967. The discoverers of the site — Robert Wilke, 
Clint Hinchman, and John Robinson — worked with the party and 
bore much of the responsibility of getting equipment together and 
recovering the ordnance and fittings which the site yielded. The 
ordnance consisted of two lombards, or broadside pieces, and twelve 
swivel guns, with a number of breechblocks for both. In addition, 
three anchors, a harpoon, many lead shot for the guns and numbers 
of iron fittings from the standing rigging were recovered. The nationality 
of the wreck and exact period are still in question. A search of the 
archives in Seville and Mexico City will be made to identify the vessel. 

Peterson continued his investigation into the marking and decoration 
of muzzle-loading guns. A thorough search of ordnance records in the 



Timber remains of 1 6th-century wreck 
being sketched under water by 
Smithsonian Institution artist James 
A. Mahoney. 


Air lift in operation on site of 16th-century Spanish wreck buried in sand. 


Public Record Office, London, being made by a researcher, is turning 
up much valuable material relating to ordnance contracts and makers' 
marks of the last half of the 18th century. 

Curator of military history Edgar M. Howell and museum specialist 
Donald E. Kloster of the division of military history continued work 
on a multivolume, comprehensive, descriptive, critical, and docu- 
mentary catalog of United States Army dress to include uniforms, 
headgear, and footwear. The first volume of this project, U.S. Army 
Headgear to 1854, is currently in press. Much of the research for the 
second and third volumes — U.S. Army Uniforms to 1857, by Kloster, 
and U.S. Army Headgear, 1855 to date, by Howell — is complete and 
work is continuing. This project is being performed in conjunction 
with a comprehensive recataloging and documenting of the uniform 
collections. This is a most significant undertaking in that the uniform 
collections of the division are the most comprehensive in America. 
In connection with this project, Kloster studied collections at Fort 
Ticonderoga and researched the Lansing manuscript collections at 
the New York Public Library and the New York Historical Society. 
In addition, Howell and Kloster studied the important collection of 
quartermaster "sealed samples" at the Quartermaster Museum, 
Fort Lee, Virginia. 

Howell continued his efforts to locate original graphic material 
illustrative of the role of the Army in the opening and development of 
the West, and Kloster completed the research and much of the writing 
on a monograph on Quartermaster General M. C. Meigs' first attempt 
to publish rigid specifications to be used in the procurement of clothing 
and equipage for the Army. 

Associate curator Craddock R. Goins, Jr., concentrated on the 
preparation of a detailed documentary catalog of the patent models 
in the firearms collection, assembling patent drawings, specifications, 
affidavits, and other documentary material from the National Archives 
and the Patent Office. 

Museum specialist Alan B. Albright continued his investigations into 
the methods of preservation of materials recovered from sea water, 
and museum technician Thaddeus S. Moore, his restoration of ceramic 
and glass materials recovered from underwater sites. 

Associate curator of naval history Edward L. Towle undertook 
detailed research on the P. V. H. Weems and Admiral Richard E. 
Byrd collections of navigational instruments. Preliminary catalogs and 
background studies of these and other smaller groups of oceanographic, 
navigational, and scientific instruments in the division's collections 
are in preparation. He continued research on a major monograph 


on United States naval exploration during the 19th century, and is 
editing two previously unpublished journals illuminating American 
privateering in the Atlantic, 1777-1782, and the French assault on 
the Hudson's Bay Company fur trading posts, led by Jean de la 
Perouse in 1782. In conjunction with his interest in Arctic exploration, 
Towle is preparing a study of the 19th-century evolution of the Arctic 
research vessel which culminated in the design and construction of the 
SS Roosevelt, Admiral Robert E. Peaiy's successful polar steamer. 

In collaboration with museum specialist Howard P. Hoffman, 
curator of naval history Philip K. Lundeberg continued research on 
the construction of Benedict Arnold's squadron on Lake Champlain, 
a study which will include detailed plans of the Continental gondola 
Philadelphia. He continued preparation of a catalog of United States 
warship models, and construction was undertaken of models of both 
the gondola Philadelphia (1776) and the British ship-of-the-line America 
(1749), the latter based on plans by Mr. Merritt A. Edson, Jr., of 
Washington, D.C. In addition to his work on the Philadelphia model, 
Hoffman prepared an exceptionally detailed set of plans of a mid- 
18th-century octant constructed by Benjamin King of Newport, 
Rhode Island, and temporarily on loan from Brown University. This 
remarkable early octant reveals a precision of workmanship exceptional 
in early American instrument making. 

The department substantially expanded its educational activities in 
1966, sponsoring and participating in a variety of programs for the 
general public, graduate students, and professional societies. Lundeberg 
and Towle presented seminars on the early steam navy and mid- 19th- 
century naval exploration in the Smithsonian Institution graduate 
program on American civilization; they also delivered lectures to the 
Smithsonian Associates on squadron warfare, commerce warfare, 
naval exploration and diplomacy, and the role of the Armed Forces 
in the advancement of science. Lundeberg addressed the Society of 
the War of 1812 on American history as interpreted in the National 
Museum, and the Association of Naval Weapons Engineers on underseas 
warfare and allied strategy as a case study in deterrence. In connection 
with the American studies program and the Smithsonian Associates 
Goins and Kloster lectured on military history. 

Some forty lectures were delivered during the year by Peterson and 
Albright, including two series of five lectures each to the Smithsonian 
Associates on methods of underwater exploration. At a meeting held 
in association with the Naval Historical Foundation, Peterson spoke 
on the study of naval ordnance on sunken ships from the 16th to 19th 
centuries; and he also addressed the 19th Annual Williamsburg 


Antiques Forum, the biennial meeting of the Council of Underwater 
Archaeology in Miami, Florida, and the annual meeting of the Com- 
pany of Military Historians, in Washington. 

During the year, the department played host to two Smithsonian 
research associates, John C. Niven of Pomona College, who conducted 
research on a forthcoming biography of Gideon Welles, and Chauncey 
C. Loomis of Dartmouth College, who utilized the Charles Francis 
Hall collection in the preparation of a biography of that mid- 19th- 
century Arctic explorer. 

The Collections 


Science and Technology 

In electricity, particular attention has been devoted to 20th-century 
apparatus. A large number of important cathode-ray tubes and tele- 
vision sets associated with the career of Aldan B. DuMont has been 
given by Mrs. DuMont and by the Fairchild Instrument and Camera 
Corporation. The most important single item received, from Stanford 
University, was a five-ton magnet constructed and used by James 
Arnold and others as students of Felix Bloch in extending Bloch's 
Nobel Prize-winning research on nuclear magnetic resonance. 

A collection of valuable drug jars and other objects for the 1890 Amer- 
ican pharmacy exhibit was purchased from the Sydney N. Blumberg 
collection through the Coca Cola fund. For the Old World apothecary 
shop a 3rd-century B.C. south Italian painted terra-cotta jug, an 
ancient Etruscan bronze mortar, a 4th-century B.C. Greek vase, and 
an ancient Persian terra-cotta massage piece were purchased through 
the Squibb fund. 

Accessions in medical and dental history include prosthetic devices 
used in cardiovascular surgery from about 1940 to the present, donated 
by their inventor Charles A. Hufnagel; an extensive collection of 
quackery devices, transferred from the Food and Drug Administration ; 
the first automatic disposable plastic injector syringe, donated by 
Alfred R. Henderson; a cutaway model of an air- turbine surgical drill, 
donated by its inventor Robert M. Hall; a collection of American 
microscopes, 1868-1915, donated by Bausch and Lomb; a collection 
of replicas of historical microscopes made by Joseph D. Lucas and 
donated by his widow; and an incubator bed of the kind invented by 
Julius H. Hess for the care of premature babies, presented by the 
Michael Reese Hospital. 

Archival materials added to the civil engineering collection include 
a notable collection of original linen drawings and photographs, with 
supporting record journals, of the complete line of Westinghouse's 
steam, gas, and diesel engines from 1878 to the late 1920s, discovered 
in a storage warehouse in South Philadelphia. Part of this group, a 



Magnet used in early nuclear magnetic resonance studies at Stanford University. 

large series showing views of the works and its machinery, is an un- 
paralleled documentation of the arrangements within a major machine 
works around 1900. Also received was the valuable James Forgie col- 
lection, the professional papers of one of the nation's leading tunnel 
engineers, whose career extended from the 1880s to the 1950s. Many 
contractual documents, reports, and photographs help give detail on 
his projects which are otherwise unobtainable. 

As part of the cooperative preservation program established with the 
American Society of Civil Engineers, material received from members 
of the Society included an unusual Burt solar compass, donated by 
Donald Curtis, and the pamphlet and report collection of Rudolph 
Hering, a pioneer in the field of sanitary engineering. 

The International Business Machines Corporation donated a collec- 
tion of clocks, including a fine "Willard's Patent" banjo clock, a richly 
carved skeleton model Ithaca calendar clock, and an excellent group 
of industrial time clocks. A small but important collection of models 
of automatic timepiece regulators was donated by Jacob Rabinow, 
who invented several of them. Simplicity, low cost, and lack of need 
for attention on the part of the user have made Rabinow's designs the 
first to be widely accepted. Sir Arthur Sullivan's English verge-type 



The 24-inch reflector designed and built by George W. 
Ritchey especially for photographic astronomy. Gift 
of the Yerkes Observatory, for which it was built ca. 1900. 

stop watch was donated by Leroy C. Brown; it was a present from Sir 
Arthur to Mr. Brown's grandfather. 

Among the tools received were a Gould Brothers metal shaper of 
about 1860, from the Norton Company; a fine early- 19th-century 
mitre box from George Lewis Jones; and a boring machine with an 
original bill of sale dated 14 May 1853, from J. P. McAliley. 

Of historical significance was the Yerkes Observatory gift of their 
24-inch reflecting telescope by George Ritchey, one of the first really 
powerful telescopes designed by the great American telescopemaker 
for photographic work. A semicircumferentor of the 18th century by 
Pavolini demonstrates an early use of the telescopic sight in surveying 
instruments; it suggests that such sights were adopted quite early and 


Eighteenth-century semicircumferentor 
by Pavolini, showing an early use of a 
telescopic sight on a surveying instrument. 

then were abandoned in the course of the century. The rock-salt 
prism made by John Brashear for Samuel Langley, third secretary of 
the Smithsonian, has been transferred to the physical science collections. 
It was the largest such prism in the world when made, and was used 
by Langley in his important studies of the intensity of solar radiation 
in narrow bands of the infra-red spectrum. Georgetown University 
donated an Ertel transit telescope of 1844, notably enriching the 
collection of precision European instruments used in the United States. 
A large and handsome 18th-century French celestial globe marks an 
era in stellar astronomy. In the southern hemisphere it shows stars 
observed by the Abbe La Caille and grouped into constellations 
according to his book of 1 763 ; some of the constellations are classical 
heroes and animals, but a number, invented by La Caille himself, are 
in the form of contemporary scientific instruments, such as a telescope, 
a sextant, or a balance. A terrestrial globe of 1819 by J. Wilson is one 
of the earliest globes made in the United States. 

The most impressive transportation accession was a Bavarian state 
chariot used during the reign of Ludwig I (1825-1848), gift of Dieter 
Holterbosch. A group of valuable papers, including an engineering 
drawing of Griffin Green's pioneer steamboat of 1796, was acquired 
from Walter Rumsey Marvin. The memorabilia of Horace Thorne, an 
official of Westinghouse Air Brake Company, was added to the railroad 
reference collection. Other accessions included ten plating half-models 
of ships, from the Francis Russell Hart Nautical Museum of the Mas- 


sachusetts Institute of Technology; and a bike wagon of about 1905, 
representing the final development of horse-drawn vehicles. 

With respect to care and use of the collections, the Clark (radio) and 
Hammer (Edison) collections continue to attract researchers. To make 
parts of the Clark collection more accessible, a classification of the 
photographs was begun. When this is completed, the photographs will 
be placed on microfilm. The vacuum-tube collection has been stored in 
annotated boxes to facilitate the location of individual items. A system- 
atic method of filing and storage of archival engineering materials 
relating to tools has been set up, and much of the material has been 
restored and repaired ; the entire reference collection of the division of 
physical sciences is being reshelved to improve its accessibility and make 
the arrangement more consistent; and the railroad plan and oversize 
print files of over 3000 items have been cataloged, and a cross index is 
being prepared. 

Arts and Manufactures 

Deere & Company of Moline, Illinois, presented a "Waterloo Boy" 
Model N, and a John Deere Model "D" tractor. A 1917 Fordson 
tractor was given by Mrs. Frank Coron, Wantaugh, L.I.; a cheese 
press by Carlton M. Gunn of Sunderland, Massachusetts; and a hand- 
operated stump puller by Mr. McMechan, Joplin Globe, Joplin, 

Some of the more important gifts of ceramics and glass were : from 
Hans Syz, 23 pieces of rare 18th-century European porcelain, including 
an exceptionally fine Berlin vase; Mr. and Mrs. Edward M. Pflueger, 
five 18th-century ceramic items, including an outstanding Tournay 
bust of Louis XV; Mrs. William A. Sutherland, eight pieces of 18th- 
century English porcelain, including a fine Chelsea pitcher; Lloyd E. 
Hawes, 73 pieces of 18th- and early- 19th-century English earthenware, 
of which 53 were various types of Wedgwood wares not heretofore 
represented in the collections; the Joanne Toor Cummings fund, an 
extremely fine English, salt-glazed teapot, dated about 1750; and from 
Mr. and Mrs. Jack Leon, a unique collection of 62 pieces of late- 18th- 
and early- 1 9th-century English, yellow glazed earthenware. The 
Louise M. Packard collection of 59 pieces of ancient glass was presented 
by her daughter, Mrs. Robert U. Geib. 

Graphic arts accessions included a gift from Helen Farr Sloan, widow 
of the American artist John Sloan (1871-1951), of his etchings and 
other material, including the original copper plate and eight progressive 
proofs of Sloan's Copyist at the Metropolitan; and 25 etchings by William 
Glackens; the original zinc plate and a proof of Stuart Davis's early 
etching Two Women; and prints by George Luks, Boardman Robinson, 


John Sloan's original copper plate for the etching Copyist at the Metropolitan, 
of 1908-1910, a recent gift to the Smithsonian from Mrs. Helen Farr Sloan. 

Reginald Marsh, Peggy Bacon, Don Freeman, and other American 
artists. Also received were Emil Nolde's aquatint etching Staatsmann 
und Burger of 1918; blocks and progressive proofs of Carol Summers' 
color woodcut Fontana; 20 examples of O. F. Liebner's early offset 
lithographic printing; the only known etching by Robert Henri, from 
Robert Chapellier; Harold Isen's lithograph Brigham Young, from the 
Washington Society of Printmakers; and the plates and progressive 
proofs of Milton Goldstein's color etching On the Beach, gift of the artist. 

Equipment for a printing shop display was given by Mr. and Mrs. 
William Elvin. This material, in use at the Fairfax (Virginia) Herald 
since 1882, comprises composing frames, type cabinets, imposing tables, 
type cases and type, and many associated tools and records. 

The collection of photographs was enriched by the purchase of 60 
calotype paper negatives and prints, dating from 1839 to the mid- 
18408, from the personal collection of William Henry Fox Talbot, 
inventor of the first practicable paper photographs. Obtained through 


the recently established History of Photography fund, these substan- 
tially increased the Smithsonian's already important holdings of Talbot 

Magazine and fashion photographer Richard Avedon presented 
239 of his original negatives, with prints, adding to the 100 original 
negatives and prints he donated in 1965. Some ten thousand glass- 
plate negatives of news subjects of the early 1900s, from the files of 
Underwood and Underwood News Photos, were donated by Mrs. John 
M. Stratton. The news photographs presented by the Associated Press 
and United Press International for the exhibition "Twenty Years of 
News Photography" were added to the print collection, documenting 
the history of photo-journalism. More than sixty photographs of herons 
(ca. 1954—1966) by Tokutaro Tanaka, displayed in the exhibition 
"Tanaka: Photographs of Heron Hill," were also added to the col- 
lection. "Portrait of Rafael Sala" (1924), by Edward Weston, and 
a selection of prints (ca. 1890-1905) by the 19th-century British 
photographer Frederick Evans were added to the collection of rare 
prints made by the now extinct platinum-printing medium. Photo- 
graphs by Arnold Genthe were donated by Miss Byrd Crimora Hazelton 
and Mrs. Edwin L. Ashton. 

Attitudes of two 19th-century painters toward photography are 
illustrated by the painting The Magic Box (1858), by the Belgian 
artist Camille Venneman, and a lithograph and a woodcut by the 
French satirist Honore Daumier (ca. 1862), acquired during the 

Additions to the equipment collection included the latest complete 
Graflex XL camera system of interchangeable modular units, given 
by Graflex, Inc., and an example of one of the first "zoom" lenses 
(ca. 1930), manufactured by Otto Durholz and donated by his son 
Gustav Durholz. 

From Mrs. B. K. Nehru was received an unusual black and white 
Indian shawl; from Mrs. J. Roswell Gallagher, a collection of 53 
hand woven early- 19th-century American figured table linens, and six 
volumes of hand-drawn diagrams of their weaves, the subject of a book 
written by the donor; from Mrs. H. F. Hallock, Jr., spinning and 
weaving implements used by her ancestors in Rumford, Maine, 
during the first half of the 19th century. An important 18th-century 
embroidery frame, an 18th-century blue-resist-dyed cotton quilt, and 
two spinning wheels of unrepresented types were also added to the 

Kenneth E. Jewett gave the remainder of his collection of tinsmith's 
ware, and from donors in Pennsylvania were received a number of 
artifacts relating to the early coal industry. 


Quarter-scale model of 24- 
spindle Slater spinning frame 
of 1790, made in the Museum 
model shop by John W. Schultz 
for exhibit in textile hall now 
under construction. Actual size 
of the 1790 frame in inches: 
height, 63; length, 66; and 
width, 10. 

A survey of the reference collections of agriculture and forest prod- 
ucts and a definitive catalog are in progress. A long-range program 
was begun to rearrange, inventory, and cross-index the study collections 
of ceramics and glass. 

In the course of reorganizing the photomechanical collection some 
100 prints were repaired and 400 new mats cut. The printing shop 
equipment from the Fairfax Herald was cleaned and refinished for use 
in printing demonstrations and much old type from the same source 
was cleaned and sorted. 

Study of the preservation and restoration of the earliest photographs 
in the Museum's collection, extended to all types of photographs, has 
contributed to the establishment of standards for the treatment and 
preservation of specimens in the print collection. Original patent 
specifications were obtained for each patent model in the collection 
of about 3000 items of photographic equipment. 

The textile laboratory was heavily occupied with cleaning and 
repairing items for the exhibit Victorian Needlework, for the growth of 
the United States halls, the forthcoming exhibit of the Copp family 
textiles, and for other departments of the Museum. 

The staff of the division of manufactures and heavy industries was 
occupied with the preparation of material for the hall of petroleum 
and in becoming familiar with the demonstration exhibits, including 
several intricate and unique presentations illustrative of the techniques 
of oil-reservoir engineering. 


Civil History 

Additions to the cultural history collections. included a fine 1860 
schoolroom interior from Mason's Island near Mystic, Connecticut, 
from the Mason's Island Company; and a quality series of Hispanic 
religious panels (retablos) Irom 19th-century New Mexico given by 
Mrs. William C. F. Robards of Washington, D.C., niece of the Okla- 
homa missionary who collected them before 1920. The archeological 
excavations in Alexandria, Virginia, yielded a unique collection of 
cultural materials giving evidence of colonial tradesmen — shoemaker, 
potter, doctor, coppersmith, pharmacist, combmaker and tavern 
keeper. Richard J. Muzzrole undertook both the excavation and 
restoration programs. 

The complex task of organizing information about cultural history 
objects was skillfully advanced by Betty Walters, who worked with a 
Termatrex data-retrieval system. 

Among the 132 examples added to the American costume collections 
were two gold watches given by Mrs. Robert Callen King and two 
Quaker wedding dresses given by Mrs. H. E. Snyder. 

Several Appalachian dulcimers were acquired by Scott Odell on a 
field trip to the southern mountains and through correspondence with 
a Tennessee dealer. Further augmenting the collection of traditional 
American musical instruments, a rare 19th-century banjo made by the 
important early maker, Henry Dobson, was given by Mr. Hermann W. 
Williams, Jr., Director of the Corcoran Gallery of Art; and a Theremin 
(an electronic instrument) made by RCA was given by Mrs. Ralph 

Iconography has only recently been properly utilized and its im- 
portance appreciated as a primary source in studies of the history of 
musical instruments. The file of iconography on musical instru- 
ments now numbers approximately 1200 cataloged and indexed 
photographs and color reproductions from collections in the United 
States, Europe, and the British Isles. Several hundred more are in the 
process of being cataloged and new material is constantly being added. 

Robert Sheldon of the musical instruments laboratory staff put a 
19th-century serpent into playing condition and also did restoration 
work on several other wind instruments, including an 18th-century 
natural trumpet. Scott Odell began the restoration of the 1 760 French 
harpsichord by Benoist Stehlin. The laboratory staff, with the assistance 
of volunteer workers from the Smithsonian Associates, continued the 
extensive task of cleaning and repairing specimens. This work has 
been integrated with the preparation of checklists for the various 
categories of musical instruments in the collection. 


To the Ralph E. Becker collection of political campaign objects 
the donor added several handpainted 19th-century political banners. 
From Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower was received a fuchsia matelasse 
evening gown. 

Work has continued on completing the record of each dress in the 
First Ladies collection. Mrs. Sarah Lee Taft, a professional pattern 
maker from New York, has prepared patterns and sewing instructions 
for three more dresses, those of Mrs. Coolidge, Mrs. Harding, and Mrs. 

A systematic remounting of the lithographs in the Harry T. Peters 
lithography collection was undertaken. 

To the numismatic collections Willis H. duPont donated a group of 
634 silver and copper coins of Russia struck from 1826 to 1841, during 
the reign of Czar Nicholas I, and Mrs. Catherine Bullowa-Moore 
contributed a decadrachm of Syracuse (Sicily) engraved by the famous 
artist Euainetos around 390 B.C. A group of 44 Greek bronze coins, 
from the Duke of Argyll and Charles Seltman collections, and a group 
of rare Athenian fractional silver coins from the 5th to 4th centuries 
B.C., were given by the Messrs. Stack. 

To the philately collections a Venetian letter dated 1390 — the earliest 
on paper in the division — was given by John F. Rider and an extremely 
rare strip of North West Pacific Island stamps, by Ralph Hoffman. 
One of the few remaining mail carriers of the New York pneumatic 
tube system was donated by the Lamson Corporation. 

Armed Forces History 

Among the materials acquired in the underwater exploration 
program were a Randall diving knife, presented by the designer and 
maker W. D. Randall, and three diving suits with accessories, presented 
by U.S. Divers Co., through Tommy Thompson. Interesting acquisi- 
tions from the Virginia Company ship Eagle, wrecked on the Bermuda 
reefs in 1659, are a hand plane, auger handle, tobacco pipes, pewter 
mug, wooden dough tray, and pewter bottle tops. Also received were 
a set of goldsmith's crucibles, possibly of the early 17th century; 
silver buckles from the San Antonio, which sank in 1621 ; and personal 
effects and ship's equipment from the UHerminie, which went down in 

William (Bill) Mauldin donated six of his famous "Willie and Joe" 
cartoons of World War II to the military history collections. A rare 
1 7th-century wrought-iron cannon was received from John N. Albright, 
and a significant collection of World War I situation maps, including 
a rare operations map from General John J. Pershing's headquarters, 
was donated by Lieutenant Colonel R. C. Beaudry. 


To the military collections were added a unique staff officer's undress 
coat, circa 1821, and a cased set of 65 gauges for the U.S. rifle model 
1841. These gauges, used by inspectors of arms and obtained from 
William Guthman, are among the earliest produced for establishing 
accuracy in quantity production and thus are most important in the 
development of the interchangeable-parts system of manufacturing. 

An excellent collection of hand and shoulder firearms, cartridges, 
and dealers' catalogs and brochures was donated by Commander 
Clark E. Kauffman, USN (Ret.). The weapons are excellent examples 
of a wide variety of multibarrel, pepperbox, and revolving-cylinder 
systems, and breechloaders. These acquisitions make it possible to 
prepare a more representative exhibit on the development of breech- 
loading and repeating systems. 

Additions to the collection of warship models included the Conti- 
nental schooner Hannah, one of the vessels in General George Wash- 
ington's Massachusetts Bay squadron of 1776; and the torpedo-boat 
destroyer Decatur, representing another significant step in the evolution 
of the modern destroyer. In addition, builders' half models of the 
dreadnought battleships North Dakota and Nevada and the predread- 
nought Connecticut were received from the Massachusetts Institute of 

Among personal memorabilia received was a silver medal, presented 
by Congress in 1 813 to Midshipman (later Surgeon) Bailey Washington 
for his services in the engagement between USS Enterprise and HMS 
Boxer, donated by Mrs. John W. Davidge of Washington, D.C. 
Through Captain Roger Pineau, USNR, the division of naval history 
received a portfolio of 27 contemporary Japanese prints and broadsides 
and a contemporary Japanese diary relating to Commodore Matthew 
C. Perry's expedition to the Far East in 1853-54. A large Confederate 
national ensign taken by Union naval forces during Burnside's attack 
on Roanoke Island on February 8, 1862, was donated by Mrs. G. F. 
Connal Rowan of Stirlingshire, Scotland. 

Museum specialist Alan B. Albright and museum technician Thad- 
deus S. Moore continued to restore and preserve materials recovered 
from the sea in the underwater exploration program. Moore made 
extensive restorations of ceramic vessels and restored iron objects by 
electrochemical reduction. Wooden objects were preserved by the 
polyethylene-glycol process. Experiments were continued with various 
cleaning formulas and preservatives for treating metallic cartridges to 
prevent corrosion and oxidation of lead. 

The restoration and additional documentation of navigation instru- 
ments in the P. V. H. Weems and related collections continued. A 
number of broadsides in the Charles Francis Hall collection were 


laminated by the National Archives, and similar preservation is 
planned for the extensive collection of naval posters of World Wars I 
and II. 



Science and 

Arts and Man- 
ufactures . . 

Civil History . 

Armed Forces 
History . . 

Total . . 






1, 197 

Trans- Lent for 
f erred to study to 
Exchanged other Gov- investigators 
Received with other ernment and other Specimens 
on loan institutions agencies institutions identified 







47 8 

153 2,501 
439 114,833 





672 118,158 


Science and Technology 105, 206 

Physical Sciences 4, 672 

Mechanical and Civil Engineering 12, 430 

Electricity 8, 132 

Transportation 43, 109 

Medical Sciences 36, 863 

Arts and Manufactures 153, 742 

Textiles 35, 740 

Ceramics and Glass 17, 894 

Graphic Arts 53, 652 

Manufactures and Heavy Industries 35, 822 

Agriculture and Forest Products 10, 634 

Civil History 10, 553, 899 

Political History 49, 224 

Cultural History 24, 771 

Philately and Postal History 10, 166, 009 

Musical Instruments 43 

Numismatics 313, 852 

Armed Forces History 56, 020 

Military History 42, 527 

Naval History 13, 495 

Total 10, 868, 867 


The hall of medical sciences was formally opened in August 1966, 
with George Griffenhagen, of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, and George Arrington, Jr., of the Virginia Medical College, as 
speakers for the occasion. 

In January the hall of power machinery was opened to the public. 
Operation of the large machinery has raised technical problems which 
are being worked out. Installation of a compressed-air system to drive 
the hall's steam engines is expected this year. 

Progress toward completing the vehicle hall was achieved in 
February with the installation of ten different kinds of road surfaces. 
Old stone blocks and cobblestones were obtained from abandoned 
roadways, and a section of plank road was found in southeastern 
California. A steam-locomotive sound recording was added to the 
railroad hall; the whistle sounds are those of the huge locomotive 
(No. 1401) on exhibit. 

Alterations in the hall of tools include installation of guard railings 
around the machine-tool platforms to make public demonstrations 
safe, and an enclosure to house projection equipment for a film on 
machine tools. New individual exhibits completed or in progress are 
a Gleason bevel-gear cutting machine of 1876; a Gould shaper of 1860; 
and the workshop of a wealthy amateur ornamental turner. 

In collaboration with the department of American studies a special 
exhibit on 15th-century cartography was produced in conjunction 
with the conference on the Vinland map, which was loaned by Yale 
University for the period of the conference. 

A special racing-car exhibit was produced in May to assist the 
Smithsonian Society of Associates in promoting their film night 
featuring the "Grand Prix." An authentic 19-century omnibus toured 
the Mall during the Smithsonian's festivities celebrating the April 1 
start of the Museum's summer hours and the establishment of the 
Department of Transportation. 

The hall of health was opened for a reception for wives of physicians 
attending the International Congress of Gynecologists and Obstetricians, 
at which time the newly renovated Transparent Woman was set into 

A special exhibit featuring the Oscillatom atom clock was held 
during April prior to its being sent to EXPO 67 in Montreal. 



In new hall of medical sciences, pioneers of surgical anesthesia are honored. 
Below: Electro-therapeutic static machine of the late 19th century, designed to 
"treat" a variety of nervous, muscular, and other disorders. 


Among loans made for exhibitions elsewhere were about 60 duplicate 
items from the electricity collection, to the Birla Industrial Museum 
in Calcutta; collections of quackery devices and patent medicines, 
loaned to the Illinois Chapter of the Arthritis Foundation for their 
exhibit at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago; and the 
first electrocardiograph of its kind to be used in Washington, D.C., 
to the Washington Heart Association for display in the lobby of the 
District Medical Society building as a memorial to Dr. Thomas 
Simms Lee. 

For a future exhibit, Roy LaRoche is building a television system 
operating according to techniques available in the 1920s. For the 
hall of electricity, he is also building a special "teaching machine." 
William Henson organized material on the history of machine tools 
for use by volunteer docents now conducting tours on a regular basis. 

A special exhibition of Wedgwood porcelain (bone china) of the 
first period (1812-1822) and of Wedgwood portrait medallions was 
prepared in connection with the Twelfth Annual Wedgwood Inter- 
national Seminar held at the Smithsonian, May 3 through May 6, 
1967. This exhibition, continued through June 22, enabled collectors 
and students to see a large group of early Wedgwood porcelains and 
over 400 portrait medallions — some of great rarity. A number of 
recent accessions were placed on exhibition in both the glass and 
ceramic halls, 62 pieces from the Leon collection of English yellow 
glazed earthenware of the late 18th and early 19th century being of 
special interest. 

Australian Prints Today, the first exhibition of its kind in the United 
States, was held in the graphic arts gallery from July 15 to October 15, 
1966. Rembrandt's Complete Landscape Etchings, on loan from museums 
and private collections, and on exhibit from November 8, 1966, to 
January 31, 1967, received extensive press coverage. Prints by Sue 
Jane Smock opened in October 1966 and Six Danish Graphic Artists, in 
February 1967. 

Preparations were made for a new permanent display of 19th- 
century hand printing. Regular demonstrations of typesetting and 
printing, using the Columbian press, will be given in the hall of 
graphic arts. 

Twenty Tears of News Photography, an exhibition of more than 130 
photographs, selected by the curator of photography and donated by 
the Associated Press and United Press International, attracted con- 
siderable public interest from May to September 1966, and more than 
sixty photographs of herons by the distinguished Japanese photographer 
Tokutaro Tanaka have been on exhibition since March 8, 1966. 


At opening of the exhibit Australian 
Prints Today, in July 1966, were Daniel 
Thomas, Curator of the Art Gallery 
of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 
Peter Morse, associate curator of graphic 
arts; and Australian Ambassador John 
Keith Waller. On the wall is Sidney 
Nolan's lithograph, Portrait of Kelly. 

Victorian Needlework, or the Rise of the Printed Pattern, the first Smith- 
sonian traveling exhibition of three-dimensional objects from the 
collections, was prepared and a two-month preview showing was 
held in the Museum. Because of the many requests for the exhibit, 
its scheduled travel time of two years was extended to three. 

The spinning demonstration given for one hour each week continues 
to be well received; its schedule is regularly reported on "Dial-a- 
Museum." Special demonstrations were also given on request to special 
groups and to school groups at both the elementary and college level. 

The hall of petroleum was formally opened on June 28, 1967, in the 
presence of a large company of the oil industry engineers and specialists, 
representative of those who collaborated in its development. A pre- 
view of the hall had been given on January 30, 1967, to government 
officials and industry executives and members of the National Petro- 
leum Council. Much interest was shown especially in the magnificent 
57-foot mural, commissioned by a group of Tulsa, Oklahoma, oil men 
and executed by Delbert Jackson of Tulsa. 

A special exhibit on isotope-radiography was continued, while, 
during the year, some models illustrative of various steel-making 
processes, prepared for the hall of iron and steel by the Bethlehem Steel 
Corporation, were placed on temporary exhibition. 

To the display devoted to the culture of the American Negro will be 
added displays presenting the role of the Negro in the development of 
American life. 


A special exhibition, Music Making — American Style, displaying 
significant genteel and folk traditions in the history of American music, 
included groupings of pianos selected to illustrate American con- 
tributions to piano construction techniques, folk instruments made 
by mountain craftsmen, Benjamin Franklin's set of musical glasses 
(called the Armonica), American banjos, paintings by Americans 
of Americans performing music, and collections of music with special 
American notation. With the use of imaginative wire figures, jazz 
musicians, folk musicians, and 19th-century brass band players were 
shown in ensembles typical of their eras. 

The wedding dress of Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower was placed on 
special exhibit in the First Ladies Hall to honor the 50th wedding 
anniversary of General and Mrs. Eisenhower. As part of a preliminary 
celebration of the Bicentennial of the American Revolution, an exhibit 
commemorating the 1 75th anniversary of the Bill of Rights gave special 
attention to the contributions of George Mason of Virginia toward 
its establishment. 

On June 6, 1967, two halls of the growth of the United States exhibit 
were opened to the public. Covering the period 1640-1851, they 
contain many objects of particular interest representing the arts, 
technology, and science. Included are a printing press used by Ben- 
jamin Franklin, the wheels and gears from a 1 774 grist mill from Chester 
County, Pennsylvania, and a house frame from Ipswich, Massachusetts, 
dating from the 1690s and the 1750s. 

The hall of underwater exploration, newly opened to the public, 
treats the study of historic underwater sites and trade routes in the 
Western Hemisphere, Spanish-American treasure, the history of diving, 
modern methods of diving and of locating wrecks, and surveying, 
measuring, and recovery techniques. Display objects come from sites 
dating as early as 1595. The use of diving techniques in various dis- 
ciplines and new deep-diving research are presented in photographs 
and models. 

Contributors to the hall include Edwin A. Link, Edward B. Tucker, 
Arthur McKee, M&E Marine Supply Company, U.S. Divers Com- 
pany, The American Rolex Watch Corporation, National Geographic 
Society, Ocean Systems, General Dynamics Corporation, Lockheed 
Missiles and Space Company, W. D. Randall, Westinghouse Corpora- 
tion, and the Reynolds Aluminum Corporation. The hall was designed 
by Nadya Kayaloff. Production and installation were under the direc- 
tion of Frank Gambino. Models and special devices exhibited in 
the hall were produced by the exhibits laboratory model shop under 
the supervision of Robert Klinger. 


The special exhibition Battle Art, American Expeditionary Forces, 1918, was held 

during spring 1967. 

Design and production of the hall of armed forces history, 1865 to 
date, occupied the staff during the year. Curator Edgar M. Howell of 
the division of military history organized the special exhibition Battle 
Art, American Expeditionary Forces, 1918, for which he prepared an 
illustrated catalog. 

Additional exhibits installed in the halls of the Armed Forces of the 
United States included detailed models of USS Hartford and CSS 
Tennessee, arranged by curator Philip K. Lundeberg to represent their 
historic duel at Mobile Bay in 1 864, and of the 1 6-inch-gun battleship 
Missouri, a superbly executed model completed by Gibbs and Cox of 
New York during her construction in World War II. Completed and 
ready for installation was the deck section of a late 18th-century Ameri- 
can privateer, designed by museum specialist Howard P. Hoffman, and 
including an original low-trunnioned carronade. 

Staff Publications 


Bedini, Silvio A., and Maddison, Francis R. Mechanical universe. 

Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (October 1966), 

new ser., vol. 56, pt. 65, pp. 1-69. 
, and Price, Derek de Solla. Instrumentation. In Technology 

in Western Civilization, edit. Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll 

Pursell, Jr., vol. 1, pp. 168-187. New York: Oxford University 

Press, 1967. 

-. An early optical lens-grinding lathe. Technology and Culture 

(Winter 1967), vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 74-77. 
Multhauf, Robert P. The origins of chemistry. 412 pp. London: 

Old bourne Press, 1967, 
. Industrial chemistry in the nineteenth century. In Technology 

in Western Civilization, edit. Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll 

Pursell, Jr., pp. 468-488. New York: Oxford University Press, 



Battison, Edwin A. Eli Whitney and the milling machine. Smithsonian 
Journal of History (Summer 1966), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 9-34. 

Calvert, Monte A. The mechanical engineer in America, 1830-1910: 
Professional cultures in conflict. 296 pp. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins 
University Press, 1967. 

. The Wilmington Board of Trade, 1867-1875. Delaware His- 
tory (April 1967), vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 175-197. 

Cannon, Walter F. John Herschel. In Encyclopedia of philosophy, 
pp. 490-491, New York, 1966. 

Geoghegan, William E.; Basoco, R. H.; and Merli, F. J., eds. A 
British view of the Union Navy, 1964. A report addressed to Her 
Majesty's Minister at Washington. American Neptune (January 
1967), vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 30-45. 

Hamarneh, Sami K. Arabic historiography as related to the health 
professions in medieval Islam. Sudhoff's Archiv (March 1966), 
vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 2-24. 

. Lo speziale e il famacista nell'Islam. Quaderni di Merceologia, 

vol. 4, fasc. 2, pp. 1-11, 1965. 



. The pharmaceutical exhibition at the Smithsonian. American 

Journal of Hospital Pharmacy (November 1966), vol. 23, pp. 

The pharmaceutical collection at the Smithsonian. Pharmacy 

in History, vol. 9, pp. 55-64, 1967. 
Jackson, Melvin H. Sir Francis Drake's "Cadiz Letter." Smith- 
sonian Journal of History (Spring 1966), vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 75-76. 
Sivowitch, Elliott N. Musical broadcasting in the 19th century. 

Audio (June 1967), vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 19-23. 
White, John H. By steam car to Mt. Lookout: The Cincinnati and 

Columbia Street Railroad. Bulletin of the Cincinnati Historical 

Society (April 1967), vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 93-107. 
. James Milholland and early railroad engineering. Paper 69 in 

Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. 

National Museum Bulletin 252), pp. 1-36, 1967. 


Adrosko, Rita J. Le Systeme de tissage "Summer and Winter." 

L'Industrie Textile, no. 947, pp. 409-411, Paris, June 1966. 

Also transl. into Dutch, De Tex (January 1967), vol. 26, no. 1, 

pp. 30-31. 
. Some versatile American dye plants. Potomac Herb Journal 

(June 1967), vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 7-13. 

-. Weaving : structure and design of woven textiles. In Encyclo- 

paedia Britannica, vol. 23, pp. 343-345, 1967. 

Cooper, Grace R. Sewing machine. In Encyclopaedia Britannica, 
vol. 20, pp. 286-287, 1967. 

. Weaving: origin and development of the loom. In Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, vol. 23, pp. 345-348, 1967. 

Gardner, Paul V., and Miller, J. Jefferson II. Catalog of a special 
Exhibition of Wedgwood. Twelfth Annual Wedgwood Inter- 
national Seminar, 17 pp., 1967. 

Kainen, Jacob. The etchings of Canaletto. 63 pp., 44 illustr. Washing- 
ton: Smithsonian Institution Press, publ. 4676, April 20, 1967. 

McHugh, Maureen Collins. How to wet clean undyed cotton and 
linen. Smithsonian Institution Information Leaflet no. 478, 10 pp., 
illustr., 1967. 

Miller, J. Jefferson II. A porcelain pitcher by Tucker. Smithsonian 
Journal of History (Summer 1966), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 69-70. 

Morse, Peter. Australian prints today [exhibition catalog]. 7 pp. 
Washington: Smithsonian Institution, publ. 4684, 1966. 


Ostroff, Eugene. Restoration of photographs by neutron activation. 
Science (October 7, 1966), vol. 154, no. 3745, pp. 119-123. 

. Talbot's earliest extant print, June 20, 1835, rediscovered. 

Photographic Science and Engineering (November-December 
1966), vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 350-354. 

Schlebecker, John T. Agriculture. In New Catholic Encyclopedia, 
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. 

. Research in agricultural history at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Agricultural History (July 1966), vol. 40, pp. 207-210. 

— . The combine made in Stockton. The Pacific Historian 

(Autumn, 1966), vol. 10, pp. 14-18. 

. (Articles on): Cattle; Swine; Goats; Camels; Sheep; Fur and 

Leather; Fur Farming; Dairy Products; Casein. In Cowles Com- 
prehensive Encyclopedia, New York, 1966. 

-. A history of American dairying. 48 pp., illustr. Chicago: 

Rand McNally & Co., 1967. 
Wessel, Thomas R. Prologue to the shelterbelt, 1870 to 1934. Journal 
of the West (January, 1967), vol. 6, pp. 119-134. 


Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir. Birds on coins. In Birds in Our Lives, 

pp. 90-97, illustr. Washington: U.S. Department of the Interior, 

Fish and Wildlife Service, 1966. 
. The Moritz Wormser memorial exhibit. The Numismatist, 

vol. 79, no. 10, pp. 1278-1280, illustr., 1966. 
Gordon, Leo. Philately in the Smithsonian Institution, Philatelic 

Observer (May-June 1967), vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 2-3. 
Hoover, Cynthia A., and Odell, Scott, ed. A checklist of keyboard 

instruments at the Smithsonian Institution. Prepared by the staff 

of the division of musical instruments. 80 pp., 7 figs. 
McCall, Francis J. Malaya. Introduction By Belmont Faries. 

Society of Philatelic Americans Journal (April 1967), vol. 29, 

no. 8, pp. 530-547. 
Melder, Keith E. The American parade of politics, 1788-1960. 

24 pp. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, publ. 4696, 

Murray, Anne W. Sunshades, parasols and umbrellas. Antiques 

(April 1967), vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 475, 492-495. 
Norby, Reidar. Scandinavian stamp lexicon. Scandinavian Scribe, 

vol. 2, pp. 225-228, 1966; and vol. 3, pp. 13-14, 19-20, 41-44, 

61-64, 79-80, 85-86, 117-120, 135-138, 1967. 
. The Smithsonian's Swedish mail box. The Posthorn (April 

1967), vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 17-20. 


Odell, Scott. 18th-century French harpsichord. Smithsonian Journal 
of History (Fall 1966), vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 67-69. 

Scheele, Carl H. Zoned addresses — the early experiments. Society of 
Philatelic Americans Journal (June 1967), vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 

Watkins, C. Malcolm. Description of California folk art. Smithsonian 
Journal of History (Fall 1966), vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 73-74. 

Weill, Victor H., and Scheele, Carl H. Postal issues of France and 
colonies at the Smithsonian Institution. France & Colonies 
Philatelist (July 1966), vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 169-173. 

, and Scheele, Carl H. The national collection at the Smith- 
sonian. Western Stamp Collector, August 13, 1966, p. 8. 

Welsh, Peter C. A continuing tradition. In The March of America: 
An exhibition celebrating National Library Week, including the 
basic library of 100 titles, The March of America, published in 
facsimile by University Microfilms Library Services, Xerox 
Education Division [pp. 9-14]. Prepared by Xerox Corporation 
for the National Collection of Fine Arts, April 1967. 

. Productive in their pleasures. Smithsonian Journal of History 

(Summer 1966), vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1-8. 

. The trotter. American Heritage (December 1966), vol. 18, 

pp. 30-49. 

. Folk a^t and the history museum. Curator, vol. 10, no. 1, 

pp. 60-78, 1967. 


Washburn, Wilcomb E. The age of discovery. Service Center for 
Teachers of History, publ. 63, 26 pp. Washington, D.C.: American 
Historical Association, 1966. 

. Logan's speech, 1774. In An American primer, edit. Daniel J. 

Boorstin, pp. 60-64. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966. 

. The Influence of the Smithsonian Institution on intellectual 

life in mid-nineteenth-century Washington. In Records of the 
Columbia Historical Society of Washington, D.C., 1963-1965, 
edit, by Francis C. Rosenberger, pp. 96-121. Washington, 1966. 

. Symbol, utility, and aesthetics in the Indian fur trade. 

Minnesota History (Winter 1966), vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 198-202. 

. Grandmotherology and museology. Curator, vol. 10, no. 1, 

pp. 43-48, 1967. 

— . Vision of life for the Mall. AI A Journal (March 1967) vol. 47, 
no. 3, pp. 52-59. 


. The intellectual assumptions and consequences of geo- 
graphical exploration in the Pacific. In The Pacific Basin: A 
history of its geographical exploration, edit. Herman R. Friis, 
pp. 321-334, American Geographical Society, spec. publ. 38, 1967. 

. Power in Washington: A ZIP-coded directory. Potomac 

Magazine, The Washington Post, April 16, 1967, pp. 48-54. 

. Washington, D.C. In Collier's Encyclopedia, vol. 23, pp. 

304-312, 1967. 


Albright, Alan B. The preservation of small water-logged wood 

specimens with polyethylene glycol. Curator (September 1966), 

vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 228-234, 3 figs. 
Howell, Edgar M. Battle art, American Expeditionary Forces, 1918. 

22 pp., 10 illus. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 

publ. 4700, 1967. 
Lundeberg, Philip K. Undersea warfare and allied strategy in 

World War I (Part I: to 1916). Smithsonian Journal of History 

(Fall 1966), vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 1-30. 
Peterson, Mendel. Wired ball for small arms, 1594-1715. Military 

Collector & Historian (Fall 1966), vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 84-86, 6 

. Ordnance materials recovered from late sixteenth-century 

wreck site. Military Collector and Historian (Spring 1967), vol. 19, 

no. 1, pp. 1-8. 

-. Lost gold from the sea. Jewelers Circular Keystone, pp. 158-165, 

11 figs., June 1967. 
. Exploration of historic wreck sites on the Bermuda reefs. 

North Atlantic currents in colonial times. In the 19th Annual 

Williamsburg Antiques Forum, pp. 43-44, January 22-February 3, 

Towle, Edward L. Perceptions of regionality in the Great Lakes 

Basin. Revue de Geographie de Montreal; vol. 20, pp. 75-84,1966. 
. Matthew Fontaine Maury's 1845 defense plan for the Great 

Lakes frontier. Inland Seas, Quarterly Journal of the Great 

Lakes Historical Society, vol. 22, pp. 267-282, 1966. 

National Air and Space Museum 

S. Paul Johnston, Director 

T egislation authorizing construction of the new Air and Space 
-*- i Museum building on the Mall, which had been before the Congress 
since early 1964, was signed into law on July 19, 1966, by President 
Johnson. The bill, as passed and approved, changed the name of the 
Museum officially to the National Air and Space Museum and, among 
other provisions, expanded the membership of the Museum's Advisory 
Board to include additional Federal and Defense Agencies dealing 
with aerospace activities. 

Although funds for construction of the Museum are not in immediate 
prospect, within the limits of available funds and manpower progress 
has been made in acquiring, preserving, and cataloging historically 
important artifacts for study and display, and in acquiring documentary 
material for use by historians and researchers in the Museum's growing 
Historical Research Center. 

NASA Artifacts Program 

In March 1967 a joint agreement was signed between the Smith- 
sonian Institution and the National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- 
tration, whereby all historically important air and space artifacts 
developed by NASA will be transferred to the Air and Space Museum 
after their technical evaluation is completed. The essence of the agree- 
ment is contained in the following two paragraphs from the document : 



NASA will transfer to, and the Smithsonian will accept as rapidly as 
reasonably possible, such artifacts currently under NASA control and 
which will become available in the future, after technical utility to NASA 
or other government agencies has been exhausted and post-flight examina- 
tion has been effected. 

The National Air and Space Museum, administered by the Smithsonian, 
will accept responsibility for the custody, protection, preservation, and 
display of such artifacts, in the Museum and upon loan to NASA Head- 
quarters, NASA Field Centers, other Federal agencies, museums, and 
other appropriate organizations. 

Since no budgetary provision for such a program had been made 
for fiscal year 1 968, NASA agreed to allocate funds to enable the Smith- 
sonian to begin its work under this agreement at the earliest possible 
date. Assistant director Frederick C. Durant III, is the principal 
investigator under the contract. Coordinating closely with him is 
James A. Mahoney, assistant director for exhibits, who will be responsi- 
ble for the physical custody, preservation, restoration, and display of 
the specimens. 

The NASA Artifacts Program will significantly increase the amount 
of air and space artifacts available for NASM loan programs in which 
specimens are loaned to outside museums and institutions, federal and 
private, for exhibition and for study. 

NASM specimens are now on loan to the Goddard Museum at 
Roswell, New Mexico, the Air Force Museum at Dayton, the Naval 
Air Museum at Pensacola, the Naval Engineering Center at Philadel- 
phia, and a number of private organizations. Early in the year the 
Alan Shepard Mercury Spacecraft (Freedom 7) was shipped to 
Montreal, where it was placed on exhibit in the U.S. Pavilion at 
EXPO 67. 

Historical Research Center 

The primary objective of the NASM Historical Research Center is 
to collect, compile, and make available to researchers and historians 
data relating to aerospace science and technology. Thus, the search 
for material which will assist in the recognition of the true deter- 
minants and controls in these areas is given the highest priority. 
Present holdings of the Center include over 20,000 bound books and 
periodicals, with over 10,000 biographical files of individuals; technical 
data on some 500,000 feet of microfilm; over 2,000 rolls of original 
drawings; and nearly 100 oral-history tape recordings of individual 
interviews; some 15,000 negatives (with indexed, searched prints) and 
over a half-million photographs in albums and subject files; plus about 
200 tons of historical and technical documentation, of which only 
about a third has been sorted and indexed. 




"»" iTi 

M.iiiiiii'"' ll J ll y»iwnn.., l 

Construction of National Air and Space Museum was authorized by Congress 
July 19, 1966. This architect's model illustrates the Mall front of the building. 
Vast windows allow aircraft to be seen from the outside. Offices are on top floor. 

On July 1, 1966, E. W. Robischon joined the then existing staff of 
two persons as deputy assistant director for education and information. 
In October 1966 an archivist was added, and in February 1967, a 
research assistant. During summers this staff was supplemented by 
several summer student employees and eight Neighborhood Youth 
Corps aides. Also, volunteers from the American Aviation Historical 
Society donated over 300 man-hours of sorting and filing time during 
the year. As a result of this extra help, visible progress has been made 
toward the development of a more effective operation. 

The Center is thus in an improved position to provide invaluable 
day-to-day service to scholars of aerospace history and technology. As 
a result, in addition to the usual aid given the curatorial and exhibits 
staff authenticating and restoring artifacts, it serviced over 2,000 
requests from scholars and historians in connection with the writing 
of theses, monographs, books, magazine articles, and film scripts. 


Although seriously undermanned and largely preoccupied with the 
technical supervision of the national air and spacecraft collections, 
members of the aeronautics and astronautics departments have en- 
gaged in a significant amount of research, and have participated in 
the work of related historical and scientific societies. Frederick C. Durant 
III continued his studies in depth on the developments of the very 
early (19th century) military rockets, as well as an investigation of the 
origins of regeneratively cooled rocket motors (liquid cooled) from all 


countries of the world. He is presenting a paper at the History Sym- 
posium at the Belgrade meeting of the International Astronautical 
Federation in fall 1967. He is also serving a second year as chairman of 
the History Committee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and 

Senior historian Paul Garber personally presented some 83 lectures 
on various aspects of air and space history to audiences all over the 
United States. It is estimated that over 11,000 persons attended these 
lectures. In addition, Garber made a number of radio and television 
broadcasts, as well as tape recordings which were broadcast on Voice 
of America and Armed Services Radio all over the world. To a very 
large number of historical writers and researchers, he rendered assistance 
through personal interview or correspondence. He helped organize and 
train the NASM docent group, and at least once a week throughout 
the year conducted tours for grade- and high-school classes and other 

Louis Casey, curator of aircraft, continued his comprehensive study 
of the 40-year development of Curtiss Aircraft. He is an active member 
of the Experimental Aircraft Association, a Director of the American 
Aviation Historical Society, and is Chairman of the Aviation Sub- 
committee of the Transportation Division of the International Com- 
mittee of Museums (ICOM). In fall 1966 he attended the ICOM 
meetings in Europe, and assisted in organizing several historical 
seminars in the United States. 

Robert Meyer, curator of aircraft propulsion, completed and sub- 
mitted to the Smithsonian Institution Press the manuscript of his book 
on "Professor Langley's Magnificent Aero-Engine of 1903." He also 
concluded technical review of a comprehensive manuscript by Philip S. 
Dickey, Lieutenant Colonel USAF (Ret.), on the development of the 
World War I Liberty engine. 

The Collections 

The department of exhibits, established last year, has used its com- 
bined facilities and manpower to support the various exhibition, 
preservation, and restoration programs of the NASM. Under the 
direction of assistant director James A. Mahoney, the department has 
made substantial gains in the reorganization of a great backlog of 
NASM specimens, accumulated over the years, and in developing new 

The preservation and restoration division at Silver Hill has completed 
the first phase of a five-year program that involves the movement of 
almost all full-size specimens to more orderly preplanned storage 


locations. Specimens in outdoor storage are being protected against 
weather as time and manpower permit. 

Inventory of the aero engine collection, under curatorial supervision 
of Robert Meyer, has been completed. 

The most significant aircraft are being located in the new Building 20, 
and an area has been established for curatorial research in this building. 
A great deal of work remains, however, in the sorting out and cataloging 
of large collections of instruments and ancillary equipment. 

Construction of Building 21, scheduled to be completed in fall 1967, 
should provide much needed space for the large number of astro- 
nautical specimens beginning to flow into the NASM as a result of the 
NASA Artifacts Program. 

The miscellaneous collections division, located at 24th Street, NW., 
now has most of the model collection packaged, indexed, and ware- 
housed in an orderly manner. With the assistance of summer help, 
an initial sorting of the NASM collections of artwork was completed. 
Much time and work will still be required to complete these programs 
and to organize the large collection of memorabilia. 

The visual presentation division moved into quarters at the 24th 
Street facility and is equipping an exhibits production shop for operation 
early in 1968. 

The office of quality control conducted a number of field surveys as 
a means of locating and evaluating private facilities capable of per- 
forming specimen restorations of museum quality for future NASM 


A museum function of great interest to the aerospace community 
was the presentation, by the National Aeronautic Association, of the 
1965 Robert J. Collier Award to James E. Webb and the late Dr. Hugh 
L. Dryden on October 19, 1966. Due to a re-scheduling of presentation 
dates, the 1966 Collier Award was presented to James McDonnell 
of the McDonnell Aircraft Corporation on May 24, 1967. On each 
occasion Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey presented this, the 
most highly respected award in the aerospace field. 

The coveted Langley Medal, awarded by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion to only 12 individuals since it was established in 1908, was presented 
by Secretary Ripley on June 6 to Wernher von Braun of NASA for 
his outstanding contributions to the science of rocketry and space 

Commemorative ceremonies were held at the National Air and 
Space Museum on February 2, 1967, to honor the 40th anniversary of 


the U.S. Army Air Corps Pan-American Good-Will Flight of 1926— 
1927, and on May 21, 1967, to honor the 40th anniversary of the flight 
of the Spirit of St. Louis. 

The following special exhibits were opened as part of the museum's 
rotating exhibits program: 
The NASA exhibition "Challenge of Space," which was later shown 

at the Paris Air Show of 1967; 
A full-size USAF "Titan" missile, into which the public entered to 

view related, explanatory exhibits, displayed on the Mall; 
A NASA exhibit of recent photographs of the moon by the Lunar 

Orbiter Satellite; 
An exhibit by the U.S. Air Force "Vietnam Operations"; and 
A full-scale model of the Apollo Command Module, by NASA, showing 

complete instrumentation and a crew of 3 astronauts. 
In addition to the rotating exhibits program, several showings were 
made in the newly refurbished Aerospace Art Galleries, including : 
Astronautical abstracts in enamels by John F. Puskas; 
Astronautical abstracts by J. Kassanicky De Kassay; 
Illustrations depicting space travel by Chesley Bonestell, which were 

painted in the 1 950s for reproduction in Colliers and in several books 

by Willy Ley and by Wernher von Braun ; and 
An exhibit of watercolors entitled "Painting Aviation History" by 

Colonel John T. McCoy, Jr., USAF (Ret.) which included a special 

group covering the development of aircraft for Pan American 

World Airways. 
Also exhibited were several paintings by Norman Rockwell on space 
exploration, three illustrations on astronautical subjects donated by 
the 3M Company and a kinetic art painting donated by the artist, 
Frank J. Malina. 

Formal presentations were held to acknowledge the receipt of 
several significant specimens; these included: 
A full-size, completely instrumented nose section of a DC-7 aircraft, 

by C. R. Smith, chairman of the board of American Airlines; 
The original, hand-illuminated check presented to Charles A. Lindbergh 

for the transatlantic flight in the "Spirit of St. Louis," by Raymond 

and Jean B. Orteig; 
Early liquid-propellant rocket motors, from Thiokol Chemical Corpora- 
tion, presented by Dr. Harold Ritchey, President of Thiokol ; 
19th-century Congreve and Hale rockets, from the Royal Artillery 

of London, presented by Major General P. J. Glover, Director; 
Swedish Air Force SAAB J-29 fighter aircraft, by Swedish Ambassador 

Hubert W. de Besche and Lt. General L. Thunberg and Colonel 

Hale rocket made in 1863 is presented 
to Director S. Paul Johnston by Director 
of Great Britain's Royal Artillery, Major 
General P. J. Glover, C.B., O.B.E. 
Rocket in the foreground was constructed 
in 1815 by Sir William Congreve. Donat- 
ed by the Royal Artillery Institution, 
both are rare examples of 19th-century 
rocket technology. 

Collier Trophy Awards were presented 
by Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey. 
Upper: 1965 Award (from left) the 
Vice-President; Edward C. Sweeney, 
then President of the National Aeronau- 
tic Association; Secretary Ripley; Mrs. 
Hugh L. Dryden, representing her late 
husband, former Deputy Administrator, 
National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration; and the co-recipient, NASA 
Administrator James E. Webb. Lower: 
1966 Award (from left) NAA President 
James F. Nields, Secretary Ripley, the 
Vice President, and recipient James S. 

Model of the "14-bis" airplane in which 
Alberto Santos-Dumont made the first 
flight in Europe, September 13, 1906, 
is examined by Smithsonian Regent 
Clinton P. Anderson, Ambassador Vasco 
Lietao da Cuna of Brazil, and Mrs. 
Anesia Pinheiro Machado, who pre- 
sented the model and other Santos- 
Dumont memorabilia to the Museum. 


Lundstrom of the Swedish Air Force, representing the Government 
of Sweden ; 

Full-scale model of a "Nimbus" weather satellite, by Richard E. 
Roberts, representing the General Electric Company; and 

Historic memorabilia, including scale models of early designs of the 
aeronautical pioneer Alberto Santos-Dumont, Brazilian pioneer in 
Aeronautics, presented by Mrs. Anesia Pinheiro Machado, and 
accepted by Smithsonian Regent Clinton E. Anderson. 


Additions to the collections received and recorded during the year 
totaled 215 specimens in 38 separate accessions, as listed below. Those 
from Government departments are entered as transfers unless other- 
wise indicated; others were received as gifts or loans. 

Aerojet General Corp.: Reproduction, ^-scale, of the NERVA nuclear rocket 

engine system test device (NASM 1790). 
Air Force, U.S. : Ranger L-440-7, World War II engine; Wright R-3350-57 AM, 

World War II engine built by Dodge (NASM 1699). Two atomic bombs, Fat 

Man (Nagasaki type) and Little Boy (Hiroshima type) and twenty-three cases 

of accessories (NASM 1775). 
Albisser, Robert and Roger, and Scott, William J.: Henri L. Albisser engine of 

1909, 4-cylinder static air-cooled radial of 45 hp. (NASM 1703). 
Bendix Aviation Corp.: Collection of 15 instruments (NASM 1710). 
Bennett, Mrs. Keith B.: Pre-planning chart used prior to NC-4 flight, course 

and position plotter used on the flight (NASM 1753). 
Bueschel, Howard A.: East German "Jena" flying model aeroengine (cutaway) 

circa 1960 (NASM 1783). American Atwood "Triumph" flying model aero 

engine, circa 1950 (NASM 1784). 
Commerce, Department of, Bureau of Standards: Model of Johns multiplane (1919- 

1920) (NASM 1786). 
De Houthulet, Willy Coppens: World War I commemorative medal (NASM 

Delta Airlines, Inc.: Model of Douglas DC-9 (NASM 1725). 
Dodd, L. E.: World War I altimeter (Tycos) and early magnetic compass 

(NASM 1776). 
Eastern Airlines: Models of DC-9 and Boeing 727 (NASM 1779). 
Filippi, Bernard P.: Collection of Lindbergh memorabilia (NASM 1711). 
Fox, David: 75 antique spark plugs of 8 different types (NASM 1792). 
Franklin Institute: Lockheed Vega aircraft used by Amelia Earhart (NASM 

Hyde, Ken: Le Blond 60 hp. 1928 engine, widely used in private airplanes (NASM 

1788). Brownback "Tiger" 90-hp. engine of 1930, last of the Anzanis (NASM 

Justice, Department of: Poster of Stevens parachute (NASM 1737). 
Kirk, Preston: Lawrance, World War I engine (NASM 1717). 
Lockheed Aircraft Co.: Painting of Tony Le Vier; model of Lockheed F-104 

(NASM 1740). 



McDivitt, Lt. Col. James, and White, Lt. Col. Edward H.: American flag, 
18" x 24" carried on board Gemini 4 spacecraft (NASM 1720). 

Miller, Warren C: Gibson Propeller of 1911 (NASM 1782). 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Manned Spacecraft Center, 
Houston, Texas: Items worn by Col. James McDivitt on Gemini IV flight (NASM 
1791). Mercury spacecraft Freedom 7 and Astronaut Shepard's space suit and 
helmet (NASM 1793). Mercury spacecraft Friendship 7 and Astronaut Glenn's 
memorabilia (NASM 1794). Spacecraft Gemini IV, space suit worn by Astronaut 
White, maneuvering device, umbilical tether and chest pack (NASM 1795). 
Tiros satellite (prototype) (NASM 1796). Syncom satellite (NASM 1797). Relay 
satellite (NASM 1798). Echo satellite (NASM 1799). 

Navy, U.S.: British De Havilland H-l "Goblin" turbojet cutaway (circa 1945) 
(NASM 1686). 

Orteig, Jean D. and Raymond: Orteig check to Lindbergh for New York to 
Paris flight, 1927 (NASM 1781). 

Readers Digest: Portrait in watercolor of E. T. Allen (NASM 1780). 

Schirra, Capt. Walter M., Jr.: Harmonica played by donor on board flight of 
Gemini VI (NASM 1778). 

Stultz, W. L. : Flight suit used by W. L. Stultz, pilot of 1928 flight to Europe with 
Amelia Earhart (NASM 1741). 

Sunderland, Clyde: Early model K-5 aerial camera (NASM 1738). 

Swedish Air Force: SAAB J-29 aircraft, single-seat fighter, with U.N. markings 
(Katanga Operation) (NASM 1787). 

Walker, L. L.: Lawrance World War I engine SC^0172 (NASM 1718). 

The cooperation of the following persons and organizations in pro- 
viding reference materials for the Museum's Historical Flight Research 
Center is sincerely appreciated and gratefully acknowledged: 

Aero West Magazine 

Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association 

A. J. Air Tankers, Inc. 

Albree, G. Norman 

Alderman, K. J. 

All Women Transcontinental Air Races 

Andrews, Hal 

American Institute for Aeronautics and 

American Institute of Aeronautics and 

Astronautics and Curtiss A-l Club 
Bell Aerosystems Company 
Bennett, Mrs. Keith B. 
Bergling, Joseph C. 
Boeing Company 
Byoir (Carl) and Associates 
Caldwell, Frank W. 
Coast Guard, U.S. 
Connecticut Aeronautical Historical 

Cranham, R. W. 
Crow, Lady Alwyn D. 

Defense Documentation Center, U.S. 
Dial, H. 

Durant, F. C, III 
Fairchild Hiller Corporation 
Fernandez, Peter 
Ford Instrument Company 
Furnish, Joseph H. 
Gay, Errol J. 
Grocock, Joseph F. 
Gilfert, Mrs. D. 

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Cor- 
Harrington, Mrs. Cora B. 
Harmel, Mrs. Falk 
Hastings, Russell 
Hausler, Walt 
Hickey, John E. 
Hirsch, R. S. 
Houghland, Vern 
Ide, Mrs. John J. 

Illinois, Elgin Area Historical Society 
Johnston, S. Paul 



Juptner, Joseph P. 
Kinney, James L. 
Krickel, John H. 
Lane, Mrs. Orley 
Library of Congress, U.S. 
Lockheed Aircraft Company 
Lundahl, Eric 

McDonnell Aircraft Corporation 
Madison, Donald T. 
Marshall, T. W. 
Martin Company 
Martin, W. E. 
Manly, Miss Trammel 
Morehouse, Harold 
Mussey, Robert 

National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration, U.S. 
National Archives, U.S. 
National Aviation Museum of Canada 
NavaL Aviation Safety Center, U.S. 
Naval Institute, U.S. 
Navy, U.S. 
Newcomb, Charles J. 
Nevin, Robert S. 
Page, George A., Jr. 
Patent Office, U.S. 

Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Division 

Ramsey, De Witt C, estate of, through 
Paul E. Garber, trustee 

Rowe, Geoffrey 

Royal Air Force Staff, British Embassy 

Rules Service Company 

San Mateo County (California) Histori- 
cal Association 

Schory, Carl F. 

Shaffer, Walter J. 

Sievers, Harry 

Steiner, Morton 

Stevison, Vincent E. 

Towle, Austin C. 

Towle, Tom 

Trepagnier, Mrs. Henry L. 

Truox, R. C. 

United Aircraft Corporation 

Villard, Honorable Henry S. 

Vye, Whit 

Wanderley, Nelson 

Weeks, E. D. 

Weisgerber, F. Rankin 

Wiggin, Mrs. Mabel Rodgers 

Williams, John M. 

Wood, Donald S. 

World Book Encyclopedia 

In Memoriam 

Kenneth E. Newland, curator of aeronautical materiel, died on 
April 5, 1967, after a prolonged illness. He had joined the staff of the 
National Air Museum in 1959, and had specialized in the collection 
and study of aircraft instruments, ancillary systems, and safety and 
life-support equipment and their application to modern aircraft. 
Prior to joining the museum staff, he had taught aeronautics at Stephens 
College, Columbia, Missouri. He held a master's degree in education 
from Ohio State University. 

National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board 

Colonel John H. Magruder hi, usmc, Director 

Considerable progress was made toward acquiring a site for the 
proposed National Armed Forces Museum Park. On December 14, 
1966, the Prince Georges County Planning Board and the Maryland- 
National Capital Park and Planning Commission approved the pro- 
posed site in the Fort Foote area of Prince Georges County, Maryland, 
and on January 12, 1967, the National Capital Planning Commission 
endorsed the recommended boundaries. In response to the recom- 
mendation of the Board of Regents, January 25, 1967, that legislative 
authority be sought for acquiring the site, the Advisory Board staff, 
working with the Office of the General Counsel, prepared the proposed 
legislation for submission to the first session of the 90th Congress. As 
the fiscal year closed, the draft legislation was undergoing review by 
Federal agencies concerned. 

The National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board has directed 
its attention so far primarily to assembling material which, if not ac- 
quired immediately, would not be available in the future. In most 
instances, these are one-of-a-kind items deemed necessary to the scope 
of the Museum's collections — specimens of obsolete materiel, proto- 
types, and similar items that otherwise would be disposed of by the 
Department of Defense or other holding agencies. 

During the year the National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 
staff continued to negotiate with the Armed Forces, the General Serv- 
ices Administration and other agencies for objects appropriate to the 




Destruction of the Monitor Tecumseh in Mobile Bay, August 5, 
1864, as depicted by Harper's Weekly (September 10, 1854). 
Tecumseh, raised intact, would provide a unique opportunity 
to examine in detail a United States man-of-war as she ap- 
peared 103 years ago in battle-ready condition. Now lying on 
the bottom of Mobile Bay, she sank within a minute of 
striking a Confederate mine, carrying with her most of her 

The United States Testing Machine, built in 1879 and recently 
acquired by the Smithsonian, could apply and measure with 
extreme accuracy tensile and compressive forces ranging from 
1 to 800,000 pounds. 



proposed National Armed Forces Museum Park. As a result, a number 
of items were either acquired by the Smithsonian, or set aside for 
eventual transfer, that will have great meaning in exhibits interpreting 
Armed Forces contributions to American society and culture. 

Acquired from the Department of the Navy, for instance, was the 
bathyscaphe Trieste /, which in 1960 carried Jacques Piccard and 
Lieutenant Don Walsh, USN, seven miles down to the bottom of the 
Challenger Deep. Trieste I not only gathered important oceanographic 
and marine-biological data, but also provided valuable lessons for the 
design of more sophisticated submersible exploration vessels. 

From the Department of the Army came the United States Testing 
Machine, a massive instrument devised by the noted engineer A. H. 
Emery and completed at Watertown Arsenal, Massachusetts, in 1879 
to provide precise knowledge of the tensile strength and compressibility 
of metals and other materials. Operated by Army Ordnance and made 
available to American industries and engineers as well as to Govern- 
ment agencies, the Testing Machine was for many years unique in its 
versatility, range, and extreme accuracy. 

In January 1967 the Advisory Board staff located and identified the 
remains of the USS Tecumseh on the bottom of Mobile Bay, Alabama, 
where she was sunk in battle on August 5, 1864. The historic vessel, 
one of the Ericsson-type monitors, lies almost totally buried under sand 
and mud some 300 yards off Fort Morgan. Dredging operations are 


scheduled for July 1967 to clear the vessel so that divers can make a 
detailed inspection of the hull and determine the feasibility of raising 
her for exhibition in the proposed National Armed Forces Museum 

On the evening of April 29, 1967, before a large audience gathered 
on the Mall, the Army "Old Guard" Fife and Drum Corps, the 
Marine Band, and the Air Force Pipe Band joined the Colonial 
Williamsburg Fifes and Drums in a dramatic torchlight Tattoo, 
arranged and directed by Colonel Magruder and staff. It is hoped 
that a National Military Tattoo on the Mall will become an annual 

Freer Gallery of Art 
John A. Pope, Director 

The freer gallery of art continues to function as a center for 
research in the civilizations of Asia and, at the same time, it makes 
significant additions, whenever these become available, to the collec- 
tions of Oriental art. The two functions are closely interrelated, and 
the research projects on which various members of the staff are engaged 
are primarily concerned with the cultural origins of the objects in the 
collection. To broaden the background of these projects, staff members 
travel to museums in this country, as well as in Europe and Asia, to 
see collections and study related material and to discuss problems of 
mutual interest with colleagues working on similar projects. Under 
established scholarship programs, students of Oriental art are en- 
couraged and given every facility to work with objects in the collection. 

Gifts and Grants 

The Freer Gallery of Art received a number of grants during the 
year. Among these was a grant from the Kevorkian Foundation for 
the publication of Indian Sculptures in the Freer Gallery of Art and for the 
purchase of books on Near Eastern art for the library. Grants from 
the Felix and Helen Juda Foundation provided for the purchase of 
the final volumes of Ukiyoe in the Hiraki Collection, and for travel 
assistance for the technical laboratory. The Ellen Bayard Weedon 
Foundation continued its generous assistance to the library. Another 
gift was received from H. P. Kraus. 

Curatorial Activities 

Director John A. Pope, with Rutherford J. Gettens and other 
scholars, continued extensive research on the archaic Chinese bronzes 
in the collection. Their findings, including many pieces never before 



published, will appear in a comprehensive catalog that greatly expands 
and revises the previous Descriptive and Illustrative Catalogue of Chinese 
Bronzes Acquired during the Administration of John Ellerton Lodge, by 
Archibald Wenley and John A. Pope, published in 1946. Much of 
this research was carried out in conjunction with the technical labo- 
ratory. During an extended journey abroad, Pope carried on research 
in the fields of Chinese and Japanese ceramics in Europe, the Near 
East, India, Taiwan, and Japan. In connection with his studies of the 
extensive ceramic collection of the Gallery, this travel included visits 
to kiln sites and to museums, private collections, and living potters. 

His lectures during the year included "Introduction to the Freer 
Gallery of Art," at the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan; 
"Freer Gallery of Art," at the Freer Gallery of Art for Radcliffe 
alumnae; and "Chinese Art in the Collection of the King of Sweden," 
at the M. H. De Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco. 

Assistant Director Harold P. Stern's research was principally cen- 
tered on the Japanese paintings of the Ukiyoe and Yamatoe schools. 
Yamatoe paintings dating from the 1 1th century onward and produced 
in a purely Japanese style are the forerunners of the Ukiyoe, the so- 
called "paintings of the floating world." The Gallery holdings in this 
latter school are among the most extensive in the world. Both schools 
represent genre, and knowledge of them is essential to an understand- 
ing of life in late- 1 6th-century through 19th-century Japan. An attempt 
is being made to identify artists and develop standards for evaluating 
paintings of both these schools. Works in private collections and public 
institutions have been studied. Stern chaired and organized the section 
on Japanese painting at the symposium on the Brundage Collection 
held in San Francisco August 28 through September 4. In March 
1967 he was asked to consult with the University of California, Los 
Angeles, regarding the Japanese prints in their collection, and he is 
organizing a major exhibition based on this collection. He also was 
appointed as a member of the Expert Committee of UNESCO for 
the Preparation of an Exhibition and an Album on the Mutual In- 
fluence of Japanese and Western Arts, and he attended and chaired 
two of the related sessions at UNESCO House, Paris, June 26 through 
June 30, 1967. 

The head curator of Near Eastern art, Richard Ettinghausen, con- 
tinued research in Near Eastern studies, with emphasis on recent ac- 
cessions and special attention given the two silver heads (66.23 Persian, 
Sasanian, mid-6th century, and 66.24 Persian, Parthian, 1st century 
B.C.-lst century A.D.). In February 1967 Dr. Ettinghausen retired 
to accept a teaching position at New York University. 


Upon invitation of the Government of Iran, Mr. Ettinghausen 
attended the opening of the new Pahlavi Library in Teheran and a 
subsequent Congress of Iranologists from August 31 to September 8, 
1966. To commemorate the occasion, a set of Ars Orientalis was pre- 
sented to the new National Library of Iran. 

Rutherford J. Gettens, head curator of the Freer Gallery technical 
laboratory, continued his study of Chinese ceremonial bronzes in the 
Freer Gallery, a 3-volume catalog of which is in preparation. All 
available scientific techniques have been used in this study — micros- 
copy, metalography, spectrographic and wet-chemical analysis, anal- 
ysis by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-light study and, in some cases, 
radiographic study. Research on Japanese pigments continued, as did 
the preparation of a handbook for identification of painting materials. 
Research also continued on two Chinese bronze weapons with meteor- 
itic iron blades. Information was collected from worldwide sources on 
the care and treatment of out-of-doors bronze sculpture. 

William Trousdale, associate curator of Chinese art, completed his 
dissertation, "The Long Sword and Scabbard Slide in Asia," and was 
awarded his doctorate in the history of art from the University of Michi- 
gan on April 29, 1967. He continued his research on Chinese jade and 
Chinese bronze weapons, to be used toward completion of a catalog of 
this material in the collection. 

From April through June 1966, he participated as assistant director 
in the University of Michigan Expedition to Qasr al-Hayr al-Sharqi, 
Syria. This was the second season of continuing excavations at this 
early Islamic site. In July 1966, he conducted a preliminary archeolog- 
ical survey in the lower Helmand River valley and Sistan regions of 
southern Afghanistan. 

For the Smithsonian Associates he presented a series of eight lectures 
on "Chinese Art" in the Freer Gallery auditorium. He also lectured 
on "The Archeological Exploration of Afghanistan," at Columbia 
University; and on "Archeological Reconnaissance of Sistan in Iran 
and Afghanistan," at the Freer Gallery of Art for the Washington 
Society of the Archaeological Institute of America. 

Assistant conservator W. Thomas Chase joined the technical labora- 
tory staff in September 1966. He completed his thesis, "Chinese 
Belt-Hooks in the Freer Gallery of Art," and received from New York 
University the Master of Arts degree in February 1967, along with a 
"Conservation of Works of Art" certificate. 

He assisted in the preparation of the manuscript for the forthcoming 
publication on Chinese ceremonial bronzes, and he researched aspects 
of fabrication techniques of ceremonial vessels, notably inscriptions 
and false patina. 


In March 1967, Ben B. Johnson completed a contract assignment as 
restorer, and in April was appointed consultant to the technical 

Donald Kelman (The Conservation Center of New York University) 
and Yoshiaki Shimizu (University of Kansas) reported in June for 
duty as summer research assistants. 

In May, Robert Moes completed his Freer Fellowship and accepted 
a teaching position at the University of Hawaii. 

Mrs. Ellen Johnson Laing completed her work at the Gallery in 
June on her Hackney Scholarship and accepted a teaching assignment 
at Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. She received her 
doctorate in April from the University of Michigan. 

In June, Miss Vicki F. Weinstein completed her work at the Freer 
Gallery on a Hackney Scholarship. 

The Collections 

Among the new acquisitions were a number of pieces of major 
importance. In Japanese art, there was a dry-lacquer sculpture of a 
Bodhisattva dating from the late 8th century (66.34); an ink painting 
of orchids and rocks by Bompo, 1344-ca. 1420 (67.10); and a unique 
ten-fold screen representing a horse race along the Kamo River, early 
17th century (66.35). In Chinese art, a perfect example of molded 
Ting ware, Sung dynasty, was added (66.30). In Near Eastern art, a 
rare Aghkand-ware bowl with a representation of a rabbit, 12th- 13th 
century, was purchased (67.4). 

Other purchases consisted of: 


Japanese, Kamakura, ca. 14th century; mirror with cranes, mandarin 
oranges and pine tree; tortoise-shaped knob. (67.11) 


Japanese, Momoyama, late 16th century, Negoro; pitcher, red, foliate 

lid. (67.5) 
Japanese, Namboku Cho, 14th century, Kamakurabori, incense box. 

Japanese, Kamakura; basin, three-legged; Negoro, with natural wood 

sides. (67.12) 

Japanese painting, Muromachi-Suiboku school, by 
Gyokuen Bompo (1344-ca. 1420). (67.10) 





Indian, Rajput, 16th century, Mewar; episodes from the Bhagavata 
Pur ana, showing two scenes in a palace surrounded by water. San- 
skrit text on the back. (66.31) 

Indian, Rajput, 16th century, Mewar; episodes from the Bhagavata 
Purana, showing worshippers before Krishna, seated in front of a 
pavilion. Sanskrit text on back. (66.32) 

Indian, Rajput, Pahari, Kangra school, ca. 1830. The many-eyed 
Mahadeva (Siva) with Parvati holding the elephant-god Ganesa 
and Karttikeya, the warrior god. (66.33) 

Persian, Herat school, ca. 1525; Yusuf at the party of Potiphar's 
wife Zuleika; multicolor, numerous figures. (67.6) 

Persian, Isfahan school, early 17th century; old man in landscape; 
ink with slight touch of color. (67.7) 

Persian, Herat school, A.D. 1513 (919 H.) ; two lovers with two attend- 
ants; multicolor. (67.8) 


Chinese, Sung, Ju-type celadon ; bowl, five-lobed with slightly flaring 

lip ; low square-cut foot ; fine-grained grayish buff stoneware ; thick 

lustrous gray -green with brownish areas; uneven crackle. (67.1) 
Japanese, Namboku Cho-Ashikaga, Tamba; large jar with wide 

shoulder and flaring lip; coarse, grey stoneware, fired glossy red on 

surface; glossy with crackle dripping unevenly over surface. (66.28) 
Japanese, Edo, late 17th -early 18th century; Nabeshima ware; 

round dish on high foot; fine white porcelain; camellia blossom and 

scrolling leaves. (66.29) 
Persian, Kashan, early 13th century; bowl on ring foot; black and blue 

foliate design under green glaze on inside; inscription in four panels; 

series of leafy stems on outside; foot partially glazed. Iridescence in 

interior. (67.2) 
Persian, Rayy, late 12th century; pitcher; one-handled; black champ- 

leve sgraffito under green glaze. (67.3) 

Care of the works of art was shared by several of the staff members. 
The technical laboratory examined, cleaned, and/or repaired, as 
necessary, a total of 26 objects. In addition, 47 objects under considera- 
tion for purchase were examined ; 29 objects were examined or repaired 
for other museums and individuals. Restorer Ben B. Johnson examined, 
repaired, and cleaned 16 oil paintings. Mr. Takashi Sugiura, with the 
help of Mr. Makoto Souta and Mrs. Kumi Kinoshita, cleaned, re- 
touched, and remounted a total of 21 Chinese and Japanese paintings. 



Top: Persian Aghkand-ware bowl, 12th-13th 
century (67.4). Middle: Japanese standing 
figure of the Bhodisattva Kamon, Tempyo, ca. 
790, dry lacquer, with stand (66.34). Bottom: 
Japanese pitcher, Momoyama period, late 
16th century (67.5). 


Illustrator Frank A. Haentschke rematted 53 Persian, Turkish, and 
Indian paintings. 

A total of 270 exhibition changes was made by museum specialist 
Martin Amt: American, 4; Chinese, 190; Japanese, 51; and Near 
Eastern, 25. All the necessary equipment for these changes was pro- 
vided by the cabinet shop under the direction of the building super- 
intendent, Russell C. Mielke, who has also maintained the building 
in its usual immaculate and sound condition. 


During the year, 366 books were incorporated by purchase, ex- 
change, and gift into the library collection. The library facilities were 
utilized by the staff and a total of 514 university students and other 
scholars doing reference work and casual visitors requiring less scholarly 
material on the objects displayed in the galleries. To the study files 
were added 2,037 photographs, and the slide collection was increased 
by 2,939. 

Through the generosity of the Weedon Foundation and the Kevor- 
kian Foundation, the library was able to acquire additional and valuable 
books. Among the books purchased through the Weedon fund were: 

Shang-Hai Po-Wu-Kuan Ts'ang Li-Tai Fa-Shu Hsiian-Chi. Shanghai, 

Chung-Kuo Li-Tai Ming-Hua Chi. Peking, 1965. 

Seian Hirin. Tokyo, 1966. 
Books purchased through the Kevorkian Foundation included : 

Old Oriental Carpets. Vienna, 1926-1929. 

Art of India (Indo Bijutsu). Tokyo, 1965. 

Indian Jewelry . London, 1906-1909. 

Public Services 

The Gallery was open to the public from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
daily except on Christmas. The total number of visitors to come in 
during the year was 212,920. The highest monthly attendance, in 
August, was 36,059. A total of 2,830 visitors came to the Gallery office 
for such purposes as consulting with staff members, submitting objects 
for examination, studying in the library, and viewing objects in storage. 
In all, 13,140 objects and 2,313 photographs were examined and 1,026 
Oriental language inscriptions were translated for outside individuals 
and institutions, and 257 persons were shown objects in storage. By 
request, 33 groups, totaling 573 persons, met in the exhibition galleries 
for docent service by staff members; and four groups, totaling 53 


persons, were given docent service in the storage areas. Among the 
visitors were 195 distinguished foreign scholars or persons holding 
official positions in their own countries who came here to study museum 
administration and practices. 

The fourteenth annual series of illustrated lectures, held in the 
auditorium, included: 
"Recent Discoveries in Mainland China," Dr. Bo Gyllensvard> 

Ostasiatiska Museet of Stockholm, Sweden (September 12, 1966)- 
"Portraits of the Priest Ikkyu," Professor Donald Keene, Columbia 

University (October 18, 1966). 
"Excavations in Assyria, Nimrud and Its Remains," Professor Max E. 

L. Mallowan, formerly at the University of London (November 1 , 

"Chinese Tomb Figurines," Dr. Jan Fontein, Boston Museum of Fine 

Arts (January 10, 1967). 
"Japanese Literati Painting," Professor Calvin L. French, University 

of Michigan (February 14, 1967). 
"Chin Nung (1687-1764) and the Eccentric View," Professor Peter 

Swann, Royal Ontario Museum, Canada (March 14, 1967). 
"The Individual in Late Egyptian Portraiture after 700 B.C.," Dr. 

Bernard V. Bothmer, The Brooklyn Museum (April 11, 1967). 
The auditorium was used by 14 outside organizations for 48 meetings. 
A total of 6,217 individuals attended functions in the auditorium. 

The photographic laboratory, under the supervision of Raymond 
Schwartz, processed a total of 29,102 items including negatives, photo- 
graphs, color slides, color-sheet films, polaroid prints, and album and 
registration prints. This workload amounted to an increase of 100 
percent over last year. 

The sales desk sold 1 17,037 items consisting of 5,012 publications and 
112,025 reproductions (including postcards, slides, photographs, prints, 
and reproductions in the round). 


"Paintings, Pastels, Drawings, Prints, and Copper Plates by and 
Attributed to American and European Artists, together with a List of 
Original Whistleriana, in the Freer Gallery of Art," by the late Burns 
A. Stubbs {Freer Gallery of Art Occasional Papers, vol. 1, no. 2, 1st edition 
1948; 2nd edition 1967) was revised and reprinted. Final work was 
completed on the preparation of volume 6 of Ars Orientalis, and con- 
siderable time was given to the preparation of the first two volumes 
of The Freer Chinese Bronzes, now in publication. 


Publications by staff members were : 

Pope, John Alexander. Some Ming porcelains in the National 
Palace Museum. National Palace Museum Quarterly, Taipei, vol. 
1, pp. 1-4, 1966. 

Trousdale, William. The bear tamer: bronze statuette, China, fifth- 
fourth century B.C. In Man through his art, vol. 3 (Man and 
Animal), pp. 30-31. Published in the United States with the 
sponsorship of the World Confederation of Organizations of the 
Teaching Profession (WCOTP) and with the financial help of 
UNESCO. Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic Society, 
1965. [Issued 1966.] 

. Scholars of northern Ch'i collating classical texts. In Man 

through his art, vol. 4 (Education), pp. 23-25. Published in the 
United States under sponsorship of WCOTP and with the financial 
help of UNESCO. Greenwich, Connecticut: New York Graphic 
Society, 1966. 

— . A Chinese handle-bearing mirror from northern Afghanistan. 

Afghanistan: Quarterly Review of the Historical Society of Afghan- 
istan, Kabul, vol. 19, no. 4, 1964, pp. 27-38. [Issued 1966.] 

. Rock-engravings from the Tang-i Tizao in central Afghani- 
stan. East and West, new series, vol. 15, nos. 3 and 4, 1965, pp. 
201-210. [Issued 1966.] 

National Collection of Fine Arts 

David W. Scott, Director 

A notable milestone in the history of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts was marked by the transfer of most of the staff and 
activities into permanent quarters in the renovated neoclassical 
structure originally constructed to serve as the Patent Office building. 
This handsome Washington landmark, covering the area between 
7th and 9th and F and G Streets, N.W., was begun in 1836 under 
the supervision of Robert Mills. The building itself is of great interest 
historically and architecturally; at various periods, it has served as a 
Civil War hospital, the scene of President Lincoln's second inaugural 
ball, and, more recently, the administrative home of the U.S. Civil 
Service Commission. 

In addition to planning for the opening, the National Collection of 
Fine Arts (NCFA) has concentrated efforts on expansion of its 
holdings, in research, and in improvement of its records systems. 
The most significant accession of the year was the gift by Irene and 
Herbert F. Johnson of the S. C. Johnson and Son collection, "ART: 
USA," acceptance of which was approved during 1967 by the Smith- 
sonian Art Commission and the Board of Regents. 

Augmentation of the collections was also effected through purchase 
from budgeted funds for the first time. 

The expanded space and facilities provided by the new quarters 
caused a great increase in the effectiveness of many offices and 
branches: the conservation laboratory allowed the full-time conserva- 
tor, Charles Olin, to restore NCFA works of art on the premises; 
initial steps were taken toward a more fully equipped photographic 



laboratory and frame shop; the Library initiated plans for an American 
art archives. An architectural designer, acting as liaison between 
NCFA and its architectural consultant, aided the staff in the develop- 
ment of detailed plans for work, office, and exhibition areas. 

New projects were begun by the International Art Program (IAP), 
which received Smithsonian financial support for the first time. Other 
projects previously begun were continued: efforts toward the preser- 
vation of Government-owned art; the Art-in-the-Embassies program; 
the lending of paintings and prints to Government offices; the White 
House Rotating Exhibitions; and public lectures and films. Assistance 
was also continued in the planning for the John F. Kennedy Center 
for the Performing Arts. At the request of the White House, the 
popular seminar on American Art was repeated for the current White 
House Fellows. Planning went forward to formulate a program for 
the Court of Claims building, and assistance for the Cooper Union 
Museum continued. The project of recording all the exterior sculpture 
in the Washington, D.C., area was brought near completion. 

Advice and assistance was provided in a number of areas, such as 
the selection, design, and planning for the monumental Calder stabile, 
to be presented to NCFA for the Smithsonian by Mrs. Morris Cafritz. 

As if in response to this growth and increased activity, an unprece- 
dented number of college undergraduates and graduates applied for 

All phases of activity must nevertheless be accelerated in the effort 
to open a major museum less than a year hence — completion of the 
interior architectural plans and details and the plans and "mock up" 
of gallery installations and lighting; the rounding out of the collections 
from gifts, purchases, or long-term loans; the restoration and con- 
servation of works of art ; and publication of catalogs or brochures on 
the history of the building, on the content and range of collections, 
and on the philosophy and mission of the bureau. Moreover, in order 
to achieve recognition as an important museum for the Nation and as 
the repository of American art, the needs of the collection must be made 

The upcoming year presents great challenges, but the Museum staff, 
imbued with great enthusiasm and a determination to meet dead- 
lines, expects that the museum will open on schedule and will be to the 
Nation a source of special pride. 

Smithsonian Art Commission 

At the forty-fourth annual meeting of the Smithsonian Art Commis- 
sion, held in Washington on December 6, 1966, recommendations 



were made for the reappointment of Gilmore D. Clarke, Stow Wengen- 
roth and Andrew Wyeth for the usual four-year term. The following 
officers were re-elected: Edgar P. Richardson, Chairman, Gilmore D. 
Clarke, Vice-Chairman, and S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary. The following 
were re-elected to the Executive Committee: David E. Finley, Chair- 
man, Gilmore D. Clarke, Ogden M. Pleissner, Henry P. Mcllhenny, 
Edgar P. Richardson (ex officio), and S. Dillon Ripley (ex officio). 

At the special spring meeting of the Commission in May, it was 
announced that Leonard Baskin had accepted an invitation to fill the 
vacancy created by the death of Paul Manship. 

Commission members reviewed works which had been submitted 
since the December meeting and recommended their acceptance or 
rejection for the Collection. Importantly, the Commission examined a 
representative survey of the holdings in the NCFA collections which will 
form the body of the material to be presented at the public opening of 
the galleries in spring 1968. 

The Collections 

Among the major gifts received was the S. C. Johnson and Son s 
collection, a group of 102 contemporary paintings, which will constitute 
the core of the modern section of the survey of American art at the 1968 
opening of the new galleries. A group of 209 watercolors was presented 
to NCFA by the Ford Motor Company. A gift of 20 works by Henry 
Lyman Sayen, from the artist's wife and daughter, are being prepared 
(with other works from a similar period in Philadelphia) for a future 
exhibition. Other recent gifts include Mary Cassatt's Spanish Dancer 
Wearing a Lace Mantilla, donated by Mrs. Victoria Dreyfus; Robert 
Henri's The Blind Singer, by J. H. Smith, Jr.; George Bellows' Mr. and 
Mrs. Philip Wase and Raphaelle Peale's Melons and Morning Glories, both 
given by Paul Mellon; and John Sloan's Gwendolyn, donated by Mrs. 
John Sloan. 

A bequest from the estate of Paul Manship of approximately 285 
works included sculpture, drawings, and medals. Other gifts by artists 
included Space Curve by Charles Shaw and Sun Over the Hourglass by 
Paul Jenkins. 

Purchases included View of Niagara Falls with Rainbow by Alvin Fisher, 

I Comer of the Studio by Henry McFee, The Golden Gate by Charles Sheeler, 

iand Catskill Creek by Jasper Cropsey; and several hundred graphic 

| arts items, including drawings by Robert Henri, John Sloan, William 

Glackens, George Luks, and Gaston Lachaise; and prints by Winslow 

Homer, Milton Avery, Ivan Albright, Grant Wood, Thomas H. 

Benton, Reginald Marsh, Arshile Gorky, Gabor Peterdi, Mauricio 

Lasansky, Jackson Pollock, Leonard Baskin, Ellsworth Kelly, Adolph 



Raphaelle Peale (1774-1825) Melons and Morning Glories, 1813. Gift of Mr. 
Paul Mellon. (1967,39.2) 

Gottlieb, and many others. Commenced was an inventory of the 
Juley photograph archives, which are being purchased by NCFA. 
Altogether 200 paintings, 217 pieces of sculpture, 141 2 prints and draw- 
ings, and 33 miscellaneous items of decorative arts were submitted 
for accessioning. 

The Registrar's inventory showed that 839 NCFA works were on 
loan to Government agencies as of June 1967. During the year NCFA 
lent 199 works to museums and other educational institutions, 564 
to offices of the Federal Government, including 85 contemporary 
pz intings and prints to the offices of the Vice President, the Executive 
Cfhces, the National Council on the Arts, and the Bureau of the 
Iudg*t; and to NCFA were returned 108 works. A total of 122 works 
were loaned to NCFA, primarily for the White House Program, 
and 107 works were returned to lenders. A total of 2,318 objects were 
photographed, including black and white, color transparencies, and 
color slides. Over 3,500 works of art were removed to the new gallery 
from the Museum of Natural History building and other storage 
areas; 100 were restored, including 96 paintings and 4 sculptures; 



Mary Cassatt (1845-1926), Spanish Lady with a Mantilla. Gift of Mrs. Victoria 

Dreyfus. (1967.70) 

and 193 were checked out through the Registrar's office for framing, 
including 16 done by outside contract. 

A White House inventory, conducted during the summer of 1967, 
indicated that approximately 200 works are currently on loan at the 
White House. An inventory of the Barney collection showed that 
174 were on loan. From this collection 16 paintings and pastels were 
restored; and a special exhibition of pastels by Alice Pike Barney, 




Adolph Gottlieb (1903- ) Three Discs, 1960. Gift of S. C. Johnson and Son 


Personal Impressions, was organized. Contents of the Barney Studio 
House were cataloged and decorative art objects were purchased for 
use in the House. 

The library collections of the NCFA and National Portrait Gallery 
were moved to spacious third-floor areas of the remodeled Patent 
Office building. NCFA received by purchase or exchange 538 books 
and catalogs; subscriptions to 70 periodicals were paid. In addition 
to items received by purchase and exchange, gifts were received, 
among which the most notable collections came from Dr. and Mrs. 
Charles Nag el, James Billman (from the Estate of Victor Proetz), 
Mrs. Adelyn D. Breeskin, and Stefan Munsing. Each of these dona- 
tions consisted of several hundred items. Another important gift was 
the complete set of the "March of America" series, donated by the 
publishers, the Xerox Corporation. 



The ambitious program of exhibitions continued the policy in- 
augurated during the previous year. In its endeavor to present ex- 
cellent material in depth, NCFA continues to select subjects primarily 
from American art: the seven American art exhibits of this year were 
all of works of the 20th-century. Three featured modern "old masters" 
and four were group shows of the works of artists who have reached 
prominence within the last decade or two. Two of the year's major 
exhibits were organized by other institutions and were made available 
to NCFA in Washington as well as to museums in other American 
cities. Two small exhibits — one of books, the other of photographs — 
reflect a new concern with the so-called minor arts. A second commit- 
ment, to present in Washington foreign art exhibits sponsored by 
the governments concerned, was represented by a show of ancient 
Afghanistan treasures — a rare occasion for American museums and 
the American public — continued over from the previous year. 

Ancient Art From Afghanistan: Treasures of the Kabul Museum (continued 
from previous year). 

Rugs of Afghanistan (continued from previous year) . 

Hard Edge Trend (July 13-September 18, 1966). The exhibition was 
organized for, and first presented at, the annual Department of State 
reception held July 4 for junior foreign service officers. It consisted of 
a number of paintings by contemporary American artists. 

Eleven Pop Artists (July 20-September 18, 1 966). The material exhibited 
consisted of 33 prints by eleven contemporary artists which had been 
presented to NCFA by the Philip Morris Company. 

Paul Manship Memorial Exhibition 1885-1966 (August 10-September 25, 
1966). Paul Manship was a member of the Smithsonian Art Com- 
mission for 44 years, 20 of these as Chairman. The exhibition of 43 
sculptures and 1 1 drawings by Manship, selected from among the 
artist's gifts to NCFA, was a tribute to him as an outstanding 
American artist and as a benefactor of NCFA. 

Drawing Society National Exhibition (September 15-November 13, 1966). 
NCFA was one of eleven museums to present this exhibition of 100 
drawings by as many artists. The drawings had been selected from 
six preliminary exhibitions sponsored regionally by the Drawing 

The Drawings of Jasper Johns (October 26-December 4, 1966). The 
one-man show of 46 drawings by Jasper Johns was organized by 
NCFA with the cooperation of the Leo Castelli Gallery as a comple- 
ment to the Drawing Society exhibit. 


To Be Alive (October 26-December 4, 1966). The exhibition consisted 
of approximately 20 color photographs, blown up to exhibition scale 
and selected from the highly praised film of the same title produced 
for the Johnson Wax Company pavilion at the New York World's 
Fair, 1964-65. The still photographs came directly from the book 
form of the film published by the Macmillan Company, which co- 
ordinated with NCFA in planning the exhibit. 
The United States at the 1966 Venice Biennale (December 1, 1966-January 
15, 1967). The exhibition "brought home" the official American 
presentation at the XXXIII Venice Biennale, the prestigious bi- 
ennial International Art Exhibition. The four artists selected to 
represent the United States were Helen Frankenthaler, Ellsworth 
Kelly, Roy Lichtenstein, and Jules Olitski; 23 paintings and one 
sculpture were shown. 
William Glackens in Retrospect (February 10-April 2, 1967). Charles 
Buckley, Director of the City Art Museum of St. Louis, selected 132 
paintings, drawings, and etchings that surveyed the work of this 
important American artist from the 1890s to 1937. 
March of America (April 16-22, 1967). This small exhibit, organized in 
recognition of National Library Week, centered on the "March of 
America" series published by Lmiversity Microfilms Library Service, 
Xerox Education Division. Consisting of 100 facsimile editions of 
significant literature in the study of American history, it also included 
a selection of the original volumes. 
Stanton Macdonald-Wright (May 4-June 18, 1967). This retrospective 
exhibition of the work of one of America's pioneer artists in the 
20th-century abstract form contained over 90 paintings which sur- 
veyed the 77-year-old artist's well-known Synchromist period (circa 
1912-1919) and showed the progression of his work through 1967. 
Sections of a large 1935 mural, recently acquired by NCFA, were 
featured. Corollary to the exhibit were the first public presentation 
of Mr. Wright's unique Synchrome Kineidoscope, a film-art projec- 
tion device, and the publication of a catalog which collected and 
reprinted many of the artist's commentaries on his artistic theory 
and philosophy. 

The NCFA presented or assisted with special exhibitions in the 
Washington, D.C., area for the White House, the District of Columbia 
School Program, the Central Intelligence Agency, the General Account- 
ing Office, the Bureau of the Budget, and the Greater Washington 
Area Hadassah Women's Organization. From the William T. Evans 
collection 33 paintings were sent on special exhibition to the IBM 
Galleries in New York City. A collection of lithographs, Contemporary 
American Prints, which recently returned from a two-year tour in Europe 


where it was circulated by the International Art Program, was shown 
in the gallery of the American Federation of Arts in New York City. 

International Art Program 

The International Art Program (IAP) successfully concluded the 
showing in Washington of the American section of the XXXIII Venice 
Biennale. Approximately twenty new projects were undertaken during 
the year, including exhibitions of contemporary prints, children's art, 
and Appalachian handicrafts. 

A contract was negotiated with Brandeis University to organize the 
American representation at the IX Sao Paulo Bienal, and a grant was 
made to the Pasadena Museum to undertake the American exhibition 
at the V Paris Biennial of Art. 

Among the highlights of the year's activities were the development 
of plans for private sponsorship of a "Biennial Series" of publications, 
discussions with officials of National Educational Television for tele- 
vision coverage of the Sao Paulo Bienal and other IAP shows, and the 
coordination with the Department of State whereby grants can be 
obtained for artist-lecturers to accompany IAP exhibitions. 

A major fund drive to finance the XXXIII Venice Biennale exhibi- 
tion was successful, and budgetary provisions were made toward the IX 
Sao Paulo Bienal. The latter exhibit required limited supplementary 
funds which were obtained by a second appeal for private support. 

Special Services 

To inform the public about the National Collection of Fine Arts, 
a 16-page illustrated pamphlet describing briefly its history and plans 
for development was printed for free distribution, and a small model 
of the old Patent Office building was constructed, with a set of nine 
panels to orient the public to the "newest Smithsonian museum." 

To arouse public awareness of the activities of the International Art 
Program and to discuss opinions of national art interest, a special 
symposium, "How Should American Art Be Presented Abroad?" was 
presented on December 8. The distinguished panelists were Hilton 
Kramer, art critic of the New York Times; Grace Borgenicht, gallery 
director; Kenneth Noland, artist; Clement Greenberg, critic, and 
Abram Lerner, curator of the Hirshhorn Collection. There was a 
standing-room-only audience for the event. 

A special six-evening film series, "The History of the Art of the 
American Film," was prepared for the Smithsonian Associates. The 
programs included excerpts from famous films under the topics 



Installation of the United States entries at XXXIII Venice Biennale Exhibi- 
tion, in the National Collection of Fine Arts, showing the work of Roy Lichten- 
stein and Helen Frankenthaler. 

of: The Comedy, The Serial, The Western, The Musical, The Spec- 
tacle, and The Star System. 

In conjunction with the special exhibition programs, there were eight 
guest-lecture evenings, of which particularly noteworthy were three 
programs by Stanton Macdonald-Wright. 

Jane Snyder, under the direction of the assistant for special services, 
did research on the history of the Venice and Sao Paulo biennials and 
on the old Patent Office building. Mrs. Daryl Rubenstein worked in the 
office of the assistant for special services as a volunteer doing special 
research for press releases and other projects. Following the resignation 
of John Latham, in May, Jane Morse assumed temporary direction of 
activities as acting assistant for special services. 

Responsibility for a rotating exhibition of art in the White House 
continued; more than a hundred works by contemporary American 
artists have been kept on view there and in the Executive Office Build- 
ing, displayed individually or in small changing exhibits. 

The White House Fellows' Seminar on American Art, inaugurated 
last year, engendered so much interest that NCFA was requested to 
repeat the series, which consisted this year of five informal lectures or 
panel discussions. Developed for the White House Fellows, members 
of the White House staff, the Cabinet, and their wives, the Seminar 
surveyed the history of American art, with emphasis on the period since 
1900. It was presented by staff members with guest speaker John W. 
McCoubrey, associate professor of art, University of Pennsylvania. 

The Art-in-the-Embassies Program, directed by Mrs. Nancy P. 
Kefauver, Department of State adviser on fine arts, combines the 



Appalachian Handicrafts exhibit of the International Art Program, on display 
in Helsinki, Finland. It was also seen in Reykjavik, Iceland, and Bonn, Ger- 
many, during the year. 

energies of private interests and government to build a nationwide 
program to support a worldwide service. It is cultural diplomacy in 
action. Since its inception, in January 1964, collections have been 
provided for 75 United States embassies. Of the 64 collections currently 
in circulation, 32 were started during this year. The program currently 
represents nearly a thousand American artists, whose work is available 
from 483 lenders throughout the United States. NCFA continues to 
provide the facilities for reception, handling, and display of these 
works in Washington. 

Recently NCFA has been instrumental in bringing together repre- 
sentatives of a cross-section of the art world in the greater Washington 
area. An informal meeting of art museum directors, curators, profes- 
sors, and artists has been scheduled at least once yearly at Barney 
Studio House. These people have also been brought together through 
special events such as openings and pre-opening dinners, film showings, 
and lectures — all of which help to promote better working relation- 
ships among members of the various Washington art groups. 

The NCFA sponsored a number of lectures this year in conjunction 
with its exhibitions and special events. During the showing of the 
exhibition Ancient Art from Afghanistan, four lectures were held: "The 
People of Afghanistan" by Leon B. Poullada; "Pre-Islamic Art of 
Afghanistan" by John M. Rosenfeld; "Nooristan, Afghan Ethno- 
graphic Enigma" by Alan Wolfe; and "Herat, A Great Art Center 


in Afghanistan" by Richard Ettinghausen. In addition to the symposium 
held in conjunction with the Venice Biennale exhibition, there was a 
lecture to accompany the William Glackens exhibition, "The Art of 
William Glackens" by Richard Wattenmaker. The fourth lecture in the 
White House Fellows' Seminar, "The American Scene from the Civil 
War to 1900," by John W. McCoubrey was also open to the public. 

Staff members participated in one or more sessions of the White 
House Fellows' Seminar. In addition, Mrs. Breeskin delivered a 
lecture on Jasper Johns in connection with the exhibition of his 
drawings; lectured to the Smithsonian Associates on the "Art of 
Mary Cassatt" and "New Trends in American Art"; participated in a 
two-day seminar on American Civilization during which she spoke six 
times to different groups; and lectured at the Northwood High 
School in Bethesda on "Art and Society," at a banquet for the Smith- 
sonian Council on "The Role of Museums in Promoting the Advance- 
ment of Culture," and at the International Club in Washington on 
the "Role of Art in International Understanding." 

Jacob Kainen delivered ten lectures to the Smithsonian Society of 
Associates on "Printmaking: A Historical Survey," which traced the 
development of printmaking from the Middle Ages to the early 20th 

Donald R. McClelland lectured to the Society of Associates on "New 
Directions in American Art." He also spoke on American art at the 
National Capitol Planning Association, the Hospitality Information 
Service for Diplomats in Residence, the Chevy Chase Art Association, 
the West Virginia Art Association, and the University of West Virginia. 
Harry Lowe presented a third lecture series for the Society of Associates, 
"Art Collecting for the Amateur." 

In April, Stefan Munsing lectured at the Heights Study Center in 
Washington on "Abstract Art in America." David Scott gave a lecture 
at the Akron (Ohio) Art Institute and Richard Wunder lectured at 
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art on "The Festival Designs of 
Inigo Jones." 

The National Collection of Fine Arts provided Saul Steinberg with 
office space for several months during his term as the first Smithsonian 
Institution artist-in-residence. Mr. Steinberg presented the Smithsonian 
Institution with a 50-foot scroll depicting his impressions of Wash- 
ington during his stay. 

Staff Activities 

To the staff of the NCFA 22 people, 2 at the curatorial level, were 



William Glackens in Retrospect, on display in the Main Gallery during February 
and March, gave a comprehensive overview of the work of this important 
American artist of the early 1900s. 

Lois Bingham, Chief, International Art Program, and William 
Dunn, IAP exhibits officer, became regular staff members on July 1 , 
1966. Both were formerly on detail from the U.S. Information Agency. 

Other personnel, on special status, who provided valuable support 
to the NCFA, were: William Hofer, consultant designer; Mrs. Eva 
Thoby-Marcelin, who did special research on educational-program 
and sales-desk development; and Mallory Randle, on a predoctoral 
internship given by the Smithsonian Research Foundation, who 
performed research on murals and sculpture of the Public Works of 
Art Project. Valuable assistance was also provided through the intern- 
ship program; the number of summer interns increased from 9 in 
1966 to 12 in 1967. 

Resignations and transfers included Farnham Blair, Susan Bratley 
Hornbostel, John Latham, and Mrs. Priscilla Wolff. The staff was 
saddened by the October 2 1 death of Rowland Lyon, who had resigned 
in August 1966. A further loss was sustained in the tragic death of 
Linwood Lucas on April 23, 1967. 

Director David W. Scott was elected this year to active membership 
in the Association of Art Museum Directors. Curator of painting and 
sculpture Richard P. Wunder visited Florence, Italy, to evaluate an 
important collection of sculpture. Donald R. McClelland, associate 



Ancient Art From Afghanistan — Treasures of the Kabul Museum, exhibit during 
July and August 1966, provided an opportunity to see antiquities of high 
aesthetic quality from a little-known culture. 

curator of lending activities, served as staff coordinator in organizing 
and presenting the Second White House Fellows' Seminar. He ex- 
amined 87 works of art brought to the NCFA for inspection, and 
juried 14 exhibits in four states and the District of Columbia. Jacob 
Kainen, who joined the staff in September 1 966 as curator of prints 
and drawings, set about developing the department and its holdings 
for the 1968 opening. His efforts to acquire works to fill significant 



This exhibit of ancient art from Afghanistan was on display in main gallery. 

gaps in the collection entailed a number of trips to New York City to 
visit dealers and potential donors. He was instrumental in acquiring 
800 new examples by prominent graphic artists. He participated in a 
symposium at the Washington Gallery of Modern Art; served as juror 
for two local exhibitions; and was elected to the executive committee of 
the Board of Directors of the Print Council of America. An exhibition 
of his paintings was held at the Franz Bader Gallery, Washington, 
D.C., in March 1967. Curator of contemporary art Mrs. Adelyn D. 
Breeskin juried shows at Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Pennsylvania 
State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; and locally at the 
National Institutes of Health, George Washington University, and the 
Arts Club of Washington. 


Special consultant Stefan P. Munsing, on detail from the U.S. 
Information Agency, was a member of the selection committee for 
the White House Lending Program, and he lectured twice at the 
White House Fellows' Seminar. Curator of exhibits Harry Lowe 
served as the Deputy Commissioner of the United States Pavilion at 
the XXXIII Venice Biennale. Abigail Booth, assistant to the curator, 
served as registrar-secretary at the United States Pavilion at the 
Venice Biennale. David Keeler, technical assistant to the curator, 
had a one-man show at the Studio Gallery in Alexandria, Virginia, 
from February to March. Lois Bingham, in addition to her regular 
duties as Chief of the International Art Program, participated in the 
Department of State Panel Discussion on the role of visual arts in 
international educational exchange. Margaret Cogswell, deputy chief 
of the Program organized for the American Federation of Arts The 
American Poster, an exhibition which will be circulated throughout the 
United States. In April she traveled to Athens to reorganize the 
exhibition Communication through Art. 


Research at the National Collection of Fine Arts is directed toward 
promoting the appreciation and understanding of American art by 
making the works and information about them more widely available 
through such media as exhibitions, catalogs, books, and articles. The 
related activities range from biographical investigations to critical 

A number of projects have been undertaken by the department 
of painting and sculpture. Of first priority was the compilation of 
information on individual works of art preparatory to the publication 
of a definitive catalog of the collections. Curator Richard Wunder 
visited the Courtauld Institute of Art in London to study the identifica- 
tion and attribution of English paintings in NCFA. Research con- 
tinued on the Catlin and miniature collections, and on individual 
artists such as William H. Holmes. Extensive research projects on art 
works in the Washington area continued with the compilation of 
information on existing art works commissioned under the Federal 
Works Project of the 1930s and on all public sculpture. A complete 
guide to the sculpture will be published next year. The department 
is preparing a booklet on the history of the Patent Office building. 
It also supervised the organizing, inventorying, and identifying of the 
285 items in the Paul Manship bequest, preparatory to the selection 
of the memorial exhibition of his work. 


Mrs. Adelyn D. Breeskin has devoted much time to research on the 
American artist Mary Cassatt, in preparation for the publication of 
a catalogue raisonne of Cassatt's works. For nine weeks during 
winter she was assisted by Joyce Keener, a student intern from Ben- 
nington College. Her studies carried her to all of the major museums, 
university art galleries, and dealers in the United States, London, 
and Paris. She has completed research on about 300 pastels, 269 oils, 
and 300 watercolors and drawings, and hopes to complete the work 
within the year. The two-volume catalogue raisonne will be published 
by the Smithsonian Institution Press. 

David W. Scott gathered the material for two retrospective studies 
of 20th-century American artists. He wrote a critical and biographical 
essay for a memorial volume on the sculptor Albert Stewart, and he 
selected paintings and writings of Stanton Macdonald-Wright to 
serve as the basis for an exhibition and catalog which presented the 
first full survey of the artist's long and outstanding career. 

Curator of prints and drawings Jacob Kainen, whose research has 
resulted in several articles and books, traveled to Wilmington, Dela- 
ware, and elsewhere to study the prints of John Sloan preparatory 
to the publication of a complete catalogue raisonne and analysis 
of Sloan's etchings, to be published within the year. He also examined 
all the prints of Raphael Soyer from 1917 to the present in preparation 
for the publication of a catalog on Soyer's works to be published by 
the American Association of Artists. 


Publications prepared under the auspices of the National Collection 

of Fine Arts are as follows : 

The art of Stanton Macdonald-Wright, including a treatise on color 
by S. Macdonald-Wright: A retrospective exhibition, May 4 
through June 18, 1967. Introd. by David W. Scott. 100 pp., 30 
illustr. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, publ. 4707, 

Catalogue of the Alice Pike Barney Memorial Lending Collection, by 
Delight Hall. 195 pp., 99 illustr. Washington: Smithsonian Insti- 
tution Press, publ. 4522, 1966. 

The March of America, an exhibition celebrating National Library 
Week. Introd. by David W. Scott; foreword by Jacob Kainen; 
text by Peter C. Welsh. 32 pp., 18 illustr. Prepared by the Xerox 
Corporation for the National Collection of Fine Arts, 1967. 


National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, D.C. Introd. by David W. Scott, 20 pp., 12 illustr. Washing- 
ton: Smithsonian Institution Press, publ. 4698, 1967. 

Paul Manship, 1885-1966. Tributes by David E. Finley, Walker 
Hancock, Robert Cushman Murphy. Introd. by S. Dillon Ripley 
and Walter N. Trenerry. 24 pp., 17 illustr. Washington: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, publ. 4686, 1966. 
Publications by the staff include the following : 

Cogswell, Margaret, ed. The American poster. 84 pp., 106 illustr. 
New York : The American Federation of Arts and October House, 
Inc. 1967. Also, in the above, an article, p. 62: A changing medium: 
A new environment. 

Kainen, Jacob. Michael Ponce de Leon. Foreword to catalog 
of exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, October 1966. 6 pp., 
2 illustr. Washington: Washington Print Club, 1966. 

. Gene Davis and the art of color interval. Art International 

(December 1966), vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 30-33, 5 illustr. 

The etchings of Canaletto. 63 pp., 44 illustr. Washington: 

Smithsonian Institution Press, publ. 4676, 1967. 

Lowe, Harry. In Venice: Backstage at the Biennale. Museum News 
(November 1966), vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 11-18, 33 illustr. 

Munsing, Stefan P. The drawings of Jasper Johns. Introd. and 
catalog. October 1966. 4 pp. 

. The sculpture and drawings of Jacques Lipchitz. Introduc- 
tion and catalog of retrospective exhibition at Watergate Apart- 
ments, held by the Greater Washington Area Hadassah Women's 

Scott, David W.; McClellan, Douglas; Palmer, Robert B.; 
and Sheets, Millard. Foreword in Albert Stewart. Claremont, 
California: Scripps College, 1966. 

. American Section: Venice Biennale, 1966. Art Education 

(December 1966), vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 18-21, 7 illustr. 

Truettner, William H. Portrait of America: 1865-1915. Introd. 
to catalog of exhibition held at IBM Gallery, New York, New 
York, January 16-February 25, 1967. 2 pp., 4 illustr. 

Wunder, Richard P. 17th and 18th century European drawings. 
1966, 63 pp. (exhibition catalog). New York: The American 
Federation of Arts. 

. A forgotten French festival in Rome. Apollo (May 1967), 

vol. 85, no. 63, pp. 354-359. 

National Portrait Gallery 

Charles Nagel, Director 

No longer applicable to the National Portrait Gallery is the 
dictum attributed to George V of England: "A public authority 
meanly housed may be a public authority meanly esteemed." 

In January 1967 the NPG moved into the Fine Arts and Portrait 
Galleries, formerly the old Patent Office building. The new quarters 
are spacious and, thanks to architects Faulkner, Stenhouse, Fryer, and 
Faulkner and to the Gallery's associate architect, the late Victor 
Proetz, they are imbued with dignity, charm, and character. As the 
fiscal year ends, finishing touches are still being installed. Next will 
come the final steps of turning a handsome old public building into a 
useful museum, to the general purposes of which the aged structure 
has been sensitively altered and adapted. This transformation has 
involved many technical details impossible to foresee in full, or 
dependent upon funds that were insufficient. There will have to be as 
well a furnishing program of some size for the offices, library, labora- 
tories , administrative suite, and public exhibition spaces of the building. 
It is obviously a far more difficult task to adapt unobtrusively a distin- 
guished old building to the purposes of exhibition than it is to plan 
such a building from scratch. But at least a very good start has been 
made, and, meanwhile, the office space afforded is proving a luxurious 
contrast to former temporary quarters in the Arts and Industries 

The Gallery now will be able to come out into the open. Scarcely, a 
week passes that does not bring visitors interested in a preview of the 
building, so that during the interval before the opening in 1968 the 
Gallery's public image steadily grows in stature. 



The opening date of the Gallery is now definitely set for September 
1968, and preliminary preparations are already under way to gather 
a large exhibition of portraits to celebrate appropriately and in distin- 
guished fashion this important occasion. The responses of those to 
whom requests have been directed, both individuals and institutions, 
have so far been encouraging. A special ad hoc committee drawn from 
the staff and the Portrait Gallery Commission, plus a few members 
without formal connection with the Gallery, has this matter well in 
hand. Thus, the Gallery is now well on the road to realizing what 
has been the dream of many people over a longer period of time than 
it perhaps should have been: the establishment of a great collection 
of the likenesses of those who for some two hundred years have created 
in the minds of men the world over an image of greatness for our 

Meanwhile, there is much to do both in devloping an agreed-upon 
program and in preparing for opening to the public with an out- 
standing show. Fortunately, the Gallery is blessed in having ready for 
the task an able staff, and will now be permitted to add to it the ad- 
ditional members so greatly needed for it to emerge into a full-fledged 
museum — one that is, indeed, unique in the history of our country. 
A year of preparation is in order. That it will be a busy and rewarding 
one there can be no doubt. 

National Portrait Gallery Commission 

During the year, the roster of the National Portrait Gallery Commis- 
sion remained the same, with those whose membership had expired 
being reappointed to a new term. The newest member, Dr. Edgar P. 
Richardson, former Director of the Detroit Institute of Arts and of 
the H. F. du Pont Winterthur Museum, who was appointed just 
previous to the beginning of the fiscal year, has been extremely helpful, 
giving the Gallery wise advice based on many years of practical ex- 
perience in the museum field in general and in American art in 

The Collections 

Paralleling the problems of getting the building in condition are, 
of course, those involving the collections. Solving these will now be 
facilitated greatly by the move of conservator Charles H. Olin into 
his new and well-equipped laboratory. 

The 58 accessions for the year, in a variety of media, range from 
paintings and sculpture to a few exceptional photographic likenesses. 
Of these, 16 were carefully selected purchases from the Museum fund. 



Adlai Stevenson, by Trafford Klots, gift of Mrs. Marshall Field and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Ives, 1967. (NPG.67.33) 


During the year the Gallery held three exhibits in its hall in the Arts 
and Industries building: "Recent Accessions," with a checklist catalog 
prepared by curator Robert Stewart, and "Faces from the American 
Past" showed a cross section of our present collection and empha- 
sized recent acquisitions; the third, "Interpretations of Notable 
Americans," was undertaken with the aid and cooperation of the John 
Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company. This last show was of 
outstanding interest. In it was used a selection from that company's 
collection of modern illustrations of great American personages con- 
trasted in each case with portraits from life of these same national 
figures drawn from the NPG collection. A 4-page catalog was contrib- 
uted by the John Hancock Company. In September all portraits 
belonging to the Gallery will be brought to the new quarters in order 
to prepare them for the opening exhibition. 

It is interesting to note that the accessions include practically all 
media: painting and sculpture are naturally the most frequent, but 
there are representations in a variety of techniques including a very 
contemporary painting of Adlai Ewing Stevenson by Edward Weiss 
on an acryllic globe. The Gallery is grateful for all gifts; mention of a 
few accessions gives an idea of the range in terms of period, the field 
of activity of the sitter, and the varying styles of portraiture that 
have come into the collections this year. 

A satiric self-portrait of George Gershwin is a gift from his brother 
Ira; a likeness of Andrew Jackson by James Tooley, Jr., comes from 
Mary Lively Hoffman, Charles T. Lively, and William H. Lively; 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney by Henry Benbridge and a self-portrait 
of James Barton Longacre, whose engraved portraits comprised the 
National Portrait Gallery of Distinguished Americans, published in 1834—39, 
were both purchases; a pair of portraits of General and Mrs. Samuel 
Smith by Gilbert Stuart was a gift from Dr. and Mrs. B. Noland Carter 
in memory of Dr. Carter's aunts Miss Mary Coles Carter and Miss 
Sally Randolph Carter; a painting of Adlai E. Stevenson by Trafford 
P. Klots was given by Stevenson's sister Mrs. Ernest L. Ives and Mrs. 
Marshall Field ; a bust of Katherine Cornell by Richmond Barthe and 
a group of portraits of American Negroes came from the Harmon 
Foundation; a splendid likeness of Elihu Root by Augustus Vincent 
Tack was a bequest from the late Duncan Phillips; and finally a 
bronze bust of Florenz Ziegfeld, by an unknown artist was a gift 
from an anonymous donor. A full list of gifts and purchases is 

A beginning has been made in acquiring antique furniture for the 
galleries, thanks to the interest of David E. Finley, who is himself 
giving a Sheraton-Empire card table attributed to Duncan Phyfe, 



George Gershwin, by George Gershwin, 1934, gift of Ira Gershwin, 1966. 


while Mrs. Finley and her sister Mrs. Eustis Emmet are contributing 
an early oak blanket chest, a pair of 19th-century side tables, and a 
large sideboard which once belonged to Daniel Webster. Nothing will 
enliven more effectively the galleries of portraits than the introduction 
into them of the sort of decorative arts with which the portraits were 
associated when they were privately owned, and the Gallery is delighted 
that an introduction to this program has been made. 

Additions to the Collection 

Anderson, Marian 
Barrow, Joe Louis 
Bunche, Ralph 
Chase, Samuel 
Cooper, James Fenimore 

Cornell, Katherine 
Drew, Charles 
Du Bois, William 

Laura Wheeler Waring 
Betsy Graves Reyneau 
Betsy Graves Reyneau 
John Wesley Jarvis 
Attributed to Charles 

Loring Elliott 
Richmond Barthe 
Betsy Graves Reyneau 
Laura Wheeler Waring 

Donor or Fund 
Harmon Foundation 
Harmon Foundation 
Harmon Foundation 
Museum Fund 
Alexis I. duPont deBie 

Harmon Foundation 
Harmon Foundation 
Harmon Foundation 



Einstein, Albert 
Eliot, Charles William 

Emmet, Thomas Addis 
Fillmore, Millard 
Fiske, Minnie Maddern 

Ford, Worthington 

Gershwin, George 
Grant, Ulysses S. and 

Green, Nathaniel 
Harrison, William Henry 
Helmuth, Justus Henry 

Heyward, Du Bose 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 
Houston, Charles 
Jackson, Andrew 

Jefferson, Thomas 
Johnson, Charles 
Johnson, James 
Longacre, James Barton 
Longfellow, Henry 

Marshall, Thurgood 
Masters, Edgar Lee 
Mendenhall, Thomas 

Morton, Levi Parsons 

Nast, Thomas 
Pinckney, Charles 

Pope, John Russell 
Randolph, Asa 
Rockefeller, John D. 

Roosevelt, Eleanor 
Root, Elihu 
Rose, Billy 
Sabin, Albert Bruce 
Sandburg, Carl 
Sandburg, Carl 
Schoenberg, Arnold 
Smith, Mrs. Samuel 

Max Westfield 
Anne Ware Sabine 

C. L. Hogeboom 
James Bogle 

Artist unknown 

George Gershwin 

Ole Peter Hansen Balling 

Valentine Green 
Albert Gallatin Hoit 
John Eckstein 

George Gershwin 
Artist unknown 
Betsy Graves Reyneau 
James Tooley, Jr. 

Betsy Graves Reyneau 
Laura Wheeler Waring 
James Barton Longacre 
James Henry Haseltine 

Betsy Graves Reyneau 
Francis J. Quirk 
Anne Ware Sabine 

Leon-Joseph Florentin 

John W. Alexander 
Henry Benbridge 

Augustus Vincent Tack 
Betsy Graves Reyneau 
Adrian Lamb after John 

Singer Sargent 
Alta Shore Purdy 
Augustus Vincent Tack 
Edward Weiss 
Edward R. Amateis 
Edward Steichen 
Miriam Svet 
Muriel P. Turoff 
Gilbert Stuart 

Donor or Fund 
Max Westfield 
John Marshall and 

Elizabeth L. Howie 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter H. 

William A. Ellis 

Ira Gershwin 
Margaret Garber Blue 

Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 

Ira Gershwin 
Museum Fund 
Harmon Foundation 
Mary Lively Hoffman, 

Charles T. Lively and 

William Lively 
Museum Fund 
Harmon Foundation 
Harmon Foundation 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 

Harmon Foundation 
Francis J. Quirk 
John Marshall and 

Elizabeth L. Howie 
Mrs. Eustis Emmet and 

Mrs. David E. Finley 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 

The Phillips Collection 
Harmon Foundation 
John D. Rockefeller III 

Mrs. Richard Purdy 
Duncan Phillips 
Museum Fund 
Edward R. Amateis 
Edward Steichen 
Mrs. Dore Schary 
Mrs. Abraham Turoff 
Dr. and Mrs. B. Noland 



Smith, Samuel 

Steichen, Edward 
Stevenson, Adlai Ewing 

Stevenson, Adlai Ewing 
Story, Joseph 
Tubman, Harriet 
Truman, President and 
His Military Advisers 
Washington, George 
Watson, Forbes 
Webster, Noah 
White, Walter 
Wright, Louis Tompkins 
Ziegfeld, Florenz 

Gilbert Stuart 

Joan Miller 
Trafford Klots 

Edward Weiss 
Chester Harding 
Robert S. Pious 
Augustus Vincent Tack 

Valentine Green 
Agnes Watson 
James Herring 
Betsy Graves Reyneau 
W. E. Artis 
Artist unknown 

Donor or Fund 
Dr. and Mrs. B. Noland 

Museum Fund 
Mrs. Marshall Field and 

Mrs. Elizabeth Ives 
Morris Leibman 
Museum Fund 
Harmon Foundation 
The Phillips Collection 

Museum Fund 
John H. Paterson 
William A. Ellis 
Harmon Foundation 
Harmon Foundation 
Anonymous Donor 

History Department 

The history department's activities have fallen into three separate 
but closely interconnected categories: exhibitions, the catalog of 
American portraits, and research and publications. 

For exhibitions, the department supplied biographical captions for 
portraits appearing in the small catalog entitled "Recent Acquisi- 
tions," identifications for works shown in "Interpretations of Notable 
Americans," and a complete exhibition script for "Faces from the 
American Past." It submitted for the approval of the Gallery's Com- 
mission a preliminary list of sitters for the exhibition to be shown 
upon the official opening of the Gallery and has begun work with 
Riddick Vann on a plan for this exhibition. 

The Catalog of American Portraits, a national inventory of like- 
nesses of Americans of historical significance, has developed con- 
siderably. For each of nearly 10,000 portraits within it a dossier con- 
taining a detailed record and, wherever possible, a photograph is 
being set up. Much of the print and engraving collection of the 
Gallery, assembled by picture librarian Genevieve A. Kennedy, is 
being integrated into the Catalog. Reference service by sitter or by 
artist is being given now on inquiries about portraits. The first steps 
have been taken toward the use of automatic data processing for the 
Catalog, so that it can be indexed by any of its components or any 
combination of them. Filed by sitter, each record contains the sitter's 
dates, occupation, and region. Under each sitter, dossiers are ar- 
ranged alphabetically by artist, giving the latter's dates and region. 
The medium, dimensions, description, and history of each representa- 
tion are also supplied, with all facts documented. 


In July 1966, Mrs. Virginia Purdy spent three days in Nashville, 
Tennessee, working with a photographer to catalog the portraits of 
Andrew Jackson and his circle at the Hermitage. Notes were made 
on other Jackson portraits in and around Nashville. This kind of re- 
search in the field represents one of the Gallery's approaches to the 
study of American portraiture. Another approach has been the acqui- 
sition of photographs of all portraits in several of the nation's major 
repositories, and many items from the Gallery's prints and photo- 
graphs collection are being integrated into the Catalog. Several steps 
were also taken to coordinate the program of the Gallery with related 
works of the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of 

The long task of John Fraser of transcribing the records relating to 
American portraiture in the Frick Art Reference Library in New 
York was completed this year. The Gallery is beholden to the Frick 
Library for their willingness to make available these fundamental 
documents on which to base future research. 

Daniel J. Reed has worked with the National Portrait Gallery 
Commission's recently appointed research and publication com- 
mittee, of which Dr. E. P. Richardson is chairman, to set up the 
Gallery's future program. As a result of recommendations of this 
committee and divisions of the full Commission of the Gallery and its 
Director, the history department is responsible for the overall editing 
of a catalog of the Gallery's permanent collection and all future ex- 
hibition catalogs. 

In the planning stages is a multi-volume study of the portraits of 
the leaders of the American Revolution to appear during the bicen- 
tennial celebration, and probably to include a publication in micro- 
film and letterpress of the papers of Charles Willson Peale, portrait 
painter of the Revolution. This latter task is being undertaken in 
cooperation with the American Philosophical Society. 

Curatorial Activities 

New staff members include Joseph A. Yakaitis who has assumed 
most ably the complex duties of administrative officer. Riddick Vann 
brings with him to the post of exhibits curator many years of valuable 
experience gained from the Office of Exhibits, U.S. National Museum. 
Charles Olin, who is serving as conservator to both NCFA and NPG, 
comes also from the National Museum and is working on objects from 
both collections in a laboratory well equipped for this most essential 
service. Thomas Girard joined the staff as the NPG representative 


>ii «m«T » »rt i i l l i Mi n »i r 



James Barton Longacre, by James Barton Longacre, ca. 1830, purchase, 1967. 


in the office of registrar and Monroe Fabian is assisting Mr. Stewart 
as fine arts historian in the curatorial department. 

During the year the Director continued to work on the completion 
and furnishing of the building in addition to his normal duties. He 
addressed a Yale Club audience in New York, the Gunnery School in 
Washington, Connecticut, and the Arts Club of Washington, D.C., 


on the collections and program of the NPG. He also gave an address 
on the Gallery to the Regent and Vice Regents of the Mt. Vernon 
Ladies Association and was appointed a member of the Association's 
Advisory Committee. During the year he served on the Blair House 
Fine Arts Committee. His article, "The National Portrait Gallery," 
lavishly illustrated, appeared in the November 1966 issue of Antiques. 

Dr. Reed, who went on a year's leave of absence in January, spoke 
on the program and collections at the Wayne State University in Detroit. 
An article by him on the Catalog of American Portraits will appear 
in the July issue of the American Archivist. Dr. Reed's absence leaves 
a large gap in the staff but it was felt important to permit him to 
perform a public service by pursuing, on a temporary basis, work 
with the National Commission on Libraries. He has continued dili- 
gently, however, to keep abreast of the activities of his department. 
Meanwhile, Mrs. Purdy, the assistant historian, has been an able 
substitute in his absence covering the day-to-day activities in the 
field of history. 

"A Portrait of John Bartram Identified," an article of Robert G. 
Stewart, was published in the January-February 1967 issue of the 
Garden Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 

Librarian William Walker and Mrs. Shirley Harren of the Library 
staff are members of the District of Columbia Library Association, 
and Mrs. Harren became a member of the Special Libraries Associa- 
tion this year, of which the Librarian was already a member. In the 
local chapter of the Special Libraries Association, Mr. Walker served 
as Chairman of the local Picture Division Group. This library 
group met in the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries building, where it 
was addressed by Mrs. Purdy of the NPG staff. During the year, 
Mr. Walker, Mrs. Harren, and Mrs. Aleita Hogenson have worked 
as a reference staff with curators and researchers in the preparation 
of all exhibitions mounted by NCFA and NPG. They have also 
assisted in regular research in the library and, in addition, have 
double checked bibliographies prepared by research staff. 

A great lift was given the entire staff by the presence from February 
15 to April 15 of C. Kingsley Adams, former Director of the National 
Portrait Gallery of London. 

Mr. Adams made himself acquainted with every aspect of the Gal- 
lery's program and ingratiated himself with the entire staff during his 
stay here. Before leaving he prepared a report for the Director in which 
he made certain suggestions, tactfully pointing out, however, that the 
comparison of the Washington with the London galleries was based on 
little more than the fact that both were concerned only with portraits 
of those who had made distinguished contributions to the history of 



General Samuel Smith, by Gilbert Stuart, gift of Dr. B. Noland Carter in 
memory of Miss Mary Coles Carter and Miss Sally Randolph Carter, 1966. 

their respective countries. He pointed out certain procedures that had 
proved successful in London, certain modifications that had been made 
through the years in these procedures, and modestly gave the benefit 
of his many years' experience in the portrait field. This report was sent 
to all members of the Commission. 

A farewell tea was given in the Gallery by Mr. and Mrs. Adams 
before they left Washington, and the staff saw them go with very real 


regret. No one could possibly have been more helpful than he during 
his visit. 

It is sad to report the death on August 20, 1966, of Victor Proetz, the 
design consultant whose imagination and scholarly knowledge in the 
field of interior design has done so much to give individuality and 
character to the National Portrait Gallery. His architectural drawings 
were an invaluable legacy to the Gallery, and the second floor, partic- 
ularly the administrative suite, will be a lasting monument to his dis- 
criminating taste. His witty, learned, and perceptive presence on the 
staff will be greatly missed. The Gallery is fortunate in having Elinor 
Merrell of New York volunteer professional help in working out the 
many complicated details of furnishing. 

Lastly, the Gallery has had much welcome aid this year in the form 
of the various young people who have taken part in its program. 
Nora Attems was volunteer assistant to Charles Olin in the Conserva- 
tion Laboratory, and Tescia Yonkers was a volunteer for the summer 
in the Curator's office. From the Smithsonian's summer-intern educa- 
tion and training program the Gallery's share of workers were William 
Michael Bigel, Patricia Greene, Mary Grace Holback, Norvell Jones, 
Mary Ann Mears, and Frances Yost; and from the Office of Economic 
Opportunity, one representative of the Neighborhood Youth Corps, 
Kathleen Bowen. Finally, the Gallery was able to employ four 700- 
hour appointees, Nancy Beinke, Tom Carter, Mrs. Mona Dearborn, 
and Mrs. Anna Gregersen, with whose aid many things were 
accomplished that would otherwise have been quite impossible. 


The National Collection of Fine Arts — Portrait Gallery library 
moved into the spacious third-floor area of the Fine Arts and Portrait 
Gallery building in February and March 1967. The library continues 
to grow steadily. During the past year 441 new titles were obtained 
for the NPG collections. Of the subscriptions this year to 104 journals 
and other serials, 34 titles were for NPG; in addition, several hundred 
journals, mostly museum publications, were received on exchange or 
as gifts. 

In addition to items received by the joint library by purchase or 
exchange, over two thousand books, catalogs, and journals were re- 
ceived as gifts, of which the most notable came from Mrs. Adelyn 
Breeskin, Stephan Munsing, Dr. and Mrs. Charles Nagel, and the 
estate of the late Victor Proetz. Each consisted of several hundred 

National Gallery of Art 

John Walker, Director 

Sir: Submitted herewith on behalf of the Board of Trustees is the 
report of the National Gallery of Art for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1967. This, the Gallery's 30th annual report, is made pursuant to the 
provisions of section 5(d) of Public Resolution No. 14, 75th Congress, 
1st session, approved March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51), U.S. Code, title 20, 
sec. 75(d). 


The National Gallery of Art, although established as a bureau of the 
Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and separately administered 
organization and is governed by its own Board of Trustees. The 
statutory members of the Board are the Chief Justice of the United 
States, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. On April 5, 1967, 
Stoddard M. Stevens was elected a general trustee of the National 
Gallery of Art to serve in that capacity for the remainder of the term 
expiring July 1, 1971, thereby succeeding John N. Irwin II. On May 4, 
1967, Lessing J. Rosenwald was reelected a general trustee of the Gal- 
lery to serve in that capacity for the term expiring July 1, 1977. The 
three other general trustees continuing in office during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1967, were Paul Mellon, John Hay Whitney, and Dr. 
Franklin D. Murphy. On May 4, 1967, Paul Mellon was reelected by 
the Board of Trustees to serve as President of the Gallery, and John 
Hay Whitney was reelected Vice President. 



The executive officers of the Gallery as of June 30, 1967, were as 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren, Chairman. 

Paul Mellon, President. 

Ernest R. Feidler, Secretary-Treasurer. 

John Walker, Director. 

E. James Adams, Administrator. 

Ernest R. Feidler, General Counsel. 

Perry B. Cott, Chief Curator. 

J. Carter Brown, Assistant Director. 

The three standing committees of the Board, as constituted at the 
annual meeting on May 4, 1967, were as follows: 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren, Chairman. 
Paul Mellon, Vice Chairman. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. 
John Hay Whitney. 
Dr. Franklin D. Murphy. 

Secretary of the Treasury, Henry H. Fowler, Chairman. 
Paul Mellon. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. 
John Hay Whitney. 
Stoddard M. Stevens. 


Paul Mellon, Chairman. 
John Hay Whitney. 
Lessing J. Rosenwald. 
Dr. Franklin D. Murphy. 
John Walker. 


At the close of fiscal year 1967, full-time Government employees on 
the permanent staff of the National Gallery of Art numbered 320. 
The United States Civil Service regulations govern the appointment of 
employees paid from appropriated funds. 


For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1967, the Congress of the United 
States, in the regular annual appropriation, and in a supplemental 
appropriation required for pay increases, provided $2,822,000 to be 



used for salaries and expenses in the operation and upkeep of the 
National Gallery of Art, the protection and care of works of art acquired 
by the Board of Trustees, and all administrative expenses incident 
thereto, as authorized by the basic statute establishing the National 
Gallery of Art, that is, the Public Resolution No. 14, 75th Congress, 
1st session, approved March 24, 1937 (50 Stat. 51), U.S. Code, title 20, 
sees. 71—75. 
The following obligations were incurred : 

Personnel Compensation and Benefits 
All Other Items 

Total Obligations 

$2, 377, 535. 14 
394, 580. 39 

2,772, 115.53 


The 1,510,967 visitors to the Gallery during fiscal year 1967 repre- 
sents a decrease of 66,141 from the attendance in 1966, which marked 
the 25th anniversary of the Gallery when attendance was unusually 
high. From July 1, 1966, through Labor Day and from April 1 through 
June 30, 1967, the Gallery was open to the public from 10 a.m. to 
10 p.m. on weekdays and from noon to 10 p.m. on Sundays. For the 
remainder of the year the Gallery was open to the public every day, 
except Christmas and New Year's Day, on a schedule of 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
on weekdays and 2 p.m. to 10 p.m. on Sundays. Visitors during the 
additional hours in summer 1966 and spring 1967 numbered 141,440. 
The average daily attendance for the year was 4,162. 

The Collections 

There were 2,554 accessions to the collections by the National 
Gallery of Art as gifts, loans, or deposits during the year. The following 
gifts or bequests were accepted, and the following purchases were 
authorized, by the Board of Trustees: 






The Belcher Collection, 


Mother and Mary 

Stoughton, Mass. 

Countess Bismarck 


The Vanderkemp Children 

Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 


Studebaker in his Wagon- 

William Garbisch 

Tire Shop, Hangtown, 



The Younger Generation 



Hudson River Valley, 



Fruit and Flowers 



Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 
William Garbisch 

National Gallery of Art, 

Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund 
National Gallery of Art, 

Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund 
National Gallery of Art, 

The Chester Dale Fund 
National Gallery of Art, 

Andrew Mellon Fund 
National Gallery of Art, 

Purchase Funds 
Morris Schapiro 

National Gallery of Art, 
Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund 

Mrs. Michael H. Egnal 
Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 
William Garbisch 

Miss Hilda Katz 




Alexander Graydon 


Christ on the Road to 



First Landing of Christopher 



Miss Sarah Mershon 


Daniel R. Schenck 


A Scene on the Ice 

Gossaert (M abuse) 

Portrait of a Banker 


The Arab Tax 


The Notch of the White 


Leonardo da Vinci 

Ginevra de'Benci 

Charles Willson Peale 

Benjamin and Eleanor 

Ridgely Laming 





Stuart Egnal 

6 Etchings 


Baptismal Wish for 

Catarina Titzlir 


Reward of Merit for Anna 

Maria Gergard 


Reward of Merit for Peter 


Emily Pelton 

Jephthah Laments his Rash 



Lolotte and Werther 


"George Washington is 

My Name" 

Mary Ann Willson 

The Prodigal Son Taking 

Leave of His Father 


The Prodigal Son Wasted 

His Substance 


The Prodigal Son in Misery 


The Prodigal Son Reclaimed 


Fruit in Fluted Bowl 


Miesse Family Record 

Attributed to John 

The Temptation 


J. Evans 

Family of Four 

Hilda Katz 

3 Prints 



Miss Alice Hall Kerr 

Mrs. Arthur William 

National Gallery of Art, 

Print Purchase Fund 

L. Frameng, after 

R. Earlon, after 

Arthur William 

Master H. L. 


The 100 Guilder Print 

A Landscape 

7 Prints 

Cupid on a Snail Shell 

Marche aux Legumes a 


The following works of art were received on loan, or were continued 
on loan: 




Nathan Cummings 


Cove with Figures 

Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 


Peaceable Kingdom 

William Garbisch 

Jerome Hill 


Lion Devouring a Goat 

David Lloyd Kreeger 


After Lunch 



Road near Auvers 



Woman Brushing Her Hair 






The Seine near Giverny 




Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 


Lion Attacking a Deer 



Lion Attacking a Horse 


Various French 

68 Paintings 


Various English 

137 Drawings and Water 





Salem Willows 



14 Wax Sculptures 



1 Bronze Sculpture 

Rear Adm. and Mrs. 

Various 18th Cen- 

24 Drawings and Water 

Hubert W. Chanler 

tury Artists 








Mrs. Mellon Bruce 


Condesa de Chinchon 

Colonel and Mrs. 


Emma Homan 

Edgar William Garbisch 



The Death of the First Born 



Egyptian Scene 



View of the Schuylkill 

City Almshouse Property 


Unknown Artist 

Joseph and Anna Raymond 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 


1 Wax Sculpture 




The following loans were made during the 

To Artist 

Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Hudson Valley 

Folk Art Collection 


Arkansas Arts Center 

Blair House 

Carnegie Institute 
Museum of Art, Pitts- 
burgh, and Corcoran 
Gallery of Art 

Cincinnati Art Museum 

Cleveland Museum of Art 

Department of State 

Detroit Institute of Art and 
Munson-Williams Proctor 

Howard University 




French, circa 1140 

Charles Willson 

Rembrandt Peale 


State of Illinois Art Mobile 




Joslyn Art Museum 


Kalamazoo Institute of Arts 






Montreal Museum of Art 


Museum of Early American 

Unknown Artist 

Folk Art, New York 



Museum of Fine Arts, St. 


Petersburg, Florida 




Unknown Artist 



Norfolk Museum of Arts 


and Sciences 







fiscal year: 

Johannes Van Vechten 

Gentleman of the Willson 

Miss Van Alen 
Christ Talketh with a 

Woman of Samaria 
18 Paintings of Indian Life 
Miss Mathilde Townsend 
The Cornell Farm 

Winter Harmony 

Chalice of the Abbot Suger 

5 Paintings of Indian Life 

and 2 Indian Portraits 
Benjamin and Eleanor 

Ridgely Laming 

Richardson Stuart 

Timothy Matlack 

The Westwood Children 

Sir John Dick 

The Barnyard 

35 Paintings of Indian Life 

Alexander Hamilton 

Newport Harbor 

Breezing Up 

Colonel Guy Johnson 

Girl in Plumed Headdress 

22 Houses and a Church 

Joseph Slade 

Alice Slade 

Sir Archibald Campbell 

Captain Patrick Miller 
Girl with Doll 
Diana and Endymion 
Castel Sant'Angelo 

Queen Victoria 
Girl with Birds 
Barbara Villiers, Duchess 
of Cleveland 



Norfolk Museum of Arts 
and Sciences 



" High more 

Philadelphia Museum of Art Manet 

Post Office Department 
(Interpex), New York 




Smithsonian Institution 



of Four Arts, 


Palm Beach, 










Whitney Museum of 
American Art 






National Portrait 
Gallery, Washington 







Fete ChampStre 

The Gift of the Fishermen 
A scholar of Merton 

Still Life: Melon and 

The Dead Toreador 
Breezing Up 

Columbia Jay 


Little Girl in Lavender 

Vermont Lawyer 
Captain Samuel Chandler 
Mrs. Samuel Chandler 
"He Turned Their Waters 

into Blood" 
Joseph Slade 
Alice Slade 

Catherine Hendrickson 
The Sargent Family 
Mahantango Valley Farm 
The Start of the Hunt 
The End of the Hunt 
General Washington on a 

White Charger 
The Hobby Horse 
Jonathan Benham 
Memorial to Nicholas 

Captain Samuel Chandler 

Mrs. Samuel Chandler 
Autumn on the Hudson 

Gouverneur Kemble 

Junius Brutus Booth 
Henry Theodore 

James Hall 

John Edwards Holbrook 
Edwin Forrest 
Joseph Wesley Harper 
William Morris Hunt 
Charles Loring Elliott 



T ° Artist Title 

National Portrait Stuart Stephen van Rensselaer 

Gallery, Washington 

James Lloyd 
Wiles Julia Marlowe Sothern 

Other Gifts and Bequests 

Gifts and bequests of money and securities were made by Auchincloss, 
Parker and Redpath; Avalon Foundation; Mrs. Ailsa Mellon Bruce; 
Estate of Chester Dale; J. I. Foundation, Inc.; Institute of Appliance 
Manufacturers, Inc.; Samuel H. Kress Foundation; Estate of Miss 
Loula D. Lasker; Mr. Douglas B. Maitland; Mrs. Cordelia S. May; 
The A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust; Mr. Paul Mellon; 
Old Dominion Foundation; Mr. Allen E. Ripingill; Mrs. James T. 
Saari ; and Mr. John Walker. 


The following exhibitions were held at the National Gallery of Art: 
The Chester Dale Bequest (continued from previous year). 
Art Treasures of Turkey (continued from previous year through July 17, 

Etchings by Rembrandt from the Collection of the National Gallery of Art 

(continued from previous year through August 17, 1966). 
An Exhibition of City Views from the 16th to the 20th Century from the Collection 

of the National Gallery of Art (July 1 through October 27, 1966). 
Piranesi Etchings (August 13, 1966, through March 30, 1967). 
17th- and 18th-Century Prints from the Collection of the National Gallery of 

Art (August 13 through October 2, 1966). 
17th- and 18th-Century European Drawings (August 14 through September 

11, 1966). Organized by the American Federation of Arts and 

sponsored by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. 
Engravings and Etchings by and after William Hogarth from the Rosenwald 

and Addie Burr Clark Memorial Collections (August 1 8 through December 

13, 1966). 
Chinese Art from the Collection of H. M. King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden 

(September 10 through October 9, 1966). 
101 American Primitive Water Colors and Pastels from the Collection of 

Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch (October 9 through 

November 20, 1966). 
Canaletto and Bellotto Etchings (October 12, 1966, through April 24, 



An Exhibition of Christmas Card Prints (October 28, 1966, through 

February 1, 1967). 
Master Prints from the Collection of the National Gallery of Art (November 24, 

1966, through March 5, 1967). 
American Prints from the Collection of the National Gallery of Art (December 

14, 1966, through April 20, 1967). 
Musical Prints from the 15th to the 20th Century from the Collection of the 

National Gallery of Art (February 2 through May 30, 1967). 
Festival Designs by Inigo Jones from the Collection of the Duke of Devonshire 

at Chatsworth (March 19 through April 23, 1967). 
Selection of Post-Impressionist and Expressionist Prints from the Rosenwald 

Collection (April 21 through June 7, 1967). 
100 European Paintings and Drawings from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. 

Leigh B. Block (May 5 through June 11, 1967). 
15th- and 16th-Century German Prints (May 31, 1967, to continue into the 

next fiscal year). 
1 8th-Century Drawings from the Collection of Rear Admiral and Mrs. H. W. 

Chanler (June 8, 1967, to continue into the next fiscal year). 
Gilbert Stuart, Portraitist of the Young Republic (June 28, 1967, to continue 

into the next fiscal year). 

exhibitions of recent accessions: A Lady Writing by Jan Vermeer 
(from previous year through October 26, 1 966) ; Benjamin and Eleanor 
Ridgely Laming by Charles Willson Peale (December 16, 1966, 
through January 2, 1967); A Scene on the Ice by Avercamp and 
Portrait of a Banker by Jan Gossaert (Mabuse) (February 1, 1967, 
through February 14, 1967); and Ginevra de'Benci by Leonardo da 
Vinci (March 17, 1967, to continue into the next fiscal year). 

Graphic Arts 

Graphic arts from the National Gallery of Art collections were 
included in four traveling exhibitions, and special loans were made 
to 33 museums, universities, schools, and art centers in the United 
States and abroad. 

Curatorial Activities 

Under the direction of chief curator Perry B. Cott, the curatorial 
department accessioned 52 gifts to the Gallery. Advice was given 
with respect to 1,818 works of art brought to the Gallery for expert 
opinion, and 56 visits to collections were made by members of the 
staff in connection with offers of gifts. 

The registrar's office issued 136 permits to copy and 134 permits 
to photograph works of art in the Gallery's collections. About 7,000 


inquiries, many of them requiring research, were answered orally 
and by letter. There were 318 visitors to the graphic arts study room. 
Approximately 9,000 photographs were transferred from the library 
to the graphic arts department; permits for reproduction of 136 
photographs were thereafter issued by that department. 

Assistant chief curator William P. Campbell served as a member 
of the Special Fine Arts Committee of the Department of State. 

Assistant curator of graphic arts Katharine Shepard conducted a 
graduate seminar in ancient sculpture, semesters I and II, at Catholic 
University Art Department, Washington, D.C 

Assistant registrar Diane Russell taught a graduate and under- 
graduate course at American University in northern Renaissance 

The Richter Archives received and cataloged 206 photographs on 
exchange from museums here and abroad; 1,096 photographs were 
purchased and about 2,000 reproductions have been added to the 
Richter Archives. 


Francis Sullivan, resident restorer of the Gallery, made regular and 
systematic inspection of all works of art in the Gallery and on loan to 
Government buildings in Washington and periodically removed dust 
and bloom as required. He relined, cleaned, and restored 9 paintings; 
gave special treatment to 72; and X-rayed 16 as an aid in research. 
He continued experiments with synthetic materials as suggested by the 
National Gallery of Art research project at the Mellon Institute of 
Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Technical advice was 
given in response to 214 telephone inquiries. Special treatment was 
given to works of art belonging to Government agencies including the 
United States Capitol and the Supreme Court. 


A booklet on the new acquisition Ginevra de'Benci by Leonardo da 
Vinci was written by Perry B. Cott. The introduction to the catalog 
101 American Primitive Water Colors and Pastels from the Collection of 
Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch was written by William P. 
Campbell and subsequently republished in the October issue of Art 
News. An article and exhibition catalog on Giovanni Batista Gaulli 
for the Oberlin College Bulletin was written by Mr. Cooke. An article 
entitled "The National Gallery" written by Miss Susan Bell was 
published in the Catholic Traveler, March 1967. 


Publications Service 

The Publications Service placed on sale ten new publications: 
Ginevra di Benci by Leonardo da Vinci, a booklet with text by Perry B. 
Cott; The National Gallery of Art (in Japanese) by John Walker; re- 
prints of an article on the Gallery by John Walker from the National 
Geographic Magazine for March 1967; A Gallery of Children by Marian 
King (revised edition in color) ; The National Gallery of Art, A Twenty- 
Five-Tear Report; Rembrandt: Life and Work by Jakob Rosenberg (re- 
vised edition) ; Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, Italian Schools, 
XIII-XV Centuries by Fern Rusk Shapley; Great Draughtsmen from 
Pisanello to Picasso by Jakob Rosenberg; Art and Architecture in Holland 
by Rosenberg and Slive; The Portrait in the Renaissance, the A. W. 
Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts for 1963 by John Pope-Hennessy. 

Seven new catalogs of special exhibitions were placed on sale: 17th- 
and 18th-Century European Drawings; Chinese Art from the Collection of 
H. M. King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden; J 01 American Primitive Water 
Colors and Pastels from the Collection of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler 
Garbisch; a second edition of French Paintings from the Collections of 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon and Mrs. Mellon Bruce; Festival Designs by 
Inigo Jones; 100 European Paintings and Drawings from the Collection of 
Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block; Gilbert Stuart, Portraitist of the Young Republic. 

A 52-page catalog listing items sold by the Publications Service was 
published ; and 60,000 copies of a catalog with black-and-white illustra- 
tions of 49 Christmas cards, using reproductions of paintings, sculptures, 
prints, and drawings from the Gallery's collection was published and 
60,000 distributed. Approximately 400,000 Christmas cards and note- 
folders were sold. 

There were produced 11 new 11" x 14" color reproductions (to 
make a total of 295 subjects), 5 new color postcards (for a total of 244 
subjects), and 13 2" x 2" color slides (for a total of 440 subjects). 
A slide set, Painting in Georgian England, from the collection of Mr. and 
Mrs. Paul Mellon, was made available with text and a recorded 

New color reproductions stocked included 12 22" x 28" overall and 
6 large ones published by private companies, also reproductions of 4 
bronze heads from the set of 36 deputies by Daumier in the Rosenwald 

Number of customers served : 

Over-the-counter sales 310, 390 

Sales by mail 13,504 

Total 323, 894 



Ginevra de'Benci, by Leonardo da Vinci, ca. 1480. Below: 
Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson and Mrs. J. Lee Johnson (back to 
camera), President of the Amon Carter Museum of Western 
Art in Fort Worth, Texas, with Ernest R. Feidler, the National 
Gallery's Secretary, Treasurer, and General Counsel (left), and 
Director John Walker viewing the Gallery's Ginevra de'Benci 
on Tuesday, April 4, 1967. 


Educational Program 

The program of the department was carried out under the direction 
of Margaret Bouton, curator in charge of educational work. 

The department continued its series of lectures, conducted tours, 
and special talks on the works of art in the Gallery's collections. 
Attendance at the 736 tours was 22,126, an increase of 1,982 over last 
year. Attendance for all regularly scheduled general tours, tours of the 
week, and Picture of the Week talks amounted to 44,688, an increase 
of 4,565 over last year. 

Special tours, lectures, and conferences (a total of 637) were arranged 
to serve 22,733 persons, an increase of 1,845 over last year. These 
special appointments were made for Government agencies and bureaus 
such as the Department of State, Foreign Service Institute, Foreign 
Students Service Council, and the Armed Forces. Tours and lectures 
were arranged for club and study groups and school groups from all 
areas of the United States. 

The program of training volunteer docents was continued, and the 
department gave special instruction to 137 women from the Junior 
League of Washington, D.C., and from the American Association of 
University Women. By arrangement with the public and private 
schools in the District of Columbia and surrounding counties of 
Maryland and Virginia, these two organizations conducted tours for 
2,641 classes with a total of 74,327 children. 

A new program for pre-school children was begun this year in 
connection with the Cooperative Nursery Schools supervised by the 
Parents Pre-School Council of the D.C. Department of Recreation. 
Training was given by the department to 16 volunteer docents, and 
this program served 41 classes with a total of 820 children. 

In the auditorium on Sunday afternoons 51 lectures were given with 
slides or films. Attendance at these lectures was 15,095, an increase 
of 120 over last year, when 52 lectures were presented. There were 33 
guest lecturers, including the A. W. Mellon lecturer in the fine arts 
Professor Mario Praz, University of Rome, who gave a series of six 
lectures entitled "On the Parallel of Literature and the Visual Arts." 
Nine of the lectures were given by staff members. Two were full- 
length film presentations. 

The slide library of the educational department has a total of 49,674 
slides in its permanent and lending collections. During the year 916 
slides were added to the collection, 658 slides were recataloged, and 
714 slides were bound. A total of 292 persons borrowed 8,922 slides; 
it is estimated these were seen by 27,063 viewers. 

Members of the staff participated in outside activities which included 
lecturing to various club and school groups and Government agencies 


(some of which involved travel outside the metropolitan area). 
Margaret Bouton gave a lecture at the Teachers' Development Insti- 
tute, Georgetown University. Raymond S. Stites gave two lectures 
at American Ur iv3rsity. Carleen Keating taught a survey course at 
Montgomery Junior College. 

John Brooks was responsible for LecTour recordings: 5 new 
LecTours were recorded, 7 revisions were made in existing tapes, 
and 64 copies of master tapes were made and installed. For the school 
programs, 6 new texts were prepared, and in connection with the 
Picture of the Week series 37 texts were written by members of the 

Members of the staff prepared and recorded 37 radio talks, which 
were broadcast during intermissions of the Sunday night concerts. 
The staff also prepared printed resumes to accompany the folios of 
color reproductions for the Radio Picture of the Week series. One 
member of the staff prepared the text for the Acoustiguide, which 
went into operation about the middle of June, and wrote the texts 
for new leaflets for eight Gallery rooms. 

The monthly calendar of events was prepared for printing; it was 
distributed to approximately 9,400 persons each month. 

Total public response to the educational program, excluding slide 
viewers, was 179,789, an increase of 13,580 over last year. 

Extension Services 

The Office of Extension Services, under the direction of Grose 
Evans, circulated traveling exhibitions, films, slide lectures with texts, 
film strips, and other educational materials. 

Traveling exhibitions are lent free of charge except for shipping expen- 
ses. The 136 exhibits circulated in 1,256 bookings represents an increase 
of 134 bookings over the previous year. It is estimated that 879,200 
persons viewed these exhibitions. In addition 13 exhibits are on loan 
to other organizations for circulation ; these were seen by approximately 
88,056 persons in 244 bookings. Of three films on the National Gallery 
and its collections, 80 prints were circulated in 723 bookings and were 
seen by approximately 79,530 viewers. This represents an increase 
over last year of 306 bookings and 33,660 viewers, when 50 prints of 
the films were circulated. A total of 2,446 slide-lecture sets were 
circulated in 8,400 bookings, an increase of 1,528 bookings over last 
year. These were seen by an estimated 630,000 viewers. 

As a pilot project, 77 slide lectures were placed on loan to six school 
systems in various areas of the United States. Of the six systems, five 
reported a total of 1,381 bookings, with an attendance of approximately 
103,575 viewers. 


Based on the improved method of estimating audience size mentioned 
in the 1966 report, the Extension Service reached 1,780,361 persons, 
an increase of 361,677 over last year. 

In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the extension services 
and to keep abreast of new developments in the audio- visual field, 
the curator and the assistant curator attended meetings and conven- 
tions in various states, displaying examples of the educational materials 
available from the National Gallery of Art. 

The National Gallery of Art cooperated with the United States 
Office of Education and the George Washington University in a research 
teacher-training program offered by the latter institution at the Gallery 
from July 5 to August 12, 1966. Forty teachers were given courses in 
art history, preparation of gallery tours, audio-visual teaching aids, and 
Old Masters' techniques. A similar project under the same sponsorship 
began on June 26, 1967. 


Figures for processing of publications include: 2,143 accessioned 
by gift, exchange, and purchase; 1,319 publications processed; 4,665 
cards filed in the main catalog and the shelf list; 3,180 periodicals 
received by gift, exchange, or purchase; 1,335 periodicals circulated 
to the staff; 4,224 books charged to staff members; and 6,971 books 
were shelved in regular routine. 

The library distributed 1,333 National Gallery of Art publications 
to 195 domestic and 195 foreign institutions under its exchange program 
and 706 publications were received in exchange. 

The library is the depository for black-and-white photographs of 
the works of art in the Gallery's collections. These are maintained for 
use in research by the staff, for exchange with other institutions, for 
reproduction in approved publications, and for sale to the public. 
Approximately 3,957 photographs were added to the stock in the 
library, and 1,409 orders for 9,274 photographs were filled, including 
388 permits processed for reproduction of photographs covering 988 

This year a noticeable reduction in the figures for photographs added 
to stock and reproduction permits processed occurred because of the 
transfer, mentioned above under Curatorial Activities, of all graphic 
arts photographs (approximately 9,000) from the library to the graphic 
arts department. 

Index of American Design 

Under the supervision of Grose Evans, the Index of American Design 
circulated 32 exhibitions in 60 bookings in 13 states. The Index also 
circulated 144 sets of color slides (7,344 slides) throughout the United 


States, and 437 photographs of Index subjects were used for the purpose 
of study, publication, and exhibition. The photographic file was in- 
creased by 21 negatives and 153 prints. The Index received 338 visitors 
who studied the material for research purposes and for collecting 
material for design and publication. Sixteen permits were issued for 
146 subjects to be reproduced for publication. 

Three special exhibitions of Index materials were prepared for use 
in the Gallery, and two were exhibited at the Interlochen (Michigan) 
Music festival. Two exhibitions of Index material were circulated by 
the Smithsonian Institution, and one was lent for a year to the National 
Foundation on the Arts and Humanities. 

Operation and Maintenance 

The Gallery building, mechanical equipment, and grounds have been 
maintained throughout the year at the established standards. 

A portion of corridor 43 was remodeled by the installation of an 
acoustical ceiling, improved lighting, and fabric-covered plywood 

A special installation was prepared for the exhibition of Leonardo da 
Vinci's painting Ginevra de'Benci in lobby B. Controllable spotlights were 
installed, and an electronic alarm system was provided for the protec- 
tion of the painting. 

The granite platforms in the approach to the Mall steps were raised 
and repointed. 

The Gallery greenhouse continued to produce flowering and foliage 
plants in quantities sufficient for all decorative needs of special openings 
and day-to-day requirements of the garden courts. A total of 4,135 
potted or tubbed plants, all produced in the Gallery's own greenhouse, 
and valued at $50,470, were used in various stagings in the garden 
courts, in the rotunda, and in special exhibitions throughout the build- 
ing. By the end of the year, the horticultural department will have 
completed 9,596 consecutive days of flowering plant arrangements in 
the garden courts. 

A broadened growing program, which will be aided by new unit 
coolers currently being installed in the greenhouse, is beginning to 
produce a wider range of beautiful and exquisite flowering plants. 
Thus, the ever-changing panorama of the garden courts will provide 
even more enjoyable and restful interludes for the Gallery's many 

Pre-Recorded Tours 

The Gallery's radio tour system, LecTour, was used by 61,570 visitors. 
An additional electronic tour system, Acoustiguide, was made available 


in June. This system makes use of a small tape-playback device and 
offers visitors a 45-minute tour of highlights of the Gallery's collection. 
The recording for this tour was made by Director John Walker. 


Under the supervision of Richard H. Bales, Assistant to the Director 
in Charge of Music, 38 concerts were given on Sunday evenings in 
the east garden court. The Gallery Orchestra, conducted by Mr. Bales, 
played ten of these concerts; two of them were made possible by 
grants from the Music Performance Trust Fund of the American 
Recording Industry. Thirty-two concerts were made possible by funds 
bequeathed to the Gallery by William Nelson Cromwell, and the 24th 
American Music Festival, consisting of six concerts on consecutive 
Sunday evenings, April 9-May 14, was sponsored by the J. I. Founda- 
tion, Inc. All concerts were broadcast locally by radio station WGMS- 
AM and FM. Music critics of the local papers continued their coverage 
of the concerts. 

During intermissions at the concerts, talks on art subjects were 
given by members of the educational department, and program notes 
were given by Mr. Bales. 

Two one-hour television programs by the National Gallery Orches- 
tra, with Mr. Bales conducting, were telecast locally over WTOP-TV 
on November 29, 1966, and February 21, 1967. Paintings and sculpture 
in the Gallery's collections were reproduced. 

Mr. Bales appeared as a guest on radio programs and at civic 
occasions, and served as chairman of the Instrumental Music Panel 
of the Arts Advisory Committee of the D.C. Board of Recreation 
during February and March 1967. He was awarded a certificate for 
the National Gallery Orchestra television concerts by the American 
Association of University Women. Mr. Bales' National Gallery Suite 
No. 3 and other compositions were performed by several orchestras 
and solo recitalists in other cities during the season. 

Research Project 

For more than 15 years, the National Gallery of Art has supported 
and maintained at the Mellon Institute in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 
an outstanding scientific research laboratory for the application of 
the physical sciences to problems of art and art history. The primary 
objectives of the Research Project have been to develop new methods 
and materials for the care of museum objects and to develop new 
artists' materials. The program has been concentrated on two areas 
of broad significance to artists and to museums: the properties of 
protective coatings and the damaging effects of light. From these 


investigations have come more than 30 technical publications in- 
cluding one book, On Picture Varnishes and Their Solvents, and the 
definitive study entitled Control of Deteriorating Effects of Light upon 
Museum Objects by Dr. Robert Feller. 

In the past two years, the research team turned its attention to an 
important new area of interest: the application of nuclear science to 
problems of the examination of works of art. The completion of a 
highly successful research collaboration between scientists at Mellon 
Institute and Pittsburgh's Nuclear Science & Engineering Corpora- 
tion was marked in March 1967 by the publication of a method of 
analysis that promises to be useful in detecting 20th-century forgeries 
of paintings produced allegedly in the 18th century or before. The 
need for objective methods that would help experts to determine the 
age of paintings was discussed with Mellon scientists a few years ago 
by Director John Walker and Secretary Ernest Feidler. It was decided 
to explore the possibility that a meaningful disequilibrium could be 
detected between the radioactivity concentrations of lead-210 and 
radium-226 in white lead pigment made from recently refined lead. 
With the assistance and facilities of the Nuclear Science & Engineer- 
ing Corporation, it was soon shown that this expected disequilibrium 
could be measured in modern white lead but no longer existed in 
pigment made from lead refined more than approximately 150 years 
ago. Subsequent work readied the method for practical application. 
The new method has already been applied successfully to a number 
of known forgeries, and has been used on certain questioned paintings. 
Publication of results of these applications is expected within the 
next year. 

Principally responsible for the aforementioned nuclear science work 
have been Dr. Bernard Keisch and Dr. Robert L. Feller, senior fellow 
of the Research Project. 

In one phase of its activities, the laboratory at Mellon Institute 
serves as the technical advisor to the National Gallery of Art concerning 
the care of its collections. In the past year, for example, the research 
project has made recommendations on the protection of objects from 
the heating effects of strong illumination in showcases and in television 
broadcasting. In January 1967 the Research Project was called upon 
to design a case for transporting the famous portrait Ginevra de' Benci 
by Leonardo da Vinci from Liechtenstein to Washington, D.C. 
Security conditions dictated that the painting be carried in a case 
small enough to be easily handled by one person traveling by auto- 
mobile and airplane over a period of 20 hours. During the journey 
the package would occasionally be exposed for brief periods to cold 
and inclement weather, and, hence, the delicate painting on wood 
panel required protection from sharp changes in temperature and 


humidity. The problem was solved by building a special inner con- 
tainer for the painting which was then fitted into the fiber glass shell 
of a commercially available suitcase and surrounded by layers of 
thermal insulation. The satisfactory functioning of the package, first 
tested in refrigeration rooms at Mellon Institute, was fully confirmed 
in the successful completion of the mission during a single day's journey 
at the height of bad weather in February 1967. 

Toward the end of January, the Committee to Rescue Italian Art 
(CRIA) requested that Dr. Feller be given leave to go to Florence to 
assist on problems concerning the care and treatment of frescoes which 
had been damaged by the flood of the Arno on November 4, 1966. 
His investigations, made in collaboration with the analytical laboratory 
at Mellon Institute, soon showed that two kinds of salts were causing 
problems in the flood-soaked walls: a water-soluble type, such as 
sodium sulfate, and a water-insoluble type, calcium sulfate dihydrate 
(gypsum). Several ways were devised to treat walls contaminated with 
water-soluble salts. The authorities in Florence later requested that 
Dr. Feller's visit be extended for a total period of two months to permit 
him to devote attention to an additional problem. Advice and assistance 
were needed on the properties of synthetic resins that might be used 
as adhesives and protective coatings in the work of preservation and 
repair. The Research Project thus has continued in the past year, in 
both practical and theoretical studies, to serve museum experts and 
artists everywhere in providing new knowledge for the care and treat- 
ment of museum collections. 

The Research Project was responsible for the following publications 
during the fiscal year: 

Feller, R. L. Problems in retouching: Chalking of intermediate 
layers. Bull. Amer. Group-IIC, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 32-34, 1966. 

. First description of Dammar picture varnish translated. Bull. 

Amer. Group-IIC, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 8, 20, 1966. 

. Polymer emulsions II. Bull. Amer. Group-IIC, vol. 6, no. 2, 

pp. 18-19, 1966. 
. Rediscovery of the wheel. Color engineering, November- 
December 1966, pp. 20-23. 
. Standards of exposure to light II. Bull. Amer. Group-IIC, 

vol. 7, no. 2 pp. 8, 32, 1967. 
, and Page, Jean B. A solvatochromic dye as a convenient 

indicator of the solubility parameter of petroleum solvents. Bull. 

Amer. Group-IIC, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 29-30, 1967. 
Keisch, B., and Levine, A. S. Sample preparation for low-level 

Alpha-particle spectrometry of radium-226. Anal. Chem., vol. 38, 

p. 1,969, 1966. 


; Feller, R. L.; Levine, A. S.; and Edwards, R. R. Dating 

and authenticating works of art by measurement of natural alpha 
emitters. Science, vol. 155, p. 1239. 1967. 

Other Activities 

To commemorate the 25th anniversary of the National Gallery 
of Art, the Trustees directed that the Gallery publish an illustrated 
history of its growth and activities. Accordingly, a 102-page volume 
entitled The National Gallery of Art, a Twenty-Five Tear Report has been 
issued. The Report is divided into two parts. A narrative section touches 
on the highlights of 25 years, and a tabular section summarizes sta- 
tistical data through June 30, 1966. The National Geographic maga- 
zine in its March 1967 issue, published an article, fully illustrated in 
color, honoring the 25th anniversary of the Gallery. The text was 
prepared by Director John Walker. 

The Gallery provided facilities for the ceremony held by the Post 
Office Department on November 17, 1966, in honor of the first day 
of issue of a stamp in the Fine Arts series. The stamp is based on the 
Mary Cassatt painting, The Boating Party, in the Chester Dale Collection 
of the National Gallery. 

To assist in securing help to restore the works of art damaged by 
the November floods of the Arno, the National Gallery of Art, on the 
evening of December 12, 1966, was made available for a program 
organized by the Committee to Rescue Italian Art (CRIA), Washington 
Area, of which Director John Walker is chairman and Assistant 
Director J. Carter Brown is deputy chairman. The program consisted 
of an illustrated eye-witness report given by Fred Licht, associate 
professor of art history at Brown University; a concert of Italian music 
performed by the National Gallery Orchestra under Richard Bales; 
and the American premier of Franco Zeffirelli's film Florence — Days of 
Destruction, narrated by Richard Burton. 

Henry Beville, head of the photographic laboratory, and his assistants 
processed 123,744 items which included negatives, prints, slides, color 
transparencies, and color slides. The great increase over the previous 
fiscal year (approximately double) resulted from the large number of 
color slides made for the Gallery's expanded Extension Services. 

Audit of Private Funds 

An audit of the private funds of the Gallery will be made for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1967, by Price Waterhouse and Co., public 
accountants. A report of the audit will be forwarded to the Gallery. 

John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts 

Roger L. Stevens 
Chairman, Board of Trustees 

r-j-'HE john f. Kennedy center has now reached that point in its 
■*■ progress where each succeeding stage will mean increased activity. 
Without any unforeseen major difficulties, the doors to the Center 
should be open early in 1970. Within the coming year it is expected 
that the appointments of the General and Artistic Directors will be 
announced, program policy covering the actual scope, content, and 
diversity of the Center's programs and services will be established, and 
the schedule of events for the opening season will begin to take shape. 

It is reassuring to drive along the Rock Creek - Potomac Parkway 
and the E Street Expressway and view not only the gaily decorated 
segments of the fence surrounding the site but also the first element 
of the superstructure beginning to take shape. The interest in the 
Center, both in Washington and the rest of the Nation, that has and 
is being expressed in many ways, will be accelerated and heightened 
as major progress is made in the coming year. For no one now doubts 
that, at long last, our Nation's Capital will have appropriate facilities 
for the performing arts in which to display the accomplishments of the 
great artists of the theater, opera, music and dance, and a living 
tribute to our 35th President as well. 

Increasing activity in regard to the Center can best be appreciated 
by the enthusiasm with which the various committees have pursued 




Construction progress. Top: In January 1967 the site had been cleared and 
caissons were being placed to bedrock. By June (bottom) the substructure 
foundation was rising and steel was being erected. 



Marjorie Setlogelo, 9, shows her sister Mrs. Albert Mohale, wife of the Am- 
bassador of Lesotho, and Roger L. Stevens the panel she painted for the Tom 
Sawyer Project (see p. 371). Below: The entrance plaza (east front) of the 
Kennedy Center. Architectural scale photograph by Checkman. 


their responsibilities and purposes. Many prominent foreign dignitaries 
visiting Washington have requested that their official itinerary include 
a visit to the Center's site or offices. The Friends of the Kennedy 
Center have also, particularly by means of their work on the Tom 
Sawyer Project, focused considerable attention on the Center's progress 
and its national impact. Daily, individuals find their way to the 
Center's offices either to indicate their interest in becoming associated 
with the Center, or to request information and material which will 
assist them in generating support and enthusiasm for the Center's aims 
and aspirations. News clippings received by the Center from January 
to November 1966 show that it was publicized in the Nation's press 
3,442 times, including feature-length articles with extensive photo 
coverage in 65 American dailies and Sunday supplements and in 5 
foreign periodicals. The three major television networks devoted cov- 
erage to Center events, as have the Voice of America and the press 


The need for a national cultural center in Washington has been 
recognized since the city's founding. When President Washington 
selected Pierre L' Enfant to submit plans for the Nation's Capital, it 
was with the intention of making this new city both the Federal and 
cultural capital of the United States. Subsequently, President John 
Adams recognized the necessity of ensuring that the capital of the 
fledgling Nation take its place with other capital cities in the western 
world as the focal point of both government and the arts, and so in- 
formed the Congress in November 1800. 

More recently, support for appropriate facilities in Washington for 
the performing arts has come from the past six Presidents. The first 
positive action in this regard was taken by President Eisenhower in 
September 1958 when, at his suggestion, Congress passed the National 
Cultural Center Act (P.L. 85-874, 85th Cong., Sept. 2, 1958). Sub- 
sequently, President Kennedy submitted legislation to extend the Act 
an additional three years in order to provide additional time in which 
to raise the necessary funds. On January 23, 1964, President Johnson 
signed into law a bipartisan measure designating the National Cul- 
tural Center as the sole official memorial in the Nation's Capital to 
President Kennedy, renaming it the John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts, and authorizing $15.5 million in matching Federal 
funds (P.L. 88-260). This Act also granted the Center's Trustees the 
authority to issue revenue bonds to the Secretary of the Treasury, 
payable from revenues accruing to the Board, to a value not greater 


than $15.4 million, this sum to be used for the construction of the 
1,600-car underground parking facilities. 


Pursuant to the John F. Kennedy Center Act, the Board of Trustees 
is made up of 1 5 members who serve ex-ofhcio, and 30 general members. 

During the past year the terms of six general Trustees expired: 
Richard Adler, Ralph Bunche, Richard Reynolds, Arthur Schlesinger, 
Jr., Roger L. Stevens, and Robert Woodruff. 

Richard Adler, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., and Roger L. Stevens, 
Chairman, were reappointed to new 10-year terms. 

To replace Ralph Bunche, Richard Reynolds, and Robert Woodruff, 
the President appointed Ralph Ellison, the writer and lecturer, 
presently teaching at Columbia University in New York City and 
recipient of the 1952 National Book Award for Invisible Man; Robert 
Lehman, partner in Lehman Brothers of New York City (investment 
bankers), director of 20th Century - Fox Film Corporation and of 
General Foods Corporation, and a member of the Advisory Committee 
of the Institute of Fine Arts; and Jack Valenti, former Special Assistant 
to the President and currently president of the Motion Picture Asso- 
ciation of America. 

To fill the vacancy left by the resignation, March 17, 1966, of Ernest 
R. Breech, the President appointed Mr. Robert I. Millonzi of Buffalo, 
senior partner in the law firm of Diebold & Millonzi and a Commis- 
sioner of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission 
during 1952 and 1953. Mr. Millonzi's term will expire on Septem- 
ber 1, 1968. 

Two changes occurred among the ex-officio Trustees. The new 
Congressional members of the Board are Senator Charles Percy of 
Illinois, appointed to replace Senator Leverett Saltonstall of Massa- 
chusetts, who chose not to run for re-election, and Representative 
Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, to replace the Honorable 
Charlotte Reid of Illinois. 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees on February 28, 
1967, the following officers were elected: 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman Philip J. Mullin, Assistant Secretary 
Robert O. Anderson, Vice Chairman and Administrative Officer 

Sol M. Linowitz, Vice Chairman Kenneth Birgfeld, Assistant Treasurer 

Ralph E. Becker, General Counsel Paul J. Bisset, Assistant Treasurer 

Daniel W. Bell, Treasurer Herbert D. Lawson, Assistant Treas- 
K. LeMoyne Billings, Secretary urer 



The Bufalini quarry near Carrara, Italy, from which comes much of the ex- 
terior marble for the Kennedy Center. 



Top: First shipment arrives in Bal- 
timore, November 1966. Middle: 
Presentation ceremony, December 8, 
Roger L. Stevens (standing) and 
Ambassador Fenoaltea of Italy. 
Below: They inspect the first marble 



Under the bylaws the following officers continue to serve as members 
of the Executive Committee : 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman Daniel W. Bell, Treasurer 

Robert O. Anderson, Vice Chairman K. LeMoyne Billings, Secretary 
Sol M. Linowitz, Vice Chairman Ralph E. Becker, General Counsel 

Secretary of the Smithsonian, S. Dillon Ripley 
Chairman of the Commission of Fine Arts, William Walton 

From the Board the Chairman reappointed to the Executive Com- 
mittee the following persons, who are presently serving: 

Charles Frankel 
George B. Hartzog, Jr. 
Mrs. John F. Kennedy 
Mrs. Albert D. Lasker 

Erich Leinsdorf 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Mrs. Jean Kennedy Smith 
Walter N. Tobriner 

In addition, Jack Valenti was designated to fill one of two remaining 
vacancies on the Executive Committee. 

At the present time the membership of the Board of Trustees of 
the John F. Kennedy Center is as follows : 

Richard Adler 
Howard F. Ahmanson 
Floyd D. Akers 
Robert O. Anderson 
Ralph E. Becker 
K. LeMoyne Billings 
Mrs. Thomas W. Braden 
Edgar M. Bronfman 
Mrs. George R. Brown 
Joseph S. Clark 
Ralph W. Ellison 
Mr. Justice Fortas 
Charles Frankel 
Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 
J. William Fulbright 
John W. Gardner 
Mrs. George A. Garrett 
Leonard H. Goldenson 
George B. Hartzog, Jr. 
Harold Howe II 
Robert F. Kennedy 
Mrs. Albert D. Lasker 
Robert Lehman 

Erich Leinsdorf 
Sol M. Linowitz 
George Meany 
Robert I. Millonzi 
L. Quincy Mumford 
Edwin W. Pauley 
Arthur Penn 
Charles Percy 
Frank H. Ricketson, Jr. 
S. Dillon Ripley II 
Richard Rodgers 
Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. 
Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 
Roger L. Stevens 
Frank Thompson, Jr. 
Walter N. Tobriner 
Jack Valenti 
William Walton 
William J. Waters, Jr. 
Edwin L. Weisl, Sr. 
James C. Wright, Jr. 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, Mrs. John F. Kennedy, and Mrs. Dwight 
D. Eisenhower continue to serve as honorary co-chairmen of the Center. 


L. Corrin Strong 

The Chairman, the Board of Trustees, and all individuals who 
have been active in the Center's progress since its inception, were 
deeply grieved by the passing, on September 9, 1966, of Ambassador 
L. Corrin Strong, Chairman Emeritus of the Center. From the date 
of his appointment in 1958 by President Eisenhower until late in 
1961, Ambassador Strong had been the guiding force of the Center 
and almost single-handedly supported the National Cultural Center 
in its early and difficult years. In 1964 his resignation as Trustee 
and Vice Chairman, because of failing health, was reluctantly ac- 
cepted by President Johnson. He was then elected Chairman Emeritus 
by the Trustees, in which position he continued to serve until his 

On accepting his resignation, President Johnson on February 1, 
1965, wrote: "The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing 
Arts has become a reality because of your steadfast devotion to the 
ideal and to the task. Without your perseverance, leadership and 
generous financial aid the Center might have remained a vision." 

At a meeting on February 28, 1967, the Board of Trustees adopted 
the resolution of the Executive Committee, expressing profound regret 
at the death of the first Chairman of the National Cultural Center, 
whose leadership and generous contribution of time, energy, and 
money were largely responsible for bringing the Center through the 
initial and vital stages of development. The Chairman expressed the 
sentiments of those who knew Ambassador Strong, saying that "as 
long as the Center stands on the banks of the Potomac and fulfills 
its mission, it will also serve as a proud tribute to an outstanding 
American — Corrin Strong." 

Mr. Strong was born in Tacoma, Washington, in 1892, and lived for 
a time in Alaska. He graduated from Yale University in 1916, and 
served in the American Ambulance Corps and as a lieutenant of 
French Artillery 1917-1918. After working with the Guarantee Trust 
Company of New York, he joined the National Savings and Trust 
Company of Washington. He organized and established the Hattie M. 
Strong Foundation and for many years served as its President. From 
1939 to 1941 Mr. Strong served as President of the Washington National 
Symphony. Ten months before Pearl Harbor he joined the United 
States Army and served in the Ordnance Department with the rank of 
major. For four years he served as chief liaison officer, International 
Division, Army Service Forces, with the rank of colonel. In 1942 he 
was sent on a special mission to China under White House priority. His 


war service won him the American Legion of Merit. He was also the 
recipient of six foreign decorations. In 1953 President Eisenhower ap- 
pointed him Ambassador to Norway. Mr. Strong was a member of 
the Board of Directors of the National Savings and Trust Company for 
many years and a Trustee of George Washington University, where he 
guided a successful building program. 

Gifts and Presentations 

Previous foreign gifts to the Center include a Waterford glass 
chandelier from the Government of Ireland, presently in the process 
of fabrication; sculptured bronze panels for the two main entrance- 
ways to the Center, from the Government of Germany, in the initial 
stages of casting; the eleven chandeliers for the Concert Hall, from the 
Government of Norway, also in the process of fabrication. New de- 
signs for the furniture for the Grand Foyer, from the Government of 
Denmark, were recently unveiled. 

On December 8, 1966, a ceremony was held at the Center's site for 
the presentation of the first shipment of marble from the Government 
of Italy. A presentation was made by Ambassador Sergio Fenoaltea 
of Italy and the Chairman accepted the marble on behalf of the 
Center. During the ceremony a crate of marble weighing 900 pounds 
was opened and presented to Mr. Stevens by Ambassador Fenoaltea. 
The Italian Government is donating over 3,000 tons of white marble to 
the Center, which will meet the entire construction requirements. 
This gift, valued at more than $1.1 million, was formally pledged by 
Italian President Segni when President Kennedy visited Italy in 1963. 
The quarrying of the marble in the vicinity of Carrara has been com- 
pleted. Some of it was taken from the quarries from which Michelangelo 
obtained his marble. Three companies — Bufalini, Montecatini, and 
Henraux — are supplying the marble, which is being cut according to 
architectural specification before being crated and sent to Leghorn for 
export. American Export Isbrandtsen Lines is transporting all of the 
marble from Italy to Baltimore at no cost to the Kennedy Center. 

On January 13, 1967, Ambassador Hubert de Besche of Sweden 
announced that his Government would present 14 crystal chandeliers 
to the Kennedy Center, to be placed in the Grand Foyer. These 
chandeliers, valued at over $200,000, will be fabricated by Orrefors 
Glasbruk, Orrefors, Sweden. Carl Fagerlund, Orrefors' specialist in 
glass lighting fixtures, is designing the chandeliers in cooperation with 
the Center's architect. 


On Thursday, February 9, Teruo Hachiya, Executive Director of 
the America-Japan Society of Tokyo, presented Japan's gift of a red- 
and-gold silk stage curtain to the Center, in a ceremony at the Embassy 
of Japan. The Chairman accepted the gift on behalf of the Center. 
This gift was made possible by an appropriation of the Japanese 
Government and contributions from private industry and individuals 
in Japan, which were raised by the America-Japan Society of Tokyo. 
The gift is valued at over $200,000. The curtain itself, which measures 
47' x 117', is presently being stored in McLean, Virginia. At the cere- 
mony an unexpected but exceedingly interesting and appreciated 
added attraction was the showing of a color movie depicting the 
making of the red-and-gold silk curtain by the Nishijin Textile 
Company of Kyoto. 

Discussions and negotiations are continuing with a number of other 
countries who have expressed an interest in the Center. 

Friends of the Kennedy Center 

The Friends of the Kennedy Center, which a year ago had fewer 
than 50 members, mostly from the Washington area, now has nearly 
800 members throughout the country; 35 States and the District of 
Columbia are represented in the membership. 

The Friends of the Kennedy Center held their first annual meeting 
in Washington on Thursday and Friday, May 18 and 19. Over 200 
members from 22 States and the District of Columbia attended the 
two-day event. The meeting began at the White House when Mrs. 
Lyndon B. Johnson, honorary chairman of the Kennedy Center, 
and a member of the Friends, received the Friends of the Kennedy 
Center at tea. Following the White House reception members met 
at the Kennedy Center site for a presentation of ten new Tom Sawyer 
panels, each painted by children from a different State. 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman of the Board of Trustees, spoke to the 
Friends about the future of the Kennedy Center. Composer William 
Schuman, President of New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing 
Arts, gave the principal address of the gathering. And Jack Valenti, 
President of the Motion Picture Association of America, introduced 
an afternoon program of short, experimental films by leading directors, 
presented by Janus Films. 

New officers of the Friends, announced at the meeting, are Mrs. 
Polk Guest, Chairman; Mrs. Norris A. Dodson, Jr., and George 
Stevens, Jr., Vice Chairmen; Murray Preston, Treasurer; Mrs. 
David Ginsburg, Secretary; and Mrs. Frank G. Wisner, Member 
at Large. 



Model of the Grand Foyer, showing Sweden's magnificent gift to the Kennedy 
Center — fourteen crystal chandeliers to be fabricated by Orrefors Glasbruk, 
Orrefors, Sweden. 



In Kyoto, ancient weaving center of Japan, dyeing the silk for Japan's gift 
of a stage curtain for the Opera House. Curtain (below) is being pieced 
together by skilled craftsmen. 


Regional Chairmen have been named as follows: Mid- Atlantic, 
Mrs. Charles W. Engelhard, Far Hills, N.J.; South Atlantic, Mrs. 
Agnes H. Bahnson, Jr., Winston-Salem, N.C.; Gulf States, Mrs. 
Ellis Cooper, Laurel, Miss.; Midwest, Mrs. James H. Douglas, Jr., 
Lake Forest, 111.; Rocky Mountain States, Mrs. James H. Smith, 
Jr., Aspen, Colo.; and Pacific Coast, Mrs. John A. McCone, San Ma- 
rino, Calif. 

Special Projects and Events 

John F. Kennedy: Tears of Lightning — Day of Drums was released to 
commercial film theaters throughout the country beginning in early 
fall. The film was voted the first documentary feature award of the 
Independent Film Importers and Distributors of America for 1966— 
1967. Negotiations are presently under way for subsequent distribution 
of the film to educational and charitable organizations and other 
non-profit groups. This will entail the processing of 16-mm. prints. 

In May 1963 RCA Records distributed four recordings, all profits 
from which were to accrue to the benefit of the Center, consisting 
of various selections by the United States Army, Air Force, Marine, 
and Navy Bands. These records were and continue to be extremely 
popular items in the RCA Record catalog. Recently RCA Records 
agreed to re-issue a portion of the United States Marine Band per- 
formances in connection with a program of "Reader's Digest" to 
distribute outstanding recordings on a special club plan. As a result 
of negotiations with the Company, RCA agreed to make the Center 
a gift of $10,000 for this reproduction. Royalties will be paid on the 
re-issue, in accordance with the original contract. 

On July 17, 1966, the Alabama State Society presented at Gallaudet 
Auditorium for the benefit of the Center the musical extravaganza 
Stars Fell on Alabama. Conceived, executed, and produced by Ala- 
bamians, it featured talented natives of that State. From the proceeds, 
the Alabama State Society expects to endow a $10,000 box in one of 
the Center's halls. At the same time, the Society hopes to encourage 
and stimulate other States to make similar contributions to the Center's 

The John Philip Sousa Memorial Committee of the American 
Bandmasters Association has to date raised 75 percent of its gift of 
$100,000 for the endowment of the stage and acoustical sound re- 
quirements in the Concert Hall. It is expected that within the next 
year the full amount will have been presented to the Center. 

The Metropolitan Opera National Company, co-sponsored by the 
Kennedy Center and the Metropolitan Opera Association, completed 


its inaugural tour on June 12, 1966, in Guadalajara, Mexico. Because 
of the nature of the Center's agreement with the Metropolitan Opera 
Association in assisting the Company, all financial commitments of 
the Center were completed in the first season and there were no 
continuing financial obligations during its second year, which began 
on September 15, 1966, again at the Clowes Auditorium in Indian- 
apolis. This past year the Company was booked into 72 cities with 
a repertory consisting of Puccini's La Boheme, Verdi's La Traviata, 
Mozart's Marriage of Figaro and Britten's Rape of Lucretia. All these 
operas were performed in English, although the first two were also 
sung in Italian. 

Because of the parent company's financial difficulties, the Metro- 
politan Opera National Company was temporarily disbanded and 
its tour for the 1967-1968 season cancelled. However, the American 
National Opera Company, under the direction of Sarah Caldwell, 
on an expanded performance schedule will, if requested and where 
possible, fill bookings already made for the proposed 1967-1968 
National Company tour. 

As the United States' official contribution to the 14th Joint Confer- 
ence of UNESCO, which opened in Paris on November 9, 1966, an 
exhibit by the Kennedy Center was chosen. Full-scale models, interior 
and exterior color renderings and photographs of the Center comprised 
the exhibit. A new, large model of the Center was constructed, in- 
corporating the latest revisions in the blueprints and interior electrical 
lighting. The response, not only in Paris but in other European capitals 
as well, was so enthusiastic that on the conclusion of its showing in 
the French capital the display was sent to London, where it was housed 
in the Embassy on Grosvenor Square, and open to the public for a 
two- week period. Subsequently the renderings and photographs were 
sent on a tour of American Embassies in other Western European 
capitals. Eventually it is hoped that this exhibit can be permanently 
displayed at the site of the Center. 

The wooden fence surrounding the Kennedy Center site consists of 
250 eight-foot square panels. Last summer 18 of these panels were 
decorated by children in the District of Columbia's Widening 
Horizons Project, under the supervision of Roger Selby, Curator 
of Education at the Corcoran Gallery of Art. So successful and so 
widely praised were these efforts, termed the Tom Sawyer Project, 
that the Friends of the Kennedy Center accepted the task of expanding 
this undertaking and, under the Chairmanship of Senator Saltonstall, 
the Governors of all 50 States and all the territories and trusts were 
invited to designate one or more young students to paint one such 
panel depicting the interests and resources and history of their native 



President and Mrs. Zalman Shazar of Israel, during visit to 
Kennedy Center offices, are shown a model of the Center by 
Roger L. Stevens. 

homes. The Embassies in Washington were similarly invited to 
participate in this endeavor. To date, including the 18 painted last 
summer, 65 segments of the fence have been decorated with paintings 
representing 25 States, the District of Columbia, 5 trust territories, 
and 16 foreign countries. 

Construction Progress 

Colonel William F. Powers, formerly Engineering Vice President of 
Lincoln Center in New York, began his full-time duties with the Center 
as Executive Director of Engineering on October 1, 1966. Colonel 
Powers .was named by the General Services Administration as special 
assistant to the Contracting Officer and as Project Director for the 


Center's construction. By this means, direct organizational relationships 
between the Center and GSA have been established. Colonel Powers 
continues to serve as Executive Director of Engineering in those areas 
of responsibility reserved to the Center and the Trustees. 

The standing committee formerly known as the JFK Center /GSA 
Liaison Committee was renamed the Building Committee. It is made 
up of five Trustees: the Chairman, Mrs. Shouse,, S. Dillon Ripley, 
George B. Hartzog, Jr., and Ralph Becker. Mr. Mullin and Colonel 
Powers serve as staff representatives and GSA is represented by the 
Commissioner of the Public Buildings Service, William Schmidt, and 
his Deputy, Robert Foster. 

To appreciate fully some of the problems encountered in negotiating 
construction contracts and subcontracts, it is well to recall the history 
of the Center's design. The first blueprints submitted in 1959 by the 
architect, Edward Durell Stone, envisioned a Center on such a scale 
that the cost estimates at that time were $75 million. Subsequently the 
Trustees, after consultation with Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy, 
decided that this concept was not practicable, since funds of this mag- 
nitude could not be raised on a voluntary basis from the general public. 
Accordingly, the architect was requested to provide an alternative 
design, which was unveiled in September 1962 to general and en- 
thusiastic acceptance and approval. For reasons of economy and effi- 
ciency Mr. Stone recommended that all the halls be placed under one 
roof to afford savings in land usage, building materials, utilities, and 
managerial and maintenance personnel. This new concept was then 
estimated to cost $30 million, without the parking substructure. 

Since that time, this cost figure has been maintained as the amount 
necessary for the construction of the Center. When final detailed 
plans and specifications were approved for the letting of bids for the 
general contract in July 1966, however, it became apparent that the 
rising costs of materials and labor would substantially increase this 

Firms selected on the basis of reliability and favorable experience 
with similar projects were invited in June 1966 to submit bids for the 
general construction contract. The solicitation of bids on a selective 
basis was done with the approval of the Comptroller General of the 
United States and the concurrence of the Senate and House Com- 
mittees on Public Works and Appropriations. After the bids were 
received and evaluated, the John McShain Company of Philadelphia 
was awarded the general construction contract on July 22, 1966. The 
McShain bid of $249,000 for his fee, including all on-site and off-site 
supervision and overhead during construction, is about one-sixth of 
what a normal bid would be. Mr. McShain preferred to undertake 


this job as a public service rather than a normal profit-making business 

In addition to the general contract, contracts for demolition and 
site clearance, and for excavation and relocation of Rock Creek - Poto- 
mac Parkway, were completed and by year's end the general contrac- 
tor had completed the excavation as well as the pouring of most of 
the concrete caissons, some of which run as deep as 27 feet. 

When the first subcontract bids were opened it became apparent 
that actual costs, based on the materials required and increases in the 
costs of building construction generally, were out of line with the 
original cost estimates. Meetings were immediately arranged between 
Center officers, the Commissioner of Public Buildings Service, and 
subsequently with the GSA Administrator. The outcome was assump- 
tion by GSA of full responsibility for preparing a revised cost estimate 
and ascertaining the extent to which the prior estimates may have been 
understated. After their reports were received a new procedure for 
reviewing bids was developed, consisting of review and negotiation by 
a team representing the Center, McShain, and GSA. 

Subsequently, a contract was awarded on February 24, 1967, to 
Bethlehem Steel for the steel requirements. Their low bid was 

In addition, the following subcontract awards were made: 
Electrical — a joint venture of E. C. Ernst Inc. of Washington, 
D.C., and Fischbach & Moore of New York City, in the amount of 

Mechanical — awarded to the low bidder, Pierce Associates of 
Alexandria, on a bid of $7,375,000. 

Steel testing — Gulick-Henderson Laboratories, Inc., of New York, 
in the amount of $56,000. 

Reinforcing steel placement — C. J. Roberts Inc., of Springfield, 
Virginia, at a price of $390,000. 

Fabrication of architectural cast stone — Eastern Schokcrete Corpo- 
ration, New York, in the amount of $667,000. 

Erection of architectural cast stone — Costello Company, Inc., of 
Cumberland, Maryland, in the amount of $230,000. 

At year's end 75 percent of the paving marble procured from 
Bufalini had been received, inspected, and stored at the Naval Re- 
search Laboratory at Anacostia. The Henraux marble to be used for 
the exterior facing is expected to begin arriving sometime around the 
end of July, and the marble for the interior walls will probably begin 
to arrive in late summer. All this marble is included in the gift from 
the Government of Italy. 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Abram Lerner, Director 

On may 17, 1966, the president requested that Congress enact 
legislation to authorize acceptance of the Hirshhorn Collection 
of sculpture and paintings. In his message to the Congress, the President 
recalled the great tradition of private contributions which have 
enriched the cultural life of this city. He recalled James Smithson's 
bequest which led to the establishment of the Smithsonian in 1846; 
William Corcoran's founding of his art gallery in 1859; Charles Freer's 
donation of his collection and the gallery which opened in 1 922 ; the 
gift of Andrew Mellon, which was accepted in 1937; and now the gift 
of Joseph Hirshhorn of his collection of contemporary art. 

This gift of nearly 5,000 paintings and drawings and over 1,500 
pieces of sculpture has been conservatively valued at $25,000,000 and 
is undoubtedly worth much more. Mr. Hirshhorn also gave $1,000,000 
for future acquisitions for the collection. The terms of the gift required 
that the Smithsonian Institution obtain legislation and appropriations 
for the construction and operation of a museum and garden of sculpture 
on the Mall, and that the necessary appropriation be obtained before 
the end of the 90th Congress. 

The Congress responded favorably to the President's request. 
By the Act of November 7, 1966 (P.L. 89-788, 89th Cong., S. 3389), 
it provided a site on the Mall and provided statutory authority for the 



appropriation of construction and operating funds. In a companion 
Act, approved on November 2, 1966, the Congress authorized the 
Secretary of the Army to construct an addition to the existing Armed 
Forces Institute of Pathology at Walter Reed Army Medical Center 
to house the Medical Museum and medical research unit now housed 
in the existing building at 7th Street and Independence Avenue, on 
the site of the Hirshhorn Museum. 

The Congress also provided preliminary planning funds and appro- 
priated to the Smithsonian $803,000 for the preparation of contract 
drawings and specifications for the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture 
Garden. Construction funds will be sought in the Smithsonian's 
request for appropriations for the next fiscal year. 

The authorizing legislation appropriated to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion the Mall area between 7th and 9th Streets and Independence 
Avenue and Jefferson Drive as the permanent site of the Museum. 
The Act also made available to the Institution as the permanent site 
of the Sculpture Garden, the area bounded by 7th Street, 9th Street, 
Jefferson Drive, and Madison Drive. The legislation provided further 
that the Smithsonian shall cooperate with the Secretary of the Interior 
so that the development and use of the Sculpture Garden is consistent 
with the open space concept of the Mall, for which the Secretary of 
the Interior is responsible, and with related developments regarding 
underground garages and street development. And the Act authorized 
an appropriation not to exceed $15,000,000 for the planning and 
construction of the Museum and Sculpture Garden. 

The 12-acre Mall site thus provided is situated in the midst of the 
Smithsonian complex of museums and art galleries in a location most 
convenient to the millions of visitors who yearly crowd -the Mall. The 
site is the only remaining one of appropriate size and location on the 
Mall for the proper display of this large collection of sculpture and 
painting. It lies within the Mall area contemplated by the Act of 
May 17, 1938, as the site for a Smithsonian gallery of art. And, it should 
be noted, the master plan for the Mall recently developed for the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, who is charged with the development of the Mall 
as a public park, visualizes the erection of a building such as the 
Hirshhorn Museum for public use and interest at this location. 

The appointment of Abram Lerner as Director of the Joseph H. 
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden was made on April 1, 1967. 
He has served as curator of the Hirshhorn Collection for the past ten 
years. Secretary Ripley has said: "That the Hirshhorn Collection is a 
monument to contemporary American art and a unique dossier of 
European moderns is, in large measure, a tribute to Abram Lerner, who 
influenced its growth and continuity." 



Architect's model and detail sketch of Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum, showing 
its relation to Smithsonian's Arts and Industries building (right) and Federal 
Aviation Agency building (rear) across Independence Avenue. Sunken 
Sculpture Garden extends across center strip of Mall. 


The selection of Gordon Bunshaft of the architectural firm of Skid- 
more, Owings and Merrill as architect of the Joseph H. Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden was made jointly by the Smithsonian 
and Joseph H. Hirshhorn. 

The preliminary design is presently underway. The design concept 
was completed and was presented to the Commission of Fine Arts, 
and to the National Capital Planning Commission.* 

*The concept was approved by the Commission of Fine Arts on July 13, 1967, 
and by the National Capital Planning Commission on July 27, 1967. 

Other Smithsonian Activities, 
Offices, Programs, and Services 

United States National Museum 
Frank A. Taylor, Director 

The national museum act of 1966 has empowered the Director of 
the United States National Museum to cooperate with museums 
and their associations, to identify and study problems of concern to 
museums, to publish reports of research on these problems, to train 
museum personnel, to give advisory aid to museums requesting as- 
sistance, and to prepare and publish manuals of museum practices. 
Although no funds have been appropriated to implement the Museum 
Act, which was approved and signed into law by President Lyndon B. 
Johnson, October 15, 1966, a number of the activities of the Smith- 
sonian in the past year relate to the purposes of the legislation. 

Responding to repeated statements of the need for trained science- 
museum technicians, the Smithsonian Institution proposed to share 
the cost of training technicians. Three museums — the Los Angeles 
County Museum of Natural History in California, The American 
Museum of Natural History in New York, and the Field Museum of 
Natural History in Illinois — generously agreed to join in the trial 
project designed to produce nine trained technicians at the end of 
the year of work training. The cooperating museums are recruiting 
college graduates for training and have undertaken to provide in- 
struction, and to absorb the administrative costs of the program. 

In another cooperative project the American Association of Museums 
is sharing publication costs with the Smithsonian and is providing the 
editorial work to produce a revision of the widely needed manual 
Museum Registration Methods by Dorothy Dudley, Irma Bezold, and 



The returns from the questionnaire on museums and their educa- 
tional programs, circulated jointly with the Office of Education and 
the American Association of Museums, were processed for tabulation. 
The information received from the returns will form the beginning of 
an up-to-date documentation of the museum field. 

The volume of requests received from museums for advice and aid 
increased enormously after the passage of the Museum Act. Smith- 
sonian staff members were requested to consult with museum directors 
and their staffs on new programs, buildings, exhibits, and interpreta- 
tion. Several spent substantial amounts of time at the requesting 
museums advising on a variety of museum projects. In the eight months 
subsequent to passage of the Act, inquiries were received at the rate of 
about 100 a month. From every State and from more than 20 Nations 
came requests for such assistance as reviewing programs and building 
plans, advising on the scope and activities of museums proposed for 
specific communities, suggesting sources of funding, predicting future 
museum needs and orientation, and evaluating museum exhibits and 
educational programs. 

In cooperation with officers of the American Association of Museums 
representations were made to Government agencies justifying direct 
Federal aid for the construction of museum facilities. The basis of the 
justification was the increased demands upon museums by educational 
institutions stimulated by the Federal aid available to schools to take 
advantage of museums as supplementary teaching centers and for the 
use of museums for curriculum improvement and enrichment. 

This cause was greatly advanced by the gracious and generous 
letter which President Johnson addressed to Mr. Ripley as Chairman 
of the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities. This letter (see 
p. 14) recognizes museums as precious cultural and educational re- 
sources, and asks for recommendations of ways to support and strengthen 

At the request of the Minister of Education of the Republic of Korea 
and of the Director of the Pacific Science Board of the National 
Academy of Sciences, the Smithsonian participated in the Symposium 
on a Korean National Science Museum and supported the attendance 
at Seoul of a number of museum professionals from other institutions. 
The report of the Symposium recommended a planning study for which 
the Korean Government has since appropriated the equivalent of 
$25,000. A newly formed foundation, The American Friends of the 
Korean National Science Cultural Center, under the direction of 
Joseph A. Patterson, former Director of the American Association of 
Museums, is endeavoring to obtain the rest of the support required 
for the study. 


A year's use of the series of teaching exhibits on the elementary 
physics of light, for 4th- to 6th-grade students, was completed by 
schools in the Fairfax County, Virginia, school system. The results ob- 
tained were universally approved by the teachers and principals who 
observed them. Side effects of the program included increased self- 
reliance of students who had had their first learning experiences as 
individuals away from the classroom, and the stimulation of determined 
nonreaders to learn to read. The school system of Prince William 
County, Virginia, has requested the exhibits for next year and has 
undertaken to provide an evaluation test. 

Notable progress was made in the long-continuing effort of the 
Smithsonian and other institutions and individuals to effect United 
States membership in the International Center for the Study of the 
Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property (an international 
organization of member states). The Department of State indicated that 
it will support U.S. membership in the Center and suggested that the 
Smithsonian undertake to obtain the authorizing legislation. To this 
end the Smithsonian held a number of meetings of representatives of 
the interested institutions and agencies that have indicated a uniform 
support of U.S. membership. Both the United States and the Center 
would gain from such membership and the mammoth worldwide task 
of preserving cultural objects and paintings would be greatly aided by 
stepping up research, training, consultation, and the dissemination of 
knowledge of advances in scientific conservation. 


The Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES), 
working from a broad base of history, science, photography, design, 
and crafts, as well as the fine arts, endeavors to aid museums, libraries, 
universities, and other educational institutions in the development of 
their exhibition programs. Its income is derived from rental fees 
determined by the costs of preparing, mounting, and circulating the 

As listed below, the number of exhibitions has increased to 108. An 
additional seven exhibitions were circulated to schools in the District 
of Columbia. The National Collection of Fine Arts and SITES have 
cooperated in providing seven exhibitions used in a grant program 
from the Arts Advisory Committee of the D.C. Recreation Board, 
which SITES administered in fiscal 1967, for a total of 23 showings. 

Among the larger exhibitions, Art Treasures of Turkey opened in 
June 1966 at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, has crossed 



Smithsonian Institution traveling exhibitions: Tunisian Mosaics 
viewed at the Museum of Natural History by teachers and 
children of Project Headstart, from Arlington, Virginia. 
Below: Living with Wood, installed in patio of U.S. Department 
of Agriculture administration building. 



The Face of Chile, a special international exhibit, in the rotunda of the Museum 
of Natural History, March 1967. Below: Preview in the Museum of History 
and Technology of the traveling exhibition Victorian Needlework, a. showing of 
items selected from the division of textiles' collections. 


the U.S. twice, and is currently at San Francisco. The catalog of this 
great exhibition is being reprinted by the Smithsonian Institution 

The exhibition Islamic Art from the Collection of Edwin Binney 3rd is 
fully booked through 1 968 and its catalog was selected by the Associa- 
tion of American University Presses as one of the top 25 publications 
of the year. Other exhibition catalogs published in 1967 are Henry 
Moore, Paintings and Drawings by Elihu Vedder, Italian Architectural Draw- 
ings, and in May 1967, Tunisian Mosaics. 

Offerings of exhibitions by other museums have increased. The most 
notable is the loan of Sources for Tomorrow: Paintings from the Michener 
Foundation Collection by the Allentown Art Museum, the catalog for 
which was prepared by the Director, Richard Hirsch. Other offerings 
have been from the Toledo Museum of Art, American Museum of 
Natural History, American Philosophical Society Library, Museum of 
Contemporary Crafts, Addison Gallery of American Art, Los Angeles 
County Museum of Art, and the Paine Art Center and Arboretum. 

Quickening interest of other Smithsonian groups has contributed 
five exhibitions to the SITES program, and two more are in prepara- 
tion. The Office of International Activities has given exceptional aid in 
connection with the exhibition Tunisian Mosaics, opened in June 1967. 
This latter is a prime example of a Smithsonian cooperative effort that 
involved a broad range of offices and agencies of the Institution. 

Many requests have been received from foreign countries for exhibi- 
tions to be sent on an exchange basis, and means are being sought to 
implement this aspect of the program. Meanwhile SITES continues to 
receive from abroad exhibitions for tour in the United States and 
Canada. Of 88 listed in the catalog, 38 are in this category, including 
Art Treasures of Turkey, Henry Moore, and Tunisian Mosaics. Foreign 
visitors, many of them sent from the Council on Leaders and Specialists, 
come to study SITES procedures for circulating its exhibits. 

The first exhibition from Yugoslavia in conjunction with a proposed 
five-year plan has arrived and the second has been 'shipped. One 
Danish and one Finnish exhibition are in preparation. These are the 
result of a visit by the Chief of the Service to Europe in the summer of 
1 966, prompted by an invitation extended by the Yugoslav Commission 
for Cultural relations with Foreign Countries. 

Exhibitions carried over from prior years number 75. SITES initiated 
33 new shows, dispersed 2 1 , and negotiated for 2 1 additional for book- 
ings next year. 


Exhibitions Initiated in 1967 

Painting and Sculpture 

Islamic Art from the Collection of Edwin Binney 3rd; Henry Moore; Paintings 
and Drawings by Elihu Vedder; Sketches by Frederic Edwin Church; Sources 
for Tomorrow: 50 Paintings from the Michener Foundation Collection; 
Jewish Marriage Contracts; Naive Art from Haiti; Tunisian Mosaics. 

Drawings and Prints 

Canaletto Etchings; Italian Architectural Drawings; Graphic Art from 
Yugoslavia; Graphics '67: Italy; Three Swedish Printmakers; Twentieth 
Print National. 

Design and Crafts 

Albers: Interaction of Color; Cape Dorset: The Arts of an Eskimo Community; 
Ceramic Arts USA; Contemporary Rugs from Argentina; Empire Profile; 
Fiber, Fabric, and Form; German Posters; Living with Wood; Victorian 
Needlework; Color and Light in Painting. 

The Explorer's New Zealand; The People's Choice. 

Childrens' Art 

Les Enfants de Paris; Paintings by Children of Many Lands; Things and 
Other Things; Tokyo Children Look at the Olympic Games. 

Natural History and Science 

Animal Behavior; Minerals Magnified; Prehistoric Paintings of France and 

Exhibitions Continued From Prior Years 

1965-66: Art in Science; Eyewitness to Space; Art Treasures of Turkey; 
Pre-Columbian Gold from Peru; Action-Reaction; Contemporary African 
Printmakers; Contemporary Dutch Graphics; Diirer and His Time; Mirror of 
the Artist; Polish Graphic Art; Six Danish Graphic Artists; The World of 
William Hogarth; Art in Urban Architecture; Early Chicago Architecture; 
Calligraphy in Islamic Textiles; Folk Toys from Japan; Glass from Czecho- 
slovakia; Jazz Posters; Posters from Denmark; Rugs from the McMullan 
Collection; Early Monuments and Architecture of Ireland; Danish Children 
Illustrate Hans Christian Andersen; Embroideries by Children of Chijnaya; 
Ghanian Textiles; Museum Impressions; The Preservation of Abu Simbel; 
Gentle Wilderness: The Sierra Nevada; Charles H. Currier: Victorian 
Photographer; New Names in Latin American Art. 


1964-65: Watercolors by Pop Hart; Modern Watercolors from Sweden; 
The Art of the Yoruba; Contemporary American Drawings II; William 
Blake: Poet, Printer, Prophet; Bridges, Tunnels, and Waterworks; Contempo- 
rary Fine Presses in America; Eskimo Graphic Art III; The Fabulous Decade; 
Kokoschka: King Lear, Apulian Journey, Hellas; Prints from the Mourlot 
Press; Pier Luigi Nervi; American Costumes; American Furniture; Masters of 
Ballet Design; The American Flag; Be My Guest!; Brass Rubbings from 
England; World Fairs; National High School Prints; Paintings by Mexican 
Children; Paintings and Pastels by Children of Tokyo; Ancient Rock Paintings 
and Engravings; Colors and Patterns in the Animal Kingdom; the Stonecrop 
Family: Variations on a Pattern; The Color of Water. 

1963-64: Alvar Aalto; Contemporary American Landscape Architecture; 
Birds of Asia; Antonio Frasconi 1952-63; Hearts and Flowers; The Nile; 
Religious Themes by Old Masters; Eero Saarinen; Swiss Posters. 

1962-63: Craftsmen of the City; Historic Annapolis; Paintings by Young 

1961-62: Physics and Painting; UNESCO Watercolor Reproductions; Con- 
temporary Italian Drawings (2 shows); The Face of Viet Nam; Le Corbusier; 
Robert Capa: Images of War. 

1960-61 : Image of Physics. 


The new chief of the Conservation- Analytical Laboratory, Robert M. 
Organ, entered upon his assignment at the close of the year. Mr. 
Organ, who has had a distinguished career in the field of conservation 
and the analysis of museum objects, came to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion from the Royal Ontario Museum. Before going to Ontario he 
was, from 1951 to 1965, chief experimental officer of the Research 
Laboratory of the British Museum. The Smithsonian is fortunate to 
have a man of his experience and ability as head of its conservation and 
analysis programs. 

Within the limitations of the available manpower the scientific 
effort of the laboratory has been directed toward using and improving 
facilities along the lines reported in 1966. In particular, X-ray dif- 
fraction techniques have been used in the examination of numerous 
samples of pigments and in the authentication of coins. The large 
number of bronze objects from Southern Arabia examined by X-ray 
fluorescence analysis, using a semi-quantitative method, have also 
been examined in cross section, and in order to facilitate metallo- 
graphic work of this nature a Vickers projection microscope has been 
installed. An ultraviolet emission spectrograph is being brought into 
service, initially for the rapid semi-quantitative analysis of a wide 


range of materials made available in the form of small samples. And 
the infra-red spectrometer continues to be useful in such tasks as the 
identification of synthetic materials proposed for use in storage, in- 
volving prolonged contact with museum objects. 

In the normal course of estimating the accuracy of the quantitative 
analytical techniques employed, a comparison has been made between 
the results of wet-chemical and of X-ray fluorescence analysis of 
ancient bronzes having widely different compositions. The two methods 
appear to yield results of similar precision and can therefore prove 
equally acceptable to archeologists in need of analyses. 

Looking ahead toward the future when local irradiation facilities 
may become available, considerable effort has been put into develop- 
ment of neutron activation analysis for trace elements in potsherds. 
A program of analysis is in progress for investigating possible dif- 
ferences in composition between products of various potteries in North 
Devon which were exported to America in the 1 7 th century. 

The scientific apparatus, however, has not been employed solely in 
laboratory testing. When a Flemish inlaid and painted wooden chest 
previously conditioned to a relative humidity approximating to 50 
percent had to be exhibited in the un-airconditioned Great Hall of 
the Smithsonian building, an especially conditioned case was devised. 
For the case, the laboratory prepared ballasting material that would 
maintain steady conditions in order to minimize cracking and loss of 
inlay or paint. 

The staff of the Conservation-Analytical Laboratory has numbered 
four during the greater portion of the year, but the addition of two 
technicians and the new chief has added considerably to its working 
capacity. During the year some 90 requisitions for work involving 
370 objects were received from 21 sources. Of these only about 15 
were not completed at year's end. One technician specializing in 
objects made of paper treated about 150 small objects such as cur- 
rency decrees, drawings, and a decorated paper sewing box, and has 
restored about 1 00 photographs. Three large watercolors of the original 
Smithsonian buildings were treated by this technician in a workshop 
in Philadelphia as part of a training program. 


Under the direction of chief of exhibits John E. Anglim and assistant 
chief Benjamin W. Lawless, the Office of Exhibits made notable contri- 
butions to the Smithsonian's public education and information objec- 
tives as well as continuing in its role as pacesetter in the museum world 
for the development and application of exhibition techniques. 


The Office, which designs, produces, and installs all permanent and 
special exhibits in the Museums of History and Technology and Natural 
History, also provides material assistance and consultation services 
for other branches of the Smithsonian. 

During the year the Office of Exhibits opened 6 new permanent 
exhibition halls to the general public, completed supplementary 
portions of 25 other permanent exhibition halls, and produced 29 
temporary and special exhibits — some of major national and inter- 
national importance. In addition, the Office of Exhibits welcomed to 
its laboratories, to observe, and to receive instruction and advice, 
more than 200 professionals from museums all over the United States 
and more than a score of foreign countries, as well as large numbers 
of interested college and university students. 

The Office also presented special programs in which staff members 
of its laboratories demonstrated the various techniques employed in 
making educational displays. In many of the "booths," visitor participa- 
tion was encouraged. The first such demonstration program was held 
in October 1966 in the Museum of History and Technology exhibits 
laboratories in conjunction with the Smithsonian Associates and pri- 
marily for the enlightenment and edification of its members. The second 
was held in April 1967 at the Anacostia Naval Station as part of a 
"job fair" for high-school students and was presented in collaboration 
with the Neighborhood Youth Corps and the United Planning 

The exhibits editor's office, under chief editor George Weiner, pro- 
duced 7,106 labels for 89 permanent and special exhibits of museums 
and offices of the Smithsonian Institution and, in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian Institution Press and curators of the Museum of Natural 
History and the Museum of History and Technology, performed 
substantial work on three exhibits-oriented popular publications under 

History and Technology Laboratory 

Under assistant chief of exhibits Benjamin W. Lawless, the Museum 
of History and Technology laboratory opened 5 permanent exhibit 
halls to the general public and produced additional portions of 15 
other permanent halls and a variety of special and temporary exhibits. 
These were designed under the supervision of chief designer Robert B. 
Widder and were prepared and installed under the supervision of 
production chief William M. Clark, Jr. 

The permanent halls opened this year include the first two halls of the 
Institution's unique "Growth of the United States" exhibition complex, 



In the hall of underwater exploration, exhibits preparators install the central 
life-size diving group and (below) an underwater treasure trove. 


a comprehensive visual survey of every aspect of United States history, 
designed by Robert B. Widder and Mrs. Deborah Bretzfelder. The 
hall of power machinery, containing authentic examples of machines 
of the American Industrial Revolution, many of them operative, was 
produced under the direction of designer William F. Haase. The hall 
of petroleum, which covers the development of the United States 
petroleum industry from its beginnings to the present day, was designed 
by Riddick Vann, Barbara H. Bowes, and William Haase. The hall 
of underwater exploration, a delightfully adventurous survey of the 
quest for sunken treasure in American coastal waters, was designed by 
Nadya Kayaloff. 

Special exhibits covered many facets of history and culture and 
brought pleasure and enlightenment to both the serious specialist and 
the casual viewer. The fresh and inviting exhibition of Japanese 
photographs of herons, designed by James Jerald Shelton, contrasted 
with Barbara Bowes's severe, no-nonsense design of the African back- 
grounds and Negro slavery exhibition, which was added to the hall 
of everyday life in early America. 

Photographs showing man and his activities in every part of the 
globe comprised the loan exhibit from Germany, World Exposition 
of Photography, designed by Robert Widder. The original of the 
famous Yale Library Vinland map was the focal point of a compre- 
hensive exhibit on the Vikings and their Atlantic voyages, designed 
by James Shelton, which drew scholars from all over the world. By 
using an excellent facsimile of the map after the loan period of the 
original terminated, this highly popular exhibit was able to remain 
on view four months longer than originally planned. 

Superb 19th-century architectural drawings supplemented by 
photos of Irish castles and public buildings comprised the exhibition 
of Irish architectural drawings and photographs; and artist's renderings 
of the proposed Washington beautification program, displayed with 
enlargements of photographs of the same sites in their present condi- 
tions, gave Washingtonians and visitors to Washington a glimpse of 
the Nation's capital city of the future. Both of these exhibits were 
designed by Robert Widder. 

Students of the decorative arts enjoyed the Wedgwood exhibit, 
containing 300 Wedgwood portrait medallions and about 200 other 
pieces of Wedgwood porcelain, produced under the direction of 
designer Morris Pearson in conjunction with the 1967 Wedgwood 
International Seminar. The nostalgic exhibition of Victorian needle- 
work, designed by James Shelton and displayed in cases specifically 
designed to protect the delicate fabrics during a 2-year tour under the 
sponsorship of the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 


Service, was accompained by a central exhibit of 19th-century furni- 
ture and sewing equipment. 

Two striking exhibits of antique automobiles, featuring the Winton 
Cross-Country car and the Winton Bullet, were prepared under the 
direction of designer John R. Clendening for the Constitution Avenue 
lobby of the Museum of History and Technology. And the fiftieth 
anniversary of World War I was marked by two notable exhibitions — 
one of combat art of the period, and the other of original war posters; 
these exhibits were prepared under the direction of designers Helen 
Hahm and Robert Widder. 

Natural History Laboratory 

Under the direction of chief of exhibits John E. Anglim, assisted by 
A. Gilbert Wright, a highly diversified program of exhibits projects was 
carried forward by the Museum of Natural History Laboratory. 
Designed under the supervision of John Anglim, the exhibits were 
prepared and installed under the supervision of production chief Julius 
Tretick and his successor, Frank Nelms. 

The opening of a new hall of meteorites, designed by Mrs. Dorothy 
Guthrie, represented another milestone in the exhibits renovation pro- 
gram of the Museum of Natural History. Other exhibits relating to the 
earth sciences were also completed this year under the direction of Mrs. 
Guthrie, including new exhibition cases in the gem and mineral halls. 
Work continued on the design and production of exhibits for the hall of 
physical geology, which is scheduled to be opened next year. 

Production of new units continued for the cultures of Africa and Asia 
hall, being designed by Lucius Lomax, which is scheduled for comple- 
tion early next year; and designer James A. Speight completed designs 
for the ichthyological section of the hall of cold-blooded vertebrates. 
Designers Rolland O. Hower and Morris Pearson devoted much of their 
efforts to the preparation of designs for the forthcoming halls of botany 
and of Old World archeology, and designer Joseph Shannon devoted 
a major part of his time to the architectural design for the forthcoming 
hall of insect life. 

During the year, a significant part of the work of the laboratory was 
devoted to the design and production of special and temporary ex- 
hibits. Of these, one of the most important was the 20-unit traveling 
Alaska Centennial exhibit commemorating the one-hundredth anniver- 
sary of the purchase of Alaska by the United States. Prepared under the 
direction of designers Hower, Speight, and Pearson in collaboration 
with historians and scientists of the University of Alaska, this exhibit 
traced the growth and development of Alaska from prehistoric times to 
the present. 



Nancy Halliday applies oil color to models of African cattle and (below) 
Peter DeAnna completes background for life-group that will portray African 
Bushmen in a life-setting for the hall of African and Asian cultures. 



In the plastics laboratory Leonard Shelton fabricates a mold 
of life-figure for the hall of African and Asian cultures, and 
(below) exhibit specialists William Donnelly, Mathew Ballou, 
and Michael Friello produce replicas, in plastic, of natural 
history and historical specimens. 


Another special exhibit of international significance was The Face 
of Chile, designed by Pearson and prepared by the Laboratory in 
cooperation with the Chilean Embassy and the University of Chile. 
The largest and most varied exhibit of ancient Tunisian mosaics ever 
to be shown in the United States was prepared this year under the 
direction of designer Guthrie, in conjunction with the Government of 
Tunisia and the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 
Consisting of 57 large mosaics, 3 frescoes, 8 stone carvings, and 23 
ceramic figures, the exhibit remained on display through the summer of 

In connection with a widely publicized "kite carnival" sponsored by 
the Smithsonian Associates, the laboratory produced in conjunction 
with the National Air and Space Museum a special exhibition of kites 
of the world in the rotunda of the Museum of Natural History. 

During the year, the freeze-dry facilities were extensively redesigned 
by Rolland O. Hower, supervisor of the freeze-dry laboratory. Installa- 
tion of new equipment was begun which will greatly increase produc- 
tion and will also make possible the freeze-dry preparation of much 
larger biological specimens than before. Publication of Mr. Hower' s 
comprehensive paper, The Freeze-Dry Preservation of Biological Specimens, 
elicited many letters of inquiry from the museum world. 


The general public's insatiable quest for knowledge on every subject 
was reflected again this year in letters seeking information or trans- 
mitting items for identification. These communications, some 250 to 
275 a week, come particularly from elementary and secondary school 
students, and are received and processed through the Office of the 
Registrar, which serves both the Museum of Natural History and the 
Museum of History and Technology. Dinosaurs remained the most 
popular subject, with American Indians a close second and followed 
by Stradivarius violins, coins, and requests for information on early 
Americana. The NBC Smithsonian television series has generated a 
sizeable influx of questions relating to the subject matter of the programs 
Typically, one young man wrote, "I love your television shows but I 
like the one on meteorites best. Please send me . . . ." 

Among the interesting and significant types of cargo handled by 
the shipping office, which processed 14,947 pieces totalling 1,079,702 
pounds, were 16,000 pounds of whale bones and skulls carried by 
motor freight from California. Another was the 15,000-pound El 
Taco, Campo del Cielo meteorite, shipped back to the Smithsonian 
from Germany after cutting and later, by special arrangement, returned 



to Argentina together with a model of the original specimen.. Yet 
another was a collection of Mexican coins weighing 4,000 pounds that 
was successfully moved by combined air and armored car service on 
a rigid schedule and security basis. Valuable pieces of art for special 
shows of the National Collection of Fine Arts, a 25,000-pound McMillan 
synchrotron, a chariot dated 1825, and a fragile Dutch marquetry 
cabinet were also transported through careful and painstaking efforts 
of the staff. 

Accessions to the collections were registered in 3,257 transactions, 
and tables compiled in the Office of the Registrar, indicating the 
distribution of these materials, appear on pages 123 and 270. 

Passports numbering 293, and 310 visas, were obtained for official 
travelers to countries from Costa Rica, Panama, Mexico, Poland, and 
Hungary, to Indonesia and Diego Garcia in the Pacific. Permits were 
obtained for field expeditions to Venezuela, Brazil, Tunisia, Pakistan, 
and the inland waterways of Iceland and Norway. 

Art objects for the National Collection of Fine Arts, natural history specimens 
for identification, personal effects for a paleontologist on an expedition — a 
small part of the daily traffic handled by the Office of the Registrar. 

International Exchange Service 

J. A. Collins, Director 


provided a system whereby institutions in the United States could 
transmit their publications to libraries in other countries and, in return 
receive publications from the foreign institutions. This system grew 
rapidly and the quantity of material transmitted has steadily increased 
through the years. Today many libraries are dependent upon the 
exchange system for their foreign publications. 

During the fiscal year 1967, publications were received from over 
400 organizations in the United States for transmission to more than 
100 countries. Over 345,000 pounds of official United States publica- 
tions were received for transmission to foreign depository libraries 
in exchange for the official publications of other countries. The daily 
issues of the Federal Register and the Congressional Record were 
exchanged for the parliamentary journals of other countries. The 
United States patent specifications were sent to patent offices in 
other countries in exchange for the foreign patent specifications. 
Bulletins, journals, reports, and transactions of universities, observa- 
tories, societies, government agencies, agricultural experiment stations, 
and congressional committees were transmitted to libraries throughout 
the world in exchange for publications of similar foreign organizations. 

A paper, "The International Exchange Service," presented by Collins 
at a program on documents during the 1965 American Library Associa- 
tion Conference, was published in Library Resources and Technical Services 
(summer 1966), vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 337-341. 

During the past year Carl E. Hellyer, who was connected with the 
International Exchange Service for many years, retired as Assistant 






For transmission abroad 
by the Smithsonian 

Number of 

Weight ir 

Received by the 

Smithsonian for 

distribution in the 

United States 

Number of Weight in 
packages pounds 


U.S. parliamentary documents 

received for transmission 

abroad 1, 036, 751 388, 259 

Publications received from foreign 

sources for U.S. parliamentary 

addressees — — 

U.S. departmental documents re- 
ceived for transmission abroad. 322, 367 301, 042 — 
Publications received from foreign 

sources for U.S. departmental 

addressees — — 7, 966 

Miscellaneous scientific and 

literary publications received 

for transmission abroad 157, 315 218, 720 — 

Miscellaneous scientific and 

literary publications received 

from abroad for distribution in 

the United States — — 

Total 1,516,433 908,021 

Total packages received. . . 1, 585, 417 — 

Total pounds received — — 


14, 726 

51, 102 

90, 507 

68,084 116,851 
— 1,024,872 

Science Information Exchange 

Monroe E. Freeman, Director 

Voluntary input of information to the Science Information 
Exchange (SIE) by all Government and non-Government agencies 
has increased an estimated 20 percent over the previous year, and good 
progress has been made toward SIE's primary program objective, a 
comprehensive national inventory of research in progress. The de- 
mand for information services from the scientific community has also 
increased at least 20 percent over 1966. 

During this period, however, as a result of increased automation of 
information handling, SIE has been able to absorb an increase in costs 
of about 10 to 15 percent, so that the net gain in economy and efficiency 
is about 30 percent. For example, an inverted-file disc storage for 
subject retrieval reduced the computer search to 0.1 hour per question. 
And a "Unique Last Term" (ULT) index was developed that permits 
automatic hierarchical assignment of index codes by the computer, 
eliminating this phase of manual coding. 

The man-machine computer-based scientific information system 
used by SIE is quite complex in its operating detail, and is now auto- 
mated to the fullest extent that is presently consistent with the practical 
economics of full-scale production line operations. New methods and 
equipment are progressively added when practical and when sub- 
stantial cost-benefits are assured, and future plans include further 
sophistication of the information-handling system by full-text computer 
storage. A detailed systems study in progress promises substantial 
cost-benefits, further reduction in response time, and substantial 
progress toward standardization and compatability with other in- 
formation systems. New studies on quality control of information are 
beginning with an investigation of the amount of irrelevancy acceptable 
to user-scientists. This will permit the realistic adjustment of input- 
indexing techniques to the direct computer output of information 
products acceptable to the users. 

Attention was given to the integrated classification and description 
of urban research. In this program Dr. Scott Keyes, University of 
Illinois, served as a consultant to the Exchange for six months. Dr. 
Keyes is also editor of Research Digest, published by the Bureau of 



Community Planning, University of Illinois. To establish closer co- 
operation in the collection of information on urban research, a series 
of informal meetings on urban affairs brought together at SIE specialists 
in the Washington area with interest in the classification and descrip- 
tion of the field. SIE and Department of Housing and Urban Develop- 
ment co-sponsored a regional meeting in New York City on "Co- 
operation and Communication in Urban Research." 

Staff members participated in the Inter-University Communications 
Council (EDUCOM) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 
during July 1966 to develop "engineering and operation plans for a 
prototype network for education information processing." A survey 
paper on the nature and functions of national information centers was 
contributed by SIE participants. 

The second volume of the Water Resources Research Catalog and a new 
Water Resources Research Thesaurus were prepared for the Office of Water 
Resources Research, U.S. Department of the Interior. The Outdoor 
Recreation Research (a 1966 reference catalog) was also prepared for 
publication for the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, U.S. Department 
of the Interior. 

Papers Presented or Published 

Foster, W. R. Services of the Science Information Exchange in the 
field of mental health. Presentation before the Committee on 
Mental Health, HEW, Washington, D.C., April 12, 1967. 

Freeman, M. E. Science Information Exchange educational in- 
formation services. Presented before the Education Research 
Information Center (ERIC), HEW, Washington, D.C.January 31, 

. The urban program of the Science Information Exchange. 

Presented before the Conference on Cooperation and Communi- 
cation in Urban Research, City University of New York, New 
York, February 1, 1967. 

. The Science Information Exchange as a source of informa- 

tion. Presentation before the New Jersey Chapter of the Special 
Libraries Association, Edison, New Jersey, April 5, 1967. 

. The Science Information Exchange. Presentation before 

the Northern, Central and Southern Ohio Chapters of the American 
Documentation Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, April 14, 1967. 

. Science Information Exchange — research-in-progress — 

who, where and what? Presentation before the Seminar on 
Government Sources of Scientific and Technical Information, 
sponsored by the University of Houston and by the Southern 


Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, in cooperation with the Special 
Libraries Association — Texas Chapter, May 11 and 12, 1967, 
. Science Information Exchange's triad, producer-processor- 

user. Presentation before The Workshop on Drug Information 
Sources Within the Government at the Drug Information Associa- 
tion meeting, May 25-26, 1967, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Determining costs of information systems. Journal of 

Chemical Documentation (May 1967), vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 101-106. 

Hersey, D. F. The role of the Science Information Exchange in 
assisting small businesses. Presentation before the NASA-SBA 
Conference at Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, May 25, 

. The role of the Science Information Exchange in the 

nuclear technology field. Presentation before the Symposium on 
Nuclear Technology Information, Buffalo, New York, January 21, 

Kreysa, F. J. Science Information Exchange and national registry 
of current research. Presentation before the Symposium on 
Information Resources for Nuclear and Radiation Technology, 
Edison Club, Rexford, New York, May 17, 1967. 

Long, B. L. Bridging the pre-publication gap in scientific informa- 
tion. Geotimes (March 1967), pp. 18-19. 

Marron, H., and Foster, W. R. Subject searches on current 
research information of parallel computer and manual files. 
Proceedings of the American Documentation Institute, October 
3-7, 1966, pp. 123-129. 

Maturi, V. F. Some elements of a federal scientific information 
center. Presentation before the Gordon Conferences, New 
Hampton, New Hampshire, July 19, 1966. 

; Liebman, S. ; Fitzpatrick, W. H.; and Kreysa, F. J. 

Science information centers. Journal of Chemical Education 
(November 1966), vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 605-606. 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 

Mary A. Huffer, Acting Director 

Increased activity within the institution in research, education, 
exhibits, and public services caused a substantial increase in the 
workload of all Smithsonian Libraries this year. Of the 44,209 items 
added, 7,369 came through purchase. Of the 16,939 titles cataloged, 
8,121 items were handled in the bindery unit. No circulation figures 
are available for the major portions of the collections which are freely 
accessible to staff and visiting scholars within their own bureaus and 
departments, but over 51,000 items were circulated through the loan 
desks. The reference staff handled over 60,000 questions and letters. 
At the end of the year about a third of the collections was fully 
classified and cataloged. Most of the uncataloged material had been 
sorted, shelved, and can now be retrieved through various temporary 
control files. 

Progress continues on the automation program. In July 1966, James 
Crockett, program analyst, was assigned to the Director's office to 
assist in the system studies and programming of the Libraries' auto- 
mation projects. By the end of the year he had completed the review 
and updating of all the programs for accounting procedures and ac- 
quisitions of monographs and was beginning to phase in the purchasing, 
check-in, and control system for serials. 

The staff of the Smithsonian liaison librarian at the Library of 
Congress continued to provide able assistance and support services to 
Smithsonian staff members, thereby saving much valuable time 
for both research and library staff members. 

During the year 12,000 pages were submitted for translation on 
the Special Foreign Currency Information Program administered by 
the National Science Foundation. 

In September the acquisitions staff moved into new quarters, in 
the west range of the Natural History building, which provided more 
space for staff, equipment, and operations. Thomas L. Wilding, who 
was named exchange and gift librarian in July 1966, was most success- 
ful in reactivating inactive exchange partners, and he increased by 
50 percent the number of new exchanges. Improvements in the 
operations of the automatic data processing system made possible 
the handling of a 40 percent increase in book funds without additional 



In the cataloging section the year was one of transition. With the 
arrival of Carol Raney as the new chief and the appointment of 
Charles King as serials cataloger in August, the professional staff 
has been complete for most of the year, and the output of cataloging 
increased accordingly. Expansion of the department into the space 
vacated by the acquisitions section resulted in a much better flow of 
work and improved control of materials in process. The survey of the 
manual system and preliminary report for the conversion of the serial 
records for machine processing was completed by the end of the year. 
In May the hand binding and commercial binding units were com- 
bined under the supervision of Mrs. Mary J. Pierce. 

The assistant director of reader services, Jean C. Smith, resigned in 
May because of serious illness in her family. 

Among the notable donations received during the year were the 
following : 

Brooklyn Museum: 219 volumes on art. 

Carnegie Institution: 103 volumes, including a complete set of the H.M.S. 

Challenger Reports. 
Edwards, Mrs. Carolyn E.: 17 monographs, including 2 rare books: 

Bradley, Eliza. An authentic narrative of the shipwreck and suffering of Mrs. 
Eliza Bradley. 1820. 

Philips, George. Travels in North America. 1824. 
Martin, Mr. and Mrs. Albert: 41 items on art. 
Nagel, Charles: 1488 items on art and art history. 
Proetz, Victor, Estate of: 195 items on fine art from his estate. 
Watson, Paul, Estate of: 137 items on communications from his estate. 
White, John H., Jr.: 86 items on transportation. 

Staff Activities 

In November at the U.S. Department of the Interior Library's 
Biennial Departmental Workshop Mrs. Huffer spoke about the Smith- 
sonian Libraries — their history and collections. Informal talks were 
given throughout the year to visiting groups of foreign librarians and 
numerous groups of library graduate students. Jack Goodwin gave 
several lectures during the year, among them one on "The Historiog- 
raphy of the American Revolution" at the graduate school of Mary- 
land University. The Smithsonian Institution was elected to a two-year 
term of membership on the Federal Library Committee in June. 
Mrs. Huffer has continued her work with the Committee's Task Force 
on acquisitions of library materials and correlation of Federal library 
procedures. Staff members continue to be active in many professional 
societies and the Institution was well represented at meetings of the 
American Library Association and the Special Libraries Association. 


The following papers by a library staff member appeared in various 

Goodwin, Jack S. The trade literature collection of the Smithsonian 
Library. Special Libraries (October 1966), vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 581-583. 

. Current bibliography in the history of technology. Technology 

and Culture (Spring 1966), vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 258-309. 

Branch Libraries 

Work continued in the entomology branch library on the organization 
of the collection with special emphasis on the serial holdings. 

The remainder of the paleobiology department library collection was 
integrated into the general natural history collection and the entire 
general natural history collection housed in the central library was 
moved to the new west-range stack area on the ground floor of the 
Natural History building, thereby partially relieving the critical 
shortage of shelving space in the central library. 

By October 1966 the branch library in the Radiation Biology 
Laboratory had been remodeled and enlarged, new library shelving 
installed, and all the books cleaned and reshelved in proper sequence. 

Mrs. Ruth Schallert, who was appointed librarian for the botany 
department branch library in December, continued the review, 
weeding, and reorganization of the botany collection begun last year. 
An inventory of the collection was completed with the help of senior 
research associate William Archer. Reclassification of this collection 
from the Dewey to the Library of Congress system begins next year. 
An anonymous gift of nearly a thousand dollars, and special effort by 
the acquisitions section through the exchange program, added several 
desirable items to the collection and filled many gaps in the serial 

The staff of the branch library in the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology continued to organize the trade-catalog collection. 

During February and March of 1967, the branch library serving the 
National Collection of Fine Arts and National Portrait Gallery moved 
from the Natural History building into its new quarters on the third 
floor of the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries (the old Patent Office 

This collection continues to receive close attention, so that an 
adequately staffed and well-organized and stocked library will be 
available when the Galleries open to the public. 

The branch library in the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology 
continued to expand its collection, improve its organization of materials, 
acquire additional space, and increase its services. 


Miss Elizabeth H. Weeks in July 1966 was appointed branch librarian 
for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts. With the addition of a full-time library aid the cataloging 
backlog was brought under control, a modest selective dissemination of 
information program was put into effect, and two library publications 
initiated — Library Acquisitions and Library Publications. 

The Acting Director in August spent ten days at the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute in Panama surveying the branch library 
while consulting with the scientific staff. Some new procedures were 
initiated which resulted in better control of the materials, more rapid 
response, and additional support from the central library in assisting 
the staff with the acquisition of new materials and providing improved 
reference and research services. 

Smithsonian Institution Press 

Anders Richter, Director 

The Smithsonian has long been noted for its publication of research 
reports in serial form, which are funded mainly by Government ap- 
propriations; and for popular pamphlets and guides, which are pro- 
duced mainly with private funds and distributed through its Museum 
Shops. It has not been recognized as a publisher of books, as are the 
sixty-six other academic institutions whose presses are members of the 
Association of American University Presses. During the course of the 
past fiscal year, the Smithsonian Institution Press acquired the form and 
functions of a full-fledged university press in order that it may support 
a program of book publishing in addition to serials and popular publica- 
tions. The Press was reorganized on the basis of functional departments 
which are common to American publishing houses. 

The editorial section was revised so that specific editors are no longer 
charged with the total editing and production of a particular series. 
Editors now receive manuscripts according to schedule priorities rather 
than subject matter, and they are usually relieved of production concerns. 
Direction of the section was assumed by Roger Pineau, formerly 
liaison editor of the Museum of History and Technology, on his ap- 
pointment to the position of managing editor. Mr. Pineau is a historian, 
translator, and Japanese linguist who has written several books and 
other publications. Although the editorial staff was reduced by four 
persons during the year, a considerable reduction in editorial backlog 
was achieved. 

The production section was established under the direction of 
managing designer Stephen Kraft, a prominent member of the graphic 
arts community in the City of Washington, where formerly he conducted 
his own typography and design studio for 14 years. Subsequent to his 
appointment, he was joined by Mrs. Betty Sur, who came to the Press 
as assistant design and production manager from the publications office 
of the Library of Congress. Including an additional staff of two design- 
ers, the production section is responsible for the purchasing, scheduling, 
and design of Press printing. 

The promotion section was established with the appointment of 
Virginia Foster, formerly manager of the Kiplinger Book Service, as 



promotion manager. Her responsibilities include annual catalogs, 
direct mail announcements, space advertising, distribution of review 
copies, book jackets, exhibits, and book-trade relations. In the last six 
months of the fiscal year her efforts produced three direct-mail circulars 
sent to 20,000 addresses and five space advertisements appearing in 
seven periodicals, and culminated with distribution of 40,000 copies 
of a 28-page catalog announcing new titles and listing back titles. Late 
in the year, a working arrangement with the S. G. Stackig advertising 
agency was concluded. 

The most urgent problem facing Press management at the beginning 
of the year was that of a large backlog of manuscripts accepted for 
publication in the several Smithsonian series. By the end of the year this 
problem had been considerably reduced and had been eliminated for 
shorter papers in the natural sciences which, by that time, were being 
issued as rapidly as four months after receipt of the manuscript. The 
reorganization of the editorial and production sections, the application 
of "cold" (typewriter) composition to appropriate jobs, the screening 
out of deficient manuscripts, the employment of free-lance editors, the 
elimination of continuous pagination in a major series, the stress on 
making changes in manuscript rather than on proofs, and the elimina- 
tion of such extraordinary editorial services as complete checking of 
citation and quotations all had beneficial effects on schedules and out- 
put. There is still a serious problem of backlog with longer or heavily 
illustrated works but, by the end of the year, every manuscript accepted 
by the Press earlier than seven weeks before that date was in editorial 
work or at the printer. 

During the past fiscal year, 1 28 publications were issued by the Smith- 
sonian Institution Press (as compared with 109 in the previous year). 
Of these, 92 were funded by the Federal appropriation in the amount of 
$223,916 and 36 were issued with Smithsonian private funds in the 
amount of $134,037, including 3 supported by grants and gifts in the 
amount of $15,745. The titles of all works published by the Press are 
listed in Appendix 3. 

The distribution section, under the able direction of Mrs. Eileen 
McCarthy, mailed out 306,494 publications. Midway in the year, it 
was decided to move the section to the second floor of a leased garage 
at 1242 Twenty-fourth Street, where the office personnel and entire 
stock of Press publications can be integrated in a unified operation. 
It is hoped that this move will give the Press sufficient warehouse space 
to accommodate expansion of inventory for at least five years. 

During the past year, the Press pursued a policy of divesting itself 
of inherited functions that are not matters of publishing. Accordingly, 


the fiscal and operating responsibility for the purchase of office forms 
was transferred to the Division of Organization and Methods, for 
exhibit labels to the Office of Exhibits, and for book rebinding to the 
Library. The Press also clarified its relationship with the Museum 
Shops, with the result that it will purvey its publications to the Shops 
for re-sale on a publisher-bookstore basis. 

In keeping with the Smithsonian's purpose of making available 
works which describe and interpret its activities and related science to 
the public at large, the Press management has continued to participate 
in cooperative arrangements with private publishers. A contract for 
a major publishing project was executed with the American Heritage 
Publishing Company in June 1966, providing for collaboration in 
publishing a series of illustrated books for a popular audience. The 
Smithsonian Library series was publicly announced by American Heritage 
in February 1967. The subjects for the books will range the diverse 
fields of Smithsonian interests with strong accent on the natural 
sciences and the history of technology. American Heritage will procure 
the manuscripts and artwork, and will produce and sell the volumes. 
The Smithsonian is providing archival services and photographs, and 
consults on the correctness of fact and interpretation in the manu- 
scripts. It is hoped that the series will provide the public with insights 
into the essence and process of academic research, and will help to 
repair the breach in the mutuality of scholars and laymen. By the end 
of the year seven authors were under commission to prepare 

In 1966, Simon and Schuster published, in cooperation with the 
Smithsonian, The Golden Age of Science. Edited by Bessie Zaban Jones, 
the volume is a collection of biographies of 30 prominent scientists of 
the 1 9th century, reprinted from the Appendixes of the Annual Reports 
of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Notable personal accomplishments include the selection of Crimilda 
Pontes' design of Islamic Art from the Collection of Edwin Binney, 3rd 
as one of the 25 best of the year by the jury for the Association of 
American University Presses. Miss Pontes was also awarded a place 
in the Art Directors Club of Washington annual show for her design of 
Art Treasures of Turkey. Upon request of Admiral Samuel E. Morison, 
Roger Pineau was detached for eight weeks to Japan, where he assisted 
Admiral Morison* with research for his forthcoming biography of 

*While in Japan, Admiral Morison, on behalf of the Smithsonian Institution, 
presented to the city of Hikone a life-size wooden statue of Naosuke Ii, Japan's 
first prime minister, which had been given to the Smithsonian after its exhibition 
at the Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. (See also p. 126.) 


Commodore Matthew C. Perry. He was elected a trustee of the Japan- 
America Society of Washington, and he was guest lecturer in Newport, 
Rhode Island, on June 15 at the annual meeting of the Preservation 
Society of Newport County, giving an illustrated talk "With Admiral 
Samuel Morison in Far East Pursuit of Commodore Matthew C. Perry." 
Stephen Kraft taught a semester course on "Advanced Graphic Design" 
at The American University. The Director represented the Smithsonian 
on the Inter-Agency Book Committee, and was a member of the 
Copyright Committee of the Association of American University 

The Press continues to administer a print shop, a small branch 
of the Government Printing Office, which exists to serve immediate 
printing needs — many of which, such as labels for collections, are 
peculiar to the Smithsonian. The shop, with a staff of two journeymen 
printers, completed 905 jobs during fiscal 1967. 

Under the authority of its first Secretary, the Smithsonian Institution 
was established as a center for advanced studies and as an academic 
publishing house. Under the present administration, the historic 
mandate for a publications program continues to receive major 

Office of International Activities 

William W. Warner, Director 

The office of international activities, now in its third year of 
developing and administering programs of international coopera- 
tion, has given emphasis to those areas of basic research in the sciences 
and humanities where further advancement of knowledge in this 
country requires continuing and strong cooperative research programs 
in other nations. These programs benefit not only the Smithsonian, 
but the many other American institutions of higher learning that 
carry out research of interest to the Institution and are recipients of 
the Office's foreign currency and other grants. 

The Office also serves as the Institution's point of liaison with govern- 
ment agencies and international organizations concerned with inter- 
national matters relating to Smithsonian interests. The Director or 
other of the Office staff members represent the Institution on such 
advisory councils or working groups as the International Committee 
of the Federal Council for Science and Technology, the Department of 
State's Interagency Council on International Educational and Cultural 
Affairs, the Foreign Area Research Coordination Group, the Cultural 
Activities Committee of the United States National Commission for 
UNESCO, the International Committee of the National Trust for 
Historic Preservation, and the Organization for Tropical Science, to 
name a representative sampling. 

In addition to programs which it directly administers, the Office also 
assists other elements of the Smithsonian in establishing research proj- 
ects or exchanges of exhibits which involve substantial participation of 
foreign institutions or intergovernmental negotiation. During the period 
under review, such assistance ranged from obtaining host country and 
American Embassy support for multi-national research programs, such 
as the Office of Anthropology's Ancient Technologies Program, which 
has carried out field research in Iran, Turkey, and Ceylon, to making 
arrangements for locally shown art exhibits or cultural events with the 
Embassies of Peru, Chile, Tunisia, Iran, and Czechoslovakia. 

The Office last year welcomed two new staff members, David 
Challinor, as Deputy Director, and Kenneth Whitehead, as Deputy to 
the Foreign Currency Program Director. Dr. Challinor holds a degree 



in forestry from Yale University, where he also served as Deputy 
Director of the Peabody Museum. At the Smithsonian, he has been 
instrumental in the development of cooperative programs with the 
Organization for Tropical Studies, described in more detail below, and 
the National Research Council of Iceland. Mr. Whitehead comes to 
the Smithsonian after a Foreign Service career in Italy, Lebanon, 
and Libya. His interest in Old World archeology and his fluency in 
Arabic and French have been instrumental in the successful develop- 
ment of many Foreign Currency Program projects in the Mediterranean 

Foreign Currency Program 

Following an initial concentration on archeology and related disci- 
plines, the Foreign Currency Program, under its Director, Kennedy 
B. Schmertz, broadened its scope to include systematic and environ- 
mental biology. This was the result of Congressional approval of a 
broader program authority and an increased appropriation, in the 
amount of $2,316,000 in excess foreign currencies deriving from the 
sale of surplus agricultural commodities under Public Law 480. 

Among the first projects to be carried out in the biological sciences 
were a Johns Hopkins University study of the small mammals of 
Bengal, an investigation that combines basic and applied research 
through the identification of rodents and their disease-bearing ecto- 
and endoparasites ; a Southern Methodist University study of the 
Qattara Depression, a vast below-sea-level basin in northwestern Egypt 
that holds the record of the interesting environmental changes that 
have occurred in this region from the Quaternary period to the present ; 
and a University of Michigan study of the cytology of certain Indian 
mollusks which are of interest in themselves for their great morpho- 
logical diversity and of importance to medical, veterinary, and public 
health research. 

Foreign currency grants for projects in the biological sciences were 
also made to elements of the Smithsonian itself, through the Smith- 
sonian Research Foundation. Prominent among these were the in- 
auguration of the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center in Tunisia, 
and a study of the behavior and ecology of the Ceylonese elephant, 
headed by Dr. John Eisenberg of the National Zoological Park, in 
cooperation with the University of Ceylon and the Wildlife Department 
of the Ceylonese Government's Ministry of State. The Sorting 
Center was established through the cooperation of the Tunisian 
Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries at Salambo on the coast north 
of Tunis; Dr. David Damkaer of the Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center assumed duties as Resident Director in November 



The Foreign Currency Program is supporting a study of migratory birds in 
northeast Africa by George E. Watson of the Musuem of Natural History. 
The bird that the young Bedouin girl is removing from the net will be banded 
for identification purposes and set free. Below: nets set around base of tree. 


of 1966. This new sorting facility has greatly advanced the Oceano- 
graphic Sorting Center's general mission of identification of marine 
organisms and has also served as the collection and specimen processing 
center for special projects in the marine biology of the Mediterranean. 
In accord with Congressional directives to support the objectives 
of the International Biological Program (IBP), the Foreign Currency 
Program also provided grants to carry out ecological surveys of oppor- 
tunity in areas which may later be singled out for intensive study under 
the IBP. These surveys were conducted in India, Congo (Kinshasa), 
Pakistan, and Israel and involved scientists from some ten American 
universities. In cooperation with the National Academy of Sciences, 
grants were made to support American participation at planning 
conferences of the Terrestrial Productivity and Terrestrial Conservation 
Sections of the IBP in Warsaw and Tunis, respectively. 

Continuing projects in archeology and related disciplines, established 
during the first year of the Program, included : 

The Hebrew Union College-Jerusalem School of Archeology 
excavation at Gezer, best known as the city given by Pharaoh Shishak 
as a dowry to his daughter, who became King Solomon's queen. More 
significant is the fact that the Gezer excavation is developing strong 
evidence of the city's destruction by Nebuchadnezzar. The Smith- 
sonian's grant also permits the Jerusalem School to conduct a general 
archeological survey of the Negev and to hold an annual seminar on 
Near Eastern Civilization for American graduate students. 

The Carnegie Museum-University of Pittsburgh excavations at 
Ashdod in Israel, which have confirmed Biblical reports of the city's 
periodic destruction and have unearthed occupation sequences 
ranging from late Bronze Age to the Byzantine period. 

The American Academy of Benares, a center for the study of 
Indian art history and archeology. In its second year the Academy 
commenced preparation of an encyclopedia of medieval temple 
architecture and published bulletins on the sculpture of Kashmir 
and the Bronze Age sculpture of Eastern India. In its more general 
tasks, the Academy has already produced and accessioned over 4,000 
photographs for its archives and developed a library with some 2,500 
books and journals. 

The University of Missouri- Corning Museum of Glass excavations 

of ancient Phoenician glass manufactories along the Israeli coast, 

which have uncovered evidence of the earliest use of melting tanks, as 

opposed to the more primitive glass-making pots. 

New projects included excavation of Neolithic sites near Cracow, 


by the University of Michigan and the Polish Academy of Sciences' 
Institute for the History of Material Culture, and a University of 
Colorado expedition to Oued el Akarit, a Middle Stone Age site with 
artifacts from the Mousterian culture that is expected to reveal rela- 
tionships with similar sites in Europe and cast further light on the 
evolution of hominoids and early man. 

A major obstacle to further development of the Program came at 
the end of the period of this report with the outbreak of the Arab- 
Israeli war. The hostilities caused suspension of a number of major 
projects in Egypt. Among these were: 

The American Research Center in Egypt's various research and 
excavation projects. The Research Center represents a consortium of 
ten American universities; at the time of the outbreak it was making 
plans to continue an epigraphic survey at Luxor, archival research at 
St. Catherine's monastery on Mount Sinai, and major excavations at 
Mendes on the Sinai peninsula and Gebel Adda and Hierankopolis on 
the Upper Nile. 

A University of Pennsylvania project to photograph and match 
with the use of computers the massive stones of the temple of Akhenaten 
stored at random in Luxor. The interpretation of the pictorial scenes 
and hieroglyphics on the stone faces was expected to reveal much 
about life in the XVII I th Dynasty. 

The University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory-Ein 
Shams University project to discover interior chambers in the Great 
Pyramids through use of cosmic rays and a spark chamber. Instruments 
had been installed and calibrated at the Pyramid of Cheops when 
hostilities forced cessation. 

In June of 1967 the Office Director visited Belgrade and concluded 
a general program agreement with the Yugoslav Government permit- 
ting cooperative programs in archeology. Soon thereafter Stanford 
University made intensive preparations for joint excavations and 
surveys with the Territorial Museum of Sarajevo in a rich area threat- 
ened with flooding by dam construction. The area, known as the 
Trebisnjica Basin, lies in the mountains northeast of Dubrovnik and 
contains large Roman and medieval Slavic necropolises, as well as 
archeological sites and monuments of Pre-Illyrian, Illyrian (Iron Age), 
and Greek origin. It is also known for the curious tombstones of the 
Bogomils, a 1 3th-century heretical sect. 

By the end of its second fiscal year, the Foreign Currency Program 
had awarded excess currency grants totaling $3,400,000 which bene- 
fited 23 American universities and museums. 



Some 30,000 blocks from the Temple of Akhnaten, at Karnak, Egypt, stored 
haphazardly in boxes, are carved with detailed scenes from the life and times 
of the revolutionary Pharaoh Akhnaten and his consort Queen Nefertiti. 
The University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, is undertaking a project 
to photograph the blocks and to record them with the help of a computer. By 
this means they hope to reassemble them in correct sequence and thus reveal 
as a coherent story-telling whole the magnificent decoration of the temple. 




Exchange of Persons Programs 

The Office continued to help with the programming of foreign 
visitors coming to the United States under Department of State or 
other Federal and private exchange of persons programs. A significant 
number of these visitors were public officials from ministries of culture 
or education interested in such subjects as the organization of the 
Smithsonian and its various bureaus, museum education, the U.S. 
National Museum Act, or Federal programs for the performing arts, 
sciences, and humanities in general. In this category were Mr. Wah- 
Siang Woon, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Cultural Affairs 
of Singapore, Dr. Prem Kirpal, Secretary of India's Ministry of Edu- 
cation; Ambassador Ante Rukavina, Executive Director of the Yugo- 
slav Fulbright Commission; Dr. K. N. Saxena, Field Advisor of 
India's National Council of Educational Research and Training; Mr. 
Janez Vipotnik, Yugoslavia's Federal Secretary for Education and 
Culture; Mr. Noom Yoonaidharma, Executive Secretary of the De- 
partment of Fine Arts of the Ministry of Education of Thailand ; and 
Mr. Chedli Klibi, Tunisia's Secretary of State for Information and 

Visits to the Smithsonian and programming assistance were also 
arranged for museum directors from Australia, Brazil, the Republic 
of China, Ecuador, India, Rumania, Tunisia and Venezuela. Sig- 
nificant discussions were held on international conservation and 
national park museums with Mr. Webungo Bukachi Akatsa, Under 
Secretary of Kenya's Ministry of Natural Resources. 

In addition, the Smithsonian accepted total programming respon- 
sibility for Joseph F. K. Acquaye, Assistant Director of Ghana's 
National Science Museum, and Guy Ramanantsoa of the Malagasy 
Government's Department of Forests and Water Resources. Mr. 
Acquaye, who was the recipient of a State Department specialist 
grant, received practical training with the Smithsonian's Office of 
Exhibits and a two-month observation tour of museums across the 
nation. Mr. Ramanantsoa, whose visit was in part funded by Duke 
University, studied with Dr. John Buettner-Janusch, of Duke's Medical 
Center, methods of breeding lemurs and other primates in captivity. 
He also observed various national parks and visited the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute in Panama. The Institution was pleased 
to have helped provide these opportunities for Mr. Ramar.antsoa, 
whose professional duties are directly concerned with the preservation 
of Madagascar's unique flora and fauna. 

To an increasing degree the Institution cooperated with the Office 
of Protocol of the Department of State in holding diplomatic gatherings 


or making arrangements for the official visits of chiefs of state. On 
the eve of Washington's birthday, the Smithsonian and the Office of 
Protocol held a joint dinner for all foreign chiefs of diplomatic missions 
in the Flag Hall of the Museum of History and Technology. The 
Ambassadors and their wives had a preview of the growth of the 
United States hall and heard period music from Washington's time 
by the First Maryland Fifes and Drums and the Smithsonian Collegium 
Musicum, a vocal and instrumental group led by John Fesperman, 
Smithsonian associate curator of musical instruments. 

In April the Institution played host to His Excellency Cevdet Sunay, 
President of the Republic of Turkey. He was met in the Presidential 
Room of the Museum of History and Technology by Acting Secretary 
James Bradley who presented him with an inscribed copy of the 
newly published Art Treasures of Turkey, which contains illustrations 
of many of the objects shown in the exhibition being circulated in this 
country by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 

At the end of the period under review, the Smithsonian received 
His Excellency Asgeir Asgeirsson, President of the Republic of Iceland. 
A luncheon at which Vice President Humphrey and Secretary Ripley 
presided, was held for President Asgeirsson in the Museum of History 
and Technology. The Vice President spoke of the importance of co- 
operative scientific research in Iceland; Mr. Ripley outlined some of 
the Smithsonian's long-standing interests in Iceland and presented to 
the President, an ardent bibliophile, a specially bound and inscribed 
copy of Dilrer and His Time, recently published by the Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 


The Office assisted in the arrangements for the Smithsonian Sym- 
posium 1967: The Quality of Man's Environment, and provided 
foreign currency grants which enabled participants from Israel, India, 
Pakistan, Tunisia, and Yugoslavia to attend the Symposium. 

In cooperation with the American Institute of Biological Sciences, 
the Office organized and provided travel for American participation in 
the Surtsey Research Conference held under the auspices of the 
National Research Council of Iceland and the Surtsey Research 
Society in Reykjavik in June 1967. The purpose of this conference was 
to report on the progress of research in the biological and geological 
sciences concerned with the island of Surtsey, which was born of a 
submarine volcanic eruption off the south coast of Iceland in November 
1963, and to make plans for the coordination of future research efforts. 
Surtsey Island represents the most continuously studied of all recent 
volcanos. As such, it is vital to the understanding of oceanic volcanism 

The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory of the University of California at Berkeley 
has initiated a project to search for hidden chambers in the Great Pyramid of 
Cheops and the second pyramid of Chephren by the use of high-energy particle 
detectors placed inside the pyramids. Equipment is unloaded (top) and a 
mock-up of the detector to measure the angle of arrival of incident cosmic rays 
is carried through tunnels in the Great Pyramid to the inner chambers, to 
assure that passageways are wide enough. 



At Obre, Yugoslavia, the University of California at Los Angeles and the 
Zemaljski Musej in Sarajevo are excavating a village settlement of the pre- 
historic Butmir culture. Above: Butmir pottery, ca. 4000 B.C., with sophisti- 
cated spiral designs, uncovered at the excavation. 


and may offer predictive information for similar geophysical occur- 
rences. Surtsey also represents virtually the only sterile environment 
that can be conveniently studied in the world today.* It is for this 
reason that Assistant Secretary for Science Sidney Galler has charac- 
terized Surtsey as "a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of 
ecological succession." 

In addition to Dr. Galler, Smithsonian scientists and staff members 
attending the Surtsey Conference were Kurt Fredriksson, curator of 
meteorites; William Melson, associate curator of petrology; David 
Challinor, Deputy Director of the Office of International Activities; 
and Helen Hayes, Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary for 
Science. All had the opportunity to land on the island, which now 
boasts a modest combined laboratory and bunkhouse. As a result of 
his visit, Dr. Melson is collaborating with Icelandic scientists in the 
study of certain greenstones found around the core of Iceland's deeply 
eroded volcanos which are also enigmatically occurring in dredge hauls 
made along midocean ridges, especially the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, with 
increasing frequency. 

Cooperative Programs 

The Office of International Activities continued to carry out coopera- 
tive programs with organizations ranging from the Pan American 
Union to the Peace Corps. For the second year, Peace Corps Volunteers 
around the world have collected specimens or made field observations 
for Smithsonian scientists. Especially valuable were the contributions 
of the first contingent of Volunteers to go to Guyana, seven of whom 
spent two days at the Smithsonian during their training period in the 
United States. 

Also for the second year, the Fellowship Program and the Department 
of Scientific Affairs of the Pan American Union funded field research 
opportunities for Latin American graduate students at the Smithsonian 
Tropical Research Institute in Panama. During the year under review, 
fellowships were granted to Profesora Maria Andrada de Luraschi of 
Argentina, who is specializing in the taxonomy and evolution of orchids, 
and Sr. Jose Eduardo Olazarri of Uruguay, whose interests center on 

In November 1966, the Smithsonian became a member of the Orga- 
nization for Tropical Studies (OTS), a consortium of 16 leading Ameri- 

♦"Travel Notes from Iceland" (Atlantic Naturalist (April-June 1967), vol. 22, 
no. 2, pp. 87-96), by Office Director William W. Warner, describes, among other 
things, a flight over Surtsey and its neighboring volcanic island of Syrtlingur. 




United Fruit Company's Botanical Gardens in Lancetilla, Honduras, are to be 
developed as a graduate training and research center in tropical biology by 
the Organization for Tropical Studies. The Smithsonian, as a member of this 
consortium of American universities, was instrumental in arranging with the 
United Fruit Company for the use of the Gardens. 

can universities and the University of Costa Rica dedicated to encourag- 
ing the study of tropical biology. Soon thereafter the Office of Inter- 
national Activities took a leading role in interesting the Organization 
in the possibilities of the United Fruit Company's botanical gardens in 
Lancetilla, Honduras, as a field research and training center. The 
gardens, which are surrounded by a 3,400-acre forest reserve which 
serves as the watershed for the nearby town of Tela, have one of the 
world's outstanding collections of tropical plants, with both native and 
exotic species. Lancetilla is also very close to the Rio Ulua valley, an 
area vital to the archeology of Middle America, and is thus of added 
interest to the OTS in view of plans to extend its graduate training 
programs to the anthropological sciences. 

At a meeting held in New Orleans during May 1967, the United 
Fruit Company generously offered the use of the Lancetilla gardens and 
associated facilities to the OTS through a legal agreement. At the 


moment of writing, plans are being made to conduct a three-month 
graduate course in tropical forestry during the winter of 1968 and to 
improve laboratory facilities and living quarters. It is hoped that in 
the future Lancetilla can serve as one in a chain of research and training 
centers located in different environmental regimes, along with the 
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama, the Chesapeake 
Bay Center for Field Biology, and the OTS field stations in Costa Rica. 
The Smithsonian and all member institutions of the Organization 
consider such increased field training and research opportunities to be 
vital to man's knowledge of the Tropics, which represent the last great 
frontier for human occupancy left on earth and an outstanding chal- 
lenge for pioneer scientific investigations for many generations to come. 

Notable progress was achieved in seeking United States membership 
in the International Centre for the Study and Preservation of Cultural 
Property at Rome. The Rome Centre, as it is better known, is an 
international organization with 42 member nations dedicated to the 
advancement of museum conservation and historical or archeological 
site preservation through training programs, consultation missions and 
technical publications. 

In accord with a Board of Regents recommendation that the Smith- 
sonian explore the necessary measures to obtain U.S. membership, 
Smithsonian General Counsel Peter Powers and the Office Director 
sought the opinions of a wide range of museum conservators and 
officials of Federal agencies or private organizations concerned with 
conservation or historic sites preservation on the potential benefits of 
American membership in the Rome Centre, through consultations and 
meetings held at the Smithsonian. Uniformly favorable reactions were 
obtained, and it was with some gratification that in October 1966, the 
Institution received a letter from Joseph Sisco, Assistant Secretary of 
State for International Organization Affairs, expressing Department of 
State support of United States membership and suggesting that the 
Smithsonian might appropriately seek legislative action to achieve the 
same, in view of the Institution's professional concern with the work of 
the Rome Centre. In April of 1967, Mr. Powers and Frank A. Taylor, 
Director of the U.S. National Museum, attended the Centre's General 
Assembly in Rome as observers in order to obtain first-hand knowledge 
of the Centre's administration and programs. Upon their return, a 
draft bill providing for membership and a supporting statement giving 
detailed information on the programs and operation of the Centre was 
readied for submission to the Congress. 

Office of Education and Training 

Charles Blitzer, Director 

r-pHE office of education and training during the past year 
■*- continued its program of visiting research appointments for 
postdoctoral scientists and scholars, for graduate students, and for 
undergraduates. (Lists of those receiving awards appear in Appendix 
6.) The number of applications in these programs attests to the high 
interest that they have aroused in the academic community. During 
the year arrangements were completed with the American Council of 
Learned Societies under which the Council will work with the Smith- 
sonian in the selection of postdoctoral fellows in the humanities. 

The Institution's program in American Civilization continued to 
grow, most notably through the offering of courses in cooperation with 
universities in the District of Columbia. A detailed report is to be 
found under the Museum of History and Technology, page 25 1 . 

The Smithsonian's Belmont Conference Center began regular opera- 
tions late in the year. During May and June conferences were held 
there by The American Historical Association, The Smithsonian 
Society of Associates, The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
the U.S. Office of Education Postdoctoral Fellows, and Outward 
Bound, Inc. 

Planning proceeded for an experimental exhibit for the blind. 
Supported by a grant from the Vocational Rehabilitation Administra- 
tion, a proposal for an exhibit, ' : The Four Senses — Imagination and 
Flight," was prepared by Brian O'Doherty with the aid of a distin- 
guished advisory committee. Funds will be sought for the construction 
of this exhibit in the near future. It is our belief that Dr. O'Doherty's 
exhibit will be of the greatest interest to all museum visitors ; those who 
happen to be blind will perhaps be able to enjoy it even more than the 

During the year, the Office of Education and Training worked closely 
with the Anacostia Neighborhood Advisory Council in planning and 
developing an experimental neighborhood museum. With funds raised 
from private sources, a motion picture theater was rented in Anacostia — 
a community in which 78 percent of the population is non-white, 


•■ : -■- 

Belmont, the Smithsonian Institution's conference center, lies about twelve 
miles south of Baltimore and eight miles from Friendship International 
Airport. The estate is thirty-five miles north of Washington, D.C. 

Built in 1 738 by Caleb Dorsey of Annapolis, Belmont is situated on 340 acres 
of rolling fields and woodlands bordering the Patapsco River and Park near 
Elkridge, Maryland. In 1805, Priscilla Dorsey married Alexander Hanson and 
since then the property has gone through numerous generations of the Dorsey- 
Hanson families. In 1917, ownership of Belmont was transferred from the 
last direct heir to a cousin and her husband, Mr. and Mrs. Howard Bruce. 

The estate was acquired by the Smithsonian in 1 964 and, following extensive 
restoration and modernization, the manor house was opened as a conference 
center in spring 1967. 

The aim of the Smithsonian's conference center is to provide a peaceful 
location in pleasant surroundings for the pursuit and sharing of knowledge, 
and all conferences held at Belmont relate directly or indirecdy to the Smithso- 
nian's educational objectives. The Institution sponsors conferences at Belmont 
in the fields of its special interest — the sciences, history, and the arts — and 
welcomes meetings of educators and others devoted to the increase and diffusion 
of knowledge in any field. 

Belmont conferences are organized either entirely under Smithsonian 
auspices or by outside organizations and governmental agencies having 
similar interests. Specialized conferences often bring in outside experts for 
consultation in particular fields. 

The Belmont estate at present provides comfortable overnight quarters for 
twenty-two guests, while fifty may be accommodated for lectures and discus- 
sions. The main conference room seats thirty-six, and special rooms for in- 
formal meetings or working sessions are available. The dining room can seat 
fifty guests. 

Additional sleeping accommodations are provided in neighboring hostelries, 
pending the restoration of other residential buildings on the property. 


in which 41 percent is under 18 years of age, and in which the 
median family income in 1960 was $3,430. With the help of volun- 
teers of all ages, the building and adjoining grounds were transformed 
into a museum and small park, and work has begun on the preparation 
of exhibits chosen by the neighborhood. Under the direction of John 
Kinard, the new Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, scheduled to open 
September 15, 1967, holds promise of bringing the resources of museums 
to the very substantial part of our population that has not in the past 
been reached by them. 

During the 1966-67 school year, 35,318 schoolchildren were taken 
on guided tours of Smithsonian museums by docents of the Junior 
League, who had in turn been trained by museum instructors on the 
staff of the Office of Education and Training. With the generous 
assistance of the Junior League, and under the experienced guidance 
of Nathaniel R. Dixon, new and imaginative programs for relating the 
resources of the Smithsonian to the needs of schools and children are 
being prepared. 

Office of Public Affairs 

Frederic M. Philips,* Director 

The office of public affairs provided, through a busy year of 
transition, a diverse range of services to the public — from recorded 
telephone information and a nationwide television series to a free 
educational film theater and material for the local, national, and 
international press. 

Every Saturday afternoon through the fall and winter, a half-hour 
filmed color television program entitled "The Smithsonian" brought 
various aspects of the Institution and its areas of concern into the 
homes of an estimated four million viewers. Produced by the National 
Broadcasting Company with the day-to-day cooperation of this office 
and bureaus concerned in each program, the films were addressed to 
the following topics: underwater archeology, aviation and space flights, 
osteology, election campaigns, American inventors, ecology, conser- 
vation, meteors, patriotism, first ladies, sports, radiation, George Catlin 
and the American Indian, physical anthropology, systematics, expedi- 
tions, and American folk art. 

Plans were completed and schedules set for cooperation in two 
hour-long television programs to be filmed in the latter half of 1967 
and broadcast early in 1968 — a children's story of a pet dinosaur 
entitled "The Enormous Egg" and a documentary on the ecology of 
East Africa, centered around the field work of Smithsonian conserva- 
tionists Lee M. and Marty Talbot. 

By the end of this reporting period, tape-recorded interviews with 
twenty bureau directors, department heads, and curators through- 
out the Institution had been broadcast over the worldwide facilities of 

♦Appointment effective July 2, 1967. The Office of Public Affairs, successor to 
the Office of Public Information, under which name the work reported above was 
conducted, was organized July 12, 1967, to assume responsibility for Smithsonian 
activities in public information, press relations, radio and television, films and 
other audio- visual services, community relations, special events (these events were 
handled during the year by the Smithsonian Museum Service and are reported 
under that heading herein, p. 433), and activities associated with these areas. The 
work of the Office is organized into the following components: News (George J. 
Berklacy), film and broadcasting (William C. Grayson), and special events 
(Meredith Johnson). 



Armed Forces Radio in a continuing effort. Plans moved ahead at the 
same time for an interview series on commercial radio. 

In the area of the written word, some 150 news releases in all areas 
of Smithsonian activities were issued. Included in these were the first 
in a continuing series of "featurettes" providing feature-article handling 
of topics of general interest. 

Major events that required more than routine effort in this connection 
included the Smithsonian Symposium, "The Quality of Man's Environ- 
ment," inaugural ceremonies for the new Department of Transporta- 
tion, the four-day Festival of American Folklife, and several major 
hall and exhibit openings. Press coverage in the United States and 
abroad reflected the breadth and diversity of Smithsonian programs. 

The two monthly general news publications of the Smithsonian — the 
employees' Torch and The Smithsonian Associate for the 5,000 Washington 
area members of this organization — became the responsibility of the 
office during the year. An improved format was introduced for a third 
office publication, the monthly Smithsonian Calendar of Events, now 
distributed to 15,000 members of the press and public. 

The Smithsonian's Free Film Theater, which presents educational 
films of broad interest every Wednesday night from October through 
May, drew a cumulative audience of approximately 12,000 this year. 
Each film was introduced by an expert in the subject area. These 
included Smithsonian staff members, embassy personnel, and faculty 
members of universities in the Washington area. 

The weekly film program is the central focus for audio-visual library 
activities that also include distribution of educational motion pictures, 
slides, and still photographs throughout the country. 

Locally a Dial-A-Museum recorded telephone information service 
was instituted to provide up-to-the-minute information on the day's 
events and the highlights of new exhibits. It parallels the established 
Dial-A-Satellite service that presents information on artificial satellites 
and other celestial objects visible overhead. Some 25,000 incoming 
Dial-A-Museum calls were recorded in the first ten months of operation. 
The figure on Dial-A-Satellite, material for which is provided by the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for use in Washington and 
other cities, was more than 126,000. 

Smithsonian Museum Service 

James R. Morris, Director 

Activities of the museum service were expanded to include projects 
in the performing arts in addition to its special events programs, 
planning for exhibitions, lectures, hall openings, musical events, 
seminars and conferences, movies and entertainments, and numerous 
visitors' services. 

A carousel was in evidence on the Mall during the summer for the 
enjoyment of the thousands of children visiting the Smithsonian 
museums. The Mall terrace of the Museum of History and Technology 
was the scene of concerts by the United States Marine Band, the 
United States Army Field Band, and an evening of Bavarian folk 
dancing in which the audience participated. 

James R. Morris, who was appointed Director in October, brings 
to the position an extensive professional background in the arts, both 
in management and production, which will be valuable in the develop- 
ment of cultural programs in a variety of media, such as Sound and 
Light, readings and concerts, films, live demonstrations, and special 

The Sound and Light production is anticipated as a regular event 
on the Mall, to begin in 1968. The presentation will provide a varied 
and exciting 50-minute panorama of the Institution and the related 
history of the City of Washington, and will bring to life the remarkable 
personalities and achievements of the Institution in the dramatic 
context of the growth of the Capital and the Nation. Also in the plan- 
ning stage is an extensive musical program. The Smithsonian Institution, 
with its resources for research and its collection of early instruments, 
for example, represents an ideal center for a resident chamber-music 

Throughout the fall, winter, and spring the Junior League docents 
conducted weekend tours of the Museum of History and Technology 
for the general public, for Congressional constituents, and for numerous 
organized groups, including many from the foreign community. 
Mrs. Nicholas Paul was an active and effective chairman of the group. 

During the year approximately fifty Girl Scouts were trained as 
information aides and worked on weekends during the winter and on 
a full schedule in the summer in three of the buildings. 



Visitors services included preparation of revised floor plans of the 
Museum of Natural History, the Arts and Industries building, and the 
Museum of History and Technology (these plans are being translated 
into French and Spanish), and the distribution of such other guides as 
the Smithsonian Institution leaflets. 

Among the special events arranged by the Museum Service were 
the visits of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea, the President 
of the Republic of Turkey, the wife of the Vice President of Nationalist 
China, and the wife of the Chancellor of the Federal Republic of 
Germany, as well as presentations of the Robert J. Collier Trophy 
and awards of the Hodgkins and Langley Medals. Two major enter- 
tainments of the year were the dinners on February 21 and 22, the 
first for the Washington Diplomatic Corps, co-hosted by the Chief 
of Protocol and Mrs. Symington, the second for those members of the 
Congress most closely connected with the Smithsonian. At the latter 
the Vice President swore in the members of the American Revolution 
Bicentennial Commission. 

April 1 marked the commencement of the third annual spring- 
summer season of events, and of the night-open hours for Smithsonian 
Museums. On that day, also, was celebrated the establishment of the 
Department of Transportation. The theme of the day was a Pageant 
of Transportation in which all facets of the world of transportation 
were represented by demonstrations of equipment, special exhibits, 
and appropriate ceremonies. The new Secretary of Transportation 
was introduced, with his staff, and events continued throughout the 
day and evening, including service bands and units. Attendance 
totaled more than 100,000. 

Smithsonian Associates 

Lisa Suter, Program Director 

~\ /Tost gratifying and heartening is the dramatic growth of the 
Smithsonian Associates, in which the membership has increased 
from 1500 to over 4000 within a year. 

Activities of the Associates spread in many directions and reached 
into many new areas. Major emphasis was placed on the development 
of a junior program. Zoo morning talks on "What is a Reptile?," 
"What is a Bird?," and "What is a Mammal?" offered young Associates 
the chance to learn about animals by seeing and even touching some 
of them. Naturalists on the staff conducted Botany Tours, Bird Walks, 
Insect Walks, Fossil Hunts, and Rock Hunts in nearby parks and 

The first of what will be an annual Kite Carnival was presented 
jointly with the National Air and Space Museum. Over a thousand 
kite enthusiasts of all ages responded to talks on the origins, varieties, 
and uses of kites, to kite-making workshops and flying demonstrations, 
and to the kite contest on the Mall. Colorful kites from all parts of 
the world were displayed for a month in the Museum of Natural His- 
tory to demonstrate the pleasures of kite flying. 

Perhaps for the first time in a museum, organized classes were con- 
ducted by scientists in an experimental program for four- and five-year 
olds. Through field trips and lectures the youngsters were introduced 
to our natural surroundings while their mothers attended coffee 

Over 2500 students ranging in age from 4 to 83 were enrolled in the 
subscription seminars and workshops for young people and adults, 
started by the Associates last fall. In these, 75 courses, comprising 
578 lectures, were taught in antiques, art, archeology, anthropology, 
astronomy, aviation, botany, mammals, minerals, mathematics, music, 
sea life, space science, philately, oceanography, natural history, and 
general science. 

G. Carroll Lindsay, who resigned as Executive Secretary of the Asso- 
ciates last August, returned from Albany to give a seminar on con- 
noisseurship at Belmont, the Smithsonian's handsome new conference 
center in Elkridge, Maryland. 

Proceeds from a benefit "Evening with the Santa Maria" enabled 




Members of the Smithsonian Associates digging at Plum Point, Maryland, 
during a fossil hunt in May. 

Curator Charles Handley shows 
young Associates how to skin a 
mouse and prepare the skin for 



Zoo Morning Talk with young Smithsonian Associates: "The elephant's big 
ears help him hear better." 


212 students to attend classes without charge. Scholarships were 
awarded to 163 area children and to 49 senior citizens and Job Corps 
youth. As their first official activity, the Ladies Committee presented 
a successful benefit preview of the movie Grand Prix which will enable 
another 250 scholarship students to attend this year. 

The proceeds from three series of luncheon talks were used to send 
speakers to nursing homes, orphanages, hospitals, and other welfare 
institutions whose residents were unable to come to the Smithsonian. 
Luncheon talks by staff curators presented "Mainstreams of American 
Art," "The Agitator in America," "Females, Ladies and Women," 
"Art and Anthropology," "Gem Lore," and "The Land of Punt." 

Membership lectures acquainted Associates with the diversity of 
the Smithsonian's activities. "Secrets of the Smithsonian" were revealed 
in a behind-the-scenes tour of exhibit production, and in special family 
tours of all exhibit buildings and the zoo. Fine performances by the 
Madison Madrigal Singers and the Santa Barbara Madrigal Singers 
supplemented the Institution's active music program. 

Members were invited to 15 previews, among which were the 
exhibitions Recent Acquisitions of the National Portrait Gallery, The United 
States Exhibition at the XXXIII Venice Biennale, 1966, and William 
Glackens in Retrospect, and the opening of the growth of America hall. 
An entertaining history of the art of American motion pictures, featur- 
ing "The Comedy," "The Western," "The Serials," "The Musical," 
"The Star System," and "The Spectacle," was presented through 
selected scenes from the early silents to the varied experiments of today. 

The Associate, an illustrated newsletter containing articles on Smith- 
sonian research projects, field expeditions, exhibitions, acquisitions, 
and programs, began bimonthly publication in January. 

Recently innovated sales exhibitions, sponsored jointly with the 
Museum Shops, offered members special discounts and the chance to 
preview works before they were offered to the public. Associate 
volunteers mounted and framed the first two exhibitions: Applique 
Molas Made by the Cuna Indians of the San Bias Islands, Panama, and 
Childrens' Embroideries from Peru. 

A volunteer program was started to encourage personal involvement 
of members in the Institution's activities and growth. Several hundred 
Associates who offered their assistance to the professional staff for 
periods from a few hours a month to full time are being matched by 
education, skills, and experience with jobs at the Smithsonian or with 
ones that can be done at home. 

A new vitality has been created by this close interplay between the 
Smithsonian's professional staff and an interested public. The extent 
of its reach is an exciting speculation. 

Administrative Support Services 

The Smithsonian Institution's unique complex of museums, art 
galleries, zoological park, laboratories, and information centers re- 
quire certain administrative and technical support services to meet 
the needs of its various programs. A number of groups serve the 
Institution in this capacity and by so doing contribute to its accomplish- 
ments in research, education, exhibitions, and public service. 

The office of programming and budget, in preparing the Smith- 
sonian's budget presentations to the President and the Congress, and in 
response to the President's interest in applying planning-programming 
techniques to the budget process whenever feasible, gave particular 
emphasis to organizing the Institution's work into a program structure. 
The supply division handled well in excess of 10,000 purchases, in- 
cluding orders for such unusual items as a life-size model of a mule, 
sunken treasure, a 14-foot replica of a grasshopper, and ostrich hackle. 
Participation in the Government property-utilization program brought 
to the Smithsonian a Titan missile, two tons of silver coins, a rocket 
sled, and a turn-of-the-century counting machine. 

The fiscal division worked toward a revision of its accounting system 
to provide improved reporting and control for financial management 
and budget purposes. A new and comprehensive accounting manual 
was prepared. 

The information systems division provided automatic-data-processing 
support to the administrative, curatorial, and research activities. In 
addition to routine payroll, accounting, mailing lists, library pur- 
chasing, and other business applications, an information retrieval 
system using 200 descriptors was developed for the collection of 20,000 
covers in the division of philately. This indexing and cross-referencing 
system provides prompt responses to the reference needs of researchers, 
collectors, and the general public. Similarly, an analysis program was 
prepared to assist in the correlation of biological and other specimen 
data. In such a cluster-analysis program, somewhat simplified, a 
scientist first classifies small groups of biological specimens on which 
certain characters have been measured. A computer program calculates 
a "measure of similarity" for each group and then clusters the groups 
by the magnitude of their resemblance. The program and the method- 
ology are equally applicable to non-biological categories. In archeology, 
for example, it could apply to grouping and breaking the code of 
unknown hieroglyphs from series of artifacts of an extinct culture. 



Design of an information storage and retrieval system for biological 
and geological data was completed and is being implemented. The 
system provides a data bank containing collection records and descrip- 
tive and bibliographic information on zoological and geological 
specimens. Participating in the project are the National Museum of 
Canada and Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 

The buildings management department operated, maintained, im- 
proved, and protected over three million square feet of building space, 
as well as other property in the Washington area; it guarded 60 
million objects of cultural, historical, scientific, and technological 
importance; and it gave information, directions, or other assistance 
to the more than 13 million visitors who viewed the public exhibits. 
The department performed a variety of special engineering, design, 
repair, fabrication, transportation, communication, and safety services 
in support of Smithsonian work. The moves of the National Collection 
of Fine Arts and the National Portrait Gallery into the newly renovated 
Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries building were accomplished. Work 
continued toward preparing this building for opening to the public in 
1968. Expanded cultural and educational activities, including those 
on the Mall, were reflected in greatly increased requirements for 
buildings management services. More than 1,100 meetings, seminars, 
lectures, concerts, special exhibitions, and other events received 
assistance. The department provided extensive alterations and modifica- 
tions to the Arts and Industries and other buildings in order to make 
space available for new and expanding activities. A strengthened 
accident-prevention program led by the Safety Office resulted in a 
reduced number of injuries to Smithsonian employees and earned the 
Institution the President's Safety Award. 

The personnel division conducted employee health and training 
programs: glaucoma testing and tetanus shots were made available 
to employees, and special physical examinations were given scientists 
planning arduous fieldwork such as underwater research. Training 
sessions to develop supervisory skills were attended by approximately 
150 employees, and the division administered a year-round program 
of on-the-job training for 30 to 40 youths under the Neighborhood 
Youth Corps Program. In addition, the Institution provided summer 
jobs for some 60 young persons under the President's Youth Oppor- 
tunity Program. 

The photographic services division produced almost a quarter of a 
million photographs and slides to meet research, exhibition, education, 
and public service needs, and the division started work on an index of 
the photographic resources of the Institution. 


A central travel services office was established in November 1966 
to assist Smithsonian travelers in planning trips including economical 
routings, making reservations, arranging accommodations, and obtain- 
ing tickets. By the end of June, over 750 domestic and 280 foreign 
travel itineraries were processed, 3,200 air and rail reservations made, 
and 200 hotel and motel accommodations obtained. Special attention 
was given to travel arrangements for the foreign currency program of the 
office of international activities. 

The office of the general counsel, the Smithsonian archives, the 
contracts office, the organization and methods division, the central 
files, and the duplicating section all furnished administrative and 
technical support to the office of the Secretary, and to bureaus and 
other Institution organization units. 





YEAR 1967 


ENDED JUNE 30, 1967 







Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of 
Regents of the Smithsonian Institution 

For the Tear Ended June 30, 1967 

To the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 

Your executive committee respectfully submits the following report 
in relation to the funds of the Smithsonian Institution, together with a 
statement of the appropriations by Congress for the Government bu- 
reaus in the administrative charge of the Institution. 

Parent Fund 

The original bequest of James Smithson was £104,960 8s 6d 
($508,318.46). Refunds of money expended in prosecution of the 
claim, freight, insurance, and other incidental expenses, together 
with payment into the fund of the sum of £5,015, which had been 
withheld during the lifetime of Madame de la Batut, brought 
the fund to the amount of $550,000. 

The gift of James Smithson was "lent to the United States Treasury, 
at 6 per centum per annum interest" (20 U.S.C. 54) and by the Act 
of March 12, 1894 (20 U.S.C. 55) the Secretary of the Treasury was 
"authorized to receive into the Treasury, on the same terms as the 
original bequest of James Smithson, such sums as the Regents may, 
from time to time see fit to deposit, not exceeding, with the original 
bequest the sum of $1,000,000." 

The maximum of $1,000,000 which the Smithsonian Institution 
was authorized to deposit in the Treasury of the United States was 
reached on January 11, 1917, by the deposit of $2,000. 

Under the above authority the amounts shown on the following page 
are deposited in the United States Treasury and draw 6 percent interest. 

In addition to the $1,000,000 deposited in the Treasury of the United 
States there has been accumulated from income and bequests the 
sum of $9,964,359 which has been invested. Of this sum, $8,647,226 
is carried on the books of the Institution as the Consolidated Fund, 
a policy approved by the Regents at their meeting on December 14, 




Sources: Smithsonian Fund Deposited in U.S. Treasury 

stricted Income 
Donor funds 1967 

James Smithson $727,640 $43,659 

Avery 14,000 840 

Habel 500 30 

Hamilton 2,500 150 

Hodgkins (General) . . . . 116,000 6,960 

Poore 26,670 1,600 

Rhees 590 35 

Sanford 1, 100 66 

Restricted $889, 000 53, 340 

Hodgkins (Specific) 100,000 6,000 

Reid 11,000 660 




Consolidated Fund 

[Income for the unrestricted use of the Institution] 

Investment Income 

Fund 1967 1967 

Abbott, W. L., Special $24,753 1,412 

*Avery, Robert S., and Lydia 65,611 3,681 

Forrest, Robert Lee 1,898,832 77,624 

Gifts, royalties, gain on sale of securities 458,632 25, 719 

Goddard, Robert, Memorial Fund 15,018 621 

Hachenberg, George P., and Caroline 6, 602 398 

*Hamilton, James 671 40 

Hart, Gustavus E 809 46 

Henry, Caroline 2,009 115 

Henry, Joseph and Harriet A 81,431 4,589 

Higbee, Harry, Memorial Fund 21,815 913 

♦Hodgkins, Thomas G. (General) 50,318 2,823 

Morrow, Dwight W 128,453 7,226 

Olmsted, Helen A 1,332 74 

♦Poore, Lucy T. and George W 270,399 15,402 

Porter, Henry Kirke 475,715 26,676 

♦Rhees, William Jones 786 45 

♦Sanford, George H 1,479 83 

♦Smithson, James 34,546 2,318 

Taggart, Gansen 596 42 

Witherspoon, Thomas A 214,359 12,019 

Total $3, 754, 166 181, 866 

"In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 

report of the executive committee 447 

Consolidated Fund 
[Income restricted to specific use] 

Investment Income 

Fund 1967 1967 

Abbott, William L., for investigations in biology ... $173,169 9,709 

Armstrong, Edwin James, for use of Department of 2,626 119 

Invertebrate Paleontology when principal amounts 

to $5,000.00. 
Arthur, James, for investigations and study of the sun 66, 432 3, 728 

and annual lecture on same. 
Bacon, Virginia Purdy, for traveling scholarship to in- 83, 220 4, 668 

vestigate fauna of countries other than the United 

Baird, Lucy H., for creating a memorial to Secretary 60, 881 3, 333 

Barney, Alice Pike, for collection of paintings and 47,642 2,671 

pastels and for encouragement of American artistic 

Barstow, Frederick D., for purchase of animals for 1, 661 93 

Zoological Park. 
Brown, Roland W., endowment fund-study, care and 53, 992 2, 548 

improvement of the Smithsonian paleo-botanical 

Canfield collection, for increase and care of the Can- 63, 659 4, 108 

field collection of minerals. 
Casey, Thomas L., for maintenance of the Casey col- 20, 821 1, 168 

lection and promotion of researches relating to 

Chamberlain, Francis Lea, for increase and promotion 46, 776 2, 623 

of Isaac Lea Collection of gems and mollusks. 
Division of Mammals Curators Fund, for support of 3, 304 143 

scientific purposes. 
Dykes, Charles, for support in financial research ... 71, 520 4, 009 

Eickemeyer, Florence Brevoort, for preservation and 18,055 1,012 

exhibition of the photographic collection of 

Rudolph Eickemeyer, Jr. 
Guggenheim, David and Florence, Foundation for a 75, 560 1, 608 

commemorative Guggenheim Exhibit, an annual 

Daniel Guggenheim Lecture, and annual Guggen- 
heim Fellowships for graduate students for research 

at the National Air Museum. 
Hanson, Martin Gustav and Caroline Runice, for some 14, 767 828 

scientific work of the Institution, preferably in 

in chemistry or medicine. 
Hillyer, Virgil, for increase and care of Virgil Hillyer 10, 917 612 

collection of lighting objects. 
Hitchcock, Albert S., for care of the Hitchcock Agro- 2, 622 149 

stological Library. 
Hrdlicka, Ales and Marie, to further researches in physi- 1 00, 678 4, 686 

cal anthropology and publication in connection 


Consolidated Fund — Continued 

Investment Income 

Fund 1967 1967 

Hughes, Bruce, to found Hughes alcove $31,795 1,785 

Johnson, E. R. Fenimore, research in underwater pho- 13,910 613 

Lindsay, Jessie M. H., for the general use of the institu- 10, 679 1, 035 

tion as specified by the donor. 
Loeb, Morris, for furtherance of knowledge in the exact 144,797 8,258 

Long, Annette and Edith C, for upkeep and preserva- 902 53 

tion of Long collection of embroideries, laces, and 

Maxwell, Mary E., for care and exhibition of Maxwell 32, 581 1, 829 

Myer, Catherine Walden, for purchase of first-class 33,552 1,881 

works of art for use and benefit of the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts. 
Nelson, Edward W., for support of biological studies . . 39, 501 2, 071 

Noyes, Frank B., for use in connection with the col- 1, 597 94 

lection of dolls placed in the U.S. National Museum 

through the interest of Mr. and Mrs. Noyes. 
Pell, Cornelia Livingston, for maintenance of Alfred 12,314 695 

Duane Pell collection. 
Petrocelli, Joseph, for the care of the Petrocelli col- 12, 315 693 

lection of photographic prints and for the enlarge- 
ment and development of the section of photog- 
raphy of the U.S. National Museum. 
Rathbun, Richard, for use of division of U.S. National 17, 668 996 

Museum containing Crustacea. 
*Reid, Addison T., for founding chair in biology, in 29, 545 1, 326 

memory of Asher Tunis. 
Roebling Collection, for care, improvement, and in- 200,467 11,237 

crease of Roebling collection of minerals. 

Roebling Solar Research 41, 608 2, 141 

Rollins, Miriam and William, for investigations in 265, 396 13, 458 

physics and chemistry. 

Smithsonian employees' retirement 23, 665 784 

Smithsonian Institution and THF 7,615 301 

Sprague Fund, for the advancement of the physical 1,977,357 79,036 

Springer, Frank, for care and increase of the Springer 29, 787 1, 670 

collection and library. 
Stevenson, John A., Mycological Library Fund, for 10,005 509 

care, maintenance, and additions to the Library. 
Strong, Julia D., for benefit of the National Collection 16, 609 1, 266 

of Fine Arts. 
Walcott, Charles D. and Mary Vaux, for development 936, 803 51, 566 

of geological and paleontological studies and 

publishing results of same. 

*In addition to funds deposited in the United States Treasury. 


Consolidated Fund — Continued 

Investment Income 

Fund 1967 1967 

Walcott, Mary Vaux, for publication in botany . . . 96, 106 5, 200 

Zerbee, Francis Brinckle, for endowment of aquaria . . 1,576 88 

Total $4,906,452 236,400 

Freer Gallery of Art Fund 

Early in 1906, by deed of gift, Charles L. Freer, of Detroit, gave to 
the Institution his collection of Chinese and other Oriental objects of 
art, as well as paintings, etchings, and other works of art by Whistler, 
Thayer, Dewing, and other artists. Later he also gave funds for con- 
struction of a building to house the collection, and finally in his will, 
probated November 6, 1919, he provided stocks and securities to the 
estimated value of $1,958,591 as an endowment fund for the operation 
of the Gallery. The fund now amounts to $12,107,418. 

Summary of Endowments 

Invested endowment for general purposes $5, 831, 906 

Invested endowment for specific purposes other than Freer endow- 5, 132, 453 

Total invested endowment other than Freer 10, 964, 359 

Freer invested endowment for specific purposes 12,107,418 

Total invested endowment for all purposes $23, 071, 777 

Classification of Investments 

Deposited in the U.S. Treasury at 6 percent per annum, as authorized $ 1 , 000, 000 

in the U S. Revised Statutes, sec. 5591. 
Investments other than Freer endowment (cost or market value at 
date acquired): 

Bonds $3,767,781 

Stocks 4,840,083 

Real estate and mortgages 1,303,741 

Uninvested capital 52, 754 9, 964, 359 

Total investments other than Freer endowment. 10, 964, 359 

Investments of Freer endowment (cost or market value 
at date acquired): 

Bonds 6, 707, 634 

Stocks 5,404,536 

Advanced from unexpended income (4, 752) 12, 107, 418 

Total investments $23, 071, 777 

450 smithsonian year 1967 appendix 1 

Gifts and Bequests 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and be- 
quests from the following: 

Anonymous Donor: For the Botany Research Project. $5, 000 

American Petroleum Institute: For research entitled The Crustose 10,000 

Corallines of the North Atlantic. 
Archbold Foundation: For the Biological Survey of Dominica Project. 15, 000 

Blaisdell Publishing Co.: To publish a manuscript entitled Intro- 500 

duclion to the Theory of Stellar Atmosphere. 
Hardy Jefferson Bowen : For the Bowen-Andros Island Expedition Fund. 1 , 1 53 

Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation : For the purchase of 40, 000 

a stabile designed by Alexander Calder. 
Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions: To commission 15, 000 

ten original drawings for a conference in Switzerland. 
Edmond DeBeer: To the National Portrait Gallery for Kinsley Adams. 
Department of Commerce: For the division of electricity. 
Division of Mineralogy: For the William F. Foshag Memorial Fund. 
Explorers Research Corporation: For the Bermuda Expedition — 

Summer 1967. 
The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation : For the com- 25, 000 

memorative Guggenheim Exhibit, an annual Daniel Guggenheim 

Lecture, and annual Guggenheim Fellowships for graduate students 

for research at the National Air Museum. 
Susan Morse Hilles : To the National Collection of Fine Arts for a 20, 000 

G. W. Rickey piece of sculpture. 
Felix and Helen Juda Foundation: To the Freer Gallery of Art for 279 

the purchase of collections. 
International Business Machines Corporation: In support of the 10,000 

Smithsonian's Sound and Light production. 
Junior League of the City of Washington, D.C.: For a supervisory 5, 000 

docent to train volunteers for the Education and Training museum 

The Kevorkian Foundation: For the publication of Indian sculp- 16,785 

tures in the Freer Gallery of Art. 
Claudia B. Kidwell: For the Historic Dresses Fund. 75 

The Link Foundation : 2, 300 

For support of the Third Annual Edwin A. Link Lecture. 

For support of the Fourth Annual Edwin A. Link Lecture. 
MacMillan Company: To the National Collection of Fine Arts for 4,000 

reproducing and enlarging negatives related to the book, movie, and 

exhibition, To Be Alive. 
Uta C. Merzbach : For the division of physical sciences. 1 5 

J. Jefferson Miller II: For Gardner-Miller Ceramics and Glass 100 

Minkus Stamp Journal: For the Philatelic Fund. 160 

National Geographic Society: 45, 715 

For research entitled Survey of Deep Water Wreck Sites in Bermuda. 

For research entitled Exploration and Analysis of a 16th-Century Shipwreck, 
Central Bahamas. 


For research entitled Visual Observations of Sedimentation Patterns in 
Submarine Canyon Heads. 

To defray travel costs to Australia for E. P. Henderson. 

To study the ecology of echinoids in the Florida Keys. 

For research entitled Marine Mollusks of the Marquesas Islands and 
Pitcairn Group. 

For the study of Sharns in Copper Mountain Mining District, 
Jack E. Ottinger: To defray costs of salvaging, restoring, and 10 

preserving the U.S.S. Tecumseh. 
Mrs. Kenneth Dale Owen: To defray travel expenses for Richard 75 

H. Howland. 
Pitney Bowes, Inc. : To the division of philately and postal history. 500 

Marjorie Merriweather Post: For photographing objects by 1,000 

Madame Rosso. 
Research Corporation: For the Ivy Neck properties. 100, 000 

The Richardson Foundation, Inc.: For the Commission of White 20,500 

House Fellows. 
Bernard T. Rocca: To the Rocca Fund. 300 

Sidney N, Shure: To purchase further supplies for mounting the 100 

collection donated by the Sidney N. Shure Fund. 
The Sidney Printing and Publishing Company: For the increase 1,000 

and diffusion of numismatic knowledge in the United States. 
C. R. Smith: To the National Collection of Fine Arts for the Art-in- 500 

the-Embassies Program. 
South Padre Island Shell Club: To defray travel expenses of 208 

Harold A. Rehder. 
Joseph W. Sprague Fund: Final settlement of a bequest from the 161,497 

late Joseph White Sprague to establish a fund for the advancement 

of the physical sciences. 
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey: For the completion of the 1, 000 

Mississippi River Delta model for the hall of petroleum. 
The Target Rock Foundation, Inc.: To the National Collection of 900 

Fine Arts. 
Texaco, Inc. : For the construction of four half-models of oil tankers 3, 290 

for the hall of petroleum. 
University of Michigan : To the Freer Gallery of Art for the Ars 3, 000 

Orientalis Fund. 
Lila Acheson Wallace Foundation : For the extra developments of 5, 000 

the program for the division of musical instruments. 
C. Malcolm Watkins: For buying folk pottery for the division of 100 

cultural history. 
Francis C. Welch: For the New England Textile Mill Survey Project. 200 

Wenner-Gren Foundation: 10,500 

For research entitled Cooperative Field Work in Rapidly Changing Cultures. 

For an analysis of Wilkes collection of Polynesian artifacts. 
Charles M. Wormser: For the Moritz Wormser Memorial Fund. 200 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts, for the 
special purposes indicated, from the following: 



For the Bosch Mineral Collection: 

Mrs. C. Belz 

Robert C. Nelson, Jr. 

Franklin Ogdensburg Mineral Society 

3, 125 

Gem Lapidary and Mineral Society of 
Montgomery County, Maryland 

For the Botany Library Fund: 

Anonymous donor Robert A. Vines 

For the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology: 

Max C. Fleischmann Foundation of Old Dominion Foundation 
Nevada ' 

For the Jeanne Toor Cummings Fund: 

Mrs. Nathan Cummings Mrs. Julius W. Gilbert 



For the Charles Darwin Foundation Fund: 

Harold Coolidge 
E. Yale Dawson 

For the Dawson Memorial Fund: 

Dr. and Mrs. D. Abbott 
J. L. Barnard 
Department of Botany 
Dr. R. L. Pressler 
K. O. Emery 

For the Freer Gallery of Art: 
H. P. Kraus 

Mrs. Irving Johnson 
Mrs. Cazenove Lee 


1, 888 


Sidney Galler 

Hanover Insurance Group 

Institucion Privada 

G. F. Papenfuss 

Paul C. Silva 

1, 150 
Ellen Bayard Weeden Foundation 

For the National Collection of Fine Arts'* Knoedler Fund: 

Margaret Nalle Marjorie Phillips 

Mr. and Mrs. S. G. Edwards Norman Holmes Pearson 

For the Neighborhood Museum: 

Lucian B. Piatt 

Anne S. Richardson Fund 

For the Pageant of Transportation: 

Aerospace Industries Association of 

America, Inc. 
Air Line Pilots Association International 
Air Transport Association 
American Petroleum Institute 
American Road Builders' Association 
American Trucking Association, Inc. 
Association of American Railroads 
Association of Local Transport Airlines 


27, 262 

Whitney Museum of American Art 
Eugene and Agnes Meyer Foundation 

9, 450 

Automobile Manufacturers Association, 

Automotive Safety Foundation 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
Committee of American Steamship 

Freight Forwarders Institute 
National Association of Motor Bus 




National Defense Transportation As- 

Railway Progress Institute 

Rubber Manufacturers Association 

The American Waterways Operators, 

For the History of Photography Purchase Fund: 
George Eastman House Time, Inc. 

Polaroid Corporation 

For the Marjorie Merriweather Post Fund: 

The Common Carrier Conference of 

Domestic Water Carriers 
The National Industrial Traffic League 
Transportation Association of America 

S3, 750 

Count V. Alderberg 

His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Kuwait and Madame Al-Ghoussein 
The Honorable and Mrs. Clinton P. 

Admiral and Mrs. George W. Anderson 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Loy Anderson 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Panama and Madame Arias 
Mr. and Mrs. James Y. Arnold 
Commander and Mrs. Clyde B. Ault 
Miss Madeleine Austin 
Mr. Robert Calhoun Baker 
Mrs. W. Edwards Beach 
Mrs. Walter E. Beach 
The Honorable and Madame Guillermo 

de Belt 
Lady Birley 

The Princess Cito di Bitetto 
Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss 
Mrs. B. Pleydell Bouverie 
Mr. and Mrs. Willis Boyd 
Doreen The Lady Brabourne 
General and Mrs. Omar N. Bradley 
Donna Julia Brambilla 
Mr. A. Marvin Braverman 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Fontaine Broun 
Mr. and Mrs. Leon Brown 
The Honorable and Mrs. Percival F. 

The Honorable and Mrs. Wiley T. 

Buchanan, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Bunker 
Dr. and Mrs. Robert C. Burt 
Mrs. Harold W. Cannella 
The Princess Cantacuzene 
Mr. Charles T. Carey 
Dr. and Mrs. Leonard Carmichael 
Mr. and Mrs. Leslie E. Carpenter 
Miss Geni Chester 


The Honorable and Mrs. Cyrus Ching 
Mr. Justice and Mrs. Thomas C. Clark 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Clarkson 
Sir Bede and Lady Clifford 
Mr. and Mrs. Clark M. Clifford 
Mr. and Mrs. David P. Close 
Mr. Marvin J. Coles 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald L. Colvin 
Mr. and Mrs. John T. Connor 
Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Cook 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Jefferson Coolidge 
The Honorable and Mrs. John Sherman 

Mr. and Mrs. Raymond E. Cox 
Mrs. W. Philip Cox 

The Honorable and Madame Cretzianu 
Mr. and Mrs. Francis X. Crowley 
Mr. and Mrs. J. A. B. Dahlgren 
Mr. and Mrs. Freeman J. Daniels 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry R. Davidson 
Major General and Mrs. Howard C. 

Mr. and Mrs. Andre de Limur 
Dr. and Mrs. Lowell Russell Ditzen 
Miss Alice L. C. Dodge 
Mrs. James P. Donahue 
Mr. and Mrs. M. Dorland Doyle 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Dudley 
Mr. Franklin A. Durr 
General and Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower 
Mr. and Mrs. Shearen D. Elebash 
Mr. Douglas L. Elliman 
Mr. Alfred W. Englehardt 
Mr. Erik J. H. Eriksen 
Captain and Mrs. Evert Eriksson 
Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin C. Evans, Jr. 
Miss Meta Evans 
Mrs. Herbert Farrell 



His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Italy and Madame Fenoaltea 
Judge and Mrs. Homer Ferguson 
Mrs. Harold Fitzgerald 
The Honorable and Mrs. John Clifford 

The Honorable and Mrs. Hiram Fong 
Miss Hank Fort 
The Honorable and Mrs. Henry H. 

The Honorable and Mrs. William 

Chapman Foster 
Mrs. Carson G. Frailey 
The Honorable and Mrs. Clarence 

The Honorable and Mrs. J. William 

Mrs. Lawrence C. Fuller 
The Honorable James G. Fulton 
The Honorable and Mrs. Arthur 

His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Portugal and Madame Garin 
The Honorable and Mrs. George A. 

Judge and Mrs. Oliver Gasch 
Mr. and Mrs. Leonard F. Genz 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Carroll Glover, 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert M. Gorrell 
Major General Ulysses S. Grant III 
The Honorable Robert Keith Gray 
The Honorable Homer H. Gruenther 
General and Mrs. Wade H. Haislip 
Mr. and Mrs. Harris Hammond 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald E. Handelman 
Mr. and Mrs. Meyer Handelman 
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Hanley 
Mr. Channing W. Hare 
General and Mrs. Franklin A. Hart 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Z. Hawkins 
Mr. and Mrs. George W. Headley 
Mr. and Mrs. Ray Henle 
Mr. Stephen Hopkins Hensel 
Mr. and Mrs. Kurt Hetzel 
Mrs. J. Monroe Hewlett 
Mr. Edward T. Howe 
Mr. Richard H. Howland 
Dr. and Mrs. R. Gordon Hoxie 
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Hull 
Miss Laura Hungerford 

Rear Admiral and Mrs. Raymond P. 

Mrs. Patrick J. Hurley 
Miss Carol Hynes 

Mr. and Mrs. Carlton A. Johanson 
Mr. and Mrs. James M. Johnston 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Sweden and Madame Jonsson 
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel H. Kauffmann 
Mr. Thomas S. Kenan III 
The Honorable and Mrs. Joseph P. 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Atwater Kent 
Dr. and Mrs. A. Atwater Kent, Jr. 
Miss Beverly King 
Mr. and Mrs. Ludlow King, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Milton W. King 
Mr. and Mrs. Slocum Kingsbury 
The Honorable and Mrs. James R. 

Mrs. Katharine McCook Knox 
Mr. and Mrs. Fritz-Alan Korth 
The Honorable Fred Korth 
Miss Verita Korth 
Vice Admiral Emory Scot Land 
Mrs. Clark J. Lawrence 
Mrs. Sidney Kent Legare 
Mr. and Mrs. George C. Leib 
Lady Lewis 
Miss Jane Lingo 
Dr. and Mrs. George W. Lloyd 
Mr. Grover Loening 
Mr. and Mrs. John A. Logan 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

France and Madame Lucet 
General and Mrs. Anthony C. McAuliffe 
The Honorable and Mrs. John T. 

Mrs. Robert R. McCormick 
Mr. and Mrs. William P. McCracken 
Brigadier General Godfrey T. McHugh 
Mrs. J. P. McKinney 
Mr. William J. McManus 
Mr. Robert D. McMillen 
The Honorable and Mrs. Douglas 

Mac Arthur II 
Mrs. Clarence MacKay 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Noel Macy 
Lt. Colonel and Mrs. William J. 

Maddox, Jr. 



Mr. and Mrs. Edward P. Maffitt 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph F. Major 

Mr. and Mrs. Elovius Mangor 

Mr. James D. Mann 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel B. Markel 

Rear Admiral and Mrs. Gene Markey 

Mrs. George C. Marshall 

Mr. and Mrs. Hunter S. Marston 

Miss Cecilia B. Martin 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathan L. Maryn 

His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Greece and Madame Matsas 
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert A. May, Jr. 
Mr. Philip D. May 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Spain and The Marquesa de Merry 

del Val 
The Honorable Perle Mesta 
Mrs. Hope Ridings Miller 
Dr. and Mrs. Howard Mitchell 
Mr. and Mrs. C. Carroll Morgan 
Mrs. Marion K. Morgan 
Dr. and Mrs. William A. Morgan 
Madame Wilhelm Munthe de Morgen- 

Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Morris 
Mrs. George Maurice Morris 
Lt. General and Mrs. William H. Morris 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles C. Mortimer 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Munn 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

India and Madame Nehru 
Dr. and Mrs. Walter R. Newbern 
Mr. Gerson Nordlinger, Jr. 
Mrs. Bissett Norment 
Mr. and Mrs. Barbu Niculescu 
Colonel Serge Obolensky 
Mrs. James R. Offield 
Mrs. Rufus L. Patterson 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Peru and Madame Pastor 
Colonel C. Michael Paul 
Mr. Richard E. Pearson 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Pelham 
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Pillsbury 
Mr. and Mrs. Landra B. Piatt 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Post 
Dr. and Mrs. M. Hayward Post 
Madame Edgar Prochnik 
Mr. Gene Raymond 
Mr. Justice and Mrs. Stanley F. Reed 

Mrs. Ogden Reid 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Reinke 

Mrs. Helen Rich 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Henry Rietzke 

Dr. John B. Riggs 

Mr. and Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley II 

Mr. John E. Rovensky 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Rogers 

Major General and Mrs. William C. 

Mr. and Mrs. Marvin C. Ross 
Madame Augusto Rosso 
Mr. J. Frederick Roy 
Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Sanford 
Mr. and Mrs. John Schapiro 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Belgium and The Baroness Scheyven 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore C. Sheaffer 
The Honorable and Mrs. Jouett Shouse 
Major General and Mrs. Alden K. 

Miss Julia P. Sibley 
Sigma Alpha Theta Sorority 
Sigma Beta Epsilon Fraternity 
Mr. and Mrs. Douglas R. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Wendell Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Humphrey Statter 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore D. Stoney 
Rear Admiral and Mrs. Lewis L. Strauss 
Mrs. L. Corrin Strong 
General and Mrs. Philip G. Strong 
The Honorable and Mrs. John L. 

Mr. and Mrs. Preston L. Sutphen 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Japan and Madame Takeuchi 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Venezuela and Madame Tejera-Paris 
Mrs. Sigourney Thayer 
The Honorable and Mrs. Clark W. 

Madame Thor Thors 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Chile and Madame Tomic 
Mr. Carl W. Trent 
Mr. and Mrs. Bronson Trevor 
Mrs. John B. Trevor, Sr. 
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Trevor, Jr. 
Mr. Leonard W. Trimmer 
Mrs. Francis B. Trudeau, Sr. 
Dr. and Mrs. Francis B. Trudeau, Jr. 



Mr. and Mrs. E. Russell True, Jr. 

Mrs. Max O'Rell Truitt 

The Honorable and Mrs. Joseph D. 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Van Pelt 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Van Pelt 
Mrs. E. P. Van Zandt 
The Honorable and Mrs. Jamshed 

Mrs. Latimer Voigt 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Alexander Walker 
Miss Evelyn Walker 
Mr. and Mrs. James N. Wallace 
His Excellency, The Ambassador of 

Australia and Mrs. Waller 
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Garrett Watson 

Mr. and Mrs. Osby L. Weir 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin Borden White, Jr. 

Mrs. Robert W. White 

Mr. and Mrs. C. V. Whitney 

Mrs. Searle Whitney 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard E. Whittemore 

Mr. George Livingston Williams 

The Honorable and Mrs. Charles F. 

Willis, Jr. 
Mrs. Orme Wilson 
Dr. and Mrs. Max Wolf 
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Woodward 
Mr. and Mrs. Burdette S. Wright, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Bernard Wyckoff 
Mrs. Robert R. Young 
Mrs. Jorge Zalles 

For the Victor Proetz Memorial Fund: 

Miss Mary Allis 

Mr. Alfonso Alverez 

Mrs. A. W. Barnett 

Mr. John W. Barnett 

Mrs. Laura D. Barney 

Dr. William G. Barrett 

Captain Peter Belin 

Miss Isadora Bennett 

Mrs. Pemberton Berman 

Mr. Newton P. Bevin 

Mr. Louis C. Bodenheimer 

Miss Marguerite A. R. Booraem 

Mrs. Catherine Drinker Bowen 

Mrs. Benjamin H. Brewster 

Mr. Charles W. Brooks 

Mr. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. John Young Brown 

The Earl Mountbatten of Burma 

Miss Madeleine E. Callard 

Mrs. Alex Camp 

Mrs. Marquis W. Childs 

Mrs. Austin B. Chinn 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard de V. Clarke 

Mr. and Mrs. Willson Cummer 

Mrs. Edwin C. Custer 

Mr. John Burton Custer 

Mrs. C. Kenneth Deming 

Mr. C. R. Duckels 

Mrs. Peyton Hawes Dunn 

Mrs. Tirzah Dunn 

Mr. John G. Edgar 

Mr. H. Cutler Fall 


Mrs. Henry T. Ferriss 

Mr. David E. Finley 

Mr. Henry Grattan 

Mr. Ralph C. Hall 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul L. Hexter 

Mrs. Oveta Culp Hobby 

Mr. William E. Katzenbach 

Mrs. Abel Kenin 

Mr. Edward Kessler 

Mr. Robert M. Leylon 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth R. McElheny 

Mr. Paul McFarlane 

Mr. Charles Nagel 

Mrs. M. Burton Paradise 

Mr. William Julius Polk, Jr. 

Mr. Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. 

Mr. Henry V. Putzel 

Miss Margaret Ramsay 

Mr. Frank C. Rand, Jr. 

Mr. Robert H. Reid 

Dr. E. P. Richardson 

Miss Virginia Rice 

Mr. Don W. Rogers, Jr. 

Mr. Meyric R. Rogers 

Dr. Frederick H. Scharles 

Mr. Brooks Shepard, Jr. 

Mrs. Thomas B. Sherman 

Dr. Richard H. Shryock 

Mr. Robert Gordon Stewart 

Mrs. William G. Stott 

Mr. Charles P. Thompson 

Colonel Frederick P. Todd 



Mr. Roul Tunley 

Mr. Charles Van Ravenswaay 

Mr. Phelps Warren 

Mr. Henry Wexler 

Miss Mary P. Wheeler 

For the Sao Paulo Bienal Fund: 

Best Products Company of Lynchburg 

Mr. Jacob Blaustein 

Mr. Huntington T. Block 

Mrs. Edith K. Bralove 

Mrs. Marcella Brenner 

Mr. J. Carter Brown 

Mr. William A. M. Burden 

Mrs. Gwendolyn Cafritz 

Miss June P. Carey 

Miss Edith Newman Cook 

Crown Zellerbach Corporation 

Mr. C. Douglas Dillon 

Mr. and Mrs. David E. Finley 

Mrs. John Clifford Folger 

Mr. Justice and Mrs. Abe Fortas 

Mr. Wreatham E. Gathright 

Mr. Ira Gershwin 

Mr. Wayman Whettermore 
Mr. Nelson C. White 
Miss Emily M. Wilson 
Mrs. Paul J. Zentay 


Mr. Henry H. Hecht, Jr. 

Mrs. Arthur U. Hooper 

International Telephone and Telegraph 

Mrs. Dora Jane Janson 
Mrs. Ruth Carter Johnson 
Albert Kunstadter Family Foundation 
Mr. Morton D. May 
Robert and Beatrice Mayer Foundation 
Mrs . Louise Tompkins Parker 
Mr. Jefferson Patterson 
Mrs. Stanley J. Sarnoff 
Rita and Taft Schreiber Foundation 
Mr. David Scott 
Philip M. Stern Family Fund 
Mrs. Fredrika M. Tandler 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Woodward 

For the Portrait of Ambassador Stevenson: 


Mrs. Elizabeth Ives 

Mrs. Marshall Field 

For the Venice Biennale Fund: 

Gollin Foundation, Inc. 

Mrs. Sarah A. Jarman 

The Honorable Robert S. McNamara 


Mr. Laurance S. Rockefeller 
Mr. Thomas Watson 

For unrestricted purposes: 

Mr. Aaron J. Farfel 
His Excellency, the Ambassador of 
Germany, Heinrich Knappstein 


The Reader's Digest 
Mr. Alvin Solomon 

458 smithsonian year 1967 appendix 1 

Funds and Federal Appropriations 

The following appropriations were made by Congress for the Govern- 
ment bureaus under the administrative charge of the Smithsonian 
Institution for the fiscal year 1967: 

Salaries and Expenses $22, 699, 000 

National Zoological Park $2, 039, 500 

Appropriation made to the National Gallery of Art (which is a bureau 
of the Smithsonian Institution under a separate Board of Trustees). $2, 822, 000 

The Institution also received appropriations to continue the 12-year 
capital improvement program at the National Zoological Park 
($1,589,000); and for the restoration and renovation of buildings 

For fiscal year 1967, the Smithsonian was granted an appropriation 
of $2,316,000 in foreign currencies for museum programs and related 

In addition, funds were transferred from other Government agencies 
for expenditure under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution as 
follows : 

Working funds, transferred from the National Park Service, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, for archeological investigations in river basins 
throughout the United States $219,000 

The Institution also administers a trust fund for partial support of the 
Canal Zone Biological Area, located on Barro Colorado Island in the 
Canal Zone. 

The report of the audit of the Smithsonian Private Funds is attached. 

Respectfully submitted : 

Robert V. Fleming 
Caryl P. Haskins 
Clinton P. Anderson 

Executive Committee 

Washington, D.C., October 6, 1967 


Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 





We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smithsonian Insti- 
tution as of June 30, 1 967 and the related statements of changes in funds 
for the year then ended. Our examination was made in accordance with 
generally accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests of 
the accounting records and such other auditing procedures as we considered 
necessary in the circumstances. 

Except for certain real estate acquired by gift or purchased from proceeds 
of gifts which are valued at cost or appraised value at date of gift, land, build- 
ings, furniture, equipment, works of art, living and other specimens, and certain 
other similar property are not included in the accounts of the Institution; 
the amounts of investments in such properties are not readily determinable. 
Current expenditures for such properties are included among expenses. 
The accompanying statements do not include the National Gallery of Art, the 
John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, nor other departments, 
bureaus and operations administered by the Institution under Federal appro- 
priations. The accounts of the Institution are maintained on the basis of cash 
receipts and disbursements, with the result that the accompanying statements do 
not reflect income earned but not collected, or expenses incurred but not paid. 

In our opinion, subject to the matters referred to in the preceding paragraph, 
the accompanying balance sheet of private funds and the related statements of 
changes in funds present fairly the assets and funds principal of Smithsonian 
Institution at June 30, 1 967 and changes in fund balances resulting from cash 
transactions of the private funds for the year then ended, on a basis consistent 
in all material respects with that of the preceding year. 


October 6, 1967 

In the Auditor's report, the following statement precedes schedules 1 
and 2: 


Accountants'' Report on Supplementary Data 

We have reported separately herein on the basic financial statements of pri- 
vate funds of Smithsonian Institution. The current year's supplementary data 
included in Schedules 1 and 2 were subjected to the same auditing procedures 
and, in our opinion, are stated fairly in all material respects when considered 
in conjunction with the basic financial statements taken as a whole. 

October 6, 1967 




Current funds : 
General : 
United States Treasury current 

account $322, 724 

In banks and on hand 98, 996 

421, 720 
Notes receivable 140, 000 

Investments — stocks and bonds 

(quoted market value 

$2,543,038) (note 1 ) 2, 659, 61 1 

Reimbursements due: 

Grants $107, 151 

Contracts 807, 532 914, 683 

Travel and other advances 36, 307 

Other assets 119,367 
Due from general endowment 

funds 311,240 

Total general 

148, 825 

4, 602, 928 

estricted : 

United States Treasury current 

In banks 


Due from general fund 

Due from Freer Gallery of Art endowment fund 



Total restricted 2, 823, 065 

Total current funds 7, 425, 993 

report of the executive committee 


FUNDS, JUNE 30, 1967 

Liabilities and Fund Balances 

Current funds: 
General : 
Due to restricted funds 
Fund balance (Exhibit B) 


51, 376, 552 
3, 226, 376 

Total general 

Restricted : 
Due to restricted endowment fund 
Fund balances (Exhibit G): 
Unexpended income from endowment: 

4, 602, 928 

48, 030 

Freer Gallery of Art 
Other restricted 

$507, 607 
641, 028 

$1, 148,635 

Funds for special purposes : 

450, 465 
786, 113 
389, 822 

2, 775, 035 

Total restricted 

2, 823, 065 

Total current funds 

7, 425, 993 


Assets — Continued 

Endowment funds and funds function- 
ing as endowment: 
Freer Gallery of Art fund, Stocks 
and bonds (quoted market value 

$18,202,916) (note 1) 12, 112, 170 

Other funds : 
Cash $315,957 

Stocks and bonds (quoted market 

value $9,598,449) (note 1 ) 8, 594, 479 

8, 910, 436 

Loan in perpetuity to U.S. Treas- 
ury 1,000,000 

Other stocks and bonds (quoted 

market value $25,045) (note 1 ) 13, 386 

Real estate (note 2) 1, 388, 188 

Due from restricted unexpended 
income 48, 030 

Total other funds 1 1 , 360, 040 

Total endowment funds and 
funds functioning as en- 
dowment 23,472,210 

$30, 898, 203 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 



EXHIBIT A— Continued 

Liabilities and Fund Balances — Continued 

Endowment funds and funds func- 
tioning as endowment: 
Freer Gallery of Art fund : 
Due to Freer Gallery of Art re- 

stricted fund 


Fund balance (Exhibit D) 

12, 107,418 

Total Freer Gallery of Art 


12, 112, 170 

Other funds: 

Mortgages payable (note 2) 


Due to general funds 


Fund balances (Exhibit D): 

Restricted S5, 132, 453 

General 5,831,906 

10, 964, 359 

Total other funds 

Total endowment funds and 
funds functioning as en- 


$30, 898, 203 


Smithsonian Institution: Private Funds 



Balance at 

Receipts {Set 

itdule 1) 

beginning of 


Balance at 




{Schedule 2) 

end of year 


$3, 163,479 

3, 696, 737 


5, 166, 714 

3, 226, 376 





6, 827, 166 

6, 827, 166 



6, 313, 505 

$3, 1 63, 479 1 7, 552, 671 1 , 532, 874 1 9, 022, 648 3, 226, 376 

See accompanying notes to financial statements. 





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$23, 071, 777 

$12, 107,418 

10, 964, 359 
$23, 071, 777 

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June 30, 1967 

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Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program 
Grants Awarded Fiscal Year 1967 

Anthropology — Systematic and Environmental Biology 


American Institute of Indian Studies, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
To continue support for the American Academy of Benares, India, 
an institution for research in art history and archeology (second 

American Research Center in Egypt, Boston, Massachusetts. To 
continue support for a program of research and excavation in 
Egypt ; a) Excavation of the ancient city of Hierakonpolis b) Con- 
tinuation of an epigraphic and architectural survey at Luxor c) Con- 
tinuation of a stratified Pharonic site at Mendes, d) Continuation 
of a field project for recording and preserving treasures at St. 
Catherine's Monastery, Mt. Sinai (second year). 

Brooklyn Museum. To support the study of the Giza Necropolis, 
Egypt (second year). 

Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, 
Berkeley. To continue to test the utilization of cosmic rays to 
"X-ray" the Egyptian pyramids in search of presently unknown 

University of California at Los Angeles. A joint UCLA-Sarajevo 
Territorial Museum research project on the prehistory of Obre, 
Bosnia, Yugoslavia. 

Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh. To continue excavations of a Philis- 
tine City at Ashdod, Israel (second year). 

University of Chicago. To provide research assistantships in arche- 
ology and art history for Universtiy of Chicago students at the 
American Academy of Benares, India. 

University of Colorado. To support prehistoric archeological re- 
search at Oued El Akarit, Tunisia. 

Peabody Museum of Natural History at Harvard University. 
To excavate a prehistoric site at Starcevo, Yugoslavia. 


472 smithsonian year 1967 appendix 2 

Jerusalem School of Archeology of Hebrew Union College. To 
excavate an archeological site at Gezer, Israel, and to conduct a 
Summer Institute on Near Eastern Civilizations (second year). 

University of Michigan. To initiate a program for research and 
training in prehistoric archeology in Israel and to conduct excava- 
tions at the site of Tabun, Israel. 

University of Missouri. To complete investigation of ancient 
Phoenician glass manufacturing sites in Israel (second year). 

University of Missouri. To excavate the Greek trade site of Yavneh 
Yam, Israel. 

University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. To study the 
remaining stones of the Temple of Akhnaten at Luxor, Egypt 
(second year). 

University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. To study the 
inscriptions of the Dra Abu Naga Tombs, Egypt. 

Smithsonian Institution, Office of Anthropology. To conduct an 
archeological investigation of Western Phoenician culture at 
Carthage, Tunisia. 

Southern Methodist University. To study the prehistory of the 
area around Sibaiya, Egypt (second year). 

Stanford University. To conduct a joint Stanford- Sarajevo Terri- 
torial Museum archeological expedition in the Trebisnjica Basin, 

University of Wisconsin. Reexamination of the late prehistoric 
sites in Kharga and Dakhla Oasis, Egypt. 

Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University. To 
study the paleontology and stratigraphy of the Paleocene, Eocene 
and Oligocene deposits to enlarge knowledge of primitive man in 
Egypt (second year). 


Johns Hopkins University. To study the behavior and ecology of 

small mammals of Bengal, India. 
University of Michigan. To conduct cytological studies of Indian 

National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. To 

support an International Biological Program planning symposium 

in Tunisia for a Mediterranean region conservation program. 
Southern Methodist University. To investigate the quaternary 

environment of the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert of 


foreign currency program grants 473 

Smithsonian Institution: 

Office of Ecology. To study the flora and vegetation of Ceylon. 
Office of Ecology. To support a symposium on recent advances 

in tropical ecology in Benares, India. 
Office of Ecology. To conduct a survey of ecological research 

opportunities for the International Biological Program in Poland, 

Yugoslavia, Tunisia, Israel, Republic of the Congo, and India. 
Museum of Natural History. To continue studies in India 

leading to publication of a handbook on Indian birds. 
Museum of Natural History. To study the migration of Indian 

Museum of Natural History. To conclude research and publish 

a study of the Triassic ostracods of Israel. 
Museum of Natural History. To conduct serological and 

ectoparasitic surveys of migratory birds in Northeast Africa. 
Museum of Natural History. To conduct a field expedition in 

Egypt to broaden the Department of Entomology collections. 
National Zoological Park. To study the behavior and ecology 

of the Ceylonese elephant. 
Office of Oceanography. To study in Israel the biological 

Interchange between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red 

Sea through the Suez Canal. 
Office of Oceanography. To establish a Marine Sorting Center 

at Salammbo, Tunisia. 
Radiation Biology Laboratory. To study in Israel the effects 

of solar radiation on plants through comparative observation at 

different latitudes. 


Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 
For the Tear Ended June 30, 1967 


Seabirds of the tropical Atlantic Ocean: Smithsonian identification 

manual, by George E. Watson. (Second edition of Preliminary 

Smithsonian identification manual: Seabirds of the tropical 

Atlantic Ocean, issued March 1965.) xxix-f-120 pp. } 12 pis. 

Publ. 4680, November 21, 1966 ($3.75.) 
Trap-nesting wasps and bees: Life histories, nests, and associates, 

by Karl V. Krombein. iv+570 pp., 2 figs., 29 pis., 36 tables. 

Publ. 4670, March 1, 1967. ($12.50.) 
The etchings of Canaletto, by Jacob Kainen. 63 pp., 44 illustr. 

Publ. 4676, April 20, 1967. ($5.95.) 
The art of Stanton Macdonald-Wright, introduction by David W. 

Scott. 100 pp., 31 illustr. Publ. 4707, May 4, 1967. (paper, 

$3.50, cloth, $7.50.) 
The Large Magellanic Cloud, by Paul W. Hodge & Frances W. Wright. 

v+ 108 pp., 81 pis., 12 tables. Publ. 4699, June 6, 1967. ($25.00.) 


Opportunities in oceanography, prepared by Interagency Committee 

on Oceanography. 33 pp., 44 illustr. (3rd revision of publ. 4537, 

issued July 1964), April 10, 1967. ($1.00.) 
The Continental gunboat Philadelphia and the Northern Campaign 

of 1776, by Phillip K. Lundeberg. 22 pp., illustr. Publ. 4651, 

August 1, 1966. (50 cents.) 
The Apollo program, a midstream appraisal, by George M. Low. 

22 pp., 8 illustr. Publ. 4693, January 25, 1967. ($1.00.) 
The American parade of politics, 1788-1960, by Keith Melder. 24 

pp., 13 illustr. Publ. 4696, May 4, 1967. (50 cents.) 




Contemporary Dutch graphics, by Dolf Welling. 20 pp., 9 illustr. 

Publ. 4665, July 1, 1966. (75 cents.) 
Paul Manship, 1885-1966. 24 pp., 17 illustr. Publ. 4686, August 10, 

1966. (75 cents.) 
Recent acquisitions, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 

entries compiled by Robert G. Stewart, foreword by Charles Nagel. 

36 pp., 15 illustr. Publ. 4685, September 15, 1966. (N.C.) 
Islamic art from the collection of Edwin Binney 3rd, foreword by 

Richard Ettinghausen. 100 pp., 90 illustr. Publ. 4682, October 

1966. ($1.50.) 
Paintings and drawings by Elihu Vedder, introduction by Regina Soria. 

32 pp., 11 illustr. Publ 4689, October 5, 1966. ($1.00.) 
Catalog of the Alice Pike Barney memorial lending collection, by 

Delight Hall. 195 pp., 99 illustr. Publ. 4522, November 18, 1966. 

Sculptures and drawings of Henry Moore. 38 pp., 32 illustr. Publ. 

4688, December 1966. ($1.00.) 
Italian architectural drawings, introduction by John Harris. 60 pp., 

55 illustr. Publ. 4690, January 1967. ($1.60.) 
Battle art, American Expeditionary Forces 1918, by Edgar M. Howell. 

24 pp., 10 illustr. Publ. 4700, April 17, 1967. (30 cents.) 
Tunisian mosaics, foreword by Mohamed Yacoub. xv-j-34 pp., 41 

illustr. Publ. 4709, May 1967. ($1.75.) 


Paintings, pastels, drawings, prints, and copper plates by and attributed 

to American and European artists, together with a list of original 

Whistleriana, in the Freer Gallery of Art, by Burns A. Stubbs. 

vi + 153 pp., 30 illustr. (Repr. of publ. 3905, Freer Gallery of Art 

Occasional Papers, vol. 1, no 2, issued August 1948), May 12, 1967. 

Smithsonian meteorological tables, by Robert J. List. 6th edition. 

xi + 527 pp., 174 tables. (3rd repr. of Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 

vol. 114 [whole volume], publ. 4014, issued September 1951), 

October 7, 1966. ($5.00.) 
The world of dinosaurs, by David Dunkle. ii+22 pp., illustr. 

(Repr. of publ. 4296, issued May 1957), July 1, 1966. (50 cents.) 
Folk religion of Southwest China, by David Crockett Graham, viii-f 

245 pp., 10 figs., 28 pis. (Repr. of Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 

142, no. 2, publ. 4457, issued November 1961), May 4, 1967. 



Durer and his time, by Fedja Anzelewski. 252 pp., 150 illustr. (Repr. 
of publ. 4647, issued November 1965), April 28, 1967. ($8.95.) 


Smithsonian Year 1966: annual report of the Smithsonian Institution 
for the year ended June 30, 1966, including the financial report 
of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents, vii+409 pp., 
illustr. Publ. 4697, January 25, 1967. 

Annual report of the American Historical Association for the year 1 965, 
volume 1, proceedings, xxix-f-93 pp. December 16, 1966. 


Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 

volume 149 

10. Emerged Quaternary shore lines in the Mississippi embayment, 

by C. Wythe Cooke. 41 pp., 20 figs. Publ. 4677, July 18 
1966. (N.C.) 

1 1 . [end of volume] . Additional data on the host relations of the 

parasitic cowbirds, by Herbert Friedmann. 12 pp. Publ. 
4678, August 16, 1966. (N.C.) 


2 Aspects of the ecology of the iguanid lizard Tropidurus torquatus at 
Belem, Para, by A. Stanley Rand and Patricia J. Rand. 16 pp., 
4 figs., 3 tables. Publ. 4666, July 8, 1966. (N.C.) 

3. Surface conditions of the Orgueil meteorite parent body as indi- 
cated by mineral associations, by Kurt Bostrom and Kurt 
Fredriksson. 39 pp., 18 figs., 5 tables. Publ. 4667, July 
27, 1966. ($1.50) 

5. Precipitation in five continents, by C. G. Abbot. 32 pp., 17 figs., 

7 tables. Publ. 4694, May 31, 1967. (N.C.) 

6. The early history of the sun, by A. G. W. Cameron. 19 pp., 7 

figs. Publ. 4674, July 15, 1966. (N.C.) 

7. The birds of Socotra and Abd-El-Kuri, by S. Dillon Ripley and 

Gorman M. Bond. 37 pp., 8 pis., 1 map, 1 table. Publ. 

4681, August 16, 1966. (N.C ) 
8 The behavior of Ateles geqffroyi and related species, by John F. 

Eisenberg and Robert E. Kuehn. iv+63 pp. ? 10 figs., 6 pis. 

23 tables. Publ. 4683, November 29, 1966. (N.C.) 
9. Four new Eocene echinoids from Barbados, by Porter M. Kier. 

28 pp., 16 figs., 1 pi. Publ. 4673, August 30, 1966. (N.C.) 



1. Cretaceous Thyasira from the western interior of North America, 

by Erie G. Kauffman. 159 pp., 18 figs., 5 pis., 7 tables. Publ. 
4695, June 30, 1967. (N.C.) 

2. Supplement to a long-range forecast of United States precipitation, 

by C. G. Abbot and Lena Hill. 8 pp., 1 table. Publ. 4711, 
May 31, 1967. (N.C.) 

United States National Museum Bulletins 
museum of history and technology 

241 (as whole volume). Contributions from the Museum of History 

and Technology: Papers 45 to 51 on history, vii+232 pp., illustr. 

February 16, 1967 (preprints of individual papers issued as indicated 

in earlier reports). 
252. Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology: 

Papers 69- , on science and technology. 

69. James Millholland and early railroad engineering, by John 
H. White. 36 pp., 29 figs. June 21, 1967. 

70. William Gunn Price and the Price current meters, by Arthur 
H. Frazier. 68 pp., 39 figs. March 29, 1967. 


247, parts 3 and 4. Fossil marine mammals from the Miocene Calvert 

Formation of Maryland and Virginia, by Remington Kellogg. 

pp. iv+65-101, figs. 32-38, pis. 33-45. November 28, 1966. 
251. Pacific Tunica ta of the United States National Museum, by 

Takasi Tokioka. v+247 pp., 105 figs. April 27, 1967. 
255. A revision of the moths of the subfamily Prodoxinae (Lepidoptera : 

Incurvariidae), by Donald R. Davis, iv+170 pp., 155 figs., 3 

tables, 17 maps, 3 diagr. April 18, 1967. 


197. An analysis of sources of information on the population of the 
Navaho, by Denis Foster Johnston, v+220 pp., 7 maps, 36 tables. 
September 28, 1966. 

198. Inter-agency Archeological Salvage Program, River Basin 
Survey Papers, edit. Robert L. Stephenson. 

39 [whole volume] . An interpretation of Mandan culture history, 
by W. Raymond Wood, xiv+232 pp. 17 figs, 9 pis, 20 
maps, 15 tables. June 21, 1967. 
199 The ethnoarcheology of Crow Village, Alaska, by Wendell H. 

Oswalt and James W. VanStone. viii+136 figs., 16 pis., 1 map. 

May 1, 1967. 

publications — smithsonian institution press 479 

Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology 

volume 2 

1. Early skeletons from Tranquillity, California, by J. Lawrence 

Angel, pp. iii+1-19, 4 pis., 3 tables. November 25, 1966. 

2. New Zealand artifacts from the United States "Transit of Venus 

Expedition" 1874-1875, by Ian W. Keyes. pp. iv+21-27, 3 pis. 
March 6, 1967. 

3. Muskogean charm songs among the Oklahoma Cherokees, by Jack 

Frederick Kilpatrick and Anna Gritts Kilpatrick. pp. iv+ 29-40, 
11 figs. March 6, 1967. 

4. Land tenure of the Rainy Lake Chippewa at the beginning of the 

19th century, by Harold Hickerson. pp. iv4-41-63, 1 map. 
March 6, 1967. 

[Whole volume.] Early cultures and human ecology in south coastal 
Guatemala, by Michael D. Coe and Kent V. Flannery. xi-f-136 
pp., 50 figs., 32 pis., 15 tables. February 24, 1967. 


[Whole voiume.] Seneca morphology and dictionary, by Wallace L. 
Chafe. vii4-126pp. June 28, 1967. 

Contributions From the National Herbarium 

volume 37 
3. Studies of Pacific island plants, XVIII: New and noteworthy flower- 
ing plants from Fiji, by Albert C. Smith, pp. 69-106. May 4, 

Proceedings of the United States National Museum 

(Starting with the first number (3538) in volume 119, each number there- 
after is paged separately.) 


Title page, table of contents, and index, pp. v-f- 681-7 10. October 
21, 1966. 


3533. Revision of chalcid wasps of genus Eurytoma in America north 
of Mexico, by Robert E. Bugbee. pp. 433-552, 31 figs., 37 maps. 
March 21, 1967. 

3534. The euryhaline copepod genus Eurytemora in fresh and brackish 
waters of the Cape Thompson region, Chukchi Sea, Alaska, by 
Mildred Stratton Wilson and Jerry C. Tash. pp. 553-576, 3 figs., 
2 tables. December 30, 1966. 


3535. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, IX: Revision of genus Pseudat- 
teria (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae), by Nicholas S. Obraztsov. 
pp. 577-622, 12 figs., 43 pis. December 30, 1966. 

3536. Decapod crustaceans from St. Helena Island, South Atlantic, 
by Fenner A. Ghace, Jr. pp. 623-661, 15 figs., 2 pis. Decem- 
ber 30, 1966. 

3537 [end of volume]. Revision of sharks of genus Isurus with descrip- 
tion of a new species (Galeoidea, Lamnidae), by J. A. F. Garrick. 
pp. 663-690, 9 figs., 4 pis., 2 tables. March 15, 1967. 

volume 119 (numbers paged separately) 

3538. Review of South American characid fishes of subtribe Nan- 
nostomina, by Stanley H. Weitzman. 56 pp., 12 figs. December 
30, 1966. 

3539. A revision of the hammerhead sharks (family Sphyrnidae), 
by Carter R. Gilbert. 88 pp., 22 figs., 10 pis., 5 maps, 9 tables. 
April 27, 1967. 

3540. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, X: Systematic position of two 
taxa erroneously placed in family Stenomidae (Lepidoptera), 
by W. Donald Duckworth. 6 pp., 2 figs., 1 pi. December 30, 

3541. Benthic Amphipoda of Monterey Bay, California, by J. Laurens 
Barnard. 41 pp., 7 figs., 10 tables. December 30, 1966. 

3542. A new genus and six new species of entocytherid ostracods 
(Ostracoda, Entocytheridae), by Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., and 
Margaret Walton. 12 pp., 2 figs., 1 table. December 30, 1966. 

3543. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, XI: Revision of genus Idolatteria 
(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by Nicholas S. Obraztsov. 12 pp., 
3 figs., 8 pis. December 30, 1966. 

3544. Range and variations of subspecies of Cambarus longulus 
(Decapoda: Astacidae), by Hugo A. James. 24 pp., 2 figs., 1 pi., 
2 maps. December 30, 1966. 

3545. The lizards of Ecuador, a check list and key, by James A. 
Peters. 49 pp., 6 figs. March 8, 1967. 

3546. Noctuid moths of the American genus Eusceptis Hiibner, 
by E. L. Todd. 22 pp., 34 figs., 1 map. December 30, 1966. 

3547. Revision of Nearctic Gelechiidae, I: The Lita group (Lepi- 
doptera: Gelechioidea), by Ronald W. Hodges. 66 pp., 31 pis. 
December 30, 1966. 

3548. Notes on Aradidae in the U.S. National Museum, IV (Hemip- 
tera: Heteroptera), by Nicholas A. Kormilev. 25 pp., 23 figs. 
December 30, 1966. 


3549. The freeze-dry preservation of biological specimens, by 
Rolland O. Hower. 24 pp., 9 figs., 4 pis., 6 tables. March 15, 

3550. Catalog of type specimens of the darters (Pisces, Percidae, 
Etheostomatini), by Bruce B. Collette and Leslie W. Knapp. 
88 pp., 5 figs. December 30, 1966. 

3551. Review of New World moths of genus Euchromius Guenee 
with descriptions of two new species (Lepidoptera : Crambidae), 
by Hahn W. Capps. 9 pp., 8 figs., 1 pi. December 30, 1966. 

3552. Preliminary revision of butterflies of the genus Calycopis 
Scudder (Lycaenidae: Theclinae), by William D. Field. 48 pp., 
126 figs. February 1, 1967. 

3553 [end of volume]. Type-specimens of Polychaetes described by 
Edith and Cyril Berkeley (1923-1964), by Marian H. Pettibone. 
23 pp. February 1, 1967. 

volume 120 (numbers paged separately) 

3554. A new species of burrowing acontiate anemone from California 
(Isophelliidae: Flosmaris), by Cadet Hand and Ralph Bushnell. 
8 pp., 2 figs. March 8, 1967. 

3555. Review of South American freshwater angelfishes — genus 
Pterophyllum, by Leonard P. Schultz. 10 pp., 4 pis., 4 tables. 
February 16, 1967. 

3556. Some portunid crabs from the Pacific and Indian Oceans in 
the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, by William Stephen- 
son and May Rees. 114 pp., 38 figs., 9 pis., 2 tables. March 8, 

3557. Classification of Culex subgenus Culex in the New World 
(Diptera: Culicidae), by Ralph A. Bram. 122 pp., 33 figs., 
3 tables. March 6, 1967. 

3558. Amblyceran Mallophaga (biting lice) found on the Bucerotidae 
(hornbills), by Robert E. Elbel. 76 pp., 72 figs., 13 tables. 
February 16, 1967. 

3559. Studies of Neotropical caddis flies, II: Types of some species 
described by Ulmer and Brauer, by Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 20 pp., 
5 figs., 2 pis. December 30, 1966. 

3560. Notes and descriptions of some Neotropical agaristine moths 
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), by E. L. Todd. 15 pp., 4 pis. Decem- 
ber 30, 1966. 

3561. Review of some species of Loxostege Hiibner and descriptions of 
new species (Lepidoptera, Pyraustidae: Pyraustinae), by Hahn W. 
Capps. 75 pp., 178 figs. March 15, 1967. 


3562. Notes on flies captured in treetops in Malaya (Diptera: 
Empididae, Neriidae, Platystomatidae, Sepsidae, Muscidae), 
by George C. Steyskal. 16 pp., 4 figs. December 30, 1966. 

3563. Euphilomedes arostrata, a new myodocopid ostracod from Maldive 
Islands, Indian Ocean, by Louis S. Kornicker. 21 pp., 10 figs. 
February 15, 1967. 

3564. A comparison of Australasian and American specimens of 
Hemisquilla ensigera (Owen, 1832) (Crustacea: Stoma topoda) , by 
William Stephenson. 18 pp., 3 figs., 3 tables. March 8, 1967. 

3565. The benthic Polychaeta and Amphipoda of Morro Bay, 
California, by Donald J. Reish and J. Laurens Barnard. 26 pp., 
1 fig., 2 tables. March 8, 1967. 

3566. Supplementary description of the myodocopid ostracod Euphil- 
omedes multichelata from the Great Bahama Bank, by Louis S. 
Kornicker. 16 pp., 6 figs. February 16, 1967. 

3567 [end of volume]. Taxonomy, distribution, and polymorphism 
in the Labidocera jollae group with remarks on evolution within the 
group (Copepoda: Calanoida), by Abraham Fleminger. 61 pp., 
17 figs., 11 tables. April 18, 1967. 

volume 121 (numbers paged separately) 

3568. Revision of click beetles of genus Melanotus in America north 
of Mexico (Coleoptera: Elateridae), by Laurence W. Quate and 
Sarah E. Thompson. 83 pp., 12 figs., 1 pi. April 18, 1967. 

3569. Soldier fly larvae in America north of Mexico, by Max W. 
McFadden. 72 pp., 156 figs. February 1, 1967. 

3570. Revision of the family Pandaridae (Copepoda: Caligoida), by 
Roger Cressey. 133 pp., 356 figs. February 16, 1967. 

3571. Supplementary descriptions of two myodocopid ostracods from 
the Red Sea by Louis S. Kornicker. 18 pp., 6 figs. February 16, 

3572. Caligoid .copepods parasitic on sharks of the Indian Ocean, 
by Roger F. Cressey. 21 pp., 54 figs. March 15, 1967. 

3573. New cyclopoid copepods associated with the alcyonarian coral 
Tubipora musica (Linnaeus) in Madagascar, by Arthur G. Humes 
and Ju-Shey Ho. 24 pp., 69 figs. March 8, 1967. 

3574. Copepod crustaceans parasitic on teleost fishes of the Hawaiian 
Islands, by Alan G. Lewis. 204 pp., 70 figs., 23 tables. June 22, 

3575. Some bathyal polynoids from Central and Northeastern 
Pacific (Polychaeta: Polynoids), by Marian H. Pettibone. 15 pp., 
5 figs. February 16, 1967. 

3576. New species and records of Pacific Ampeliscidae (Crustacea: 
Amphipoda), by J. Laurens Barnard. 20 pp., 4 figs. March 8, 


3577. Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: 

1. The echinoids of Dominica, by Porter M. Kier. 10 pp., 3 figs., 

2 pis. December 30, 1966. 

3578. Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: 

2. New species of Diptera from Dominica (Anisopodidae and 
Bibionidae), by Alan Stone. 6 pp., 2 figs. December 30, 1966. 

3579. Valid zoological names of the Portland Catalogue, by Harald A. 
Rehder. 51 pp., 2 figs. March 21, 1967. 

3580 [end of volume]. The myodocopid ostracod families Philo- 
medidae and Pseudophilomedidae (new family), by Louis S. 
Kornicker. 35 pp., 12 figs., 1 pi., 2 tables. February 16, 1967. 

volume 122 (numbers paged separately) 

3581. Classification of the Western Hemisphere Balclutha (Homop- 
tera: Cicadellidae), by H. Derrick Blocker. 55 pp., 35 figs. March 
21, 1967. 

3582. Revision of the circumtropical shorefish genus Entomacrodus 
(Blenniidae: Salariinae), by Victor G. Springer. 150 pp., 11 figs., 
30 pis., 70 tables. June 14, 1967. 

3583. Bathypelagic calanoid copepods of the western Indian Ocean, 
by George D. Grice and Kuni Hulsemann. 67 pp., 319 figs., 
1 table. March 15, 1967. 

3584. The extinct sea mink, with taxonomic notes, by Richard H. 
Manville. 12 pp., 2 figs., 1 pi., 2 tables. December 30, 1966. 

3585. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, XII : Further studies on genus 
Lethata (Lepidoptera: Stenomidae), by W. Donald Duckworth. 
38 pp., 38 figs., 3 pis., 10 maps. March 6, 1967. 

3586. New cyclopoid copepods associated with the coral Psammocora 
contigua (Esper) in Madagascar, by Arthur G. Humes and Ju-Shey 
Ho. 32 pp., 115 figs. March 8, 1967. 

3587. A new genus and three new species of ostracods with a key to 
genus Dactylocy there (Ostracoda: Entocytheridae), by Horton H. 
Hobbs, Jr. 10 pp., 1 fig. February 16, 1967. 

3588. Variation and distribution of the pelagic amphipod Cyphocaris 
challenger i in the Northeast Pacific (Gammaridea: Lysianassidae), 
by Thomas E. Bowman and John C. McCain. 14 pp., 9 figs. 
February 16, 1967. 

3589. Notes on the genus Manningia with description of a new species 
(Crustacea: Stomatopoda), by Raymond B. Manning. 13 pp., 

3 figs., 1 table. March 15, 1967. 


3590. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, XIII: Review of genus Loxotoma 
(Lepidoptera: Stenomidae), by W. Donald Duckworth. 8 pp., 
9 figs., 1 pi., 1 map. March 15, 1967. 

3591. Neotropical Microlepidoptera, XIV: Chilean Microlepidoptera 
described by Emilio Blanchard, by J. F. Gates Clarke. 8 pp., 
5 figs. March 21, 1967. 

3592. The psolid holothurian genus Lissothuria, by David L. Pawson. 
17 pp., 5 figs. March 15, 1967. 

3593. A new species of Victorella from southern California (Bryozoa: 
Ctenostomata), by William C. Banta. 18 pp., 7 figs. April 18, 

3594. A study of three species of Saisiella (Ostracoda: Myodocopa), 
by Louis S. Kornicker. 46 pp., 4 pis., 19 figs. March 15, 1967. 

3596. An enzyme method of clearing and staining small vertebrates, 
by William Ralph Taylor. 17 pp. May 24, 1967. 

3598. A new genus and new species of zoarcid fish from the north 
Pacific Ocean, by Leonard P. Schultz. 5 pp., 3 figs. June 14, 

3600 [end of volume]. Genus Gloiopotes and a new species with notes 
on host specificity and intraspecific variation (Copepoda: Caligoida) 
by Roger F. Cressey. 22 pp., 55 figs., 4 pis. June 22, 1967. 

volume 123 (numbers paged separately) 
3603. The species of Hermetia of the aurata group (Diptera: Stratio- 
myidae), by Maurice T. James and Willis W. Wirth. 19 pp., 12 
figs. June 22, 1967. 

3607. The role of the depressor mandibulae muscle in kinesis of the 
avian skull, by Richard Zusi. 28 pp., 13 figs. June 22, 1967. 

3608. Studies of Neotropical caddis flies, IV: New species from 
Mexico and Central America, by Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 24 pp., 
71 figs. June 22, 1967. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Astrophysics 

volume 9 

[Whole volume.] Variable stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, by 
Cecilia Payne-Gaposhkin and Sergei Gaposhkin. vi+205 pp., 
21 figs., 130 tables. December 9, 1966. 


2. 5,000- and 10,000-year star catalogs, by Gerald S. Hawkins and 
Shoshana K. Rosenthal, pp. 144-179, 3 tables. May 1, 1967. 



Smithsonian research opportunities: Fine arts, history, science. vi-|- 153 

pp. Publ. 4691, October 17, 1966. (N.C.) 
National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, foreword by 

David W. Scott. 20 pp., 12 illustr. Publ. 4698, February 1967. 

Belmont, the Smithsonian Institution's conference center at Elkridge, 

Maryland. 8 pp., 7 illustr. Publ. 4703, February 1967. (N.C.) 
Anthropology as a career, by William C. Sturtevant. 20 pp. Reprint, 

revised, of publ. 4343, issued July 1958. March 20, 1967. (N.C.) 
How to wet clean undyed cotton and linen, by Maureen Collins 

McHugh. Smithsonian Institution Information Leaflet, no. 478, 

10 pp., illustr. 1967. 
Instructions for collecting bird parasites, by George E. Watson and A. 

Binion Amerson, Jr. Smithsonian Institution Information Leaflet, 

no. 477, 12 pp., illustr. 1967. 


Smithsonian Associates 

The interest and generous support of the Smithsonian Associates 
have made it possible to initiate many new activities at the Institution 
this year. For this, our deepest gratitude is extended to our more than 
4,000 members, and especially to those listed below, who have contrib- 
uted amounts in excess of the membership dues. 


The Hon. David K. E. Bruce 
The Hon. Douglas Dillon 
Mr. Charles E. Eckles 
Mrs. John Clifford Folger 

Mr. Cornelius van S. Roosevelt 
Mr. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Sidney S. Zlotnick 


Mrs. Theodore Babbitt 

Mr. Joel Barlow 

Mr. William R. Biggs 

Mr. George A. Binney 

Mr. Hardy Jefferson Bowen 

Mrs. L. Roosevelt Bramwell 

Mr. A. Marvin Braverman 

Mr. John Nicholas Brown 

Mr. Bertram F. Brummer 

Mr. Leon Campbell, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Leonard Carmichael 

Clarke and Rapuano Foundation 

Mrs. Frances A. Davila 

Mr. Henry F. Dupont 

Mr. Newell W. Ellison 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Friedman 

Mr. Richard E. Fuller 

Mr. Hy Garfinkel 

Mr. George A. Garrett 

Mr. Crawford H. Greenewalt 

Mr. William Hershey Greer, Jr. 

Mr. Melville B. Grosvenor 

Mr. Gilbert Hahn 

Mr. Laurence Harrison 

Mr. Philip Johnson 

Miss Brenda Kuhn 

Col. Leon Mandel 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Willard Marriott 

Mr. William McC. Martin, Jr. 

Mr. Paul Mellon 

The Duke of Northumberland 

Mrs. K. D. Owen 

Dr. and Mrs. Melvin M. Payne 

Mrs. Merriweather Post 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter G. Powers 

Miss Elsie Howland Quinby 

Mr. and Mrs. S. Dillon Ripley 

Mr. and Mrs. Seymour J. Rubin 

Mr. H. C. Seherr-Thoss 

Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Mr. Alexander O. Vietor 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Warner 

Dr. Alexander Wetmore 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Bradley Willard 

Mrs. Rose Saul Zalles 





The Ahmanson Foundation 

Mr. John D. Archbold 

Mr. and Mrs. John W. Auchincloss 

Mrs. Robert Low Bacon 

Mr. Charles E. Baker 

Mrs. Paul H. Bastedo 

Mr. and Mrs. James C. H. Bonbright 

Mme. Draper Boncompagni 

Mr. Maxwell Brace 

Mr. J. Bruce Bredin 

Mrs. George R. Brown 

Mr. William A. M. Burden 

Mrs. Jackson Burke 

Mrs. Poe Burling 

Col. and Mrs. D. Harold Byrd 

Mrs. Morris Cafritz 

Mr. and Mrs. G. Howland Chase 

Mr. Leon Chatelain, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. David Sanders Clark 

Mr. Thomas G. Corcoran 

Mr. William H. Crocker 

Mrs. Lilla B. Cummings 

Mrs. Chester Dale 

Mr. and Mrs. Ewen C. Dingwall 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Eames 

Mr. Robert B. Eichholz 

Waldron Faulkner 

Col. and Mrs. Horace H. Figuers 

Mrs. Dielle Fleischmann 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Foley 

Hon. and Mrs. Peter Frelinghuysen 

Miss Mary S. Gardiner 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph T. Geuting, Jr. 

Rev. and Mrs. C. Leslie Glenn 

Mr. and Mrs. T. K. Glennan 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Glover, III 

Mr. Henry Clay Hofheimer, II 

Mrs. Albert L. Hoffman 

Miss Elisabeth Houghton 

Mr. Arthur A. Houghton, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. George S. Johnston 

Mrs. John Thomas Kennedy, III 

Miss Martha Jane Kennedy 

Mr. Robert Ketchum 

Mrs. R. A. Kidder 

Mr. and Mrs. Dan A. Kimball 

Dr. and Mrs. Robert F. Kneipp 

Mr. and Mrs. Anthony A. Lapham 

Mrs. Cazenove Lee 

Mrs. Newbold Legendre 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack L. Leon 

Mr. Harold F. Linder 

Mr. G. Carroll Lindsay 

Mrs. Demarest Lloyd 

Mr. Grover Loening 

Rev. Brian A. McGrath, S.J. 

Mr. John F. Merriam 

Mrs. William Morden 

Dr. James M. Nabrit, Jr. 

Mr. Gerson Nordlinger, Jr. 

Mr. Gyo Obata 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert R. O'Donnell 

The Hon. and Mrs. J. Patterson 

Miss Helen Ripley 

Mr. James H. Ripley 

Mr. R. E. Schoenfeld 

Mr. John J. Slocum 

Dr. and Mrs. Carl Swan Shultz 

Mrs. Bruce D. Smith 

Mr. Robert T. Smith 

Mr. T. D. Stewart 

Mrs. Catherine H. Sweeney 

Mr. Ward E. Terry 

Mrs. Clark W. Thompson 

Mr. and Mrs. Middleton Train 

Mr. and Mrs. Russell Train 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. van Roijen 

Mr. George C. Webster 

Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Wiggins 

Mr. Edward Foss Wilson 

Mrs. Or me Wilson 

Mr. Christian A. Zabriskie 


Members of the Smithsonian Council 
June 30, 7967 

H. Harvard Arnason. Vice President for Art Administration of the 
Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, 1071 Fifth Avenue, New 
York, New York 10028. Born 1909. B.S. and A.M. North- 
western University, M.F.A. Princeton University, 1939. Worked 
with O.W.I. 1942-1945 and the State Department, Office of 
International Information and Cultural Affairs, 1945-1946; 
from 1947-1961 served as professor and chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Art at the University of Minnesota; appointed to 
present position in 1961. Member of the Art in America editorial 
board as well as many professional organizations. Author of 
numerous articles on medieval and modern art, Modern Sculpture 
(1962) and Conrad Marca-Relli (1962). 

Whitfield J. Bell, Jr. Association Librarian, American Philo- 
sophical Society, 105 South Fifth Street, Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania 19106. Born 1914. A.B. Dickinson College, Ph. D. 
University of Pennsylvania, 1947. Associated with Dickinson 
College 1937-1954; assistant and then associate editor of the 
Papers of Benjamin Franklin 1954-1961 ; and from 1961 Associa- 
tion Librarian of the American Philosophical Society. Editor 
of Bibliography of the History of Medicine in the U.S. and Canada 
(1948-1953) and Mr. Franklin (with L. W. Labaree) (1956). 
Author of Needs and Opportunities for Research in the History of 
Early American Science (1955). 

Fred R. Eggan. Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, 
1126 East 59th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60601. Born 1906. 
Ph. B., University of Chicago, Ph. D. University of Chicago, 1933. 
Has been with the University of Chicago since 1934 (Chairman 
of the Department of Anthropology since 1961 and Director 
of the Philippine Studies Program since 1953). Has served 
as the U.S. official delegate to the Pacific Science Congresses 



in Manila (1953), Bangkok (1957), and Honolulu (1961). 
Research centers on the Indians of western United States and 
the tribes of the Philippines. Author of Social Organization of 
the Western Pueblos (1959). Editor of Social Anthropology of North 
American Tribes (1937 and 1955). 

Donald S. Farner. Chairman, Department of Zoology, University 
of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98105. Born 1915. B.A. 
Hamline University, Ph. D. University of Wisconsin, 1941. 
Washington State University 1947-1966 (Dean of the Graduate 
School 1960-1966). Author of The Birds of Crater Lake National 
Park (1952) and contributor to many scientific publications, 
mainly on the subject of ornithology. 

Anthony N. B. Garvan. Chairman, Department of American 
Civilization, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania 19104. Born 1917. B.A. and M.A. Yale University, 
Ph. D. Yale University, 1948. Has been with the University of 
Pennsylvania since 1951, except three years (1957-1960) as Head 
Curator of the Department of Civil History at the Smithsonian 
Institution (Chairman of the Department of American Civiliza- 
tion since 1960). Editor of the American Quarterly 1951-1957. 
Author of Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial Connecticut 
(1951), Index of American Cultures (1953). 

G. Evelyn Hutchinson. Sterling Professor of Zoology, Yale Univer- 
sity, New Haven, Connecticut 06520. Born 1903. University 
of Cambridge. Has been at Yale since 1928. Author of The 
Clear Mirror (1936), The Itinerant Ivory Tower (1953), A Treatise on 
Limnology, Vol. 1 (1957), A Preliminary List of the Writings of Rebecca 
West 1919-1951 (1957), The Enchanted Voyage (1962), The Ecological 
Theater and the Evolutionary Play (1965), and many scientific papers. 
Studies lie in the fields of oceanography and limnology, ecology, 
population biology, and biology in the development of literature 
and the fine arts. 

Jan LaRue. Department of Music, Graduate School of Arts and 
Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10003. 
Born 1918. S.B. Harvard, M.F.A. Princeton University, 
Ph. D. Harvard University, 1952. Taught at Wellesley College 
1942-1943, 1946-1957 (Instructor to Associate Professor and 
Chairman of the Music Department), with New York University 
since 1957. Author of numerous articles on 18th-century music, 
style analysis, ethnomusicology, papyrology and bibliography, 
computers and music and musicological editing. 


Clifford L. Lord. President, Hofstra University, Hempstead, Long 
Island, New York 11550. Born 1912. A.B. and A.M. Amherst 
College, Ph. D. Columbia University, 1943. Was Director of the 
New York State Historical Association 1941-1946; organized the 
Farmers' Museum in Cooperstown, New York, in 1942; Honorary 
Director of Circus World Museum (Director 1955-1958); Vice 
President of the National Railroad Museum 1956 — ; Dean of the 
School of General Studies and Professor of History at Columbia 
University 1958-1965. Member of many historical associations. 
Author of History of U.S. Naval Aviation (1949). 

Charles D. Michener. Watkins Distinguished Professor of Entomol- 
ogy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66044. Born 1918. 
B.S. University of California at Berkeley, Ph. D. University of 
California at Berkeley, 1941. Has been with the University of 
Kansas since 1948 (Watkins Distinguished Professor since 1959). 
Served as State Entomologist 1949-1961. Author of American 
Social Insects (with Mary H. Michener) (1951), Nest Architecture 
of the Sweat Bees (with S. F. Sakagami) (1962), and approximately 
200 technical works, mainly on bees. Work in taxonomy reflects 
his interest in concepts of numerical taxonomy, behavior, and 

Peter M. Millman. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa 
2, Ontario, Canada. Born 1906. B.A. Toronto, Ph. D. Harvard 
University, 1932. President of the Royal Astronomical Council 
of Canada. A meteoritic specialist whose studies include those 
of the upper atmosphere with planetary and space research ; also 
interested in the culture of Japan and international exchanges. 

Elting E. Morison. Acting Master, Ezra Stiles College, Yale Univer- 
sity, New Haven, Connecticut 06520. Born 1909. A.B. Harvard 
University, M.A. Harvard University, 1937. Was a member of 
the faculty of Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1946-1966. 
Served as consultant to Houghton-Mifflin Company 1946-1951, 
and to Research and Development Board, U.S. Department of 
Defense 1946-1952. Author of Admiral Sims and the Modern 
American Navy (1942), and A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. 
Stimson (1960). Editor of The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (8 vols.) 
(1951-1 954) ; Cowboys and Kings ( 1 954) ; The American Style ( 1 95 9) . 

Robert Motherwell. 173 East 94th Street, New York, New York 
10028. Born 1915. A.B. Stanford University, 1937. A well- 
known artist who has exhibited nationally and internationally 
and contributes to American and foreign magazines. Editor of 
The Documents of Modern Art 1944-1952. 


Norman D. Newell. Curator of Fossil Invertebrates, American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, New York. Born 1909. 
B.S. and A.M. University of Kansas, Ph. D. Yale University, 
1933. Since 1945 has been a professor at Columbia University 
as well as curator of invertebrate paleontology at the American 
Museum of Natural History. Author of The Nature of the Fossil 
Record (1959), Organism Communities and Bottom Fades, Great Bahama 
Bank (1959) and is the organizer of the pelecypod volume of the 
Treatise on Paleontology. Co-editor of the Journal of Paleontology 
(1939-1942). Has visited all parts of North America, Europe, 
Australia, and Asia in the study of the Permian of the world. 

Norman Holmes Pearson. Professor of American Studies, Yale 
University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520. Born 1909. A.B. 
Yale University, Ph. D. Yale University, 1941. Has been with 
Yale University since 1941. Editor of Complete Novels of Haw- 
thorne (1937), The Oxford Anthology of American Literature (with 
W. R. Benet) (1938), Walden (1948), Poets of the English Language 
(with W. H. Auden) (1950), and The Pathfinder (1952). 

Andre Schiffrin. Editorial Director, Pantheon Books, 22 East 51 
Street, New York, New York 10022. Born 1935. B.A. Yale 
University, 1957. Received degree from Cambridge 1959. Has 
been with Pantheon Books since 1962. Editor of Pantheon 
Studies in Social History, including Edward Thompson's The 
Making of the English Working Class and Michel Foucault's Madness 
and Civilization. 

Frederick Seitz, President, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 
Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C. 20418. Born 
1911. A.B. Leland Stanford Jr. University, Ph. D. Princeton 
University, 1934. Has taught physics at University of Rochester, 
University of Pennsylvania, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 
and University of Illinois (Head of Department of Physics 
1957 — ) (also Dean of Graduate College and Vice President for 
Research 1964-1965). Was Chairman of Governing Board of 
the American Institute of Physics 1954-1959. President, 
National Academy of Sciences since 1962. Author of Modern 
Theory of Solids (1940), The Physics of Metals (1943). 

Cyril Stanley Smith. Institute Professor, Room 14N-321, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139. Born 1903. B.S. University 
of Birmingham, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
1926. Has been with M.I.T. since 1945 (Institute Professor 
since 1961). Was a member of the President's Science Advisory 


Committee in 1959. Coauthor of Structure and Properties of Solid 
Surfaces (1953), Reaumur'' s Memoirs on Steel and Iron (1956), 
Treatise on Divers Arts by Theophilus (1963). Author of A History 
of Metallography (1960). A primary interest is the historical 
interaction between science and technology, and he is a frequent 
consultant to the Freer Gallery of Art and the Smithsonian 
Office of Anthropology. 

John D. Spikes. College of Letters and Science, University of Utah, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112. Born 1918. B.S. California 
Institute of Technology, Ph. D. California Institute of Tech- 
nology, 1948. Has been with the University of Utah since 1948 
(except for a period on leave as Cell Physiologist of the Division 
of Biology and Medicine of the Atomic Energy Commission). 
Became Dean of the College of Letters and Science in 1964. 
Author of numerous publications in scientific journals, bulletins, 
etc. Major research is in biophysics, especially photobiology. 

Stephen E. Toulmin. Department of the History and Philosophy of 
Science, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02154. 
Born 1922. B.A. King's College, Ph. D. King's College, 1948. 
Has taught at Oxford, University of Melbourne, University of 
Leeds, New York University, Stanford University, and Columbia 
University, and from 1960-1966 was Director of the Nuffield 
Foundation Unit for History of Ideas. Author of The Place of 
Reason in Ethics (1950); The Philosophy of Science, an Introduction 
(1953) ; Metaphysical Beliefs (author of one of three essays) (1957) ; 
The Uses of Argument (1958); Foresight and Understanding (1961); 
"The Ancestry of Science": vol. 1 {The Fabric of Heavens) (1961), 
vol. 2 (The Architecture of Matter) (1962), vol. 3 (The Discovery of 
Time) (1965); Night Sky at Rhodes (1963). 

Warren H. Wagner, Jr. Department of Botany, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105. Born 1920. A.B. 
University of Pennsylvania, Ph. D. University of California at 
Berkeley, 1950. Has been a member of the faculty of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan since 1951. Serves as a panelist in syste- 
matic biology for National Science Foundation 1962 — . Re- 
search centers on higher plants, origin and evolution of ferns, 
methods of accurate deduction of phylogenetic relationships of 
fossil and living plants. 


Research Participation Programs 

Appointments 1966-1967 

Post- Doctoral, Graduate, Undergraduate 


Charles J. Bartlett, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Stellar and 
interplanetary dynamics. 

Carl W. Condit, Northwestern University: The history of building materials 
and techniques. 

Tetsuro Hanai, University of Tokyo: Ecology and taxonomy of Ostracoda. 

Leo J. Hickey, Princeton University: Lowermost Wasatchian floras of western 
North Dakota and central Wyoming. 

Clarence J. Laughlin, Research of the nature of the achievements of Ameri- 
can Victorianism, especially as involved with the field of architecture. 

Chauncey C. Loomis, Princeton University: A biography of Charles Francis 

Katherine Luomala, University of Hawaii: Gilbert Islands culture and 

Robert H. McCorkell, Massachusetts Institute of Technology: Study of 
extraterrestial materials in sea sediments by means of cosmic ray pro- 
duced radio-isotopes. 

John V. Murra, University of Chicago: Research on anthropology of Andean 

W. John Niven, Claremont Graduate School: A biography of Gideon Welles, 
Connecticut editor of the Jacksonian period. 

Thornton L. Page, Wesleyan University: Evolution of galaxies. 

Francesco Parenti, Universita Degli Studi di Milano: Effect of previous 
photoperiodic treatment of leaves on biosynthetic capacity of isolated 

Vladimir Pokorny, Karlova Universita, Charles University (Prague, Czecho- 
slovakia): Research on the ostracodes of the family Hemicytheridae. 

Jay C. Shaffer, Cornell University: Taxonomy of the Anerastiinae of the 
Western Hemisphere. 

Soekarja Somadikarta, Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (Indonesia): Study 
of the systematics of genus Collocalia of the East Indian swift. 



George A. Thomas, University of Melbourne (Australia): Upper Paleozoic 

Brachopods from Northwest Australia. 
Alan M. Title, California Institute of Technology: Solar velocity fields. 
Trevor C. Weekes, University College, Dublin: High energy gamma rays from 

astronomical objects. 
Howard O. Wright, University of California at Berkeley: Social behavior of 



(*denotes Predoctoral Internship) 

Leonard P. Alberstadt,* University of Oklahoma: A comparative study of 
Upper Ordovician brachiopods with a detailed statistical analysis of 
several orthid genera. 

Michele A. L. Aldrich, University of Texas: A guide to manuscripts (science) 
in the Smithsonian Institution collections. 

Trenton W. Batson, Jr., George Washington University: Compilation of 
historical data concerning railroad-car building firm of Eaton and 
Gilbert, Troy, New York. 

Joseph L. Cameron, Davis and Elkins College: Organization of periodicals and 
catalogues; mounting slides portraying much of NCFA's permanent 

Everett D. Cashatt, Catholic University: Continuation and expansion of 
1964 project of consolidating and rearranging, according to the latest 
revisionary study, the USNM collection of N. A. Chrysauginae. 

Wade D. Chambers,* Harvard University: Theories of evolution and of race 
in nineteenth-century Latin America. 

T. John Conomos,* University of Washington : Chemical and mineral compo- 
sition of suspended particulate matter transported by the Columbia 
River to the coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean. 

Nancy M. Cramer,* George Washington University: Spionidae of the Gulf and 
the Caribbean. 

Isabel M. Da vies, University of London: Investigation of historical records 
pertaining to china used by the First Ladies; Study of World War I 

Beatriz E. R. de Ferradas,* Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina): 
A study of the ornithology, mammalogy, and acarology of Argentina. 

Ananda Dube,* Patna University (India): Mineralogical and chemical investi- 
gations on some rare Indian meteorites. 

Lewis Edson, Humboldt State University: Revision of the Genus Scolytus 
(Scolytidae Colesptera) in North America. 

Carolyn R. Fawcett, Radcliffe College: Transcribing and translating from 
notebook of Lorenzo della Volpaia, a contemporary of Cellini, da Vinci, 
and Poliziano, with particular attention to the planetary clock and 
scientific instruments designed and executed by della Volpaia. 

James K. Flack,* Wayne State University: The influence of an intellectual elite 
on American politics, 1860-1900. 


Amy J. Gilmartin, University of Hawaii: An alpha taxonomic and taximetric 

study of the Bosmeliaceae of Ecuador. 
Barbara Greenberg, University of Texas: A guide to science manuscripts in 

the Smithsonian Institution collections. 
Ralph W. Gunderson, Jr., University of Minnesota: Taxonomic studies on 

the Genus Enochrus for Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies 

(Hydrophilidae: Coleoptera). 
Lee H. Herman, Catholic University: Investigation of the taxonomy and 

zoogeography of the 40 genera of the subfamily Oxytelinae, with intense 

study of the large genus Bledius. 
Claude M. Hladik,* Universite de Paris a la Sorbonne: Feeding behavior and 

diet of primates in respect to comparative histology and histochemistry of 

digestive system. 
Phyllis J. Kingsbury, University of Oklahoma: Identification of one group of 

freshwater and marine copepods. 
Charles J. LaRue, Jr., University of Maryland: Variation and functional 

interrelations of the major components of the bird skull. 
John N. MacTavish, Western Reserve University: Study of faunal elements of 

part of the Lodgepole limestone, Teton Mountains, Wyoming. 
Akiko Murakata,* George Washington University: Analysis and clarification 

of imperialist and non-imperalist arguments following the Spanish- 
American war. 
Martin G. Naumann,* University of Kansas: Observations on the biology of 

the social wasps of Central America. 
Jane E. Nielson, George Washington University: Origin of nickel-iron alloys 

in terrestrial rocks. 
John R. Oppenheimer,* University of Illinois: Ecology and behavior of the 

white-faced monkey Cubus capucinus. 
Gale E. Peterson, University of Maryland: Research on the history of 

herbicides; completed report on the discovery and development of 

George E. Radwin,* George Washington University: A review of the genus 

Anachis H. & A. Adams in the Western Atlantic. 
Mallory B. Randle,* University of Texas: Southwestern muralists and 

sculptors of the PWAP: a study and catalogue of the permanent decora- 
tions in public buildings of 1933-34. 
James L. Reveal,* Brigham Young University: A revision of the genus 

Eriogonum, subgenus Ganysma. 
Ken E. Rogers, University of Tennessee: Revision of the genus Manisuris. 
Pastora E. SanJuan,* George Washington University: A study of the chang- 
ing role of the woman in America during the nineteenth century. 
Frank Schitoskey, Jr., Texas Technological College: Research on the house 

mice of Iran. 
Kenneth W. Shipps, Yale University: Inquiry into development and prev- 
alence of political campaign music in the U.S. from the earliest traces in 

Jefferson's campaign through 1860. 


Dorman H. Smith, University of California at Berkeley: Development of 
systematic music iconography index; preparation of musical instrument 
collection checklist. 

Nicholas E. Smythe,* University of Maryland: The behavior and ecology of 
three neotropical cavimorph rodents. 

Floyd W. Stecker,* Harvard University: Investigation of the physical con- 
ditions and photon and particle interactions relevant to superdense states 
of matter which might correspond to the early stages of the big-bang 
model of the universe. 

Donna M. Stein, New York University: Detailed study of Whisder and 
Turner paintings in the NCFA collections. 

Michael E. Taylor, University of California at Berkeley: Biostratigraphy of 
the Upper Cambrian Biomere in Eastern Nevada 1 . 

Allan Watson,* University of London: The preparation of a synopsis of the 
world genera of Arctiidae and to produce a revisionary catalogue of same. 

Michael P. Wilderman, University of Miami: Systemics and ecology of 
copepod parasites. 

Edwin N. Wilmsen,* University of Arizona: A systemization of the description 
and classification of Paleo-Indian lithic inventories and drawing the 
sociological inferences from them. 


Charles H. Ballard, University of Michigan: Prepared an index to photo- 
graphs in the George H. Clark collection of radioana; performed ex- 
periments to determine feasibility of exhibiting an operational spark 
transmitter and coherer receiver of types that would have been used 
circa 1901. 

William O. Beeman, Wesleyan University: Learning concepts and principles 
of the study of ethnohistory and acculturation; application of these 
principles to a series of manuscripts (in German) on Georgia history in 
order to obtain information concerning the early ethnology of Creek 

Cecilia B. Brown, Mount Holyoke College: Consolidation of part of inflated 
larval collection from adult collection of Lepidoptera. 

Daniel C. Church, Yale University: Studying manifestations of the American 
romantic movement in objects of material culture in connection with the 
Gothic and Italianate revivals. 

Deborah P. Clements, Bennington College: Sought, studied, and catalogued 
biographical information concerning 1 9th-century French civil engineers. 

Robert L. Coffman, Jr., Indiana University (Bloomington) : Attempting to 
discover possible correlation between early stages of plant growth and later 

Martha Cooper, Oxford University: Study of anthropological analyses of 
art, especially in Oceania. 


Robin L. Davis, Grinnell College: Study of several species in subfamily of 
sparrows to determine whether the inflated bubble-like bone covering the 
ear in some instances is linked with a special habitat or a certain type of 

Raymond J. DeMallie, Jr., University of Chicago: Study of materials relat- 
ing to the three divisions of Dakota Indians, as well as other closely re- 
lated Siouan Tribes. 

Gloria J. Edynak, Goucher College: Measured long bones in skeletons of 
Eskimo children and found many sexual differentiations. 

Sylvia H. Forman, University of California at Berkeley: Examination of 
Peruvian and other New World crania for indications of osteoporosis. 

Benjamin A. G. Fuller, III, Princeton University: Study of commerce in the 
port of Charleston from 1 752 through 1 766, primarily to determine the 
effects of war upon the city's commerce. 

Jerold L. Grashoff, Michigan State University: Comparative anatomical 
study of bambusoid grasses. 

Patricia M. Greene, Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart: Worked 
on several projects concerned with various aspects of American portraiture 

Judith M. Greenfield, Alleghany College: Compiled bibliographical cata- 
logues and files on certain groups of gastropods. 

Mary G. Hyde, Alleghany College: Survey of specific changes in American 
military costume. 

Kenneth S. Karb, University of Virginia: Study of scale morphology and 
differentiation in the North American cyprinid genus Hybopsis and 
comparison of the relationships of 25 species to other cyprinid fishes; 
compilation of special systematic bibliography of literature concerning 
Blennoidea fishes; sorting and identifying Indian Ocean blennoid fish. 

Elinor R. Keenan, George Washington University: Compiling an inventory 
of U.S.N.M. Japanese ceramic collection; discerning which shapes and 
designs of pottery were influenced by Japanese fashion, and which by 
Western fashion, during the period 1850-1920. 

Joyce A. Keener, Bennington College: Assisted in preparation of a catalogue 
of Mary Cassatt's paintings, pastels, watercolors, and drawings. 

Doris E. Kelley, Wellesley College: Studied history of quantum mechanics, 
especially the theoretical development of Schrodinger's wave mechanics. 

Benjamin B. Kilbourne, Yale University: Studied techniques of exhibit 

Wilbur R. Knorr, Harvard University: Study of U.S.N.M. collection of 
planimeters as well as other devices for integration which were 
primarily developed during the period 1815-1870. 

Peter L. Koffsky, Oberlin College: Investigated records concerning the 
Consul General's Shanghai Postal Agency during the period 1867-1907. 

Saul J. Krotki, University of Utah: Assisted in organization and integration 
of Bosch mineral collection; studied advanced techniques of crystal 
drawing: made x-ray identifications of rare mineral specimens. 


Elizabeth B. Lassister, Bennington College: Analysis and description of 40 
of the pocket notebooks of Joseph Henry. 

Andrew D. Leeds, Bard College: A study of American hand-painted political 

Jeffrey A. Levy, Bard College: Morphometric study of parasitic copepoda on 

Stuart J. Mackenzie, II, Notre Dame University: Research on German and 
Japanese aircraft in NASM collections. 

Russell B. Merrill, University of Kansas: Study and description of append- 
ages of two species of Actinocythereis, Puri, 1953, from the Northeastern 

Harvileen M. Moebs, George Washington University: Investigated initial 
effects of light irradiation in plants; studied levels of phosphates to de- 
termine what changes occur in growth process. 

Stefanie A. Munsing, American University: Assisted in compiling an inventory 
of NCFA paintings on loan to government agencies. 

Carol J. Noel, Mary Baldwin College: Observed, classified, sectioned, stained 
and compared specimens of freshwater turbellaria. 

Robert W. Poole, Cornell University: Study of the genus Pero, family 

Joan M. Ryan, College of New Rochelle: Chemical analyses of several me- 
teorites, using both "wet" procedures and instrumental methods. 

Janet G. Schecter, City College of New York: Prepared critical bibliography 
of American Indian literature. 

Vere H. Scott, University of Manitoba: Compiled information on three rare 
species of African antelope. 

Sandra E. Seim, Webster College: Sorted and identified various groups of 
marine benthic invertebrates. 

William L. Silkstone, Kalamazoo College: Hermaphroditism in fishes of the 
order Iniomi and its relationship to the problem of classification. 

Dorothy Spates, University of North Carolina (Greensboro) : Studied tech- 
niques of collecting, classifying, and storing botanical specimens. 

Jeffrey M. Stander, California State University (Hayward): Investigated 
the systematics of North Pacific Paguridae for the purpose of revising the 
old method of subjective description. 

James A. Teeri, University of New Hampshire: Studied floral anatomy of 
Rhexia virginica (Melastomataceae) . 

Ann C. Underhill, Beloit College: Recorded data on growth and maturation 
of six species of tenrecs; also studied vocalizations of young spider monkeys. 

Robert E. Weems, Randolph-Macon College: Restoration and study of the 
remains of twelve individual turtles from the Calvert formation (Miocene 

Francis M. Williams, Southern Colorado State College: Experiments con- 
cerned with effects of light on growth of corn coleoptiles. 


Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 

June 30, 1967 


Office of the Secretary 

Assistant Secretary 

Office of the Assistant 

Assistant Secretary (Science) 
Office of the Assistant 
Secretary (Science) 

Oceaonography and 


Office of International 

Office of Education and 

Office of General Counsel 
Office of Public Affairs 
Smithsonian Institution Press 
Smithsonian Institution 

S. Dillon Ripley 

Robert W. Mason, Executive Assistant 
Philip C. Ritterbush, Assistant to the Secretary 
Charles L. Clapp, Assistant to the Secretary 

(Development) . 
James Bradley 

John Whitelaw, Executive Assistant 
Mrs. Dorothy Rosenberg, Administrative Officer 
Otis O. Martin, Financial Management Adviser 
Douglas R. Martin, Internal Auditor 
Eldridge O. Hurlbut, Contracting Officer 
Robert Engle, Engineering Assistant 
Sidney R. Galler 

Mrs. Helen L. Hayes, Special Assistant 
Harry Hyman, Special Assistant 
Michael A. Stahl, Administrative Officer 
I. Eugene Wallen, Head, Office of Oceanog- 
raphy and Limnology 
H. Adair Fehlmann, Supervisor, Smithsonian 

Oceanographic Sorting Center 
Helmut K. Buechner, Head, Office of Ecology 
Lee M. Talbot, Field Representative, Ecology 

and Conservation 
William W. Warner, Director 
Kennedy B. Schmertz, Director, Foreign 

Currency Program 
Charles Blitzer, Director 

Peter G. Powers, General Counsel 
Frederic M. Philips, 1 Director 
Anders Richter, Director 
Mrs. Mary A. Huffer, Acting Director 
Ruth E. Blanchard, Library of Congress 

1 Appointment effective July 2, 1967. 




Smithsonian Archives 
Smithsonian Museum Service 
Smithsonian Associates 

Organization and Methods 

Programming and Budget 

Information Systems 


Buildings Management 


Photographic Services 

Samuel T. Suratt, Archivist 

James R. Morris, Director 

Mrs. Lisa M. Suter, Program Director 

Mrs. Betty J. Morgan, Assistant Treasurer 

Ernest A. Berger, Fiscal Officer (Federal) 
Mrs. Ann S. Campbell, Chief 
Edward H. Kohn, Director 
Nicholas J. Suszynski, Director 
J. A. Kennedy, Director 
Andrew F. Michaels, Jr., Director 
Fred G. Barwick, Chief 
O. H. Greeson, Chief 



Deputy Director 

Special Assistant for Tropical 

Administrative Officers 

Smithsonian Office of 

Latin American 

Old World Anthropology 

North American 

Physical Anthropology 

River Basin Surveys 

Richard S. Cowan 
Donald F. Squires 
F. Raymond Fosberg 

Mrs. Mabel A. Byrd 
John J. Prenzel 

Saul H. Riesenberg Chairman 

T. Dale Stewart, Senior Physical Anthropol- 

Waldo R. Wedel, Senior Archeologist 

John C. Ewers, Senior Ethnologist 

Mrs. M. Blaker, Archivist 

William H. Crocker, Supervisor and Associate 

Clifford Evans, Jr., Curator 

Kent V. Flannery, Associate Curator 

Robert M. Laughlin, Associate Curator 

Gordon D. Gibson, Supervisor and Curator 

Eugene I. Knez, Associate Curator 

Gus W. Van Beek, Associate Curator 

William C. Sturtevant, Supervisor and Curator 

Richard B. Woodbury, Curator 

Paul H. Voorhis, Associate Curator 

J. Lawrence Angel, Supervisor and Curator 

Lucile E. St. Hoyme, Associate Curator 

Warren W. Caldwell, Director 

George H. Smith, Archeologist 

Richard B. Johnston, Archeologist 

Lionel A. Brown, Archeologist 

John J. Hoffman, Archeologist 

Wilfred M. Husted, Archeologist 

Oscar L. Mallory, Archeologist 





Plant Anatomy 

Fungi 3 




Myriapoda and Arachnida 
Invertebrate ^oology 

William L. Stern, 1 Chairman 
Lyman B. Smith, Senior Botanist 
John J. Wurdack, Supervisor and Curator 
Dan H. Nicolson, Associate Curator 
Velva E. Rudd, Curator 
Stanwyn G. Shelter, Associate Curator 
Wallace R. Ernst, Associate Curator 
Conrad V. Morton, Supervisor and Curator 
David B. Lellinger, Associate Curator 
Thomas R. Soderstrom, Supervisor and As- 
sociate Curator 
Mason E. Hale, Jr., Supervisor and Curator 
Harold E. Robinson, Associate Curator 
William L. Stern, 2 Acting Supervisor 
Richard H. Eyde, Associate Curator 
Edward S. Ayensu, Associate Curator 
Chester R. Benjamin, Research Associate 
John A. Stevenson, Research Associate 
Francis A. Uecker, Research Associate 
John L. Cunningham, Research Associate 
Paul Lewis Lentz, Research Associate 
Marie L. Farr, Research Associate 
Kent H. McKnight, Research Associate 
L. R. Batra, Research Associate 
Karl V. Krombein, Chairman 
J. F. Gates Clarke, Senior Entomologist 
Oliver S. Flint, Jr., Supervisor and Curator 
W. Donald Duckworth, Supervisor and As- 
sociate Curator 
Donald R. Davis, Associate Curator 
William D. Field, Associate Curator 
Paul J. Spangler, Supervisor and Associate 

Oscar L. Cartwright, Curator 
Richard C. Froeschner, Supervisor and As- 
sociate Curator 
Gerald I. Stage Assistant Curator 
Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., Supervisor and Curator 
Raymond B. Manning, Chairman 
Fenner A. Chace, Jr., Senior Zoologist 
Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., Senior Zoologist 
Harald A. Rehder, Senior Zoologist 
Joseph C. Britton, Assistant Curator 

1 Resigned, effective July 1, 1967; replaced by Mason Hale as Acting Chairman. 

2 Replaced by Richard Eyde, effective July 1, 1967. 

3 National Fungus Collections are curated by U.S. Department of Agriculture 







Mineral Sciences 


Invertebrate Paleontology 

Vertebrate Paleontology 

1 Appointment effective July 

Thomas E. Bowman, Supervisor and Curator 

J. Laurens Barnard, Curator 

Louis S. Kornicker, Curator 

Roger F. Cressey, Associate Curator 

David L. Pawson, Supervisor and Associate 

Klaus Rueztler, Associate Curator 
Meredith L. Jones, Supervisor and Associate 

Marian H. Pettibone, Curator 
W. Duane Hope, Associate Curator 
Mary E. Rice, Associate Curator 
Joseph Rosewater, Supervisor and Associate 

Joseph P. E. Morrison, Associate Curator 
Clyde F. E. Roper, Associate Curator 
George S. Switzer, Chairman 
Kurt Fredriksson, Supervisor and Curator 
Roy S. Clarke, Associate Curator 
Brian H. Mason, Curator 
Robert F. Fudali, Geochemist 
Eugene Jarosewich, 1 Chemist 
Paul E. Desautels, Supervisor and Associate 

William G. Melson, Supervisor and Associate 

Porter M. Kier, 1 Chairman 
G. Arthur Cooper, Senior Paleobiologist 
Porter M. Kier, Supervisor and Curator 
Richard S. Boardman, Curator 
Richard Cifelli, Associate Curator 
Alan H. Cheetham, Associate Curator 
Erle G. Kauffman, Associate Curator 
Martin A. Buzas, Associate Curator 
Richard M. Benson, Curator 
Thomas R. Waller, Associate Curator 
Richard A. Robison, Associate Curator 
Kenneth M. Towe, Staff Specialist (Electron 

C. Lewis Gazin, Supervisor and Curator 
David H. Dunkle, Associate Curator 
Nicholas Hotton III, Associate Curator 
Clayton E. Ray, Associate Curator 

1, 1967. 





Vertebrate ^oology 


Reptiles and Amphibians 



Francis M. Hueber, Supervisor and Associate 

Walter H. Adey, Associate Curator 
Jack W. Pierce, Supervisor and Associate 

M. Grant Gross, Associate Curator 
Daniel J. Stanley, Associate Curator 
Philip S. Humphrey, Chairman 
Leonard P. Schultz, Senior Zoologist 
David H. Johnson, Senior Zoologist 
Ernest A. Lachner, Supervisor and Curator 
Victor G. Springer, Curator 
Stanley H. Weitzman, Associate Curator 
Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., Associate Curator 
William R. Taylor, Associate Curator 
James A. Peters, Supervisor and Curator 
Doris M. Cochran, Curator 
George W. Watson, Supervisor and Curator 
Richard L. Zusi, Associate Curator 
Paul Slud, Associate Curator 
Charles O. Handle y, Supervisor and Curator 
Henry W. Setzer, Associate Curator 



Assistant Director 
Office of the Director 

Associates (Honorary) 

T. H. Reed 

John Perry 

Nels Werner III, Administrative Officer 

John Eisenberg, Resident Scientist 

Donald R. Dietlein, Manager of the Animal 

Clinton W. Gray, Veterinarian 
Marian P. McCrane, Zoologist 
Helmut K. Buechner (Ecology.) S. Dillon 

Ripley (Ornithology), Lee M. Talbot 




Martin H. Moynihan 

Robert L. Dressler, A. Stanley Rand, 

Michael H. Robinson, Ira Rubinoff, Neal 

G. Smith 





Assistant Director 





Plant Physiologists 

Electronic Engineer 
Instrument Engineering 

William H. Klein 

Walter A. Shropshire, Jr. 

David L. Correll, Maurice M. Margulies, 

Vicente Julio Medina, Francesco Parenti, 

Robert L. Weintraub 
Elisabeth Gantt 
Te-Hsiu Ma 
Austin Long 
Bernard Goldberg 
Victor B. Elstad, Bernard Nebel, Leonard 

Junius H. Harrison 
Darnel G. Talbert 



Assistant Director {Science) 

Assistant Director 

Scientific Staff 

Fred L. Whipple 
Charles A. Lundquist 
Carlton W. Tillinghast 

Eugene H. Avrett, Prabhu Bhatnagar, 
Nathaniel P. Carleton, Matthias F. Co- 
merford, Allan F. Cook, Robert J. Davis, 
James C. deFelice, Giovanni G. Fazio, 
Edward L. Fireman, Giuseppe Forti, Fred 
A. Franklin, Manfred P. Friedman, Edward 
M. Gaposchkin, Antanas Girnius, Mario D. 
Grossi, Salah E. Hamid, Gerald S. Hawkins, 
Henry F. Helmken, Paul W. Hodge, Luigi 
G. Jacchia, Wolfgang Kalkofen, Bishun N. 
Khare, Walter J. Kohnlein, Barbara 
Kolaczek, Myron Lecar, Anthony R. Lee, 
Carlton G. Lehr, A. Edward Lilley, 
Leonard A. Maestre, Brian G. Marsden, 
Ursula B. Marvin, Robert H. McCorkell, 
Richard E. McCrosky, Donald H. Menzel, 
Henri E. Mitler, Carl S. Nilsson, Robert 
W. Noyes, Costas Pap ali olios, Cecilia H. 
Payne-Gaposhkin, Douglas T. Pitman, 
James B. Pollack, Annette G. Posen, Max 
Roemer, George B. Rybicki, Carl Sagan, 
Winfield W. Salisbury, Mario R. Schaffner, 
Ashok Sharma, Jack W. Slowey, Leonard 
H. Solomon, Richard B. Southworth, 
Stephen E. Strom, David Tilles, Sachiko 
Tsuruta, Charles A. Whitney, John A. 





Central Bureau for Satellite 

Central Bureau for Astro- 
nomical Telegrams 

Wood, Frances W. Wright, James P. Wright, 
William A. Deutschman, George H. Megrue, 
Cheng-Yuan Shao 

Leon Cohen, Giuseppe Colombo, Vichitra 
Gaur, Gustav Kistner, Yoshihide Kozai, 
Robert C. Lumatainen, David Parkin, 
George Veis, Dale F. Dickinson, Avram Hayli 

Charles J. Bartlett, Thornton L. Page, 
Alan M. Title, Richard Wattson, Trevor 
C. Weekes 

Jan Rolff, Executive Director 

Owen J. Gingerich. Director 



Assistant Director 
Administrative Officers 
Science and Technology 

Physical Sciences 

Mechanical and Civil 


Medical Sciences 

Arts and Manufactures 

Manufactures and Heavy 

Agriculture and Forest 

Robert P. Multhauf 
Silvio A. Bedini 

Virginia Beets, Robert G. Tillotson 
Walter F. Cannon, Chairman 
Howard I. Chapelle, Senior Historian 
Walter F. Cannon, Acting Curator; in charge 
of Sections of Astronomy, Chemistry, Mete- 
orology, and Physics 
Uta C. Merzbach, Associate Curator, Sec- 
tions of Mathematics and Antique Instru- 
Robert M. Vogel, Supervisor and Curator; 
Sections of Heavy Machinery and Civil 
Edwin A. Battison, Associate Curator; Sec- 
tions of Light Machinery and Horology 
Monte A. Calvert, Associate Curator, Section 

of Tools 
Bernard S. Finn, Supervisor and Curator 
John H. White, Jr., Supervisor and Curator 
Melvin H. Jackson, Associate Curator, Section 

of Marine Transportation 
Sami K. Hamarneh, Supervisor and Curator; in 
charge of Sections of Medical and Dental 
History and Pharmaceutical History and 
Philip W. Bishop, Chairman 
Philip W. Bishop, Acting Curator 
John N. Hoffman, Associate Curator 
John T. Schlebecker, Supervisor and Curator 




Ceramics and Glass 

Graphic Arts 

Civil History 

Political History 

Cultural History 

Musical Instruments 

Philately and Postal 


Growth of the United 
Armed Forces History 
Military History 

Naval History 

American Studies 

Mrs. Grace Rogers Cooper, Supervisor and 

Rita J. Adrosko, Associate Curator 
Paul V. Gardner, Supervisor and Curator 
J. Jefferson Miller II, Associate Curator 
Eugene Ostroff, Supervisor and Curator 
Peter Morse, Associate Curator 
Richard H. Howland, Chairman 
Keith E. Melder, Supervisor and Associate 

Mrs. Margaret B. Klapthor, Associate Curator 
Mrs. Anne W. Murray, Associate Curator 
Herbert R. Collins, Assistant Curator 
Mrs. Claudia B. Kidwell, Assistant Curator 
C. Malcolm Watkins, Supervisor and Curator 
Richard E. Ahlborn, Associate Curator 
Rodris C. Roth, Associate Curator 
John T. Fesperman, Jr., Supervisor and Asso- 
ciate Curator 
Mrs. Cynthia A. Hoover, Associate Curator 
James M. Weaver, Concert Director 
Carl H. Scheele, Supervisor and Associate 

Reidar Norby, Assistant Curator 
Vladimir Clain-Stefanelli, Supervisor and 

Mrs. Elvira Clain-Stefanelli, Associate 

Peter C. Welsh, Supervisor and Curator 
Ann Castrodale Golovin, Assistant Curator 
Mendel L. Peterson, Chairman 
Edgar M. Howell, Supervisor and Curator 
Craddock R. Goins, Jr., Associate Curator 
Philip K. Lundeberg, Supervisor and Curator 
Edward L. Towle, Associate Curator 
Wilcomb E. Washburn, Chairman 


S. Paul Johnston 
Frederick C. Durant III 


Assistant Director (Astro- 

Assistant Director (Education Paul E. Garber 
and Information) 

Assistant Director James A. Mahoney 





Aircraft Propulsion 

Advisory Board 

Chairman (ex-officio) 


Louis C. Casey, Curator in Charge 
Robert B. Meyer, Curator in Charge 

S. Dillon Ripley 

Major General Rollen H. Anthis, USAF, 
Vice Admiral Thomas F. Connolly, USN, 
Brigadier General Hal C. Pattison, USA, 
Major General Keith B. McCutcheon, 
USMC, Rear Admiral Roderick Y. Edwards, 
USCG, Julian Scheer, Joseph D. Blatt, 
Grover C. Loening, Colonel John H. Glenn, 
Jr., USMC (Ret.), James P. Wilmot 



Assistant Director 
Museum Specialist 
Advisory Board 

Ex Officio 

Col. John H. Magruder III 

James S. Hutchins 

Col. Robert M. Calland 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 

Chief Justice of the United States, Secre- 
tary of Army, Secretary of Navy, Secre- 
tary of Air Force, David Lloyd Kreeger, 
Henry Bradford Washburn, Jr., William 
H. Perkins, Jr., James H. Cassell, Jr. 

Secretary of Defense, Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution 



Assistant Director 
Associate Curator (Chinese 

Technical Laboratory 

John A. Pope 
Harold P. Stern 
William Trousdale 

Rutherford J. Gettens, Head 
W. T. Chase, Assistant Curator 



Acting Assistant for Special 

Administrative Officers 

David W. Scott 
Jane Morse 

Mrs. Marjorie S. Zapruder 
William B. Walker 
Charles H. Olin 
Harry W. Zichterman, Mrs. 

Louise W. 



Department of Painting and 

Department of Prints and 

Department of Contemporary 

Department of Exhibits 

International Art Program 

Smithsonian Art Commission 


Members Emeritus 

Richard P. Wunder, Curator 

William H. Truettner, Assistant Curator 

Donald R. McClelland, Associate Curator for 

Lending Program 
Jacob Kainen, Curator 

Mrs. Adelyn D. Breeskin, Acting Curator 

Stefan P. Munsing, Special Consultant 

Harry Lowe, Curator 

Abigail V. Booth, Assistant 

Lois A. Bingham, Chief 

Margaret P. Cogswell, Deputy Chief 

William M. Dunn, Exhibits Officer 

Edgar P. Richardson, Chairman 

Gilmore D. Clarke, Vice Chairman 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary 

Leonard Baskin, Page Cross, David E. Finley, 
Lloyd Goodrich, Walker Hancock, Bart- 
lett H. Hayes, Jr., Wilmarth S. Lewis, 
Henry P. McIlhenny, Paul Mellon, Ogden 
M. Pleissner, Charles H. Sawyer, Stow 
Wengenroth, Andrew Wyeth 

Leonard Carmichael, Alexander Wetmore 




Administrative Officer 

Exhibits Curator 



Assistant Historian 

National Portrait Gallery 

Ex Officio 

Charles Nagel 

Thomas J. Girard 

Joseph A. Yakaitis 

Riddick Vann 

William B. Walker 

Charles H. Olin 

Daniel J. Reed 

Robert G. Stewart 

Mrs. Virginia Purdy 

Mrs. Genevieve A. Kennedy, Monroe Fabian, 
Lewis McInnis 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman, Catherine 
Drinker Bowen, Julian P. Boyd, Lewis 
Deschler, David E. Finley, Edgar P. 
Richardson, Wilmarth S. Lewis, Richard 
H. Shryock, Col. Frederick P. Todd 

Chief Justice of the United States 

Secretary, Smithsonian Institution 

Director, National Gallery of Art 

STAFF 511 


Trustees Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States, 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State 
Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury 
S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the Smithsonian 

Paul Mellon, John Hay Whitney, Lessing 
J. Rosenwald, Franklin D. Murphy, 
Stoddard M. Stevens 
President Paul Mellon 

Vice President John Hay Whitney 

Secretary-Treasurer Ernest R. Feidler 

Director John Walker 

Administrator E. James Adams 

General Counsel Ernest R. Feidler 

Chief Curator Perry B. Cott 

Assistant Director J. Carter Brown 


Chairman Roger L. Stevens 

Officers Robert O. Anderson, Vice Chairman 

Sol M. Linowitz, Vice Chairman 
Ralph E. Becker, General Counsel 
Daniel W. Bell, Treasurer 
K. LeMoyne Billings, Secretary 
Philip J. Mullin, Assistant Secretary and 

Administrative Officer 
Herbert D. Lawson, Assistant Treasurer 
Kenneth Birgfeld, Assistant Treasurer 
Paul J. Bisset, Assistant Treasurer 



Director Abram Lerner 


Director Frank A. Taylor 

Administrative Officer Lloyd E. Herman 

Registrar Helena M. Weiss 

Office of Exhibits John E. Anglim, Chief 

Benjamin Lawless, Assistant Chief 
James H. Jones, Administrative Officer 



Natural History 

History and Technology 

Exhibits Labels Editor 
Conservation Analytical 

Traveling Exhibition Service 
Exhibits Coordinators 

John E. Anglim, Chief 

A. Gilbert Wright, Assistant Chief 

Frank Nelms, Production Supervisor 

Benjamin W. Lawless, Chief 

William M. Clark, Jr., Production Supervisor 

George Weiner 

Robert M. Organ, Chief 

Mrs. Jacqueline S. Olin, Chemist 

Mrs. Dorothy Van Arsdale, Chief 

Mrs. Eileen Rose 

Frances P. Smyth, Mrs. Erika Passantino, 
Barboura C. Flues, Mrs. Jean Taylor, 
Holly Teasdale, Renato Danese 


Deputy Director 
Associate Directors 

Executive Officer 

Monroe E. Freeman 

David F. Hersey 

Willis R. Foster, Life Sciences 

Frank J. Kreysa, Physical Sciences 

Martin Snyderman, Automatic Data Processing 

V. P. Verfuerth 


J. A. Collins 

Honorary Staff 

Smithsonian Honorary Fellows, Research Associates, 
Collaborators, and Emeritus Members 

Secretaries Emeritus 

Office of the Secretary 




Charles G. Abbot 
Leonard Carmichael 
Alexander Wetmore 
John A. Graf 


W. Montague Cobb (Physical Anthropology), 
Henry B. Collins (Archeology), Marcus S. 
Goldstein (Physical Anthropology), Sister 
Inez Hilger (Ethnology), C. G. Holland 
(Archeology), Neil M. Judd (Archeology), 
Olga Linares de Sapir (Archeology), Betty 
J. Meggers (Archeology), Victor A. Nunez 
Regueiro (Archeology), Matthew W. Stirl- 
ing (Archeology), Douglas Taylor (Ethnol- 
ogy), William J. Tobin (Physical Anthropol- 
ogy), Theodore A. Wertime (Archeology), 
Nathalie F. S. Woodbury (Archeology) 

Andrew W. Archer (Flowering Plants), Paul S. 
Conger (Diatomaceae), Jose Cuatrecasas 
(Flora of Tropical South America), James A. 
Duke (Flora of Panama), William H. Hathe- 
way (Flora of Central America), Frederick 
J. Hermann (North American Flora; Carex), 
Elbert L. Little, Jr. (Dendrology), Floyd 
A. McClure (Bamboos), Kittie F. Parker 
(Compositae), Egbert H. Walker (Myrsin- 
aceae, Eastern Asian Floras) 

William H. Anderson (Coleoptera), Mrs. Doris 
H. Blake (Coleoptera), Franklin S. Blanton 
(Diptera), Frank L. Campbell (Insect Physi- 
ology), K. C. Emerson (Mallophaga), Frank 
M. Hull (Diptera), William L. Jellison 
(Siphonaptera, Anoplura), Harold F. Loomis 
(Myriapoda), Carl F. W. Muesebeck (Hy- 
menoptera), Thomas E. Snyder (Isoptera), 
Robert Traub (Siphonaptera) 




Invertebrate ^oology 

Mineral Sciences 


Vertebrate ^oology 

Willard W. Becklund (Helminthology), J. 
Bruce Bredin (Biology), Isabel C. Canet 
(Crustacea), Maybelle H. Chitwood 
(Worms), Ailsa M. Clark (Marine Inverte- 
brates), Elisabeth Deichmann (Echinoderms), 
Roman Kenk (Worms), Waldo L. Schmitt 
(Marine Invertebrates), Frank R. Schwengel 
(Mollusks), Gilbert L. Voss (Mollusks), 
Mrs. Mildred S. Wilson (Copepod Crustacea) 

Edward P. Henderson (Meteorites), John B. 
Jago (Mineralogy), Gunnar Kullerud (Mete- 
orites), Rosser Reeves (Mineralogy), Harry 
Winston (Mineralogy) 

J. Thomas Dutro (Invertebrate Paleontology), 
Remington Kellogg (Vertebrate Paleontol- 
ogy), Axel A. Olsson (Invertebrate Paleontol- 
ogy), Franco Rasetti (Invertebrate Paleon- 
tology), Frederic R. Siegel (Sedimentology), 
Wendell P. Woodring (Invertebrate Paleon- 

John W. Aldrich (Birds), Oliver L. Austin 
(Birds), Richard C. Banks (Birds), James E. 
Bohlke (Fishes), C. B. G. Campbell (Mam- 
mals), Leonard Carmichael (Psychology, 
Animal Behavior), Daniel M. Cohen (Fishes), 
Bruce B. Collette (Fishes), Herbert G. 
Deignan (Birds), Robert W. Ficken (Birds), 
Herbert Friedmann (Birds), Arthur M. 
Greenhall (Mammals), Jack P. Hailman 
(Birds), E. V. Komarek (Mammals), Roxie C. 
Laybourne (Birds), Richard H. Manvtlle 
(Mammals), J. A. J. Meester (Mammals), 
Edgardo Mondolfi (Mammals), Russell E. 
Mum ford (Mammals), Michael Palmieri 
(Birds), Dioscoro S. Rabor (Birds), Frank J. 
Schwartz (Fishes), Alexander Wetmore 
(Birds) John G. Williams (Birds), David B. 
Wingate (Birds) 



National Zoological Park 

Smithsonian Tropical Research 

Jean Delacour, J. Lear Grimmer, Susanne 
Ripley, Constance Warner 

Charles F. Bennett, Jr., John Eisenberg, 
Robert H. MacArthur, Ernst Mayr, Giles 
W. Mead, Patricio Sanchez, W. John Smith, 
C. C. Soper, Paulo Vanzolini, Martin 

Science and Technology 
Arts and Manufactures 
Civil History 

Armed Forces History 
National Air and Space 

Freer Gallery of Art 
Smithsonian Institution Press 


Derek J. de Solla Price 

Hans Syz (Ceramics) 

Mrs. Arthur M. Greenwood (Cultural History), 
Elmer C. Herber (History), Ivor Noel Hume 
(Cultural History), Fred W. McKay (Numis- 
matics), Mrs. Emery May Norweb (Numis- 
matics), R. Henry Norweb (Numismatics), 
Mrs. Joan Pearson Watkins (Cultural 

William Rea Furlong, Frederic C. Lane 

Frederick C. Crawford, James H. Doolittle, 
Harry F. Guggenheim, Alfred V. Verville 

Richard Edwards, Oleg Grabar 

Paul H. Oehser 


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.75 (paper cover)