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Full text of "Smithsonian year"

BOSTON 
PUBLIC 
UBRAKf 





MITHSONIAN 



Boston Public Library 
Superintendent of Document;! 

JUN 3 1969 
DEPOSITORY 



Smithsonian Year 
1968 



ANNUAL REPORT OF 

THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

FOR THE YEAR ENDED 30 JUNE 1968 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

City of Washington 1968 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $2.75 



The Smithsonian Institution 

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846, 
in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, of England, 
who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America 
"to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men." In receiving the property and accepting the trust. Con- 
gress determined that the Federal Government was without authority to 
administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted an "establish- 
ment," whose statutory members are "the President, the Vice President, 
the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive departments." 



The Establishment 

Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States 

Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the United States 

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States 

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State 

Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury 

Clark Clifford, Secretary of Defense 

Ramsey Clark, Attorney General 

W. Marvin Watson, Postmaster General 

Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of Interior 

Orville L. Freeman, Secretary of Agriculture 

C. R. Smith, Secretary of Commerce 

W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary of Labor 

Wilbur Cohen, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 

Robert C. Weaver, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development 

Alan S. Boyd, Secretary of Transportation 



h^ 




Board of Regents and Secretary 



30 June 1968 



Presiding Officer ex officio 

Chancellor 

Regents of the Institution 



Executive Committee 

The Secretary 
Assistant Secretaries 



Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the 

United States 
Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the 

United States 
Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the 

United States, Chancellor 
Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President 

of the United States 
Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the 

Senate 
J. William Fulbright, Member of the 

Senate 
Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate 
Frank T. Bow, Member of the House of 

Representatives 
Michael J. Kirwan, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
George H. Mahon, Member of the 

House of Representatives 
John Nicholas Brown, citizen of 

Rhode Island 
William A. M. Burden, citizen of New 

York 
Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of 

Delaware 
Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washing- 
ton, D.C. 
Jerome C. Hunsaker, citizen of Massa- 
chusetts 
Clinton P. Anderson, Caryl P. 

Haskins 
S. Dillon Ripley 
James Bradley, Assistant Secretary 
Sidney R. Galler, Assistant Secretary 

(Science) 
Charles Blitzer, Assistant Secretary 

(History and Art) 
William W. Warner, Acting Assistant 

Secretary (Public Service) 



A listing of the professional staff of the Smithsonian Institution, its 
bureaus, and its offices, appears in Appendix 7. 




The annual report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution appears 
under the general title Smithsonian Tear. 

It contains the reports of the bureaus and branches of the Institution, including 
that of the United States National Museum. This report on the activities of its 
component Museums of Natural History and of History and Technology, 
was last issued as a separate publication for fiscal year 1964, appearing in 1965. 
Issuance of the annual report of the Secretary is no longer followed by appear- 
ance of a greenbound volume containing a General Appendix of articles in 
the sciences and the arts. The last of the old series is that for 1964. 
Reprints of each of the bureau reports are available. To some of them are 
appended tabulated, statistical, and other information of primary interest to 
those concerned with the particular field covered, and which for reasons of 
space can no longer be carried in this volume. 



SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATION 4760 



Contents 

Page 



The Establishment .... 
The Smithsonian Institution 



Statement by the Secretary 1 

Office of Academic Programs 33 

Smithsonian Activities — Public Service and Information 39 

Office of International Activities 41 

Smithsonian Institution Press 45 

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 51 

Information Systems Division 55 

Science Information Exchange 61 

International Exchange Service 65 

Office of Public Affairs 67 

Division of Performing Arts 71 

Smithsonian Associates 75 

Smithsonian Museum Shops 79 

Belmont Conference Center 81 

Smithsonian Activities — Special Museum Programs 83 

Office of Exhibits 87 

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 96 

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 101 

Office of the Registrar 103 

Smithsonian Activities — History and Art 105 

American Studies Program 107 

Museum of History and Technology 109 

Research and Publication 117 

Science and Technology 117 

Arts and Manufactures 119 

Civil History 123 

Armed Forces History 128 

The Collections 135 

Educational Activities 151 

Exhibits . .' 155 

National Air and Space Museum 161 

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 171 

Freer Gallery of Art 175 

National Collection of Fine Arts 189 

National Portrait Gallery 207 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 219 

National Gallery of Art 227 

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 247 



Page 

Smithsonian Activities — Natural Sciences 259 

Center for the Study of Short-lived Phenomena 262 

Office of Oceanography and Limnology 267 

Office of Ecology 283 

Museum of Natural History 291 

Research and Publication 299 

Systematics 299 

Anthropology 300 

Botany 319 

Entomology 325 

Invertebrate Zoology 333 

Mineral Sciences 343 

Paleobiology 351 

Vertebrate Zoology 367 

The Collections • • ■ 377 

Exhibits 395 

Papers Delivered, Lectures, and Seminars 397 

National Zoological Park 403 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 419 

Radiation Biology Laboratory 433 

• Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 445 

Introduction 445 

The Earth 451 

The Moon 456 

The Other Planets 457 

Comets and Meteors 458 

Meteorites and Cosmic Dust 463 

Celestial Mechanics 465 

The Sun and Beyond 466 

Historical Astronomy 476 

Central Bureaus 477 

Staff Changes 477 

Staff Publications 478 

Special Reports 487 

Administrative and Management Services 491 

Appendix 497 

1 . Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents . . . 499 

2. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants 509 

3. Publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press 513 

4. Smithsonian Associates 525 

5. Members of the Smithsonian Council 527 

6. Research Participation Programs, Appointments 533 

7. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 541 



Statement by the Secretary 



Statement by the Secretary 
S. Dillon Ripley 



Tn A YEAR OF CONVULSIVE IMPACT on the people of America, one 
■*■ theme, I think, has been borne in upon the Smithsonian Institution. 
This theme is that the Institution has a moral responsibility to consider 
its exhibits for the effect that they may have upon all sorts and condi- 
tions of people. Many of our exhibits are directly involved with 
history— the history of people and their machines and their material 
culture. The teaching of history itself has changed radically in a genera- 
tion. Traditionally most historians simply taught "the facts," whatever 
they were, attempting to relate them without bias, as best they under- 
stood them. Gradually this concept of history as factual chronicle has 
been shown to be in effect not rigidly and exactly true. At present his- 
tory is coming to be thought of as social science. History indeed is now 
interpreted and is represented as a distillation of ideas. This change has 
been difficult, indeed painful, but it is here to stay. 

The Museum of History and Technology is one of the first of its 
kind in the world. It is in effect a teaching museum. Most museums 
that present historical collections tend to be petrified. The reasons for 
this are various, but essentially revolve around people and money as 
might be expected. Historical collections have a strong personal bias. 
They have been brought together by individuals out of possessive love 
and the collector's passion. Such collections frequently are steeped in 
myth. The provenance of the objects is seldom called into question. Thus, 
the average historical museum or collection tends to have labels bearing 
information supplied by the donor and including his name. If the donor 
or the donor's family are anywhere around it seems tactless to put into 
question "the facts" as presented at the time of acquisition. 

The second problem is money. Even if years later it becomes appar- 
ent that the information on the label is wrong, there is the expense of 
changing the label, or indeed of reordering the exhibit. Thus historical 
museums tend to become fossilized. Entrance into these "cemeteries" is 
considered by historians not only a bore but a trial. Sensible historians 
tend to shun museums in principle, for it is known that the exhibits are 
exhibits merely of objects presented as memorials of "the facts." They 

1 



I SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

cannot speak or tell anything, and besides the chances are that the infor- 
mation that they are intended to convey is faulty. In addition to all this 
the objects, having been collected in a random manner, probably do not 
even represent an ordered chronology. 

The Museum of History and Technology should be a revelation for 
modem historians, though whether it is or not is another matter. In 
the first place, it is the only historical museum in this country with a 
staff of major proportions comprised of historians. This staff is the 
equivalent of a full-fledged university department of the history of 
science; it also includes historians in the fields of political, cultural, mili- 
tary, and social history. Thus there are ample resources in qualified peo- 
ple to interpret the exhibits. The staff is trained in research and is 
concerned with presenting "the facts" to the best of its ability. There is 
also an exhibits department which is probably the best in the Nation 
through which facts and ideas can be restated when research has shown 
the emphasis to be at fault. These two elements — continuing research on 
the" objects and history itself, and a staff ready to shift or change the ex- 
hibits — go a long way toward creating what is an unique situation. 
This has resulted in a teaching museum in the best sense, geared to 
research and flexible about changing exhibits and exhibition objectives. 

It has become apparent, however, that even such a wonderful mu- 
seum as our own Museum of History and Technology might fall into 
the preservation trap. Even a curator trained as a research historian 
can become infected with a special virus which makes him prey to this 
trap. When objects are preserved they become shiny and new looking. 
They also become nice. Some might say "all gussied up." Everything 
becomes pretty and nice, and history itself becomes a storybook ex- 
perience. In this country, everyone in history was romantic and dashing 
and lived in a genteel manner. A famous example of this perversion was 
the burning by a zealous librarian years ago of some of George Wash- 
ington's off-color letters. Many, exhibits pander to this myth that all 
our ancestors were upper middle-class Protestant whites who lived like 
ladies and gentlemen. The preservation trap is beautifully illustrated 
in the average historical restoration projects around the country. From 
the restoration of colonial cities on to the historic house with formal 
garden, there is an unfailing tendency for "the facts" to be tidied up, 
and everything to be restored to such a degree that reality and truth 
long since have flown out the window. Public taste accepts this for the 
most part and seems to appreciate the myth — witness the enormous 
popularity of towns and old houses or the awed visits to (preferably 
eighteenth century) restoration projects. The eighteenth century, being 
farther away, is even more genteel than the nineteenth. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 5 

This past year has demonstrated to us at the Smithsonian as never 
before the need to "tell it like it is." As the nation's museum of history, 
the Institution has a moral resjDonsibility to do so. Inheritor of objects 
and charged with the obligation to perform research and to teach, to 
educate, it is the solemn responsibility of the Smithsonian to reveal the 
social history of our nation. More than ever before our exhibits have 
a potential value for education and it is our moral responsibility to see 
that they do educate. 

The principal facts of the history of our nation revolve around the 
cultural pluralism of our people. We are not all as one and we are 
certainly not all nice and "gussied up," nor have we ever been. Our 
museums, among them the Museum of Histon,- and Technology, should 
be concerned with this theme of presenting truth in a social context. 
Far too little has been done to delineate the history of the ethnic minori- 
ties of our country or to single out and describe their achievements. In 
the preservation trap, it appears as if innovation and intellectual and 
technological achievement were either racially anonymous or were 
the prerogative of Anglo-Saxons from western Europe, essentially Prot- 
estant of course. American Indians, along with Chinese or Mexican 
Indians find their culture and their mode of life discussed in the Natural 
History Museum as curious subjects for anthropological research, re- 
lated somehow to zoology and other parts of the world of nature. Afri- 
can history is similarly discussed and recorded in depth in the halls of 
African technology and anthropology. Here and there in the historical 
museum there may be a reference to slavery or to wars against the 
Indians, but for the most part our ethnic subcultures, our minority 
groups, come off very badly indeed. It is obvious that the Smithsonian 
as a whole has a splendid tradition of research into a multitude of scien- 
tific and cultural subjects, but it is also true that our exhibits policies 
have not delineated history as a social science, or as the distillation 
of ideas. 

Part of the Smithsonian's problem has been lack of money. A generous 
Congress has awarded money for buildings, but the annual budgets 
for installation and research have not kept up with the obligations 
created by the buildings. Since the Museum of History and Technology 
was opened in January 1964, it has been on a near-starvation diet. 
In the ensuing years, wars and necessary domestic programs have swal- 
lowed up the federal dollar. The educational and research needs of 
the Smithsonian, the need to change exhibits and to improve their 
teaching quality and character, have received a low priority. The urgent 
needs to develop cultural and social history in our museums are hard 
to meet. But the need is there. We have failed to give the true historical 



4 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

picture, to describe the whole panorama of our cultures. Young people 
representing Negroes, Indians, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese and other 
subcultures are not given the evidence that they are part of the stream of 
history of the United States with a noble past, a vital present, and an 
unlimited future. If our Institution is to play a valid role in the Bicen- 
tennial of the American Revolution in 1976, we should be prepared to 
correct what is in effect a series of oversights in history, the history 
of our country and of the multiplicity of our peoples. 

One of the ways that we can do this is to emphasize in our exhibits 
the people and especially the ordinary, everyday people who built the 
railroads, sailed the ships and drove as well as created the machinery 
and instruments we exhibit. Many of these people, the very stuff of our 
basic concern, will be revealed to belong to a wide variety of subcultures 
and of ethnic minorities, quite as well as various sorts of poor whites. 
For these purposes we do not simply have museums of history, or of 
art, or of natural history so much as we have museums for and about 
men, either man's way of looking at the world of nature, or man's way 
of coping with the world of nature. And in some art museums we have a 
clue perhaps to the varieties of means by which man looks at himself. 

This year of 1968 has marked the opening of a new museum in this 
Institution, the refurbished, revitalized National Collection of Fine 
Arts, for long the Institution's stepchild, and it has seen the final prep- 
aration for the opening of a second new museum, the National Portrait 
Gallery. 

The opening of the National Collection in the remodeled old Patent 
Office building was a stunning success. Years of effort by David Scott 
and his devoted staff culminated on May third in a splendid evening 
event, graced by President and Mrs. Johnson and some 3,000 guests 
who roamed the elegant, sometimes classic, sometimes modern halls, 
the lower sculpture room reminiscent of an Egyptian catacomb, the 
third-floor Lincoln Gallery so sublimely cool, chaste, and immense with 
its tight arches, the touch of the iron strapwork, the marble columns 
restored to a nacreous sheen thanks to the efforts of our hero of the 
occasion, Mr. Royal Murphy, the marble restorer. For Washington, 
it was an evening to be remembered. 

The National Portrait Gallery is essentially a trial balloon. There 
has never been a National Portrait Gallery in this nation, and it is 
still unclear to many what purpose such a gallery will serve. If the United 
States had thought it as worthwhile to develop a memorial collection 
of likenesses of great men and women as it delights in writing their 
biographies, there might by this date in history be a great national col- 
lection of portraits of the great and near great alike. No such thing 






/ 





The Lincoln Gallery on the opening night of the National Collection of Fine 
Arts, 3 May 1968. (Photo: Ralph Crane, LIFE magazine.) 



occurred, however, and thus there is no hope that our National Por- 
trait Gallery can rival in quality or character, the elegant, charming, 
and beautifully furnished portrait galleries of the United Kingdom 
and Ireland. There is only one sensible way to look at the matter then, 
to recognize that our new National Portrait Gallery must turn its back 
on precedent and chart a new path. 

The implication of a portrait gallery, by the very title, is that it will 
consist of a gallena full of elegant, solemn, and somnolent halls lined 
with splendid portraits of the great of America, makers and shakers 
all, who have found a secure niche in the Dictionary of American Bi- 
ography for their accomplishments if not for their virtues, and preferably 
Horatio Alger heroes all — to whom oncoming generations, pausing in 
the corridors, can look up to with awe, on tiptoe as it were. 



6 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

The fact is, of course, that lacking the impedimenta of a large finished 
collection of important portraits and sculpture, the Portrait Gallery 
must perforce delineate people rather than memorialize the dead. 
By seeking to re-create the world in which famous people lived through 
every device known to exhibits technicians including photographs, film 
strips, tapes, and various kinetic devices, and by surrounding these 
famous people with the flavors of the everyday people on whom they 
depended — soldiers, farmers, tradesmen, Indians, slaves, actors, gam- 
blers, politicans and all the hurly-burly, the stufT of life — the Portrait 
Gallery might become a theater of history. It could be a pantomime of 
American doings which would convey a vital meaning to the visitor, 
unencumbered by the dust on the old oils and marble. May it be so 
and may this museum too, as well as the others, try to "tell it like it is, 
and was." 

As James Reston commented recently, our political leaders today are 
overwhelmed by events beyond our ken — the culmination of years of 
relentless pressures decried only by Cassandras — by 

the fertility of the ordinary people, and the movement of the people 
into cities, and the fertility of the human and particularly the scien- 
tific mind, which is changing the world faster than the politicians 
in any country can change their societies. Look at Washington, or 
London, or Paris, or Moscow — all the so-called "great men" are 
overwhelmed by the convulsive events of the human mind and 
body. 

One false panacea which has become pandemic is more education 
for everyone, but immediately education, as such, e7i masse defies the 
meaning of the word. The assumption is that everyone, in order to be 
"educated," must be educated in precisely similar ways, through books, 
drilled by rote to pass exams. Such antilogies are pronounced by pro- 
fessional persons who make entire careers as experts out of telling people 
what is good for them. Time is catching up with many of these learned 
sophists. 

Convinced that objects are of basic importance to many people, even 
peradventure to modern-day historians, the Smithsonian has been ex- 
perimenting with a neighborhood museum. Here is a chance to work 
with non-didactic museum tools geared to creating interest and excite- 
ment in minds not interested for the most part in books. Run-down 
urban areas are the single most important problem for human environ- 
mental study in the world today. To anyone interested in what I have 
called "social biology," the linking in a common cause for research of 
modern biologists, especially ecologists, and sociologists, the so-called 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY / 

slums are the areas ripe for studies cut in a new fashion and tailored 
to new dimensions. 

To a large extent people from run-down neighborhoods tend to stay 
there. They tend to be immobile, not to move much out of their district, 
except in a transient sense from slum to slum. Such people, referred to 
by slogan phrases like "disadvantaged," are likely never to go into any 
museum. Indeed such people, if badly dressed or ill at ease, may feel 
awkward going out of their district. They may easily feel lost wending 
their way along an unfamiliar sidewalk toward a vast, monu- 
mental marble palace. They may even feel hostile. In Washington, D.C., 
a city where 262,000 people, or about one-third of the total popu- 
lation, live just above subsistence level, it is hardly to be expected 
that large numbers of the poor can afford the bus fare for a trip to 
a museum, or the clothes either. In connection with a recent PTA 
program in Washington to sponsor trips for children and their 
parents to local attractions, a number of parents in one low-income 
neighborhood objected to the program. The parents, it was learned, felt 
that they did not have the proper clothing for such a venture; rather 
than face the possible humiliation of conceivably being denied admission 
to places they might want to visit, they preferred not taking part. If this 
is true, then the only solution is to bring the museum to them. For of 
all our people these are the ones who most deserve the fun of being in a 
museum. Should any museum director today not feel this way then he 
should speak up. Although private collectors may wish to keep their 
collections private, the person in charge of a museum, no matter how 
recondite or esoteric or aesthetically rarefied his collection, must oc- 
casionally have at least a twinge of educational esprit, the merest modi- 
cum of egalitarianism or desire to improve the lot of his fellowman. 

It is obvious, how-ever, that in the case of a museum in a rundown 
neighborhood, the bookmobile concept won't do. Involvement is what is 
wanted, and a bookmobile museum in a slum implies something for 
nothing from rich folks somewhere else, a kind of charity, a handout — 
largesse in white gloves. Involvement can be created only if it is their 
museum. It must be on the spot, participated in by the people who live 
there. This was our principle in 1966 when the Smithsonian started look- 
ing about for a neighborhood which might want its own museum. Our 
one guideline was that the area must have stability and not be too full of 
transients or of the migratory unemployed. We looked for a site, per- 
haps an abandoned movie theater or grocery store, preferably on the 
block with a laundromat — that symbol of daytime neighborhood in- 
volvement — rather than too many bars. 



8 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

We found the district in Anacostia, one of the areas of Washington 
which had changed a good deal since the days of the distinguished 
Frederick Douglass. Consultations with the Southeast Neighborhood 
House in Anacostia revealed an instant enthusiasm on the part of the 
local residents. With their help we decided to try, and set out to rent 
an unoccupied theater which, by chance, was on the same street as a 
local school, and in the same block as a laundromat. 

The auguries seemed good. A community advisory council was formed 
early in 1967, chaired by Mr. Alton Jones, chairman of the Greater 
Anacostia Peoples, Inc., Mr. Stanley Anderson, later to become one of 
the first members of the new City Council of Washington, Mrs. Marion 
Hope, Mr. Ben Davis, and a good number of willing volunteers, in- 
cluding a sergeant of the 11th Police Precinct, Andrew Salvas. My col- 
league, Charles Blitzer was active from the beginning and we depended 
heavily on the advice of Mrs. Caryl Marsh, who had worked with 
neighborhood social problems in Washington. Our Smithsonian exhibits 
department, led by John Anglim and Ben Lawless, was keen to rush in 
and remodel the small 400-seat movie theater, and Robert Shelton was 
assigned by them to draw up a design. Long and prayerful meetings 
(most of them in a local church) with the advisory council ensued be- 
fore they decided the framework of the exhibits, their focus, and the 
degrees to which a variety of exhibits might appeal to local residents. By 
June 1967, we had selected a Director, Mr. John Kinard, a thirty-year- 
old, Washington-born youth worker who had worked in the Neighbor- 
hood Youth Corps and the Office of Economic Opportunity. Under 
John Kinard, who is vigorous and decisive, the exhibit plans were com- 
pleted and the work began. The seats were removed and a flat floor was 
installed with two single steps at intervals to take care of the slope. Six 
modules were constructed along the sides of the seating area, two to a 
section of the floor, so that each single step marked the partition be- 
tween the modules. The exhibits resulted from a vast number of sug- 
gestions, primarily from the advisory council, but also from Smithsonian 
guards and staff curators. A complete general store of the 1890s — ^just 
as it was in Anacostia — occupies one corner. In it there is a post office 
(for which we hope to get a license to operate) , old metal toys, a butter 
churn, an ice-cream maker, a coffee grinder, and a water pump, all of 
which work, and any number of other objects of the period from kero- 
sene lamps to flat irons, to posters and advertisements. There is another 
do-it-yourself area for plastic art, with, at present, class instruction by 
volunteers. There are skeletons of various kinds, some of which can be 
put together or disassembled. There is space for temporary art shows. 



EXHIBITS 





--,,. SMGUBORHOOD MUSj 




Entrance to the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum; below, a do-it-yourself art 
area and, right. Director John Kinard talking with Washington Mayor Walter 
Washington, Councilman Stanley Anderson, and Charles Blitzer of the Smith- 
sonian in the general store and post office which occupies a corner of the museum. 




There is a TV monitor system on the stage. One of the modules is oc- 
cupied by a live zoo with green monkeys, a parrot, and a miscellany of 
animals on loan from the National Zoological Park. A great success is 
a shoe-box museum in an A-frame structure, filled with wooden shoe 
boxes containing bird skins (in celluloid tubes), mammal skins, shells, 
fossil specimens, and pictures. There are slide projectors for intensive 
handling and study. A behind-the-scenes museum exhibit of leaf-making, 



315-997 O - 69 - 2 




Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley 
and friends with "Uncle Beazley," the 
dinosaur hero of the story, The Enormous 
Egg, who made a temporary visit to the 
Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. Be- 
low, nearby fence painted for the opening 
by a local group of Trail Blazers, and a 
classroom area in the museum. 




silk-screen techniques, casting and modeling, gives an additional outlet 
for instruction. All this — to the tune of crashing hammers, scraping saws, 
and slapping paint brushes — took form in two and a half months. 

The grand opening attended by an 84-piece band, two combos, and a 
block party with speeches and klieg lights took place on 15 September 
1967. A local group of Trail Blazers had painted the nearby fence, which 
separates the museum from the next property, with a stylish "primitive" 
mural of African life. The desolate surrounding lots were spruced up, 
and one of them was decorated temporarily with "Uncle Beazley," the 
dinosaur hero of the story, The Enormous Egg. One of the striking 
by-products of the opening was the improvement in the appearance of 
the block. Several store fronts and houses were newly painted. The local 
utility company branch, with friendly and unexpected solicitude, was 
hastily painted and landscaped with shrubbery which greatly enhanced 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 11 

the previously dreary-looking brick premises. The whole place began to 
look almost as smart as the swagged bunting draped on the old theater 
marquee, now rechristened as the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. 

The financing for all of this had to be raised from private sources, 
for the federal government is, presumably quite rightly, only rarely 
interested in innovations of a sociological nature. This was an ex- 
perimental project; for a museum or for the sedate Smithsonian, it 
could be described as "off-beat." We estimated that for the first year 
we would need to raise between $60,000 and $75,000 and by the fall 
of 1967 we had about $75,000 in hand, mostly from three foundations, 
the Carnegie Corporation, the Anne S. Richardson Fund, and the Eu- 
gene and Agnes E. Meyer Foundation. When in early 1968 we realized 
that all this would cost more, we received a challenge grant from the 
Irwin S. Miller Foundation,. and small private contributions from in- 
terested citizens have been slowly but steadily coming in. At this juncture 
my colleagues and I estimate that once it is under way a neighborhood 
museum can run on something under $125,000 a year, with a flexible 
staff of four full-time employees as well as volunteers and contract or 
volunteer work from exhibits specialists. Changing exhibits are of the 
first importance, for any new experience, such as a museum, tends to 
pall in time. 

The results so far in mid- 1968 are hard to assess. Anacostia has a 
known population of nearly 65,000 persons, 41 percent under eighteen, 
78 percent non-white. The median family income compiled from cen- 
sus records is $3,430. In the first five and a half months some 25,000 
visits had been clocked into the museum, a building about 100 feet long 
and 60 feet wide with a tiny mezzanine floor for offices in the former 
projection booth area. Obviously something is happening. School classes 
are being taught there. A local business man has donated a school bus 
to drive children over to the main Smithsonian buildings for Saturday 
morning classes. These are, of course, children who would never other- 
wise enter the vast marble mausolea on the Mall. Interestingly, at the 
Anacostia museum there has been no vandalism. Not a feather or a 
fossil has been stolen. And best of all there are no guards. What is the 
mystery of this equation: no guards = no losses and no vandalism? The 
only valid answer of course is, "because it is their museum, not ours, 
and they can be proud of it." 

Public service has many forms. One of these has been the degree to 
which the Smithsonian can involve people in its activities. Through the 
Folk Festival, the second of which was held over the 1968 Fourth of 
July weekend, with a great outpouring of public interest and an attend- 
ance of over 500,000, to the other events which bid fair to become 




An all Charles Ives program by the Gregg Smith Singers received critical acclaim 
when it was presented on 24 October in the rotunda of the Arts and Industries 
Building for the Smithsonian Associates. At right, Bessie Jones and the Georgia 
Sea Island Singers performing at the Festival of American Folklife on the Mall. 



annual ones, such as the April First party for the summer hours open- 
ing, the Mall is increasingly an involved and active place, full of vitality 
and, it might be said, joy. As one newspaper remarked after the first 
day of the Fourth of July Folk Festival, "it's such an unexpected pleasure 
to see 100,000 people gathered together in the middle of Washington, 
all smiling." 

The Associates' activities continue to increase both in numbers and in 
enthusiasm and programs. By the end of June 1968, membership in 
the Associates stood at 7,000, representing around 15,000 persons. The 
variety of programs is tremendous, thanks to the heroic and dedicated 
work of Lisa Suter and her colleagues, ranging from field trips in fossils 
and archeology to Japanese drama (Kyogen and Noh), from fashion 
lectures to craft workshops in batik, mosaic, raku, from chamber music 
concerts to behind-the-scenes tours of paleobiology labs, as well as lec- 
tures, films, and art tours of various cities. The Ladies Committee of 
of the Associates, active in the Washington area, has a number of im- 
portant programs of aid to constituent museums and in public affairs. 

Particularly interesting has been the expansion of the Museum Shops 
under the imaginative direction of Carl Fox. Aside from books, pam- 
phlets, and cards, Mr. Fox has been concerned to demonstrate the 
vitality of the folk art tradition, and to encourage museum visitors to 
realize that they themselves are part of a continuing tradition of crafts- 











< 



i 



Hi 



Smithsonian museum shops. 




manship and craft work. Several special exhibits have been sponsored 
by the shops during the year ranging from "Childrens' Embroideries 
from Peru" to "19th-Centur)' Japanese Prints and Drawings," from 
"Eskimo Sculptures and Prints," to "Traditional American Crafts," 
from "Toys around the World" to "Henry Evans Botanical Prints." 
One of the bases on which this Institution stands is the exchange of 
information — the "diffusion" of knowledge. For a number of years, 



14 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

the Smithsonian has pioneered in developing a Science Information 
Exchange, directed by Monroe Freeman, and supported principally by 
the National Science Foundation. More recently, we have been ap- 
proaching our collections of things as if they were library books, seeking 
to encode and store information on them for instant retrieval. Without 
such ability the collections become meaningless. With such ability the 
collections may be used as tools, interwoven into the fabric of knowledge 
in such a way that specific questions may be asked of a philosophic, 
demographic, or biomedical nature which perhaps could not otherwise 
be answered. Much of the data buried in collections in the arts, social 
sciences, and sciences already found in our museum collections is of 
such a fundamental nature, that if we could collate it properly and ask 
the appropriate questions we could penetrate Sibylline mysteries and 
embark upon total environmental prediction including problems of food 
supply, stress, pollution, and population. Our new Division of Informa- 
tion Systems, under the direction of Nicholas Suszynski, is perhaps no 
oracle at present, but the seeds are there. In time, I am convinced that 
an evolved union catalogue of such diverse sorts as complete holdings in 
art across the country, of the assemblage of all aspects of marine biology, 
and other crucial resources may, when properly interpreted, teach us 
more than we presently know about ourselves and lead us to an objec- 
tive form of wisdom out of which true planning for the future may 
emerge.* 

In connection with our plans for mobilizing information in the 
Smithsonian, our library must occupy a paramount place. To a library- 
minded curator like myself, no single part of the Institution can yield 
primacy of place to our library and to our library-like resources which in 
essence are the collections. Since the days of Professor Charles Jewett, 
the Smithsonian library has grown slowly, largely presenting the accre- 
tions in books to the Library of Congress, an ideal scheme initially, but 
a course which lack of proper information retrieval-techniques rendered 
crippling to research within the Institution over the years. The appoint- 
ment this year of Russell Shank to the post of Librarian of the Institu- 
tion will go far toward remedying this gap, and we are all heartened by 
his bold and imaginative approach toward our problems. 

In his design for the Institution, Joseph Henry elaborated schemes 






*Increasing interest in this problem is indicated by an important symposium 
at the 1967 (New York) meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. "The Role of Museums in Modern Communication," sum- 
marized in Science, (9 August 1968), vol. 161, pp. 548-551. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 15 

both for what, today, \vould be called scholarly and popular publica- 
tions. In respect to the former, he put the emphasis squarely on basic 
research. This has been adhered to in the serial reports which have 
flowed from the Smithsonian for 120 years without Interruption. The 
mandate for popular publications was met more fitfully — the most vigor- 
ous effort being the Smithsonian Scientific Series begun in 1929. More 
recently, the immense popularity of the Smithsonian museums has led 
to the issue of a number of pamphlets and booklets which convey in- 
formation about the museums and their exhibits. But the Smithsonian 
remained apart from the commercial book publishing industry, al- 
though in 1964 it became a member of the Association of American 
University Presses whose other members had, in the main, vigorously 
adopted the techniques of commercial publishers. In the past two years, 
under a new name and management, it has become an active producer 
and distributor of books. It is thus, now, a full-fledged university press, 
but different from any other university press by virtue of the variety of 
its output. The Smithsonian Institution Press publishes more special 
scholarship in our serials than do other presses, and in this we more 
resemble a museum publisher. On the other hand, no other university 
press publishes such popular items as our museum guides, pamphlets, 
and even juvenilia, for unlike our fellow academic publishers we are in 
daily contact with the lay masses. And, in the current fashion of uni- 
versity presses, we publish both scholarly monographs and semipopular 
works in the book trade with as much professional book-publishing 
expertise as we can apply. 

While we give great emphasis to our imprint and continually seek 
to improve it, the Smithsonian is also alert to the possibilities of collabo- 
rating with commercial publishers. The Smithsonian Library, the new- 
joint venture with American Heritage Publishing Company, is one of 
our greatest successes in the area of public education. The three books 
already published have avoided the fault common to popularizations 
of science — of being "all about" a subject, and overawing the lay reader 
with an array of incontestable facts which mislead him as to the nature 
of scholarly inquiry and thus widen the understanding gap. Instead, the 
authors have succeeded in communicating the hows and whys of re- 
search and development in science and technology. These volumes are 
The Evolution of the Machine by Ritchie Calder The Forging of Our 
Continent by Charlton Ogburn, Jr., and The Evidence of Evolution by 
Nicholas Hotton, III. 

Although much of the activities in our museums has been severely 
hampered by curtailed funds, it is heartening to record that our staff has 
continued to produce more published research than in any previous 



16 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

year. In the natural history areas, a discernible concern for the inter- 
pretive asp)ects of problems has begun to emerge. This is a welcome 
addition to descriptive science and the infusion of broad evolutionary 
principles in such study is always to be desired. In the realm of air 
and space, although construction for that museum is at present off 
our agenda, the development of research studies in this subject con- 
tinues, notably monographs on the development of Professor Langley's 
engines of 1900-1903, a comprehensive history of the early years of 
air mail in the United States, studies on air pioneers like Glenn Curtiss, 
on the 19th-century rockets of Congreve and Hale, and on the National 
Air and Space Administration's contributions to modern rocketry and 
space flight. With aid from the Admiral DeWitt Ramsey Fund, research 
is proceeding on naval aviation during the post World War I decade. 
During the past year the National Armed Forces Museum Advisory 
Board held a conference at Belmont, the Smithsonian's enormously 
useful conference center. Under the chairmanship of Regent John 
Nicholas Brown, the conference produced two recommendations ap- 
proved by the Board of Regents at their January 1968 meeting. These 
included: 

Early appointment of a senior scholar to serve as chairman of study 
center activities, responsible for establishing the nucleus of a staff 
and organizing initial programs. In addition, this scholar could 
assist in planning the role the museum and study center would 
play in commemorating the Bicentennial of the American 
Revolution. 

Establishment of a committee of eminent scholars in the field of 
military history to provide a closer link between the Smithsonian 
and the academic world. Such a group would complement the 
functions of the Advisory Board by enlisting the active partici- 
pation of the intellectual community. 

In the law setting up the Armed Forces Museum and Board the 
Smithsonian has a unique opportunity to escape the constraining evo- 
lutionary patterns of the past. Rather than be cursed as many museums 
of today are by the possession of collections which tend to dominate 
whatever efforts are made to establish a meaningful raison d'etre for 
the museum, the Armed Forces plan provides for separating museum 
and study center. The museum itself can be planned to contain only 
highly meaningful artifacts based on a reasoned intellectual objective. 
The Institution has an opportunity at present to study the problems 
of military historical collections throughout our bureaus with the pur- 
pose of achieving effective unity in their curation. The question of the 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 



17 




Belmont, the Smithsonian Institution's Conference Center near Elkridge, 

Maryland. 



Study center should probably be aligned with the subject of our aca- 
demic programs. 

Charles Blitzer, who joined the Smithsonian as the first Director of 
the Office of Education and Training in July 1965, was named As- 
sistant Secretary for History and Art in February 1968. In somewhat 
less than three years, he has demonstrated lasting accomplishments as 
an educator. Programs of visiting research appointments have been 
inaugurated, initially in the sciences in cooperation with the National 
Academy of Sciences, and then extended to include the fields of history 
and art, in cooperation with the American Council of Learned So- 
cieties. These programs have now grown to a level where thirty or 
more visiting scholars and scientists at the postdoctoral level come 
annually to the Institution for periods of six months to a year to pursue 
chosen research topics in consultation with members of the Smithsoni- 
an's professional staflF. Through these and other programs, the Smith- 
sonian has emerged as a national center of research training in the 
disciplines of primary interest to its staff. In a descriptive science such 
as systematic biology or anthropology the Ph.D. degree usually repre- 
sents little more than an initial exposure to subject matter areas. Within 
the Smithsonian a young scholar may increase his mastery of their stub- 
born factualness and many subtleties with guidance and help from a 
mature investigator. 

The Office of Education and Training inaugurated a program of 
fellowship awards to promising graduate students who pursue the re- 
search required for the award of the Ph.D. under the super\dsion of a 



18 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

Smithsonian scientist or scholar. Fifty-three Ph.D.s, awarded by the 
students' home universities^ were earned within the Smithsonian in 
the year under review, twenty-five of them at the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory which enjoys a close cooperative relationship with 
Harvard University. Indeed, the appointment of Fred L. Whipple as 
PhilHps Professor of Astronomy at Harvard, coincident with new tenure 
appointments for Charles Whitney and Owen Gingerich, was welcome 
evidence of the strength of the bond which links these two institutions. 

With the support of the National Humanities Endowment the Office 
of Education and Training inaugurated a program to train future 
museum scholars. With help from Eugene Wallen and Richard Wood- 
bury, the Office sought and successfully obtained financial aid from 
the National Science Foundation for a program of summer research 
assistantships for outstanding undergraduates. Nathaniel R. Dixon, one 
of the most accomplished and innovative educators in the field of pri- 
mary and secondary education, left his position as principal of Scott- 
Montgomery Elementary School in the District of Columbia to join the 
Office of Education and Training as Associate Director and head of a 
newly established Division of Primary and Secondary Education in July 
of 1967. Mr. Dixon succeeded in redesigning the duties of that division's 
staff of five instructors in a way that forged a most effective instrument 
for placing the resources of the Smithsonian at the disposal of the na- 
tion's schools. Through the efforts of the Institution's scholarly staff and 
with the help of its Office of Education and Training, the Bureau of 
Graduate Education proposed in 1901 for the Smithsonian by the 
predecessor of the Association of Land-Grant Colleges and by other 
prominent educators has at long last become a reality. 

Our Office of Education and Training has been reconstituted as the 
Office of Academic Programs under Mr. Blitzer's successor, Philip C. 
Ritterbush. The change of name signifies the Smithsonian's desire to 
continue its development as an auxiliary of academic institutions at 
every level, while perhaps reminding us that education in its broad 
popular sense is a much more widely diffused function of the entire 
Institution in its public service role. The initial objective of the Office 
in its new guise is to expand formal instructional activity : seminars, sur- 
vey courses, and tutorials. The President's Office of Science and Tech- 
nology has proposed, in a very welcome series of recommendations 
which Mr. Ritterbush helped originally to formulate, that the unique 
research facilities of the federal government be made available to uni- 
versities to the maximum practical extent. Expanded programs of visit- 
ing research appointments and further increases in our educational 
activities have been underscored as national policy objectives which 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 19 



Mt^ 




"The Familiars" by Paul Klee. This 1927 ink drawing was in an exhibition of 
biological imagery in modern art, about which subject Philip Ritterbush wrote 
a book-length essay entitled The Art of Organic Forms. 



are most happily in concert with these recent trends in the Institution. 
The Smithsonian Council met in October and April, serving admira- 
bly in its role as a forum for the discussion of the development of pro- 
grams in higher education and research. One recommendation was that 
the Institution come to a full recognition of the professional value of 
teaching activities in its evaluation of the professional accomplish- 
ments of staff members. Another recommendation was that certain 
special exhibits, especially interdisciplinary or experimental exhibits, 
be regarded as illustrations or iconography for books that should be 
written at the same time. Not only would this result in a richer yield of 
books and exhibits, but it would permit exhibits to be reviewed as 
scholarly statements by our professional staff members. In response to 
this suggestion Mr. Ritterbush undertook to write a book-length essay 
about an exhibit which was mounted under his direction in the Museum 
of Natural History^ in June. A display of biological imagery in modern 
art, the exhibit evoked the esthetic dimension of the diversity of natural 
forms in the setting of a museum of natural history. The book, The Art 
of Organic Forms, was dedicated to our colleague, G. Evelyn Hutchin- 
son, Sterling Professor of Zoology at Yale University and a member 
of the Smithsonian Council. 



20 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 68 




Signing of an agreement transferring administration of Cooper Union Museum 
to the Smithsonian Institution. To be known as the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, the 
name honors the founders, who were granddaughters of Peter Cooper and 
daughters of Abram S. Hewitt. Participating in the signing are, left to right, 
Henry F. duPont, chairman, and Albert Edelman, legal counsel, of the Cooper 
Union Museum Charitable Trust; Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley; Dr. 
Richard F. Humphreys, president, and Daniel Maggin, chairman of the Board 
of Trustees, of Cooper Union; and Smithsonian legal counsel Peter Powers. 



Another theme for discussion in meetings of the Council has been how 
best to organize our efforts in research and exhibition in order to take 
full advantage of interdisciplinary opportunities. The potential in- 
herent in our collections can rarely be seen in entirety from the vantage 
point of a single discipline. Coins fascinate the metallurgist, the his- 
torian of economics and trade, and the student of social customs, as 
well as the specialized collector. The Council has conducted extensive 
discussions of the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum, of proposed pro- 
grams in folklife and American studies, and of projects still in the 
planning stage, including the National Air and Space Museum and the 
National Armed Forces Museum. During the year Professor Elting 
Morison of Yale University, Andre Schiffrin of Pantheon Books, and 
Dr. Gordon Ray of the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 21 

accepted imitations to serve on the Council, where their advice will be 
greatly valued. 

In this year the Smithsonian acquired a new museum, received con- 
tract authorization and an initial appropriation to construct a second, 
and acquired the largest collection of gold coins ever assembled by one 
person. The new museum is the Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Design in 
New York City, the first museum created to be entirely devoted to the 
decorative arts in this country. The continued existence of the museum 
had come into question in 1963 when the Trustees of its parent insti- 
tution. Cooper Union, decided that the growing costs of providing free 
tuition to its schools of art, architecture, and engineering made it im- 
possible to afford to retain the museum. A survey of the possibilities for 
the museum's future was undertaken by the American Association of 
Museums assisted by the New York State Council on the Arts. As a 
result, the Smithsonian Institution was suggested as the organization best 
suited by the nature of its founding philosophy to act to retain the very 
important collections of the museum intact and available to those in- 
terested in the study of all aspects of design in the human environment. 

Shortly after the museum's future came into question a committee 
of citizens was formed, which is called the Committee To Save the 
Cooper Union Museum. The committee was extremely active in bring- 
ing about the present addition of the museum to the Smithsonian or- 
ganization, and has pledged itself to the financial support of the museum. 
On 9 October an agreement was signed by Mr. Daniel Maggin, Chair- 
man of the Board of Trustees of Cooper Union, and the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution that administration of the museum would be 
transferred to the Smithsonian. On 14 May 1968 the Supreme Court 
of the State of New York ruled that this transfer could be accomplished 
and the museum is now legally an entity within the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

The museum's collections include a large and outstanding group of 
design drawings — primarily French and Italian — from the sixteenth cen- 
tury to the present, textiles, wallpaper, ceramics and glass, metalwork. 
furniture and ephemera, as well as drawings by American and Euro- 
pean artists. Richard Wunder as an Assistant Director of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts and a former curator at the Cooper Union, has 
been appointed the first Director, and a Board of Advisers has been 
formed under the Chairmanship of Henry F. du Pont who has been 
a primary supporter of the Cooper Union Museum for many years. 

The Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden moved a 
step closer toward fulfillment with the enactment by the 90th Congress 
of the necessary legislation to guarantee its construction within the next 



22 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

three years. Ground breaking for the new structure should take place 
in January 1969. 

In its first Smithsonian year the Hirshhorn Museum, under Director 
Abram Lerner, moved with accelerated momentum toward three related 
goals : the acquisition of new paintings and sculptures, the development 
of plans and programs for the new museum on the Mall being designed 
by architect Gordon Bunshaft. and the continuation of its services to 
scholars and institutions involved in the history of modem American 
and European art. Mr. Hirshhorn' s generosity led in 1968 to the ac- 
quisition of more than five hundred new paintings and sculptures, rang- 
ing historically from antiquity to the works of today's young creators. 
To its renowned group of European and American sculpture of the nine- 
teenth and twentieth centuries, the collection in 1968 added significant 
works of Bourdelle, Chryssa, di Suvero, Dubuffet, Gabo, Lachaise, 
Lichtenstein, Miro, Pevsner, Rodin, Smith, and von Schlegell. 

The collection's paintings focus on the twentieth century. From the 
works of precursors such as Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer to the 
canvases of today, the course of painting in America, is covered in depth. 
Complementing the American section is a strong selection of paintings 
by modern and contemporary European masters. Notable paintings 
added to the collection in 1968 included works by: Agam, Diller, Du- 
buffet, Ernst, Frankenthaler, Miro, Mondrian, Pollock, Ruscha, Still, 
Vasarely, and Zox. 

For the past decade Mr. Hirshhorn has been known as one of the 
nation's most generous lenders and the collection is a major source for 
museums and art historians preparing retrospective exhibitions, biogra- 
phies, and catalogues raisonnes of twentieth-century artists. In 1968 
more than fifty queries were received weekly for research information, 
loans, photographs, or permission to view specific works. Although, due 
to limited physical facilities, only two hundred visiting scholars, artists, 
and officials could be greeted at the collection office and warehouse in 
New York, more than five hundred paintings and sculptures from the 
collection were loaned to museums and galleries throughout the world, 
notably to the Dada exhibition at New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, 
to the de Kooning, Hooper, and Hepworth retrospectives, the Pittsburgh 
International, to three exhibits at the Smithsonian galleries in Wash- 
ington, and to the Tovish Retrospective in New York. 

The Josiah K. Lilly Collection of gold coins came to the Smithsonian 
as the result of bills introduced by Congressman William G. Bray (H.R. 
12940) and Senator Birch Bayh (S. 2409) of Indiana, passed by the 
Congress and signed by the President on 4 June 1968. The collection 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 23 

comprises some 6,125 coins valued at $5,534,808, and has been de- 
scribed as surpassing any other known hoard of gold coins amassed by 
one person. The United States section, in which the Smithsonian had 
been woefully deficient, is in itself of surpassing importance, being vir- 
tually complete. There is no museum in the Western World which has 
a comparable collection. Although the Lilly estate is paying a federal 
estate tax and an Indiana state tax on the collection, the preservation of 
the collection intact for the nation was deemed sufficiently Important 
that congressional action was requested to sequester in this manner the 
Lilly coins which otherwise would have been dispersed. No provision 
under Mr. Lilly's will existed which could be invoked to keep intact his 
numismatic treasure. The lawyers of the Lilly estate deserve the greatest 
credit for their foresight in securing this collection for the nation. 

This year has seen considerable expansion in the Institution's inter- 
national activities which have passed under the direction of David 
Challinor. William Warner, first director of this office, has moved to 
become Acting Assistant Secretary for Public Service. In the four years 
that he has served in international activities, Mr. Warner has served 
the Smithsonian brilliantly; his prior knowledge gained from the De- 
partment of State and the Peace Corps has proved invaluable in re- 
asserting the Smithsonian's traditional interest in international research 
services and specialized cultural exchange. 

In this year the Smithsonian, in collaboration with the National 
Academy of Sciences has been able to be of some value to the Depart- 
ment of Defense in providing advice on the subject of the relative value 
of fragile and unique natural environments such as the island of Aldabra 
in the Indian Ocean. In addition, we have helped to work toward set- 
ting up a continuing ad hoc advisory committee on ecological change, 
an area historically of primary concern to the Institution. This century 
may see the inception of the largest, most critical experiment conducted 
by man in altering the environment, the trans-isthmian sea-level canal 
connecting the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean. This is the reopening 
of a barrier closed for the last fifteen million years, with presently in- 
calculable potential changes in marine and associated conditions around 
the Caribbean basin and the eastern Pacific. Although its resources are 
limited, the Smithsonian has not only initiated interest and concern in 
the problems throughout the biological community, but also has under- 
taken with the approval of the Atlantic-Pacific Interoceanic Canal Com- 
mission, the first studies in marine ecology, including sample hybridiz- 
ing experiments at its Tropical Research Station in Panama. 



24 



SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 




President Bourguiba of Tunisia 
at the Smithsonian luncheon in 
his honor, 17 May 1968, with 
Secretary Ripley and Chancellor 
Earl Warren. 



Under David Challinor's energetic leadership, the Office of Inter- 
national Activities has initiated preliminary scientific and cultural 
agreements with several countries, notably with Tunisia and Iran. In 
addition Mr. Challinor's special interests in forestry and conservation 
have enabled him to negotiate agreements with the United Fruit Com- 
pany and the Organization for Tropical Studies for the development of 
the Lancetilla, Honduras, station of United Fruit Company, as an 
ecological research center, and to develop an agreement with the United 
States Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife for ecological research on 
St. Vincent Island off the west coast of Florida. 

Tropical research already engages several of our bureaus. To these 
must be added the National Zoological Park which in this past year 
has developed increasing concern for the problems of the preservation J 
of rare and endangered species. Working closely with the Survival Serv- ■ 
ice Commission of the International Union for the Conservation of 
Nature (of which Assistant Director John Perry is a member) the 
Zoological Park has undertaken to initiate studies of the preservation 
and breeding of rare species. Aided by a much-valued grant from the 
National Geographic Society, the Director, Theodore H. Reed, will 
head an expedition to Kenya to study bongo antelope in the Aberdare 
mountains, and to attempt their capture and transport to the Zoo. 
The Zoo's resident scientist, John F. Eisenberg, has continued his work 
in Ceylon, aided by our veterinarian, Clinton Gray, working with the 
Ceylon government in immobilizing techniques with elephants, as part of 
a three-year study of the ecology of this threatened form. 

As part of our mandate to develop research in the American tropics, 
the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute continues its valuable 
studies under Martin Moynihan's perceptive direction. The central 
theme of these studies is to obtain information which will explain why 
tropical biotas and environments are different from those of other parts f 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 25 

of the world. We are still very far from answering this question, but 
the question is important and becoming urgent. The answers (and they 
will certainly be multiple) will not only be interesting from a theoretical 
scientific point of view, but should also provide base-line information 
for intelligent planning of human activities and for management of the 
environment in large parts of the world. 

Gamma-ray astronomy is the observing of the effects of gamma radia- 
tion, which is the electromagnetic radion in the high-frequency range 
of the spectrum. Because of its high penetration through galactic and 
intergalactic matter, its direct and simple relationship to nuclear reac- 
tions that act as fundamental energy sources, and its direct relation- 
ship to high-energy electrons and protons, gamma radiation is a particu- 
larly important probe for cosmological studies. Measurement of the flux, 
energy spectra, and arrival direction of gamma rays can help us solve 
some of the fundamental problems of cosmology, such as the origin 
of cosmic rays, the density of cosmic radiation in the galaxy and in 
intergalactic space, the density and composition of galactic and inter- 
galactic matters, the presence of antimatter in the universe, the hypoth- 
esis of the continuous creation of matter, and the strength of galactic 
and intergalactic magnetic fields. 

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's large optical reflector 
for the detection of cosmic gamma-ray sources has been installed on 
Mount Hopkins in Arizona. This 34-foot-diameter, altitude-azimuth 
mounted instrument consists of 252 hexagonal mirrors focused on an 
array of photomultiplier tubes. The direct detection of cosmic gamma 
rays is generally not feasible. Now, however, electronic techniques allow 
the counting of light pulses, of very short duration and low intensity, 
that are created in our atmosphere by bombarding gamma rays. It is 
this indirect effect — called Cerenkov radiation — that is to be observed 
at Mount Hopkins with the large reflector. 

The Observatory is operating at Mount Hopkins a new prototype 
laser satellite-tracking system. Correlated with the erection of this new 
instrument, the nearest Baker-Nunn satellite tracking camera has 
been moved from New Mexico, and a more advanced system installed 
at Mount Hopkins. The new system consists of a ruby laser that illumi- 
nates with high-energy light pulses retroreflector-equipped satellites. The 
reflected pulse is observed with a 20-inch telescope mounted on the same 
pointing pedestal and parallel with the laser. The time inter\'al between 
laser firing and the receipt of the reflection provides a value of the 
range. 

Depending upon the evaluation of this model, several other systems 
will be set up at selected Smithsonian astrophysical observing stations 

315-997 O - 69 - 3 




Installation of the new 84-foot 
radio antenna of the Smithso- 
nian-Harvard observatories was 
completed early in 1968. 



located around the world. These range observations, combined with 
photographic observations, will substantially increase the capability of 
the satellite-tracking network, thereby opening new horizons of inves- 
tigation, particularly with respect to geophysical-dynamical processes 
within the earth. When applied to satellite geodesy, this new ranging 
technique should produce an accuracy in the measurement of continen- 
tal distances to about one meter and eventually an accuracy sufficient 
for possible observations of continental drift. 

Early in 1968, installation of the new 84-foot radio antenna at 
Agassiz station in Harvard, Massachusetts, was completed. The dish 
was acquired from the Army Materiels Command in Huntsville, Ala- 
bama. A joint undertaking of the Smithsonian and Harvard observa- 
tories, this facility provides a more accurate surface, larger area, and 
improved instrumentation over the dish previously available. The instru- 
ment already is being used for major investigations of atomic and molec- 
ular constituents in the interstellar medium. 

A new analysis of observations by the observatory's Prairie Network 
shows that the mass flux of relatively large meteoroids exceeds, by 
several orders of magnitude, both that inferred from meteorite falls 
and that estimated from an extrapolation of small-meteor data. The 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 



27 




Classes conducted for members of the 
Smithsonian Associates give them first- 
hand knowledge of the materials and 
methods of science. Above, botany; 
right, oceanography. 




earlier suggestion that this material is either fragile or of low density 
has been reinforced by recent observations. 

Each year that passes brings us to a keener realization of the finite 
qualities of our earth and solar system and also the need for refining 
our observations and developing new criteria for critical measure- 
ments. To no men are given God-like powers. We do not as yet have 
the wisdom to observe every leaf that falls or to know the fate of every 
living organism. Rather we come to an increasing awareness of the 
continuing crudity of our measurements, and the need for continuing 
study, and for alertness to minute symptoms of environmental change. 
In this connection, using the facilities and interests of several of our 
member bureaus, a Center for the Study of Short-Lived Phenomena 
has been established by the Smithsonian Institution. Its purpose is to 
assist our scientists in their investigation of short-lived phenomena and 
to provide a reporting and information service for the scientific com- 
munity. The Center is serving as a clearinghouse for the receipt and 
dissemination of information concerning rare natural events that might 
otherwise go unobserved or uninvestigated, such as remote volcanic 
eruptions and earthquakes, the birth of new islands, the fall of meteorites 
and large fireballs, and sudden changes in biological systems. 

The Board of Regents of the Smithsonian recorded with deep sorrow 
the death on 28 November 1967 of Robert Vedder Fleming, Regent 
since 1947 and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board 
of Regents since November 1947. 



28 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 19 68 

Dr. Caryl P. Haskins was appointed Chairman ad interim of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee (Permanent Committee). The present membership 
of the Board is given on page iii. The Board approved the appoint- 
ment during the year of Charles Blitzer as Assistant Secretary for His- 
tory and Art; William W. Warner as Acting Assistant Secretary for 
Public Service; Russell Shank as Director, Smithsonian Institution Li- 
braries; T. Ames Wheeler as Treasurer; Leonard B. Pouliot as Director, 
Personnel Division; and Frederic M. Philips as Director, Office of Pub- 
lic Affairs. 

For their confidence in the role of the Smithsonian, I as Secretary 
am deeply grateful to these men and their many colleagues. If the 
Institution is to succeed in its curious mission, to make relevant its col- 
lections, to delineate truths derived from them and to make clearer 
our arduous path upon this planet, then all must bind themselves in 
a common cause, for never has our task seemed more formidable, its 
horizons vaguer, its parameters less clear. We live in an uncertain 
world plagued by doubts, full of strident voices calling out. Which 
voices should we heed? Certainty is not measured by decibels, nor is 
certainty greatly aided by sight, for often black is white, white is black, 
and only gray remains. If sound and sight so betray us, there is at 
least a magic certainty in touch. Somehow in a time of change and 
convulsion we cling to objects, seeking in them a sense of continuity, 
a validation of the past and some support in thoughts upon the future. 



THE BOARD OF REGENTS 

The annual meeting of the Board of Regents was held on 25 January 
1968 in the Fine Arts and Portrait Galleries Building at 9th and G 
Streets NW. The Board toured the restored building and previewed 
exhibitions being prepared for the formal opening of the building in 
May 1968. Dr. David Scott, Director of the National Collection of Fine 
Arts, and Charles Nagel, Director of the National Portrait Gallery, 
described their respective collections and galleries. 

The spring meeting of the Board of Regents was held on 8 May 1968 
on board the Presidential yacht Honey Fitz at the invitation of the Vice 
President. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 



29 



SMITHSONIAN MEDALS 

Dr. David E. Finley, first Director of the National Gallery of Art, on 
19 July 1967 was awarded the Smithsonian's Henry Medal. Vice Presi- 
dent Hubert H. Humphrey, who made the presentation at ceremonies 
in the Great Hall, cited him for his distinguished service to the city of 
Washington and the nation over thirty years as "an arbiter of taste, a 
moulder of form, and a conservator of all that is eclectic." 

The Hemy Medal — created in honor of Joseph Henr)', distinguished 
for his discoveries in electromagnetism and first Secretary of the Institu- 
tion (1846-1878) — was designed by William Barber, Engraver of the 
United States Mint, and his son, Charles E. Barber, following Secretary 
Henry's death. Dr. Finley is the first individual to be awarded the Medal 
by vote of the Regents of the Institution, though the first few struck were 
presented to Henry's friends and associates in 1879 on the first anniver- 
sary of his death. 

The Henry Medal was also awarded to Frank A. Taylor, who has 
served the Smithsonian \vith distinction under five of its eight Secretar- 
ies. In making the presentation on 5 June 1968, Senator Claiborne Pell 
cited Taylor as — 

A man in whose breast the word "museum" has never struck terror, for 
forty-seven years a sturdy pillar of the Smithsonian, your persistence and 
imagination guided the Museum of History and Technology from drawing 
board to final completion against all odds, creating in the process the first 
evolutionary history museum with research programs and changing exhibits. 




Vice President Humphrey, Smithsonian Secretary Ripley, and Dr. David E. 
Finley, first director of the National Gallery of Art at the July ceremonies during 
which the Vice President presented the Smithsonian's Henry Medal to Dr. Finley. 
Right, Senator Claiborne Pell presents the Henry Medal to Frank A. Taylor of 
the Smithsonian in June. 



30 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

The Smithson Medal, the Smithsonian Institution's highest award, 
was presented by Secretary Ripley on 3 May 1968 to Edgar P. Richard- 
son for helping "to shape the course of art scholarship in this country, 
interweaving the two streams of history and of men into effective unity." 

Secretary Ripley termed Dr. Richardson — formerly Director of the 
Detroit Institute of Arts and the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur 
Museum and Chairman of the Smithsonian Art Commission until the 
end of 1967 — an "historian of American art without peer," and said: 
"Your contributions to the unravelling of the mysteries of the conduits, 
channels, bypasses and rivulets of the watershed of art history in its 
tangled skeins across the map of America have been fundamental to our 
understanding." 

Dr. Richardson is the second Smithson Medal winner. Established in 
1965, the medal was first awarded to the Royal Society of London dur- 
ing ceremonies marking the 200th anniversary of the birth of James 
Smithson. 



FINANCES 

The Institution derives its financial support from both federal and 
private sources. These include annual appropriations from Congress for 
operating expenses of the various Smithsonian museums, its educational 
and research centers, and its separate program of academic grants for 
overseas research projects financed from "excess" foreign currencies. 
Federal appropriations are also received for construction programs and, 
through the government of the District of Columbia, for support of the 
National Zoological Park. Substantial funding is received also from 
federal agencies and private institutions in the form of research 
grants and contracts, of which a large part goes to the Smithsonian 
Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Finally, pri- 
vate endowments and gifts support the Freer Gallery and numerous 
other specifically identified exhibition, educational, and research areas 
and provide relatively small but highly important added financing of 
new, innovative programs which have led to forward-looking improve- 
ments for the whole range of Smithsonian activities. 



STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 31 

For the year ended 30 June 1968 financial support for Smithsonian 
operations was received as follows: 

Federal appropriations : 

Salaries and expenses — normal activities $24^ 535, 000 

Special foreign currency program 2, 316, 000 

District of Columbia: operation of National Zoo- 
logical Park 2, 348, 000 
Research grants and contracts (federal and private) 11, 303, 000 
Private funds: 

Gifts (excluding gifts to endowment funds) 469, 000 

Income from endowments and current fund 

investments 1,238,000 



Total $42, 209, 000 

A federal appropriation of $3,082,000 was also made to the National 
Gallery of Art (a bureau of the Smithsonian Institution under a separate 
Board of Trustees) for operating salaries and expenses. Finances of the 
National Gallery of Art and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Per- 
forming Arts are discussed in their separate sections oi Smithsonian Year. 

Federal appropriations to finance construction projects were received 
as follows: 

National Zoological Park $400, 000 
Restoration and renovation of buildings 1, 125,000 
Toward construction of Joseph H. Hirshhorn Mu- 
seum and Sculpture Garden 803, 000 



Total $2, 328, 000 

Additional information concerning the private funds of the Institu- 
tion, including a statement of gifts received in the current fiscal year 
and the auditor's financial report, is shown in Appendix 1. 

As outlined in these appended statements of private funds, Smith- 
sonian endowments have a total year-end book value of about 
$24,750,000 (market value— $33,220,000) . This was an increase during 
the fiscal year of $1,678,000 in book value (mainly $632,000 from gifts 
and $687,000 from gain realized on sale of securities) ; market value in- 
creased by $3,041,000. Roughly one-half of these endowment funds is 
dedicated to support of the Freer Gallery and another one-quarter is 
designated for support of other valuable endeavors in specific fields of 
research and education. The remaining quarter (about $6,200,000) is 



32 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1968 

unrestricted as to use of income; together with other investments in 
current fund accounts it produces about $350,000 of income annually. 

These private funds permit the Smithsonian to introduce improve- 
ments in exhibit techniques, experimental museum programs, and mod- 
ernizations such as the use of computer operations. Additional private 
funds are needed to expand these efTorts beyond the necessarily limited 
steps which can be taken with federally appropriated monies. They 
would permit, for example, the development of infonuation-retrieval 
systems for library and museum collections, added research studies in 
such newly developing fields as oceanography, ecology, and radiation 
biology, and added emphasis upon museum training and education. The 
results would be disseminated to the benefit of other museums and 
educational institutions throughout the nation. 

Thus renewed attention will be given to the securing of additional 
private funds in order to make possible valuable specific projects of 
interest to contributors and to the Smithsonian. Such funds will support 
further innovation and add new strengths and vitality to established 
Smithsonian operations. 



Office of Academic Programs 

Philip C. Ritterbush, Director 

THE BEST SIGN OF PROGRESS IN EDUCATION is change in the curricula 
of instruction, which must not be permitted to settle into final form. 
Patterns of knowledge constantly change and students discover rele- 
vance in differing ways. During this academic year the Smithsonian 
inaugurated a division of elementary and secondaiy education to draw 
upon collections, exhibits, audo-visual materials, and other Smithsonian 
resources to augment and improve curricula for the nation's schools. 
Under the learership of Nathaniel R. Dixon, Associate Director of the 
Office of Academic Programs (he was formerly principal of Scott-Mont- 
gomery Elementary School), the Institution has embarked upon a 
purposeful exploration of new kinds of educational experience for 
students at all levels of primary and secondary education. 

Up to this year and continuing, we hope, for the future the Institu- 
tion's principal services for schools have been escorted tours for school- 
children, made possible by financial support and volunteer members 
from the Junior League of Washington, the Smithsonian Associates, and 
other organizations, who this year conducted visits for 30,352 children 
totaling 1,010 hours of instruction in Smithsonian museums and gal- 
leries. Throughout the week these ladies are to be found in the halls of 
the museums explaining the story of exhibits to enthralled groups of 
children. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the assistance of the chairman 
of Smithsonian volunteers, Mrs. George C. Gerber, and those members 
listed on page 38, who were presented certificates of accomplishment at a 
special recognition ceremony on 26 June. 

Instructors from the Division staflF help to train volunteer docents 
and they also write, for educational visits, guides which develop broad 
themes beyond the confines of any one exhibit hall. How cultural dif- 
ferences reveal diflferent modes of adaptation to man's physical en- 
vironment was the subject of one such guide developed this year for 
the Museum of Natural History, while in the Museum of History 
and Technology teaching guides were prepared on the war for American 
independence and the industrial revolution. Special new courses on 
Negro history and the relation of animal to human behavior were tested 
by instructors of the Division in summer 1968 under the guidance of 

33 



34 OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 

Mrs. Marjorie Halpin. The second annual holiday lectures for Wash- 
ington area schoolchildren were given by Professor Vincent Scully of 
Yak University, a noted authority on the history of art and architecture 
and a compelling teacher. The public schools of the District of Co- 
lumbia have cooperated enthusiastically, even assigning teachers to 
summer work at the Smithsonian, where they have written, for use in 
museums, special course materials on such topics as the biology of re- 
production and the opening of the American west, as these may be 
studied through exhibits in the Museum of Natural History. An un- 
usual exhibition — conceived in the days following the assassination of 
Martin Luther King — presented children's drawings of the civil dis- 
turbances which occurred, accompanied by their own words about the 
events of that trying period. The exhibit was prepared by the Division 
staff under the guidance of Michael Sands, a talented designer from 
the Education Development Center of Cambridge, Massachusetts, who 
captured something of the stark feeling of social conflict by mounting 
the drawings on a simple backdrop of cardboard cartons. The exhibit 
helped to demonstrate the value of engaging schoolchildren in confron- 
tations with situations of social stress, from which the schools could not 
in any event have insulated them. 

The Division also works to produce special audio-visual materials 
such as film strips, teaching films, and various kinds of kits and models. 
By producing exhibits for schools it may be possible to introduce into 
the classroom qualities of spontaneity and delight which inhere in the 
best exhibits. Much the same should be done for community colleges 
and other institutions of higher education, in ways which would involve 
cooperative undertakings uniting students, faculty, and Smithsonian 
staff. Such exhibits should embody changing features and content 
contributed by the host institution, in a setting conducive to the free 
exchange of ideas. In its relationship to academic institutions the 
museum can serve as an experimental theater of learning devoted to a 
wide variety of subjects. 



PROGRAMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH TRAINING 

The Office of Academic Programs awarded 138 fellowships and asso- 
ciateships in the course of the year to investigators conducting research 
in Smithsonian facilities. These appointments, listed in Appendix 6, 
are the basis for a wide variety of associated activities in higher educa- 
tion. The development of programs of higher education and research 
training, spanning the final years of graduate school and post-doctoral 
work directly following, is the responsibility of the Division of Fellow- 



ACADEMIC PROGRAMS 35 

ships. In June Peter H. Wood joined the staff" to supervise these activities. 
He has been associated with research enterprises in many contexts, in- 
cluding his own research on geography and environmental sciences, 
management experience with the Arctic Committee for the Interna- 
tional Geophysical Year and the Arctic Institute of North America, and 
a study of the institutional structure of western European research 
organizations. Cooperation in higher education occurs within a complex 
institutional setting which requires constant study of university pro- 
grams, especially in the Smithsonian's immediate geographical setting, 
the nation's capital, where since 1965 the Institution has conducted 
special studies of the relationships among institutions in research and 
higher education. As Assistant Director for Institutional Research Mr. 
Wood will oversee a wide range of surveys and special studies to guide 
planning for higher education within the Smithsonian. Appointments 
and associated instruction will be conducted in accord with nine pro- 
grams of higher education and research training, whose activities for 
academic year 1967-1968 are summarized in the following sections: 

In American Studies, the program conducted by historians from 
the Museum of History and Technology, the National Portrait Gallery, 
and the National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board, a total of 
37 credit hours (equivalent) of instruction was offered. The graduate 
survey course in American material culture, conceived and designed by 
Wilcomb E. Washburn and Robert H. Walker, Professor of American 
Civilization at George Washington University, was offered for the third 
consecutive year with an enrollment of fourteen. Several students con- 
ducted their independent research assignments out in the field as proj- 
ects in historic-site archeology, such as a survey of the Seneca quarry 
or a study of the early history of the Potomac canals. Six graduate stu- 
dents enrolled for graduate-level tutorials for academic credit, princi- 
pally in military history and political history, and a total of seven Ph.D.s 
and one master's degree were earned under the supervision of Smith- 
sonian historians. Three post-doctoral associates and three Ph.D. can- 
didates held visiting appointments from the Office of Academic Pro- 
grams, w^hile three members of the Smithsonian staff held some form 
of university appointment. 

In Anthropology and Cultural Studies a total of 18 credit hours 
(equivalent) of instruction was offered, primarily as supervision of 
undergraduates. One post-doctoral associate held a visiting appointment 
from the Office of Academic Programs and one Ph.D was earned. Six 
members of the professional staff held some form of university 
appointment. 



36 OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 

In Environmental Biology the Institution has a wide array of 
facilities and professional staff interests, including the Radiation Biology 
Laboratory, the Office of Oceanography and Limnology, the Office of 
Ecology with the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology, and the 
National Zoological Park. Twenty credit hours (equivalent) of instruc- 
tion was oflfered, including a twelve-week graduate-level survey course 
offered for the second consecutive year in cooperation with the D.C. 
Consortium of Universities. This year's topic, which drew an average 
evening attendance in excess of two hundred students, was the biology 
of developmental processes at the supra-molecular level. The Secretary 
conferred a special award upon Walter Shropshire for his imaginative 
work in developing this unusually successful survey course. One post- 
doctoral associate held a visiting appointment from the Office of Aca- 
demic Programs. One master's degree and one Ph.D. were earned under 
the supervision of Smithsonian staff members, of whom seven in this 
field held some form of appointment at universities. 

In Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology (Tropical Zones) the 
staff of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute maintained a high 
level of educational activity, 45 credit hours (equivalent) with a staff 
of seven. A weekly course on animal behavior was offered for graduate 
students and other resident investigators, of whom two post-doctoral 
associates and six Ph.D. candidates were on visiting appointments from 
the Office of Academic Programs. Seven Ph.D.s were earned and three 
members of the staff held appointments at universities. 

In Evolutionary and Systematic Biology, comprising the biologi- 
cal research departments of the Museum of Natural History, the Smith- 
sonian employs a professional staff of 74 investigators of whom 26 hold 
university appointments. One master's degree and twelve Ph.D.s were 
earned under their supervision in 1967-68. The total level of instruction 
offered, including such supervision and thirteen tutorials, was the equiv- 
alent of 74 credit hours. Seven post-doctoral associates and eight 
Ph.D. candidates held visiting appointments from the Office of Aca- 
demic Programs. 

In the History of Art no appointments were made by the Office of 
Academic Programs and no degrees were earned. The National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts is now established in adequate quarters and looks for- 
ward to participating in programs of higher education and research 
training as its staff expands. Members of the staff of the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts participated in 8 credit hours (equivalent) of in- 
struction, principally in supervising visiting students. 

In the History of Science and Technology fourteen members of 
the Smithsonian staff offered 28 credit hours (equivalent) of instruc- 



ACADEMIC PROGRAMS 37 

tion. Dr. Uta Merzbach spent the fall term and Edwin Battison the 
spring term teaching at the University of Pennsylvania under the co- 
operative program in this field. Three Ph.D.s were earned. Nathan 
Reingold, editor of the Joseph Henry Papers, conducted an informal 
seminar on nineteenth-century topics. Two post-doctoral associates and 
three Ph.D. candidates held appointments from the Office of Academic 
Programs. 

In Museum Studies six members of the Smithsonian staff" offered 
6 credit hours (equivalent) of instruction in museum techniques. Much 
additional training was offered, although not for academic credit. For 
some years students in the graduate program in art history at George 
Washington University have enrolled for additional practical museum 
experience under the supervision of Smithsonian staff members, after 
taking a prerequisite course on museum operations offered by Robert 
Stewart of the National Portrait Gallery. This pattern of cooperative 
studies will be extended in coming years to offer wider opportunities 
for the study of museum principles to qualified graduate students from 
universities both here and abroad. 

In Physical Sciences, comprising the Department of Mineral 
Sciences of the Museum of Natural History and the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory, 79 credit hours (equivalent) of instruction was 
offered, almost entirely at the Astrophysical Observatory. Fred L. 
Whipple, its Director, was named Phillips Professor of Astronomy at 
Harvard this year, while Owen Gingerich and Charles Whitney both 
received tenure appointments, bringing to 42 the number of university 
appointments held by the Observatory staff. Two members of the staff of 
the Department of Mineral Sciences hold academic appointments at 
universities. Two post-doctoral associates and one Ph.D. candidate held 
visiting appointments from the Office of Academic Programs this year. 
Five master's degrees and 23 Ph.D.s were earned, while a total of 47 
tutorials was offered. 



PROGRAMS OF ADVANCED STUDIES 

In May the noted British ecologist, Charles Elton, was named a 
Fellow of the Smithsonian Institution. This appointment enables him to 
conduct studies in animal ecology in Washington, but also at the special 
Area de Pesquisas Ecologicas do Guama field station near Belem, 
Brazil, operated with partial support from the Institution. Dr. Elton 
has retired as Director of the Bureau of Animal Population, which he 
founded in 1932, and has been Reader in Animal Ecology at the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. 



38 



OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 



VOLUNTEER DOCENTS 

Mrs. Ernest N. May, Jr., Chairman, Volunteer Advisory Board 
Mrs. John F. Forstmann, Assistant Chairman of Docents 



Mrs. Thomas A. Bradfordj Jr. 

Mrs. Warren E. Brockett 

Mrs. Alfred Brummel 

Mrs. Jonathon Bulkley 

Mrs, Ernest Chase 

Mrs. Colby A. Child 

Mrs. Joseph D. Chisholm 

Mrs. Donald B. Christman 

Mrs. Norman Cole 

Mrs. James L. Dooley 

Mrs. W. Kent Ford, Jr. 

Mrs. Rockwood H. Foster 

Mrs. John J. Fox, Jr. 

Mrs. George Fuller 

Mrs. David Gibson 

Mrs. Cary T. Grayson, Jr. 

Mrs. Robert M. Griswold 

Mrs. Francis L. Harmon 

Mrs. John Hart 

Mrs. Rutledge P. Hazzard 

Mrs. Clyde E. Herring 

Mrs. William A. Hessick, HI 

Mrs. John Hill 

Mrs. Robert Hodges 

Mrs. Edgar W. Holtz 



Mrs. Daniel F. Johnson 
Mrs. Ardon B. Judd 
Mrs. Clyde V. Kelly, Jr. 
Mrs. Robert M. Kimzey, Jr. 
Mrs. Charles Klopf 
Mrs. Joseph P. Lorenz 
Mrs. Keith Magnus 
Mrs. John A. Manfuso, Jr. 
Mrs. Craig Mathews 
Mrs. Robert J. McEachern 
Mrs. John Munhall, HI 
Mrs. Frederick North, Jr. 
Mrs. John E. Packard, HI 
Mrs. Steuart Pittman 
Mrs. Barefoot Sanders 
Mrs. Richard F. Shryock 
Mrs. John A. Simmons 
Mrs. Richard B. Smith 
Mrs. John F. Snyder 
Mrs. Edwin F. Stetson 
Mrs. William R. Stratton 
Mrs. Larry Temple 
Mrs. Charles W. Turner 
Mrs. David Wysong 



Smithsonian Activities 



Public Service and Information 



Office of International Activities 

David Challinor, Acting Director 

T7XPANDED ACTIVITY of this Office during the year reflects the growth 
in the Smithsonian's overall interests around the world. The pri- 
mary role of the Office of International Activities remains one of coordi- 
nating and, where appropriate, initiating international programs and 
activities related to the interests of the Smithsonian. 

Representative of the kinds of government agencies and public and 
private organizations concerned with international matters with which 
the Office, as the Smithsonian's point of liaison, regularly keeps in touch 
are the Organization of American States, some of the unesco bodies, 
and the Institute of International Education. The Acting Director con- 
tinues to represent the Smithsonian formally or informally with such 
groups as the Department of State's Committee on International Edu- 
cation, the Southeast Asia Development Advisory Group, the American 
Subcommittee of the International Committee on Monuments, and 
similar groups. 

In February 1968 William W. Warner, the first director, who had 
successfully organized and guided the Office's activities, was appointed 
the Smithsonian's Acting Assistant Secretary for Public Service. He is 
succeeded by Acting Director David Challinor, who had originally joined 
the Office as Mr. Warner's deputy. 

Foreign Currency Program 

At the end of the third year of operations for the Smithsonian For- 
eign Currency Program, more than one hundred research grants had 
been awarded, benefiting the research programs abroad of more than 
forty American institutions of higher learning. The Program also con- 
tinued as a major source of support for the overseas work of the members 
of the Smithsonian's own scientific staff through grants to the Smith- 
sonian Research Foundation. The Program's appropriation of United 
States-owned "excess currencies" abroad, arising from the sale of agri- 
cultural commodities under Public Law 480, remained at the level 
of the previous year, or $2,316,000 in foreign currencies. The countries 
where the Program continues to support research with foreign cur- 

41 

315-997 O - 69 - 4 



42 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

rencies are: Burma, Ceylon, Egypt, Guinea, India, Israel, Pakistan, 
Poland, Tunisia, and Yugoslavia, with Morocco scheduled to be added 
in July 1968. Active projects are now going on in almost all of these 
countries and the lively interest of the American scientific community 
has resulted in the allocation of the entire appropriation to research 
grants. 

The scholarly focus of the Program is on disciplines of interest to the 
Smithsonian, notably anthropology in all its major aspects (although 
the Program began originally, as successor to a similar program within 
the State Department's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, 
with authority to award grants in archeology only) and systematic and 
environmental biology, especially those aspects related to the Interna- 
tional Biological Program (ibp). Together these disciplines comprise 
perhaps the broadest segment of the Smithsonian's institutional scien- 
tific interests. Under a broader authority from the Congress to award 
grants for "Museum Programs and Related Research," however, the 
Program has also begun making modest awards for work in other 
Smithsonian fields such as astrophysics, radiation biology, history, art, 
and museology. A major recommendation, by a policy committee con- 
vened to advise the Program, was that there be formed to decide on 
awards three new Advisory Councils patterned on the model of the 
Program's existing Advisory Council for Anthropology, which is com- 
posed of some of America's most distinguished scholars. These new 
panels would be composed of rotating members from the American 
scholarly community at large in the fields of earth and space science, the 
biological sciences, and history and art. 

The major geographical focus continued to be Egypt, Tunisia, India, 
Yugoslavia, Ceylon, and Israel where major programs are in progress. 
A list of grants awarded is contained in Appendix 2. In Egypt, Smith- 
sonian-funded work (including several archeological excavations and 
the epigraphic survey of the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute) 
was carried on despite the lack of diplomatic relations between the 
United States and the United Arab Republic. In Tunisia the Mediter- 
ranean Marine Sorting Center, under a new director, Neil C. Hulings, 
consolidated its operations as a major new factor in international co- 
operation in the marine sciences in the Mediterranean area. 

The number of archeological excavations sponsored by the Program 
in Yugoslavia increased from one last year — a salvage archeology proj- 
ect in the Trebisnjica Basin — to five, including sites as interesting and 
diverse as a prehistoric site in Obre, Bosnia, and an excavation inside 
the ancient walls of the enormous villa of the Roman Emperor Diocletian 
at modern Split. 



INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES 43 

In Ceylon, the broad program sponsored by the Smithsonian's Office 
of Ecology was expanded to include botanical studies that will lead to 
a revision of Trimen's definitive Flora of Ceylon. 

Israel — because of its unparalleled archeological riches and also be- 
cause of its high degree of scientific competence — has accomplished sig- 
nificant research in a diversity of disciplines including both marine 
and terrestrial biology, radiation biology, archeology, and astrophysics. 

India, where the largest amount of P.L. 480 funds exists, is now de- 
veloping as the major country for research under the Program, which 
from the beginning has financed there in conjunction with the John D. 
Rockefeller III Fund an institute for research in art-history and arche- 
ology called the American Academy of Benares. Since then projects 
as diverse as studies of the flora of the Hassan District and of the marine 
animals of the Bay of Bengal have developed. In April 1968 Program 
Director Kennedy B. Schmertz spent several weeks in India establish- 
ing procedures for projects to be carried out; the pattern is one of joint 
Indo-American collaborative research, with the Indian collaborator 
responsible for securing Indian approvals of proposed research and the 
American collaborator responsible for bringing forward viable proposals 
for consideration by the Smithsonian Advisory Councils. This pattern, 
employed in a number of countries, was first developed on a cooperative 
project in paleontology, between Yale University's Peabody Museum 
and the Punjab University, that has already resulted in important dis- 
coveries bearing upon the ancestors of man. 

While in South Asia the Program Director visited Pakistan, where 
previously only survey work had been accomplished, and there was en- 
couraged to submit for review by the Pakistani government a pilot co- 
operative research proposal in marine biology involving the University of 
Karachi and the Smithsonian. 

Secretary Ripley's visit to Tunisia in November, where he person- 
ally extended an invitation to President Bourguiba to visit the Smithso- 
nian, led to a major step forward in extending the Program's scope in 
that country. During President Bourguiba's visit in June, Dr. Ripley 
announced the acceptance by the Smithsonian of its role in a Tunisian- 
American research agreement soon to be signed by their governments- 



Foreign Visitor Program 

An important task of the Office of International Activities is to coordi- 
nate the travel and research plans of foreign scholars visiting the Smith- 
sonian. Among distinguished visitors received last year were museum 
directors from Uruguay, Honduras, Kenya, Sweden, Rumania, Ceylon, 



44 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

India, and Peru ; forestry and conservation officials from Ecuador, Peru, 
Bourguiba of Tunisia, during liis visit here, at which the host was Chief 
of State's Office of Protocol, the Office arranged a luncheon for President 
Bourguiba of Tunisia during his visit here, at which the host was Chief 
Justice Warren, Chancellor of the Smithsonian. 

Cooperative Programs 

The Office served as coordinator in negotiations between the Depart- 
ment of Defense, the National Academy of Sciences, and the British 
Royal Society in establishing the Indian Ocean island of Aldabra 
as an international conservation area. Similarly, the Office worked out 
an agreement for long-term ecological research at the new wildlife 
refuge on St. Vincent Island, Florida, and cooperated with the Depart- 
ment of Commerce in planning for the Federal Building at Hemisfair 
in San Antonio, Texas. 

This year also saw the fruition of almost two years of negotiations 
between the United Fruit Company, the Organization for Tropical 
Studies (a consortium of twenty-two universities and the Smithsonian), 
which resulted in the setting up of formal courses at the Lancetilla 
(Honduras) Botanical Gardens. A course in tropical forestry for twelve 
forestry faculty members was held there in January and February; 
this will be followed by regularly scheduled courses in tropical biology. 

The Office contributed to the Smithsonian's participation in the 
work of the International Biological Program (ibp) both through 
Foreign Currency Program support for such iBP-sponsored projects as 
the conference on conservation of arid lands, held at Hammanet, Tuni- 
sia, in April 1968, and through the participation on the Interagency 
Committee for the ibp. It assisted in planning the United States role 
in the forthcoming unesco conference on the Biosphere, to be held 
in Paris in September 1968. 



Smithsonian Institution Press 

Anders Richter, Director 

T N THE COURSE OF THE PAST YEAR, the Smithsonian Institution Press 
completed its fomial development as a university press by concluding 
arrangements for a full marketing program in domestic and foreign 
areas. Under terms of a distribution contract executed with Random 
House, Inc., effective 1 January 1968, the Random House sales force 
has begun exclusive representation of Smithsonian books to the retail, 
library, and institutional trade in the United States and Canada. The 
backlist has been pared to 36 titles that justify commercial rep- 
resentation, and seven new titles were announced for the Spring 1968 
season. In addition, the revised Press catalog of private publications for 
sale includes a number of softcover popular booklets and exhibit cata- 
logs which are excluded from the Random House trade agreement but 
are sold directly by the Press to the Smithsonian Shops and other cus- 
tomers. A large part of the Press inventory of privately funded books 
was transferred to the Random House distribution center in West- 
minster, Maryland, where order fulfillment and shipping services are 
provided. The Press business office and warehouse has retained a 
portion of inventory from which to fill orders received from the 
Smithsonian Shops, Smithsonian employees, the Smithsonian Associates, 
and from foreign customers. On 7 March 1968, a contract was executed 
with FeflFer and Simons, Inc., a foreign sales agency in New York City, 
for representation of Smithsonian publications in all foreign markets 
except Canada. 

The Press supported these new sales arrangements with an expanded 
advertising and promotion program. Blanchard Associates of Washing- 
ton, D.C., was commissioned as advertising agency, while the Press con- 
tinued its own management of direct mail advertising. The year's larg- 
est campaign was a Christmas promotion of art books in a brochure 
mailed to 36,700 names. A total of 25 space advertisements appeared 
in the New York Times Book Review, Washington Post, Choice, Ento- 
mological Society of America Bulletin, Art in America, Publishers 
Weekly, Library Journal, Book World, Museum News, Centaur Guide 
to University Press Books, Smithsonian Journal of History, and Harness 
Horse. As a result of the combined sales and advertising program, the 

45 



46 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

volume of publications sold increased to $100,678 from $41,563 in the 
previous year, a gain of 142 percent. 

The titles of 151 publications issued under the Smithsonian imprint 
during fiscal 1968 are listed in Appendix 3. Production costs of 121 
of these were funded by federal appropriation in the amount of $345,867 ; 
25 were supported by Smithsonian private funds in the amount of 
$179,723; and 1 publication was subsidized by grant in the amount of 
$925. Press output has increased from 87 works published in fiscal 1966 
to 130 in fiscal 1967 to 151 in the past year with no increase in Press 
staff ( 28 employees were on the roll on 30 June 1 968, the same number 
as two years earlier) . The growth in output will be arrested in the fu- 
ture, how^ever, by the inadequacy of federal funds appropriated for 
Press expenditures. By the end of January 1968, the Press had obligated 
all of its federal funds allocated to printing expenses in fiscal 1968 and, 
for the succeeding three months, declared a moratorium on submission 
of new manuscripts for publication at government expense. On 1 May 
manuscripts were again accepted for editorial preparation, to be printed 
in the following fiscal year. At the close of the year, a backlog of 36 
manuscripts totaling 7,500 pages was editorially in progress or on hand 
awaiting printing funds. 

Included in the year's issues were works of major importance. With 
Sao Paulo 9, the Press inaugurated its publication of the two biennial 
series of catalogs produced for the Venice and Sao Paulo international 
art exhibitions, under the auspices of the National Collection of Fine 
Arts. The record of the United States representation in alternate years 
at these two preeminent exhibitions will be a chronicle of the develop- 
ment of modern American art. The Press also issued the long-awaited 
guide to the Museum of History and Technology as a service to visitors 
of the most popular Smithsonian museum. Among the research mono- 
graphs and papers appearing in the Smithsonian series were two which 
epitomize the monumental chard^cter of scholarship which has repeatedly 
distinguished the imprint. Following publication of Volume 1, Part 5, of 
A Monograph of the Existing Crinoids, by Austin H. Clark and Ailsa 
McGown Clark, H. B. Fell of Harvard University wrote: "There can be 
no question that it is the one outstanding publication on echinoderms 
in 1967, and also it is obvious that it will be the standard work on the 
subject for at least the next hundred years." The appearance of this Part 
(Volume 2 remains uncompleted) terminates an undertaking initiated 
by A. H. Clark in 1915 and halted by his death in 1954. An even larger 
monument to scholarship was likewise concluded by publication of Life 
Histories of North American Cardinals, Grosbeaks, Buntings, Towhees, 
Finches, Sparrows, and Allies, in three parts. This publication completes 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 47 

a series covering the life histories of all North American birds in 23 
volumes. Conceived by Arthur Cleveland Bent in 1910, the first of these 
was published in 1919, and by the time of his death in 1954 at the age of 
89, Bent had seen through the press 19 volumes, covering the life 
histories of diving birds, gulls, terns, petrels, pelicans, wild fowl, marsh 
birds, shore birds, Gallinaceous birds, birds of prey, woodpeckers, 
cuckoos, goatsuckers, hummingbirds, flycatchers, larks, swallows, jays, 
crows, titmice, nuthatches, wrens, thrashers, thrushes, kinglets, wagtails, 
shrikes, vireos, and wood warblers. His literary executor, Wendell Taber, 
carried the series through the twentieth volume, including blackbirds, 
orioles, tanagers, and allies, before he died in 1960. The mantle then 
descended on Oliver L. Austin, Jr. who, with extraordinary energy and 
judgment, has updated, corrected, and edited the manuscripts submitted 
by the several contributors to the final three volumes, and has given 
this magnificent work its fitting culmination. 

In the course of the past year, the director and managers of the Press, 
believing that the older Smithsonian series no longer conform to the 
organizational structure and program strengths of the Institution, 
conferred at length with members of the major Bureaus involved in 
regard to reorganization of the serials. Recommendations were drawn, 
discussed with, and endorsed by the Editorial Policy Committee, and 
finally approved by the Secretary. It was determined to discontinue the 
United States National Museum Bulletins (inaugurated 1875), the 
Proceedings of the United States National Museum (inaugurated 1878), 
and the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (inaugurated 1858). In 
their places will appear three new series: the Smithso?iian Contributions 
to Zoology, the Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, and the 
Smithsonian Contributions to the Earth Sciences. Finally, the existing 
subseries Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 
(inaugurated 1890) and Contributions from the Museum of History 
and Technology (inaugurated 1959) will be established as independent 
series under new titles: the Smithsonian Contributions to Botany and 
the Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology. The Smithsonian 
Contributions to Astrophysics (inaugurated 1956), and Smithsonian 
Annals of Flight (inaugurated 1964), and Smithsonian Contributions 
to Anthropology (inaugurated 1965) will continue unchanged. 

The first two volumes of the Smithsonian Library, published by the 
.\merican Heritage Publishing Company under a cooperative agreement 
with the Institution, appeared in early 1968. The Evolution of the 
Machine by Ritchie Calder and The Forging of Our Continent by 
Charlton Ogburn, Jr., carry out admirably, in their qualities of exposi- 
tion and illustration, the objective of illuminating for the public at large 



48 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

the process of the development of science. By the end of the year, eight 
other books were under contract and in preparation or production for 
the series. 

Early in the fiscal year, over a period of several weeks, the business 
office and warehouse were moved to the second floor of 1242 Twenty- 
fourth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. The integration of the office 
personnel and warehouse stock in a single location has improved the 
efficiency of distribution, but the warehouse space afforded is barely 
adequate for present needs and inadequate for future needs. Despite 
the difficulties of the move, followed by the completion of transferring 
stock to Random House, the business office and warehouse were able to 
distribute 308,972 publications during the year. Random House, in 
addition, distributed 8,773 books, for a grand total of 317,745. 

The Press continues to administer a small branch of the Government 
Printing Office which exists to serve immediate printing needs. The 
print shop, with a staff of two journeymen, completed 868 jobs. 

The director was again the Smithsonian's representative on the Inter- 
Agency Book Committee, and also served on the Education and Train- 
ing Committee of the Association of American University Presses. As a 
result of his proposal to the aaup Committee on Governmental and 
Foundation Programs that the Association give particular attention to 
the problems of scholarly publication in the fields of art and architecture, 
the Smithsonian was host at its Belmont Conference Center to a meeting, 
4-6 April 1968, convened by the aaup through a grant from the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Humanities. He attended the meeting in com- 
pany with other university press directors and a contingent of prominent 
historians of art and architecture, whose frank appraisal of neglected 
areas of scholarly publication in these fields should furnish the Endow- 
ment with guidance for future action. 

In May, the director appeared on the NBC television and radio panel 
series, "Georgetown Forum," in a program sponsored by Georgetown 
University entitled "Publishers, Who Needs Them?" The panel debated 
the professional and social roles of publishing. 

Managing editor Roger Pineau completed his editing of the unpub- 
lished diary maintained by Commodore Matthew C. Perry during his 
Japan Expedition of 1852-1854. Pineau presented a number of il- 
lustrated lectures on the Perry Expedition and undertook the assembly 
of various objects for a future Smithsonian exhibit on the subject. He 
took leave in July- August 1967, on commission of Reader's Digest, for 
research in Japan on the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 



49 




W. H. Auden, detained by a blizzard, finally reaches Washington for the recep- 
tion that followed the ceremony during which he was awarded the National 
Medal for Literature. 



Managing designer Stephen Kraft taught a year's course in ad- 
vanced graphic design techniques at The American University. On 11 
June 1968, by invitation of the American Association of State and Coun- 
ty Historical Societies, he conducted a seminar for its members on the 
design and production of printed materials at Nashville, Tennessee. 
Press designer Crimilda Pontes again achieved the signal honor of plac- 
ing her work among the 25 best university press book designs of the 
year through selection by the aaup jury of her design for Swiss Drawings. 

Perhaps nothing better expressed recognition of the Institution's 
role as a publisher than the National Medal for Literature ceremony 
held at the Smithsonian on 30 November 1967. Following the Press 
director's informal offer of a Smithsonian site for the event. Secretary 
Ripley's Invitation was accepted by the sponsoring National Book Com- 
mittee. A buoyant group of publishers, literati, and government admin- 
istrators beat its way to the Museum of History and Technology through 
a Washington blizzard to celebrate presentation by National Book 
Committee chairman William I. Nichols of the medal to W. H. Auden 



50 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

for lifetime contributions to literature. Speeches were made by Smith- 
sonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, by Secretary of Health, Education, 
and Welfare John W. Gardner, and by Deputy Librarian of Congress 
John Lorenz. Leo Rosten read the acceptance speech of Mr. Auden, who 
was detained by the weather but who appeared later in the evening 
at an enthusiastic reception. Mr. Ripley remarked, "We are 
not daunted by this occasion, though I know that some people today 
question whether all the muses are, or should be, welcome in a mu- 
seum — the very institution that bears their name. I can think of no 
better place and no better time to state my belief that they most cer- 
tainly do belong. The literary character of the Smithsonian was im- 
pressed on us by Joseph Henry, whose lively intellect translated the 
word 'diffusion' in our credo to 'publication.' The Institution was, in 
fact, begun as a publishing house as well as a center for advanced re- 
search, has continued as such without interruption, and remains so 
today through its Smithsonian Institution Press." 
The following papers were published by the staff : 

PiNEAU, Roger. "Okinawa." In volume 6, no. 12 (pp. 2549-2554) of History 
of the Second World War. London: Purnell and Sons, Ltd., 1968. 

. "Dr. Beishu Hara, A Living Cultural Treasure." Japan Reader's Di- 
gest (February 1968), p. 131. 



Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
Russell Shank, Director 

/~\ UTWARDLY, THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES performed 

^-^ much as in previous years, with no major changes in collections. 
With the appointment of a new Director in September 1967, however, 
the Libraries had taken a major step in the change of the library function 
within the Institution. Rather than passively responding to the demands 
of individual bureaus and divisions with disparate collections of litera- 
ture, the library program aims to create an innovative and totally 
responsive integrated system of Libraries and services capable of serving 
the goals of the Institution directly through research, education, and 
service programs of its own, as well as secondarily through its support 
of the work of the Institution's professional staff. 

The work of the ofhce of the Director focused on a survey of the 
library activity within the Institution, and on an examination of deci- 
sions relating to their daily operations for relevance to the functioning of 
the Libraries as a system. By year's end a program statement was taking 
form that will describe, at least in a broad and general view, a modern, 
visible, serviceable, and creative library enterprise at the Smithsonian. 

Library materials continue to be acquired at a rate too rapid to allow 
their processing completely according to the highest standards of intel- 
lectual analysis and bibliographical control. The Libraries concentrated 
on adding materials to the cataloged collections for which Library of 
Congress cards were readily available. The collection of uncataloged 
material, for which only a minimum inventory control is maintained, 
continues to grow. The net result is an increase in the average time re- 
quired for an order for new library material to be converted to a book on 
the shelves fully ready for use. 

A new concept of operation and related technology is required that 
will provide hierarchies of control for access to the collections, each tail- 
ored to different requirements for speed and precision of subject ap- 
proach. Preliminary steps were taken to establish better control of 
access by users to new materials before they are completely cataloged. 
Late in the year, at the request of the Director of Libraries, the In- 
formation Systems Division developed a technique for creating a 

51 



52 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

frequent in-process report, using the computer-based records of pur- 
chased materials. That report, under test at the close of the year, will 
be an important device, both to notify the Smithsonian's professional 
staff of the status of the processing of books and journals they have had 
ordered for the Libraries, and to the Libraries' technical service staff 
for management control of the various stages of processing. The Librar- 
ies will be able to improve the quality of acquisitions services through 
the analysis of the same basic record in order, for example, to measure 
vendors' performance in terms of speed and cost of fulfillment of orders. 

The amount of library material available for acquisition by research 
libraries has expanded in recent years far beyond the capacity of any 
research library to acquire it all, and thus to become self-sufficient. 
Cooperative acquisitions, shared cataloging on both a national and 
international basis, interlibrary lending, and the opening of otherwise 
restricted resources for reasonable use by all qualified scholars, are tech- 
niques that have assumed commanding importance in the manage- 
ment of research library enterprises. At the Smithsonian, for example, 
the circulation during the year of materials borrowed from other librar- 
ies increased at a greater rate than the circulation of the Libraries' own 
material. The Library of Congress remains the single most important 
outside source for these materials. 

The informal networks that have been created among research 
libraries for interlibrary lending and shared cataloging have prospects 
of becoming more formal, and of increasing the power of their inter- 
actions through the recent development by the Library of Congress of 
a machine-readable format with which to distribute among libraries 
cataloging information on computer tapes. The first tapes to be dis- 
tributed by the Library of Congress will be available in 1968. Because 
they will communicate information, at first only for a limited number of 
English language titles, for which the Smithsonian Institution Libraries 
now receive free printed Library of Congress cards, the Libraries have 
begun to examine carefully their service requirements in order to assess 
tradeoffs, while making administrative decisions with regard to the 
introduction of computer-based services. 

Problems of developing and managing the library collection assumed 
early and high priority in the office of the Director. Hitherto, library 
materials have been acquired haphazardly in response to the immediate 
and urgent needs of individual professional staff members, and in re- 
sponse to the offerings of agencies and individuals throughout the world 
in exchange for Smithsonian publications. The Institution now faces 
the task of examining the basis for decisions on the selection of library 
materials, of coordinating the efforts of the scientists and curators in 
the selection processes, and of providing mechanisms to assure the 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 53 

availability of comprehensive, basic, research collections in general 
areas of concern to the Smithsonian. Our goal is to give the Libraries the 
ability to respond quickly to specific program changes within the In- 
stitution, and to modifications of bureau and departmental organization. 

Dialogues were begun in midyear with the librarians of several major 
branches to search for the fundamental issues that will serve as a basis 
for the subsequent preparation of policy statements on collection devel- 
opment. Miss Jean C. Smith, formerly assistant director of libraries, 
rejoined the staff to serve as a special assistant to the Director for 
biological science programs, with major emphasis on matters relating 
to the collections. Work was begun by a special task group on revi- 
talizing the collections of the branch that serves the Office of 
Anthropology. Duplicates and material that is out of scope are being 
discarded. The whole collection will be integrated through recataloging 
according to the Library of Congress classification. This project is an 
outstanding demonstration of the manner in which the serviceability of 
the rest of the Institution's library facilities can be improved. 

The Libraries have increased their service, both to other libraries 
and to the community of scholars, responding to more than 66,000 
visitors, phone calls, and reference letters requesting information and 
publications, an increase of about five percent over the previous year. 
The potential for federal and related libraries to work together to serve 
their missions more fully continues to be enhanced by the work of the 
Federal Library Committee. The Smithsonian Institution Libraries in- 
creased their involvement with the Committee to include representation 
on task forces studying the role of libraries and information centers, and 
the problems of education for federal librarianship. The Committee's 
task force on library education, chaired by the Director, assisted the 
graduate library school at Catholic University in its sponsorship of an 
institute for library school faculty members on federal librarianship. 
The task force led the way for the establishment of a curriculum devel- 
opment study for training federal librarians. During National Library 
Week the Smithsonian served as the platform for a public forum on 
library service in urban slum areas. A children's art exhibit, prepared 
with the assistance of William Walker, librarian of the National Col- 
lection of Fine Arts/National Portrait Gallery branch library, was pre- 
sented in the Arts and Industries building. Secretary Ripley was key- 
note speaker at the annual banquet. 

Most large research libraries are conducting research and develop- 
ment in the application of computers to what is loosely called library 
automation. Computers will ultimately play a large role in supporting 
the information ser\dces of the Smithsonian's library system. Informa- 
tion science and technology, however, is far from being capable of sus- 



54 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

taining the operation of any fully automated, large-scale, broad subject- 
based research library. 

As resources become available, the Smithsonian Libraries will join 
the national movement among libraries to develop applications of com- 
puters to the intellectual aspects of library service. A major goal is the 
creation of literature-based information services that will be linked to 
the new data-processing systems being developed for the management 
and analysis of the collections of specimens and objects in the museums. 
Meanwhile, automation efforts aim at raising the level of quality and the 
economy of operation of basic housekeeping operations such as book 
ordering and accounting, process control, and serials inventory. Recent 
projects supporting this goal are mentioned elsewhere in this report. 

The capability of the Libraries to capitalize on the new technologies 
affecting library service continues to be strengthened by the involve- 
ment of its staff in substantive activities of the library world in which the 
technologies are developing. The Director served during the year as 
vice president of the information science and automation division of 
the American Library Association, during which time the division estab- 
lished a new research journal on this subject and approved several na- 
tional standards for computer-aided cataloging. Carol Raney, the head 
of the Libraries' cataloging division, was elected vice president and 
president-elect of the resources and technical services division of the 
American Library Association. That division developed the ALA cata- 
loging code which serves as the basis for the Anglo-American rules for 
cataloging used by research libraries throughout the world. William 
Walker worked on the revision of the fine arts section of the Library 
of Congress classification system and assistant director Mary Huffer 
continued to lead the way in identifying processes in the libraries that 
were immediately amenable to automation. 

The Libraries' year may thus be characterized as one of continued 
offerings of service at a higher level of output, of improving performance 
capability through an upgrading of automation effort, and of analysis 
of future directions for a modern museum research library enterprise. 

The following papers were presented or published by the staff: 

Goodwin, J. "Current Bibliography in the History of Technology (1966)." 
Technology and Culture, vol. 9, pp. 277-327, 1968. 

Shank, R. Regional Access to Scientific and Technical Information: A pro- 
gram for Action in the New York Metropolitan Area. New York: New 
York Reference and Research Library Agency, 1968. 

. "The Smithsonian Institution Libraries." [Paper presented at a sym- 
posium on national library services to the public, Eastern College Librarians 
Conference, November 1967, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.] 

Walker. W. "Another Part of the Iceberg : Art Library Resources at the 
Smithsonian Institution." D.C. Libraries, vol. 38, pp. 70-75, 1967. 



Information Systems Division 

Nicholas J. Suszynski^ Jr.^ Director 

TN ANNOUNCING THE OFFICIAL OPENING of the ncw Smithsonian In- 

■^ formation Systems Division Computer Center, Secretary Ripley said : 
No product of modern technology has as much potential for social, 
economic and cultural benefits as does the digital computer. As 
an instrument of social change, the computer provides both the 
impetus behind the information explosion and it also offers the 
means for containing and recalling information when needed for 
the solutions of specific problems. 

The Information Systems Division serves as an interpreter and a 
diagnostician of information problems within the Smithsonian 
Institution, and to the extent that its resources permit, it provides 
automatic data processing and systems engineering expertise to the 
museum community in general. 

In its research role, the Information Systems Division engages in 
experimentation leading to better information retrieval techniques 
and better understanding of the man-machine interaction, par- 
ticularly as applied to multicomputer tele-processing and multi- 
programming environment. 
By September 1968, the Smithsonian Information Systems Center, 

on the third floor of the Arts and Industry building's southwest court, 

will have : 

A Honeywell- 1250 computer with 131,000 positions of memory. 

Six high-speed magnetic tape transports (devices for "writing" and "read- 
ing" of information on magnetic tapes, analogous to a tape recorder). 

Five magnetic disc drives (with 45 million positions for directly accessible 
data storage. ) 

Card punch (for recording data on cards) 

Card Reader (for transferring data from cards into a computer or to tape 
or to a printer) 

High-speed printer (950 lines, or 100,000 characters, per minute) 

Data plotter manufactured by the Electronic Associates Inc. 

In addition to equipment, the Center will have a telecommunication 
access to the CDC-6400 computer at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts (see Year 1967, p. 204). Also, 



55 



56 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 




Honeywell- 12 50 computer installation in the Computer Center. 



additional computing capabilities on an IBM 360/30 computer are 
available at the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange, in Wash- 
ington, D.C., and on a UNIVAC 1108 at the Center for Computer 
Sciences and Technology at the National Bureau of Standards in 
Gaithersburg, Md. 

The Honeywell-1250 computer operates continuously, on the basis 
of three eight-hour shifts daily, and as a part of its facilities, the Center 
offers daily data preparation, tabulating, and card punching services. 

The Information Systems Center is comprised of an information re- 
trieval section, a mathematical computation section, and a management 
systems section. The Center, in addition to providing systems analysis, 
programming, and computer time, has been established for the purpose 
of planning, coordinating and directing the preparation of systems, pro- 
grams, and uses of automatic data processing equipment for the Institu- 
tion. It is responsible for the overall review of automatic data process- 
ing (adp) and source data automation requirements of the various 
Smithsonian activities and for recommending policies and programs to 
meet these requirements. 

The information retrieval section is concerned with information sys- 
tems used for indexing and data retrieval. A continuing program of 
research and development in these techniques is carried out to bring to 
the Institution a spectrum of indexing and retrieval systems that pro- 
vide maximum capability and utility at minimum cost. Various tech- 
niques for randomizing, set theory recovery, hardware-independent 



INFORMATION SYSTEMS DIVISION 



57 



E^a 



HONEYWELL '20 

ROCHESTER, N.Y. 




UNIVAC "08 (NBS) 
GAITHERSBURG, MD. (PLANNED) 



HONEYWELL 1 t'JO (INFORMATION SYSTEMS) 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



OPERATES USING DIAL-UP SYSTEM TO AND FROM HONEYWELL 1 JJO. 



OPERATES USING DIRECT-ACCESS LINES TO THE CDC COMPUTER. 



Smithsonian Institution computer-communications network. 



query, synonymy rectification, coordinate indexing, concordance compi- 
lation, and dynamic significance redefinition, and for providing global 
reference denominators are made available to Smithsonian museums 
and, where possible, to the museum community in the United States 
and abroad. For example : 

An information-retrieval system to cross-index any collection by 
200 key categories was developed. 

A concordance index containing up to one hundred chapters of 
key terms and providing cross-reference indexing to any collection of 
specimens, artifacts, or printed records was implemented. The system 



315-997 O - 69 



58 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

indexes key-words and displays fragments of text (portraying context of 
use) in its index. 

A digital code with associated procedures was developed that per- 
mitted phylogenetic sequencing of biological data as processed by a 
computer. The system solved problems associated with synonymy and 
is capable of hierarchical data retrieval. 

The significance of data parameters often changes as preliminary 
computer output is reviewed. Research with the cobol (Common 
Business Oriented Language) compilation system provided insight into 
techniques for dealing with this problem. As a result of this experi- 
mentation, a procedure was developed which permits dynamic redefini- 
tion of parameters of interest for query and is independent of parameters 
used in describing input data. 

Several generic systems were developed for the storage and retrieval 
of data. They are flexible enough to be of specific utility to particular 
requirements and are general enough to have many applications 
throughout the Institution. The retrieval techniques vary with the re- 
quirements and with the structure, content, and orientation of the data 
file to be processed. 

The mathematical computations section provides mathematical 
analysis and computer programming to aid Smithsonian scientists in 
presenting and interpreting their research data. The analysis ranges 
from simple correlation and regression analysis to complex multivariate 
statistical analysis, and from simple formula evaluation to the building 
of mathematical models to simulate biological phenomena. Systems 
design and computer programming are also provided to perform mathe- 
matical computations to process raw data, and to tabulate and graphi- 
cally present the results. For example : 

A common denominator code was devised to interrelate the dis- 
parate but traditional conventions used in expressing locations of the 
globe. Latitude-longitude coordinates, Marsden quadrangles, and politi- 
cal and geographic names are all transformed into a common code 
which facilitates retrieval of data. 

Computer programs were developed to perform data reduction and 
statistical analysis dealing with neutron activation experiments (for the 
Conservation Analytical Laboratory) to determine the amount of trace 
elements present in the archeological artifacts, thereby establishing if 
the artifact is native to the area of discovery. 

Statistical analysis employing distance coefficients, cluster analysis, 
and analysis of variance was performed for the Department of Paleobi- 
ology in the Museum of Natural History. 



INFORMATION SYSTEMS DIVISION 59 

Fortran computer programs were implemented to perform time- 
series analysis of the prices of commodities in the trade-historical data 
for the Museum of History and Technology. 

Computer programs were developed to read data from punched 
paper tape containing data quantifying the intensity of solar radiation 
over broad frequency bands. This data is edited for completeness and 
correctness, and then is reduced, plotted, and returned to the Radiation 
Biology Laboratory. 

The management systems section provides support to the adminis- 
trative, curatorial, and research activities that require automatic data 
processing of business or fiscal data. In addition, it provides maintenance 
support for business or accounting systems already in operation. During 
the year, systems were developed and initiated in a number of areas. 
For example, the Institution's accounting offices were provided with 
completely new accounting and reporting systems. A coordinated system 
was developed to handle all payrolls. A property management system 
was developed to satisfy the needs of both the supply division and the 
fiscal offices, and action was initiated to develop a research property 
system that will provide scientists with cataloged information as to the 
availability of research equipment. For the Smithsonian Oceanographic 
Sorting Center, a specimen inventory system was developed to provide 
an up-to-date inventory of specimens collected or distributed. For the 
Office of Public Affairs a consolidated central mailing system was devel- 
oped to provide labels for mass mailings from the Institution. 

The stafT of the Information Systems Center contains experts in vari- 
ous areas of information processing who participate in symposia, tech- 
nical panels, professional conferences and present papers as time permits. 
This group provides synergistic cross-fertilization which makes each indi- 
vidual stronger and more valuable than each would be alone. The 
recently developed "Global Reference Index" is an example of such 
collaboration, for the techniques used are not those usually associated 
with the natural sciences. To produce this index required a knowledge 
of Boolean Algebra, of algorithm structure, and of computer techniques 
combined with a knowledge of the traditional means of identifying a 
point on the globe. 

During the year, the Center offered several training programs in 
computer programming, it provided self-study material for the sci- 
entific and curatorial staff, and established a library of statistical pro- 
grams. Under preparation is a brooklet describing in detail the facilities 
of the Center and relating their capabilities to the activities and needs 
of the Institution. 



60 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

At the symposium on Information Problems in Natural Sciences, 
held in Mexico City in December 1967, Creighton, Crockett, and 
Suszynski delivered papers, and Suszynski chaired one session. They 
also provided the symposium's films, as well as educational materials 
for its "Computer Theater." 

Canadian, British, Mexican, and United States Museums and uni- 
versities expressed interest in the technological aspects of data processing 
and information storage techniques developed at the Center. Technical 
information was provided to the following : 

Canada: National Museum of Canada. England: Sedgwick Mu- 
seum, The Royal College of Art, British Museum, H. M. Treasury, and 
Office for Scientific and Technical Information. Mexico: Centro de 
Calculo Electronico, Mexico, D.F. Sweden: Historiska Museet, 
Narvavagen, and Upsala Universitet. United States: The American 
Museum of Natural History, Colorado School of Mines, Museum Com- 
puter Network (a consortium of primarily New York City museums for 
th6 purpose of establishing a computerized information network), Sys- 
tems Development Corporation, and U.S. Geological Survey. 

Experts from the Center were requested to visit and consult with staff 
members of the National Museum of Canada and the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, and the Royal College of Art in England (the last 
invitation had to be declined for lack of funds) . 

The following papers were presented by the staff: 

Creighton, Reginald A. An Information Storage and Retrieval System for 
Biological and Geological Data, Design Consideration. Presented at the 
Symposium Sobre Problemas de Informacion en Ciencias Naturales, Mexico, 
D.F., December 1967. 

Ahumada, S., G. G. Shetler, and James J. Crockett. An Automated Bibliog- 
raphy for the Flora of North America. Presented at the Symposium Sobre 
Problemas de Informacion en Ciencias Naturales, Mexico, D.F. December 
1967. 

Suszynski, Nicholas J., Jr. Telecommunication and On-line Access to Com- 
puters. Presented at the Symposium Sobre Problemas de Informacion en 
Ciencias Naturales, Mexico, D.F., December 1967. 

• Computer Installation Planning. Presented at the International Data 

Processing Management Association Conference in Washington, D.C., June 
1968. 



Science Information Exchange 

Monroe E. Freeman, Director 

"Q EGISTRATION WITH THE SCIENCE INFORMATION EXCHANGE of CUr- 

rent research projects from government and nongovernment 
research reached a total of over 97,000 during the year. Over 8,000 
questions were answered for individual scientists. Over 300,000 copies of 
individual research summaries were made available to the national 
scientific community during the year. 

A major innovation recently implemented by the sie was the 
establishment of a randomly accessible data bank which contains all 
information pertinent to the research notices received by the Exchange. 
It represents another in a continuing series of steps to realize the bene- 
fits which the modern computer has made available and to provide 
a highly integrated man-plus-machine information system capable of 
expeditiously yet inexpensively fulfilling the sie mission. 

Many general improvements were provided with the initial version of 
the system. Previously the files of sie had been updated twice monthly. 
Now they are updated daily and are thus able to provide more timely 
information. Internally the new system has reduced the elapsed time 
required for documents to flow through various stages of input proc- 
essing. Capabilities for changing, adding, or deleting data fields have 
been improved. Input and indexing functions have been simplified and 
the keypunch operations have been significantly reduced. Three stages 
of input editing have been replaced by a single one which actually assures 
more accurate data on file. Finally the system provides the capacity to: 
( 1 ) Input and store the full research abstract in machine-readable form, 
which will provide iinproved service to users of the Exchange; (2) pro- 
vide online access to all sie data through the use of video display units, an 
ultimate objective of the Exchange system; and (3) to quickly generate 
research catalogs from sie data at significantly lower cost for federal 
agencies. 

This improved system required some eight man-years of effort and 
was put into production within one month of the target date, predicted 
and scheduled over 18 months previously. 

The Exchange will begin putting the full text of its research notices 
in machineable form in July 1968, via an ibm administrative terminal 

61 



62 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 




Director Monroe Freeman of the Science Information Exchange 
presses the "start" button for the data bank's first run in May. 



system. When all the information is in machineable form, sie can 
provide full text records for government agencies and for the govern- 
ment-wide inter-agency Exchange. 

The Exchange has continued to increase its coverage of research 
in urban planning. A compilation of current studies in urban planning 
provided to the Office of Intergovernmental Relations and Urban 
Programs Coordination was well received by urban specialists. It is 
hoped that increased registration of projects in this most important 
and timely area will be encouraged. 

As the national cataloging center for water resources research, sie 
prepared volume 3 of the Water Resources Research Catalog for the 
Office of Water Resources Research, Department of the Interior. 

Outdoor Recreation Research — A Reference Catalog — 1967 was 
also prepared for the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Department of the 
Interior. 

A new concept for compiling and tabulating information about cur- 
rent research activity in broad research programs was designed and 
developed. The principle advantage is the display of condensed infor- 
mation in the form of distribution charts for the more convenient 



SCIENCE INFORMATION EXCHANGE 63 

inspection, review, and analysis of broad subject fields. Test models are 
now in the hands of industrial and government research program 
administrators and managers for their comments and suggestions. If 
favorable, the process can be highly automated and made widely avail- 
able at nominal cost. 

The following papers were presented or published by the staff. 

Freeman, M. E. "Panel on The Role of Federal Government Programs." 
Presented before Conference on Technology Utilization and Economic 
Growth. Sponsored by Aerospace Research Applications Center at Indiana 
Memorial Union, Bloomington, Indiana, 31 July— 4 August 1967. 

. "National Information Needs for Urban Transportation Management 

Decision Making." Presented before Engineering Foundation Research 
Conference, Proctor Academy, Andover, New Hampshire, 14-16 August. 
1967. 

. "The Science Information Exchange: A Registry of Research in 

Progress." Presented at California Institute of Technology (sponsored by 
NASA-SBA), 12 October 1967. 

. "Information Strategy of Research Management." Research Man- 
agement, -vol. 11, no. 2 (March 1968). 

. "Science Information Exchange." Presented before the 52nd Con- 
ference for Eastern College Librarians, Harkness Theater, Butler Library, 
Columbia University, New York, New York, 25 November 1967. 

. "Scientific Information Storage and Retrieval System." Presented 

before National Council of University Research Administrators, Mayflower 
Hotel, Washington, D.C., 20 November 1967. 

. "SIE — A National Inventory of Research in Progress." Presented 

before First Annual Aristotle Symposium sponsored by National Security 
Industrial Association, Washington, D.C., 7 December 1967. 

. "The Science Information Exchange as a Source of Information." 

Special Libraries, February 1968, pp. 86-88. 

. "Science Information Exchange." Military Medicine, vol. 133, no. 

3 (March 1968), pp. 223-225. 

. "Scope and Objectives of the Science Information Exchange." Pre- 
sented before members of Science and Technology Committee, Chamber of 
Commerce of the United States, Sheraton-Carlton Hotel, Washington, D.C., 
25 January 1968. 

. "Science Information Exchange." Presented before Technology Util- 
ization Conference at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Sponsored by 
representative Donald LuKens (Ohio) and arranged by N.A.S.'V, 1 April 
1968. 

. "Science Information Exchange of Smithsonian Institution Offers New 

Services to Navy Managers." Navy-Management Review, April-June 1968. 

Hersey, D. F. "Information Exchanges and the Research Community." Pre- 
sented to the Information Retrieval Workshop, University of Wisconsin. 
Madison, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 1967. 

. "Chemistry of Viruses." Presented before the American Institute of 

Chemists Meeting of the D.C. Chapter, 16 January 1968. 



64 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

. "The Role of the Science Information Exchange in the Nuclear 

Technology Field." Presented before Conference on Technology Utiliza- 
tion, Seatde, Washington, 25 April 1968. 

. "Breaking the Information Barrier." Presented before the Small 



Business Administration Training Center, Small Business Administration, 
Silver Spring, Maryland, 19 June 1968. 
Long, Bill L. "A National Cataloging Center for Water Resources Research." 
Journal American Water Works Association, vol. 59, no. 8 (August 1967), 
pp. 930-934. 



International Exchange Service 

J. A. Collins, Director 

'"po FACILITATE THE DISTRIBUTION of Smithsonian publications in other 
-^ countries, the Institution established the International Exchange 
Service. Agents were appointed in a number of countries to distribute 
Smithsonian publications and to receive in return publications from the 
foreign organizations for transmission to the Smithsonian Institution. 
This method proved so satisfactory that other non-profit organizations in 
the United States were permitted to utilize the Service, and later Con- 
gress designated the Smithsonian Institution as the agency through 
which the official United States publications would be exchanged for the 
official publications of other countries. 

Libraries, scientific societies, educational institutions, and individuals 
in the United States wishing to exchange their publications with similar 
organizations in other countries, send addressed packages of publica- 
tions to the Smithsonian Institution, where they are sorted according 
to countries of destination and are forwarded to one of the 37 exchange 
bureaus in other countries for distribution, or are sent directly to the 
addressees by mail. In return the Service receives addressed packages 
of publications from the foreign exchange bureaus for similar distri- 
bution in the United States. 

Addressed packages of publications weighing 844,413 pounds were 
received during the year from more than 350 colleges, universities, 
learned societies, and other organizations in the United States for trans- 
mission to some 100 countries. In return 105,861 pounds of addressed 
packages of publications were received from the foreign bureaus for 
distribution in the United States. 

Packages of publications were accepted for transmission to all coun- 
tries except the mainland of China, North Korea, and North Viet-Nam. 

During the year the United States official publications were sent to 
105 organizations in other countries in exchange for their official docu- 
ments. A partial set of United States publications is now being sent to 
the Central National Library, Seoul, Korea, in exchange for the official 
documents of Korea. 

The daily issues of the Federal Register and the Congressional Record 

65 



66 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

were sent to 136 foreign libraries in exchange for their parliamentary 
journals. 

The Service moved to new quarters during the year, and is now 
located at 1242 Twenty-Fourth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037. 

PACKAGES RECEIVED FOR TRANSMISSION FROM FOREIGN AND 
DOMESTIC SOURCES, FISCAL YEAR 1968 



Classification 



For transmission abroad 
by the Smithsonian 



Received by the 

Smithsonian for 

distribution in the 

United States 



Number of Weight in Number of Weight in 
packages pounds packages pounds 



U.S. parliamentary documents 

received for transmission 

abroad 817,236 373,537 

Publications received from foreign 

sources for U.S. parliamentary 

addressees - - 9, 389 10, 045 

U.S. departmental documents re- 
ceived for transmission abroad . 272, 552 254, 828 - - 
Publications received from foreign 

sources for U.S. departmental 

addressees - - 14, 1 18 17, 737 

Miscellaneous scientific and 

literary publications received 

for transmission abroad 150, 081 216, 048 

Miscellaneous scientific and 

literary publications received 

from abroad for distribution in 

the United States - - 45, 409 78, 079 

Total 1, 239, 869 844, 413 

Total packages received .... 1 , 308, 785 - 

Total pounds received - - 



68,916 105,861 
950, 274 



Office of Public Affairs 

Frederic M, Philips, Director 

THE OFFICE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, in its first year of existence as an 
organizational entity, devoted its energies to broadening and enrich- 
ing the many channels of communication through which the Smith- 
sonian serves both its visitors and the public at large. 

The major operating premise of this Office is that a great and unique 
national institution such as the Smithsonian fully performs its function 
only when it broadly informs and communicates with the nation's 
public by all practical means. The Office is organized to this end. 

With the cooperation of the Office of Public Affairs, television net- 
works, local TV stations, USIA, Westinghouse Broadcasting Company, 
the British Broadcasting Corporation, Japan Broadcasting Company 
and others produced film reports concerned whole or in part with 
Smithsonian activities. NBC presented the documentary "Man, Beast 
and the Land" on the work of Smithsonian conservationists Marty and 
Lee Talbot — the ecology of East Africa — and on conservation of wildlife 
in the Serengeti plains. The NBC Children's Theater presented "The 
Enormous Egg," the story of a dinosaur who comes to the Smithsonian. 
Agreements were reached with producers for further documentary 
specials for television. 

Radio activities were carried forward through such programs as 
"Master Control," twelve programs on Smithsonian activities for broad- 
cast in the United States and foreign countries, prepared by the 
Radio Commission of the Southern Baptist Convention, the concert series 
"Music From the Smithsonian" on station WAMU, and broad partici- 
pation in interviews, discussions, and panel shows. 

Attendance at the Smithsonian Film Theater, which presents weekly 
educational films from October through May, increased more than 
fifty percent, with a total attendance of 18,100. The slides, slide lectures, 
and films available on loan to educational institutions, constantly in 
demand, continued to be fully booked far in advance. Special film 
shows were arranged throughout the year. 

Inauguration of a TV film-clip service broadened the Office's news 
and photography programs. In more traditional news activities, 206 

67 



68 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 




Public affairs activities. A: George Berklacy at teletype machine; B: Margaret 
Dress dispensing leaflets; C: Mary Krug working on the Torch, the Smithsonian 
employees newspaper; D: Fredric M. Philips and Mrs. Morris Cafritz with model 
of a Calder sculpture during presentation ceremony. 



news releases, 1 1 in-depth news features, and 35 radio releases covering 
all areas of Smithsonian activities were issued. Major events requiring 
sustained effort included the first annual Folklife Festival in July, the 
opening of the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum in September, and 
the opening of the National Collection of Fine Arts in May. Nineteen 
press previews and conferences were held. 

The Torch and the Associate, two monthly news publications, have 
a combined circulation of 10,000. The Smithsonian Calendar of Events, 
which now features a new and expanded press, is issued to more than 
20,000 persons monthly. 



PUBLIC AFFAIRS 



69 




William Grayson and Ann Rushforth, on left, screening a film; center, President 
Johnson, former Senator William Benton, and Secretary Ripley being greeted by 
Meredith Johnson, chief, special events; on right, Marilyn Banner and Mary Ann 
Friend posting a performance at the Smithsonian film theater. 



Up-to-the-minute information on daily events and exhibits was pro- 
vided to 60,250 callers on the recorded telephone service Dial-A- 
Museum. With information furnished by the Smithsonian Astrophysi- 
cal Observatory, the Dial-A-Satellite service provided 135,250 indi- 
viduals with information enabling them to view artificial satellites as 
well as other celestial bodies. 

Smithsonian special events, another element of office responsibility, 
covered a wide area of presentations, lectures, openings, musical pro- 
grams, conferences, movies and receptions. In all, a total of 624 special 
events were organized and conducted during the year. In addition Secre- 
tary Ripley was host to the diplomatic corps, co-host with Vice Presi- 
dent Humphrey at a luncheon honoring the President of Iceland, and 
co-host with the Chief Justice at luncheon for the President of Tunisia. 
Smithsonian facilities are becoming increasingly popular for use by 
other government agencies for special activities that this )ear included 
official farewells to both Assistant Secretary of State Frankel and Secre- 
tary of Health, Education and Welfare Gardner in the Museum of 
History and Technology. Other diverse events included celebration of 
the 200th anniversary of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, in which Presi- 
dent Johnson participated ; presentation by the Italian Ambassador, for 
the City of Genoa, of a medal to the Vice President; induction of the 
officers of the Women's National Press Club; and presentation of the 
National Medal for Literature to Wystan Hugh Auden. Photographic 
coverage is provided for all special events. 

In the field of visitor services, weekend tours of the Museum of History 
and Technology were organized through the generous cooperation of 



70 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 

the Junior League of Washington. Building guides and informative leaf- 
lets were provided to the Institution's millions of visitors. The process 
of computerizing the Institution's mailing lists to facilitate providing 
information to the public was advanced considerably. In addition, the 
Office responded to an average of 250 telephone inquiries a day. 



Division of Performing Arts 

James Morris, Director 

'T^HE NEW DIVISION OF PERFORMING ARTS waS foimed Oil 1 July 1967 

to manage and produce programs which increase the educational 
experience of the museum visitor. The "lively arts" are vitally important 
as means of cultural transmission, and the selection of presentations is 
largely determined by the need for illustrating both popular and little- 
known aspects of human expression. Such presentations contribute 
significantly to the greater understanding by American and foreign 
visitors of the esthetic traditions and developments of our national 
culture. The stafT of the new division was drawn largely from members 
of the former museum services division. 

The first annual Festival of American Folklife was developed and 
presented in July 1967. The initial program drew heavily on the accu- 
mulated field research and experience of Ralph Rinzler, Director of 
Field Programs for the Newport Foundation. It drew some 431,000 
people to the Mall for a living exhibition of folk culture with demon- 
strations by craftsmen of pottery, basketry, toy making, carv-ing, and 
weaving; and by live performances of traditional folk music and dance. 
Rinzler remained on the staff during much of the year and was respon- 
sible for developing new research programs in numerous areas of the 
United States, including exploration into several areas which had previ- 
ously been ignored and unrecorded. During the year, he and Director 
James Morris were consulted regarding development of an international 
jazz festival in New Orleans, Louisiana, a folk culture center in Mt. 
View, Arkansas, and other programs in Virginia, North Carolina, Texas, 
Alaska, Washington State, and Pennsylvania. Extensive effort was de- 
voted to the development of the second annual Festival of American 
Folklife with emphasis on little-known craft processes and Indian and 
Negro culture. Ten speakers, including members of the Smithsonian 
staff and scholars from abroad, were brought together for a 10-week 
course in American Folk Culture that was presented for members of the 
Smithsonian Associates in spring 1968. 

During the fall and winter season several programs were developed 
and presented for the Smithsonian Associates. Among them was a con- 
cert by the Gregg Smith Singers presenting the vocal music of Charles 

71 



72 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 




Scene from the Prague mario- 
nette theater, performed in the 
new Smithsonian puppet theater. 



Ives, one of America's greatest, yet least-known, composers. It was 
hailed by local critics as one of the most significant musical events of the 
season. Other programs included traditional music, chamber music, a 
dramatized reading of the death of Socrates — featuring the renowned 
actgr Walter Abel — and presentation of the Kyogen Theater of Japan 
on its visit to the United States. During the Christmas season, a produc- 
tion of Masques, A'limes and Miracles, a traditional English mummers 
play of 16th-century England, was oflFered as a means of understanding 
a past culture which ultimately manifested great influence on the 
English-speaking people of the new world. 

Sound and Light, a production featuring the recreation of history by 
means of sounds, voices, and highly developed lighting techniques con- 
tinued in its preproduction stages, with final presentation scheduled for 
1969. Also offered as a means of enlivening the total environment of 
the museums and the surroundings were a variety of summer outdoor 
programs which included a series of Wednesday evening concerts, Fri- 
day evening barbershop singing, and such special events as a perform- 
ance by the Fife and Drum Corps of Basel, Switzerland, and a modern 
dance program by the American choreographer Erick Hawkins. Two 
weeks of puppet theater, offered audiences an opportunity to experience 
the art of Jacques Chesnais Puppet Theater of Paris and the Czech 
Puppet Theater. The overwhelming popular success of these appear- 
ances encouraged the formation of the Smithsonian Puppet Theater, 
which offered daily performances all summer in a gaily colored tent 
theater on the Mall. 

In March the division produced the second annual Rites of Spring, 
an occasion celebrating the opening of the museums during the evening 
and increased public service to the visitor. The program offered examples 
of the use of the outdoor environment for city parks and recreation 
centers and included balloon flights, exhibitions, demonstrations of poster 
painting and collage construction, music, carousel rides, and athletic 



PERFORMING ARTS 



73 




The Aylords, a rock-and-roll group, performing at the second annual Rites of 
Spring held on the Mall. 



demonstrations. Congressman Andrew Jacobs of Indiana commented in 
the Congressional Record (2 April 1968) on the ". . . genuine sense of 
community, a thriving sense of involvement in the heart of this great city. 
The huge crowd was friendly and polite, reflecting an attitude which 
comes from sharing common pleasures. . . . The Institution seems to 
understand that culture is a total way of life of a people, not merely a 
treasure house for academicians or a plaything for the elite." 

The cultural activities events of the National Park Service's "Summer 
In The Parks" program were also conceived and mounted by this divi- 
sion. Mobile art demonstrations, jazz and folk concerts, puppet theater, 
and a film theater were held in 20 parks during a 10-week period 
throughout Washington. 

A total of 604,500 people attended the 26 Smithsonian productions of 
this year, and additional hundreds of thousands attended the "Summer 
In The Parks" programs. 

Programs Presented 

1-4 July Festival of American Folklife 

5 July "Music on the Mall," Washington Ballet 

7 July Barbershop Concert, The Historyland Chorus and the 

Manassanaires 



315-997 O - 69 - 6 



74 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 




Masques, Mimes, and Miracles, a mummers play of the Stuart Restoration period 
relating the story of St. George and the Dragon, was performed during the 
Christmas season. 



12 


July 


14 


July 


19 


July 


21 


July 


23 


-28 July 


26 


July 


28 


July 


29 


JuIy-5 Aus 


2 


August 


4 


August 


9 


August 


9 


August 


18 


August 


26 


August 


15 


September 


24 


October 


7 


November 


27 


December- 




5 Jajiuary 


27 


February 


1 


Vlarch 


26 


March 


30- 


-31 March 


21 


May 



"Music on the Mall," Jacob Barkin, soloist 

Barbershop Concert, Arlingtones, and the Marylandaires 

"Music on the Mall," Opera and Operatta 

Annual Barbershop Chorus of the Potomac 

Puppet Theater, Jacques Chesnais' "Comediens de Bois" 

"Music on the Mall," The Summer Symphony Orchestra 

Barbershop Concert, The Singing Capital Chorus 

Puppet Theater, The Prague Marionette Theater 

"Music on the Mall," Concerto Night 

Barbershop Concert, The Counts 

"Music on the Mall," Jazz Concert 

Fife and Drum Hour, Olympia Society from Basel, Switzerland 

Barbershop Concert, The Jubil-aires 

Erick Hawkins Dance Company 

Jazzmobile 

Gregg Smith Singers 

A concert of "Folksong and Style in Southeastern America" 

Masques, Mimes and Miracles 

Victory of Socrates — Walter Abel 

Kyogen Japanese Comic Theater 

Smith College Choir and Trinity College Glee Club 

Rites of Spring 

Chamber Music Concert 



Smithsonian Associates 

Lisa Suter, Program Director 

/^NE MEASURE OF THE SUCCESS of a museum is its ability to excite, 
^^ delight, and involve its visitors. Through the Smithsonian Associ- 
ates, the Institution has been able to transform spectators into partici- 
pants and to reach the public in a new and personal way. During the past 
year 15,000 members (represented by 6,500 individual and family mem- 
berships) have participated regularly. Perhaps their enthusiasm for 
Smithsonian activities has been reflected best in their phenomenally high 
renewal rate of 89 percent. 

The membership program was expanded in depth and breadth. A 
wide selection of activities were offered — dozens of lectures, demonstra- 
tions, choral, folk and chamber concerts, exhibition previews, films, 
drama, field trips, tours, mixed media, and other happenings. The Kite 
Carnival, the Zoo Night, and the Potomac Cruise were repeated by 
popular request. New Film and Producer, Young Composers, and Cre- 
ative Persons series were established. Among many distinguished guests 
were Charles Eames, Constantinos Doxiadis, Walter Abel, and Pauline 
Trigere, who designed a garment for her spring collection on the stage. 
Lecture shows by Donald Brooks, Bill Blass, and Emanuel Ungaro were 
presented in cooperation with the Washington Fashion Group. 

Highlights of the junior program were the "Pied Piper of Hamelin" 
and "Rapunzel" puppet shows by Rod Young; Chekov's The Marriage 
Proposal by the Garrick Players; brass, string, and woodwind concerts 
by The Dupont Circle Consortium; "An Introduction to Modern Dance" 
by the Washington Dance Theatre; a "chalk talk" by Robert Baldwin, 
creator of "Freddy"; "A Journey to the Planets" at the Rock Creek 
Nature Center, and a sketch-in at the Zoo. Experimental programs for 
tiny tots continued. Sea life workshops followed the popular Zoo Morn- 
ing Talks on "What is a Reptile? A Bird? A Mammal?" Tickets for 
children's programs were regularly distributed to local orphanages. 

More than 6,000 young people and adults were enrolled in Associ- 
ates' seminars, lectures, and workshops, in which 168 courses were of- 
fered in 54 subjects, ranging from antiques to zoology. The curriculum 
was expanded to include creative arts workshops — drawing, painting, 
design, drama, photography, puppet-and-film making. Almost 500 

75 



76 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 




Smithsonian Associates mammals workshop where members learn to prepare 

study skins. 



scholarships were made available through the kindness of the Ladies 
Committee, the National Space Club, and members of the Smithsonian 
stafT. The techniques of a variety of age-old crafts and their potential 
for contemporary use were demonstrated through "Ancient Crafts Re- 
vived" workshops on stained glass, bookbinding, raku, mosaic, and batik. 

Two special week-end seminars were presented by former members of 
the Smithsonian staff — "Connoisseurship" by G. Carroll Lindsay of the 
New York State Museum and "The Inca State" by John V. Murra of 
Cornell University. 

The Associates and the Japan-America Society of Washington 
brought twelve "national treasures" to this country for a Japanese Drama 
Festival, which featured an art exhibition, lectures, films and perform- 
ances of Kyogen and Noh drama. 

Over 2,300 members attended Luncheon Talks on the Arts, Sciences 
and Humanities and Tea Talks on American Arts and Ideas. The pro- 
ceeds of these events were used to send Smithsonian speakers to hospi- 
tals, orphanages, and old-age homes and to provide senior citizens with 
transportation to programs here. 



SMITHSONIAN ASSOCIATES 



77 




Smithsonian curator Paul Desautels lectures on minerals at an Associates 

luncheon. 



The Associates and the Museum Shops co-sponsored an author's 
reception and eight sales exhibition previews. Members were invited to 
the grand opening of the National Collection of Fine Arts as well as a 
number of other exhibitions. 

A modest travel program, in which 3,500 Associates participated, 
was started in fall with Walking Tours of Washington. These were 
followed by visits to significant museums, historic houses and private col- 
lections in Baltimore, Richmond, Annapolis, Winterthur, Philadelphia, 
Charlottesville, New York, and Boston. Guided tours were arranged of 
Hillwood, the Lindens, the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum and the 
Smithsonian buildings on the Mall. Also included were camping and 
field trips — mushroom, rock collecting and fossil hunts, shore strolls, 
insect, geology and botany walks, industrial and salvage archeology 
expeditions. 

The Program Director presented three broadcasts on the Smithsonian 
over Voice of America, wrote an article, "A Museum in Transition," for 
the summer 1967 issue of Museologist, and talked on "The Concept of 



78 PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION | 

a Living Museum" at the American Association of Museum meetings in 
New Orleans. For the latter, she directed and produced a short film on 
Associates activities. 



Smithsonian Museum Shops 

Carl Fox, Director 

'"p'HE FIRST YEAR of the reorganized Smithsonian Museum Shop pro- 
-*- gram saw the construction of a shop in the Museum of Natural 
History at the Constitution Avenue entrance and a book shop at the 
Mall entrance, the installation of a temporary display in the first floor 
rotunda of the Museum of History and Technology, and the comple- 
tion of a book shop and sales exhibition gallery in the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts. Plans were completed for redesign and construction of 
the Arts and Industries building shop and a book shop at the National 
Portrait Gallery for early summer and fall of 1968. 

In addition to the customary presentation materials selected by the 
Director of Museum Shops, sales exhibitions were held in three buildings 
and on the Mall. Visitors to the Arts and Industries building saw molas 
by the Cuna Indians of San Bias Islands, Panama; 19th-century Japa- 
nese prints and drawings, children's embroideries from Peru, and Eski- 
mo prints and sculpture. 




79 



80 



PUBLIC SERVICE AND INFORMATION 




, Opening of the new museum shop in the Arts and Industries building. 



During the first annual Folklife Festival on the Mall traditional 
American crafts were ofTered from many parts of the nation. 

At the Museum of History and Technology, special exhibitions in- 
cluded a Christmas showing of toys of the world, Appalachian crafts, 
Track and Road: The American Trotting Horse (publication by Peter 
Welsh) , Botanical Prints of Henry Evans, Japanese arts and crafts, and 
publications by Howard Chapelle. 

The first exhibition in the new galleries of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts was a collection of posters assembled by Mrs. Albert List. 



Belmont Conference Center 

David B. Chase, Director 

'~T^ HE CONFERENCE CENTER, which is now ill its second year of operation, 
has been the setting for forty conferences sponsored by thirty priv- 
ate organizations and federal commissions and agencies. Requests for 
bookings during the more popular months exceeded the capacity of the 
center and a number of groups which were late in applying had to be 
turned down. With a large number of advance bookings already re- 
ceived, it appears likely that the center will be operating at capacity 
throughout most of the coming year. 

Smithsonian groups which held conferences at Belmont include the 
Secretariat and Bureau Heads, the National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board, the Smithsonian Council, and the Foreign Currency 
Advisory Council. Several groups of Smithsonian Associates visited Bel- 
mont on guided tours. 

Belmont provides a facility which is unique in the Washington area. 
It affords an opportunity for small conference groups to enjoy exclusive 
occupancy of a comfortable and well-equipped center. The 340-acre 
property provides complete seclusion for the center in an attractive set- 
ting of rolling fields and woods. Only forty-five minutes by car from the 
center of Washington, Belmont is easily accessible from the city, and its 
situation close to Friendship International Airport makes it a convenient 
center for people coming from all parts of the countiy as well as from 
abroad. 

Improvements to the center continue to be made. Additional air 
conditioning has been installed, and recording, slide projection, and 
duplicating equipment have been acquired. Plans have been completed 
for the installation of two new bathrooms and an additional bedroom 
in the main house during the coming year and for the renovation of 
two smaller houses on the property. 



81 



\ 



Smithsonian Activities 



Special Museum Programs 



special Museum Programs 

Frank A. Taylor, Director General of Museums 

T^'vvo YEARS AGO CONGRESS PASSED the National Museum Act. Today, 
■*- requests for assistance from museums in the United States and 
abroad have increased by more than 300 percent. The Smithsonian now 
responds to requests for advice and aid on museum projects and the 
training of museum personnel at the rate of more than 1500 a year. 
If, to this are added the requests for advice on preparing and conduct- 
ing special exhibition programs and for the loan of exhibits, the total 
approaches 5,000 inquiries a year. 

Many requests are from small museums which frequently are the 
only cultural activities in their communities. Others are from public 
spirited individuals seeking help to start museums to bring intellectual 
activities to their towns or inner-city neighborhoods. Many wish to en- 
rich the education of their children through learning experiences be- 
yond the classroom, or to give their senior citizens opportunities for 
intellectual, cultural, and social development through the continuing 
education programs which modem museums provide. Community 
colleges, for example, have sought advice on loan exhibits, on college 
museums, and on the content of museum technical courses, as well as 
on museum-based programs of service to their community. 

By far the greatest rate of increase has been in requests from estab- 
lished museums, including some of the largest in the United States and 
abroad. They seek advice on new programs as well as consultation on 
cooperative solutions of continuing problems of administration, con- 
servation, and collections management. These requests have been stimu- 
lated in part by the Museum Act, but they are much more the result of 
the favorable notice of the Smithsonian's successful experience in de- 
veloping new museum opportunities. The Institution's pioneer experi- 
ence with the Neighborhood Museum, its folklife programs of research 
and festivals, its traveling exhibition program, its leadership in studies 
of computerized cataloging and collections management, its Associates 
programs, including curator-conducted instruction for adults and chil- 
dren, its experiments with exhibits incorporating combinations of media 
appealing to all the senses, its programs of higher education and of 
cooperation with the schools, and its developing competence in the 

85 



86 SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 

preservation of art and museum objects, have attracted many requests 
for detailed advice, for the training of museum personnel, and for co- 
operative studies of opportunities and problems. 

Universities have sought advice on the reorganization of their mu- 
seums but even more basically on the experience of research museums 
in bringing students and scholars together with the reference materials 
required for their studies. They also are interested in the use of exhibi- 
tions to stimulate and demonstrate interdepartmental involvement with 
questions of national concern which call for university-wide attention. 
On the other hand, the large independent research museums which are 
affiliated with universities supplying teachers, facilities, essential collec- 
tions, thesis supervision, and examination of candidates for advanced 
degrees, consult on how to convince foundations and granting agencies 
that, as institutions of higher education, they are equally entitled to 
direct financial support. 

Smithsonian directors, curators, exhibits designers, conservators, edu- 
cation specialists, counsel, and administrative officers have responded 
to requests from practically every state and from more than a score of 
foreign countries. They have traveled to Georgia, California, New York, 
Michigan, Washington, West Virgina, Vermont, Texas, Kentucky, New 
Jersey, Virginia, Ohio, and many other states to consult with museum 
directors on their plans for museum development. Their advice has 
been sought by international organizations such as unesco and the 
International Council of Museums, and by governments or govern- 
ment institutions of such countries as Canada, the Republic of Korea, 
Thailand, the Republic of the Philippines, Okinawa, several African 
nations, Israel, Tunisia, and Ceylon. The subjects of the requests in- 
clude advice and guidance on administering complexes of national 
museums, on planning the initial installations of large new museums, 
and for assistance in circulating significant collections of national 
treasures. 

The needs of the museums for the services represented in these re- 
quests were recently reaffirmed by the conferees assembled to provide 
answers to the letter of 20 June 1967 addressed by President Johnson 
to Secretary Ripley as Chairman of the Federal Council on the Arts and 
Humanities (see 1967 Annual Report, pages 14-15). Of the needs 
identified by the museum directors and public conferees meeting for this 
purpose, all have been addressed at times to the Smithsonian. The 
study of all these needs and their solutions, as well as the financial 
support of training and conservation services, are embraced in the con- 
cept of the National Museum Act. The conferees urged that the Act 
be extended and substantially funded. 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 87 

OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 

The Office of Exhibits — under the direction of chief of exhibits John 
E. Anglim and assistant chief Benjamin W. Lawless — developed new 
and diverse techniques in 1968 to present both the continuing and the 
dynamic new programs of the Smithsonian Institution. 

In addition to acquitting its public-information and educational 
responsibilities to design, produce, and install pennanent and special 
exhibitions, the Office responded to the needs of the Institution's grow- 
ing scholarly programs by creating many-faceted exhibits supplements — 
notably in the audiovisual, motion-picture, and special-devices realms. 
For the most part, these new activities have been stafifed from existing 
organizational units: Eugene F. Behlen has directed the audiovisual 
program; Karen Loveland, motion-picture production; RoUand O. 
Hower and James C. Nyce, special-devices research and development; 
and Carroll B. Lusk, lighting and special effects. 

The Office completed 73 new units in 8 permanent exhibition halls 
and produced 42 special exhibitions, ranging from single-case presenta- 
tions of specialized material to entire galleries. Among the special 
exhibitions that had international impact were "Peruvian Silver," 
"Colonial Art from Ecuador," "The Art of Organic Forms," and 
"Photography and the City: The Evolution of an Art and a Science." 
The latter — an extraordinary documentary on the development of the 
camera and its effects on society (especially virban life) — was designed 
by Charles Fames at the request of Vice President Hvibert H. Humphrey 
and was produced jointly by the Fames staff and the exhibits staffs of 
the Museum of History and Technology and the Museum of Natural 
History. The great wealth of visual material in this exhibit, opened in 
May 1968, was appropriate to the facilities of the revitalized Arts and 
Industries building, which last year became the Institution's exposition 
hall for exhibits not specifically related either to natural history or to 
history and technology. 

For the Traveling Exhibition Service the Office designed several 
traveling exhibits and edited and provided printed labels for 24 
others. The Exhibits staffs also prepared exhibits requested by the 
Offices of Education and Training, of International Activities, and of 
Public Information, the Smithsonian Associates, Museum Shops, and 
the Smithsonian Institution Press. With industry, the Office of Exhibits 
also worked cooperatively, as for example, the special computer ex- 
hibit done jointly with International Business Machines Corporation. 

In the many special operations within the Office — including the 
horticultural section, the conservation laboratories, the freeze-dry labo- 
ratory, the plastics shops, the model shops, and the silk-screen facili- 




"Photography and the City: The Evolution of an Art and a Science," a major 
exhibit designed by Charles Eames, opened in the Arts and Industries building 
on 6 June. It depicts the development of the camera and its effects on society. 








A focal point of the photography and the city exhibit was the 30-foot balloon in 
the rotunda of the Arts and Industries building, demonstrating how the first aerial 
photograph in the United States was taken. Nearby, the photograph of Boston, 
which was the first, is being rigged into position. Below, left: Charles Eames 
organizes photographic materials during the preparation stage; right, exhibits 
specialists Joan Nicholson and Frank Caldwell working with one of Charles 
Eames' designers. 




ties — scores of persons were trained in techniques that could be adapted 
to their local needs. Many of these students were museum professionals. 
Among the foreign countries from which trainees came were Australia, 
Ceylon, Denmark, Ghana, Nepal, and Nigeria. The Office also worked 
extensively with disadvantaged young adults to help orient them to the 
business and professional worlds, and is continuing this program on 
an even broader scale. 

Among the non-Smithsonian museums assisted by the Office of Ex- 
hibits last year was the Children's Museum and Planetarium of Charles- 
town, West Virginia, where a workshop seminar was conducted by 
designer Mrs. Deborah Bretzfelder, special projects supervisor Eugene 
F. Behlen, and exhibits specialist Frank Y. Caldwell. 



90 SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 

Assistance was also given to the orientation courses conducted by 
the Department of State for overseas exhibits coordinators, and to the 
design and installation of a foreign crafts fair at the Department of 
Commerce. 

The exhibits editor's office, under its new chief, Mrs. Constance 
Minkin, in addition to its primary functions of editing exhibits labels 
and overseeing their typography and printing, participated in such 
exhibits-related activities as preparing the scripts for the audiovisual 
program, and prepared or assisted with such items for the visiting 
public as five exhibition brochures, a guide map to the Museum of Natu- 
ral History, and a comprehensive Smithsonian-wide exhibits direc- 
tory — all published last year — and completing the manuscript for a 
guidebook to the hall of philately. Also, work was begun on a guide- 
book for the Museum of Natural History. Of the 7,614 labels edited, 
5,880 were printed for 90 exhibitions in 24 permanent and 66 tempo- 
rary halls. The remainder awaits printing. 

To other Smithsonian museums — the National Collection of Fine 
Arts, the National Portrait Gallery, the National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board, the National Air and Space Museum, the John F. 
Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts — the Office contributed 
services ranging from consultation and advice to actual production 
assistance, as for the National Collection of Fine Arts, which opened in 
May its new galleries in the renovated Old Patent Office building. 

The year's most significant and gratifying challenge was perhaps the 
development of the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum in Southeast 
Washington. Opening in September 1967, this very special museum 
was the outgrowth of Secretary Ripley's statement to museum direc- 
tors, "We ought to try taking museums to the people." The Office 
of Education and Training, the curatorial staffs, and the Office of 
Exhibits joined with neighborhood leaders to provide appealing, learn- 
ing exhibits to members of the Anacostia community, many of whom 
rarely participated in Smithsonian activities in downtown Washing- 
ton. Designer James Gerald Shelton, created eight stimulating science 
and history exhibits calculated to appeal to the young residents of 
Anacostia. 

Since the opening of the museum, many modifications have oc- 
curred both in methods of presentation and in the subject material 
exhibited, as both the community and the Exhibits Office learn how 
best to communicate exciting ideas and concepts in science and 
history. The Exhibits Office quickly discovered that what appealed 
to a typical museum visitor did not necessarily strike a responsive 
note in Anacostia and adjusted its approach to the requirements 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 91 

of the neighborhood community. Included in the change of emphasis 
were a more personal participation and classes in such subjects as clay- 
modeling, painting, and casting. A pottery wheel was installed and 
instruction given in the field of ceramics. Plans are ^vell along to 
instruct adults and children in gem stone cutting. The equipment for 
this operation has been already acquired, and classes will soon be 
started. 

While these activities may not be considered standard museum 
approaches, they were initiated in response to the expressed desires 
of the community. Exhibits on art, history, and African culture con- 
tinue the more typical aspects of a museum, and in the planning 
stage is a large and ambitious exhibit on Negro history in the United 
States. 

The experiences in Anacostia may well serve as guideposts for 
other neighborhood museums to follow. 

History and Technology Laboratory 

The exhibits staff assigned to the Museum of History and Technology, 
under the direction of Benjamin W. Lawless, continued its work in 
the permanent-exhibition program, but diverted most of its manpower 
and resources in 1968 to a series of special exhibition and exhibits- 
related activities dealing with science, history, and technology. 

Special exhibits rarely require more than four weeks to prepare and 
rarely last more than six weeks. These aspects — plus the fact that the 
exhibits can be mounted at relatively low cost per square foot of in- 
stalled space — make special exhibits ideal experimental vehicles. They 
can return far more than their original investments in evaluating the 
teaching effectiveness of various types of presentations and in further 
understanding the special relationships of exhibit specimen, curator, 
designer, and museum public. Significant special exhibitions were 
"Three Centuries of Peruvian Silver" and "Copp Textiles," both de- 
signed by Robert B. Widder, coordinator of special exhibits. Prior to the 
former, little of the superb viceregal silverwork had been seen outside 
Peru. The work reflected Spanish hammering, etching, and chasing 
techniques, employed in traditional European forms but transmuted 
by native craftsmen into distinctively Peruvian designs. Religious, do- 
mestic, and equestrian pieces were displayed in settings suggesting the 
ornate cathedrals and the dark, cool interiors of well-to-do Peruvian 
homes. The Copp textiles, a vast collection of colonial and early 19th- 
century household furnishings retained by several generations of the 
Copp family of Stonington, Connecticut, ranged from furniture to 



92 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 



kitchen utensils. In settings reminiscent of colonial Connecticut white 
clapboard houses, the bedding, table linens, and handsome needlework 
were displayed. Among the magnificent fabrics in the exhibition was 
an indigo-dyed cotton coverlet, quilted in the traditional pineapple 
pattern. 

Introductory exhibits were installed in the hall of musical instruments 
and in the nuclear energy area. Designed by the new chief designer 
Richard Virgo the musical instruments exhibition (open for special 
concerts and meetings) featured primarily 17th- and 18th-century in- 
struments. An ancillary, but striking, feature was the use of stereophonic 
lounge chairs in which visitors could hear music recorded from the:' 
instruments on exhibit. 

Alfred McAdams, also new to the design staff, developed several 
exhibit units that will ultimately become part of the permanent hall 
of nuclear energy. 

Permanent exhibition halls in progress have continued to reflect ex- 
perience gained from the special exhibits program. Six permanent halls 
were designed and — under the guidance of design-office manager and 
contracts supeivisor John Brown — construction contracts were ready to 
be let for two of them. 

Production facilities are under the direction of William M. Clark, 
assisted by Stanley M. Santoroski; Robert L. Klinger supervises the 
model shop. 



SPECIAL EXHIBITS 



Exhibit 
Copp Textiles 
Peruvian Silver 
Masques, Mimes and Miracles 
Mexican Prints 
Enrico Fermi 
Computers 
Chicago Architecture 
Political Cartoons 
Tractor Jubilee 
Presidential Pastimes 
Father Point's Paintings 
Excellence in Engineering 
Scan-O-Groves 
Comic Art 
Bye Watercolors 
Danish Glass 
Celestial Globe 



Location 
Museum of History 
and Technology 



Designer 
Robert Widder 
Robert Widder 
Eugene Behlen 
Kenneth Young 
Alfred McAdams 
Nadya KayalofF 
Robert Widder 
Kenneth Young 
John Clendening 
Barbara Fellows 
Robert Widder 
Benjamin Lawless 
James Shelton 
John Clendening 
Kenneth Young 
Kenneth Young 
Nadya KayaloflF 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 



93 



Exhibit 
Honeywell-Emmett Computer 
Musical Instruments 
Israel Philately 
Historic Sewing Machines 
American Medallic Art 
Explorer's New Zealand 
N.C.F.A. Opening 
■'Golden Spike" Railroad 

Exhibit 
Resolute Desk 
Recent Acquisitions, I 
Italian-American Show 
Baltimore Dental Collection 
Folk Art (Cafeteria) 
Halem Ceramics 
Organ Making 
Appalachian Poverty 
Recent Acquisitions, II 
German Posters 
Photos of Iran 

Erie Canal 
Metal: Germany 
NAFMAB Art 
Children's Art 
Photography and the City 
Paintings by Tuculescu 

(Romanian) 
Rhode Island Recreation 
Finnish Graphics 
Hirshhorn Museum Model 
Brooks-Beason Exhibition 

World Craft Fair 



Location 
Museum of History 
and Technology 



Arts and Industries 
Building 



Smithsonian Building 
Old Senate Office 

Building 
Department of 

Commerce 



Designer 
Nadya KayalofT 
Richard Virgo 
John Clendening 
James Shelton 
Steve Makovenyi 
Kenneth Young 
Robert Widder 
Kenneth Young 

Nadya KayalofT 
Robert Widder 

John Clendening 
Benjamin Lawless 
Kenneth Young 
Barbara Fellows 
Benjamin Lawless 
Kenneth Young 
Steve Makovenyi 
Robert Widder and 

Kenneth Young 
Kenneth Young 
Kenneth Young 
John Clendening 
Barbara Fellows 
Charles Eames 
Kenneth Young 

Barbara Fellows 
Kenneth Young 
Kenneth Young 
William Haase 

Benjamin Lawless 



PERMANENT EXHIBITS IN PROGRESS 



Hall 
Autos and Coaches 
Textiles 
Electricity, II 
Physics, II 
Photography 
Musical Instruments 
Nuclear Energy 
Wood Technology 



Location 
Museum of History 
and Technology 



Designer 
John Clendening 
William Haase 
Nadja KayalofT 
John Clendening 
James Shelton 
Richard Virgo 
Alfred McAdams 
Benjamin Lawless 



94 SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 

Museum of Natural History Laboratory 

The Museum of Natural History Exhibits staff, under the direction 
of John E. Anglim, assisted by Gilbert A. Wright, completed the cul- 
tures of Africa and Asia hall, which was fully opened to the public in 
August 1967. Designed by Lucius Lomax, the final section of the hall 
included a Lundi life group depicted in an initiation dance; the realistic 
foreground was prepared by the models, dioramas, and accessories sec- 
tion under the supervision of John Babyak. Another fascinating, inno- 
vative feature was a life group in a kitchen setting — complete with 
kitchen scents facsimilated by the research and development section — 
under RoUand O. Hower's direction. 

In the adjoining peoples of the Pacific and Asia hall, a new life group 
of New Guinea was installed. The background was developed by chief 
illustrator Christopher Reinecke, and the figures by John Weaver. 

A newly acquired spectacular gold chalice was added to the gem hall 
(to be shown intermittently, by arrangement with the donor). A new 
complex of gem cases was planned by designer Dorothy Guthrie, and 
special exhibits were installed for the mammoth Lesotho diamond, 
twinned diamond crystals, a 31 -carat heart-shaped blue diamond, and 
a collection of jade carvings. Nearly half of the exhibits have been com- 
pleted for the hall of physical geology, designed by Mrs. Guthrie and 
produced and installed under the direction of Frank Nelms, chief of 
the production section, and assistant chief Charles W. Mickens. 

Work continued in new sections of the cold-blooded vertebrates hall, 
designed by James Speight, and on the balcony of the dinosaur hall, 
where a large diorama depicting Cretaceous reptile life was completed 
by Jay Matternes. A new exhibit on restorations of the skull and soft 
parts of prehistoric Zinjanthropus was added to the hall of physical 
anthropology. For the future hall of Quaternaiy vertebrates, designed 
by Lucius E. Lomax, Vernon Rickman completed reduced-scale sculp- 
tures of two sloths, a mammoth, an American elk, and an American 
bison. A life-sized figure for the Cocapa Indian group, in the hall of 
American Indians, was also completed. 

Peter Farb and designer Joseph Shannon have further developed the 
expanded concept of the discovery of natural history hall, which will 
be far more comprehensive than the originally planned insect hall, 
embracing basic biologic principles underlying the development of life 
on earth. Biologic films for the hall were made by Kjell Sandved during 
two months at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute on Barro 
Colorado Island. 

Among the many dramatic special exhibitions produced by the 
Natural History Laboratory staff was "The Art of Organic Forms," de- 



OFFICE OF EXHIBITS 



95 




William Roberts employs a 
rapid sediment analyzer in his 
research in paleobiology. This 
instrument for scientific research 
was built in the plastics labor- 
atory of the Office of Exhibits, 
Museum of Natural History. 



signed by Lomax; an exhibition on the religious art of Ecuador, de- 
signed by Mrs. Guthrie; "Data- Processing in Systematic Zoology," de- 
signed by Speight; and "Artwork by School Children of Brasilia," 
which was prepared for the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum and later 
circulated in District of Columbia schools. 

Much of the material was completed for the huge endangered species 
exhibit, which will open shortly in the foyer. Designed by Speight, the 
exhibit was coordinated by Joseph C. Britton, assistant to Richard S. 
Cowan, Director of the Museum of Natural History; Britton served for 
much of the year as the liaison between the exhibits staff and the cura- 
torial and administrative staff". 

The varied resources of the plastics laboratory section, supervised by 
John Widener, contributed importantly to the exhibits programs. As- 
sisting other museums as well as serving the Museum of Natural His- 
tory, this laboratory produced faithful replicas of irreplaceable museum 
specimens such as meteorites, plant fossils, and rare bones of prehistoric 
animals, as well as of intricately carved ivory chess sets; and fabricated 
intricate scientific instrumentation; and it made durable casts of sculp- 
tured sloths and of human forms (including manikins for the first 
ladies' hall in the Museum of History and Technology), and plaques 
of Assyrian bas-reliefs. 



Exhibit 
Encyclopaedia Britannica 



Early Religious Art of 

Mexico 
Art of Organic Forms 



SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

Location 
Museum of History and 
Technology 



Museum of Natural 
History 



Designer 

Commercial designer 
Stowe Myers, with 
assistance from 
Lucius Lomax 

Dorothy Guthrie 

Lucius Lomax 



96 



SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 



Exhibit 
Museum Data Processing 
Using the Freeze-dry 

Technique for Museum 

Exhibition 
Art Work of School 

Children of Brasilia 
Flora and Fauna of 

Chesapeake Bay 



Location 
Baltimore Civic Center 
University of Maryland 



Anacostia Neighborhood 

Museum 
Chesapeake Bay Center 

for Field Biology 



Designer 
James A. Speight 
Rolland O. Hower 



James A. Speight 



Morris Pearson 



Hall 

African-Asian Ethnology 

(14 exhibits) 
Pacific-Asian Ethnology 
Gems (4 exhibits) 
Life in the Sea ( 1 exhibit) 
Physical Anthropology 

(2 exhibits) 
North American Indians 

(1 exhibit) 



PERMANENT EXHIBITS 

Location 
Museum of Natural 
History 



Designer 
Lucius Lomax 

Lucius Lomax 
Dorothy Guthrie 
Lucius Lomax 
Joseph Shannon 

Morris Pearson 



TRAVELING EXHIBITION SERVICE 

In 1968 the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service com- 
pleted its seventeenth year of operation. From a beginning of touring 
exhibitions generally limited to the fine arts, it has gradually enlarged its 
scope to include design and crafts, photography, architecture, history, 
and science. 

Exhibitions circulated by sites are assembled from many sources in 
this country and abroad — from museums, institutions public and pri- 
vate, and collectors — and each year more of these lending sources 
accept sites as a means of sharing their treasures with a wider public. 
At the same time, under the Director General of Museums, sites is 
increasing its ability to aid public museums, community colleges, science 
museums, libraries and other educational institutions in developing pro- 
grams for using their temporary exhibition space. One result of this has 
been that the current catalog lists 19 more exhibitions than were in 
last year's issue. 

Notable among those requesting assistance are school systems project 
officers conducting educational exhibitions programs funded under 
Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. In 
Lock Haven, Pennsylvania, for example, sites provided 13 exhibitions 
for periods of one to three months, to be circulated within the Title III 
area. These exhibitions, it is estimated, went to 40 schools and were 



SMITHSONIAN TRAVELING EXHIBITION SERVICE 



97 




Two foreign exhibitions shown at the Smithsonian and later circulated by the 
Smithsonian Institution traveling exhibition service were, above, "140 Years of 
Danish Glass," and, below, "Metal: Germany," with Frank A. Taylor, Director 
General of Museums, Dorothy Van Arsdale, Chief of the Smithsonian Travel- 
ing Exhibition Service, and German Ambassador Heinrich Knappstein viewing 
a metal candelabra. 




viewed by 90,000 students. And more and more the State Arts Coun- 
cils are taking over the task of circulating exhibitions within their states. 
The Council on Leaders and Specialists has referred many foreign 
museum specialists to sites for briefings on its operation, and requests 
from these people for loans of exhibits prepared from Smithsonian col- 
lections represent a potential widening of the services now ofTered, pro- 
vided funds could be obtained for preparing the exhibits. The requests 




A special exhibit of the colonial art of Ecuador was opened on 15 April in 
the Museum of Natural History by the Smithsonian Institution traveling exhibi- 
tion' service in collaboration with the government of Ecuador. Entrance to the 
exhibition hall is shown on left. 



predominantly seek science, history, and technological materials, dem- 
onstrating that areas of human endeavor and accomplishment other 
than fine arts play a major role in cultural exchange programs. 

Increasing support from the Department of State and other federal 
agencies has been received in the form of consulting services, leader 
grants to visiting curators, and general liaison assistance. In return 
SITES has reciprocated by exhibiting the Tuculescu paintings from 
Romania at the Smithsonian and subsequently in Ohio and California, 
as called for in a cultural exchange agreement between Romania and 
usiA. Another exhibition, "Tapestries from Yugoslavia," is now cir- 
culating and the next will probably be of naive paintings from Yugo- 
slavia, due in winter 1968; this latter is the third under a five-year 
proposal. 

About a third of sites' exhibitions are lent by foreign countries. 
Among them, "Art Treasures of Turkey," "Swiss Drawings," and 
"Henry Moore" were returned. "Tunisian Mosaics" continues for 
another year, and Ecuador has launched its first United States traveling 
exhibition, "Colonial Art from Ecuador." Other foreign exhibitions 
now circulating are "140 Years of Danish Glass," "Popular Art from 
Peru," and "Metal: Germany." 

Dorothy Van Arsdale and program assistant Frances Smyth, were 
official guests of the governments of Switzerland, Romania, and Czecho- 
slovakia for discussions of new exhibitions for the United States, and 



« 




Colonial art of Ecuador. 




Donald McClelland of the National Collection of Fine Arts organized 
other exhibitions for sites while traveling in Ceylon and India. 

Cooperation with unicef in New York resulted in two exhibitions 
there, with a third scheduled for fall 1968, and cooperation with 
UNESCO in Paris resulted in one exhibition currently on tour and another 
scheduled for fall 1968. The two-year-old "Abu Simbel" exhibition will 
be updated and continued on tour. 

Once again sites was honored by the American University Presses; 
its catalog Swiss Drawings, produced by Frances Smyth and designed 
by Crimilda Pontes, was selected as one of the top 25 publications of 
the year. Other catalogs published this year are Finnish Graphics Today, 



100 SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS 

Colonial Art from Ecuador, 140 Years of Danish Glass, Graphic Art 
from Yugoslavia, and Yugoslavian Tapestries. 

An increasing number of sites shows open at Smithsonian Museums. 
This year they included "German Posters," "Finnish Graphics Today," 
"Metal: Germany," "Colonial Art from Ecuador," "140 Years of 
Danish Glass," and "The Explorer's New Zealand." Installation of all 
these shows was by the Office of Exhibits, under the direction of John E. 
Anglim. "Swiss Drawings" opened at the National Gallery of Art. 

Carried over from prior years were 68 exhibitions; 29 were initiated, 
and 42 were dispersed. The 1968-1969 catalog, published in May 1968, 
lists 116 exhibitions. 

Exhibitions Initiated in 1968 

Painting and Sculpture 

Radius 5; Colonial Art from Ecuador; The American Landscape: A Living 
Tradition; Eyewitness to Space, II; Contemporary Art of India and Iran; Isleta 
Pueblo Paintings; Swiss Drawings. 

Drawings and Prints 

Antique Maps; Contemporary American Drawings, III; Cross-section of Con- 
temporary Graphics : American, European, and Japanese ; Finnish Graphics 
Today; Master Prints of the 15th and 16th Centuries: Contemporary Mexican 
Prints; Ornamental Pen Drawings. 

Architecture 

The Grand Design; Ten Italian Architects; The Stencil Ornaments of Louis 
Sullivan. 

Design and Crafts 

Metal: Germany; 140 Years of Danish Glass; Wood Turnings from India; 
Kaleidoscope Orissa: Folk Art from India; Popular Art from Peru; Yugo- 
slavian Tapestries. 

History 

The Carvings of Sanchi. 

Children's Art 
Paintings by Children of Many Lands, II ; Tunisian Children's Art. 

Natural History and Science 

Transformation of Space. 

Photography 

A Photographer Looks at Africa; Australia: The Sunburnt Country; Laos: The 
Land and the People. 



CONSERVATION-ANALYTICAL LABORATORY 101 

Exhibitions Continued from Prior Years 

1966-1967: Islamic Art from the Collection of Edwin Binney 3rd; Henry 
Moore; Sources for Tomorrow: 50 Paintings from the Michener Collection; Naive 
Art from Haiti; Tunisian Mosaics; Italian Architectural Drawings; Graphic Art 
from Yugoslavia; Graphics '67; Albers: Interaction of Color; Cape Dorset: The 
Arts of an Eskimo Community; Empire Profile; Fiber, Fabric and Form; German 
Posters; Living with Wood; Victorian Needlework; Color and Light in Painting; 
The Explorer's New Zealand; The People's Choice; Les Enfants de Paris; Paint- 
ings by Children of Many Lands, I; Things and Other Things; Tokyo Children 
Look at the Olympic Games; Animal Behavior; Minerals Magnified; Prehistoric 
Paintings of France and Spain; Ten in Focus. 

1965-1966: Eyewitness to Space; Action-Reaction; Contemporary Dutch 
Graphics; Polish Graphic Art; Six Danish Graphic Artists; Art in Urban Archi- 
tecture; Early Chicago Architecture; Folk Toys from Japan; Jazz Posters; Posters 
from Denmark; Rugs from the McMullan Collection; Early Monuments and 
Architecture from Ireland; Danish Children Illustrate Hans Chri-stian Andersen; 
Embroideries by Children of Chijnaya; Museum Impressions; The Preservation 
of Abu Simbel; New Names in Latin American Art. 

1964-1965: Bridges, Tunnels and Waterworks; Eskimo Graphic Art III; Pier 
Luigi Nervi; American Costumes; American Furniture; The American Flag; 
Colors and Patterns in the Animal Kingdom; The Stonecrop Family: Variations 
on a Pattern ; The Color of Water. 

1963-1964: Alvar Aalto; Contemporary American Landscape Architecture; 
Birds of Asia; Hearts and Flowers; Religious Themes by Old Masters, I and II; 
Eero Saarinen; Swiss Posters. 

1962-1963: Craftsmen of the City; Paintings by Young Africans. 
1961-1962: Physics and Painting; unesco Watercolor Reproductions; Con- 
temporary Italian Drawings; The Face of Viet Nam; Le Corbusier; Robert Capa: 
Images of War. 

CONSERVATION-ANALYTICAL LABORATORY 

The productive activities of the Conserx^ation-Analytical Laboratory 
were directed toward both conservation and analysis in proportion to the 
manpower available. 

Conservation consisted largely of providing information, advice, and 
tested materials to various departments engaged in safeguarding their 
own collections, together with emergency action in connection with spe- 
cial exhibitions. 

One minor activity contributing to the welfare of the collections was 
surveillance of the relative humidity in various areas of the Museum of 
History and Technology by means of 25 continuously recording hygro- 
thermographs. Close cooperation with the engineers responsible for air 
conditioning resulted in a reasonably stable environment at levels suited 
to the various materials. 

Materials tested for compatibility with museum objects included 
paper, board, adhesives, and plastic foils intended for mounting graphic 



i 

102 SPECIAL MUSEUM PROGRAMS " 

art; paint for the decoration of rooms in which silver objects are stored; 
and insecticide for use in rooms containing metal objects. 

Emergency action was taken to deal with wood borers and flying 
termites originating from exhibits in special exhibitions. 

About 150 objects received various forms of treatment, and analysis 
was undertaken on some one hundred objects of wide variety, including 
ancient Chinese bronze ceremonial vessels and belt hooks, gold coins, 
slag from an archeological dig, and a corrosion product found to be 
hindering operation of one of the Museum's working models. 

Most of these analyses were spectrographic, made on ten-milligram 
samples, and were semiquantitative in nature, but some of them were 
made with greater precision by x-ray fluorescence analysis. Identifica- 
tion of minerals that occur in the gesso on easel paintings, in artists' pig- 
ments, and as corrosion products on buried or sunken objects have been 
made by x-ray diffraction analysis. Artists' pigments have also been char- 
acterized by infrared absorption spectrophotometry which has served 
additionally to identify organic materials such as the adhesives used on 
commercial binding tapes suggested for use in mounting, the finish 
applied in earlier times to a celestial globe that was recently acquired, 
and the varnish found on political campaign buttons in the collection. 

Another investigation, still in progress, was of the use of neutron- 
activation analysis for the characterization of sources of English and 
American pottery from the colonial period found here. A technique for 
the elemental analysis of small samples — less than 100 micrograms in 
weight — by use of the electron microprobe is being refined in conjunction 
with the division of meteorites. This method, applied to ink, may prove 
to be useful in investigations involving the attribution of old documents. 

Aside from directly productive activity, the Laboratory was engaged 
in reorganization of its procedures and in filling minor gaps in equip- 
ment with a view to increasing its effectiveness in handling the many 
and varied tasks presented from six museums, each having different types 
of collections. As subsidiary gains, this reorganization is expected to 
facilitate access by other members of the Smithsonian staff to technical 
literature on conservation available in the laboratory and to the testing 
equipment that has been acquired for the purpose of monitoring and 
facilitating conservation treatments carried out in other laboratories in 
the Smithsonian museum complex. 



OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR 103 

OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR 

The energetic pursuits of the many branches and organizations under 
the Smithsonian have had their impact on the Office of the Registrar 
this year. Mail volume increased about forty percent over 1967, offering 
concrete evidence of increased staff activity and the heightened public 
awareness of the Institution and its varied programs. In the words of one 
correspondent, they are "unavoidably interested in ... , send me any 
information." 

Eight clerks handled more than 1,492,000 pieces of mail. Daily, 
approximately 800 deliveries are made in the four buildings on the 
Mall, and two truck deliveries service the seven buildings in other parts 
of the city. 

A branch mail-shipping office was set up this year to service the newly 
opened Fine Arts-Portrait Gallery building and was amply justified by 
the timely service provided in receiving and shipping large exhibits in 
connection with the establishment and opening of the building. Total 
shipping activity, is shown below : 

Pieces Pounds 

Freight (surface and air) 15, 366 1, 740, 705 

Express (surface and air) 1, 724 89, 829 

Parcel Post (surface and air) 1, 184 10, 358 

The nations of the Middle East and Africa, particularly North and 
East Africa, drew an increasing number of travelers. For all countries 
they totaled 297 and required the processing of 745 passports and other 
documents. 

An important role played by the Office of the Registrar primarily for 
the benefit of the scientific and professional staff of the Museums of 
Natural History and of History and Technology is the recording of 
accessions to the collections and maintaining and searching the central 
files. The statistical tables showing the totals and distribution of speci- 
mens are given on pages 149 and 392-393. 



Smithsonian Activities 
History and Art 



315-997 O - 69 



American Studies Program 

The AMERICAN STUDIES PROGRAM of the Department of American 
Studies was carried on in cooperation with universities in the local area. 
For the third consecutive year an orientation seminar was given in the 
spring semester, this time organized around the theme of life in the 
period of the American Revolution. It was taught by staff members 
of various Smithsonian museums, with nine graduate students from 
George Washington University and four from the University of Mary- 
land participating. In addition, two graduate students from George 
Washington University and three from the University of Maryland took 
individual reading courses with staff members of the Museum of History 
and Technology and the Museum of Natural History. Portions of com- 
prehensive examinations were written and graded for three graduate 
students, and doctoral dissertation direction was carried out for two 
students. 

The chairman prepared a paper on "Speech Communication and 
Politics" for an Interdisciplinary Colloquium on Speech Communica- 
tion, in 10-12 October 1967, sponsored by the Speech Association of 
America and the United States Office of Education in cooperation with 
the Johnson Foundation. He participated in a conference at Austin, 
Texas, sponsored by the American Association of University Presses 
and the National Endowment for the Humanities, to identify areas in 
the history of exploration and discovery in need of support for research 
and publication. He also participated in meetings: the Commandant's 
Advisory Committee on Marine Corps History 22-27 July 1967; the 
Society for Historical Archaeology; the Organization of American His- 
torians; and the International Commission for the History of Parlia- 
mentary and Representative Institutions. 

Continuing his research in various areas of American history, he saw 
published during the year the following : 

Washburn, Wilcomb E. "The Smithsonian's Graduate Program in American 
Civihzation." Smithsonian Journal of History, vol. 2, No. 2 (Summer 
1967), pp. 64-67. 

. "Indian Removal Policy: Administrative, Historical and Moral Cri- 
teria for Judging its Success or Failure." Ethnohistory, vol. 12, No. 3 
(Summer 1965), pp. 274-278. [This issue of Ethnohistory did not appear 
in published form until 1967.] 

. "Joseph Henry's Conception of the Purpose of the Smithsonian Insti- 

tion." Pages 106-166 in A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the 
Evolution of American Museums. Charlottesville: The University Press 
of Virginia, 1967. 

107 




The Amoskeag millyard, Manchester, New Hampshire. Aerial view made from 
a helicopter loaned by the state National Guard. Such views are of far greater 
value than conventional aerial photos which of necessity must be taken from 
much higher altitudes. Here, the relationship between the various mill buildings, 
the river, the power canal, and the corporation housing, is made clear in a way 
that would be possible by no other means. The Amoskeag complex expanded 
steadily from 1838 until construction of the last major mill in 1915. 



Museum of History and Technology 

Robert P. Multhauf, Director 




T ATiTHiN PRACTICALLY EVERY SUBJECT FIELD embraced by the Mu- 
' ' seum of History and Technology, beyond those of object and 
manuscript-material collection which conventionally occupy the profes- 
sional stafT, there are vast areas that could lend themselves to exploration 
by the curator. The most pressing of these, in terms of rapidly disappear- 
ing historical evidence is the area of physical remains. While of less im- 
portance and incidence in areas where the end objects themselves are 
small and easily collectible — coins, stamps, the artifacts of domestic and 
craft culture — most engineering and technological objects generated by 
man's ingenuity and construction are large, uncollectible, and with few- 
exceptions, not susceptible to a formalized preservation process except on 
their own foundations. Thus, it becomes the technological historian's 
obligation to devote as much energy to the direct study of the material 
remains of original structures in the field — the primary documents — as to 
the analysis of that development on the basis of essentially secondary, 
paper documents, for each provides understanding of the other. Acutely 
aware of this, historians in the Museum of History and Technology have 
turned their attention to industrial archeology. 

INDUSTRIAL ARCHEOLOGY AT THE SMITHSONIAN 

Because of its traditional orientation toward historical interpretation 
based almost wholly upon objects and documents that could conven- 
iently be gathered within its \valls, the Smithsonian's Museum of His- 
tory and Technology has been relatively late in embracing the field of 
industrial archeology — the on-site investigation of physical remains of 

109 



no 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




C. p. Bradway Machine Works, West 
StafiFord, Connecticut, employed a 
group of standard machine tools, some 
built or drastically modified on the 
premises and none made after 1900, to 
manufacture water turbines. Except 
for the lighting fixture and chain 
hoists, the scene is typical of any one 
of a dozen small late 19th-century 
shops in the industry. The works, now 
moribund, will probably be razed 
shortly. 



factory-based manufacturing, processing, and extractive industries, the 
works of civil engineering, and the less-mobile structures of the mechani- 
cal engineer such as stationary power-producing machinery, canal locks, 
and the like, but excluding those objects and areas conventionally treated 
in and by museums. The industrial archeologist, because of the relative 
immobility of the structures in his domain and the fact that a few paper 
records have survived, is primarily a field investigator. 

Interest in industrial archeology has existed in this country for about 
thirty years, primarily among a small group of dedicated buffs and on 
an organized level in the National Park Service. As a result of their 
efforts such significant industrial sites have been acquired and restored 
as the 18th- 19th-century ironworking complex at Hopewell, Pennsyl- 
vania; more recently the Edison Laboratories in East Orange, New 
Jersey; and the right-of-way and remaining structures of the famed 
Allegheny Portage Railway. 

In this field the Smithsonian Institution, because of its organizational 
structure, for the present can best concentrate on the recording aspects of 
industrial archeology. This is an important contribution, however, be- 
cause only a small portion of the finest and most important of industrial 
monuments stand a chance of being preserved. Unlike residential build- 
ings, where adaptive use is feasible, it is only the rare industrial struc- 
ture — bridge, canal, or mill building — that can easily be adapted for a 
purpose other than that for which it was originally intended, and if 
it occupies a valuable site or is large and expensive to maintain, which 



INTRODUCTION 111 

it usually is, demolition is almost certain once it has become uneconomic. 
Thus, while a detailed graphic record may be a poor substitute for the 
object, it is better than no record at all. 

Formal recording of industrial structures in the United States began 
in the Great Depression when the vvpa established the Historic Ameri- 
can Buildings Survey, under which unemployed architects were hired to 
make accurate measured drawings and photographs of a large group of 
significant buildings. Although established as a purely architectural 
project, HABS also recorded a number of bridges, small mills, and fac- 
tories. Today it continues this work under the National Park Service, 
with an increasing attempt to document industrial remains. 

About three years ago the Smithsonian's division of mechanical and 
civil engineering, aware that the rate of abandonment and demolition 
was increasing as a result of obsolescence, urban sprawl, highway con- 
struction, and other disruptive economical and physical factors, under- 
took a series of recording surveys to increase the breadth of this direct 
documentation of American industrial survivals. In the first survey, in 
July 1965, the C. P. Bradway Machine Works was thoroughly recorded. 
This small Connecticut factory had just ceased the manufacture of 
water turbines. Its buildings, production machinery, and — most im- 
portantly — its manufacturing methods were an unusual survival of a 
typical late- 19th-century machine manufactory, for since its founding in 
1889, few of its major physical or operational elements had been 
drastically altered. The three-man party that surveyed it in one week 
made complete measurements of the building and its contents. With a 
tape recorder and 35-mm. camera, they produced a step-by-step account 
of the entire turbine-manufacturing sequence as recounted by Mr. 
Bradway, the elderly owner and son of the firm's founder. It was 
virtually a craft process, and most of the dimensional and manufacturing 
information existed nowhere but in Mr. Bradway's memory, an ex- 
tremely common method of record keeping in the early days of the 
turbine and other light, limited-production machine industries. 

Summer 1966 saw a similar survey made of Dudley Shuttles, Inc., 
a small shop in Wilkinsonville, Massachusetts, which still manufactures 
wood shuttles for power looms. In 1900 this was an industry of perhaps 
thirty manufacturers, but today the bulk of the business is concentrated 
in the hands of two or three large firms, with the Dudley firm as the 
sole remaining small producer. The firm's significance lies in the fact 
that much of its production machinery was designed and built on the 
premises, some as early as 1885, and thus represents an unusual example 
of a manufacturer's own ingenuity being used to meet his requirements 
for a group of highly specialized, largely single-function machines. 



112 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




Finished survey drawing of one of the specialized, "homemade," shuttle-manu- 
facturing machines at Dudley Shuttles, Inc. The machine's function is to round 
off the ends of the rough shuttle blanks to permit smooth passage through the 
warp threads in the weaving process. 



Here, as in the Bradway survey, it should be noted, is exhibited 
one of the basic principles for determining priorities in industrial 
archeology — the threat of extinction — for the advent of the high-speed, 
shuttleless loom, will in several decades make the shuttle largely obsolete. 

In the Dudley survey, in which habs cooperated, the buildings were 
fully measured. The greatest part of the work, however, was devoted 
to recording the unique production machinery and the manufacturing 
process. The Dudley-built machines were measured and fully photo- 
graphed and the sequence of production photographed and described, 
from the raw persimmon-wood block to the finished shuttle — which is 
a deceptively simple looking but highly sophisticated device. 

During this 1965-1966 period a number of minor surveys were also 
conducted by the division. Most of these covered a series of iron bridges 
of the era 1850-1875 when the development of shop-built, prefabricated 
iron railway and highway bridges was in its infancy. Of the thousands 
of those spans that once existed, very few remain, and, with one or two 
exceptions, these are in anything but secure positions. 

These beginning efforts culminated, in summer 1967, in the New Eng- 
land Textile Mill Survey, organized by the division of mechanical and 



INTRODUCTION 



113 



The Crown Mill, North Uxbridge, 
Massachusetts. A strikingly handsome 
building, built in 1823 during a period 
of enormous growth of the cotton tex- 
tile industry in New England, it is 
diminutive in comparison to the huge 
brick mills in the urban textile centers 
like Lowell and Manchester. The 
Crown is typical of the hundreds built 
along the region's lesser rivers and 
streams, and is one of very few which 
have survived unaltered. The site is 
shared with a twin mill, the Eagle, 
built in 1827. As their fate at the 
moment is in doubt, the urgency of 
their recording by the New England 
Textile Mill Survey is clear. 




■ns 

Mfctl 






civil engineering and co-sponsored by habs and the Merrimack Valley 
Textile Museum of North Andover, Massachusetts. Goal of the survey 
was to produce a full-scale graphic record of a selected group of early 
textile-mill buildings in New England, the cradle of the industry in 
America. 

As the first industry in this country to be systematically organized on 
the factory system — with all operations from raw material to finished 
product carried out under one roof — it seemed to be the logical starting 
point for a series of "industry" surveys, for while the machinery and 
operational aspects of the industry have been analyzed and the artifacts 
preserved, little has been done to determine how the physical plant that 
housed the machinery evolved from its late- 18th-century beginnings to 
about 1900, by which time mill design had become practically 
standardized. 

The survey team consisted of five architectural students, from univer- 
sities around the country and as far away as Hawaii, who both measured 



114 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 



SCALE IN FEET 




Sectional drawing through one of the Lawrence mills covered by the 1967 New 
England Textile Mill Survey project. The Pemberton, built in 1860-61 as a 
cotton mill, remains in use today as a plumbing supply warehouse, and has a 
fairly high probability of long life. A change in the economics of either the 
industry or the particular firm, however, could result in the building's obso- 
lescence and demolition overnight. 



the buildings and produced the finished drawings. One of the students 
also acted as photographer. Much of summer 1967 was devoted to 
recording a number of mills in the Manchester, New Hampshire, com- 
plex of the former Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, once the larg- 
est textile producer in the United States on a single site. Most of the 
Amoskeag buildings remain as they were at the time the company was 
liquidated in 1936, and are now occupied by a wide variety of other 
industries. The Amoskeag site, the earliest buildings of which date from 
1838, is important as the only one of the half-dozen major New England 



INTRODUCTION 115 

textile centers that remains largely intact. Others such as that at Lowell 
have been ravaged by urban renewal and highway projects which 
destroyed much of their value as total records, and even the Amoskeag 
complex is now threatened by an urban-renewal scheme — the main 
reason for beginning the survey there. 

A group of large mills at Lawrence, Massachusetts, was similarly 
recorded, as were two small rural mills in Rhode Island and southeastern 
Massachusetts — a type fully as important in the development of the 
textile industry as the great mills clustered in the major centers. The 
50 drawings and approximately 500 photographs produced by the 1967 
survey have been permanently deposited in the habs collections in the 
Library of Congress, where they are available for study and use. 

In summer 1968 the sur\'ey is being continued among a group of 
mills remaining in the once-important textile cities of Fall River, Massa- 
chusetts, and Woonsocket, Rhode Island. These will be treated as 
individual structures rather than as parts of a unit complex, as was 
done at Manchester. In addition, it is planned to record as completely 
as possible the entire small mill village of Harrisville, New Hampshire, a 
remarkable survival of the company town, that peculiar American 
industrial-economic-social phenomenon which characterized a large 
segment of the textile industry in New England throughout most of its 
active history. Few remain as cohesive units, but in Harrisville, the 
woolen mill is still in operation, with most of the village dependent upon 
it. As in the previous summer's work, use will be made of such tech- 
niques as low-level aerial photography from a helicopter for recording 
interrelationships between buildings and site elements, and of aerial 
photography from higher flying planes where building details are 
inaccessible or complex. 

With this documentation of the textile industry in hand it will be 
possible to achieve an overall view of a single class of structure which, 
regardless of the geographical location or time of construction, was 
designed to meet a specialized requirement, and by this means to ob- 
serve changes in the relationship between the functions served and the 
structural solutions to the problems these changes presented. 

As we noted, only a few states and private institutions are actively 
investigating industrial remains within their own provinces. It is a 
source of regret that interest in such activity is not more widespread, 
for the present effort is not enough to keep pace with the accelerating 
destruction of even the most important industrial monuments. 

Some encouragement is to be found in the increasing number of grad- 
uate courses in material culture being offered by American universities, 




'r^^x'¥: 








A team of Smithsonian staff members, George Washington University graduate 
students, and "friends of the Museum" on a preliminary survey of the remains 
of the early 19th-century iron works at Principio Furnace, Maryland, in April 
1968. A major survey is planned of 18th-century workings on the site in conjunc- 
tion with the Museum's participation in historical studies connected with the 
Bicentennial of the American Revolution. 



particularly in the Middle Atlantic States. In at least three universi- 
ties — George Washington, Delaware, and Pennsylvania — these courses 
strongly emphasize fieldwork that can and often does include work in 
industrial archeology. 

The Smithsonian, by means of its interdisciplinary-cooperative pro- 
gram with George Washington University, has been able to influence 
in this direction, a small but avid group of students who, over the past 
year or so, have taken part in several of our formal surveys and have 
conducted several of their own under Museum staff guidance, making 
it possible to record a number of sites and structures in the Washing- 
ton area which otherwise could have been lost. It is in such methods 
that the greatest hope lies for interesting, encouraging, and training the 
coming generation of historians to have a proper perspective of the work- 
ing relationship that should exist between the physical and paper docu- 
mentation of American technology. 

Robert M. Vogel^ Curator 

Division of Mechanical and Civil Engineering 



Research and Publications 
OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR 

Robert P. Multhauf spent a part of the past year on sabbatical leave at 
Heidelberg where he continued his research on the history of the con- 
cept of specific gravity and on the development of industrial chemistry 
from 1750 to 1850. 

A book-length history of early American navigational instruments, en- 
titled The Sign of the Quadrant, by Silvio A. Bedini, was completed for 
the press. This is the first of a three-volume study in preparation on early 
American mathematical practitioners. During the past year several of 
his papers on scientific instruments and experiments with the measure- 
ment of time have appeared in American and Italian publications. 

The research efTorts of the section of mathematics this year were 
concentrated on the development of the modern computer. With the sup- 
port of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, the 
section, under Uta C. Merzbach's direction, intensified its efforts in 
this field, embarking on a long-range study with special emphasis 
on the period 1935 to 1955. This year's activities centered about the de- 
velopment of relay computers and mechanical differential analyzers. 

Supplementing its overall research efforts in the history of mathe- 
matical instruments, the section greatly expanded its bibliographical ref- 
erence file on mathematical instruments. A chronological file covering 
the period from 1890 to 1945 is now available to scholars. 

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

Jon Eklund joined the staff as assistant curator of chemistry and Audrey 
Davis as assistant curator of medicine. Eklund is working on early 19th- 
century experimental techniques; Mrs. Davis is studying the develop- 
ment of medical chemistry in the 17th century. Deborah Warner was 
appointed assistant curator of astronomy and meteorology and is con- 
tinuing her research on late- 19th-century astrophysics. Assistant curator 
Sandra Herbert worked on new methods of presenting the history of 
science in exhibits. 

The department's activities in graduate training this year reached a 
point at which the need for a somewhat more organized program be- 
came apparent. Hopefully this can be arranged without losing the in- 

117 



118 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

formality of curator-student relations in a matrix of course credits and 
organized seminars. In addition to having curators act as the principal 
academic advisers for graduate projects, the department sponsored a 
one-day Atlantic Coast conference, primarily for graduate students, orga- 
nized by Bernard Finn; it was well received and will be repeated next 
year. The division of medical sciences will be host next year for the well- 
established mid-Atlantic seminar on the history of medicine. The Amer- 
ican Academy of the History of Dentistry met here in October. 

Our program of visiting professors at the University of Pennsylvania 
continues ; Bernard Finn was in residence in Philadelphia during the fall 
semester, and Edwin Battison during the spring. Melvin Jackson and 
Sami Hamarneh will go to Pennsylvania next year. Several members 
of the staff participated in the teaching program in American Studies. 

Both the history of theoretical science and the history of technology 
have aroused student interest, the former more especially with Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania students and the latter in the industrial archeologi- 
caL projects directed here by Robert Vogel. Any coordinated program 
will have to face the problem of whether these very different subjects 
can be put together meaningfully for students, or if indeed they should 
be. 

A beginning, at least to the point of bringing the history of theory 
and experiment together, has been made in the division of electricity. 
Finn continued his experiments on the actual performance of historic 
telephone and radio equipment. John Miller spent the year as a pre- 
doctoral fellow studying the work of Henry Rowland, including tests 
on the Rowland apparatus here. This is a very distinct way, albeit a 
methodologically difficult one, in which Museum collections can offer 
areas of historical research which are not available to most university 
scholars. Several other curators are discussing similar possibilities in their 
subjects. 

In the growing area of industrial archeology, several field projects 
were conducted or sponsored by the division of engineering. Vogel spent 
the summer of 1967 directing an architectural survey of a representative 
group of early New England textile mills, preparing graphic records 
which will survive the now rapid demolition of such buildings. Re- 
cording the material remains of a particular industry rather than those 
of a specific area is a relatively new practice in the United States. The 
survey was jointly sponsored and funded by the Smithsonian through its 
Research Foundation, by the Historic American Buildings Survey of the 
National Park Service, and by the Merrimack Valley Textile Museum 
of North Andover, Massachusetts. The survey will continue in the 
summer of 1968. 



I 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 119 

In winter the cutting building of an early quarry at Seneca, Mary- 
land, was measured and documented by a group of students; the results 
have been deposited in the habs archives at the Library of Congress. 
A student recorded a fine grist mill in the area. Several stafT members 
made a preliminary survey of the Principio Furnace site in Cecil County, 
Maryland, preparatory to more extensive work. Vogel chaired sessions 
on industrial archeology at meetings of the Society of the History of 
Technology and the Society for Historical Archaeology ; and in October 
he was appointed by Governor Spiro Agnew of Maryland to the Gov- 
ernor's Consulting Committee on Historic Landmarks. He is a con- 
sultant to American Heritage for their Smithsonian Series book on 
American bridges, canals, and tunnels. 

An impressive scholarly publication is John White's American Loco- 
motives, An Engineering History 1830-1880, being published by the 
Johns Hopkins Press. This large, handsome book (528 pages and 240 
illustrations) is the climax of ten years of research by White and is 
the most comprehensive work on the subject yet published. Articles by 
Finn and Cannon in the Smithsonian Journal of History illustrate the 
breadth of our research interests in the history of the physical sciences. 

Sami Hamarneh returned from a year of sabbatical leave during 
which he studied Arabic manuscripts on medicine and pharmacy, 
principally in Egypt. His paper delivered at the International Symposium 
on the Histor)' of Medical Education in Los Angeles offered a significant 
reinterpretation of the role of some major Islamic scientists. 

The division of transportation has revised its railroad hall leaflet and 
produced a new vehicle hall leaflet. A recording of the sounds of the 
1401 locomotive, made with the assistance of a grant from the Southern 
Railway, is available at the Museum Shops. The descriptive catalog of 
the automobile and truck collection was revised and expanded by Don 
Berkebile, and will soon be available to the public. Melvin Jackson is 
working with the Office of Exhibits on an educational film, "The 
Workings of the Wind Ships." 

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 

Chairman Philip W. Bishop continued research into the distribution of 
economic resources in the United States prior to the Civil War as back- 
ground to the development of manufacturing technology. An educational 
booklet was prepared to provide visitors to the hall of petroleum with 
a general context for the exhibits. 

As a member of the government-industry committee organized by the 
Bureau of Mines to celebrate the centennial of the discovery of helium, 



120 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




Demonstrations in the spinning area were an important part of the "Copp Family 
Textiles" exhibit which opened in March. 



Bishop developed the design for a commemorative exhibit and or- 
ganized the collection of material to be sealed into the time columns of 
the Amarillo memorial structure. 

During the year, the research on "Living Historical Farms," conducted 
under a grant from Resources for the Future and in cooperation with the 
Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior, was 
completed by the professional research staff of the division of agriculture 
and forest products. A technical report, "The Past in Action," was 
prepared in November and an illustrated report will be published by the 
Smithsonian Institution Press in the coming year. 

In October a gathering of scholars representing both the biological 
sciences and the humanities attended a three-day symposium at the 
Smithsonian to exchange information on the topic, "Eighteenth-Century 
Agriculture: Science, Technology, Life, Customs, and Politics." The 
symposium was jointly sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution, the 
Agricultural History Society, and the Accokeek Foundation. Scientists 
and historians from both the United States and Europe delivered papers 
dealing with a number of aspects of 18th-century agriculture. The 
symposium papers will be published in the coming year as a special issue 
of the Agricultural History Journal. 

In cooperation with Clyde T. Lowe of the Department of Agriculture, 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 121 




At the "Copp Family Textiles" exhibit, Mrs. Helene Bress, a local weaver, dem- 
onstrates how a blue and white check linen was made. At right, fringes and 
the implements used in their making. 



the division is attempting to provide working plans of 19th-century 
agricultural implements that would be suitable for introduction into the 
more primitive agricultural areas of Thailand. This is an informal pilot 
project which the division hopes will pave the way for more ambitious 
projects in the future. 

Research continues on a general history of American agriculture, 
1607-1967. In anticipation of the Bicentennial of the American Revolu- 
tion, the division is undertaking a major study of American agriculture 
during the period 1775-1783 with particular reference to the impact 
of the Revolution on American agriculture. 

The professional staff of the division of ceramics and glass concen- 
trated on several major research programs. Paul V. Gardner, curator, 
completed the manuscript for his biography of Frederick Carder, 
founder of the Steuben Glass Works. He spent six weeks in Europe 
studying ceramic and glass objects in museums and private collections, 
checking data on Carder's early life in England, and making preliminary 
arrangements for an exhibition of Carder glass at Pilkington's Glass 
Museum to coincide with the publication of the Carder biography. He 
spent a week in mid-December at the University of Wisconsin acting as 
advisor to graduate students in glass technology and ceramics. 



315-997 O - 69 



122 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

Associate curator J. Jefferson Miller II completed his research on 
ceramics from the 18th-century site of Fort Michilimackinac, Michigan. 

Gardner and Miller continued work on the catalog and research on 
objects in the Hans Syz collection of 18th-century European porcelain. 
As board members of the Wedgwood International Seminar, both as- 
sisted in the 13th Wedgwood International Seminar held at Charlotte, 
North Carolina. They also chaired ceramic and glass sessions at Penns- 
bury Manor Americana Forum, Morrisville, Pennsylvania. 

Elizabeth Harris, who had been a consultant in the division of graphic 
arts since 1966, was appointed assistant curator in November and has 
continued to work on a catalog of the photomechanical collection. In 
collaboration with museum technician James Spears, she has been 
studying the construction of old wooden printing presses and preparing 
the plans of a working model for a future exhibit. 

On his return from a research trip to Lacock Abbey, England, an- 
cestral home of William Henry Fox Talbot, curator of photography 
Eugene Ostroff began work on an illustrated catalog of the large 
Lacock Abbey collection of photographs and other items related to the 
work of Fox Talbot. He is also writing a monograph on this scientist 
and his photographic and photomechanical inventions. Under a Smith- 
sonian Research Foundation grant, two special assistants worked full 
time with Ostroff" on these extensive projects. He also continued his 
studies on the preservation and restoration of photographs, including 
the earliest processes, and summarized the care of all types of photo- 
graphs in his article "Preservation of Photographs," in The Photo- 
graphic Journal. 

Associate curator of manufactures and heavy industries John N. Hoff- 
man continued his research on the history of canal transportation in rela- 
tion to the development of the coal industries of Pennsylvania, and the 
mechanization of the coal industry. 

Associate curator of textiles Rita J. Adrosko continued her research 
on shawls and European folk origins of American coverlets with one 
month's official leave in England, Scotland, Belgium, Germany, and 
The Netherlands. She also examined important manuscripts on weaving 
and dyeing in Pennsylvania collections. Mrs. Grace R. Cooper, curator, 
examined numerous spinning wheels in New England collections in 
her research on the spinning wheel in America. She also initiated work 
on a second volume on the history of sewing machines; this one to 
continue the history from 1875 to 1925. Museum specialist Doris M. 
Bowman was on one month's official leave researching the collections 
and libraries of New England in her continuing study of lace and 
needlework. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS CIVIL HISTORY 123 

CIVIL HISTORY 

This year has been marked by the increasing integration of research, 
education, exhibition, and collecting. There has been a broadening, 
also, of such recently innovative research techniques as historical arche- 
ology and data-retrieval systems. Involvement with graduate-level edu- 
cation programs; development of improved methods of communicating 
to the public, such as by musical performances, television, radio, or 
film; and participation in social-action programs, such as the Anacostia 
Neighborhood Museum and activities on the Mall, have exemplified 
the Smithsonian's response to changing contemporary needs. 

The advancement in April of Richard H. Rowland to the position 
of Special Assistant to the Secretary left vacant the position of chairman. 
This had been filled on an acting basis by C. Malcolm Watkins, curator 
of cultural history. 

Watkins returned from a sabbatical leave, during which he studied 
American folk pottery under a grant from the Smithsonian Research 
Foundation. In a collaborative project related to these studies, Mrs. 
Jacqueline Olin, research chemist in the conservation analytical lab- 
oratory, has been at the Brookhaven National Laboratory conducting 
neutron-activation analysis of sherds from certain historic sites. 

Salvage archeology, continued in Alexandria, Virginia, by arche- 
ological aide Richard J. Muzzrole, has been extended to two sites in the 
District of Columbia — the Third Street freeway tunnel across the Mall 
and the area being excavated for the FBI building on Pennsylvania 
Avenue. The recovery in the latter site of a copper box revealed a 
minor historical event regarded as important in an earlier, more inno- 
cent Washington. The box, containing old newspapers and other docu- 
ments, was bulldozed from the cornerstone of the long-forgotten 
Temperance Hall on E Street, NW., and retrieved by Muzzrole. Re- 
search by him and by students in the Smithsonian graduate program 
in American Studies has disclosed that the dedication of this cornerstone 
and its contents on 4 July 1843, was the occasion of parades, speeches, 
naval gun salutes, and the joining of white and free Negro associations 
in a great celebration. The recovery of the box exemplifies the arche- 
ologist's capacity to resurrect the immediacy and reality of the past in 
small fragments which can be joined together in a meaningful, historical 
mosaic. 

Associate curator Richard E. Ahlborn conducted intensive studies in 
areas of Spanish-American cultural history. After collecting specimens 
in Peru for the exhibition, "Three Centuries of Peruvian Silver," he 
traveled to California and New Mexico to study Spanish colonial col- 



124 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




Above left, entry to exhibition of "Three Centuries of Peruvian Silver" held in 
November; right, associate curator Richard Ahlborn of the Smithsonian, Sra. Sara 
de LaValle, curator of the Museo del Arte in Lima, and collector Sr. Constante 
Larco Hoyle of Peru unpack and catalog the more than 200 pieces for the exhibit. 
Below, a portion of the silver exhibit. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS CIVIL HISTORY 



125 




Museum technician Betty Wal- 
ters posting cards on the Terma- 
trex machine for a multi-index 
file, part of cultural history divi- 
sion's Termatrex data-retrieval 
system. 



lections in museums and churches. His resources have been increased 
by Mrs. Otto Pike's generous gift of her card-file notes on the material 
culture of Puerto Rico. 

Mrs. Betty Walters completed a manuscript on patented desks and 
other specialized office furniture made in the third quarter of the 
19th centur)^ The Termatrex data-retrieval program, which she has 
furthered, now covers more than 5,900 objects, permitting the use of 
this system to provide immediate information in many combinations. 

Associate curator Rodris Roth continued her investigations of fur- 
niture shown at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, while 
collaborator Joan Pearson Watkins added many new photographs to 
her pictorial document of California vernacular architecture. 

Curator Peter C. Welsh completed an introduction for David Mac- 
bride's 1778 essay "An Improved Method of Tanning Leather," which 
will be reprinted in The Smithsonian Journal of History. He continued 
his research on the subject of American folk art and on the Harry T. 
Peters lithography collection with special focus on the political prints 
of Henry Robinson. For the Cooperstown graduate program in history, 
museum training, and American folk culture, Welsh conducted a six- 
week course on "Material Aspects of Naive Art." In August, Welsh 
was appointed editor of The Smithsonian Journal of History. He was 
a member of the program committee for the 1968 annual meeting of 
I the American Association for State and Local History and served as 
a consultant for the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Warm Springs Museum 
and Little White House. In January he began a year's sabbatical leave. 

Assistant curator Anne C. Golovin completed a paper "Daniel Trotter, 



126 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

Eighteenth-Century Philadelphia Cabinetmaker," which has been ac- 
cepted for publication in the Winterthur Portfolio. She continued her 
research on the Harral-Wheeler House of Bridgeport, Connecticut, and 
its gothic-revival furnishings. 

Museum technician Anne Marie Serio pursued her study of the 1848 
national convention of the Free Soil Party and related political carica- 
tures in the Harry T. Peters lithography collection. 

Associate curator Keith E. Melder continued research on women's 
status in the United States and on educational reform in the 19th cen- 
tury. His major investigations centered on events between 1765 and 
1770 leading up to the American Revolution and on the general cultural 
and technical history of the Revolutionary period. Associate curator 
Margaret B. Klapthor did additional research on White House history, 
particularly on the study of china from all administrations. She and 
assistant curator Herbert R. Collins progressed in their joint research 
on presidential inaugurations. Collins continued his study of American 
political campaign bandannas and kerchiefs and began research on 
campaign headgear. 

An important contribution to numismatic studies was made by cura- 
tor V. Clain-Stefanelli, who completed research on the ancient gold 
coinages of Kallatis. The results of this project were read by associate 
curator Elvira Clain-Stefanelli in August to the International Numis- 
matic Congress in Copenhagen. The paper will be published in Museum 
Notes of the American Numismatic Society. 

In October Mrs. Clain-Stefanelli participated as United States rep- 
resentative in the 12th Congress of the International Federation of 
the Medal in Paris and arranged for an exhibit at the Paris Mint of 
medals engraved by 38 American artists in the period 1960-1967. 
Her proposal to publish "Medailles" as a bilingual periodical with French 
and English texts, thus contributing to a larger distribution in English- 
speaking countries, was adopted by the Congress. The first bilingual 
issue is in preparation. 

John Fesperman, curator of musical instruments, produced an arti- 
cle describing the Smithsonian collections and musical program for 
the spring issue of Current Musicology. He is continuing his research 
on organs in Guanajuato and Mexico City, and on the four chamber 
organs of John Snetzler in the United States. Associate curator Cynthia 
A. Hoover is completing a paper on a trumpet battle at Niblo's Pleasure 
Gardens to be read at the national American Musicological Society 
meetings at Yale University in December 1968. Conservator Scott Odell 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS CIVIL HISTORY 127 

is working on a description of the restoration of the Stehlin harpsichord. 

Carl H. Scheele, associate curator in charge of philately and postal 
history, continued research on devices for handling and processing 
developed and adopted by the Post Office Department, touching upon 
the pneumatic-tube service, the Chicago tunnel system, canceling ma- 
chines, office-building mail chutes, and wagon and automobile services. 
In May he participated in Washington meetings held in connection 
with the fiftieth anniversary of the United States airmail system. Dur- 
ing the winter he prepared a commentary based on original research 
for the President's Commission on Postal Organization. 

Scheele was appointed chairman of the committee to select the best 
article to be published in the forthcoming Thirty-Fourth American 
Philatelic Congress Book for the Walter McCoy memorial award. He 
served as a juror for selecting the design of the 1968 migratory bird 
hunting stamp issued by the Department of the Interior, and lectured 
locally on rare stamps in the division's collection. 

Assistant curator Reidar Norby continued his study of postal con- 
nections between the United States and Scandinavian countries during 
the 19th century and began research on the counterfeited Kansas and 
Nebraska overprinted United States postage stamps, in cooperation 
with the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. 

Claudia B. Kidwell, assistant curator in charge of the section of Ameri- 
can costume, pursued a study of 19th-century dressmaker's drafting 
tools as well as continuing her research on 19th-century costume 
accessories. 

There has been increasing participation by research grantees and 
outside investigators. Frederick Fried, an authority on American folk 
sculpture in wood, provided a detailed report and analysis of folk carv- 
ings in the collections. Mrs. Maureen Cole, a member of the stafT of 
the Henry Francis duPont Winterthur Museum, spent most of the year 
photographing and recording 18th-century objects for the Winterthur 
Museum's nationwide index of American decorative arts. Research 
fellow Carroll Greene participated in the research and exhibition pro- 
gram commemorating the American Revolution and collaborated in 
planning exhibits on Afro-American culture. 

Associate curator Margaret B. Klapthor advised the White House on 
the design and production of the new Johnson White House china. 

Many staff members participated in seminars and orientation lec- 
tures in the Smithsonian graduate program in American Studies, as 
well as counseling reading students in the program. 



128 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

Research in underwater exploration techniques and documentation of 
historical underwater sites continued as the major project of chairman 
Mendel Peterson. Under a grant from the Explorers Research Corpora- 
tion, an intensive electronic survey of Bermuda waters was made in 
cooperation with the government of Bermuda and Edward Tucker. 
Large areas of the outlying reefs and fringing coral reefs were swept 
with a late-model proton magnetometer. 

On the south coast of the islands a new deposit of material from the 
Virginia Merchant was discovered. This ship, bound for the Virginia 
colony, was dashed on the rocks and sunk in 1660. The same search pro- 
cedures were employed in Castle Harbor in a search for the Warwick 
which sank in a violent storm in 1619. After several days of sweeping, a 
strong impulse indicating deposits of iron was received from an area 
lying on the south shore of the harbor near the property of Clay Frick. 
Subsequent exploration of the site with the airlift proved that the 
Warwick remains had been found and that they lay in deep silt in twenty 
feet of water. A permit to explore the site was issued and it is hoped that 
funds will be forthcoming to explore the remains of the vessel in the 
fall of 1968. 

Peterson continued research into the marking and decoration of 
muzzle-loading guns and other armament recovered from underwater 
sites. He completed two chapters for a book on marine archeology to 
be published by unesco in Paris, a chapter on marine archeology in 
a general work on oceanography to be published in the winter of 1968, 
and a chapter on early shipping in the New World for a book on man 
and his seafaring which is being edited by George Bass of the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

Museum specialist Alan B. Albright continued his investigation of 
methods of preservation of materials recovered from underwater sites. 
The appointment of Joseph M. Young as laboratory assistant has aided 
this project. 

Curator of military history Edgar M. Howell and museum specialist 
Donald E. Kloster of the division of military history continued work 
on a multivolume, descriptive, critical, and documentary catalog of 
United States Army dress to include uniforms, headgear, and footwear. 
The first volume of this project. United States Army Headgear to 1854, 
is scheduled for publication in September 1968. Much of the research 
and writing for the second and third volumes — United States Army 
Uniforms to 1857 by Kloster and United States Army Headgear, 1855 
to Date by Howell — is complete and work is continuing. This project is 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS— ARMED FORCES HISTORY 129 




Dana M. Wegner, a summer intern, 
taking the hull lines off a half-model 
of an unidentified monitor. 



being performed in conjunction with a comprehensive recataloging and 
documenting of the uniform collections. It is a highly significant under- 
taking in that the uniform collections of the division are the most 
comprehensive in America. In connection with the project, Kloster 
performed research in the New York Historical Society and the Museum 
of the City of New York. 

Howell continued his study of contemporary military graphics and 
completed an article on the combat art of Harvey Dunn for publication 
in The Smithsonian Journal of History. 

Associate curator Craddock R. Coins, Jr., concentrated on the prepa- 
ration of a detailed documentary catalog of patent models in the firearms 
collection, assembling patent drawings, specifications, affidavits, and 
other documentary material from the National Archives and the 
Patent Office. 

In support of the American Studies Program, Howell lectured on the 
Revolutionary Army. 

Naval curator Philip K. Lundeberg published an extended article 
m which he demonstrated that mine and submarine warfare during 
World War I exerted a crippling influence upon the Allies' peripheral 
strategy, frustrating Western efforts via the Dardanelles and the Baltic 



130 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

to establish a common maritime front with Tsarist Russia. He also pub- 
lished a study on the United States response to tonnage warfare. 

Museum specialist Howard P. Hoffman continued work on a superbly 
detailed model of the Continental gondola Philadelphia, plans of which 
will appear in a forthcoming publication on Benedict Arnold's Cham- 
plain squadron. Besides assisting the Japanese television industry in 
preparing footage for a centennial series commemorating the Mejii 
Restoration, the division of Naval History sponsored a lecture by Rear 
Admiral John D. Hayes on "Sea Power in the Civil War and Today: 
the Du Pont Letters," in cooperation with the Naval Historical Founda- 
tion and the American Military Institute. 



Staff Publications 

OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR 

Bedini, Silvio A. "The Aerial Telescope." Technology and Culture, vol. 8, 

no. 3 (July 1967), pp. 395-401, 1 pi. 
. "Galileo Galilei and the Measure of Time." Pages 1-40 (13 illustr. ) 

in Saggi Su Galileo Galilei (Comitato Nazionale per le Manifestazioni 

Celeb rative del IV Centenario della Nasciti di Galileo Galilei). Florence: 

G. Barbera, 1967. 
. "The Perspective Machine of Wentzel Jamnitzer." Technology and 

Culture, vol. 9, no. 2 (April 1968), pp. 197-202, 2 pis. 
. "The Instruments of Galileo Galilei." Chapter 13 (pp. 256-292) in 

Galileo, Man of Science. Edit. Ernan McMullin. New York: Basic Books, 

Inc., 1968. 7 pis. 



SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

Cannon, Walter F. "P. S. If I Find Out What Truth Is, I'll Drop You a 
Line." Smithsonian Journal of History, vol. 2, no. 2, (summer 1967), pp. 
1-24. 

. "Darwin's Vision in On The Origin of Species." Pages 154—173 in 

The Art of Victorian Prose, edit. George Levine and William Madden. New 
York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1968. 

Chapelle, Howard I. Search for Speed Under Sail, 1700-1855. New York: 
W. W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1967. 453 pp., illustr. 

Finn, Bernard S. "Alexander Graham Bell's Experiments with the Variable- 
Resistance Transmitter." Smithsonian Journal of History (Winter 1967), 
vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1-16. 

. "Electronic Communications." Chapter 19 (pp. 293-309) in Technol- 
ogy in Western Civilization. 

. "Thomson's Dilemma." Physics Today (September 1967), vol. 20, 



pp. 54-59. 
Hamarneh, Sami K. History of Arabic Medicine and Pharmacy. 88 pp. 
(English text), 112 pp. (Arabic text). Cairo: al-Mahasin Press, 1967. 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 131 

. "Modem historiography and medieval Arabic pharmaceutical litera- 
ture." Pharmaceutical Historiography, Proceedings of a Colloquium Spon- 
sored by the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, pp. 53-69, 
124-126, 1967. 

. "The National Library at Cairo, the greatest center of learning of its 



kind in the Middle East." Mid East, vol. 7, no. 8 (October 1967), pp. 

11-16. 
VoGELj Robert M. "Industrial Archaeology at the Smithsonian Institution: 

An Interim Report." Technology and Culture, vol. 8, no. 3, 6 illustr., 1967. 
. "Industrial Archaeology — A Continuous Past." Historic Preservation, 

vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 68-75, 4 illustr., 1967. 
. "The New England Textile Mill Survey." Historical Archaeology, 



vol. l,no. l,pp. 34-36, 1968. 

Warner, Deborah J. "The American Photographical Society and the Early 
History of Astronomical Photography in America." Photographic Science 
and Engineering, vol. 11, no. 5 (September-October 1967), pp. 342-347. 

White, John H. "Septimus Norris and the Origins of the Ten Wheel Loco- 
motive." Technology and Culture, vol. 9, no. 1 (January 1968), pp. 55-62. 

. "Old Ironsides, Baldwin's First Locomotive." Bulletin 118 of the 

Railway and Locomotive Historical Society (April 1968), pp. 85-87. 

. "The Janus: A Locomotive's History Revised." American Railroad 

Journal, vol. 2 (1967-1968), pp. 8-15. (Reprinted from Journal of Trans- 
port History, pp. 9-15.) 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 

Adrosko, Rita J. Natural Dyes in the United States. (U.S. National Museum 
Bulletin 281), 159 pp. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

Cooper, Grace R. The Invention of the Sewing Machine. U.S. National 
Museum Bulletin, no. 254, 162 pp. Washington: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1968. 

Harris, Elizabeth M. "Sir William Congreve and his Compound-Plate Print- 
ing. Paper 71 in Contributions from the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology (U.S. National Museum Bulletin, no. 252), pp. 69-88. Washington: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1967. 

Hoffman, John N. "Anthracite in the Lehigh Valley of Pennsylvania, 1820- 
45." Paper 72 in Contributions from the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology (U.S. National Museum Bulletin, no. 252), pp. 91-141. Wash- 
ington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

McHuGH, Maureen C. "Conservation Challenge: A Seventh-Century Linen 
Handkerchief". Museum News, vol. 46, no. 6 (February 1968), p. 47-51. 

Miller, J. Jefferson II. "A Tournay Portrait Bust." Smithsonian Journal of 
History, vol. 2, no. 1 (Spring 1967), p. 67. 

Ostroff, Eugene. "Preservation of photographs." The Photographic Jour- 
nal, vol. 107, no. 10 (October 1967), pp. 309-314. 

Peterson, Gale E. "The Discovery and Development of 2, 4— D." Agri- 
cultural History (July 1967),vol. 41, pp. 243-253. 

. "Living Historical Farms : A Feasibility Study." Smithsonian Journal 

of History, vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer 1967), pp. 72-76. 



132 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

ScHLEBECKER, JoHN T. "Agrarianlsm." Handbook of World History. New 
York: Philosophical Library, 1967. 

. "Gild system." Handbook of World History. New York: Philo- 
sophical Library, 1967. 

. "Populism." Handbook of World History. New York: Philosophical 

Library, 1967. 

. "Agriculture in Western Nebraska, 1906-1966." Nebraska History 

(Autumn 1967), vol. 48, p. 249-266. 

"Henry Ford's Tractor." Smithsonian Journal of History, vol. 2, no. 2 



(Summer 1967), pp. 63-64. 

Wessel, Thomas R. "Agrarian reform." Handbook of World History. New 
York: Philosophical Library, 1967. 

. "Squirearchy." Handbook of World History. New York: Philo- 
sophical Library, 1967. 

. "The Honey Bee." (Smithsonian Information Leaflet 482) 16 pp., 

1967. 

. "Commerce." Handbook of World History. New York: Philosophi- 
cal Library, 1967. 

CIVIL HISTORY 

Ahlborn, Richard E. "Death Cart." Smithsonian Journal of History, vol. 2, 
no. 1 (Spring 1967), pp. 74-76. 

. "Robards Collection of Retablos." Smithsonian Journal of History, 

vol. 2, no. 2 (Summer 1967), pp. 67-69. 

. Three Centuries of Peruvian Silver. Exhibition catalogue. Edited 

catalogue, provided title article and checklist of objects, pp. 33-36, 41-62. 
Lima, Peru. November 1967. 

. "The Pentente Moradas of Abiquiu." Paper 63 in Contributions 

from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National Museum Bul- 
letin, no. 250), pp. 121-167. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 
1967. 

. "Survivals of Spanish Crafts in New Mexico." Pages 13-14 in 1968 



Festival of American Folklife. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1968. 
Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. "The United States, Canada, Central and South 

America." Pages 210-217 in vol. 3 of .4 Survey of Numismatic Research 

1960-1965. Copenhagen, 1967. 
. "Etats-Unis." Pages 97-114 in Exposition internationale de la 

medaille actuelle. Paris, 1967. 
Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir. "Numismatics Re-Examined." The Canadian 

Numismatic Journal, pp. 361-364, 1967. Reprinted with minor changes in 

Coin and Medal News (Johannesburg), 1967, pp. 9-11; and the Australian 

Coin World, 1968, pp. 97-100. 
. "Coins and Coin Collecting." Pages 374-375 in The New Book of 

Knowledge. New York: Grolier. 
Fesperman^ John T. "Report from Washington." Current Musicology 

(Spring 1968), no. 6, pp. 63-65. 
GoLoviN, Anne C. "William Wood Thackara, Volunteer in the War of 1812." 

The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biobgraphy, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 

299-325, 1967. 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 133 

Gordon, Leo. "Early Russian Periodicals at the Smithsonian Institution." 
The Journal of Rossica Society of Russian Philately, no. 72, pp. 58-62, 
(1967). 

Hoover, Cynthia Adams. "Barak Norman Viol." Journal of the Viola da 
Gamba Society of America, vol. 4, pp. 50-52, 3 pi., 1967. 

. "Music at the Smithsonian." Smithsonian Journal of History, vol. 2, 

no. 1 (Spring 1967), pp. 55-66, 13 illustr. 

Klapthor, Margaret B. "Maryland's Presidential First Ladies from Calvert 
County." 17 pp. Calvert County (Maryland) Historical Society, 1967. 

. "White House China of the Lincoln Administration." Paper 62 in 

Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National 
Museum Bulletin, no. 250), pp. 109-120. Washington: Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1967. 

Melder, Keith E. "Forerunners of Freedom: the Grimke Sisters in Massa- 
chusetts." Essex Institute Historical Collections, vol. 103, pp. 223-249, 
July 1967. 

. "Ladies Bountiful: Organized Women's Benevolence in Early 19th 

Century America." New York History, vol. 48, pp. 231-254, July 1967. 

NoRBY, Reidar. "Norwegian "Local" Stamps — on Madagascar." The Post- 
horn, vol. 24, no. 3 (July 1967), pp. 41-50. Reprinted in Society of 
Philatelic Americans Journal, vol. 30, no. 4 (December 1967), pp. 221-231. 

. "Finnish 'Colonists' in Sweden." The Posthorn, vol. 24, no. 4 

(September 1967), p. 72. 

. "An Answer to the Stamp Theft Problem." The Posthorn, vol. 25, 

no. 1 (February 1968), pp. 1-6. 

. "The Swedish Lbr Cancellations." Scandinavian Scribe, vol. 4, no. 4 

(March 1968), pp. 64-65. 

. "Norway — Coat of Arms Issue, 1863-66: One Original Drawing for 

all Denominations." The Posthorn, vol. 25, nos. 1 and 2 (February and 
AprU 1968), pp. 7-18, 31-42. 

. "The Scandinavian Stamp Lexicon." Scandinavian Scribe, vol. 3, 



(1967), pp. 173-176, 195-198; vol. 4 (1968), pp. 7-10, 27-30, 47-50, 
89-92. 

Odel, J. Scott. "The Appalachian Dulcimer." Pages 30-31 in 1968 Festival 
of American Folklife. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1968. 

Roth, Rodris. Floor Coverings in 18th-Century America. Paper 59 in Con- 
tributions from the Museum of History and Technology (U.S. National 
Museum Bulletin, no. 250), pp. 1-64. Washington: Smithsonian Institution 
Press, 1968. 

. "A Room from Martha's Vineyard at the Smithsonian Institution." 

The Dukes County Intelligencer, vol. 9, no. 1 (August 1967), pp. 1-22. 

Scheele, Carl H. The First Air Mail. Smithsonian Journal of History, vol. 1, 
no. 4 (Winter 1967), pp. 74-75. 

. "On the 'Wilderness' of Philatelic Scholarship." Pages 13-21 in 

Thirty-Third American Philatelic Congress Book, 1967. 

. Owney, Mascot of the Railway Mail Service. Smithsonian Informa- 
tion Leaflet 506, 7 pp., 1967. 

. "The National Postage Stamp Collection : Smithsonian Institution." 

Minkus Stamp Journal, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 3-10, 1967. 



134 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

WatkinSj C. Malcolm. "The Cultural History of Marlborough, Virginia." 
United States National Museum Bulletin, no. 253, 225 pp., 1968. 

■ -. "The Historic Roots of American Folk Life." Pages 10-11 in 1968 

Festival of American Folklife. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1968. 

Watkins, C. Malcolm, and Ivor Noel Hume. "The Poor Potter of York- 
town." Paper 54 in Contributions from the Museum of History and 
Technology (U.S. National Museum Bulletin, no. 249), pp. 73-112. 
Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1967. 

Welsh, Peter C. Track and Road. 200 pp., illustr. Washington: Smith- 
sonian Institution Press, 1967. 



ARMED FORCES HISTORY 

LuNDEBERG, Philip K. "Undersea Warfare and Allied Strategy in World War I" 
(Part II: 1916-1918). Smithsonian Journal of History, vol. 2, no. 4 
(Winter 1966-1967), pp. 49-72. 

. "Japanese Prints of Perry Expedition." Smithsonian Journal of His- 
tory, vol. 2, no. 1 (Spring 1967), pp. 70-74. 

. "The USS Constitution.^^ Pages 153-158 in The Great Age of Sail, 



edit. J. Jobe. Lausanne, 1967. 

— . "La Replique des £tats-unis a la guerre au tonnage." Revue d'His- 
toire de la Deuxieme Guerre Mondiale (January 1968), pp. 67-96. 



The Collections 

CARE AND CONSERVATION— GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 

Mathematical items added to the collections, aside from miscellaneous 
single mathematical instruments, consisted mainly of documentary ma- 
terial related to digital computers. Among various individuals and cor- 
porations who donated materials, Grace Murray Hopper provided a 
variety of important items related to the history of programming, and 
the Rand Corporation contributed a large quantity of technical manuals 
and other descriptive materials. 

Science and Technology 

In medical sciences, new additions were : an early Julius H. Hess infant 
oxygen unit for premature infants; a rare Egyptian sacred amulet 
with multiple eyes (about 600 B.C.), gift from E. R. Squibb & Sons, 
Inc.; an original prototype dermatone for cutting skin grafts in the 
treatment of severe wounds and similar injuries, invented by George J. 
Hood in cooperation with Earl C. Padgett; a 1925 Tycos recording 
sphygmomanometer for measuring blood pressure in the arteries; an 
original stapling apparatus for small blood vessels invented by Dr. 
Julian A. Sterling; and about 45 Japanese medical, pharmaceutical, and 
dental antiques from the Tokugawa Shogunate period ( 1603-1867) . 

A handsome oil painting by J. Shreeve in about 1855, showing two 
firemen of the Northern Liberties Fire Company of Philadelphia, was 
given to the Museum for the division of transportation by the Society 
of Oldest Inhabitants of Washington, D.C. Reynolds Metals Company 
presented a fine scale model of an aluminum hopper car which illus- 
trates the novel design and construction of the modern freight car. The 
marine collection was enriched by a half-model of the famous clipper 
ship Flying Cloud, a gift of Henry G. Currier. 

Notable additions to the collections in engineering were: the Bathe 
Collection of steam-engine models, literature, and manuscript material ; 
the Willans high-speed steam engine and generator, circa 1880, the 
first and most widely used engine for direct coupling to electric genera- 
tors; 15 watercolors of American railroad stations by Ranulph Bye; 
an oil painting, "Harlequin," by Lili Rethi, showing the Verrazano- 

135 




Three Red Lines, by George 
Warren Rickey, at west end of 
the Museum of History and 
Technology. Kinetic sculpture 
of welded stainless steel, painted. 
The blades, 32 feet long, taper 
in width from 8 inches to % 
inch. From the Joseph H. Hirsh- 
horn Collection. 



Narrows Bridge under construction; a 17th-century striking and alarm 
clock with Gothic decorative elements; a Massachusetts shelf clock by 
Aaron Willard ; and a very unusual lighthouse clock patented by Simon 
Willard. 

As the opening of the hall of electricity appeared to be drawing nearer, 
increased emphasis was placed on obtaining objects that would fill im- 
portant gaps in the collections. Of particular note was a collection of 
tubes and notebooks from his early work received from television pioneer 
Philo T. Farnsworth. Another item was a 1939 Scott FM radio receiver 
from Charles A. Curtze which will be used in a demonstration to help 
illustrate, through actual operation, the relative merits of AM versus 
FM broadcasting at the time FM was introduced. In June, curator 
Finn made a field trip to Newfoundland to investigate the early tele- 
graph equipment still extant in the Atlantic-cable landing stations. 



THE COLLECTIONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 



137 





Philo Farnsworth in about 1934, 
holding a dissector-multiplier 
tube like one in a group given 
to the Smithsonian. 



Meggers infra-red spectrograph, 
from the Bureau of Standards. 

Below, 18th-century British the- 
odolite by J. Sisson. This prob- 
ably documents a development 
toward smaller size for greater 
stability. 



Eighteenth-century circumfer- 
entor by Thomas Wright, a 
standard British surveying in- 
strument. 





These stations have recently been taken out of service, and Western 
Union International has indicated its desire to make some of the equip- 
ment available to the Museum. 

There were significant accessions in the physical sciences in the field of 
spectroscopy. The Meggers infrared spectroscope has just been retired 
to us by the Bureau of Standards. It is scheduled to be an impressive 
operating exhibit of the precision equipment used by a modern phys- 
icist. Two spectroscopes used by the pioneer American astrophysicist 



315-997 O - 69 - 10 



138 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

Charles A. Young in his studies of the sun were donated by the Princeton 
University Observatory. One, made by Alvan Clark and Sons in 1877, 
is equipped with a diffraction grating ruled on a Lewis M. Rutherford 
engine; the other, holding up to six prisms, was made by Grubb of 
London. 

Two 18th-century English surveying instruments, a theodolite by J. 
Sisson, and a circumferentor by Thomas Wright, were acquired. It 
seems likely that study of the former will lead to significant results with 
respect to the development of basic surveying instruments. 

The division of physical sciences is making a serious effort to acquire 
works of art related to science. Pride of place goes to the contemporary 
art form called "Astralite III" donated by the artist, Adam Peiperl, 
which features ever-changing colors floating in a globe. A number of 
18th-century prints and engravings were also acquired. 

Arts and Manufactures 

John Deere Company of Moline, Illinois, presented a John Deere gar- 
den tractor. A 1908 Fitzhenry-Guptill power sprayer was given by the 
Department of Agriculture; a 1921 truck and 1921 tractor seat by 
Bostrom Corporation, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; a one-way disk plow 
by Francis Angell, Plains, Kansas; and a 1961 experimental gas-turbine 
tractor by the International Harvester Company, Chicago, Illinois. 

To the ceramics and glass collections came 20 pieces of 18th-century 
European and Oriental porcelain from Dr. Hans Syz; especially note- 
worthy was a fine Chantilly bowl, circa 1740, decorated in Kakiemon 
style. Mrs. Florence E. Bushee donated 27 rare 19th-century European 
and American paperweights, and The Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia donated a splendid collection of sixty 20th-century porce- 
lain birds manufactured by Edward Marshall Boehm, Trenton, New 
Jersey. The latter collection, originally given to the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia by Mr. and Mrs. Morris Gastwirth, was trans- 
ferred to the Smithsonian Institution with their kind permission. 

From Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth came a unique collection of 720 
19th-century American pressed-glass cup plates which comprise an index 
collection and are most important in documenting the history of the 
American glass industry. From Eugene D. Buchanan, five important 
1 8th-century ceramics were received, including an extremely interesting 
Leeds cream-colored earthenware teapot; and from Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward M. Pflueger, five pieces of 18th-century European porcelain 
and faience. Outstanding in this gift is a Hochst porcelain, Italian 
comedy figure dating about 1755. From Mrs. Nathan Cummings came 
a most unusual English Jackfield jug, circa 1750, beautifully painted 



THE COLLECTIONS ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 



139 




English salt-glazed stoneware drinking 
vessel in the form of a bear, shown 
above. At right, English cream-colored 
earthenware figure of a musician, 
Neale & Company, about 1790. 




with birds and flowers; from Dr. Lloyd E. Hawes, 16 pieces of English 
earthenware and stoneware dating from the 18th and early 19th cen- 
turies; from Dr. and Mrs. Laverne G. Wagner, five pieces of Carder 
Steuben glass; from Mrs. William A. Sutherland, 8 pieces of 18th-cen- 
ture English porcelain, including an especially fine Worcester pitcher 
painted with exotic birds; from Samuel L. Zeigen, a splendid pair of 
Meissen figures with baskets, circa 1 740 ; from Marshall Zeigen, a very 
important set of three Bow vases, circa 1755; from Lyle N. Perkins, a 
fine, large reduction-fired slab pot. 

A long-range program of cataloging and cross-referencing the print 
collection by subject matter was begun in the division of graphic arts. 

Accessions included the Scan-A-Graver 559, one of the first electronic 
halftone engraving machines, the gift of Fairchild Graphic Equipment; 
and a set of printing-roller casting equipment dating from around 1900. 
Among additions to the print collection were 28 bound volumes of 
cartoons by Martin Branner, from the artist; some 300 original cartoon 
drawings by contemporary artists from the Newspaper Comics Council; 
prints by Saul Steinberg, Anders Zorn, John Sloan, Nalle Werner, Rune 
Pettersson, Jean-Henry Marlet, Gordon Grant, and Ralph Nankivell; 
and photogl)'phic etchings by William Henry Fox Talbot. 



140 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




Museum technician Horace 
Randolph operates a densitom- 
eter in order to determine if arti- 
ficial aging has altered the 
transmission density of a photo- 
graphic negative. 



Notable additions to the history of photography collection included 
an autograph letter of 1852 from W. H. Fox Talbot to Abbe Moigno, 
defending his priority in the invention of paper photographic prints; 
and an autograph letter from the scientist Sir John Herschel to the 
photographer Julia Margaret Cameron, and a group of graphic arts 
prints and watercolors depicting early photography. 

In England, Eugene Ostroff procured materials related to the life 
and work of W. H. Fox Talbot, for display in a reconstruction of Tal- 
bot's laboratory in the new hall of photography. These items include 
photographic apparatus, furniture, and a walking stick owned and used 
by Talbot. 

Gifts of special interest were a tricolor "one-shot" Color-Scout camera 
from Fairchild Graphic Equipment; an early Ives Kromskop three- 
color stereoscopic viewer with a set of Kromogram color-separation 
slides, from Mrs. Herbert E. Ives.; and four cameras built for specialized 
applications in high-speed photography, from their designer, a pioneer 
in the field of high-speed photography, J. S. Courtney-Pratt. The pho- 
tographer Daniel Farber also donated a group of his dye-transfer color 
prints, and five prints were acquired from the photographer John Brook. 

David Haberstich, museum specialist, continued his project of clas- 
sifying and arranging the history of photography collection, recatalog- 
ing specimens when necessary and performing background research 
in order to expand specimen records. He revised the classification and 
cross-indexing system for the collection, and produced a guide to cata- 
loging and other aspects of the section's work in order to standardize 
procedures. With museum technician Horace Randolph, who joined 



THE COLLECTIONS ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 



141 




"Orpheus and the Animals" on linen 
damask napkin, shown above, with 
mythological scenes in border, was 
woven in Haarlem, Holland, about 
1650. At right, 18th-century linen 
press. 




the staff in 1967, Haberstich supervised the repair and restoration of 
apparatus specimens intended for the hall of photography. In addition, 
Randolph rearranged the section's apparatus storage areas to produce 
greater accessibility, and inventoried and rearranged all photographic 
items stored at the Silver Hill facility, and started making photographic 
records of previously unphotographed specimens, indexing with photo- 
graphs and diagrams the location of all items. 

A number of important textile items were located and acquired for 
exhibition in the new hall of textiles. Among these were a collection of 
17th- and 18th-century damask napkins from the C. A. Burgers collec- 
tion, weavers' pattern and account books, an 18th-century linen press, 
loom and weaving accessories from Deerfield, New Hampshire, 18th-cen- 
tury quilt and canvas embroidery, several excellent printed textiles of 
the 18th and 19th centuries, and a number of textile implements. 

The staff continued the cleaning, repairing, and special mounting 
of textiles for both a special exhibit on Copp family textiles and the 



142 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




> 



Weaver's pattern book, early 19th century. 



forthcoming permanent hall. Ellen Rae Best, an undergraduate research 
assistant completed the initial phase of a project on adhesives for mount- 
ing fragile textiles. The limitations of this type of mounting were clearly 
demonstrated in her study. Numerous requests for advice on these prob- 
lems are answered by the staff each year. 

The division of manufacturers and heavy industries received a fine 
full-scale reconstruction of "Lady Godiva," a small prompt-burst reac- 
tor which was developed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the 
University of California. This nuclear reactor is authentically unique, 
historically significant, and a comprehensive symbol of nuclear energy. 
Kiwi-A, the prototype of the nuclear engines being developed for space 
transjxxrtation, was presented for inclusion in the nuclear-energy col- 
lections. An important group of brewmaster instruments was received 
as well as a substantial library on the art of brewing. Engineering draw- 
ings representing anthracite mining activities in Pennsylvania, a gift 
from the trustees of the Tench Coxe estate, were added to the coal- 
mining reference collections. Also, several other small donations of 
coal-mining tools, safety lamps, and photographs were received. 



THE COLLECTIONS CIVIL HISTORY 



143 



Civil History 

Important broadening of the scope of the collections has resulted from 
associate curator Richard E. Ahlbom's research in Spanish colonial 
areas. The gift by Mrs. Otto Pike of 47 religious figures by the Puerto 
Rican folk sculptor, Pedro de Arce, enriched a group of nearly 100 other 
Puerto Rican carved santos also acquired this year. From New Mexico 
came several examples of native religious sculptures and Penitente cult 
objects, including a 19th-century death cart used in Penitente cere- 
monies. Staff members of the Museum of New Mexico restored several 
retablos and a rare 18th-century Franciscan hide painting of San An- 
tonio that has been in the Smithsonian collections for nearly a century. 
These additions and upgradings of our Spanish colonial materials are 
significant of the Smithsonian's increasing recognition of America's 
cultural diversity. 

Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post's gift of a gold chalice encrusted 
with more than 1,350 diamonds, made in St. Petersburg by Iver Winfeldt 
Buch in 1791 for Catherine the Great, belongs among the Museum's 
most splendid rarities. In connection with curator C Malcolm Watkins' 
research numerous examples of 19th-century American folk pottery, 
including many decorative stoneware pieces from New York State, were 
acquired for the collections by collaborator Joan Pearson Watkins. A 
group of contemporary baskets showing residual African culture traits, 
made at John's Island, South Carolina, was collected by research fel- 
low Carroll Greene. 

In November the false-front facade of a Victorian butcher shop in 
Olema, California, was acquired for future exhibit installation. The 




False-front facade of Victorian butcher shop in California before and during 
dismantling for future Smithsonian exhibit. 



144 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




Archeological aide Richard Muzzrole completing the restoration 
of a Queen's ware pitcher of about 1800, one of many specimens 
recovered from salvage work in Alexandria, Virginia. 



dismantling at the site was conducted by contractor George H. Watson 
and his carpenter Charles H. Rowell, under supervision of curator 
Watkins. The painstaking process of dismantling was filmed by the Uni- 
versity of California Extension Media Film Unit, under the direction 
of Ernest Rose. In Washington, collaborator Joan Pearson Watkins 
working with the Smithsonian exhibits department's film unit, began 
filming the subsequent preparation and re-erection of the facade in 
the Museum. The completed film will demonstrate Watson's unique 
skills and the Smithsonian's standards of accurate restoration. 

Archeological aide Richard E. Muzzrole advised "Ancient Pema- 
quid," an organization engaged in excavating the site of the 17th-century 
settlement of Pemaquid, Maine, in setting up an archeological labora- 
tory, and conducted a training course at Pemaquid in the conservation 
and restoration of artifacts. 

Among numerous items associated with the Wheeler family of Bridge- 
port, Connecticut, donated by Miss Ellen Wheeler, were nine impor- 
tant architectural drawings for the Harral- Wheeler House by the 19th- 
century architect Alexander Jackson Davis. Two side chairs and a sofa 
in the gothic-revival style from this house were given by Mrs. William 
P. Finney. 



THE COLLECTIONS CIVIL HISTORY 



145 




GARNER 





i)>ROTECTI 



Ralph E. Becker and assistant curator Herbert R. Collins looking 
at a portion of the Ralph E. Becker collection of political Amer- 
icana which Mr. Becker has been donating to the Smithsonian 
since 1960. 



The collection of American costume was enhanced by the addition 
of 204 specimens, and work was begun on a project directed by assistant 
curator Claudia Kidwell to catalog and mount an extensive collection 
of 19th-century fashion plates. 

Ralph E. Becker of Washington, D.C., continuing his generous contri- 
butions to the political-history collections, gave a gold pocket watch, 
tie chain, and poker chips used by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Other dona- 
tions of Presidential memorabilia were a black woolen shawl worn by 
Abraham Lincoln, gift of Mrs. Shirley Wood; a book of trout flies 
used by Grover Cleveland, given by his son Richard Cleveland; and a 
cup and saucer used by William McKinley just before his assassination 
in 1901, gift of Mrs. Louis Antonsanti. From the Society of the Oldest 
Inhabitants of Washington, D.C., came an original 1819 desk used in 
the House of Representatives and a double desk of the House of Repre- 
sentatives designed by Thomas U. Walter in 1857. Other objects in- 
cluded a gold lorgnette and vanity case owned by Mary Todd Lincoln, 
gift of Lincoln Isham ; a dress worn by Harriet Lane Johnston, niece and 
hostess for James Buchanan, 1857-1861, gift of the Misses Elizabeth 
Gray, Juliana Paca, and Margaret Beverly Taylor; and the brooch "Our 
Mineral Heritage," given by the executive committee of the 1967 



146 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

National Gem and Mineral Show. A portrait of Emily Donelson, hostess 
for Andrew Jackson, by R. E. W. Earle, was lent by Mrs. Charlton 
Henry, and a portrait of Maria Monroe Gouvemeur, daughter of 
James Monroe, by an unknown artist, was lent by Mr. and Mrs. Harris 
E. Kirk, Jr. 

Portraits of James and Dolley Madison and of Mrs. Catherine Crop- 
per were restored, and the recording of dresses of the First Ladies con- 
tinued with the completion of patterns, muslin models, and sewing 
instructions for the dresses of Mrs. Ellen Wilson and Mrs. Edith 
Roosevelt. 

Among important musical instruments acquired this year were an 
18th-century English violin and bow made by John Marshall and John 
(Kew?) Dodd respectively, and a 19th-century Chickering square piano. 
A harpsichord by Benoist Stehlin, made in Paris and dated 1760, was 
restored by conservator Scott Odell with the help of museum specialist 
Robert Sheldon, and members of the restoration laboratory staff in the 
National Collection of Fine Arts, who assisted with cleaning the lid 
painting and case. 

The restoration of a small church organ, made by Jacob Hilbus about 
1811-12 for Christ Church, Alexandria, was completed in the shop of 
C. B. Fisk of Gloucester, Massachusetts. The first organ in the collec- 
tions to be restored to playing condition, it is used periodically for con- 
certs and informal demonstrations in the hall of musical instruments. 

The continued interest of Willis H. duPont in the numismatic collec- 
tions was generously expressed in his gift of an authoritative series of 
coins struck during the reign of Tsar Alexander H of Russia from 1855 
to 1881. Significant additions to the section of ancient coins include a col- 
lection of 206 Greek bronze pieces from Asia Minor donated by the 
Messrs. Stack and three rare fractional silver coins from Lydia and Per- 
sia contributed by Harvey Stack, who also has acquired recent foreign 
issues for the collections. The Messrs. Stack also filled gaps in our mod- 
em foreign series through the gift of 1,609 pieces. 

The receipt from Mr. Jon Holtzman of a hoard consisting of 1,502 
early 15th-century Ottoman akchehs was one of the determining factors 
in establishing a special Islamic section with the help of Raymond 
Hebert. 

Significant additions to the United States series included a collection 
of 109 Connecticut 18th-century cents (dated 1785-1788) donated by 
Theodore L. Craige. Mrs. F. C. C. Boyd gave a rare gold-assay ingot 
of Knight and Company, Marysville, California, bringing to three the 
number of American ingots in the Smithsonian collections. 



THE COLLECTIONS CIVIL HISTORY 



147 




Organ made by Jacob Hilbus of 
Washington, D.C., for Christ 
Church in Alexandria about 
1811-12. Restored to playing 
condition in 1967. 



J. B. Longacre's original design of 1861 for a double eagle with the 
motto, "Our Trust is in God," as well as other related documentation for 
the introduction of the motto, "In God We Trust," on our coinage, was 
a most important gift from the Messrs. Stack, as was an original artist's 
working model of a proposed design for the Washington-head quarter 
dated 1932. Harvey Stack presented trial impressions on cardboard of 
dies prepared by United States Mint engraver Charles E. Barber for 
commemorative gold dollars. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mortimer Neinken donated 58 mostly very rare 19th- 
century treasury bills issued by German states and banking institutions as 
well as 1 1 2 notes which fomierly circulated in German colonies and a 
specialized collection of 968 German post- World War I "pegged-value" 
currency issues, which are of great importance to students of financial 
history. 

One of the earliest bank notes issued in the Western World, a Swedish 



148 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




Embossed revenue stamp issued 
by the colonial government of 
Massachusetts, applied to a doc- 
ument on the first effective day 
of the act, 1 May 1755. 



certificate of credit for 25 dalers in silver issued in 1666 by the Stock- 
holm Bank, was given by Joseph B. Stack. 

From the Library of Congress were obtained 685 medals and badges 
and 194 medals, and 511 dies were given by the Gorham Corporation, 
illustrating the contributions to American medallic art made during 
nearly one century by this company. The National Commemorative So- 
ciety (Philadelphia) and the Societe Commemorative de Femmes Cele- 
bres (Wynnwood) gave an impressive series of 18 platinum strikings of 
the medals issued by them. Through a donation received from Willis 
H. duPont, the series of Russian medals was increased by 287 silver and 
bronze pieces of the 19th and 20th centuries. 

The tasks of identifying and cataloging numismatic material in the 
custody of the division continued as a matter of routine, although 
frequently interrupted by construction and installation of devices to 
improve security. 

In the areas of philately and postal history, the Reverend Floyd S. 
Leach's collection of 1,454,604 stamps and covers was acquired as a 
bequest from the estate of Mrs. Harriett M. Leach. It includes three 
volumes of rare American Expeditionary Force covers from North 
Russian and Siberia, 1918-1920; a significant group of covers carried by 
balloons during the siege of Paris, 1870-1871, together with three 
rare "pellicules" — microfilm messages — carried by pigeons during the 
siege ; and a very extensive collection of United States stamps and postal 
markings. John F. Rider, again enriching the European postal-history 
portion of the collections, donated a letter posted in Barcelona in 1344. 
An embossed revenue stamp issued by the colonial government of Mas- 
sachusetts, applied to a document on the first efTective date of the act — 



THE COLLECTIONS CIVIL HISTORY 149 

1 May 1755 — was a gift from the Milton A. Holmes Memorial Fund 
and E. M. Moore. 

Assistant curator Reidar Norby, museum specialists Francis E. Welch 
and Victor H. Weill, and museum technician Frank Berek were all 



SPECIMEN TRANSACTIONS— FISCAL YEAR 1968 





Accessions 








Trans- 


Lent for 






(transac- 








ferred to 


study to 






tions) 




Exch 


anged 


other Gov- 


investigators 






1968 


Received 


with 


other 


ernment 


and other 


Specimens 


Departments 


(new) 


on loan 


institutions 


agencies 


institutions 


identified 


Science and 
















Technology . . 


120 


1 




69 





181 


3 


Arts and Manu- 
















factures . . . 


195 


80 










56 


3,205 


Civil History . . 


525 


96 




6 


2 


2,388 


13,821 


Armed Forces 
















History . . . 


89 


11 







2 


63 
2,688 


875 


Total . . . 


929 


188 




75 


4 


17,904 



SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL COLLECTIONS, 31 MAY 1968 

Department OF Science AND Technology 105,865 

Physical Sciences 4, 732 

Mechanical and Civil Engineering 12, 767 

Electricity 8,227 

Transportation 43, 186 

Medical Sciences 36, 953 

Department OF Arts AND Manufactures 157,150 

Textiles 36,603 

Ceramics and Glass 19, 253 

Graphic Arts 54, 167 

Manufactures and Heavy Industries 36, 436 

Agriculture and Forest Products 10,691 

Department OF Civil History 12,061,899 

(Section of American Costume count separated 
from Political History this year) 

Political History r-r"^^ 37, 023 

Cultural History 26, 604 

Philately and Postal History 11,658,056 

Musical Instruments 57 

Numismatics 327, 121 

American Costume 13, 038 

Department of Armed Forces History 59, 060 

Military History 45, 225 

Naval History 1 3, 835 

Total 12,383,974 



150 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

engaged in reorganizing and cataloging the philatelic collections, so 
that the tremendously widespread interest of the public can be efficiently 
served. 

Work continued on the information-retrieval system which is being 
developed for the United States cover collection. Improved security 
was provided for the reference-collection area. 

Armed Forces History 

The laboratory for the preservation of underwater finds continued 
treatment of materials from underwater sites. These processes included 
treatment of organic materials with polyethylene glycol, the direct-cur- 
rent reduction of iron artifacts, and reconstruction of ceramic vessels. 

Most important accessions to the underwater collections were organic 
materials recovered from the sites of the Warwick and the Virginia 
Merchant in Bermuda. 

An unusually comprehensive collection of shoulder-sleeve insignia 
were received from David N. Epstein. Also received were a rare Revolu- 
tionary-period cartridge box and an unusually fine example of a Brown 
Bess musket marked "29th Regt," elements of which unit participated 
in the "Boston Massacre." 

Notable additions to the national collection of naval uniforms in- 
cluded a white service dress uniform, worn by Seaman Harry T. Ben- 
nett during the Civil War. Enlisted men's uniforms of the Spanish- 
American War era were received from Mrs. Caroline W. Budinger, 
Mrs. James E. Ross and Herbert L. Crook. Mrs. Ethel R. Edson donated 
the uniforms of Major General Merritt A. Edson, USMC. 

The national collection of warship models was enriched by the dona- 
tion of an original half-model (alternate lift style) of a Passaic-clsiss 
monitor by Thomas A. Burdick and family. 

Naval history continued restoration of navigation instruments in the 
Weems collection and prepared a series of uniforms for exhibit in the 
hall of the armed forces. 



Educational Activities 

The thrust of the Smithsonian in recent years has been toward involve- 
ment with a wider range of people in a wider area of activities. Specifi- 
cally, this has brought the Smithsonian and the staffs of its museums 
into closer cooperation with the academic world, both teaching and 
student, and with the visiting public, principally Washington area 
residents and the Smithsonian Associates. 

This activity has supplemented the ongoing program of lectures, 
symposiums, seminars, workshops, concerts, and recitals that have 
brought the public to the Museum, often during periods when it nor- 
mally would have been closed. 

Staff members have also been increasingly active in the presentation 
of lectures and scholarly papers to groups of their colleagues in cities 
and universities both in this country and abroad. 

Listed below are some of the more important of these events and 
their participants. 

Adrosko, Rita J. "Early European and American Handlooms." The New 
England Weavers' Seminar, held on 10 July at the University of Massa- 
chusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts. 

Ahlborn, Richard E. "Spanish New Mexican Crafts." Paper delivered in 
April at Third Annual Symposium for Historic Preservation (The Southern 
Frontier), co-sponsored by Houston Baptist College and National Trust for 
Historic Preservation. 

. "Ecclesiastic Silver of Colonial Mexico" and "Domestic Silver of 

Colonial Mexico." Two papers delivered in March at the Fourteenth 
Annual Winterthur Conference on Museum Operation and Connoisseurship. 
"Silver in Colonial Peruvian Life." Paper delivered in January at 



the Museum of History and Technology on the occasion of the special 
exhibition, "Three Centuries of Peruvian Silver." 

Battison, Edwin A. "Repair vs. Restoration" Lecture delivered in June to 
the National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania. 

. "Water Turbines and Machine Tools," consultant to New York State 

Council on the Arts and Jefferson County Historical Society. May 1968. 

Brooks, Philip C, Jr. "Political Campaign Exhibits at Presidential Libraries 
and at the National Archives." Paper delivered in June at the Twelfth 
Annual Institute of Pennsylvania Life and Culture, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

Cannon, Walter F. "In Which Charles Lyell is Permitted to Speak for Him- 
self." Paper delivered in September at the White Mountain Conference 
on the History of Geology. 

151 



152 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

. "The Scientist and the New Civil Servant: John Herschel at the Mint, 



1851-1854." Paper delivered in December at the History of Science Society 

annual meeting. 
ChapellEj Howard I. "Colonial Ship Building." Paper delivered in July 

at the Munson Institute, Mystic, Connecticut. 
. "Maritime Museums." Paper delivered in February at the New 

Orleans Propeller Club. 

"Small Sailing Craft on the Bay." Paper delivered at Washington 



Coast Guard, April; Maryland Historical Society, May; and Annapolis Yacht 
Club, May. 

Clain-Stefanelli, Elvira. "L'evolution artistique de la medaille dans les 
Etats Unis." Paper read 18 October in Paris, at the 12th International 
Congress of the "Federation Internationale de la Medaille." 

Clain-Stefanelli, Vladimir. "Ancient Gold Coinage of Kallatis." Paper 
read 29 August by Mrs. Clain-Stefanelli at the International Numismatic 
Congress, Copenhagen. 

. "Numismatics Re-Examined." Official address given in September 

at Canadian Numismatic Association Convention and Centennial Celebra- 
tion, Ottawa. 

. "The Importance of the Study of Numismatics, Gold as a Coinage 



Metal, and the Josiah K. Lilly Collection of Gold Coins." Statement on 

27 September before Subcommittee No. 2 of the House Committee on the 

Judiciary on H.R. 12941, and identical bills, "For the relief of the estate 

of Josiah K. Lilly." (A 32-page research paper.) 
Collins, Herbert R. "The Lust for Office — The Remains." Paper and 

seminar in June organized for the Twelfth Annual Institute of Pennsylvania 

Life and Culture, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 
Hamarneh, Sami. "Medical Education and Practice in Medieval Islam." 

Paper delivered 5 February at the International Symposium on the History 

of Medical Education, Los Angeles, California. 
Jackson, Melvin H. Project 400 D. C. Education Department — a series of 

weekly lectures on marine history as part of the curriculum-enrichment 

program. 
. "Naval Arms and Armament of the Revolution." Lecture delivered in 

March for the .\merican Studies program. 
Klapthor, Margaret B. "The First Lady Image." Paper presented in May to 

the History Department, Mount Holyoke College. 
Merzbach, Uta C. "Leibniz and Nineteenth-Century Mathematics." Col- 
loquium lecture presented in April at Yale University. 
Norby, Reidar. "The Smithsonian Institution and its Role in Philately." Lec- 
ture delivered 17 July to the Philadelphia Scandinavian Collectors Club, 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
. "The Smithsonian Institution and its Role in Philately." Lecture 

delivered in October to the National Institutes of Health Stamp Club, 

Bethesda, Maryland. 
. "The Smithsonian's Philatelic Treasures." Lecture delivered 24 

October to the Washington Scandinavian Collectors Club, Washington, D.C. 
. "Project Smithsonian." Lecture delivered 16 November to the North 

Jersey Scandinavian Collectors Club, Upper Montclair, New Jersey. 



EDUCATIONAL ACTTVITIES 153 

. "The Smithsonian Institution and its Role in Philately." Illustrated 

lecture delivered 12 June to the Wilmington Stamp Club, Wilmington, 
Delaware. 

OsTROFF, Eugene. "The Invention of Photomechanical Reproduction." Paper 
presented 24 May at the American Association of Museums meeting, at New 
Orleans, Louisiana; scheduled for publication in Museum News. 

. "The Photomechanical Image and Its Origin." Paper presented 23 

April to the Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers, at Washington, 
D.C. 

Peterson, Mendel L. "Techniques of Underwater Exploration and Research." 
Series of four lectures delivered in February under the sponsorship of the 
University of Texas at El Paso. 

Roth, Rodris. "Centennial Taste: American Furniture at the 1876 Phila- 
delphia Exposition." Paper delivered in September at Pennsbury Manor 
Americana Forum, Pennsbury Manor, Morrisville, Pennsylvania. 

ScHEELE, Carl H. "The Post Office Department and Urban Congestion, 1893- 
1953." Paper presented in December at the Eighty-Second Annual Meet- 
ing of the American Historical Association, Toronto, Canada. 

VoGEL, Robert M. The New England Textile Mill Survey. Paper delivered 
in July at the Manchester Rotary Club, Manchester, N.H. 

. "Prelude to Progress — Victorian Manchester and the Future." First 

session of series, November, sponsored by the Manchester Historic Associ- 
ation and the Currier Gallery of Art, "The Dark Satanic Mill," Manchester, 
New Hampshire. 

. "Industrial Archeology, the Off Side of the American Heritage." 

Paper delivered in November at the Society of Architectural Historians, 
Washington Chapter, Washington, D.C. 

. "The Place of Industrial Archeology." Paper delivered in January at 

the Society for Historical Archaeology, Williamsburg, Virginia. 

. "Industrial Archeology: A New Field of History." Paper delivered 



in April at the Virginia History Federation, Fairfax, Virginia. 

Welsh, Peter C. "A Century of Technological Change, 1750-1851." A 
series of lectures delivered at the 1967 Annual Seminars on American Cul- 
ture sponsored by the New York State Historical Association. 

White, John H. "Cincinnati Incline Planes and Hilltop Houses." Paper 
delivered in December before the Cincinnati Historical Society. 

Musical Events 

The division of musical instruments is distinguished uniquely from 
other units of the department in its ability to communicate aurally as 
well as visually. As in previous years, its musical performances and dem- 
onstrations of early instruments have added a dynamic dimension to the 
exhibit function. During the course of the year, the following concerts 
were performed : 

Tower Music, weekly — July through August (evening performances 
on brass instruments from the crenelated roof of the main portico 
of the Smithsonian Building) . 

315-997 O - 69 - 11 



154 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

Amsterdam Baroque Trio — 14 July 1967. 

Frans Brueggen, recorder — 25 October 1967. 

Baroque Players of New York — 14 November 1967. 

Alan Curtis, harpsichord — 5 December 1967. 

Jean Hakes, soprano; John Fesperman, organ — 18 January 1968. 

Sonya Monosoff, violin; James Weaver, harpsichord — 12-13 Febru- 
ary 1968. 

Albert Fuller, harpsichord — 16 April 1968. 

Flore Wend, soprano; Frank Bowen, flute; James Weaver, harpsi- 
chord— 14 May 1968. 

Tower Music, weekly — 3-24 June. Augmented by tympani. 

Each concert, except for Tower Music, was preceded by a lecture 
relating to instruments, repertoire, and performance conventions heard 
in the performance. 



I 



Exhibits 

A special mathematical exhibit on the development of the modern 
computer opened in late August. This opening was timed to coincide 
with the twentieth annual meeting of the Association of Computing 
Machinery, which convened in Washington, D.C. The exhibit featured 
representative historic items in the digital and analog field, as well as 
a "reading table" at which visitors were able to study at leisure codes 
and programs of the late 1940s and early 1950s. 

A special exhibit was shown between October and April on the 
telephone experiments of Alexander Graham Bell. This drew in large 
part on the researches published by curator Bernard Finn; the exhibit 
concentrated on the year 1876, showing the progress of the inventor 
through his experimental equipment, his notebook entries, and his later 
courtroom testimony. 

In February, the division of engineering sponsored a showing of 
American artist Ranulph Bye's watercolors of 19th-century railroad 
stations. Mr. Bye has presented 15 of the paintings to the Museum. They 
are not only accurate architectural documents, but of great artistic 
merit as well. An outstanding spring event was the joint sponsorship by 
the division and the Society of Architectural Historians (Washington 
chapter) of a lecture: "Industrial Archeology — Whose Benefit, Whose 
Responsibility?" by Kenneth Hudson of the Bath University of Tech- 
nology. The lecture was followed by a joint Smithsonian-Historic Amer- 
ican Buildings Survey show of drawings and photographs tided "Recent 
Projects in Industrial Archeology." 

Two special shows were completed during the year. The Nautical 
Research Guild's 25th-anniversary ship-model show was held in the 
hall of American merchant shipping. The Winton transcontinental auto- 
mobile panel was installed in the front hall of the museum. 

In cooperation with the committee on the history of dentistry of the 
American Dental Association, an exhibition on "Early American Den- 
tistry" was installed at the medical gallery, featuring the original denture 
set of President George Washington, paintings, certificates, tools, and 
dental equipment from the collection of the University of Maryland, 
College of Dentistry, in Baltimore. 

The 75th anniversary of the invention of the internal-combustion 
tractor was marked in 1967. A special exhibit, depicting the growth 

155 



156 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




A special exhibit marked the 75th anniversary of the invention of the internal- 
combustion tractor. 



and technological changes in the internal-combustion tractor and the 
significance of the tractor to American agriculture, was displayed for 
six weeks in September and October. 

From 2 March through 15 April the ceramics of Judith and Henry 
Halem — a talented husband-and-wife team of ceramists from Fred- 
ericksburg, Virginia — were shown in the Museum. From 12 April 
through 2 June the products of the Kastrup-Holmegaard Glassworks 
were displayed in an exhibition entitled "140 Years of Danish Glass." 
This exhibition featured the finest works of a major Scandinavian glass 
factory and documented the evolution of design and technique from 
traditional forms to advanced concepts in glassmaking. 

Regular demonstrations of 19th-century hand printing have been 
started at the Columbian press in the hall of graphic arts. It is planned 
to expand the demonstrations to show printing at an 18th-century 
wooden press and a late- 19th-century platen press. 

A traveling exhibition of prints by Mexican artists had its inaugural 
showing in the graphic arts gallery from December 1967 to February 
1968. Original cartoon drawings selected from the Newspaper Comics 



EXHIBITS 



157 




Museum technician James Spears demonstrating hand printing at the 1865 
Columbian press in the hall of graphic arts. 



Council's gift to the Smithsonian were shown from November to De- 
cember 1967. 

Planning for the permanent hall of photography was greatly acceler- 
ated, and consequently no new temporary displays were scheduled dur- 
ing the year. 

The section of photography assisted and advised Charles Eames in 
the preparation of the special exhibition "Photography and the City," 
which opened 5 June in the Arts and Industries Building. Numerous 
photographs, cameras, and other items from the photography collection 
were included in the display. 

With the assistance of Alfred McAdams, the temporary exhibit of 
nuclear-energy equipment was modified to provide a better sample of 
some of the significant items. Work was commenced on the erection 
of the full-scale model, a part of CP-1, the first nuclear reactor devel- 
oped by Enrico Fermi at Chicago in 1942. 

"The Copp Family Textiles," a special six-month exhibition, was 
opened on 15 March. The collection from the Copp family of Stoning- 



158 



MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 




Mrs. Alice Roosevelt Longworth, daughter of President Theodore Roosevelt, and 
assistant curator Herbert R. Collins at the opening of the "Pastimes of the 
Presidents" exhibit, 15 September 1967. In the foreground is a Nile Lechwi, a 
type of antelope, brought down by Theodore Roosevelt during a Smithsonian 
expedition to Africa. 



ton, Connecticut, was presented to the Museum in 1896, and includes 
a rare cross-section of the types of household and furnishing textiles 
used by one New England family from 1750-1850. Daily demonstra- 
tions of the processing of flax and wool fibers and of weaving checked- 
linen bed furnishings are given by Mrs. Helene Bress, a local craftsman, 
and Mrs. Lois Vann of the division staff. 

A one-unit exhibit on "American Sewing Machines," a brief introduc- 
tion to the Museum's collection, was opened in the first-floor rotunda 
in May. 

Work with the designer on the layouts and graphics for the permanent 
hall of textiles continued, and the hall is scheduled to open in January 
1970. 

A notable special exhibition, "Three Centuries of Peruvian Silver," 
brought to the Smithsonian 210 pieces of ecclesiastic, domestic, and 
equestrian silver of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries never before 
seen in the United States. Opened on 19 December and continuing 
until 15 February, the exhibition was made possible through the cooper- 
ation of El Patronato del Peru, El Museo del Peru, and the Peruvian 
Embassy in Washington, Antonio Lulli, Minister Counselor. 



EXHIBITS 



159 




Webb C. Hayes III, great-grandson of President Rutherford B. Hayes, Smith- 
sonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, and William Howard Taft HI, great-grandson 
of President William Howard Taft, at the opening of the "Resolute" desk exhibit, 
16 November 1967. The desk was given to President Hayes in 1880 and deposited 
in the Smithsonian Institution by the White House. 



In January a period room from Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, 
was installed under the direction of associate curator Rodris Roth in 
the hall of everyday life in the American past. Once the parlor of Ed- 
mund and Deliverance Crowell's house in Vineyard Haven, it bears the 
date of its construction, 1808, and features a remarkable primitive land- 
scape painting built into the paneling over the fireplace mantel. 

One of the exhibit highlights of the year was the "Pastimes of the 
Presidents," opened in September, which depicted leisure-time and rec- 
reational activities of the Presidents from George Washington to Lyndon 
B. Johnson. Using original associational objects, the content of the 
exhibit ranged from John Quincy Adams' original poetry, philatelic 
interests of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and horseback riding by several 
Presidents, to the strenuous sports indulged in by Abraham Lincoln, 
John F. Kennedy, and others. Portions of the "Pastimes" exhibit were 
later shown at the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum. The Resolute desk, 



160 MUSEUM OF HISTORY AND TECHNOLOGY 

given by Queen Victoria to President Rutherford B. Hayes and last 
used by President John F. Kennedy, was placed on exhibition in Novem- 
ber. Its deposit in the Smithsonian Institution as a historic object was 
authorized by President Lyndon B. Johnson. 

Another in a series of special exhibits commemorating events leading 
up to the American Revolution and opened in June, was "The Glorious 
Cause of Liberty," dealing with American colonial resistance to the 
Townshend Acts in the years 1767-69, and featuring original documents 
and objects from the period. 

In January an exhibit of photos and artifacts dealing with 18th- and 
19th-century organbuilding was presented in conjunction with a concert 
and a lecture by Miss Barbara Owen. An experimental temporary 
exhibit representative of musical instruments from the collection marks 
the beginning of a docent program and of trials for several new exhibit 
techniques. These include the use of chairs equipped with stereophonic 
speakers through which concert tapes are played. 

A, radio series broadcast for 13 weeks over educational station 
WAMU-FM began on 4 June. These programs consist of tapes made 
during Smithsonian concerts. 

The "Retrospective Exhibit of the American Medal," sponsored by 
the Medallic Art Company in New York, set up under the direction of 
Mrs. E. Clain-Stefanelli, marked the celebration of the 75th anniversary 
of the National Sculpture Society. 

Ephraim Evron, Minister of the Embassy of Israel, and Moshe Cohen, 
Director of Philatelic Services in Jerusalem, participated in the formal 
opening of a one-month special exhibit of postage stamps on 20 May 
to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the founding of the State of 
Israel. Also, during the same month, the rare 24-cent United States 
airmail issue of 1918, with inverted vignette, together with certified 
proofs from the two plates which were used to produce that issue, were 
placed on special exhibition in the Arts and Industries Building during 
the week which marked the 50th anniversary of the United States air- 
mail service. 

Planning and design of the hall of armed forces history, 1 865 to date, 
occupied the staff during the year. Particular emphasis was placed on 
two period rooms to be installed. 

Exhibits specialist Donald Hoist constructed five finely detailed mili- 
tary figures for the model of the Continental gondola Philadelphia being 
built by Howard P. Hoffman. 



National Air and Space Museum 

S. Paul Johnston, Director 




■QLANS FOR OPTIMUM UTILIZATION of the authorized ( 1966) but as yet 
-'- unbudgeted National Air and Space Museum are under constant 
review, and a special nasm Task Group meets periodically to assess 
programs for the education and inspiration of the American people 
concerning the past accomplishments, present attainments, and future 
potentials of flight. 

In this respect, the Museum is now less concerned with displays of 
"famous firsts" in air and space than with the continuously changing 
presentations of the impact of man-flight on the cultural life of Amer- 
ica, and is envisioned as part of a great public educational facility in 
which visitors may gain new knowledge of the world around them and 
clues as to what the future may hold. 

For these reasons, planning for nasm during the past years has 
concentrated on two major areas: On the development of creative 
and stimulating exhibits which reveal to the layman and the specialist 
where we have been, why we are here, and where we are going in man's 
quest for mastery of the air and of space; and on pioneering in the 
history of flight, both as a branch of the history of science and tech- 
nology and as a determinant in the history of man as a social animal. 
Despite current budgetary limitations and personnel restrictions, 
a number of programs were initiated or continued which are designed 
to provide firm foundations for future development in these areas. 

161 



Main reference files and indexes 
of photographic and film col- 
lections are readily available for 
researchers. 





Thousands of bound volumes 
include complete files of re- 
search and periodical aero- 
space technical and historical 
literature from all over the 
world. 



Drawings, technical litera- 
ture, photographs, and bibli- 
ographic files are maintained 
in readily available form. 



Great progress was made in the 
physical arrangements and the 
consequent utility of the muse- 
um's research center. A large 
backlog of unsorted material 
still exists, but the bulk of the 
most needed documentary and 
photographic material is shelved 
and readily retrievable. 




Historical Research 

Progress was made by curator Robert B. Meyer on his monograph on 
the development of Professor Langley's remarkable engines of 1900- 
1903, and by assistant director Paul E. Garber and George Conner on 
their comprehensive history of the early years of air mail in the United 
States. Curator Louis C. Casey continued his research on the contribu- 



HISTORICAL RESEARCH 163 

tions of Glenn Curtis to aviation, and assistant director Frederick C. 
Durant III his in-depth studies on nasm's contributions to modern 
rocketry and space flight and on the development of Congreve's and 
Hale's 19th-century rockets. The latter brought to the Museum copies 
of archival material on these two pioneers. 

Research and editorial supp>ort was furnished to a number of au- 
thors whose books are scheduled for publication during 1968. Support 
was also rendered to others on such diverse research as 16th-century 
studies of rocketry and 19th-century lifesaving and whaling rockets. 

As a result of participation in the organization of international sym- 
posiums on the history of rockets and astronautics, a series of thirteen 
memoirs, presented at Belgrade in 1967, are being edited by the astro- 
nautics department and prepared for publication by the Smithsonian 
Institution Press. 

An in-depth study of naval aviation development during the first 
decade after World War I, focusing on the contributions of Admiral 
William Moff"ett and DeWitt C. Ramsey, is being undertaken by his- 
torian Richard K. Smith. This is the first historical research project 
to be supported by the Admiral DeWitt C. Ramsey memorial fund, 
which came to the National Air and Space Museum in the form of a 
substantial bequest from Mrs. Ramsey's estate. 

The Guggenheim project, under a grant from Harry Guggenheim, 
was established in August. Guggenheim Fellow Alexis Doster is inves- 
tigating the impact of the Guggenheim-founded aeronautical labora- 
tories and schools during the 1920s and 1930s on the subsequent de- 
velopment of air and space technology. 

Research files were established containing biographies of over six 
hundred graduates and faculty members of the seven schools founded 
by the Guggenheim Fund for the promotion of aeronautics. Of these, 
twenty who made outstanding contributions to the advancement of 
aeronautics and space technology were chosen as representative of 
those who have been influenced by the Guggenheim schools, and 
ihe contributions of each will be described and evaluated. 

The oral history project of the nasm research center, under the 
direction of E. W. Robischon, added new tape recordings, bringing 
the total recordings to the tape bank to 180. Notable among those 
people recorded were Floyd L. Thompson, Director of the nasa 
Langley Laboratory; Admiral Edwin C. Parsons, USN, (Ret.), member 
of the Lafayette Escadrille in World War I; Arthur E. Raymond, 
designer of the Douglas DC-1 transport; and Waldo Waterman, an 
early aviation designer. A program of interviews on a nationwide scale 
was inaugurated to insure inclusion of all remaining pioneers who have 
made important contributions to aviation and space flight. 




Paul Garber discussing kites after his lecture 1 1 March on the nationalities, types, 
practical uses, and the role of kites in the development of aircraft. Sponsored by 
the Smithsonian Associates, the lecture was followed later by a workshop, a 
prelude to the second annual Smithsonian kite carnival. Kite on left is a type 
used in Bermuda; center, a traditional newspaper kite; and, right, copy of an 
early American kite shown in a book printed in 1836. 



Educational Activities 

Assistant director Paul E. Garber made a major contribution to the 
education program through his lecture program to school groups and 
outside organizations, in which he gave 95 talks on aeronautical history 
and allied subjects to an estimated 12,500 persons. 

The information and education department, working with the Federal 
Aviation Administration in its teacher workshop programs for elementary 
and secondary schools, is presently developing a new program for 
teacher education in which Louis S. Casey and Robert B. Meyer, Jr., 
have been active. A program for secondary school students is being 
developed at the nasm facility at Silver Hill, where students may have 
actual contact with significant air and space artifacts. 

In conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution office of academic 
programs, a three-day tour and seminar was conducted for a group 
of fifteen students from St. Albans School. .\ decent educational program 
is planned for the near future. 

At weekly lunch-box seminars, held in the nasm conference room. 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES THE COLLECTIONS 165 

Staff members are apprised of information on subjects related to air 
and space technology by speakers from industry, private corporations, 
and other government agencies. 

Local chapters of the following organizations met on a regular 
basis at the Historical Research Center (figures in parentheses indicate 
the number of meetings held): Antique Airplane Association (4), 
American Aviation Historical Society (9), International Plastic 
Modelers Society (3), Experimental Aircraft Association (1), Ninety- 
Niners (3) . The Center staff served a total of 966 visitors and answered 
5,760 telephone and letter requests during the year. 

The Collections 

EXHIBITS AND SPECIAL EVENTS 

The following exhibits and special events took place at the Smithsonian 
(or elsewhere, as indicated) during the year: 

Lockheed "Vega" aircraft used by Amelia Earhart, on the occasion of the 40th 
anniversary of her round-the-world flight ( July) . 

Charles and Anne Lindbergh's "Sirius" (Dulles Airport, National Aviation Day, 
August). 

Exhibit on Santos-Dumont; paintings by John McCoy, "Painting Aviation 
History"; DeHaviland DH-4 (Langley Research Center) and Langley aero- 
drome model (National Academy of Science) (September). 

Installation of ibm and nasa "Gemini" exhibit, and "Paris Air Show" and 
NASA "Project Mercury" exhibits (October). 




At the opening of a one-man show of John McCoy's historical painting, Paul 
Garber, right, discusses the original Wright flight at Kitty Hawk with the artist 
and Astronaut John Glenn. 



166 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 



Part of the growing collection of 
spacecraft and related material 
now in the museum's custody 
under an agreement with NASA. 
(Photo courtesy United Press 
International, Inc.) 




Paintings by John Desatoff of TRW, Inc., "U.S. and Foreign Spacecraft"; and 

presentation of Kennedy family plane Caroline (November) . 
Huff-Daland crop duster aircraft (January) . 
"Bios 11" satellite and paintings by Henry Farre, "Sky Fighters of France" 

(February). 
Rocket motors from Aerojet General Corporation; McDonnell F-4A aircraft, 

Gemini 7 spacecraft, and Bell H-13 helicopter (on the Mall) (April). 
Presentation of the Collier Trophy, ceremony for 50th Anniversary of the Air 

Mail, rebuilt DH-4 installed United States Air Force exhibit, F9F aircraft 

installed at Anacostia playground (May). 
Scientific balloon payloads and Air Force exhibit (June). 

The Silver Hill facility under the supervision of Donald K. Merchant, 
transported, relocated, or prepared for shipment to exhibitions in the 
United States and Europe some 25 full-size aircraft, spacecraft, or their 
major components. 

The visual presentations division at the 24th Street facility, under 
the supervision of Harry Hart, completed the installation of photo- 
graphic, silkscreen, and carpenter shops and supported more than 19 
temporary exhibits and special activities. 



CARE OF COLLECTIONS 

A new warehouse was accepted by the nasm and designated for speci- 
mens of the astronautics department. The first installation of efficient, 
heavy-duty storage racks was completed. Specimens are being stored 
there on an instant-retrievability basis. On acceptance of the new build- 
ing, NASM vacated two similar warehouses which have been assigned 
to other Smithsonian activities. 

The preservation and restoration crew also handled several hundred 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES THE COLLECTIONS 167 

additions to the collections which were stored at Silver Hill. New speci- 
mens of all types received at Silver Hill totaled 229,136 pounds. 

Museum specialist Winthrop S. Shaw, made great progress in identify- 
ing, cataloging, and warehousing specimens at the 24th Street facility. 
The model collection is now in good order and progress was made in 
organizing the artwork and memorabilia, medals, and miscellaneous 
artifacts. 

ACCESSIONS 

Implementation of the agreement on artifacts between the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration and the museum brought to the 
latter title to and responsibility for preservation and exhibit of 15 Mer- 
cury and 8 Gemini spacecraft, as well as astronaut space suits and hun- 
dreds of significant space-related items. Some spacecraft were placed on 
long-term loan for display at nasa centers, others were exhibited for 
short periods in the United States and Europe. Still others are under- 
going restoration and preparation for exhibit. Other spacecraft acces- 
sions include flight items and engineering mock-ups of Surveyor, Lunar, 
Orbiter, and Ranger. Liaison with nasa field centers continued, and the 
NASA contract covering this work was extended an additional year, with 
no increase in funds. 

Additions to the collections received and recorded during the year to- 
taled 636 specimens in 93 separate accessions, as listed below. Those 
from government departments are entered as transfers; others were 
received as gifts. 

Aerojet General Corp.: Wyld rocket motor; paintings, "The Earth from 
Space" and "Portrait of T. von Karman" (nasm 1833). Liquid propellant 
rocket engines: 25 ALD World War II unit, LR 63-AJ-l unit, Aerobee thrust 
chamber, Nike thrust chamber, YLR-63-AJ-3 and YLR-45-AJ-1 thrust 
chambers, 15 KS 1000 smokeless unit, 12 NS 250 Junior jato unit, Genie 
motor, Delta with gimbal unit, F-86 unit propulsion tank, Apollo chamber and 
injector, first American jato (Boushey flight), 14 AS 1000 unit, miscellaneous 
tubing (nasm 1940). Injectors from the Apollo service module engine 
(nasm 1871). Fuel turbopump rotating assembly (nasm 1952). 

Air Force, United States: Ballistic Missile Division: Photo of earth and stars; 
Atlas missile (nasm 1837). Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah: Rocket engine assembly, 
experimental model (nasm 1847). Hollman AFB, New Mexico: Rocket sled 
(nasm 1813). Rocket sled and Tarzon bomb (nasm 1814). Air Materiel 
San Bernardino, California: Titan I first stage rocket engines (nasm 1805). 

Army, United States, Ft. Meade, Maryland : Jupiter propulsion system trainer 
(nasm 1843). Depot, Anniston, Alabama: Nike-Zeus target reentry vehicle 
(nasm 1804) ; Ft. Wingate, Gallup, New Mexico: Rocket sled (nasm 1815). 

Beech Aircraft Corp.: Model Beechcraft King Air A 90 (nasm 1877). 

Bell Aerosystems Co.: Minuteman II post-boost propulsion system (nasm 
1949). 



168 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 



Pilot-constructor William Hack- 
barth turns over DH-4 mail 
plane "Old 247" to NASM 
director S. Paul Johnston at the 
fiftieth-anniversary ceremony of 
the United States airmail serv- 
ice. 




Clark Co., David: Astronauts' clothing patterns (nasm 1824 and nasm 1825). 

Culver, Mrs. Paul: Magnetic compass and map of D.C.-Norfolk, Virginia; 
used by Paul Culver in flying the mail, 1918 (nasm 1941). 

Delta Airlines: Huff -Daland aircraft (nasm 1839). 

De Weldon, Felix: Bust of John Glenn (nasm 1927). 

Ford Motor Co. Aeronutronic Division: Far side rocket (nasm 1811). 

General Electric Co.: Biosatellite mock-up (nasm 1950). Model of Nimbus 
II, meteorological satellite (nasm 1834). Engine, cutaway, GE turbosuper- 
charger, Type B-2 (nasm 1800). 

Guggenheim, Harry: Collection of 174 aeronautical cartoons and prints 
(nasm 1827). 

Hackbarth, William: Airplane, reproduction of DH-4 mailplane (nasm 
1942). 

Hercules, Inc.: Rocket motor assembly (X-259) (nasm 1844). Vanguard 
rocket motor (nasm 1951). Rocket engine mock-up of BE-3-B1 (nasm 
1850). 

Ken-AiRj Inc.: Convair 240, John F. Kennedy's campaign aircraft Caroline 
(nasm 1840). 

Machado, Mrs. Anesia Pinheiro: Memorabilia of Santos Dumont (nasm 
1836). 

Malina, Frank J. : Kinetic painting, "Polaris I" (nasm 1830) . 

Martin Co. : Space tools (nasm 1820). 

McDonnell Douglas Corp.: Spacecraft batteries (nasm 1849). Miscella- 
neous hardware, Gemini program (nasm 1943 and nasm 1944). Apollo heat- 
shield, service module beams, barometric pressure indicator (nasm 1945). 
Digital elapsed time clock, manual data readout unit, attitude director indi- 
cator (nasm 1946). Mirror assembly for installation in GT-10 (nasm 1864). 
Heat-shield remains and storage batteries from Gemini 8 (nasm 1955). Storage 
batteries from Gemini 9 (nasm 1956). Log books for spacecrafts 9 and 10 
(nasm 1948). 

Meyer, Robert B., Jr.: Aero engine. Continental A-40, series 4 (nasm 1873). 

MiKESH, Major Robert C: Vietnamese birds kite (nasm 1841). 

Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Paintings, "Tiros," "Mariner," 
and "Polaris" (nasm 1835). 



EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES THE COLLECTIONS 169 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration : Static test module 
(nasm 1812). Accutron clock and whip antenna for Gemini 9 (nasm 1819). 
Digital computer (nasm 1821). Gemini crew station mock-up (nasm 1954). 
Spacecraft Gemini 10 (nasm 1857). Model of Surveyor spacecraft (nasm 
1867). Ellington AFB, Texas: Spacecraft Mercury 17 and Mercury 19 (nasm 
1947). Langley Research Center, Virginia: Spacecraft Mercury 18 (nasm 
1851). Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas: Gemini hand con- 
troller (nasm 1832). Ventilation unit for space suit (nasm 1826). 
Mercury spacecraft 5 and chimpanzee couch, ballistic flight, "Ham" aboard 
(nasm 1854). Mercury spacecrafts 15b, 9, 10, 8 and 12b; Mercury spacecraft 
wiring mock-up, Mercury spacecraft "Big Joe"; instrument mock-up, static 
test article #2, drop test vehicle, adapter sections, storage tank, heatshield 
and retro package; Gemini parachute and couch parts (nasm 1845). Space 
suit and helmet of astronaut Collins (nasm 1865). Space suits and helmets of 
astronauts Cernan, Schirra, Staff'ord, Cooper, Lovell, Conrad, Armstrong, and 
Grissom (nasm 1866). Chimpanzee couches. Mercury retro rocket package, 
Gemini systems demonstrator, Mercury abort engine and nozzle, Mercury 
rendezvous and recovery section, decompression chamber, procedural trainer 
couch assemblies for astronauts Cooper, Shepard, Glenn, Slayton, and Car- 
penter (nasm 1859). Space helmet and suit of astronaut Young (nasm 1861). 
Gemini spacecraft 7, water gun, astronaut food, eva gear, helmet of John 
Glenn, hatch cover and periscope cover from Friendship 7 (nasm 1858). 
Astronaut Borman's space suit, parachute, helmet, boots, visor cover and gloves 
(nasm 1818). Spacecraft hatches (nasm 1823). Personnel parachutes, non- 
flight (nasm 1855). Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama: Internal com- 
bustion engine, Jupiter missile (nasm 1808). Rocket engines RL-10 and H-1 
(nasm 1810). St. Louis Missouri: Orbit attitude and maneuvering system 
(nasm 1846). Gemini spacecraft 11 with tilting cradle (nasm 1848). Gemini 
spacecraft 6 and 12 (nasm 1853). Computer Gemini 8 (nasm 1852). Inertial 
maneuvering unit (nasm 1856). Indeterminate hardware, nonflight items 
(nasm 1862). 

Navy, United States : Bat missile, Rigel missile, two Gorgon missiles and jato 
bottle (nasm 1831). Mechanicsburg Defense Depot, Pennsylvania: Petrel 
missiles (nasm 1822). Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, Pennsyl- 
vania: Human centrifuge, used in training astronauts (nasm 1869). Naval 
Air Station, Point Mugu, California: Terrier missile with rails (nasm 1953). 
Navy Yard, Washington, D.C. : Vanguard launch vehicle (nasm 1806). 
USNCBC, Port Hueneme, Calif.: Corporal missile (nasm 1809). 

North American Rockwell Corp.: Apollo heatshield, service module beams, 
barometric pressure indicator (nasm 1945). 

Page, Mrs. Stanley H. : Control wheel with column, lever and collection of 
spark plugs; from the Page Flying Boat, 1918-1923 (nasm 1870). 

Pendray, G. Edw^ard: Propellant valve, section of Shasta four-nozzle rocket; 
World War I helmets (nasm 1828). 

Purdue University: Walter rocket engine (nasm 1801). 

Rodenberry, Gene: Pilot film of television program "Star Trek" (nasm 1838). 

Rolls-Royce, Ltd.: Rolls-Royce RB-108 direct lift turbojet engine (nasm 
1878). 

Royal Artillery Institute: Hale and Congreve rockets (nasm 1816). 

Sicard, Pierre: Painting "Depart du Missile" (nasm 1829). 



315-997 O - 69 - 12 



170 



NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 



Smithsonian Institution: United States National Museum: Bronze head of 

Charles A. Lindbergh (nasm 1872). 
Sperrv Watch Co.: Full-scale model of Sergeant missile (nasm 1802). 
Stevenson, Gordon: Letter and envelope from Hiram Maxim to Edward 

Hewitt dated 28 June 1892 (nasm 1842). 
Thiokol Chemical Corp.: Ars test stand (nasm 1817). 
United Aircraft Corporate Systems Center: Reentry vehicle (nasm 1807). 
Waters, Colonel Don: Machine gun, Lewis .303 caliber, 1914 (nasm 1879). 
Welsh, E. C: Oil portrait of Edward Christy Welsh by Hoessein (nasm 1863). 

The Museum's Historial Research Center was greatly enriched during 
the year with valuable research materials. The cooperation of the follow- 
ing persons and organizations in providing this material is gratefully 
acknowledged : 



Aerospace Industries Association 

Aero Publishers 

Baldwin, Leonard 

Beilstein, Christian W. 

Bent,- John T. 

Bentley, J. Roger 

Bermuda News Bureau 

Bleecker, M. B. 

Blue, Allen 

Boeing Company, The 

Bueschel, Howard A. 

Caproni, Giovanni 

Culver, Mrs. Paul H. 

Czechoslovakia, Embassy of 

Dean, C. Thomas 

Delta Air Lines, Inc. 

Diehl, William 

Edelson, Burton I. 

Gathmann, Mrs. Elam 

General Precision, Inc. 

Generales, C. D. J., Jr. 

Greer, R. D., Jr. 

Hall, Mrs. Wesley C. 

Hartung, Walter M. 

Hay, N. W. 

Hickey, John E. 

Hiller, Stanley, Sr. 

Hirsch, R. S. 

Hunsaker, J. C. 

Johnson, Jesse G. 

Lech, Andrew F. 

Lindbergh, Mrs. Charles A. 

Ludholm, Joseph G., Jr. 

Miller, W. Tom 

Miller, Warren C. 



Mirkil, Mrs. Beatrice 

Molson, Kenneth M. 

National Aeronautics and Space Ad- 
ministration, AP/2 and FAD-2 

Newhouse, Raymond R. 

Ninety Nines, Inc., The 

Oleson, C. P. 

Parrish, Robert L. 

Pettit, H. H. 

Protzman, Lee 

REA Express 

Robischon, Ernest W. 

Rockefeller, W. C. 

Rockwell, W. F. 

Rust, Robert E. 

Scott, Shelia 

Smith, Richard K. 

Spader, Daniel L. 

Spare, Leland P. 

Towie, Tom 

Townshend, Jesse F., Jr. 

Trauger, Robert 

United Aircraft Corp., Pratt and Whit- 
ney Division 

United States Navy, Aviation Safety 
Center, Norfolk, Virginia 

United States Navy, Naval Air Facility, 
Norfolk, Virginia 

Vilar, Mrs. Yvonne 

Wieczarek, Leonard H. 

Wiesley, Keith 

Wilford, Burke 

Wilkinson, Paul H. 

Zapelloni, Fererico 



National Armed Forces Museum 
Advisory Board 

Colonel John H. Magruder m, usmc, Director 




/Congressional action is pending on legislation which would au- 
^^thorize the Smithsonian Institution to acquire necessary land 
for the site of the proposed National Armed Forces Museum Park in the 
Fort Foote area of Prince George's County, Maryland. Pursuant to a 
recommendation by the Board of Regents on 25 January 1967, identical 
bills for this purpose— Senate Bill S. 2510 and House Bill H.R. 14853— 
were introduced, respectively, by Smithsonian Regents Senator Clinton 
Anderson (for himself and Senator J. William Fulbright) on 6 October 
1967 and Representative Michael J. Kirwan on 25 January 1968. 

Under the broad concept expressed in Public Law 87-186, the 
National Armed Forces Museum Park is to consist, in part, of a study 
center for scholarly research into the meaning of war and its effect on 
civilization. Addressing this subject, the Advisory Board during the year 
sought the advice of academicians and museologists in an efTort to define 
objectives and programs of the study center and to determine its rela- 
tionship with the museum proper. On 4-6 December 1967 the Board 
sponsored a conference of distinguished historians to consider and make 
specific recommendations regarding these matters. The group, which met 
at the Belmont Conference Center under the chairmanship of Smith- 
sonian Regent John Nicholas Brown, permanent chairman of the 
Advisory Board, consisted of Philip A. Crowl, chairman. Department of 
History, University of Nebraska; Colonel Trevor N. Dupuy, USA 
(Ret.), president and executive director, Historical Evaluation and 
Research Organization; Archibald Hanna, Jr., curator, Yale Collection 

171 





General Leonard F. Chapman, Jr., Commandant of the United States Marine 
Corps, and Colonel John H. Magruder III, USMC, director of the Smithsonian's 
National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board, view John Groth's painting 
"Stampeded" at the February opening of the art exhibition, "The Armed Forces 
of the United States as seen by the Contemporary Artist." 



of Western Americana, Yale University; Richard M. Leighton, professor 
of national security affairs, Industrial College of the Armed Forces; 
Louis Morton, professor of history, Dartmouth College; Harold L. 
Peterson, chief curator, National Park Service, Department of the 
Interior; and Theodore Ropp, professor of history, Duke University. 
The recommendations of the Belmont group, approved by the 
Advisory Board and the Board of Regents on 25 January 1968, called 
for — 

Early appointment of a senior scholar to serve as chairman of study 
center activities, responsible for establishing the nucleus of a staff 
and organizing initial programs, and to assist in planning the role 
the museum and study center would play in commemorating the 
Bicentennial of the American Revolution, and 
Establishment of a committee of eminent scholars in the field of 
military history to provide a closer link between the Smithsonian 
Institution and the academic world. Such a group would comple- 
ment the functions of the Advisory Board by enlisting the active 
participation of the intellectual community. 
From 2 February through 9 March 1968, in the rotunda and south 
hall of the Arts and Industries building, the Advisory Board — in cooper- 
ation with the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast 
Guard — presented an exhibition of art entitled "The Armed Forces of 




,j55ji*£i 



General surface view of dredging operations at the site of the sunken Civil War 
monitor USS Tecumseh, in Mobile Bay, Alabama, on 13 July 1967. A suction 
dredge removes mud and sand from around TecumseKs bow. Small diving barge 
in center foreground is moored to the monitor's stern. The dark pentagonal 
structure close to the beach is Fort Morgan, the batteries of which constituted 
a major obstacle to Rear Admiral David G. Farragut's entry into the bay on 
5 August 1864. 



the United States as Seen by the Contemporary Artist." The exhibition 
drew primarily upon the collections of the Armed Forces but also 
included selections from holdings of several Smithsonian bureaus and 
outside establishments such as the Library of Congress and the Libraries 
of Princeton and Yale universities. Comprised of 196 art works in 
almost all media, representing the work of 85 artists, and pro- 
viding a kaleidoscopic view of Armed Forces activities present and past, 
the exhibition attracted much favorable comment, including a four- 
page pictorial presentation in U.S. News and World Report of 18 March 
1968. 

During July 1967 a team composed of staff members of the Advisory 
Board and of the Oflfice of the Supervisor of Salvage, Department of the 
Navy, conducted an engineering examination of the Civil War monitor 
U.S.S. Tecumseh, lying capsized and almost wholly buried under mud 
and sand on the bottom of Mobile Bay, Alabama, where she was lost in 
battle in 1864. With the aid of a suction dredge, a considerable portion 
of Tecumseh'?, hull was uncovered, enabling divers to remove samples 
of the iron plating. Subsequent laboratory analysis by the Navy estab- 
lished that the historic ship retains enough of her structural strength 
to permit her salvaging intact and, after restoration, her e\entual display 



174 ARMED FORCES MUSEUM ADVISORY BOARD 

in the proposed Armed Forces Museum Park. Artifacts recovered in 
the course of the examination include one of Tecumseh's one-ton 
anchors and — brought out of a partially open wardroom hatch — several 
pieces of dinnerware, a bronze floor ventilator, and part of a pewter 
cruet holder. 

Battle damage uncovered during the examination disposed of a 
century-old controversy regarding the circumstances of Tecumseh's loss, 
namely, whether she was sunk by the explosion of an underwater "tor- 
pedo" (mine) or by gunfire from shore batteries as claimed by some 
Confederate eyewitnesses. Divers, inspecting the bottom of the hull 
directly beneath the turret, found an area of depressed plates about 
five feet wide by seven feet long. Here the explosion of a "torpedo" 
ruptured several seams and forced one plate inward, leaving an opening 
approximately two feet wide by three feet long — ample to send Tecumseh 
with almost all her crew beneath the waves in something like a minute. 

Through the year, -the Advisory Board staff acquired from various 
agencies of the Armed Forces, from the General Services Administration, 
and others, a wide variety of military and naval objects desired for 
the collections of the proposed National Armed Forces Museum Park. 
Two major components — the float and the Krupp-made gondola — of 
the bathyscaphe Trieste I, acquired from the Department of the Navy, 
arrived in the Washington, D.C., area (the gondola via Expo-67) from 
the Naval Electronics Laboratory, Point Loma, San Diego, California. 
As the year ended, plans were being made for temporary outdoor exhi- 
bition of the bathyscaphe in the vicinity of the Mall, preliminary to her 
eventual display in the Armed Forces Museum Park. In cooperation 
with the Smithsonian library, the Advisory Board staff continued to 
acquire from Armed Forces historical agencies and elsewhere military 
and naval historical publications for use in current studies and to serve 
as a nucleus of the study-center library of the Museum Park. 



Freer Gallery of Art 

John A. Pope^ Director 




A s IN PAST YEARS, the Freer Gallery of Art, continues to function as 
"^^ a research center for the civilizations of Asia and to add objects of 
significant quality, whenever they become available, to its collection of 
Oriental art. The staff members are engaged in research projects which 
relate to the cultural origins of the objects in the collection. To further 
this, they travel at home and abroad to see collections and study related 
material and exchange views with colleagues working on similar proj- 
ects. Established scholarship programs exist, and students of Oriental 
art are encouraged and assisted in working with objects in the 
collection. 

Gifts and Grants 

The Freer Gallery of Art received a grant from the Ford Foundation 
to assist in the publication of volume 1 of The Freer Chinese Bronzes. 
The Felix and Helen Juda Foundation contributed travel funds to be 
used in the technical research area. The Ellen Bayard Weedon Foun- 
dation provided a grant for library purchases. Kevorkian Foundation 




Jade, Chinese, Chou dynasty (late Eastern) . 5th-3rd century B.C. (68.38) . 

175 



176 



FREER GALLERY OF ART 




Hu, with cover, Chinese bronze, 
Han dynasty, 2nd-lst century 
B.C. (67.27). 



funds given in March 1967 were used again toward the purchase of Near 
Eastern art volumes. 

The Collection 

Among the many objects of exceptional quality added to the collection 
were, in Chinese art, a fine jade incised blade dating from the Late East- 
em Chou dynasty (68.38), presented by Mrs. Eugene Meyer in ac- 
cordance with the will of Charles Lang Freer, and a bronze hu of the 
Han dynasty (67.27). In Japanese art were added an unusual pair of 
paintings of mynah birds by the Nanga school artist Yosa Buson (1716- 
1783) (67.18-67.19) and a large, shallow dish, an exceptional example 
of Kutani ware, dating from the Edo period, 17th century (68.13) ; and 
in Near Eastern art, a rare pair of Persian bowls from Kashan, early 
13th century, with representations of a king and queen (67.24-67.25) . 
Under the terms of paragraph 4 of the first codicil to the last will and 
testament of the late Charles Lang Freer, the following 40 objects were 
presented by Mrs. Eugene Meyer: 



BRONZE 
Chinese, Chou dynasty. Kuei, on high foot ring, two handles with rams' heads; 

greenish patina. (68.28) 
Chinese, Chou dynasty. Kuei, on high foot ring, four handles with deer head 

masks; greenish patina with malachite crust. (68.29) 




Mynah birds and plum tree. Japanese painting, Edo 
period, 18th century, Nanga School, by Yosa Buson 
( 1716-1783) . (67.18) . One of a pair: 67.19. 



178 



FREER GALLERY OF /lRT 




Dish, Japanese pottery, Edo period, 17th century, Kutani 
(68.13). 




Bowl, Persian pottery, Kashan, early 13th century A.D. 
(67.24) . One of a pair: 67.25. 



THE COLLECTIONS 179 

Chinese, Chou dynasty. Hu, with Hd, on high foot ring; round body, tapering 

tall broad neck; decorated with abstract motifs (Changsha). (68.32) 
Chinese, Chou dynasty. Bowl, on high foot ring, two mask handles holding 

loose rings. (68.33) 
Chinese, Chou dynasty. Vessel, on three high legs, in form of a bear. (68.34) 
Chinese, Chou dynasty. Hu, square, with lid, two mask handles. (68.35) 
Chinese, Han dynasty. Expanding open-work foot of a po-shan-lu with dragons; 
gilded. (68.49) 

JADE 

Chinese, Shang dynasty. Tsung, plain, brownish black nephrite square with 
open cylindrical center. (68.24) 

Chinese, Shang dynasty. Battle-axe pi disc, buff colored jade with darker 
mottling. (68.48) 

Chinese, Chou dynasty. Tsung, brownish gray nephrite square with open cylin- 
drical center. (68.30) 

Chinese, Chou dynasty. Tsung, brownish buff patina, square body with open 
cylindrical center; corners notched. (68.36) 

Chinese, Ch'ing dynasty. Form of stylized tiger, both sides identically engraved, 
reddish brown jade with translucent greenish spots. (68.37) 

PAINTING 

Chinese, T'ang style, attributed to Ho Chen. Winter landscape; two groups of 

figures, "Calling on a Friend with a Harp." Painted in polychrome on 

silk. (68.17) 
Chinese, T'ang dynasty, by Wang Wei. Landscap>e after a snowfall. Mountainous 

background with large valley, hamlet, and flights of geese. On silk. 

(68.27) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, by Li Kung-lin. Scene depicting a tipsy monk with as- 
sistants. Ink and light colors on paper. (68.18) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, attributed to Li Kung-lin. Manifestation of the Arhats 

depicting seven mudras of Buddha and various Lohans and guardians. 

Painting on paper. (68.19) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, attributed to Li Kung-lin. Hunting scene. Ink on 

paper. (68.20) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, by Li Kung-lin. "Laotze Delivering His Canons." Ink 

on paper. (68.21) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, by Su Shih (Su Tung-p'o). Depicts bamboo. Ink on 

silk. (68.25) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, attributed to Li Kung-lin. "The Eighteen Lohans: 

Cho-Se Shih-Pa Lo-Han T'u." Ink and colors on paper. (68.26) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, by Ma Yiian. Mountainous landscape, rocks and trees. 

Painting on silk. (68.43) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, by Chii-jan. "T'ao YiJan-ming Returning to Secluded 

Life." Painting on silk. (68.47) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, attributed to Mi Fei. "Mist and Rain on the Ch'u 

River." Ink on silk. (68.52) 
Chinese, Yiian dynasty. "Nymph of the Lo River." (Copy of early version, cf. 

Sung dynasty 14.53.) Ink on paper. (68.12) 
Chinese, Ming dynasty. "Ladies in Concert." Ink and color on paper. (68.23) 



180 FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Chinese, attributed to Chia Kue. Mountainous landscape on misty morning. 

Ink on silk. (68.44) 
Chinese, attributed to Lu T'an-Wei. "The Return of Duke Wen of Chin to 

His Own State." Ink on paper. (68.22) 
Chinese, copy of "Prince Tung Tan's Return to Tartary." Unsigned. Colophon 

by Ju Yen dated 1424. Painting on silk. (68.46) 
Japanese, Edo period, 17th century. Embossed flower chariot under willow 

trees of gold leaf. Six-fold screen; one of a pair: 68.40. (68.39) 
Japanese, Edo period, 17th century. Embossed flower chariot under willow 

trees on gold leaf. Six-fold screen; one of a pair: 68.39. (68.40) 

POTTERY 

Chinese, Wei dynasty. Terra-cotta flat brick, tomb lining; two men and un- 
mounted horse; high relief. (68.55) 

Chinese, T'ang dynasty. Standing warrior, head turned to right; one of a 
pair: 68.42. (68.41) 

Chinese, T'ang dynasty. Standing warrior, head turned to left; one of a pair: 
68.41. (68.42) 

Chinese, Sung dynasty, Tz'u-chou ware. Jar; floral sprays, black gackground. 
(68.16) 

Chinese, Sung dynasty, Tz'u-chou ware. Vase with ovoid body, short neck, 
everted lip rim. (68.31) 

Chinese, Yiian dynasty, Tz'u-chou ware. Vase on expanding foot ring; high 
bulbous shoulder, short, wide neck; figures and floral decoration. (68.50) 

STONE SCULPTURE 

Chinese, Wei dynasty. Seated Buddha and two standing bodhisattvas ; dragons, 

tigers, and men on side; high relief. (68.53) 
Chinese, Wei dynasty. Standing Buddha and two bodhisattvas; floral motif; high 

relief. (68.54) 
Chinese, Northern Ch'i dynasty. Standing bodhisattva, high crown, head raised, 

long-lobed ears, holding lotus bud; dark gray granite. (68.45) 

TEXTILE 

Chinese, Ch'ing dynasty. Jehol cut velvet hanging tapestry; swastikas, flowers 
and dragons, large peonies and foliage on blue ground; K'ang-hsi. (68.51) 

Purchased for the collection were: 

LACQUER 

Chinese, Sung dynasty, 960-1280. Dish with round base and cavetto, flattened 

rim with small vertical lip of chrysanthemum shape, flat countersunk base ; 

brownish red. (67.13) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, 960-1280. Dish with five-lobed base, cavetto, rim and 

foot; thin brass binding on lip; brownish black. (67.14) 
Chinese, Sung dynasty, 960-1280. Shallow dish with six-Iobed rim bound in 

metal, low foot; brownish red,' dark brcwn inside foot and on base. 

(68.14) 



THE COLLECTIONS 181 



METALWORK 

Japanese, Kamakura, ca. 1300. Iron kettle with lid; Ashiya type; design of 
pine trees, shells, and beach. (67.20) 

PAINTING 

Japanese, Edo period, Ukiyoe school, by Hokusai, 1760-1849. Nobleman and 

party. "Hyakunin Isshu Ubaga Etoki" series poem by Ki-no-Tsurayuki. Ink 

on paper. (68.56) 
Japanese, Edo period, Ukiyoe school, by Hokusai, 1760-1849. Workmen 

hauling tree through a gate. "Hyakunin Isshu Ubaga Etoki" series poem by 

Ise Taiyu. Ink on paper. (68.57) 
Japanese, Fujiwara period, 900-1185. Buddhist sutra, the Kan Fugen Kyo. 

Gold and silver on paper. (68.60) 

POTTERY 

Chinese, Southern Sung dynasty, 1127-1280, Tz'u-chou ware. Deep cup- 
shaped bowl, low foot ring; gray stoneware, transparent glaze over white 
slip; vertical fluting two thirds of the way down. (67.28) 

Chinese, Annamese type, 13th century. Bowl vrith compressed, thin, slightly 
flaring rim; flat, slightly concave base; fine grain, buff stoneware; thin 
yellowish green celadon glaze ; crackle. ( 68.59 ) 

Japanese, Momoyama period, 16th century, Shino ware. Water pot with 
arching handle, spout and cover; coarse gray stoneware fired reddish in 
spots; grayish semi-opaque glaze; crackle; trellis, ivy motif, ferns on cover. 
(67.16) 

Japanese, Momoyama period, 16th century, Mino-Karatsu ware. Water jar; 
uneven cylindrical shape with turned-in lip, two horizontal loop handles; 
coarse dark brownish gray stoneware; unevenly mottled gray and tan glaze; 
willow and cherry trees in brown slip. (67.17) 

Japanese, Momoyama period, 16th century, Oribe ware. Tray, square with 
vertical sides, arching diagonal handle, four loop feet; coarse buff stone- 
ware ; transparent white and green glaze ; curtain design underglaze in 
brown and white slip. (67.21) 

Japanese, Momoyama period, 16th century, Hagi ware. Shallow bowl with 
arching handle and high foot with two notches; coarse, buff stoneware 
fired reddish; opaque grayish white glaze; uneven crackle. (68.15) 

Japanese, Edo period, 17th century, Kutani ware Large, deep dish with wide, 
flaring rim; white porcelain; milky white glaze; overglaze enamels of "tor- 
toise shell" pattern on rim, each scale framing an object, bird in landscape 
in octagonal frame in center, floral scrolls outside. (67.15) 

Japanese, Edo period, 17th century, Banko ware. Dish with arching handle and 
everted foliate lip ; buff stoneware fired reddish on foot rim ; light tan glaze ; 
crackled ; overglaze enamels of bird on a hydrangea branch, red "dewdrop" 
pattern on rim, red lines and clouds on handle. (67.22) 

Japanese, Edo period, 17th century, Kutani ware. Large, shallow dish with 
plain rim, flat brown lip; coarse whitish porcelain fired brownish; mustard 
yellow, green, aubergine, lavender glaze; chrysanthemums and bird on yel- 
low ground, lavender foreground and brown scrolls inside. (67.23) 



182 FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Japanese, Edo period, 18th century, Nabeshima ware. Dish on high foot, flat- 
tened rim; fine white porcelain; transparent glaze; underglaze blue and 
overglaze enamel colors; outside three "six-coin" groups, comb pattern on 
foot; rocks and peonies inside center. (68.58) 

Persian, probably Gurgan, 13th century. Elephant with howdah and two fig- 
ures; fine, buff-colored earthenware; clear turquoise glaze with silvery 
iridescent decay; painted in cobalt blue underglaze. (67.26) 

The Gallery was able to acquire by purchase, and through the kind 
offer of Professor Alban G. Widgery of Winchester, Virginia, the fol- 
lowing paintings from his collection : 

Burmese, 18th century. Royal personage with four attendants. Painted in col- 
ors and gold on paper. Inscriptions in black nasta'llq script. (68.5) 

Indian, set of 20 paintings mounted in glass. Signs of the zodiac and planets. 
Painted in colors on paper. Inscriptions in black. (68.1 ) 

Indian, Deccani, late 18th century. Seated ruler with four attendants. Painted 
in colors and gold on paper. Inscription. (68.7) 

Indian, Deccani, early 18th century. Lady with attendants on terrace. Painted 
in colors and gold on paper. Worn inscription in black. (68.9) 

Indian, Mughal, 18th century. Ascension of the Prophet (on horseback) sur- 
rounded by angels. Painted in colors and gold on paper. Text and inscrip- 
tions in red and gold nasta'llq script. One of a pair: 68.3. (68.2) 

Indian, Mughal, 18th century. The Higher Regions of Paradise and Heaven. 
Painted in colors and gold on paper. Text and inscriptions in red and gold 
nasta'llq script. One of a pair: 68.2. (68.3) 

Indian, Mughal, 18th century. The Iranians under Rustan defeating the 
Turanians under Afrasiyab. Painted in colors and gold on paper. Text 
and inscriptions in black and gold nasta'llq script. (68.4) 

Indian, Mughal, 18th century. The Virgin Mary and the Miracle of Changing 
Water into Wine. Painted in colors and gold on paper; European style. 
(68.10) 

Indian, Mughal, 18th century. Amatory scene with three figures. Painted in 
color and gold on paper. Painting unfinished. (For reverse, see 68.11a.) 
(68.11b) 

Indian, Rajput, early 18th century. Krishna with gopis. Painted in color 
and gold on paper. (68.6) 

Persian, 17th century, style of 16th century. Shah Tahmasp I seated on rock, 
holding bottle and cup; a goat dancer in the background. Painted in 
gold and black on paper. (For reverse, see 68.11b.) (68.11a) 

Turkish, 17th century. Abraham in the fire watched by Nimrud. Painted in 
colors and gold on paper. Calligraphy in gold, blue, and black. (68.8) 

Care of the Collections 

The technical laboratory examined, cleaned, and repaired, as necessary, 
137 Freer objects. In addition, 20 objects under consideration for pur- 
chase were examined and 33 objects were examined or repaired for 
other museums and individuals. 



CARE OF THE COLLECTIONS CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES 183 




Takashi Sugiura, the Gallery's mounter of oriental pictures, and an assistant, 
Mrs. Kumi Kinoshita, select a mounting cloth for a Japanese painting. 



Ten Chinese and Japanese paintings and screens were restored, re- 
paired, or remounted by Takashi Sugiura and his assistant Makoto 
Souta. Illustrator F. A. Haentschke remounted 22 Burmese, Persian, 
Indian, and Turkish paintings. 

Museum specialist Martin Amt made 250 exhibition changes: 42 
were American, 72 Chinese, 35 Christian, 85 Japanese, and 16 Near 
Eastern. All the necessary equipment for these changes was provided 
by the cabinet shop under the direction of building superintendent 
Russell C. Mielke, who has also maintained the building in its usual 
immaculate and sound condition. 



Curatorial Activities 

Director John A. Pope, in collaboration with Robert B. Fox, chief 
archeologist of the Philippine National Museum, organized the Manila 
Trade Pottery Seminar which took place in Manila 18-25 March 1968. 
Some thirty of the leading authorities on Chinese ceramics from Amer- 
ica, Europe, China, and Japan were invited to participate and funds 



184 FREER GALLERY OF ART 

were raised to transport them to Manila. The combined knowledge 
and experience of these scholars was brought to bear on the problem of 
identifying and classifying some 40,000 fragments and whole pieces of 
Chinese pottery that have been excavated in the Philippines over the 
last half century. Members of the seminar visited the Museum and the 
private collections in Manila and some of the archeological sites where 
this material had been found. Plans are underway to publish the 
proceedings. 

Officials of the National Palace Museum in Taiwan invited members 
of the seminar to Taipei, where they took part in another seminar 
dealing with some of the problems relating to the Imperial wares in 
that collection. The opportunity to study such a wide variety of export 
wares and the finest existing collection of Imperial wares within a short 
period of time was a rare one, and all agreed that the two seminars 
together were a most worthwhile undertaking. 

On the way to Manila, Pope visited the East African countries of 
Kenya and Tanzania. In medieval times their seacoasts were largely 
inhabited by Arabs who built large cities and mosques and imported 
great quantities of Chinese porcelains for decorative purposes and, also, 
apparently for daily use. Thousands of fragments of this porcelain and 
a few whole pieces have come to light in the past twenty years or so as 
British archeologists have excavated and reconstructed these early Arab 
cities. Most of the material is divided among the British Institute for 
History and Archaeology in East Africa at Nairobi, the Museum at 
Dar es Salaam, and Fort Jesus at Mombasa. The material studied in 
these places will form the basis of an important chapter in the history 
of the early trade in Chinese porcelain and also throw new light on the 
function of the Indian Ocean as an early trading area. 

On the way home, Pope spent a month in Japan, continuing his 
study of the early history of Japanese porcelain and again visiting mu- 
seums and private collections, as well as many of the early kiln sites in 
Saga Prefecture on the island of Kyushu. 

Poj>e was appointed by the Trustees for Harvard University a mem- 
ber of the Board of Advisors of Dumbarton Oaks Research Library 
and Collection. 

Assistant Director Harold P. Stern continued his work as a member 
of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organiza- 
tion Expert Committee for the Preparation of an Exhibition and Album 
on Mutual Influences of Japanese and Western Art following his par- 
ticipation at the meeting in Paris in June 1967. The exhibition and 
publication will be a major attempt to show the cross-cultural art ex- 



CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES 185 

change between East and West and the project should reach fruition in 
1968, the Meiji Centennial year. 

From September until January Stern studied Japanese paintings and 
drawings in European and British collections and initiated a survey of 
early Japanese lacquer as utilized in European furniture. Special em- 
phasis was given to the work of the Ukiyoe and Yamatoe schools and 
the artists Katsushika Hokusai and Kawanabe Gyosai. (The Freer Gal- 
lery has the world's most extensive holdings of Hokusai.) In addition 
he attended the International Institute for Conservation of Historic 
and Artistic Works London Conference and assisted Takashi Sugiura, 
of the Freer staff, in presenting a session devoted to Far Eastern paper- 
conservation techniques. 

Plans continued to move forward for the Master Prints of Japan 
Exhibition to be held at the University of California at Los Angeles in 
April 1969, sponsored by the Art Council. Stem was asked to organize 
the exhibition, select the prints, and write the book which will ac- 
company it. The show will be the largest and most comprehensive early 
Japanese woodblock print exhibition ever held on the West Coast. He 
also was called upon in April by the Department of State to organize, 
for the delegates to the United States-Japan Conference on Cultural 
and Educational Interchange, an exhibition of Meiji period art to be 
displayed at the Smithsonian Institution Museum of History and 
Technology. 

Progress was made on his study of the Gallery paintings of the Ukiyoe 
school, with their publication the object. In addition Stem was selected 
a trustee of the Japan-America Society of Washington and was asked 
to serve on the executive committee. 

Head curator Rutherford J. Gettens of the technical laboratory 
devoted his major effort to the continued preparation of volume 2 of 
The Freer Chinese Bronzes, now in galley proof. 

In July 1967, at the invitation of Rene Sneyers, deputy director of the 
Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique, he s{3ent the summer in Brus- 
sels as "visiting specialist" observing practices in technical study and 
conservation in Belgium, and in writing and editing three articles on 
the identification of pigments, to be published in Studies in Conserva- 
tion. He also gathered further material in Europe for the pigment 
identification series and participated in the one-week conference of 
International Council of Museums Committee on Conservation in 
Brussels. At the International Institute for Conservation of Historic 
and Artistic Works Conference on Museum Climatology, in London, he 
was honored as the Forbes Prize lecturer. 

315-997 O - 69 - 13 



186 FREER GALLERY OF ART 

In addition to being appointed coordinator of the working group on 
"reference materials" for the icom Committee on Conservation, Gettens 
was elected in March 1968 to a three-year term as president of the iic. 

Assistant conservator W. Thomas Chase of the technical laboratory 
continued to assist Rutherford J. Gettens in the preparation of the 
manuscript for the forthcoming publication on technical studies of 
Chinese bronze vessels and his manuscript on two Chinese bronze weap- 
ons with meteoritic iron blades. He also carried forward his investiga- 
tion of Chinese bronze belt-hooks for a projected future publication. 

Chase assisted Professor Oleg Grabar of the University of Michigan 
in organizing the Sassanian Silver Conference held at the Freer 28-29 
February 1968. 

Assistant curator of Chinese art Thomas Lawton was concerned with 
a complete reexamination of all objects in the Chinese collection. Colo- 
phons, seals, and inscriptions on paintings were studied and new infor- 
mation added to the Gallery's research materials. His organization of 
information and selection of representative objects from the collections 
for a Gallery handbook are now well under way. 

Staff Changes 

The Gallery regretfully announced, on 30 April 1968, the retirement 
of Rutherford J. Gettens as head of the technical laboratory after seven- 
teen years at the Gallery. He will continue to serve as a consultant. 

In August 1967 Donald Kelman and Yoshiaki Shimizu completed 
their summer intern studies at the Gallery. 

William Trousdale resigned as associate curator of Chinese art in 
September 1967 to accept a position in the Office of Anthropology, 
Museum of Natural History. Thomas Lawton reported for duty as as- 
sistant curator of Chinese art. 

In May 1968 Morris Rossabi reported for a one-year predoctoral 
research internship. 

Library 

Library acquisitions this year included 337 volumes, 2,338 photographs, 
and 2,928 slides. 

A total of 296 scholars, students, and visitors used the library for 
research, and 10 graduate library students interviewed the librarian 
for infonnation on the administration and organization of the library. 

Through the generosity of the Weedon Foundation, the library was 
able to acquire additional material, among which were : 

Toyozo Arakawa. Shino. Osaka, 1967. 

Idemitsu Bijutsu Sensho. Tokyo: Idemitsu Bijutsukan, 1966-1968. 

Wang Shih-chieh (compiler) . Garland of Chinese Painting. Hong Kong, 1967. 



LIBRARY PUBLIC SERVICES 187 

Books purchased from the Kevorkian Foundation grant included : 

Louis Frederic. Art of India: Temples and Sculptures. New York, 1959. 
Kanwar Lai. Immortal Khajuraho. Delhi, 1965. 

Public Services 

The Gallery was open to the public daily, except Christmas, from 9 : 00 
a.m. to 4:30 p.m. A total of 169,533 individuals visited the exhibits 
(the August attendance of 28,652 was the highest of any month) of 
which 2,417 visited the office for general information, to submit objects 
for examination and inscriptions for translation, to consult with staff 
members, to take photographs or sketch in the galleries, to study in the 
library, and to examine objects in storage. Members of the staff examined 
7,685 objects and 652 photographs, and translated 788 Oriental lan- 
guage inscriptions for individuals and institutions. Objects in storage 
were shown to 506 persons. By request, 45 groups, totaling 92 1 persons, 
were given docent tours through the exhibition galleries, and 8 groups 
of 105 individuals were given docent ser\-ice in the storage areas. Among 
the visitors were 255 distinguished scholars in Far and Near Eastern 
art or persons holding official positions who came here to study museum 
administration and practices; of this number, 138 were from other 
countries. 

On 26 October 1967, a ceremony celebrating the coronation of His 
Imperial Majesty Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shahanshah of Iran, and 
Her Imperial Majesty The Empress Farah Diba was held in the audi- 
torium. Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey and Ambassador of Iran 
and Mrs. Ansary attended, along with many other distinguished guests. 
Following this, a special exhibition of Iranian art was opened in the 
galleries. 

The auditorium was used by 12 outside organizations for 22 meetings 
with a total of 3,447 individuals attending. 

The fifteenth annual series of illustrated lectures, held in the audi- 
torium, included: 

"Ceramic Wares of Siam." Dr. Charles N. Spinks, American University 
(October 1967). 

"The Artistic Program of Ajanta." Professor Walter M. Spink, The University 
of Michigan (November 1967). 

"A Newly Discovered Medieval City in the Syrian Desert." Professor Oleg 
Grabar, University of Michigan (January 1968) . 

"Musicial Instruments in Japanese Art." Professor David B. Waterhouse, Uni- 
versity of Toronto (February 1968). 

"Indian and Iranian Elements in Early Japanese Art." Professor Benjamin 
Rowland, Harvard University (March 1968). 

The photographic laboratory, under the supervision of Raymond 
Schwartz, processed a total of 17,061 items during the year of both 



188 FREER GALLERY OF ART 

Freer Gallery objects and those submitted from other sources; these in- 
cluded negatives, photographs, color slides, color-sheet films, polaroid 
prints, and album and registration prints. 

The sales desk sold 113,154 items consisting of 5,353 publications and 
107,801 reproductions (including postcards, slides, photographs, and 
reproductions in the round) . 



Publications 

GettenSj Rutherford J. "Joining Methods in the Fabrication of Ancient 
Chinese Bronze Ceremonial Vessels." Pages 205-217 in Proceedings of 
the Seminar on Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art. 
Boston, September 1965. 

Gettens, Rutherford J., Hermann Kuhn, and W. T. Chase. "Lead 
White." Studies in Conservation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 125-139, 1968. 

Lawton, ThomaSj and Chu-tsing Li. "The New Chinese Landscape." Art 
]ournal,vo\. 27, no. 2 (Winter 1967-1968), pp. 142-150. 

Pope, John A., Rutherford J. Gettens, James Cahill, and Noel Barnard. 
The Freer Chinese Bronzes. Vol. 1, catalogue. Washington: Freer Gal- 
lery of Art (Smithsonian Institution Publication 4706), 1967. 

Stern, Harold P. Moonlight Revelry. Text for a Springbok Puzzle. 
Thompsonville, 1968. 

. "Traditional Japanese Art." Asahi Evening News, Tokyo., March 

1968. 



National Collection of Fine Arts 

David W. Scott, Director 




'"T'HE NEW GALLERY OF THE National Collection of Fine Arts was 
-'■ opened in the belief that what it has to offer is profoundly needed 
at this time. It is both a resource and a force. As a resource it plays a 
vital role, never more important than during an age of rapid change 
and reassessment. When we are struck, as we are so vividly today, by 
the realization that change is of the essence, we tend to forget the 
opposite and equal truth that continuity, as well, is of the essence. One 
of the most profound maladies of our time is our emphasis on change 
itself, to the exclusion of continuity, as a life principle. This overvalua- 
tion strikes at the foundations of orderly growth and evolution. The 
arts record the spiritual voyage of our nation and tell us whence we 
have come and what values and beliefs have guided and sustained us, 
in short — who we are. As a major, continuing repository for significant 
American Art, the National Collection is thus a vitally important 
resource. 

And the Collection is a force. In the terms of today's activists, it 
represents the march of the American spirit. It reflects our inquiry and 
our energy, our doubt and our affirmation. Enormous strength, courage, 
and faith emanate from the monumental building, from the paintings 
in its halls, from the sculpture in its court. Here we see process and 
creativity, discipline and imagination, the bridging from the past and 
from the present toward the future, the formulation of change, the con- 
frontation with and embracing of the new. 

And this action operates not only within the walls of the building — 
although works of art from all over the country and visitors from all 
over the world meet in this arena. The National Collection and the 

189 



190 



NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 




President Lyndon B. Johnson dedicates the nation's newest, and oldest, museum, 
the National Collection of Fine Arts, on 3 May in the sculpture court of the 
renovated Old Patent Office Building. Below, the 8th and G Streets entrance 
ablaze with light for the 3,318 guests who attended the formal dedication 
ceremonies. 




OPENING THE NEW GALLERIES 191 

exhibits it assembles project their efTects outward — to the schools of 
the District of Columbia, to the White House, to small libraries and 
community colleges throughout the land, and to the nation's largest 
museums. Throughout Latin America, Europe, Afiica, and Asia the 
National Collection's International Art Program sends exhibits and 
curators, and it co-sponsors art workshops. The Collection communicates 
through lectures, slides, prints, publications, periodicals, radio, and 
television. It encourages scholarship and trains museum technicians. It 
is a lively part of that great national university, the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Its aim is to project and to share the American experience as a 
fundamental part of the universal experience. Its faith is founded on a 
belief in the creative energies of man and the ultimate integrity of the 
human spirit. 

Opening of the New Galleries 

The dedication ceremony for the new galleries of the National Collec- 
tion of Fine Arts took place at 9 : 30 p.m., 3 May. Seated under the elms 
in the courtyard on that warm spring evening were 3,318 guests. The Sec- 
retary, having recounted the history of the National Collection, intro- 
duced President Johnson, who characterized himself as feeling "very 
much like a proud uncle to the National Collection." He added, "If I 
will never be remembered as a patron of the arts, I should be delighted 
to be known as an uncle of the arts ... one who doesn't visit often but 
likes his relatives to do well." Then the President and Mrs. Johnson 
were escorted through the galleries by the Secretary and Mrs. Ripley. 
The red-coated Marine Corps Band played for the moonlit courtyard 
ceremony, and, during the reception following the formal dedication, 
the New England String Quartet played in the assembly room. 

On the following morning, a scholarly symposium was held on the 
topic, "Directions for the, National Collection of Fine Arts." Charles 
Sawyer, Chairman of the Smithsonian Art Commission, served as mod- 
erator. The three principal speakers, all distinguished members of the 
Smithsonian Art Commission, were: Edgar P. Richardson, who com- 
mented on research in art history, Bartlett Hayes, Jr., on art education, 
and Lloyd Goodrich, on the subject of government encouragement of 
the arts. Discussants were Wayne Andrews of the Wayne State Univer- 
sity, and John B. Hightower, executive director of the New York State 
Council of the Arts. A prepared statement was also read by Alfred 
Frankenstein, San Francisco art critic and art historian. 

The new galleries — which display some 600 examples of American 
painting, graphic arts, and sculpture — opened to the public on Monday, 
6 May. They have already enjoyed widespread popular and critical 



192 NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

success. The National Collection presents both continuing and chang- 
ing exhibitions in some fourteen halls and galleries, with more exhibit 
areas to open subsequently. It shares with the National Portrait Gallery 
an extensive library and conservation laboratory established as centers 
for training and research. 

Response to the opening has been most gratifying. Widespread 
Smithsonian support provided essential assistance and a boost to the mo- 
rale of the Collection's staff. All the major national news and art peri- 
odicals, press services, and television information services covered the 
event, which was also carried by such media as special displays and a 
unique poster program sponsored by the List Foundation. Interest in the 
new museum brought ten thousand visitors in the first five days of 
operation. 

Smithsonian Art Commission 

At the forty-fifth annual meeting of the Smithsonian Art Commis- 
sion, held in Washington on 5 December recommendations were made 
for the reappointment of Page Cross, Lloyd Goodrich, Walker Han- 
cock, and Bartlett H. Hayes, Jr. for the usual four-year term. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected: Charles H. Sawyer, chairman; Walker 
Hancock, vice-chairman; and S. Dillon Ripley, secretary. Appointed to 
the executive committee were: David E. Finley, chairman; Ogden M. 
Pleissner, Henry P. Mcllhenny, Charles H. Sawyer (ex officio). Walker 
Hancock (ex officio), and S. Dillon Ripley (ex officio). The resigna- 
tion of Gilmore D. Clarke was regretfully accepted. 

Under provisions of the revised bylaws, which were approved by the 
Smithsonian Board of Regents in January, the following new members 
were announced at the spring meeting of the Commission on 3 May: 
William A. M. Burden, Regent of the Smithsonian Institution and art 
collector; Martin Friedman, Director of the Walker Art Center; 
Thomas Howe, Director Emeritus of the Palace of the Legion of Honor ; 
Mrs. J. Lee Johnson, President of the Board of the Amon Carter Mu- 
seum of Western Art; Samuel C. Johnson, business executive, collector, 
and patron; and Mrs. Otto L. Spaeth, writer, collector, and patron. 
The resignations of Paul Mellon and Stow Wengenroth were also an- 
nounced at the special spring meeting. 

At both the December and May meetings. Commission members 
reviewed works of art which had been submitted during the year and 
recommended their acceptance or rejection for the National Collection 
of Fine Arts. 

The immediate past Chairman of the Commission, Edgar P. Richard- 
son, was the honored recipient of the second Smithson Medal, formally 




Survey of American Art exhibited in the Lincoln Gallery which served as a 
Civil War hospital and was the setting for President Lincoln's second inaugural 
ball and banquet. 



presented 3 May at a ceremony in the great hall of the Smithsonian 
Institution building. 

The Collections 

An outstanding gift to the National Collection was that of Emil J. 
Arnold, which included works by Jacob Epstein, Louis Eilshemius, Karl 
Knaths, and Louise Nevelson. Orrin Wickersham June donated works 
by Bierstadt, Kroll, Kensett, and other artists. Following the death of 
William Zorach, the artist's children deposited with ncfa an important 
group of sculptures, paintings, and drawings by this artist as a nucleus 
by which his life work may be studied in depth. 

Received as a transfer from the Harmon Foundation were more than 
eleven hundred paintings, watercolors, drawings, and prints by the 
Negro artist W. H. Johnson. These were cataloged and photographed 
under curator Adelyn D. Breeskin's direction. Fifty pieces were selected 
to be retained by ncfa as a nucleus of the artist's best works, and the 
principal Negro colleges and the Museum of African Art each selected 
a dozen of this artist's works for their art and educational programs. 

The most important purchase of the year was the entire surviving 
contents of the studio — -in Florence, Italy — of the eminent 19th-centur\' 
American sculptor Hiram Powers. It comprises 160 pieces of sculpture 
and over six thousand letters between the artist and major British and 
American personalities — including three United States Presidents — on 







Top, left: Hiram Powers (1805-1873), Eve Tempted, modeled 1839; pur- 
chased in memory of Ralph Cross Johnson. Top, right: Frederick MacMonnies 
(1863-1937), Bacchante and Infant Faun, bronze, 1894, Below, left: Alexander 
Archipenko (1887-1964), King Solomon, bronze, 1963; gift of Frances Archi- 

penko. Below, right: Chaim Gross (1904 ), jfudith, rosewood, n.d.; gift of 

the artist. 



THE COLLECTIONS 



195 



the political, artistic, and literary scene. Included were two major mar- 
ble statues. Eve Tempted, purchased in memory of Ralph Cross John- 
son, and The Last of the Tribe. Other purchases include Niagara Falls 
( 1820) by Alvan Fisher ( 1967.85) , the second of a pair of paintings by 
this artist, and a bronze Bacchante by Frederick MacMonnies. 

The Registrar reports that 1,425 works of art were submitted for 
accessioning, including 142 paintings, 278 pieces of sculpture (includ- 
ing 160 pieces by Hiram Powers), 989 prints and drawings, and 16 
decorative arts objects. These works were given by 124 donors or partly 
purchased through ncfa funds. The museum sent out 337 items to 
other museums and institutions for exhibitions. 

Four pieces of brass jewelry designed for his wife by Alexander Calder 
were donated by the artist; and Atelier Mourlot gave a number of 
prints. The following were also included in gifts received during the 
year: 



Artist 
Romaine Brooks 
Jasper F. Cropsey 
Gene Davis 
Louis Eilshemius 

a/Ralph Earl 

Helen Frankenthaler 
Thomas George 
Cleve Gray 
Hans Hofmann 
Eugene Higgins 
Lester Johnson 
William H. Johnson 
Alexander Liberman 
George L. K. Morris 
Lowell Nesbitt 
Henry Lyman Sayen 
Maurice Sterne 
Adja Yunkers 



PAINTINGS 

Title 
(14 paintings) 
Greenwood Lake 
Gothic Jab 
Standing and Reclining 

Nymphs 
(pair of portraits of 

clockmaker and wife) 
Small's Paradise 
Painting #21 
Ceres I 
Untitled 

The Black Cloud 
Three Graces 
Flower to Teacher 
Green Diagonal 
Industrial Landscape 
Ben Berns' Studio 1967 
(14 paintings) 
Benares on the Ganges 
Aegean II 



Donor 
The artist 
Ellen Wheeler 
The artist 
Roy Neuberger 

Orrin W. June 

George L. Erion 

The artist 

The artist 

Harry Kreindler 

Ranger Fund 

Martha Jackson Gallery 

The Harmon Institute 

The artist 

Anonymous 

The artist 

The artist 

Ranger Fund 

The artist 



PRINTS, DRAWINGS, AND WATERCOLORS 

Artist Title Donor 

Romaine Brooks (drawings, watercolors) The artist 



William Gropper 
Chaim Gross 

Alfred Maurer 



(5 drawings) The artist 

( 1 9 drawings, watercolors. The artist 

and prints) 

Portrait of a Girl George P. Blundell 




Hans Hoffman (1880-1966), untitled. Tempera on canvas, n.d. Gift of Harry E. 

Kreindler, 



Artist 
Raphael Soyer 
Abraham Walkowitz 



Title 
(10 drawings) 
(watercolor) 



Donor 
Emil J. Arnold 
Emil J. Arnold 



Alexander Calder 
Sue Fuller 
Charles Grafly 
Chaim Gross 

Alexander Liberman 
Victor Millonzi 

Bernard Rosenthal 
Theodore Roszak 



SCULPTURE 

Nenuphar 

String Composition #534 
Meade Memorial 
Three Acrobats on a 

Unicycle 
Equipoise 
Mellow Yellow 

The Smithsonian Column 
Construction in White 



The artist 
The artist 
Dorothy Grafly 
Harris J. Klein 

The artist 

Robert and Eleanor 

Millonzi Foundation 
The artist 
The artist 



During the year the lending program of the National Collection 
organized a number of special exhibits for the White House, gov- 
ernment agencies, and the District of Columbia schools. A limited 




Henry Lyman Sayen (1875-1918), Valley Falls. Oil on canvas, 1915. 
Gift of H. Lyman Sayen. 




George Bellows (1882-1925), Mr. and Mrs. Philip Wase. Oil on canvas, 
1924. Gift of Paul Mellon. 



198 NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

number of loans were made to federal agencies and approved educa- 
tional institutions. Approximately 900 works of art are on loan, includ- 
ing over 100 paintings and prints to the White House, most of which 
represent American art of this century. Also organized was the 
Third White House Fellows Seminar on American Art which was 
attended by the Fellows and members of the President's staff. Works of 
art were purchased for government agencies, and numerous private 
collections were inspected with reference to gifts for the collection. The 
Barney lending collection was reorganized and moved into new quarters 
under the supervision of Jean Lewton. 

The conservation laboratory examined some 500 works in the collec- 
tion, and by May more than 80 paintings had received treatment 
ranging from varnishing to cleaning and lining. During the year 32 
pieces of sculpture were restored or cleaned. Rostislav Hlopoff, con- 
servator for the Frick Collection in New York, came for six weeks to 
restore and clean six large works for the opening. Preventive conserva- 
tion was given emphasis during the year, instruments were obtained to 
monitor relative humidity and light intensity, and increasing attention 
was given to safe handling and storage procedures. 

Exhibitions 

The last outpost of ncfa occupancy in the Museum of Natural History 

building was evacuated in January. As the new building was not to be 

opened to the public until May, the year's exhibitions were limited to 

a six-month period. They included the following : 

Treasures from the Cooper Union Museum (13 July through 24 Sep- 
tember 1967), which numbered 250 items — a small selection in re- 
lation to the scale and variety of the Cooper Union Museum's col- 
lection of fine and decorative arts. Objects displayed ranged from 
panels of wall paper to paintings by Winslow Homer, bird cages to 
brocades, Japanese sword fittings to jewelry. An extraordinary exhibi- 
tion, it did honor to the Cooper Union, one of the great museums of 
America. 

George Caleb Bingham: 1811-1879 ( 19 October 1967 through 1 January 
1968) J which brought together 35 portrait, genre, and narrative paint- 
ings and 51 drawings by one of America's foremost delineators of the 
life of her own people. Organized by ncfa, the exhibition was also 
presented at the Cleveland Museum of Art and the Art Galleries of 
the University of California at Los Angeles. 

William Zorach: 1887-1966 (21 September through 5 November 1967), 
a selection of 57 sculptures, paintings, and drawings from a large 
group of the artist's work given to ncfa by his children. 



EXHIBITIONS INTERNATIONAL ART PROGRAM 199 

The Graphic Art of Mary Cassatt (22 November 1967 through 7 Jan- 
uary 1968), a definitive collection of Cassatt's etchings and litho- 
graphs. 

Personal Impressions by Alice Pike Barney (19 October 1967 through 
1 January 1968), a group of 12 pastel portraits. 

In addition 50 examples of work done by children in art classes, provided 
by several American museums, were selected from exhibitions being 
sent abroad under sponsorship of ncfa's International Art Program 
and shown ( 14 July through 4 September 1967) . 

International Art Program 

The principal activity in the earlier part of the year was the organiza- 
tion and preparation of the American exhibition at the IX Sao Paulo 
Bienal. This major show, containing a memorial exhibition of the works 
of Edward Hopper and a show of younger painters entitled "Environ- 
ment USA," was both a popular and a critical success in Sao Paulo. 
One of the Bienal prizes went to American painter Jasper Johns. The 
International Art Program (iap) prepared an extensive catalog, now 
on the commercial market, to accompany the exhibition. 

In the fall of 1967, the iap collaborated with the Pasadena Museum in 
preparing the American representation to the V Paris Biennial for 
Young Artists. The show was composed of four west-coast painters, one 
of whom, Llyn Foulkes, won the grand prize for painting. 

One of the most successful ventures of the year was a traveling print 
workshop, organized by iap and sent to Pakistan for a three-month 
period. Printmaker Michael Ponce de Leon received a Department of 
State grant in order to conduct the workshop. Enthusiastic reports from 
Karachi indicated that it made a significant contribution to the artistic 
life of Pakistan. 

"Communication Through Art," an exhibition of contemporary graph- 
ic art, is now in India. Through Grey Foundation support, the Depart- 
ment of State provided a grant for New York City artist Clayton Pond 
to travel to East Africa with the exhibition and conduct the serigraph 
workshop. "New Expressions in American Printmaking," shown for 
eight months in Germany, was lauded as the best United States exhi- 
bition of its kind ever circulated there. 

In Februar)', the iap sent a small collection of contemporary United 
States art to New Delhi as the official American entry to the First India 
Triennale of Contemporary World Art. A generous grant from the Ben 
and Abby Grey Foundation in St. Paul, Minnesota, made this possible. 
Here again, American artists received prizes, a gold medal in sculpture 
going to Joseph Cornell and honorable mention to Donald Judd. In 



200 NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

April, a collection of twenty contemporary prints was sent to the Third 
Print Biennial in Santiago, Chile. The American collection won the 
award as the best country entry, while Joseph Albers received a prize 
as the best individual printmaker. The year's activities culminated with 
the preparation and installation in Venice of the American exhibition 
at the XXXIV Venice Biennale. This show, organized in collaboration 
with the University of Nebraska, contains the works of ten artists and 
is built around the theme, "The Figurative Tradition in Recent Ameri- 
can Art." 

Library 

The library's plan to develop a study center for American art in 
Washington comes closer to realization as a result of the year's events. 
The total number of 3400 reference uses made of the library represents 
an increase of 57 percent over the figure reported during the previous 
fiscal year. Notable additions to the library collections were received 
from Mrs. Adelyn D. Breeskin, Stefan Munsing, Dr. and Mrs. David 
Scott, Mr. and Mrs. Tessim Zorach, and the Washington Gallery of 
Modern Art. 

Curatorial and Other Staff Activities 

The activities of the department of painting and sculpture were re- 
flected in the final selection of art works shown at the opening of the 
NCFA as well as in their documentation, conservation, photographing, 
and placement. Inspection of works of art brought in for identification 
and opinion, the solicitation of new objects to be added to the collections 
by gift and purchase, extending help and advice to researchers in 
American art, and the devising of new programs continued at a steadily 
accelerating rate. 

Director David W. Scott participated as a juror in the Armed Forces 
Exhibition in Washington, D.C., and in the Ninth Annual Eight-State 
Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture in Oklahoma City. He served also 
as a judge in the third annual Arts and Crafts Festival sponsored by the 
St. Augustine Arts and Crafts Council in St. Augustine, Florida, and 
was a panel member in a workshop "to evaluate revival and develop- 
ment of Northwest Coast Indian Art" in Port Chilkoot-Haines, Alaska. 

Curator of painting and sculpture Richard P. Wunder spent much 
of his time on the transfer of the Cooper Union Museum to the Smith- 
sonian, which officially took place 30 June. The negotiation for the 
acquisition and eventual transfer to Washington of the Hiram Powers 
sculpture studio necessitated two trips to Italy. He also lectured before 



CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES 201 

the Third White House Fellows Seminar conducted by ncfa, the Ma- 
terial Culture Seminar conducted by the Department of American 
Studies, the Smithsonian Associates, and the Third Pennsbury Manor 
American Forum, Morrisville, Pennsylvania. 

Curator of contemporary art Adelyn D. Breeskin collected 67 paint- 
ings and 42 sculptures, exclusive of the Johnson collection, from outside 
ncfa for the opening. She engaged in the organizing of the comprehen- 
sive exhibition of prints and drawings by Mary Cassatt, which traveling 
show will visit nine museums throughout the country, and she also con- 
ducted two all-day art tours to Philadelphia and to Baltimore, and 
taught a ten-week course on "The Art of Seeing," for Smithsonian As- 
sociates, as well as jurying shows in Norfolk, Alexandria, and Baltimore. 

The curator of prints and drawings Jacob Kainen selected work rep- 
resenting high points in American art from the 18th century to the 
present, and new accessions were made with a view to filling historical 
gaps in the collection. He lectured on 18th-century artist Canaletto at 
the National Gallery of Art and at the Museum of History and Tech- 
nology. He also delivered a series of lectures, "Art Without History," 
for the Smithsonian Associates. 

The associate curator in charge of the lending program Donald R. 
McClelland, traveled to the Orient to select an exhibition of paintings 
by the Ceylonese artist Justin Daraniyagala and to develop an exhibi- 
tion of Mogul art from Banaras, India. He delivered several lectures on 
American art in Japan, Ceylon, and India, as well as at The Little 
White House, Warm Springs, Georgia; High Museum, Atlanta, 
Georgia; the National Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, Washington, D.C.; and at the White House Fellows Seminars. 
He juried shows at the Fairfax County Art Association, the Virginia 
Museum Show (Alexandria), and the Gunston Hall Art Fellowship. 

Curator of exhibits Harry Lowe led an art tour for the Smithsonian 
Associates to Richmond, Virginia, and was host for the tour to the 
Valentine Museum and Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. He also served 
on the five-man committee appointed to select the art works comprising 
the Tennessee Painting Today collection; selected the exhibition for 
"Norio Azuma-Maltby Sykes: New Processes in Printmaking," for the 
Tennessee Fine Arts Center in Nashville; organized and conducted an 
art tour of New York City for the Smithsonian Associates; delivered the 
commencement address at the Memphis Academy of Art, "Destruc- 
tion as a Positive Force"; and gave a lecture, "The Museum: Large or 
Small?" at the annual meeting of Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences 
at Savannah, Georgia. 

315-997 O - 69 - 14 




Summer by Mrs. W. H. Holmes covered by an opaque bloom caused b 
steam pipe; right, after cleaning and revarnishing in the conservation la 





Above, left: Conservator Norvell Jones cleaning 8xl0-foot glass-top 
used for lining paintings; right, plaster head by Hiram Powers, showing < 
half finished. Below, left: assistant conservator Elizabeth McDonald wo 
"II Penseroso" by Mozier; right, museum technician Alden Jackson apply 
leaf to a period frame in the museum's frame shop. (Photo by Peter Fi; 
York City.) 





CURATORIAL ACTIVITIES 203 

Chief of the International Art Program Lois Bingham and assistant 
Betty Jo Abel traveled to Brazil twice, to install and to dismantle the 
American exhibition at the IX Sao Paulo Bienal. Miss Bingham made 
survey trips to Latin American countries to arrange for circulation of 
the exhibition, "The New Vein," and in Italy, with deputy chief Mar- 
garet Cogswell, she installed the American exhibition at the XXXIV 
Venice Biennale. In Czechoslovakia and Romania she arranged for the 
show, "The Disappearance and Re-Appearance of the Image," which 
was in Romania under the United States-Romanian Cultural Exchange 
Agreement for 1968. She also juried the annual exhibition of the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts in Easton, Maryland. 

Head conservator Charles Olin gave slide lectures to a number of 
groups including the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the 
Jewish Community Center, and the 84th Congress Wives' Club. He 
spent three days at Dickinson College giving lectures and seminars on 
conservation, and was guest lecturer for the George Washington Uni- 
versity museum training course. 

Under Mrs. Mary Nell Sherman, special service activities focused on 
the NCFA opening and included a community relations program, under 
which the Director's preview tour for over thirty-five commercial 
neighbors resulted in twenty imaginative store windows honoring the 
opening. The plans for the opening provided for invitations, hostesses, 
a press room, establishing complete invitational lists, as well as a White 
House tour for major donors, and dinner parties at the Italian and 
Brazilian Embassies for out-of-town guests. 

The volunteer staff for the opening included Miss Ruth Oviatt, a 
retired writer and editor who wrote the major part of the press kit; 
Mrs. John Durrell, who worked on community relations; Mrs. Huston 
Coiner III, who carried out a new liaison program with guidebooks, 
convention bureaus, usis missions and map companies; Mrs. Ellis 
Lyons, who planned an extensive educational program for schools and 
libraries; Mrs. Robert Kintner, who organized pre-opening dinner par- 
ties for 350 out-of-town guests; and Mrs. Angel Byrne, who aided with 
the logistics of the opening. Two dozen additional volunteers, most from 
the Smithsonian Ladies Committee, accomplished vital work such as 
addressing invitations and mailing posters to museums. 

The Office of Special Services programmed the openings for the 
George Caleb Bingham and Mary Cassatt exhibitions in the Musuem 
of Natural History; prepared press kits for the Biennials in Sao Paulo 
and Venice; arranged a four-part lecture series in cooperation with the 
Washington Print Club; planned a series of teas for Congressional and 
Ambassadorial wives; and prepared a continuing program of private 
tours for distinguished visitors. 



204 NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

The docent program was initiated during the year and has been 
greatly expanded. This first summer will see two tours daily during the 
week, and one tour each day on the weekend. 

Research 

A number of research projects were carried on despite the heavy de- 
mands of preparation for opening the museum. Mrs. Pamela AUara pre- 
pared a paper on the art career of the National Collection's first director, 
William Henry Holmes. Curator Adelyn D. Breeskin made important 
progress on her monumental study of Mary Cassatt and hopes to com- 
plete her "Catalogue Raisonee" by the end of the year. She also began 
intensive study of Milton Avery's paintings in preparation for next 
year's exhibition. 

The department of painting and sculpture is working toward a final 
catalog of the National Collection's holdings of American painting and 
sculpture. Curator Richard Wunder has been transcribing and analyz- 
ing the correspondence of 19th-century sculptor Hiram Powers, prepar- 
atory to publishing a definitive monograph. Volunteers from the Junior 
League of Washington have assisted in transcribing the letters. Wunder 
is also gathering data on American expatriate artist Romaine Brooks in 
anticipation of the National Collection's exhibition of her paintings and 
publication of her memoirs, and on Emanuel Leutze for the ncfa 
exhibition planned for the summer of 1969. 

Assistant curator William Truettner followed up his study of Frederic 
Edwin Church's 19th-century paintings of the Far North with an 
article, "The Genesis of Frederic Edwin Church's Aurora Borealis," to 
be published in the October Art Quarterly. He also completed research 
on Gilbert Stuart's 18th-century portraits of naval officers, and his 
article, "Portraits of Stephen Decatur After Gilbert Stuart," was sub- 
mitted for publication. 

Research assistant Robert Hunter worked extensively on paintings in 
the National Collection by early 19th-century landscape artists Alvan 
Fisher and Thomas Cole. 

Curator of prints and drawings Jacob Kainen is nearing completion 
of a history of the Works Progress Administration graphic arts project 
in New York City, for an organization sponsored by the National 
Foundation of the Arts. Kainen also wrote forewords to various books 
and catalogs. Research assistant Caril Dreyfuss completed studies on 
the history of the Washington Workshop and the Color School which 
developed from it, and did preliminary research on American engraver 
Stanley William Hayter. 



RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS 205 

In addition, scholars were brought to the National Collection of Fine 
Arts for special projects. A study of exterior sculpture in the District of 
Columbia by Bruce Moore and Michael Richmann was carried to a 
conclusion. Professor William Gerdts made a study of the 19th-century 
American sculpture in the National Collection. Mrs. Selma Rein re- 
searched 19th- and 20th-century legislation on the planning, erecting, 
and maintaining of the Old Patent Office building, as source material 
for a small booklet on the monumental building which now houses the 
Collection. 

Publications by the staff include the following : 

Breeskin, Adelyn D. The Graphic Art of Mary Cassatt. 1 1 1 pp. New York 

and Washington: The Museum of Graphic Art and Smithsonian Institution 

Press, 1967. 
Kainen, Jacob. [Foreword to] Raphael Soyer — Fifty Years of Print Making 

1917-1967. Compiled and edited by Sylvan Cole, Jr. New York: Da Capo 

Press, 1967. 
Lowe, Harry. [Essay in] Norio Azuma-Maltby Sykes: New Processes in Print 

Making. Nashville, Tennessee: Tennessee Fine Arts Center, 1968. 
McClelland, Donald R. "Sudanese Perspective." Mid-East — A Middle 

East-North African Review, vol. 7, no. 9 (November 1967), pp. 14-18. 
Olin, Charles. "Conservation at the National Collection of Fine Arts." 

Arts Magazine, vol. 42, no. 8 (June/Summer 1968), pp. 67-68. 
Scott, David W. "New Home for the Nation's Oldest Collection." Art Edu- 
cation, Journal of the National Art Education Association, vol. 21, no. 5 (May 

1968), pp. 10-13, 5 illustr. 
. "The National Collection." The Art Gallery, vol. 11, no. 8 (May 

1968), pp. 21-30, 16 illustr. 
Wunder, Richard P. "Charles Michel-Ange Challe: A Study of His Life and 

Work." Apollo, vol. 87, no. 71 (January 1968), pp. 22-35. 
. "The Smithsonian Institution's National Collection of Fine Arts." 

The Connoisseur, vol. 168, no. 675 (May 1968), pp. 49-54. 

Publications 

Publications prepared under the auspices of the National Collection of 
Fine Arts as follows : 

George Caleb Bingham 1811-1879. Text by E. Maurice Bloch. 99 pp., 36 
illustr. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press (publ. 4725), 1967. 

Highlights of the National Collection of Fine Arts. Introd. by David W. Scott; 
essays by Richard P. Wunder, Adelyn Breeskin, and Jacob Kainen; descrip- 
tions by William Truettner and Caril Dreyfuss. 64 pp., 48 illustr. Wash- 
ington: Smithsonian Institution Press (publ. 4737), 1968. 

National Collection of Fine Arts-National Portrait Gallery [the story of the 
building]. Introd. by David W. Scott, remarks by Charles Nagel, architec- 
tural statement by Waldron Faulkner. 16 pp., 12 illustr. Washington: 
National Collection of Fine Arts. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 



206 NATIONAL COLLECTION OF FINE ARTS 

National Collection of Fine Arts [Gallery plan, for free distribution]. 4 illustr., 
map. Washington: National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press, 1968. 

Sao Paulo 9: United States of America — Edward Hopper — Environment U.S.A.: 
1957-1967. Essays by Lloyd Goodrich and William C. Seitz. 165 pp., 75 
illustr., text in English and Portuguese. Washington: Smithsonian Institu- 
tion Press, 1967. 

Venice 34, The Figurative Tradition in Recent American Art. By Norman A. 
Geske. 131 pp., 70 illustr. (Preceded by text in Italian, 59 pp.) Wash- 
ington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 

Treasures from the Cooper Union Museum [catalog of the exhibition]. Fore- 
word by David W. Scott; introduction by Christian Rohlfing. 48 pp., 1 illustr. 
Washington: National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution Press, 
1967. 

William Zorach 1887-1966 [catalog of the exhibition]. Foreword by David W. 
Scott. 4 pp. Washington: National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian 
Institution Press, 1967. 

Four large reproductions and four postcards of paintings in the Col- 
lection were printed through the Kefauver memorial fund. Postcards 
from the S. C. Johnson & Sons gift collection were reprinted for the 
opening of ncfa. 



National Portrait Gallery 

Charles Nagel^ Director 




TTenry Inman, a 19th-century artist of note and himself an excellent 

painter of portraits, once prophesied : ". . . The time will come 

when the rage for portraits will give way to a higher and purer taste." 

Whether a higher and purer taste is characteristic of our times is 
perhaps debatable, but the "rage for portraits" has given way to the 
point that few artists are still interested in the mastery of this long- 
esteemed skill. Today the creating of a portrait which is at the same 
time a work of art is not what it was in 18th- or even 19th-century 
America. 

Among the duties of the National Portrait Gallery, the collection of 
likenesses of our country's great people is no doubt a primary one. An- 
other should be to encourage the creation of outstanding likenesses by 
commissioning contemporary portraits of men and women who have 
been judged desirable subjects for Gallery collections. Such a program 
might well begin with portraits of our presidents, a matter of prime 
importance since that roster is by no means complete. 

We have been fortunate in receiving from the artist Peter Hurd his 
impressive likeness of President Lyndon Baines Johnson. This generous 
gift is a singular stroke of good fortune for a gallery with extremely 
limited purchase funds, and we are greatly indebted to the artist for 
a fine addition which brings our presidential series up to date. There 
are still many gaps — fifteen to be exact — many of them, alas, among 
our earlier presidents. This points up the need for a special fund for 
presidential likenesses, one which would enable the Gallery to com- 
mission a portrait by an artist of its choice early in each administration. 

207 



208 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 




President Lyndon Baynes Johnson, by Peter Hurd, 
contemporary American artist. Egg tempera. Gift of 
the artist. (NPG 68.14) 



Eventually, this might lead the way to the establishment of similar 
funds to be devoted to such sj^ecial fields as the arts and letters, the 
stage, and science. It is discouraging to find how few people of note 
but not necessarily of means have sat for a fine portrait. And of the few 
that have been done, most are usually already owned by some other 
institution, and are available to us only for temporary showing. It 
should be our duty to ensure that this situation is corrected for the 
future. 

The National Portrait Gallery affirms the continuing need for fine 
portraits in all media. It is our belief that artists who are skilled in pro- 
ducing distinguished likenesses deserve to be encouraged, and we are 
willing to take part in developing an American renascence of fine por- 
traiture as soon as necessary funds become available. 

By the time the Gallery opens we shall have been in the building 
twenty months. In this relatively short time our numerically limited staff 
has performed prodigiously. 



PERSONNEL 209 

The task of equipping the building has been formidable. We were 
fortunate, however, to have received some ten thousand dollars, con- 
tributed in his memory by friends and former clients of the late Victor 
Proetz. This sum enabled us to secure a number of 18th- and 19th- 
century antiques. These give a special air to the administrative suite 
which has been made a memorial to Mr. Proetz, who was its designer. 
Also, from drawings of furniture designed by him selections were made 
for manufacture by his cabinet maker of many "working pieces" for 
the commission room, the Reception Room, and the offices. Four hand- 
some cases for large books — two high and two low — were willed to the 
Gallery and serve as theme pieces. These, from the hand of Mr. Proetz, 
for many years had graced his apartment. They now add greatly to the 
character of the reception room. For her help in securing both antique 
and contemporary pieces, we are much indebted to Miss Elinor Merrell 
of New York who was generous to us in every way in this felicitous 
achievement. 

One early idea concerning the Gallery was that people should realize 
this country is a consolidation of the early holdings of many different 
lands. It therefore seemed appropriate to secure contemporary likenesses 
of the sovereigns of nations which had colonial interests in America. 
The Victor Proetz Fund has made it possible to obtain engravings of a 
number of these monarchs. These prints all hang on the third floor 
where they are presided over by the handsome marble effigy of William 
Pitt, Earl of Chatham, an early champion of the rights of our country. 
They contribute much to the Gallery's air of being primarily a museum 
of history. Similar efTorts will continue, perhaps next with early ex- 
plorers such as LaSalle, Sir Walter Raleigh, de Soto, Sebastian Cabot, 
and Verazzano. 

Gradually the exhibition areas of the Gallery are being properly 
equipped under the direction of curator of exhibits Riddick Vann. 
Meanwhile, the collections have been slowly growing in size and sig- 
nificance by gift and purchase under the watchful eye of curator 
Robert G. Stewart, and his research assistant, Monroe Fabian. These 
holdings are being kept in prime condition with the help of conservator 
Charles Olin. 

Personnel 

During the six months of the past year that historian Daniel J. 
Reed was absent on leave as deputy director of the National 
Advisory Commission on Libraries, his duties were ably assumed by his 
assistant, Mrs. Virginia Purdy. She has since been made acting keeper 
of the catalogue and has rendered valiant service in the preparation of 



210 NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 

material to be used in the catalogues for our opening exhibition. As the 
Gallery's administrative officer, Joseph A. Yakaitis has contributed 
much to its smooth and efficient day-to-day operation. 

The Gallery may consider itself fortunate in having secured for a 
year, which began in September 1967, the services as Assistant Director 
of J. Benjamin Townsend, from the University of the State of New 
York at Buflfalo. Toward the end of the year he assumed responsibility 
for the two catalogues being issued by the Smithsonian Institution Press 
for the opening exhibition, "This New Man : A Discourse in Portraits" 
and a "Catalogue of American Presidents." His seasoned judgment has 
been of inestimable value, and his intellectual qualities, wit, and good 
humor won the respect of the entire staff. His return to Buffalo after 
his year with us will be a major loss to the Gallery. 

The permanent staff reached a total of twenty-three members with 
the addition of Jon Danning Freshour as research assistant in the 
Curator's office. The addition of a number of "700-hour" appointees 
has proved most valuable. 

Nine volunteers have continued to help at various tasks in the Gallery 
and library: Mrs. Marian Carroll, Mrs. Helen Elder, Mrs. Helen Jones, 
Mrs. Cynthia McKelvie, Mrs. Charles Nagel, Miss Gabrielle Pirandoni, 
Mrs. Bryson Brennan Rash, Mrs. Tobie Savoie, and Mrs. Stuart 
Symington. It is hoped that this number of most welcome workers will 
be increased in the fall by a group of volunteer docents with whom 
preliminary orientation discussions have already begun. 

Only one major change in our small staff has taken place : Mrs. Helen 
Maggs Fede, who, as keeper of the catalogue, came to the Gallery in 
November with a fine record of curatorial and research duties per- 
formed at Mt. Vernon, the Museum of History and Technology, and 
Blair House, after only two months on the staff, died suddenly, in 
February 1968, of a heart attack. It is seldom that one finds a person 
whose qualifications and duties coincide so completely and her loss is 
keenly felt. 

National Portrait Gallery Commission 

In the course of the year the makeup of the Commission has remained 
unchanged, those whose appointments expired having been reappointed. 

MEMBERSHIP 

John Nicholas Brown, Chairman 
Mrs. Catherine Drinker Bowen 
Julian P. Boyd 
Lewis Deschler 



THE COLLECTIONS 



211 




President Benjamin Harrison, on left, by Eastman Johnson (1824-1906). Draw- 
ing heightened with chalk, ca. 1889. (NPG 68.4) Right, Henry Cabot Lodge, by 
John Singer Sargent (1856-1925). Oil on canvas, 1890. Gift of the Honorable 
and Mrs. Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (NPG 68.58) 



David E. Finley 

Wilmarth S. Lewis 

E. P. Richardson 

Richard H. Shryock 

Frederick P. Todd, Colonel, USA (Ret.) 

Ex-Officio 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren 
Director of the National Gallery of Art, John Walker 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley 



The Collections 

The fifty-one accessions for the year again show a variety of ap- 
proaches to the making of a hkeness : painting, sculpture, and drawing 
as well as a few scattered examples of other media. While space does 
not permit detailed consideration of all these, a few are worthy of 
special mention. 

Four additions were made to the presidential series: Chester A. 
Arthur by O. H. P. Boiling was the gift of Margaret Garber Blue; 
Ulysses S. Grant, also by Boiling, was purchased through the Museum 




Gertrude Stein, on left, by Jo Davidson (1883-1952). Terra-cotta. (NPG 68.8) 
Right, Robert (King) Carter, by unknown American artist, ca. 1701-1719. 
Oil on canvas. (NPG 68.18.) 



Fund; Benjamin Harrison is represented by one of the really fine draw- 
ings in the collection by Eastman Johnson and also came to us by pur- 
chase; and, finally, the portrait of President Johnson by Peter Hurd, 
which came as a gift of the artist, as previously mentioned. 

A bust of the late Helen Keller, by Jo Davidson, was one of a series 
of fine likenesses purchased from the estate of the artist; Henry Cabot 
Lodge depicted by John Singer Sargent was an important gift from 
the grandson of the Senator and his wife, the Honorable and Mrs. Henry 
Cabot Lodge. Mrs. Alice Silliman Hawkes gave us a portrait of Ben- 
jamin Silliman, the distinguished early 19th-century scientist and 
nephew-in-law of John Trumbull, the painter of this small portrait. 
Finally, a painting of Daniel Webster by Chester Harding came to the 
collections as a most welcome gift from Mrs. Gerald Burwell Lambert. 

David Finley has continued his interest in building up a collection of 
decorative arts to ornament our exhibition areas by presenting a pair 
of handsome Duncan Phyfe chairs to complement the card table he 
presented last year. 

Conservator Charles H. Olin has been much occupied with readying 
the collections of the National Collection of Fine Arts for their opening 
last May, but he managed as well to take care of several portraits in the 
Gallery's collection. To have his conservation laboratory located in the 
building is a tremendous aid to the smooth operation of the Gallery. 



THE COLLECTIONS 



213 



The curatorial staff has spent most of the year establishing opera- 
tional procedures for exhibitions and in locating portraits for the open- 
ing exhibition, and on Labor Day the entire collection was moved from 
the exhibition area in the Arts and Industries building, and from other 
Smithsonian storage areas, to the new Portrait Gallery. 

In the course of the year, additions were made to the collections, and 
loans granted and accepted, as follows : 



PAINTINGS ADDED TO THE COLLECTIONS 



Subject 

Adams, Franklin P. 
Alcott, Louisa May 
Arthur, Chester A. 

Auerbach-Levy, William 
Cannon, Joseph Gurney 
Carey, Henry C. 

Carter, Robert 
Darrow, Clarence 
Depew, Chauncey M. 
Eastman, George 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 
George, Henry 
Gibbs, William Francis 
Goddard, Robert 
Godwin, Parke 
Grant, Ulysses S. 

Hampden, Walter 
Harrison, Benjamin 
Harrison, William Henry 



Hoover, Herbert 
Hunt, Richard Morris 
James, Henry 

Johnson, Lyndon Baines 
Jones, John Paul 
Joseph, Chief 
Keller, Helen 
Kennedy, John P. 
Kent, James 
Kent, Mrs. James 

Lewis, Sinclair 
Lindberg, Charles 



Artist 

Zoss Melik 

Frank Edwin Elwell 

Ole Peter Hansen 

Balling 
William Auerbach-Levy 
Jo Davidson 
T. Henry Smith 

Unknown 

Jo Davidson 

Adolfo Muller-Ury 

Paul Nadar 

Daniel Chester French 

George DeForest Brush 

Malvina Hoffman 

Emily Burling Waite 

Eastman Johnson 

Ole Peter Hansen 
Balling 

William J. Glackens 

Eastman Johnson 

Denison Kimberly and 
Oliver Pelton, after 
Albert Gallatin Hoit 

Douglas Chandor 

Karl Bitter 

Emile Blanche 

Peter Hurd 
J. E. Haid 
Cyrenius Hall 
Jo Davidson 
Eastman Johnson 
Daniel Huntington 
Daniel Huntington 

Jo Davidson 
Jo Davidson 



Donor or Fund 

Museum Fund 
Alcott Farrar Elwell 
Margaret Garber Blue 

Max Levy 

Museum Fund 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lea 

Hudson 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Jessica Dragonette 
George Eastman House 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Anonymous Donor 
Anonymous Donor 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 

Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 



Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Katherine Dexter 

McCormick 
Peter Hurd 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 
Kennedy and Knoedler 

Galleries 
Museum Fund 
Museum Fund 



214 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



Subject 
Lodge, Henry Cabot 



London, Jack 
Millay, Edna St. Vincent 
O'Keeffe, Georgia 
O'Neill, Eugene 
Peabody, George 
Pershing, John Joseph 



Phillips, Wendell 
Rogers, WUl 
Sherwood, Robert E. 
Silliman, Benjamin 
Stein, Gertrude 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher 

Toscanini, Arturo 
Webster, Daniel 

Wimar, Carl 
Winthrop, Theodore 
Whitney, Gertrude 

Vanderbilt 
Wollcott, Alexander 
Young, Brigham 



Artist 
John Singer Sargent 



Finn Frolich 
John Ellis 
Una Hanbury 
Zoss Melik 
Unknown 
William Orpen 



Martin Millmore 
Jo Davidson 
Zoss Melik 
John Trumbull 
Jo Davidson 
Alanson Fisher 

Boris Lovet-Lorski 
Chester Harding 

Carl Wimar 
Samuel Rowse 
Jo Davidson 

Zoss Melik 
Hartwig Bornemann 



Donor or Fund 

The Honorable and 
Mrs. Henry Cabot 
Lodge, Jr. 

Irving Shepard 

Norma Millay Ellis 

Museum Fund 

Museum Fund 

Museum Fund 

International Business 
Machines Corpora- 
tion 

Museum Fund 

Museum Fund 

Museum Fund 

Alice Silliman Hawkes 

Museum Fund 

Kathryn and GUbert 
Miller Fund 

Anonymous donors 

Mrs. Gerard Burwell 
Lambert 

Martin Kodner 

Winslow Ames 

Museum Fund 

Museum Fund 
The Church of Jesus 

Christ of Latter-Day 

Saints 



DECORATIVE ARTS ADDED TO THE COLLECTIONS 



Object 

Pair of American Empire side chairs 

Pair of American Empire side chairs 

One blue and white delft vase; pair of bronze 
Egyptian-style girandoles with crystal arms and 
pendants; one 19th-century marble and bronze 
urn with lid 

Pair of Leeds plates with pierced rims 

Smithsonian owl, stamp collage 



Donor 

David E. Finley 
Museum Fund 
Elinor Merrell 



Mr. and Mrs. Charles 

Nagel 
Emily Milliken Wilson 



WORKS OF ART ON LOAN TO THE GALLERY 

Subject Artist Owner 

Acheson, Dean William Zorach National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Adams, John Thomas Spear University of Michigan 



THE COLLECTIONS 



215 



Subject 
Choate, Rufus 

Churchill, Winston 
Conway, William Augustus 
Elliott, Charles Loring 
Everett, Edward 
Forrest, Edwin 
Fremont, John Charles 
Gompers, Samuel 

Greenwood, Grace 

Hall, James 
Harding, Chester 
Harper, Joseph Wesley 
Henry, Joseph 

Henry, Joseph 

Henry, Joseph 

Henry, Joseph 

Henry, Joseph 

Holbrook, John Edwards 
Hunt, William Morris 
Ives, Herbert E. 
Kemble, Gouverneur 
Lincoln, Abraham 
Lloyd, James 
Longfellow, Henry 

Wadsworth 
Madison, James 

Morrill, Justin Smith 

Otis, Bass 
Pettigru, James 
Pickens, Andrew 

Foe, Edgar Allan 

Prescott, William 

Ranson, Alexander 

Roosevelt, Franklin D. 
Sothern, Julia Marlowe 



Artist 

Attributed to Henry or 

William Willard 
Unknown 
James Herring 
William S. Mount 
Attributed to Bass Otis 
David Johnson 
Bass Otis 
Moses Wainer Dykaar 

Attributed to Cephas 

Giovanni Thompson 
Daniel Huntington 
Chester Harding 
Eastman Johnson 
Herbert Adams 

Walter Ingalls 

Clark MUls 

Theodore Mills 

W. W. Story 

Daniel Huntington 
Thomas B. Lawson 
Chester Warner Slack 
Asher B. Durand 
Frederick W. Halpin 
Gilbert Stuart 
Thomas Buchanan Read 

Attributed to James 

Frothingham 
Preston Powers 

Attributed to Bass Otis 
Thomas Spear 
Unknown 

Edith Woodman 

Burroughs 
Attributed to James 

Harvey Young 
Attributed to Alexander 

Ranson 
Jo Davidson 
Irving R. Wiles 



Owner 
University of Michigan 

Louis E. Shecter 
National Gallery of Art 
National Gallery of Art 
University of Michigan 
National Gallery of Art 
University of Michigan 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
University of Michigan 

National Gallery of Art 
National Gallery of Art 
National Gallery of Art 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
National Gallery of Art 
National Gallery of Art 
Mrs. Herbert E. Ives 
National Gallery of Art 
Mrs. Robert McCormick 
National Gallery of Art 
Mrs. Thomas Curtis 

University of Michigan 

National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
University of Michigan 
University of Michigan 
Colonel Francis Pickens 

Miller, USA (retired) 
Louis E. Shecter 

University of Michigan 

University of Michigan 

Louis E. Shecter 
National Gallery of Art 



216 



NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 



Subject 



Artist 



Owner 



Sousa, Mr. and Mrs. John Harry Franklin Waltman Mrs. Helen Sousa Abert 

PhUip 
Tuckerman, Henry Daniel Huntington National Gallery of Art 

Theodore 
Van Rensselaer, Stephen 
Washington, George 
Wayland, Francis 



Gilbert Stuart 
Gilbert Stuart 
Attributed to Thomas 
Spear 



National Gallery of Art 
Erick Kauders 
University of Michigan 



WORKS OF ART LENT BY THE GALLERY 
To Subject Artist 

Bethune, Mary McLeod Betsy Graves Reyneau 



American Museum of 

Negro History 
American Museum of 

Negro History 
American Museum of 

Negro History 
Blair House 
Anacostia Neighborhood 

Museum 
William Penn Memorial 

Museum 
American Museum of 

Negro History 
Montreal Museum of 

Fine Arts 
Deerfield Academy 
American Museum of 

Negro History 
Deerfield Academy 
National Collection of 

Fine Arts 
Saint Paul Art Center 



Drew, Charles 

DuBois, William 

Grant, Ulysses S. 
Harmon Collection 



Betsy Graves Reyneau 
Laura Wheeler Waring 
Samuel Waugh 



Helmuth, Justus Henry John Eckstein 
Christian 



Marshall, Thurgood 

Pocahontas 

Pope, John Russell 
Robeson, Paul 

Root, Elihu 
Sherman, William T. 

Stevenson, Adlai E. 



Betsy Graves Reyneau 

Unknown 

Augustus Vincent Tack 
Betsy Graves Reyneau 

Augustus Vincent Tack 
George Peter Alexander 

Healy 
Edward Weiss 



Other Activities 

Preparations for the opening exhibition have constituted a major part 
of the work of the history department in the past year. Having selected 
for it the title, "This New Man : A Discourse in Portraits," the historians 
have worked with Mr. Townsend on the selection of sitters to develop 
the theme, and with Curator Robert G. Stewart on what portraits were 
available for the show. The catalogue, which is to be a beautiful book of 
lasting importance, has entailed considerable biographical research. 
Under the editorial supervision of Mr. Townsend, a caption for each 
sitter as well as introductory statements for each gallery and group of 



ACTIVITIES 



217 



galleries were written by the history department staff and a smaller cata- 
logue of the thirty-five presidential portraits was also prepared. 

The Catalogue of American Portraits, now housed in convenient 
storage units, is being used by the staffs of this Gallery and other Smith- 
sonian bureaus as well as by occasional visiting scholars. In addition, 
the number of reference letters grows. Equipment has been installed to 
prepare the data in the Catalogue for computer processing. After the 
sudden death of Mrs. Fede, Mrs. Virginia C. Purdy became acting 
keeper. Mrs. Mona C. Dearborn, a permanent though part-time cata- 
loguer of the Catalogue of American Portraits, has been assisted in her 
work by one volunteer, Mrs. McKelvie, and several able temporary 
employees. 

Historian Daniel J. Reed returned from a year's leave of absence in 
January 1968. Offprints of his article, "The Catalogue of American 
Portraits," which appeared in the July 1967 issue of the American 
Archivist, were sent to the mailing lists of a number of groups as well as 
to many individuals. In addition, notes about it appeared m the Na- 
tional Trust's Preservation News, in Picturescope, and in the April 1968 
issue of American Notes and Queries. The response has been splendid, 
and negotiations are in progress with county, state, and national his- 
torical organizations interested in undertaking portrait surveys in coop- 
eration with the Catalogue of American Portraits. He also edited "Man- 
uscripts on Microfilm," for the Quarterly Journal of the Library of 
Congress. 

He is serving as chairman of the local arrangements committee for 
the 1968 convention of the American Association for State and Local 
History which meets in Washington in September 1968. He is also a 
member of the professional advisory committee of the Archives of 
American Art. He and Mrs. Purdy attended the Museum Computer 
Conference in April at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York 
City. 

Curator Robert G. Stewart again taught his course in "Principles of 
Museum Work" at George Washington University, and an article by 
him on a recent bequest to the Gallery — the portrait of Noah Webster 
by James Herring — was accepted for future publication by the Smith- 
sonian Journal of History. Monroe H. Fabian published an article, 
"Some Moravian Paintings in London," in Pennsylvania Folklife (vol. 
17,No. 20, 1967-1968). 

Mrs. Virginia Purdy was the author of "The Catalogue of American 
Portraits" published in Picturescope (vol. 15, 1967), and prepared a 
new edition of the general brochure on the Gallery. Director Charles 



315-997 O - 69 - 15 



218 NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY 

Nagel served as a member of the Fine Arts Committee of Blair House 
during the year, and he and Townsend both delivered lectures on the 
Gallery to local groups. 

The prints and photographs collection was augmented by prints, 
given to the National Portrait Gallery by the Library of Congress, from 
4000 glass-plate negatives made by Harris and Ewing. Mrs. Genevieve 
Kennedy Stephenson incorporated these into the collection with the 
volunteer assistance of Mrs. Cynthia McKelvie, Mrs. Charles Nagel, 
and Mrs. Stuart Symington. 

For performing the doubly onerous duties in connection with a large 
opening exhibition, we are indebted to all the staff, but particularly to 
registrar Thomas Girard, who has performed miracles of thoughtful 
and efficient service in the complicated task of assembling the opening 
exhibition, and to Lewis Mclnnis who has likewise functioned quietly 
and effectively behind the scenes in the performance of a multitude of 
tasks. 

Library 

The library enlarged its physical facilities considerably this year, replac- 
ing old and inadequate shelving with new wood and steel stacks and 
adding other basic equipment. The use of the library represents an in- 
crease of 57 percent over the figure previously reported. Additions to the 
collection came largely through donations: Mrs. Adelyn Breeskin, Stefan 
Munsing, Dr. David Scott, Mr. and Mrs. Tessrin Zorach, and the Wash- 
ington Gallery of Modern Art. During the year, one publication ex- 
change mailing consisting of five National Collection of Fine Arts publi- 
cations and two National Portrait Gallery titles were sent to 248 
institutions here and abroad. 

Librarian William Walker gave six orientation lectures on various 
aspects of the Gallery and its library, both in the library and in Barney 
House. 



Joseph H. Hirshhom 
Museum and Sculpture Garden 

Abram Lerner, Director 



'~|~'HE JOSEPH H. HiRSHHORN MUSEUM, undcr Director Abram 
-*■ Lerner, moved with accelerated momentum toward three related 
goals : the acquisition of new paintings and sculptures, the development 
of plans and programs for the new Museum on the Mall being designed 
by architect Gordon Bunshaft, and the continuation of its services to 
scholars and institutions involved in the history of modern American 
and European art. Mr. Hirshhorn's generosity led to the acquisition this 
year of more than five hundred new paintings and sculptures, all of 
which were received and cataloged into the Collection. Assisting the 
Director was a staff of three: Frances Shapiro, executive secretary, 
Myron O'Higgins, registrar, and Cynthia Jaffee, assistant curator. 

The Collection 

Born of one man's unique passion for art, the Hirshhom Collection is 
deeply concerned with major developments in the fields of contemporary 
painting and sculpture. Its 2,500 sculptures range historically from an- 
tiquity to the works of today's young creators. To its renowned group 
of European and American sculptures of the nineteenth and twentieth 
centuries, the Collection in 1968 added such significant works as: 

Artist Title 

Bourdelle, Emile Hommage a Daumier 

Chryssa Study for the "Gates" No. 15 (Flock of Morning 

Birds from Iphigenia in Aulis by Euripides) 

219 



220 HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN 




Cubi XII, by David Smith (American, 1906-1965). Stainless 
steel, 110 inches high, 1963. 



Artist 
Dubuffet, Jean 
Gabo, Naum 
Lachaise, Gaston 
Lichtenstein, Roy 
Miro, Joan 
Pevsner, Antoine 
Rodin, Augusta 
von Schlegell, David 
Smith, David 
di Suvero, Mark 



Title 
Le Verre d'Eau II 
Vertical Construction No. 1 
The King's Bride 

Modern Sculpture with Black Shaft 
Oiseau Lunaire 
Composition (Woman's Head) 
Celle qui fut la Belle Heaulmiere 
Leda 
Cubi XII 
The A Train 



The Collection's paintings focus on the twentieth century. From the 
works of precursors such as Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer to the 
canvases of today, the course of painting in America is covered in depth. 



THE COLLECTION 



221 




Le Verre d'eau II, by Jean Dubuffet 

(French, 1901 ). Polyester, 9414 

X 42 '/8 X 4 inches, 1966. 



Oiseau lunaire, by Joan Miro (Span- 
ish, 1893 ). Bronze, 921/8 x 823/4 x 

6I1/2 inches, 1966. 




Triptych, by Joan Miro (Spanish, 1893 ). Oil on masonite, 54 x 70 inches, 

1937. 



Complementing the American section is a strong selection of paintings 
by modem European masters and young contemporaries. Notable paint- 
ings added to the Collection in 1968 include : 



Artist 
Agam, Yaacov 
Diller, Burgoyne 
Dubuffet, Jean 
Ernst, Max 
Frankenthaler, Helen 
Miro, Joan 
Mondrian, Piet 
Pollock, Jackson 
Ruscha, Edward 
Still, ClyflFord 
Vasarely, Victor 
Zox, Larry 



Title 
Transparence of Rythmes II 
No. 2, First Theme 
Paysage au Caniche 
Belle de Nuit 
Indian Summer 
The Circus Horse 

Composition No. 2, Blue and Yellow 
Number 3 

Los Angeles County Museum on Fire 
Painting: January 1951 
Mizzar 
Trobriand 



For the past decade Mr. Hirshhorn has been known as one of the 
nation's most generous lenders. The Collection is a major source for 
museums and art historians preparing retrospective exhibitions, biogra- 
phies, or catalogues raisonnes of twentieth-century artists. In 1968 more 



m 




















■ 

3 














































>•■- 




,1 



Composition No. 2, Blue and Yellow, by Piet Mondrian (Dutch, 1872-1944). 
Oil on canvas, 283/4 x 271/2 inches, 1935. 



than fifty requests were received weekly for research information, loans, 
photographs, or permission to view specific works. Despite the limited 
physical facilities, more than three hundred visiting scholars, artists, and 
officials were greeted at the Collection office and warehouse in New 
York, and more than five hundred paintings and sculptures from the 
Collection were loaned to museums and galleries throughout the world. 
The following loans were representative: 



Artists 
Giacometti; Magritte; 
Masson; Miro; Pollock 



Works on Loan 
1 sculpture 
4 paintings and 
drawings 



To Exhibition or Recipient 
"DAD A, Surrealism & Their 
Heritage" : Museum of 
Modern Art, New York; 
Los Angeles; Chicago 



224 



HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN 







Number 3, by Jackson Pollock (American, 1912-1956). Oil and mixed media on 
canvas, 61 13/16 x 31 5/16 inches, 1949. 



Artists 
de Kooning, Willem 



Hepworth, Barbara 
Hopper, Edward 



Bacon; de Kooning; 

Hartley; Kokoschka; 

Munch; Rattner; Weber 
Gorky, Arshile 



Anuszkiewicz; Bontecou; 

Rauschenberg; Soto; 

Williams 
Calder; Giacometti; Man 

Ray; Masson; Miro 
Bauermeister; Matta 

Bellows; Eilshemius; Luks; 
Walkowitz 



Works on Loan To Exhibition or Recipient 

15 paintings de Kooning Retrospective: 

and drawings Amsterdam; London; Museum 

of Modern Art, New York ; 

Los Angeles; Chicago 
3 sculptures Hepworth Retrospective: 

Tate Gallery, London 
3 paintings Hopper Retrospective: IX 

Sao Paulo Bienal, Brazil; 

Brandeis University 
8 paintings "International Expressionism": 

Marlborough-Gerson Gallery, 

New York 

1 painting Opening Exhibition: National 

Collection of Fine Arts, 

Smithsonian Institution 

3 paintings Pittsburgh International: 

2 sculptures Carnegie Institute Museum 

of Art 

2 sculptures "Space and Dream": M. 

3 paintings Knoedler & Co., New York 
1 sculpture "The Art of Organic Forms" : 
1 painting Smithsonian Institution 

4 paintings "The Lower East Side: Portal 
and drawings to American Life (1870- 

1924)": Smithsonian 
Institution 



STAFF ACTIVITIES PUBLICATIONS 225 

Artists Works on Loan To Exhibition or Recipient 

Tovish, Harold 5 sculptures Tovish Retrospective: Solomon 

5 drawings R. Guggenheim Museum, 

New York 
Hopper, Edward 1 painting United States Embassy, Paris 

In 1968 the 130 monumental sculptures at the Hirshhorn Sculpture 
Garden in Greenwich, Conntecticut, were seen by 3,000 visitors who 
attended the 30 benefit tours scheduled for educational, cultural, and 
philanthropic organizations. The Garden Clubs of America and Channel 
13 (National Educational Television) issued publications in conjunction 
with their visits. 

The Museum 

On 17 May 1966, the President requested that Congress enact legis- 
lation to authorize acceptance of the Hirshhorn Collection as a gift to 
the United States. By the Act of 7 November 1966 (P.L. 89-788, 89th 
Cong., S. 3389), Congress provided a site on the Mall, bounded by 7th 
and 9th Streets, Independence Avenue and Madison Drive, and pro- 
vided statutory authority for the appropriation of construction and oper- 
ating funds. 

In 1968 the 90th Congress provided contract authority as well as an 
initial appropriation of $2,000,000 for construction of the Hirshhorn 
Museum and Sculpture Garden. Under architect Gordon Bunshaft, of 
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, plans for the Museum neared completion. 
Construction on the site is scheduled for early 1969. 

Staff Activities 

Director Abram Lerne'r traveled to London, Rome, Venice, and Milan 
to confer with artists, gallery directors, and museum officials. He and 
Assistant Curator Cynthia JafTee attended the Vernissage and Opening 
of the XXXIV Venice Biennale. 

On 25 May, Mr. Lerner was interviewed by WCBS-TV News on 
"Art Collecting Today." In 1968, among other activities, he continued 
to serve on the New York Advisory Board of the Archives of American 
Art. Miss JafTee served as a consultant to the New York State Council 
on the Arts. In April, all staflF members attended the Museum Computer 
Conference at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Publications 

Lerner, Abram. "Thomas Eakins" and "Edward Hopper." Essays in exhibi- 
tion catalog, From El Greco to Pollock. Baltimore Museum of Art, 1968. 



226 HIRSHHORN MUSEUM AND SCULPTURE GARDEN 

. "The Hirshhorn Collection." The Museum World: Arts Yearbook 9 



(New York), pp. 62-66, 1967. 

"The Joseph H. Hirshhorn Sculpture Garden." The Garden Clubs of 



America Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting, 1968. 
. "Mr. Hirshhorn and his Collection." Foreword to The Friends of 



Channel 13 Tour of the Hirshhorn Gardens, 1968. 
Jaffee, Cynthia. "Reuben Nakian." Biographical note and bibliography in 
Venice 34, The Figurative Tradition in Recent American Art. Washington: 
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968. 



National Gallery of Art 

John Walker, Director 




Sir : Submitted herewith on behalf of the Board of Trustees is the re- 
port of the National Gallery of Art for the fiscal year ended 30 June 
1968. This, the Gallery's thirty-first annual report, is made pursuant to 
the provisions of section 5(d) of Public Resolution No. 14, 75th Con- 
gress, 1st session, approved 24 March 1937 (50 Stat. 51; United States 
Code, title 20, sec. 75 (d) ) . 

Organization 

The National Gallery of Art, although established as a bureau of the 
Smithsonian Institution, is an autonomous and separately administered 
organization and is governed by its own Board of Trustees. The statu- 
tory members of the Board are the Chief Justice of the United States, the 
Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution, ex officio. The five general trustees con- 
tinuing in office during the fiscal year ended 30 June 1968 were Paul 
Mellon, John Hay Whitney, Franklin D. Murphy, Lessing J. Rosen- 
wald, and Stoddard M. Stevens. On 2 May 1968 Paul Mellon was 
reelected by the Board of Trustees to serve as President of the Gallery, 
and John Hay Whitney was reelected Vice President. 

227 



228 NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

The executive officers of the Gallery as of 30 June 1968 were as 
follows : 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren, Chairman. 

Paul Mellon, President. 

Ernest R. Feidler, Secretary and Treasurer. 

John Walker, Director. 

E. James Adams, Administrator. 

Ernest R. Feidler, General Counsel. 

Perry B. Cott, Chief Curator. 

J. Carter Brown, Assistant Director. 

The three standing committees of the Board, as constituted at the 
annual meeting on 2 May 1968 were as follows: 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Chief Justice of the United States, Earl Warren, Chairman. 

Paul Mellon, Vice Chairman. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. 

John Hay Whitney. 

Franklin D. Murphy. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE 

Secretary of the Treasury, Henry H. Fowler, Chairman. 

Paul Mellon. 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, S. Dillon Ripley. 

John Hay Whitney. 

Stoddard M. Stevens. 

ACQUISITIONS COMMITTEE 

Paul Mellon, Chairman. 
John Hay Whitney. 
Lessing J. Rosenwald. 
Franklin D. Murphy. 
John Walker. 

Personnel 

At the close of fiscal year 1968, full-time Government employees on 
the permanent staff of the National Gallery of Art numbered 323. 
The United States Civil Service regulations govern the appointment of 
employees paid from appropriated funds. 

Appropriations 

For the fiscal year ended 30 June 1968 the Congress of the United 
States, in the regular annual appropriation, and in a supplemental 
appropriation required for pay increases, provided $3,082,000 to be 
used for salaries and expenses in the operation and upkeep of the 
National Gallery of Art, the protection and care of works of art acquired 
by the Board of Trustees, and all administrative expenses incident 



APPROPRIATIONS ATTENDANCE THE COLLECTIONS 



229 




The Much Resounding Sea, by Thomas Moran (American, 1837-1926). Canvas, 
26 X 62 inches. Gift of the Avalon Foundation. 



thereto, as authorized by the basic statute establishing the National 
Gallery of Art, that is the Public Resolution No. 14, 75th Congress, 
1st session, approved 24 March 1937 (50 Stat. 51 ; United States Code, 
title 20, sees. 71-75). 

The following obligations were incurred : 



Personnel compensation and benefits 
All other items 



Total obligations 



$2, 462, 864. 89 
570,423.96 

$3,033,288.85 



Attendance 



Visitors to the Gallery numbered 1,267,028 during the year. Average 
daily attendance was 3,500. 

The Collections 

There were 1,878 accessions to the collections by the National Gallery 
of Art as gifts, loans, or deposits during the year. The following gifts 
or bequests were accepted by the Board of Trustees : 



Donor 


Artist 


Title 


Avalon Foundation 


Moran 


The Much Resounding Sea 


Mrs. Julia Feininger 


Feininger 


Storm Brewing 


Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 


G. W. Mark 


The Swamp Fox 


W. Garbisch 







230 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 




Mrs. Metcalf Bowler, by John Singleton Copley (American, 1738-1815). Canvas, 
50 X 40 '/4 inches. Gift of Louise Allda Livingston. At right, Portrait of a Woman, 
artist unknown (American, painted about 1840). Canvas, 30 x 34 inches. Gift 
of Edgar William and Bernice Chrysler Garbisch. 



Donor 




Artist 


Title 


Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 


F. R. Mullen 


Confederate Blockade 


W. Garbisch 






Runner and Union 
Man-of-War 


<( 


Unknown 




A City of Fantasy 


cc 


cc 




Portrait of a Man 


C( 


cc 




Portrait of a Woman 


<< 


cc 




Still Life : Fruit and Painted 
Box on Table 


" 


cc 




Stylized Landscape 


Louise Alida Livingston 


Copley 




Mrs. Metcalf Bowler 


" 


Sharpies 




John Bard 


« 


cc 




Mrs. John Bard 
Dr. John Bard 


G. Grant Mason, Jr. 


Lawrence 




Lady Hertford 
Marquis of Hertford 


Eugene and Agnes E. 


Renoir 




Nude 


Meyer 








National Gallery of Art, 


Jan van der Heyden 


An Architectural Fantasy 


Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund 








" 


Juan de Fl; 


andes 


The Temptation of Christ 


cc 


Panini 




Interior of Saint Peter's, 



Rome 



THE COLLECTIONS 



231 




An Architectural Fantasy, by Jan van der Heyden (Dutch, 1637-1712). Wood, 
185/2 X 27y2 inches. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. 



Donor 


Artist 


Title 


Mrs. Sigourney Thayer 


Kensett 

SCULPTURE 


Landing at Sabbath Day 
Point 


Avalon Foundation 


Rimmer 


Dying Centaur 


Eugene and Agnes E. 


Barye 


Tiger Killing a Deer 


Meyer 






" 


Brancusi 


Bird in Flight 


" 


ce 


Agnes E. Meyer 


Cf 


Despiau 


Agnes E. Meyer 


" 


Rodin 


The Sphinx 


National Gallery of Art, 


Maillol 


Bather with Raised Arms 


Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund 






{( 


Prou 

GRAPHIC ARTS 


Charles, Due de Berry 


Frank Eyerly 


Kuniyoshi 


Bombed Out 


" 


Marin 


The Sea, #3 


Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 


Various 


7 watercolors 


W. Garbisch 






The Heller Foundation 


Beckmann 


5 drypoints 




The Temptation of Christ, by Juan de Flandes (Hispano- 
Flemish, active 1496-ca. 1519). Wood, 8V4 x 6V4 inches. 
Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. 



Donor 


Artis 


Dr. and Mrs. George B. 


Catesby 


Green 




Louise Alida Livingston 


Saint-Memin 


" 


L'Aubin 


Eugene and Agnes E. 


Marin 


Meyer 




National Gallery of Art, 


Haseltine 


AUsa Mellon Bruce Fund 




National Gallery of Art, 


Various 


Andrew Mellon Fund 




Mrs. Harold Ober 


Marin 


C( 


Meryon 


Mrs. Helen Haseltine 


Haseltine 


Plowden 




" 


Haseltine 



Title 



13 etchings 



Commodore Tingy 
Mrs. Tingy 
5 watercolors 

A Venetian Lagoon 

22 prints and drawings 

Quai d'lvry 

The Old Gate of the 

Palace of Justice 
The Admiralty 
House in Venice 

Mount Tacoma 



THE COLLECTIONS 



233 



Donor 
Mrs. Fred Rieth 
Lessing J. Rosenwald 



Artist 
Various 
Claude Lorrain 
Corot 
G6ricault 
Rembrandt 



Various 



Title 
23 prints 

Return of the Herds 
40 prints 

Etudes de chevaux 
The Artist Drawing from 

a Model 
A Woman Reading 
The Goldweigher's Field 
4 prints (from proceeds of 

sale of duplicate prints) 



WORKS OF ART ON LOAN TO THE GALLERY 



The following works of 
on loan: 

Donor 
Nathan Cummings 
Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 

VV. Garbisch 
Jerome Hill 
Mr. and Mrs. David 

Lloyd Kreeger 



art were received on loan, or were continued 



Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon 



Artist 
Prendergast 
Hicks 

Delacroix 
Bonnard 

Cezanne 

Degas 

Gauguin 

Monet 

Maillol 

Stubbs 

Stubbs 

Various French 

artists 
Various English 

artists 
Prendergast 
Degas 



Title 
Cove with Figures 
Peaceable Kingdom 

Lion Devouring a Goat 
After Lunch 

Road near Auvers 

Woman Brushing Her Hair 

Landscape 

The Seine near Giverny 

Pomona 

Lion Attacking a Deer 

Lion Attacking a Horse 

68 paintings 

137 drawings and water- 
colors 
Salem Willows 
1 3 wax sculptures 
1 bronze sculpture 



WORKS OF ART ON LOAN RETURNED 



Donor 


Artist 


Title 


Nathan Cummings 


Prendergast 


Cove with Figures 


Colonel and Mrs. Edgar 


Hicks 


Peaceable Kingdom 


W. Garbisch 






Mr. and Mrs. David 


Bonnard 


After Lunch 


Lloyd Kreeger 








Cezanne 


Road near Auvers 




Degas 


Woman Brushing Her Hair 




Gauguin 


Landscape 




Monet 


The Seine near Giverny 




Maillol 


Pomona 


315-997 O - 69 - 16 







234 



NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 



WORKS OF ART LENT BY THE GALLERY 



To 


Artist 


Title 


Akron Art Institute 


Demuth 


Chimney and Water Tower 


American Federation 


Various 


35 paintings 


of Arts 






State of Arkansas 


Catlin 


18 paintings 


Blair House 


Various 


6 paintings 


The Brooklyn Museum 


Homer 


Hound and Hunter 


(( 


Whistler 


Head of a Girl 


Art Institute of Chicago 


Whistler 


White Girl 


California Palace of the 


Homer 


Hound and Hunter 


Legion of Honor 






<( 


Whistler 


Head of a Girl 


Deerfield Academy 


Tack 


Charles Evans Hughes 


Drury College 


Various 


4 paintings 


Georgia Museum of Art 


Various 


14 paintings 


State of Illinois 


Stuart 


Sir John Dick 


(( 


Zeliff 


The Barnyard 


Joslyn Art Museum 


Catlin 


35 paintings 


Lakeview Center for the 


Catlin 


28 paintings 


Arts and Sciences 






Munson-Williams- Proctor 


Whistler 


White Girl 


Institute 






University of Maryland 


Cropsey 


Autumn on the Hudson 
River 


Mint Museum of Art 


Copley 


The Death of the Earl of 
Chatham 


« 


West 


Self-Portrait 


(C 


Various 


17 paintings 


National Art Museum of 


Toole 


Skating Scene 


Sport, Inc. 






National Collection of 


Quidor 


The Return of Rip Van 


Fine Arts 




Winkle 


National Society of 


Stuart 


Betsey Hartigan 


Colonial Dames 






<( 


(( 


Unknown Man 


National Portrait Gallery 


Various 


13 paintings 


Norfolk Museum of Arts 


Various 


7 paintings 



and Sciences 

Pennsylvania Academy John 

of the Fine Arts 

Portland Art Museum Homer 

Museum of Fine Arts, St. Various 

Petersburg, Fla. 

Smithsonian Institution Various 

State University College, Church 

Geneseo, New York 

Society of the Four Arts Various 

Tampa Bay Art Center Various 

Triton Museum of Art Various 

United States Capitol Lambdin 



Joseph E. Widener 

Right and Left 

4 paintings 

5 paintings 
Morning in the 

Tropics 
17 paintings 

6 paintings 
35 paintings 
Daniel Webster 





GIFTS EXHIBITIONS 


To 


Artist 


TiUe 


United States Capitol 


Courter 


Lincoln and His 
Son Tad 


United States Department 


Various 


4 paintings 


of Justice 






United States Department 


Catlin 


7 paintings 


of State 






United States Supreme 


Hesselius 


Thomas Johnson 


Court 






Virginia Museum of Fine 


Homer 


Hound and Hunter 


Arts 






<c 


Whistler 


Head of a Girl 


The White House 


Various 


3 paintings 


Whitney Gallery of 


Catlin 


72 paintings 


Western Art 


Other Gifts 





235 



Gifts of money and securities were made by Avalon Foundation; 
Mrs. Angier Biddle Duke; J. I. Foundation, Inc.; Mrs. Ailsa Mellon 
Bruce; H. Arthur Klein; Samuel H. Kress Foundation; Medici Society, 
Ltd.; The A. W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust; Paul Mel- 
lon; Old Dominion Foundation; Lila Acheson Wallace Fund, Inc.; and 
others. 

Exhibitions 

The following exhibitions were held at the National Gallery of Art: 



Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century German Prints (continued from the 

previous year through 3 August 1967). 
Eighteenth-Century Drawings and Watercolors from the Collection 

of Rear Admiral and Mrs. H. W. Chanler (continued from the pre- 
vious year through 9 October 1967) . 
Gilbert Stuart, Portraitist of the Young Republic (continued from the 

previous year through 20 August 1967) . 
French Nineteenth-Century Prints from the Rosenwald Collection 

(3 August through 7 December 1967) . 
Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century European Drawings (27 August 

through 24 September 1967). 
Swiss Drawings: Masterpieces of Five Centuries (8 October through 

29 October 1967). 
Portraits from the Graphic Arts Collection of the National Gallery of 

Art [2b October 1967 through 8 February 1968) . 
Fifteenth-Century Engravings of Northern Europe from the Collection 

of the National Gallery of Art (3 December 1967 through 7 January 

1968). 



236 NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

The Temptation of Christ by Juan de Flandes (14 December 1967 to 

continue into the next fiscal year) . 
Exhibition of Christmas Prints (7 December 1967 through 22 January 

1968). 
Renderinss from the Index of American Design (22 January through 

8 April 1968) . 
Painting in France 1900-1967 (18 February through 17 March 1968). 
The Etchings of Charles Meryon (1 April through 28 April 1968). 
Prints by Mark Catesby (1 April through 28 April 1968). 
Paintings from the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York (19 

May 1968 to continue into the next fiscal year) . 
Twentieth-Century French Prints and Drawings from the Rosenwald 

Collection, the Chester Dale Collection, and the Frank Crownin- 

shield Collection (8 April through 25 June 1968) . 
Prints of the Danube School (25 June 1968 to continue into the next 

fiscal year) . 

Traveling Exhibitions 

Graphic Arts from the National Gallery of Art collections were included 
in two traveling exhibitions, and special loans were made to 32 museums, 
universities, schools, and art centers in the United States and abroad. 

Curatorial Activities 

Under the direction of chief curator Perry B. Cott, the curatorial 
department accessioned 164 gifts to the Gallery. Advice was given with 
respect to 1,691 works of art brought to the Gallery for expert opinion, 
and 50 visits to collections were made by members of the staff in con- 
nection with offers of gifts. 

The registrar's office issued 130 permits to copy and 70 permits to 
photograph. About 4,000 inquiries, many of them requiring research, 
were answered orally and by letter. There were about 350 visitors to 
the graphic arts study room, and permits for reproduction involving 
100 photographs were issued. 

Material in the Index of American Design was used during the year 
by 471 persons. Their interests included securing slides and exhibits, 
doing special research and designing, and gathering illustrations for 
publications. 

Assistant chief curator William P. Campbell served as a member of 
the Special Fine Arts Committee of the Department of State; he judged 
one exhibition. 

Curator of painting H. Lester Cooke was appointed consulting editor 
of American Artist magazine; he judged two exhibitions. A combat 
artist in Viet Nam, he continued as art consultant for nasa, visiting 




Interior of St. Peter's, Rome, by Giovanni Paolo Panini (Italian, ca. 1692- 
1765/8). Canvas, 61 x 77'/2 inches. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. 



Cape Kennedy with artists. He organized an art exhibit for nasa's 
tenth anniversary, and appeared on several television shows during 
the year. 

David Rust, museum curator, judged three art exhibitions. 

Assistant registrar Diane Russell taught two courses at The American 
University. 

The Richter Archives received and cataloged 200 photographs on 
exchange from museums here and abroad; 1,176 photographs were 
purchased and about 2,000 reproductions were added to the Archives. 
1 ,000 photographs were added to the Iconographic Index. 



Restoration 

Francis Sullivan, resident restorer of the Gallery, made regular and 
systematic inspection of all works of art in the Gallery and on loan to 
government buildings in Washington, periodically removing dust and 
bloom as required. He relined, cleaned, and restored ten paintings; gave 
special treatment to sixty-eight; and X-rayed eighteen as an aid in 
research. He continued experiments with synthetic materials as sug- 
gested by the National Gallery Fellowship at the Mellon Institute of 
Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Technical advice was 
given in response to 237 telephone inquiries. Special treatment was given 



238 NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

to works of art belonging to government agencies including the United 
States Capitol and the Supreme Court. Sullivan appeared on the NBC 
television broadcast "The American Profile — The National Gallery of 
Art." 

Publications 

Katharine Shepard, assistant curator of graphic arts, contributed a 
book review to the American Journal of Archaeology. Hereward Lester 
Cooke wrote a book on Painting Lessons from the Great Masters, which 
won the Art Book of the Year award from the Art Publishers Guild. Wil- 
liam P. Campbell edited the catalog of the Stuart exhibition. Perry B. 
Cott wrote the introduction to a book on Italian paintings in the 
National Gallery of Art. 

Publications Service 

The Publications Service placed on sale nine new publications: Nico- 
las Poussin by Sir Anthony Blunt, the A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine 
Arts for 1958; Painting Lessons from the Great Masters by Hereward 
Lester Cooke; On Quality in Art by Jakob Rosenberg, the A. W. Mellon 
Lectures in the Fine Arts for 1964; Renaissance Medals from the Sam- 
uel H. Kress Collection by G. F. Hill and Graham Pollard; the second 
book in the National Gallery of Art's Kress Foundation Studies in the 
History of European Art, French Painting in the Time of Jean de Berry 
(two volumes) by Millard Meiss; Going Places with Children (a guide- 
book to Washington, D.C.) ; Art and the Spirit of Man by Rene Huyghe, 
Kress Professor in Residence at the National Gallery of Art; Historia 
Illiistrada del Arte Occidental by Erwin O. Christensen; Bernini by 
Howard Hibbard. 

Six new catalogs of special exhibitions were placed on sale: Gilbert 
Stuart {1755-1828) , Portraitist of the Young Republic; Fifteenth- and 
Sixteenth-Century European Drawings; Swiss Drawings: Masterpieces 
of Five Centuries; Painting in France, 1900-1967 ; Paintings from the 
Albright-Knox Art Gallery; Fifteenth-Century Engravings of Northern 
Europe by Alan Shestack, the second volume on graphic art in the col- 
lection of the National Gallery of Art. 

A second edition of the catalog listing items sold by the Publications 
Service was published. A catalog with black-and-white illustrations 
of 48 Christmas cards, using reproductions of paintings, sculptures, and 
prints from Gallery collections was published, and 55,000 were dis- 
tributed. Over 360,000 cards were sold. 

The following new color reproductions were made available during 
the year: twelve subjects in the 22" x 28" format; fourteen subjects 
in 11" X 14" letterpress format; twenty-one subjects (for the first time) 



PUBLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 239 

in the 11" x 14" offset-lithography format; thirty-four color postcards; 
and seventy 2" x 2" color slides. 
Number of customers served : 

Over the counter 337,012 

By mail 14, 464 



1967 


1968 


22, 126 


19, 384 


9, 166 


9,711 


13,396 


13,836 


15,095 


14, 533 


22, 733 


25, 325 


74, 327 


63, 674 


820 


646 



Total number of customers 351, 476 

Educational Program 

The program of the education department was carried out under the 
direction of Margaret Bouton, curator of education. Attendance fig- 
ures for the series of lectures, tours, and special talks continued by the 
department are shown below. 

Type of Tour 
Introduction to the collection 
Tour of the Week 
Painting of the Week 
Sunday lectures 
Special appointments 
Scheduled visits for area school children 
Pre-school children 

Total public response 157, 663 147, 109 

Special appointments for tours, lectures, and conferences were made 
for groups from government agencies such as the Department of State, 
the Foreign Students Council, and the Armed Forces, and for club 
and study groups from all parts of the country. 

The program of training volunteer docents continued, and volunteers 
from the Junior League of Washington, D.C., and the American 
Association of University Women conducted tours for children from 
public and private schools in the District of Columbia and surrounding 
counties of Maryland and Virginia. This year a Saturday program 
was inaugurated by the Junior League docents to provide tours for 
Scout groups and others. 

The program for pre-school children, begun last year in connection 
with the cooperative nursery schools supervised by the District of 
Columbia Department of Recreation, continued; and fifteen volunteer 
docents (mothers who regularly help in the nursery schools) con- 
ducted tours of the Gallery for children from twenty-seven schools. 

On Sunday afternoons fifty lectures with slides or films were given 
in the auditorium. There were thirty-five guest lecturers. Among these, 
the Andrew W. Mellon Lecturer in the Fine Arts, Stephen Spender, 
gave five lectures entitled "Imaginative Literature and Painting." 



240 NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

Seven lectures were given by members of the staff of the education 
department, two by other Gallery staflf members, and there were two 
full-length film presentations. 

The slide library now has a total of 51,567 slides in its permanent 
and lending collections. During the year 1,893 slides were borrowed 
by 446 persons, and it is estimated that the slides were seen by 26,769 
viewers. 

Education department staff members prepared texts for thirty-nine 
leaflets to accompany reproductions of the Painting of the Week sold 
in the Publications Rooms. Thirty-six radio talks were produced for 
broadcast during intermission periods at the National Gallery Sunday 
concerts. One new LecTour tape was recorded, and an Acoustiguide text 
was written and recorded for the exhibition of paintings from the 
Albright-Knox Gallery. Five pages of text were prepared for the Spanish- 
language Acoustiguide tour. 

Dr. Bouton gave five lectures over the telephone to classrooms in 
schools in Arlington, Virginia, and in Youngstown, Ohio. Slides of 
Gallery paintings had been sent to the schools. Question and answer 
periods followed the telephone lectures. 

A calendar of events listing National Gallery activities and mailed 
to approximately 11,800 names each month was prepared by the 
education department. In January this duty was transferred to the 
Public Information Office. 

John Brooks taught art courses for the University of Maryland. John 
Hand delivered three lectures for the Virginia Museum and lectured 
on Oriental Art at the Graduate School, Department of Agriculture. 
Raymond S. Stites, Assistant to the Director for educational services, 
delivered twenty talks outside the Gallery. These included lectures 
at ten universities and colleges delivered in six states. 

Extension Service 

The Office of Extension Service circulates to the public traveling 
exhibitions, films, slides, and filmstrip lectures. These materials are lent 
free of charge except for shipping expenses. During the fiscal year 
this program reached approximately 2,176,000 persons — an increase 
of approximately 396,000 over last year. 

Traveling exhibitions were viewed by an estimated 1,018,000. These 
figures include viewers of thirteen exhibits which are on loan to other 
organizations and are circulated by them. One hundred and forty-four 
prints of three films on the National Gallery of Art were circulated in 
1,299 bookings and were seen by approximately 142,000 persons. This 
represents an increase in bookings of 576 (approximately 63,000 



EXTENSION SERVICE LIBRARY 241 

viewers) over last year when eighty prints of films were circulated. 

A total of 2,403 slide lectures were circulated in 9,487 bookings and 
were seen by over 711,500 persons. This represents an increase in 
viewers of close to 81,500 over last year. 

The special sHde lecture project of placing sets of slides on long-term 
loan with school systems was, in this its second year, expanded and in- 
creased so that fifty additional slide sets were placed in thirty-two school 
systems, with nine state directors of art, and in five colleges. The total 
number of schools now included in this special project is fifty-six. An 
incomplete report from the schools (thirty-one schools reporting) shows 
4,123 bookings with an estimated 309,225 viewers. 

To increase the efTectiveness of the Extension Service and to keep 
abreast of new developments in the audiovisual field, the curators, Grose 
Evans and George Kuebler, attended conferences and conventions in 
various states, speaking about the National Gallery of Art and displaying 
teaching materials available from the Gallery. 

The National Gallery of Art again cooperated with the United States 
Office of Education and the George Washington University in a sum- 
mer institute entitled "The Art Museum and the Teacher." Thirty-six 
teachers and supervisors from various parts of the country participated 
in this program, which was designed to strengthen their knowledge of 
art history and criticism and to develop new teaching techniques. The 
institute was held from 26 June to 1 1 August 1967. 

Library 

The library, under the direction of Anna M. Link, accessioned 
by gift, exchange, and purchase 1,723 books, pamphlets, and periodi- 
cals; processed 993 {publications; filed 4,442 cards in the main catalog 
and shelf list; received by gift, exchange, or purchase 3,301 periodicals; 
charged to staff members 4,821 books; shelved 8,320 books; and bor- 
rowed through interlibrary loan facilities 569 books, of which 536 were 
borrowed from the Library of Congress. 

Under the exchange program the library distributed 538 National 
Gallery of Art publications to foreign and domestic institutions and 
received 554 publications in exchange. — ""^ 

The library is the depository For black-and-white photographs of the 
works of art in the Gallery's collections. These are maintained for use 
in research by the stafT, for exchange with other institutions, for repro- 
duction in approved publications, and for sale to the public. Approxi- 
mately 5,571 photographs were added to the stock in the library, and 
1,323 orders for 6,046 photographs were filled, including 400 permits 
for reproduction of 906 subjects. 



242 NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

Index of American Design 

The Index of American Design circulated 32 exhibitions in 74 bookings 
in 15 states and the District of Columbia. The Index also circulated 154 
sets of color slides (7,636 slides) throughout the country; 735 photo- 
graphs of Index subjects were used for exhibits, study, and for publica- 
tion. The photograph file has been increased by 42 negatives and 192 
prints. The Index received 471 visitors who studied the material for 
research purposes and to collect material for design and publication. 
Twenty-one permits were issued to reproduce Index subjects (354 
subjects) for publication. All these categories showed an increase by 
use and activity over 1967. 

One special exhibition was prepared for display in the Gallery, and a 
selection of Index watercolors was on view in certain areas of the Gal- 
lery during the entire year. 

Two exhibits from the Index were circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution and one was borrowed for a year by the National Foundation 
on the Arts and Humanities. 

Operation and Maintenance Activities 

The Gallery building, mechanical equipment, and grounds were main- 
tained throughout the year at the established standards. 

Alterations in the west wing corridor on the ground floor were com- 
pleted ; a large unfinished area was floored and prepared for occupancy 
by the Extension Service and the Index of American Design ; additional 
general and art storage facilities were constructed; various improve- 
ments were made in the restoration studio, photographic laboratory. 
Constitution Avenue entrance, and greenhouse. Alterations necessary to 
provide more efficient facilities for the sale of publications were com- 
menced. 

The Gallery greenhouse produced flowering and foliage plants in 
sufficient quantities to meet all of the decorative needs of special open- 
ings, holiday periods, and the daily requirements of the garden courts. 

Pre-Recorded Tours 

The Gallery radio-tour system, LecTour, and Acoustiguide, a small 
tape-playback device ofTering a 45-minute highlight tour, were used by 
44,707 visitors. 

Music 

Under the supervision of Richard H. Bales, Assistant to the Director 
in charge of music, thirty-seven concerts were given on Sundays in the 
east garden court. Thirty-two of these concerts were financed by funds 



MUSIC RESEARCH 243 

bequeathed to the Gallery by William Nelson Cromwell, and six of the 
seven programs in the twenty-fifth American Music Festival were pro- 
vided by funds received from the J. I. Foundation, Inc. 

The National Gallery Orchestra, conducted by Richard H. Bales, 
played ten of the concerts. Two programs were made possible in part 
by grants from the Music Performance Trust Fund of the Recording 
Industry. All the concerts were broadcast in their entirety by radio 
station WGMS. Music critics of the local newspapers continued cover- 
age of the concerts. 

The orchestra performed at special concerts, including a performance 
at the White House following a State dinner in honor of Chancellor of 
the Federal Republic of Germany and Mrs. Kiesinger, on 15 August 
1967; and at the dedication of restored Ford's Theater on 21 January 
1968. 

Two one-hour color television concerts by the National Gallery Or- 
chestra were telecast locally on WTOP on 28 November 1967 and 20 
February 1968. The Gallery Orchestra and television station WTOP 
received an award from the Metropolitan Area Mass Media Commis- 
sion of the American Association of University Women for these con- 
certs. 

Richard H. Bales was in residence at the University of Rochester for 
the summer as conductor of the Eastman Chamber Orchestra and as 
instructor in conducting at the Eastman School of Music. He also ap- 
peared as guest conductor of the Peninsula Symphony Orchestra in 
Newport News, Virginia; he lectured several times before clubs and 
music groups. A number of his compositions were performed during 
the season not only by the Gallery Orchestra but also by the Philadelphia 
Symphony Orchestra and by orchestras in other cities. This year marks 
his twenty-fifth year in charge of music activities at the Gallery, and as 
conductor of the National Gallery Orchestra. During this quarter cen- 
tury he has compiled a record of which the National Gallery of Art 
is justly proud. 

Research Project 

Generous grants from the Old Dominion and Avalon Foundations 
have made possible the continued long-range program of research on 
artists' materials sponsored by the National Gallery of Art at Carnegie- 
Mellon University's Mellon Institute in Pittsburgh. One phase of the 
present investigations concerns a broad spectrum of studies regarding 
the deteriorating effects of light on museum collections. Another phase, 
just initiated, concerns the application of nuclear methods to the charac- 
terization of materials. 



244 NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

The past year marked the completed development of a method that 
can provide an indication of the age of white lead in paintings, based 
on measurement of the equilibrium between the natural radioactive 
isotopes present in the lead, lead-210 and radium-226. In its latest de- 
velopment, the method permits estimation of the probability that the 
lead in pigment samples was refined in the twentieth century or in an 
earlier time. An article in Science describes new procedures which were 
devised to circumvent possible interference by impurities, and presents 
data demonstrating conclusively that modem white lead had been used 
in a number of paintings in the style of Vermeer and Hals which have 
generally been considered forgeries. Furthermore, data obtained regard- 
ing two questioned paintings, attributed to Vermeer, at the National 
Gallery of Art showed that the lead in these paintings was indeed old, 
thereby tending to confirm the attribution. 

A new three-year project jointly financed by the Gallery and the 
Atomic Energy Commission will explore further applications of nuclear 
technology to problems in characterizing artists' materials. Chief among 
these will be the application of neutron activation analysis to establish 
concentration profiles of trace impurities in pigments used by major 
artists. Such data may establish what amounts to "fingerprints" of the 
artist, his studio, or contemporary locale which would be virtually im- 
possible for any forger to duplicate. 

To probe the various hazards of exposure to light, the Research Proj- 
ect has initiated studies of the rate at which certain traditional pigments 
may fade. Early in this investigation, special attention was given to the 
phenomenon of chalking, a lightening of the color of paints which may 
easily be mistaken for deterioration of pigment but which is caused 
instead by the deterioration of the vehicle. Although frequently encoun- 
tered in accelerated testing, this form of deterioration can also occur in 
paintings on a gallery wall. Through analysis of the spectrophotometric 
reflectance curves of a paint before and after exposure, it has proved 
possible to distinguish chalking from true fading of the colorant. 

Vermilion is a peculiar artists' pigment that darkens rather than fades 
upon exposure to light ; in so doing it undergoes a physical change rather 
than a chemical one. In the examination of this problem, the Research 
Project has studied in detail the nearly forgotten writings and patents 
published by Alexander Eibner fifty years ago in which the causes of this 
transformation and directions for the preparation of lightfast pigment 
are presented. Laboratory experiments revealed that vermilion made 
according to Eibner's directions is more lightfast than many currently 
available varieties. The extent of conversion of the red to the black 



OTHER ACTIVITIES 245 

form depends upon the amount of visible and near ultraviolet radiation 
that strikes the sample. As a consequence, the traditional technique of 
placing alizarin and carmine glazes over vermilion provides protection 
from darkening. Moreover, in watercolor and polymer-emulsion paints 
that scatter the light considerably, vermilion will not darken so much as 
it will in oil. 

Illumination may also cause damage through heat. To monitor the 
temperature of paintings being photographed under high-intensity 
illumination, infrared-sensing thermometers have been introduced 
which operate at a distance and need not touch the object. A published 
report covering both the theoretical and practical aspects of the prob- 
lem describes the beneficial efifects of dichroic-reflector lamps, infrared- 
reflecting glass, and refrigerated air. 

The research results have been shared widely through the publications 
in the attached list as well as through numerous lectures, including 
invited papers given in London and Siena in September 1967. 

Feller, R. L. "Barytes Found in Blanched Paint." Bulletin of the American 

Group-IIC, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 10, 1967. 
. "Felt-tipped Markers and the Need for Standards of Lightfastness 

for Artists' Colorants." Bulletin of the American Group-IIC, vol. 8, 

no. 1, pp. 24-26, 1967; Inter-Society Color Council Newsletter, no. 192 

(January-February 1968), pp. 10-11. 
. "Solubility Parameter." Bulletin of the American Group~IIC, 

vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 20-24, 1968. 

"Control of Deteriorating Effects of Light on Museum Objects: Heat- 



ing Effects of Illumination by Incandescent Lamps." Museum News, vol. 
46, no. 9 (May 1968), Technical Supplement. 

Johnston, R. M., and R. L. Feller. "Optics of Paint Films: Glazes and 
Chalking." Pages 86-95 in Application of Science in the Examination of 
Works of Art. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1967. 

Keisch, B. "Discriminating Radioactivity Measurements of Lead: New Tool 
for Authentication." Curator, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 41, 1968. 

. "Scientific Evidence in Art Authentication: Problems in Interpreta- 
tion." Lex et Scientia, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 66, 1968. 

. "Dating Works of Art through Their Natural Radioactivity: Improve- 



ments and Applications." Science, vol. 160, p. 413, 1968. 

Other Activities 

The National Gallery of Art provided facilities for the ceremony held 
by the Post Office Department on 2 November 1967 — the first day of 
issue of a postage stamp in the Fine Arts Series. The stamp is based 
on the painting by Thomas Eakins, The Biglin Brothers Racing, which 
was given to the Gallery by Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney. 



246 NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART 

Henry Beville, head of the photographic laboratory, and his assistants 
processed 234,037 items including slides, negatives, prints, color trans- 
parencies, and color slides. This is a 90 percent increase over the activity 
in 1967. 

Audit of Private Funds 

An audit of the private funds of the Gallery will be made for the 
fiscal year ended 30 June 1968 by Price Waterhouse and Co., public 
accountants. A report of the audit will be forwarded to the Gallery. 



John F. Kennedy Center for the 
Performing Arts 

Roger L. Stevens 
Chairman, Board of Trustees 



W^^^^^^^_ 




'T~'HE KENNEDY center's STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE, bcgun in September 
1967, is now extravagantly visible. As of 30 June 1968 the steelwork 
was more than three-quarters complete. The drive up Rock Creek- 
Potomac Parkway now passes under the steel framework of the River 
Terrace. The skeletal outlines of the Concert Hall, the Opera, the 
Theater, the impressive Grand Foyer, and the twin Halls — The Hall 
of Nations and Hall of States — are clearly visible. 

Equally important to the Center's progress, though less visually spec- 
tacular, were the appointments of William McCormick Blair, Jr., as 
General Director of the Kennedy Center and Julius Rudel as Music 
Advisor. 

The Kennedy Center, which has long been a workable challenge for 
those close to it, is now becoming a physical reality. The building is 
expected to open for performances in 1970. As construction has pro- 
gressed, so too has interest and curiosity about the Center. In addition 
to the customary "sidewalk superintendents," the Center was host to 
diverse groups of visitors, including Washington school children, 4-H 
honor students from Nebraska, architects from Italy and Greece, and 
engineering students from Sweden and the University of Virginia. The 
Trustees responded to this increased interest by approving a plan for 
an information center, a temporary structure to be located at the site. 

247 



248 JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER 

Organization 

Although it was the intent of the founders of the nation's capital that 
the city be both the political and cultural center of the United States, 
only in recent years was positive action taken to provide adequate 
facilities for the performing arts in Washington, D.C. 

When compared with other major capital cities of the world, Wash- 
ington has lagged far behind. The lack of a showplace in the city for 
the finest achievements in music, drama, dance, and cinema from this 
nation and from abroad has been a continuing embarrassment. 

The establishment of a national center for the performing arts has 
had the active support of the last three Presidents, and the encourage- 
ment of three previous Presidents. President Eisenhower signed the 
legislation authorizing the National Cultural Center in 1958 (P.L. 85- 
874, 85th Cong., 2 September 1958). President Kennedy encouraged 
national support of the project and in 1963 signed amending legislation 
which extended the fund-raising deadline and increased the member- 
ship of the Board of Trustees to 45. 

On 23 January 1964 President Johnson signed into law a bipartisan 
measure designating the National Cultural Center the sole official memo- 
rial in the nation's capital to President Kennedy, renaming it the John 
F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts (P.L. 88-260'). The law 
also authorized $15.5 million in matching Federal funds, and granted 
the Trustees the authority to issue revenue bonds to the Secretary of the 
Treasury to a value not greater than $15.4 million. These funds were 
designated for construction of the 1600-car underground garage and 
are payable from the revenues accruing to the Board. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Pursuant to the John F. Kennedy Center Act, the Board of Trustees 
is made up of 15 members who serve ex-officio and 30 general Trustees. 

During the past year, through resignations, membership in the Board 
has changed. Wilbur J. Cohen succeeded John W. Gardner as Secretary 
of Health, Education, and Welfare. Edward D. Re succeeded 
Charles Frankel as Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and 
Cultural AfTairs. Walter E. Washington succeeded Walter N. Tobriner 
as Commissioner of the District of Columbia. William H. Thomas suc- 
ceeded William H. Waters, Jr., as Chairman of the District of Columbia 
Recreation Board. 

Vacancies in the Board of Trustees were created by the sudden deaths 
of Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Howard F. Ahmanson. 



ORGANIZATION 



249 



At the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees on 29 January 1968 
the following officers were elected : 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman 

Robert O. Anderson, Vice Chairman 

Sol M. Linowitz, Vice Chairman 

Ralph E. Becker, General Counsel 

Robert C. Baker, Treasurer 

K. LeMoyne Billings, Secretary 

Philip J. Mullin, Assistant Secretary and 

Assistant Treasurer 
Herbert D. Lawson, Assistant Treasurer 
Kenneth Birgfeld, Assistant Treasurer 
Paul J. Bisset, Assistant Treasurer 
Henry C. Heine, Assistant Treasurer 

Previous to the annual meeting Daniel W. Bell notified Mr. Stevens 
that he was retiring as Treasurer, a position Mr. Bell had held since 
the establishment of the Center. At the annual meeting, Mr. Bell was 
elected Treasurer Emeritus, an office created in recognition of his 
"dedication, counsel and tireless work since 1958." Mr. Bell was for- 
merly Assistant Secretary of the Treasury and returned to private life 
to serve as president and chairman of the board of the American Se- 
curity and Trust Company of Washington. 

Under the bylaws the following officers continue to serve as mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee : 

Roger L. Stevens, Chairman Ralph E. Becker, General Counsel 

Robert O. Anderson, Vice Chairman Robert C. Baker, Treasurer 

Sol M. Linowitz, Vice Chairman K. LeMoyne Billings, Secretary 

From the Board, the Chairman appointed to the Executive Com- 
mittee the following persons, who are presently serving: 

Mr. Justice Fortas S. Dillon Ripley II 

George B. Hartzog, Jr. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. 

Mrs. John F. Kennedy Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Mrs. Albert D. Lasker Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 

Erich Leinsdorf Walter E. Washington 

Edward D. Re Jack Valenti 

At the annual meeting Mrs. George A. Garrett, Mrs. Albert D. Lasker, 
and Mrs. Jouett Shouse, Trustees of the Center, were reappointed, 
to serve on the National Council of the Friends of the Kennedy Center. 

The death of two individuals who had devoted their time and ener- 
gies to the Kennedy Center was acknowledged by memorial resolu- 



315-997 O - 69 - 17 



250 JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER 

tions adopted at the annual meeting. The two were: Murray Preston, 
executive vice president of the American Security and Trust Com- 
pany, Washington, who had served as Treasurer of the Friends of 
the Kennedy Center; and Mrs. Ann Smolian Jacobson of Birmingham, 
Alabama, who was active in promoting the Kennedy Center both na- 
tionally and in Alabama. 

At the close of the fiscal year the membership of the Board of Trustees 
of the John F. Kennedy Center was as follows : 

Richard Adler George Meany 

Floyd D. Akers Robert I. Millonzi 

Robert O. Anderson L. Quincy Mumford 

Ralph E. Becker Edwin W. Pauley 

K. LeMoyne Billings Arthur Penn 

Mrs. Thomas W. Braden Charles H. Percy 

Edgar M. Bronfman Edward D. Re 

Mrs. George R. Brown Frank H. Ricketson, Jr. 

Joseph S. Clark S. Dillon Ripley II 

Wilbur J. Cohen Richard Rodgers 

Ralph W. Ellison Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. 

Mr. Justice Fortas Mrs. Jouett Shouse 

Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen Mrs. Stephen E. Smith 

J. William Fulbright Roger L. Stevens 

Mrs. George A. Garrett William H. Thomas 

Leonard H. Goldenson Frank Thompson, Jr. 

George B. Hartzog, Jr. Jack ValentI 

Harold Howe II William Walton 

Mrs. Albert D. Lasker Walter E. Washington 

Robert Lehman Edwin L. Weisl, Sr. 

Erich Leinsdorf James C. Wright, Jr. 
Sol M. Linowitz 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson, Mrs. John F. Kennedy, and Mrs. Dwight 
D. Eisenhower continue to serve as honorary co-chairmen of the 
Center. 

On 31 January 1968 the Chairman annodnced the appointments 
of Ambassador William McC. Blair, Jr., as General Director and 
Julius Rudel as Music Advisor to the Center. 

Mr. Blair, who assumed duties on 1 April, most recently served 
as United States Ambassador to the Philippines. As General Direc- 
tor, he is responsible for administration, including budget, congres- 
sional relations, promotion, fund-raising, and educational activities. 

Mr. Rudel, who has been chief conductor and general conductor 
of the New York City Opera since 1957, will review the musical 
program for the Center and will be responsible for the final recom- 
mendations to the Trustees of the artistic groups that will appear 
in the concert hall and opera. 



CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS 251 

During his long association with the New York City Opera, Mr. Rudel 
has gained a reputation for championing contemporary works to a 
degree unique among operatic enterprises. The opera company is also 
known for its excellent Mozart repertoire. 



The Kennedy Center lost one of its most dedicated and effective sup- 
porters in the tragic death on 6 June of Senator Robert F. Kennedy. 
Appointed to the Board of Trustees by President Johnson in 1964, 
Senator Kennedy took an active interest in the progress of the Center 
and had been a member of both the Executive Committee and the 
Development Committee. 

The Kennedy Center suffered another grievous loss in the sudden 
death on 17 June of Howard F. Ahmanson, who was appointed a trus- 
tee in 1963 by President Kennedy. Mr. Ahmanson, a noted California 
financier, philanthropist, and art collector, was principal owner of the 
Los Angeles-based Home Savings and Loan Association. 



Construction Progress 

At the end of fiscal year 1968 the steel superstructure was 92 percent 
complete and the Center, overall, stood 25 percent complete. At the end 
of the last fiscal year the general contract and seven subcontracts repre- 
senting over $22 million (steel, electrical, mechanical, steel testing, 
reinforcing steel placement, marble fabricating and marble erection), 
had been awarded and about a third of the marble had arrived from 
Italy. 

During the year subcontracts, amounting to nearly $9 million, 
were awarded. Total expenditures for architectural and construction 
work, representing approximately 25 percent of the total estimated cost, 
reached $15.7 million of which $14.6 million were federal funds. 

Once the drilling for footings and caissons was finished, the joining of 
concrete and steel forming the sub- and superstructures progressed rap- 
idly. Soon electrical and mechanical contractors were able to begin 
their work, and by June the more than 500 people regularly employed at 
the site represented all the building trades. 

Shipments of marble continued from the Bufalini, Henraux, and 
Montecatini quarries near Carrara. The marble for the interior and 
exterior facing was shipped directly to Brandywine, Maryland, where 
it will be fabricated into blocks and then moved to the site for 
installation. 



252 



JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER 




The first steel girders were put into place early in September 1967. By December 
the Center had begun to take shape, as can be seen from this view, looking up 
the Potomac toward Rock Creek Park. 




At the end of June the steel framework of the Center was more than ninety per- 
cent complete. Up-river, the entrance to Rock Creek Park can be seen behind 
the nearby Watergate apartment complex, under construction. 



CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS 



253 



All the marble, a gift of the people of Italy, is being shipped in Amer- 
ican vessels. American Export-Isbrandtsen Lines transported over 1,600 
tons of the approximate total of 3,500 tons without charge to the Center. 
The remaining tonnage is being carried to Baltimore by the Prudential 
and American President Lines, also as a contribution to the Center. The 
oceanic transportation of this fragile commodity, a most valued dona- 
tion, undoubtedly set records, for breakage was held to between two 
and three percent of total weight compared to the usual five or more 
percent. 

Subcontracts awarded during the year were : 

Furnish and erect concrete plank — Anning-Johnson Co., of Alexandria, Virginia, 

$49,700. 
Dampproofing and elastomeric waterproofing — Prospect Associates, Inc., of 

Arlington, Virginia, $253,099. 
Furnish and install 22 elevators and 6 escalators — Otis Elevator Company, of 

Washington, D.C., $913,500. 
Unload, hoist, place, set, and tie reinforcing steel and mesh — M. J. Byorick, Inc., 

of Washington, D.C., $440,145. 
Miscellaneous metal and wire mesh work — Potomac Iron Works, Inc., of Hyatts- 

ville, Maryland, $697,131. 
Architectural metal work — Usona Manufacturing Co., of St. Louis, Missouri, 

$867,200. 



1lL..i* 




Down river, toward the Roosevelt Island Bridge, the Center's River Terrace 
overhanging Rock Creek Potomac Parkway can be seen. 



254 JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER 

Marble, paving, interior and miscellaneous — Peter Bratti Assoc, Inc., of New 

York City, $490,000. 
Metallic waterproofing — Washington Ply-Rite Co., of Washington, D.C., $19,592. 
Furring, lathing, and plastering, acoustical plaster and fire protection — The 

Brazier Co., of East St. Louis, Illinois, $1,056,000. 
Steel floor and roof deck — -Inland Steel Products Co., of Baltimore, Maryland, 

$75,560. 
Furnishing and delivering hollow metal — Firedoor Corp. of America, of New 

York City, $118,500. 
Furnishing finish hardware — Webb Builders Hardware, Inc., of Arlington, Texas, 

$131,521. 
Roof insulation, roofing system, sheet metal — Warren-Ehret-Linck Co., of Rock- 

ville, Maryland, $219,600. 
Thermal insulation — Armstrong Contracting & Supply Co., of Washington, 

D.C., $238,500. 
Masonry — Costello Company, Inc., of Cumberland, Maryland, $1,639,000. 
Furnish and install acoustical units and sound insulation — Bilton Insulation & 

Supply, Inc., of Ariington, Virginia, $725,000. 
Acoustical doors and frames — Overly Mfg. Co., of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, 

$413,350. 
Furnish and install manually operated monorail system — E. L. Seward & Asso- 
ciates, Inc., of Baltimore, Maryland, $22,800. 
Steel roll-up power operated doors — Capital Products, Inc., of Washington, 

D.G., $8,191. 
Stage equipment — Joseph Vasconcellos, Inc., of West Babylon, New York, 

$506,960. 

The Watergate Development applied for a permit to build its plan- 
ned Building No. 1 of the complex last summer. As a result, the Cen- 
ter's Trustees reaffirmed their position that the height of this building, 
only 300 feet to the north of the Center, should be substantially re- 
duced or that the building should not be constructed at all. Their views 
were presented before the District of Columbia's planning and zoning 
agencies in the fall and winter. 

On 22 April, the Secretary of the Interior, who had moderated ne- 
gotiations between Watergate and Kennedy Center officials, announced 
that a compromise had been reached. Based partially on the results of 
a study undertaken by the National Capital Planning Commission, the 
compromise solution called for rotating the proposed building to in- 
crease its distance from the Center, and for reducing its height and 
increasing its width. As of 30 June 1968 the amended plans were await- 
ing approval by the District's zoning agencies. 

Friends of the Kennedy Center 

The Friends of the Kennedy Center, a national auxiliary organization 
chartered by the Trustees in 1966, now has a founding membership of 
1,115, representing 45 states. 



FRIENDS OF THE KENNEDY CENTER 



255 




The many visitors to the Kennedy Center construction site during the year 
included these third graders from LaSalle Elementary School in Washington, 
D.C., who were especially interested in the Center's Tom Sawyer fence-painting 
project. 



Their second annual meeting was held in Washington on 8 and 9 
May, opening with a buffet dinner at Ford's Theatre and attendance 
at a performance of "She Stoops to Conquer." 

The next day's session at the Smithsonian Institution included a busi- 
ness meeting, speeches by William McC. Blair, Jr., and Miss Peggy 
Wood, and a panel discussion, "The Performing Arts and the 
Community." Members of the panel, which was chaired by Mr. 
Ralph Burgard, Director of Associated Council of the Arts, were Mrs. 
William Mitchell, Chairman of the Education Program of the Chicago 
Lyric Opera, Mrs. Agnew Hunter Bahnson, Jr., President of the North 
Carolina State Art Society, Miss Gladys Douglas-Longmore, Director of 
the Hospitalized Veterans Service of the Musicians Emergency Fund, 
and Miss Katherine Dunham, dancer and educator. 

The Tom Sawyer Project, one of the Friends' programs, now in- 
cludes on the fence surrounding the Center painted panels representing 
27 foreign countries, 41 states, 5 United States territories and trusts, 
and the District of Columbia. 

The Speakers Bureau, under the joint chairmanship of Mrs. Eugene 
Carusi and Mrs. Frederick Mascioli, fulfilled engagements to organiza- 
tions not only in the District but as far away as Louisiana and North 
Carolina. A slide lecture was presented at a meeting of sixty foreign 



256 



JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER 




Erich Leinsdorf, music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and a 
Trustee of the Center, spoke during the ceremony on 29 January celebrating 
completion of the steel framework of the Concert Hall. Left to right are Ralph 
E. Becker, General Counsel and a Trustee of the Center; Ambassador Arne 
Gunneng of Norway whose country has presented crystal chandeliers for the 
Concert Hall; Mrs. Polk Guest, chairman of the Friends of the Kennedy Center; 
Mr. Leinsdorf; and (partially hidden) Daniel W. Bell, Treasurer Emeritus of 
the Center. 



drama professors, directors, and playwrights, with comments simul- 
taneously translated in four languages, and another was given before a 
committee of architects and city officials from Italy. 

On 2 1 May the Executive Committee of the Friends of the Kennedy 
Center met to elect new officers. They are: 

Mrs. Polk Guest, Chairman 

Mrs. Norris A. Dodson, Vice Chairman 

Mr. Philip Bonsai, Treasurer 

One major project of the Friends is the American College Theatre 
Festival to be held in Washington 27 April to 12 May 1969 at 
Ford's Theatre and at a theatre on the Mall. The Friends' participa- 
tion as a co-sponsor with American Airlines and the Smithsonian In- 
stitution was undertaken at the suggestion of Mr. Stevens. It was felt 
that the Festival reflected both artistic and educational aspects and 
was an ideal pilot program for the Friends. A total of 192 colleges and 
universities have entered the contest. 



SPECIAL EVENTS AND PROJECTS 



257 




Completion of the steel framework of the Center's Concert 
Hall was marked with the hoisting of a specially built bass 
viol, cut out in steel, to the high point of construction. 
The ceremony was held 29 January. 



The Friends recently created two new membership categories: or- 
ganizational membership, with annual dues of twenty-five dollars and 
annual membership, with dues of five dollars. Founder memberships will 
also remain renewable. 



Special Events and Projects 

A "topping out" ceremony was held at the construction site on 29 
January 1968 to celebrate completion of steel construction of the Cen- 
ter's Concert Hall. Bethlehem Steel, the steel contractors, prepared an 
eleven-foot-long steel replica of a bass viol for the ceremony. Following 
remarks by the Chairman and Erich Leinsdorf, a Trustee and Music 
Director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, the bass viol was hoisted 



258 JOHN F. KENNEDY CENTER 

and welded to the steel framework near the high point of the Concert 
Hall. Among those attending the ceremony were major donors to the 
Concert Hall, Center officials, and representatives of General Services 
Administration and Bethlehem Steel. 

Gifts and Memorials 

The Center's seat endowment program provided an opportunity for 
various groups to honor great men of foreign nationalities. The Polish 
Veterans in Exile Association held its annual benefit ball in January 
with proceeds going to endow a chair to honor Ignacy J. Paderewski, 
Polish statesman and pianist. In May, the annual Gala Ball of the 
American Hungarian Cultural Center provided funds to endow a chair 
to honor Bela Bartok, Hungarian composer. 

During a testimonial dinner held last January for Patrick Hayes, 
Washington impressario, it was announced that Mr. Hayes' friends had 
collected $2,500 to decorate in his honor the green room of the Concert 
Hall. The green room is a reception room near the stage placed at the 
disposal of guest artists. 



Smithsonian Activities 



Natural Sciences 



Natural Sciences 

HPhe scientific faculty of the SMITHSONIAN has traditionally been 
concerned with man's environment. The "natural history" of the 
early days included much of what is now called ecology, and the Institu- 
tion's second Secretary, Spencer F. Baird, because of his interest in the 
biology of the sea and his pioneering efforts to establish long-term and 
far-ranging programs for study of the marine environment and its biolog- 
ical components, may be considered one of the first of our oceanog- 
raphers. His work and that of his successors take on a special impor- 
tance in light of today's urgent drive to exploit our environment, for it is 
basic to the fundamental research that must be continued and enlarged 
if destructive exploitation is to be avoided. Our constantly improving 
technology enables us, unfortunately, to make rapid and effective 
changes in the environment. Thus it is doubly important that any such 
disturbance be evaluated in advance, so that well-considered predictions 
can be made of the possible long-term efTects. 

It was to provide a basis for such prediction and evaluation, by coor- 
dinating the information gathered from our collections and from the 
research based on them, that the Smithsonian Institution established 
the Office of Ecology and the Office of Oceanography and Limnology. 
These offices work closely with our science faculty, and also with 
mission-oriented governmental agencies and industry, to insure that the 
most effective use of our research knowledge can be made with the mini- 
mum of delay. 

Additional research being instituted among the scientific groups in 
the Smithsonian Institution includes a -program for the use of satellites 
m the tracking of large migratory animals: the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory has examined the present state of the art in bio- 
telemetry and has developed an inexpensive and feasible system which 
can be used with satellites following the appropriate orbit. Information 
gained by this tracking system will permit mammalogists and ornitholo- 
gists to study in detail for the first time the day-to-day migrations and 
other movements of these animals. 

A major problem besetting our mission, "to increase and diffuse 
knowledge among men," involves communications. During the current 
year, the Smithsonian has established a Council on Communication 
which serves the Secretary as well as the community as a whole in assess- 

261 



262 NATURAL SCIENCES 

ing the impact of communications on societal problems. It seeks to 
establish broad perspectives on communication, including the rapidly 
advancing technology itself, and it attempts to identify the problems that 
must be resolved to facilitate communication among all sectors of the 
community. 

Further evidence of the Smithsonian Institution's commitment for the 
enhancement of communications is our contractual association with the 
New York Academy of Sciences and its Interdisciplinary Communica- 
tions Program. Under this program interdisciplinary conferences are 
convened to examine fundamental scientific problems that transcend 
individual disciplines and that require the cooperative efforts not only 
of scientists but also of humanists who can view the impact on society 
of scientific advances. Conference series on the following topics are in 
progress : 

Information and Control Processes in Living Systems 
Biology of Hard Tissues 
Origins of Life 
Population 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
CENTER FOR SHORT-LIVED PHENOMENA 

In January 1967, Dr. Sidney Caller, Assistant Secretary (Science) of the 
Smithsonian Institution, wrote a memo to Dr. Fred L. Whipple, Direc- 
tor, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, in which he stated: 

"There is a growing need for an international science mobilization cen- 
ter that would enable preselected teams of experts to fly into places where 
momentous but short-lived environmental changes are occurring. Vol- 
canoes, both on land and underseas, earthquakes, tidal waves, cyclones, 
etc., offer unusual opportunities for gathering fundamental data if the 
scientist equipped with the measuring and collecting equipment can be 
brought to the scene while events are taking place." 

In response to this need, the Smithsonian Institution Center fori 
Short-Lived Phenomena was established on 1 January 1968 under the 
direction of Robert A. Citron. 

The purposes of the Center are to assist Smithsonian scientists in their 
investigation of short-lived phenomena and to provide a reporting and 
information service for use by the general scientific community. The 
Center serves as a clearinghouse for the receipt and dissemination of 
information concerning rare natural events that might otherwise go un- 
observed or uninvestigated, such as remote volcanic eruptions and earth- 
quakes, the birth of new islands, the fall of meteorites, and sudden 
changes in biological and ecological systems. The Smithsonian Institu- 
tion hopes thus to effect major opportunities for research. 



CENTER FOR SHORT-LIVED PHENOMENA 263 

A group of Smithsonian Institution scientists representing a number 
of disciplines, including biology, astrophysics, ecology, oceanography, 
anthropology, archeology, and geology, are members of a scientific com- 
mittee that determines policy for the Center. The Center itself is oper- 
ated by an Administrative Office responsible for carrying out these 
policy decisions and for implementing its programs. The Administrative 
Office is located at the Astrophysical Observatory and utilizes the 
Observatory's communications, publications, operations, logistic, and 
administrative-support facilities to carry out the work of the Center. 

Event reports are received from a number of sources, including news 
media, private citizens, individual scientists, and scientific observatories. 
These reports are immediately communicated to correspondents in se- 
lected disciplines around the world. The method of communication 
(telephone, cable, or airmail) depends on the nature of the event and 
and on the correspondent's ability to respond to the event. The Center 
has established communications with a network of people and organiza- 
tions to be alerted when events occur. Ties have been established with 
scientific institutions and individual scientists interested in short-lived 
phenomena. The Center now has over 400 correspondents located in 
71 countries, representing major disciplines that might involve short- 
lived phenomena. Correspondents include mission-oriented groups with 
rapid-response capabilities and individual scientists and organizations 
interested in developing portable instrument kits that will enable teams 
to make measurements in event areas while environmental changes are 
occurring. These scientists and organizations may be asked to cooperate 
with the Center by reporting events, obtaining additional information 
about events that occur in their areas, and providing assistance to re- 
search teams that might be sent to investigate events in their areas. 

The Administrative Office maintains a log of events reported to the 
Center, notifies correspondents of these events and of significant devel- 
opments in event areas, and issues periodic status reports on each active 
event and final reports when the activities close. In addition, the Center 
is seeking to determine areas of interest and investigation to which it 
might contribute or concerning which it might cooperate with or bene- 
fit from the work of other agencies ; it is also making informal contacts 
in the countries and areas of the world where occurrences of particular 
phenomena are most frequent and is initiating informal public informa- 
tion programs designed to make the public conscious of the Center, its 
goals, accomplishments, and interests. 

During its first six months, the Center was concerned with 18 geo- 
physical, astrophysical, and biological events (see table) and collected 
information on 11 additional events. In each case the Center was in 
contact \vith observers in the event area, interviewed pertinent witnesses 



264 



NATURAL SCIENCES 



and specialists, collected photographic and cinematographic documenta- 
tion, issued event-notification reports to correspondents of the Center, 
maintained current status reports, and released information to those 
persons and organizations actively involved and interested in the 
phenomena. 

Of the 18 events that the Center participated in between 1 January 
and 30 June 1968, there were five volcanic eruptions, four major 
earthquakes (greater than magnitude 7.0), four large fireballs, two 
major oil spills, and two important fish kills. 





Birth of an island — Metis Shoal, Tonga Islands. Photograph (left) was taken 
14 December 1967, the third day of the 27-day submarine volcanic eruption 
that built an island 700 meters long and 100 meters wide. It remained above the 
surface for 58 days before wave action eroded it below water level. Photo- 
graphs, films, eyewitness reports, and fresh lavas were collected to document 
and describe this rare short-lived event in nature. 




^ 



266 



NATURAL SCIENCES 



In addition, the Center coordinated activities for one field recon- 
naissance mission (to the Tonga Islands) and two scientific field 
expeditions (to the Mayon volcanic eruption, Philippines, and the 
Fernandina volcanic eruption, Galapagos Islands) . The Center arranged 
transportation and coordinated logistics and communications for these 
missions. 

The Center obtained Air Force transportation support for the 
Mayon expedition as well as systematic aerial photographic reconnais- 
sance and motion picture camera team participation during the peak 
activities of the Mayon eruption. 

The Center also obtained U.S. Air Force air transportation from 
Panama to the Galapagos Islands for a team of seven scientists to in- 
vestigate the effects of the Fernandina eruption on the physical 
environment and the island ecosystem. 

In addition, the Center assisted in dispatching scientific observers or 
investigation teams to four event areas while the events were still in 
progress. The Center published three final Event Reports, on the Metis 
Shoal and the Mount Mayon volcanic eruptions and on the Fernandina 
Caldera collapse, as well as preprints of scientific papers dealing with 
these three events. The Metis Shoal report represents a rare documenta- 
tion of the birth and death of an island and the report on Fernandina 
documents the first observed caldera collapse in historic times. 



EVENTS COVERED BY THE CENTER FOR SHORT-LIVED PHENOMENA 



Num- 
ber Name oj event 

1-67 Deception Island eruption 

2-67 Metis Shoal eruption 

1-68 Sicily earthquake 

2-68 Polo fireball 

3-68 Ocean Eagle spill 

4—68 Dayton fireball 

5-68 Veracruz fireball 

5A-68 Schenectady meteorite 

6-68 Mount Mayon eruption 

7-68 Tokachi-Oki earthquake 

8-68 Inangahua earthquake 

9-68 Fernandina Caldera collapse 

10-68 World Glory spill 

1 1-68 Etna eruption 

12-68 Moyobamba earthquake 

13-68 Florida fish kill 

14-68 California fish kill 

15-68 Huntington fireball 



Place 
Antarctica 
Tonga 
Sicily 

Eastern U.S. 
Puerto Rico 
Eastern U.S. 
Mexico 

(New York) U.S. 
Philippines 
Japan 

New Zealand 
Galapagos 
South Afirica 
Sicily 
Peru 
U.S. 
U.S. 
(Pennsylvania) U.S. 



Date 
6 December 1967 

1 1 December 1967 

15 January 1968 

26 February 1968 
3 March 1968 

3 March 1968 

27 March 1968 

12 April 1968 
20 April 1968 

16 May 1968 
23 May 1968 
11 June 1968 

14 June 1968 

15 June 1968 

19 June 1968 

20 June 1968 

28 June 1968 
30 June 1968 



Office of Oceanography and Limnology 

I. Eugene Wallen, Head 

THE OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY aCtcd tO brOadcn the 
ability of tiie biological oceanographers of this country to respond 
to national needs. 

Working closely with the National Commission on Marine Sciences, 
Engineering and Resources and with the National Council on Marine 
Resources and Engineering Development, the Oflfice participated in 
many of their committees and panels. Responding to the requests of the 
Departments of the Interior, Navy, State, Army, Transportation, and 
Commerce, and to those of the National Science Foundation and the 
Atomic Energy Commission, the Office provided consultation and 
advice in regard to problems within their areas of responsibility. 

The Office also served as a focal point for bringing the scientific 
expertise of the Smithsonian to bear on problems of estuarine pollution, 
the Great Lakes, environmental prediction, polar research, the National 
Buoy Program, Food from the Sea, the proposed international coopera- 
tive studies of the Mediterranean and Caribbean, data processing, 
the national programs of such countries as Iran, Taiwan, and the 
Philippines, and the President's proposed International Decade of 
Exploration. 

Research Activities 

Arrangements were made with the National Science Foundation to send 
a four-man team, consisting of Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., and Roland H. 
Brown (Smithsonian), Herbert E. Kumpf (National Aquarium), and 
Edward L. Foss (Southern Maine Vocational Technical Institute), 
on an Eltanin cruise from San Francisco to New Zealand, 13 November 
to 20 December 1967, to obtain midwater trawl and plankton samples 
for processing by the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center 
( sosc ) and for study by scientists. 

The sosc assistant supervisor for algae, Ernani G. Mefiez, collected 
in the Philippines assemblages of plants and animals associated with 
two algal genera, Eucheuma and Caulerpa. Working with Maxwell S. 
Doty of Hawaii, Mefiez brought the collections to sosc for sorting, 
and the ecological information obtained will be used to increase pro- 
duction of these commercial species. 

267 



268 NATURAL SCIENCES 

In December 1965 the Office of Oceanography received the 43-foot 
yawl Ellida as part of a package gift from a private donor. On request 
of the Smithsonian Ships Operations Committee, Smithsonian curator 
Richard H. Benson worked with Ellida from February through August 
1966 to train sailing scientists and to test her capability for shallow wa- 
ter marine ecological, biogeographical, and sedimentological research. 
After a tryout cruise through Chesapeake Bay it was concluded that she 
was unsatisfactory for the uses proposed, and in November the vessel 
was returned to private ownership. 

During February a research diving program was carried out in 
Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas, by Smithsonian curator Clyde F. E. 
Roper and Richard E. Young (University of Miami), who made six 
dives (including one tethered dive) mostly along the cliff faces. Two 
or three species of snails were seen in their native but previously unknown 
habitats, and the abundance of midwater organisms observed at night 
was far greater than had been anticipated. Walter C. Starck (University 
of Miami) and Robert I. Wicklund (Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 
Wildlife) made the second series of nine dives. Along the steep cliffs, 
ledges and caves were numerous, and in the rich areas were an abun- 
dance of algae, sponges, hydroids, stony corals, alcyonareans, black corals, 
bryozoans, and crinoids. Starck and Wickland believe that they collected 
seven previously undescribed fish species, including one and possibly 
two new genera and three new records for the Bahamas. Giles W. Mead 
and Sylvia Earle Mead (Harvard University), a third team, made five 
dives between 20 February and 1 March. Observations of marine plants 
to depths of 600 feet and of depth distribution in fishes were recorded. 

For the program Edwin A. Link contributed his time and that of his 
oceanographic ship Sea Diver. J. Seward Johnson contributed his time 
and his ship, Ocean Pearl, and Ocean Systems, Inc., loaned the Deep 
Diver vehicle. Support for the program also came from the Office of 
Naval Research, the National Geographic Society, and the agencies 
regularly employing the participating scientists. 

On behalf of the Smithsonian, Joseph B. Maclnnis of Ocean Systems, 
Inc., arranged for J. Seward Johnson to use Ocean Pearl in support of 
two diving projects in the Florida Atlantic University underseas habi- 
tat off West Palm Beach, Florida. These two dives permitted Maclnnis, 
R. F. McAllister (Florida Atlantic University), Robert I. Wicklund, 
Alan R. Emery and Martin Gowan (graduate students in fishes. Uni- 
versity of Miami), to observe the "reef effect" of Hydrolah, an under- 
water habitat that was established about six months ago in a biologi- 
cally barren area and now has accumulated associated organisms includ- 
ing about 300 fishes. 




Vessels Used 
For Oceanographic Research 

National Science Foundation vessel 
Eltanin ( 1 ) , in the edge of the Antarc- 
tic ice, served as a base for studies of 
midwater organisms by Robert H. 
Gibbs and associates. 
Ocean Systems, Inc., Deep Diver (2), 
oai Edwin A. Link's oceanographic 
yacht Sea Diver in the Bahamas, was 
used in underwater experiments by 
Clyde F. E. Roper and associates. 
J. Seward Johnson's yacht Ocean 
Pearl (3), in the straits of Florida, 
was used as a diver support vessel with 
Deep Diver in underwater experiments 
of Clyde F. E. Roper and associates. 
University of Maryland vessel Orion 
(4), in Chesapeake Bay, was used by 
Miss McLaughlin and associates for 
curatorial research in the Sorting 
Center. 






wfmirmmmHifHjKmii 




t 








10 



Grace Lines S.S. Santa Sophia (5), in 
the Atlantic, served as a base for col- 
lections by Kenneth M. Towe and Nor- 
man K. Sachs in electron microscope 
studies of Foraminifera. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries vessel 
Alosa (6), in Chesapeake Bay, served 
Martin A. Buzas and associates for col- 
lections of Foraminifera. 
Smithsonian vessel Phykos ( 7 ) , with 
University of Pennsylvania submersible 
Asherah on her deck, in New London, 
Connecticut. In 1968 Phykos was used 
as a training vessel by the Southern 
Maine Vocational Technical Institute. 
Duke University vessel Eastward (8), 
in the Western Atlantic, was utilized 
by Jack W. Pierce and associates in 
studies of sedimentology. 
Department of Commerce Environ- 
mental Sciences Service Administration 
vessel Oceanographer (9), in the 
Atlantic. She was used in a sampling 
study by Richard E. Pieper and asso- 
ciates in the Indian Ocean. 
Florida Atlantic University's under- 
seas house Hydro-Lab (10), off West 
Palm Beach, was used by Robert I. 
Wicklund and associates in two experi- 
ments on behalf of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

University of Rhode Island vessel Tri- 
dent (11), off the Rhode Island coast, 
was utilized by Robert H. Gibbs, Clyde 
Roper, and associates for studies of the 
behavior of midwater organisms. 
American Mail Line vessel S.S. Wash- 
ington Mail (12), in the North Pacific 

11 






Ocean, was used by George A. Ander- 
son and associates in studies of phyto- 
plankton productivity on behalf of the 
Smithsonian. 

Department of Transportation Coast 
Guard vessel Rockaway (13), in the 
Atlantic, three two-week cruises for 
Daniel J. Stanley and Jack W. Pierce 
in studies of the geology of Wilmington 
Canyon. 

The Smithsonian's Sally-Anne (14), in 
Chesapeake Bay, served in training 
staff members and students from the 
Smithsonian and cooperating local 
universities. 

Mrs. Mariel King's yacht Pele (15), 
loading at a Polynesian port, served 
as a support ship for collections of mol- 
lusks by Harald A. Rehder. 
Westinghouse submersible Deep Star 
4000 (16), on a demonstration dive, 
was made available by the Naval 
Oceanographic Office to Robert H. 
Gibbs and associates for familiarization 
and fisheries research dives in the 
Northwest Atlantic. 
Edwin A. Link's oceanographic yacht 
Sea Diver (17), in the Bahamas, was 
used in a diving project involving 
about 20 scientists under the opera- 
tional direction of I. E. Wallen. 
University of Miami R/V Pilsbury 
(18), was used by H. Adair Fehlman 
and David M. Damkaer for plankton 
collection in June 1968. The Mote 
Marine Laboratory R/V Rhincodon, 
used for research on shark parasites, 
is shown on page 334. 

18 




|MMjg|y||d||||M^^ 



14 



15 



16 



17 








^A^ JHKSf^iS^kk^ 




'f^ 



1 

* . \ / 



•T" 



272 NATURAL SCIENCES 

The Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research of the International 
Council of Scientific Unions and unesco established Working Group 
23 (WG 23) on methods for preserving zooplankton samples for taxo- 
nomic study and for biomass determination. Consisting of A. Fleminger 
(for J. R. Beers, United States), G. J. Fliigel (Germany), B. Kimor 
(Israel), H. F. Steedman (England), T. Tokioka (Japan), M. E. 
Vinogradov (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), and V. K. Hansen 
(Chairman, Denmark), this committee met in closed sessions at the 
Smithsonian 25-30 March to discuss the state of preservation of plank- 
ton samples and to design experiments to be conducted on a worldwide 
basis. At the request of the unesco group, the Office of Oceanography 
and Limnology agreed to undertake "main responsibility for such tests 
and experiments proposed by WG 23" and to use as advisors during the 
curatorial research a coordinating group (Steedman, Beers, and Toki- 
oka) from WG 23. For this study H. Adair Fehlmann and David M. 
Damkaer took a two-week cruise to the Caribbean to collect standard 
plankton samples. 

As part of a Public Law 480 project. Deputy Head William I. Aron 
spent the period 10-15 March in Israel considering the movement of 
plants and animals through the Suez Canal. It has been found, as a 
result, in part, of about 60 recent field trips and from the more than 
2,000 collections — including plankton, dredge hauls, grab samples, 
trawls, and Scuba collections in the eastern Mediterranean, Red Sea, and 
the Suez Canal — that more than 150 species occurring in the eastern 
Mediterranean are migrants from the Red Sea. One,- and possibly two, 
species are found to be migrants in the reverse direction. Professor H. 
Steinitz of Israel visited the Smithsonian in May and presented a lecture 
detailing the most recent findings. 

Aron, Gibbs, and Roper of the Smithsonian, William Krueger and 
Ted Napora of the University of Rhode Island, Brooke G. Farquhar 
of the Naval Oceanographic Office, and Charles L. Brown of the Navy 
Underwater Sound Laboratory, developed a joint project for intensive 
long-term studies of a selected ocean area — the "ocean acre." The main 
objective of these studies — expected to last for at least three to five 
years — is to bring together a detailed understanding of the biology and 
acoustical properties of the area. The acoustical studies will be under- 
taken by the Navy and the biological work will be conducted under the 
supervision of the Smithsonian Institution with the cooperation of the 
University of Rhode Island and Navy biologists. With funds from the 
Navy, at least 40 days of ship-time are anticipated to be spent each year 
and the necessary instrumentation and technical support will be pro- 
cured. An area just north of Bermuda was tentatively selected as the 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 



273 




Summer trainee John Romack is given instructions in fish sorting by deputy 
supervisor Leslie W. Knapp at the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center. 



study site, an exploratory cruise was taken in March, and the second 
starts about 1 July. 

From Ocean Systems, Inc., the Office was awarded funds for a 
conference on underwater archeology in Boston on 29 December 1967. 
Co-chaired by Smithsonian curator Gus Van Beek and I. E. Wallen, it 
was attended by 32 representatives of universities, private institutions, 
government, museums, industry, and a professional society. There was 
general agreement that prehistoric town sites, which might include sub- 
merged buildings, were unlikely to be found at depths greater than 50 
feet, but that maritime paleolithic habitats of ages up to 15,000 years 
may be available at depths of up to at least 350 feet in the ocean, probably 
located in caves fronting on what were once natural terraces with an 
ocean view. Archeologists showed a strong desire to take advantage of 
modern underseas vehicles and tools for their research, and the possibility 
of future archeological activities is being pursued. 

Training is an important part of the activities of the Office. Annual 
programs in undergraduate research participation continue to involve 
20-25 United States college students, ordinarily after their junior year. 
These work with marine scientists on individual projects in relation to 
the work of their supervisors in order to get some feeling for possible 
careers in the marine sciences. In another program, many new employ- 
ees of the Oceanographic Sorting Center are selected from the Depart- 



274 NATURAL SCIENCES 

ment of Labor unemployed list and are given on-the-job training under 
close supervision. Many, after several weeks, become proficient in the 
required technical skills, and often are led to other positions for which 
the training has been useful preparation. Certificates of achievement 
were awarded by the Secretary in January to 54 sosc employees who 
had completed the minimum time in training. 

The Army Corps of Engineers was asked to undertake a study of 
wastes-disposal sites located off New York Harbor, and the Coastal 
Engineering Research Center of the Corps, under instructions to 
"prepare a plan of study," turned to the Smithsonian Institution. With 
the help of Smithsonian curator M. Grant Gross, the Office convened 
a committee of eight scientists to examine the problem. The report sub- 
mitted to the Corps listed the investigations needed to evaluate the 
oceanic conditions and the biology of the wastes-disposal areas, and 
indicated their priorities. Emphasis was placed on literature surveys 
and comparative studies of benthic communities, especially organisms 
and sediments in the areas affected by the disposals. 

On invitation from the Navy and the British Royal Society, sosc 
supervisor H. A. Fehlmann and museum technician Charles F. Rhyne 
spent July and August on Diego Garcia and Aldabra Islands making col- 
lections for the Smithsonian Institution. 

On behalf of the Office, Smithsonian curator Kenneth M. Towe and 
Norman K. Sachs of the Geological Survey, spent January on board the 
Grace Line ship Santa Sofia cruising the Caribbean. This represented 
the first Smithsonian ships-of-opportunity cruise taking advantage of 
merchant ships on their normal trade runs. The main emphasis was 
on sampling radiolarians, both to study their distribution and to obtain 
materials of high quality for studies of micros tructure. This arrange- 
ment was found to be highly practical by Towe and Sachs. The study 
involved the cooperation and support of the Naval Oceanographic 
Office, the Office of Naval Research, and the Grace Line. 

As another Smithsonian-encouraged ships-of-opportunity program, 
George C. Anderson of the University of Washington completed a series 
of transects of the North Pacific in American Mail Line ships between 
Seattle and Yokohama early in March. Anderson collected seawater 
samples for phytoplankton and chemical analyses, pyroheliometer read- 
ings, and zooplankton, and examined the possibilities of employing the 
ship's officers in making these collections on subsequent cruises. Al- 
though Anderson found the officers cooperative and capable of taking 
the required observations, he felt that a technician should accompany 
the ship and be specifically charged with the sampling program. 

While in Japan, Anderson also visited a number of laboratories to 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 



275 



assess Japanese interest in the program. There appears to be real poten- 
tial for the development of an international program involving the 
Japanese and Canadian (specifically, T. R. Parsons' productivity group 
at the Fisheries Research Board of Canada Station in Nanaimo) , and 
the United States, to be funded in part by the National Science Founda- 
tion via the Japan-United States Scientific Cooperative Treaty. In the 
meantime the Office of Naval Research provided support for Anderson 
to continue the work, and two additional ships were equipped — the 
S.S. Philippine Mail (departed Seattle 4 March) and the S.S. Oregon 
Mail (departed Seattle in late March) . 

Use of the Coast and Geodetic Survey vessel Oceanographer as a 
biological ship-of-opportunity was completed during this fiscal year 
and, with support from the Office of Naval Research, the samples are 
being studied by scientists. 

The agreement with the Southern Maine Vocational Technical Insti- 
tute for their operation of the Smithsonian research vessel Phykos was 
continued. 

Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center 

Serving as a national referral service in biological oceanography, the 
Center is involved in all kinds of specimen-based activities, from field 
collecting to the deposition of identified species in permanent study 
museums. Staff members of the Center engaged in field collecting at 
Diego Garcia and Aldabra Islands in the Indian Ocean, on various 
Philippine Islands, during a trans-Pacific cruise to the Antarctic, during 
a trans-Caribbean cruise, on several cruises in the Mediterranean, and 
from vessels in the Chesapeake Bay. These collections were made to assist 



H. Adair Fehlmann col- 
(ected fish for the Smith- 
sonian at Aldabra Island, 
off Madagascar. 




276 NATURAL SCIENCES 

specific research projects, with the expectation of adding substantial 
unique material to that already available to the 257 taxonomic special- 
ists using the services of the Center. 

An automatic data-processing system has been initiated for records 
of natural history specimens. Many of the manual operations of data 
processing — including preparation of labels, inventory cards, and in- 
voices — have been automated. The same system provides labels and 
a record suitable for entry into a computerized data storage and re- 
trieval system. Two high-speed automatic typewriters have been in- 
stalled, each of which is programmed to code and punch the typed data 
onto a paper tape at the same time as labels and invoices are prepared. 
Data from the punched tape are accepted by another machine which 
stores the information as an inventory on the magnetic tape of a 
computer. 

The inventory is designed to list, along with the taxa from the label, 
essential identifying and sampling data, such as vessels, collectors, sta- 
tion numbers, positions, dates, depths, and type of gear. Data retrieval 
can be made on one or any combination of these parameters. As taxa are 
shipped to specialists, invoices are prepared which are programmed 
to update the information on the location of the specimens. Similarly, 
provision has been made for entry of species names as specialists pro- 
vide such identifications. The inventory provides a necessary record of 
the Center's activities and eventually will become a useful tool for 
studies of ecological communities and distribution of taxonomic groups. 

Although programming is not complete, data from the basic programs 
have been entered to include nearly 10,000 records. Much of the im- 
petus for the development of the records system resulted from fulfill- 
ment of contract obligations, to the National Science Foundation's Office 
of Antarctic Programs, which provide for compilation and maintenance 
of files of all collections taken from the Antarctic, both old and recent. 
Requirements of this project have made especially urgent the obtaining 
of accurate specimen files from throughout the United States. 

During the past year the Center received 4,476 samples, coming from 
all oceans. From these and the other samples on hand, 3,475,283 speci- 
mens were sorted. Totals of 629,867 specimens and 4,422 unsorted lots 
were shipped to the 257 scientists from 27 countries presently being 
served by the Sorting Center. The principal function of the Center 
is the painstaking process of separating discrete units of the collections 
and sending these units to taxonomic specialists who identify the species, 
describing newly collected forms and publishing the taxonomic and re- 
lated environmental data. Shipment to specialists continues to take place 
more slowly than sorting for many reasons, including the following: 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 277 

A particular taxonomic unit should have a variety and relatively 
large number of individuals before being of critical size to justify 
attention by a specialist. 
All shipments of specimens are made subject to prior arrangements 

with the specialist for acceptance and study. 
All specialists must have had review of their qualifications by a 

Center advisory committee for related taxonomic groups. 
Taxonomists are in short supply and those who meet our quality 
standards are busy, so that their handling of specimens from the 
Center must be correlated with that of specimens obtained from 
other sources. 
When a student requests specimens for use in meeting degree re- 
quirements, he or the Center must find an experienced taxonomist 
to serve as his sponsor and to accept responsibility for maintain- 
ing the condition of the collection. 
After the specimens have been identified and returned the Center 
selects as a repository a suitable study museum, which must agree to keep 
them in good condition and to make them available for reference by 
qualified investigators. 

Innovative concepts of the staff, its advisors, and any visitor to the 
facility are continually under review. Efforts to interest commercial 
suppliers in the developing of adequate containers and closures led to 
the manufacture of difTerent-sized jars with uniform mouth openings, 
and of polypropylene closures to fit a variety of glass containers com- 
monly used for other purposes in industry. Commercially available ma- 
terials of an elementary nature which have been adapted for specific 
laboratory purposes include a square of black glass, which under the mi- 
croscope stage provides a background against which organisms are more 
easily seen, and a special adhesive mixture used to seal vials and bottles 
before shipment, thus avoiding the problem of leakage common to many 
biological containers. 

The Plastic Peel-a-Way Blood Sampler provides a quick and rea- 
sonably accurate method of obtaining, holding, and shipping aliquots of 
phytoplankton ; and it eliminates contamination, and the chance of loss 
owing to breakage. Multipurpose biological trays were adopted for 
washing and rinsing marine macroscopic algae. Use of different mesh 
openings avoids the loss of minute filamentous algae formerly carried 
away in the water overflow. 

For smaller marine animals, the use of a plastic tray with a numbered 
grid of 12x1 2-mm compartments to facilitate handling and sorting was 
found less cumbersome than the use of a larger maze of dividers. An 
enlarged version of the Folsom Plankton Splitter can handle the greater 



278 



NATURAL SCIENCES 




Walter Sorrell of the Museum of Natural History plastics laboratory inspects one 
of the numerous plankton splitters fabricated by the Office of Exhibits for 
research at the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center. The production of 
such precision scientific instruments is an important contribution of the plastics 
laboratory to Smithsonian's research program. 



volume of midwater-trawl specimens per sample. Small desk fans that 
direct a confined stream of air across the top of the sorting tray help to 
prevent the sorter's inhaling preservative fumes without causing a draft 
on him. Miniature egg boxes were used to facilitate storage of specimens 
in five-dram vials. 

Several methods were experimented with to handle the most fragile 
specimens : thistle tubes with ultra-fine mesh netting were used to draw 
off fluid from samples without removing the microscopic organisms; 
a scoop-type device was developed to pick up fragile animals without 
injury, while for separating and sorting the use of fine, flexible forceps, 
Irwin loops, and broaches was found more satisfactory than the stiffer 
jeweler's forceps previously used. 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 279 

Two devices adapted for more efficient record-keeping are the banks 
of multiple counters, which reduce hand movement in enumeration of 
animals by taxa, and a metal plate 1/50 the area of the sorting tray, 
used to estimate copepods when their numbers would cause prohibitive 
loss of time if an organism-by-organism count were made. 

Use of various solutions in processing marine organisms at the time of 
collection and in the laboratory is a continuing concern. Experiments 
were conducted with formalin in natural sea water, artificial salt water, 
and fresh water to determine the most satisfactory solution for preserva- 
tion of animals and for handling large numbers of specimens. For exam- 
ple, it was found that lonol is useful in preserving color, but it causes 
organisms to stick together and makes sorting more difficult. Its use also 
resulted in the destruction of certain plastic containers in the laboratory. 

The use of mechanical sorting devices to speed tedious and time- 
consuming manual sorting is under investigation. A modified sorter 
based on the mechanical sorter (McGowan and Fraundorf, 1964), 
was designed and built to utilize the organisms' specific gravity in a given 
"sorting solution." When fully developed, it should substantially in- 
crease for certain groups of pelagic organisms the volume of material 
sorted per man-hour. 

At the Center, geology this year has developed into a full partnership 
with biology; and although emphasis is placed on oceanic rocks, sediment 
samples also are accepted and processed, and bottom photographs are 
described and made available to scientists. A single, rapid tour of a few 
research laboratories established a user list of more than twenty scientists 
who needed access to various oceanic rocks to satisfy their research inter- 
ests in the oceanic crust. 

The Center plans to participate in collecting oceanic rocks, but much 
material can be accumulated by advertising the willingness to accept and 
distribute collections of others, for experience has shown that potential 
users often do not know about the activities of potential collectors. 

Favorable reviews of this activity have resulted in joint support from 
the National Science Foundation, and by year's end the Center had in 
being a petrographic laboratory with equipment and supplies for rock 
identification, an automated rock inventory system, a staff trained for 
the tasks required, and continuing communication with requesters and 
suppliers of oceanic rocks and information. 

During the year 583 negatives and 36 log sheets were received from 
Eltanin cruises. Primarily for scientific research, 2,854 black-and-white 
prints and 131 color slides were distributed and 190 black-and-white 
negatives were loaned. Data on photographic techniques, the camera, 
and the camera-to-bottom geometry were gathered to assist specialists in 



280 NATURAL SCIENCES 

determining the size of objects which they study on the bottom photo- 
graphs. Since the camera often points obliquely at the bottom, the scale 
of the resulting photograph may vary through the field of view. Assum- 
ing a horizontal sea floor and a vertical camera rig to be the ideal situ- 
ation, criteria are being developed to recognize departure from this, and 
a grid now can be supplied to facilitate making measurements on oblique 
photography. 

Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center 

Established and maintained in Tunisia using Public Law 480 excess 
currency funds, the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center (mmsc) 
is directed by an American (David M. Damkaer during its first year and 
Neil C. Hulings during its second year) . Patterned after the Smithsoni- 
an Oceanographic Sorting Center, mmsc differs only by emphasizing 
Mediterranean samples and in giving first consideration to Mediterrane- 
an-based scientists wishing to work on the specimens. Recognizing the 
world shortage of taxonomists, mmsc coordinates its specialist list and 
advisory committees with other specimen centers, but develops both of 
these facilities to fit its own needs. It assists with all aspects of taxonomy, 
from the collecting of specimens through their processing for identifi- 
cation and their deposition in appropriate study museums. Emphasis 
during the year was on quality control and training. In this connection 
a total of 27 consultants from Tunisia, Italy, Yugoslavia, Austria, 
France, Algeria, the United States, and two United Nations Organiza- 
tions (fao and unesco) visited the Center and advised on speci- 
men handling, while mmsc staff members visited Malta, Italy, Yugo- 
slavia, Lebanon, Libya, Cyprus, England, Denmark, the United States, 
and Canada. 

During the year mmsc received 1579 samples from Tunisia, Malta, 
Italy, France, Romania, Yugoslavia, and United States expeditions 
in the Mediterranean. From these 1,070,726 specimens were sorted 
and 135,840 were sent to 14 specialists from Tunisia, Italy, Yugoslavia, 
and the United States, representing seven institutions. Twenty-one spe- 
cialists have formally requested material from among the nearly 400 
who have expressed an interest in mmsc. A reference collection — 
mostly identified to species and now consisting of 507 specimens of ma- 
rine benthos, algae, and fishes — has been developed at mmsc for as- 
sistance with training. Most of these museum specimens are from Tu- 
nisia. A series of 15 advisory committees, averaging four members each, 
are in the final process of being established to consider requests for 
specimens and to approve depositories for them. 



OFFICE OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND LIMNOLOGY 281 





Recording (left) and sorting of marine biological collections is done by 
Tunisians at the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center. 



At present the director, benthos supervisor Jose M. Stirn, and Mme. J. 
H. Heldt, permanent consultant, are training the technicians in all cate- 
gories of sorting. Among the technicians recently employed are two 
who will fill supervisory positions. One, Mme, Hedia Baccar, earned a 
D.Sc. from University of Lausanne in 1967. The other, Mr. Abdeloud 
Ghanem, has a degree in the natural sciences from the University of 
Tunis. These two plus Mme. Fafani Ouachi, who also has a natural 
science degree from the University of Tunis, make it possible for three 
of the four supervisory positions at mm so to be filled by Tunisians. Two 
Tunisians, Hassouni Zaoui and Mohamed Shili, are being trained to 
occupy subsupervisory positions. 

Excellent relations have been established not only with in stop but 
also with the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Tunis, the biology 
faculty of which has aided mmsc in selecting employees. 

In honoring requests by foreign scientists to provide specific collections 
of Tunisian marine organisms, mmsc depends upon and works directly 
with IN STOP, and when such collections are made, a representative 
number of specimens — identified and properly preserved — are always 
deposited with instop. 

Since mmsc is interested in the total marine environment, the 
Center has been involved in a wide variety of activities. Personnel and 
financial support were provided for a two-week Mediterranean Associ- 
ation of Marine Biology and Oceanology (mambo) course in marine 
biology fisheries. The countries represented and the number of partici- 
pants were: Algeria 2, Cyprus 2, Italy 2, Lybia 1, Malta 1, Romania 2, 
Spain 2, Tunisia 7, Turkey 1, and Yugoslavia 2. In addition. Professor 
Stirn spent six full days lecturing, leading field trips, and directing 

315-997 O - 69 - 19 



282 NATURAL SCIENCES 

laboratory work. Other organizations participating in the course in- 
cluded FAO, UNESCO, INSTOP, the Swedish International Development 
Association, and the University of Tunis. 

The staff of mmsc participated in a number of conferences in the 
Mediterranean region, including the Third International Colloquium 
on Medical Oceanography in Nice, France ; the General Fisheries Coun- 
cil for the Mediterranean in Split, Yugoslavia; the Sixth International 
Conference on Food from the Sea in Ponza, Italy; and the mambo 
training course in Malta. In addition, numerous conferences were held 
with representatives of many institutions regarding mmsc activities 
and future operations. 

Publications 

FehlmanNj H. a. "Role of the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center in 

Antarctic Research." Antarctic Journ. of the U.S., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 205-206, 

1967. 
HuLiNGS, Neil C. "A Review of Recent Marine Podocopid and Platycopid 

Ostracods of the Gulf of Mexico." Contr. in Mar. Sci., vol. 12, pp. 80- 

100, July 1967. 
. "Marine Ostracoda from the Western North Atlantic Ocean: Labrador 

Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence and oflF Nova Scotia." Crustaceana, vol. 13, pt. 

3, pp. 310-328, 1 pi., 1967. 
Landrum, Betty J. "The Antarctic Records Program, 1966-1967." Antarc- 
tic Journ. of the U.S., vol 2, no. 5, p. 206, 1967. 
SiMKiN, Tom. "Flow Differentiation in the Picritic Sills of North Skye." Pages 

64-69 in Ultramafic and Related Rocks, edit. P. J. Wyllie. New York: John 

Wiley & Sons, 1967. 
. "Zoned Olivines and the Cooling History of a Picritic Sill." Geol. 

Sac. Amer. Spec. Paper, no. 101, pp. 202-203, 1967. 
, and J. V. Smith. "Minor Element Variation in Olivine." Geol. Soc. 



Amer. Spec. Paper, no. 101, p. 203, 1967. 
Wallen, I. E. "Smithsonian Institution Participation in Eltanin Cruises." 

Antarctic Journ. of the U.S., vol. 2, no. 5, p. 202, 1967. 
. "Cooperative Systematic Studies in Antarctic Biology." Antarctic 

Journ. of the U.S., vol. 2, no. 5, p. 203, 1967. 



Smithsonian Office of Ecology 

Helmut K. Buechner, Head 

TjRiMARY GOAL OF THE OFFICE OF ECOLOGY is to Contribute — through 
"*■ the promotion of research, through education, and through the 
communication of knowledge — to the development of a new science 
of man and his total environment: ecosystem ecology. In its tradi- 
tional disciplinary sense, ecology is concerned mostly with the environ- 
mental relationships of the various components of relatively undisturbed 
natural ecosystems. The new emphasis is with interdisciplinary studies 
that advance the scientific understanding of how whole ecological 
systems are put together and how they work in nature with man as an 
integral component of the system. 

Such are the complexities of man's contemporary ecological prob- 
lems that not only the various disciplines of the natural sciences, but 
also those of the behavioral sciences and of the humanities must ulti- 
mately be brought to bear on them. Since the foundation of such 
studies lies partly in traditional ecology, the Office of Ecology supports 
research of this nature while it builds toward the new science. Funda- 
mental to all ecological studies, of course, is systematic biology, and 
the Office also encourages and supports interdisciplinary studies among 
systematists and ecologists in order to expand and spread basic scientific 
knowledge about the living components of ecosystems involving man. 

Development of a strong program of ecosystem ecology at the 
Smithsonian Institution, a principal center for the study of biosystem- 
atics, is particularly appropriate and important, for the Institution 
provides an ideal focal point from which to motivate, encourage, and 
develop biosystematics relevant to today's ecological problems. 

Significant changes in the basic staff occurred during the year. Lee M. 
Talbot became deputy head of the Office of Ecology on 6 May, with 
special responsibility for the international program. As the Smithsonian 
field representative for international affairs in ecology and conservation, 
a title which he retains, Talbot has been on special assignment as the 
international field coordinator for the conservation section of the Inter- 
national Biological Program. In this capacity he has been instrumental 
in the establishment of various projects in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the 

283 



284 



NATURAL SCIENCES 



Americas involving biological research, survey, the establishment of 
field research stations and reserves, the organization of conferences and 
symposia, and the international exchange of scientific and conservation 
personnel. All programs and projects of the Office of Ecology supported 
from the Foreign Currency Program and other sources are now admin- 
istered by Talbot. 

Francis S. L. Williamson was appointed by Secretary Ripley as the 
new Director of the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology, effective 
1 July 1968. Director Williamson came to the Smithsonian with ten 
years of intensive ornithological research in Alaska where he was em- 
ployed by the Public Health Service, Arctic Health Research Center, to 
investigate the ecology of Alaskan birds with special relationship to 
the epizootiology of animal-borne diseases. He also conducted extensive 
studies on the ecology, distribution, speciation, and faunal relationships 
of Alaskan birds, the results of which have been published in about 30 
research papers. 

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM 

The research program now under way in Ceylon, a study of the behavior 
and ecology of elephants, is in its second year, and a series of projects 
on primates has been started. It is under the direction of John F. Eisen- 
berg, resident scientist of the National Zoological Park and associate 
ecologist of the Office of Ecology, who joined the field team in Ceylon 



Elephants at Lahugula Tank (a former reservoir about 1000 years ago) in 
Ceylon. Photographed 5 November 1967. 





OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 



285 



in June to direct the projects and conduct ethological research for a 
year. Based on the weights and linear measurements of 21 female and 
16 male elephants examined while they were assembled for the annual 
Kandy Perahera procession, a system for estimating ages of Ceylonese 
elephants was developed. This system provided a foundation both for 
Fred Kurt's post-doctoral research on individual and group behavior, 
population structure, and reproduction, and for George McKay's pre- 
doctoral research on food habits, relationships to vegetation, and energy 
flow. Suzanne Ripley joined the team to investigate the interrelationships 
between man and tame elephants, with special reference to the use of 
the elephant as a work animal and the role which the elephant plays in 
the Ceylonese culture. Knowledge of the cultural significance of the 
elephant will provide important background for a program of educa- 
tion and training to insure continued conservation of the Ceylonese 
elephant. 

Two students at the University of Ceylon in Peradiniya, veterinarian 
A.P.W. Nettasinghe and zoologist Anil Jayasuriya, will use segments of 
this research on elephants for their M.S. degrees. In October, Clinton 
Gray, veterinarian of the National Zoological Park, determined the 
dosage of M99 for immobilizing the Ceylonese elephant, and with 
unqualified success captured, marked, and released three large male ele- 
phants in the wild, thus demonstrating a means by which the Ceylonese 
government can move elephants to new locations. During the month of 
January, Kurt, McKay, and Ripley journeyed to India for observations 
on the elephant round-up in the State of Mysore, an event known as a 
"keddah," which is held every ten years to capture wild elephants for 
domestic use. Valuable information was obtained on behavior during 
capture, on normal behavior (observed at 50-meter range from the 
backs of tame elephants) , and on age structure of the wild population. 
The accomplishments proved so worthwhile that a second trip was made, 
this time with Nettasinghe and Jayasuriya. These trips also laid the 
foundation for the future development of a project on elephants in 
Mysore. 

Dieter Mueller-Dombois, who is conducting botanical studies in 
Ceylon, intensified his cooperation with the elephant studies by estab- 
lishing a series of vegetation transects in the Yala National Park, develop- 
ing a vegetation classification system for relating the daily and seasonal 
behavior of elephants to vegetation types and for aiding in identifying 
plants utilized as food. Both Mueller-Dombois and the elephant team are 
gathering information on the relationship of buffalo, sambar deer, and 
axis deer to elephants through their influence on the vegetation, particu- 
larly at Yala where there is an overabundance of deer. By the close of 



286 NATURAL SCIENCES 

these studies next year a broad foundation will have been established 
for long-range action in the conservation of the Ceylonese elephant. 

The primate studies initiated by Eisenberg include the macaque (two 
races), the gray langur (one race), and the purple-faced langur (four 
races) . They involve comparisons between species and between races of 
the same species to elucidate the variations in individual morphology, 
social forms, and distribution in relationship to climate, diet, and habitat 
utilization. Cooperating investigators in these studies include Suzanne 
Ripley, whose doctoral dissertation was on the gray langur in Ceylon; 
Theodore I. Grand of the Oregon Regional Primate Research Center; 
and Claude M. Hladik of the University of Paris. The overall goal is to 
determine the modes of exploitation of the environment by the different 
species and races of primates, which is to be accomplished by relating 
data on ecology, sociology, energy budget, and form and function of the 
primates to relevant differences in the environment. 

The survey of opportunities for overseas ecological research initiated 
last year with support from the Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program 
continued with promising results. A large portion of the survey activity 
was concentrated in India. Two post-doctoral students, Robert L. 
Fleming from Michigan State University and Robert H. Horwich from 
the University of Maryland, completed a year surveying the present state 
of ecological research in India. They also examined research opportuni- 
ties and disseminated widely information on the Smithsonian research 
objectives. One immediate result of the survey was to prepare a trip to the 
United States for India's leading plant ecologist, Ramdeo Misra, pro- 
fessor of botany, Banaras Hindu University, to seek support and col- 
laboration in studies of primary and secondary productivity of repre- 
sentative ecosystems in central India. George A. Petrides, professor of 
zoology at Michigan State University, formulated a well-conceived plan 
for ecological research in southern Nepal. With assistance from his uni- 
versity and from the Smithsonian, an interdisciplinary program is being 
developed, based on the Rapti Valley of Nepal, a relatively undisturbed 
area that is accessible to ecologists and students from many parts of the 
subcontinent. 

Richard D. Taber, professor of forestry at the University of Montana, 
and post-doctoral student Mirza Beg, laid the groundwork for ecological 
research in Pakistan, project proposals for which are now being prepared, 
with emphasis on the population ecology of animals (such as the wild 
boar) that damage agricultural crops. 

Lawrence B. Slobodkin, formerly professor of zoology at the University 
of Michigan and now chairman of the department of biological sciences 
at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, began a five-year 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 



287 



study of diversity, spacial distribution, and interspecific relationships of 
corals, and of the behavior and ecology of reef fishes, at the Eilat coral 
reef in Israel. 

Frank B. Golley of the University of Georgia's Institute of Ecology 
visited Poland for the Smithsonian to develop a joint ecological research 
project, on the bioenergetics of small mammals, with Kazimierz 
Petrusewicz, the Director of the Polish Academy of Science's Institute 
of Ecology. 

Lee M. Talbot made three trips to Tunisia, where he initiated a wide 
and promising research program on arid-land ecology in conjunction 
with the government of Tunisia. The principal study site will be that 
government's research station at Bou Hedma in southern Tunisia. This 
project is being developed as part of the International Biological Pro- 
gram, and it is envisioned that information from this study will find 
application in other North African nations. 

Kai Curry-Lindahl and Walter Leuthold completed a highly success- 
ful survey of opportunities for limnological and terrestrial ecological 
research in the Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa). From the Congo 
Leuthold traveled to Kenya to gather information, contact government 
and university officials, and to prepare a long-term program of compara- 
tive studies on territoriality, reproduction, and ecology of several East 
African antelopes. This program is to be an expansion of the earlier 
research by Buechner and Leuthold on territorial behavior in the 
Uganda kob. 



Elephants at Lahugula Tank. Two babies can be seen, one of which is nursing. 
Photographed 5 November 1967. 






'M 



'^:% 




288 NATURAL SCIENCES 

The ecological studies that have been supported for nearly two years 
by the Office of Ecology in the DMZ study area, which is contiguous 
with the demilitarized zone of Korea, were brought to a temporary 
standstill by the increased activities of infiltrators that threaten the 
lives of the investigators. A five-year plan was developed for a Korean 
Center for Environmental Studies, within which an integrated program 
of research and education in ecosystem ecology can be undertaken at 
some point in time when the military and political situation in Korea has 
eased and financial support becomes available. 

In most regions of the world outside of the United States, ecosystem 
ecology is in its infancy, and it is important to make preliminary sur- 
veys in these areas to identify significant problems and to initiate effec- 
tive plans to carry out research projects. Preliminary research usually 
can be accomplished on initial trips, and the Office of Ecology supports 
such introductory studies in ecosystem ecology and environmental phys- 
iology under a contract with the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. 
Since April 1967, some 40 scientists have been supported, many of whom 
have worked in Latin America at the Smithsonian Tropical Research 
Institute and at Belem, Brazil, where the Smithsonian cooperates in a 
research program with the Instituto des Pesquisas and Experimehta^ao 
Agropecuarias do Norte 14 (ipean). 

CHESAPEAKE BAY CENTER FOR FIELD BIOLOGY 

Development of facilities for the Chesapeake Bay Center for Field 
Biology continues. The Center's headquarters with the assistance of a 
grant from the Old Dominion Foundation, was remodeled to provide 
offices, a small dormitory with dining facilities, a conference room, and 
a library. A maintenance vehicle and two small boats to be used in 
freshwater and estuarine research were acquired. All necessary road 
work was completed and a precise grid system for the location and re- 
cording of observations was established. 

Three students began research for the summer at the Center in 
June 1968. Paul E. M. Fine initiated studies on avian blood parasites, 
William W. Wiggins started on intensive bird-banding project to de- 
termine the special distribution of birds in the mature forest, and Mary 
A. Feagin began studies of aquatic animals in Muddy Creek under 
the guidance of I. Eugene Wallen. 

The Office of Ecology made available the 234-page manual, "An 
Ecologically Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Flora at the Chesa- 
peake Bay Center for Field Biology, with Keys," by Daniel Higman. 
This checklist is backed by herbarium specimens collected at the Cen- 
ter since August 1965, and after the keys have been tested through 
use, it will be published. 



OFFICE OF ECOLOGY 289 

EDUCATION 

The efficacy of reorienting liberal education on an ecological basis to 
achieve greater contemporary relevance in higher education was dis- 
cussed at a seminar organized by the Office of Ecology and held at the 
White Memorial Foundation, Litchfield, Connecticut, 28 September- 
1 October. This seminar, "The Quality of Man's Environment^ — A 
Challenge to Liberal Education," was jointly sponsored by the Office 
of Ecology, the Union for Research and Experimentation in Higher 
Education (urehe), the United States Office of Education, and the 
White Memorial Foundation, with a supporting grant from the Esso 
Education Foundation. 

As a result of this conference, the 10 liberal arts colleges of urehe 
are developing interdisciplinary approaches for an educational pro- 
gram centered on man and his total environment. 

"Man, Beast, and The Land," a color documentary film of research 
begun in 1959 in East Africa by Lee M. and Martha H. Talbot, ap- 
peared on NBC television, 16 May. The Nielsen rating of 33.5, repre- 
senting nearly 30 million viewers, was remarkably high for a documen- 
tary and indicated keen public interest in the wildlife and ecology of 
the Serengeti-Mara plains of Tanzania and Kenya. The high quality 
of this film sets a standard for future films documenting research by 
Smithsonian scientists. 

Charles Elton, who became the second Smithsonian Fellow, subse- 
quent to his recent retirement from the Directorship of the Bureau of 
Animal Population, which he founded at O.xford University 35 years 
ago, arrived in Washington, 4 April. As Sir Alister Hardy said of 
Elton in his foreword to the commendatory issue of the Journal of Ani- 
mal Ecology (February 1968) : "Elton in fact set out to turn natural 
history into science, and that, of course, is what ecology is: the quanti- 
tative and experimental study of living organisms in relation to their 
environments. He blazed a pioneering trail in this new domain of ter- 
restrial animal ecology. He had the courage to remain in university 
life, to sally forth from the laboratories into the field, and so was one 
of the very first to bring the principles of animal ecology, which he 
himself was largely making, into the academic world to influence future 
students." 

The visit of Elton to the Smithsonian for a five-month period, ini- 
tially sponsored by Philip S. Humphrey, will include two months of field 
research at the ipean rain forest, Belem, Brazil, where ecological re- 
search was organized in 1966 by Humphrey with financial support from 
the Office of Ecology. During an earlier brief visit to Belem, Elton was 
impressed by the scarcity of rain-forest animals; his recent research 



290 NATURAL SCIENCES 

has centered on population density and species diversity of the rain- 
forest fauna, comparisons being made with the fauna at Oxford Uni- 
versity's estate at Wytham Woods which he has studied intensively 
over the past 20 years. 

The stimulation of Elton's visit, particularly through his informal 
talks, has led to the incorporation of some of his ideas, methodology, and 
guidelines — evolved at Wytham Woods — into the long-range program 
of the developing Chesapeake Bay Center for Field Biology. 

Staff Papers Presented or Published 

Barbehenn^ Kyle R. "The EflFect of Community Organization on Estimating 
Small Mammal Populations." Paper presented at the 47th Annual Meet- 
ing of the American Society of Mammalogists, Nags Head, North Carolina, 
1967. 

. "Host-Parasite Relationships and Species Diversity in Mammals: An 

Hypothesis." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Ecological 
Society of America, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, 1968. 

BuECHNER, Helmut K., and Frank B. Golley. "Preliminary Estimates of 
Energy Flow in Uganda Kob." Pages 243-254, in vol. 1 of Secondary 
Productivity of Terrestrial Ecosystems {Principles and Methods), edit. K. 
Petrusewicz. Warsaw: Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ecology, 
International Biological Programme PT, 1967. 

BuECHNER, Helmut K., and Harland W. Mobsman. "The Opening Between 
the Allantoic Vesicle and the Uterine Cavity in the Uganda Kob Con- 
ceptus." Paper presented at the International Symposium, Biology of 
Reproduction in Mammals, University College Nairobi, Kenya, April 1968. 

TalboTj Lee M. "Background and Organization of the IBP." Transactions 
of the Thirty-second North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Con- 
ference, 1967. Volume 32, pp. 275-278. 

. "The Herbivore- Vegetation-Nomad Complex: Recent Research and 

Its Implications." Paper presented at the IBP-CT Technical Meeting, 
Hammamet, Tunisia, 24-29 March 1968. 

■ . "Wildlife in a Changing World: A Conservation Challenge." Key- 
note address, joint sectional meeting of American Society of Range Man- 
agement, the Society of American Foresters, and the Soil Conservation 
Society of America, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 1967. 

. "Ecology of East African Savanna." Lecture series. College of Natural 

Resources Conservation Week, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, 1967. 

. "Wildlife in Developing Countries." Pages 46-49 in Wildlife Re- 
sources in a Changing World. Washington, D.C. : The Conservation 
Foundation, 1968. 

"Ecological Considerations in Water Development Projects in the 



Middle East." Paper presented at the Conference on the Middle East: 
Horizons in Science and Technology, The Middle East Institute, Wash- 
ington, D.C, 1967. 
Talbot, Lee M., and Martha H. Talbot, editors. Conservation in Tropical 
Southeast Asia. lUCN Publications, new series, no. 10, 550 pp. Morges, 
Switzerland : International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural 
Resources, 1968. 



Museum of Natural History 

Richard S. Cowan, Director 




T EARNING IS FUN! So Say the hundreds of children who clamber over 
-'— ' a life-size model of a prehistoric dinosaur Triceratops under the 
trees in front of the Museum, and then flock into the exhibit on dinosaurs 
in strikingly larger numbers than ever before. The same mood is ex- 
pressed by the young and old who crowd informal classroom areas all 
over the Museum where scientific staff members teach Smithsonian Asso- 
ciates classes on many natural history subjects. This is learning at its 
best ; but it does not stop there, for there is a burgeoning interest among 
the Museum staff" to bridge the former gap between the Smithsonian 
and academic institutions across the country. 

Some of the research scientists are actively involved in giving courses 
and seminars at nearby and distant univ^ersities, but many more are in- 
volved in cooperative research training with students who are working 
in the seven departments of the Museum under the direction and super- 
vision of our professionals. Dissertations for advanced degrees are in 
progress or were completed in most of the natural history disciplines, 
and summer intern students undertook a wide variety of limited research 
projects in the departments. In addition, growing numbers of post- 
doctoral investigators are spending substantial periods of time in res- 
idence in the Museum. 

The depth of interest and concern for educational matters by the 
scientific staff is well demonstrated by the number of them involved in 
teaching at all levels. The joint development of an almost unique 
curriculum for paleontology students at a local university by members 
of our department of paleobiology is an especially good example of 
the interest in higher education in the Washington area. 

291 



292 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Summary of Publications by the Staff 
(Including Honorary Members) 



Department 


1964 


1965 


1966 


1967 


1968 


Anthropology 


30 


31 


35 


41 


48 


River Basin Surveys* 


- 


1 


13 


15 


17 


Botany 


54 


51 


50 


69 


89 


Entomology 


38 


25 


30 


55 


53 


Invertebrate Zoology f 


67 


39 


35 


68 


60 


Mineral Sciences 


2 


18 


15 


21 


25 


Paleobotany 


13 


29 


39 


41 


103 


Vertebrate Zoology f 


- 


28 


56 


60 


81 



370 



476 



Totals 204 222 273 

*Prior to 1965 under Bureau of American Ethnology. 

flnvertebrate and vertebrate zoology were one department through 1964. The 
figure for 1964 represents both. 




INTRODUCTION 293 

The continuing annual increase in research papers represented by the 
tabulation opposite, has taken place despite an actual decrease in the 
size of the professional stafT. This is most gratifying, for in addition, 
few national and international meetings occur in which Smithsonian 
scientists are not involved, often as contributors of papers reporting 
results of original research, and they also present lectures to their col- 
leagues and to students in academic seminars. These represent an 
important part of the scholarly output of the staff, and are listed on 
page 397. From these impressive accomplishments, one may conclude 
that, research, as a form of learning, is one the staff finds most satisfying. 

The increase in interdisciplinary projects implies effective com- 
munication between scientists who recognize the benefits of collabora- 
tion: A petrologist joins a specialist on Foraminifera to study the 
history of the mid- Atlantic sea-floor; a specialist on sharks and one 
on the parasitic micro-invertebrates pool their efforts to illuminate the 
evolutionary development of their respective groups; and a botanical 
systematist links his interests with those of an entomologist to understand 
the biological interrelationships between flowers and their pollinators. 
Notable as such collaborative efforts are, an even more important re- 
search development is appearing. 

Because of the size and extent of the national collections of natural 
history objects and of the interests of the research staff, the Museum 
has always had a unique role of collecting, organizing, and synthesizing 
biological data to be presented in monographs and revisions of both 
fossil and Recent groups. This responsibility to the scientific community 
is still recognized and discharged, as it must always be, for such basic 
information is the foundation for the understanding we must acquire 
of the living world if man is to continue to live in harmony with it. 
There is evident, however, a new concern for the question, regularly 
addressed by researchers in the academic environment, of how this basic 
information relates to the development of our understanding of such 
biological processes as evolution and environmental relationships — the 



Although the learning process is not altogether understood, most of us agree 
that LEARNING IS FUN! The pleasure of learning, so evident in the faces of 
children, also motivates the graduate student and the professional scientist. 
Museums are, or should be, fun because they are places for learning, whether 
by clambering over a model dinosaur, assisting scientists as summer interns, or 
by researching the mysteries of the world about us. The Smithsonian Museum of 
Natural History, with things and ideas, exists to excite and encourage the fun 
of discovery. As the national museum of the United States and the largest museum 
complex in the world, the Smithsonian is constantly seeking new ways to carry 
out its historic mission of public enlightenment. 



INTRODUCTION 



295 



Twenty exhibit halls in the Museum of Natural History are visited by millions 
of people each year, many of them school children. The efforts of artists, de- 
signers, model-makers, and other exhibits specialists catch the interest of young 
visitors. A Junior Natural Science Library is being organized as a tool for bring- 
ing learner and knowledge together in an environment that takes advantage of 
the excitement exhibits generate. Through experiments with new exhibition tech- 
niques, the Smithsonian discovers ever more effective ways to arouse interest 
and to facilitate the learning that is the hallmark of museums. 




Behind the scenes, Smithsonian and visiting research scientists with their assist- 
ants, volunteer helpers, and students learn about the nature of man and his 
cultures, about the millions of living and fossil plants and animals, and about 
meteorites and the origin of our solar system. Young volunteer students are 
trained in skills that prepare them for a challenging career or an exciting life- 
long avocation. 



INTRODUCTION 



297 




As the official caretaker of the Nation's collections of natural history, the 
Museum maintains and conducts studies of the more than 50 million specimens 
of plants, animals, rocks, gems, and human artifacts. The Smithsonian's vast 
collections have long constituted a kind of national referral center upon which 
biologists have learned to rely for the basic information they need for under- 
standing thi^ living world. By encouraging scientists, scholars, and students to 
pursue research among its collections and libraries, the Smithsonian contributes 
to the national efifort to strengthen academic science and scholarship. 



315-997 O - 69 - 20 



298 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

interpretive aspects of systematic biology. This direction suggests that 
the research staff of the Museum will ultimately include three general, 
interdependent classes of scholars — those concerned solely (often neces- 
sarily by the nature of the group) with monographic studies, those who 
combine monographic with interpretive interests, and those who are 
largely interpreters, drawing on and collaborating with individuals and 
teams representing the first two classes. The result can be a highly 
stimulating, increasingly relevant environment in which the parts inter- 
act, each providing and receiving research direction not otherwise at- 
tainable to the same extent. Future stafT growth will have this as its goal. 

But research at any of these levels depends ultimately on the collec- 
tions, a unique asset and, at the same time, a unique responsibility of 
the Smithsonian Institution. As the caretakers and users of the nation's 
natural history collections, the charge to make them available to any 
serious, reputable scientist elsewhere is not neglected in the emphasis 
on an increase in research productivity, both quantitatively and quali- 
tatively. The move of the department of entomology back into the 
natural history building (started this year), coupled with an annual 
increase of about one million specimens, necessitates careful long-range 
planning to provide storage space for the collections. Space must be 
found outside the Museum for this purpose and two kinds of planning 
were initiated during the year: a policy to guide curators regarding 
what kinds of specimens are to be added to the national collections, and 
a statement of the requirements for an "ofT-campus" storage facility 
that will maintain the collections in an available-for-study status. Long- 
range plans were advanced for the use of recently acquired space in 
Alexandria, Virginia, and for the construction of new structures within 
a few minutes of the Mall. Adequate physical protection, space for 
visiting researchers, and sufficient curatorial assistance are assumed to 
be basic requirements of any collections-storage location outside the 
Museum. 

Since the results of Museum actions with respect to both research 
and care of the collections are important to the scientific community 
generally, ad hoc advisory committees were convened during the year 
to assist the members of each of the seven departments and the Office 
of Systematics in an evaluation of past performance and future poten- 
tials. The assistance of these groups, composed of the most highly quali- 
fied scientists available, has been of inestimable importance and it is 
gratefully acknowledged. 

The accompanying photographic essay illustrates some of the interests 
of the Museum of Natural History today. The reports of the most sig- 
nificant activities in each of the departments is the substance of past 
progress and the basis for an enormously optimistic future. 



Research and Publication 
OFFICE OF SYSTEMATICS 

In June the second Summer Institute in Systematics, this one for botani- 
cal systematists, was initiated with the collaboration of the American 
Society of Plant Taxonomists and with support provided by the National 
Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. 
Curator of plant anatomy Richard H. Eyde served as the director of the 
symposium with Mrs. Sally W. Yochelsbn as the administrative assistant. 

From more than 100 applicants a Society selection committee chose 
25 participants, all of whom are occupied during the year with both 
teaching and systematic research in colleges and universities across the 
country. Fifteen especially stimulating speakers, including one from 
overseas, provided the focus for extensive discussion each day and some 
individual participants presented their own research problems for dis- 
cussion in the afternoons. Chemotaxonomy, numerical taxonomy, cyto- 
genetics, systematics of cultivated plants, and floral biology were a few 
of the lecturers' topics. The Institute was attended not only by the 
participants but by botanists and zoologists of the metropolitan Wash- 
ington area. 

Because of financial stringencies, no new programs were initiated by 
the Office and ancillary support of miscellaneous, but important, research 
projects was necessarily reduced. The Office was able, however, to con- 
tinue minimal support of the development of the program in prima- 
tology. This multifaceted program will fill critical gaps in our knowledge 
of primates generally, but it will be especially concerned with those of 
biomedical importance. 

The federal Office of Science and Technology's Evironmental Quality 
Committee established in November a special panel on systematics and 
taxonomy. R. S. Cowan, Head of the Smithsonian Office of Systematics, 
was appointed the chairman to guide the efforts of representatives from 
all the federal agencies concerned with systematic biology. The purpose 
of the panel is to prepare a report that will identify the role of syste- 
matics in federal science, its present health and needs, as well as its 
future development and the requirements to meet anticipated involve- 
ment in national and international programs. A first draft of the report 
was completed at the end of the year and will be submitted early in the 
new fiscal period. 

299 



300 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

OFFICE OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

The special programs initiated last year have continued to develop under 
the guidance of professor Sol Tax, special advisor to the Secretary for 
Anthropology. With assistance from program coordinator Sam Stanley 
and other staff members, Tax prepared a report outlining present and 
future program development for the Office of Anthropology and dis- 
cussing the three major, current programs: urgent anthropology. Hand- 
book of North American Indians, and ancient technology. In addition, 
a number of new concepts were proposed — establishment of a national 
archives of anthropology, a national library of anthropology, a world- 
wide teaching cooperative program, an anthropological information 
exchange, adjunct staff appointments, and planning for the eventual ^ 
establishment of a museum of man. 

One of the recommendations of an ad hoc committee of distinguished 
anthropologists that was convened during the year was that the programs 
be emphasized by the creation of a center for the study of human sci- 
ences. Professor Tax was asked by the Secretary to draw up plans for 
implementing this recommendation, and in June the creation of the 
Center for the Study of Man was announced. It will be the focus for a 
number of broad, interdisciplinary programs involving scientists from 
other departments and bureaus of the Smithsonian and from aca- 
demic centers elsewhere. 

Though William Sturtevant, editor of the Handbook of North Amer- 
ican Indians, is spending the year in England, work on various phases 
of the Handbook continued under Stanley's direction. Most of the 
volumes have been tentatively planned and these outlines are being criti- 
cally reviewed by colleagues outside the Institution. The appointment, 
as research associate, of William S. Willis, Jr., with his profound knowl- 
edge of the ethnohistory of the Southeastern United States, adds an 
important dimension to the program. 

A number of colleagues on every continent assisted in carrying out 
exigent field research under the small grants program for urgent anthro- 
pology. This, as the words suggest, provides modest funds for conducting 
field studies of extreme urgency that can be carried out before scientifi- 
cally important data are lost forever. The catalogue of urgent research 
projects was published in Current Anthropology for October. 

In collaboration with the Smithsonian's division of performing arts, 
Stanley explored the development of a folklife studies program to sys- 
tematically record rapidly disappearing American folk history. He dis- 
tributed to a large number of concerned persons a questionnaire, the 
results of which will be discussed at a conference later next year. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ANTHROPOLOGY 301 

Under the co-direction of Clifford Evans and Gus W. Van Beak, the 
objectives of the ancient technology program were advanced with the 
study of several hundred additional pre-Columbian metal artifacts by 
means of metallographic and spectrochemical techniques under a special 
contract with Battelle Memorial Institute. A similar study was begun on 
southern Arabian specimens. Data from these metal studies, made on 
grave lots from the pre-Columbian culture of coastal Ecuador, will be 
collated with the other associated materials — pottery, stone, shell, wood, 
and textile artifacts — and programmed for cluster-analysis study on 
computers. 

Research associate Theodore A. Wertime is conducting a pyrotechni- 
cal reconnaissance of Afghanistan, southern and western Iran, and 
Turkey as a follow-up of his study last year of the ancient technology 
of tin of Iran. The preliminary results of that work were published in a 
lead article in Science for 1 March. 

The study of disappearing traditional crafts, industries, and technolo- 
gies of South Asia continued, in collaboration with the University of New 
South Wales, Australia, under support from Public Law 480 and Smith- 
sonian research funds. Professor Hans Wulff, accompanied by Donald 
Godden and Charles F. Walton, began field work in November in Paki- 
stan. In December Dr. Wulff died of a cerebral hemorrhage in Khairpur, 
but Godden and Walton continued the expedition. These projects to 
gather collections and obtain data on the pre-industrial crafts of South 
Asia have been so successful that Chancellor Baxter of the University 
of New South Wales was asked to name Professor L. M. Haynes, who is 
head of the Department of Industrial Arts, as principal field investigator 
to carry out the long-range collaboration and fieldwork. Plans were 
developed for fieldwork in Ceylon by Professor Haynes, and in Pakistan 
by Godden and Walton on one team and by Smithsonian curator Eugene 
Knez on another. 

With Hrdlicka fund support, J. Lawrence Angel extended his field- 
work in Turkey on the health, energy, fertility, and genetic patterns 
of the earliest farming peoples. He confirmed that their smaller body 
size and poorer dental health in contrast to those of the meat-eating 
successful hunters of latest Paleolithic times, was a consequence of 
chronic falciparum malaria (indicated by anemia-produced thickening 
of the skull vault) and their carbohydrate diet. Yet the fanners' greater 
certainty of food supply allowed a slight increase in longevity and in 
fecundity. 

Donald J. Ortner's bone biology program has its current emphasis on 
the effects of aging on microstructural units, and the coordination of 
micromorphology with electron microprobe analysis of mineral concen- 



302 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION : ANTHROPOLOGY 



303 




First results of the long-range Ancient Technology Program were obtained by 
a team headed by the late professor Hans WulfiF in Iran, where they located and 
recorded a variety of fast-disappearing crafts, such as drawing gold wire, shown 
here, and wrapping thread with gold leaf (lower right, opposite) for weaving 
gold brocade. Machines and tools were collected, along with samples of the 
products made on them. Other teams have been working in Pakistan and Ceylon. 



tration. Ortner will shortly begin studying age-related changes in the 
organic fraction of single microstructural units. During the 1968-1969 
academic year, he will complete the requirements for his doctorate at 
the University of Kansas under a Smithsonian graduate scholarship. 

One application of both gross and microchemical changes in the 
physiological biography of each individual is identification of skele- 
tons by the division of physical anthropology as consultant to the FBI, 
State medical examiners, and local police. The physical anthropologist 
looks for clues to physiological shift from the usual and for stress, injury, 
or trauma which may distort "norms." After cremation identification is 
much more difficult and here is where the anthropologist finds himself 
in court as an expert witness ; in one such case a 5-cm piece of the back 
of the shinbone matched a hospital X-ray of the supposed victim taken 
when he had broken his ankle, and led to a conviction. 

Senior physical anthropologist T. Dale Stewart, su,pervised Lawrence 



304 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

G. Quade, from the University of Texas, one of the summer students 
accepted under the nsf undergradute research participation program, 
in a survey of frontal lesions in American Indian skulls. They presented 
a paper on the subject at the annual meeting of the American Associa- 
tion of Physical Anthropologists in Detroit. 

Stewart in December visited Trinity University, San Antonio, for 
the purpose of examining some newly recovered skeletal remains from 
a chimney-type cavern outside the city. These proved to be of interest 
mainly because they date back to the Archaic Period. In January he 
was in California representing the Committee on Research and Explora- 
tion of the National Geographic Society at a conference on L.S.B. 
Leakey's search for early man in the Calico Hills. It was determined 
that no satisfactory objective evidence for man's considerable antiquity 
here has yet been obtained. 

Senior archeologist Waldo R. Wedel, accompanied by museum 
specialist George Metcalf in June, began further excavations of cere- 
monial structures associated with certain early historic Indian village 
sites in central Kansas. Eight students from various educational insti- 
tutions, including the state universities of Iowa, Kansas, and New Mex- 
ico, were employed as field helpers. 

Operations were centered on two so-called council circles described 
last year. Located about a mile apart, they are believed to date from 
the very beginning of European contact between the natives and the 
Spanish under Coronado. At the Hayes council circle, previously tested 
in 1966, it was determined that the circle consisted of two concentric 
sets of native excavations. An inner set of oblong basins may have been 
the remains of semisubterranean houses. Three of these were cleared 
as completely as ground and weather conditions permitted. Then, owing 
in part to saturation of the ground by heavy and protracted rains, op- 
erations were transferred to the Paul Thompson council circle. Here the 
south half of a circle complex about 100 feet in diameter was opened. 
As at Hayes and Tobias, dug in 1940 and 1965, the circle of inner struc- 
tures was surrounded by a ditch or a series of outer basins. The two 
opened basins had fireplaces in a line down the center, postmolds, stor- 
age pits, and much trash on the floor — clear evidence that they had 
been used as habitations. Much refuse of human occupation was col- 
lected from the pit fill, but there was no human bone, whole or fragmen- 
tary, in this circle. 

The finding of some 12 to 15 human skeletons in the fill of one of the 
house pits at the Hayes site is of particular interest, because no burial 
grounds have been found with these village sites. Most of the skeletons 
had been carelessly interred, sometimes in very incomplete condition. 
Yet there was a surprising amount of cultural material scattered among 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ANTHROPOLOGY 



305 



Ancient Technology Program: A steatite (soapstone) pot is roughed out and 
then shaped on a primitive lathe hand-powered in the manner of an Indian 
bow-drill. Wulff carefully recorded and photographed each step of these processes, 
which in a very few years will become lost skills, such is the impact of cheap 
imports from Japan and mainland China. 




306 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ANTHROPOLOGY 307 

Pride of hand-craftsmanship is obvious in this series showing steps in the making 
of bone-inlay artifacts in Iran. The hundreds of tools and machines already 
collected by the Ancient Technology Program, with associated descriptions of 
their use and operation and of the processes involved, constitute a unique his- 
torical record of the beginnings of modern technology. 



the bones and in the fill immediately above. From this it is suspected 
that the skeletons represent hastily interred bodies of individuals be- 
longing to the local community, who may have come to violent ends. 

The trade relationships between these communities and the pueblo 
towns on the Rio Grande 500 miles to the southwest are manifested in 
the artifact inventory. Finally, sunset observations made on 21 June 1967, 
including photographs, show that the inferred alignment of the Thomp- 
son and Hayes circles with solstitial horizon points is a certainty. 

Paul H. Voorhis completed for publication the revision of his doc- 
toral dissertation on Kickapoo Indian grammar. Three brief papers, 
including native textual material, on Kickapoo subjects — whistle speech, 
standard orthography, and transcription problems — were also completed. 
In March he began a six-month field trip to the Mesquakie settlement 
near Tama, Iowa, to collect new data on the Mesquakie language, 
emphasizing the intonation system, unrecorded inflections, new vocabu- 
lary and texts, and to recheck differences between the Mesquakie and 
Kickapoo dialects. 

Richard B. Woodbury completed a report on the prehistoric water- 
control systems in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, in collaboration with 
James A. Neely, University of Arizona, as part of the Tehuacan project 
of the R. S. Peabody Foundation, Andover, Massachusetts. He and Mrs. 
Woodbury, who is a research associate, in August and September in- 
itiated in the Zuni Valley, New Mexico, an intensive archeological 
reconnaissance designed to examine the ecology of prehistoric and 
recent use of land and resources. 

William C. Sturtevant was on sabbatical leave as a Fulbright pro- 
fessor at the Institute of Social Anthropology, University of Oxford, 
for the current academic year. This afforded him opportunities for the 
study of collections of early eastern North American Indian specimens 
in public and private collections, and of archival material on American 
Indian history and culture, especially of the Southeast. 

In July curator Clifford Evans and research associate Betty J. Meggers 
presented at the Second International Congress for the Study of Pre- 
Columbian Cultures in the Lesser Antilles, held at the Barbados Museum 
in Barbados, a contribution to the methodology of ceramic analysis and 
reported on their archeological work in 1966 on Dominica. 



308 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

The archeological survey in Brazil under the direction of Evans and 
Meggers completed its third year of field work with funds from a 
Smithsonian research award and with the official collaboration of the 
Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas of Brazil. The eleven Brazilian arche- 
ologists involved are accumulating significant and extensive data, and 
a conference is scheduled for the end of the third year of field work 
to allow all participants and the principal investigators to correlate 
and synthesize the results into general period divisions and to recon- 
struct the movement of the aboriginal cultures. 

Under the direction of Professor Ramiro Matos, and in collaboration 
with Evans and Meggers, three field parties commenced similar survey 
work in the coordinated archeological research training program for 
highland Peru. This was made possible by the generosity of Kaiser Jeep 
International, W. R. Grace and Company, and the Wenner-Gren Foun- 
dation for Anthropological Research. 

Robert M. Laughlin brought two native informants to work for two 
months in Washington, to aid in the analysis of linguistic material 
previously gathered for his Tzotzil-English, English-Tzotzil dictionary. 

Analysis of ethnological information and specimens collected in the 
course of fieldwork in Botswana and Southwest Africa in earlier years, 
and the comparative study of these data and published reports, occu- 
pied curator Gordon D. Gibson much of the year. He completed a 
narrated research film on the Himba, a pastoral, Bantu-speaking people 
of Southwest Africa, in which the motion picture record he made in 
1960-1961 is reproduced in its entirety. Work was also begun on a 
shortened, edited version of the film intended for educational and 
general purposes. 

Gibson continued the translation from the Portuguese of one volume 
of an important three-volume work on the enthnography of the south- 
western Bantu, Etnografia do Sudoeste de Angola by Padre Carlos Ester- 
mann (Lisbon, 1957-1961 ) . With partial support provided by an anony- 
mous benefactor, translations of the other two volumes are also being 
obtained. 

Gibson joined discussions to develop at the Smithsonian an archive for 
anthropological motion picture records and, in April, attended a con- 
ference at the Wenner-Gren Foundation in New York to explore with 
other anthropologists and interested educators some of the problems of 
developing a unified anthropological film program. 

Upon his return in July from the previous year's fieldwork in the 
Caroline Islands, Saul H. Riesenberg assumed his duties as chairman 
of the Office of Anthropology. The study at Puluwat, centering around 
the maritime life of the natives, revealed the existence of a unique and 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION : ANTHROPOLOGY 309 

extremely complex set of methods of inter-island navigation. Successful 
graduates of the native navigation schools are required to memorize 
thousands of items of information, organized for mnemonic purposes 
by principles of logic different from those familiar to Western scientists. 
The complex of social and political activities and relationships which 
support the very important seafaring life was also studied. Since his 
return Riesenberg completed the revision of his monograph on the 
native polity of Ponape, and a paper on James F. O'Connell, a 
picaresque adventurer in the Pacific in the 1830s. 

During the past year associate curator William Trousdale, who trans- 
ferred from the Freer Gallery in August, was involved in preparing pre- 
liminary reports on the University of Michigan expedition, of which he 
is assistant director, to Qasr al-Hayr. This is the third season on the 
project, and three more seasons are projected. He worked in Syria for 
a period of three weeks in June, on an early Islamic palace and city, 
founded A.D. 728-729, in the Syrian desert about 70 miles northeast 
of Palmyra. During the last part of the year he collected information 
from the archives of several British institutions relative to archeological 
history of Sistan in Afghanistan and plans to visit there in the coming 
year for the purpose of continuing field surveys, and negotiating with 
Afghan officials for permission to conduct a larger expedition to this 
region. His other interests included the study of Chinese jade and the 
nomadic cultures of Central Asia and southern Siberia, especially with 
respect to material culture. 

A selected and annotated bibliography of Korean anthropology, by 
Eugene I. Knez and Chang-su Swanson, now in press, emphasizes the 
contributions of Asian scholars to this subject and will facilitate the use 
of their publications by Western students. Another manuscript, "Korean 
People, Their Traditions and Language," compiled and edited by Knez, 
with translation assistance by Willie Song, is in preparation. Most of the 
scientific illustrations for the manuscript. "A Study of Korean Material 
Culture," by Knez, have been completed by Edward G. Schumacher of 
the staff. """ 

The long-range project of archeological research at Carthage, planned 
by Gus W. Van Beek was canceled, owing to our inability to meet the 
Tunisian government's demands for a program of archeological restora- 
tion unrelated to the scientific objectives of the expedition. Following 
the conclusion of negotiations in Tunisia, Van Beek visited Ethiopia, 
Saudi Arabia, and Lebanon where he discussed with officials of the 
respective Departments of Antiquities the possibilities for archeological 
programs and visited archeological sites. This led to the development 
of a long-range archeological program in Saudi Arabia, of which the 



310 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




Curator Eugene I. Kner examines specimens in the outstanding collection of 
Japanese artifacts assembled by General Horace Capron, former U.S. Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture, when he and a staff of 45 American economists and 
engineers were advisors to the Japanese Government, 1871-1875. One of Capron's 
responsibilities was the development of Hokkaido — the large northernmost 
island of Japan. This fall the Japanese will honor him as the "Father of Modern 
Farming" in a special television documentary film. 



first fieldwork had already been initiated, involving an intensive archeo- 
logical survey of the regions known as the 'Asir, Nejran, and the 
Tihamah, an area which has never been visited by an archeologist. The 
survey is expected to contribute to our understanding of its cultural 
history in pre-Islamic times and its political, economic, and cultural 
relations with the high cultures of ancient southern Arabia and the 
various cultures of the fertile crescent. 

During the past year, Van Beek completed the manuscript of "Hajari 
Bin Humeid : Archeological Investigations at a Pre-Islamic Site in South 
Arabia." To be published by the Johns Hopkins Press for the Study of 
Man series, the volume presents a cross-section of a southern Arabian 
farming town and trading center during the first millennium B.C. and 
the early centuries A.D. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ANTHROPOLOGY 311 

Senior ethnologist John C. Ewers completed for publication by the 
Smithsonian Press his "Jean Louis Berlandier's Indians of Texas in 
1830," and gathered materials for an exhibit on the same subject. He 
also wrote an article on Thomas M. Easterly's pioneer daguerreotypes 
of Plains Indians in the collections of the Missouri Historical Society, 
St. Louis, and the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology. These da- 
guerreotyes of prominent Iowa Indians, taken in 1846 or 1847, com- 
prise the earliest known photographic portraits of Plains Indians. 

During the year Ewers also began research for a book on the field 
drawings of Gustavus Sohon, a unique series of portraits of the Indian 
chiefs who signed the first treaties between their tribes and the United 
States in 1855, scenes of the treaty council proceedings, and the only 
on-the-spot sketches of actions in the Cayuse War of 1858, as well as 
other historically significant views of the construction of the Mullan 
Road, the first wagon road over the Northern Rockies. 

Some of the North American Indian objects in the national collec- 
tions may date back to the second decade of the 19th century, when 
Thomas L. McKenney, superintendent of the Office of Indian Trade in 
Georgetown, began to collect ethnological materials from Indian Fac- 
tories in the field, and it is certain that there are a number of specimens 
collected by field officers of the Army Medical Corps in the Great Plains 
and Southwest during the Indian Wars of the 1860s. Retrieving a speci- 
men record of the types of weapons and equipment employed by Indians 
in the dramatic Indian Wars of the American West during the post- 
Civil War years would be important to both ethnological and historical 
research. Therefore, a documentation-retrieval project was inaugurated 
to provide more precise and more detailed information on ethnological 
specimens in the collections of the Office of Anthropology which were 
transferred to the Smithsonian from the War Department and the Army 
Medical Museum. This project is under Ewers' direction, with the able 
assistance of William K. Jones, who holds a National Foundation for the 
Humanities Fellowship, and Herman Viola of The National Archives. 

At the commencement ceremonies of his alma mater, Dartmouth Col- 
lege, in June, Ewers was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Science. 

Donald Fowler, who held a National Research Council visiting post- 
doctoral associateship at the Smithsonian this past year and a grant 
from the National Endowment for the Humanities, worked on several 
research subjects, including editing the ethnographic notes and manu- 
scripts on Great Basin Indians made in the 1870s and 1880s by John 
Wesley Powell, describing the available parts of the collections of ethno- 
graphic artifacts from the Great Basin gathered by Powell during the 



312 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




Tikis in the recently acquired Henry collection. These unique carved wooder 
figurines from the Marquesas Islands date from the early 18th century. 



same period, and gathering archival material toward a book on Povvel 
and the beginnings of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Research associate Olga Linares de Sapir has in press her complete 
analysis of the archeological material from the Casemance, Senegal 
which she excavated in 1966. The results will be of much interest tc 
West African specialists because the Casemance has been postulated as 
a secondary center for the indigenous domestication of cereal grains. 

Museum specialist (supervisory) George Metcalf completed a papei 
on wooden scraper handles from the Great Plains, and is currently en- 
gaged in preparing a report on two Paiute burials with their associated j 
grave goods which have been in the collections of the Museum for nearly 
a hundred years. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ANTHROPOLOGY 313 



Staff Publications 



(Papers, lectures, and seminars given by members of the staff are listed on 

page 397.) 

Angel, J. Lawrence. "Porotic Hyperostosis or Osteoporosis Symmetrica." 
Chapter 29 in Don Brothwell and A. T. Sandison, eds.. Diseases in An- 
tiquity. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, xix + 766 pp., 1967. 

. "Ecological Aspects of Palaeodemography." Pages 263—270 in Don 

Brothwell, ed., The Skeletal Biology of Earlier Human Populations. Ox- 
ford: Pergamon Press, 1968. 

Crocker, William H. "The Canela Messianic Movement: An Introduction." 
Atas do Simposio sobre a Biota Amazonica, Rio de Janeiro, vol. 2 (Antro- 
pologia),pp. 69-83, 1967. 

. "Ethnology: South America." Handbook of Latin American Studies, 

no. 29, Univ. of Florida Press, pp. 128-155, 1967. 

Evans, Clifford. "Amazon Archeology — A Centennial Appraisal." Atas do 
Simposio sobre a Biota Amazonica, Rio de Janeiro, vol. 2 (Antropologia), 
pp. 1-12, 1967. 

. "The Lack of Archeology on Dominica." Proceedings of the Second 

International Congress for the Study of Pre-Columbian Cultures in the 
Lesser Antilles, Barbados, July 24-28, 1967, pp. 93-102, 2 figs., 1968. 

. [Obituary] "Rafael Larco Hoyle : 1901-1966." American Antiquity, 

vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 233-236, April 1968. 

"Archeology and Diplomacy in Latin America." Foreign Service 



Journal, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 35-37, June 1968. 

Evans, Clifford, and Betty J. Meggers (contributing editors). "Archae- 
ology: South America." Handbook of Latin American Studies, no. 29, 
Univ. of Florida Press, pp. 75-104, 1967. 

Ewers, John C. Indian Life on the Upper Missouri. Univ. of Oklahoma 
Press, 222 pp., 48 pis., 1968. 

(editor and author of "Introduction" to Centennial Edition). George 

Catlin's 0-kee-pa: A Religious Ceremony and Other Customs of the Man- 
dans. Yale Univ. Press, 104 pp., 12 color pis., 1967. 

. "The Horse Complex in Plains Indian History." Chapter in The 

North American Indians: A Sourcebook, edit. Roger C. Owen, James J. F. 
Deetz, and Anthony D. Fisher. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1967. 

. "The Opening of the West." Chapter (pp. 42-68, 31 pis., 8 in 

color) in The Artist in America, edited by the editors of Art in America. 
New York: W. W. Norton and Co., Inc., 1967. 

. "An Appreciation of Father Nicolas Point, Pioneer Recorder of In- 
dian Life in the Northwest." Foreword (pp. vii-ix) to Wilderness King- 
dom: The Journals and Paintings of Father Nicolas Point, transl. and ed. 
by Joseph P. Donnelly, S. J. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 
1967. 

. "William Clark's Indian Museum in St. Louis, 1816-1838." Chapter 

in A Cabinet of Curiosities: Five Episodes in the Evolution of Museums, 
ed. by Walter Muir Whitehill. The Univ. Press of Virginia, 1967. 

■ . "Cyrus E. Dallin, Master Sculptor of the Plains Indian." Montana: 

Magazine of Western History, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 34-43, 9 pis., January 1968. 



315-997 O - 69 - 21 



314 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

. "Plains Indian Painting: The History and Development of an Ameri- 
can Art Form." The American West, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 4—15, 74—76, 15 pis., 
6 in color, March 1968. [Reprinted as "Introduction" to Howling Wolf, a 
Cheyenne Warrior's Graphic Interpretation of His People, by Karen Peterson, 
American West Publishing Co., pp. 3-15, 1968.] 

. "The White Man's Strongest Medicine." Bulletin Missouri Historical 

Society, St. Louis, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 36-46, 1967. 

[Introduction to Exhibition Catalog] Westward the Artist. Peoria, 



111.: Lakeview Center for the Arts and Sciences, 1968. 

Gibson, Gordon D. The Himba, 1960-1961 . [A research cinema film, on de- 
posit in Smithsonian film archives.] 

HOLLAND;, C. G. "The Elvin Graves Rockshelter, Madison County, Virginia." 
Quarterly Bulletin, Archeological Society of Virgina, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 98- 
112, 1967. 

. "A Linguistic Analysis of Weetoppen." Quarterly Bulletin, Archeol- 
ogical Society of Virgina, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 81-83, 1967. 

Meggers, Betty J. "The Archeological Sequence on the Rio Napo, Ecuador, 
and Its Implications." Atas do Simposio sobre a Biota Amazonica, Rio de 
Janeiro, vol. 2, pp. 145-152, 1967. 

. "Environmental Limitation on the Development of Culture" [complete 

reprint]. Page 19-44, in Environments of Man, Jack B. Bresler, ed. Read- 
ing, Mass.: Addison- Wesley Publishing Co., 1968. 

. "The Theory and Purpose of Ceramic Analysis." Proceedings of the 

Second International Congress for the Study of Pre-Columbian Cultures in 
the Lesser Antilles, Barbados, July 24-28, 1967, pp. 9-20, 4 figs., 1968. 

■ (editor). Anthropological Archeology in the Americas. Washington, 



D.C.: Anthropological Society of Washiungton, xi + 151 pp., 1968. 
MetcalFj George. "Archeology: Western Hemisphere." Page 62 in The 

Americana Annual. New York, 1968. 
Ornter, Donald J. "Description and Classification of Degenerative Bone 

Changes in the Distal Joint Surfaces of the Humerus." American Journ. 

Phys. Anthrop., n.s., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 1-13, 1968. 
Riesenberg, Saul H. "The Ngatik Massacre." Micronesian Reporter, vol. 

14, no. 5, pp. 9-12, 29-30, 1966. 
Smith, Watson, Richard B. Woodbury, and Nathalie F. S. Woodbury. 

"The Excavation of Hawikuh by Frederick Webb Hodge, Report of the 

Hendricks-Hodge Expedition, 1917-1923." Contributions from the 

Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York, vol. 20, 

470 pp., 1967. 
Stewart, T. D., and John R. Groome. "The African Custom of Tooth Muti- 
lation in America." American Journ. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 28, pp. 31-42, 

1968. 
Stewart, T. D., and Alexander Spoehr. "Evidence of the Paleopathology of 

Yaws" [reprint of 1952 article]. Pages 307-319 in Don Brothwell and 

A. T. Sandison, eds., Diseases in Antiquity. Springfield, 111.: Charles C. 

Thomas, 1967. 
Sturtevant, William C. "Catalog of Early Illustrations of Northeastern 

Indians." Ethnohistory, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 277-278, 1967. 
. "Urgent Anthropology: 1, Smithsonian-Wenner-Gren Conference." 

Current Anthrop., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 355-359, 361, 1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ANTHROPOLOGY 315 

. Guide to Field Collecting of Ethnographic Specimens. (Smithsonian 

Institution Information Leaflet 503), 41 pp., 1967. 

. "Anthropology, History, and Ethnohistory." Chapter 18, pp. 421-475, 

in Introduction to Cultural Anthropology: Essays in the Scope and Method 
of the Science of Man, edit. James A. Clifton. Boston: Houghton Mifflin 
Co., 1968. [Also in Ethnohistory, vol. 13, 1-2, pp. 1-51, 1967.] 

— -. "Lafitau's Hoes." American Antiquity, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 93-95, 1968. 

— . "Categories, Percussion, and Physiology." Man, n.s., vol. 3, no. 1, 



pp. 133-134, 1968. 
Trousdale, William. "Land of the Sistan Sands." Mid East: A Near East, 

North African i?ei;., July/August 1967. 
. "Yang Kuei-fei Learning to Play the Flute." In Man Through His 

Art, vol. 5. Paris: unesco, 1968. 

. "A Possible Roman Jade from China." Oriental Art, summer 1968. 

. "Chinese Jade in the Dayton Art Institute." Oriental Art, autumn 



1968. 
Van Beek, Gus W. "The Monuments of Axum in the Light of South Arabian 

Archeology." Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 87, pp. 113- 

122, 1967. 
Wedel, Waldo R., Wilfred M. Husted, and John H. Moss. "Mummy 

Cave: Prehistoric Record from Rocky Mountains of Wyoming." Science, 

vol. 160, no. 3824, pp. 184-186, 1968. 
Wertime, Theodore. "Argonauts in the Persian Desert." Foreign Service 

Journal, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 19-23, 60, June 1968. 
. "A Metallurgical Expedition through the Persian Desert." American 

Association for the Advancement of Science, vol. 159, no. 3818, pp. 927-935, 

March 1968. 
Woodbury, Richard B. "The Teaching of Archaeological Anthropology — Pur- 
poses and Concepts." Pages 179-188 in The Teaching of Anthropology, 

abridged edition, edit. D. G. Mandelbaum, G. W. Lasker, and E. M. Albert. 

Univ. California Press, 1967. 
. Archeology: The Field. In Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 

New York: Macmillan and Free Press, 1968. 

River Basin Surveys 

Research and laboratory activities carried forward at the Lincoln, 
Nebraska, headquarters of the River Basin Surveys included the process- 
ing of specimens that now number in excess of one and three-quarters 
million. A program of microfilming, initiated during the year, will ulti- 
mately produce an indexed storage copy of all site records on the more 
than 3,700 sites to be processed. Staff archeologists concentrated upon 
the analysis of data from a number of major excavated sites, chiefly in 
the Dakotas, but also in Wyoming and the Hells Canyon district of the 
Northwest. 

Four River Basin Surveys field operations were conducted during 
the 1967 season. 







^1-> 



>l^ 4. 



River Basin Surveys field camp, in the middle distance, near the site of the rock 
shelter excavation in the Cottonwood Springs Reservoir in the southern Black 
Hills, South Dakota. Below, excavation crew at work in Capes Cave in the 
Cottonwood Springs Reservoir area. 



«^^--iis*ies'T!-s[p-.^''s»'» .-v 




'n. 






' ^ '. M 






•»•*»*• 


#' 




^^\ 


-'--I> . 



:^ 





" * 



C» 



-jr- - 



Archeologist Richard E. Jensen records data uncovered in a house excavation at 
the Medicine Creek Site in central South Dakota. Although a part of the remains 
have fallen into the Big Bend Reservoir as a result of erosion and slumping, the 
work produced a good sample of data. 



1. A four-man survey party spent several days examining sites in 
the Garrison Diversion Project in North Dakota, but when it was learned 
that Bureau of Reclamation construction activities had been delayed a 
year, further archeological reconnaissance was deferred. 

2. The same party made a survey of the Cottonwood Springs Res- 
ervoir and environs in the southern Black Hills. Thirty-six new sites 
were recorded and excavation conducted over a period of three weeks 
in a small rock shelter. 

3. Another party examined two sites at the mouth of Medicine 
Creek in the Big Bend Reservoir in South Dakota. Evidence of three 
cultural horizons was uncovered, including a small form of the typical 
early long rectangular houses known from elsewhere in central South 
Dakota. 

4. A third party returned to the South Cannonball Village in 
the upper Oahe Reservoir in North Dakota for a second season of ex- 
cavation. Three of the thirty-four large, rectangular houses of the settle- 
ment were excavated and although the structures were generally like 
those at related villages, some important differences were noted which 
suggest strong ties with the Big Bend country 250 or more miles to the 
south. 



318 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Two Smithsonian undergraduate summer research assistants partici- 
pated in the fieldwork, first with the Cottonwood Springs party then 
with the crew at Medicine Creek. At the close of the field season, they 
returned to the Lincoln facility of the River Basin Surveys and during 
the remaining three weeks of their assignment made an analysis of a site 
complex in South Dakota, including the compilation of a manuscript 
describing the site and its materials. 

The following list includes all issues to date of Publications in Sal- 
vage Archeology, a series published in Lincoln, Nebraska, by the Smith- 
sonian River Basin Surveys to provide a publication outlet for staff 
members and cooperators following the demise of the Bureau of Ameri- 
can Ethnology and their publication of River Basin Surveys Papers in 
the Bulletin series of the Bureau. 

1. The Fire Heart Creek Site, by D. J. Lehmer, 115 pp., 1966. 

2. The Black Partizan Site, by W. W. Caldwell, 145 pp., 1966. 

3. The Hitchell Site, by R. B. Johnston, 113 pp., 1967. 

4. Molstad Village, by J. J. Hoffman, 123 pp., 1967. 

5. Pony Creek Archeology, by L. A. Brown, 121 pp., 1967. 

6. Hells Canyon Archeology, by W. W. Caldwell and O. L. Malloy, 153 pp., 
1967. 

7. Arikara Archeology: The Bad River Phzise, by D. J. Lehmer, and D. T. 
Jones, 169 pp., 1968. 

8. The Two Teeth Site, by C. S. Smith and A. E. Johnston, 84 pp., 1968. 

9. Big Bend Historic Sites, by C. H. Smith, 111 pp., 1968. 

10. Bibliography of Salvage Archeology in the United States, by J. E. Petsche, 
162, pp. 1968. 

Staff Publications 

(Staff publications for the years July 1964 through June 1967 are listed in the 
Appendix to the Separate of this report.) 

Brown, Lionel A. and J. J. Hoffman. "The Bad River Phase." Plains An- 
thropologist, vol. 12, no. 37, pp. 323-343, 1967. 

. 'Tony Creek Archeology." Smithsonian Institution, River Basin Sur- 
veys, Publications in Salvage Archeology, no. 5, 87 pp., 16 plates, 1967. 

. "Toggle Head Harpoons of the Central Plains." Plains Anthropol- 
ogist, vol. 12, no. 38, pp. 356-362, 1967. 

. "Archeology of the Rathbun Reservoir, Iowa." Journ. Iowa Archeol. 

Soc, vol. 14, pp. 1-36, 1967. 

"The Gavins Point Site (39YK203) : An Analysis of Surface Artifacts." 



Plcdns Anthropologist, vol. 13, no. 40, pp. 118-131, 1968. 
Caldwell, Warren W. "The Later Occupations: A Summary." Pages 107- 

114 of vol. 12 (Loess and Related Eolian Deposits of the World, edit. C. 

Bertrand Schultz and John C. Frye) of the Proceedings of the VII Congress 

of the International Association for Qjuarternary Research, 1968. 
Caldwell, Warren W., John J. Hoffman, Richard E. Jensen, Richard B. 

Johnston (ed.), and G. Hubert Smith. Lake Sharpe, Big Bend Dam: 

Archeology, History, Geology. Omaha: Corps of Engineers, 46 pp., June 

1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: BOTANY 319 

Caldwell, Warren W., and Oscar L. Mallory. Hells Canyon Archeology. 
Smithsonian Institution, River Basin Survey, Publications in Salvage Arche- 
ology, no. 6, 153 pp., 28 figs., 25 pis. 1967. 

. "An Unusual Pottery Object from South Dakota." Plains Anthropol- 
ogist, vol. 13, no. 39, pp. 29-30, 1968. 

HusTEDj Wilfred M. (see also, Waldo R. Wedel, p. 315). 

. "The Probable Age of the Altithermal on the Western Plains." Pages 

101-106 in vol. 12 (Loess and Related Eolian Deposits of the World, edit. 
C. Bertrand Schultz and John C. Frye), of the Proceedings of the VII Con- 
gress of the International Association for Quaternary Research, 1968. 

Johnston, Richard B. "The Thomas Riggs Site (39HU1) Revisited, Hughes 
County, South Dakota." American Antiquity, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 393-395, 
1967. 

-. "River Basin Surveys: Publishing is Prolific." Science, vol. 156, no. 

3783, p. 1685, 1967. 

. "Salvaging the Past." GeoScience News, vol. 1, no. 5, 1968. 

. "The Archaeology of the Serpent Mounds Site." Occas. Paper 10, 



Art and Archaeology, Royal Ontario Museum, 98 pp., plates, 1968. 



BOTANY 

The main program of research in botany is the taxonomy of phanero- 
gams in tropical America, the richest and least explored area for plant 
life in the world and one that has long been of interest to the Museum. 
A major project, now nearing completion, in this area is the revision 
of the Melastomataceae of Venezuela by curator John J. Wurdack. 
Curator Velva Rudd completed revisions of several large groups of 
legumes in Mexico, and senior botanist Lyman B. Smith continued 
his extensive program on the Bromeliaceae, in part with collaborative 
studies by associate curator Harold E. Robinson on stomatal structure. 
Smith also collaborated with research associate Floyd A. McClure in 
a revision of the bamboos of Santa Catarina, Brazil. 

Field studies under the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Sur- 
vey of Dominica have now largely been completed. Associate curators 
Dan H. Nicolson and Wallace R. Ernst have made substantial progress 
this year in labeling and organizing materials in preparation for compil- 
ing a flora of Dominica. Ernst also began a revision of the genus Lam- 
ourouxia, a small but distinctive group of western and tropical plants. He 
is analyzing development and variation in floral characters as part of a 
biosystematic approach. Nicolson continued work in the Araceae, ready- 
ing a manuscript on Aglaonema and clarifying the status of several 
poorly known genera. 

Associate curator Stanwyn G. Shetler continued development of the 
Flora of North America project. The accomplishments of the past year 



320 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

include a computerized list of genera of North American plants taken 
from selected floras ; trial computerization of dichotomous keys with the 
aid of a summer undergraduate participant, L. Morse; and prepara- 
tion of a format for an automated bibliography with the assistance of 
research assistant P. Morisset. 

Associate curator Thomas R. Soderstrom, in collaboration with re- 
search assistant C. Calderon, is extending our knowledge of the Olyreae 
grass related to bamboo, with emphasis on anatomical studies of em- 
bryos, leaves, and stems. Two new genera and several new species were 
discovered among Costa Rican collections made by Calderon. 

Curator Conrad V. Morton published the first part of a basic series on 
fern types, utilizing literature, herbarium, and photographic studies in 
European herbaria. He also published a revision of the difficult fern 
genus Grammitis in Ecuador. Of particular interest, too, is his report on 
the history of the Red River Expedition of 1806. Associate curator David 
B. Lellinger completed study of his fern collections from Costa Rica 
with the aim of preparing an updated list that will include about 1,000 
species. 

Associate curator Richard H. Eyde published a comprehensive study 
of the flowers and fruits of the Alangiaceae and is now engaged in paral- 
lel research on the fossil record of this family. Associate curator Edward 
S. Ayensu has clarified by means of anatomical study the systematic 
position of several genera in the Bromeliaceae and Velloziaceae. Char- 
acteristics of vascular bundles in the leaves, which had never been ade- 
quately investigated, provide a reliable base for delimiting both families 
and genera in these groups. Ayensu made considerable progress on his 
studies of vasculature in the yam family. 

Flora Neotropica is an international project to encourage and pub- 
lish monographic work on Neotropical plant families or large genera. 
The Smithsonian Institution and the New York Botanical Garden are 
the organizational centers for this activity, with scientists from both 
institutions contributing to the program. The first monograph, issued by 
the Hafner Publishing Company, appeared in May, a study of the leg- 
ume genus Swartzia by Richard S. Cowan. Research associate Jose 
Cuatrecasas completed a monograph on the Brunelliaceae and Lyman 
B. Smith is completing one on the pineapple family, the Bromeliaceae. 

Research associate F. Raymond Fosberg, assisted by geologist Marie 
H. Sachet, coordinated ecological-systematic studies in Ceylon, with 
the cooperation of the University of Ceylon. A small team is working 
on the plants associated with behavaor of the Ceylonese elephant, cor- 
relating these data with weather and soil information. 

The Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program approved a five-year 
project on the flora of Ceylon with Fosberg as principal investigator. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: BOTANY 321 

Participating specialists in various plant families will be sent to Ceylon 
to make collections, to study those in the herbarium at Peradeniya, and 
to prepare family revisions for a new Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon, 
first published by Trimen in 1893. The first participant spent four 
months in Ceylon in 1968, and two more joined him in early June. Be- 
cause many Linnaean types of widespread tropical plants are from Cey- 
lon, it is hoped that the collections will help in clarifying their identity, 
besides being the basis of the revision of the Trimen Handbook. 

As member of a Royal Society Expedition, Fosberg spent over two 
months in early 1968 on the raised coral island of Aldabra in the Indian 
Ocean. It is known for its relatively unaltered vegetation, with a flora 
including several endemic species, its endemic birds, and a large popu- 
lation of giant tortoises. Observations were made on the vegetation, ef- 
fects of tortoises on it, tortoise food plants, and the origin of various geo- 
morphological features influencing vegetation. Just over a thousand 
numbers of plants were collected, in large series of duplicates. Smaller 
collections were made also on the nearby islands of Astove and Cos- 
moledo, and in Kenya and Ceylon. Several manuscripts are in various 
stages of preparation and a card catalog of the flora is being completed. 

Staff Publications 

(Papers, lectures, and seminars given by members of the staff are listed on 

page 398.) 
AyensUj Edward S. "Anatomy of Barbaceniopsis: A New Genus Recently 
Described in the Velloziaceae." American Journ. Bot., vol. 55, pp. 399-405, 
1968. 

. "Ecosystem Studies in Ghana." Assoc. Trop. Biol. Newsletter, no. 9, 

pp. 3-6, 1968. 

"Comparative Vegetative Anatomy of the Stemonaceae (Roxburgh- 



iaceae) ." Bot. Gaz., vol. 129, no. 2, 1968. 
BuECHNERj H. K., and F. R. Fosberg. "A Contribution Toward a World 

Program in Tropical Biology." Bioscience, vol. 17, pp. 532—538, 1967. 
Calderon, Cleofe E., and Thomas R. Soderstrom. "Las gramineas tropi- 

cales afines a Olyra L." Atas do Simposio sobre a Biota Amazonica, vol. 4, 

pp. 67-76, 1967. 
Cowan, Richard S. "Swartzia (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae, Swartziae)." 

Fl. Neotrop., Monogr., no. 1, pp. 1-228, 1968. 
CuatrecasaSj J. "Estudios sobre plantas andinas." Caldasia, vol. 10, 

pp. 3-26, 1967. 
. "Moraceae." In Steyermark, "Flora del Auyan-tepui, Venezuela." 

Acta Botanica Venezuelica, vol. 2, pp. 202-205, 1967. 
. "Revision de las especies colombianas del genero Baccharis." Rev. 



Acad. Colomb. Cienc. , vol. 13, pp. 5-102, 1967. 
Evde^ Richard H. "Flowers, Fruits, and Phylogeny of AJangiaceae." Journ. 

Arnold Arbor., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 167-192, 1968. 
Fosberg, F. R. "Miscellaneous Notes of Hawaiian Plants, 4." Occ. Pap. Bishop 

Mus., vol. 23, pp. 129-138, 1966. 



322 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

. "The Correct Name for the Horseradish (Cruciferae)." Baileya, 



vol. 14, p. 60, 1966. 
. "Vascular plants." In Doty, M. S. and D. Mueller-Dombois, Atlas 

for Bioecology Studies in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, pp. 153-238, 

1966. 
. "Opening Remarks; Island Ecosystem Symposium." Micronesica, 

vol. 3, pp. 3,4, 1967. 
. "The Smithsonian Tropical Biology Program: Presidential Address at 

Symposium on Recent Advances in Tropical Ecology." 6 pp. Varanasi, 

India, 1967. 

. "Unique Aldabra." ^</aw<zc A^a^, vol. 22, pp. 160-165, 1967. 

. "The Cult of the Expert and Numerical Taxonomy." Taxon, vol. 16, 

pp. 369-370, 1967. 
. "Some Ecological Effects of Wild and Semi-Wild Exotic Species of 

Vascular Plants." International Union for the Conservation of Nature and 

Natural Resources Publ., n.s., vol. 9, pp. 98-109, 1967. 
. "A Classification of Vegetation for General Purposes." In G. F. 



Peterken, Guide to the Check Sheet for IBP Areas (IBP Handbook no. 4), 

pp. 73-120, 1967. 
FosBERG, F.R., E. W. Groves, and D. C. Sigee. "List of Addu Vascular 

Plants." Atoll Res. Bull., vol 116, pp. 75-92, 1966. 
Gould, F. W., and T. R. Soderstrom. "Chromosome Numbers of Tropical 

American Grasses." Amer. Journ. Bot., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 676-683, 1967. 
Hale, Mason E., Jr. "New Taxa in Cetraria, Parmelia, and Parmeliopsis." 

Bryologist, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 414-422, 1967. 
. "The Biology of Lichens." viii + 176 pp., 60 figs., 16 pis. Ed. 

Arnold, 1967. 
. "A Synopsis of the Lichen Genus Pseudevernia." Bryologist, vol. 71, 



no. l,pp. 1-11, 1968. 
Hale, Mason, E., Jr., and H. A. McCullough. "Parmelia alabamensis, a 

New Species of Lichen from Alabama." Bryologist, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 

44, 45, 1968. 
Hall, Carlotta C, and David B. Lellinger. "A Revision of the Fern Genus 

Mildella." American Fern Journ., vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 113-134, 1967. 
Imle, E. p., and J. Cuatrecasas. "Plant Introduction with Theobroma 

cacao." Proceed. Intern. Symposium on Plant Introd., Tegucipalpa, pp. 

137-145, 1967. 
King, Robert M. "Studies in the Eupatorieae, (Compositae) I-III." Rho- 

dora, vol. 69, no. 777, pp. 35-47, 1967. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae) IV, Hofmeisteria." Rho- 

dora, vol. 69, no. 779, pp. 352-371, 1967. 
. "Studies in the Compositae-Eupatorieae, V: Notes on the Genus 

Piqueria." Sida, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 107-109, 1967. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae (Compositae), VII: Key to Genera of 

Subtribe Piquerinae." Sida, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 163, 164, 1967. 
. "Studies in the Eupatorieae Composite), VI." Brittonia, vol. 20, 



no. 1, pp. 11, 12, 1968. 
King, Robert M., and Harold E. Robinson. "Multiple Pollen Forms in Two 
Species of the Genus Stevia (Compositae) ." Sida, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 165-169, 
1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: BOTANY 323 

Lellinger, David B. "Pterozonium (Filicales: Polypodiaceae)." In B. Ma- 

guire and collaborators, "The Botany of the Guayana Highland — Part 

VII." Mem. New York Bot. Card., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 2-23, 1967. 
Lellinger, David B., and C. V. Morton. "Enterosora integra." In Steyer- 

mark, Flora del Auyan-tepui. Acta Bot. Venezuelica, vol. 2, no. 5-8, pp. 

123, 124, 1968. 
Morton, C. V. "On the Publication of Names by Means of Illustrations with 

Analyses." Taxon, wo\. 16, no. 2, pp. 119-121, 1967. 
. "Studies of Fern Types, I." Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb., vol. 38, no. 2, 

pp. 29-83, 1967. 
. "Freeman and Custis' Account of the Red River Expedition of 1806, 

an Overlooked Publication of Botanical Interest." Journ. Am. Arb., vol. 

48, no. 4, pp. 431-459, 1967. 
. "Selaginella apus or apoda?" American Fern Journ., vol. 57, no. 3, 

pp. 104-106, 1967. 
■ . "The Genus Grammitis in Ecuador." Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb., vol. 

38, no. 3, pp. 85-123, 1967. 
. The Genus Kohleria in Mexico [Gesneriaceae]." Baileya, vol. 15, no. 

2, pp. 61-78, 1967. 
. "A New Kohleria from Costa Rica in Cultivation [Gesneriaceae]." 

Baileya, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 79-81, 1967. 
. "The Fern Herbarium of Andre Michaux." American Fern Journ., 

vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 166-182, 1967. 
. "Two Epiphytic Gesneriaceae of Western Mexico." Baileya, vol. 15, 



no. 3, pp. 119-123, 1968. 
— . "The Peruvian Species of Besleria [Gesneriaceae]." Contr. U.S. Nat. 



Herb., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 125-151, 1968. 
Morton, C. V., and David B. Lellinger. "Notes on the Ferns of Dominica 

and St. Vincent." Amer. Fern Journ., vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 66-77, 1967. 
Nicolson, Dan H. "Selection of Lectotype Species for Genera of the Family 

Araceae." Taxon, vol. 16, pp. 514-519, 1967. 
. "New Combinations in Cultivated Agleonema (Araceae)." Baileya, 

vol. 15, pp. 124-126, 1968. 
. "A New Proposal to Conserve the Generic Name Monstera (Araceae) ." 



Taxon,yo\. 17, p. 230, 1968. 
Reed, Clyde F., and Harold E. Robinson. "Contribution to the Bryophytes 

of Thailand, I." Phytologia, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 61-70, 1967. 
. "Contribution to the Bryophytes of Thailand, II." Phytologia, vol. 

15, no. 6, pp. 447-452, 1967. 
Reeder, John R., and T. R. Soderstrom. "Gramineae." In A. Love, "lOPB 

Chromosome Number Reports." Taxon, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 203-204, 1968. 
Robinson, Harold E. "Six New Bryophytes from South America." Bryologist, 

vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 317-322, 1967. 
. "A New Moss Species and Three New Records from Maryland." 

Bryologist, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 323-325, 1967. 

"Musci." In Steyermark, "Flora del Auyan-tepui." Acta Botanica 



Venezuelica, vol. 2, no. 5-8, pp. 99-109, 1967. 
Rudd, Velva E. "Supplementary Studies in Aeschynomene, II: Series Pleuro- 

nerviae." Phytologia, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 114-119, 1967. 
. "Oxyrhynchus and Monoplegma (Leguminosae) ." Phytologia, vol. 

15, no. 5, pp. 289-294, 1967. 



324 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

. "A Resume of Ateleia and Cyathostegia (Leguminosae) ." Contr. 

U.S. Nat. Herb., vol. 32, pt. 6, pp. 385-41 1, 9 pis., 1968. 
. "Mimosa albida and its Varieties." Phytologia, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 435- 



441, 1968. 
Shetler, Stanwyn G. The Komarov Botanical Institute: 250 Years of Russian 

Research, xiv + 240 pp. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution 

Press, 1967. 
— . "Carnivorous Plants." Encyclopaedia Britannica, pp. 938, 938A-D, 

939, 1968. 

"The Computer in the Flora North America Project" [abstract]. ASB 



PP 



Bulletin, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 54, 1968. 
Smith, Lyman B. "Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXVI." Phytologia, vol. 15, no. 3, 
pp. 163-200, 1967. 

"Streptocalyx williamsii." Bromeliad Society Bulletin, vol. 17, no. 5, 
99, 100, 1967. 

"Dry It and I Will Name It." Bromeliad Society Bulletin, vol. 17, 
6, pp. 126, 127, 1967. 
"A identificaqao de Bromeliaceas estereis." Sellowia, no. 19, pp. 119- 
123, 1967. 

. "Bromeliaceae, etc." In Margaret Mee, Flowers of the Brazilian 

Forests, pis. 8, 9, 10, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, with text and family 
descriptions. London: The Tryon Gallery, 1968. 

. "Notes on Bromeliaceae XXVII." Phytologia, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 62- 

86, 1968. 

. "Xyridaceae." In Julian A. Steyermark, "Flora del Auyan-tepui." 

Acta Bot. Venezuelica, vol. 2, nos. 5, 6, 7, & 8, pp. 146-150, 1968. 

. "Bromeliaceae." Acta Bot. Venezuelica, pp. 155-163, figs. 6, 7, 1968. 

. "Begoniaceae." Acta Bot. Venezuelica, -p. 254, 1968. 

. "Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia." Bromeliana of the Greater New 

York Chapter of the Bromeliad Society, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 8-1 1, 1968. 

. "Padre Raulino Reitz." Bromeliad Society Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 2, 

pp. 32, 33, 1968. 
. "Bromeliaceas del Uruguay." Comunicaciones Botanicas del Museo 



de Historia Natural de Montevideo, no. 47, pp. 1, 2, 1967. 
Smith, Lyman B., and F. A. McClure. "Gramineas — Suplemento Bam- 

buseas." Flora Ilustrada Catarinense, pt. 1, fasc. gram-supl., pp. 1-78, pi. 

1-12, 1968. 
Smith, Lyman B., and C. S. Pittendrigh. "Bromeliaceae." In Flora of 

Trinidad and Tobago, vol. 3, part 2, pp. 35—91, 1967. 
Smith, Lyman B., and J. A. Steyermark. "Dos especies Bromeliaceae nuevas 

para la ciencia." Acta Bot. Venezuelica, vol. 2, nos. 5, 6, 7 & 8, pp. 380— 

382, 1968. 
SoDERSTROM, Thomas R. "Taxonomic Study of Subgenus Podosemum and 

Section Epicampes of Muhlenbergia (Gramineae)." Contr. U.S. Nat. 

Herb., vol. 34, pt. 4, pp. 75-189, 14 pis., 9 figs.. 1967. 
SoDERSTROM, Thomas R., and John H. Beaman. "The Genus Bromus 

(Gramineae) in Mexico and Central America." Publ. Mus. Michi- 
gan State Univ., Biol. Ser., vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 465-520, 1968. 
Tomlinson, p. B., and E. S. Ayensu. "Morphology and Anatomy of 

Croomia paucifiora (Stemonaceae) ." Journ. Arnold Arb., vol. 49, 

pp. 260-277, 1968. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ENTOMOLOGY 325 

. "Notes on the Vegeative Morphology and Anatomy of Peter- 

manniaceae." Proc. Linn. Soc, vol. 179, no. 2, 1968. 
Turner, B. L., A. M. Powell, and J. Cuatrecasas. "Chromosome Numbers 

in Compositae, XI: Peruvian Species.*' Ann. Missouri Bot. Card., vol. 54, 

pp. 172-177, 1967. 
Wasshausen, Dieter C. "Acanthaceae." In C. L. Lundell, Flora of Texas, 

vol. l,pt. 3, pp. 223-282, 1966. 
WuRDACK, J. J. "Melastomataceae." In "Plants Collected in Ecuador by 

W. H. Camp." Mem. New York Bot. Card., vol. 16, pp. 1-45, 1967. 
. "The Cultivated Glorybushes, Tibouchina (Melastomataceae)." 

Baileya, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-6, 1967. 
. "Melastomataceae." In Steyermark, "Flora de Auyan-tepui." Acta 

Botanica Venezuelica, vol. 2, nos. 5-8, pp. 258-271, 1967. 
. "Notes on Melastomataceae." Acta Bot. Venezuelica, vol. 2, nos. 5-8, 

pp. 371-378, 1967. 
. "Certamen Melatomataceis, XII." Phytologia, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 

169-183, 1968. 
. "Melastomataceae." In Margaret Mee, Flowers of the Brazilian For- 



ests, 2 pp. [unnumbered], 1 fig. London: The Tryon Gallery, 1968. 

ENTOMOLOGY 

The most important event for the future of the department is that space 
in the Museum of Natural History was allocated for the collections and 
the combined Smithsonian and usda stafTs, and the move will take place 
during the next year. For increased security, the segregated collection of 
holotype specimens was moved during April to a temporary storage 
area in the Natural History building. 

The department was host for two special events during the year. The 
first of these was a seminar, "Systematics in Relation to the Geographical 
Distribution of Insects in the Pacific," 4-8 December. Arranged under 
the United States-Japan Cooperative Science Program and supported 
in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation, it brought 
together 17 eminent American and Japanese participants and 9 ob- 
servers from the United States, who reviewed and evaluated recent 
developments in the field of systematic entomology which have con- 
tribtued to an improved understanding of the zoogeography of insects 
in the Pacific area, and identified the more critical problems, of mutual 
interest to Japan and the United States, which still require solution. 
Seminar organizers were Karl V. Krombein (Smithsonian) and Paul 
Oman (Oregon State University) for the United States and Keizo 
Yasumatsu for Japan. 

The second event was the nineteenth annual meeting of the Lepi- 
dopterists' Society, 15-18 June, at which the division of Lepidoptera 
and Diptera was host. Invitational addresses were presented by Dr. 
H. B. D. Kettlewell of Oxford, England, and by Dr. H. E. Hinton of 



326 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




P. J. Spangler, netting elusive tiger beetles on sandy bank of OHfants River, 
Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. 



Bristol, England. The program, under the direction of associate curator 
Donald R. Davis emphasized the phenomenon of polymorphism in 
Lepidoptera. In addition, an organizational meeting was held to discuss 
the possibility of initiating a synoptic catalog of New World Lepidoptera. 
About 70 specialists were in attendance, including the four lepidopter- 
ists on our staff. 

Oscar L. Cartwright was in the final stages of preparing a revisional 
study of the American species of Rhyparus, a genus not previously 
known from the Western Hemisphere, and he also made considerable 
progress on a revision of the species of North American Ataenius, the 
first of a proposed series of papers covering the world fauna of this large 
aphodiine genus. Field study of this group was accomplished by a col- 
lecting trip to the Tall Timbers Research Station in Georgia and the 
Archbold Biological Station in Florida. 

Paul J. Spangler's monograph of the hydrophilid water beetle genus 
Tropisternus neared completion with the recent addition of incorpo- 
rated new information on types and distributional data on 4,800 speci- 
mens identified during the year. He also initiated a cooperative revision- 
ary study of the waterpenny family Psephenidae with Chad Murvosh 
of Nevada Southern University, and a collaborative study with biochem- 
ists from the Department of Agriculture on the chemical constituents 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION : ENTOMOLOGY 



327 



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Karl V. Krombein collecting in Malaise trap in coastal jungle south of Mombasa, 

Kenya. 



of hormones produced from the prothoracic glands of several genera 
of dystiscid water beetles. 

Curator Richard C. Froeschner directed most of his research effort 
toward completion of his manual of the lacebug genera of the world 
and studies of certain families of true bugs collected during the Bredin- 
Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica. Treatments of 
about a third of the more than 250 genera of lacebugs were completed, 
as were about 175 dorsal habitus sketches to illustrate them. The Do- 
minica studies completed the text of two papers covering four families, 
the cicadas, spittlebugs, treehoppers and lacebugs. The nineteen species 
treated, of which nine are new, show an afhnity to tropical forms in Cen- 
tral and South America rather than to the geographically closer Greater 
Antilles. 

Department chairman Karl V. Krombein collaborated with mammal- 
ogist Dale J. Osbom of the Field Museum of Natural History to com- 
plete a paper discussing habitats, fiora, mammals, and wasps of the 
remote Gebel Uweinat in the Libyan Desert at the juncture of Egypt, 
Libya, and Sudan, an area which they explored in spring 1967. By year- 
end he had almost completed a revisional study of the Melanesian spe- 
cies of the wasp genus Cerceris, the species of which are predaceous on 
solitary bees and various kinds of beetles. 



328 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

In his research on the biosystematics of solitary bees, assistant curator 
Gerald I. Stage placed principal emphasis on completion of his mono- 
graph of the genus Hesperapis, on a field and laboratory study of the 
pollinators and pollination of the loasaceous genera Eucnide and 
Mentzelia, and a survey of the bee fauna of Dominica. Assistance by 
graduate student W. L Krinsky enabled Stage to initiate fieldwork on 
the pollinators of the primulaceous genus Lysimachia. 

Research associate G F. W. Muesebeck, in addition to continuing his 
valuable role as translation editor for the Russian journal Entomological 
Review, is bringing to completion an illustrated revision of the North 
American braconid genus Orgilus, an important group of caterpillar 
parasites. In it are more than 100 North American species, of which 80 
w^ill be described as new. 

Senior entomologist J. F. Gates Clarke completed the manuscripts 
for volumes 7 and 8 of his monumental catalog of the Meyrick types 
of Microlepidoptera. Substantial progress also was made on his review 
of the Microlepidoptera of the Pacific Island of Rapa. With the aid of 
a Smithsonian Research Foundation grant, Clarke, with the assistance 
of his wife, continued his studies of the microlepidopterous fauna of 
selected Pacific Islands, by extended fieldwork for one month each on 
Nuku Hiva, Hiva Oa, and Fatu Hiva in the Marquesas Islands, French 
Polynesia, and for a brief period at Fangatau Island in the Tuomotus. 

Donald R. Davis completed a systematic revision of the American 
moths of the family Carposinidae as well as a shorter revisionary study 
of the genus Acanthopteroctetes. A continuation of his Smithsonian Re- 
search Foundation grant enabled Davis to make very substantial progress 
on his monograph of the Nearctic Tineidae through the employment 
of an illustrator, Choon Y. Chung, who prepared a number of genitalic 
and head drawings. In connection with his tineid and incurvariine proj- 
ects, he studied types in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, and the Canadian National 
Collections. 

Associate curator W. Donald Duckworth, continuing his long-term 
study of the Neotropical stenomid moths, completed a manuscript on the 
West Indian species for inclusion in the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian 
Biological Survey of Dominica series. A systematic study of the Pelepoda 
complex in the Oecophoridae, nearing completion, will fix the family 
assignment for this anomalous and heretofore poorly known group of 
moths. 

Associate curator William D. Field whose revision of the butterfly 
genus Phulia and worldwide review of the genus Vanessa are near com- 
pletion, continued work on his catalog of New World Lycaenidae, add- 
ing 7,300 new entries. With the assistance of Donald R. Frazier, a 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ENTOMOLOGY 329 

Youth Opportunity Program employee, Field initiated a bibliography of 
Lepidoptera as a divisional working tool. More than 27,000 entries have 
been placed on cards, providing virtually complete coverage for the 
last three decades. 

Curator Ralph E. Crabill, Jr., completed ten papers on systematics 
and evolution of centipedes. The most important of these was an analysis 
of the Himantariidae, utilizing the tracheation as a character of primary 
importance, the first time that this internal system has been so used. 
The other papers deal with evolution of the Oryidae and descriptions 
of new genera and species, a suprageneric revision of the Gonibregma- 
tidae with proposal of a new subfamily, descriptions of new species 
of the schendylid genera Mcsoschcndyla and Schendylurus, revisions 
of the Neogeophilidae and of Arenophilus in the Geophilidae, descrip- 
tion of a new himantariid, and descriptions of one new and one old 
species of the chilenophilid genus Eurytion. Other research projects in 
progress were aided by field collecting trips to western and southcentral 
New York and to southern Virginia and adjacent areas in North Caro- 
lina, and by the study of types in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

In the division of neuropteroids, curator Oliver S. Flint, Jr., completed 
his third summer's fieldwork in Central America under nsf support, col- 
lecting primarily in Costa Rica and Panama. His collections there point 
up the distinctness and greater richness of the caddisfly fauna of southern 
Central America as compared to that of northern Central America and 
Mexico, areas which he has surveyed in earlier years. Manuscripts com- 
pleted during the year included systematic studies of adult Trichoptera 
from Dominica for the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian survey and from 
Masatierra, Islas Juan Fernandez, and a study on the immature stages of 
a Neotropical Barypenthus. 

Research associate K. C. Emerson completed studies of the Anoplura, 
or sucking lice, collected in Mozambique and Southwest Africa, and in 
the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and is currently studying col- 
lections of Anoplura and Mallophaga (bird lice) made in Nepal, Vene- 
zuela, southeast Asia, and Nigeria, Madagascar, Senegal, Pakistan, and 
Botswana. 

Research associate Robert Traub and his associates from the Uni- 
versity of Maryland Medical School continued to collaborate closely 
with the Smithsonian. They are studying the chigger mites and fleas 
collected in overseas programs on viral and rickettsial infections, while 
the host mammals are sent to the division of mammals. 

The Southeast Asia Mosquito Project (seamp) under the direction 
of Botha de Meillon, a cooperative venture between the Smithsonian and 
the Department of the Army, continued work on the mosquitos of that 
critical area. Assistant investigator John E. Scanlon has nearly com- 

315-997 O - 69 - 22 



330 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

pleted his revisional study of the anopheline fauna of Thailand. 
Mercedes Delfinado, who left seamp in October for a position at the 
University of Hawaii, completed a study of the powelli group of 
Tripteroides. 

Staff Publications 

(Papers, lectures, and seminars given by members of the staff are listed on 

page 399.) 

Blake, Doris H. "Some New and Old Species of Colaspis in the West Indies." 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 225-237, 14 figs., 1967. 
. "Ten New Chrysomelid Beetles from Dominica and Jamaica." Proc. 

Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 70, pp. 60-67, 10 figs., 1968. 
Bram, R. a. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia, II: 

The genus Culex in Thailand." Contrib. American Ent. Inst., vol. 2, no. 

1, pp. 1-296, 1967. 
. "Lectotype Assignments for Several Species of the Genus Culex in 

Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae)." Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, 

vol. 69, p. 327, 1967. 
. "A Redescription of Culex (Acalleomyia) obscurus (Leicester) (Dip- 



tera: Culicidae)." Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 70, p. 52, 1968. 

Carriker, Melbourne A. Carriker on Mallophaga: Posthumous Papers, Cata- 
log of Forms Described as New, and Bibliography. Edit. K. C. Emerson. 
(U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 248), 150 pp., 1967. 

Cartwright, Oscar L. "A New Thyce from Georgia (Coleoptera: Scarabaei- 
dae)." Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 238-240, 1967. 

. "Two New Species of Cartwrightia from Central and South America 

(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae : Aphodiinae)." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
124, no. 3632, 8, pp. 3 figs., 1967. 

. "Field Notes." Coleopterists' Bull, vol. 22, p. 27, 1968. 



Clarke, J. F. Gates. "The Correct Name for the Mimosa Webworm (Lepidop- 
tera: Glyphipterygidae) ." Ann. Ent. Soc. America, vol. 61, pp. 228-229, 
1 map, 1968. 

. "Neotropical Microlepidoptera XVI: A New Genus and Two New 

Species of Oecophoridae (Lepidoptera) ." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 125, 
no. 3654, 8 pp., 2 pi., 3 figs, 1968. 

Crabill, R. E. "Identities of Gosiphilus and Chomatophilus." Ent. News, 
vol. 79, pp. 108-112, 1968. 

Daly, Howell V., Gerald I. Stage, and Timothy Brown. "Natural Ene- 
mies of Bees of the Genus Ceratina (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)." Ann. Ent. 
Soc. America, vol. 60, pp. 1273-1282, 1967. 

Delfinado, Mercedes. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast 
Asia, I: The Genus Aedes, Subgenus Neomacleaya Theobald in Thailand." 
Contri. American Ent. Inst., vol. 1, no. 8, pp. 1-56, 1967. 

. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia, III: The 

Genus Aedes, Subgenus Neomacleaya Theobald in Southeast Asia." Con- 
tri. American Ent. Inst., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1-74, 1968. 

DE Meillon, B., et al. "15 Papers on Biology of Culex pipiens fatigans in 
Rangoon, Burma." Bull. World Health Org., vol. 36, pp. 7-100, 163-176, 
1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: ENTOMOLOGY 331 

Duckworth, W. D. "Neotropical Microlepidoptera, XV: Review of genus 

Thioscelis (Lepidoptera: Stenomidae) ." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, 

no. 3620, 8 pp., 1 pi., 12 figs., 1 map, 1967. 
Emerson, K. C, and R. D. Price. "A New Species of Somaphantus (Meno- 

ponidae: Mallophaga) from Thailand." Florida Ent., vol. 50, pp. 103- 

105, 1967. 
. "A New Species of Fulicoffula (Mallophaga: Philopteridae) from 

Thailand." Ent. News, vol. 78, pp. 163-166, 1967. 
. "A New Species of Suricatoecus (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae) from 



the Congo." Journ. Kansas Ent. Soc, vol. 40, pp. 608-609, 1967. 
Field, W. D. Butterflies of the New Genus Calystryma (Lycaenidae: The- 

clinae, Strymonini)." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3611, 31 pp., 

23 figs., 3 pis., 1967. 
Flint, Oliver S., Jr. "Studies of Neotropical Caddis Flies, IV: New Species 

from Mexico and Central America." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 

3608, 24 pp., 1967. 
. "Studies of Neotropical caddis flies, V : Types of the Species Described 

by Banks and Hagen." Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3619, 37 pp., 

1967. 
. "Studies of Neotropical Caddis flies, VI : On a Collection from North- 
western Mexico." Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 162-178, 1967. 
. "The First Record of the Paduniellini in the New World (Trichop- 



tera: Psychomyiidae)." Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 310-311, 
1967. 

Froeschner, Richard C. "The Burrower Bugs Collected by the Noona Dan 
Expedition Mainly in the Philippines and Bismarck Islands (Hemiptera: 
Cydnidae)." Ent. Medd., vol. 35, pp. 11-22, 1967. 

. "Revision of the Cactus Plant Bug Genus Hesperolabops (Hemip- 
tera: Miridae)." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3614, 11 pp., 1967. 
'Comments on the Proposed Designation of Neotypes for Four Hemi- 



pteran Species, Z. N. (S.) 1732." Bull. Zool. NomencL, vol. 24, pp. 195-96, 
1967. 

Knight, K. L. "Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia, IV: 
Species of the Subgroup chrysolineatus of Group D., Genus Aedes, Subgenus 
Finlaya Theobald." Contr. American Ent. Inst., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 1-45, 
1968. 

Krombein, Karl V. "Hymenoptera." In Encyclopedia of Science and Tech- 
nology, vol. 6, pp. 573-583, illus. McGraw-Hill, 1967. 

. "A New Collembola-Hunting Microstigmus with Notes on M. guian- 

ensis Rohwer.," Ent. News, vol. 78, pp. 253-256, 1967. 

. "Studies in the Tiphiidae, X: Hylomesa, a New Genus of Myzinine 

Wasp Parasitic on Larvae of Longicorn Beetles." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 124, no. 3644, 22 pp., 5 figs., 1 pi., 1968. 

. "Records and Descriptions of Additional Scoliidae from New Guinea, 



Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 
125, no. 3659, 19 pp., 1968. 
Lofgren, C. S., J. E. Scanlon, and V. Isoangura. "Evaluation of Insecti- 
cides Against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say 
(Diptera: Culicidae) in Bangkok, Thailand." Mosq. News, vol. 27, p. 
16, 1967. 



332 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

MuESEBECK, C. F. W. "A New Braconid Parasite of the Potato Tuberworm." 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 177-178, 1967. 
. "Three New Reared Braconidae (Hymenoptera) ." Ent. News, vol. 

78, pp. 135-139, 1967. 
MuESEBECK, C. F. W., and Lumbomir Masner. The Types of Proctotrupoidea 

{Hymenoptera) in the United States National Museum. (U.S. Nat. Mus. 

Bull. 270), 143 pp., 1968. 
Price, R. D., and K. C. Emerson. "Two New Species of Colpocephalum (Mal- 

lophaga: Menoponidae) from Neotropical Ciconiiformes." Ann. Ent. Soc. 

America, vol. 60, pp. 875-878, 1967. 
. "Additional Synomyies Within the Amblyceran Bird Lice (Mallo- 

phaga)." Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 248-251, 1967. 
Rawson, George W. "Study of Fluorescent Pigments in Lepidoptera by Means 

of Paper Partition Chromatography." Journ. Lepid. Soc, vol. 22, pp. 

27-40, 3 pis., 1968. 
Robinson^ Harold E. "New Species of Dolichopodidae from the United States 

and Mexico (Diptera)." Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 114-127, 

1967. 
. "Revision of the Genus Harmstonia (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)." 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, 16 pp., 1967. 
. "Neoparentia, a New Genus of American Dolichopodidae (Diptera)." 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 252-259, 1967. 
. "A Revision of the Subfamily Stolidosominae (Diptera: Dolichopo- 
didae)." Ann. Ent. Soc. America, vol. 60, pp. 892-903, 1967. 

"New Species of Micromorphus from the United States and Mexico 



(Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, vol. 69, pp. 
329-334, 1967. 

ScANLON, J. E. "Control of Aedes aegypti in Southeast Asia." Jap. Journ. 
Med. Sci. Biol., vol. 20, p. 108, 1967. 

Spangler, Paul J. "A New Psephenus and Its Larva from Mexico (Coleop- 
tera: Psephenidae) ." Ent. News, vol. 79, pp. 91-97, 11 figs., 1968. 

Spangler, Paul J., J. H. Falls, O. F. Bodenstein, G. D. Mills, and C. G. 
Durbin. "Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Abate®, Against a Back- 
swimmer, Notonecta undulata Say (Hemiptera: Notonectidae)." Mosq. 
News, vol. 28, pp. 77-81, 1968. 

Traub, R., and T. M. Evans. "Notes and Descriptions of Some Leptopsyllid I 
Fleas (Siphonaptera)." Journ. Med. Ent., vol. 4, pp. 340-359, 50 figs., 
1967. 

. "Descriptions of New Species of Hystrichopsyllid Fleas, with Notes on 

Arched Pronotal Combs, Convergent Evolution and Zoogeography (Siphon- 
aptera)." Pacific Insects, vol. 9, pp. 603-677, 107 figs., 1967. 

Traub, R., and M. Nadchatram. "Chiggers of the Subgenus Trombiculindus 
Radford, 1948, Known from Malaysia (Acarina: Trombiculidae ; Lepto- 
trombidium) ." Journ. Med. Ent., vol. 4, pp. 419-442, 103 figs., 1967. 

. "Three New Species of Leptotrombidium from Southeast Asia (Aca-- 

rina: Trombiculidae)." Journ. Med. Ent., vol. 4, pp. 483-489, 23 figs., 
1967. 

Woodruff, R. E., and O. L. Cartwright. "A Review of the Genus Euparixia 
with Description of a New Species from Nests of Leaf-Cutting Ants in 
Louisiana (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) ." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, 
No. 3616, 21 pp., 17 figs., 1 map, 1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 333 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

J. Laurens Barnard completed his visit to Hawaii as Smithsonian 
Fellow in invertebrate zoology at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, which 
provided partial support to him. While there he prepared a review of the 
shallow-water gammaridean Amphipoda of the Hawaiian Islands. He 
then spent six months in fieldwork in New Zealand in association with 
the New Zealand Oceanographic Institute. At year end he was in Perth, 
Western Australia, on the last leg of his two-year journey; while in 
Western Australia he will concentrate on making research collections 
from littoral habitats. 

A report on relict populations of the copepods Limnocalanus macrurus 
grimaldii and Drcpanopus hungci from Lake Tuborg and Disraeli Bay, 
Ellesmere Island, was prepared by Thomas E. Bowman and Austin Long, 
Radiation Biology Laboratory. They concluded that brackish water was 
widespread in the Arctic about 3,000 years ago, at which time Lake 
Tuborg was isolated from the sea by movement of a glacier. Bowman, 
with Rudolph Prins and Byron Morris, also completed an analysis of 
distribution patterns and biology of two species of the harpacticoid 
copepod Attheyella commensal with crayfishes. 

In collaboration with Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., Fenner A. Chace, Jr., 
completed a study of the freshwater and terrestrial decapod crustaceans 
of the West Indies. He also finished the study of eight families for a re- 
view of the shallow-water shrimps of the West Indies, based on the 
collections made by four Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean expeditions. In 
addition, he submitted the text for a chapter on shrimps in an illustrated 
guide to the shallow-water marine invertebrates of California. 

Roger F. Cressey, Jr., made three study trips to the Mote Marine 
Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida, to continue his research on copepods 
parasitic on sharks from the west coast of Florida. A study in cooperation 
with Bruce Collette, Ichthyological Laboratory, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, of the copepods parasitic on needlefishes has resulted in the 
recognition of several new species and has produced significant informa- 
tion on host specificity. He also completed a survey of the stomach con- 
tents of echineid fishes, in cooperation with Ernest Lachner, division of 
fishes, which demonstrated the role the echineids play as cleaner fishes 
of their shark hosts and other pelagic fishes. Cressey also assumed the 
duties of editor for the Biological Society of Washington. 

John C. Harshbarger, Director of the Registery of Tumors in Lower 
Animals, a cooperative project with the National Cancer Institute, con- 
tmued to broaden the scope of activities of the Registry. Numerous ex- 
amples of tumors and suspected tumors from poikilothermic vertebrates 



334 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 





Roger F. Cressey and Perry 
Gilbert onboard R/V Rhin- 
codon at Mote Marine Lab- 
oratory, Sarasota, Florida, 
where Cressey was engaged 
in research on shark para- 
sites. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 335 

and invertebrates were processed by the Registry, including a tumor 
from an oyster, the first from an invertebrate sharing criteria with known 
mammahan tumors. In June 1968, the symposium "Neoplasia of Inver- 
tebrate and Primitive Vertebrate Animals," attended by over 100 spe- 
cialists, was held in Washington under the sponsorship of the National 
Cancer Institute and the Smithsonian. 

Consulting zoologist Robert P. Higgins, Wake Forest College, com- 
pleted his analysis of kinorhynchs from the Indian Ocean and began the 
study of collections of kinorhynchs from Peru and Chile. Early in 1968 
he was appointed acting resident systematist, under the systematics- 
ecology program of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole. 
During the summer of 1967 he served as co-director of the Summer 
Institute in Systematics held at the Smithsonian with the support of 
the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Air Force Office of 
Scientific Research. 

A manuscript dealing with the distribution and phylogeny of the genus 
Cambarus, with an appended generic revision, was prepared by Horton 
H. Hobbs, Jr., for a conference on the distributional history of the biota 
of the southern Appalachians. Fieldwork was conducted on Dominica, 
and approximately a month was spent collecting crayfishes in Alabama, 
Georgia, and Mississippi. Studies on entocytherid ostracods, in collab- 
oration with Miss Margaret Walton, were continued at the Mountain 
Lake Biological Station. Hobbs, Percy C. Holt, and Miss Walton were 
the co-recipients of the J. Shelton Horsely Research Award of the Vir- 
ginia Academy of Science, in recognition of their joint paper, "The 
crayfishes and their epizootic ostracod and branchiobdellid associates 
of the Mountain Lake, Virginia, region." 

Research during the past year by W. Duane Hope has been predom- 
inantly on the fine structure of muscles of marine nematodes. He spent 
six months at the University of Toronto working with Kenneth A. 
Wright on the ultra-structure of ornamentation in the cuticle of a 
marine nematode. He was elected President of the American Society 
of Meiobenthologists at the AAAS meetings in December. 

During the summer of 1967, Meredith L. Jones participated as in- 
tructor in the invertebrate course at the Marine Biological Laboratory, 
Woods Hole. While there he continued observations on Magelona 
and other polychaetous annelids and initiated a survey of the electro- 
phoretic patterns of various polychaete tissue components. The latter 
program will be continued during the summer of 1968. Observations 
were also made on the systematics, morphology, and zoogeography of 
Caobangia, an aberrant freshwater polychaete of southeast Asia. 

Myodocopid ostracods of the deeper waters of the Gulf of Mexico 



336 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

are virtually unknown. Louis S. Komicker described six new bathyal 
species from a small collection made by Texas A&M University. He 
also described a new genus comprising four new species from deeper 
waters of the Antarctic, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, based on materials 
collected by the Lamont Geological Observatory and the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution. A report on ostracods found in Texas bays 
and lagoons was completed with Charles E. King of East Texas State 
University. 

Raymond B. Manning continued his studies of stomatopod crusta- 
ceans; during the year particular emphasis was placed on working up 
small collections from the Indo-west Pacific region. He also completed 
reports on some species from the Gulf of Guinea and the eastern Pacific 
region. With L. B. Holthuis, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historic, 
Leiden, he completed a report on the porcellanid, hippid, and albuneid 
crabs collected in the Gulf of Guinea in 1964 and 1965 by R/V Pillsbury. 

J. P. E. Morrison made collections from near Lima, Peru, and Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil, in an extension of previous studies of brackish and 
fresh water mollusks from North America. In addition, he studied the 
species of Donax and Hastula from certain western Atlantic sand 
beaches. 

David L. Pawson was engaged between April and January in teach- 
ing in the Zoology Department at Victoria University of Wellington, 
New Zealand. Some fieldwork was conducted at the Portobello Marine 
Laboratory, Dunedin, and at the Edward Percival Marine Laboratory, 
Kaikoura, and at museums in Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, were 
visited. A monograph of the New Zealand holothurians and papers on 
the holothurians of Macquarie Island and some ophiuroids from New 
Zealand were submitted for publication. A study of Chilean holothu- 
rians, based on collections made by the Lund University Chile Epedi- 
tion 1948-49, was completed, and a monograph of Antarctic holothu- 
rians based on numerous "Operation Deepfreeze" and Eltanin collec- 
tions, among others, is currently in preparation. 

Marian H. Pettibone worked on a rep>ort on some species of errant 
polychaetes, including representatives of six families, collected by the 
Siboga Expedition, completing the study started by the late Hermann 
Augener. The study includes revisions of Leocrates (Hesionidae) and 
of Gymnonereis (Nereidae) . 

A long-term research project on Polynesian marine moUuskus was con- 
tinued by Harald A. Rehder who spent two months in the Marquesas 
Islands, the Tuamotu Islands, and at Pitcairn Island as scientific leader 
of the National Geographic-Smithsonian Institution-Bishop Museum 
Marquesas Expedition. Much important material in all groups of marine 
invertebrates was collected by dredging, diving, and shore collecting in 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 337 




Barry R. Wilson of Western Australian Museum pries loose a Tridacna shell in 
the lagoon of Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotus, on expedition led by Harold A. Rehder. 

this, the first comprehensive survey ever made of the marine inverte- 
brate fauna of the geographically-isolated Marquesas Islands. 

Mary E. Rice worked at Isla Margarita, Venezuela, and Curasao 
between September and December, collecting sipunculid worms and 
making laboratory observations on their development. Further observa- 
tions on sipunculid development were made following her return to 
Washington, where she completed a manuscript on the comparative 
development of three species. In May she joined the Atlantis II of the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Angola for a cruise to Senegal. 

Studies on the cephalopods were extended by Clyde F. E. Roper who 
participated in the Ocean Acre Project, a long-term, cooperative efTort 
designed to delineate the macrofauna of a selected oceanic area and 
to determine its daily and seasonal activities, relative abundance, bathy- 
metric distributions, etc. The initial cruises were conducted in an area 
east of Bermuda in October and March. A series of dives aboard the 
research submersible Deep Diver was conducted in early February in 
Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas. Cooperative studies on Antarctic and 
Atlantic cephalopods were continued at the Institute of Marine Scien- 
ces, University of Miami, in late January and February. 

During March and April, Joseph Rosewater visited nine institutions 
in Europe where he studied primary type-specimens of littoral Indo- 
Pacific gastropods ( Littorinidae ) prior to completing the monographic 



338 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




Klaus Ruetzler examining young sponge culture at Laboratory dock of Lerner 
Marine Laboratory, Bimini, Bahamas. 



study and an annotated worldwide catalog of the family. Working with 
Kennth J. Boss, Museum of Comparative Zoology, and Florence A. 
RuhofT, he helped to complete and submit for publication a catalog of 
the nearly 5,500 taxa described by William H. Dall. 

Klaus Ruetzler continued his studies of sponges from the Caribbean 
and Adriatic Seas. During July and August, he worked on sponges at the 
Lerner Marine Laboratory, Bimini, Bahamas, at the invitation of the 
American Museum of Natural History. From January to July, Ruetzler 
was in Europe perfecting and testing equipment for measuring ecological 
parameters in marine microhabitats. The equipment was constructed 
at the Department of Zoology, University of Innsbruck, Austria, and at 
Bari, Italy. It was used to study the relationships between sponges and' 
symbiotic algae by means of a study of light intensity and the process ' 
of photosynthesis. In collaboration with Helmut Forstner, he prepared 
a paj>er describing the construction and use of the equipment. 

Zoologist emeritus Waldo L. Schmitt, with the help of Edward David- 
son and Lucile McCain, continued his review of American pinnotherid 
crabs; a synonymy of pinnotherids was prepared for the Crustaceorum 
Catalogus. Schmitt also devoted much time to his duties as co-editor 
of the Antarctic Research Series. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 339 

In addition to the research activities of the staff and the research as- 
sociates in residence at the Museum, the department was host to several 
visiting investigators during the year who materially broadened its 
overall research program. Three were in residence for parts of the year 
under the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council 
fellowship program : Perry C. Holt, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, com- 
pleted a review of the branchiobdellid worm genus Pterodrilus, as well 
as an analysis of the branchiobdellid fauna of the southern Appalachians ; 
Alan J. Kohn, University of Washington, completed part 4 of a long- 
term study of the type specimens and identity of the described species 
of the gastropod genus Conus, and he also studied the application of 
objective, quantitative methods to the taxonomic study of the genus; 
Marvin C. Meyer, University of Maine, worked with the leech collec- 
tions of the late J. Percy Moore, preparing them for permanent deposit, 
and he also completed a review of the taxa introduced by Moore. 

Dr. Georgiana B. Deevey, Yale University, a Visiting Investigator 
in the Division of Crustacea, completed an account of six new species 
belonging to a new genus of halocyprid ostracod from the stomach 
contents of fish taken in deep water in the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, 
she has continued work on two other projects, the problem of the iden- 
tity of the cladoceran Bosmina from the southern hemisphere and its 
seasonal cyclomorphosis, and a year-round qualitative and quantitative 
study of the plankton of the Sargasso Sea. 

Staff Publications 

(Pai>ers, lectures, and seminars given by members of the staff are listed on 

page 399.) 

Barnard, J. Laurens. Bathyal and Abyssal Gammaridean Amphipoda of 

Cedros Trench, Baja California. (U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 260), 205 pp. 

1967. 
. "New and Old Dogielinotid Marine Amphipoda." Crustaceana, vol. 

12, part 3, pp. 281-291, 1967. 
. "Echiniphimedia, an Amphipod Genus from the Antarctic Ocean." 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.,vol. 124, no. 3627, 15 pp. 1967. 

"A New Genus of Galapagan Amphipod Inhabiting the Buccal Cavity 



of the Sea-Turtle, Chelonia mydas." In Proceedings of a Symposium on 

Crustacea, Ernakulam, India, part 1, pp. 119-125, 1967. 
Barnard, J. Laurens, and John R. Grady. "A Biological Survey of Bahia de 

Los Angeles, Gulf of California, Mexico. I. General Account." Trans. San 

Diego Soc. Nat. His., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 51-66, 1968. 
Bowman, Thomas E. "Asellus kenki, a New Isopod Crustacean from Springs in 

the Eastern United States." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 80, pp. 131- 

140, 1967. 
. "Bioluminescence in Two Species of Pelagic Amphipods." Journ. 

Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 687-688, 1967. 



340 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Bowman, Thomas E., and Lipke B. Holthuis. "Lucifer or Leucifer: Which 

Spelling is Correct?" Crustaceana, vol. 14, part 2, pp. 216-217, 1968. 
Bowman, Thomas E., and Louis S. Kornicker. "Two New Crustaceans: The 

Parasitic Copepod Sphaeronellopsis monothrix (Choniostomatidae) and Its 

Myodocopid Ostracod Host Parasterope pollex (Cylindroleberidae) from the 

Southern New England Coast." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3616, 

28 pp., 1967. 
Bowman, Thomas E., and Richard N. Mariscal. "Renocila heterozota, a New 

Cymothoid Isopod, with Notes on its Host, the Anemone Fish, Amphiprion 

akallopisos, in the Seychelles." Crustaceana, vol. 14, part 1, pp. 97-104, 

1968. 
Bowman, Thomas E., and John C. McCain. "Distribution of the Planktonic 

Shrimp, Lucifer, in the Western North Atlantic." Bull. Mar. Sci., vol. 17, 

no. 3, pp. 660-671,1967. 
Chace, Fenner a., Jr. "Research Collections and Curatorial Responsibilities 

in Natural History Museums." American Biol. Teacher, vol. 30, no. 4, 

pp. 308-310, 1968. 
Collier, M., and Meredith L. Jones. "Observations on the Reproductive 

and General Morphology of Streblospio benedicti Webster" [abstract]. 

Biol. Bull, vol. 133, p. 462, 1967. 
Cressey, Roger F. "Caritus, a New Genus of Caligoid Copepod, with a Key to 

the Genera of Caliginae," Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3623, 8 pp., 

1967. 
. "Caligoid Copepods Parasitic on Isurus oxyrinchus with an Example 

of Habitat Shift." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 125, no. 3653, 26 pp., 1968. 
. "A Redescription of Hatschekia conifera Yamaguti, 1939 (Copepoda, 



Caligoida) , Including the First Description of the Male." Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Washington, vol. 81, pp. 173-178, 1968. 

Crowe, John H., and Robert P. Higgins. "The Revival of Macrohiotus areo- 
latus Murray (Tardigrada) from the Cryptobiotic State." Trans. American 
Microsc. Soc, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 286-294, 1967. 

Downey, Maureen E. Catalog of Recent Echinoid Type Specimens in the 
U.S. National Museum Smithsonian Institution and the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Harvard University. (U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 264), 99 pp., 
1968. 

. "A Note on the Atlantic Species of the Starfish Genus Linckia." Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 81, pp. 41-44, 1968. 

Higgins, Robert P. "The Kinorhyncha of New Caledonia." Pages 75-90 in 
Expedition Frangaise sur les recifs coralliens de la Nouvelle Caledonie, 
organise e sous I'egide de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, vol. 2, 1967. 

. "Taxonomy and Postembryonic Development of the Cryptorhagae, a 

New Suborder for the Mesopsammic Kinorhynch Genus Cateria." Trans. 
American Microsc. Soc, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 21-39, 1968. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr. "A New Crayfish from Alabama Caves with Notes on 
the Origin of the Genera Orconectes and Cambarus (Decapoda: Astaci- 
dae)." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3621, 17 pp., 1967. 

Hobbs, Horton H., Jr., Perry C. Holt, and Margaret Walton. "The 
Crayfishes and Their Epizootic Ostracod and Branchiobdellid Associates of 
the Mountain Lake, Virginia, Region." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, 
no. 3602, 84 pp., 1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 341 

HoBBS, HoRTON H., Jr., and Frank O. Perkins. "A New Burrowing Crayfish 
from North CaroHna (Decapoda, Astacidac)." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, vol. 80, pp. 141-146, 1967. 

Holt, Perry C. "Status of Genera Branchiobdella and Stephanodrilus in 
North America with Description of a New Genus (Clitellata: Branchiobdel- 
lida)." Proc. U.S. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3631, 10 pp., 1967. 

Hope, W. Duane. "Free-Living Marine Nematodes of the Genera Pseudocella 
Filipjev, 1927, Thoracostoma Marion, 1870, and Deontostoma Filipjev, 1916 
(Nematoda: Leptosomatidae) from the West Coast of North America." 
Trans. American Miscrosc. Soc, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 307-334, 1967. 

Jones, Meredith L. "On the Morphology of the Nephridia of Nereis limnicola 
Johnson." Biol. Bull, vol. 132, pp 362-380, 1967. 

. [Review of] "Marine Invertebrates of Scandinavia, Number 1, Tuni- 

cata Ascidiacea," by R. H. Millar. Systematic Zool., vol. 16, p. 170, 1967. 

. "On the Morphology, Feeding, and Behavior of Magelona sp." Biol. 



Bull., vol 134, pp. 272-297, 1968. 

Jones, Meredith L. and J. V. Simson. "Observations on the Circulatory Sys- 
tem of Magelona sp." [abstract]. Biol. Bull., vol. 133, p. 472, 1967. 

Kenk Roman. "Species Differentiation and Ecological Relations of Planar- 
ians." Pages 67-72 in W. C. Corning and S. C. Ratner, eds., Chemistry of 
Learning. New York; Plenum Press, 1967. 

Manning, Raymond B. "Preliminary Account of a New Genus and a New 
Family of Stomatopoda." Crustaceana, vol. 13, part 2, pp. 238-239, 1967. 

. "Nannosquilla anomala, a New Stomatopod Crustacean from Cali- 
fornia." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 80, pp. 147-150, 1967. 

. "Review of the Genus Odontodactylus (Crustacea: Stomatopoda)." 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3605, 35 pp., 1967. 

. "Notes on the demanii Section of Genus Gonodactylus Berthold with 

Descriptions of Three New Species (Crustacea: Stomatopoda)." Proc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3618, 27 pp., 1967. 

. "Stomatopod Crustacea from Madagascar." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 

vol. 124, no. 3641, 61 pp., 1968. 

. "Correction of the Type-Locality of Squilla mantoidea Bigelow (Sto- 
matopoda)." Crustaceana, vol. 14, part l,p. 107, 1968. 

. "A Revision of the Family Squillidae (Crustacea, Stomatopoda), with 



the Description of Eight New Genera." Bull. Mar. Sci., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 

105-142, 1968. 
McCain, John C. "Paracaprella barnardi, a New Species of Caprellid (Crus- 
tacea; Amphipoda) from the West Coast of Panama." Proc. Biol. Soc. 

Washington, vol. 80, pp. 219-222, 1967. 
. The Caprellidae {Crustacea: Amphipoda) of the Western North 

Atlantic. (U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 278), 147 pp., 1968. 
McGinty, M. C, and Robert Higgins. Ontogenetic Variation of Taxonomic 

Characters of Two Marine Tardigrades with the Description of Batillipes 

bullae audatus, n. sp." Trans. American Microsc, vol. 87, pp. 252- 

262, 1968. 
McMahon, R. F., and Meredith L. Jones. "Observations on Feeding in 

Magelona sp. [abstract]." Biol. Bull, vol. 133, p. 476, 1967. 
Morrison, Joseph P. E. "Notes on American Hastula [abstract]." Ann. 

Rep. 1967, American Malacol. Union, pp. 49-50, 1968. 



342 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

. "Collecting Mexican Freshwater Mussels" [abstract]. Ann. Rep. 1967, \ 



American Malacol. Union, pp. 50-51, 1968. 
. "Four American Hastula Species." Texas Conchologists, vol. 4, no. 9, 



pp. 67-70, 1968. 
PawsoN;, David L. "Protankyra grayi new species and Lahidoplax buskii 

(Mcintosh) from off North Carolina (Holothuroidea; Synaptidae)." Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 80, pp. 151-156, 1967. 
. "Redescription of Cucumaria semperi Bell, an Indo-West Pacific Holo- 

thurian Echinoderm." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 80, p. 157-162, 

1967. 
■ . "The Echinozoan Fauna of the New Zealand Subantarctic Islands, 



Macquarie Island, and the Chatham Rise." New Zealand Dept. Sci. Indust. 
Res. Bull., no. 187, p. 1-35, 1968. 

Radwin, George E. "New Taxa of Western Atlantic Columbellidae (Gastro- 
poda, Prosobranchia)." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 81, pp. 143-150, 
1968. 

Radwin, George E., and Harry W. Wells. "Comparative Radular Mor- 
phology and Feeding Habits of Muricid Gastropods from the Gulf of 
Mexico." Bull. Mar. Sci., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 72-85, 1968. 

Rice, Mary E. "A Comparative Study of the Development of Phascolosoma 
agassizii, Golfingia pugettensis, and Themiste pyroides with a Discussion of 
Developmental Patterns in the Sipuncula." Ophelia, vol. 4, pp. 143-171, 
1967. 

Roper, Clyde. F. E. "Preliminary Descriptions of Two New Species of the 
Bathypelagic Squid Bathyteuthis (Cephalopoda: Oegospsida)." Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 81, pp. 161-172, 1968. 

Roper, Clyde F. E., and Richard E. Young. "A Review of the Valbyteuthidae 
and an Evaluation of Its Relationship with the Chiroteuthidae (Cephalo- 
poda: Oegopsida)." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3612, 9 pp., 1967. 

. "The Family Promachoteuthidae (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) : I. 

A Re-evaluation of Its Systematic Position Based on New Material from 
Antarctica and Adjacent Waters." Antarctic Res. Ser., vol. 11, pp. 203- 
214, 1968. 

Rosewtater, Joseph. "Itinerary of the Voyage of H.M.S. Blossom, 1825 toj 
1828." The Veliger, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 350-352, 1968. 

. [Review of] "The Invertebrates, vol. 6, Mollusca I, Aplacophora, Poly- 

placaphora, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda: The Coelomate Bilateria." 
Science, vol. 160, p. 62-63, 1968. 

Rowe, F. W. E., and David L. Pawson. "A New Genus in the Holothurian 
Family Synaptidae, with a New Species from Tasmania." Pap. Proc. Roy. 
Soc. Tasmania, vol. 101, pp. 31-35, 1967. 

RuETZLER, Klaus. "Popis i rasprostranjenost spuzava okoline Rovinja." Tha- 
lassia Jugoslavica, vol. 3, pp. 79-87, 1967. 

. "Loxosomella from Tedania ignis, the Caribbean Fire Sponge." Proc. 

U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3650, 1 1 pp., 1968. 

RuHOFF, Florence A. Bibliography and Index to Scientific Contributions of 
Carl J. Drake for the Years 1914-1967. (U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 267), 81 pp.^ 
1968. 

Squires, D. F., and Ian W. Keyes. "The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: 
Scleractinian Corals." New Zealand Sci. Indust. Res. Bull., no. 185, pp. 
1-46, 1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: MINERAL SCIENCES 343 

Young, Richard E., and Clyde F. E. Roper. "The Batoteuthidae, a New 
Family of Squid (Cephalopoda: Oegospsida) from Antarctic Waters." 
Antarctic Research Series, vol 11, pp. 185-202, 1968. 



MINERAL SCIENCES 

Highlight of the work of the division of meteorites has been a significant 
expansion of its international activities. While research on meteorites 
has always had a notably international flavor, because of the uniqueness 
of the material and its worldwide distribution, the division of meteor- 
ites is now in a strong position to promote international cooperation 
in this field, thanks to the expansion in its staff and facilities in recent 
years. Prominent among these activities are collaborative investigations 
in West Africa, Western Australia, Thailand, India, and Tanzania, and 
in Kinshasa, Paris, and Vienna. 

Research work with meteorites was concentrated on the chemical and 
mineralogical composition of stony meteorites; this is a broad program 
with some 30 individual projects, much of it supported by grants and 
contracts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 
the Air Force, and the Smithsonian Research Foundation. 

Chemical studies by associate curator Roy S. Clarke, Jr., of meteorite 
specimens from Campo del Cielo, Argentina, were extended into a 
general investigation of meteorites in the hexahedrite-octahedrite transi- 
tion range, including compositional and metallographic investigations, 
with particular emphasis on the occurrence of schreibersite and co- 
henite. Clarke is cooperating with John F. Wosinski of Corning Glass 
Works in experimental studies on the formation of metallic spherules, 
allied to those observed in tektites, in synthetic glass. 

Curator Kurt Fredriksson worked mainly on the problem of phase 
equilibration in chrondritic meteorites. This has involved experimental 
work, together with the analysis and description of several meteorites. 
G. Arrhenius, A. Reid, and R. Fitzgerald of the University of California 
have cooperated on this project, and on the refinement of microprobe 
techniques. Fredriksson collected ash samples of varying age on Hawaii 
and on the new volcanic island Surtsey, in the North Atlantic, in order 
to search for silica-rich glass particles which could be related to the 
50-called microtektites ; and a series of samples of ignimbritic rocks of 
approximately andesitic composition were collected in west Texas, for 
comparison with certain stony meteorites which they resemble texturally. 
Fredriksson and A. Dube from the Geological Survey of India made a 
Dreliminary study of Lonar Lake in India, and concluded that it is 
probably an astrobleme; i.e., caused by meteorite impact. Detailed 



344 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

studies, including core drillings, are being planned in cooperation with 
the Geological Survey of India with financial support of the Smithsonian 
Foreign Currency Program. 

Geochemist R. F. Fudali's research work was devoted to experimental 
studies at high temperatures and pressures on systems of significance in 
the study of rocks and meteorites. Approximately sixty experimental runs 
were made, some of extended duration, bearing on the following prob- 
lems: ( 1 ) crystallization sequences of natural basalts and andesites, and 
chemical trends of the residual liquids; (2) the relations between 
divalent iron, trivalent iron, oxygen fugacity, and total chemical com- 
position of a given rock; and (3) diffusion rates in nickel-iron meteorites, 
and in olivines. Curator Brian Mason continued his work on the phase 
composition of stony meteorites, giving special attention to the pyroxenes, 
which are almost ubiquitous in stony and stony-iron meteorites. The 
pyroxene group is complex, but the complexities, if they can be eluci- 
dated, will provide significant information on the temperatures, pres- 
sures, and chemical environments under which meteorites are formed. 
Work on meteoritic pyroxenes was complemented by investigations on 
comparable terrestrial pyroxenes. Mason with Edward P. Henderson also 
worked in Australia for three months investigating occurrences of 
tektites and meteorites. 

Chemists E. Jarosewich and J. Nelen provided the quantitative anal- 
yses essential for the research program of the entire department. During 
the year complete analyses of 13 stony meteorites and partial analyses 
of 2 more were completed. Analyses of volcanic rocks from recent ervip- 
tions at Metis Shoal (Tonga Islands) and Mayon (Philippines) have 
been made, this work as part of a commitment to the Smithsonian Center 
for Short-Lived Phenomena. Other work completed includes complete 
analyses of 9 rocks, 4 garnets, 3 meteoritic olivines, 1 diopside, and partial 
analyses of 20 rocks. With the aid of a grant from the Smithsonian 
Research Foundation equipment for the determination of carbon at low 
levels has been obtained, and used for a study of carbon distribution in 
stony meteorites. j 

Research in petrology during the past year continued to focus on 
oceanic rocks, but in addition new and exciting research was undertaken 
in volcanology. 

A suite of rocks, including previously unrecorded andraditic garnet- 
bearing rocks associated with hydrothermally altered peridotites 
(so-called rodingite rock suite), was described from lat. 43°N. on the 
mid-Atlantic Ridge. The results of this study, along with the related 
topographic, sedimentological, and paleontologic data on the region, 
are being published by associate curator William Melson in conjunc- 




Volcano Eruption Studied 

The eruption of Mount Mayon, Philippine Islands, 27 April 1968, was the sub- 
ject of one of four expeditions coordinated by the Smithsonian Center for Short- 
Lived Phenomena (see page 266). The expedition included Air Force motion 
picture cameramen and volcanologists from the Smithsonian and the Geological 
Survey. The systematic aerial photographic reconnaissance provided unique 
documentation of critical aspects of eruption activity. Right, hot bouldery ash 
flows (nuees ardentes) rapidly advance down the slopes of the volcano. This rare, 
devastating type of eruption was studied by William G. Melson in May 1968. 

tion with G. Thompson and V. T. Bowen of the Woods Hole Oceano- 
graphic Institution, and with Smithsonian paleontologist R. Cifelli. 
The region is of special interest, petrologically, because in addition to 
the occurrence of garnet-bearing rocks, it furnishes an opportunity to 
compare rocks from a small fracture zone (a fault zone along which the 
central valley of the ridge is displaced along east- west trending faults) 
with rocks from the adjoining undisturbed region. This comparison 
further supports the view, postulated in a number of papers previously 
published by Melson and his colleagues at Woods Hole, that plutonic 
rocks, mainly gabbros, peridotites, and serpentinites, are more abun- 
dant in fracture zones than along the undisrupted normal north-south 
trending portions of the ridge. Melson, in a paper presented at the 1968 
meeting of the American Geophysical Union, found that this relationship 
is rather neatly explained by assuming that, during sea-floor spreading, 
the crust is essentially "opened" up along fracture zones, and eventually, 
faulting exposes the plutonic zone. The exposure of the deeper layers 
does not occur along the normal ridge because new crust is forming, 
and produces a nearly continuous upper volcanic zone which mainly 
conceals the lower or plutonic zone. 



315-997 O - 69 - 23 



346 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

A Study of deep-sea carbonate sedimentary rocks, including lime- 
stones and dolomites, was completed. The study reports, for the first 
time, the presence of abundant and highly diverse carbonate rocks from 
a mid-ocean ridge (equatorial Atlantic) . This study by Melson in con- 
junction with Woods Hole scientists and with Cifelli, found that these 
rocks range from mid -Tertiary to Pleistocene in age. These findings 
have important implications on the makeup of the upper oceanic crust. 
Specifically, it appears that the upper volcanic zone may contain a sig- 
nificant amount of carbonate rocks, implying that the total amount of 
combined carbon dioxide in the Earth's crust may be much larger than 
previously estimated, an estimation of importance in reconstruction 
of the evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. This discovery also raises 
the question of the true thickness and maximum age of the sedimentary 
record of oceanic crust. The thickness is normally estimated by geo- 
physical methods, and is assumed equal to the thickness of the un- 
consolidated materials which cap the oceanic crust in most places. How- 
ever, these methods cannot in some cases distinguish dense, well-lithified 
carbonate sedimentary rocks from volcanic rocks. Drilling in the sedi- 
ments beneath the deep sea floor, which tentatively will begin in July 
1968 under the joint oceanographic deep sea drilling program sponsored 
by the National Science Foundation (joides program), will provide 
concrete information on this particular problem, as well as data bearing 
directly on the theory of sea floor spreading. Melson is one of the princi- 
pal investigators in the joides program. 

The final of three papers on the volcanic and metamorphic rocks 
of the ridge at lat. 22 °N. was completed by Melson, co-authored by 
G. Thompson of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Tjeerd 
H. van Andel, of the University of Washington at Corvallis, and Eugene 
Jarosewich. It records another large area characterized by the abun- 
dance of basaltic lavas of the oceanic tholeiite type. These oceanic tho- 
leiites occur in three forms, all believed to be parts of voluminous fis- 
sure-type submarine lava flows : ( 1 ) Glassy pillow lavas, ( 2 ) massive 
nearly totally crystalline basalts, and (3) basaltic tuff's, formed mainly 
by the breaking up of the advancing flow margins, and by the accumu- 
lation and lithification of the still-hot fragments. Also recorded in this 
paper are data believed to argue against the widely accepted generali- 
zation that volcanic "emanations" are responsible for the formation of 
the manganese-rich nodules and encrustations on the mid-ocean ridge. 

Thomas Simkin of the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, 
a research associate in the division of petrology, began a study of the 
petrology of Cobb Seamount, a volcanic pinnacle in the northwestern 
Pacific, 270 miles west of Washington state. This study is aimed at 
reconstructing the development of the remarkable pinnacle and of the 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: MINERAL SCIENCES 



347 




Artist's rendering of Cobb Seamount, an extinct oceanic volcano which rises from 
a depth of 10,000 feet to within 110 feet of the sea surface. (Drawing courtesy of 
Dr. Thomas F. Budinger, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley.) 



kinds of volcanic rocks which compose it. Simkin also continued his in- 
vestigations of the way in which suspended crystals behave during flow 
of basaltic magma, essentially a study of the fluid mechanics of magmas. 
Melson continued his studies of the iron-bearing basalts from Disko 
Island, West Greenland. There, plateau-forming basalts locally contain 
large masses to minute microscopic grains of metallic nickel-iron alloys. 
These alloys commonly contain inclusions of cohenite (iron carbide), 
and, more rarely, pyrrhotite (an iron sulfide) . A study completed during 
the past year outlined some of the major metallurgical, mineralogical, 
and chemical features of these alloys and the associated cohenite. These 
data, combined with preliminary high-temperature reduction experi- 
ments, suggest that the metallic phases were produced by reaction of 
basaltic magma and carbonaceous sedimentary inclusions, one of the 
numerous previously suggested origins, and that the reduction proceeds 
in two sequential stages: first, by the production of a carbon-saturated 
nickel-iron melt, and second, after carbon is no longer available in the 
magma surrounding the metal phases, by reaction of the nickel-iron- 
carbon melt with the magma to produce more metallic iron and carbon 
monoxide and carbon dioxide gases. During this second stage, the loss 
of carbon causes crystallization of the metallic phases because, as the 



348 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

carbon content of the nickel-iron alloy decreases, its melting point in- 
creases considerably above the temperature of the basaltic magma 
(around 1200°C.) . In the Disko basalts, these two sequential stages have 
been interrupted by cooling and subsequent crystallization, and has thus 
preserved the reduction process in one or the other of the two stages. 

Chemical analyses of the metallic phases by Jarosewich revealed 
strikingly high germanium contents compared to other high-germanium 
natural materials, such as iron meteorites. A maximum of 550 parts per 
million has so far been reported. The high germanium content is at- 
tributed to concentration of germanium in the metallic phases during 
the reduction process, the germanium coming from the basaltic magma 
and from the carbonaceous shale inclusions. Most carbonaceous shale 
and coal are considerably enriched in germanium compared to other 
substances. 

Reduction by graphite or by carbonaceous material is speculated, 
on firm grounds, to have produced the metal phase in stony meteorites 
and to have produced Earth's core. The postulated stages involved in the 
production of the metallic phases in the Disko basalts provide a testable 
model of reduction of silicate melts in general, and preliminary experi- 
mental studies were designed to further describe the details of the re- 
duction process, particularly how it is affected by temperature, total 
pressure, oxygen pressure, magma composition, and by cooling rates and 
length of experimental runs. 

During the past year, three volcanic eruptions and their products were 
examined by Melson in cooperation with other scientists. These in- 
vestigations involved the "jack-in-the-box" Metis Shoal eruption that 
produced an island which, after being built above sea level by eruptions 
of a pumiceous dacite, lasted two months and was then destroyed by 
wave erosion only a few days after the eruption ceased. The site was 
visited by Charles Lundquist of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observa- 
tory, who, in addition to visiting the site, interviewed numerous people 
who witnessed the eruption. The chemical analyses, carried out by 
Jarosewich, are of special interest in that the rock has an unusually low 
alkali content for such a high silica content. An analysis of the glass 
matrix, from which the phenocrysts — calcic bytownite, hypersthene, and 
magnetite — had been removed, revealed an almost tektite-like composi- 
tion. The high soda-to-potash ratio is the only major difference between 
this glass and certain tektite compositions. 

With James G. Moore, a Geological Survey volcanologist, Melson 
studied the spring 1968 eruption of Mayon Volcano, southeastern Luzon, 
Philippines. The unusual opportunity to directly observe, map, and 
sample the deposits of a nuee ardente eruption led to Smithsonian par- 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: MINERAL SCIENCES 349 

ticipation. The nuee ardente is a rare but extremely devastating 
type of eruption, consisting of an incandescent avalanche of hot, gas- 
emitting lava blocks, which generate billowing, hot ash-rich clouds all 
along the avalanche's course. The destruction of St. Pierre on Martinique 
in 1902 and the loss of 30,000 lives was the direct effect of an unusually 
large nuee ardente eruption from Mount Pelee. In this case and others, 
however, although excellent studies were subsequently carried out, few 
trained observers were at these sites during the eruption. 

The study of Mayon Volcano will probably prove unique in the aerial 
photographic coverage rendered, mainly through the courtesy of the 
13th Air Force, and in the on-the-ground observations and sampling 
during and immediately after the passage of numerous nuees ardentes. 

During the past year a remarkable discovery was made by Chairman 
George Switzer and Melson during an examination of a suite of nodules 
(rounded rock inclusions) obtained by Switzer from the Roberts Victor 
Diamond Mine, South Africa. Nodules of kyanite eclogite, a rock formed 
only at extremely high pressures and composed mainly of the minerals 
kyanite, omphacite, and garnet, were found to contain fresh glass along 
grain boundaries. This suggested that these rocks had been partially 
melted. Partial melting refers to the incipient melting of an otherwise 
crystalline rock. This process, which will occur, for example, when a 
rock is heated to high temperature, or heated to moderate temperature 
at high pressures and then, holding temperature constant, releasing the 
pressure, is believed to be responsible for the generation of magmas deep 
in the Earth's mantle. These kyanite eclogites are viewed, therefore, as 
a rare, specialized, natural fusion of a mantle rock. The presence of a 
diamond in one specimen indicates an especially deep-seated origin, 
possibly from as deep as 100 kilometers. The partial melting strongly 
affected the omphacite, changing it to a fine-grained mixture of plagio- 
clase, clinopyroxene, and possibly glass. 

The data in hand suggest that the unusual features observed in these 
kyanite eclogite nodules resulted from a mantle-derived inclusion being 
emplaced into the crust by a rapidly ascending kimberlite magma, which 
first caused partial melting of the nodules, due to sudden release of 
pressure, and then quenching, due to rapid cooling in the rising and 
expanding gas-rich kimberlite magma. 

Over summer 1967 the National Geographic Society supported a 
Smithsonian expedition to the Copper Mountain mining district. Prince 
of Wales Island, Alaska. Objectives of the principal investigators in 
the project, Switzer and research associate Peter Leavens, were to study 
the reaction rocks or skams formed between the granites of the area and 
the marbles into which they were intruded. 



350 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

The field party under the leadership of Leavens explored and col- 
lected as extensively as possible, but full scale operations in the torrential 
rains, on the steep slopes with heavy growth were out of the question. 
However, two small finds were made of the outstanding epidote crystals 
for which the district has been famous for more than sixty years. The 
mine workings were sound and accessible, but work therein produced 
relatively little. In the Green Monster Mountain area, a skarn contain- 
ing the rare and interesting calcium silicate minerals monticellite and 
xasthophyllite was mapped and an extensive suite collected for detailed 
laboratory study. In addition, a complex pocket system containing many 
superb crystals of epidote was found. 



Staff Publications 

(Papers, lectures, and seminars given by members of the staff are listed on 

page 400.) 

Desautels, p. E. The Mineral Kingdom. 251 pp. New York: Grosset and 
Dunlap, 1968. 

Fredriksson, K., and F. Kraut. "Impact Glass in the Cachari Meteorite." 
Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 31, pp. 1701-1704, 1967. 

Fredriksson, K. and B. Mason. "The Shaw Meteorite." Geochim. Cosmo- 
chim. Acta, vol. 31, pp. 1705-1709, 1967. 

Fredriksson, K. and A. Reid. "Meteorite Investigations by Electron Micro- 
probe Techniques." Pages 143-169 in Researches in Geochemistry, vol. 
2, edit. P. H. Abelson. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1967. 

Kato, a., and S. Kunihiko. "The Occurrence of Roquesite from the Akenobe 
Mine, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan." Mineral. Journ. (Japan), vol. 5, no. 4, 
pp. 276-284, 1968. 

Leavens, P., and J. S. White, Jr. "Switzerite, a New Mineral." American 
Mineral, vol. 52 pp. 1595-1602, 1967. 

Mason, B. "Pyroxenes in Meteorites." Lithos, vol. 1, pp. 1-11, 1968. 

Mason, B., and L. G. Berry. Elements of Mineralogy. 550 pp. San Fran- 
cisco: W. H. Freeman & Co., 1968. 

Mason, B., and E. Jarosewich. "Denver Meteorite, a New Fall." Science, 
vol. 160, pp. 878-879, 1968. 

Mason, B., and J. Nelen. "The Weatherford Meteorite." Geochim. Cos- 
mochim. Acta, vol. 32, pp. 661-664, 1968. 

Mason, B., J. Nelen, and J. S. White, Jr. "Olivine-Garnet Transformation in 
a Meteorite." Science, vol. 160, pp. 66-67, 1968. 

. "The Woodbine Meteorite, with Notes on Silicates in Iron Meteorites." 

Mineral. Mag., vol. 36, pp. 120-126, 1967. 

"Extraterrestrial Mineralogy." American Mineral., vol. 52, pp. 307- 
325, 1967. 

. "Olivine Composition in Chondrites — A Supplement." Geochim. 



Cosmochim. Acta, vol. 31, pp. 1100-1103, 1967. 

"Meteorites." American Scientist, vol. 55, pp. 429-455, 1967. 



Mason, B., and A. D. Maynes. "The Composition of the Allegan, Bur-Gheluai, 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: PALEOBIOLOGY 351 

and Cynthiana Meteorites." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3624, 

12 pp., 1967. 
Melson, W. G. "Petrologic Model of the Earth's Crust Across the Mid-Atlan- 
tic Ridge." Trans. American Geophys. Union, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 364-365, 

1968. 
Melson, W. G., E. Jarosewich, and E. P. Henderson. "Metallic Phases in 

Terrestrial Basalts: Implications on Equilibria Between Basic Magmas and 

Iron Carbon Melts." Trans. American Geophys. Union, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 

352, 1968. 
Reid, a., and K. Fredriksson. "Chondrules and Chondrites." Researchers 

in Geochemistry, vol. 2, edit. P. H. Abelson, pp. 170-203. New York: John 

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1967. 
SiMKiN, T. "Flow Differentiation in the Picritic Sills of North Skye." Pages 

64-69 in Ultramafic and related rocks, edit. P. J. Wyllie. New York : John 

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1967. 
SwiTZER, G. and W. G. Melson. "Partially Melted Kyanite Eclogite Nodules 

in Kimberlite." Trans. American Geophys. Union, vol. 49, no. 1, p. 361, 

1968. 

■ . Diamonds. 80 pp. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1967. 

. "Diamond Prospects and Prices." Jewelers' Circular Keystone, vol. 

138, no. 3, pp. 32-35, 105-106, 1967. 
White, J. S., Jr., W. Henderson, and B. Mason. "Secondary Minerals Pro- 
duced by Weathering of the Wolf Creek Meteorite." American Mineral., 

vol. 52, pp, 1190-1197, 1967. 
YocHELsoN;, E., M. Gordon Jr., and J. S. White Jr. "Aragonite and Calcite 

in Mollusks from the Pennsylvanian Kendrick Shale in Kentucky." U.S. 

Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, no. 575-D, pp. 76-78, 1967. 



PALEOBIOLOGY 

Continuing emphasis on research in the department of paleobiology 
resulted in 54 publications by the curatorial staff during the year, total- 
ing more than 1,200 printed pages. The research capability of the 
department was greatly enhanced by the appointment during the year 
of 15 research associates, in addition to 7 previous appointees. These 
appointments in most cases represent formal recognition of long-standing 
informal relationships. Of the 22 research associates, 15 are active 
or retired members of the paleontology and stratigraphy branch of the 
U.S. Geological Survey, reflecting the close interdependence of the two 
groups. 

Two members of the scientific staff resigned during the year. In 
September Richard A. Robinson returned to the department of geology. 
University of Utah, where he continued his research on trilobites and 
resumed his teaching duties. In March David H. Dunkle assumed the 
curatorship of paleontology at the Natural Science Museum in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, where he continued to pursue his long-standing interest in 
Devonian fishes and fish-like vertebrates. 



352 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

In addition to his duties as chairman, Porter M. Kier continued his 
research on the Echinoidea. Accompanied by Thomas F. Phelan, he 
spent much of the month of December in New Zealand investigating 
the previously unknown living habits of a species of the order Cassidu- 
loida. In March he left for Europe for six months of research as a 
Guggenheim Fellow. His primary objective there is study of the evolu- 
tion of the jaw apparatus in echinoids, principally at the Sedgwick 
Museum in Cambridge, but he is also visiting other museums and con- 
ducting field work both in England and on the Continent. 

Senior paleobiologist G. Arthur Cooper completed the photography 
of the Permian brachiopods to be illustrated in his Glass Mountains 
study, and has finished their arrangement into the more than 500 plates 
for publication. Preparation of the legends for the plates is now in 
progress. 

Curator Richard H. Benson is engaged in a long-term, worldwide 
study of deep sea and abyssal ostracodes. In the deep sea these ani- 
mals are among the most abundant and oldest forms of life and their 
fossil remains reflect the history of this mysterious habitat. They have 
increased in size and have become bizarre in shape and ornamentation 
under low temperatures and great pressures, but beyond the achieve- 
ment of a kind of grotesque aspect, their evolution seems to have been 
arrested. Forms which first developed during the time of the early his- 
tory of the dinosaurs have remained unchanged and are still living. 
It is hoped that the present study of ostracodes will provide a basis for 
interpreting the deep ocean environment, and its history as well as giving 
some insight into the biologic processes of this extreme but widespread 
habitat, which has in part become a refuge for living fossils. 

Scanning Electron Micrographs 

The abyssal ostracode in figures 1-3 was found living at approximately 2000 
meters depth in the western Indian Ocean. The closest known related group of 
ostracodes to this newly discovered species is a genus of Cretaceous cytheraceans 
which previously had been thought to be extinct since the end of the Mesozoic 
(60 X 16° years). These three views show the left side of one valve of the animal 
(X88), which contained in life its complex shrimp-like body, and detailed sec- 
tions of the posterior and anterior margins of valve ornament (X880). Such 
views and photomicrographs of exceptional depth and clarity are not possible 
with conventional microscope optics. 

The lower left figure (4) is of a radiolarian (X880), an ultramicroscopic 
protozoan, which was found attached to the inside of a dead ostracode valve and 
to which is adhered a yet smaller but identifiable fragment of a diatom. 

The lower right figure (5) shows the highly spinose venter of a bathyal 
ostracode (X88) as seen from the front with the valve lying with the closure 
down. Such spinosity is typical of deep-sea ostracodes. Close examination shows 
two large Christmas-tree-like spines, one set behind the others, but both still 
in focus. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION I PALEOBIOLOGY 



353 




354 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Through application of the scanning electron microscope (sem), 
a very new and expensive instrument which promises expanded horizons 
in the study of microorganisms, Benson has examined and illustrated 
many fantastic features of ostracodes not previously accessible to study. 
He has conducted the study and illustration of his specimens during 
visits to the University of Leicester in England, where the sem has been 
available to him. It is the only instrument which can reproduce great 
relief under high magnifications. 

The major research efTort of curator Richard S. Boardman during 
the year has been work on the production of a revision of the bryzoan 
chapter of the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. He has been 
charged with organizing this effort with the help of associate curator 
Alan H. Cheetham, and he has completed the restudy of 62 of the 
approximately 175 genera for which he is responsible. 

Cheetham continued his studies of adaptive morphology and evolu- 
tionary patterns of Tertiary cheilostome Bryozoa. A rich early Tertiary 
or late Cretaceous fauna from reeflike bryzoan mounds in southern Scan- 
danavia is the basis for an investigation on the correlation of colony 
form with individual structure. The relationship of morphology to 
paleo-environment is being analyzed by principal component and clus- 
tering methods, using the time-share computer. Anatomy of fossil struc- 
tural morphotypes, especially the relationship of skeletal and epithelial 
tissues, is being interpreted through study of wall structure and by 
analogy with Recent cheilostomes. Cheetham, J. B. Rucker of the U.S. 
Naval Oceanographic Office, and R. E. Carver of the University of 
Georgia have completed a study of wall structure and mineralogy of 
Recent species of the genus Metrarahdotos in which calcite and ara- 
gonite, secreted by the same epithelium, form segregated units having 
distinctive structural characteristics. They have studies underway on 
other cheilostome genera in which the walls show different patterns of 
development. Cheetham is also investigating the variation shown in 
single colonies of cheilostomes as a basis for calibrating population varia- 
tion and identifying evolutionary trends. The taxonomic aspects of these 
studies are being incorporated in a revision of the order Cheilostomata 
for the Treatise on Invertebrate Palentology. 

Analyses of data relating formaminiferal species densities to environ- 
mental variables in the Choptank River have been completed by asso- 
ciate curator Martin A. Buzas. The results indicate that the environ- 
mental variables are significant as a set, but none is individually. A 
study of the relative abundance-diversity of Foraminifera from the east- 
ern continental shelf, Gulf of Mexico, and deep sea in the Recent, and 
from the Miocene and Pleistocene of the East Coast, is underway with 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: PALEOBIOLOGY 355 

T. G. Gibson of the U.S. Geological Survey. This study utilizes the 
Shannon information function as a measure of diversity. This function 
and a measure of redundancy have been computed for several hundred 
samples to date. 

Richard Cifelli and Roberta K. Smith in a nearly completed manu- 
script conclude that the uniqueness of the distributional patterns in the 
North Atlantic Current is explained by a hypothetical model of the dy- 
namics of planktonic populations. Cifelli also has continued his studies 
of the age relationships of mid-Atlantic Ridge sediments by means of 
planktonic Foraminifera. A sediment of Paleocene age was recovered 
from a fracture zone in the mid-Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. This is 
the oldest sediment recorded from the Atlantic outside of the continental 
margin. Its occurrence is shown to be compatible with present concepts 
of sea-floor spreading. 

Associate curator Erie G. Kauffman continued research in four ma- 
jor areas. In the first, systematic, evolutionary and biostratigraphic stud- 
ies of the Bivalvia were concentrated on five important families; and 
major studies of Caribbean Inoceramidae, Cenozoic Hneages of Tliya- 
sia, Paleocene Astarte and Crassatellidae, and Mesozoic-Cenozoic Os- 
treidae were completed and manuscripts prepared. In the second, a 
cooperative project to construct a biostratigraphic assemblage zonation 
for the Cretaceous of the Western Interior United States, utilizing all 
fossil groups studied within a radiometric matrix, was initiated and all 
basic data collated; the project is headed by KauflFman and involves 
twelve additional scientists from United States universities and other in- 
stitutions. In the third, regional stratigraphic and basinal facies studies 
which have been conducted in the area of the Western Interior Creta- 
ceous seaway during the past ten years culminated in the completion of 
a stratigraphic revision of the Colorado group in the central basin (with 
Donald E. Hattin of Indiana University) ; a similar revision of the 
Dakota group was initiated, with Karl M. Waage of Yale University, 
and three small papers naming new stratigraphic units in this area were 
completed and one published. In the fourth area, studies of Caribbean 
Cretaceous mollusks and stratigraphy progressed rapidly during the past 
year, with two papers on Caribbean bivalves (Inoceramidae) completed 
and the entire collection of Bivalvia cleaned, sorted, and readied for 
systematic research. 

Associate curator Thomas R. Waller completed a major paper en- 
titled, "The Evolution of the Argopecten gibbus Stock, with Emphasis 
on Tertiary and Quaternary Species of Eastern North America," and 
initiated a study of the living Pectinidae (Bivalvia) on the continental 
shelves of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean between Cape Cod and 
Recife, Brazil. 



356 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

In January staff specialist Kenneth M. Towe, together with K. N. 
Sachs, Jr., of the U.S. Geological Survey, participated in a "Ships of 
Opportunity" cruise to the Caribbean aboard the Grace Line cruiseship 
SS Santa Sofia. Their purpose in the cruise was to collect and fix for 
electron miscroscopy living specimens of planktonic organisms, partic- 
ularly Foraminifera and Radiolaria. Collaborating with Klaus Ruetzler 
of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Towe has discovered 
that certain keratose sponges are mineralized with small granules of 
lepidocrocite, an iron mineral known to occur in only one other 
organism, a marine chiton. 

Activities of research associates in invertebrate paleontology were 
many and varied. Some are described below. 

Anthony G. Coates continued the preparation and description of 
Caribbean Cretaceous corals, particularly those from Jamaica and 
Puerto Rico; he undertook a systematic study of the evolution of the 
families Montastreidae and Astrocoenidae, and he prepared a contri- 
bution on the relatively rare Cretaceous corals of the Western Interior for 
the biostratigraphic range chart being compiled under Erie G. Kauff- 
man's leadership. During the past year J. Thomas Dutro, Jr., continued 
research on the Upper Devonian brachiopods of the southwest, with em- 
phasis on the Sly Gap correlatives in Arizona and Nevada. This is an ex- 
tension of a cooperative project with G. Arthur Cooper on the Devonian 
stratigraphy of New Mexico. Study of Late Devonian brachiopods in 
Idaho and Montana has added to the regional understanding of the 
Three Forks fauna and its correlatives. 

A survey of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia was carried out by 
Harry S. Ladd during the spring at the request of the Queensland De- 
partment of Mines. A preliminary report dealing with the conservation , 
and controlled exploitation of the reef is being prepared. A group of a | 
dozen paleontologists organized by Ladd, including several of the Smith- 
sonian staff, is currently engaged in study of an assemblage of late 
Eocene fossils obtained from the Island of Eua in Tonga. The material 
is the richest and most diversified fossil fauna and flora yet obtained 
from an island in the open Pacific. | 

Axel A. Olsson completed and submitted for publication studies on 
Siphocypraea and on aquarium specimens of Oliva sayana, recording 
feeding habits and for the first time the egg capsules and veliger of the 
latter. He has also completed his revision of the gastropod families 
Volutidae and Olividae for the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, 
as well as continuing his studies of Recent and Tertiary mollusks from 
Florida, the West Indies, and Central and South America. M. Ruth 
Todd completed a report on a rich assemblage of smaller Foraminifera 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: PALEOBIOLOGY 357 

of late Eocene age from Tonga, and with Doris Low nearly completed 
a report on the smaller Foraminifera from two deep drill holes in Mid- 
way Atoll that penetrated through Late Tertiary sediments to the base- 
ment rock. 

In September C. Lewis Gazin was appointed senior paleobiologist 
in order to devote a greater part of his time to research on early Tertiary 
mammals. In April he completed his monographic study of the Eocene 
condylarthran mammal Hyopsodus and submitted it for publication. 
Since then he has concentrated on identification of materials in two 
large collections of Paleocene mammals obtained during earlier field 
seasons from the classic sequence in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico, 
in preparation for further study of new Paleocene faunas from else- 
where in the Rocky Mountain region. 

Nicholas Hotton III continued his study of functional morphology 
of dicynodont jaw musculature, with the consideration of two special- 
ized genera, Oudenodon and "Dicynodon" sollasi, in progress. Taxo- 
nomic revision of the dicynodonts awaits the results of a study of osteo- 
logical variation in the skulls of living lizards. 

The work of research assistant Ruth O. Hotton, on the petrology of 
Beaufort sediments of South Africa, suggests a correspondence between 
the physical condition of heavy minerals and the stratigraphic position 
from which the samples were taken, which, it is hoped, will help in the 
interpretation of the depositional history of the Beaufort series. 

Clayton E. Ray, who served as acting chairman in the absence of 
Porter M. Kier, completed studies of the fossil musk oxen of Illinois 
(with Donald L. Wills and John C. Palmquist) , vertebrate remains from 
Indian sites on Antigua, West Indies (with Elizabeth S. Wing and 
Charles A. Hoffman, Jr.), and fossil vertebrates from the marine Pleis- 
tocene of southeastern Virginia (with Alexander Wetmore, David H. 
Dunkle, and Paul Drez). He continued work on the fossil musk oxen 
and on fossil walruses of Eastern North America. 

Research associates Remington Kellogg and Frank C. Whitmore, Jr., 
devoted their attention to the nearby Miocene deposits. Kellogg com- 
pleted manuscripts on two new Choptank Miocene whalebone whales 
and continued a review of the types of Miocene toothed whales de- 
scribed by E. D. Cope. Whitmore is cooperating with the Maryland 
Academy of Sciences in a stratigraphic and paleoecologic study at the 
Baltimore Gas and Electric Company site, at Calvert Cliffs on Chesa- 
peake Bay. Detailed stratigraphic studies are being made in the Mio- 
cene Chesapeake group, and paleoecologic studies will be made by 
stripping bedding planes so that fossil organisms can be examined in 
place, in their relation to each other. 



358 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




Preparation by Sigmund Sweda of the skull of a dicynodont tentatively identi- 
fied as Daptocephalus, one of a large variety of plant-eating mammal-like reptiles 
from the late Permian of South Africa. These animals are being studied for their 
ecological role in the evolution of mammalian ancestors. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: PALEOBIOLOGY 



359 



The installation of chemical fume hoods in the division of paleobotany 
made it possible for associate curator Francis M. Hueber to resume 
the use of chemical techniques important to the progress of his research 
on Early Devonian land plants. The isolation of nearly complete plant 
organs by means of acid maceration of the enclosing rock matrix is 
facilitating the study and reconstruction of several genera and species, 
of which some are new. 

Research associate Sergius H. Mamay completed a report in collabo- 
ration with Michael Churkin, G. D. Eberlein, both of the U.S. Geologi- 
cal Survey, and Francis Hueber, dealing with land plants from a Lower 
Devonian graptolitic shale in southeastern Alaska. A sparse flora of 
simple vascular plants is associated with graptolites and other inverte- 
brates, and comprises the oldest confirmed occurrence of land plants in 
this hemisphere. 

M. Grant Gross has continued his research on the nature and rates 
of chemical processes in sediments and sedimentary environments, in- 
cluding various aspects of waste discharges and pollution. Working with 
T. John Conomos, a predoctoral intern. Gross investigated the radio- 
activity associated with suspended sediment from the Columbia River. 
In cooperation with the Maryland Department of Water Resources, 
Gross investigated abnormal sediment discharges and their effects on 



Fossil remains (x2) of a land 
plant that flourished during the 
Lower Devonian nearly 400 mil- 
lion years ago. These specimens 
come from northern New Bruns- 
wick and Gaspe Bay, Quebec, 
Canada, Along with several 
others they have been dissolved 
free of their sandstone matrix 
with hydrofluoric acid and then 
mounted in plastic for study and 
exhibit. A study of these very 
early plants is in progress by 
Francis M. Hueber. 




360 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 






a 








"ROCKAWAY" DEC. 1967 CRUISE 
WILMINGTON CANYON 
BASAL PARTS OF UNSPLIT FREE 
FALL CORES NO. 3, 4, 5, 6 

(PRINT FROM X-RAY PLATE 



This print of an X-ray plate shows parts of unspllt cores of deep-sea sediments 
collected in the Wilmington submarine canyon off the east coast of the United 
States. This recently developed technique permits detection of subtle features 
otherwise not visible to the naked eye such as shell (S), mottling (M) and 
burrowing (B) by organisms, and lamination (L). 



Maryland, especially that of the Potomac River, and developed lalDora- 
tory procedures to be used in future studies of such problems. Working 
through the Office of Oceanography and Limnology, Gross assisted the 
Coastal Engineering Research Center, Corps of Engineers, to plan a 
study of the environmental impact of waste discharges in the coastal 
ocean off New York City. During the year, papers were completed on 
cores obtained from a drilling project on Midway Atoll and on the 
marine geology of Midway and Kure Atolls. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: PALEOBIOLOGY 361 

Coring and augur drilling along the North Carolina coast in July 
1967 and January 1968 by Jack W. Pierce and D. J. Colquhoun of the 
University of South Carolina, suggest that this section of the coast has 
had a very complex history of development during the Holocene. This 
history does not seem to be analogous to that of the coast of Virgina to 
the north or South Carolina to the south. Additional drilling is planned 
for the summer of 1968 to delineate former shorelines in this previously 
unstudied section of the southeastern United States. 

The origin and movement of sediment in probable submarine 
canyons and deep sea channel deposits in the French Maritime Alps 
and sectors of the Polish Carpathians are being examined by Daniel 
J. Stanley. As an outgrowth of these studies, Stanley has summarized 
sedimentological evidence pointing to the presence of a large emerged 
land mass in the Ligurian-Balearic Basin of the Mediterranean during 
the Paleocene. A series of studies was completed on the bottom mor- 
phology and origin, distribution, and dispersal of sediments on the con- 
tinental margin off Nova Scotia, including a fjord-like inlet near Hali- 
fax, the Sable Island and Sable Island Bank region, and the Nova 
Scotian Shelf proper. Another group of studies made with D. J. P. Swift, 
Duke University, interprets the origin of the broad reef-front platform 
of Bermuda. 

Staff Publications 

(Papers, lectures, and seminars given by members of the staff are listed on 

page 400.) 

Amsden, T. W., a. J. BoucoT, and J. G. Johnson. "Conchidium and Its 

Separation from the Subfamily Pentamerinae." Journ. Paleont., vol. 41, 

no. 4, pp. 861-867, 1 fig., 3 pis., 1967. 
Benson, Richard H. "History and Microfauna of Southern Outer Banks and 

Offshore Region." Univ. Kansas Paleont. Contr., Ecology, art. I, pt. 2, 

pp. 82-90, 1967. 
Berry, W. B. N., and A. J. Boucot. "Pelecypod-Graptolite Association in the 

Old World Silurian." Bull. Geol. Soc. America, vol. 78, pp. 1515-1522, 

1967. 
Boucot, A. J. "Preliminary Geologic Map of Maine." Generalized Map of 

Regional Metamorphic Zones, compiled and ed., Robert G. Doyle, 1967. 
Boucot^ A. J., L. M. Cummings, and H. Jaeger. "Contributions to the Age 

of the Gaspe Sandstone and Gaspe Limestone." Geol. Surv. of Canada 

Paper, no. 67-25, 27 pp., 3 pis., 1967. 
Boucot, A. J., G. A. Doumani^ J. G. Johnson, and G. F. Webers. "Devonian 

of Antarctica." In vol. 1 (pp. 639-648) of International Symposium on 

the Devonian System. Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol., 1967. 
Boucot, A. J., and C. W. Harper. "Silurian to Lower Middle Devonian 

Chonetacea." Journ. Paleont., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 143-176, 4 pis., 4 text- 
figs., 1968. 



362 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

BoucoT, A. J., and J. G. Johnson. "Appalachian Province Lower Devonian 
Paleogeography and Brachiopod Zonation. In vol. 2 (pp. 1255-1267) of 
International Symposium on the Devonian System,. Alberta Soc. Petrol. 
Geol., 1967. 

. "Paleogeography and Correlation of Appalachian Province Lower 

Devonian Sedimentary Rocks." Pages 35-87 (5 figs., 5 tables), in Tulsa 
Geol. Soc. Digest, Symposium, vol. 3 {Silurian-Devonian Rocks of Oklahoma 
and Environs) , 1967. 

"Species and Distribution of Coelospira (Brachiopoda) ." Journ. 



Paleont., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1226-1241, 4 pis., 3 text-figs., 1967. 

BoucoT, A. J., J. G. Johnson, and J. A. Talent. "Lower and Middle Devon- 
ian Faunal Provinces Based on Brachiopods. In vol. 2 (pp. 1239-1254) of 
International Symposium on the Devonian System. Alberta Soc. Petrol. 
Geol., 1967. 

BuzAs, M. A. "An Application of Canonical Analysis as a Method for Com- 
paring Faunal Areas." Journ. Anim. EcoL, vol. 36, pp. 563-577, 1967. 

. "On the Spatial Distribution of Foraminifera." Contr. Cushman 

Found. Foram. Res., vol. 19, pp. 1-11, 1968. 

. "Foraminifera from the Hadley Harbor Complex, Massachusetts." 



Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 152, no. 8, pp. 1—26, 1968. 

Carlson, M. P., and A. J. Boucot. Early Silurian Brachiopods from the Sub- 
surface of Southeastern Nebraska. Journ. Paleont., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 
1121-1125, 2 text-figs., 1967. 

Carriker, M. R., and E. L. Yochelson. "Recent Gastropod Bore Holes and 
Ordovician Cylindrical Borings." U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 593— B, 
pp. B1-B26, 5 pis., 2 figs., 1968. 

Cheetham, A. H., "Paleoclimatic Significance of the Bryozoan Metrarabdo- 
tos." Trans. Gulf Coast Associ. Geol. Soc, vol. 17, pp. 400-407, 6 text- 
figs., 1967. 

. "Morphology and Systematics of the Bryozoan Genus Metrarabdotos." 

Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 153, no. 1, viii + 121 pp., 18 pis., 24 text- 
figs., 1968. 

CiFELLi, R. "Distributional Analysis of North Atlantic Foraminifera Collected 
in 1961 During Cruises 17 and 21 of the R/V Chain." Contr. Cushman 
Found. Foram. Res., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 118-127, 1967. 

CiFELLt, R., W. H. Blow^, and W. G. Melson. "Paleogene Sediment from a 
Fracture Zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge." Journ. Marine Res., vol. 15, 
no. 2, pp. 105-109, 1968. 

Clarke, A. H., Jr., D. J. Stanley, J. C. Medgof, and R. E. Drinnan. "An- 1 
cient Oyster and Bay Scallop Shells from Sable Island." Nature, vol. 215, | 
pp. 1146-1148, 1967. 

CoNOMOs, T. John and M. Grant Gross. "Mixing of Columbia River and 
Ocean Waters, Summer." Pages 486-516 in P. L. McCarty and Robert 
Kennedy, ed., Proc. Nat. Symposium on Estuarine Pollution, Stanford, 
Calif., 23-25 Aug., 1967. 

Cooper, G. Arthur. "Age and Correlation of the Tally and Cedar Valley 
Formation in the United States." In vol. 2 (pp. 701-709) of International 
Symposium on the Devonian System. Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol., 1967. 

Crompton, a. W., and Nicholas Hotton, III. "Functional Morphology of 
the Masticatory Apparatus of Two Dicynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida)." 
Postilla, no. 109, pp. 1-51,7 figs., 1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION : PALEOBIOLOGY 363 

Dane, C. H., E. G. Kauffman, and W. A. Cobban. "The Semilla Sandstone, 

a New Member of the Mancos Shale, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico." 

U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1254F, Contr. to Stratig., 25 pp., 1 pi. 2 figs., 1968. 
DuTRO, J. T., Jr. "Paleontology." GeoTimes, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 17-18, 1968. 
Finks, R. M. "S. A. Millers Paleozoic Sponge Families of 1889." Journ. 

Paleont., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 803-807. 
. "The Structure of Saccospongia laxata Bassler (Ordovician) and the 

Phylogeny of the Demospongea." Journ. Paleont., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1137- 

1149, 5 figs. 2 pis., 1967. 
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1968. 
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Grant, R. E. "Structural Adaptation in Two Permian Brachiopod Genera." 
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Grierson, James D., and Frances M. Hueber. "Devonian Lycopods from 
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posium on the Devonian System. Alberta Soc. Petrol. Geol., 1967. 

Gross, M, Grant. Oceanography. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Books, 
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Grossman, Stuart, and Richard H. Benson. "Ecology of Rhizopodea and 

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Pholidostrophia (Mesopholidostrophia) nitens from Gotland." Journ. 

Paleont., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1184-1187, 4 pis., 1 test-fig., 1967. 



364 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

HoTTON, Nicholas, III. "The Evidence of Evolution." Smithsonian Library, 

American Heritage, 1968. 
Huddle, John W. "Redescription of Upper Devonian Conodont Genera and 

Species Proix)sed by Ulrich and Bassler in 1926." U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. 

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RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: PALEOBIOLOGY 365 

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Morse, Betty-Ann, M. Grant Gross, and Clifford A. Barnes. "Movement 
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Oliver, W. A., Jr. "Stratigraphy of the Bois Blank Formation in New York." 
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. "Succession of Rugose Coral Assemblages in the Lower and Middle 

Devonian of Eastern North America." In vol. 2 (pp. 733-744) oi Interna- 
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1967. 

Oliver, W. A., Jr., Wallace, deWitt, Jr., J. M. Dennison, D. M. Hoskins, 
and J. W. Huddle. "Devonian of Appalachian Basin, United States." In 
vol. 1 (pp. 1001—1040) of International Symposium on the Devonian Sys- 
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Olsson, Axel A. "Some Tertiary Mollusks from South Florida and the 
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. "Pustularias (Jenneria) in the American Neogene." Notulae Naturae, 

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. "A Review of Late Cenozoic Stratigraphy of Southern Florida. In 



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Purnell, Louis R. Catalog of the Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils, 

Part I: Paleozoic Cephalopoda. (U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 262), 198 pp., I fig., 

1968. 
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111 pp., 14 pis., 1967. 
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Bull. Georgia Acad. Sci., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 120-150, 5 figs., 9 tables, 1967. 
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pp. 131-138,1967. 
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from the Mochixtlan Region, Oaxaca, Mexico." Jour. Paleont., vol. 42, 

no. 3, pp. 767-800, 8 pis., 4 text-figs., 1968. 
Sanberg, Charles A., William J. Mapel, and John W. Huddle. "Age and 

Regional Significance of Basal Part of Milligen Formation, Lost River 

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Geol. Cong., vol. 8, 9 pp., 1968. 



366 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SiEGEL, F. R., J. P. Mills, and J. W. Pierce. "Aspectos Petrograficos y Geo- 
quimicos de Espeleotemas de Opala y Calcita de la Cueva de la Bruja, Men- 
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pp. 5-19, 1968. 

SmitHj Roberta K. "Ignition and Filter Methods of Concentrating Shelled 
Organisms." Journ. Paleont., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1288-1291, 1967. 

Smith, Roberta K. "An Intertidal Marginopora Colony in Suva Harbor, Fiji." 
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1968. 

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Interior of the United States." Pages 1-37, 9 text-figs., in A Symposium onn 
Paleoenvironments of the Cretaceous Seaway in the Western Interior. 
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Stanley, D. J. "Comparing Patterns of Sedimentation in Some Modern and 
Ancient Submarine Canyons." Earth and Planetary Sci. Letters, vol. 3, pp. 
371-380, 1968. 

Stanley, D. J., and L. R. Blanchard. "Scanning of Long Unsplit Cores by 
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Stanley, D. J., and A. E. Cok. "Sediment Transport by Ice on the Nova 
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Stanley, D. J., and G. Kelling. "Sedimentation Patterns in the Wilmington 
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Stanley, D. J., and E. Mutti. "Sedimentological Evidence for an Emerged 
Land Mass in the Ligurian Sea During the Paleocene." Nature, vol. 218, 
pp. 32-36, 1968. 

Stanley, D. J., and D. J. P. Swift. "Bermuda's Southern Aeolianite Reef 
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Stanley, D. J., D. J. P. Swift, and H. G. Richards. "Fossiliferous Concretions 
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. "Echinoderm Calcite: Single Crystal or Polycrystalline Aggregate?" 

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Southern Nevada." Univ. of Kansas Paleont. Contr., paper 27, 32 pp., 
8 pis., 1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 367 

YocHELsoN, E. L. "Charles Doolittle Walcott, 1850-1927 — A Biographical 

Memoir." Nat. Acad. Sci., Biographical Memoirs, vol. 39, pp. 471-540, 

1967. 
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Formations with a Section on Fish by D. H. VanSickle." U.S. Geol. Surv. 

Prof. Paper, no. 313-D, pp. 571-660, 12 figs., 5 tables, 1968. 
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Science and Technology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1968. 
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593-F, pp. F1-F7, 1 pi., 1968. 
. "Tremadocian MoUusks from the Nochixtlan Region, Osaca, Mexico." 



Journ. Paleont., vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 801-803, 1 text-fig., 1968. 

YocHELsoN, E. L., and B. W. Saunders. "Bibliographic Index of North Ameri- 
can Late Paleozoic Hyolitha, Amphineura, Scaphopoda and Gastrop>oda." 
U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull, no. 1210, 271 pp., 1968. 

YocHELsoN, E. L., J. S. White, Jr., and Mackenzie Gordon, Jr. "Aragonite 
and Calcite in Mollusks from the Pennsylvanian Kendrick Shale (of Jillson) 
in Kentucky." Pages D76-D78, in "Geological Survey Research 1967." U.S. 
Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper, no. 575-D, 1967. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

The department of vertebrate zoology has experienced some major 
changes in personnel this year. In August Philip S. Humphrey resigned 
as chairman to become Director of the Museum of Natural History and 
chairman of the department of zoology at the University of Kansas. 
He continues, however, as special advisor to the Director, and as prin- 
cipal investigator of the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program. 
Humphrey was replaced as chairman by George E. Watson, who in 
turn was replaced as supervisor of the division of birds by Richard L. 
Zusi. 

The department was saddened by two deaths this year. Herbert G. 
Deignan, curator emeritus of birds, died in Switzerland while he was 
still working on manuscripts for the Checklist of Birds of tfie World. 
In May, curator Doris M. Cochran died just as her manuscript on Co- 
lombian frogs was in the final stages of editing and preparation for 
the printer. 

The main orientation of research in the department is towards sys- 
tematics, but the advanced state of our taxonomic knowledge of mam- 
mals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes also permits sophisticated 
ecological, biogeographic and behavioral approaches to systematic prob- 
lems in these groups. 

Accelerating intense interest in the evolution of man and in bio- 
medical research with primates has led the department to initiate a 
primate biology program. Curator John R. Napier, formerly of the 
University of London, spent much of his first six months as the director 



368 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

of the Smithsonian's primatology program traveUng widely about the 
United States in order to make known the existence of the program, to 
determine the fields of research with which it should be concerned, and 
to explore the possibilities of cooperative projects with major universi- 
ties. He visited five of the regional primate research centers, the major 
museums with large collections of primates and universities with spe- 
cial interest in primate biology. The results of these visits were incorpo- 
rated in a major program statement, "Prospects in Primate Biology," 
published in April. Napier also spent two weeks in England in the spring 
negotiating for an academic affiliation of the London-based portion 
of the program. Between trips he continued his researches into the 
evolution of primate locomotion and, in collaboration with his wife, 
Prudence, into the feasibility of using reflectance spectrophotometry for 
studying the coat colors of monkeys. His Handbook of Living Primates, 
co-authored with Mrs. Napier, appeared late in 1967. 

The main emphasis of field research in the department has been on 
large-scale ecological and faunal surveys of mammals, birds, and fishes 
in Latin America, Africa, the eastern Mediterranean, central Pacific 
Ocean, and off Bermuda. Some of these have had medical ramifications. 

The collecting phase of the three-year-old biomedical survey of the , 
mammals of Venezuela by curator Charles O. Handley, Jr., is almost^ 
complete. Two field parties concentrated efforts in the western part of 
the country, including the Merida Andes, an area of local differentiation 
never before surveyed for mammals; the Sierra de Perija; Paramo de 
Tama ; and the Maracaibo lowlands. Collation of ecological data of his 
earlier collections from Panama led to completion of a manuscript by 
his assistant, Theodore Fleming, on the distribution, ecology and popu- 
lation dynamics of the marsupials of the Canal Zone. Handley alsoa 
spent six weeks in Belem, Brazil, in February and March studying the 
ecology and population dynamics of bats through high netting and band- 
ing in a freshwater swamp. About 700 bats marked in this period 
yielded enough recaptures to permit a reasonably reliable estimate of 
the vertical stratification of the bat fauna. 

Field units of associate curator Henry W. Setzer's African mammal I 
project collected specimens of vertebrate hosts and their parasites in 
Ghana, Togo, and Dahomey, and Setzer spent a month in South Africa 
to begin a survey of the Orange and Fish River basins in cooperation 
with the South African Institute for Medical Research and the Council 
for Scientific and Industrial Research. 

George E. Watson's Palearctic migratory bird survey operated mainly 
in Cyprus after leaving Cairo last June. Under the field direction of John 
P. Hubbard, almost 14,000 birds were marked with British Trust for 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 369 

Ornithology and other bands in the Middle East. Over 2,500 blood 
serum samples collected in the field have been analyzed in the virus 
laboratory at Yale University and active viremia of four difTerent sero- 
types has been found in 42 blood samples from Egypt and Cyprus, mostly 
in fall-collected birds. 

Field teams from the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program con- 
tinued bird population and banding studies on the Hawaiian Islands, 
other central Pacific islands and islands ofT the western coast of Mexico, 
as well as sea observations on board eastropac vessels in the eastern 
Pacific Ocean. Approximately 200,000 birds were banded and another 
50,000 birds which had been previously banded were retrapped. Final 
programing and print-outs have been completed for processing data on 
pelagic bird observations; editing of the observations is almost finished 
and the majority of them are now on tape. 

Two scientists are studying biogeographic faunal comparisons. Cura- 
tor James A. Peters used time-share computer techniques in comparing 
large numbers of faunal samples from single localities or seine hauls to 
determine the degree of faunal similarity. First, each locality sample is 
compared with all other such samples to form a matrix of comparative 
values. Each set of comparisons for a single locality is ranked in a table 
according to coefficient value. Each rank is then simultaneously com- 
pared with all other rankings to give an indication of the degree of 
faunal identity between any two locality samples when compared against 
all other localities. The method and its underlying hypothesis were tested 
against data on fish collections from the eastern Pacific Ocean. The test 
proved so successful that the route of the ship could be predicted solely 
on the basis of the faunal similarity of samples. Tests were also run on 
'fishes from an Atlantic Ocean transect cruise and on the herpetofauna of 
small islands off Puerto Rico. 

Associate curator Paul Slud also was concerned with the theory of 
numerical or graphic comparisons of faunas. He concentrated on devel- 
oping sampling procedures to compare the taxonomic and ecological dis- 
tribution of neotropical birds. His one-month exploratory trip to the 
Amazon valley during February and March resulted in a tentative choice 
of two sites for comprehensive field studies next year. 

Life history and behavioral information provides valuable characters 
to be used in systematic and ecological studies of vertebrates. Curator 
Ernest A. Lachner began a sabbatical year in April in the southeastern 
United States studying reproductive behavior patterns in stream min- 
nows of the chub genus Nocomis. He co-authored with Robert E. Jen- 
kins a systematic paper on the chubs of the southwestern Ohio River 
basin. Leonard Schultz continued field investigations and published pa- 



370 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

pers on the biology of sea nettles in the Chesapeake and the Ufe history 
of a nudibranch predator on jellyfish polyps. 

Curator Victor G. Springer spent one and a half months in Taiwan 
collecting blennies for his extensive revisionary studies of blennoid fishes. 

Curator Richard L. Zusi went to Churchill on Hudson's Bay in June 
and July to observe and photograph shorebirds as part of his anatomical 
studies of skull morphology of the Charadriiformes. He also spent an- 
other three weeks in Dominica studying the niche relationships of the 
Lesser Antillean forest trembler Cinclocerthia ruficauda as part of an 
anatomical study of the genus. He completed a manuscript with Joe T. 
Marshall, Jr., on the habits and anatomy of a sap-feeding woodpecker 
Dendrocopos hyperythrus from Thailand that proves to be convergent 
with North American sapsuckers. 

Based on his many years of field work in the country, Alexander Wet- 
more completed the manuscript for a second volume in his four-volume 
account of The Birds of the Republic of Panama. The last three volumes 
of the multi-authored Life Histories of North American Birds covering 
the finches appeared 24 May, fittingly on the birthday of the editor, 
research associate Oliver L. Austin, Jr. 

S. Dillon Ripley and his research assistant, Michel DesFayes, in collab- 
oration with Salim Ali in Bombay, completed and sent to press volume 
1 of the Handbook of Indian Birds. 

Smithsonian identification manuals and catalogues of animals from 
little-known areas of the world stimulate further field research into nat- 
ural history. Four major projects are underway in the department. Wat- 
son, J. Phillip Angle, and Peter C. Harper sent a first draft of the species 
section and maps for a manual on Antarctic birds to colleagues for 
criticism. James Peters, in collaboration with two Latin American her- 
petologists, Roberto Donoso-Barros of Chile and Braulio Orejas-Mir- 
anda of Uruguay, have nearly completed an IBP-sponsored project, the 
"Catalogue of Neotropical Squamata," which will facilitate identifica- 
tion of snakes and lizards in the field. 

Units of the Navy concerned with the health of troops in Southeast 
Asia are attached to the department to produce field guides to the snakes 
and mammals of Vietnam. Simon Campden-Main is collaborating with 
Peters on the snake guide and Paul F. Ryan and Thomas J. Mclntyre 
are at work in the division of mammals producing the mammal guide. 

Henry Setzer has completed a key to the rodent genus Acomys for the 
Preliminary Identification Manual for African Mammals, a project of 
the International Biological Program centered at the Smithsonian, but 
with contributing authors from over the world. 

Several other systematic studies of vertebrates are under way in the 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 371 

department. Curators Stanley H. Weitzman and Robert H. Gibbs, Jr., 
and their collaborators have worked on stomiatoid fishes for several 
years and the results were published in several papers this year. Weitz- 
man has almost completed a large manuscript on the interrelationships 
of the oceanic hatchetfishes Stemoptychidae and the oceanic light- 
fishes Gonostomatidae. Gibbs has completed manuscripts on the stomia- 
toids of transect cruises in the Indian Ocean and off Central America. 
He has also nearly finished the revision of the families Stomiatidae and 
Astronesthidae. Associate curator W. Ralph Taylor has in press his large 
revisionary monograph on the eastern North American catfish genus 
Noturus and is continuing studies of marine catfishes. 

Setzer has almost completed work on the African rodent genus 
Desmodilliscus and continues work on the bats of Kenya with Bruce J. 
Hayward and Russell E, Mumford. Handley worked on the systematics 
and variation of the pocket gopher Geomys pinetis with Wilson Baker. 
Alphonse Hoge of Brazil worked in the division of reptiles and amphib- 
ians on a National Institutes of Health grant to conduct systematic re- 
I search on venoms of vipers of Asia. Werner Bokermann, a Guggenheim 
'fellow, studied Brazilian amphibians in the same division. Stewart 
Springer, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, continued his long-range 
taxonomic studies of sharks of the family Scyliorhinidae, participating in 
a cruise of the Oregon II at the mouth of the Missouri River. 

Staff Publications 

(Papers, lectures, and seminars given by members of the staff are listed on 

page 401.) 

Aldrich, John W. "Populational Characteristics and Nomenclature of the 
Hermit Thrush." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3637, 33 pp., 1968. 
. "In Memoriam: Harry Church Oberholser." Auk, vol. 85, pp. 24-29, 



1968. 

Banks, Richard C. "A New Insular Subspecies of Spiny Pocket Mouse 
(Mammalia: Rodentia)." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 80, pp. 101- 
104, 1967. 
. "Birds and Mammals of La Laguna, Baja California." Trans. San 



Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 14, pp. 205-232, 1967. 
Banks, Richard C, and Roxie C. Laybourne. "The Red-Whiskered Bulbul 

in Florida." Auk, vol. 85, p. 141, 1968. 
Barnett, Michael A., and Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. "Validity of the Stomiatoid 

Fish Species Bathophilus flemingi and B. indicus." Copeia, no. 4, pp. 197- 

198, 1968. 
Gampden-Main, Simon, and Thomas MgIntyre. "Snakebite in Vietnam." 

Army Digest, pp. 42-44, November 1967. 
Clapp, Roger B. "Three Unusual Shorebirds from Midway Atoll, Pacific 

Ocean." Elepaio, vol. 28, no. 9, March 1968. 



372 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Clapp, Roger B., and P. Woodward. "New Records of Birds from the Hawai- 
ian Leeward Islands." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3640, 39 pp., 
1968. 

CoCHRANj Doris M. "Taxonomy and Distribution of Arrow-Poison Frogs in 
Colombia." Mem. Inst. Butantan, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 61-65, 1967. 

Cohen, Daniel, M., and Jorgen Nielsen. "Redescription of Bellottia apoda 
Giglioli, 1883 (Pisces: Ophidioidea) ." Proc. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 179, 
pp. 99-106, January 1968. 

. "The Cyclopterid Genus Paraliparis, a Senior Synonym of Gymnoly- 

codes and Eutelichthys, with the Description of a New Species from the 
Gulf of Mexico." Copeia, no. 2, pp. 384-388, 1968. 

CollettEj Bruce B. "Further Comments on Suppression of Some Names in 
the Family Belonidae (Pisces)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol. 24, part 4, 
pp. 196-199, September 1967. 

. "Request for a Ruling to Correct Homonymy in Names of the Family- 
Groups Based on Plethodus (Pisces) and Plethodon (Caudata)." Bull. 
Zool. Nomencl., vol. 24, part 4, p. 252-254, September 1967. 

. "The Taxonomic History of the Darters (Percidae: Etheostomatini)." 

Copeia, no. 4, pp. 814-819, December 1967. 

"Daector schmitti, a New Species of Venomous Toadfish from the 



Pacific Coast of Central America." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 81, 

pp. 155-160, April 1968. 
Donoso-Barros, Roberto. "Contribucion al conocimiento de los Cocodrilos 

de Venezuela" [conclusion]. Physis, vol. 26, no. 72, pp. 263-274, 1967. 
. "Diagnosis de dos nuevas especies del genero Gonatodes de Venezuela." 

Notic. Mens. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Chile, vol. 9, no. 129 [unnumbered page]. 

1967. 
Friedmann, Herbert. "Alloxenia in the Three Synpatric African Species of 

Cuculus." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3633, 14 pp., 1967. 
. "Additional Data on Brood Parasitism in the Honey-Guides." Proc. 

U.S. Nat. Mus., vol 124, no. 3648, 8 pp., 1968. 
. "Parallel Evolution in the Small Species of Indicator (Aves)." Proc. 

U.S. Nat. Mus.,vol. 125, no. 3655, 10 pp., 1968. 
. The Evolutionary History of the Avian Genus Chrysococcyx. (U.S. 



Nat. Mus. Bull. 265), 137 pp., 1968. 
GiBBS, Robert H., Jr., and Barbara A. Hurwitz. "Systematics and Zoogeog- 
raphy of the Stomiatoid Fishes, Chauliodus pammelas and C. sloani, of the 

Indian Ocean." Copeia, no. 4, pp. 798—805, December 1967. 
GouLD^ P. J. "Records of Four Species of Pterodroma from the Central Pacific 

Ocean." Auk, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 591-594, October 1967. 
Greenhall, Arthur M. "Notes on the Behavior of the False Vampire Bat." 

Journ. Mammalogy, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 337-340, May 1968. 
Greenwood, P. H., G. S. Myers, D. E. Rosen, and S. H. Weitzman. "Named 

Main Divisions of Teleostean Fishes." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 80, 

pp. 227-228, 1967. 
Guilday, J. E., and Charles O. Handley, Jr. "A New Peromycsus (Roden- 

tia: Cricetidae) from the Pleistocene of Maryland." Annals of Carnegie 

Museum, vol. 39, art. 6, pp. 91-103, November 1967. 
Handley, Charles O., Jr. "Bats of the Canopy of an Amazonian Forest." 

Atas do Simposio Sobre a Biota Amazonica, Rio de Janeiro, vol. 5 (Zool- 

ogica), pp. 211-215, 1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 373 

HuBER, L., and R. Heiden. "Note: Bird Observations Near Oahu." Elepaio, 

vol. 27, 1967. 
Kepler, C. "Polynesian Rat Predation upon Nesting Laysan Albatross and 

Other Pacific Seabirds." Auk, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 426-430, July 1967. 
King, W. B. and P. J. Gould. "The Status of Newell's Shearwater, Puffinus 

puffinus newelli Henshaw." The Living Bird, vol. 6, pp. 163-186, Novem- 
ber 1967. 

King, W. B., P. J. Gould, and George E. Watson. "An Application of Auto- 
matic Data Processing to the Study of Seabirds, I: Numerical Coding." 

Ptoc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 123, no. 3609, 29 pp., 1967. 
Lachner, Ernest A., and Robert E. Jenkins. "Systematics, Distribution and 

Evolution of the Chub Genus Nocomis (Cyprinidae) in the Southwestern 

Ohio River Basin, with a Description of a New Species." Copeia, no. 3, 

pp. 557-580, 1967. 
Lachner, Ernest A., Martin L. Wiley, and Robert E. Jenkins. "Natural 

Interspecific Hybrids in the Cyprinid Genus Nocomis [abstract]." Abstr. 

Pap. Pres. 47th Ann. Meet. American Sac. Ichthy. and Herp., p. 18, 1967. 
Manville, Richard H. "An Annotated List of the Vertebrates." Pages 1-44 

in Natural History of Plummers Island, Maryland (special publication of 

the Washington Biologists' Field Club), no. 20, January 1968. 
Napier, J. R. "Evolutionary Aspects of Primate Locomotion." American 

Journ. Phys. Anthrop., vol 27, no. 3, pp. 333-342, November 1967. 
— — . " Prospects in Primate Biology." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 125, no. 

3662,30 pp., 1968. 
Napier, J. R., and Napier, P. H. A Handbook of Living Primates. London : 

Academic Press, 456 pp., 1967. 

. The Origins of Man. London: Bodley Head, 32 pp. 1968. 

Drejas-Miranda, Braulio R. "El genero 'Leptotyphlops' en la region ama- 

zoica." Atas do SimpSsio Sobre a Biota Amazonica, vol. 5 (Zoologica), 

pp. 421-442, 1967. 
. "Las excursiones de ciencias naturales en los primeros profesionales 

de los Institutos Normales." Superacion, vol. 1, nos. 41-43, pp. 215-240, 

February 1967. 
. "Taxonomia classica y taxonomia moderna.' Com. Soc. Malac. 



Uruguay,vo\. 2 no. 13, pp. 105-111, October 1967. 
Paradiso, John L. "A Review of the Wringle-Faced Bats (Centurio senex), 

with Description of a New Subspecies." Mammalia, vol. 31, no. 4, 8 pp., 

December 1967. 
Paradiso, John L., and Arthur M. Greenhall. "Longevity Records for 

American Bats." American Midland Nat., vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 251-252, 

July 1967. 
. "The Generic Allocation of the Frog Ceratophrys stolzmanni Stein- 



dachner, with the Description of a New Subspecies from Ecuador." Proc. 

Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 80, pp. 105-112, 1967. 
Peters, James A. "On Venezuelan Snakes" [Review of "La Taxonomia y 

zoogeografia de los ofidios de Venezuela]". Copeia, no. 2, pp. 496-498, 

1967. 
. "Comment on the Proposed Rejection of Coluber chiametla Shaw, 

1802." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol. 24, pt. 3, p. 138, 1967. 
Peters, James A., and Donald Broadley, Jr. "The Scientific Name of the 

African Puff Adder." Copeia, no. 4, pp. 864-865, 1967. 



374 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ■ 

. "A Computer Program for Calculating Degree of Biogeographical Re- 
semblance Between Areas." Syst. Zool, vol. 17, pp. 64-69, 1968. 

Peters, James A., and Bruce B. Collette. "The Role of Time-Share Com- 
puting in Museum Research." Curator, vol. 11, no. 1, March 1968. 

Ripley, S. D., and J. T. Marshall, Jr. "A New Subspecies of Flycatcher from 
Luzon, Philippine Islands (Aves: Muscicapinae) ." Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington, vol. 80, pp. 243-244, 1967. 

Ripley, S. D., and D. S. Rabor. "Two New Subspecies of Birds from the 
Philippines and Comments on the Validity of Two Others." Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Washington, vol. 81, pp. 31-36, 1968. 

Schreiber, Ralph. "Note on Short-Eared Owl {Asio flammeus) ." Elepaio, 
vol. 28, no. 6, December 1967. 

Schultz, Leonard P. "A New Genus and New Species of Zooarcid Fish from 
the North Pacific Ocean." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 122, no. 3598, 5 pp., 
1967. 

Schultz, Leonard P., and David G. Cargo. "Further Observations on the 
Biology of the Sea Nettle and Jellyfishes in Chesapeake Bay." Chesapeake 
Science, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 209-220, December 1967. 

Schultz, Leonard P., and Wallace Ashby. "An Analysis of an Attempt tc 
Control Beach Erosion in Chesapeake Bay, at Scientists Cliffs, Calverl 
County, Maryland." Chesapeake Science, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 237-252 
December 1967. 

. "Four New Fishes of the Genus Parapercis with Notes on Other Species 

from the Indo-Pacific Area (Family Mugiloididae) ." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.. 
vol. 124, no. 3636, 16 pp., 1968. 

. "A New Subspecies of Parrotfish, Nicholsina ustus collettei from the 

Eastern Atlantic Ocean." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3642, 5 pp. 
1968. 

Sibley, F. C, and R. Clapp. "Distribution and Dispersal of Central Pacific 
Lesser Frigatebirds." Ibis, vol. 109, pp. 328-337, 1967. 

SoMADiKARTA, SoEKARjA. "A Recharacterization of Collocalia papuensis Rand 
the Three-Toed Swiftlet." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3629, 8 pp.. I 
December 1967. | 

Springer, Stewart. "Social Organization of Shark Populations." Pages 149- 
174 in Sharks, Skates and Rays, ed. Perry W. Gilbert, et al. Johns Hopkins 
Press, 1967. 

Springer, Stewart, Susumu Kato, and Mary H. Wagner. "Field Guide to 
Eastern Pacific and Hawaiian Sharks." U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Circ. 271, 47 pp., December 1967. 

Springer, Victor G. "The Blenny Name Pholis carolinus Valenciennes, a 
Junior Synonym of Blennius pholis Linnaeus." Copeia, no. 3, p. 683, 1967. 

. "The Indo-Pacific Blenniid Fish Genus Stanulus, with a Description of 

a New Species from the Great Barrier Reef (Blenniidae; Blenniinae; Sala- 
riini) ." Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 81, pp. 1 1 1-122, 1968. 

Springer, Victor G., and William F. Smith-Vaniz. "Systematics and Distri- 
bution of the Monotypic Indo-Pacific Blenniid Fish Genus Atrosalarias." 
Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., vol. 124, no. 3643, 12 pp., 1968. 

Taylor, William Ralph. "OutHne of a Method of Clearing Tissues with 
Pancreatic Enzymes and Staining Bones in Small Vertebrates." Turtox 
News, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 308-309, December 1967. 



RESEARCH AND PUBLICATION: VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 375 

Thompson, M. C, and R. De Long. "The Use of Cannon and Rocket Pro- 
jected Nets for Trapping Shorebirds.' Bird Banding, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 
214-218, 1967. 

Watson, George E. "Masked Shrike Feeding on Birds." British Birds, vol. 
60,p. 302, July 1967. 

. "Fulvous Tree Duck Observed in the Southern Sargasso Sea." Auk, 

vol. 84, p. 424, July 1967. 

. "Lindermayer's Greek Specimen of White-Eyed Gull, Larus leucoph- 

thalmus." Journal fUr Ornithologic, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 133-134, 1968. 

. "Synchronous Wing and Tail Molt in Diving Petrels." Condor, vol. 

70, no. 2, pp. 182-183, April 1968. , 

. "Broadbill," "Buffalo Bird," and "Bulbul." [Articles] in Encyclopedia 

Americana, vol. 4, pp. 585, 718, 741, 1968. 

. "Butcherbird" and "Cassowary." [Articles] in Encyclopedia Ameri- 

tana, vol. 5, pp. 56, 773, 1968. 

. "Cockatoo," and "Condor." [Articles] in Encyclopedia Americana, 



vol. 7, pp. 164, 522, 1968. 
pVEiTZMAN, Stanley H. "The Origin of the Stomiatoid Fishes with Comments 
! on the Classification of Salmoniform Fishes." Copeia, no. 3, pp. 507-540, 
I 1967. 

"The Osteology and Relationships of the Astronesthidae, a Family of 



Oceanic Fishes." Dana Rept., no. 71, 54 pp., 1967. 
A^ETMORE, Alexander. "Recreating Madagascar's Giant Extinct Bird." A^c- 
tional Geographic, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 488-493, October 1967. 

rETMORE, Alexander, and Clay G. Huff. "Blood Parasites of Birds Collected 
in Four Successive Years in Panama." Bull. Wildlife Disease Assoc, vol. 3, 
pp. 178-181, October 1967. 

. "Further Systematic Notes on the Avifauna of Panama." Proc. Biol. 

Soc. Washington, vol. 80, pp. 229-242, December 1967. 
^ETMORE, Alexander, and Richard H. Manville. "Birds." Pages 17-35 in 
Natural History of Plummers Island, Maryland. (Spec. Publ. Washington 
Biologists' Field Club), January 1968. 

. "A Raven over the City of Washington." Atlantic Naturalist, vol. 23, 

no. 1, p. 35, Spring 1968. 
'iViRTZ, W. O. "Contribution to the Ecology of the Monk Seal." Journ. of 
Mammalogy, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 229-238, May 1968. 




Conservation laboratory of the Office of Anthropology 



The Collections 

CARE AND CONSERVATION — GIFTS AND ADDITIONS 

Anthropology 

The outstanding anthropological acquisition of the year was the Terry 
collection on indefinite loan from the University of Washington School 
of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. Begun by Robert J. Terry and con- 
tinued by his pupil and successor, Mildred Trotter, this unique collec- 
tion includes over 1,500 skeletons of precisely known origin, many with 
cadaver measurements and face masks, collected over a period of two 
generations and actually spanning three generations ( 1840 to 1925) , and 
serves as a base line for the physique of the less economically privileged 
sector of our population, most useful for comparative study. 

A very important group of objects of Polynesian origin was presented 
by David Dunn Thomas, a descendant of John Williams Henry, early 
missionary to Tahiti. Collected by various members of the Henry and 
Thomas families at several periods and throughout the Polynesian area, 
some may have been collected in Tahiti before 1858 by the missionary 
Henry. The collection contains some particularly good specimens from 
the Marquesas. 

In a ceremony at the Mexican Embassy on 27 October, President 
Gustavo Diaz Ordaz of the Republic of Mexico presented to the Smith- 
sonian Institution an outstanding example of a Maya ceremonial incense 
burner in Palenque style, excavated in the state of Chiapas. The 
object is currently on display in the hall of Latin American archeology. 

Less spectacular but scientifically valuable was the receipt of a docu- 
mented collection from the Winslow site, Montgomery County, Mary- 
land, from the Archeological Society of Maryland. The collection con- 
sists of approximately 20,000 objects of stone, bone, shell, and pottery, 
including several restored pots. It is the largest collection we have from 
the Piedmont-Tidewater area that has been excavated under controlled 
conditions, and it was presented with full documentation. 

A collection of traditional arts and crafts, mostly from Iran, was re- 
ceived from Hans E. WulfF, University of New South Wales, Kensing- 
ton, Australia. The 371 specimens represent a diversified craft economy, 
various stages of manufacture, and the raw materials employed. This 
collection with its documentation provides an essential dimension in the 
current research program in ancient technology. 

377 

315-997 O - 69 - 25 



378 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

The anthropological conservation laboratory processed almost 2,000 
specimens this year, about the same number as the preceding year. 
Museum specialist Bethune M. Gibson has significantly expanded her 
activities by training more volunteer workers, showing her conservation 
methods to visitors from all over the world (more than 95), and cor- 
responding with other people desiring information. The photographic 
records (usually colored slides) of processed specimens have been greatly 
expanded, and the use of the airbrasive unit has been extended to in- 
clude leather cleaning, basketry, and beadwork. 

The archives of the Office of Anthrop)ology, under the direction of 
archivist Margaret Blaker were moved from the north tower of the old 
Smithsonian building where they had been housed for more than fifty 
years, to newly constructed quarters in the Natural History building. 
Here greatly expanded stack areas and larger processing and study 
rooms make it possible to arrange the collections more efficiently and 
to provide improved study facilities for visitors. 

Botany 

Collecting activities by the staff added materials from unusual localities. 
A very significant series of marine algae was collected by museum techni- 
cian Charles Rhyne on Aldabra and Diego Garcia Islands under the 
auspices of the Office of Oceanography and Limnology and the Royal 
Society of London, the first such extensive collections. Museum special- 
ist D. Wasshausen accompanied an expedition of the New York Botani- 
cal Garden to Brazil, where he collected numerous specimens of Acan- 
thaceae. D. H. Nicolson returned from a year in Nepal with a large rep- 
resentative set of specimens including many interesting new records. 
T. R. Soderstrom brought back a number of grass specimens from Java, 
and D. B. Lellinger collected many ferns in Costa Rica while acting as 
a consultant for a course given at the Organization for Tropical Studies 
at San Jose. Other materials collected for the Museum included 606 
specimens from New Caledonia, 1,130 grasses from South and Central 
America collected by C. F. Calderon, and 223 phanerogams from 
Parana, Brazil, collected by G. Hatschbach. 

The exchange program by the department continues to bring in a 
significant portion of the materials that are accessioned. The most im- 
portant collections received during the year were South American 
phanerogams from the New York Botanical Garden and Mexican ma- 
terials from Stanford University. Some 1,835 specimens from Central 
America were sent by the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago 
and 387 by the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

Large sets of duplicates of North American plants were sent by the 



THE collections: botany ENTOMOLOGY 379 

University of Kansas, Southwestern Louisiana State University, and 
Vanderbilt University. 

The Old World collections continue to grow. Lund University sent a 
large valuable set of 1,900 African specimens. As a gift the Forestry 
Department, British Solomon Islands, sent 1,339 plants of the Solomon 
Islands. Other important accessions of African, Pacific, or Asian plants 
were received from Suva, Fiji; Jardin Botanique, Brussels; Royal Botan- 
ic Gardens, Kew; and the British Museum, London. 

Materials received as gifts for identification were especially rich. Of 
the cryptogams, a lot of 499 lichens from Rio de Janeiro collected by 
G. Eiten proved to contain many unusual records, and some 458 Vene- 
zuelan phanerogams collected by J. Steyermark have formed a valuable 
addition to the collections. 

The department maintains an active program of loans and exchanges 
which demand detailed record keeping. A move was made during the 
year to simplify all records and to automate records on loan transactions 
in order to provide easy retrievability and print-outs with the com- 
puter. An extension of this activity has been the initiation of a program 
for a computerized type catalog, using the SCM Typetronic, which will 
eventually record data on our present holdings of about 60,000 types. 
This system will be expanded to include holdings of cooperating institu- 
tions as well and to provide plant taxonomists with the first comprehen- 
sive catalog of types. 

Entomology 

Several important collections made by staff members during field ex- 
plorations connected with their research programs were accessioned: 
W. D. Duckworth collected 43,027 specimens in Central and South 
America, principally Lepidoptera; O. S. Flint, Jr., obtained 41,308 speci- 
mens, mostly neuropteroids, in southern Central America; P. J. Spang- 
ler collected 9,644 specimens, mostly Coleoptera, during a short stay 
in Panama and Costa Rica, and also donated 4,125 specimens from 
North America ; K. V. Krombein obtained about 7,500 specimens during 
a brief stay at Gebel 'Uweinat in the Libyan Desert; 3,900 specimens of 
Lepidoptera were collected by D. R. Davis in the southwestern United 
States and California; and 711 Californian bees were obtained by G. I. 
Stage. 

Spangler and Krombein traveled extensively in Africa in con- 
nection with exhibits work, improvement of the collections, and 
research projects. They worked together in Kenya for five weeks and 
in South Africa for two and a half weeks. While in Kenya, they worked 
principally at the National Museum in Nairobi, where they selected and 
packed for exchange shipment to Washington about 17,500 specimens 





Anatomy of a Termite 
Mound 

Nest of the mound building 
termite Macrotermes goUath 
is excavated ( 1 ) by Karl V. 
Krombein and Paul J. Spang- 
ler during a n entomology- 
exhibits expedition to South 
Africa. Fungus chambers and 
fungus gardens (2) showing 
one of three earthen pots, 
originally placed by Bantu 
with openings level with sur- 
face of mound in order to 
capture swarming termites 
for food, that were gradually 
buried under several feet of. 
earth by continued mound 
building. Close-up of a fun- 
gus comb (3) reveals the 
small white nodules used by 
termites for food. Thick- 
walled cell is sectioned (4) 
to show how queen termite is 
imprisoned and maintained 
to propagate the species. 
Queen is tended (5) by the 
king and numerous workers. 



THE collections: entomology 381 

representing almost 9,000 species of African insects, principally in the 
orders Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Orthoptera. It is esti- 
mated that about 75 percent of the species obtained in this exchange 
were not represented previously in the named collections. The principal 
project in South Africa was the excavation of nests of the mound-build- 
ing termite Macrotermes goliath to obtain the queen, king, soldiers, 
workers, immature brood, fungus combs, earthem partitions and termite 
guests, to serve as the basis for an exhibit to be built in the forthcoming 
"hall of natural history." They operated Malaise traps full time and also 
made weekend field trips in both areas; these efforts netted about 30,000 
additional specimens of African insects. After Krombein's departure, 
Spangler, assisted in part by an American Philosophical Society grant, 
collected 60,000 additional specimens in South Africa, Rhodesia, 
Malawi, Kenya, and Uganda during the ensuing eleven weeks. 

The collection benefited also from the most generous donations of a 
number of other sp>ecialists. It is impossible to mention all of these specifi- 
cally, but a few of the most important of these accessions were: 130,141 
specimens collected by John W. Neal, Jr., in Iran and West Pakistan; 
9,453 from N. L. H. Krauss, principally from the West Indies; 11,595 
specimens of elaterid beetles from H. Lanchester; 10,206 specimens, 
mostly Venezuelan Lepidoptera from R. W. Poole; 500 species of Old 
World Odonata from M. A. Lieftinck, a particularly valuable acquisition 
because it added 318 species, 58 genera, and 2 families not represented 
previously; 4,236 specimens of American heliothine moths from R. R. 
McEK^are; 4,107 North American insects from L. J. Bottimer, mostly 
Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera; 4,000 specimens of North 
American Microlepidoptera from R. W. Hodges; type and ordinary 
specimens of Diplopoda from H. F. Loomis; 5,000 specimens of Pana- 
manian Diptera from W. W. Wirth and F. S. Blanton; 244 paratypes of 
114 species of New Guinea Psychodidae from L. W. Quate; 3,567 speci- 
mens of West Indian Lepidoptera from E. L. Todd ; and 2,000 Diptera 
from L. Knutson. 

Three important specialized collections were obtained by purchase, 
the Peiia collection of 39,458 Chilean Tenebrionidae containing many 
paratypes, the Daguerre collection of 32,413 Argentinian Coleoptera 
and Neuroptera, and the Kormilev collection of 2,712 worldwide speci- 
mens of Aradidae, Phymatidae, and Vianaididae containing many pri- 
mary and secondary types and nearly 250 species and 48 genera not 
represented previously in our collection. 

The Department of Agriculture transferred 61,554 specimens of in- 
sects and their allies to the Smithsonian, of which many were of more 
than ordinary value or interest, representing as they did the choicest 



382 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

materials submitted to the Department of Agriculture or to Museum 
specialists for identification. Many of the species were not repre- 
sented previously in the national collections, and others bore associated 
host data, or consisted of reared series of immature and adult stages. 

As a result of the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of 
Dominica, we received 11,000 specimens collected by T. J. Spilman and 
D. M. Anderson of the usda staff and by D. W. Bray of the Univer- 
sity of Delaware. 

We are also pleased to report the very welcome interest of two Peace 
Corps workers, Sharon Thomas and James H. Davis, who sent several 
most welcome lots of specimens from Malaysia and Nigeria, respectively. 

Personnel assigned part time to the departmental preparators' team, 
Nancy B. Heath, Marc Roth, Ronald Faycik, and William Rowe, made 
substantial inroads both on the backlog of specimens awaiting accession 
or distribution and on newly received lots. Altogether they handled 
nearly 600,000 specimens, sorting and distributing them to the appro- 
priate divisions. Of these about 150,000 specimens had been accessioned 
previously but not distributed; the remaining specimens constituted 54 
new accessions. Divisional preparator Gloria House sorted 28,000 speci- 
mens of Coleoptera to family, mounted and labeled over 6,000 specimens, 
and transferred 26,000 specimens to Museum units. 

R. E. Crabill continued to explore new and improved methods of 
whole-mounting of small arthropod specimens on glass slides. He be- 
lieves that he has developed a better mountant than Hoyer's, having the 
outstanding advantage of similar superb optical qualities with far better 
permanence. He also attempted to find a more satisfactory ringing 
medium for cover slips. 

In addition, Robert Traub donated 58 specimens of fleas, a particu- 
larly valuable acquisition because it consisted of primary and secondary 
types. K. C. Emerson added over 3,000 slides of Mallophaga and Ano- 
plura from his personal collection and from Department of Defense 
sources. Dr. G. W. Rawson, a vounteer worker in the division of lepi- 
doptera and diptera, undertook the incorporation of several separate 
collections of Nearctic butterflies including his own, and has virtually 
finished the family Pieridae. 

Our scientific colleagues in the systematic entomology laboratory 
of usda and the preparators assigned to it continued to provide much 
appreciated curatorial assistance in sections of the collection in their care. 
In addition, many thousands of insects were mounted under usda con- 
tracts with several universities and individual workers. 

The Southeast Asia Mosquito Project received 45 collections consist- 
ing of 14,080 mounted adult mosquitoes and 10,376 slide preparations 



THE collections: invertebrate zoology 383 

from 26 different sources. The bulk of the material came from the 
SEATO laboratories in Bangkok, Thailand, and S. Ramalingham. 

Invertebrate Zoology 

Perhaps the single most important acquisition during the year was the 
unparalleled collection of freshwater mollusks and crayfishes from the 
central United States assembled by Byron Leonard, his colleagues, and 
his students at the University of Kansas. The gift, from the Natural 
History Museum of the University of Kansas, greatly enhances our 
holdings of American mollusks and crayfishes. 

With the support of the Office of Education, the Museum began a 
modest pilot project to study the application of automatic data retrieval 
methods to Museum collections, with particular emphasis on developing 
techniques for retrieval of specimen-associated data. In the department 
of invertebrate zoology, the collection of stomatopod crustaceans was 
selected as the first group to be processed under this experimental pro- 
gram. The collection, comprising about 2,000 lots, includes representa- 
tives of 4 families, 30 genera, and 230 species. Between September and 
June, through the efforts of Michael C. Ridge, 900 lots containing more 
than 10,000 specimens were documented, cataloged, and curated; speci- 
men data on punched paper tape was converted to magnetic tape by a 
computer. In addition. Ridge organized the data on the stomatopod 
types so that a publishable type catalog, including original references, 
can be generated by the computer. 

Cataloging of Crustacea is now based entirely on mechanical equip- 
ment with which label-typing simultaneously punches a paper tape which 
then can be used to produce data cards, neck labels for bottles, and, 
ultimately, printed catalogs. A master list of crustacean taxa is being 
compiled as the first step in converting all crustacean data records to 
magnetic tape and machine storage. 

Museum specialist Henry B. Roberts assumed the major load of iden- 
tifying decapods in response to outside requests, in addition to reorgani- 
zing the 15,000 type lots for greater accessibility. Major accessions in 
Crustacea included 6,300 specimens received through Harvey R. Bullis, 
Jr., Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, and 4,600 specimens of copepods 
from the Bahama Islands received from Arthur G. Humes, Boston 
University. 

The addition of a large number of storage cases allowed reorganiza- 
tion of the dry collections of echinoderms and lower invertebrates. A 
catalog of the type-specimens of echinoids in this' Museum and at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, prepared by Maureen 
Downey, was published during the year. A similar catalog of ophiuroids 



384 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

has been submitted for publication, and preparation of a catalog of 
asteroids is under way. These catalogs will be most useful reference 
sources for future work on the echinoderms. 

An important addition was the extensive series of 2,900 freshwater 
sponges received from the estate of the late J. T. Penney. The collection, 
comprising materials from many localities around the world, has added 
materially to the division's holdings of this group. 

Other echinoderm accessions during the year include a large collec- 
tion of starfishes from the Gulf of Mexico received from Harvey R. 
Bullis, Jr., Bureau of Commercial Fisheries; a large collection of North 
Atlantic bryozoans from Frank J. S. Maturo, University of Florida; and 
a large series of lower invertebrates and echinoderms from the Smithso- 
nian Oceanographic Sorting Center. 

The collections of mollusks were enriched by the addition of 23,759 
lots of freshwater mollusks from Thailand, collected by Rolf Brandt, 
of the SEATO medical research unit, in connection with his research on 
medically important mollusks. A small but significant addition consisted 
of 15 specimens of the interesting monoplacophoran genus Neopilina, 
including primary types of two species described by Robert J. Menzies, 
Florida State University. The division also received from Robert H. 
Stewart 1,350 marine mollusks of Payardi Island on the east coast of 
Panama, a relatively important and little-known region. 

During the past year several projects were completed and a few begun 
which will improve the accessibility of the collections of mollusks. Among 
the valuable items received in a permanent loan collection from the New 
York State Museum some years ago was the Reigen collection of 
mollusks from Mazatlan. These were classified during the last century 
by P. P. Carpenter and other 19th-century workers. The type-specimens 
of freshwater mussels were rearranged, and a cross-referenced list of the 
Museum's holdings of this large group was prepared. 

Under an agreement with the Agricultural Research Service, Walter 
J. Byas identified over 4,000 specimens of mollusks which had been 
intercepted at ports of entry to the United States. 

In the division of worms, the most outstanding addition to the collec- 
tion was the extensive series of branchiobdellid annelids collected by 
Perry C. Holt of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute. The approximately 
700 slides deposited in the collection represent one of the largest holdings 
of branchiobdellids in the world. 

Mineral Sciences 

The meteorite and tektite collections have grown considerably during 
the past year. The University of Minnesota meteorite collection, contain- 



THE collections: mineral sciences 385 

ing specimens of almost 1 00 different meteorites, has been placed with us 
as an indefinite loan. Particularly noteworthy are a 125-pound Ester- 
ville (Iowa) specimen, a 65-pound Forest City (Iowa) stone, and sev- 
eral fine Richardton (North Dakota) stones. 

The Australian expedition of Henderson and Mason provided ma- 
terial of several meteorites previously unrepresented in the collection, 
including the unique Mt. Egerton stony-iron. Tektite collections, when 
added to those obtained on previous expeditions, provide us with prob- 
ably the finest collection of precisely localized Australian tektites in 
existence. 

Three important new meteorite falls were added to the collection 
during the year. These are the Ankober (Ethiopia) fall of 7 July 1942, 
a 7-kg. stone obtained through the cooperation of Robert Citron of the 
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; the Tathlith (Saudi Arabia) 
fall of 5 October 1967, obtained through Glen F. Brown of the United 
States Geological Survey ; and the Denver meteorite, which penetrated a 
warehouse roof in July 1967 and was subsequently presented to the 
Museum by the warehouse owner, Nationwide Papers, Inc., of Denver, 
Colorado. 

A large number of rock specimens were incorporated into the petro- 
logic series, which has been arranged systematically and by geographic 
groupings, thus making this material more accessible to the researcher 
interested in obtaining samples of various rocks from specific localities. 

Two particularly noteworthy acquisitions were from the Geological 
Survey — a collection of volcanic rocks from Truk Islands, described by 
J. T. Stark and R. C. Hay in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 
409 (1963) , and an extensive collection of ultrabasic nodules and inclu- 
sions from the Hawaiian Islands obtained through E. D. Jackson. Mel- 
son collected an extensive suite of rocks from the 1968 eruption of 
Mayon Volcano, Philippine Islands; the suite of rocks from the 1967- 
1968 eruption of Metis Shoal, Tonga Islands, collected by Charles Lund- 
quist of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, were the only 
specimens collected at the site. 

The division of petrology continued development of a format for en- 
tering specimen data into the Smithsonian's information storage and 
retrieval system. 

Steady growth of the mineral and gem collections continued. Among 
important gifts by individual donors were a number of fine sapphires 
of several colors by Mr. and Mrs. James H. Clark, a very rare 5.34- 
carat taafeite by Mr. and Mrs. Fred C. Kennedy, a 336-carat mass of 
industrial diamond by Nathan Fink, and an antique diamond necklace 
with a magnificent blue sapphire weighing 98.57 carats, gift of Countess 



386 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Edward Bismarck. Several fine exhibition quality mineral specimens, 
including torbernite from the Congo and rose quartz from Brazil were 
donated by Lewis K. Land. 

Through exchange an unusually large number of fine specimens were 
added to the mineral collections such as a 28-ounce gold nugget from 
Alaska, a large and extraordinary group of gem quality morganite 
crystals from California, two excellent epidote specimens from Austria, 
four proustite crystal groups from Chile, one of the very few remaining 
large emerald crystals from North Carolina measuring six inches long, 
and two, well-crystallized specimens of California gold. 

Roebling fund purchases during the year were directed primarily to- 
ward acquiring new materials for the research collection. The Canfield 
fund was used to obtain several specimens of superior exhibition quality, 
such as a euclase specimen of very unusual habit, color, and quality from 
Brazil, and an apophyllite specimen from Virginia which is probably 
the finest for this species in the world. 

Through the Chamberlain fund a 67-carat black star sapphire from 
Thailand and an unusually large faceted labradorite from Oregon 
weighing 23.77 carats were acquired. 

Paleobiology 

A new departmental preparation laboratory, under the direction of 
Lorenzo Ford, has been established with facilities for various thin- 
sectioning, polishing and embedding techniques as well as limited acid 
digestion, heavy mineral separation, and macro- and micro-sample 
washing. The laboratory supplements the crowded and more specialized 
preparation rooms which have been pressured by an increasing number 
of post-doctoral fellows, visiting scientists, and students. The equipment 
is available to any one associated with the department and, if necessary, 
Ford provides training in proper handling and maintenance of the 
equipment. It is expected that the facility will be especially useful for 
visitors as it will allow them access to equipment for extended periods 
without interrupting routines in the more sp>ecialized laboratories. 

The division of invertebrate paleontology made several major changes 
in collection storage and laboratories. A new room was completed and 
dedicated as the Cushman room for foraminiferal studies. Located in 
the central storage area, the room contains desks, library, and optical 
equipment for visitor study needs, and it houses the Cushman collection 
of Foraminifera. 

The post-Mesozoic mollusk collection, inventoried over the previous 
year, was reorganized in a geographic-stratigraphic arrangement. The 



THE collections: paleobiology 387 

material, consisting of thousands of collections, is easily accessible for 
the first time since the move into the east wing quarters. A biologically 
arranged reference collection is now being developed. 

Cataloging of newly received type-specimens was curtailed for part of 
the year by loss of cataloging personnel. Several thousand specimens 
were processed but the influx of new types has been much greater than 
could be handled. 

A manuscript catalog of Mesozoic coelenterates is near completion and 
the conodont manuscript is being updated. Publication of these lists is ex- 
pected soon; while the first of the division type catalogs, the Paleozoic 
cephalopods, was issued early in 1968. A new curatorial and cataloging 
procedure involves entering locality, biometric, and faunal information, 
as well as information concerning the location of species in the storage 
area, on ibm cards and magnetic tape. 

The Walcott bequest provided funds enabling several large collections 
to be made by the staff. These included more than 12,000 specimens of 
Upper Cretaceous invertebrates from the Rocky Mountains and Lower 
Cretaceous and late Cenozoic mollusks from the Atlantic Coastal Plain, 
all collected by Erie G. Kauffman. Frederick J. Collier and Jesse Merida 
collected more than 4,000 specimens of Middle Devonian brachiopods, 
corals, trilobites, and bryozoans from localities in western New York 
and southern Ontario. 

Other notable contributions include more than 5,000 Tertiary and 
Quaternary mollusks from an area between Isla de Margarita and 
Guajira Peninsula in Northern Venezuela collected by Thomas Waller, 
and some 2,000 specimens of a variety of Devonian invertebrates pre- 
sented by Dr. and Mrs. G. A. Cooper. Cooper also made extensive col- 
lections in the Guadelupe Mountains in continuance of his Permian 
studies. 

Transfers from the Geological Survey included many type-specimens 
described by the staff of the paleontology and stratigraphy branch. Out- 
standing among these were 167 specimens of Foraminifera recovered 
from Tertiary and Recent samples from the Island of Guam and de- 
scribed by Ruth Todd. Approximately 150 additional Recent specimens 
from Alaska were described and received from Miss Todd. Calymenid 
trilobites described by Reuben Ross, Permian Tethyan fusulinids from 
California described by R. C. Douglass, and a large collection of Juras- 
sic ammonites described in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers 
483D, 540, 573B by Ralph Imlay are indicative of the great diversity of 
specimens accessioned. 

Summer field work in the Bridger Basin of the southwestern Wyoming 
by C. Lewis Gazin and Franklin L. Pearce, with support from the Wal- 



388 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




Articulated skeleton of the early lemuroid primate Smilodectes gracilis being 
prepared by Franklin Pearce in the laboratory of vertebrate paleontology. The 
block of matrix containing the skeleton was excavated this past summer in the 
middle Eocene Bridger formation of southwestern Wyoming. 



cott bequest, resulted in the collection of some 450 specimens of fossil 
mammals, principally from the middle Eocene Bridger formation. Out- 
standing among materials obtained was the greater part of an articu- 
lated skeleton of the primate Smilodectes gracilis. Remarkably good 
skulls of other Eocene mammals were discovered, including that of con- 
dylarth Hyopsodus minusculus, significant to the Hyopsodus study then 
underway. 

Fossil marine mammals have long been a major interest of the Mu- 
seum, particularly as a result of the tradition in their collection and study 
established and maintained by Remington Kellogg. The past year has 
been the most productive ever in terms of quantity and quality of acquisi- 
tions of marine mammals and other marine vertebrates. The major single 
accession of the year was that of the Douglas Emlong collection of 
fossil marine vertebrates, purchased through the Walcott fund. The col- 
lection consists mainly of remains of whales, porpoises, and sea lions, 
but includes as well desmostylians, birds, fishes, and turtles, virtually 
all collected by Mr. Emlong on the coast of Oregon. More than 500 



THE collections: paleobiology 



389 




Museum specialist John E. Ott preparing skull of the extinct crocodilian Gavia- 
losuchus collected by him and Albert C. Myrick, Jr., in the Miocene Calvert 
formation near Wakefield, Virginia. In the foreground is the snout of an individ- 
ual of the same genus from near Cove Point, Maryland, donated to the Museum 
by Carla Sanchez of Hyattsville, Maryland. 



individual specimens, ranging from single isolated bones to complete 
skeletons, of Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene age, will ultimately serve 
to document critical stages in the evolution of various groups, in parti- 
cular the Cetacea and Pinnipedia. 

Again with support of the Walcott fund, Albert C. Myrick, Jr., and 
others made several collecting trips to the nearby marine Miocene de- 
posits of Maryland and Virginia. The principal results of this work 
include one nearly complete baleen whale skeleton, one partial baleen 
whale skeleton with skull and jaws excellently preserved, more than 20 
specimens of porpoises, several specimens of fishes, and an excellent 
skull with partial skeleton of the extinct crocodile Gavialosuchus. 

Frank C. Whitmore, Jr. conducted field work on Cenozoic vertebrates 
of the Gulf coastal plain. With George M. Lamb and students of the 
University of South Alabama (Mobile) he collected from a site north of 
Mobile and south of Citronelle, which has yielded the first Pliocene land- 
mammal bones to be found between western Florida and the Texas Gulf 
coast. The bones occur in clay that is probably of paludal or lacustrine 



390 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

origin, as there are many leaves and large logs present. A particularly 
significant aspect of the fauna from the point of view of correlation is the 
association of the long-snouted dolphin Pomatodelphia inaequalis Allen 
with Synthetoceras sp., an extinct browsing ungulate characterized by 
peculiar horn-like growths on the skull, with the horse Hipparion cf. 
H. plicatile, and with a fairly large camel; a Hemphillian (middle 
Pliocene) age is indicated. 

Through the courtesy of the Geological Survey, four Pleistocene pec- 
cary skeletons, collected by Warren I. Finch and John Sims of the 
Survey beneath 65 feet of loess in the Hickman quadrangle near Padu- 
cah, Kentucky, have been deposited in the Smithsonian. The skeletons 
were found articulated, in the position in which they died, all facing 
eastward, each animal apparently sheltered behind the next. They prob- 
ably were overwhelmed by a dust storm. 

Slides containing 52 figured specimens of fossil algae, including 9 new 
species, from the Buda Limestone and Pre-Buda Lower Cretaceous of 
Texas, were received from Professor J. Harlan Johnson of the Colorado 
School of Mines. The type-specimens of Psilophyton forbesii Andrews 
were received from the Department of Botany, University of Connecti- 
cut, through Professor Henry N. Andrews. Five slides containing type- 
specimens of fossil sporomorphs from the Walnut Shale of Oklahoma 
were received from Richard Hedlund of the Atlantic Richfield Company 
Dallas, Tex. The collections of Devonian land plants were broadened 
by the addition of 315 specimens representative of the Lower Devonian 
Barawagnathia flora of Victoria, Australia, specimens from Alkin, Ger- 
many, and mid and northern Scotland, and 1 35 from the Upper Devon- 
ian of Northern Queensland, Australia, All were obtained by Francis M. 
Hueber. A specimen establishing the second documented occurrence in 
the eastern United States of the Cretaceous fern Tempskya was received 
as a gift from Karl E. Rifenbark of Phoenix, Arizona. 

The division of sedimentology now has responsibility for the entire 
collection of approximately 1,600 sediment samples, collected by the 
Geological Survey- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute group on the 
Atlantic shelf of the United States. Also 1,455 core samples, collected 
by various essa ships, were received from the Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey. 



Part of the recently completed sedimentology laboratory, where samples are pre- 
pared for textural, mineralogical, and chemical analyses. Facilities for core 
preparation, X-radiography, geochemistry, petrography, X-ray diflfraction anal- 
ysis, and photography are available. The laboratory also houses the sediment 
collection, including deep-sea cores. 



392 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Vertebrate Zoology 

A pilot project for automating the specimen catalog and data retrieval 
for seabirds is well underway in the division of birds and another project 
is just starting in the division of mammals. George E. Watson, Richard 
L. Zusi, Paul Slud, and Richard C. Banks, assisted by David Bridge, 
have produced a sequential list of birds of the world and codes for 
specimen data, as well as associated ecological and museum-accession 
information. A similar mammal program, which will include standard 
measurements, represents a cooperative effort by Henry Setzer, John 
Paradiso, and several colleagues outside the Museum. 

The imminent return of the department of entomology to the Mu- 
seum of Natural History has accelerated the move of the cetacean and 
pinniped collections to the new marine mammal center at Silver Hill, 
Maryland, and necessitated a temporary move of the large cases of 
marsupial, carnivore, and ungulate skins to Silver Hill. Remodeling in 
the new facility includes insulation, space heaters, and fluorescent light- 



SPECIMEN TRANSACTIONS— FISCAL YEAR 1968 





Accessions 






Trans- 


Lent jor 






{transac- 






ferred to 


study to 






tions) 




Exchanged 


other gov- 


investigators 






1967 


Received 


with other 


ernment 


and other 


Specimens 


Departments 


{new) 


on loan 


institutions 


agencies 


institutions 


identified 


Anthropology . . 


96 


40 


21, 125 


14 


784 


1,885 


Invertebrate 














Zoology .... 


424 


1,083 


3,584 





27,319 


32, 772 


Vertebrate Zoology 


223 


4,659 


1,426 





13,406 


128, 859 


Entomology . . . 


566 


1,965 


2,888 


5 


67, 853 


55, 432 


Botany 


292 


6,107 


22,219 





29, 545 


11, 142 


Paleobiology . . 


164 


1,580 


1,424 





13,362 


48, 405 


Mineral Sciences . 


289 


33 


1,281 


62 


411 


230 



Total .... 2,054 15,467 53,947 81 152,680 278,725 

SPECIMENS IN THE NATIONAL COLLECTION MAY 31, 1968 

Anthropology 1 > 04^2, 804 

Archeology 811,104 

Ethnology 193,810 

Physical Anthropology 37, 890 

Botany 3,338,483 

Phanerogams 2,081,106 

Plant Anatomy 48, 782 

Ferns 263,222 

Grasses 401,495 

Cryptogams 543, 878 



THE collection: vertebrate zoology 393 

ing so that it may be used for processing, study, and storage of very 
large mammals, both Recent and fossil. 

Accessions of mammals, totaling 32,464, were the largest in the his- 
tory of the division. Outstanding accessions were 15,000 specimens 
from the African Project and 10,000 from the Venezuela Project; 500 
West Pakistan mammals from the department of microbiology at the 
University of Maryland through Robert Traub, and holotypes of two 
new bats from the West Indies donated by Albert Schwartz. 

Specimens of rare and extinct birds were safeguarded by moving them 
to locked cases similar to those used for type-specimens in the division. 
Case labels are being replaced with up-to-date ones based on the nomen- 
clature newly developed for data processing. Among the more important 
accessions in the division of birds were a specimen of the new Colombian 
hummingbird Eriocnemis mirabilis described in 1967 by de Schauensee; 
three lots of e^g shells of the extinct elephant bird of Madagascar, col- 
lected on a National Geographic expedition and received through Luis 



Entomology 18,252,017 

Former Division of Insects Total, 1963 (Divisional 

totals are shown from this date) 15,978,513 

Coleoptera 558, 241 

Hemiptera and Hymenoptera 463, 090 

Lepidoptera and Diptera 441,296 

Myriapoda and Arachnida 437, 182 

Neuropteroids 373, 695 

Invertebrate Zoology 12,428, 140 

Crustacea 1, 570, 199 

Worms 672, 256 

Echinoderms 91, 960 

Mollusks 10,093,725 

Mineral Sciences 472,814 

Mineralogy 162,224 

Meteorites 11, 145 

Petrology 299,445 

Paleobiology 13, 456, 690 

Invertebrate Paleontology 13,396,224 

Vertebrate Paleontology 53, 034 

Paleobotany 5, 524 

Sedimentology 1, 908 

Vertebrate Zoology 3, 1 70, 444 

Mammals 385, 354 

Birds 528,644 

Reptiles and Amphibians ■ . . 1 70, 997 

Fishes 2,085,449 

Total 52,161,392 

315-997 O - 69 - 26 



394 



MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Marden and Alexander Wetmore ; substantial collections from Panama, 
North America, and the central Pacific islands ; two skeletons of Strepto- 
procne semicollaris, the largest known swift; and a collection of 238 
bird skeletons from New Guinea. 

Among the approximately 215,000 specimens added to the fish collec- 
tion, the most significant accession was from Carl J. George of the 
American University of Beirut, Lebanon, who deposited a collection of 
190,000 fishes from the eastern Mediterranean, the most extensive one 
in the Western Hemisphere. Other important accessions included speci- 
mens of pelagic, deep-sea fishes from the Pacific Ocean received through 
R. Rosenblatt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; and 5,000 West 
African marine fishes from G. Bane, through Cornell University. 

Particularly significant accessions of reptiles and amphibians came 
from South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. Almost 1,000 speci- 
mens were collected by the African and Venezuelan mammal projects, 
including several new species; 446 specimens from Viet-Nam and 392 
from Thailand were received through the Department of Defense and 
SEATO laboratory; Gaston de Witte of Belgium sent 155 frogs from the 
Congo, including 47 paratypes; Werner Bokermann gave 217 frogs 
from South America, including 15 paratypes; L. Hoevers sent 230 rep- 
tiles and amphibians from Surinam; John Visser of South Africa sent 
44 carefully chosen reptiles; and David Jameson deposited large series 
of the specimens which formed the basis of his revision of various sub- 
species of Hyla regilla. 








Exhibits 

The African anthropological exhibits were formally opened to the public 
on 25 August 1967, culminating work on the hall begun about five years 
earlier by Curator Gordon D. Gibson. The 56 units displaying aspects of 
African culture make use of a wide variety of techniques (visual, audi- 
tory, and olfactory) to add interest and immediacy to the ethnographic 
specimens and descriptive texts. 

Two permanent wall exhibits consisting of a Tibetan ritual apron 
incorporating human bones, and a linguistic map of Asia depicting 
the distribution of language families were installed. A simulated food 
offering was made in the models shop and placed on the altar in the 
Korean Buddha exhibit. The installations of the shadow puppets of 
Malaysia, and the display of textiles from India and Pakistan were 
improved and refurbished. 



In the newly completed hall of the cultures of Africa and Asia, life-size costumed 
models (left) are positioned before a painted background to illustrate an episode 
in the boys' initiation rites of the Luvale people of Zambia and Angola. Below, 
daily activities in a camp of Bushman hunters of the northwestern Kalahari 
Desert in southern Africa. 




-S 






* 4 





396 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

A temporary exhibit was added to the section of a hall of physical 
anthropology dealing with the ancient varieties of man : In one of the 
standard free-standing cases adopted for use in the hall the skull of 
Zinjanthropus, found by L. S. B. Leakey in 1959, is shown as restored 
by the artist Jay Matternes. The skull is shown properly assembled for 
the first time alongside the fleshed head, also the work of Matternes. 
Both specimens slowly rotate synchronously so as to facilitate compari- 
son. Also, a cast of Zinjanthropus' brain cavity is shown in comparison 
with that of a gorilla and of a modem man. 

The opening of the new hall of meteorites in December 1966 was 
the culmination of several years of work by the stafT of the division of 
meteorites in cooperation with other units of the Smithsonian; Robert 
F. Fudali has been drawing up plans for completing one small alcove, 
comprising three exhibition units. 

Paul E. Desautels continued preparation of scripts and exhibit mate- 
rials for the new hall of physical geology, and, under his supervision, the 
design and installation of exhibits in it was continued toward expected 
completion in 1969. 

The laboratory of vertebrate paleontology, under the supervision of 
Franklin L. Pearce, continued to concentrate most of its effort upon 
preparation of specimens for exhibition, in particular for the hall of 
Quaternary vertebrates. A group of two dire wolves and a horse from 
Rancho La Brea, California, was completed by Albert C. Myrick, Jr. 
Other major exhibition preparations in progress include a second 
skeleton of the giant sloth Eremotherium by John E. Ott, a skeleton of 
the wooly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius by Leroy Glenn, Jr., two 
skeletons of glyptodonts by Gladwyn Sullivan, and a group of four 
peccary skeletons by Sigmund J. Sweda. Jay Matternes made significant 
progress toward completion of the first of four proposed murals for the 
Quaternary hall, a representation of the biota of the Snake River Valley 
near Hagerman, Idaho, near the beginning of Pleistocene time. 



Papers Delivered, Lectures, and Seminars 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

Angel, J. Lawrence. "Paleodemography and Evolution." 66th Annual 
Meeting American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C. De- 
cember 1967. 

. "Prehistoric Anatolians and Falciparum Malaria." Philadelphia An- 
thropological Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. February 1968. 

. "What Bones Tell You." Baltimore Association of Medical Assist- 
ants, Baltimore, Maryland. March 1968. 

. "The Bases of Paleodemography." 37th Annual Meeting of Ameri- 
can Association of Physical Anthropologists, Wayne State University, De- 
troit, Michigan. April 1968. 

"Ancient Disease and Civilization." Howard University Medical 



School, Washington, D.C. May 1968. 
Caldw^ell, Warren W. (River Basin Surveys) "Formal Statement on Behalf 

of the Society for American Archaeology." Paper read at Department of 

the Interior Regional Conference on the National Historic Preservation 

Act, Omaha, Nebraska. 9 May 1967. 
Evans, Clifford. "The New World Formative Period." Archeological So- 
ciety of Maryland, Annapolis, Maryland. April 1968. 
Ewers, John C. "Jean Louis Berlandier: A French Scientist Among the 

Comanche Indians in 1828." Conference on Travelers on the Western 

Frontier, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, Illinois. February 

1968. 
St. Hoyme, Lucile E. "Geographical Differences in Bone Pathology." 66th 

Annual Meeting American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C. 

December 1967. 
Stewart, T. Dale. "Evidence of Human Behavior in the Fossil Record." 75th 

Annual Meeting of American Psychological Association. September 1967. 
. "Man, the Unique Cultural Animal." Scientific Research Society of 

America, Hercules Research Center, Wilmington, Delaware. October 1967. 
. "Shanidar Neanderthals." Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas. 

December 1967. 
. "Two Million Years of Man." Trinity University, San Antonio, 

Texas. December 1967. 
. "Recent Developments Bearing on Hominid Taxonomy." Paleonto- 

logical Society, Washington, D.C. January 1968. 
. "Deforming and Operating on the Human Head in Prehistoric Times." 

Howard University, Washington, D.C. April 1968. 

"Prehistoric Human Behavior — The Fossil Record." International 



Association of Torch Clubs, Washington, D.C. June 1968. 
Sturtevant, William C. "The Florida Seminole: Ethnonymy and Ethno- 
genesis." Wenner-Gren Foundation Symposium, Burg Wartenstein, Aus- 
tria. August 1967. 

397 



398 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Sturtevant, William C. "Iroquois Ritual." Versions read to seminars at In- 
stitute of Social Anthropology, University of Oxford (November 1967), 
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (November 
1967), Department of Anthropology, University of Cambridge (February 
1968), Department of Anthropology, University College, London (Febru- 
ary 1968), Universities of Beregn, Oslo, Stockholm, Goteborg, and Copen- 
hagen (May 1968). 

. "Semiology and Material Culture." Versions read to seminars at 

Department of Anthropology, University College, London (March 1968), 
Institute of Archaeology, University of Oxford (March 1968), London 
School of Economics (May 1968), Universities of Bergen, Oslo, Stockholm, 
and Copenhagen (May 1968). 

. "History and Ethnography of Some West Indian Starches." Institute 

of Archaeology, University of London. May 1968. 

. "Seneca Music." Ethnomusicology Panel, Royal Anthropological 



Institute, London. June 1968. 

Trousdale, William. "Archaeological Exploration of Afghanistan." Archae- 
ological Institute of America, New York, Detroit, Toledo, Columbus, and 
Cincinnati. February 1968. 

Van Beek, Gus W. "South Arabian Archeology." Institute of Archaeology, 
University of London, London, England. December 1967. 

. Co-chairman (with Dr. I. E. Wallen) Symposium on "Underwater 

Archeology." Annual Meeting, Archaeological Institute of America, Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts. December 1967. 

"South Arabian Archeology." Department of Antiquities Staff, 



Government of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. June 1968. 
Wedel, Waldo R. "1967 Smithsonian Investigations in Central Kansas." 

Twenty-Fifth Plains Conference, St. Paul, Minnesota. November 1967. 
. "Trends and Projections in Plains Archeology." Twenty-Fifth 

Plains Conference, St. Paul, Minnesota. November 1967. 
. "Central Plains — Southwestern Contacts in Light of Archeology." 



Thirty- Third Annual Meeting of Society for American Archaeology, Santa 
Fe, New Mexico. May 1968. 
Woodbury, Richard B. "The Potentials of Archaeological Paleoecology." So- 
ciety for American Archaeology, Santa Fe, New Mexico. May 1968. 

BOTANY 

Ayensu, Edward S. "Smithsonian Institution." University of Ghana, Legon, 

Ghana. October 1967. 
. "Biology of the Velloziaceae." University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana. 

November 1967. 
. Complex Vasculature in the Dioscoreaceae." College of William & 



Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia. February 1968. 

Eyde, Richard H. "Gynoecial Vascular System of Cornaceae." Botanical So- 
ciety of America, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. August 
1967. 

Hale, Mason E. "Lichen Chemistry." University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 
August 1967. 

. "Lichen Growth Studies." University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia. 

April 1968. 



PAPERS^ LECTURES^ AND SEMINARS 399 

NicoLsoN, Dan H. "Smithsonian Institution." Trichandra College, Kath- 
mandu, Nepal. August 1967. 

Shetler, StanWyn G. "The Computer in The Flora North America Proj- 
ect." Association of Southeastern Biologists, Athens, Georgia. April 1968. 

. (with Ahumada, S. R., and Crockett, J.). "An Automated Bibliogra- 
phy for Flora North America." Symposium on Information Problems in 
Natural Sciences, Mexico City. December 1967. 

(with Morse, L. E., and Beaman, J. H.). "Preparation of Identifi- 



cation Keys for Computer for Flora North America." Symposium on Infor- 
mation Problems in Natural Sciences, Mexico City. December 1967. 

SoDERSTROM, Thomas R. "Evolution of the Grasses." National Biological 
Institute, Bogor, Indonesia. September 1967. 

. "Ecology of Plants with Emphasis on the Grasses." Smithsonian In- 
stitution Associates, Washington, D.C. May 1968. 

ENTOMOLOGY 

Clarke, J. F. Gates. "A comparison of the microlepidopterous fauna of Rapa 
Island with those of adjacent areas." U.S. -Japan Cooperative Science Pro- 
gram Seminar, Washington, D.C. December 1967. 

DE Meillon, Botha. "Malaria in Africa." Military Entomology Conference, 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C. (October 
1967) ; and. Phi Sigma Society, University of Maryland, College Park, 
Maryland (March 1968). 

. "Entomological Aspects of Filariasis Transmission." Global Epi- 
demiology Course, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, 
D.C. May 1968. 

"Aspects of Vector Biology and Control." Scientific Research Society 



of America, Fort Detrick Branch, Frederick, Maryland, May 1968. 
DucKW^ORTH, W. Donald. "High Jungle Revisited : Rancho Grande Today." 
American Museum of Natural History, New York (Invitational address to 
the New York Entomological Society) . February 1968. 

INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Cressey, Roger F. Some Aspects of Shark Biology as Revealed by a Study of 
Their Copepod Parasites. American Institute of Biological Sciences Panel 
on Shark Biology. April 1968. 

HoBBS, Horton H., Jr. The Life History of the Testis of the Crayfish. Missis- 
sippi State University. August 1967. 

. The Freshwater and Terrestrial Decapod Crustaceans of the West 

Indies. Mississippi State University. August 1967. 

. The Distribution of the Crayfish Genus Procambarus. Mississippi 

State University. August 1967. 

. The Freshwater and Terrestrial Decapod Crustaceans of Dominica. 

George Mason College. March 1968. 

The Origin and Evolution of the Crayfish Genus Cambarus. Sym- 



posium on Distributional History of the Biota of the Southern Appalachians 
at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. June 1968. 
KoRNiCKER, Louis S. Relationship Between the Free and Attached Margins 
of the Myodocopid Ostracod Shell. Symposium on Taxonomy, Morphology, 
and Ecology of Recent Ostracoda. July 1967. 



400 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Morrison, Joseph P. E. Brackish Water Mollusks. American Malacological 
Union Symposium on Endangered Species. July 1968. 

. Spiroglyphics — A Study of Species Associations. American Malaco- 
logical Union Meeting, Corpus Christi, Texas. July 1968. 

. American Hastula. American Malacological Union Meeting, Mon- 
treal, Canada. July 1967. 

Collecting Mexican Fresh-water Mussles. American Malacological 



Union Meeting, Montreal, Canada. July 1967. 

Pawson, David L. Antarctic Echinoderms: Some Problems of Biology and 
Distribution. Wellington Branch, Royal Society of New Zealand. Septem- 
ber 1967. 

Radwin, George. Notes on Columbellidae. American Malacological Union 
Meeting, Montreal, Canada. July 1967. 

Roper, Clyde F. E. Deep-Diver Dive Series. Graduate student seminar. Insti- 
tute of Marine Sciences, Miami, Florida. February 1968. 

Rosewater, Joseph. Notes on Periplomatidae. American Malacological 
Union Meeting, Corpus Christi, Texas. July 1968. 

MINERAL SCIENCES 

Fredericksson, Kurt. "A Case Against Metamorphism in Chondrites." Gor- 
don Research Conference on Chemistry and Physics of Space, Tilton, New 
Hampshire. July 1967. 

. . "Meteorites." Geological Survey of India, Napur, India. October 

1967. 
. . "Origin of Chondrules and Chondrites." Tata Institute, Bombay, 

India. October 1967. 
. . "Metamorphism in Chondrites." University of Miami, Coral Gables, 

Florida. February 1968. 

"Metamorphism in Chondrites." Arizona State University, Temple, 



Arizona. February 1968. 
Melson, William G. "Petrology of the Oceanic Crust." Woods Hole 

Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. July 1967. 
. "Continental Drift: Pros and Cons." Fort Detrick Biology Society 

(AIBS branch) , Frederick, Maryland. November 1967. 

"Applications of Physical Chemistry to Geologic Problems." George 



Washington University: Graduate Seminar, Washington, D.C. June 1968. 
Switzer, George. "Partially Melted Kyanite Eclogite From the Roberts Victor 
Mine." South Africa Lecture, Annual Meeting of the American Geo- 
physical Union, Washington, D.C. April 1968. 

PALEOBIOLOGY 

BuzAS, M. A. Lectures: The Foraminifera. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Laboratory, Oxford, Maryland, 1967. 
. Panel discussion on Paleoecology. MNH, Paleontological Soc. ol 

Wash., D.C, 1968. 
Cheetham, a. H. Lecture: Adaptive radiation in Tertiary bryozoans. 134th 

Annual AAAS, New York, 1 967. 
Cifelli, R., and Roberta K. Smith. Lecture : Problems in the distribution ol 

North Atlantic planktonic Foraminifera and their relationships to watei 

masses. Planktonic Confer., Geneva, 1967. 



PAPERS;, LECTURES, AND SEMINARS 401 

. Lecture : Age relationships of mid-Atlantic Ridge sediments. AAAPG 

Symposium, Los Angeles, 1967. 
-. Lecture: Adaptive radiation of Cenozoic planktonic Foraminifera. 



A A AS Symposium, New York, 1967. 

Kauffman, E. G. Two-week Seminar at University of Texas, presented the 
following lectures: Form, function and evolution of Bivalvia; Species-level 
evolution; Paleoecology of epifaunal Bivalvia; Paleoecology of infaunal 
Bivalvia; Evolution-interpretive Paleontology; and MoUuscan biogeography 
and paleobiogeography; Cyclic aspects of the Western Interior Cretaceous 
Basin, 1967. 

. Cyclic aspects of Cretaceous deposits. Central Western Interior, United 

States, presented to Geol. Soc. of Wash., D.C. 

. Interpretive Paleontology and the Bivalvia. Colgate U., stafF-student 

seminar, Smithsonian Institution, 1968. 

. Cyclic aspects of Cretaceous sedimentation and mollusks, Central 

Western Interior. Indiana U., staff -student lecture, 1968. 

Form, function, and evolution in Bivalves. Johns Hopkins U., staflf- 



student lecture, 1968. 
. Systematics as it contributes to an understanding of the environment. 

Smithsonian seminar for science writers, 1968. 
Celling, Gilbert. Paper: Submarine channel and fan deposits, Silurian of 

Central Wales, Great Britain. Presented to Ann. Conv. Amer. Assoc. 

Petrol. Geol. at Oklahoma City, 1968. 
LiER, P. M. Lecture series: Evolutionary trends in echinoids. University of 

Cambridge, 1968. 
. Lecture: Paleoecology of echinoids. University of Oxford, Zoology 

Department, 1968. 
. Lecture : Living habits of the echinoids of the Florida Keys. Reading 

University, Geology Department, 1968. 
Uy, Clayton E. Lecture: Pleistocene and Recent fauna. Summer institute in 

systematics at the Smithsonian, June 25-July 14, 1967. In Trans, of 

Lectures, pp. 52-54, 1968. 
. Lecture: Quaternary vertebrates and paleoecology in eastern North 

America. Dept. Geology, U. of Penna., 1968. 
Valler, Thomas R. Discussion of Clayton E. Ray's lecture on Pleistocene and 

Recent fauna. Summer institute in systematics at the Smithsonian, June 25- 
July 14, 1967. In Trans, of Lectures, pp. 55, 1968. 

VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY 

Iandley, Charles O., Jr. "Evolution of the Mist Net as a Collecting Tool 
in Mammalogy." University of Virginia Mountain Lake Biological Sta- 
tion. August 1967. 

. "Tropical American Bats." University of Virginia Mountain Lake 

Biological Station. August 1967. 

. "Zoology at the Smithsonian." (Research Programs in the Depart- 
ment of Vertebrate Zoology). Frostburg State College. November 1967. 

. "Distribution and Ecology of Bats in a Tropical Forest." University 

of Kansas. May 1968. 

achner, Ernest A. "Biology and Evolution of North American Fresh Water 
Cyprinid Fishes." Tulane University. January 1968. 



402 MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Napier, John R. "Primate Biology at the Smithsonian." (Progress, Goals of 
the Delta Programs.) Regional Primate Research Center. October 1967. 

. "Primate Evolution." Department of Anthropology, University of 

California, Berkeley. November 1967. 

"Ecology and Evolution of Primates." Department of Zoology and 



Anthropology, University of Kansas. May 1968. 
Peters, James A. "The Role of Time-Shared Computing in Modern Verte- 
brate Taxonomy." University of Illinois Centennial Celebration. October 

1967. 

. "Preparacion y manipulacion de claves sistematicas utilizando com- 

putadoras de tiempo compartido." International Symposium on Com- 
puters in Biology, Mexico City. December 1967. 

"The Biological Illegitimacy of Numerical Taxonomic Methods in 



Biogeographic Analyses." University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. 

March 1968. 
Springer, Victor G. "The Classification and Distribution of Fishes of the 

Family Blenniidae." National Taiwan University. April 1968. 
. "The Opisthoglyphous Fishes, Genus Meiacanthus, Family Blenniidae." 

American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. June 1968. 



National Zoological Park 

Theodore H. Reed^ Director 




Practicing good animal husbandry, the National Zoological Park 
has sought throughout the year to make even better the splendid 
collection of animals which it now houses. Every effort was made to ob- 
tain mates for solitary specimens, and the resultant breeding records 
ha\e been gratifying. The research program has been broadened, and 
the educational facilities offered to the public have been increased. The 
grounds, which for several years were torn up by new construction, 
^lave now returned to a green and parklike loveliness. Although un- 
;ettled civic conditions existed throughout the spring months, there 
yere no incidents at the Zoo and the number of visitors was only slightly 
ess than last year. 

The Animals 

The collection grew through births, gifts, purchases, and exchanges. The 
lim of the Zoo is to present a wide diversity of fauna and at the same 
ime to build up herds of rare and endangered species whenever possible. 
The animal department has been reorganized and is now known as 
he department of living vertebrates. 

BIRTHS 

This has been a most important year for births of rare and seldom- 
)red animals. In August the black rhinoceroses, Tony and Thelma, 
)roduced a fine male baby. Named Dillon in honor of S. Dillon Ripley, 

403 



404 NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, he has proved to be one of 
the most popular animals in the Zoo, both with the public and with the 
employees. 

In May, a Pere David's deer gave birth to a male fawn. This species 
is on the "rare and endangered list" of the International Union for the 
Conservation of Nature, and the Zoo hopes to build up a sizable herd 
of these animals, which have long been extinct in the wild. The golden 
marmosets, which are also on the iucn list, produced another set of 
twins. Other notable births included giraffe, pygmy hippopotamus, Nile 
hippopotamus, black-footed cats, a Gambian pouched rat, bushbabies, 
Patas monkey, black and spotted leopards, a golden cat, and a California 
sea-lion (which is being hand-raised) . 

Efforts of the bird division to mate up pairs, try out new diets, and 
furnish acceptable nesting conditions have paid off. There was a notable 
increase in the number of species hatched, despite the disruption of the 
bird house, which underwent a complete replastering, re-roofing, and 
repainting job, making it necessary to move birds frequently from 
one cage to another. 



STATUS OF THE COLLECTION 






30 June 


1968 






Phylum: Class 
Chordata: Mammals 
: Birds 


Orders 
14 
22 


Families 
48 
78 


Species or 
subspecies 

210 

417 


Individuals 

601 
1,254 


: Reptiles 
: Amphibians 
: Fishes 


3 
2 
5 


29 

12 

8 


259 
35 
31 


743 
116 
189 


Arthropoda: Insects 

: Crustaceans 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
2 


15 
126 


: Spiders 
MoUusca: Snails 


1 
1 


1 

1 


1 

1 


2 
30 


Totals 


50 


179 


957 


3,076 



Note : Certain tabulated, statistical, and other information formerly contained in 
the report of the National Zoological Park in Smithsonian Year now appears as 
appendices to the Separate of this Report (available on request from the Director 
of the National Zoological Park) . This information includes: 
Visitor statistics and other operational information. 

Report of the Veterinarian, augmented by case histories and autopsy reports. 

Complete lists of (a) animals in the collection on 30 June 1968; (b) all 

births and hatchings during the year; and (c) changes in the collection by 

gift, purchase, or exchange. 



THE ANIMALS 



405 




first Pere David deer birth at the Na- 
inal Zoo, was a male, bom on 9 May. 

-billed herons hatched for the first time 
the Zoo's history on 3, 7, and 9 April. 




One-day-old Masai giraffe Don- 
na and mother Marg. This baby 
was born 2 February and named 
for Mrs. Gilbert M. Grosvenor. 



Two black-footed cats (Felis 
nigripes) hand-reared in the 
Zoo's animal hospital, at two 
months of age. 




A young female patas monkey 
(Erythrocebus patas) bom and 
reared during the year. 




406 NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

The hatching of 4 bare-throated tree partridges {Arborophila hrun- 
neopectus) is believed to be a "first" breeding record. In addition there 
were 4 kookaburras, continuing the seven-year breeding record for this 
species, as well as 32 crested green wood partridges {Rollulus roulroul) 
3 boat-billed herons, 10 Hawaiian ducks, 10 hoopoes, and 11 black- 
necked swans. 

A noteworthy birth in the reptile division was that of five tentaclec 
snakes {Erpeton tentaculatum) . Although none of the young lived long© 
than 14 days, this is believed to be the first record of the species bein^ 
bom in captivity. 

GIFTS 

A gift of nine kangaroos and a wallaby from the Australian govemmen 
was formally presented to the National Zoological Park by Australiai 
Ambassador John Keith Waller on 9 November. These kangaroos ha< 
been in the Australian pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal. It is nearly ten 
years since the Zoo last exhibited the red kangaroo, and the "mob," as a 
group of kangaroos is called, makes a most attractive exhibit. 

Also originating in Australia, was another gift, ten gray-headed fruit 
bats {Pteropus polio cephalus) from Knut Schmidt-Nielson of Duke 
University. These large, impressive bats are currently being housed in a 
glass-fronted cage in the small mammal house. Schmidt-Nielson also 
deposited a pair of echidnas at the Zoo. 

A colorful collection of finches and other small cage birds was received 
from Cornelius Zwenners of McLean, Virginia, and a contribution ol 
$125 toward the animal purchase fund was gratefully received fron 
Reader's Digest. 

PURCHASES 

When buildings were completed for delicate-hoofed stock, the Zoo began 
to add to its antelope collection, which had never been large because oj 
lack of suitable quarters. With the acquisition of a female greater kudu, 
there is now a fine pair with excellent breeding prospects. Three Mrs. 
Gray's waterbuck were ordered, and while they were in the quaran 
tine station at Clifton, New Jersey, one of the females produced z 
fawn — ^an unexpected bonus for the Zoo. 

A trio of the rare and beautiful scimitar-horned oryx was acquirec 
during the year. These animals, listed by the iucn as rare and en 
dangered species, are also in the new delicate hoofed-stock area. 

Other purchases of note were four rare South American rodents calle( 
pacaranas, a pair of Geoffroy's cats, two linsangs, and six white-checkec 
gibbons. 



THE ANIMALS 



407 



"jppp 




3n 9 November the Ambassador from Australia John Keith Waller, C.B.E., 
ormally presented a group of nine red kangaroos and one wallaby to the National 
Zoological Park, a gift to the people of the United States from the Common- 
l^ealth of Australia. Here, in the hoofed-stock building, Mrs. Waller ofiFers a 
idbit to one of the kangaroos while the Ambassador looks on. 



Two of the Zoo's trio of 

cimitar-h o r n e d oryx 

Oryx tao) graze con- 

entedly in their outdoor 

addock. 

Photo by Mary M. Krug 




408 NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

A female cheetah was acquired to replace one that died last year, and 
the Zoo now has a pair of these beautiful, long-legged cats. Other pur- 
chases were a female caracal, male spectacled bear, bush dogs, and 
crab-eating fox. The so-called puma house had not displayed pumas for 
many years, but a young pair was obtained and the name of the build- 
ing is now justified. 

The bird collection was enriched by the purchase of macaroni pen- 
guins, hooded cranes, giant coots, a pair of resplendent quetzals, sev-j 
eral species of hummingbirds, tawny frogmouths, and many others. 

Purchases for the reptile division included a group of Old World 
vipers, a beaked snake, and Smyth's water snake. 

EXCHANGES 

In order to improve breeding potentials in the National Zoo and ir 
other zoos throughout the country, animals are occasionally exchanged 
The most interesting exchange this year was the gorilla - orangutar 
trade with Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center. The Zoo needec 
a female companion for young Atjeh, the first orang born in Washing 
ton. Yerkes wanted a young gorilla. Accordingly, Inaki, the third gorilk 
baby born at the National Zoo, was exchanged for Seriba, a delightfu 
young female orang. The young animals involved all seem quite happ 
with this arrangement, and Seriba and Atjeh became friends at oncf 
An exchange with the zoo in Melbourne, Australia, netted the Na 
tional Zoo four mainland wombats, three species of Australian lizard 
and some Australian snakes, including the diamond python, amethystin 
python, and carpet python. 

REMOVALS 

Dennis, the pixyish young orangutan that was confiscated at Dull* 
Airport on 25 February 1967, under a Federal law prohibiting blac 
market trade in wild animals, left on 27 September for his permanei 
home in the Henry Doorly Zoological Gardens in Omaha, Nebrask; 
The Omaha zoo was selected by the Wild Animal Propagation Tru 
as having suitable facilities for breeding these red-haired apes whic 
are in danger of extinction in the wild. The Omaha zoo has foi 
female orangs and needed a young male. 

A Siberian white crane {Grus leucogeranus) , which arrived in tl 
Zoo as a young adult in 1906, was found in the bird house on 19 Marc 
with a compound fracture of the left leg. The leg was set, but the bii 
succumbed to shock and old age on 22 March. An autopsy showed th; 
"Old Pops" as he was affectionately known, was a female. She he 
lived in captivity for 61 years, 8 months, and 25 days. 




A sad event was the death of famous old "Pops" (left) the Asiatic white crane 
(Grus leucogeranus) on 22 March. This remarkable bird was received as a young 
adult on 26 June 1906 and lived at the National Zoological Park 61 years, 8 
months and 25 days. As far as can be determined, Pops holds the world's lon- 
gevity record for cranes in captivity. Right: Orang Atjeh, born here 2 April 
1966, received a fine present a month before his second birthday— a companion 
and future mate, Seriba. Two months younger than Atjeh, Seriba was received 
from the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center in exchange for Inaki, the 
third gorilla born at the National Zoo. 

The Colombian red-eyed cowbird (Tangavius armenti) died on 
28 December 1967, after 11 years and 15 days in captivity. At the time 
this bird was purchased from an animal dealer in Rockville, Mary- 
land, this species had not been seen alive for a hundred years and was 
presumed to be extinct. As far as is known, there are no other speci- 
ments in captivity and no ornithologist has reported seeing them in 
Colombia. 

Deaths occurred among animals that had been in the collection for 
so many years that they may have established longevity records. A 
female linsang that died in August had been in the collection for 9 
years, 3 months and 27 days; this animal is so rare in collections that 
no longevity is recorded for it. Another old resident that died during 
the year was a slender-tailed cloud rat, which established a longevity 
record of 13 years, 8 months, 6 days. A Florida spiny softshell {Trionyx 
ferox) received 18 December 1930, died 15 September 1967, having 
been m the Zoo 36 years, 8 months, 28 days. A grison received 25 March 
1958, died 24 July 1967, after 9 years, 4 months; and a cotton-top mar- 
moset, received 26 November 1958, lived until 14 July 1967—8 years, 
7 months, 1 7 days. 



315-997 O - 69 - 27 



410 NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

ANIMAL-COLLECTING TRIPS 
Three collecting trips were undertaken by members of the department 
of living vertebrates to various parts of the country. Kerry Muller, 
manager of the division of birds, went to Cold Bay, Alaska, to trap 
waterfowl in conjunction with the Fish and Wildlife Service in Alaska. 
Through their combined efforts, the Zoo obtained 10 Steller's eiders 
and it is believed that these may be the only ones at present in cap- 
tivity, with the possible exception of some at Slimbridge Wildfowl 
Trust in England. 

In March, Muller and headkeeper of birds Broderick McCrossin, 
participated in a duck-trapping program on Rhodes River adjacent to 
the Chesapeake Bay Biology Station at Java Farms. More than 700 
ducks were trapped, the majority being banded for the Fish and Wild- 
life Service and released. Some desirable specimens were retained for 
the Zoo's collection, notably old squaw and bufflehead ducks. 

During early April, four members of the animal department partici- 
pated in a two-week reptile collecting trip to Florida. William Xanten, 
Jack Armstrong, Mario DePrato, and Lee Schmeltz collected over 170 
specimens of reptiles and amphibians; they also visited several zoos, 
including Crandon Park, Miami Seaquarium, and Busch Gardens. 



MIXED EXHIBITS 

The department of living vertebrates continued to show mixed 
groups of animals. Among the more startling is a small group of cotton- 
top marmosets to be seen cavorting in branches suspended above the 
pygmy hippopotamus pools in the elephant house. They are allowed 
to roam the whole area unrestricted by bars, and leap gracefully from 
branch to branch. In the same building white cattle egrets wander among 
the rhinos in a natural relationship, just as they do in Africa. A mixed 
exhibit in the bird house has streaked tenrecs in the same cage as fal- 
conets and frogmouths. Blue spiny lizards are shown in the desert bird 
exhibit. These community groups have great interest for the public as 
well as for the keepers. 

Research 

Further diversification of the research program at the National Zo- 
ological Park has been made possible by the construction of an addi- 
tional room in the basement of the lion house in which several cavio- 
morph rodents are now housed, as well as the acquisition of additional 
cage facilities in one of the two rooms on the top floor of the reptile 
house. 



RESEARCH 411 

During the first part of October, John Eisenberg flew to Ceylon for 
his quarterly inspection of the Smithsonian elephant project and to 
conduct for members of the Ceylonese Wildlife Management Depart- 
ment a three-week training course on the immobilization of wild 
elephants. Ths was a joint effort between Eisenberg and Zoo veterinarian 
C. W. Gray. 

On 4 January, Dr. Paul Leyhausen of the Max Planck Institut at 
Wuppertal, Germany, arrived for a month's stay, during which he and 
Eisenberg conducted obser\ations on the predatory behavior of several 
species of viverrids. In addition, films were made of the prey-catching 
behavior of the dasyurid marsupial Dasyuroides byrnei. 

On 21 April, L. Collins, who had earlier joined the staff as animal 
keeper, was promoted to administrative assistant in order that he might 
assume responsibility for the department and continue the research proj- 
ects when the resident scientist departed for Ceylon in June. 

During the past year Eisenberg conducted seminars at the University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor; University of Maryland, College Park; and 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. He also presented papers at the 
American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums meeting in 
Tampa, Florida, and at the New York Academy of Sciences Conference 
in New York City. In addition, during the spring semester at the Uni- 
versity of Maryland Graduate School he taught a course, entitled "A 
Review of Primate Ecology and Behavior Studies." 



One of the Scientific Research Department's rarest species, a moon rat or 
Malayan gymnure, Echinosorex gymnurus. Since its arrival 10 July 1967 this 
insectivore has been thriving on a diet consisting of a mixture of horsemeat, 
vitamins, canned cat food, and egg, plus mice and fish fillets. 




412 NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Several research projects are currently being undertaken at the Zoo 
in addition to the overseas projects in Ceylon. 

Among the research projects currently underway are two, in Ceylon, 
of which the administrator and principal investigator is J. Eisenberg, 
who departed 10 June to begin a year's residency in that country. The 
first, initiated in January 1967, is a study of the behavior and ecology 
of the Ceylonese elephant. Working with Eisenberg on this project are 
H. K. Buechner, the co-principal investigator, and F. Kurt and G. Mc- 
Kay. The second project is an investigation of the comparative ecology 
and behavior of Ceylonese primates. Suzanne Ripley is co-principal in- 
vestigator and G. Manley and N. Muckenhirn are presently working 
on it. 

Other current research projects are : 

1. Studies of predatory behavior of the Viverridae (with C. Wemmer) . 

2. Studies on the social behavior and on the ontogeny of behavior 
among selected species of caviomorph rodents (with N. Smythe) . 

3. Studies on the climbing ability of Microgale (with J. McAulay) . 

4. Studies on the hand raising and maturation of Setijer and Tenrec 
(with N. Muckenhirn) . 

5. Studies on the general behavior of Macaca sylvana (with W. 
Dittus) . 

6. Studies on the learning ability of Microgale (with M. Linnet) . 

7. Studies on the reproductive behavior in Cannomys badius (with A. 
Miller-Baker) . 

8. Studies on the predatory behavior of Tenrec, including filming of 
selected series (with E. Gould) . 

9. Studies on thermoregulation in tenrecs (with A. Underbill and B. 
My ton) . 

10. Studies on the reproduction and maturation in Proechimys (with E. 
Maliniak) . 

11. Studies on the reproductive behavior and maturation in the dasyu- 
rids (with L. Collins) . 

12. Studies on the gestation period in the Rodentia, Marsupialia, and 
Insectivora (with A. Miller-Baker, E. Maliniak, and L. Collins) . 

13. Studies on the reproductive behavior of Solenodon paradoxus (with 
E. Maliniak) . 

The following paper originating in the scientific research department 
was published: 

Eisenberg, J. F. "A Comparative Study in Rodent Ethology with Emphasis on 
Evolution of Social Behavior, Part I." Proceedings of the U.S. National 
A/M5eMm, vol. 122, no. 3597,51 pp. 



CONSERVATION 413 

Conservation 

Wildlife conservation, with special emphasis on species threatened with 
extinction in the wild state, is a primary consideration in management 
of the Zoo's collection, in its scientific and educational programs, and 
in its commitments to national and international conservation activities. 
The director was re-elected president of the aazpa^s Wild Animal 
Propagation Trust, a group that promotes and coordinates the captive 
breeding of endangered species. Its principal aim is to allocate responsi- 
bilities for such species among qualified zoos in order to avoid duplica- 
tion of effort and neglect of some species, and its specialist committees 
have had considerable success in arranging inter-zoo exchanges and 
loans of animals so as to bring pairs of breeding age together. Pere 
David's deer and the golden marmoset are among the species for which 
the National Zoo has accepted responsibility. A series of cages have been 
redesigned to provide optimum conditions for an increasing number of 
the marmosets. 

The Zoo has not been successful in obtaining funds to develop the 
available Smithsonian-owned land at Belmont as a breeding farm. 
During the year, a friend of the Zoo offered to make private land avail- 
able for this purpose, providing the necessary facilities and support. A 
tentative agreement was reached, and it is hoped that the first animals 
will be transferred to this pilot project shortly. 

For the third successive year, the Zoo conducted for the American 
Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums the annual census of 
endangered species. It covers all North American animal collections 
and provides data essential to coordinated management of these species. 

The assistant director was invited to membership in the Survival 
Service Commission of the International Union for the Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources. This international strategy group seeks 
to develop and apply specific plans benefiting individual endangered 
species, chiefly in their native habitats. It is frequently consulted by 
governments in the planning and administration of wildlife parks and 
preserves, and also advises the World Wildlife Fund in its grants for 
wildlife research and preservation. The assistant director met with the 
group in April at Bariloche, Argentina. 

The assistant director continued as chairman of the aazpa subcom- 
mittee on endangered species. One of the most promising developments 
of the year was Congressional consideration of the Lennon bill (H. R. 
11618) which would enable the Secretary of the Interior to regulate 
importations of endangered wildlife species, as well as their hides and 
furs, and to regulate interstate traffic in native species protected by 
state laws. Hearings were held by the House Committee on Merchant 



^^. 




■I 

f 



Although our Indian rhinos Tarun and Rajkumari had been living in adjoining 
cages almost since Raj's arrival as an 8-month-old calf in December 1963, it was 
felt that she was too young to be introduced to the mature male before this 
spring. As far as Rajkumari was concerned, it was definitely NOT love at first 
sight. . . . 



. . but after a week or two, Tarun was obviously transforming into a prince. 
(Photos courtesy The Washington Post: Top, Ken Feil, bottom, Arthur Ellis.) 




INFORMATION AND EDUCATION 



415 



Marine and Fisheries, at which Lee Talbot read a statement by Secre- 
tary Ripley endorsing the legislation. Zoo Director Reed also testified 
for the Wild Animal Propagation Trust, and submitted a statement by 
William G. Conway (then president of the aazpa), favoring enactment. 

Information and Education 

During fiscal year 1968 the information-education section continued its 
signing and labeling program, as well as providing editorial and graphic 
arts services and assistance in planning special Zoo events. The section 
assisted with press, radio, and television coverage of Zoo activities on 
more than 77 occasions, and disseminated natural history and Park 
information by telephone and correspondence. For groups of handi- 
capped children, visiting schools and colleges, personnel from other zoo's 
and museums, and special guests and dignitaries, 46 guided tours were 
conducted. 

The section also cooperated with the Friends of the National Zoo in a 
number of projects, principally in training groups of volunteer docents 
or tour guides. 



African black rhino Thelma keeps a watchful eye on her (and the Zoo's) first- 
born rhinoceros, Dillon, named for Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley. 




^^?ie 



»•*.% 



416 NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

Friends of the National Zoo 

This was another busy and productive year for the Friends of the Na- 
tional Zoo. Publication of the newsletter, Spots and Stripes, was contin- 
ued, and the Friends assisted the Zoo in two "preg watches" — for Dillon 
the rhino and Donna the giraffe. 

A children's art exhibit, commemorating the opening of the National 
Collection of Fine Arts, sponsored and organized by the Friends, consist- 
ing of 155 colorful and imaginative paintings on the theme "Animals 
and Zoos" was displayed in the hoofed-stock buildings. 

The board of directors formed a permanent new scientific research 
committee to keep abreast of and support, wherever possible, Zoo re- 
search activities. 

Under the supervision and guidance of the Zoo, an animal-feeding 
program was begun to permit visitors to purchase proper and nutritious 
food for the bears, monkeys, and sea lions. 

The Friends' education committee revised their educational aid 
packets on the Zoo for elementary school teachers and in addition ini- 
tiated their first docent program. Seventeen trained volunteers now offer 
guided tours of the Zoo to organized educational groups, and a second 
training program for tour leaders was begun on 20 June. An active 
drive during the year more than doubled membership to a total of ovei 
1,000. 

Construction and Improvements 

On 12 October the new Harvard Street overpass was opened to pedes- 
trian and vehicular traffic, thus completing a project the National Park 
Service began in 1962. It spans the bridle path, parking lot. Rock Creek, 
and the relocated boundary fence of the Zoo, and then joins the inter- 
nal visitor road system of the Park. This was the final step in the work 
involved in relocating Beach Drive, which included the tunnel under 
Administration Hill and changing the course of Rock Creek. Gates 
are approximately at the Zoo boundary line, over the parkway property 
onto the Zoo property. It is esthetically pleasing and of modern design, 
and gives easy access and a pleasant approach to the Zoo from Harvard 
Street. 

For a number of years the Forest Service had been encouraging school 
children to contribute their nickels and dimes to a fund to build a new 
home for Smokey Bear, internationally known symbol of forest-fire 
prevention. While Smokey remains in the same cage, there is a drama- 
tic new front consisting of a crash-proof picture window of three panes, 
each 4 by 6 feet. These are laminated of two outer layers of y4-inch 



CONSTRUCTION AND IMPROVEMENTS 



417 




The new Harvard Street bridge spanning Rock Creek Parkway provides local 
traffic and pedestrians with easy access to the south end of the Zoo. 



Smokey Bear's remodeled cage, completed 18 April 1968, has a wide expanse of 
heavy-duty glass (with plexiglas core) that enables visitors to view and photo- 
graph Smokey and Goldie with safety almost eyeball to eyeball. 




418 NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

tempered plate glass, between which is a j4-inch plexiglas panel. 
This is the only barrier between Smokey and his admirers, and in the 
Zoo's remodeling program this technique will be used in displaying 
many of the large carnivores, such as lions and tigers, as well as great 
apes. 

Remodeling of the bird house was completed. With new planting and 
decoration it looks even lovelier than before. 

Planning is continuing on the multi-climate house to be built be- 
tween the site of the old antelope house, an 1898 structure demolished 
this year, and the small mammal house. Construction of the hospital- 
research center was started on 10 June under a 14-month contract. 



Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 

Martin H. Moynihan, Director 




THE SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Continued its work 
in the fields of research, education, and conservation with the ulti- 
mate objective of obtaining information that will explain why tropical 
biotas and environments are different from those of other regions. We are 
still very far from solving this problem, but the question is important. 
It also is becoming increasingly urgent. The answers (and they will cer- 
tainly be multiple) not only will be interesting from a theoretical sci- 
entific point of view, but should provide baseline information for in- 
telligent planning of human activities and for management of environ- 
ments in large parts of the world. 

The present phase of bureau activities began only a few years ago 
with a modest expansion of the scientific staff and facilities. It is gratify- 
ing to see that this is now producing accelerated results. The number 
of scientific papers and reports has increased substantially. The numbers 
of visiting scientists and students has grown, and it has become pos- 
sible to design and initiate cooperative projects involving multiple in- 
vestigations of a particular subject by different specialists using differ- 
ent techniques. Among these subjects are the eflfects and implications 
of seasonality and climatic fluctuations in the tropics, and the possible 
biological consequences of the construction of a sea-level canal between 
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in Panama or some adjacent country. 

Simply because the expansion has been so successful, however, it also 
is necessary to "take stock" and to consider further developments in 
detail. Thus, the last twelve months have been a period of re-assessment 
of the past and planning for the future. 

419 



420 SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 

In this process, an ad hoc advisory committee of distinguished uni- 
versity scientists was invited to Panama to review the operations of the 
Institute. It endorsed past policies, and suggested that they be extended 
into new areas and problems as soon as opportunity permits. 

Plans were drawn up to increase the administrative capability of 
the bureau. A new building is being acquired in Ancon, Canal Zone, 
where the administrative and support services for all the laboratory 
and field studies will be centralized. Operations in various parts of South 
America and the islands of the Caribbean will continue. The first inves- 
tigations in the Old World Tropics will begin in July 1968 and will be 
concentrated in the Ivory Coast, Madagascar, India, and New Guinea. 

Research 

The research activities of the bureau include both the studies of staff 
scientists, interns, and fellows, and those of visiting investigators from 
other institutions. The following tabulation shows the number of visitors, 
roughly divided into academic categories, for whom the bureau pro- 
vided appreciable support during the past fiscal year. 

Senior scientists 137 

Graduate students 74 

Undergraduate students 44 

Secondary school students 113 

Amateur biologists and members of natural history groups- 108 

Nonscientific 91 

Total 567 

The scope of the research by visiting scientists was quite broad. Some 
examples are cited below. 

As part of a long-term analysis of the accumulation of insecticide 
and other chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in marine environments, 
Robert W. Risebrough of the University of California measured the 
amounts of these substances present in the eggs of several species of 
seabirds nesting on islands in the Bay of Panama. The amounts were 
correlated with the breeding success of the species involved. Such data 
may facilitate prediction of the effects of common environmental pol- 
lutants upon other organisms. 

The factors regulating reproduction in lizards continued to be the 
subject of investigation by Owen J. Sexton, and his associates and 
students, from Washington University. Their studies indicate that many 
species are surprisingly "vulnerable." Tropical areas may have relatively 
stable temperature schedules, but variations in rainfall and other features 



RESEARCH 421 

may impose severe stresses, with possibly catastrophic efTects, upon some 
animal populations. 

David Chivers of Cambridge University came to Barro Colorado 
Island to observe howler monkeys (Alouatta) and to develop new tech- 
niques which can be applied to the study of primates in Malaya and 
other areas of southeast Asia. 

Through a cooperative program sponsored by the United States Air 
Force, the Institute was able to invite seven scientists to visit Panama, to 
determine the feasibility of new kinds of research in the Tropics and to 
initiate certain pilot projects. Robert J. Menzies of Florida State Uni- 
versity transported a variety of marine invertebrates through the fresh- 
waters of Gatun Lake, and proved that some of them survived rather 
better than might have been expected. He also obtained viable Fi off- 
spring from a cross between Atlantic and Pacific p>opulations of a 
marine isopod Limnoria. Max Hecht of the City University of New 
York studied the ecology and behavior of the highly poisonous sea snake 
Pelamis. This animal represents a very distinctive adaptive type which 
is common in the Pacific but, as yet, absent in the Atlantic. Both Menzies' 
and Hecht's studies were highly relevant to the problems which may be 
posed by the proposed sea-level canal. Amyan MacFadyen of the Uni- 
versity of Ulster made detailed analyses of the microfauna of the forest 
floor on Barro Colorado Island, and demonstrated that decomposition 
rates of organic matter are quite different in the Neotropics and the 
Temperate Palaearctic. Guy Bush of the University of Texas collected 
certain parasitic insects of economic importance for subsequent cyto- 



The sea snake Pelamis platurus showing characteristic swimming movement in 
one of the concrete study tanks at Naos Island. 



422 SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 

genetic analysis. Arturo Gomez Pompa from the University of Mexico 
compared the floras of northern and southern Central America. William 
Rand of the University of California has come to the Institute to assist in 
the development of mathematical techniques and models. 

The staff has continued to concentrate on aspects of evolution, 
ecology, and behavior, combining experimental analysis in the labora- 
tory with observations in the field under natural conditions. This is 
the most obvious, and still the most productive, method of tackling 
the major problems of tropical biology. 

Moynihan continued studies of the evolution of social behavior 
among passerine birds and primates in Panama, Costa Rica, the Andes, 
and the upper Amazonian region. Special attention is being paid to 
communication systems and the factors regulating contacts and com- 
petition between species. It has become evident that many variations 
in social behavior are direct adaptations to certain geographic and 
ecological parameters of the areas inhabited. 

Robert L. Dressier has made further progress in his investigations of 
the relations between orchid flowers and the euglossine bees which 
help to pollinate them. Working in collaboration with C. H. Dodson of 
the University of Miami, he has been able to identify some of the 
volatile substances produced by the flowers and to test their effects upon 
the bees in the field. This has facilitated analysis of the evolution of 
isolating mechanisms. 

Peter W. Glynn pursued his studies of the ecology of coral reef com- 
munities in Puerto Rico and began similar work in Panama. He also 
analyzed seasonal and annual cycles of chitons in Panama and Puerto 
Rico, and growth rates in various littoral and benthic invertebrates 
in the same regions and along the coast of Venezuela. He has been par- 
ticularly interested in the effects of the upwellings of cold water which 
are characteristic of some areas, such as the Bay of Panama, at certain 
periods of the year. 

A. Stanley Rand made a detailed analysis of "colonial" nesting in 
a population of iguanas on Barro Colorado Island. This behavior Is 
unusual among reptiles and may represent an early stage in the evolu- 
tion of gregariousness. Work on vocal communication in the frog En- 
gystomops pustulosus revealed that the males encode information about 
their position in different ways according to the proximity and number of 
potential rivals. This may help to explain several previously puzzling 
features of the calling behavior of other tropical Anura. Rand also 
attended the International Biological Program conference in Caracas, 
Venezuela. 

Continuing his studies of predator-prey interactions, Michael 
Robinson found that the spider Argiope argentata can discriminate be- 




One of Peter Glynn's study areas oflF southwest Puerto Rico showing the coral 
Montastraea annulata. 



An unusual breeding aggregation of iguanas studied by Stanley Rand. 







424 SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 

tween Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and other insects caught 
in its webs. Lepidoptera are restrained immediately by biting, while 
other insects are wrapped in silk. The discrimination seems to be based 
on the surface characteristics of the prey rather than on size, weight, or 
type of web vibration induced. This behavior is highly adaptive, as 
moths and butterflies are much more likely to escap>e from webs (by 
shedding the scales on their wings) than are other insects. 

Ira and Roberta Rubinoff made a discovery which further empha- 
sizes the fact that even the present (lock and freshwater) Panama Canal 
is not a complete barrier to the movement of marine organisms from 
one ocean to the other. They found that the Atlantic goby Lophogobius 
cyprinoides has successfully invaded a small area on the Pacific coast. 
The invasion may have been facilitated by special factors. The impor- 
tant point, however, is that the invading population is reproducing 
itself in its new environment. This seems to be a first record for the 
Panamanian region. The RubinofTs also continued their studies of iso- 
lating mechanisms in fish and, with the help of research assistant Peter 
Delmonte, developed new techniques for culturing and raising the 
larvae of several marine gobies. 

Neal G. Smith extended his studies of brood parasitism in birds. 
He is now investigating hormonal control of &g^ color and pattern in 
those species of parasites which are polymorphic for these features. 

Three postdoctoral research associates were in residence last year. 
Howard W. Wright finished his studies of grapsoid crabs and the 
breeding of Tylosurus fishes. He was the first person to follow the com- 
plete course of embryological and larval development in these fishes. 
His data are of interest in connection with the evolution of the cleidoic 
egg. Christopher C. Smith measured the food assimilation rates and 
time and energy budgets of howler monkeys (Alouatta) . It would ap- 
pear that the characteristic social organization of these animals permits 
a significant reduction of certain motor activities, thus "freeing" more 
energy for assimilating difficult-to-digest foods such as leaves. Robert E. 
Ricklefs has compared the breeding strategies of temperate and tropical 
birds, relating seasonality of nesting to food availability and climate. 
He also discovered a previously unnoticed connection between variation 
in clutch size and nestling growth rates. 

Jose Olazarri of Uruguay worked on Barro Colorado Island under the 
auspices of the joint Smithsonian-Organization of American States co- 
operative program. He collaborated with biologist Michael H. Robinson 
on studies of spider behavior, analyzed the social reactions of spiny rats 
(Proechimys) , and completed a list of the species of mollusks occurring 
on the island. 



RESEARCH 



425 




The cleaning of the Gatun Locks of the Panama Canal enabled STRI scientists 
(left, foreground) to census the lock's marine fishes. 



Working from a ladder with 
a long aluminum pole, Neal 
Smith was able to remove the 
nests of oropendolas and 
caciques, examine and ma- 
nipulate their contents, and 
to replace the nests in the 
colony tree. 




315-997 O - 69 - 28 



426 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 




One of M. Hladik's study animals, the tamarin Saguinus geoffroyi, manipulates 

food. 



RESEARCH 427 

Visiting fellow Thomas Croat, of the Missouri Botanical Garden, has 
begun to prepare a new Flora of Barro Colorado Island. The need for 
this has become increasingly evident in recent years. Not only has the 
vegetation of the island changed since the last Flora was written, but 
nonbotanical scientists want to be able to identify from materials such as 
fruits and other vegetative structures of plants which were largely 
ignored in previous guides. The new version, which will be designed to 
permit this, is expected to be completed in three years. 

Predoctoral interns and associates also conducted a variety of research 
projects. 

Bruce Haines of Duke University studied the ecological effects of the 
leaf cutting ant Atta columbica on tropical forests. Colonies of this ant 
throw out dead individuals and used leaf debris on special "dump 
heaps" that represent localized accumulations of mineral nutrients. It 
might be expected that these would also stimulate localized increases 
of plant growth, but this does not seem to be the case. Haines found that 
dumps show decreased rather than increased vegetation cov^er partly be- 
cause of the inability of seedlings to cope with the dry season moisture 
stresses caused by the low water-holding capacity of dump soils, but 
more importantly because seedlings apparently cannot compete success- 
fully with nearby adult trees whose roots quickly enter and preoccupy 
the dumps. 

Robert Topp of Harvard University investigated ecological interac- 
tions among thirteen species of Pomacentrid fishes along both the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific coasts of Panama. He found a very considerable amount 
of food and habitat differentiation, and analyzed the adaptive signifi- 
cance of morphological modifications in food processing structures. 

Several long-term projects were completed during the past year. 
Nicholas Smythe of the University of Maryland finished a two-year study 
of two large, ungulate-like, caviomorph rodents, the agouti Dasyprocta 
punctata and the paca Agouti paca. John R. Oppenheimer of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois wrote his doctoral thesis on the behavior of the capu- 
chin monkey Cebus capucinus. Some of the reactions of this species are 
particularly complex. Primates also were the subject of Claude Marcel 
Hladik of the Laboratoire d'Ecologie of the Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle in Paris. He correlated feeding habits with microstructures of 
the intestinal gut, and found that the intestinal mucosa adjusts, mor- 
phologically and histochemically, with surprising rapidity to changes 
in type of food consumed. Annette Hladik's studies of the flowering and 
fruiting times of the tree Didymopanax morototoni, a species whose 
fruits are favored by several monkeys, were a useful complement to her 
husband's work. Martin Naumann of the University of Kansas finished 



428 



SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 



BARRO COLORADO ISLAND, CANAL ZONE 

ANNUAL RAINFALL 1925-1967 





Total 


Station 


Tear 


inches 


average 


1925 


104.37 




1926 


118.22 


113.56 


1927 


116.36 


114.68 


1928 


101.52 


111.35 


1929 


87.84 


106. 56 


1930 


76.57 


101.51 


1931 


123. 30 


104.69 


1932 


113.52 


105. 76 


1933 


101.73 


105. 32 


1934 


122.42 


107. 04 


1935 


143. 42 


110.35 


1936 


93.88 


108. 98 


1937 


124. 13 


110. 12 


1938 


117.09 


1 10. 62 


1939 


115.47 


110.94 


1940 


86.51 


109.43 


1941 


91.82 


108. 41 


1942 


111. 10 


108. 55 


1943 


120. 29 


109. 20 


1944 


111.96 


109. 30 


1945 


120.42 


109. 84 


1946 


87. 38 


108. 81 





Total 


Station 


Year 


inches 


average 


1947 


77.92 


107. 49 


1948 


83. 16 


106.43 


1949 


114.86 


106. 76 


1950 


114.51 


107.07 


1951 


112.72 


107. 28 


1952 


97.68 


106. 94 


1953 


104. 97 


106. 87 


1954 


105. 68 


106.82 


1955 


114.42 


107. 09 


1956 


114.05 


107.30 


1957 


97.97 


106.98 


1958 


100.20 


106. 70 


1959 


94.88 


106.48 


1960 


140. 07 


107. 41 


1961 


100.21 


106. 95 


1962 


100. 52 


107. 07 


1963 


108. 94 


107. 10 


1964 


113.25 


107. 28 


1965 


92.80 


106. 91 


1966 


111.47 


106. 80 


1967 


85.88 


106. 40 



COMPARISON OF 1966 AND 1967 RAINFALL 
[In inches] 





Totai 




Station 


Tears of 


1967 excess 


Accumulate 


Month 






average 


record 


or deficiency 








excess or 




1966 


1967 








deficiency 


January 


3.23 


0.49 


2.22 


42 


-2.74 


-2.74 


February 


0. 15 


0.51 


1.26 


42 


+0.36 


-2.38 


March 


0.44 


0.52 


1. 13 


42 


+0.08 


-2.30 


April 


3.20 


4.38 


3.50 


43 


+ 1. 18 


-1.12 


May 


6.88 


6.28 


10.78 


43 


-0.60 


-1.72 


June 


13.65 


13.54 


10.96 


43 


-0. 11 


-1.83 


July 


9.27 


8.74 


11.50 


43 


-0.53 


-2.36 


August 


14. 17 


10.94 


12.44 


43 


-3.23 


-5.59 


September 


9.93 


6.98 


10.26 


43 


-2.95 


-8.54 


October 


12.81 


11.87 


13.63 


43 


-0.94 


-9.48 


November 


23.72 


15. 15 


18.09 


43 


-8.57 


-18.05 


December 


14.02 


6.48 


10.50 


43 


-7.54 


-25. 59 



Year 



111.47 



85.88 



106. 40 



-25.59 



-20.52 



Season 


7.02 


5.90 


8. 11 


-1. 12 


-2.21 


Season 


104. 45 


79.98 


98. 16 


-24.47 


-18. 18 



EDUCATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT 429 

the field part of his analysis of the behavior and ecology of wasps of the 
genus Protopolyhia. This revealed several characters, including caste 
distinction and difTerential oophagy, previously unknown in social wasps. 
It should also be mentioned that graduate and undergradute summer 
assistants have worked, or are working, on such subjects as the social 
organization of the collared peccary {Tayassu tajacu) , the development 
of "neurotic" behavior patterns in captive capuchin monkeys, and the 
distribution of nitrogen in marine invertebrates. 

Education 

The educational efforts of the Institute are not confined to helping and 
guiding university visitors and resident interns, assistants, and research 
fellows. Secondary school students from the Republic of Panama are 
encouraged to visit the bureau facilities, especially Barro Colorado, in 
the hope of stimulating this interest in natural history and conservation. 
Various forms of assistance have been lent to the University of Panama. 
The regular series of research seminars of the Institute are open to all 
interested persons from the local community. As an experimental in- 
novation last year, Robinson organized an adult education course in 
animal behavior in which several members of the staff participated. 
This was highly successful and very well attended. 

It certainly would be desirable to expand such activities. Unfor- 
tunately, however, the Institute has for the moment about reached its 
capacity in this area. Thus, it will be necessary to make a special effort 
to obtain more funds and equipment (and space) for additional 
educational programs in the near future. 



Acknowledgment 

The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute can operate only with 
the excellent cooperation of the Canal Zone Government and the Pan- 
ama Canal Company, the United States Army and Navy, and die gov- 
ernment authorities of the Republic of Panama. Thanks are due 
especially to General Robert W. Porter, Jr., Commander United 
States Armed Forces, Southern Command; Executive Secretary of the 
Canal Zone Paul M. Runnestrand and his staff; Lieutenant Colonel 
Jack G. Null, Post Commander, Fort Amador, Canal Zone; the cus- 
toms and immigration officials of the Canal Zone; the Dredging Divi- 
sion and Police Division of the Panama Canal Company; Commander 
James Cox, Commanding Officer, Naval Security Group; the United 



430 SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 

States Army Maintenance Division; Dr. R. G. Pearson, Canal Zone 
Veterinary Hospital; the officials of the Cristobal High School; and 
C. C. Soper of Eastman Kodak Company. 

Papers Presented or Published 

A supplement to "Bibliography of Papers Pertaining to the Natural His- 
tory of Barro Colorado Island, Canal Zone" {Smithsonian Information 
Leaflet 281, revised August 1965), listing reports on research supported 
or facilitated by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1960- 
1967, appears as an appendix to the Separate of this report. 

Croat, Thomas. "Hydrophyllaceae." Pages 415-418 in "Flora of Panama, 

Part IX." Annals of the Missouri Bot. Card., vol. 54, no. 3, 1967. 
Dressler, Robert. 'The Genera Amblostoma, Lanuim, and Stenoglossum 

(Orchidaceae)." Brittonia, vol. 19, pp. 237-243, 1967. 
. "Why Do Euglossine Bees Visit Orchid Flowers?" Atas do Simpdsio 

sobre a Biota Amazonica, vol. 5 (Zoology), pp. 171-180, 1967. 
. "Observations on Orchids and Euglossine Bees in Panama and Costa 

Rica." Revista de Biologia Tropical, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 143-183, 1968. 
. "Notes on Bletia (Orchidaceae)." Brittonia, vol. 20, pp. 182-190, 

1968. 
. "Pollination by Euglossine Bees." Evolution, vol. 22, pp. 202-210, 



1968. 

Dressler, Robert^ and Job Kuijt. "A Second Species of Ammobroma (Len- 
noaceae), in Sinaloa, Mexico." Madrono, vol. 19, pp. 179-182, 1968. 

Glynn, Peter W. "Mass Mortalities of Echinoids and Other Reef Flat Or- 
ganisms Coincident with Midday, Low-Water Exposures in Puerto Rico." 
Mar. Biol, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 226-243, 1968. 

Glynn, Peter W., and R. Menzies. "The Common Marine Isopod Crustacea 
of Puerto Rico: A Handbook for Marine Biologists." Stud. Fauna Curagao 
and Other Caribbean Islands, vol. 27, no. 104, pp. 1-133, 43 figs., 1968. 

MoYNiHAN, Martin. "Comparative Aspects of Communication in New World 
Primates." Pages 236-266 in Pnmafe £«/io/ogy, edit. D. Morris. London: 
Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967. 

. "Social Mimicry: Character Convergence Versus Character Displace- 
ment." Evolution, vol. 22, pp. 315-331, 1968. 

Naumann, Martin. "A Revision of the Genus Brachygastra ( Hymenoptera : 
Vespidae)." Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull, vol. 47, pp. 929-1003, 1967. 

. "Nest Structure and Function As a Factor in the Evolution of Social 

Insect Populations." [Paper presented Kansas Entomological Society, May 
1868.] 

Oppenheimer, John. "The Diet of Cebus capucinus and the EflFect of Cebus 
on the Vegetation." Bull. Ecol Soc. America, vol. 48, no. 3, p. 138, 1967. 
[Abstract.] 

. "Vocal Communication in the White-Faced Monkey, Cebus capu- 
cinus." American Zool, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 802, 1967. [Abstract] 



PAPERS PRESENTED OR PUBLISHED 431 

. "Social Organization and Behavior of Cebus capucinus (Cebidae)." 

[Paper presented at Second International Congress of Primatology in June 

1968.] 
Rand, A. S. "Ecology, Social Organization and Spatial Distribution of Anolis 

lineatopus (Sauria, Iguanidae)." Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 122, no. 

3595, pp. 1-79, 1967. 
. "The Adaptive Significance of Territoriality in Iguanid Lizards." 

Pages 106-115 in Lizard Ecology: a Symposium, Univ. of Missouri, 1967. 

. "Predator-Prey Interactions and the Evolution of Aspect Diversity." 

Atas do simposio sobre a Biota Amazonica, vol. 5 (Zoology), pp 73-83 

1967. 
. "Ecological Distribution of the Anoline Lizards Around Kingston, 

Jamaica." Breviora, no. 272, pp. 1-18, 1967. 

"Communal Egg Laying in Anoline Lizards." Herpetologica, vol. 23, 



no. 3, pp. 227-230, 1967. 
RiCKLEFS, Robert. "A Case of Classical Conditioning in Nesthng Cactus 

Wrens." Condor, vol. 69, pp. 528-529, 1967. 
. "Relative Growth, Body Constituents and Energy Content of Nestling 

Barn Swallows and Red-winged Blackbirds." Auk, vol. 84, pp 560-570, 

1967. 
. "A Graphical Method of Fitting Equations to Growth Curves." 

Ecology, vol. 48, pp. 978-983, 1967. 

. "Weight Recession in Nestling Birds." Auk, vol. 85, pp. 30-35, 1968. 

RiCKLEFs, Robert, and F. Reed Hainsworth. "The Temporary Establish- 
ment of Dominance Between Two Handraised Juvenile Cactus Wrens." 

Condor, vol. 69, p. 528, 1967. 
. "Temperature Regulation in Nestling Cactus Wrens: Development 

of Homeothermy." Connor, vol. 70, 1968. 
. "Temperature Dependent Behavior of Cactus Wrens." Ecology, vol 

49, 1968. 
Robinson, Michael H. "Sequential Responses in the Prey-Capture Behavior 

of Argiope argentata (Fabricius) ." [Paper presented, AAAS symposium on 

web-building spiders, December, N. Y. C, 1967.] 
RuBiNOFF, I., and T. H. Hamilton. "On Predicting Insular Variation in Ende- 

mism and Sympatry for the Darwin Finches in the Galapagos Archipelago." 

American Nat., vol. 101, no. 918, pp. 161-172, 1967. 
RuBiNOFF, I., and R. W. Rvbinoff. "Interoceanic Colonization of Marine Goby 

Through the Panama Canal." Nature, vol. 217, no. 5127, pp. 476-478, 1968. 
Rubinoff, I., R. W. Rubinoff, and P. Delmonte. "Laboratory Rearing 

Through Metamorphosis of Some Panamanian Gobies." Copeia 1968, no. 

2, pp. 411-412, 1968. 
SMITH, Christopher C. "The Adaptive Nature of Social Organization in the 

Genus of Tree Squirrels Tamiasciurus." Ecological Monographs, vol. 38, 

pp. 31-63, 1968. 
smith, Neal G. "Visual Isolation in Gulls." Sci. American (October), pp. 

95-102, 1967. 
. "Capturing Seabirds with Avertin." Journ. Wildl. Management, vol. 

31, no. 3, pp. 479-483, 1967. 
ropp, Robert. "An Internal Capsule Fish Tag." California Fish and Game, 

vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 288-289, 1967. 



432 SMITHSONIAN TROPICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE 

. . "A Re-examination of the Osteology of Cheimarrichthys fosteri Haast 

1874." Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand, vol. 9, no. 16, pp. 189-191, 1967. 

. "An Adjustable Macroplankton Sled." Prog. Fish Cult., vol. 29, no. 

3, p. 184, 1967. 

"An Estimate of the Fecundity of the Winter Flounder, Pseudopleuro- 



nectes americanus." Journ. Fish. Res. Board Canada, vol. 25, no. 6, 1968. 
Wright, Howard. "Visual Displays in Brachyuran Crabs." [Paper presented 
at AAAS meeting, New York City, December 1967.] 



Radiation Biology Laboratory 

William H. Klein, Director 




'T~'HE LIFE CYCLES OF ORGANISMS ARE intricately associated with the 
environmental signals which influence their morphological and 
physiological development mechanisms. Growth and development of 
higher plants are regulated and controlled by solar radiant energy, a 
major factor of the environment, in two general ways: by the conver- 
sion, as through photosynthesis, of large amounts of radiant energy to 
chemical energy; and by the activation of regulating systems such as 
reproduction, differentiation, and morphological development by means 
of small amounts of radiation. These radiation-sensitive regulatory 
systems may further be subdivided on the basis of the spectral char- 
acteristics into one group responsive mainly to the blue and ultraviolet 
portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; and another responsive mainly 
to the red and far-red portion of the spectrum. 

The research of the Radiation Biology Laboratory is directed toward 
understanding the cellular and subcellular mechanisms and processes 
by which organisms utilize this radiant energy from the sun for their 
growth and development. This research has been directed into four main 
areas : in regulatory biology, ( 1 ) the physiology and ( 2 ) the biochemical 
processes of developmental responses to light; (3) the measurement of 
solar radiation; and (4) carbon dating, measurements and research 
techniques. 

Regulatory Biology — Physiology 

The excised apex of the com coleoptile has proved to be a favorable 
laboratory experimental object for the study of a phytochrome-mediated 
response. The growth rate in darkness at 25 °C of coleoptile segments 

433 



434 RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 

floated on water is increased by about 50 percent following a brief (satu- 
rating) irradiation with red light in the wavelength of 660 nanometers 
(nm) . This increased growth rate is established within a few minutes 
after the irradiation and persists unaltered for at least 24 hours. If the 
red irradiation is followed immediately by a few minutes of far-red 
(730 nm) irradiation very little enhancement follows; this is the opera- 
tional criterion for involvement of the phytochrome system. Although 
the absolute growth rate of both irradiated and control coleoptiles may 
be increased or decreased by a large number of substances, the relative 
enhancement owing to red irradiation was not altered by most of the 
substances tested. Of a variety of sugars, plant growth regulators, amino 
acids, vitamins, inorganic ions, and other compounds only carbon dioxide 
has been found to influence the growth rate differentially. The growth 
rate of unirradiated coleoptile segments is about 50 percent greater in 
an atmosphere containing 200 mm (hg pressure) CO2 plus 560 mm air 
than in air. A brief red irradiation does not further increase the CO2- 
augmented rate. Hence the same result is achieved by the C02-enriched 
atmosphere as by a red irradiation. The effect of red light on growth is 
markedly temperature-dependent. At 45 °C, the growth rate of unirra- 
diated segments is only a small fraction of that at 25°C; the growth rate 
of segments which have received only a brief red irradiation is greatly 
diminished also. If the red irradiation is prolonged, however, for some 
time, the growth at 45°C is substantially equal to that at 25°C. 

A multi-station interference-type monochromator system in a con- 
trolled environment has been used to study photomorphogenesis in 
Arahidopsis thaliana. Plants are cultured aseptically on mineral agar 
supplemented with 1 percent glucose in standard culture tubes with glass 
closures. Culture tubes are radially arranged in styrofoam blocks hold- 
ing 40 tubes within a radius of 3 inches inside the uniform focused light 
beam. Equal energies of 100 microwatts cm"^ sec"^ at eight stations in 
the range 415-730 nm were used in an initial experiment. Control plants 
were subjected to continuous white light throughout the study; the 
treatment group was irradiated with 4 hours white light and 20 hours 
monochromatic light daily. Standard white light was from 300-watt 
incandescent lamps, passed through a water filter. Dissections were made 
during the 4-hour white-light period to detect the appearance of bud 
primordia. Floral induction occurred after 7.5-8 days of continuous 
white light radiation; after 11-12 days of 455-nm radiation; after 14—15 
days of 415 or 500-nm radiation; after 20 days of 730-nm radiation; 
and after 27 days of 700-nm radiation. Plants supplemented for 20 
hours daily with 550-, 600-, and 660-nm radiation, although vegeta- 
tively vigorous, showed no sign of floral induction at termination after 



REGULATORY BIOLOGY: PHYSIOLOGY 



435 




David L. Correll setting up a series of ion-exchange column chromatograms for 
the final step in the purification of phytochrome from rye seedlings. 



32 days. It is postulated that phytochrome synthesis activated by blue 
light is required for floral induction, while phytochrome destruction is 
potentiated in red light. 

Examination of light-controlled growth responses occurring in the 
apical cell of moss protonemata were continued. Action spectra obtained 
previously indicated that under continuous irradiation, growth required 
the simultaneous excitation of both the red (Pr) and the far-red 
(Pfr) absorbing forms of phytochrome. 

Irradiating the filaments simultaneously with monochromatic red 
(660 nm) and far- red (730 nm) light, the peaks of absorption for 
the two forms of phytochrome, was more effective than any wavelength 
given singly in causing growth or tropic responses. Similar synergistic 
eff'ects were given by ratios of red to far-red 3:1 to 1:3. Thus, cycling 
of phytochrome between the Pr and Pfr states rather than a particular 
steady state equilibrium seems to promote growth in this system. 

Consistent with other studies, a locus of phytochrome receptors 
in juxtaposition to the cell wall has been inferred from experimenta- 
tion with polarized light. But, contrary to other reports in the lit- 
erature, all our present evidence indicates that there is no change 
in the orientation of photoreceptors upon conversion between Pr and 
Pfr- 



436 RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 

Further evidence for the juxtaposition of the pigment to the cell wall 
was given by experiments using microbeam irradiation. A strong tropic 
response may be elicited by a beam which only grazes the surface of the 
cell's apex; in this situation, however, maximal responsiveness is only 
obtained if a background of photosynthetically active irradiation is 
given simultaneously. Thus, a working hypothesis must include a role 
for photosynthesis as well as for phytochrome cycling. 

Further studies on the effect of red and far-red light on pollen-tube 
elongation in Tradescantia revealed that the promoting effect of far-red 
light was reversible by subsequent treatment with red light. This indi- 
cated that the growth response was mediated by phytochrome. When 
pollen irradiated by far-red light was cultured on KOH- or NaOH- 
supplemented lactose agar medium, the elongation of the pollen tube 
was inhibited instead of being promoted, as would have happened in 
the regular culture medium. This inhibitory effect was also reversible 
by red light. The concentration of K and/or Na ions in the pollen 
tube may have played an important role on the action of phytochrome 
or on the state of the membrane and wall of the cell. 

Concentrated glucose solutions (20 percent) receiving 0.5 Mrad of 
gamma rays (Co^°) were diluted to 2 percent and used to treat lateral 
roots of Vicia or adventitious roots of Tradescantia. Three series of ex- 
periments were carried out consecutively to determine the sensitive 
stage, dosage effect and the possible mechanism for breakage in the 
centromeres. Centromeric and secondary constrictional breaks were 
more prevalent than ordinary chromatid breaks in all experiments. 
Centromeric breaks which occurred in Vicia were almost exclusively 
found in metacentrics of the chromosome complement. 

In Vicia, differential breakage rates from the fixations made at 
successive time intervals, following treatment of the mitotic cycle 
through a 24-hour period, indicated that the early interphase seemed 
to be more sensitive to the treatment than other stages. In Vicia, a 
3-hour treatment caused a higher breakage rate than a 1-hour treatment 
when the low-dose (0.5 Mrad) irradiated glucose solution was used 
immediately after it had received gamma irradiation. Vicia roots treated 
with 96-hour-old, high-dose (2 Mrad) irradiated glucose solution for 
6 hours had a relatively higher combined rate of breakage (centromeric, 
secondary constrictional, and chromatid breaks) , but a lower rate of 
centromeric breaks than those treated with low-dose, freshly irradiated 
solution for shorter durations. The combined rate of breakage in controls 
of this experiment was also higher. 

A comparative study on the centromeric breakage rates between 
Vicia and Tradescantia confirmed that the centromeric breaks occurred 



Dr. Te-Hsiu Ma cultur- 
ing bean roots for ex- 
periments to determine 
the effects of irradiated 
glucose solution on mi- 
totic chromosomes. 




preferentially in metacentric chromosomes. This may be the result of 
an artifact enhanced by the damaging eflfect of irradiated glucose 
solution. Control groups treated with nonirradiated glucose solution 
showed relatively lower rates of breakage, as compared with respective 
experimental groups, but higher rate of breakage than a baseline control 
group which received no treatment. 

Regulatory Biology — Biochemical Processes 

Studies of plastid protein synthesis in vitro have been continued. 
The amino acid incorporation of the chloroplast in the presence of 
jribonuclease is a function of the condition of the chloroplast membrane. 
jFreshly isolated chloroplasts with intact membranes are impermeable 
to ribonuclease. 

' Crude preparations of etioplasts (plastids from etiolated leaves) 
incorporate amino acid into protein. The similarity of incorporation 
by etioplasts to that by chloroplasts indicates that etioplasts are the 
principal sites of incorporation in such preparations, as had already 
been shown with similar chloroplast preparations. When rates of in- 
corporation per plastid are calculated, the etioplast preparations carry 
out incorporation at only one-fifth the rate of chloroplast preparations. 

Both etioplasts and chloroplasts incorporate amino acid into the same 
proteins in vitro as in vivo, but the rates in vitro are much lower than 



438 RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 

in vivo. Quantitative differences are found in the products formed by 
etioplasts and chloroplasts. Leaf Fraction I protein, however, is among 
the soluble protein products formed in vitro by both etioplasts and 
chloroplasts. At least a portion of the Fraction I protein formed by 
chloroplasts in vitro is ribulose diphosphate carboxylase. This shows 
that the informational RNA that acts as template for this chloroplast 
protein is present in chloroplasts, and leads to the possibility that a 
portion of the plastid DNA codes for this chloroplast protein. 

Work has been continued on the micromorphology of red and blue- 
green algae, with emphasis on the localization of phycobiliproteins. The 
phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and phycoerythrin, which are, respec- 
tively, blue and red) are present as accessory photosynthetic pigments in 
three groups of algae : Cyanophyta, Rhodophyta, and Cryptophyta. By 
trapping light energy in the green and orange regions of the visible spec- 
trum and passing it to chlorophyll they greatly enhance photosynthesis. 

From our previous work we knew that the phycobiliproteins are 
located at specific sites on the photosynthetic lamellae (see photograph) 
where they form aggregates. The pattern of the aggregates on the 
lamellae seems to be determined by the underlying photosynthetic 
lamellae, but the shape of the aggregates appears to be dependent on the 
predominant pigment. In Porphyridium cruentum, where phyco- 
erythrin predominates, the aggregates, or phycobilisomes, are spherical ; 
but in P. aerugineum, which has only phycocyanin, they are disk-shaped. 

A major difference exists in the localization of phycobiliproteins in 
the different groups of algae. In the red and blue-green algae the phyco- 
bilisomes are located on the stroma side of the chloroplast lamellae with 
a periodicity of 400A ; however, in the cryptophytes the phycobiliproteinsa 
are separated from the chloroplast stroma by being enclosed within ' 
flattened photosynthetic membrane sacks. The periodicity evidenced 
by the cryptophytes is about one-half that found in the red and blue- 
green algae. 

Phycoerythrin, the red phycobiliprotein, was purified by butanol 
treatment and ammonium sulfate fractionation. Purity was determined 
by attainment of a ratio of optical density at 560: 275 nm of 5 or better, 
disk-gel electrophoresis, crystallization, and electron microscopy. By 
negative staining with uranyl oxalate, or phosphotungstic acid and ex- 
amination by electron microscopy, it was found that the minimal phy- 
coerythrin unit is very tightly structured. It has a diameter of about 
105 ± 5 A, and an axial ratio of 1 : 2. There is no difference in the aggre- 
gation state in the pH range of 6 to 7 (pH 6.0, 6.6, 6.8, and 7.0). 
Aggregations occur by formation of stacks and contact along the 105A 
diameter faces. Aggregates have been stabilized with glutaraldehyde, 



REGULATORY BIOLOGY: BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES 



439 



separated by disk-gel electrophoresis, and recovered for examination by 
electron microscopy. 

Attempts have been made to compare the ultrastructure of the photo- 
synthetic apparatus of blue-green algae grown under two different light 
regimes. It has been found that Tolypothrix tenuis under red light, 
produces almost exclusively phycocyanin and that under green light, 
phycoerythrin predominates, but there is still a considerable amount of 
phycocyanin. Thus far it has not been possible to distinguish whether 
this change in pigment ratio affects the phycobilisome shape . 

Measurements of absorption changes of purified phytochrome indi- 
cate that multiple chromophores are present. Buffered aqueous solutions 
of pure phytochrome, when irradiated at 730 nm, had a main absorp- 
tion band at about 660 nm and a shoulder or secondary band at 580-660 



'Electron micrograph of a red alga. The lamellate chloroplast occupies the major 
portion of the cell and contains the photosynthetic pigments. Phycocyanin is 
located as small particles on the lamellae in which the chlorophyll is located. 








440 RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 

nm. When irradiated at 660 nm, these absorption bands bleached, and 
a pair of bands at 670 and 725-730 nm appeared. When samples ir- 
radiated at 660 nm were placed in the dark, the 730-nm absorption slowly 
bleached and the 670-nm absorption band shifted to 660 nm. The kine- 
tics of the bleaching indicated that two populations of Pfr existed initial- 
ly. These two populations decayed by first order kinetics with k's of 4.8 
X 10-* sec.-^ and 3.1 X 10"= sec.-^ at 25°C. While the bleaching of Pfr 
was occurring, the appearance of the 660-nm and 580-600-nm absorp- 
tion bands characteristic of Pr took place. 

The kinetics of the increase in both absorption bands indicated that 
it was arising from two populations of reactants by two first-order reac- 
tions with k's of 6.4X10-* sec.-i and 3.1X10"^ sec.-^ at 25°C. When 
the sodium chloride concentration of the solvent was changed, the pro- 
portions of the kinetically difTerent populations were altered. In some 
conditions, especially in the presence of air, reversible but nonrecipro- 
cal changes in the four absorption bands were observed. These effect!) 
were evident after the lapse of many hours in the dark. When native i 
phytochrome was treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate all absorptior' 
bands but the 580-600-nm absorption band was bleached and photo- 
reversibility was lost. When native phytochrome was treated with gluni 
taraldehyde, the 730-nm absorption band was bleached but photorever 
sibility was retained. It was concluded that at least four species o 
chromophore exist in phytochrome with absorption maxima at 580, 660 
670, and 730 nm. Each chromophore is capable of being bleached h 
appropriate irradiation or in the dark by chemical reactions rathe 
than photochemical reactions. The reactions are probably coupled redo: 
reactions between the 580-660-nm pair and the 670-7 30-nm pair o 
chromophores. Discrepancies observed in the reciprocity of the absorp 
tion changes in these paired bands are probably due to various degrees o 
uncoupling and secondarily to the redox potential of the solvent whei 
such uncoupling occurs. 

Measurement of Solar Radiation 

The data acquisition system was updated for better performance by th' 
addition of a new solid-state digital clock and a dual punch unit. Thes^ 
two additions yield better reliability in time recording and longer run 
ning time without attendance to the paper tape. New Fortran program 
were written for processing the data. The new program computes th 
solar secants and azimuths for each recorded event, the ratios betweei 
the different spectral bands, the energy content in each of the 100-nn 
bands and of the broad spectral bands. Besides the computations, th 
programs permit plotting of the data. 



SOLAR RADIATION CARBON DATING 441 

A further reduction of some normal incidence work done in 1966 
showed a 16 percent decline in the incoming radiation since the years 
1904-1907. This is an indication of accumulation of air pollutants. 

New detectors are being developed at this time to expand the capa- 
bility of the present system to very low levels of light. 

Growth patterns for greenhouse-grown day-neutral Black Valentine 
Beans were studied for one complete year, consisting of 18 plantings, 
spaced at 3-week intervals and harvested when plants were 3 and 6 
jweeks old. The results indicate a similarity to the 1965 data in which 
an inverse relationship was noted between lower and upper internodes 
and between lower internodes and daylength. Differences in stem length 
ranging from 50 cm during short days to 90 cm during long days is due 
[almost exclusively to elongation of the upper internodes. Flowering of 
this day-neutral plant continues throughout the year. 
j Biloxi soybean, a short-day plant, will produce flowers at this latitude 
if seeds are planted before 1 April and after mid- July. Plantings made 
during May, June, and early July remain vegetative and have longer 
stems due to an increase in number of internodes and elongation of the 
upper internodes. Also during this period there is some indication that 
the dr\'-weight ratio of leaf to stem changes slightly. It is notable that 
the second internode is similar in response to the first internode of Black 
Valentine bean. 

I In a previous report it has been stated that Wintex barley, a long-day 
plant, is sensitive to changing daylengths and light quality. Results in- 
dicate that barley flowers early in the year when far-red is a part of the 
light source and when light periods, though relatively short, are in- 
:reasing daily. Plants grown under longer daylengths than these, but 
decreasing daily, remain vegetative. After collecting data for three years 
md obtaining similar results each year, it appeared reasonable that sub- 
;equent years would yield the same results. Data obtained during the 
ipring of 1968, however, were not in accord. Plants remained vegeta- 
ive under greenhouse conditions similar to those of previous years in 
emperature, humidity, nutrients, carbon dioxide level, and increasing 
laylengths. It is suspected that far-red energy and its relative propor- 
ions to the red wavelengths may have been the cause. 

Carbon Dating 

The output rate of the carbon dating laboratory increased during this 
•ear to about 15 carbon- 14 analysis results and about 10 tritium deter- 
ninations per month. 

The tritium analyses were concentrated on the circulation study of 
)israeli Fjord, northern Ellesmere Island, which has an ice shelf block- 

U 315-997 O - 69 - 29 



442 RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 

ing its mouth and restricting circulation on the upper 44 meters. Tri- 
tium analyses indicate that meltwater entering the fjord moves out 
along the 40-meter level and presumably, out to the Arctic Ocean at this 
level. The deeper, saline water in Disraeli Fjord has tritiimi values 
comparable to those in the Arctic Ocean. Thus circulation in deeper 
zones is apparently not hampered by a sill. 

Two freshwater lakes on Ellesmere Island, Ekblaw (68 meters) and 
Rollrock (51 meters) had tritium values consistent with complete 
overturning during the summer of 1966. 

Preliminary results on the carbon- 14 content of eggshells indicate 
their carbonate may be good for dating in spite of birds using lime- 
stone pebbles for "scratch." 

Staff Activities 

A series of seminars in developmental biology was held in cooperation 
with the Consortium of Washington Area universities. The series of 
lectures was presented for graduate credit and approximately 150 per- 
sons attended each lecture. The speakers and their topics were: 

"Supraxnolecular Biology of Development," Paul Weiss, Rockefeller University, 
New York. 

"Changing Concepts of the Relations between DNA Synthesis and Differentia- 
tion," James D. Ebert, department of embryology, Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, Baltimore, Maryland. 

"Reconstruction of Tissues from Dissociated Cells," Malcolm Steinberg, depart- 
ment of biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

"Formation of Patterns in Development," Heinrich Ursprung, Mergenthaler 
Laboratory for Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. 

"Morphogenesis in the Cellular Slime Molds," John Tyler Bonner, department 
of biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey. 

"Cell and Tissue Culture in Plants: Its Significance for Morphogenesis," F. 
C. Steward, Laboratory for Cell Physiology, Growth and Development, 
New York State College of Agriculture, Cornell University, Ithaca, New 
York. 

"Problems of Growth and Regeneration in Hydra— The Acquisition and Mo- 
bility of the Differentiated State," Allison L. Burnett, Biological Laboratory, 
Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. 

"The Role of the Nerve in Regeneration of Body Parts in the Vertebrate," Mar- 
cus Singer, department of anatomy. School of Medicine, Western Reserve 
University, Cleveland, Ohio. 

"Hormones, Genes, and Metamorphosis," Carroll Williams, Biological Labo- 
ratories, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

"Fetal Hormones and Adaptive Growth in Mammalian Reproductive Systems," 
Dorothy Price, department of zoology. University of Chicago, Chicago, 
Illinois. 

"Some Aspects of Neurogenesis," Viktor Hamburger, department of biology, 
Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. 



STAFF ACTIVITIES 443 

"Cell Death in Morphogenesis," John W. Saunders, Jr., department of biological 
sciences. State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York. 

During the year John A. M. Brown, visiting post-doctoral research 
associate from the University of Notre Dame, joined the staff to work 
with Director Klein on an action spectrum of floral induction in 
Arabidopsis. Plant physiologist Helga Drumm, from the University of 
Freiburg, Germany, is working with chemist Maurice M. Margulies 
on protein synthesis in etioplasts. Francesco Parenti completed his 
work with Margulies and accepted a position at Yale University. 
Plant physiologist Leonard Price began a sabbatical year work- 
ing with Konstantinos Mitrakos at the Botanical Institute, University 
of Athens, Greece. 

Members of the stafT attended symposia, meetings of national sci- 
entific societies and international conferences; journeyed to univer- 
sities to present seminars and to carry on joint research projects; 
participated in various panels and committees of scientific agencies and 
organizations; and attended science courses. Some of the special 
activities were: 

In August, Austin Long delivered a paper at the Annual Convention 
in Kingston, Ontario of the Geological Association of Canada and the 
Mineralogical Association of Canada; and W. Klein presented a paper 
at the BiAC Symposium on bioinstrumentation in College Station, Texas. 

In October, Robert L. Weintraub traveled to Kalamazoo College, 
Kalamazoo, Michigan, for consultation on joint research projects with 
M. Evans of their department of botany. 

In November, M. Margulies presented a seminar to faculty and 
graduate students in the Department of Biology at the University of 
Akron, Ohio. 

In December, at the Charles F. Kettering Research Labs in Yellow 
Springs, Ohio, W. Shropshire, Jr., presented a seminar. 

In January, David L. Correll traveled to Tucson, Arizona, where he 
delivered a paper at the Second International Conference on Photo- 
sensitization in Solids, held at the University of Arizona. 

In May, Elisabeth Gantt presented a seminar at the Iowa State Uni- 
versity of Science and Technology in Ames. 

In June, J. Brown attended meetings and delivered a paper in 
London, Ontario, to the Canadian Society of Plant Physiologists; also 
in June, Bernard Goldberg, with Director Klein, in Jerusalem, Israel, 
assisted with the initiation of a solar radiation measuring station, a 
cooperative effort between the Smithsonian Radiation Biology Labora- 
tory and the National Physical Laboratory of Israel, and visited Athens, 
Greece, to discuss a joint research project with the Institute of General 
Botany in the University of Athens. 



444 RADIATION BIOLOGY LABORATORY 



Staff Publications 



CoRRELL, David L., John L. Edwards, and Vicente Julio Medina. "Phyto- 
chrome in Etiolated Annual Rye, II: Distribution of Photoreversible Phyto- 
chrome in the Coleoptile and Primary Leaf." Plant a, vol. 79, pp. 284-291, 
1968. 

CoRRELL, David L., and W. Shropshire, Jr. "Phytochrome in Etiolated An- 
ual Rye, I : Changes During Growth in the Amount of photoreversible Phyto- 
chrome in the Coleoptile and Primary Leaf." Planta, vol. 79, pp. 275-283, 
1968. 

Gantt, E., M. R. Edwards, and S. F. Conti. "Ultrastructure of Porphyridium 
aerugineum a Blue-Green Colored Rhodophytan." Journal Phycol., vol. 4, 
pp. 65-71, 1968. 

Hattersley-Smith, G., and Austin Long. "Post Glacial Uplift at Tanquary 
Fiord, Northern Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories." Arctic, vol. 20, 
pp. 255-260, 1967. 

Keys, J., O. M. Johannessen, and A. Long. "On the Oceanography of Dis- 
raeli Fjord on Northern Ellesmere Island." Manuscript Report Marine 
Sciences Centre, McGill University, vol. 6, pp. 1-7 1968. 

Long, Austin, and James E. Mielke. "Smithsonian Institution Radiocarbon 
Measurements IV." Radiocarbon, vol. 9, pp. 368-381, 1967. 

Ma, Te-Tsiu. "Thin-Layer Lactose Agar for Pollen-Tube Culture of Trade- 
scantia to Enhance Planar Distribution of Chromosomes." Stain Technol., 
vol. 42, pp. 285-291, 1967. 

Margulies, M. M., E. Gantt, and F. Parenti. "In Vitro Protein Synthesis by 
Plastids of Phaseolus vulgaris, II: The Probable Relation Between Ribo- 
nuclease Insensitive Amino Acid Incorporation and the Presence of Intact 
Chloroplasts." Plant Physiol, vol. 43, pp. 495-503, 1968. 

Margulies, M. M., and F. Parenti. "In Vitro Protein Synthesis by Plastids of 
Phaseolus vulgaris. III: Formation of Lamellar and Soluble Chloroplast 
Protein." Plant Physiol, vol. 43, pp. 504-514, 1968. 

Mitrakos, K., L. Price, W. H. Klein, and A. Steiner. Red-Light Effect of 
Tracer Distribution in Etiolated Leaf Tissue." Planta, vol. 76, pp. 190-196, 
1967. 

Parenti, F., and M. M. Margulies. "In Vitro Protein Synthesis by Plastids of 
Phaseolus vulgaris, I : Localization of Activity in the Chloroplasts of a 
Chloroplast Containing Fraction from Bean Leaves." Plant Physiol, vol. 
42, pp. 1179-1186, 1967. 



Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 

Fred L. Whipple, Director 




Tn the mid-1 880S SAMUEL piERPONT LANGLEY, soon to become third 
■*■ secretary of the Smithsonian and founder of its Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory, gave a series of popular lectures on "the new astronomy." By 
that term he meant the study of "the sun, moon, and stars for what they 
are in themselves, and in relation to ourselves." While that study has 
evolved to include all heavenly bodies and to encompass not only the 
present but also the past and the anticipated future, its primary concern 
has continued to be the relation between man and the universe. 

The current research* of the Observatory reflects and is a part of that 
concern. Observatory scientists derive data for astrophysical study from 
a variety of sources — gamma-ray detectors, radio telescopes, optical 
instruments, and satellite observations and experiments, for example. 
Of the last, the Director, in an address this year to the 4th International 
Symposium on Bioastronautics and the Exploration of Space, noted: 
"The theoretician now has a local solar system in which the space pro- 
gram provides direct measurement of processes too complex for arm- 
chair prediction." 

Observatory scientists use these data in investigations involving 
the structure, composition, and gravity field of the earth; the tempera- 
ture, pressure, and other characteristics of the upper atmosphere; the 
history, orbits, and compositions of other bodies in the solar system; the 
nature of stellar processes ; and the origin of the universe. 



*Unless otherwise noted, research is supported from federal funds appropri- 
ated to the Smithsonian Institution. The Observatory, by paying scientists' 
salaries, shares in the support of all research. Support from outside sources is 
detailed in the notes on page 477. 

445 



446 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

The following short article by a member of the Observatory staff 
summarizes and examines recent findings in one of these areas of 
concern, 

METEORITES AS PRIMITIVE PLANETARY MATERIAL 

The origin of the earth is shrouded in mystery. We can talk with some 
confidence about the recent history of the earth's surface — ^^the last 
500 million years^ — -because extensive beds and structures of rock formed 
during that time interval remain preserved and accessible to us. But as 
we attempt to probe further back, into the Precambrian eras, the record 
becomes increasingly blurred. Surviving rock units became progressively 
more scarce and less well preserved. The oldest rocks known were formed 
about 3500 million years ago, according to studies employing radioactive 
dating techniques. There the record closes. 

But we know the earth is older than 3500 million years, because other 
members of the solar system are older: Meteorites, the lumps of rock and 
iron that the earth occasionally sweeps up from interplanetary space, 
often yield ages of about 4600 million years when the same radioactive 
dating techniques are applied to them. Our understanding, such as it 
is, of the origin of the solar system seems to require that all its members 
formed at the same time, give or take a few million years, so it appears 
that the first billion years (at least) of earth history is completely miss- 
ing from the record. 

It is not hard to see why. Contrary to the advertising literature of 
gravestone manufacturers, rock is not eternal nor "of the ages." On the 
surface of the earth, it is a highly perishable commodity. It is attacked 
and degraded by water, ice, wind, heat, cold, and soil acids; the debris 
produced is commonly swept away, compacted, and cemented into new 
generations of rock. Alternately, the slow churning and folding that goes 
on in the earth's crust (at a rate imperceptible to us) may carry rock 
down to great depths, where temperatures are so high that it melts, 
whereupon the hot liquid is injected into higher levels of the crust again. 
Generations of rock succeed one another, as if they were living orga- 
nisms. The wonder is that any material at all has been preserved for 3500 
million years in the earth's crust. 

Nonetheless, one wishes that older material were available. Best of all '■ 
would be to have samples of the original substance of the earth, still in > 
the state it assumed when the earth first formed. This would truly be 
a scientific treasure. Its bulk composition would probably reflect the 
overall composition of the earth, something we can only conjecture about 
otherwise, because the thin crustal layer of the earth we have access to is 



INTRODUCTION METEORITIES AS PLANETARY MATERIAL 447 

clearly nonrepresentative in composition, having been formed from the 
whole by processes that tend to favor some elements over others. 

The texture and mineralogy of such a primitive material would spell 
out for us how the earth was born: whether from grains and particles 
(planetesimals) that agglomerated out of a primordial nebula, or con- 
ceivably as a molten, fiery mass that condensed directly from incandes- 
cent solar gases, as pictured some 50 years ago by Jeans and JefTreys. 
The pattern of fission-produced and radiogenic nuclides it contained 
would establish the age of the earth and the time scale of star-forming 
events that preceded its creation. Its content of volatile substances would 
indicate for us the composition of the primeval earth's atmosphere and 
help us understand its subsequent evolution. It might contain carbo- 
naceous compounds that could define the milieu out of which terrestrial 
life arose. 

It seems futile to search for primitive material on the earth, because 
crustal rocks are exposed to the corrosive processes noted above. But 
perhaps somewhere else in the solar system? Geologic activity and corro- 
sivity are fairly directly connected with a planet's size. A small planet 
could not retain internal heat effectively enough to support extensive 
igneous activity, nor would its gravitational field be potent enough to 
retain a corrosive atmosphere or bodies of water. Thus, if we could 
sample planets smaller than the earth, our chances of finding primitive 
materials would increase. 

Venus, approximately equal in size to the earth, is not a good bet. 
Mars is smaller and somewhat better; the moon is better yet. Even the 
moon, however, seems to defeat us : chemical analyses performed by the 
recent Surveyor soft-landing missions to the moon have shown that 
much of the surface must be composed of material similar in composi- 
tion to terrestrial basalts or gabbros — rock types that we are fairly cer- 
tain are produced by complex processes of melting and chemical 
fractionation inside the earth, and that probably had a similar origin on 
the moon and do not represent unaffected primitive materials. 

Of course, there are smaller bodies yet in the solar system — asteroids 
and the moons of Mars, Jupiter, and the outer planets. Spacecraft mis- 
sions to these objects lie many years in the future, but fortunately we 
don't have to wait for them; a kind and accommodating nature 
has contrived to deliver samples of them to us gratis in the form of 
meteorites. 

We are not really certain where the meteorites come from, but the 
process of elimination leaves little chance for any source except the 
asteroids. The character of their orbits eliminates a source outside the 
solar system; the composition of most of them does not match the Sur- 



448 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

veyor composition of the lunar surface; the escape velocity from Mars 
is too high (it would be all but impossible for, say, an asteroid impact 
on the Martian surface to impart enough velocity to a surface fragment 
for it to escape without being pulverized or melted) . 

Asteroids are very small objects indeed. The largest, Ceres, is only 
770 kilometers in diameter, about the dimension of France or Spain. 
Most asteroids are substantially smaller. To be sure, once there were 
probably larger asteroids than now; the present asteroids are for the 
most part only fragments of the primeval asteroids, the debris of col- 
lisions among them. But the total mass of asteroid fragments we see now 
is small nonetheless, only a few percent of the mass of the moon, so the 
parent asteroids cannot ever have been very large. 

When we examine the meteorites, they seem the answer to our fond- 
est hopes. About 85 percent of those seen to fall are members of a re- 
markably uniform class named chondrites. Chondrites are very old; in 
many cases we find they have been accumulating radiogenic argon-40 
for 4500 or 4600 million years (the "age of meteorites" noted above). 
What this means physically is that they have literally been held in 
"cold storage" in space for 4500 million years. If they had been heated 
significantly (above a few hundred degrees centigrade) in that time 
or if they had experienced any significant geologic activity, their argon- 
40 would have been released and driven away. 

Since the ages of a great many meteorites cluster about the value 
4500 to 4600 million years, this has come to be accepted as the "age 
of the solar system." Initially, this conclusion was really quite unjustified. 
How do we know the solar system wasn't already 10 billion years old 
when the meteorites were formed? At first, we had no such assurance. 
But in recent years, evidence has appeared that the parent meteorites 
were still quite young when they cooled down to temperatures at which 
argon-40 began to accumulate. Some chondrites were found to contain 
anomalous amounts of the nuclide xenon- 129, which can have been 
emplaced there only by the decay of radioactive iodine- 129. 

Iodine-129 has a relatively short half-life (16.4 million years), so the 
planets' stock of it — if they were endowed with any at the time the solar 
system was formed — must have dwindled away to effectively nothing in 
a very short time. Certainly the earth has none now. As iodine-129 
decayed, it was transformed into the gas xenon- 129. If the host rock 
in which it decayed was still hot, this gas would have been driven off 
and lost. Since some xenon- 129 was retained by some meteorites, we 
can conclude that these meteorites had entered into the final "cold 
storage" phase of their histories before their initial stock of iodine-129 
had dwindled away: within about 100 million years after freshly ere- 



INTRODUCTION METEORITIES AS PLANETARY MATERIAL 



449 



ated iodine- 129 had been incorporated in the planets as they formed. 
Thus, the parent meteorite planets (and by inference the solar system) 
may be older than 4600 million years, but only a little bit older (rela- 
tively speaking) — 100 million years or so. 

The chemical composition of chondrites further encourages us to 
believe they are samples of primitive planetary material. Their con- 
tent of the various metallic elements, relative to one another, is very 
similar to the proportions of these elements that we find (from spectro- 
grams) in the surface of the sun. It is widely believed that the sun and 
planets formed from a single homogeneous cloud of gas and dust, so 
sun and primitive planets ought to be chemically similar, at least as far 
as the condensable, nonvolatile (metallic) elements are concerned. (As 
opposed to hydrogen, for example. We know the sun consists largely of 
hydrogen; but this, being a gas of very low boiling temperature ( —253° 
C), could not possibly have condensed and contributed to the makeup 
of the small inner planets.) 

Chondritic textures are indeed conglomeratic ( figure 1 ) . By studying 
their constituent grains and particles, we may be reaching out to the 
preplanetar)' stages, to a time when there were only gas and dust that 
were beginning to arrange themselves into a star and satellite planets. 
Further, the better preserved chondrites contain a great host of complex 
organic compounds; these compounds were probably produced by 
abiotic processes in the primordial nebula, though some workers are not 
wholly convinced that they might not be the debris of ancient, extra- 
terrestrial, primitive life forms. 

For all these reasons, chondrites are probably the most intriguing and 
enigmatic samples of planetary material we can study, princes among 



1. A chondritic meteor- 
ite (from Beddgelert, 
Wales), with sawed faces, 
showing conglomeratic 
texture. Small light- 
colored spherules (chon- 
drules) may be surviving 
planetesimals from the 
formative stage of the 
solar system. (From Ad- 
vances in the Astronauti- 
cal Sciences, vol. 19, pp. 
99-118, 1965.) 




l|llillllH|llll|ll 



450 



SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 



rocks. And yet they do not answer the question raised at the beginning 
of this article. They are not samples of the primordial earth, but of 
planets formed two or three times farther out from the sun than is the 
earth. Things were probably not the same in both places. We know the 
planets vary in mass density with their distance from the sun : 



Planet 
Mercury 
Venus 
Earth 
Mars 

Asteroids/chondrites 
(Mesosiderites) 

Evidently the planets closer in contain a larger proportion of metallic, 
nickel-iron, making them denser. Further, several workers have recently 
presented involved but convincing arguments, based on terrestrial heat 
flow and the absolute abundances and isotopic compositions of certain 
elements in the earth's crust, that the earth's bulk composition is not the 
same in detail as the composition of the chondrites. Primitive earth 
material must have been rather different from that of the chondrites. 

2. Sawed face of a mesosiderite from Vaca Muerta, Chile. Light areas are 
nickel-iron metal; dark areas, gabbroic silicate minerals. 



Distance from sun 


Mean uncompressed 


{relative to earth's 


density 


distance) 


{approximate) 


0.39 


5.2 


0.72 


4.0 


1.00 


4.0 


1.52 


3.7 


2. 2 to 3. 2 


3.6 


— 


(4.2) 




THE earth: geodesy 451 

In this connection, one of the most obscure and little-studied classes 
of meteorites, the mesosiderites (only one percent of falls) , begins to look 
interesting. Mesosiderites consist of about half basaltic or gabbroic 
minerals and half nickel-iron metal, intimately mingled together. It has 
usually been supposed that they are chance mechanical mixtures of 
earlier-formed iron meteorite material with igneous rock. And yet maybe 
not. There are practical difficulties in postulating a set of processes that 
would mix metal and rock in these proportions, with such intimacy, so 
as to yield such curious structures (figure 2). The mesosiderite content 
of potassium, uranium, rubidium, and metallic nickel-iron is closer to 
what the earth is believed to hold than is that of the chondrites. 

The cooling history of mesosiderites, which can be derived with some 
confidence from a detailed study of the metal alloys they contain, seems 
to point to an origin in a planet whose overall heat budget was 
dominated by earth-like, not chondritic, proportions of potassium and 
uranium. Could it be that mesosiderites are another type of primitive 
material that is a fair approximation to the material from which the 
earth was formed? Could they be fragments of small planets that formed 
about as far from the sun as the earth is now and somehow escaped being 
swept up and added to the bulk of the earth? We may yet learn how the 
earth was formed. 

John A. Wood 

The Earth 

The Observatory continued its investigation of the earth as a planet 
through an active program of satellite geodesy and atmospheric studies.^ 
The SAO network of 12 Baker-Nunn satellite-tracking cameras in 
11 countries provided the basic observational data. In addition, the 
Observatory is deploying laser tracking systems. This year sao moved 
its first laser satellite-ranging station from Organ Pass, New Mexico, to 
the Baker-Nunn site in Hawaii. A more advanced laser system was placed 
on Mount Hopkins, Arizona,^ and a third unit began operating in Athens, 
Greece. The Observatory places considerable importance on the develop- 
ment and operation of laser ranging systems, under the supervision of 
Carlton G. Lehr. The greater accuracy of these systems over optical 
techniques promises major advances in geophysical research. 

GEODESY 

Using SAO satellite observational data, E. M. Gaposchkin, Walter 
Kohnlein, Yoshihide Kozai, Kurt Lambeck, Charles A. Lundquist, and 
George Veis have continued work on an improved calculation of geo- 



452 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

detic parameters.^ The principal results from a geodetic calculation are 
the coordinates of stations observing satellites and a mathematical 
representation of the earth's gravity field. The results calculated this 
year were published as Special Report 264, Geodetic Satellite Results 
During 1967. 

The previous major calculation, the 1966 Smithsonian Institution 
Standard Earth, involved data on 14 satellites observed from the 12 
Baker-Nunn camera stations. The gravity field was represented with 121 
parameters. The work for the 1968 Standard Earth will extend the 
theory to greater accuracy, increase the number of Baker-Nunn obser- 
vations, and expand the analytic capability to include range and velocity 
observations. With this capability, tracking data from other systems, 
such as doppler and laser ranging, can now be used. Data from about 
50 stations, including the sao network, other U.S. satellite-tracking 
networks, and an international group of cooperating observatories 
throughout the world, will be included in the 1968 calculation. In 
further contrast to the 1966 Standard Earth, approximately 25 satellites 
will be used, almost 250 gravity-field parameters will be calculated, and 
the accuracy of the determination of fundamental observing sites should 
be improved to 5 to 10 meters. 

The geodetic satellite Geos-1 was used extensively by SAO this year. 
This satellite, which has intense flash lamps for optical observing and 
retroreflectors for laser ranging, was a mainstay of the year's investiga- 
tions. Geos-1 provided long-term data for Kozai's future zonal-harmonics 
calculations, intense short-period files for Gaposchkin's tesseral-harmon- 
ics determinations, and opportunities for simultaneous observations for 
Veis and Lambeck's geometric solution.* 

Giorgio E. O. Giacaglia and Lundquist developed for the gravitational! 
potential of the earth an alternative mathematical representation that I 
may be useful in the treatment of satellite altimetry data for geodetici 
investigations.* 

Veis determined a new value for the radius of the earth, based onj 
1966 results together with more recent geodetic information and satel- 
lite laser-range data. Veis also established the procedures for a revised 
satellite triangulation program. This program can handle simultaneous 
directions and laser ranges. 

Lambeck develop>ed a new approach to the geometric solution for im- 
proving station coordinates and carried out theoretical investigations on 
the accuracy of the method. He is also developing a new technique that 
combines into a consistent solution the geometric and dynamic results of] 
satellite geodesy as well as other forms of data. He has investigated 
film-reduction techniques and completed a study of the accuracy of the 



THE earth: geodesy 



453 




The Baker-Nunn - laser installation at Mount Hopkins. 




y, / JL. 



454 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Baker-Nunn camera; included in this study was an investigation of the 
effect of atmospheric microturbulence. 

Antanas Gimius, Lambeck, Veis, and Leonard H. Solomon com- 
pleted a comparison of several different satellite-observing systems. As 
part of the comparison, Gimius performed geoid transformations for 
extended areas of the principal datums. Solomon combined data from 
several tracking systems to compute precise orbits for OGO-2, a satellite 
for which no one set of tracking data was sufficient to determine orbits 
to the accuracy required by the onboard experiments. 

In conjunction with the geodetic work, Gaposchkin, Giuseppe 
Colombo, Barbara Kolaczek, and Jan Rolk continued an analysis of 
polar motion.* Knowledge of the position of the pole not only is a sub- 
ject of geophysical interest but also is essential to the reduction of the 
coordinate system used in geodesy. Gaposchkin is developing a model that 
considers the liquid core of the earth as well as the elasticity of the man- 
tle and the oceans in an attempt to resolve the disagreement between 
polar motion and the elasticity of the earth as determined from tides. 

Colombo has investigated the Chandler wobble of the pole. The 
presence of two distinct peaks in the Chandler band of the power spec- 
trum of the latitude variations has been tentatively interpreted as a 
beat phenomenon, suggesting that the classical model of a single elastic 
body with only one Chandler frequency may be inadequate. Colombo's 
new model consists of two nonlinear coupled components. Because of 
the complexity of the parametric study, a digital-computer simulation 
has not yet given significant results. A simulation on an analog com- 
puter is under study. 

Kolaczek is investigating the possibility of determining polar motion 
by satellite observations. She has defined the optimum satellite area-to- 
mass ratio and the optimum semimajor axis of the satellite orbit for this 
purpose. She is estimating the magnitude of various perturbations due 
to satellite and orbit parameters in order to improve the accuracy of 
satellite-position determinations. She computed short-period perturba- 
tions due to solar radiation pressure, using Ladislav Sehnal's formula. 

In another area of geophysics, Paul A. Mohr formulated a project 
using laser methods to measure dilation across the Ethiopian rift.^ Re- 
fining the tectonic and volcanic maps of the African rift system, he also 
developed the concept that the rift zone marks a line of sinistral shear, 
with dilation and compression as secondary effects. This theory appears 
to solve a number of previously puzzling features of the African rift 
system such as the presence of great horsts rising from the rift floor, 
the peculiar restriction of volcanism to some areas of only moderate 
rifting, and the geometric difficulties with a hypothetical mantle- 
convection pattern in relation to the Indian Ocean ridge rift. 



THE earth: upper atmosphere 455 

Together with Mohr, Ursula B. Marvin has begun an appraisal of 
geologically active zones in the earth's crust where continental drift may 
be tested by the techniques of satellite geodesy.^ 

Jacchia, Whipple, Veis, and several other staff members attended the 
annual cospar meeting held this spring in Tokyo. The Director presided 
over some of the sessions; the purpose of these meetings is to further 
international cooperation in geodetic and other studies. 

THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE 

Luigi G. Jacchia, assisted by Jack W. Slowey and I. G. Campbell, con- 
tinued upper atmosphere investigations based on the drag analysis of 
artificial satellites. ^ To provide the necessary drag data, the Baker- 
Nunn cameras tracked nine satellites, including the two balloon satellites 
Explorers 19 and 24, which were launched for drag analysis by sao and 
the Langley Research Center of nasa. 

Theoretical models of the diurnal temperature variation, not in- 
tended to derive accurate predictions, but rather to further insight into 
the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, have been developed by Manfred 
Friedman, in collaboration with Jacchia. Friedman's models include 
such effects as solar radiational heating, interaction between the neutral 
and ionospheric constituents, and the possible existence of winds. 

The semiannual density variation covering the interval from 1958 
to 1966 was the object of a special investigation that included both the 
maximum and the minimum of solar activity. Data from six satellites 
were used, with perigee heights ranging from 250 to 658 kilometers. 
Jacchia found that, although somewhat variable from year to year, the 
semiannual variation is a vary stable feature that can be followed with- 
out any major change in phase throughout the eight years covered by 
the observations. The temperature curves obtained from each of the six 
satellites are strictly in phase and show the same amplitude, irrespective 
of perigee height; peculiarities of the variations, such as an unusually 
broad maximum or minimum, are easily recognizable in each of the 
individual satellite curves. This fact demonstrates that the semiannual 
variation is worldwide and that the obsewed density variations are the 
result of temperature variations at essentially the same atmospheric 
level as those arising from the solar-activity effect. Confirming previous 
results, the amplitude of the semiannual variation was found to vary 
with the solar cycle and to be proportional to the 10.7-centimeter solar 
flux. Jacchia has now undertaken a comprehensive study of the effect of 
solar activity on the upper atmosphere. 



456 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

As new observational data on upper atmosphere density, temperature, 
and composition become available, atmospheric models must be im- 
proved to permit more accurate predictions. Jacchia worked on the 
revision of his "Static diffusion models with empirical temperature pro- 
files" published in 1965 and later incorporated into the U.S. Standard 
Atmosphere Supplements, 1966. 

Slowey has developed a method for taking into account the effect of 
solar radiation pressure in the computation of orbits of artificial satel- 
lites from optical observations. 

THE MAGNETOSPHERE 

A shortwave radio link was previously established by sao and Argentine 
agencies between Jupiter, Florida, and Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim 
of this link was to probe the magnetosphere by measuring the time 
delay (and consequently the length) of propagation paths aligned with 
the earth's magnetic field along the magnetospheric shell. The two 
terminals of the line were synchronized by sag's satellite-tracking tim- 
ing system with an accuracy of better than 1 millisecond. Mario D. 
Grossi collected approximately 180 hours of data on analog tapes and 
is processing these data. 

The Moon 

Donald H. Menzel continued his studies of the rate of escape of the 
lunar atmosphere. More accurate atmosphere models are needed to 
account for the proved escape rate, which is slower than that predicted 
by Sir James Jeans. Lunar Orbiter photographs are continuing to be 
studied, to understand the processes of erosion that appear to have 
arisen from liquid flow, presumably water. il 

Winfield W. Salisbury is extending the study of induced currents in ai 
conducting sphere to a two-layer system such as a body with a noncon- 
ducting surface and a conducting or partially conducting core. This 
work is being done to explain better the relation of the lack of induced- 
current magnetic shock waves near the moon to lunar structure and the 
electrical conductivity of the lunar lithosphere. 

Salisbury and Yasushi Nozawa used the 1000-foot radio telescope atl 
Arecibo, Puerto Rico, for various low-frequency radio-emission measures! 
from the moon to investigate its internal structure and temperature. 
The data indicate that the temperature appears to go down with depth 
for at least a fraction of the moon's radius. 

Edward L. Fireman, Ursula B, Marvin, and John A. Wood have 
set up laboratories for the isotopic,*^ mineralogical,^ and petrological 
study ^ of lunar materials to be returned by the Apollo mission. 



THE OTHER PLANETS 457 

The Other Planets 

David Morrison and Carl Sagan have analyzed the microwave phase 
effect of the planet Mercury and believe that the observations can be 
understood in terms of the combined solution of the one-dimensional 
equation of heat conduction and the equation of radiative transfer, pro- 
vided that the eccentricity and the two-thirds spin of the Mercurian 
orbit are specifically taken into account.^ They find a range in surface 
temperature from 700°K to 1000°K, with the thermal and electrical 
properties of the Mercurian subsurface similar to those for the moon. 

Using the Harvard 61 -inch telescope with a triple Fabry-Perot inter- 
ferometric spectrometer, Nathaniel P. Carleton and Ashok Sharma 
searched for the 6300-A emission line of atomic oxygen in the atmos- 
phere of Venus. A preliminary upp>er limit of this line's intensity has 
now been set.^ 

The absorption spectrum of a variety of atmospheric constituents in 
the Venus atmosphere has been investigated by Egor Eberstein, Bishun 
Khare, and James Pollack in an attempt to derive transmission-averaged 
opacities for the construction of Venus greenhouse models.^ 

In a series of papers, Pollack, Sagan, Richard Wattson, and Arthur 
T. Wood, Jr., of the Harvard College Observatory, have investigated 
the compatibility of the Mariner 5 and Venera 4 space-vehicle results on 
the Venus atmosphere and their compatibility with ground-based pas- 
sive and active microwave observations.® They find that a mean surface 
temperature of about 750°K, a mean surface pressure of about 90 
atmospheres, and a mixing ratio of water of approximately 0.5 percent 
volume are consistent with all the data except the results of the Venera 
4 radar altimeter. 

The 61 -inch telescope and associated interferometer were used by 
Carleton and Sharma to complete their analysis of CO2 absorption in 
the spectrum of Mars.® An equation for the abundance of CO2 in 
terms of Martian effective temperature and pressure was developed. 
They determined the surface pressure to be 6 to 9 millibars on the basis 
of an atmosphere containing 100 percent and 60 percent CO2, 
respectively. 

The determination of an effective temperature by usual techniques 
is not accurate, owing to variations with altitude, latitude, and longi- 
tude. Sharma is examining this problem by computing synthetic spectra 
of the CO2 band for realistic polytropic models of the Martian 
atmosphere. 

Sagan and Pollack have continued their investigations of a wind- 
blown dust model to explain the surface features and seasonal changes 
on Mars. They show that the particle sizes of the powder typical of 

315-997 O - 69 - 30 



458 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

dark and bright areas on Mars are those expected when aeolian transport 
of dust is dominant and where significant elevation differences exist. * 

Clark Chapman, Pollack, and Sagan have performed a close analysis 
of the Mariner 4 photography of Mars.*^ The crater statistics are in- 
terpreted in terms of various populations of impacting objects and a 
variety of erosion mechanisms, including saturation bombardment by 
meteors. They find, among other conclusions, that the absence of such 
signs of water as river valleys in Mariner 4 photography is quite irrele- 
vant to the question of the existence of water in early Martian history. 

Douglas T. Pitman has made a detailed study of the dissociation vapor 
pressure curves for the minerals geothite (HFeOo) and limonite 
(HFeOo • HoO) ; the data are compatible with a Martian model in which 
limonite and goethite make up a significant fraction of the Martian 
surface.® 

The possibility of determining the temperature distribution of the 
Jovian atmosphere from the relative intensities of methane lines in the 
spectra of Jupiter is being explored by Sharma." Preliminary laboratory 
observations indicate that a minimum path length of 150-meter atmos- 
pheres is required for extensive study of the 6200-A methane band. 

Fred A. Franklin and Allan F. Cook completed reduction of spectro- 
grams of Saturn's satellites taken during the time of passage of the earth 
through the plane of the rings. This analysis made possible the setting of 
an upper limit on the density of a possible gaseous atmosphere envelop- 
ing the ring. 

Franklin also continued with Colombo their study of the radial struc- 
ture of Saturn's rings. With the help of an electronic computer that 
enabled them to include both the perturbations resulting from the inner 
satellite and the oblateness of Saturn, they determined the general field 
of perturbations throughout the ring. While the problem is by no means 
yet solved, they can show a notable correspondence in the motion of a 
ring particle with the radial dependence of the excluded regions pro- 
duced by the above perturbations and the observed ring structure. 

Comets and Meteors 

At Prague in August 1967, the Director presented his detailed report 
of international research on comets, covering the 3-year interval 1964 
to 1967, for publication in the International Astronomical Union 
(lAU) Report The Physics of Comets for Commission 15, of which he 
was President. He was also named President of Commission 6, Astro- 
nomical Telegrams. Several other staff members participated in the 
lAU Symposium. 
Salah E. Hamid and the Director uncovered in ancient Chinese 



COMETS AND METEORS 459 

records several possible references to periodic Comet Encke. Compu- 
ter programs, which calculated the perturbing effects of the planets on 
the comet's orbit for a period extending 2500 years into the past, were 
used in the identification process.^ 

One of the problems in such an endeavor is the effect of unknown 
nongravitational forces that act on cometary orbits- Brian G. Marsden 
has found, from an exhaustive study of orbits of 18 short-period comets 
seen at three or more perihelion passages since 1925, that detectable 
noneravit^tional forces are the rule rather than the exception/ Studies 
such as this have provided supporting evidence for the Director's theory, 
first proposed in 1950, that these nongravitational variations are caused 
by tiie ejection of material from a rotating comet nucleus. 

Hamid, Marsden, and the Director completed their calculations of 
the effects of a possible comet belt beyond Neptune on the motions of 
seven long-period comets. Comparison of the orbital elements of Halley's 
Comet, which is the most sensitive to such forces, as determined in 1835 
and 1909, revealed, after allowance was made for all planetary pertur- 
bations, that there is no evidence of effects by a comet belt. This con- 
clusion confirmed the earlier, preliminary results, which had established 
an upper limit for this belt of 1 earth mass out to 50 astronomical units 
from the sun. 

James Wright studied the effects of general relativity on the calcula- 
tion of periods of long-period comets. Comparisons of observational data 
with predicted behavior from rival gravitational theories are inconclu- 
sive because the observations are not sufficiently precise.^ 

A study of the sungrazing comet group by Marsden yielded virtually 
conclusive proof that Comets 1882 II and 1965 VIII were pieces of a 
single comet that had fragmented at the previous perihelion passage, 
probably in the first half of the 12th century, in the same manner that 
these comets themselves fragmented.^ 

Pitman is continuing investigations of the physical properties of icy 
systems, concentrating on the problem of thermal conductivity, in an 
effort to better understand Whipple's icy-conglomerate model of comet 
nuclei.^ 

Optical data from the observations of artificial meteoroids, carried out 
jointly with nasa's Langley Research Center, were analyzed by Rich- 
ard E. McCrosky and Cheng- Yuan Shao.^° From data on nine artificial 
meteoroids, they calculated improved values of the luminosity coeffici- 
ent, which is essential for determining the mass of natural meteoroids. 

Under the guidance of Richard B. Southworth and Salisbury, the 
meteor radar system was completely refurbished and calibrated during 
the year.^° 



460 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Carl S. Nilsson has gathered and is now reducing data for a precise 
calibration of the Havana Radio Meteor Network.^" Further improve- 
ments in the equipment are being made by Mario R. SchaflFner, who 
completed construction of a new system for processing received signals 
in real time and for following several programs simultaneously .^° 

Giuseppe Forti used observations from the Radio Meteor Network to 
measure radial and two-dimensional horizontal winds in the upper 
atmosphere.^" 

Preliminary analysis of data from the Prairie Network indicates that 
the mass flux of large meteoroids entering the earth's atmosphere is 
one to two orders of magnitude larger than would have been expected 
from extrapolation from faint-meteoroid data." Nevertheless, the struc- 
tural characteristics of the large and small meteoroids appear to be 
identical. 

Cook, who has been working on the physical theory of meteors, has 
explained that the inefficiency of radiational cooling for very small 
bodies at relatively low temperatures may cause extremely small meteor- 
oids to vaporize in circumstances where they were previously thought 
to decelerate without significant mass loss.^° He reviewed this work at 
the Symposium on the Physics and Dynamics of Meteors held in Sep- 
tember in Tatranska Lomnica, Czechoslovakia. The Director and sev- 
eral other staff members also contributed to this symposium. 

Zdenek Ceplecha studied the problem of the beginning heights of 
meteoroids in an attempt to understand why two main levels, separated 
by about 10 kilometers, exist. ^° The meteoroids associated with these 
levels have different photometric-to-dynamic mass ratios. From several 
possible explanations of this phenomenon he concluded that only two, 
meteoroid composition and fragmentation or spraying, are significant. 

Ceplecha also compared computed bulk densities for Pribram fire- 
ball with those for Prairie Network meteors and found that they were 
on the order of 0.1 in all cases. He concluded that progressive fragmen- 
tation was decisive for Pribram and could also be important for other 
bolides and meteorite fireballs.^" 



THE PRAIRIE NETWORK 

The Prairie Network is a system of automatic photographic observing! 
stations in the midwestern United States. Its purpose is to acquire orbitallj 
and trajectory data on extremely bright meteors. These events are rare, 
any single one of them being unlikely to be observable by a single! 



COMETS AND METEORS: THE PRAIRIE NETWORK 461 

instrument in a year's time. The network, with 64 cameras patrolling 
an area of 1.5 X 10*^ km^ in the meteor region (60-kilometer altitude), 
makes it possible for the first time to obtain a statistically significant 
number of observations in a reasonable time. 

Four major problems are under attack : recovery of meteorites, abla- 
tion processes of high-velocity objects, the relationship between a mete- 
or's brightness and its mass, and the distribution of meteoric material 
in the solar system. There was some expectation at the inception of 
the program that these problems were relatively independent and, fur- 
thermore, that nature would supply a variety of objects that, when ade- 
quately observed, would permit one to disentangle the dependent rela- 
tionships. In particular, it has been generally believed that the material 
that produces meteors arises from two sources, the comets and the aster- 
oids. Considerable data on cometary meteors are consistent with a fragile, 
and probably low-density, structure for this material. On the other hand, 
meteorites attributed to the asteroidal source are high-density and fre- 
quently high-strength material. One would expect to be able to differ- 
entiate between two bodies of such grossly different characteristics from 
their modes of ablation during flight through the atmosphere. The one 
will crumble easily, thus losing mass and velocity at a far greater rate 
than the other. Even if there is a continuum of structural characteristics 
spanning the range from cometary to asteroidal material (as we have 
defined them here), one should still expect to be able to extract the ex- 
treme cases from a large mass of data. 

Another belief was important in the early considerations of the net- 
work. A meteorite fall, of course, is preceded by an extremely bright 
meteor event. Limited information on the heliocentric orbit of meteor- 
ites suggested that they bore a statistical resemblance to other meteoric 
objects, the bright fireballs. For this and even less compelling reasons, 
it was assumed that many fireballs were produced by asteroidal material. 
Since the fraction of recognizable asteroidal material among fainter 
meteors is extremelly small, the obvious extrapolation of the above facts 
suggests that the asteroidal source would become the predominant one 
if one observed meteors of sufficient brightness. 

While it is disquieting, the Prairie Network and other fireball data 
do not support any of the preceding presumptions. We have numerous 
observations of fireballs for which we have measured the deceleration 
caused by atmospheric drag. The deceleration is a function of the body 
size and mass. If we accept as true our best present estimates on the 
relationship between the luminosity and the mass of the meteor, we can 
determine a mass independent of the drag and combine these two 
numbers to give a body size or density. The average value of the densities 



462 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

is about 0.4 gram per cubic centimenter, and in no case have we ob- 
served a body with a well-determined density as high as 3.5 graxns per 
cubic centimeter, which is the density of meteoritic stone. We also find 
that the terminal masses of the bodies are usually negligibly small; i.e., 
the ablation process has been near-catastrophic. In addition, we find 
that the total mass impinging on the earth's atmosphere in the form of 
these large bodies is several orders of magnitude larger than one would 
have expected on the basis of an extrapolation of the distribution of 
smaller particles of cometary origin. The mass influx is very much 
greater than that estimated from the apparent rate of fall of meteorites, 
even if the resulting meteorite represents only ten percent of the initial 
body. Also, we can be reasonably certain, after four years of observa- 
tions, that the rate of meteorite falls is certainly less than our most opti- 
mistic estimates at the beginning of the program (one or two of 1 kilo- 
gram or larger) and may not be substantially higher than the most 
pessimistic estimate, 0.1 per year. 

Even though our expectations were based on somewhat doubtful 
premises, the results are still suflSciently surprising to compel us to 
question all aspects of the theory used in their derivation. Such an 
investigation suggests either that the drag equation is very different for an 
ablating body than for those cases well studied by the classical aerody- 
namicist or that the production of luminosity in the visual region by the 
meteoric process is truly an exceptionally efficient process — more effi- 
cient, for example, than the best-designed hot-element devices com- 
monly used for illumination. Both these prospects seem remote, and 
perhaps the present best guess of the meaning of these data is the simple 
explanation that most meteoric bodies are indeed low-density, fragile 
objects. 

Such an explanation leaves unanswered — and with the present data, 
unanswerable — all questions concerning the frequency distribution and 
ablation processes of meteorites. The only clue to these problems that 
remains is the single example of a meteorite photographed in flight 
(Pribram), in Czechoslovakia in 1956. Because of the question raised 
by the Prairie Network data, we have been prompted to reanalyze the 
Pribram data. It, too, has always given paradoxical results, but these 
have often been attributed to the fact that the observations were unsatis- 
factory because of the extreme overexposure of an object 10'^ times 
brighter than the cameras were designed to observe. There is, however, 
no simple escape from the obvious facts of this event — that an extremely 
large body, of many tons, fragmented high in the atmosphere into a 
great number of pieces, of which remarkably few survived to the ground. 
One concept can embody all these observations. If most meteorites, 



METEORITES AND COSMIC DUST 463 

Pribram included, represent the small, high-density portion of mete- 
oroids, we have both a source of meteorites and an explanation of the 
optical observations, but we do not understand how such a conglomerate 
could have formed in the solar system. Good photographic observation 
of the meteor event preceding a recoverable fall still remains a primary 
requirement in order that the Pribram result may be confirmed and 
meteor astronomy proceed toward an understanding of the nature of 
meteoroids. 

R. E. McCrosky 



Meteorites and Cosmic Dust 

The Observatory is continuing its intensive investigation of extraterres- 
trial materials in the form of meteorites and dust particles. 

Using the sag high-sensitivity mass spectrometer. Fireman has ana- 
lyzed separated phases of the Deelfontein iron meteorite. In the metal 
phase the rare gases are entirely due to cosmic-ray spallation, and the 
argon-36/chlorine-36 exposure age is about 400 million years. In the 
troilite phase there is a large xenon- 129 excess due to extinct radio- 
activity. The time between nucleosynthesis and meteorite formation is 
less than 100 million years. The argon content of graphite indicates that 
primordial gas is concentrated in carbon and that the graphite was 
formed under a gas pressure containing about 0.001 atmosphere of 
argon. 

Robert H. McCorkell and Fireman determined radioactive isotopes in 
the Hoba meteorite. They found that it landed less than 80,000 years 
ago. The cosmic-ray exposure age of Hoba was found to be about 260 
million years. Activities of the cosmic-ray-produced radioisotopes in 
Hoba indicate that the surface that was sampled was shielded by about 
40 centimeters of material when the meteorite was in space. Of this 
shielding, about one-third is accounted for by the weathering crust 
formed at the earth's surface; thus, very little ablation occurred from 
at least one side of the body as it passed through the atmosphere. 

Fireman and McCorkell also continued their analysis of the samples 
of the 200-year-old Greenland ice.^^ This analysis has indicated that most 
of the extraterrestrial material arrives on the earth in the form of 
relatively large bodies, about ten centimeters in diameter. New satellite 
and balloon results have excluded a micrometeorite influx rate of more 
than 100,000 tons per year. 

Marvin completed a mineralogical study of dust from the Greenland 
icecap. The mineralogy of the dust suggests that it is primarily wind- 



464 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

blown material from North America. The dust did not show any pres- 
ence of characteristically meteoritic minerals. 

Using a newly developed laser-microprobe mass spectrometer, 
George H. Megrue has determined the location and isotopic abundances 
of primordial rare gases in the Fayetteville and Kapoeta meteorites. The 
consistently high abundance of helium, neon, and argon within these 
meteorites suggests that the fine-grained material, possibly cosmic dust, 
was collected on the surface of a parent body, either the moon or an 
asteroid, and was then introduced into the host body by brecciation 
caused by meteoritic impact. 

Matthias F. Comerford had previously found that target ductility is 
an important parameter in erosion by high-velocity dust particles.^^ 
Since macroscopic projectiles cause higher erosion rates than micro- 
scopic dust, he has prepared single-crystal magnetite targets to test the 
hypothesis that larger particles have a higher probability of interacting 
with flaws in the target. 

As a result of an effort to determine the orientation relationship 
between the crystal lattices of the carbide phase and the metal phase, 
a computer program to describe the crystallography of the carbide was 
written. 

A careful study of phosphide morphology by Comerford revealed that 
extreme care must be exercised when attempts are made to use phos- 
phides as a measure of the thermal history of meteorites. 

A quantitative X-ray analysis of shock effects in several octahedriteS 
performed by Comerford showed that these meteorites have mechanical 
and physical characteristics like those of deformed iron, but they dc 
not show the plastic flow that characterizes the usual deformatior 
process. 

The study of the effects of a hydrostatic pressure of 30 kilobars onj 
annealing kinetics in iron-silicon is continuing in collaboration with H, 
Posen of Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. The results to 
date suggest that hydrostatic pressure has very little effect on recovery 
kinetics, i.e., property changes that occur before recrystallization ; but 
hydrostatic pressure may have a profound effect on recrystallization 
kinetics. 

J. Wood has assembled a large number of meteorite samples that will 
be analyzed for nickel distribution in gamma nickel-iron grains by means 
of the newly acquired sag electron microprobe. He will investigate the 
rate at which each meteorite cooled between about 550° C and 350° C. 
This cooling rate is of interest because it is indicative of the sizes of the| 
host bodies and of the depths at which the meteorites resided. Although) 
Wood had already obtained and published preliminary results of this 



CELESTIAL MECHANICS 465 

analysis, he is now using a larger number of samples in order to approach 
the problem statistically to determine preferred cooling rates correspond- 
ing to discrete source planets. 

Wood is also using electron-microprobe techniques to study mesosid- 
entes, an obscure class of stony-iron meteorite that may be primitive 
planetary material only partly degraded by heating and mechanical 
mixing. 

Salisbury and Darrell L. Fernald continued experiments to test the 
Director's hypothesis concerning the fomiation of chondrules. Laplace 
nebula conditions partially duplicated with a hydrogen atmosphere and 
lightning discharges have produced 1- to 2-millimeter chondrule-like ob- 
jects from granite dust. The experiment will be continued using dust 
from actual meteorites and a prepared Cameron cosmic mix consisting 
of 23 diflferent elements in their measured solar and cosmic abundances. 

Frances W. Wright has continued to collect, select, and prepare vol- 
canic and meteoritic particles to be analyzed with the sao electron 
microprobe. Volcanic particles were obtained from Bali, Surtsey, Vesu- 
vius, and Tonga; and meteoritic particles, from the Henbury and Box- 
hole craters in Australia. Paul W. Hodge has compared satellite pene- 
tration studies, analyses using polar-ice sediments, and other investiga- 
tions for determining the influx rate of meteoritic dust and micrometeor- 
ites. The latter have been identified chemically, and the former appears 
to be ablation products from very large meteoritic bodies. Using data col- 
lected from the guest experimenter on Gemini 12, F. Wright with Don- 
ald E. Brownlee, of the University of Washington, and Hodge deter- 
mined a statistically probable value of an upper limit to the influx of 
particles. 

Data from the OGO-2 micrometeoroid experiment have been com- 
pletely analyzed by Nilsson.^* He found only two impacts in over 1300 
hours of data, and these may have been due to noise rather than to 
genuine impact. He therefore deduced that the average flux of micro- 
meteoroids of mass greater than 10-^ gram must be less than 3 X lO'^ 
particle per square meter per second per 2 tt steradian. Nilsson, David 
S. Wilson, and F. Wright have analyzed over 1100 hours of data from 
[the OGO-4 micrometeoroid experiment. They found no genuine im- 
pacts ; this fact places an upper limit on the flux of particles of mass 
greater than lO'^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ vicinity of the earth of 3 X lO'^ particle 
per square meter per second per 2 tt steradian. 

Celestial Mechanics 

In addition to those relevant investigations already noted, the Observa- 
:or\' carried on a variety of research in celestial mechanics." 



466 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

A highlight of the year was the approach of Icarus to the earth, an 
event that had long been awaited by scaremongers and members of 
certain "religious" sects (hippies), as well as by astronomers. Marsden 
kept track of its orbit as it approached and communicated mformation 
regarding it to the astronomical community. 

Hamid developed a first-order planetary perturbation theory that 
makes available harmonic representations in mean anomalies of the 

perturbations. . , 

The formulas for the effect of the moon's precession, nutation, and 
aberration on a selenocentric celestial coordinate system were developed 
by Kolaczek. Their general form enables the translation from one celes- , 
tial coordinate system to another, e.g., from that of the earth to that of , 
the moon or planets or of a space station. 

Colombo, Cook, and Franklin are studying periodic orbits of re- 
stricted three-body problems to achieve a better understanding of the 
gaps of Saturn's rings and the asteroidal belts. 

The Sun and Beyond 

The Observatory's study of the sun, of the stars and other bodies, and 
of phenomena beyond the solar system can be considered under two 
headings: observational programs and theoretical investigations. The 
former include the detection of gamma rays from celestial sources, 
Proiect Celescope,- most sac research by means of radio telescopes and 
the analysis of OSO-4 data; the latter, model stellar atmospheres 
analysis of line radiation, stellar dynamics, cosmological models, and 
atomic and molecular physics. In fact, however, this division is largely 
for the sake of convenience, since no sharp distinction between the two 
areas can be made. 

OBSERVATIONAL PROGRAMS j 

The Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-4) experiment, under the' 
overall direction of Leo Goldberg, Director of the Harvard College 
Observatory, was the principal research area of Robert W- Noyes. ' This 
experiment culminated in the successful launch (19 October 1967) and 
operation of an ultraviolet spectroheliometer to obtain monochromatic 
images of the sun in the light of coronal and chromospheric emission 
lines in the far ultraviolet. 

The ultraviolet spectroheliometer, which operated successfully to ^U 
November 1967, sending back over 4000 pictures of the sun m 52 ditj! 
ferent wavelengths distributed over a wide range of temperatures and 
heights in the solar atmosphere. Most of the observations obtained are 
unique, in that they are the first to give spatial (depth) resolution o. 



SUN AND beyond: OBSERVATIONAL PROGRAMS 467 

the solar disk. George B. Rybicki developed a new correction for instru- 
mental efTects on obsen-ed spectra to extract more data from the ob- 
served spectroheliograms. Data on the Lyman continuum of hydrogen 
have already been used to investigate the temperature structure and 
departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the 
chromosphere. 

Together with Noyes and J. M. Beckers of the Sacramento Peak Solar 
Observatory, Jay M. Pasachoff continued the investigation of fine struc- 
tures in the solar chromosphere. Both the dynamics and the radiation of 
the chromosphere were studied. Pasachoff and Joseph Silk considered 
the red shift of solar absorption lines and concluded that it is a general 
relativistic effect in which Compton scattering is insignificant. 

Menzel continued his work on magnetohydrodynamics and problems 
of the solar atmosphere, including the structure and dynamics of sun 
spots, the corona, and most recently the theory of coronal helmets. 
He completed the analysis of observations, taken in Peru, of the polari- 
zation of the corona during the November 1966 eclipse. 

The Observatory's effort to obtain accurate stellar spectral-energy dis- 
tributions concentrated on instrument development for use on Mount 
Hopkins. A contract for the manufacture of a 60-inch telescope was 
signed. The site for this telescope was selected after a year of field-test 
observations under the direction of Noyes. ^* 

David W. Latham modified the sag spectrum scanner for use with a 
12-inch telescope. A small building and dome were erected for this 
instrument, to obtain data and site experience on Mount Hopkins.^^ 

Investigations commenced of possible configurations of a major optical 
reflector of a diameter equivalent to several hundred inches. It is hoped 
that this instrument will be installed on Mount Hopkins in three to 
five years. 

The joint radio-optical monitoring of flares stars continued. Observa- 
tions were expanded for 24-hour intervals coordinated by the Working 
Group on Flare Stars of the International Astronomical Union. The 
previous year's observations were reduced and correlated with radio 
data by Solomon. ^^ 

: F. Wright and Hodge obtained two-color magnitudes of main-se- 
quence stars and periods of variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud 
(LMC). Ages of 1200 clusters were determined. These results give a 
time sequence of cluster formation and a history of the LMC and con- 
tribute in general to our knowledge of the evolution of galaxies. 

Other studies of galaxies by Hodge included detail structure and 
•adial distribution of H II regions in spirals. The structure of all known 
-nembers of the Fornax cluster of galaxies is now complete. Further 
tudies of irregular and radio galaxies have begun. 



468 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Hodge also completed reductions of luminosity and color measures 
of NGC 147 and 205. The Population I component at the center of 
NGC 205 can probably be ascribed to a super-supernova or to some 
other short-lived burst of star formation. Studies of extragalactic stellar 
associations in nearby galaxies have begun, with the intent of extending 
the Bok-and-Bok relation to greater distances. 

The Celescope experiment package has successfully completed the 
environmental acceptance tests at nasa and has been installed in the 
Orbiting Astronomical Observatory; current plans call for launching 
inthefallof 1968.i« 

Robert J. Davis devoted his time to planning the automatic analysis 
of data from the Celescope experiment. Computer programs have been 
completed for identifying and measuring the positions and brightnesses 
of stars in the television pictures from Celescope and for controlling 
and analyzing the operation of the Celescope experiment. William A. 
Deutschman and Davis completed a preliminary catalog of all astro- 
nomical objects that they expect to observe with the Celescope experi- 
ment. Nozawa developed a method for determining the optimal test 
duration for a space system that is the only available unit for flight. 

The Director has been active on a committee of the National Academy 

of Sciences that is considering the possibility of a large space telescope. 

The Observatory continued to study the mechanisms that produce 

cosmic gamma rays and to develop techniques to measure low-, 

medium-, and high-energy cosmic gamma radiation. 

During September 1967, Giovanni G. Fazio, Henry F. Helmken, 
David Hearn, and Stephen Cavrak conducted a balloon flight from 
Palestine, Texas, with the vidicon spark-chamber detector to study gam- 
ma radiation in the range 100 million electron volts (Mev) to 5 billion 
electron volts (Bev). Failure of the high-voltage supply in the spark 
chamber prevented a search for cosmic gamma- ray sources; however, 
the scintillation counters and telemetry systems functioned well, and 
useful data were obtained for determining the operation of future de-* 
tectors.2° Preparations are being made for another balloon flight with 
the vidicon spark chamber in September 1968. 

Helmken studied the design of gamma-ray detectors in the 0.2- tc 
10-Mev and 10- to 50-Mev ranges. These detectors will be flown on 
balloon flights near the geomagnetic equator as part of a joint experi- 
mental program with the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research ir 
Bombay, India.^^ In March a preliminary balloon flight was made ir 
India to test telemetry and to measure the background radiation. 

In June the large optical reflector was installed at the Mount Hop- 
kins Observatory and final acceptance tests were performed. This steer- 



I 



SUN AND BEYOND: OBSERVATIONAL PROGRAMS 469 



i 



*^^, 



ito: 4 



SAO's Helmken and 
Fazio cooperated with 
the Tata Institute of 
Bombay in launching an 
instrument package to 
measure the normal back- 
ground level of secondary 
radiation caused by cos- 
mic rays striking the up- 
per atmosphere. Top, 
Indian workers fill the 
balloon with a quarter- 
million cubic feet of hy- 
irogen; below the balloon 
"eadied for launch. 




470 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

able 34-foot-diameter dish, consisting of a mosaic of 248 hexagonal mir- 
rors, each 2 feet across, will detect gamma rays with energy greater 

than 10 Bev. . 

In preparation for the large optical reflector experiments, Fazio, 
Helmken, Trevor Weekes, and George Rieke conducted a pilot experi- 
ment at the Mount Hopkins Observatory. Using two 5-foot searchlight 
mirrors as reflectors, they achieved a gamma-ray energy threshold of 
2000 Bev. Six months of observations resulted in new or improved upper 
limits on 18 suspected gamma-ray sources, including the Crab Nebula, 
M82, M87, and pulsating radio sources. 

Working under Fazio, C. Cheng of Harvard College Observatory and 
Floyd Stecker conducted theoretical studies of cosmic gamma rays pro- 
duced in interstellar and intergalactic cosmic-ray collisions and of the 
expected gamma-ray flux from the sun during solar flares. 

This year marked successful completion of a project begun three 
years ago. Under the direction of A. Edward Lilley, the SAO-Harvard 
84-foot-diameter precision paraboloid antenna was installed on an ex- 
isting pedestal with an equatorial mounting and drive assembly at 
Harvard's George R. Agassiz Station. A new counterweight system 
was installed, a survey of the instrument's surface carried out, the system 
noise temperature measured, and the telescope placed on a regular 
operational basis. This radio telescope uses parametric amplifiers m a 
variety of research programs. Joseph F. Hayes has developed a small 
laboratory for constructing and testing parametric amplifiers. 

The Observatory continued to participate in the study program off 
the Northeast Radio Observatory' Corporation (neroc), successor taj 
the Cambridge Radio Observatory Committee ( camroc) . 

Dale F. Dickinson has been working with M. Litvak of MIT Lincol: 
Laboratory and Ben Zuckerman of the SAO-Harvard radio-astronora 
group on the problem of maser models to explain the anomalous OI 
signals. Excitation by ultraviolet light and excitation by near- and far- 
infrared radiation are three of the ideas most favored currendy. Dickin-J 
son's work thus far indicates that the far-infrared processes play an im^ 
portant role, although they may not necessarily be the predominantj 

exciter. 

Sachiko Tsuruta has been investigating possible explanations 
rapidly pulsating radio waves detected recently. Models involving boi 
neutron stars and white dwarfs were studied. Study of various posslbil 
ities involving neutron stars, such as a combined model of oscillatio 
plus rotations, the efTect of stellar flares, magnetic fields, and atmosphei^ 
resonance, is proceeding. Analytic equations are being derived to explai: 
the beta reaction rates in a shell of white dwarfs where urca process^ 



SUN AND BEYOND: OBSERVATIONAL PROGRAMS 



471 




At Mount Hopkins Observatory, Arizona: The large optical reHector, 



(electron decay, positron decay, and electron capture) can take place. 
These equations will be useful for some of the white-dwarf models pro- 
posed to explain pulsars. 

Carleton and Costas Papaliolios have made optical-photometric 
searches with the Harvard 61 -inch telescope in the region containing 
me of these pulsating radio sources, CP1919. They have concluded that 
10 object in this vicinity flashes in visible light in the same manner as 
do the radio pulses. The brightest star in the area defined by the radio 
)bservations is only of 19th visual magnitude. The observations could 
lave detected a fluctuation of light equal to 0.4 percent of the light 
•utput of this star during the time between radio pulses if this fluctua- 
ion were concentrated in a time equal to the duration of the radio 
)ulses. The possibility of the existence of other variations in light emis- 
ion from the region is still being examined. 



472 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS 

During the year Charles A. Whitney continued his research on stellar 
atmospheres and radiation gas dynamics. With Charles J. Bartlett, he 
investigated several problems of the structure of shock fronts in the 
presence of radiation. 

Owen J. Gingerich performed the master calculations for a new 
reference solar model, the Bilderberg Continuum Atmosphere, and ex- 
tended the ultraviolet calculations to include the carbon-absorption edge 
and the Lyman-alpha wings. 

Duane Carbon, Gingerich, and Robert Kurucz studied the effect of 
line blanketing on the observed solar spectrum and hypothesized that 
existing observations of the "line-free" solar radiation field may be 
affected by a multitude of weak, unseen absorption lines, especially in 
the ultraviolet. 

Stephen E. Strom, with Peter Conti of the Lick Observatory, con- 
tinued studies of abundance anomalies in A stars and proposed that the 
class of Am stars be extended to higher effective temperatures.^^ S. Strom 
worked with Tom Greene, of the University of Washington, on the depth 
variation of turbulent velocities in atmospheres of K giants; their pre- 
liminary result is that velocity increases with depth. 

Wolfgang Kalkofen and S. Strom continued their study of the con- 
tinuum-formation layers in early-type stars.^^ Assuming detailed balanc- 
ing in photoexcitation, they predict that, when radiative processes 
predominate over collisions, the population of the second hydrogen leve 
is smaller, while those of the third level and the bound level of H" an 
greater than populations prevailing in LTE. 

Deane M. Peterson and S. Strom investigated non-LTE effects in the 
wings of Balmer lines; their predictions agree well with observation 
Using their very accurate photoelectric profiles of H-alpha and H-gammi 
for Vega and Sirius, they showed that Griem's formulation of thi 
Bahner-line Stark broadening is superior to that of Edmonds, Schliiter.' 
and Wells. 

Yvette Cuny showed that interpretations of the solar ultraviolet spec- 
trum in the range 1500 to 1680 A must consider non-LTE effects, anc 
resolved discrepancies between computed and observed solar spectra bf 
taking into account the resonance-broadening opacity of the Lyman 
alpha wings. 

Prompted by Cuny's discovery of the importance of Lyman-alphd 
absorption in the near ultraviolet, S. Strom and Karen M. Strom investi 
gated the temperature structure of subdwarfs.^^ They found that sub 
dwarf temperatures had previously been underestimated and tha 



SUN AND beyond: THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS 473 

consequently the helium content of these stars may be at least as high 
as 5 to 10 percent by mass. Studying Si I bound-free opacity, Strom 
and Strom showed that it plays an important role in the emergent flux 
of B7 to FO stars. S. Strom investigated the determination of turbulent 
velocities from differential curves of growth and concluded that cases 
where metal-to-hydrogen ratios differ significantly between program 
and standard stars must be treated very cautiously. 

Eugene H. Avrett investigated temperature and density variations and 
the inhomogeneities in the outer solar atmosphere by means of detailed 
theoretical analyses of spectral lines. He collaborated with Jeffrey L. 
Linsky, Pasachoff, and Eric Chipman of Harvard College Observatory 
in studies of the Ca H, Na I, Mg I, and H resonance lines. Their 
results suggest that the chromospheric temperature rise occurs at a 
greater height than was previously supposed and is accompanied by a 
sharp increase in turbulence. 

Incorporating convection and better opacity calculations in their 
versatile computer program, Gingerich and collaborators Linsky, Car- 
bon, and Latham have now achieved the coolest nongray stellar atmos- 
pheres ever computed. 

Some of these and related results were reported at the third Harvard- 
Smithsonian Conference on Stellar Atmospheres. =^^ This conference, 
dealing with the theory and observation of normal stellar atmospheres, 
A^as organized by Whitney and Gingerich and took place during the 
.veek of 8-12 April. Attending were 67 scientists from this country 
ind abroad, as well as 29 staff members of sao and the Harvard College 
Observatory. 

Observatory scientists also investigated a variety of problems concern- 
ng nebulas, supernovas, interstellar space, and fundamental physical 
processes of the universe. 

Rybicki computed emission lines of a simplified model of expanding 
)lanetary nebulas, formulating the scattering calculations to take dif- 
erential motions into account. He demonstrated that such nebulae can 
how red-shifted emission lines, whereas many other investigators had 
xpected that blue-shifted lines would occur. 

Tsuruta, J. W. Truran and A. G. W. Cameron of Yeshiva University, 
nd \V. D. Arnett of the nasa Institute for Space Studies completed 
leir detailed calculations of supernova element synthesis; confirming 
arher analytical predictions, they showed that heavy elements are in- 
eed produced under the conditions expected in expanding supernova 
ivelopes. Tsuruta also investigated the urca neutrino energy loss in 
ondegenerate and semidegenerate matter; her results will be useful in 
udies of the formation of white dwarfs or neutron stars. 

315-997 O - 69 - 31 



474 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

James P. Wright considered the role of rotation in general relativity 
as well as the difTerences in the defined angular momentum in New 
tonian theory and Einsteinian theory. He also found that, for determin 
ing instabilities and periods, the binding-energy methods are equivalen 
to the small-perturbation methods. 

Menzel has nearly completed his calculations of high-level hydrogei 
lines in interstellar space. He also recomputed, by his more accurati 
formulas, the intensities of low-level hydrogen transitions. 

Silk studied the effects of blackbody radiation on an initial spectrun 
of small-amplitude fluctuations in homogeneous and isotopically ex 
panding cosmological models; he also investigated mechanisms tha 
might explain the diffuse X-ray background observations. 

Thornton L. Page continued his studies of the mass, structure, con 
tent, and evolution of galaxies. On two trips to Cordoba, Argentina, h 
obtained 60 spectra of southern galaxies and discovered one galax 
(NGC 3783) that is of the Seyfert type with broad emission lines. 0;( 
another observing session, at Kitt Peak, he and H. J. Rood of Wesleya: 
University obtained 44 spectra of galaxies, mostly in the Coma Clustei 
for a study of the dynamics and structure of that cluster. 

Numerical experiments by Myron Lecar, with Carlos Cruz-Gonzak 
and Michel Henon, confirming previous estimates of the relaxatio 
times of stellar systems, indicated that galaxies behave like a collisior 
less gas, while globular and galactic clusters are markedly influenced b 
stellar encounters. 

Lecar worked with Leon Cohen of Hunter College to establish tb 
relaxation by collective eflfects is sufficiently rapid to account for th 
symmetrical shapes of elliptic galaxies. Lecar established a group i 
stellar dynamics at Tel Aviv University in Israel; he collaborated wit 
Shyke Goldstein and Sami Cuperman of that group on investigations ( 
acceleration mechanisms in collisionless stellar systems, showing that 
dense core surrounded by a tenuous halo is a common feature of sue 
systems.^^ 

In a comparison, sponsored by the International Astronomical Unioi 
of direct numerical integrations of a particular 25-body collision-dom 
nated problem performed at eight observatories, Lecar found this prol 
lem to be highly unstable and the results of numerical experiments , 
have only statistical value. | 

Henri E. Mitler completed his calculation of element formation du 
ing the "big bang," i.e., at the beginning of the universe. Even though 
predicts appreciable amounts of elements heavier than helium from a 
initial state of only cold neutrons, his present model disagrees with obse 
vations. He also studied the coupling of matter and radiation in co: 
mology, deriving their rate of energy exchange via free-free absorj 



SUN AND beyond: THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS 475 

tions and emissions and calculating explicitly and accurately the matter 
and radiation temperatures through the decoupling region. His big- 
bang model produces residual ("fossil") radiation, but not enough to 
explain the observed 3°K background radiation. 

This year sao extended its program of theoretical research in atomic 
and molecular physics, to supplement its existing laboratory research. 
Observatory scientists study collision processes involving the interaction 
of radiation with electrons, atoms, and molecules taking place in the 
solar corona and in the interstellar medium as well as in the atmos- 
pheres of the planets. 

Alex Dalgarno continued his fundamental studies on the quantum 
mechanics of many-body systems. Dalgarno and coworkers evaluated 
the thermal balance of the ionospheric regions of the earth's upper 
atmosphere in detail and demonstrated that the conversion of heat into 
luminosity by the collisional excitation of the fine-structure levels of 
oxygen atoms is the major mechanism for cooling the electron gas. 
Dalgarno and Gordon Drake explored processes by which long-lived 
-netastable helium-like atoms ultimately decay.^^ They do so by the 
simultaneous emission of two photons. The resulting emission has been 
calculated and should be observable in the X-ray spectrum of the solar 
:orona. 

Arthur Allison calculated the viscosity and diffusion coefficients ap- 
Dlicable to the study of the collision of a beam of hydrogen atoms with 
3ther hydrogen atoms. He is calculating photo-ionization and absorption 
roefficients governing Lyman emission by excited hydrogen molecules. 
Kenneth Sando and Allison studied the absorjDtion spectrum of the 
lelium molecule. 

Papaliolios continued his laboratory studies of metastable states of at- 
nospheric gases and directed the construction of a large-aperture ultra- 
•lolet spectrometer with moderate resolution, needed for this reseach. 

The observational programs and theoretical investigations of sao 
equire new mathematical methods and elaborate general computer 
cattering process. Both Rybicki and Latham developed methods and 
)rograms. Rybicki studied ways to treat differential motions, horizontal 
nhomogeneities, and incomplete redistribution in the elementary atomic 
)rograms for automatic reduction of spectrograms, the former paying 
pecial attention to correcting observed spectra for instrumental effects. 
Calkofen and Avrett developed further methods for the numerical solu- 
lon of integral equations arising in the calculation of the radiation field 
|f stellar atmospheres in statistical equilibrium. Peterson formulated an 
ffective new procedure for temperature calculations at small optical 
epths in model atmospheres. The stellar-atmosphere program con- 
Tucted by Gingerich and many coworkers has grown so uniquely useful 



476 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

that investigators from other institutions come to sao to use it. A 
line-profile program that Avrett and Rudolf Loeser continued to develop 
can accept atomic models of quite arbitrary complexity and many 
energy levels. Kurucz, working with S. Strom, has developed a very 
flexible and general model-atmosphere program that can be run on 
either CDC 6000, IBM 7000, or IBM 360 series computers. 

Historical Astronomy 

A grant was obtained from the National Geographic Society for the 
study of desert lines in Peru.^^ These lines are man-made circa A.D. 1 ; 
they extend, on the average, for about a mile on the desert pavement. 
A preliminary study shows that there may be up to a million lines and 
markings in the 1000-mile-long desert plateau. The interest of sao is 
to ascertain whether or not these lines are (or were) directed to astro- 
nomical objects. Gerald S. Hawkins is expedition leader. 

Using the CDC 6400 computer, Gingerich calculated a 300-year daily 
ephemeris based on the 13th-century Alphonsine Tables; it will serve 
as an aid for specialists in medieval astronomy. Also, a tabulation ol 
moonrise and moonset in ancient Babylon was recomputed with thf 
help of Barbara Welther. Gingerich's current study of the Persiar 
astrolabist Abd al A'imma may shed some light on the curious fact thai 
at least half of his astrolabes are incompetently constructed. 

The first rough translation of Kepler's Astronomia Nova is now abou 
80 percent complete, largely through the eflForts of William Waldermar 
and Ann Wegner. ,j 

In April Gingerich attended a Copernicus Commission meeting ir|| 
Warsaw to begin planning the 1973 half-millennium celebration o 
Copernicus' birth. At the International Astronomical Union Congres; 
in Prague, Gingerich became Vice President of the Commission or 
History of Astronomy. 

Central Bureaus 
Gingerich retired as Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomica 
Telegrams on 31 December, his place being taken by Marsden, with th( 
former continuing to serve as Associate Director. During the fiscal year 
59 circulars and 33 telegram books were issued. Far more than the nor- 
mal number of supernovas (in other galaxies) were reported; newi 
concerning six of them was disseminated by telegram during one 3-montl 
period, and several other supernovas were announced by circulai 
alone. Two naked-eye novas were reported, both discovered by G. E. D 
Alcock in England, and the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi also flared uj 
to naked-eye brightness. Predictions and subsequently observations o 



CENTRAL BUREAUS — ^STAFF CHANGES 477 

the occultation of an 8-magnitude star by Neptune were reported. A 
number of items concerning "pulsars" were issued. Four comet discov- 
eries and seven recoveries were announced, four of the latter being made 
in one night (by K. Tomita at the Tokyo Observatory) . 

In April, Veis replaced Whipple as the Director of the Central Bureau 
for Satellite Geodesy. The Bureau -" issued two regular publications this 
year as well as a special report submitted at the General Assembly of the 
International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in Lucerne in 1967, 
which described the activities of the Central Bureau since its establish- 
ment in 1964. The Central Bureau made positive contributions to the 
increase of international scientific cooperation, especially in Africa, the 
Middle East, and the Far East. RolfF visited optical tracking stations in 
Poland, the Soviet Union, Greece, India, and Hawaii, and he represented 
the Bureau at international meetings on satelHte geodesy held in Lon- 
don, Zakopane (Poland), Prague, and Tokyo. 

The Observatory is now also headquarters of and supplies logistical 
and other support for the Smithsonian's newly established Center for 
Short-Lived Phenomena. 

Staff Changes 

The scientific staff of the Observatory welcomed, during the year, 
physicists Alex Dalgarno, Kenneth Sando, and Hiram Levy; astronomer 
Ladislav Sehnal; geodesist Kurt Lambeck; astrophysicists Yvette Cuny 
and Charles Bartlett; geologist Paul Mohr; and geophysicist Giorgio 
Giacaglia. 

During the year, the Observatory continued its program of post- 
doctoral fellowships in cooperation with the National Academy of 
sciences - National Research Council. Appointees during the year were 
Hobin Reid, Gordon Drake, M. V. Krishna Apparao, Zdenek Ceplecha, 
md Michel Henon. Allan Title and Thornton Page completed their 
ellowships with the Observatory; Title has taken an appointment with 
H^arvard, and Page received an appointment as a Research Associate 
vith the Smithsonian. 

Resignations were received from David Tilles and Charles Bartlett 
md Leonard Solomon. Later during the year the Observatory was 
addened to receive news of the untimely death of Dr. Tilles. 

Jack CofTey was appointed Executive Officer of the Observatory, and 
larry Albers was appointed Manager of the Satellite-Tracking and 
Data-Acquisition Department. 

NOTES 

(For explanations, see footnote, page 445.) 

^ Supported by NASA grant NsG-87. 

' Supported by NASA contract NSR 09-015-039. 



478 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

' Supported by NASA contract NSR 09-015-018. 

* Supported by NASA contract NSR 09-015-054. 
' Supported by NASA contract NSR 09-015-079. 
' Supported by NASA contract NAS 9-8105. 

' Supported by NASA contract NAS 9-8106. 

* Supported by NASA grant NGR 09-015-023. 
" Supported by NASA grant NGR 09-015-047. 

" Supported by NASA contract NSR 09-015-033. 

" Supported by NASA grant NsG 291-62. 

^Supported by grant GA-855 from the National Science Foundation (NSF). 

" Supported by contract DA-31-124-ARO-D-473 with the U.S. Army. 

'* Supported by NASA contract NAS 5-1 1007. 

'^ Supported by NASA contract NAS 5-3255. 

'* Supported by NASA contract NAS 5-1535. 

" Supported by NASA grant NASw-184 to Harvard College Observatory. 

" Supported by grant Sg 2200001 from the Smithsonian Research Foundation 
(SRF). 

"Suported by grant NOOO 14-67-0161 from the Office of Naval Research 
(ONR). 

^ Supported by SRF grant Sg 2200002. 

^ Supported by SRF contract SFC-8-7010. 

'=' Supported by NASA grant 22-024-001. 

^ Supported in part by a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. 

^ Supported by SRF contract SFC-8-7006. 

"" Supported by contract F 19628-68-C-0234 from the U.S. Air Force. 

^ Supported by a grant from the National Geographic Society. 

^ Supported by a grant from Association Internationale de Geodesie. 



Staff Papers 



AvRETT, E. H., and W. Kalkofen. "Transfer of Line Radiation by Multilevel 

Atoms." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 

vol. 8, pp. 219-250, 1968. 
AvRETT, E. H., and J. Linsky. "Theoretical Profile of the Ca K Line Based 

on an Optically Thin Chromospheric Model" (abstract). Astronomical 

Journal, vol. 73, p. S54, 1968. 
Bartlett, C. J. "Nonadiabatic Behavior of Plasma Oscillations." Physics 

of Fluids, vol. 1 1, pp. 822-831, 1968. 
Bell, K. L., A. Dalgarno, and A. E. Kingston. "Penning Ionization b> 

Metastable Helium Atoms." Journal of Physics B (Proceedings of the\^ 

Physical Society) , ser. 2, vol. 1, pp. 18-22, 1968. 
Biermann, W. J., and R. H. McCorkell. "Liquid-liquid Extraction ol 

Beryllium Thiocyanate." Canadian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 45, p. 28461 

1967. 
Burke, P. G., J. H. Tait, and A. Dalgarno. "The First-order Long-range 

Interaction Between Atoms." Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 1, pp. 345- 

346, 1967. 
Carbon, D., O. Gingerich, and R. Kurucz. "Effects of Line Blanketing on 

the Solar Windows." Solar Physics, vol. 3, pp. 55-63, 1968. 
Carleton, N. p. See Papaliolios, Carleton, Horowitz, and Liller. 



publications: staff papers 479 

Chan, Y. M., and A. Dalgarno. "The Third-order Interaction Energy Be- 
tween Atoms." Molecular Physics, vol ]^, pp. 101-104,1968. 
Chisholm, C. D. H., a. Dalgarno, and F. R. Innes. "Correlation Energies 
of the Lithium Sequence." Physical Review, vol. 167, pp. 60-62, 1968. 
^Cohen, J. G., and S. E. Strom. "Analysis of F and G Subdwarfs, II : A 
Model-atmosphere Abundance Analysis of the Subdwarfs HD 140283 and 
I HD 19445." Astrophysical Journal, vol. 151, pp. 623-636, 1968. 
Cohen, L., and M. Lecar. "Approach to Equilibrium of a One-dimensional 

Self-gravitating Gas." Bulletin Astronomique, vol. 3, no. 1, 1968. 
Colombo, G. See also Shapiro and Colombo. 

Colombo, G., F. A. Franklin, and C. Munford. "On a Family of Periodic 

Orbits of the Restricted Three-body Problem and the Question of the Gaps 

I in the Asteroid Belt and in Saturn's Rings." Astronomical Journal, vol 

73, p. Ill, 1968. 
Colombo, G., and I. I. Shapiro. "A Mathematical Model of a Chandlei 

Wobble." Nature, vol. 217, pp. 156-157, 1968. 
::omerford, M. "Comparative Erosion Rates of Stone and Iron Meteorites 
Under Small-Particle Bombardment." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 
vol. 31, pp. 1457-1471, 1967. 
20MERF0RD, M., R. H. McCoRKELL, and S. Tishler. "A New Octahedrite 

From South Africa." Meteoritics, vol. 4, pp. 7-21, 1968. 
"oNTi, P. S., and S. E. Strom. "Abundance Analysis of the A Stars in the 

Pleiades" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 72, p. 790, 1967. 
:oNTi, R S., and S. E. Strom. "The Early A Stars I'l: Model-atmosphere 
I Abundance Analysis of Eight Stars in the Pleiades." Astrophysical Journal 

vol. 152, pp. 483-492, 1968. 
:ooK, A. F. "Physical Theory of Meteors." Proceedings of the International 

Astronomical Union Symposium, no. 33, pp. 149-160, 1968. 
Crawford, O. H., A. Dalgarno, and R B. Hays. "Electron Collision Frequen- 
cies in Polar Gases." Molecular Physics, vol. 13, pp. 181-192, 1967. 
]ruz-Gonzales, C, and M. Lecar. "Encounters and Escapes." Bulletin 

Astronomique, vol. 3, no. 1, 1968. 
)algarno, a. See also Bell, Dalgarno, and Kingston; Burke, Tait and Dal- 
garno; Chan and Dalgarno; Chisholm, Dalgarno and Innes; Crawford, Dal- 
garno, and Hayes; Drake and Dalgarno; Stacey and Dalgarno; and Victor 
Dalgarno, and Taylor. 
)algarno, a. "Atom-atom Collision Processes in Astrophysics: Theoretical 
Studies." Review of Modern Physics, vol. 39, pp. 850-861, 1967. 

. "Some Problems in Planetary Atmospheres Involving CoUision Proc- 
esses." Review of Modern Physics, vol. 39, pp. 858-861, 1967. 

. "New Methods for Calculating Long-range Intermolecular Forces." 
Advances in Chemical Physics, vol. 12, pp. 143-166, 1967. 

. "Collisions in the Ionosphere." Advances in Atomic and Molecular 
Physics, vol. 4, pp. 381-405, 1968. 
algarno, a., and W. D. Davison. "Long-range Interactions of Alkali Metals." 

Molecular Physics, vol. 13, pp. 479-486, 1967. 
Klgarno, a. and T. C. Degges. "Electron Cooling in the Upper Atmosphere." 

Planetary and Space Science, vol. 16, pp. 125-127, 1968. 
AVIS, R. See also Deutschman and Davis. 



480 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Davis, R., and W. Deutschman. "Status of the Celescope Experiment for 
Orbiting Astronomical Observatory" (abstract) . Astronomical Journal, vol. 
73, pp. 590-591, 1968. 

Deutschman, W. See also Davis and Deutschman. 

Deutschman, W., and R. Davis. "Celescope Identification Catalog." Astro- 
nomical Journal, vol. 73, p. S91, 1968. 

Deutschman, W., and L. L. House. "Additional Resonance Lines of Highly 
Ionized Sulfur, Chlorine, Argon and Potassium." Astrophysical Journal, 
vol. 149, p. 451, 1967. 

Dickinson, D. F. See Zuckerman, Dickinson and Litvak. 

Drake, G. W. F., and A. Dalgarno. "The Tv/o-photon Decay of Metastable 
Triplet Helium." Astrophysical Journal [Letters), vol. 152, p. L121, 1968. 

Fazio, G. G. See also Stecker, Tsuruta and Fazio. 

Fazio, G. G. "Gamma Radiation From Celestial Objects." Annual Review of 
Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 5, pp. 481-524, 1967. 

. "Solar Gamma Rays and Their Correlation With Space and Ground- 
based Observations." Highlights of Astronomy Joint Meeting (Interna- 
tional Astronomical Union), pp. 544-546, 1968. 

Fazio, G. G. and H. F. Helmken. "Application of the Vidicon Spark Chamber 
to Gamma-ray Astronomy From High-altitude Balloons and Satellites." 
Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 46, pp. S456-S460, 1968. 

Fazio, G. G., H. F. Helmken, S. Cavrak and D. Hearn. "Search for Cosmic 
Gamma Radiation With a Vidicon Spark Chamber." Canadian Journal 
of Physics, vol. 46, pp. S427-S432, 1968. 

Fazio, G. G., H. Helmken, G. W. Rieke, and T. C. Weekes. "An Experiment 
to Search for Discrete Sources of Cosmic Gamma Rays in the 10" to 10" 
eV Region." Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 46, pp. S451-S455, 1968. 

Fiocco, G. "On the Production of Ionization by Micrometeorites." Journal 
of Geophysical Research, vol. 72, pp. 3497-3501, 1967. 

Fireman, E. L. See also McCorkell, Fireman, and Langway. 

Fireman, E. L. "Radioactivities in Meteorites and Cosmic-ray Variations." 
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 31, pp. 1691-1700, 1967. 

Fireman, E. L., R. H. McCorkell, and C. C. Langway, Jr. "Radioactivities 
in the Greenland Ice Sheet." Proceedings of the Commission on Snow and 
Ice, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, 1967. 

. "Ni*^ and Ni^* in Greenland Ice" (abstract). Transactions of the 

American Geophysical Union, vol. 49, p. 245, 1968. 

Forti, G. "On the Width of the Geminid Shower at Faint Radio Magnitude." 
Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Symposium, no. 33, 
pp. 423-426, 1968. 

Franklin, F. A. See also Colombo, Franklin, and Munford. 

Franklin, F. A. "Two-color Photoelectric Photometry of the Earthshine." 
Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 72, pp. 2963-2967, 1967. 

Gaposchkin, E. M. "Satellite Orbit Analysis at SAO." In Space Research 
VIII, North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, pp. 76-80, 1968. 

. "Dynamical Determination of Station Locations Using Geos 1 Data." 

Proceedings of the Geos Program Review Meeting, edited by Communi- 
cations & Systems, Inc., vol. 2, pp. 101-120, 1968. 

. "The Motion of the Pole and the Earth's Elasticity as Studied From 

the Gravity Field of the Earth by Means of Artificial Earth Satellites." 
Proceedings of the Symposium on Modern Questions of Celestial Me- 
chancis, Centro Internazionale Mathematico Estiva, 1968. 



publications: staff papers 481 

Gaposchkin, E. M., and G. Veis. "Comparison of and Results Obtained 
From Observing Systems." In Space Research VIII, North-Holland Publ. 
Co., Amsterdam, pp. 42-51, 1968. 

GiACAGLiA, G. E. O., and C. A. Lundquist. "Representations for Fine Geo- 
potential Structure" (abstract). Guidance Theory and Trajectory Analy- 
sis Seminar Abstracts, NASA Electronics Research Center, pp. 15-16, 1968. 

GiNGERiCH, O. See also Carbon, Gingerich and Kurucz. 

GiNGERiCH, O. "What is an English Mounting?" Sky and Telescope, vol. 34, 
pp. 2-4, 1967. 

. "Stars." In Merit Students Encyclopedia, edited by Bernard S. Cain, 

Crowell-Collier Educational Corporation, vol. 17, pp. 393-403, 1967. 

. "Messier's Clusters and Nebulae." Leaflet 460, Astron. Soc. Pacific, 

8 pp., 1967. 

. "Applications of High-speed Computers to the History of Astronomy." 

In Vistas in Astronomy, edited by A. Beer, Pergamon Press, New York, vol. 
9, pp. 229-236, 1968. 

. "A Study of Kepler's Rudolphine Tables." Actes du XI Congres 

International d'Histoire des Sciences, vol. 3, p. 31, 1968. 

"Astronomy: the Worlds Beyond." In The Encounter Between 



Christianity and Science, edited by Richard Bube, Eerdmans Press, Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, pp. 109-133, 1968. 

Gingerich, O., and C. de Jager. "The Bilderberg Model of the Photosphere 
and Low Chromosphere." Solar Physics, vol. 3, pp. 5-25, 1968. 

Gingerich, O., D. W. Latham, J. Linsky, and S. S. Kumar. "Model Atmos- 
pheres for Late-type Stars." In Colloquium on Late-type Stars, edited by 
M. Hack, Trieste, pp. 291-312, 1967. 

Gingerich, O., and J. C. Rich. "The Far Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Sun." 
Solar Physics, vol. 3, pp. 82-88, 1968. 

Grossi, M. D. See Harrington, Grossi, and Langworthy. 

Hamid, S. E. "On Brouwer's Method of Perturbations in Rectangular Coordi- 
nates" (abstract). Astronomical Journal Supplement, vol. 73, p. S96, 1968. 

Hamid, S. E., and F. L. Whipple. "Tabular Planetary Positions From 500 B.C. 
to A.D. 2000" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 73, p. S16, 1968. 

Harrington, J. V., M. D. Grossi, and B. M. Langworthy. "Mars Mariner 4 
Radio Occultation Experiment: Comments on the Uniqueness of the Re- 
sults." Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 73, pp. 3039-3041, 1968. 

Hawkins, G. S. "Stonehenge 56 Year Cycle." Nature, vol. 215, pp. 604-605 
1967. 

. "Astroarchaeology." In Vistas in Astronomy, edited by A. Beer, 

Pergamon Press, New York, vol. 10, pp. 45-48, 1968. 

Hearn, D. See Fazio, Helmken, Cavrak, and Hearn. 

Helmken, H. F. See Fazio and Helmken; Fazio, Helmken, Cavrak, and 
Hearn; and Fazio, Helmken, Rieke, and Weekes. 

Hodge, P. W. See also Wright, Brownlee, and Hodge. 

Hodge, P., and F. W. Wright. "Period-luminosity Relation for the Large 
Magellanic Cloud" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 72, pp. 803- 
804, 1967. 

. "Elemental Abundances in the Interplanetary Dust." In The Zodi- 
acal Light and the Interplanetary Medium, edited by J. C. Weinberg, 
NASA Science and Technology Division, 1968. 



482 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Hodge, P. W., and F. W. Wright. "Meteoritic Particles in the Soil Surround- 
ing the Boxhole Meteoritic Crater, Australia" (abstract). Proceedings of 
the 30th Annual Meeting, Meteoritical Society, p. 68, 1967. 

Hodge, P. W., F. W. Wright, and D. E. Brownlee. "Results of Optical and 
Electron Microscope Studies of Micrometeorite Experiments Flown on 
Gemini 12" (abstract). Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting, Meteor- 
itical Society, p. 24, 1967. 

Irvine, W., and J. Pollack. "Infrared Optical Properties of Water and Ice 
Spheres." Icarus, vol. 8, pp. 324-360, 1968. 

Jacchia, L. G. "Atmospheric Structure and Composition." Transactions of 
the American Geophysical Union, vol. 48, pp. 529-535, 1967. 

— . "Properties of the Upper Atmosphere Determined From Satellite 

Orbits." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 
A262, pp. 157-171, 1967. 

"Recent Results in the Atmospheric Region above 200 km and Com- 



parisons With CIRA 1965." In Space Research VIII, North-Holland Publ. 
Co., Amsterdam, pp. 800-810, 1968. 

Jacchia, L. G., and J. W. Slowey. "Diurnal and Seasonal Latitudinal Varia- 
tions in the Upper Atmosphere." Planetary and Space Science, vol. 16, 
pp. 509-524, 1968. 

Kalkofen, W. See also Avrett and Kalkofen ; and Strom and Kalkofen. 

. "Deviations From LTE in Stellar Photospheres." Astrophysical 

Journal, vo\. 151, pp. 317-332, 1968. 

Khare, B. N., S. Mitra, and G. Lengvel. "Infrared and Dielectric Studies 
of Chloroform as Proton Donor in Hydrogen-bond Formation." Journal 
of Chemical Physics, vol. 47, pp. 5173-5179, 1967. 

KoLACZEK, B. "Selenocentric and Lunar Topocentric Spherical Coordinates 
on the Base of the General Formulas of Spherical Coordinate Transforma- 
tion" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, wol. 73, p. S20, 1968. 

. "Precession of the Moon's Poles." Sky and Telescope, vol. 35, p. 

230, 1968. 

KozAi, Y. "Love's Number of the Earth Derived From Satellite Observations." 
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, vol. 20, pp. 24-26, 1968 

Kurucz, R. See Carbon, Gingerich, and Kurucz. 

Latham, D. W. See Gingerich, Latham, Linsky, and Kumar. 

Lecar, M. See also Cohen and Lecar; and Cruz-Gonzales and Lecar. | 

Legar, M. "Relaxation of a Collisionless Self-gravitating Gas" (abstract)! 
Astronomical Journal, vol. 72, p. 812, 1967. 

. "The Validity of the Vlasov Equation for a One-dimensional Self- 
gravitating Gas." Extrait des Memoires in -8° de la Societe Royale da 
Sciences de Liege, Cinquieme Serie, tome 15, pp. 227-236, 1967. 

"A Comparison of Eleven Numerical Integrations of the Same Gravi- 



tational 25-body Problem." Bulletin Astronomique, vol. 3, no. 1, 1968. 

Lehr, C, L. a. Maestre, and P. H. Anderson. "Satellite Ranging With a| 
Laser and a Correction for Atmospheric Refraction." Proceedings of tht 
International Symposium Figure of the Earth and Refraction (Special vol- 
ume 25 of the Osterreichischen Zeitschrift fiir Vermessungswesen), pp. 163- 
171, 1968. 

. "A Ruby-laser System for Satellite Ranging." Proceedings of thi 

Symposium on Laser Range Instrumentation, Society of Photo Optical In- 
strumentation Engineers, pp. 61-68, 1968. 



publications: staff papers 483 

LiNSKY, J. See also Avrett and Linsky; and Gingerich, Latham, Linsky, and 
Kumar. 

Linsky, J. "Observations of the Ca II H- and K-line Cores on the Solar Disk" 
(abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 73, pp. S68-S69, 1968. 

LuNDQUisT, C. A. See also Giacaglia and Lundquist ; and Whipple and Lund- 
quist. 

Lundquist, C. A. "Results From Photographic and Laser Tracking Systems." 
Proceedings of the International Astronomical Federation Congress, pp. 
355-363, 1968. 

. "Anticipated Contribution of Geos-B to Investigations at the Smith- 
sonian Astrophysical Observatory." Proceedings of the Geos Program Re- 
view Meeting, edited by Communications & Systems, Inc., vol. 1, pp 177- 
184, 1968. 

. "Contributions of Geos 1 to Geodetic Objectives." Proceedings of the 

Geos Program Review Meeting, edited by Communications & Systems, Inc., 
vol. 2, pp. 77-95, 1968. 

'Procedures for a Near-free-molecule-flow Aerodynamics Experiment" 



(abstract). Bulletin of the American Physical Society, vol. 13, p. 194, 1968. 
Marsden, B. G. "The Sungrazing Comet Group." Astronomical Journal, vol. 

72, pp. 1170-1183, 1967. 

. "Comets and Nongravitational Forces." Astronomical Journal, vol. 

73, pp. 367-379, 1968. 

Marsden, B. G., and K. Aksnes. "The Orbit of Periodic Comet Keams-Kwee 

(1963 VIII)." Astronomical Journal, vol. 72, pp. 952-954, 1967. 
Marvin, Ursula B. "Continental Drift." GeoScience News, vol. 1, no. 4, 

pp. 4-8, 20-25, 1968. 
Marvin, Ursula B., and M. T. Einaudi. "Black, Magnetic Spherules From 

Pleistocene and Recent Beach Sands." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 

vol. 31, pp. 1871-1884, 1967. 
Marvin, Ursula B., W. H. Pinson, Jr., and R. H. McCorkell. "Mineralogy 

and Chemical Composition of Dust From the Greenland Icecap" (abstract). 

Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting, Meteoritical Society, 1967. 
McCorkell, R. H. See also Biermann and McCorkell ; Comerford, McCorkell, 

and Tishler: Fireman, McCorkell, and Langway; Marvin, Pinson and 

McCorkell. 
McCorkell, R. H., E. L. Fireman, and C. C. Langway. "Aluminum-26 and 

Beryllium-10 in Greenland Ice." Science, vol. 158, pp. 1690-1692, 1967. 
McCorkell, R. H., and J. W. Irvine, Jr. "Co-extraction of Phosphoric and 

Tetrachloroferic Acids." Canadian Journal of Chemistry, vol 46 pp 662- 

663, 1967. 
McCrosky, R. E. "Orbits of Photographic Meteors" (abstract). Proceedings 

of the International Astronomical Union Symposium, no. 33, pp. 265-279 

1968. 
jMegrue, G. H. "Isotopic Analysis of Rare Gases With a Laser Microprobe." 

Science, vol. 157, pp. 1555-1556, 1967. 

— •. "Rare Gas Chronology of Hypersthene Achondrites and Pallasites." 

Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 73, pp. 2027-2033, 1968. 
enzel, D. H. "Theory of the Solar Corona." Astrophysical Letters, vol. 1, 
I pp. 195-196, 1968. 
Menzel, D. H., and B. Shore. Principles of Atomic Spectra. John Wiley & 

Sons, Inc., New York, 1968. 



484 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

MrooLEHURST, B. M., J. M. Burley, P. Moore, and B. L. Welther. "Chrono- 
logical Catalog of Reported Lunar Events." National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration Technical Report, TR R-277, 1968. 

Mitler, H. E. "The Total Binding Energy of Electrons in a Neutral Atom." 
American Journal of Physics, vol. 35, pp. 1115-1118, 1967. 

. "Origin of the Rare Light Nuclides." In High-Energy Nuclear Reac- 
tions in Astrophysics, edited by B. S. P. Shen, Benjamin, Inc., New York, 
pp. 59-80, 1967. 

MoROwiTZ, H., and C. Sagan. "Life in the Clouds of Venus?" Nature, vol. 
216, pp. 1259-1260, 1967. 

Morrison, D. See also Morrison and Morrison. 

Morrison, D. "On the Interpretation of Mercury Observations at Wavelengths 
of 3.4 and 19 mm." Astrophysical Journal, vol. 152, p. 661, 1968. 

Morrison, D., and C. Sagan. "The Microwave Phase Effect of Mercury." 
Astrophysical Journal, vol. 150, pp. 1105-1110, 1967. 

. "Interpretation of the Microwave Phase Effect of Mercury" (abstract). 

Astronomical Journal, vol. 73, p. S27, 1968. 

Morrison, N., and D. Morrison. "A Photoelectric Study of the Eclipsing 
Binary BV 357" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 73, p. S28, 1968. 

NiLssoN, C. S., and R. B. Southworth. "The Flux of Meteors and Micro- 
meteoroids in the Neighborhood of the Earth." Proceedings of the Inter- 
national Astronomical Union Symposium, no. 33, pp. 280-286, 1968. 

NoYES, R. W., J. M. Beckers, and F. J. Low. "Observational Studies of the 
Solar Intensity Profile in the Far Infrared and Millimeter Regions." 
Solar Physics, vol. 3, pp. 36^6, 1968. 

Page, T. "Spectra of Southern Galaxies" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, 
vol. 72, p. 821, 1967. 

. "Galaxies and Quasars at Prague — I." Sky and Telescope, vol. 34, 

pp. 372-376, 1967. 

. "Photographic Sky Coverage for the Detection of UFO's." Science, 



vol. 160, pp. 1258-1260, 1968. 
Page, T., and L. W. Page. The Evolution of the Stars. Macmillan Co., New 

York, 1967. 

. Stars and Clouds of the Milky Way. Macmillan Co., New York, 1968. 

Papaliolios, C, N. p. Carleton, P. Horowitz, and W. Liller. "Optical 

Search for Pulsations From Pulsating Radio Source CP1919." Science, 

vol. 160, pp. 1104-1105, 1968. 
Parkin, D. W. and D. Tilles. "Influx Measurements of Extraterrestrial 

Material." Science, vol. 159, pp. 936-946, 1968. 
Pasachoff, J. "Comments on Inclined Spectral Features." International 

Astronomical Union Symposium, no. 35, pp. 245-246. 
Peterson, D. M. See also Strom and Peterson. 
Peterson, D. M. "Hydrogen Lines in Early-type Stars" (abstract). Astro-' 

nomical Journal, vol. 72, p. 822, 1967. 
Pollack, J. B. See also Irvine and Pollack ; and Sagan and Pollack. 
Pollack, J. B. "Rayleigh Scattering in an Optically Thin Atmosphere and Its 

Application to Martian Topography." Icarus, vol. 7, pp. 42-46, 1967. 
Pollack, J. B., and C. Sagan. "An Analysis of the Mariner 2 Microwave 

Observations of Venus." Astrophysical Journal, vol. 150, pp. 327-344, 

1967. 



publications: staff papers 485 

. "A Critical Test of the Electrical Discharge Model of the Venus 

Microwave Emission." Astrophysical Journal, vol. 150, pp. 699-706, 1967. 
"Nongrey Greenhouse Calculations of the Venus Atmosphere" (ab- 



stract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 73, p. S32, 1968. 
RiEKE, G. W. See Fazio, Helmken, Rieke, and Weekes. 
RoLFF, J. "Interstation Connections From Geos-1 Beacon Observations." 

Proceedings of the Geos Program Review Meeting, edited by Communica- 
tions & Systems, Inc., vol. 2, pp. 96-100, 1968. 
Rybicki, G. B. "Comment on 'The Emergent Flux From a Fully Illuminated 

Slab.' " Astrophysical Journal, vol. 152, p. 351, 1968. 
Rybicki, G. B., and D. G. Hummer. "Spectral Line Formation in Variable- 
property Media: The Riccati Method." Astrophysical Journal, vol. 150, 

pp. 607-635, 1967. 
Sagan, C. See also Morowitz and Sagan; Morrison and Sagan; and Pollack 

and Sagan. 
Sagan, C. "An Estimate of the Surface Temperature of Venus Independent of 

Passive Microwave Radiometry." Astrophysical Journal, vol. 149, pp. 

731-733, 1967. 
. "Life on the Surface of Venus." Nature, vol. 216, pp. 1198-1199, 

1967. 
. "Jovian Atmosphere : Near-ultraviolet Absorption Features." Science, 

vol. 159, pp. 448-449, 1968. 
. "An Estimate of the Surface Temperature of Venus Independent of 

Passive Microwave Radiometry: A Correction." Astrophysical Journal, 

vol. 152, p. 1119, 1968. 
Sagan, C, and N. H. Horowitz. "The Biological Exploration of Mars — A 

Plan for the First Three Missions." Jet Propulsion Laboratory General 

Technical Document, GTD 900-44, 15 August 1967. 
Sagan, C, E. C. Levinthal, and J. Lederberg. "Contamination of Mars." 

Science, vol. 159, pp. 1191-1196, 1967. 
Sagan, C, and J. B. Pollack. "Elevation Differences on Mars." Journal of 

Geophysical Research, vol. 73, pp. 1373-1388, 1968. 
. "A Windblown Dust Model of Martian Surface Features and Seasonal 

Changes" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 73, p. S33, 1968. 
Sagan, C, and J. Veverka. "Martian Ionosphere: A Component due to Solar 

Protons." Science, vol. 158, pp. 110-112, 1967. 
Salisbury, W. W. "Radio Measurement of the Internal Temperature of the 

Moon" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 73, p. S34, 1968. 
Shapiro, I. I., and G. Colombo. "Theoretical Model for the Chandler 

Wobble." Nature, vol. 216, pp. 669-670, 1967. 
Silk, J. "The Diffuse X-ray Background." Astrophysical Journal {Letters), 

vol. 151,L19-L22, 1968. 
. "When Were Galaxies and Galaxy Clusters Formed?" Nature, vol. 

218, pp. 453-454, 1968. 
. "Cosmic Black-body Radiation and Galaxy Formation." Astrophysi- 
cal Journal, vol. 151, pp. 459-472, 1968. 
Silk, J., and J. Wright. "Gravitational Collapse of a Slowly Rotating Star" 

(abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 12, -p. 828, 1967. 
Slowey, J. W. See also Jacchia and Slowey. 



486 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

Slowey, J. W. "Jacchia Model Development and Limitation." Papers of 
Seminar on Environment Induced Orbital Dynamics (Marshall Space 
Flight Center) , pp. 61-86, 1967. 

SouTHWORTH, R. B. See also Nilsson and Southworth. 

SouTHwoRTH, R. B. "Discrimination of Stream and Sporadic Meteors" (ab- 
stract). International Astronomical Union Symposium, no. 33, p. 404, 
1968. 

Stagey, G. M. and A. Dalgarno. "The Dipole Spectrum of Lithium." 
Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 48, pp. 2515-2518, 1968. 

Stecker, F. W., S. Tsuruta, and G. G. Fazio. "The Effects of the Decay 
of Nucleon Isobars and Hyperons on the Cosmic Gamma-ray Spectrum." 
Astrophysical Journal, vol. 151, pp. 881-893, 1968. 

Strom, S. E. See also Cohen and Strom; and Conti and Strom. 

Strom, E. E. "Departures From LTE in G- and K-Star Atmospheres." As- 
trophysical Journal, vol. 150, pp. 637-645, 1967. 

Strom, S. E. and W. Kalkofen. "An Observational Test for Departures From 
LTE in the Spectral Range B5 to AO." Astrophysical Journal, vol. 149, 
pp. 191-194, 1967. 

Strom, S. E., and D. Peterson. "Surface-gravity Determinations for Main- 
sequence B Stars." Astrophysical Journal, vol. 152, pp. 859-870, 1968. 

Strom, S. E., and K. Strom. "The Helium Content of Subdwarfs." Astro- 
physical Journal, vol. 150, pp. 501-511, 1967. 

Tilles, D. See also Parkin and Tilles. 

TiLLES, D. "Extraterrestrial Excess ^^Ar and ^Ar Concentrations as Possible 
Accumulation-rate Indicators for Sea Sediments." Icarus, vol. 7, pp. 94-99, 
1967. 

Truran, J. W., W. D. Arnett, S. Tsuruta. and A. G. W. Cameron. "Rapid 
Neutron Capture in Supernova Explosions." Astrophysics and Space Sci- 
ence, vol. l,p. 129, 1968. 

Tsuruta, S. See also Stecker, Tsuruta, and Fazio; and Truran, Arnett, Tsu- 
ruta, and Cameron. 

Tsuruta, S. High Energy Astrophysics, Volume III: General Relativity and 
High Density Astrophysics. Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, Inc., 
New York, pp. 67-88, 163-222, 226-229, 251-258, 1967. 

Tsuruta, S., and C. J. Hansen. "Vibrating Neutron Stars." Canadian Jour- 
nal of Physics, vol. 45, pp. 2823-2831, 1967. 

Veis, G. See Gaposchkin and Veis. 

Victor, G. A., A. Dalgarno, and A. J. Taylor. "Dipole Properties of thei^ 
Metastable States of Helium." Journal of Physics B {Proceedings of the 
Physical Society), ser. 2, vol. l,pp. 13-17, 1968. 
Wattson, R. "Gray, Radiative-convective Calculations of Planetary Atmos- 
phere Models" (abstract). Astronomical Journal, vol. 73, p. S39, 1968. 

Welther, B. L. See Middlehurst, Burley, Moore, and Welther. 

Weekes, T. C. See Fazio, Helmken, Rieke, and Weekes. 
Whipple, F. L. See also Hamid and Whipple. 

Whipple. F. L. "Acquisition of Optical Data for Geodetic Satellite Pro- 
grams." Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, vol. 48, pp. 
329-330, 1967. 

. "On Maintaining the Meteoritic Complex." In The Zodiacal Light 

and the Planetary Medium, edited by J. C. Weinberg, NASA Science and 
Technology Division, 1968. 



publications: special reports 487 

. "Origins of Meteoritic Material." Proceedings of the International 

Astronomical Union Symposium, no. 33, pp. 475-479, 1968. 

-, Chairman. "Meteor Dynamics." Proceedings of the International 



Astronomical Union Symposium, no. 33, pp. 512-519, 1968. 
Whipple, F. L., and C. A. Lundquist. "Tracking by the Smithsonian Astro- 
physical Observatory." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of 
London, vol. A262, pp. 14-25, 1968. 
Whitney, C. A. "New Trends in Spectral Classifications." Sky and Tele- 
scope, vol. 35, pp. 356-359, 1968. 
Wood, J. A. "The Early Thermal History of Planets: Evidence from Meteor- 
ites." In Mantles of the Earth and Terrestrial Planets, edited by S. K. 

Runcorn, Interscience Publishers, New York, pp. 1-14, 1967. 
. "Olivine and Pyroxene Compositions in Type II Carbonaceous 

Chrondrites." Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 31, pp. 2095-2108, 

1967. 
. "Criticism of 'Metamorphosis and Equilibration in Chondrites.' " 

Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 72, pp. 6379-6383, 1967. 
. Meteorites and the Origin of Planets. Earth and Planetary Science 

Series, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 117 pp., 1968. 
Wright, F. W. See also Hodge and Wright; and Hodge, Wright, and Brownlee. 
Wright, F. W., D. E. Brownlee, and P. W. Hodge. "Gemini 12 Meteoritic 

Dust Experiment Results." In Space Research VIII, North-Holland Publ. 

Co., Amsterdam, p. 536, 1968. 
Wright, J. P. See also Silk and Wright. 
Wright, J. P. "General Relativity and Long-period Comets." Astronomical 

Journal, vol. 72, p. 838, 1967. 
Zuckerman, B., D. F. Dickinson, and M. M. Litvak. "On Emission and 

Absorption by Excited OH A-doublet States" (abstract). Astronomical 

Journal, vol 73, p. S42, 1968. 



Special Reports 

Through its Special Report series the Observatory distributes catalogs 
of satellite observations, orbital data, and scientific papers prior to 
journal publication. 

:244 (3 July 1967). Some Results at Baker-Nunn Tracking Stations, by L. H. 
Solomon. 

245 (7 July 1967). Recent Results in the Atmospheric Region above 200 
km and Comparisons with CIRA 1965, by L. G. Jacchia. 

246 (28 July 1967). On the Gravity Gradient at Satellite Altitudes, by 
W. Kohnlein. 

247 (1 August 1967). Theoretical Research on Stellar Atmospheres, by C. A. 
Whitney. 

H8 (18 August 1967). Satellite Altimetry and Orbit Determination, by C. A, 
Lundquist. 

M9 (25 August 1967). Gravity Gradients on the Earth's Surface as Deduced 
From Satellite Orbits, by W. Kohnlein. 

^50 (19 September 1967). A Three-dimensional Model of the Upper Atmos- 
phere, by M. P. Friedman. 



488 SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY 

251 (13 October 1967). Electron Microprobe Analysis and Microscopic Study 
of Polished Surfaces of Magnetic Spherules and Grains Collected From the 
Greenland Ice, by A. El Goresy. 

252 (16 October 1967). Orbits of Photographic Meteors, by R. E. McCrosky. 

253 (27 October 1967). Table for Parabolic Orbits, by W. P. Hirst. 

254 (30 October 1967). A Comprehensive Study of the Characteristics of 
Meteor Echoes — I, by G. S. Hawkins and J. C. Brown. 

255 (8 November 1967). A Windblown Dust Model of Martian Surface 
Features and Seasonal Changes, by C. Sagan and J. B. Pollack. 

256 (9 November 1967). Catalog of Precisely Reduced Observations, No. 
P-16: Satellites 1959 Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2), 1960 Iota 1 (Echo 1 
Rocket Body), 1961 Delta 1 (Explorer 9), 1961 Omicron 1 (Transit 4A), 
1961 Alpha Delta 1 (Midas 4), and 1962 Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1) 
for 1 July-30 Sept. 1963; Satellites 1959 Eta 1 (Vanguard 3), 1961 
Omicron 2 (Injun 3), and 1962 Beta Upsilon 1 (A15 Relay) for 2 July-30 
Sept. 1963; Satellite 1963 13A (Telstar 2) for 12 May-30 Sept. 1963; 
and Satellite 1963 26A (Geophysics Research) for 30 June-30 Sept. 1963. 

257 (10 November 1967). Satellite Orbital Data, No. E-6; Satellites 1959 
Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2) and 1961 Delta 1 (Explorer 9) for 1 July-30 
Sept. 1963; Satellites 1959 Eta 1 (Vanguard 3), 1960 Iota 2 (Echo 1 
Rocket), and 1961 Alpha Delta 1 (Midas 4) for 2 July-30 Sept. 1963; 
Satellites 1961 Omicron 2 (Injun 3), 1962 Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1), 
and 1962 Beta Upsilon 1 (A15 Relay) for 1 July-29 Sept. 1963; Satellite 
1961 Omicron 1 (Transit 4A) for 2 July-27 Sept. 1963; Satellite 1963 
13A (Telstar 2) for 18 May-29 Sept. 1963; and SatelHte 1963 26 A 
(Geophysical Research) for 12 July-30 Sept. 1963. 

258 (29 November 1967 ) . An Analysis of Martian Photometry and Polarimetry, 
by J. B. Pollack and C. Sagan. 

259 (18 December 1967). The Production of Cosmic Gamma Rays in Inter- 
stellar and Intergalactic Cosmic-ray Collisions, II : The Effects of the Decay 
of Nucleon Isobars and Hyperons on the Cosmic Gamma-ray Spectrum, 
by F. W. Stecker, S. Tsuruta, and G. G. Fazio. 

260 (19 December 1967). The Production of Cosmic Gamma Rays in Inter- 
stellar and Intergalactic Cosmic-ray Collisions, III: The Form of the Cosmic 
Gamma-ray Source Spectrum From p — p Interactions for Gamma-ray 
Energies Less Than 1 GeV, by F. W. Stecker. 

261 (20 December 1967). The Production of Cosmic Gamma Rays in Inter- 
stellar and Intergalactic Cosmic-ray Collisions, IV: Gamma-ray produc- 
tion From Cosmic Proton-antiproton Interactions, by F. W. Stecker. 

262 (21 December 1967). The Production of Cosmic Gamma Rays in Inter- 
stellar and Intergalactic Cosmic-ray Collisions, V: Gamma-ray production 
From Cosmic Electron-p>ositron Annihilation, by F. W. Stecker. 

263 (27 December 1967). The Flux of Meteors and Micrometeroids in the 
Neighborhood of the Earth, by C. S. Nilsson and R. B. Southworth. 

264 (29 December 1967). Geodetic Satellite Results during 1967, by C. A. 
Lundquist. 

265 (15 January 1968). A Study of the Semiannual Density Variation in 
the Upper Atmosphere From 1958 to 1966, Based on Satellite Drag Analysis, 
by L. G. Jacchia, J. W. Slowey, and I. G. Campbell. 

266 (26 January 1968). Optical Synthetic Simultaneous Observations Be- 
tween Baker-Nunn Camera Stations, by A. Girnius and W. L. Joughin. 



publications: special reports 489 

267 (31 January 1968). Effective Thermal Conductivity of Snow at — 88°C, 
— 27°C, and — 5°C, by D. Pitman and B. Zuckerman. 

268 (14 February 1968). An Analysis of the Mariner 4 Photography of Mars, 
by C. R. Chapman, J. B. Pollack, and C. Sagan. 

269 (15 March 1968). Effect of Random Atmospheric Refraction on Optical 
Satellite Observations, by K. Lambeck. 

270 (15 April 1968). Meteors Without Sodium, by R. E. McCrosky. 

271 (22 April 1968). The Motion of a Charged SatelHte in the Earth's 
Magnetic Field, by L. Sehnal. 

272 (30 April 1968). Geos 1 Observations at Malvern, England, by J. Hewitt, 
J. Rolff, and D.A.Arnold. 

273 (10 May 1968). Special Data-reduction Procedures for Prairie Network 
Meteor Photographs, by R. E. McCrosky and A. Posen. 

274 (13 May 1968). Formation of the Calcium H, K, and Subordinate Lines 
in the Solar Chromosphere, by J. L. Linsky, in 3 vols. 

275 (14 May 1968). Catalog of Precisely Reduced Observations, No. P-17: 
Satellites 1959 Alpha 1 (Vanguard 2), 1959 Eta 1 (Vanguard 3), 1960 
Iota 2 (Echo 1 Rocket Body), 1961 Omicron 2 (Injun 3), 1962 Alpha 
Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1), and 1963 13A (Telstar 2) for 1 Oct.-31 Dec. 1963; 
Satellite 1961 Omicron 1 (Transit 4A) for 7 Oct.-29 Dec. 1963; Satellite 

1961 Alpha Delta 1 (Midas 4) for 1 Oct.-30 Dec. 1963; Satellite 1962 
Beta Mu 1 (Anna IB) for 1 Sept.-31 Dec. 1963; Satellite 1962 Beta Upsilon 
1 (A15 Relay) for 5 Oct.-30 Dec. 1963; and Satellite 1963 26A (Geo- 
physics Research) for 2 Oct.-31 Dec. 1963. 

276 (15 May 1968). Satellite Orbital Data, No. E-7: Satellites 1959 Alpha 
1 (Vanguard 2), 1962 Alpha Epsilon 1 (Telstar 1), and 1963 26A (Geo- 
physics Research), for 5 Oct.-30 Dec. 1963 ; Satellite 1959 Eta 1 (Vanguard 
3) for 4 Oct.-30 Dec. 1963; Satellite 1960 Iota 2 (Echo 1 Rocket Body) 
for 4 Oct.-31 Dec. 1963; Satellite 1961 Omicron 1 (Transit 4A) for 11 Oct.- 
26 Dec. 1963; Satellite 1961 Omicron 2 (Injun 3) for 6 Oct.-27 Dec. 1963; 
Satellite 1961 Alpha Delta 1 (Midas 4) for 2 Oct.-30 Dec. 1963; Satellite 

1962 Beta Mu 1 (Anna IB) for 3 Sept.-31 Dec. 1963; Satellite 1962 Beta 
Upsilon 1 (A15 Relay) for 10 Oct.-26 Dec. 1963; and Satellite 1963 13A 
(Telstar 2) for 8 Oct.-31 Dec. 1963. 

^77 (17 May 1968). A Search for Celestial Sources of Gamma Rays of Energy 

Greater Than 100 MeV, by D. R. Hearn. 
178 (24 May 1968). Secular Motion of Resonant Asteroids, by G. E. O. 

Giacaglia. 
:!79 (7 June 1968). Discrete Levels of Meteor Beginning Height, by Z. 

Ceplecha. 
■80 (14 June 1968). The Distribution of Magnitudes, Masses, and Energies 

of Large Meteoric Bodies, by R. E. McCrosky. 



315-997 O - 69 - 32 



Administrative and Management Services 

Daily the forces of change in our society exert their profound pressures 
upon this nation's social and cultural institutions — upon its arts and 
j sciences, and upon its people. Daily our traditions and norms are being 
challenged, and more than ever before, too, our organizations are being 
challenged to develop management policies that will enable them to 
evolve in response. 

In its response to these pressures and challenges, the Smithsonian has 
endeavored to establish an organization that is adaptive to change and 
is experientially motivated — one with programs and structural modules 
predicated upon sociological interrelationships rather than upon com- 
partmentalized bureaucratic boundaries, one in which individual as well 
as common goals can be achieved. Such an organizational environment 
helps to prevent isolation and to remove artificial restrictions, and thus 
it encourages individual achievement and the pursuit of excellence. The 
Smithsonian is committed, in short, to a program of administration and 
management that recognizes the importance of individual fulfillment 
within the framework of its larger objectives. The goal of this program 
is to establish a climate that encourages individual expression, releases 
creativity, ignites imagination, and fosters hope, trust, openness, and 
meaningful cooperation. 

In achieving such a goal, an important function of management is 
that of nurturing the talents of the individual staff member, and of recog- 
nizing and responding to his needs, desires, and drives as a human being. 
The unique, multiversal nature of the Smithsonian and its stafT makes 
this function a formidable and challenging opportunity to those charged 
with managerial responsibility. It requires a very special competence in 
social skills. Management's broadening role as the custodian of human 
resources is never more challenged than in synergizing the individual's 
irives into a program accomplishment without frustrating the individual 
3r compromising the goal. 

The standards of excellence the Smithsonian has set for itself, and the 
imitations circumstance has set upon its resources, place a premium 
)n the innovative resolution of problems, on prescient program planning, 
md on cohesive teamwork. They force the Institution to accept man- 
igement by programs and objectives as an organizational way of life. 

491 



492 ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGEMENT SERVICES 

In measuring its success in these respects, the Smithsonian can view 
with satisfaction the creative energy of its staff and the imaginative ad- 
ministration of its management. Through perceptive use of its great 
reservoir of talents, the Institution is showing itself able to respond to 
the forces of change while continuing, and expanding, its services to the 
cultural community and to the public. i 

Explicit in these contributions has been a firm recognition of the un-j 
derlying value of the individual. For, in truth, the accomplishments of 
the Smithsonian Institution are but the sum of the achievements of the, 
individuals which comprise it. i 

OFFICE OF PERSONNEL AND MANAGEMENT RESOURCES 

The Oilice of Personnel and Management Resources has a responsibility 
to assist and advise all Smithsonian staff in creating an environmeni 
of administration and management that stimulates and promotes high 
achievement and the optimum use of resources. 

The Office also administers a wide variety of programs affecting each 
employee from the time of recruitment through his career with the 
Smithsonian. This year the Office has worked to improve the directior 
and implementation of some fifteen substantive programs. 

Responsive assistance to program directors and managers is a priman 
thrust of the Office's responsibility, which is that of acting as a con 
sultant. In so doing, it serves as a catalyst, bringing to the attention o 
managers a knowledge of the organizational and behavioral sciences 
And since stringent limitations have been placed on the Institution' 
manpower and financial resources, many management decisions must b( 
considered for the effect they will have on all employees and on eacl 
individual's motivation for achievement. Consequently, a close con 
sultant relationship between the professional staff of this Office anc 
managers at all levels has been established, and the relationships o 
organizational structure and program to resources are being reviewec 
for improvement. The Staff of the Office has also participated in man) 
lecture presentations, seminars, and teaching programs at other agencies 
educational institutions, and professional societies. 

To meet the Institution's growing responsibility to provide the public 
with a wider variety of learning opportunities, the Office has inauguratec 
additional training and employment programs for the physically handi 
capped, for young adults in need of summer employment, and for resi 
dents of the Metropolitan area in need of enhanced job opportunities 
Participation in this year's Youth Opportunity Program, for example 
was double that of last year, and this investment in special training thai 
was afforded these deserving young citizens was repaid by hard wori 



BUILDINGS MANAGEMENT 493 

and sincerity of purpose on their part. Also, the Smithsonian in 1965 
was one of the first establishments in the nation's capital to participate 
in the Neighborhood Youth Corps program, and at that time, by agree- 
ment with the United Planning Organization, provided work stations 
for 40 enrollees. This year over 70 youths participated, and to date the 
Smithsonian has trained approximately 20 percent of all enrollees in 
the Washington area. As a result of their job training, an average of 
30 percent of our enrollees have obtained federal employment, 10 
percent have returned to school full time, and many of the remainder 
have obtained employment elsewhere. 

For Smithsonian employees desiring to complete their high school 
education, or desiring to increase their job and personal qualifications 
in other occupational fields, a pioneering program of education and 
training was established. All career emplyees may now avail themselves 
of this program at no financial cost to themselves. Over 70 employees 
are already enrolled. 

BUILDINGS MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT 

The Buildings Management Department operated, maintained, and 
protected the Smithsonian's more than three and one half million square 
feet of museum space, as well as its other research and service facilities 
in the Washington area. It provided security services for over 60 million 
objects of cultural, historical, scientific, and technological importance; 
and it provided information, directions, and other assistance to the 
11,523,897 people who came to visit the Smithsonian museums and art 
galleries, and to attend its other presentations. In performing these 
duties, the Department supplied many diflferent kinds of special me- 
::hanical services, as well as engineering, design, fabrication, repair, 
:ommunication, transportation, and safety services, all of which sup- 
ported the curatorial, research, administrative, education, and public- 
/.ervice activities of the Institution. 

' Expansion in the research, scientific, exhibition, and public-oriented 
ictivities of the Smithsonian, including those on the Mall, required 
ijreatly increased assistance from the Department. In addition, services 
vere provided for 2,500 meetings, lectures, concerts, special exhibitions, 
leminars, and other special events, including those held on the Mall. 
Extensive alterations and modifications continued to be made to the Arts 
ind Industries and other buildings. The Publications Distribution 
Section and the International Exchange Service were moved from the 
\rts and Industries buildings to the 24th Street building, and several 
'ffices were moved from the Smithsonian building in preparation for 
jXtensive renovation and restoration of that building. Increased empha- 



494 



ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGEMENT SERVICES 



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- 2 



OTHER SERVICES 495 

sis on safety programming activities resulted in a reduction over the 
previous year of 12 percent in the frequency of disabUng work injuries. 

OTHER SERVICES 

The Supply Division processed over 10,000 purchases. Through careful 
exercise of its responsibility for the distribution and utilization of govern- 
ment property it saved, on office furniture and equipment alone, which 
would have been otherwise purchased, in excess of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars. In addition, various objects from rockets to items of art, 
with acquisition costs in excess of $8,000,000, were obtained from other 
government agencies for use as museum specimens. 

The Photographic Services Division produced 30,930 negatives, 
16,267 color transparencies, 118,930 microframes, and 129,382 prints to 
meet research, exhibition, education and public service needs of the 
Institution. An eight-room photo laboratory was completed for servicing 
activities of the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center. This new 
unit, when staffed and equipped, will supply photographs such as photo- 
macrographs of sampled plankton and enlargements of sea-bottom pho- 
tographs to assist in ecological studies. Staff photographers will be 
assigned to participate in a variety of expeditions and cruises to take 
color and appearance photographs of newly captured specimens. 



Appendix 

1. FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDED 3 JUNE 1968 

2. SMITHSONIAN FOREIGN CURRENCY PROGRAM GRANTS AWARDED^ FISCAL 

YEAR 19 6 8 

3. PUBLICATIONS OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS FOR THE 

YEAR ENDED 3 JUNE 196 8 

4. SMITHSONIAN ASSOCL\TES 

5. MEMBERS OF THE SMITHSONIAN COUNCIL, 3 JUNE 1968 

6. RESEARCH PARTICIPATION PROGRAMS, APPOINTMENTS 196 7-1968 

7. STAFF OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE, 3 JUNE 1968 

497 



1. 

Financial Report 

For the Year Ended 30 June 1968 

The Smithsonian Institution gratefully acknowledges gifts and bequests 
received from the following: 

$100,000 or more: 

Carl F. Drake Estate (partial distribution) 

Mrs. Marjorie Merriweather Post 

Admiral and Mrs. Dewitt Clinton Ramsey Fund 

$10,000 or more: 

American Federation of Information Processing Society 

Anonymous 

Morris and Gwendolyn Cafritz Foundation 

Carnegie Corporation of New York 

Martin L. Ehrmann Company 

Ford Foundation 

Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation 

Junior League of the City of Washington, D.C. 

L. E. Katzenbach 

Samuel H. Kress Foundation 

Lockheed Aircraft Corporation 

National Geographic Society 

Whitney Museum of Art 

$1,000 or more: 

AFL-CIO 

; American Philosophical Society 

American Shop Producers Council 

Anonymous 

Archbold Foundation 

Atlantic Richfield Company 

Mrs. August Belmont, Sr. 

The Louis and Henrietta Blaustein Foundation, Inc. 

Dr. & Mrs. George P. Blundell 

William L. Elkins 

George Erion 

David E. Finley 

Crawford H. Greenewalt 

The Ben and Abbey Grey Foundation 

499 



500 APPENDIX 

Richard Gump 

Irwin-Sweeney-Miller Foundation 

Mrs. Lyndon B. Johnson 

Mrs. Cazenove Lee 

The Link Foundation 

Mrs. Vera G. List 

Marriott Foundation 

Mrs. Eugene Meyer 

Robert and Eleanor Millonzi 

National Academy of Sciences 

National Home Library Foundation 

Roy R. and Marie S. Neuberger Foundation 

Richard E. Pieper 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Scull Foundation 

The Sidney Printing and Publishing Company 

Sport Fishing Institute 

E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. 

Philip M. Stern 

Taconic Foundation, Inc. 

Time, Inc. 

Union Carbide Corporation 

Ellen Bayard Weedon Foundation 

Worthington Corporation 

$500.00 or more: 

Alaska Indian Arts, Inc. 

American Council of Learned Society 

Anacostia Business and Professional Association, Inc. 

Bell & Howell Foundation 

BranifF International 

Explorers Research Corporation 

Greenewood's Transfer, Inc. 

Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert Harrison 

J. Seward Johnson 

Felix and Helen Juda Foundation 

John R. Kinard 

Richard K. Mellon 

Mrs. Isabelle P. Middendorf 

J. Jefferson Miller II 

Philip Morris, Inc. 

William Paley 

Mrs. Josephine Pendleton 

Photography in the Fine Arts 

The Reader's Digest 

Sidney N. Shure 

Mrs. Robert D. Van Roijen 

Thomas J. Watson, Jr. 

Wenner-Gren Foundation 

We also gratefully acknowledge other contributions in the amount 
of $10,820 received from 517 persons during 1967-68. 



FINANCIAL REPORT 501 

Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. 

CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS 

1140 CONNECTICUT AVENUE NW. 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20036 
THE BOARD OF REGENTS, 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION: 

We have examined the balance sheet of private funds of Smithsonian Institu- 
tion as of June 30, 1968 and the related statement of changes in fund balances 
for the year then ended. Our examination was made in accordance with generally 
accepted auditing standards, and accordingly included such tests of the account- 
ing records and such other auditing procedures as we considered necessary in 
the circumstances. 

As stated in note 1, the Institution changed its method of accounting to the 
accrual basis for that portion of the unrestricted funds relating to activities 
during the year. Physical inventories for such activities were not taken at June 30, 
1967, and estimated figures have been used. Because such amounts enter materi- 
ally into the determination of operating results of activities, we do not express 
an opinion on the current year's statement of changes in fund balances for that 
portion of unrestricted funds relating to activities. 

In our opinion, the accompanying balance sheet of private funds o